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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

s.r A.r^. 



REPORT 



OP THE 



SIXTIETH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



LEEDS IN SEPTEMBER 1890. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1891. 



PRISTED BV 

BPOTTISWOODE AXD CO., KEW-STRKET SQUARE 

LONDON" 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxiv 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement jl j j J 

List of Evening Lectures Jt- 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixiii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Leeds Meeting Ixiv 

Treasurer's Account j^^. j 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixviii 

Oifi-ersand Coimcil, 1890-91 Ixx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxi 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Leeds Meetino- in 
September 1890 ° l^^j^ 

Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee Ixxxvi 

Communicatinns ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 
the Association Ixxxvl 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

^^^^''■^^^1° Ixxxvi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxxviii 

'laces of Meeting in 1891 and 1892 Ixsxix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 
for Scientitic Purposes ^.^ 

General Meetings pjjj 

Address by the President, Sir Febdeuick Augustos Abel, C.B., D.C.L. 

(Oxon.), D.Sc. (Cant.), F.R.S., P.P.C.S., IIon.M.Inst.C.E 3 

A 2 



iV CONTENTS. 



\ 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCTENCl 



Page 
Beport of the Correspondinff Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galtox (Chairman), Professor A. VV. Willtamsok, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Botd Dawkins, Sir Rawsox Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinsox, Professor R. Mbldola (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor T. G. BoNNBY, Mr. W. Whitakee, Mr. G. J. Stmons, General Pitt- 
Rivers, and Mr. W. Topley 55 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of the Hon. Ralph Abeeceomby, 
Dr A. BucHAN, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. J. Willis Bund, Professor 
Cheystal, Mr. D. Cunningham, Professor Fitzgerald, Dr. II. R. Mill 
(Secretary), Dr. John Mueeay (Chairman), Mr. Isaac Roberts, Dr. H. C. 
SoEBY, and the Rev. C. J. Steward, appointed to arrange an investigation 
of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 
in various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operation with the local 
societies represented on the Association 92 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Caret Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Peert. Professor W. 
G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. MuiRHEAD, Mr. W. H. Preece, !SIr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebeook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
soN, Professor W. Gaenett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. BoTTOMLET, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments 95 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald (Chair- 
man), Aemsteong and O. J. Lodge (Secretaries), Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Tkojison, Schuster, Poynting, Ceum Beoavn, 
Ramsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, 
Roberts-Austen, Ruceer, Reinold, Carey Foster, H. B. Dixon, and 
John M. Thomson, Captain Abnet, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and 
Fleming, and Messrs. Ckookes, Sheleord Bi dwell, W. N. Shaw, J. 
Lakmor, J. T. Botxomley, R. T. Glazebeook, J. Brown, and E. J. Love, 
appointed for the purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its 
Physical and Chemical Bearings 138 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes (Chairman), 
Mr. G. J. Symons (Secretary), Professor Schuster, Dr. O. Johnstone 
Stoney. Sir H. E. Rosgoe, Captain Abney. and Mr. Whipple, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the best methods of recording the direct 
Intensity of Solar Radiation 144 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John Kerr (Chairman), Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Rucker, and Mr. R. T. GLAZUBitooK (Seere- 
tar\ ), appointed to co-operate with Dr. Kerr in his researches on Electro- 
optics 144 

Report of the Committee on Molecular Phenomena associated with the Mag- 
netisation of Iron. (Phenomena occurring at a red heat.) Professor G. F. 
FiJZGEEALD ((;hairman), H, F. Newall, F, Teouton, and Professor W. F. 

> liAKREXT (Secretary) ; 145 



CONTENTS. ▼ 

Page 
Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Mr. R, 
Etheridge, Professor John Perry, Dr. Henry Woodward, Professor 
Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the 

Surpose of investigating the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of 
apan. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 160 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Grylls Adams 
(Chairman and Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
Professors G. H. Darwin, G. Chrystal, and S. J. Perry, Mr. C. H. 
Oarpmael, Professor Schuster, Professor Rijcker, Commander Creak, 
the Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, 
and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed for the purpose of considering the best 
means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations 172 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Mr. MiLNE-HoME, Dr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, Dr. Buchan, 
and the Hon. Ralph Abercromby (Chairman), appointed for the purpose 
of co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis 174 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors A. Johnson (Secre- 
tary), J. G. MacGregor, J. B. Cherriman, and H. T. Bovey and Mr. C. 
Oarpmael, appointed for the purpose of promoting Tidal Observations in 
Canada 183 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry. By W. N. Shaw, M.A 185 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, 
Professors Dewar, Wolcott Gibbs, Liveing, Schuster, and W. N. 
Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), 
appointed to prepare a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements and Compounds 224 

Rep'U't of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. A. W. Reinold, H. G. Madan, 
W. C. Roberts-Austen, and Herbert M'Leod, on the Bibliography of 
Spectroscopy 261 

Fom-th Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor AV. A. Tilden 
(Chairman), Professor Roberts-Austen, and Mr. Thomas Turner (Secre- 
tary), appointed to consider the Influence of Silicon on the Properties of 
Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 262 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Roberts- Austen 
(Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and J. Spillbr, Professor 
Langley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner 
(Secretary), appointed to consider the best method of establishing an Inter- 
national Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 262 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Russell, Captain Abney, 
Professor Hartley, Professor Ramsay, and Dr. Richardson (Secretary), 
appointed for the investigation of the Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of Oxygen. (Drawn up by Dr. Richard- 
son) 263 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong, 
Professor W. R. Dunstan (Secretary), Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. A. G. 
Vernon Harcourt, Professor H. M'Leod, Professor Meldola, Mr. Patti- 
SON MuiB, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Dr. W. J. Russell (Chairman), Mr. 
W. 4- Shenstone, Professor Smtthells, and Mr. Stallard, appointed 
for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting upon the present Methods of 
Teaching Chemistry. (Drawn up by Professor Dunstan.) To which is 
appended a paper by Professor Armstrong on ' Exercises in Elementary 
Experimental Science ' 265 



>< 



'f 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page 
Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden and 
Ramsay and Dr. NrcoL (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the Properties of Solutions 310 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilben, M'Leod, 
Pickering, Ramsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. Leeds and Nicol 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Bibliography of 
Solution 310 

Discussion on the Theory of Solution. The present Position of the Hydrate 
Theory of Solution. By Spencee UMfREviLLE Pickering, M.A., F.R.S. 311 

Provisional Report of a Committee, consisting of Professors H. M'Leod and 
W. Ramsay and Messrs. J. T. Cuis^dall and W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity 
on Oxygen and other Gases 338 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Festing (Chairman), Dr. 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Captain Abney, and Professor AV. N. 
Hartley, on the Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds 339 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. "VVood'waed, Mr. R. 
Etheeidge, Mr. R. KirsTON, the Rev. G. F. Whidborne, and Mr. J. E. 
Maer (Secretary), appointed for considering the best methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens of Fossils iu the British Isles, and 
reporting on the same 339 

Eighteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwioh, Dr. 
H. W. Ceosskey, Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McKenny Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, and Messrs. C. E. De Range, W. Pexgelly, J. Plant, 
and R. H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of recording the Position, 
Height above the Sea, Lithological Characters, Size, and Origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest 
coonected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, Secretary) .340 

Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. AV. Crosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor G. A. Lebour, and 
Messrs. James Glatshee, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, W. Pengelly, 
James Plant, J. Prestwich, I. Roberts, T. S. Stooke, G. J. 
Symons, W. Topley, Tyld en-Weight, E. Wetheeed, W. A\'hitaker, 
and C. E. De Range (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Circulation of Underground Waters in the Permeable Formations of 
England and Wales, and the Quantity and Character of the Water supplied 
to various Towns and Districts from these Formations. (Drawn up by 
C. E. De Range, Reporter) 352 

Final Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. W. Davis, Mr. W. Cash, 
Dr. H. Hicks, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. C. Reid, Dr. H. Woodward, 
and Mr. T. Boynton, appointed for the purpose of investigating an Ancient 
Sea-beach near Bridlington .Quay. (Drawn up by G. AV. Lamplugh, 
Secretary ) 375 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. II. AVoodward, Air. G. R. A^ine 
(^Secretary), Drs. P. AI. Duncan and H. 0. Soeby, and Mr. C. E. De Range, 
appointed to prepare a report on the Cretaceous Polvzoa. (Drawn up by 
Air. G. R. A'ine) ' 378 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Air. H. Bauerman, Air. F. W. Rudler, 
Mr. J. J. II. Teall, and Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, appointed for the in- 
vestigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of A'esuvius and its neighbourhood. 
(Drawn up by Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, F.G.S., Secretary) 397 

Fourth and final Report of the Committee, consisting of Air. R. Etheeidge, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Air. A. Bell (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
of reporting upon the ' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford. (Drawn up by Mr. 
A. Bell) 410 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. Etheribge, Dr. IT. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary), on the Fossil 
Phyllopoda of the Palisozoic Rocks 424 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Mr. S. A. Adamson, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Professor W. Boyd Daweins, 
Mr. Wm. Gray, Mr. Aethtjr S. Reid, and Mr. Osmxtnd W. Jeffs (Secre- 
tary), to arrange for the collection, preservation, and systematic registration 
of Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. (Drawn up 
ijy the Secretary) , 429 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flower (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor M. Foster, Professor Rat Lankester, Professor Vines, and Mr. S. F. 
Harmer (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupa- 
tion of a Table at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at 
Plymouth 444 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flower (Chairman), 
Mr. D. Morris (Secretary). Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Sclater, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dter, Dr. Sharp, Mr. F. Bv Cane Godman, Professor Newton, Dr. 
GiJNTHER, and Colonel Feilden, appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands, and taking steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies 
in the Fauna and Flora 447 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Rat 
Lankester, Professor Cossar Ewart, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, and Mr. Peect Sladen (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table 
at the Zoological Station at Naples 449 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Newton, Mr. John Coe- 
DEAUX (Secretai'y), Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barrinston, 
Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, and the Rev. E. P. Kneblet, appointed to make a 
digest of the observations on Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Light- 
vessels which have been carried on from 1879 to 1887 inclusive by the 
Migrations Committee of the British Association (with the consent of the 
Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity House and the Commissioners of 
Northern and Irish Lights), and to report upon the same 464 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. W. Wills (Chairman), 
Mr. E. W. Badger, Mr. G. Claridge DRtrcE, and Professor Hillhouse, 
for the purpose of collecting information as to the Disappearance of Native 
Plants from their Local Habitats. (Drawn up by Professor Hillhouse, 
Secretary) 465 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Foster, Professor 
Batlet Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dter, Dr. Tbimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Mr. Carruthers, Professor Hartog, and Professor Bower (Secre- 
tary), appointed for tbe purpose of taking steps for the establishment of a 
Botanical Station at Peradeniya, Ceylon 470 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Haddon, Mr. W. E. IIoyle 
(Secretary), and Professor W. A. Heedman, appointed for improving and 
experimenting with a Deep-sea Tow-net, for opening and closing under 
water 471 

The probable Efl'ects on Wages of a general Reduction in the Hours of Labour. 
By Professor J. E. C. Muuro, LL.D 472 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Giffen (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor F. y. Edgeworth (Secretary), Mr. S. Bourne, Professor H. S. 



Viii CONTENTS. 

Page 
FoxwELL, Professor Alfked Marshall, Mr. J. B. Maetin, Professor J. S. 
Nicholson, Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave, and Professor II. Sidgwick, 
aijpointed for the purpose of investigating the best methods of ascertaining 
and measuring Variations in the Value of the Monetary Standard 485 

lleport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), 
I'rofefssor Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. Stephen Bourne, Miss Ltdia 
Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Dr. H. W. Ceosskey, Sir Richard 
Temple, Bart., Sir Henry E. Roscoe, Mr. James Heywood, and Professor 
N. Story Maskelyne, appointed for the purpose of continuing the inquiries 
relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 489 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. S. Bourne, Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth (Secretary), Professor H. S. Foxwell, Mr. Robert Giffen, 
Prolessor Alfred Marshall, Mr. J. B. Martin, Professor J. S. Nicholson, 
Mr. R. II Inglis Palgrate, and Professor H. Sidgwick, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring and reporting as to the Statistical Data available for 
determining the amount of the Precious Metals in use as Money in the 
principal (Jountries, the chief Forms in which the Money is employed, and 
the amount annually used in the Arts 493 

On some New Telemeters, or Range-finders. By Professors Archibald 
Barr, D.Sc, M.Inst.C.E., and William Stroud, B.A., D.Sc 499 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. N. Douglass, Professor 
, VV. C. Unwin, Professor Osborne Reynolds, and Messrs. W. Topley, 
E. Leader Williams, W. Shelfoed, G. F. Deacon, A. R. Hunt, W. H. 
AVheeler, and W. Anderson, appointed to investigate the Action of 
Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of 
Working Models ." 512 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Garson (Chairman), Mr. J. Theodore 
Bent (Secretary), Messrs. H. W. Bates, Bloxam, and J. Stuart Glbnnie, 
Sir Frederic Goldsmid, and Messrs. Pengelly and Rudler, appointed 
for the purpose of investigating the Geography and the Habits, (Customs, 
and Physical Characters of the Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor and Northern 
Persia, and to excavate on sites of ancient occupation 535 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Turner, Mr. Bloxam, 
Professor Flower, Dr. E. B. Tylor, and Mr. Risley, appointed to 
investigate the Habits, Customs, Physical Characteristics, and Religions of 
the Natives of India 547 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Rivers (Chairman), 
Dr. Garson (Secretary), Dr. Beddoe, Professor Flower, Mr. Francis 
Galton, and Dr. E. B. Tylor, appointed for the purpose of editing a new 
Edition of ' Anthropological Notes and Queries' 547 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John 
Evans, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. R. Munro, Mr. W. Pengelly, Dr. 
Henry Hicks, Professor Meldola, Dr. Muirhead, and Mr. James W. 
Davis, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining and recording the localities 
in the Britisli Islands in which evidences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. (Drawn up by Mr. James W. Davis) 548 

Report of the Committee, consisting of General Pitt-Rtvees, Dr. Garson, 
and Mr. Bloxam, appointed for the purpose of Calculating the Anthropo- 
logical Measurements taken at the Newcastle Meeting of the Association 
in 1889. (Drawn up by Dr. Gaeson, Secretary) 549 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Mr. G. W. 
Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Dawson, General Sir H." 
Lefroy, and Mr. R. G. Halibueton, appointed to investigate the plivsical 
characters, languages, and industrial and social condition of tlie North- 
Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 553 



CONTENTS. IX 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 
Address by J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S., President of the ^ 
Section 719 

1. Report of the Committee on Electro-optics 727 

2. Notes on High Vacua. By J. Swixbtirne 727 

3. On the Use of the Lantern in Class-room Work. By Professor Arch. 

Barr, DSc, and Professor W. Strotjd, D.Sc 727 

4. On Refraction and Pispersion in certain Metals. By H. E. J. G. bit Bois 

and H. Rubens 728 

5. On an Illustration of Contact Electricity presented by the Multicellular 

Electrometer. By Sir William Thomson, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 728 

6. On Defective Colour Vision. By Lord Ratlei&h, Sec.R.S 728 

7. On some new Vacuum Joints and Taps. By W. A. Shenstone 729 

8. On the General Theory of Ventilation, with some Applications. By 

W. N. Shaw, M.A .". 730 

9. Account of Experiments to determine the Variations in Size of Drops 
with the Interval between the Fall of each. By W. Binnib, B.A 731 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 

1. Recent Determinations of the Absolute Resistance of Mercury. By R. T. 
Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S 731 

2. Suggestions towards a Determination of the Ohm. By Professor J. 
ViRiAMTJ Jones, M.A 732 

3. On Alternate Currents in Parallel Conductors of Homogeneous or 
Heterogeneous Substance. By Sir William Thomson, D.C.L., I^L.D., 
F.R.S 732 

4. On Anti-Efl'eotive Copper in Parallel Conductors or in Coiled Conductors 
for Alternate Currents. By Sir William Thomson, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S 736 

5. The Molecular Theory of Induced Magnetism (with exhibition of a 

Model). By Professor J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 740 

6. Some Experiments to determine Wave Velocity in certain Dielectrics. 

By Eked. T. Trouton 741 

* 
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Department I. — Mathematics. 

; 1. On the Physical Character of Caustic Surfaces. By J. L\rmor 742 

2, The Buckling of Plates. By G. H. Bktan 74a 



X CONTENTS, 

Page 

3. On the Pulsations of a Eotating Bell. By G. H. Betan 743 

4. On the History of Pfaffs Problem. By A. R. Foesyth, F.R.S 743 

5. On some Geometrical Theorems relating to the Powers of Circles and 
Spheres. By Professor William Woolsey Johnson 743 

6. Possibility of Irreversible Molecular Motions. By E. P. Culveeatell, 
M.A 744 

7. On some Arithmetical Functions connected with the Elliptic Functions of 

A K. By Dr. J. W. L. Glaishee, F.R.S 745 

8. On Systems of Simultaneous Linear Differential Equations. Bv A. R. 
Forsyth, F.R.S .' 745 

9. Chess Problem. By Lieut.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E 745 

10. On a Remarkable Circle thi-ough two Points of a Conic. By Professor 

Genese, M.A 745 

11. Ferrel's Theory of the Winds. By Chaeles Chambers, F.R.S 745 

Department II. — General Physics and Electrolysis. 

1. On a Method of Determining in Absolute Measure the Magnetic Suscepti- 
bility of Diamaguetic and Feebly Magnetic Solids. By Sir William 
Thomson, D.O.L., LLD., F.R.S 745 

2. On the Tension of W^ater Surfaces, Clean and Contaminated, investigated 

by the Method of Ripples. By Lord Raxleigh, Sec.R.S 746 

3. On the Adiabatic Curves for Ether, Gas, and Liquid, at High Tempera- 

tures. By Professor W. Ramsay, F.R.S 746 

4. Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 746 

5. Report on the State of our Knowledge of Electrolysis and Electro- 
Cheojistry. By W. N. Shaw 746 

6. On the Action of Semipermeable Membranes in Electrolysis. By Pro- 
fessor W. Ostwald ' 746 



JiJO.YDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Ben Nevis Observatory 747 

2. Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations in Canada 747 

3. Report of the Committee for Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Obser- 

vations 747 

4. Report of the Committee for determining the Seasonal Variation in the 
Temperatures of Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 747 

5. Report of the Committee on Solar Radiation 747 

6. Report of the Committee on the Volcanic and Seismological Phenomena 

of Japan 747 

7. On a Meteorological Observatory recently established on Mont Blanc. By 

A. Lawrence Roich, S.B., F.R.Met.Soc. of Boston, U.S.A 747 

8. The Climate of Scarborough compared with that of some other Seaside 
Health Resorts. By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. ... 748 

9. The Inland compared wilh the Maritime Climate of England and Wales. 

By John Hopeinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc 748 

10. A Comparison of the Chmate of Halifax, Wnkefield, Bradford, Leeds, 

and Hull. By John liopKiNtON, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc 749 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

11. Photographs of the Invisible, in Solar Spectroscopy. By C. PiAzzi 
Smyth, LL.D 750 

12. On Meteorological Photography. By John HopKiNSOif, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
F.R.Met.Soc 751 

13. On the Spectra of the Elements and the Constitution of the Sun. By 

Professor II. A. Rowland .". 751 

.4. On Regional Magnetic Disturbances in the United Kingdom. By Pro- 
fessors A. W. RtJcKEB, F.R.S., and T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S 75L 

15. Sur les perturbations magnetiques en France. By Professor E. Mascart 751 

16. Exhibition of Photographs of Clouds. By Fkibse Greene 751 

lUUSBAT, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Optique mineralogique. — Achromatisme des Franges. By Professor E. 
Mascarx 762 

2. Instantaneous Photographs of Water Jets. By Lord Rayleigh, Sec. 

R.S ■. 752 

3. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards 752 

4. On Variations in some Standard Resistance Coils. By R. T. Glazebrook, 
F.R.S 752 

5. On some Standard Air Condensers. By R. T. Glazexeook, F.R.S., and 

Dr. A. MuiRHEAD 752 

G. On the Specific Resistance of Copper. By T. C. Fitzpatrick 752 

7. A Comparison of a Platinum Thermometer with some Mercuiy Thermo- 
meters. By E. H. GmPFrrHS 752 

8. On the Character of Steel used for Permanent Magnets. By W. H. 

Preece, F.R.S 753 

9. The Effect of Oxidation on the Magnetic Properties of Manganese Steel. 

By L. T. O'Shea, B.Sc 753 

10. On Testing Iron. By J. Swinburne and W. F. Botjrxe 753 

11. The Compensation of Alternating-Current Voltmeters. By. J. 
Swinburne 753 

12. Note on a Kinetic Stability of Equilibrium with Electro-magnetic 
Forces. By Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S 753 

13. On Electrical Oscillations in Air. By J. Trowbridge 754 

14. On the Electrostatic Forces between Conductors and other matters in 
connection with Electric Radiation. Bj- Professor Oliver J. Lodge, 
F.R.S 754 



WEBNESBsAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. On Atom-grouping in Crystals (with exhibition of a Model). By W. 
Barlow 754 

2. On an Episode in the Life of J (Hertz's Solution of Maxwell's Equations). 

By Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S 755 

3. Report of the Committee on Molecular Phenomena attending the Mag- 
netisation of Iron 757 

4. Note on the Relation between the Diffusion of Motion and Propagation of 

Disturbance in some turbulent Liquid Motions. By Professor G. F. 
Fitzgerald, F.R.S 757 



Xii CONTENTS. 

Page 
6. A Coefficient of Abrasion as an Absolute Measure of Hardness. By 
F. T. Trouton 757 

6. The Effect of Direct and Alternating Pressures on the Human Body. By 

J. Swinburne 758 

7. On the Use of Fluor Spar in Optical Instruments. By Professor Silvanus 

P. Thompson, D.Sc '. 769 

8. A new Direct-reading Photometer measuring from Unity to Infinity. By 
Fkedbeick H. Vaklet 759 

9. On a Radiometric Record of Sun-heat from different parts of the Solar 
Disc. By W. E. Wilson 760 

10. Recent Photographs of the less refrangible portions of Solar Spectrum 

under diil'erent Atmospheric Conditions. By George Higgs 760 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 
THUBSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by Professor T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas.C.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 761 

1. Report of the Committee on recent Inquiries into the History of 

Chemistry 771 

2. Report of the Committee on the Silent Discharge of Electricity in Gases 772 

3. Report of the Committee on the present Methods of Teaching Chemistry 772 

4. On Recent Tjegislation as Facilitating the Teaching of Science. By Sir 
Henry Roscoe, M.P., F.R.S 772 

5. The Refraction and Dispersion of Fluorbenzene and Allied Compounds. 

By J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. , and George Gladstone 772 

6. A Method of Quantitative Analysis. By Q. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D., 

and J. C. Cain 772 

7. The Behaviour of the more Stable Oxides at High Temperatures. By 

G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D., and A. A. Read 773 

8. The Spectra of the Haloid Salts of Didymium. ByG. H. Bailey, D.Sc, 
PliD 773 

9. On the Condition of the Air in Public Places of Amusement, with special 

reference to Theatre Hygiene. By W. Hepworth Collins, F.C.S., 
F.iLM.S ; ; 773 



FRIBA T, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Report on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 775 

2. The Development of the Coal-tar Colour Industry since 1882. By 

W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S 775 

3. Behaviour of Copper Potassium Chloride and its Aqueous Solutions at 

diti'erent Temperatures. By J. H. van 'x Hope 776 

4. Report of the Committee on the Action of Light on the Hydracids of the 
Halogens in presence of O.xygen 776 

5. Experiments on the Combustion of Gases under Pressure. By Professor 
LivEiNG, F.R.S., and Professor Dewak, F.R.S 776 



COJSTENXS. Xlll 

Page 

6. On the Rate of Explosion of Hydrogen and Chlorine in the Pry and 
Moist States. By Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., and J. A. Barker ... 776 

7. On the Ignition of Explosive Gaseous Mixtures. By G. S. Turpin, B.A., 
D.Sc , 776 

8. The Orthophote. By James T. Bkown 778 



MONDAY, SBPTE3IBER 8. 

1. Report of the Committee on an International Standard for the Anal3'si8 

of Iron and Steel 778 

2. Report of the Committee on the Influence of Silicon on the Properties of 

Steel... 778 

3. Report of the Committee on the Properties of Solutions 778 

4. Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Solution 778 

5. On recent Swedish Investigations on the Gases held in Solution hy the 

Sea-water of the Skagerack. By Dr. 0. Pbtteesson 779 

6. Joint Discussion with Section A on the Nature of Solution and its Con- 
nection with Osmotic Pressure, opened by S. U. Pickering, F.R.S., in a 
Paper on the present Position of the Hydrate Theory of Solution 779 

7. The Molecular Refraction of Substances in Solution. By J. 11. Glad- 

stone, Ph.D., F.U.S 779 

8. On an Apparatus for the Determination of Freezing-points of Solutions. 

By .P. J. Hartog, B.Sc, and J. A. Harkbk 779 

9. The Sulphur Waters of Yorkshire. By C. H. Bothamlet, F.I.C, F.C.S. 779 

10. The River Aire: a Study in River Pollution. By T. H. Easxerfield, 

B.A., F.C.S., and J. Mitchell Wilson, M.D 780 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Provisional Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 780 

2. Report of the Committee for preparing a new Series of Wave-length 

Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 780 

3. Report of the Committee on the Absorption-Spectra of Pure Compounds 780 

4. On Phosphorous Oxide. By Professor T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S 780 

5. Diazoamido-Compounds : a Study in Chemical Isomerism. By Professor 
Raphael Meldola, F.R.S 780 

6. The Action of Light upon the Diazo-CoApounds of Primuline and Dehy- 
drothiotoluidine: a Method of Photographic Dyeing and Printing. By 
Arthur G. Green, Charles F. Cross, and Edward J. Bevan 781 

7. Fast and Fugitive Dyes. By Professor J. J. Hummel 782 

8. Notes on the Limits of the Reactions for the Detection of Hydrogen 

Dioxide, and the Reactions for Uranium. By T. Fairley, F.R.S.E. ...78-3 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. On Veratrin, and on the Existence of Two Isomeric /3-Picolines. By Dr. 

F. Ahrbns 783 

2. The Action of Phosphorus Trichloride on Organic Acids and on Water. 

By 0. H. Bothamley, F.C.S., and G. R. Thompson 784 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On the Constitution of tlie Alkaloid, Berberiu. By Professor W. H. 

Perkin, Jun., F.R.S 785 

4. The Production of Camphor from Turpentine. By J. E. Marsh and R- ^ ^ 
Stockdale 785 

5. On a Double Aspirator. By T. Fairlet, F.R.S. E 785 

6. On the Vulcanisation and Decay of Indiarubber. By W. Thomson, 
F.R.S.E., F.CS 785 

7. On the Unhurned Gases contained in the Flue-p:ases from Gas Stoves and 

different Burners. By William Thomson, F.R.S. E., F.CS 786 

8. Contributions to the Analysis of Fats. By J. Lewkowitsch, Ph.D., 
F.I.C., F.CS 787 

9. On the Condensation of Dibenzylketone with 0.\;alic Ether. By Thos. 

EwAN, Ph.D., B.Sc 738 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 

Section 789 

1. On the Gio:antic Ceratopsidee (or Horned Dinosaurs) of North America. 

By Professor 0. C. Marsh 793 

2. The Carboniferous Strata of Leeds and its immediate suburbs. By 

Benjamin Holqate, F.G.S 795 

3. Some Physical Properties of the Coals of the Leeds District. By Benja- 
min HoLGATE, F.G.S 796 

4. On the Boulders and Glaciated Rock-surfaces of the Yorkshire Coast. 

By G. W. LAMPLuaH, F.G.S 797 

5. East Yorkshire during the Glacial Period. By G. W. Lamplugh, F.G.S. 798 

6. Final Report on an Ancient Sea Beach near Bridlington .'. 799 

7. On Liassic Sections near Bridport, Dorset. By John Francis Wale;er, 

M.A., F.G.S 799 

8. On the Sounds known as the ' Barisal Guns,' occurring in the Gangetic 

Delta. By T. D. la Totiche 800 

9. On the so-called Ingleton Granite. By Thomas Tate, F.G.S 800 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. The Devonian Rocks, as described in De la Beche's Report, interpreted in 

accordance with Recent Researches. By W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S 801 

2. On Pre-Cambrian Rocks occurring as Fragments in the Cambrian Con- 

glomerates in Britain. ByllBNRT Hicks, MD., F.R.S., F.G.S 803 

3. The Effects produced by Earth-movements on Pre-Oambriau and Lower 

PaliEozoic Rocks in some Sections in Wales and Shropshire. By Henry 
Hicks, M.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 804 

4. On the INIineral Resources of New South Wales. By C. S. Wilkinson, 
F.G.S ; 805 

5. Eighteenth Report on the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 807 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

6. On the Glacial Phenomena of the Isle of Man. By P. F. Kendall 807 

7. On the Speeton Clavs and their Equivalents in Lincolnshire. By G. W. 
Lamplugh, F.G.S.". ." 803 

8. Ou the Neural Arch of the Vertebrse in the Ichthyosauria. By Professor 

H. G. Seeley, F.E.S 809 

9. On the Marbles and other Ornamental Rocks of the Mediterranean. By 

W. Beindlet, F.G S., F.R.M.S 809 

10. The supposed Volcanic Eruption of Cape Reylsjanses. By Tempest Ander- 
son, M.D., B.Sc, and H. J. Johnston-Lavis", M.D 810 

11. On Lepidophloios and Lepidodendron. By Wm. Cash, F.G.S., F.L.S., 
F.R.M.S., and Jas. Lomax 810 

12. Ou the Changes of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks in Yorkshire from 

South to North. By J. R. Dakyns 811 

13. Human Footprints in recent Volcanic Mud in Nicaragua. By Dr. J. 
Crawford 812 

14. On the Geology of Nicaragua. By Dr. J. Crawford 812 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Preliminary Note on the Composition and Origin of Cheshire Boulders. 

By J. CoiTTTS Antrobus, M.A.,and Frederick H. Hatch, Ph.D ,F.G.S. 813 

2. On some West -Yorkshire Mica-trap Dykes. By Frederick H. Hatch, 
Ph.D., F.G. S 813 

3. Note on Phillips's Dyke, Ingleton. By Thomas Tate, F.G.S 814 

4. Sixth Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 814 

5. On the Origin of the Saline Inclusions in the Crystalline Rocks of Dart- 
moor. By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 815 

6. On the Strata forming the Base of the Silurian in North-East Montgomery- 
shire. By J. BiCKERTON Morgan, F.G.S 816 

7. The Geology of the Long Mountain, on the Welsh Borders. By W. W. 

Watts, M.'A., F.G.S 817 

8. Elbolton Cave Exploration. By the Rev. Edward Jones 817 

9. Physical Studies of an Ancient Estuary. By the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc, 

F.G.S 818 

10. Sixteenth Report on the Circulation of Un(Jerground Waters 819 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Eighth Report on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 819 

2. Report on the Cretaceous Polyzoa 819 

3. Suggestions on Sites for Coal-.search in the South-East of England. By 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S., F.G.S 819 

4. Notes on the Bunter and Keuper Formation in the Country around Liver- 

pool. By G. H. Morton, F.G.S 819 

5. Notes on the ISIorphology of the Cystidea. By P. Herbert Carpenter, 

D.Sc, F.R.S ■. 821 

6. On the Sources of the River Aire. By Professor Silvantts P. Thompson, 

D.Sc 821 



Xvi CONTENTS. 

Page 

7. Report on the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological Interest 82i 

8. On the Discovery of a Jurassic Fish-Fauna in the Hawkeshury-Wiana- 

niatta Beds of New South Wales. By A. Smith Woodward, F.G.S.... 82-2 

9. Restorations of the Palaeozoic Elasmobranch Genera Tleuracantlms and 
Xenacanthus. By Dr. Anton Feitsch 822 

10. On Fossil Fish of the West Riding Coal-field. By J. W. Davis, F.G.S. 822 

11. Fourth Report on the 'Manure' Gravels of Wexford 823 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Report on the Registration of Type Specimens 823 

2. On Peat overlying a Lacustrine Deposit at Filey. By the Rev. E. Matjle 
Cole, M.A., F.G.S 823 

y. On the Origin of Gold. By Professor J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S 824 

4. As to certain Alterations in the Surface-level of the Sea oiF the South 

Coast of England. By R. G. M. Browne, F.G.S 824 

5. Notes on Volcanic Explosions. By Thomas Hart, F.G.S 825 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by Professor A. Milnes Marshall, M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

President of the Section 826 

1. On the Ornithology of the Sandwich Islands. By Professor A. NeWton, 
F.R.S 852 

2. Report of the Committee to Improve and Experiment with a Deep-Sea 
Tow-Net 852 

3. Report of the Committee on the Naples Zoological Station 852 

4. Third Report of the Committee on the Flora and Fauna of the West 
India Islands 852 

5. Third Report of the Committee on the Disappearance of Native Plants 
from their Local Habitats 852 

6. Fourth Report of the Committee for establishing a Botanical Station at 

Paradeniy a, Ceylon 852 

7. Report of the Committee on the Migration of Birds 852 

8. Report of the Committee appointed to arrange for the Occupation of 
Table at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 853 

9. Report of the Committee on the Invertebrate Fauna and Cryptogamic 
Flora of the Fresh Waters of the British Isles 853 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Discussion on the Teaching of Botany, opened by Professors Marshall 
W^ARD, F. Oliver, and F. O. Bower 853 

2. On the Cretaceous Mammals of North America. By Professor O, C, Mausii 853 



CONTENTS. XV 11 

Page 

3. On Androgynous Cones in Finns Thunhergii, and some remarks on their 
Morphology. By F. Ernest Weiss 854 

4. On a curious Cell-content in Eucommia ulmoides (Oliv.). By F. Ernest 

Weiss 854 

5. On an Abnormality in Tropceolum, with Remarks on the Origin of the 

Spur. By Professor A. Denxt 855 

6. Notes on the Natural History of flierro and Graciosa, two outlying 
members of the Canary Islands. By the Rev. Canon Tiustraji, F.R.S. 855 

7. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Composition of the Human Lens, 

especially in reference to the changes it undergoes with age and in 
cataract. By William Jor, Collins, M.D., M.S., B.Sc, F.R.C.S 855 

8. Indications for the Cure of Infectious Diseases. By E. H. Hanein, B.A. 656 

9. Experiments with Drugs as a Question of Science. By William Sharp, 
F.R.S 859 

10. On the Incubation of Snakes' Eggs. By Dr. Walter Sibley 860 

11. Some of the probable causes of Variation in the Eggs of Birds. By H. B. 
Hewetson 860 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1 . On the Development of the Head of the Fly of Chironomus. By Pro- 

fessor L. C. MiALL, F.L.S., and A. Hammond 860 

2. On the Structure of Muscular Fibre as demonstrated by ' Castings ' taken 

in Collodium. By J. B. Haycraft 8G0 

3. Notes on the Anatomy and Morphology of the Cystidea. By P. H. 

Carpenter, F.R.S 860 

4. On Variability in Development. By Professor A. Milnes Marshall, 
F.R.S., and E. J. Bles 861 

5. On Secreting Cells. By Professor G. Gilson 861 

6. On the Regeneration of Lost Parts in Polyzoa. By Sidney F. Harmer, 
M.A., B.Sc 862 

7. On the Meaning of the Ampullse in MillejMirc murrayi (Quelch). By 

S. J. Hickson, M.A., D.Sc 863 

8. On the male Gonangia of Distichopora and Allortora. By S. J. Hickson, 
M.A.,D.Sc .'. 864 

9. On the Tracheal Occlusor Apparatus in Insecta. By Professor A. Denny 864 

10. The Life-History of the Hessian Fly, Cecidomyia Destructor (Say). By 
F. Enock 864 

11. Notes on the Spawning of the Anguillse. By the Rev. J. E. Eraser 866 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. On the Power of certain Bacteria to form Organic Compounds from 
Inorganic Matter. By R. Warington, F.R.S 866 

2. Notes on Phylloglossum. By Professor F. 0. Bower 867 

3. On the Question of the Phylogeny of Ferns. By Professor F. 0. Bower 867 

4. On Hybrids and their Parents. By Dr. J. M. Macfarlane 867 

5. Dehiscence of Fruit of Ecballium elaterium. By Professor T. Johnson, 

B.Sc.,F.L.S 867 

1890. a 



' 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. Observations on Brown and on Ked Seaweeds. By Professor T. JoHir- 
sox, B.Sc, F.L.S B68 

7. On the Arrangements for recording Phenological Phenomena. By G. J. 

SiMoxs, F.R.S 868 

8. On the Floral Biology of Episda maculata. By Professor F. W. Oliver 869 

9. On the Origin of Thorny Plants. By Professor P. Geddes 870 

10. Note on the Occurrence in Yorkshire of Arenaria gothica (Fries). By 

Professor SiLTAXCs P. THOJiPSOisr, D.Sc 871 

11. The Flora of Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. By J. 
IIoTES Panton, M.A., F.G.S 871 

12. The Cytology of the Chytridian Woronina. By Professor Maectxs M. 
IIaetog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S 872 

13. On the Acclimatisation of the Tussock Grass of the Falkland Islands. 

By Professor Maecus M. Haktog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S 872 

14. On a Case of Apogamy in Vancheria hamata (Yauch.), Lyngb. Bv 
Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc '.. 872 

15. An o^•erlooked Yariety of Cynosurus cristatus (Crested Dog's-tail-grass). 

By W. Wilson, Jun 872. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address bv Lieutenant-Colonel Sir R. Lamgeet Plax'faik, K.C.M.G., 

F.ii.G'.S., President of the Section ...; 874 

1. The Vertical Relief of the Globe. By H. R. Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 888 

2. Geographical Teaching in Russia. By H. R. Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 888 

3. A Railway through Southern Persia. By Major-General Sir F. J. Gold- 
S3IIB, C.B., K.C.S.I., F.R.G.S 888 

4. New Trade Routes into Persia. By H. F. B. Lynch 889 

FRIBAT, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Notes on the Country lying between Lakes Nyassa, Rukwa, and Tangan- 
yika. By Dr. Keee Ceoss 891 

2. Journeys in Ashanti and Neighbouring Regions. By R. Austin Feee- 

JCAN, M.R.C.S .' 892 

3. Zambezia. By E. A. Maitnd 892 

4. The Commercial Geography of Africa. By J. Scott Keltie 892 

.5. The Political Partition of Africa. By A. Silv a White, F.R.S.E 892 

6. The Kalahari. By E. Wilkinson 892 

MONBAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Joint Meeting with Section F to consider the subject of the Lands of the 
Globe still available for European Settlement. Introduced in a Paper by 

E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S 893 

2. On Exploration in North-Eastern Cilicia. By J. Theodoee Bent 893 



CONTENTS. xix 

Page 

3. Report of the Committee for the Exploration of Oilicia 893 

4. The Physical Geographical Features of Brazil, in relation to their Influ- 

ence upon the Development, or otherwise, of the Industrial and Commer- 
cial Interests of the Country. By James W. Wells, M.Inst.C.E., 
F.R.G.S : : .'893 

5. From Paraguay to the Pacilic. By .M. A. Thouae 893 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 0. 

1. Notes on a Journey in the Eastern Carpathians. By Miss Mexe Mueiel 
Bowie ■; 89G 

2. The Present State of the Ordnance Suryey and the Paramount Necessity 

for a Thorough Reyision. By Hexry T. Crook, C.E 89G 

3. Ancient Maps of Egypt, Lake IMoeris, and the Mountains of the Moon. 

By CorE Whitehouse 896 

4. Some Points in connection with Ptolemaic Geography and Ptolemaic 
Maps. By Dr. Schlichter , 897 

5. The actual State of the Question of the Initial Meridian for the Universal 

Hour. By C. TONDLCfl DE QUAEEXGHI 897 

C. On recent Explorations in New Guinea. By Coutts Trotter, F.R.G.S. 897 

7. Honduras (Spanish). By William Pilcher, F.R.G.S 897 

8. On a Visit to the Skaptor District of Iceland. By Dr. Tempest Ander- 
son and Dr. Johnston-Lavis 897 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by Professor Alfred Marsjiall, M.A., F.S.S., President of the 

Section 898 

1. Modern Forms of Industrial Combination. By Professor A. T. IIadlet 91G 

2. The Ulterior Aims of Co-operators. By Benjamin Jones 910 

3. The Value of Labour in relation to Economic Theory. By .Tames Bonar 017 

4. Progressive Taxation. By C. F. Bastable, LL.D 918 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. The probable Effects on Wages of a general Reduction in the Hours of 
Labour. By Professor J. E. C. Muneo 919 

2. The Agricultural Changes in England during the Period 1450-lGoO. By 
Professor W. J. Ashley 919 

3. The Element of Chance in Examinations. By Professor F. Y. Edge- 
worth, D.C.L 920 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. The Policy of exercising a Discrimination between the Deserving and Un- 

deserving in the giving of Public Poor Relief. By John King 921 

2. Exhibition of Maps illustrating the Statistics of Pauperism. By Dr. 
Rhodes 900 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Page 

1. Joint Discussion with Section E (Geography) on Lands still available for 
European Settlement 9^- 

2. Some recent Changes in the Conditions governing the London Money 
Market. By Wynnaed Hooper 923 

3. The pure Theory of Distribution. By Arthur Berry, M.A 923 

4. A Theory of the Consumption of Wealth. By Professor P. Gkddes 924 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

J. The Factories and Workshops Acts— Past and Present. By G. II. L. 
ElCKARDS 92 7 

2. Modern Changes in the Mobility of Labour. By II. Llewellyx Smith 927 

3. Eeport of the Committee on the Teaching of Science in Elementary 

Schools 928 

4. Report of the Committee on the Standard of Value 928 

5 Report of the Committee on the Statistics of the Use of tlie Precious 

Metals 928 

6. On the Ideal Aim of the Economist. By Mrs. Victoria C. Woodiiull 
Martin 9-^ 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. On the Drawbacks of Modern Economic Progress. ByE. L. K. Go:s^ner 928 

2. On some Typical Economic Fallacies made by Social Reformers. By 

L. L. Price, M.A 928 

3. The Use of Estimates of Aggregate Capital and Income as Measures of 
the Economic Welfare of Nations. By Edwin Cannan, M.A 920 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by Captain Noble, C.B,, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.O.S., M.Inst.C.E., Presi- 
dent of the Section 930 

1. A Hydraulic Steam Lifeboat. By J. F. Green 947 

2. On Aluminium Bronze for Artillery and Small Arms. ]>v J. II. J. 
Dagger, F.C.S., F.I.C .' 948 

3. Some new Telemeters or Range Finders. By Professors A. IUrr and 
W. Stroud 940 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Report of the Estuaries Committee 949 

2. Report of the Graphic Methods Committee 949 

3. The Process of manufacturing Netting by slitting and expanded Sheet 
Metal. By J. F. GoLDiNG 940 

4. Cable Tramways. By W. Newby Colam 950 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

0. On the ' Serve ' Tube. By W. Batlet Maeshall, M.Inst.C.E 950 

(j. The Simplex Brake. By W. Batley Maeshall, M.Inst.C.E 950 

7. A Rotary Machine for Composing and Distributing Printing Type. By 
John Solthwaed 951 

8. The Victoria and other Torpedoes. By G. Read Mxtephy 952 

9. The Benier IIot-Air Engine or Motor. By E. Vernon 953 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Pneumatic Distribution of Power. By Professor A. Lttpton 954 

'2. On the Construction of Sluices for Rivers, &c. By F. G. M. Stoney, 
M.Inst.C.E 954 

3. The Raiyfin Canal. By Cope Whixehoitse 955 

2I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. A new Electric Meter. The Multicellular Voltmeter. An Engine-room 
Voltmeter. An Ampere Gauge. A new Form of Voltapile, useful in 
Standardising Operations. By Sir William Thomson, D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S 956 

-'. The Linelf Electric Tramway. By Gisbeet Kapp 956 

•J. Alternating versus Continuous Currents in relation to the Human Body. 
By H. Newman Laweence, M.I.E.E., and Arthur Haeeies, M.D. ... 957 

4. On Electric Lighting and Fire Insurance Rules. By Wilson Haetnell 958 

5. Secondary Cells. By W. J. S. Baebee Sxarket 958 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. On the Form of Submarine Cables for Long-distance Telephony. By 
W. H. Peeece, F.R.S. ". 959 

1'. Column-Printing Telegraph. By F. IIiggins 959 

o. On Heavy Lathes. By A. Greenwood 959 

4. Factors of Safety. By "VV. Bayley Maeshall, M.Inst.C.E 960 

5. Measurement of Elongation in Test Samples. By J. H. Wicksteed 962 

[6. On the Measurement of Strains. By A. Mallock 962 

7. Exhibition of a Mechanism. By Professors Baer and "\V. SiRorD 962 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Address by John Evans, D.C.L., LL.D., D.Sc, Treas.R.S., Pres.S.A., F.L.S , 

President of the Section 963 

1. On the Doctrine of Ilereditism. By the Rev. F. 0. Moeeis 969 

2. Remarks on the Ethnology of British Columbia. By Hoeatio Hale ... 969 

3. Notes on the Religion of the Australian Aborigines. By J. "W. Fawcett 969 

4. Notes on the Aborigines of Australia. By J. W. Fawcett 970 



Xxii CONTKNTS. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Page- 

1. On the Youroulfs of Asia Minor. By J. Theodore Bent 970 

2. The Present Aspect of the Jade Question. By F. W. Rudler, F.G.S.... 971 

3. On the Aryan Cradleland. By J. S. Stuaet Giennie 971 

4. ' Is there a Break in Mental Evolution ? ' By the Hon. Lady Welbt... 972 
6. OnReversion. By Miss Nina F. L.vtaed 973 

6. On an Unidentified People occupying parts of Britain in Pre-Roman- 
British Times. By Dr. Phene, LL.D., F.S.A 974 

7. Report ofthe Notes and Queries Committee 974 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Physical Development. By Dr. Hamdleton 974 

2. On some Archaeological Remains bearing on the question of the Origin of 

the Anglo-Saxons in England. By Robert Muneo, M.A., M.D 976 

3. Some Neolithic Details. By H. Coi.ley March, M.D 977 

4. On Prehistoric Otter and Beaver Traps. By Robert Munro, M.A., M.D. 978 
5 Indications of Retrogression in Prehistoric Civilisation in the Thames 

Valley. By H. Stores, F.G.S 979 

6. On the Duggleby ' Howe.' By the Rev. I'L Matjle Cole, M.A., F.G.S. 979 

7. A probable Site of Delgovitia. By T. R. Mortimer 980 

8. A supposed Roman Camp at Octon. By T. R. Mortiicer 980 

9. A Suggestion as to the Boring of Stone Hammers. By W. Horne 980 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Old and Modern Phrenology. By Bernard Hollander 980 

2. Stethographic Tracings of Male and Female Respiratory Movements. By 
Dr. WiLBERFOECE Smith 981 

3. A new Spirometer. By W. F. Stanley, F.G.S 982 

4. Report ofthe Anthropometric Laboratory Committee 982 

5. Diagrams for Reading-ofF Indices. By Dr. Wilberforce Smith 982 

6. Excavation of the Wandsdyke at Woodvates. Bv General Pitt-Riyees, 
F.R.S ; ": 983 

7. Notes on Human Remains discovered by General Pitt-Rivers at Wood- 
yates, Wiltshire. By J. G. Gaeson, M.D., V.P. Anthrop. Inst 983 

8. Report of the Prehistoric Inhabitants Committee 984 

9. Report ofthe Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor Committee 984 

10. Report ofthe North- Western Tribes of Canada Committee 984 

11. Report of the Indian Committee 984 

Index 985 



XXlll 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.— XVIII. 



Illustrating the Eeport of the Committee appointed to investigate the Action of 
Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of 



Working Models. 



PLATE XIX. 



Map illustrating the Sixth Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the 
physical characters, languages, and industrial and social condition of the 
North- Western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rales. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutious shall be entitled, in like mannei', to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



I 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

gratvitousJij the Reports of tlie Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay witliout vntermissicn their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis : but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annnally. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Oralis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sura of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members ivlio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annnal Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual jMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



XXvi RULES OF THK ASSOCIATION. 

Meetings. 

The Association stall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Co'inmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit dm-ing the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
omtting new claims under tJiis Rule to the decision of the Council, they viust 
he sent to the Secretary/ at least one month before the Meeting of the Associa- 
tion. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Associa- 
tion to be placed on the list of the General Goviniittee to be final. 

Class B. Tempokary Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretai-ies of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

■ Eevised by the General Committee, 1884. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

=" Notice to Cmitributors of Mennrirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections befo7-e the heginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 
necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVll 

thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute. 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 



■'o'- 



Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'* Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the foUowiufj manner : — 



o 



I 



1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
■will be fumislicd, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, before 
the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Added by the General Committee, Sheffield, 1879. 

'^ Revised by the General Committee, Swansea, 1880. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday was made optional by the General Committee at 
Southport, 1883. 



XXViii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organis- 
ino- Committees shall not be brougrht before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minnte-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee {vide p. xxvi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling: them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

• These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plj-mouth, 1877. 
2 This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
■bxirgh, 1871. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, ivho shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (ifajiy has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient luorking. 

That a tabular list of the Conunittees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shoidd be sent each year to the liecorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement ichether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Kecommendations. Unless this be done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has- 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the pi-ogress which has been made ; and th& 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
(previously to the next Meeting of the Association) forward to the General 
Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been ex- 
pended, and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting ; nor is the 
Treasurer authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants, unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by 
the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices, 
of the British Association without special j)ermission from the General 

' Revised by the General Committee, Batli, 1888. 

^ Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, 17 Buckingham 
Street, London, W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, when not 
employed in carrying on scientific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Eoom of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Eoo7ns and approaches thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitiovs, or other purp>oses than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,* and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
orio-inally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To" require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

• The sectional meetings on Saturday and on Wednesday may begin at any time 
which may be fixed by the Committee, not earlier than 10 or later than 1 1. Passed by 
the General Committee at Bath, 1888. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 



Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.' 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.- 

Gorresponding Societies? 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Correspondiug 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Seci-etary on or before the 1st of June. preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
np, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 

' Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 1863. 
- Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
* Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



Xxxii BDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresjponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretai'ies of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into eflect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be. managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

(1) The Council shall consist of 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

S. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

{2) The Ordinaiy Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
{3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, ot 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 

as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing' Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 
(G) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 
Officers of the Association. 

Pajpevs and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Belfast, 1874. 



1890. 



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xliii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.K.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Rev. W. Wliewell, F.E.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof . Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. 
1836. 
1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849, 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool. . . 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

I 
Plymouth j 
Manchester 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William WHiewell, F.E.S 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 



Sir J. F. W. Hcrschel, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Rev. Prof . ■\Miewell, F.E.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Eev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.E.LA. ... 
The Earl of Eosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Eev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.E.S. 

Lord Wrottesle.T, F.E.S 

William Hopkins, F.E.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. E.S.E. 
Eev. W. Wliewell, D.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.E.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. E. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, AV. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Eev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevellv. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Eev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof.' Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Eev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Eidout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Eankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 



xliv 



KEPOET — 1890. 



Date and Place 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

. 1878. Dublin , 

, 1879. Sheffield .. 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airj^ M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Pi-of .W. J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Caylej', M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W.Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof.G. C. Foster, B.A.,F.R.S., 

Pres. Phj'sical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. i5rookc. Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall, 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Cliflon, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel , G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. iMuir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. AV. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casej', G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 
1 O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



TRESIDENTS AND SECEETAEIES OP THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 


Southamp- 
ton. 


1883. 


Southport 


1881. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen. . . 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.SJ 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.B. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

Ti^ R S 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 
F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. p. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richard- 
son. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. jMacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Ba3'nes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R.^T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

A. Lodge, W. N. Shaw, Prof. H. 

Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambrid-e 
183L Edinburs<h 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



183,5. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S IDr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming ■ Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, \V. Hera- 

I path. 
Michael Faraday, F.R.S I Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

I Reynolds. 
Rev. William WhewelljF.R.S. Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 

Prof. T.Graham, F.R.S Dr. Goldine Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

I Dr. L. Playfair. 
Dr. Daubenj', F.R.S 'j. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M, 

I Tweedy. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA !r. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 



Prof. T. Graliam, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Prof. Cummingr 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



xlvi 



KEPORT — 1890. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea , 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 



Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.E.S. 



1855. Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B., F.E.S. 

1856. Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S. ... 



Eev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., i B. C. Brodie, K. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 
F.E.S. I 

Eichard Phillips, F.E.S T. H. Henry, E. Hunt, T. Williams. 

John Percy, M.D., F.E.S E. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.E. Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.E.S. [ Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Eonalds. 
H. S. Blnndell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Eoscoe. 
J. Horslcy, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
I ! Voelcker. 

1857. Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

I M E.I.A. livan. 

1858. Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Eey- 

I D.C.L. I nolds. 

1859. Aberdeen... lDr.LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.E.S. J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

j I Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

1860. Oxford [Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S ' A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

I i A. B. Northcote. 

1861. Manchester I Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.jF.E.S. A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

1862. Cambridge Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.E.S. H. W. Elphinstone, \V. Odling, Prof. 

Eoscoe 

Dr. Alex. W.' Williamson, 
F.E.S. 



1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 
1807. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 



Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 



Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.E.S., A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, E. 

F.C.S. I Biggs. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.,'a. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

V.P.E.S. Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Eussell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Eussell. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.E.S., Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Eus- 

F.C.S. 1 sell, F. Sutton. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.E.S., F.C.S. Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

I Eussell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. H. E. Eoscoe, B.A., Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 

F.E.S., F.C.S. I Dr. W. J. Eussell. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. I J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

I E Thorpe. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S.... j Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Eoberts, Dr. 

W. J. Eussell. Dr. T. Wood. 
Prof. W. J. Eussell, F.E.S. ... i Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

1874. Belfast Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 

F.E.S.E., F.C.S. I lev Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

1875. Bristol I A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., Dr 11. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 



187G. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin.... 

1879. Sheffield . 



F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.E.S 

F. A. Abel, F.E.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.E.S. 



Eoberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Eoberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. E. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Eoberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 



TRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Soiithamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 
1S8.J. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof . A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.Pi.S. 
Prof. G. D. Livcing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookcs, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 



1888. Bath Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

]S',)0. Leeds 



Sir T. Lpwthiim Bell, Bart., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. T. E. Thoriie, B.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 



Secretaries 



P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 

W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. Gou<;h. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morlej'. 
Prof. 1'. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morlev, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H.'b. Dixon, Dr. H. Forster 

Morlev, R. E. Moyle, Dr. W. W 

J. Nicol. 
Dr. H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, 

Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattin- 

son, jiin. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COJIMITTEK OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford |B. I. Murch!.sou, F.R.S. 



1833. Cambridge, 

1834. Edinburgh. 



G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Pliillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



18.3.-. 
18.36. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Livei-pool.. 



1838. 
1839. 

1340. 

1811. 



Newcastle... 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 



R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Gcoqrapliy, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6'w/7?'<7f^/(y,G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Gcoqraphii, Lord Prudhoe. 
Rev. Dr. Biickland, F.R.S.— 

Gengrajjliy, G.B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— <?eo- 

qraphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
H. T. Dc la Beche, F.R.S. ... 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geih. 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denhara, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Gco'iriiphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugli 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Button. 



xlviii 



BEPORT — 1890. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1S42. Manchester 


R. I. Murchison, F.E.S 


E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. E. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 


1813 Cork 


Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 


Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 




land. 


1844. York 


Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 


Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 




Geol. See. 




1845. Cambridge. 


Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 


Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 




F.R.S. 


Rev. W. Thorp. 


1846. Sontliamp- 


Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 


Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 


ton. 


qrnpJiy, G. B. Greenough, 


Prof. Oldham. — Geoqraxjliy, Dr. C. 




F.R.S. 


T. Beke. 


1847. Oxford 


Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 


1848. Swansea ... 


Sir H. T. Do la Beche, C.B., 


Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Ramsay. 


1849.Birminoham 


Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 


J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 




F.G.S. 


A. C. Ramsay. 


1850. Edinburgh' 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 


A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853.- Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



SECTION c {contitiued). — geologt. 
WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 



1857. Dublin... 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.E.S... . 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.^ 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D.. 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Waringtcn W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James JlacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Ilarkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T, 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright, 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,'" for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page liv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
J875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Presidents 



Archibald Geikie, F.K.S., 

F.G.S. 
E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, B\R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. 0. Godwin-Austen 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D. ... 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., P.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
E. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL D., D.C.L.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardmau, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adam,s, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 
Teall, W. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 
Topley, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 
W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 
W. Watts. H. B. Woodward. 

J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 
E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGT, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford [Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge' Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. I Prof. Graham W. Yarrell. Prof. Burnett. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 

1890. e 



REPORT 1890. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Proi. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 

1 Eootsey. 
C. C. Babingtou, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swaiuson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 
William Thompson, F.L.S....iG. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. 

i Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 1 Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. , Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir.W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S 



Sir J. Richardson, M.D. 

F.R.S. 
H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridgc. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. liii.] 



1848. Swansea ...iL. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. 



1849 
1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1S63. 



Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . . 
Belfast 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L.&E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleemiug, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S... . 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
j W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
jDr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
■Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H, 
' B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1864, Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Dr. John E, Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 



Secretaries 



H. B, Brady, C. E. Broom, H, T, 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev, C. Clarke, Rev, 
1 H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. AVright. 



SECTION D {continued'). — biology,* 



1866, Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee ,,. 
Norwich ... 



1861t, Exeter, 



1870, Liverpool,., 



1871, Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton ,,, 



1873, Bradford ... 



1874, Belfast. 



k 



87.5. Bristol 



I 



Prof, Huxley, LL,D., F.R.S. 
— Physioloqical Dcj>., Prof, 
Humphry," M.D„ F,R,S.— 
Anthropological Bep., Alf. 
R. Wallace, F.R,G,S. 

Prof, Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
— Dej). of Zool. and Bat., 
George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Rev. M, J. Berkeley, P.L.S. 
— Bep. of Physiology, W. 
H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C, Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of FAhno., E. B. Tylor, 

Prof, G, Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S,, Y.\j.'&. — Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,Fiof.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— -Ot^A of Bot. and 
,2yoZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Anthropol., 
Prof. W, Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,Ii'.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.n.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col, A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. AUman, F.R.S.— Z>^'^. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Froi. Ru- 
therford, M.i).—Bep. ofAn- 
thropoWDv. Beddoe, F.R.S 

Prof. Redfern, U.D.—Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— i>(;/;.o/^«- 
throp.,^\x W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P, L, Sclater, F.R.S.— Z'e^.o/ 
Anat.and Physiol.,FTof.C\e- 
land, M.D., F.'R.S.—Bep. of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D,, F.R.S, 



Dr. J. Beddard, W, Felkin, Rev, H, 
B, Tristram, W. Turner, E, B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P, Wright, 



C, Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H, T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T, S. Cobbold, Prof. M, Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H, T. Stainton, Rev, H, B, Tris- 
tram, 

Dr, T, S, Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof, Lawson, Thos, J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T, Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr, W, Rutherford, Dr, Kelburne 
King, 

Prof, Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof, Lawson, F, W. Rudler, J. H, 
Lamprey, Dr, Gamgee, E, Ray 
Lankester, Dr, Pye-Smith, 

Prof, Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr, Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F, W. Rudler, J, 
H. Lamprey, 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R, O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. ,J, Charles, Dr, P, H. 
Pye-Smith, J, J, MurjDhy, F. W, 
Rudler, 

E, R, Alston, Dr, McKendrick, Prof. 
W, R. M'Nab, Dr, Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr, P, H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W, Spencer. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved: — 'That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;' and 'That for the word "Subsection," 
in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department."' 
bo substituted,' 

c 2 



Ui 



REPORT — 1890. 



Date and Place 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1682. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Montreal - 
Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Presidents 



A. Kussel Wallace, F.E.G.S., 
p.L.S. — Dcp. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.K.S. — Dep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
dri'ck, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Phi/siol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Btp. of Anthropol., 
Francis Gal ton, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bip. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S.— Z>g;. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— 2>e/;. of Anthrojwl., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pj-e-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bi-p. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler.'F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
- Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Bo)-d Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. ' 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.K.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. L. & B. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



Secretaries 



E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
.son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 

Scliafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hej% Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nia.s, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. B. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

nier, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

* By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lix. 



PRESIDENTS ANP SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



Presidents 



W. T. Thiselton-Dver, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.Il.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailev, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, Prof. F. W. 
Oliver, H. Wager, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge IDr. Haviland Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh IDr. Abercrombie Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, BI.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenbow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1 842. Manchester 
184.3. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY, 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. i Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

I Sargent. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S.jDr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Sir James Pit cairn, M.D. ... j Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



J. C. Pritchard, M.D. 
Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. I 

Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. Prof. J. H. Corbett.Dr. J. Struthers. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 

Sir Beniamin Brodie, Bart., C. G. Wheelhouse. 
F.R.S. I 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. 1.).' Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 



liv 



KEPOItT 1890. 



Date and Place 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 



1865. Birming- 
ham.' 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Sharper, M.D.. Sec.K.S. 
Prot'.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eollestou, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D.. LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. P. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geograpliy previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. xlvii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm! Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGKAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY, 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863, 
1864. 



Ipswich 
Belfast... 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
(Jol. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
U. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.E.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 
Sir R.L Murchison, G.C.St. S., 

F.E.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.E.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B. . 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
11. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
LI. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

NTorton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. E. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Eichard Cull, Prof . Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt, 

R. M. JIurchison, T. Wright. 



Vide note on page li. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1865. Birmingham 


Major-General Sir H. Raw- 


H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 




linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 


C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 


1866. Nottingham 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 


H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 




LL.D. 


H. ]\rajor, Clements R. Markham, 
D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 


1867. Diuidee ... 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 


H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. IMarkham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Stiirrock. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 


T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 




F.R.S. 


Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton . . , 
Bradford . . . 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 

York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I.Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
■ F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L.&E . 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

rt T> T? "R S 

Sir R. Tompie, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

F.R.G.S. 
Licut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G.. F.R.S.,V.r.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. .L Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
j K.C.M G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 
I Playfair,K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. jMarkham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, P. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloi-an, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Snlivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 



Ivi- 



REPORT 1890. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.E.S | J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh I Sir Charles Lemon, Bart i Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



18.36. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W.Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. tlie Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Hey wood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. j"; E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Bjrrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod. Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and STATISTICS. 



1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. |Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
Edward Baincs T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 
Dublin, M.R.I.A 



PRESIDENTS AND 8ECIIETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



iVll 



Date and Place 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862, 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 



Presidents 



Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S... . 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Ut. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant-DufiF, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



Bristol James Heywood, M.A. , F.R.S 

Pres. S.S 
Glasgow ... SirGeorge Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P, 

Plymouth... Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Dublin Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

I M.R.LA. 
Sheffield ...'g. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

I S.S. 
Swansea ...G. W. Hastino.s, M.P 



York. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Liglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Qiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Y. Edge worth, M.A., 
F.S.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Cairn.s, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E." T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 

R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitcli, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Watson. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 
Price. 

Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 



Iviii 



llEPORT — 1890. 



Date and Place 



1890. Leeds ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. A. Marshall, M.A.,P.S.S.' W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

I T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Mnnro, 
■ L. L. F. R. Price. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1 866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macueill, M.R.LA.... 

.John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chattield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thom.son, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

Pi. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Cliavlcs Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

D]-. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Tliomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, .J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jcffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernetliy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.K.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.K.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. AV. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.U.S.E., 

Pres.In.st.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 
F.K.A.S. 



Secretaries 



P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Poster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, 

J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Sj-mes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. .\tchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T.Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, B. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION H. ANTHROPOLOGY. 

1884. Montreal ... i B. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... I G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

1885. Aberdeen... Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. [G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

I 1 Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 

1886. Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., I G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. ' Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 



Ix 



REPORT 1890. 



Date and Place 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

npon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



Presidents 



Prof. A. H. Saj-ce, M.A 

Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L, F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas.R.S,, 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer. F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchi.son. F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lvell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... . 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday. F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owon. M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airv,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgeaxi Sea. 

The Earl of Rosses Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (ZHdus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with' 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 



LIST OK EVENING LECTURES. 



ixi 



Date and Place 



1854. 
1855. 



. 1856. 



Hull. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 
1 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 
Edinburgh 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R. S. 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson .., 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. PhiIlips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof . W. A. Miller, M.A .. F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S,, Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S 

Prof. RosBcoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. ... 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D.Hooker, F.R.S 

.Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R. A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. JTacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Ciineiform research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discliarges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Cliemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insiilar Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Arch:eology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

Tlie Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 



Ixii 



REPORT 1890. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


Prof. P. Martin Duncan, 5I.B., 
F.R.t^. 


Insect Metamorphosis. 






Prof. W. K. Clifford 


The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. W. C.Williamson.F.R.S. 


Coal and Coal Plants. 






Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 


Molecules. 


1874. 


Belfast 


Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 


Common Wild Flowers considered 






F.E.S. 


in relation to Insects. 






Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 


The Hjfpotliesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 


1875. 


Bristol 


W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 


The Colours of Polarised Light. 






F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 


Railway Safety Appliances. 


1876. 


Glasgow . . . 


Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E 


Force. 






SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 


The CliaUcwjcr Expedition. 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 


The Physical Phenomena connected 






F.R.S. 


with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 






Prof. Odling, F.R.S 


The new Element, Gallium. 


1878. 


Dublin 


G. J. Romanes. F.L.S 


Animal Intelligence. 






Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 


Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


W. Crookes. F.R.S 


Radiant Blatter. 






Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 


Degeneration. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 


Primeval Man. 






Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Mental Imagery. 


1881. 


York 


Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 


The Rise and Progress of Palseon. 
tology. 










W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 


The Electric Discharge, its Forms^ 
and its Functions. 


1882. 


Southamp- 


Prof. Sir Win. Thomson, F.R.S. 


Tides. 




ton. 


Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 


Pelagic Life. 


1883. 


Southport 


Prof. E. S. Ball, F.R.S 


Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 






Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 


Galvani and Animal Electricity. 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


Dust. 






Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 


The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 


The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 






John Murray, F.R.S.E 


The Great Ocean Basins. 


1886. Birmingham 


A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 


Soap Bubbles. 






Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 


The Sense of Hearing. 


1887. 


Manchester 


Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.E.S. ... 


The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 






Col. Sir F. de Winton, 


Explorations in Central Africa. 






K.C.M.G. 




1888. 


Bath 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 


The Electrical Transmission of 
Power. 












Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 


The Foundation Stones of the Earth's- 






F.R.S. 


Crust. 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 


The Hardenino- and Tempering of 




upon-Tyne 


F.E.S. 


Steel. 






Walter Gardiner, M.A 


How rljiiif','^ Tinnivii'ain 'HiPTn**(^lvp'ii in 








the Struggle for Existence. 


1890. 


Leeds 


E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 


Mimicry. 






Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 



LECTURE-S TO THE OrEEATIVE CLASSES. 



Ixiii 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1867. 
1868. 
1860. 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool , 



1872. 
1873. 

1874. 
187.5. 
1876. 

1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
188.5. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 

1889. 

1 890. 



Brig-hton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast.... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 

Plymouth . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southpori: 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 
Bath 

Kewcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.K.S, 
Prof. Huxler. LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
"W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W. Siemens. D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling. F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fiiel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten Histoiy, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 
Spinning Tops. 



Ixiv REPORT— 1890. 



OFFICERS OP SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

LEEDS MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President— J. W. L, Glaisher, D.Sc, F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. , 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S.; Professor B. Mas- 
carfc; Lord Ravleigh, Sec. R.S. ; Professor H. A. Rowland, F.R.S.; 
Professor A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. ; Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S.; Professor A. Lodge, M.A. ; W. 
N. Shaw, M.A. (Recorder) ; Professor W. Stroud, D.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Presirfe^i^.— Professor T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, Ph.D., P.R.S., Treas. C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. ; Sir I. Lowthian 
Bell, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S.. Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Professor G. D. Liveing, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. H. 
Perkin, F.R.S. ; Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S. ; 
Professor A. Siuitbells, B.Sc. 

Secretaries.— C. H. Bothamley, F.C.S. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. 
{Recorder) ; D. H. Nagel, M.A. ; Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.R.S., P.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. ; James W. Davis, 
F.G.S. ; Professor T M'K. Hughes, F.R.S. ; Professor O. C. Marsh; 
R. H. Tiddeman, M.A. ; W. Topley, F.R.S.; Dr. H. Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— J. E. Bedford; F. H. Hatch, Ph.D. ; J. E. Marr, M.A. ; W. 
W Watts, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— Professor A. Milnes Marshall, M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor F. O. Bower, F.R.S. E. ; Francis Darwin, 

F.R.S. ; Professor L. C. Miall, F.L.S. ; Professor A. Newton, F.R.S. ; 

Professor D. H. Scott, Ph.D. ; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— S. P. Harmer, M.A. ; Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc. ; 

Sydney J. Hickson, D.Sc. ; Professor F. W. Oliver, D.Sc. ; Harold 

Wager; Professor H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. (Recorder). 



OFFICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. Ixv 



SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT. 

Prmt^en^.— Lieut.-Colonel Sir R. Lambert Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir F. J. Goldsmid, K. C.S.I. ; Admiral Sir E. Omman- 
ney, C.B., F.R.S. ; E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries. — A. Barker, M.A. ; John Coles, F.R.G.S. ; J. Scott Keltie, 
F.R.G.S, {Becorder) ; A. Silva White, F.R.S. E. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor Alfred Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Charles Booth, F.S.S. ; Professor I'. T. Edgeworth, 
D.C.L. ; Professor H. S. Foxwell, F.S.S. ; J. B. Martin, F.S.S. ; 
Professor Sidgwick, F.S.S. 

Secretaries. — W. A. Brigg, M.A. ; Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. ; T. H. 
Elliott, F.S.S. {Becorder) ; Professor J. E. C. Munro, LL.D. ; L. L. 
F. R. Price, M.A. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Captain Andrew Noble, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ; Professor V. Dwelshauvers- 
Dery ; Arthur Greenwood ; L. F. Vernon Harcourt, M.Inst.C.E. ; 
Sir James Kitson, Bart. ; Benjamin "Walker, M.Inst.C.E. 

Secretaries.— 'E. K. Clark, B.A. ; C. W. Cooke; W. Bayley Marshall, 
M.Inst.C.E.; Edward Rigg, M.A. (Becorder). 

SECTION n. — ANTHROPOLOGT. 

President.— John Evans, D.C.L., LL.D., D.Sc, Treas. R.S., Pres. S.A., 
F.L.S., F.G.S.' 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D. ; F. W. Rudler, 

»F.G.S. ; Professor Flower, C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir Rawson Rawson, 
K.C.M.G. 

Secretaries. — G, W. Bloxam, M.A. {Becorder) ; Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 
M.A. ; Dr. J. G. Garson. 

' Dr. Evans was unable to attend the meeting. 



1890. 



Ixvi KEPOBT — 1890. 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR 



j)r. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

1889-90. EECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance of account rendered at Newcastle Meeting 1052 

By Life Compositions 300 

„ New Annual Members 244 

„ Subscriptions of Old Annual Members 065 

„ Associates' Tickets at Newcastle Meeting 1021 

„ Ladies' Tickets at Newcastle Meeting 579 

,, Sale of Publications 62 

„ Sale of Reports, by Mr. Murray, 1889-90 112 

„ Rent received from Mathematical Society, for year ended 

September 29, 1889 12 

„ Interest on Exchequer Bills 28 

„ Dividends on Consols 227 

„ Dividends on India 3 i3er cents 105 

„ Sale of Exchequer Bills (£1000) 999 

„ Unexpended balance of Grant for Electrolysis 14 



s. 


d. 


5 



































9 


6 


16 





15 








7 


18 


4 


6 








10 


4 






£5423 15 3 



InvestmeuU Account : Septemher 1890. 

New Consols 8500 

India 3 per cents 3600 

Exchequer Bills ' 500 



s. 


d. 





















BALANCE SHEET, 1889-90. Ixvii 



P 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



2 


6 














1 





a 


10 


5 


3 



(not including receipts at the Leeds Meeting). Cr. 

1889-90. PAYMENTS. 

& s. 
To Expenses of Newcastle Meeting, including Printing and 

I Advertising, &c 249 

„ Salaries, one year (1889-90) G75 

\ „ Rent of Ofiice, 22 Albemarle Street, W. (1889-90) 117 

„ Spottiswoode & Co., for Printing Account (1888-89) 1089 

(1889-90) 1089 

„ Purchase of Exchequer Bills (£1000) 1005 

Grants. 

£ .«. (7. 

Experiments with a Tow-net 4 3 9 

Volcanic Plienomeua of Japan 75 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 o 

i Naples Zoological Station 100 o 

Calculating Jlatliematical Tables 25 

Zoology and Botany of West Inilia Islands 100 

Graphic Methods in Meclianical Science 11 U 

Anthropometric Committee 5 

Jfomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 20 

Electro-optics 50 U 

Corresponding Societies 20 

J Waves and Currents in Estuaries 100 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 o 

.Electrical Standards 12 17 

Excavations .at Oldbury Hill 15 

, Recording' Results of Water Analysis 4 1 

Methods of Teaching Chemistry 10 O 

Oxidation of Hydracids in Sunlight 15 

Circulation of Underground Waters 5 

I'ossil Phyllopoda 10 

Botanical Station at Peradeuiya 25 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 5 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 o 

Marine Biological Association 30 

West India Islands (2) 100 

Waves and Currents in Estuaries (2) .50 

Lias Beds of Northamptonsliire 25 

Electrolysis 5 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

— 899 IG 8 

By Balance at Bank of England, "Western Branch 297 7 1 

In hands of Assistant to General Treasurer 1 8 11 



£542.3 15 3 
Alex. W. Williamson, General Treasurer. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


1 


Old] 


Life New Life 










Mem 


jers Members 




1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Kev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.K.S. 


■• 


... 


Oxford 


r3ambri(io"C 


Kdinburo-h 


Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 








Dublin 


The Rev. Provost Lloj'd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 


•• 


• >• 




Bristol 


Liverpool 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 


The Duke of Northumberland 




..• 




1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 


Birmingham 


The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 


,, 


... 




(xlaso'ow 


The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 








Plymouth 


16 


9 65 




1842, June 23 ... 


Manchester 


The Lord Francis Egerton 


30 


3 169 




1843, Aug. 17 ... 


Cork 


The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 


10 


9 28 




1844, Sept. 26 ... 


York 


The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 


22 


S 150 




1845, June 19 ... 


Cambridge 


Sir Jolm F. W. Herschel, Bart. 


31 


3 36 




1846, Sept. 10 ... 


S ut hampton 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 


24 


1 10 




1847, June 23 ... 


Oxford 


Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 


31 


4 18 




1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 


Swansea 


The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 
Sir David Brewster, K.H 


14 


d 3 




Birmingham 


22 
23 


7 12 
5 9 




Edinburgh 




1851, July 2 ... 


Ipswich 


G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 


17 


2 8 




1852, Sept. 1 ... 


Belfast 


Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 


16 


I 10 




185.3, Sept. 3 ... 
1854, Sept. 20 ... 


Hull 


William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 


14 

23 


L 13 
3 23 




Liverpool 




1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Auff. 26 ... 


Glasgovsr 


The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeuy, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphi-ey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 


19 

18 
23 


i 33 
2 14 

S 15 




Cheltenham 




Dublin 




1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 


Leeds 


22 
18 
28 


2 42 

4 27 

5 21 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 




1861, Sept. 4 ... 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 


Manchester 


WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir AVilliam G.Armstrong, C.B. 


32 
23 
20 


1 113 

9 15 
i 36 




Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne 




1864, Sept. 13 ... 


Bath 


Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 


28 


7 40 




1865, Sept. 6 ... 


Birmingham 


Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 


29 


2 44 




1866, Aug. 22 ... 


Nottingham 


William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 


20 


7 31 




1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 


Dundee 


The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 


16 


7 25 




Norwich 


19 
20 


5 18 
4 21 




Exeter 




1870, Sept. 14 ... 


Liverpool 


Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 


31 


4 39 




1871, Aug. 2 ... 


Edinburgh 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 


24 


5 28 




1872, Aug. 14 ... 


Brighton 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 


24 


5 36 




1873, Sept. 17 ... 


Bradford 


Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 


21 


2 27 




1874, Aug. 19 ... 


Belfast 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 


16 


2 13 




1875, Aug. 25 ... 


Bristol 


Sir John Hawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 


23 


9 36 




1876, Sept. 6 ... 


Glasgow 


Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 


22 


1 35 




1877, Aug, 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 

1881, Aug. 31 ... 


Plymouth 


Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 


17 

20 
18 
14 
27 


3 19 

1 18 

4 16 
4 11 

2 28 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




York 




1882, Aug. 23 ... 


Southampton 


17 


8 17 




1883, Sept. 19... 


Southport 


Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


20 


3 60 




1884, Aug. 27 ... 


Montreal 


Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F R.S. ... 


23 


5 20 




1885, Sept. 9 ... 


Aberdeen 


SirLvonPlayfair,K.C.B.,F.R.S. 


22 


5 18 




1886, Sept. 1 ... 

1887, Aug. 31 ... 


Birmingham 


Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 


31 
42 


4 25 
8 86 




Manchester 




1888, Sept. 5 ... 


Bath 


Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 


26 


S 36 




1889, Sept. 11 ... 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 


Prof. W.H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 


27 


7 20 




1890, Sept. 3 ... 


Leeds 


Sir F. A.Abel. C.B., F.R.S. ... 


25 


9 21 





* Ladies were not ixdmitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Atteudeil by 



OW Annual New Annual 
Members | Members 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94 

65 

197 

54 

93 

128 

61 

63 

56 

121 

142 

104 

156 

111 

125 

177 

184 

160 

154 

182 

215 

218 

193 

226 

229 

303 

311 

280 

237 

232 

307 

331 

238 

290 

239 

171 

313 

253 

330 

317 

332 

428 

510 

399 

412 

368 



817 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 



Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


... 


1100* 


... 


60* 


33t 


331* 


. 


160 


9t 


260 


407 


172 


270 


196 


495 


203 


376 


197 


447 


237 


510 


273 


244 


141 


510 


292 


367 


236 


765 


524 


1094 


543 


412 


346 


900 


569 


710 


509 


1206 


821 


636 


463 


1589 


791 


433 


242 


1704 


1004 


1119 


1058 


766 


508 


960 


771 


1163 


771 


720 


682 


678 


600 


1103 


910 


976 


754 


937 


912 


796 


601 


817 


630 


884 


672 


1265 


712 


446 


283 


1285 


674 


529 


349 


389 


147 


1230 


514 


516 


189 


952 


841 


826 


74 ! 


1053 


447 


1067 


429 


1985 


493 


639 


509 


1024 


579 


680 


334 1 



Foreigners 



34 

40 

28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45t 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&60H. 

6 
11 
92 
35 
12 

21 



Total 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 



Amount 

received 

during tlie 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2.397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1538 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 



























































































Sums paid 


on 




Accnunt c 


if 




Grants for S( 


ien- 




tific Purposes 









1831 

1832 
1833 
1834 






£20 


167 





1835 


435 





1836 


922 12 


6 


1837 


932 2 


2 


1838 


1595 11 





1839 


1546 16 


4 


1840 


1235 10 


11 


1841 


1449 17 


8 


1842 


1565 10 


2 


1843 


981 12 


8 


1844 


831 9 


9 


1845 


685 16 





1846 


208 5 


4 


1847 


275 1 


8 


1848 


159 19 


6 


1849 


345 18 





1850 


391 9 


7 


1851 


304 6 


7 


1852 


205 





1853 


380 19 


7 


1854 


480 16 


4 


1855 


734 13 


9 


1856 


507 15 


4 


1857 


618 18 


2 


1858 


684 11 


1 


1859 


766 19 


6 


1860 


1111 5 


10 


1861 


1293 16 


6 


1862 


1608 3 


10 


1863 


1289 15 


8 


1864 


1591 7 


10 


1865 


1750 13 


4 


1866 


1739 4 





1867 


1940 





1868 


1622 





1869 


1572 





1870 


1472 2 


6 


1871 


1285 





1872 


1685 





1873 


1151 16 





1874 


960 





1875 


1092 4 


2 


1876 


1128 9 


7 


1877 


725 16 


6 


1878 


1080 11 


11 


1879 


731 7 


7 


1880 


476 3 


1 


1881 


1126 1 


11 


1882 


1083 3 


3 


1883 


1173 4 





1884 


1385 





1885 


995 


6 


1886 


1186 18 





1887 


1511 


5 


1888 


1417 


11 


1889 


789 16 


8 


1890 



I Including Ladies. 



J Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1890-91. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR FREDERICK AUGUSTUS ABEL, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Ditke op DEVONSHmE, E.G., M.A., 

LL.D., P.R.S., F.a.S., F.B.G.S. 
The Most Hpn. the Marquis of Ripon, K.G., 

G.C.S.I., C.I.E., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. the Eakl Fitzwilliam, K.G., 

F.R.G.S. 
The Right Rev. the Lord BisHor of Ripon, D.D. 



The Right Hon. Sir Lyon PLATFAiR,K.C.B.,Ph.D., 

LL.D., M.P., F.R.S., F.C.S. 
The )Ught Hon. W. L. Jacksox,M.P.,F.R.S.,F.S.S. 
The Riglit Worshipful the Mayor op Leeds. 
Sir Ja.mf.s Kitson, Bart., M.Iiist.C.E., F.R.G.S. 
Sir Andrew Fairbairn, M.A. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
WILLIAM HUGGINS, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. Lord Windsor, Lord-Lieutenant 

of Glamorgansliire. 
The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bun;, K.T. 
The Right Hon. Lord Raylhioh, M.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Tredkuar. 



The Right Hon. Lord Arerdare, G.O.B., F.R.S,, 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. T. D. Llf.wklyn. Bart., F.Z.S. 

ARCHIBALD Gkikk, Esq., LL.D., For. Sec. R.S., 
F.R.S.E., Pres. G.S., Director-General of the 
Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT CARDIFF. 
R. W. Atkin-son, Esq., F.C.S., B.Sc. | Professor H. W. Lloyd Tanner, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT CARDIFF. 
T. FORSTER Bro\yn, Esq., M.Iust.C.E. | Hicnry Heywood, Esq., P.C.S. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF 
Atrton, Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Bl.\nford, W. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Professor G. H., F.R.S. 
Douglass, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
Evans, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Professor G. F., F.R.S. 
Geikie, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, R. T., Esq.. F.R.S. 
Judd, Professor J. W., F.R.S. 
LIVEING, Professor G. D., F.R.S. 
Martin, J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 



THE COUNCIL. 
Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Rkinold, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 
RoBERTS-AusTEN, Professor W. C, C.B., F.R.S. 
Ri;cKER, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 
SCHAPER, Professor E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Sidgwick, Professor H., M.A. 
Thorpe, Professor T. E., F.R.S. 
Ward, Professor H. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Wharton, Captain W. J. L., R.N., F.R.S. 
Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Sir Douglas Galtox, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. Vernon Harcouut, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, Cxford. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., MjI., F.C.S., Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Willi.wison, Pli.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., 17 Buckingham Street, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, tlie President and President Elect, tlie PresMents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Llect. the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years , 
the deneral Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for 
the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., P.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord R.<vyleigh, M.A., D.C.L.. LL.D., Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Lyon Pl.vyfair, K.C.B., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



The Duke of Devonshire, E.G. 
Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, E.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, B.irt., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, Pres.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 
Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 



Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Sec. R.S. 
Sir Lyon Playfair, K.O.B. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr.T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 
Dr. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 

GeorgeGrifflth,Esq.,M.A., F.C.S. [ Prof. Bounev, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
P. L. Sclator, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. I A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A. 



AUDITORS. 
I W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., F.R.S. 



Prof. H. M'Leod, F.R.S. 



Ixxi 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the year 1889-90, presented to the General 
Committee at Leeds, on Wednesday, September 3, 1890. 

The Council liave received reports during the past year from the 
General Treasurer, and his account for the year will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

Since the Meeting at Newcastle-upon-Tyne the Council have elected 
the following Foreign Men of Science Corresponding Members of the 
Association : — 

Gobert, M. A., Brussels. I Nansen, Dr. F., Christiania. 

Gilson, Prof. G., Louvain. I Packard, Prof. A. S., Providence, K.I. 

The Council have nominated the Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, 
the Right Hon. Sir Ijyon Playfair, the Right Hon. W. L. Jackson, 
Vice-Presidents for the Meeting at Leeds. 

The Council had also resolved to nominate the late Sir Edward Baines 
to the same oflBce, and heard with regret of his death in the early part of 
the present year. 

An invitation for the year 1892 has been received from the city of 
Edinburgh. 

The Council much regret that the state of Mr. Atchison's health has 
made it necessary for him to reside abroad since November. He has, 
however, been able to correct the proofs and to edit the Report. The 
General Officers have received assistance in carrying on the business of 
the Association during the past year from Professor Bonney and Mr. 
Griffith. 

The Council appointed a Committee, consisting of the President and 
General Officers, the President Elect, and the past Presidents and Gene- 
ral Officers, to consider the steps to 'be taken in connection with the 
appointment of Assistant General Secretary. Mr. Griffith having at the 
request of this Committee expressed his willingness to resume the office, 
it was proposed by the Committee that he should be iuvited to do so ; 
the Council concur in the proposal of the Committee, and recommend 
accordingly that Mr. Griffith be appointed Assistant General Secretary.^ 

Resolution refen-ed to the Council for consideration and action if 

desirable : — 

(A) ' That the two following papers be printed in e.vfenso in the Eeport of the 
Association:— (1) Professor C.F. Bastable : "The Incidence and Effects of Import 
and Export Duties." (2) Rev. Dr. Cunningham : " The Comtist Criticism of Econo- 
mic Science." ' 

The Council resolved that these papers should be printed in extenso. 



Ixxii REPORT — 1890. 

(B) ' That the Council be recommended to urge upon the Government of India — 

' (a) The desirability of procuring anthropometric measurements of a repre- 
sentative series of tribes and castes in the Punjab, Bombay, Madras, the 
Central Provinces, and Assam, it being understood that trained observers 
are already available. 

'(&) Also that in the Enumerators' Schedule of the Census of 1891 provision 
should be made for recording not only the caste to which a man belongs, 
but also the endogamous and exogamous groups within the caste of which 
he is a member, it being believed that this was actually done in the last 
Census of the Punjab, that it will not add to the cost of the census, and 
that it will materially enhance its accuracy and scientific value.' 

The Council having considered this question resolved to send the 
following letter to the Secretary of State for India in Council : — 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 
February 1890. 
To the Secretary of State for India wj Council. 

My Lord, — The Council of the British Association beg leave to state for your 
Lordship's information that, at the recent Meeting of the Association at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, attention was drawn to the ethnographic and anthropometric researches 
undertaken in Northern India during the last five years, under the orders of the 
Government of Bengal. It is understood that an ethnographic survey, based upon 
the statistics collected in the census of 1881, of the traditions, customs, religion, and 
social relations of the various castes and tribes inhabiting the territories administered 
by the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, has been conducted on the lines laid down in 
1874 by a committee of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
At the same time anthropometric inquiries, on the system of measurement prescribed 
by Dr. Paul Topinard, of the School of Anthropology at Paris, have been made into 
the physical characteristics of nearly 6,000 persons, representing eighty-nine of the 
chief castes and tribes of Bengal, the North- West Provinces, Oudh, and the Punjab. 
The data collected in the course of these researches seem to the Council to possess 
considerable scientific interest, and they venture to submit for your Lordship's con- 
sideration their views as to tlie advantage of further inquiry of the same kind in 
other parts of India, and on the question in what manner and to what extent the 
Government of India can properly be asked to assist in furthering such researches. 

2. Without some help from the Government it is clear that no private agency can 
hope to attain any considerable measure of success. The field is too large, and the 
variety of custom and language too great, for isolated unofficial workers to produce 
much impression. Such inquiries, moreover, in order to yield really valuable results, 
iQust apply to a series of castes and tribes numerous enough to allow of the compara- 
tive and statistical methods of investigation being applied on a tolerably large scale. 
It is_ only by following a peculiar custom through the various forms which it assumes 
in different social aggregates that a trustworthy conclusion can be arrived at con- 
cerning its probable origin. The complete executive organisation which the Govern- 
ment of India has at its disposal is admirably adapted, in respect of knowledge of 
the people, their languages, and their modes of thought, to observe and record facts 
which may prove to be of the highest scientific value, while the experience gained in 
Bengal seems to show that this can be done at comparatively trifling expense. 

3. Among the various kinds of information collected in the course of the inquiries 
set on foot by the Bengal Government, special interest attaches to two classes of 
data : first, the physical measurements already referred to, and secondly, the lists of 
the exogamous and endogamous subdivisions ' which are met with within the 
different tribes and castes. Physical characters are held by the highest anthropo- 
logical authorities to be the best, if not the only true, tests of race affinity ; while 
the character of the internal structure of tribes and castes has an important bearing 



' By the term ' exogamous subdivision ' is meant a group from within which its 
male members cannot take their wives ; by that of ' endogamous subdivision,' a 
group from outside of which its male members cannot take th'eir wives. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxiii 

on those studies in the early history of the family and the growth of society which 
are associated with the names of McLennan, Morgan, Maine, and Lubbock. Owing 
to the influence of the caste system, which by restricting intermarriage tends to 
preserve distinctions of type, India offers a peculiarlj' favourable field for anthropo- 
metric research. The division of the people into a large number of separate social 
aggi-egates, each maintaining its own peculiar customs, seems to lead to the trans- 
mission of early usage in a comparatively unaltered form. 

4. While fully recognising the value of the anthropometric inquiries already 
undertaken, the Council observe that they cover only a portion of Northern India, 
while provinces which promise to yield results of special interest remain at present 
wholly untouched. In order to obtain data upon which final conclusions might be 
based, it would be desirable to collect similar measurements for selected castes and 
tribes in Madras, Bombay, the Central Provinces, and Assam, and at the same time 
to undertake in the Punjab a larger series of observations than have hitherto been 
made. The Council understand that the services of the trained measurers who took 
the Bengal observations might, under similar conditions, be again available ; and 
they are advised that the cost of employing them for the period necessary to com- 
plete the work would not exceed 10,000 rupees. Mr. Risley, who conducted the 
Bengal inquiries, is willing to direct and supervise the operations in India, and to 
prepare the results for publication in any form that maj' be thought suitable. The 
Council accordingly express a hope that your Lordship may be moved to commend 
this proposal to the favourable consideration of the Government of India. 

5. As regards the exogamous and endogamous subdivisions of tribes and castes, 
the Council venture to suggest that the approaching census of India offers an admi- 
rable opportunity for collecting lists of these without incurring unreasonable expen- 
diture. It is understood that the enumerator's schedule will in any case contain a 
column in which the caste of every individual is entered, and it would appear that 
the addition of columns showing the exogamous and endogamous groups would not 
add materially to the cost of the operations. The information thus obtained would 
have great scientific value, while it would further tend to enhance the accuracy of 
the census itself. The Council are informed that in the last census of Bengal a 
large number of persons when asked for their caste-name gave instead the name of 
the exogamous or endogamous group to which they belonged, and that in most cases 
it was found impossible to assign these persons to any particular caste. By extend- 
ing the range of inquiry in the manner suggested, this source of error would be 
eliminated. 

6. In conclusion, if it should not be considered advisable to make a complete 
religious census, the Council would suggest that in the course of the house-census 
which precedes the actual enumeration it should be ascertained by what sect each of 
the existing temples is used. Statistics illustrating this point would throw much 
light on the development of the various forms of Brahminism, and would be a valu- 
able contribution to the history of religion in the East. 

We have the honour to be, 

Your Lordship's most obedient Servants, 
W. H. Flower, President. 



Douglas Galton, 1 „ , „ ^ . 
A. Vernon Harcoukt, } ^''"''"'^ Secretarxez. 



To tliis letter the following reply has been received : — 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W, 
March 31, 1890. 

Sir, — I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the 26th ultimo, in which, with reference to the valuable 
ethnographical researches of Mr. H. H. Eisley in Bengal, it is suggested that similar 
anthropometric data should be collected in other parts of India, and that advantage 
should also be taken of the approaching census to ascertain the exogamous and 
endogamous groups to which the members of the different tribes and castes of the 
people of India belong. 

In reply, I am to inform you that his Lordship in Council has been much inter- 
ested in the proposals made by you on behalf of the British Association, which are 
of great value as indicating the course ethnographical investigations should take in 
India, and a copy of your letter has been forwarded to the Government of India. 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1890. 

I am to add that Viscount Cross has read with satisfaction the testimony your 
letter bears to the scientific character and importance of Mr. Kisley's work in 

Northern India. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

A. GODLEY. 

Professor W. H. Floweh, C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c., &c., 

President, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, W. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
August 15, 1890. 

Sir, — In continuation of my letter of March 31 last (R. & S. 264/90) I am directed 
by the Secretary of State for India in Council to forward herewith a copy of a letter, 
with its inclosure, from the Government of India on tlie subject of the proposals 
made by you on behalf of the British Association, that the ethnographic and anthro- 
pometric researches recently undertaken in Northern India should be extended to 
other parts of India, and that advantage should be taken of the approaching census 
of India for recording the exogamous and endogamous groups into which the 
diiferent castes and tribes are divided. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

A. GODLET. 

Professor W. H. Flowee, C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., 

President, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, W. 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA— HOME DEPARTMENT. 

To the Right Honourable Viscount Cross, G.C.B., 
Her Majesty's tiecrclary of State for India. 

Simla, July 15, 1890. 

My Lord, — AVe have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship's 
Despatch No. 31 (Statistics), dated April 3, 1890, forwarding a copy of a letter from 
the President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in which, 
with reference to the ethnographic researches undertaken by Mr. H. H. Risley in 
Bengal, it is suggested that similar anthropometric data should be collected in other 
parts of India, and that advantage should be taken of the approaching census to- 
ascertain the exogamous and endogamous groups to which the members of the 
different tribes and castes of the population belong. 

2. We need not assure your Lordship that any proposals upon these subjects to 
which the British Association has lent the weight of its authority will receive our 
very careful consideration. We observe that the Council considers that the data 
collected by Mr. Risley possess considerable .scientitic interest, but we have our- 
selves not yet been able to form an opinion as to the merits of his work, as we have 
not yet received from him the volumes recording the results of his researches. 
These we do not expect to receive till after Mr. Risley's return from furlough in 
England at the end of November next. We shall then consider the question whether 
his investigations can usefully be supplemented in other parts of India. 

3. We are of opinion that it would be quite impracticable for the enumerators 
who will be employed in filling in the census returns to undertake the task of 
collecting data as to endogamy and exogamy. The work involved in the prepara- 
tion of the schedule which we have sanctioned will sufficiently tax the energy and 
intelligence of the enumerators, who, it must be remembered, will for the most part 
be men of little education, and any addition to it would greatly increase the risk of 
inaccuracy in the statistics generally. We think, however, that it will be possible, 
after the different castes and subdivisions of castes have been fully enumerated, to- 
ascertain by local inquiry their relations as regards endogamy and exogamy. Such 
an inquiry can be undertaken at leisure, either when the census results are being 
compiled for each Province, or later, when the Local Govermnent or Administration 
is able to provide some specially qualified agency for the purpose. 

Your Lordship will observe from the form of "schedule prescribed for the enume- 
rators at the census that we have already determined to make a complete religious 
census as far as possible, but we do not think that the results of ascertaining, as pro- 



I 



EEPOET OF THK COUNCIL. IxxV 

posed by the British Association, what sect uses each of the existing temples would 
be of much scientific value, as vast numbers of Hindoos are eclectic and worship in 
numerous temples of difiFerent gods indifiEerently. 
We have the honour to be, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's most obedient, humble Servants, 

Lansdowne. a. R. Scoble. 

F. S. Roberts. C. A. Elliott. 

G. Chesxey. p. p. Hutchins. 
D. Barbour. 

The Schedule Contains Appendix A. 

A. Standard Schedule. B. Standard Enumerator's Abstract. 

C. Standard Block List. D. Instructions to Enumerators. 

(C) ' That the Council of the Association be requested to consider the foUowing- 
' Resolutions of the Committee of Section H, and, if approved, to bring them under 
the notice of H.M. Civil Service Commissioners and of the chief authorities of the 
Army, Navy, and Indian Civil Service Department : — 

« (a) That the Committee concur in the opinion of H.M. Civil Service Com- 
missioners (Report xxxiii. p. 15) that there is no especial difficulty in 
assigning marks for physical qualifications with adequate precision. 

' (b) They urge that it is reasonable to include marks for physical qualifica- 
tions among those by which the-place of a candidate is determined in 
competitive examinations for posts where high physical efiBciency is 
advantageous.' 

The Council considered this question and resolved to address the 
following letter to the Civil Service Commissioners, the Secretaries of 
State for India and for War, and the Lords of the Admiralty : — 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 
March 1890. 

The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science desire to 
submit the opinion expressed by the Anthropological Section of the Association last 
year, and subsequently confirmed by a Committee appointed by the Council, of the 
feasibility of assigning trustworthy marks for physical qualifications, and briefly to- 
state some of the reasons foi' that opinion. 

They feel it to be unnecessary to dwell on the desirability of including such 
marks in the examinations for entrance into services where high physical powers- 
are important, but would merely allude to the fact that it was fully recognised by 
the War Office in 1878, at which, time a Joint Committee of the War Office and of 
the Civil Service Commissioners was appointed to inquire into the question ' whether 
the present literary- examinations for the army should be supplemented by physical 
competition.' Also that it was agreed to almost unanimously bj- the various 
speakers in the House of Lords in connection with that report, on May 31 and June 
7, 1878, and on February 28, 1879. (See ' Hansard ' for those dates, pp. 352, 1328, 
1941.) The report was presented June 28, 1878. 

The recommendations of the Joint Committee referred almost wholly to marks 
to be assigned fur athletic performance. Objections to this method of examination 
were, however, pointed out by some of the witnesses ; they were appreciated by the 
responsible authorities, and were strongly insisted upon by them in the concluding 
debate. These objections applied principally to the costliness of the necessary pre- 
paration, to the difficulty of conducting the tests, to the additional strain they would 
impose on the already severely taxed energies of the candidates, and to the inter- 
ference of physical training with due preparation for the literary examinations. 
The consequence was that the recommendations of the Committee were not adopted 
bj- the responsible authorities, and the subject was laid aside. 

The Council of the British Association now desire to point out that, in the opinion 
of anthropologists, athletic performance is b)' no means the only basis upon which 
trustworthy marks for physical qualifications may be assigned. 

This opinion is confirmed by some experiments made at Eton College, of which 



IxXVi REPORT 1890. 

an account was submitted to the British Association. Thirty-two youths, most of 
whom were candidates for the army, were inspected and marked by two medical 
men, sitting in separate rooms. The medical men had previously received the same 
general instructions, but otherwise acted independently. The marks they severally 
assigned to the youths were afterwards found to agree with considerable precision. 
Then, nineteen of these youths were set to write an English essay, and their per- 
formances in that respect were submitted to two examiners in turn, to be marked 
independently by them. The marks given by these examiners agreed together only 
one-half as closely as those given by the medical men. No one disputes the sub- 
stantial trustworthiness of such literary examinations as these, however much they 
may be thought capable of improvement. But this experiment (so far as it goes) 
proves that the trustworthiness of physical examinations would be still greater. 

The difficulty of formulating a system for the use of inspectors, according to 
which marks should be assigned on a common and easily understood principle, is 
greatly lessened by the use of anthropometric tests. Much experience testifies to 
the quickness and adequate precision with which the chief elements of physical 
efficiency admit of being measured. These are the breathing capacity and the 
strength, both of them to be regarded with reference to the stature and to the 
weight ; the rapidity of muscular action ; the quickness of response to a signal made 
either to the eye or to the ear ; the keenness of eyesight, and that of hearing, and 
whether the colour-sense is normal or not. 

An experiment made at Marlborough College, which has just been published, 
shows how small may be the differences between the class-places determined by 
these measures and those determined partly, in some cases, by the phj-sical aspect, 
but principally by proficiency in the various school games, or, in other words, by 
athletic competition. Seventeen youths were measured by such apparatus as was 
then available at the College, and copies of their measures were distributed among 
the masters, to be marked by them on whatever principle they severally thought 
best. The individual results proved to be very discordant, but their averages, which 
express the result of the aggregate common sense of all the masters, ranked the boys 
in closely the same order as that independently assigned to them according to their 
proficiency in the various school games and to their apparent phj^sique. It will be 
observed that if the masters had previously conferred and come to a mutual under- 
standing on the principle according to which the marks should be assigned, they 
must necessarily have arrived at identical results, as they had definite and identical 
data to work upon. There happened to be one case of failure, which was instructive. 
This was due to the absence of any test at the College for rapidity of muscular 
action, or of promptness of response to a signal. The consequence was that an agile 
youth was rated too low. 

The Council would point out that the experience gained by the measurement of 
about 2,000 students at Cambridge conclusively proves that success in literary 
examinations is in no manner connected with stature, weight, strength, or breathing 
capacity, and but slightly with keenness of eyesight. Such differences as there 
appear to be in these respects between the men who obtain high honours and those 
who take an ordinary degree are small, and can be accounted for. Successful 
literary men have probably great nervous energy, perseverance, and great power of 
concentrating their efforts, which would cause them to utilise such physical powers 
iis they possessed with much effect, but they are shown to be neither superior nor 
inferior in the above-mentioned particulars to those who fail. 

The Council of the British Association have noted with pleasure the opinion 
expressed by the Civil Service Commissioners in their Eeport of 1889 (xxxiii. p. 15), 
to the effect that they anticipate no greater difficulty in ranking candidates accord- 
ing to their physical than according to their literary qualifications. The Council there- 
upon beg to express the views at which they themselves have arrived as follow : — 

It seems to them that the paucity of available data makes it scarcely possible at ' 
the present moment to elaborate as complete a system of assigning marks for physi- 
cal qualifications as is desirable, and as, in their opinion, would be otherwise feasible. 
They therefore think it very important that suitable steps should be taken to obtain 
these data. For instance, if a temporary system of marks were tried, with the 
avowed determination of reconsidering the subject after some experience had been 
gained, the desired information would rapidly accumulate in the hands of the 
inspectors; the attention of schoolmasters would be strongly aroused, and it is 
probable that they would attempt a variety of experiments analogous to those 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxvii 

alliuled to at Eton and Marlborough, but on a much larger scale. In a very few 
years it might then become feasible to arrange a system that should be generally 
acceptable. 

In furtherance of these views the Council of the British Association beg to submit 
the following recommendations : — 

(1) That an inquiry should be held as to the best system of assigning marks for 
physical qualifications, on the double basis of inspection and anthropometry, with a 
view to its early establishment as a temporary and tentative system. 

(2) That the marks to be given under this temporary system should be small, so 
as to affect the success of those candidates only who would be ranked by the present 
examinations very near to the dividing line between success and failure, and whose 
intellectual performances would consequently be nearly on a par, though they would 
differ widely in their physical qualifications. 

(3) That determination should be expressed to reconsider the entire question 
after the experience of a few years. 

The following replies have been received : — 

^ Civil Service Commission, Westminster. 

March 28, 1890. 
Sir, — I am directed by the Civil Service Commissioners to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 25th instant transmitting a statement in regard to the feasi- 
bility of assigning marks for physical qualifications in the examinations for entrance 
into service where physical powers are important ; and, in reply, I am to request that 
you will be good enough to convey to the Council of the British Association the 
thanks of the Commissioners for the communication, and to state that the Commis- 
sioners have the matter under consideration. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, your obedient Servant, 
The Pbesident, E. Humphreys. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
April 19, 1890. 
Sir, — I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of the letter signed by you and by the General Secretaries of the 
British Assoc ation for the Advancement of Science, dated the 25th ultimo, enclosing 
a statement in regard to the feasibility of assigning marks for physical qualifica- 
tions in the examinations for entrance into services where physical powers are 
important. 

In reply I am desired to state that Viscount Cross is already in communication 
with the Civil Service Commissioners with reference to the question of making 
physical qualifications an element in the competitions for the Civil Service of India. 

I am. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

John E. Goest. 
Professor W. H. Flower, C.B., 

President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, W. 

War Office, April 24. 1890. 

Sir,— I am directed by the Secretary of State for War to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 25th ultimo enclosing a statement in regard to the feasibility 
of assigning marks for physical qualifications in the examinations for entrance into 
services where physical powers are important. 

The subject has received the consideration of His Royal Highness the Commander- 
in-Chief, and of the Secretary of State for War, who concur in the opinion that, with 
regard to the army, it is not desirable to depart from the existing system, which 
exacts from all candidates a certain standard of general health and physical fitness, 
leaving the competitive result to be determined by educational tests. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, your obedient Servant, 
The President, Ralph Thompson. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The Council have been informed that a proposal to reappoint the 
Committee on a Uniform Nomenclature for the Fundamental Units of 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1890. 

Mechanics -was intended to have been brouglit before the General Com- 
mittee at Newcastle, and have resolved to recommend tbat the Report 
-which has been drawn np by the members of the proposed Committee be 
received and published among the Reports.' 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee has been re- 
ceived, and is now presented to the General Committee. 

The Cori'esponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Oalton, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Professor A. W. William- 
son, Sir Douglas Gallon, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson 
Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, and 
Professor T. G. Bonney, is hereby nominated for reappointment by the 
■General Committee. 

The Council nominate Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Chairman, Professor 
T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., Vice- Chairman, and Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., 
Secretai'y to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to 
be held during the meeting at Leeds. 

At the request of the Council of the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science papers relating to the meeting of this Associa- 
tion, which is appointed to take place at Christchnrch, New Zealand, 
commencing on January 15, 1891, have been placed in the Reception 
Room. Members of the British Association are invited to attend the 
meeting at Christchnrch, and the facilities offered by Shi])ping Com- 
panies and by the Railway Commissioners in New Zealand are described 
in detail in the papers. 

The lease of the office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
London, W., will expire next year, and the Council, havinsr ascertained 
that certain rooms in Burlington House were unoccupied, made an 
application to the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury for 
the use of these rooms. The Council are glad to report tlni t ( lie request 
has been granted under favourable conditions. The Council luHeve that 
a sum not exceeding 150Z. will suffice for fitting and furnishing i he rooms. 

In accordance with the regulations the five retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

Prof. H. M'Leod. 

Admiral Sir E. Onii'iinney. 



Sir K. S. Ball. 
Dr. A. Gamgee. 
Prof. Kay Lankester. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Ayrtou, Prof. W. E., F.E.S. 
Baker, Sir B.,K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Blanford, W. T., Esq., F.E.S. 



Crookes, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Prof. G. H., F.R.S. 
Douglass, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
Evans, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Prof. G. F., F.R.S. 
Geikie, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
»Glazebrook, R. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Judd, Prof. J. W., F.R.S. 
Liveing, Prof. G.D., F.R.S. 
Martin'^ J. B., Esq., F.S.S. 



Preece, W. H., Esq.. F.R.S. 

*Reinold, Prof. A. W., F.li.S. 

Roberts- Austen, Prof. W. C, C.B., F.R.S. 

Riicker, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 

Schiifer, Prof. E. A., F.K.8. 

Schuster, Prof. A., F.R.S. 

Sidgwick, Prof. H., M.A. 

Thorpe, Prof. T. E., F.R.S. 

*Ward, Prof. Marshall, F.R.S. 

♦Wharton, Gapt. W. J. L., R.X., F.R.S. 

♦Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



The Committee was finally unable to agree to a Repori. 



Ixxix 



I 



Committees appointed by the Geneeal Committee at the 
Leeds Meeting. in September 1890. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Yolcaxiic and Seismological 
Phenomena of Japan. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Cooperating with the Scottish Me- 
teorological Society in making 
Meteorological Observations on 
Ben Nevis. 



Considering the subject of Elec- 
trolysis in its Physical and 
Chemical Bearings. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir W. Thomson. 
Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 
Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. 

Bottomley, and Professor A. H. 

Green. 

Chairman. — Professor Carey Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir William Thomson, Professors 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Lord Eayleigh, Drs. O. J. 
Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. 
Muii-head, Messrs. W. H. Preece 
and Herbert Taylor, Professors 
Everett and Schuster, Dr. J. A. 
Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
gerald and Chrystal, Mr. H. Tom- 
linson. Professors W. Garnett and 
J. J. Thomson, Messrs. W. N. 
Shaw, J. T. Bottomley, and T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, and Professor J. 
Viriamu Jones. 

Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crnm Brown. 
Messrs. Milne-Home, John Murray, 

and Buchan, and Hon. K. Aber- 

cromby. 

CJiaimian. — Professor Fitzgerald . 

Secretaries. — Professors Armstrong 
and 0. J. Lodge. 

Professors Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Ra3'leigh, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum Brown, 
Eamsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hart- 
ley, S. P. Thompson, M'Leod, 
Koberts- Austen, Riicker, Reinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, 
Captain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, 
Hopkinson, and Fleming, and 
Messrs. Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, 
W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
Bottomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J, 
Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. 
Thomson. 




100 



50 



Ixxx 



KEPOET 1890. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for lnvestif,'ation or Purpose 



The Application of Photography 
to the Ehicidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



To investigate the Phenomena ac- 
companying the Discharge of 
Electricity from Points. 

To cooperate with Dr.Piazzi Smyth 
in his Researches on the Ultra 
Violet Rays of the Solar Spec- 
trum. 

Seasonal Yariations in the Tempe- 
ratures of Lakes, Rivers, and 
Estuaries in various parts of the 
United Kingdom in cooperation 
with the Local Societies repre- 
sented on the Association. 



To consider the best Method of 
establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of 
Iron and Steel. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 



The Investigation of the direct 
Formation of Haloid Salts from 
pure Materials. 



The Action of Light upon dyed 
Colours. 



Recording the Position, Height 
above the Sea, Lithological Cha- 
racters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and tak- 
ing measures for their preserva- 
tion. 



Members of the Committee 



Clmirnian. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
liecreiary. — Mr. Clayden. 
Professor Meldola and Mr. John Hop- 
kinson. 

Chairman. — Professor O. J. Lodge. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. P. Chattock. 
Professor Carey Foster. 

Chaivman. — Professor Liveing. 
Secretary. — Dr. Piazzi Smyth. 
Professors Dewar and Schuster. 



Chairman.— Mr. John Murray. 

Secretary. —Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Professor Chrystal, Dr. A. Buchan, 
the Rev. C. J. Steward, the Hon. 
R. Abercromby, Mr. J. Y. Bu- 
chanan, Mr. David Cunningham, 
Mr. Isaac Roberts, Professor Fitz- 
gerald, Dr. Sorby, and Mr. Willis 
Bund. 

Chairman. — Professor Roberts-Aus- 
ten. 

Secretary. — Mr. Thomas Turner. 

Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and 
J. Spiller, Professor Langley, Mr. 
G. J. Snelus, and Professor Tilden. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretarij. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 

Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. 
C. H. Bothamley. 

Chairman. — Professor Thorpe. 
Secretary.— Vroiessor J. J. Hummel. 
Dr. Perkin, Professor Russell, Captain 
Abney, and Professor Stroud. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Prestwich. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. W. CrosskeJ^ 
Professors W.Boyd Dawkins,T. McK. 
Hughes, and T. G. Bonney and 
Messrs. C. E. De Ranee, W. Pen- 
gelly, J. Plant, and R. H. Tidde- 
man. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxxi 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Descrii)tion and Illustration 
of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 
Palaeozoic Rocks. 



Carrying on the 
Kecord.' 



' Geological 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological in- 
terest. 



To work the very fossiliferous 
Transition Bed between the 
Middle and UpperLias in North- 
amptonshire, in order to obtain 
a full series of Upper Liassic 
Gasteropods and fix the hori- 
zon of a tine collection of Liassic 
Fish. 

To consider the best Methods for 
the Registration of all Type 
Specimens of Fossils in the 
British Isles, and to report on 
the same. 

The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius and its neighbourhood. 



The Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable 
Formations of England, and 
the Qualit}' and Quantity of 
the Waters supplied to various 
Towns and Districts from these 
Formations. 



To complete the Investigation of 
the Cave at Elbolton, near Skip- 
ton, in order to ascertain whether 
the remains of Palaeolithic Man 
occur in the Lower Cave Earth. 
1890. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman. — Mr. R. Etheridge. 
Secretary, — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Cliairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretaries. — Messrs. W. Topley and 
C. Davies Sherborne. 

Dr. G. J. Hinde, Messrs. E. T. New- 
ton, R. B. Newton, F. W. Rudler, 
and J. J. H. Teall, and Professor 
Green. 

Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary.— '^iT. 0. W. Jeflfs. 

Professors Bonnej^, Boyd Dawkins, 
and V. Ball, Dr. T. Anderson, and 
Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. Gray, H. B. 
Woodward, J. E. Bedford, R. Kid- 
ston, VV. W. Watts, J. W. Davis, 
and R. H. Tiddeman. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Mr. Beeby Thompson. 

Messrs. W. D. Crick, T. G. George, 
W. Hull, E. A. Walford, E. Wil- 
son, and H. B. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Messrs. R. Etheridge, the Rev. G. F. 

Whidborne, R. Kidston, J. E. Marr, 

and C. Davies Sherborne. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. Bauerman. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. J. Johnston- Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. 
Teall. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir D. Galton, 
Professors G. A. Lebour and J. 
Prestwich, and Messrs. J. Glai- 
sher, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, 
J. Parker, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, 
I. Roberts, C. Fox - Strangways, 
T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, 
W. Topley, Tylden- Wright, E. 
Wethered, and W. Whitaker. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. W. Davis. 

Secretary. — Rev. E. Jones. 

Drs. J. Evans and J. G. Garson and 
Messrs. W. Pengelly, R. H, Tidde- 
man, and J. J. Wilkinson. 




100 



10 



25 



10 



10 



25 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 1890. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject of Investigation or Purpose 



To arrange for the Occupation of 
a Table at the Laboratory of the 
Marine Biological Association 
at Plymouth. 

For taking steps to establish a 
Botanical Station at Peradeniya, 
Ceylon. 



For improving and experimenting 
with a Deep-sea Tow-net for 
opening and closing under water. 

Disappearance of Native Plants 
from their Local Habitats. 



To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
of the Sandwich Islands, and to 
take steps to investigate ascer- 
tained deficiencies in the Fauna. 

To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and to take steps to in- 
vestigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Fauna and Flora. 



The Geography and the Habits, 
Customs, and Physical Charac- 
ters of the Nomad Tribes of Asia 
Minor and Northern Persia, and 
to excnvate on sites of Ancient 
Occupation. 

The Action of Waves and Currents 
on the Beds and Foreshores of 
Estuaries by means of Working 
Models. 



Editing a new Edition of ' Anthro- 
pological Notes and Queries.' 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor Flower. 
Secretary. — Mr. S. F. Harmer. 
Professors M. Foster, E. Ray Lan- 
kester, and S. H. Vines. 

Chairman. — Professor M. Foster. 

Sceretary. — Professor F. 0. Bower. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thisel- 
ton-Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor 
Marshall Ward, Mr. Carruthers, 
Professor Hartog, and jMr. W. 
Gardiner. 

Cliuirm/in. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 
Professor W. A. Herdman. 

CJuiirman. — Mr. A. W. Wills. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Hillhouse. 
Messrs. E. W. Badger and George 
Claridge Druce. 

Chairman. — Professor Flower. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. Blanford, Dr. Hickson, Pro- 
fessor Newton, Mr. Salvin, and 
Dr. Sclater. 

ChairmMi. — Professor Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. D. Morris. 

Mr. Carruthers, Drs. Giinther and 
Sclater, Mr. Thiselton- Dyer, Dr 
Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, 
Professor Newton, and Colonel 
Feilden. 

Chairman. — Dr. Garson. 

Secretary. — Mr. Bent. 

Messrs. H. W. Bates, Bloxam, and 
J. Stuart Glennie, Sir Frederic 
Goldsmid, and Messrs. Pengelly 
and Rudler. 

Chairman. — Sir J. N. Douglass. 

Secretary. — Professor Osborne Rey- 
nolds. 

Professor tinwin and Messrs. W. 
Topley, E. Leader Williams, 
W. Shelford, G F. D.-acon, A. E. 
Hunt, W. H. Wheeler, \\ . Ander- 
son, and H. Bamford. 

Chairman. — Professor Flower. 
Secretary. — Dr Garson. 
Dr. Bedcioe, General Pitt- Rivers, Mr. 
Francis Galton,and Dr. E. B. Tylor. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxiii 

1. Receiring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



For caxiying on the Work of the 
Anthropometric Laboratory. 



The Physical Characters, Lan- 
guages, and Industrial and So- 
cial Condition of the North- 
western Tribes of the Dominion 
of Canada. 



The Habits, Customs, Physical 
Characteristics, and Religions 
of the Natives of India. 



Con-esponding Societies Com- 
mittee. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor Flower. 
Secretary. — Dr. Garson. 
Mr. Bloxam and Dr. Wilberforce 
Smith. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Mr. Bloxam. 
Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Daw- 
son, and Mr. K. G. Haliburton. 



Chairman. — Sir William Turner. 

Secretary. — Mr. Bloxam. , 

Professor Flower, Drs. Garson and | 

E. B. Tylor, and Mr. H. H. Risley. I 



Chairman. — Mr. Francis Galton. 

Secretary. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas Galton, Profes.sor Boyd 
Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Dr. John Evans, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt- 
Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, and Pro- 
fessor Bonney. 



Grants 



£ 
10 



200 



10 



25 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



Members of the Committee 



CJuiirman. — Mr. John Murra}\ 

Secretary. — Mr. John Jlurray. 

Professor Schuster, Sir William Thom- 
•son, tlie Abbe Renard, Mr. A. Buchan, 
the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. M. 
Grabham. 

Chairiiitin . — Professor Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor Everett. 

Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. 
J. Symons, Sir A. C. Ramsay, Dr. A. 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Herschol, Professor G. A. 
Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. B. Wethered, Jlr. A. Stra- 
han, and Professor Michie Smith. 

e2 



Ixxxiv 



KEPOET 1890. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Comparing: and Keducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



Considering tlie best Methods of Ke- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Kadiation. 



To cooperate with Dr. Kerr in his 

researches on Electro-optics. 



For Calculating Tables of certain Ma- 
thematical Functions, and, if neces- 
sary, for taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to publish the re- 
sults in an accessible form. 



Carrying on the Tables connected with 
the Pellian Equation from the point 
where the work was left by Degen 
in 1817. 

The various Phenomena connected with 
the recalescent Points in Iron and 
other Metals. 



Reporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



To report on recent Inquiries into the 
History of Chemistry. 

The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairvian. — Professor TV. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Sir W. Thomson, Professors G. H. Dar- 
win and G. Chrystal, Mr. C. H. Car^D- 
mael. Professor Schuster, Mr. G. M. 
Whipple, Captain Creak, tlic Astro- 
nomer Koyal, Mr. William Ellis, Mr. 
W. Lant Carpenter, and Professor 
A. W. Rucker. 

Chairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Professor Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone 
Stonej', Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
Abney, Mr. Whipple, and Professor 
M'Leod. 

Chairman. — Dr. John Kerr. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir W. Thomson and Professor Riicker. 

Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 

Sir William Thomson, Professor Cayley, 

Professor B. Price, and Messrs. J. W. L. 

Glaisher, A. G. Greenhill, and AV. M. 

Hicks. 

Chairman. — Professor Cayley. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Professor Sylvester and Mr. A. R. Forsji;h. 



Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretary. — Professor Barrett. 

Dr. John Hopkinson, Mr. R. A. Hadfield, 

Mr. Trouton, Professor Roberts-Austen, 

and Mr. H. F. Newall. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Kicol. 
Professors M'Leod, Pickering, Ramsay, 
and Young and Dr. A. R. Leeds. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — I'rofessor John Ferguson. 

Chairman.— Troiessov H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts- Austen. 
Professor Reinold and Mr. H. G. Madan. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Jlarshall Watts. 

Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Liveing, 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott 

Gibbs, and Captain Abney. 



COMMITTEES aTpPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxxv 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Properties of Solutions 



The Influence of the Silent Discharge 
of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
Gases. 



The Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds. 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wales, and the Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action. 



To carry on Excavations at Oldburj' 
Hill, near Ightham, in order to ascer- 
tain the existence or otherwise of 
Rock Shelters at that spot. 

Considering the advisability and possi- 
bility of establishing in other parts 
of the country Observations upon the 
Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar 
to those now being made in Durham 
in connection with coal-mine explo- 
sions. 



To undertake the Investigation of the 
Sources of the River Aire, and also to 
test the value of Uranin and other 
Dyes in investigating the Courses of 
Underground Streams. 



The Invertebrate Fauna and Cryptoga- 
mic Flora of the Fresh Waters of the 
British Isles. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor Ramsay and Mr. J. T. Cundall. 

Chairman. — Dr. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney and Professors Noel 
Hartley and W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — General Festing. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 
Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Mr. R. B. Grantham. 
Secretaries. — Messrs. C. E. De Ranee and 

W. Topley. 
Messrs. J. B. Redman, W. Wliitaker, and 

J.W.Woodall, Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, Sir J.N. 

Douglass, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 

.T. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 

Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. E. 

Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. 

Vernon Harcourt. 

Chairmaii. — Dr. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professors Prestwich and H. G. Seeley. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. J. S3'mons. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Davison. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor 
Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, Dr. John Evans, Professors Prest- 
wich, Hull, Lebour, Meldola, and Judd, 
Mr. M. Walton Brown, and Mr. J. 
Glaisher. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Jleldola. 

Secretary. — Professor Silvanus P. Thomp- 
son. 

Mr. J. Birbeck, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
M.P., Rev. Dr. Styles, and Mr. Thomas 
Tate. 

Chairman. — Professor Bayley Balfour. 

Secretary. — Professor J. C. Ewart. 

Canon A. M. Norman, Professors J. 
Geikie, A. C. Haddon, T. Johnston, 
W. J. Sollas, and Lapwortb, Dr. H. 
Scott, and Mr. F. E. Beddard. 



Ixxxvi 



KEPOKT — 1 890. * 

2. Kot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for InTestigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels, which have been 
carried on by the Migration Commit- 
tee of the British Association. 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools. 

Ascertaining and recording the Localities 
in the British Islands in which evi- 
dences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. 


Cluiirman. — Professor Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Messrs. John A. Harvie-Brown, E. M. 

Barrington, and W. E. Clarke and the 

Kev. E. P. Knubley. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H, Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Dr. Crosskey, Mr. George 
Gladstone, Mr. J. Heywood, Sir J. 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Professor 
N. Story Maskelyne, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Sir R. Temple, and Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson. 

Chairman. — Sir John Lubbock. 

Sec7-etary.—MT. J. W. Davis. 

Dr. J. Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
Dr. R. Munro, Messrs. Pengelly and 
Hicks, Prof essor Meldola,and Dr. Muir- 
head. 



Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee. 

That Mr. W. N. Shaw be requested to continue his Report on the present state of 
our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

That in the event of the President of a Section being unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be authorised 
to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, some other member of the 
Committee, to attend in his place ; due notice of the appointment being sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

That Professor H. S. Hele Shaw, who has hitherto served as Secretary of the 
Committee appointed to report on the Development of Graphic Methods in Me- 
chanical Science, be appointed to complete the Report and present it at next year's 
meeting of the Association. 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Report 

of the Association. 

(1) Reports of the discussion on Electrolysis and of the discussion on Solution 
prepared by Dr. Thorpe. 

(2) The paper by Professor J. E. C. Munro, LL.D., entitled 'The probable* Effects 
on Wages of a general Reduction in the Hours of Labour.' 

(3) The paper by Professors Barr and Stroud on 'New Telemeters and Range 
Finders,' with the necessary drawings. 



Besolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council consider and report whether grants should be made from the 
funds of the Association for other than specilic researches by specified individuals. 



RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENEKAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxvii 

That the Council be requested to consider the question of watching the operation 
of Acts relating to Scientific and Technical Education, and to take such steps as 
may seem desirable for furthering the objects of those Acts. 

That the Council be requested to consider whether it is not desirable to make 
special provision for the comprehensive consideration by the Association of questions 
relating to Scientific and Technical Education. 

That the Council urge upon Government to take steps to hasten the completion 
of the Ordnance Survey and to afford the public greater facilities for the purchase of 
the Survey Maps. 

That it is desirable that the question of publishing the papers more fully and 
expeditiously and of adding reports of discussions be considered by the Council. 

That in the arrangement of the Journal it is desirable, in the interests of clearness 
and of ease of reference, to return to the old practice of printing first the papers to 
be read in the various sections, then the papers read on the previous day in those 
sections, and lastly, the list of sectional officers and of the committees. 

That the Council be requested, if possible, to fix the date of each Meeting two 
years before it is held, and to bear in mind that the middle or latter part of September 
is the time most convenient to many Members of the Association. 

That a General Index to the Reports of the Committees of the Association and of 
all papers ordered to be printed in extenso be published, and that the Council be 
authorised to expend such sums as may be necessary for the purpose. 

That the hours at which the Sections and Committees meet be again considered 
by the Council. 

That the paper by Mr. J. F, Green, on ' Steam Life Boats,' be printed in extenso 
with the necessary drawings. 



Ixxxviii REPOHT — 1890. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Leeds Meeting^ in 
September 1890. The Names of the Members entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ 

♦Thomson, Sir W. — Seismological Phenomena of Japan 10 

*Foster, Professor Carey. — Electrical Standards 100 

*McLaren, Lord. — Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 50 

*Fitzgerald, Professor. — Electrolysis 5 

Symons, Mr. G. J. — -Photographs of Meteorological Phenomena 5 
Lodge, Professor O. J. — Discharge of Electricity from Points 10 
Liveing, Professor. — Ultra Violet Rays of Solar Spectrum ... 50 
*Murray, Mr. John. — Seasonal Variations of Temperature ... 20 

Chemistry. 

*Roberts- Austen, Profes.sor. — Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 

*Tilden, Professor. — Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 25 

Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Formation of Haloid Salts 25 

Thorpe, Dr. — Action of Light upon Dyes 20 

Geology. 

*Prestwich, Professor. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Etheridge, Mr. R.— Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

*Whitaker, Mr. W.— Geological Record 100 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 10 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Lias Beds in Northamptonshire 25 

*Woodward, Dr. H.— Registration of Type Specimens of 

British Fossils 10 

*Bauerman, Mr. H. — Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 10 

*Hull, Professor E. — Underground Waters 5 

*Davis, Mr. J. W.— Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Biology. 

*Flower, Professor W. H.— Marine Biological Association at 

Plymouth 30 

*Foster, Professor Michael.— Botanical Station at Peradeniya 50 

Carried forward £615 

* Reappointed. 



s. 


d. 

































































































































SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixxxix 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 6] 5 

♦Haddon, Professor A. C— Improving Deep-sea Tow-net ... 40 

*Wills, Mr. A. W. — Disappearance of Native Plants 6 

Flower, Professor W. H. — Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 100 
•Flower, Professor W. H. — Zoology and Botany of the West 

Indialslands 100 

Geography. 

*Garson, Dr.— Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor and Northern 

Persia 30 

Mechanical Science. 

^Douglass, Sir J. — Action of Waves and Currents in 

Estuaries 150 

Anthropology. 

*Flower, Professor. — New Edition of ' Anthropological Notes 

and Queries' 50 

*Flower, Professor. — Anthropometric Laboratory 10 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North- Western Tribes of Canada 200 

*Turner, Sir W.— Habits of Natives of India 10 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,335 

* Keappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1891. 
The Meeting at Cardiff will commence on Wednesday, August 19, 

Place of Meeting in 1892. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Edinburgh. 



xc 



BEPOET — 1890. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



183i. 



Tide Discussious 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions fi- 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 10') 

i'167 U 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 1<>3 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 10.") 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-Gauges 13 

Kefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



±■435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 281 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol l.jO 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 03 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... l.")0 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



i'922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 

British Fossil Fishes 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 

Cast Iron ( Strength of) 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 

Eailway Constants 

Bristol Tides 

Growth of Plants 

Mud in Rivers 

Education Committee 

Heart Experiments 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam- vessels 

Meteorological Committee ... 



20 
100 



100 

CO 

19 1 10 

41 12 10 

50 

75 

3 6 6 

50 

5 3 

2C.7 8 7 

100 

31 9 5 



i'932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



Mechanism of Waves .144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 103 

Eailway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in E.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

FossirReptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



«. d. 

2 a 

18 6 

11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4r 



18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 

0' 




7 8 
2 9 




£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 0- 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 0- 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 0- 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs .. . 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 0' 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 
Observations on Waves ... 
Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperatm-e 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

JIud in Eivers 5 



30 



8 











7 
























GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCl 



£ 

Marine Zoologj' 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) -10 

Water onlron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Keptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Ked Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Eaces of Men 5 

Eadiate Animals .^ 2^ 

£1235 



s. 


a. 


12 


8 








18 


6 








5 





19 


6 



































6 


1 





12 











18 


8 














1 


10 


6 


3 















10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannife 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 1 00 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Eail-way Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Keptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

I Force of Wind 10 

{Light on Growth of Seeds ,., 8 

[Vital Statistics 50 

[Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 
iQuestions on Human Race ... 7 

£1449 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 
























8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 
\ Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 



2 



£ s. d. 
Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 

Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 66 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 & 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 6 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials ■■• 60 » 

£1565 10 2 



XCll 



EEPORT 1890. 



£ s. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Sleteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Kevision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Iniiuence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Kegistering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Kadiata and Mollusca of the 

Mge&n and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 o 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrmnent 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 il 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



6 
11 
8 
9 




£ 8. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anbplm-a 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1 843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 1 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1 843 15 

■"£831 9 9 



15 






































7 


























4 


8 



1846. 

British Association Cataloo-ue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1 8 44 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 



1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 .50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 
~£208~ 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XClll 



£ s. 
1848. 
Maintainiuc: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 

Atmosplieric Waves i5 10 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

^¥f5 1 



d. 



11 

9 







" 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining: the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations l.S 9 

£159 19^ 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 253 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 



£345 18 



1852. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 

for 1850) 233 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 
Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 
Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Boiler Plates.. ..j^. 10 

''£ioi' 



17 8 



2 


9 




















6 


2 








6 


7 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 i 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 ! 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



£ s. d. 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World 15 

Etlinological Queries 5 

Dredging, near Belfast 4 

£480T6 





5 
11 



4 



575 







1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



XCIV 



REPORT — 1890. 



£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Kesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations.... 

Life-boats 



5 7 


4 


... 5 





£.507 15 


4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Eeport on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£«18 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidfe 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

^684~lF 1 

1860. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 10 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 Q 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam -vessels ]24 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Eesearches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 

"J766" 



s. i, 









13 6 



19 6 



186L 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 

Patent Laws 

]\Iolluscaof N.-W. of America 

Natural History by Mercantile 
Marine 

Tidal Observations 

Photoheliometer at Kew 

Photographic Pictures of the 
Sun 

Rocks of Donegal 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 

Connection of Storms 

Dredging North-east Coast 
of Scotland 

Ravages of Teredo 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 

Railway Accidents 

Balloon Committee 

Dredging Dublin Bay 



500 
21 
10 



40 

1.50 
25 

25 

20 

6 
3 

50 

10 

200 

10 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 





6 

















9 « 

11 











GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCV 



£ s. d. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 




































































10 


















































































3 10 



1864. 
! Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatorj'.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

I Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland ... 25 

[Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

[Standards of Electric Ke- 

sistancc 100 

[Analysis of llocks 10 

JHydroida 10 

jAskham's Gift 50 

[Nitrite of Amyle 10 

I Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-Gauges ]0 ]5 8 

[Ca.st-Iron Investigation 20 



£ s. (I. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1 289 15 8 

1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Emvpterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analj'ssis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1 591 7T0 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observator}'. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee .50 

British Rainfall 50 O 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitu1i(in of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 O 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging .\ber(leenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 O 

Dredging the Mersej' 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Waler " 50 

Polycyauidesof Organic Radi- 
cals " 29 



XCVl 



REPORT 1890. 



£ 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascai-ene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fiind..._100_ 

£1760 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. GOO 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Kainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-Beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Eeports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture. . . 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739] 

18GS. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory.. GOO 

Lunar Committee ]20 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. .30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -Beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 
of Animal Substances 5 



s. 


d. 






































3 


4 






































































































































































































































4 






























4 







£ s. d. 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna -. 100 

£i!J40 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 

stoneRocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperatiu-e ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatorj' 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &:c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 
















































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCTll 



£ 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 
Heat 



t. 


d. 



























... 50 





n 






£1572 









1871, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progi'ess 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compoimds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment of Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 60 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 O" 

1890. 



£ «. d. 

1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Blountain Limestone-Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 6 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 

Measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. ' 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 3^ o 

Chemistry Record 100 

f 



XCVlll 



fefiPORT— 18^0. 



£ 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden E:cplorations... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration ■•• 100 

£960 



s. 


d. 





















































































1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Eainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Kecord 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Kocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Kocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpae, Keport on 20 



^ s. d. 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 
and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 
acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 
India 16 

Development of Light from 
Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 
Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 

Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 
















8 


















1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

of Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 
Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 
Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent cf 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 (I 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 3() 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacumn 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 
and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 



£ s. d. 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 6 

£731 7 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperati;re ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Blercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra- Violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 









1 


11 















































EEPORT — 1890. 



£ s. d. 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Kaygill Fis- 
sile 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... SO 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by- 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 60 

£1126 1 11 













































3 


3 



























1883. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland ,.. 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 
Bodily Exercise 38 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 
Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 8 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra- Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 



£ s. d. 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks o£ England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaso- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 4 






























































































1885. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 
Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palasozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Bioloe:ical Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



QENEBAL STATEMENT. 



01 



£ t. d. 

1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Jleteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds,.. 20 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea. . . 150 

Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Westem Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 

1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

SilentDischarge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

\'Qlcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Exploration of Cae Gwyn 

Cave, North Wales 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 



£ i. d. 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 
Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 

1888. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Palffiontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 



Cll 



EEPOET — 1890. 



£ i. d. 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Sta- 
tion 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 

Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circula- 
tion 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 

Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 6 

1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Observations on SurfaceWater 
Temperature 30 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paljeo- 

zoic Rocks 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25_ 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 

Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries by means of 
Working Models 100 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 150 

Characteristics of Nomad 
Tribes of Asia Minor 30 



£ 8. d. 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 
Bath ' Baths Committee ' for 

further Researches 100 

£1417 11 

1890. ~~~^~~ 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 6 

Electro- optics 50 

Calculating Mathematical 

Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and 

Steel 10 

Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 1 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Pa- 

Iffiozoic Rocks 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Blechani- 

cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 8 



cm 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 3, at 8 p.m., in the Coliseum, Professor 
W. H. Flower, O.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Pres. Z.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
resigned the office of President to Sir Frederick Abel, C.B., D.O.L., 
D.Sc, F.R.S., V.P.O.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, 
for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, September 4, at 8 P.M., a Soiree took place in the 
Municipal Buildings. 

On Friday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., in the Coliseum, E. B. Poulton, 
Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., delivered a discourse on 'Mimicry.' 

On Monday, September 8, at 8.30 p.m., in the Coliseum, Professor 
C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. , delivered a discourse on * Quartz Fibres and 
their Applications.' 

On Tuesday, September 9, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Municipal Buildings. 

On Wednesday, September 10, at 2.30 p.m., in the Philosophical 
Hall, the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings 
of the General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjouimed to Cardiff. [The Meeting is appointed 
to commence on Wednesday, August 19, 1891.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1890. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



SIR FEEDERICK AUGUSTUS ABEL, 

C.B., D.C.L. (Oxon.), DSc. (Cant.), F.R.S., P.P.C.S., Hou.M.Inst.C.E , 

PRESIDENT. 



Many wbo had the pleasure of listening last year, at Newcastle, to the 
interesting and instructive Address of the President to whom I am a most 
unworthy successor, could not fail, both by the chief subject of his dis- 
course and by the circumstance of the ofRcial position which he occupies 
with so much benefit to science and the public, to have their thoughts 
directed to the illustrious naturalist whose philosophical Address delighted 
the members of the Association and the people of Leeds thirty-two years 
ago. 

More than one-half the period of existence of this Association has 
passed since Richai'd Owen presided over its meeting in this town. Alas ! 
what gaps have been created in the ranks of those who at that time were 
prominent for activity in advancing its work: the then General Secretary, 
Sir Edward Sabine ; the all-popular Assistant-general Secretary, John 
Phillips; the Treasurer, John Taylor, now live with ns only through 
their works and the enduring esteem which they inspired. But very few 
of those Avho held other prominent positions at that meeting have survived 
to see the Association reassemble in this town. Whewell, Herschel, Hop- 
kins, the elder Brodie, Murchison, William Fairbairn, all Presidents of 
Sections in 1858, have long since been removed from among us ; and the 
then President of Section F, Edward Baines, a mnch-honoured and highly- 
talented son of the 'Franklin of Leeds,' whom we had hoped to count 
among those Vice-Presidents representing the city on this occasion, has 
recently passed away, in his ninetieth year, after a most honourable and 
useful career, during which he especially distinguished himself by his 
successful exertions in the advancement of the great educational move- 
ments of his time. 

B 2 



4 ' EEPOKT — 1890. 

The illustrions President of onr last meeting here, concerning whose 
health the gravest apprehensions were not long since entertained, is 
happily still preserved to us ; still intellectually bright at the ripe age 
of eighty-six, and still, with the keen pleasure of his early life, following 
the progress of those branches of scientific research which have coustitated 
the favourite occnpations and the arena of many intellectual triumphs 
of a long career of ardent and successful devotion to the advancement of 
science. 

To not a few of those who have flocked to Leeds to attend the annual 
gathering of this Association, our present meeting-place is doubtless 
known chiefly by its proud position as one of the most thriving manufac- 
turing towns of the United Kingdom; of ancient renown, especially in 
connection with one of the chief industries identified with Great Britain 
in years past. But this good town of Leeds, whose cloth market was 
described by Daniel Defoe, one hundred and sixty odd years ago, as 'a 
prodigy of its kind, and not to be equalled in the world,' and whose pre- 
sent position in connection with divers of our great industries would have 
equally excited the enthusiasm of that graphic writer, is famous for other 
things than its prominent association with manufactures and commerce. 

Not many of our great industrial centres can boast of so goodly au 
array, upon the scroll of their past history, of names of men eminent in 
the Sciences, the Arts and Manufactures, in Divinity and Letters, and in 
heroic achievements, such as are identified with Leeds and its immediate 
vicinity : Thomas, Lord Fairfax, one of the most prominent heroes of 
the Commonwealth ; Smeaton, an intellectual giant among engineers ; 
William Hirst and John Marshall, illustrious examples of the men who 
by their genius, energy, aud perseverance placed Great Britain upon the 
pinnacle of industrial and commercial greatness which she so long occu- 
pied unassailed ; Richard Bentley, the eminent classic and divine ; John 
Nicholson, the Airedale poet ; John Fowler and Peter Fairbairn, worthy 
followers in the footsteps of Smeaton ; Isaac Milner, weaver and mathe- 
matician, afterwards Senior Wrangler, Smith's prizeman, Jacksouian 
Professor, President of Queens' College, Vice- Chancellor of Cambridge 
University, Dean of Carlisle, and a most illustrious Fellow of the Royal 
Society ; Thoresby, antiquarian and topographer ; Benjamin Wilson, 
painter, and industrious contributor to the development of electrical 
science ; William Hey, the eminent surgeon, and friend and counsellor of 
Priestley ; Sadler, political economist and philanthropist ; the brothers 
Sheepshanks — Richard, the astronomer, and John, the accomplished patron 
of the arts, and munificent contributor to our national art treasures ; 
Edward Baines, whose conspicuous talents and energy developed a small 
provincial journal into one of the most powerful public organs of the 
country ; his talented sons, of whom not the least conspicuous and highly 
respected was the late Sir Edward Baines. I might swell this voluminous 
list by reference to illustrious members of such families as those of Denison, 



ADDRESS. 5 

of Beckett, of Lowtlicr, bat tlie men I have referred to fitly illustrate the 
remarkable array of wortliies whoso careers have shed lustre upon the 
town in or near which they were born. Yet that illustration would be 
altogether incomplete if I failed to speak of one whose career and works 
alone would suffice to place Leeds in the foremost rank of those English 
towns which can claim as their own men whose course of life and whose 
achievements have secured their pre-eminence among our illustrious 
countrymen. Needless to say that I refer to Joseph Priestley, born within 
six miles of Leeds, whose name holds rank among the foremost of success- 
ful workers in science ; who, by brilliant powers of experimental investi- 
gation, rapidly achieved a series of discoveries which helped largely to 
dispel the shroud of mystery surrounding the art of alchemy, and to lay 
the foundation of true chemical science. An ardent student of the classics, 
of Eastern languages, and of divinity, a zealous exponent of theological 
doctrines which marred his career as divine and instructor, he early 
displayed conspicuous talents for the cultivation of experimental science, 
which he pursued with ardour under formidable difficulties. His acquaint- 
ance with Franklin probably developed the taste for the study of electric 
science which led him to labour successfully iu this direction ; and the 
publication, in 1767, of his valuable work on 'The History and Present 
State of Electricity, with Original Experiments,' secured for him a pro- 
minent position among the working Fellows of the Royal Society. His 
connection with Mill Hill Chapel, in 1768, appears to have given rise 
accidentally to his first embracing the experimental pursuit of what 
formerly was termed pneumatic chemistry, the foundation of which had 
been laid by Cavendish's memorable contribution, in 1766, to the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' on carbonic acid and hydrogen. Priestley's first 
publication in pneumatic chemistry, on ' Lnpregnating Water with Fixed 
Air' (carbonic acid), attracted great attention ; it was at once translated 
into French, and the College of Physicians addressed the Lords of the 
Treasury thereon, pointing out the advantages which might result from 
the employment, by men at sea, of water impregnated with carbonic acid 
gas, as a protective against, or cure for, scurvy. 

Six years later Priestley investigated the chemical effects produced 
on the air by the burning of candles and the respiration of animals, 
and, having demonstrated that it was thereby diminished in volume and 
deteriorated, he showed that living plants possessed the power of 
rendering air, which had been thus deteriorated, once more capable 
of supporting the combustion of a candle. At about this time 
Priestley received very advantageous proposals to accompany Captain 
Cook upon his second expedition to the South Seas; but when 
about to prepare for his departure he learned from Sir Joseph Banks 
that objections against his appointment, on account of tho great latitude 
of his religious principles, had been successfully urged by some ecclesiastic 
member of the Board of Longitude. In 1773 the Royal Society awarded 



6 EEPORT 1890. 

Priestley the Copley Medal for a remarkable paper entitled ' Observations 
on Different Kinds of Air,' and in that year he became librarian and 
literary companion to the Earl of Shelbourne (afterwards Marquis of 
Lansdowne), and thereby secured special advantages in the pursuit of 
Lis scientific researches. 

With respect to his departure from Leeds, he expressed himself as 
having been very happy there ' with a liberal, friendly, and harmonious 
congregation, to whom my services (of which I was not sparing) were 
very acceptable. Here I had no unreasonable prejudices to contend with, 
60 that I had full scope for every kind of exertion ; and I can truly say 
that I always considered the office of a Christian minister as the most 
honourable of any upon earth, and in the studies proper to it I always 
took the greatest pleasure.' During the next five years he published as 
many volumes describing the results of important experiments on air. 
After investigating the properties of nitric oxide, and applying it to the 
analysis of air, Priestley, in 1774, discovered and carefully studied oxy- 
gen, -which he obtained by the action of heat upon the red oxide of mer- 
cury. He wns the first to prepare and study sulphurous acid, carbonic 
oxide, nitrous oxide, hydrochloric acid {marine acid air), and the fluoride 
of silicon, and carried out important researches on the properties of hydro- 
gen, and of other gases previously but little known. His great quickness 
of perception and power of experiment led him to the achievement of 
many novel and important results. But one cannot hel^s contrasting his 
somewhat random search after new discoveries with the close logical 
reasoning and philosophic spirit which guided and pervaded the remark- 
able researches of him whose departure from amongst us since the last 
gathering of this Association is so universally deplored — of the great dis- 
coverer of the universal law of the conservation of energy, James Prescott 
Joule. I could not add to the judicious and graceful reference to his work 
■which Sir Henry Roscoe was privileged to make, in the last year of that 
philosopher's valuable life, when presiding over the recent meeting of 
the Association in the town which gloried in numbering Joule among its 
citizens ; but I may, perhaps, be permitted to express the sanguine hope 
that the desire of the scientific world to secure the establishment of an 
international memorial fitly commemorative of his great life-work may be 
realised in the most ample manner. 

The wide scope of the admirable discourse delivered by Owen in this 
town thirty-two years ago affords an interesting illustration of the delight 
■which men whose best energies are devoted to the cultivation of one 
particular branch of science take in the results of the labours of their 
fellow-workers in other departments, and in their achievements in con- 
tributing to the general advancement of our knowledge of Nature's laws 
and of their operations. It is to this bond of intimate union between 
all workers in pui-e science that we owe the instructive reviews of the 



ADDRESS. . 7 

progress made in different departments of science, with whica we have 
often been presented at our annual gatherings. On the other hand, those 
men, from time to time selected to fill the distinguished office of President, 
whose lives have been mainly devoted to the practical utilisation of the 
results of scientific research, and to the extension in particular directions 
of the consequent resources of civilisation, seize with keen pleasure the 
opportunity aSbrded them of directing attention to the triumphs achieved 
in the application, to the purposes of daily life, of the great scientific 
truths established by such illustrious labourers in the fields of pure science 
as Newton, Dalton, Faraday, and Joule. The wide and constantly-ex- 
tending domain of applied science presents, even to the superficial observer, 
a continually varied scene ; not a year passes but some great prize falls 
to the lot of one or other of its explorers, and some apparently insignifi- 
cant vein of treasure, struck upon but a few years back, is rapidly opened 
out by cunning explorers, until it leads to a mine of vast wealth, from 
which branch out in many directions new sources of power and might. 

Among the branches of science in the practical applications of which 
the greatest strides have been made since the Association met at Leeds 
in 1858 is electricity. That year witnessed the accomplishment of the 
first great step towards the establishment of electrical communication 
between Europe and America, by the laying of a telegraph-cable con- 
necting Newfoundland with Valencia. Through this cable a message of 
thirty-one words was shortly afterwards transmitted in.thirty -fi ve minutes ; 
an achievement which, though exciting great enthusiasm at the time, 
scarcely afforded promise of the succession of triumphs in ocean tele- 
graphy which have since surpassed the wildest dreams of the pioneers in 
the realms of applied electricity. 

The development of the electric telegraph constitutes a never-failing 
subject of the liveliest interest. The experiments made by Stephen 
Gray, in 1727, of transmitting electrical impulses through a wire 700 
feet long; by Watson, twenty years afterwards, of transmitting frictional 
electricity through many thousand feet of wire, supported by a line of 
poles, on Shooter's Hill, in Kent ; and by Franklin, who carried out a 
similar experiment at Philadelphia, — although they were followed by many 
other interesting and philosophical applications of frictional electricity to 
the transmission of signals — were not productive of really practical results. 
The work of Galvani and of Volta was more fruitful of an approach to 
practical telegraphy in the hands of Sommering and of Coxe, while the 
researches of Oersted, of Ampere, of Sturgeon, and of Ohm, and espe- 
cially the discoveries of volta-electric induction and magneto-electricity 
by Faraday, paved the way for the development of the electric telegraph 
as a practical reality by Cooke and Wheatstone in 1837. How remarkable 
the strides have been in the resources and powers of the telegraphist since 
that time is demonstrated by a few such facts as these : the first needle- 
instrument of Cooke and Wheatstone transmitted messages at the rate of 



8 REPOLT— 1890. 

'foUf tvords per minute, requiring five wires for that purpose ; six messages 
•'ai'e how conveyed by one single wire, at Icn times that speed, and news 
is despatched at the rate of 600 words per minute. Duplex working, 
which more than doubled the transmitting power of a submarine cable, 
was soon eclipsed by the application of Edison's quadruplex working, 
"■"wtich has in its turn been surpassed by the multiplex system, whereby 
six messages may be sent independently, in either direction, on one wire. 
When last the British Association met in Leeds, submarine telegraphy 
Iiad but just started into existence; thirty years later, the accomplished 
President of the Mechanical Section informed us, at our meeting at Bath, 
■that 110,000 miles of cable had been laid by British ships, and that a 
fleet of nearly forty ships was occupied in various oceans in maintain- 
ing existing cables and laying new ones. 

The important practical achievements by which most formidable 
difficulties have been surmounted, step by step, in the successive attainment 
of the marvellous results of our day, have exerted an influence upon the 
advancement, not merely of electrical science, but also of science generally 
and of its applications, fully equal to thut which they have exercised upon 
the development of commerce and of the intercourse between the nations 
of the earth. 

Thus, the laying of the earliest submai-ine cables, between lSr>l and 
1855, led Sir W.Thomson, in conference with Sir George Stokes, to work 
out the theory of signalling in such cables, by utilising the mathematical 
results arrived at by Fourier in his investigation of the propagation of 
heat-waves. The failure of the first Atlantic cable led to the survey of the 
bottom of the Atlantic, which was the forerunner of deep-sea explorations, 
culminating in the woi'k of the ' Challenger ' Expedition, and opening up 
new treasures of knowledge scarcely dreamt of when last the British 
Association met at Leeds. To the difiicultics connected with the early 
attempts at submarine telegraphy, and the determination with Avhich 
Thomson drove home the lessons learned, we owe the systematic in- 
vestigations into the causes of the variations in resistance of copper 
- conductors, and the consequent improvements in the metallurgy of copper, 
"swhich led to the realisation of the high standard of purity of metal 
^eseeutial for the eflicient working of telegrajohic systems, and also to 
ithe extensive utilisation of electricity in the production of pure copper. 
The rare combination of originality in powers of research and perspicuity 
in mathematical reasoning, with inventive and constructive genius, for 
which Thomson has so long been pre-eminent, has placed at the disposal 
of the investigator of electric science, and of the practical electrician, 
instruments of measurement and record which have been of incalculable 
value, and which owe their origin to the theoretical conclusions arrived at 
by him in his researches into the conditions to be fulfilled for the attain- 
ment of practical success in the construction and employment of sub- 
marine cables. The mirror galvanometer, the quadrant electrometer, the 



ADDRESS. 9 

syplion-recorder, and the divided-ring electrometer, are illustrations of 
the valuable outcome of Thomson's labours ; the combination of the last- 
named instrument with sliding resistance coils has rendered possible the 
accurate subdivision of a potential difference into 10,000 equal parts. 
The general use of condensers in connection with cable signalling, due to 
Varley's application of them for signalling throiigh submerged cables 
with induced short waves, was instrumental in establishing the fact 
that all electro-static phenomena are simply the result of starting an 
electric current of known short duration round a closed circuit. The 
practical application of the Wheatstone Bridge led to numerous im- 
portant mathematical investigations, and induced Clerk Maxwell to devise 
a new mode of applying determinants to the solution of the complicated 
electrical problems connected with networks of conductors. The neces- 
sity for the universal recognition of an electrical unit of resistance led 
to the establishment, in 18G0, of the Electrical Standards Committee of 
the British Association, whose long succession of important annual reports 
was instrumental in most important developments of theoretical elec- 
tricity, and, indeed, served to open up the whole science of electrical 
measurement. Matthiessen's important investigations of the electrical 
behaviour of metals and their alloys, and the preparation and properties 
of pure iron, were the outcome of the commercial demand for a practically 
useful standard of electrical resistance, while Latimer Clark's practical 
standard of electro-motive force, the mercnrous sulphate cell, became in- 
valuable to the worker in pure electrical reseai'ch. The unit of resistance 
established by the British Association Committee received, in 1866, most 
important scientific appb'cation at the hands of Joule, who, by measuring 
the rate of development of heat in a wire of known resistance by the passage 
of a known current, obtained a new value of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat. This value differed by about 1'3 per cent, from the most accurate 
results arrived at by his experiments on mechanical friction, a difference 
which eventually proved to be exactly the error in the British Association 
unit of resistance ; so that the true value of the unit of resistance, or Ohm, 
was determined by Joule fifteen years before this result was achieved by 
electricians. Clerk Maxwell's remarkable electro -magnetic theory of 
light was put to the test, through the aid of the British Association unit 
of resistance, by Thomson, in determining the ratio of electro-magnetic 
unit to the electro-static unit of qiiantity. Many other most interesting 
illustrations might be given of the invaluable aid afforded to purely 
scientific research by the practical results of the development of electrical 
science, and of the constant co-operation between the science student and 
the practical worker. No one could, more fitly than the late Sir William 
Siemens, have maintained, as he did in his admirable Address at our 
meeting in Southampton in 1882 that we owe most of the rapid progress 
of recent times to the man of science who partly devotes his energies to 
the solution of practical problems, and to the practitioner who finds relaxa- 



10 EEroRT— 1890. 

tlon in the prosecution of purely scientific inquiries. Most assuredly, both 
these classes of the world's benefactors may with equal right lay claim to 
rank the name of Siemens among those whom they count most illustrious ! 

In that highly interesting and valuable Address, delivered little more 
than a year before his sudden untimely removal from among us, the 
numerous important subjects discussed by him included not a few which 
he had made peculiarly his own in the wide range embraced by hia 
enviable power of combining scientific research with practical work. 
Prominent among these were the applications of electric energy to 
lighting and heating purposes, and to the transmission of power, to the 
subsequent development of which his personal labours very greatly con- 
tributed. 

Siemens referred to the passing of the first Electric Lighting Bill, in the 
year of his Presidency, as being designed to facilitate the establishment of 
electric installations in towns ; but the anxiety of the Government of that 
day to protect the interests of the public through local authorities led to the 
assignment, of such power to these over the property of lighting companies, 
that the utilisation of electric lighting was actually delayed for a time by 
those legislative measures. There can now be no doubt, however, that this 
delay has really been in the interests of intending suppliers and of users 
of the electric light, as having afforded time for the further development 
of practical details, connected with generation and distribution, which 
was vital to the attainment of a fair measure of initial success. The sub- 
sequent important modification of legislation on the subject of electric 
lighting, together with the practical realisation of comparatively 
economical methods of distribution, the establishment of fairly equi- 
table arrangements between the public and the lighting companies, 
and the apportionment, so far as the metropolis is concerned, of distinct 
areas of operation to different competing companies, have combined to 
place electric lighting in this country at length upon some approach 
to a really sound footing, and to give the required impetus to its exten- 
sive development. Nine companies either are now, or will very shortly 
he, actually at work supplying, from central stations, districts of London 
comprising almost the entire western and north-western portions of 
the metropolis. As regards other parts of England, there are already 
twenty-seven lighting stations actually at work in different towns, besides 
others in course of establishment, and many more projected. The town 
of Leeds has not failed to give serious attention to the subject of utilising 
the electric light, and, although no general scheme has yet been adopted, 
the electricians who now visit this town will rejoice to see many of its 
public buildings provided with efficient electric illumination. 

While the prediction made by Siemens, eight years ago, that electric 
lighting must take its place with us as a public illuminant, has thus been 
already, in a measure, fulfilled, important progress is being continuously 
made by the practical electrician in developing and perfecting the arrange- 



ADDRESS. 11 

ments for the generation of the supply, its efiBcient distribution from 
centres, and its delivery to the consumer in a form in which it can be 
safely and conveniently dealt with and applied at an outlay which, even 
now, does not preclude a considerable section of the public from enjoying 
the decided advantages presented by electric lighting over illumination 
by coal-gas. Yet our recent progress in this direction, encouraging 
though it has been, is insignificant as compared with the strides made 
in the application of electric lighting in the United States, as may be 
gauged by the fact that, while in America the number of arc lamps 
in use, in April of this year, was 235,000, and of glow-lamps about 
three millions, there are at present about one-tenth the number of the 
latter, and one hundredth the number of arc lamps, in operation in 
England. 

In some important directions we may, however, lay claim to rank 
foremost in the application of the electric light ; thus, our large passenger- 
ships and our warships are provided with efficient electrical illumination ; 
to the active operations of our Navy the electric light has become an in- 
dispensable adjunct ; and our system of coast defence, by artillery and 
submarine mines, is equally dependent, for its thorough efficiency, upon 
the applications of electricity in connection with range-finding, with the 
arrangement and explosion of mines, and with the important auxiliary 
in attack and defence, the electric light, which, while so arranged, at the 
operating stations, as to be protected against destruction by artillery-fire 
and difficult of detection by the enemy, is available at any moment for 
affording invaluable information and important assistance and protec- 
tion. 

Other valuable applications of the electric light, such as its use as a 
lighthonse-illuminant, for the lighting of main roads in coal-mines, where 
its value is being increasingly appreciated, and even for signalling pur- 
poses in mid-air, through the agency of captive balloons, are continually 
affording fresh demonstrations of the importance of this particular branch 
of applied electric science. 

At the Electrical Exhibition at Vienna in 1883, where, not long before 
the lamented death of Siemens, I had the honour of serving as one of his 
colleagues in the representation of British interests, the progress which 
had been made in the construction of electrical measuring instruments 
since the French Exhibition and the Electrical Congress, two years before, 
was very considerable. The advance in this direction has been enormous 
since that time ; but although the practical outcome of Thomson's and of 
Cardew's important work has been the provision of trustworthy electi'ical 
balances and voltmeters, while efficient instruments have also been made 
by other well-known practical electricians, we have still to attain results 
in all respects satisfactory in these indispensable adjuncts to the com- 
mercial supply and utilisation of electric energy. 

In connection with this important subject the recent completion of the 



12 EEroRT— 1890. 

Board of Trade standardising laboratory, established for the purposes of 
arriving at and maintaining the true values of electrical unita, and of 
securing accuracy and uniformity in the manufacture of instruments 
supplied by the trade for electrical measurements, may be referred to 
with much satisfaction as a practical illustration of official recognition 
of the firm root which the domestic and industrial utilisation of electric 
energy has taken in this country. 

The achievements of the telephone were referred to by Siemens 
in glowing tei'ms eight years ago ; yet the results then attained were 
but indications of the direction in which telephonic inter-communi- 
cation was destined speedily to become one of the most indispensable of 
present applications of electricity to the purposes of daily life. Preece, 
in speaking at Bath, two years ago, of the advances made in applied elec- 
tricity, showed that the impediments to telephonic communication be- 
tween great distances had been entirely overcome ; and now, although 
considerably behind America and France in the use of the telephone, we 
ai'e rapidly placing ourselves upon speaking terms with our friends 
throughout the United Kingdom. The operations of the National Tele- 
phone Company well illustrate our progress in telephonic intercommuni- 
cation : that company has now 22,743 exchange lines, besides nearly 
5,000 private lines ; its exchanges number 272, and its call-offices 526. 
The number of instruments at jDresent under rental in England is 
■99,000 ; but, important as this figure is compared to our use of the tele- 
phone a very few years ago, it sinks into insignificance by the side of the 
number of instruments under rental in America, which at the beginning 
of the present year had reached 222,430, being an increase of 16,675 over 
the number in ISS'J. Only thirteen years have elapsed since the telephone 
was first exhibited as a practically woi'kable appai-atus to members of 
the British Association at the Plymouth Meeting, and the number of 
instruments now at work throughout the world may bo estimated as 
considerably exceeding a million. 

The successful transmission of the electric current, and the power of 
■control now exercised over the character which electrically-transmitted 
energy is made to assume, are not alone illustrated by the efficiency of 
the arrangements already developed for the supply of the electric light 
from central stations. Siemens dwelt upon this subject at Southamp- 
ton with the ardent interest of one who had made its advancement 
one of the objects of his energetic labours in later years, and also with 
a prophet's prognostications of its future importance. In speaking 
of the electric current as having entered the lists in competition 
with compressed air, the hydraulic accumulator, and the quick-running 
rope driven by water-power, Siemens pointed out that no further 
loss of power was involved in the transformation of electrical into 
mechanical energy than is due to friction, and to the heating of the con- 
ducting wires by the resistance they oppose, and he showed that this loss, 



ADDRESS. 1 3 

calculated upon data arrived at by Dr. John Hopkinson and by lumsell, 
amounted at the outside to 38 per cent, of the total energy. Subsequent 
careful researches by the Brothers Hopkinson have demonstrated that 
the actual loss is now far less than it was computed at in 1885 ; as 
much as 87 per cent, of the total energy transmitted being realisable 
at a distance, provided there be no loss in the connecting leads used. 

The Paris Electric Exhibition of 1881 already afforded interestino- 
illustrations of the performance of a variety of work by power electrically 
transmitted, including a short line of railway constructed by the firm of 
Siemens, which was a further development of the successful result already 
attained in Berlin by Werner Siemens in the same direction, and was, in 
its turn, surpassed by the considerably longer line worked by Messrs. 
Siemens at the Vienna Exhibition two years later. Various short lines 
which liave since then been established by the firm of Siemens are well 
known, and one of the latest public acts in the valuable life of William 
Siemens was to assist at the opening of the electric tramway at Portrush, 
in the installation of whicb he took an active -part, and where the idea, so 
firmly rooted in his mind from the date of his visit to the Palls of Niao-ara 
in 1876, of utilising water-power for electrical transmission — a result first 
achieved on a small scale by Lord Armstrong — was more practically 
realised than had yet been the case. Since that time Ireland has witnessed 
a further application of electricity to traction purposes, and of water-power 
to the provision of the required energy, in the working of the Bessbrook 
and Newry tramway, while London at length possesses an electric railway, 
three miles in length, to be very shortly opened, which will connect the 
City with one of the southern snburbs through a tram subway, and, 
although including many sharp curves and steep gradients, will be capable 
of conveying one hundred passengers at a time, at speeds varying from 
thirteen to twenty-four miles per hour. During the past year a regular 
service of tramcars has been successfully worked, through the agency of 
secondary batteries, upon part of one of the large tramways of North 
London, with results which bid fair to lead to further extensions of this 
system of working in the metropolis. The application of electricity to 
traction purposes has, however, received far more important develop- 
ment in the United States ; at the commencement of this year there were 
in operation in diSerent States 200 electrical tramroads, chiefly worked 
upon the Thomson-Houston and the Sprague systems, and havino- a col- 
lective length of 1,641 miles, with 2,346 motor-cars travelling thereon. 
Further extensions are being rapidly made ; thus, one company alone has 
39 additional roads, of a collective length of 385 miles, under construc- 
tion, to be worked through the agency of storage-batteries. 

The idea cherished by Siemens, and enlarged upon by him in more 
than one interesting address, of utilising the power of Niagara, appears 
about to be realised, at any rate in part ; a large tract of land has been 
recently acquired, by a powerful American Association, about a mile dis- 



14 TiEroRT — 1890. 

tanfc Ifom the Fulls, with a view to the erection of mills for utilising the 
power, which it is also proposed to transmit to distant towns, and au 
International Commission, -with Sir "William Thomson at its head, and 
with Mascart, Turrettini, Coleman Sellers, and Unwin as members, will 
carefully consider the problems involved in the execution of this grand 
scheme. 

The application of electric traction to water-traffic, first successfully 
demonstrated in 1883, is receiving gradual development, as illustrated by 
the considerable number of pleasure-boats which may now be seen on 
the Upper Thames dui-ing the boating season, and in connection -with 
which Professor George Forbes proposed, at our meeting last year, that 
stations for charging the requisite cells, through the agency of watei'- 
power, should be established at the many weirs along the river, so as to 
provide convenient electric coaling-stations for the river pleasure-fleet. 

Electrically-transmitted energy was first applied to haulage work 
in mines in Germany, by the firm of Siemens some years ago, and 
great progress has since been achieved herein on the Continent and in 
America. Comparatively little has been accomplished in this direction in 
Eno-land ; but it is very interesting to note, on the present occasion, that 
the first successful practical application of electricity in this country to 
pumping and underground haulage-work was made in 1887 in this neigh- 
bourhood, at the St. John's Colliery at Normanton, where an extensive 
installation, carried out by Mr. Immisch, so well known in connection 
with electric launches, is furnishing very satisfactory results in point of 
economy and efficiency. The gigantic installations existing for the same 
purposes in Nevada and California afford remarkable indications of 
the work to be accomplished in the future by electrically-transmitted 
energy. 

Among the many subjects of importance studied by Joule, with the 
originality and thoroughness characteristic of his work, was the applica- 
tion of voltaic electricity to the welding and fusion of metals. Thirty- 
four years ago he published a most suggestive paper on the subject, 
in which, after dealing with the difficulties attending the operation of 
welding, and of the interference of films of oxide, formed upon the 
highly heated iron surfaces, with the production of pei'fect welds either 
under the hammer or by the methods of pressure (of which he then 
predicted the application to large masses of forged iron), he refers to 
the possibility of applying the calorific agency of the electric current to 
the welding of metals, and describes an operation witnessed by him in 
the laboratory of his fellow-labourer, Thomson, of fusing together a bundle 
of iron wires by transmitting through them, when imbedded in charcoal, a 
powerful voltaic current. Joule afterwards succeeded in uniting by fusion 
a number of iron wires with the employment of a Daniell battery, and in 
welding together wires of brass and steel, platinum and iron, &c. In 
discussing the question of the amount of zinc consumed in a battery for 



ADD HESS. 15 

raising a given amount of iron to the temperature of fusion, he points out 
that the same object would probably be more economically attained by 
the use of a magneto-electric machine, -which would allow the heat to be 
provided by the expenditure of mechanical force, developed in the first 
instance by the expenditure of heat ; and he indicates the possibility of 
arranging machinery to produce electric currents which shall evolve one- 
tenth of the total heat due to the combustion of the coal used, so that 
5,000 grains of coal applied through that agency would suffice for the 
fusion of one pound of iron. The successful practical realisation of Joule's 
predictions in regard to the application of electric currents, thus developed, 
to the welding of iron and steel, and to analogous operations, through 
the agency of the efficient machines devised by Professor Elihu Thomson, 
was demonstrated to the members of the Association by Professor Ay rton 
at Bath two years ago, and was shown upon a larger scale to visitors at 
the Paris Exhibition last year, and recently to highly interested audiences 
in London by our late President, Sir Frederick Bramwell. The latter 
demonstrated that the production of iron-welds by means of the Thomson- 
machines was accomplished nearly twice as rapidly as by expert 
craftsmen : the perfection of the welds being proved by the fact that the 
strength of bars broken by tensile strains at the welds themselves was 
about 92 per cent, of the strength of the solid metal. At the Crewe 
Works Mr. Webb is successfully applying one of these machines to a 
variety of welding-work. The rapidity with which masses of metal of 
various dimensions are raised by them to welding heat is quite under 
control; the heat is applied without the advent of any impurities, as 
from fuel, and the speed of execution of the vrelding operation reduces 
to a minimum the time during which the heated surfaces are liable to 
oxidise. With such practical advantages as these, this system of electric 
welding bids fair to receive many useful applications. 

Another very simple system of electric welding, especially applicable 
to thin iron- and steel-sheets, hoops, &c., has been contemporaneously 
elaborated in Russia by Dr. Bernados, and is already being extensively 
used. The required heat at the surfaces to be welded i.s developed by 
connecting the metal with the negative pole of the dynamo-machine, or 
of a battery of accumulators, the circuit being completed by applying a 
carbon electrode to the parts to be heated ; the reducing power of the 
carbon is said to preserve the heated metal surfaces from oxidation during 
the very brief period of their treatment. This mode of operation appears 
to have been practised upon a small scale, some years ago, by Sir William 
Siemens, to whom we also owe the first attempt to practically apply 
electric energy to the smelting of metals. 

In his Address in 1882 he referred to some results attained with his 
small electrical furnace, and pointed out that, although electric energy 
could, obviously, not compete economically with the direct combustion of 
fuel for the production of ordinary degrees of heat, the electric furnace 



IG REroRT — 1890. 

would probably receive advantageous application for the attainment of 
temperatures exceeding the limits (about 1800° C.) beyond which 
combustion was known to proceed very sluggishly. Tbis prediction 
appears to have been already realised thi'ongh the important labours of 
Messrs. Cowles, who some years ago attacked the subject of tbe ap- 
plication of electricity to the achievement of metallurgic operations 
with the characteristic vigour and fertility of i-esource of our Trans- 
atlantic brethren. After very promising preliminary experiments, 
they succeeded, in 1885, at Cleveland, Ohio, in maturing a method 
of operation for the production of aluminium-bronze, ferro-aluminium, 
and silicium-bronze, with results so satisfactory as to lead to the 
erection of extensive works at Lockport, N.Y"., where three dynamo- 
machines, each supplying a current of about 3,000 Amperes, are 
worked by water-power, through the agency of 600 h.-p. turbines, eigh- 
teen electric furnaces being now in operation for the production of 
aluminium alloys. These achievements have led to the establishment of 
similar works in North Staffordshire, where a gigantic dynamo-machine 
has been erected, furnishing a current of 5,000 Amperes, with an E. M. F. 
of 50 to 60 volts. The arrangement of electrodes in the furnaces, ihe 
preparation of the furnace-charges (consisting of mixtures of aluminium- 
ore with charcoal and with the particular granulated metal with which 
the aluminium is to become alloyed at the moment of its elimination 
from the ore) ; the appliances for securing safety in dealing with the 
current from the huge dynamo-machine, and many other details connected 
with this new system of metallurgic work, possess great interest. Various 
valuable copper- and aluminium-alloys are now produced by adding to 
copper itself definite proportions of copper-alloy very rich in aluminium, 
the product of the electric furnace. The rapid production in large 
quantities of ferro-aluminium — which presents the aluminium in a form 
suitable for addition in definite proportions to fluid cast iron and steel 
— is another useful outcome of the practical development of the electric 
furnace by Messrs. Cowles. 

The electric process of producing aluminium-alloys has, however, 
to compete commercially with their manufacture by adding to metals, 
or alloys, pure aluminium produced by processes based upon the 
method originally indicated by Oersted in 1824, successfully carried out 
by "Wohler three years later, and developed into a practical process by 
H. St. Claire Deville in 1854 — namely, by eliminating aluminium from 
the double chloride of sodium and aluminium in the presence of a 
fluoride, through the agency of sodium. An analogous process, indicated 
in the first instance by H. Rose — namely, the corresponding action of 
Bodium upon the mineral cryolite, a double fluoride of aluminium and 
sodium — has also been recently elaborated at Newcastle, where the first 
of these methods was applied, upon a somewhat considerable scale, in 
18G0, by Sir Lowihian Bell, but did not then become a commercial 



ADDRESS. 1 7 

success, maiuly owing to tlio costliness of the requisite sodium. As 
the cost of this metal chiefly determines the price of the aluminium, 
technical chemists have devoted their best energies to the perfection and 
simplification of methods for its production, and the success wliicli has 
culminated in the admirable Castner process constitutes one of the most 
interesting of recent illustrations of the progress made in technical che- 
mistry, consequent upon the happy blending of chemical with mechanical 
science, through the labours of the chemical engineer. 

Those Avho, like myself, remember how, between forty and fifty years 
ago, a few grains of sodium and potassium wei-e treasured up by the 
chemist, and used with parsimonious care in an occasional lecture- 
experiment, cannot tire of feasting their eyes on the stores of sodium- 
ingots to be seen at Oldbnry as the results of a rapidly and dexterously 
executed sei'ies of chemical and mechanical operations. 

The reduction which has been effected in the cost of production of 
aluminium through this and other processes, and which has certainly 
not yet reached its limit, can scarcely fail to lead to applications of the 
valuable chemical and physical properties of this metal so widespread 
as to render it as indispensable in industries and the jiurposes of daily 
life as those well-known metals which may be termed domestic, even 
although, and, indeed, for the very reason that, its association with many 
of these, in small proportion only, may suffice to enhance their valuable 
properties or to impart to them novel characteristics. 

The Swedish metallurgist, Wittenstrom, appears to have been the first 
to observe that the addition of small quantities of aluminium to fused 
steel and malleable iron had the effect of rendering them more fluid, 
and, by thus facilitating the escape of entangled gases, of ensuring the 
production of sound castings without any prejudicial effect upon the 
quality of the metal. The excellence of the so-called Mitis castings, 
produced in this way, appears thoroughly established, and the results 
of recent important experiments seem to be opening up a field for 
the extensive employment of aluminium in this direction, provided its 
cost becomes sufficiently reduced. The valuable scientific and practical 
experiments of W. J. Keep, James Riley, R. Hadfield, Stead, and other 
talented workers in this country and the United States, are rapidly 
extending our knowledge in regard to the real effects of aluminium upon 
steel, and their causes. Thus, it appears to be already established that 
the modifications in some of the physical properties of steel resulting 
from the addition of that metal, are not merely ascribable to its actual 
entrance into the composition of the steel, but are due, in part, to the 
de-oxidation by aluminium of some proportion of iron-oxide which exists 
distributed through the metal, and ijrejudicially aff"ects its fluidity 
when melted. In the latter respect, therefore, the influence exerted by 
aluminium, when introduced in small proportions into malleable iron and 
steel, appears to be quite analogous to that of phosphorus, silicium, or lead 

18'J0. c 



18 EEPORT — 1890, 

when these are added in small proportions to copper and certain of its 
alloys, the de-oxidation of which, through the agency of those substances, 
results in the prodnction of sound castings of increased strength and 
uniformity. It is only when present in small proportion in the finished 
steel that aluminium increases the breaking strain and elastic limit of 
the product. 

The influence of aluminium, when used in small proportion, upon the 
properties of grey and white cast iron is also of considerable interest, 
especially its effect in promoting the production of sound castings, and 
of modifying the character of white iron in a similar manner to silicium, 
causing the carbon to be separated in the graphitic form ; with this 
difference — that the carbon appears to be held in solution until the 
moment of setting of the liquid metal, when it is instantaneously liberated, 
with the result that the structure of the cast metal and distribution of 
the graphite are perfectly uniform throughout. 

The probable beneficial connection of aluminium with the industries 
of iron and steel naturally directs attention to the great practical im- 
portance, in the same direction, which is already possessed, and pro- 
mises to be in increasing measure attained, by certain other metals 
which, for long periods succeeding their discovery, have either been only 
of purely scientific interest and importance, or have acquired practical 
value in regard to their positions in a few directions quite unconnected 
with metallurgy. Thus, great interest attaches to the influence of the 
metals manganese, chromium, and tungsten upon the physical pi'operties 
of steel and iron. 

The name of Mushet is most prominently associated with the his- 
tory of manganese in its relations to iron and steel. Half a century 
ago David Mushet carried out very instructive experiments on the in- 
fluence exerted upon the properties of steel by the presence of man- 
ganese ; and to Robert Mushet we owe the invaluable experiments 
leading to his suggestion to use manganese in the production of steel 
by the Bessemer process, which at once smoothed the path to the 
marvellously rapid and extensive development of the applications of steel 
produced by that classic method, and subsequently by the open-hearth or 
Siemens-Martin process — a development which has recently received its 
crowning illustration in the completion of one of the grandest of existing 
triumphs of engineering science and constructive skill — the Forth. 
Bridge. 

Robert Hadfield has recently contributed importantly to our knowledge 
of the relations of manganese to iron. His systematic study of the subject 
has revealed some very remarkable variations in the physical properties of 
eo-called manganese-steel, according to the proportions of manganese 
which it contains. Thus, while the existence in steel of proportions 
ranging from O'l up to about 275 per cent, improves its strength and 
malleability, it becomes brittle if that limit is exceeded, the extreme of 



ADDIJESS. IS 

brittleness being obtained with between 4 and 5 per cent, of manganese ; 
if, however, the percentage is increased to not less than 7, and up to 20, 
alloys of remarkable strength and toughness are obtained. Castiufg of 
high manganese-steel, such as wheel-tyres, combine remarkable hardness 
Avith toughness. Even if the proportion of manganese is as high as 20 per 
cent, in a steel containing 2 per cent, of carbon, it can be forged ; whereas 
it is very difficult to forge a steel of ordinary composition containing as 
much as 2-75 per cent, of carbon. Another remarkable peculiarity of the 
high manganese-steel is its behaviour when quenched in water. Instead 
of the heated metal being hardened and rendered brittle by the sudden 
cooling, like carbon-steel, its tensile strength and its toughness are in- 
creased ; so that water-quenching is really a toughening process, as 
applied to the manganese-alloy ; and an interesting feature connected 
with this is that, the colder the bath into which the highly-heated 
metal is plunged, the tougher is the product. The curious effect of 
manganese in reducing, and even destroying, the magnetic properties 
of iron was already noticed by Rinman nearly 120 years ago, and 
was examined by Bottomley in 1885 ; one result of Hadfield's impor- 
tant labours has been to place in the hands of such eminent physicists 
as Thomson, Barrett, John Hopkinson, and Reinold, materials for the 
attainment of most interesting information respecting the electrical 
and other physical characteristics of manganese-steel. Hopkinson, from 
experiments with a sample of steel containing 12 per cent, of manganese, 
estimated that not more than 9 out of the 86 per cent, of the iron com- 
posing the mass was magnetic, and he considered that the manganese 
entered into that which must, for magnetic purposes, be regarded as the 
molecule of iron, completely changing its properties, a fact which must 
have great significance in any theory regarding the nature of magneti- 
sation. The great hardness of manganese-steel, and the consequent diffi- 
culty of dealing with it by means of cutting- tools, constitute at present the 
chief impediments to its technical applications in many directions ; but 
where great accuracy of dimensions is not required, and where o-reat 
strength is an essential, it is already put to valuable uses. 

The importance of manganese in connection with the metallurgy of 
iron and steel is in a fair way of finding its rival in that of the metal 
chromium, the employment of which, as an alloy with steel, was first 
made the subject of experiment in 1821, by Berthier. He was led by the 
important experiments of Faraday and Stoddart, then just published, to 
endeavour to alloy chromium with steel, and obtained good results by fusing 
steel together with a rich alloy of chromium and iron, so as to introduce 
about 15 per cent, of the former into the metal. Further small experi- 
ments were made the year following, by Faraday and Stoddart, in the 
same direction; but chrome-steel appears to have been first produced 
commercially at Brooklyn, N.Y., sixteen years ago. Ten years later 
its manufacture had become developed in France, and the varieties of 

c 2 



20 BEroRT — 1890. 

chrome-steel produced in the Loire district now receive important and 
continually-extending applications, because they combine comparative 
hardness and high tenacity with but little loss in ductility, and acquire 
great closeness of structure when tempered. 

The influence of chromium upon the character of steel differs in 
several marked respects from that exercised by manganese ; thus, 
chrome-steels weld badly, or not at all, whereas manganese-steels weld 
very readily, and work under the hammer better than ordinary carbon- 
steel. Ao-ain, the remarkable influence of manganese upon the magnetic 
properties of steel and iron is not shared by chromium. Chrome-steel has 
for some time been a formidable rival of the very highest qualities of 
carbon-steel produced for cutting-tools, and of the valuable tungsten- 
steel which we owe to Robert Mushct. The great hardness, high 
tenacity, and exceeding closeness of structure possessed by suitably- 
tempered steel containing not more than from 1 to 1'5 per cent, of 
chromiam, and from 0'8 to 1 per cent, of carbon, renders this material 
invaluable for war purposes : cast projectiles, when suitably tempered, 
have penetrated compound steel- and-iron plates over 9 inches in thickness, 
such as are used upon armoured ships of war, without even sus- 
taining any important change of form. The proper tempering of these 
projectiles necessitates their being produced hollow; their cavities or 
chambers are only of small capacity, but the charge of violent explosive 
vs'hich they can contain, and which can be set into action without the 
intervention of fuse or detonating appliance, suffices to tear these formi- 
dable punching-tools into fragments as they force their way irresistibly 
through the armoured side of a ship, and to violently project those frag- 
ments in all directions, with fearfully destructive effects. The employ- 
ment of chromium as a constituent of steel plates used for the protection 
of ships of war is already being entered upon, and the influence exerted by 
the presence of that metal in small quantities in steel employed in the 
construction of guns is also at present a subject of investigation. At 
Crewe, Mr. F. Webb has for some time past used chromium, with con- 
siderable advantage, in the production of high-quality steels for railway 
requirements. 

The practical results attained by the introduction of copper and of 
nickel as components of steel have also recently attracted much attention. 
At the celebrated French Steel Works of M. Schneider, at Creuzot, the 
addition of a small percentage of copper to steel used for armour-plates 
and projectiles is practised, with the object of impai'ting hardness to 
the metal without prejudice to its toughness. James Riley has found 
that the presence of aluminium in very small quantities facilitates the 
union of steel with a small proportion of copper, and that the latter in- 
creases the strength but does not improve the working qualities of steel. 
With nickel, Riley has obtained products analogous in many important 
reepecta to manganese steel ; the remarkable differences in the physical 



ADDKESS. 21 

properties of the manganese alloys, according to their ricliness in that 
metal, are also shared by the nickel alloys, some of wbicli possess 
very valuable properties ; thus, it has been shown by Riley that a 
particular variety of nickel-steel presents to the engineer the means 
of nearly doubling boiler-pressures, without increasing weight or dimen- 
sions. He has, moreovei*, found the co-existence of manganese in small 
quantity with nickel in the alloy to contribute importantly to the deve- 
lopment of valuable characteristics. 

The careful study of the alloys of aluminium, chromium, manganese, 
tungsten, copper, and nickel, with iron and with steel, so far as it has 
been carried, with especial reference to the influence which they respec- 
tively exercise upon the salient physical properties of those materials, 
even when present in them in only very small proportions, has demon- 
strated the importance of a more searching or complete application of 
chemical analysis, than hitherto practised, to the determination of tho 
composition of the varieties of steel v.'hich practical experience has shown 
to be peculiarly adapted to particular uses. It appears, indeed, not im- 
probable that certain properties of these, hitherto ascribed to slight 
variations in the proportion or the condition of the constituent carbon, or in 
the amounts of siliciura, phosphorus, and manganese which they contain, 
may sometimes ha\-e been due to the presence in minute quantities of 
one or other of such metals as those named, and to their influence, 
either direct or indirect, in modifying or counteracting the effects of 
the normal constituents of steel. The important part now played by 
manganese in steel manufacture is an illustration of the comparatively 
recent results of research, and of practical work based on research, 
in these directions, and the eSects of the presence in steel of only very- 
small quantities of some of the other metals named are already, as I 
have pointed out, being similarly understood and utilised. 

Such systematic researches as those upon which Osmond, Roberts- 
Austen, and many other workers have been for some time past engaged, 
may make us acquainted with the laws which govern the modifica- 
tions effected in the physical characteristics of metals by alloying these 
with small proportions of other metals. The suggestion of Roberts- 
Austen, that such modifications may have direct connection with the 
periodic law of Mendeleefl", explaining the causes of specific variations 
in the properties of iron and steel, has been followed up energetically 
by Osmond, who has experimentally investigated the thermal influence 
upon iron of the elements phosphorus, sulphur, arsenic, boron, silicium, 
nickel, manganese, chromium, copper, and tungsten. He regards his 
results as being quite confirmatory of the soundness of Roberts-Austen's 
suggestion, as they demonstrate that foreign elements having atomic 
volumes lower than iron tend to make it assume or preserve the particular 
molecular form in which it has itself the lowest atomic volume, while the 
converse is the case for the foreign elements of high atomic volume. 



22 EEPORX — 18'JO. 

An analogous influence was found to be exei'ted by those two groups 
of elements upon the permanent magnetisation of steel. 

Captivating as such deductions are, those who have devoted much 
attention to the practical investigation of iron, steel, and other metals, 
cannot but feel that much caution has to be exercised in drawing broad 
conclusions from the results of such researches as these. Like the in- 
vestigations recently made with the object of ascertaining the condition 
in which carbon exists in steel, and the part played by it in determining 
the modifications in the properties developed in that material by the 
influences of temperature and of work done upon it, they are surrounded 
by formidable difiiculties, arising from the practical impossibility of 
altogether eliminatiug the disturbing influences of minute quantities of 
foreign elementary bodies, co-existing, in the metal operated upon, with 
those whose effects we desire to study. Certain it is, however, that by 
acquiring an accurate acquaintance with the composition of varieties of 
iron and steel exhibiting characteristic properties ; by persevering in the 
all-important work of systematic practical examination of the mechanical 
and physical peculiarities developed in iron and steel of known composi- 
tion by their association with one or more of the rarer metals in varied 
proportions, and by the further prosecution of chemical and physical 
research in such directions as those which have already been fruitful of 
most instructive results, such talented labourers as Chernoff, Osmond, 
Roberts-Austen, Barus and Stroudal, Hadfield, Keep, James Riley, Stead, 
Turner, and others, cannot fail to contribute continually to the develop- 
ment of improvements equalling in importance those already attained in 
the production, treatment, and methods of applying cast iron, malleable 
iron, and steel, or alloys equivalent to steel in their qualities. 

The causes of the variations in the physical properties of steel pro- 
duced by the so-called hardening, annealing, and tempering processes 
were for very many years a fruitful subject of experimental inquiry, as 
well as of theoretical speculation with regard to the condition in 
which the carbon is distributed in steel, according to whether the metal 
is hardened or annealed, or in an intermediate, tempered state. Recent 
researches have made our knowledge in the latter direction fairly pre- 
cise ; as yet, however, we are only on the track of definite information 
respecting the nature and extent of connection between the physical 
peculiarities of steel in those different conditions and the established 
differences in the form and manner in which the carbon is disseminated 
through it. 

The careful systematic study of the modifications developed in certain 
physical properties of iron and steel by gradual changes of temperature 
between fusion of the metal and the normal temperature, has shown 
those modifications to be governed by a constant law, and that at cer- 
tain critical temperatures special phenomena present themselves. This 
important subject, which was so clearly brought before the Association 



ADDRESS. 23 

last year in the interesting lecture of Roberts- Austen, has been, 
and is still being, pursued by accouiplished workers, among whom the 
most prominent is F. Osmond. The phenomenon of recalescence, or 
the re-glowing of, or liberation of heat in, iron and steel at certain 
stages during the cooling process, first examined into by Barrett, appears 
to be the result of actual chemical combination between the metal and its 
contained carbon at the particular temperature attained at the time; 
while the absorption of heat, demonstrated by the arrest in rise of 
temperature during its continuous apjjlication to the metal, is ascribed 
to the elimination, within the mass, of carbon as an iron-carbide per- 
fectly stable at low temperatures. The pursuit of a well-devised system 
of experimental inquiry into this subject has led Osmond to propound 
theories of the hardening and tempering of steel, which are at present 
receiving the careful study of physicists and chemists, and cannot fail 
to lead to further important advancement of our knowledge of the true 
nature of the influence of carbon upon the properties of iron. 

Another important subject connected with the treatment of masses of 
steel, and with the influence exercised npon their physical characteristics 
by the processes of hardening and tempering, and by submitting them to 
oft-repeated concussions or vibrations, or to frequent or long-continued 
strains, is the development and maintenance, or gradual disappearance, 
of internal stresses in the masses — one of the many important subjects to 
which attention was directed by Dr. Anderson, the Director-General of Ord- 
nance Factories, in his very suggestive Address to the Mechanical Section 
last year. This question is one of especial interest to the constructor 
of steel guns, as the powers of endurance of these do not simply depend 
upon the quality of the material composing them, but are very largely 
influenced by the treatment which it receives at the hands of the gun- 
maker. Indeed, the highest importance attaches to the processes which 
are applied to the preliminary preparation of the individual parts used 
in constructing the gun, and to the putting together of these so as 
to ensure their being and remaining in the physical condition best cal- 
culated to assist each other in securing for the structure the power of so 
successfully resisting the heavy strains to which it has to be subjected, as 
to suffer little alteration other than that due to the superficial action of 
the highly-heated products of explosion of the charges fired in the gun. 
The development of internal strains in objects of steel, especially by the 
hardening and tempering processes, or by their exposure to conditions 
favourable to unequal cooling of different parts of the mass, has long been 
a subject of much trouble and of experimental inquiry m connection 
with many applications of steel. Systematic experiments of the kind 
commenced, about eighteen years ago, by the lafe Russian general Kala- 
koutsky, are now being pursued at Woolwich, with the objects of deter- 
mining the nature and cause.=i of internal stresses in steel gun-hoops and 
-tubes, and in shells, and of thereby establishing the proper course to be 



24 KEPOET- -1890. 

adopted for avoiding, lessening, or counteracting injuiions stresses, on the 
cue liand, and for setting up stresses beneficial to the powers of endurance 
of guns, on the other. One method of experiment pursued, with parts 
or guns, is to cut narrow hoops off the forgings, after a particular treat- 
ment, which are then cut right across at one place, it being observed 
whether, and to what extent, the resulting gaps open or close. This im- 
portant subject has also been similarly investigated by my talented old 
friend and fellow- worker, the President this year of the Mechanical Sec- 
tion, Captain Andi'cw Noble, whose name in connection with the science 
and practice of artillery is familiar to us as household words. 

The Crimean War taught Nations many lessons of gravest import, to 
some of which Sir Richard Owen took occasion to call attention most 
impressively in the Address delivered here, before the miseries of that 
war had become past history. The development of sanitary science, to 
which he especially referred, and which sprang from the bitter experience 
of that sad epoch, has had its parallel in the development of the science of 
artillery ; but it would indeed be difficult to establish any parallelism be- 
tween the benefits which even the soldier and the sailor have reaped fi'om. 
the great strides made by both these sciences. The acquisition of know- 
ledge of the causes of the then hopelessness of gallant struggles which 
medical skill and self-sacrificing devotion made against the suflPerirgs of 
the victims of battles and of fell diseases, as deadly as the cruellest 
implements of war ; the application of that knowledge to the provision of 
the blessings of antiseptic treatment of wounds and to the intelligent 
utilisation of disinfectants and of other valuable preventive measures, 
to the supply of wholesome water, of wholesome food in campaigning, of 
sensible clothing, and of wholesome air in hospitals, barracks, and ships — : 
these are some few of the benefits which the soldier and the sailor have 
derived from the development of sanitary science, which was so powerfully 
stimulated by the terrible lessons learned during the long-drawn-out siege 
of Sebastopol ; and it is indeed pleasant to reflect that there has been, for 
years past, most wholesome competition between Nations in the enlarge- 
ment of those benefits, and their dissemination among the men whose 
vocation it is to slay and be slain. The periodical International Con- 
gresses on Hygiene and Demography, of which we shall cordially welcome 
next year's assemblage in London, and whose members will deplore the 
absence from among them of the veteran Nestor in the science and prac- 
tice of hygiene, Sir Edwin Chadwick, have afforded conclusive demon- 
stration of the heartiness with which Nations are now co-operating with 
a view to utilise the invaluable results attained by the successful labourers 
in sanitary science. 

What, on the other hand, shall we say of the benefits which sailors and 
soldiers, in the pursuit of their calling, derive from the ceaseless costly 
competition amongst Nations for supremacy in the possession of for- 



ADDRESS. 25 

midable artillery, violent explosives, quick-firing arms of deadly accuracy, 
and fearful engines wliich, unseen, can work wholesale destruction in a, 
fleet ? And what can we say of the benefits acquired by individual 
Countries in return for their continuous, and sometimes ruinous, expendi- 
ture in endeavouring to maintain themselves upon an equality with their 
neighbours in man-killing power ? The conditions under which engage- 
ments by sea or land will in the future be fought have certainly become 
greatly modified from those of thirty-five years ago, and the duration of 
warfare, even between Nations in conflict who are on a fair equality of 
resoui'ces, must become reduced ; but, as regards the results of a trial of 
strength between contending forces, similarly equipped, as they now will 
be, with the latest of modern appliances only varying in detail, these 
must, after all, depend, as of old, partly upon accident, favoured, perhaps, 
by a temporary superiority in equipment, partly upon the skill and mili- 
tary genius of individuals, and very much upon the characteristics of the 
men who fight the battles. 

What really can be said in favour of the advances made in the 
appliances of war — and this is, perhaps, the view which in such a town as 
Leeds we should keep before our eyes to the exclusion of the dark side of 
the picture — is, that by continuous competition in the development of their 
magnitude, diversity, and perfection, the resources of the manufacturer, 
the chemist, the engineer, the electrician, are taxed to the uttermost, 
with the very important, although incidental, results, that industries are 
created or expanded and perfected, trades maintained and developed, 
and new achievements accomplished in applied science, which in time 
beneficially affect the advance of peaceful arts and manufactures. In 
these ways the expenditure of a large proportion of a country's resources 
upon material which is destroyed in creating destruction does substantially 
benefit communities, and tends t;o the accomplishment of such material 
progress by a Country as goes far to compensate its people for the sacri- 
fices which they are called upon to incur for the maintenance of their 
dignity among Nations. 

From this point of view, at any rate, it may interest members of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, and for the promotion 
of its applications to the welfare and happiness of mankind, to hear some- 
thing of recent advances in one of the several branches of science in its 
applications to naval and military requirements with which, during a long 
and arduous official career, now approaching its close, I laave become in 
some measure identified. 

Since the Meeting of the Association in this town in 1858, the progress 
which has been made in the regulation of the explosive force of gun- 
powder, so as to adapt it to the safe development of very high energy in 
guns presenting great deferences in regard to size and to the work wuich 
they have to perform, has been most important. The different forms of 
gunpowder which were applied to war- purposes in this and other countries. 



26 REPORT — 1890, 

until within tlie last few years, presented comparatively few differences in 
composition and methods of manufacture from each other, and from the 
gunpowder of our ancestors. The replacement of smooth-bore guns by 
rifled artillery, which followed the Crimean War, and the great increase in 
the size and power of guns necessitated by the application of armour to 
ships and forts, soon called, however, for the pursuit of investigations 
having for their object the attainment of means for variously modifying 
the action of fired gunpowder, so as to render it suitable for artillery of 
different calibres whose power could not be effectively, or, in some in- 
stances, safely, developed by the use of the only kind of gunpowder then 
employed in English artillery of all calibres. 

The means resorted to in the earlier of these investigations, and 
adhered to for many years, for controlling the violence of explosion of 
gunpowder, consisted exclusively in modifying the size and form, density 
and hardness, of the individual masses composing a charge, with the 
object of varying the rate of burning of those masses in a gun ; it 
being considered that, as the proportions of ingredients generally em- 
ployed very nearly correspond to those required for the development 
of the greatest chemical energy by the thoroughly-incorporated materials, 
the attainment of the desired results should be, if possible, effected 
rather by modifications of the physical and mechanical characters of gun- 
powder, than by variations of the proportions and chemical characters 
of its ingredients. 

The varieties of powder from time to time introduced into artillery- 
service, as the outcome of investigations in this direction, were of two 
distinct types : the first of these consisted of further developments of the 
old granulated or corned powder, being produced by breaking up more or 
less highly-pressed slabs of the material into grains, pebbles, or boulders 
of approximately uniform size and shape. Gunpowders of this class, 
ranging in size from about 1,000 pieces to the ounce to about 6 pieces to 
the pound, have performed efiicient service, and certain of them are still 
employed. The character of the other type is based upon the theoretical 
view that uniformity in the action of a particular gunpowder, when em- 
ployed under like conditions, demands not merely identity in regard to 
composition, but also identity in form, size, density, and structure of the 
individual masses of which a charge consists. To approach the practical 
realisation of this view, equal quantities of one and the same mixture of 
ingredients, presented in the form of powder of uniform fineness and 
dryness, must be submitted to a particular pressure, for a fixed period, 
in moulds of uniform size, the surrounding conditions and subsequent 
manufacturing processes being as nearly as possible alike. Practical 
experience has, however, shown that uniformity in the ballistic properties 
of black powder can be even more readily secured by the thorough blend- 
ing or mixing together of different products of manufacture, presenting 
some variationB in regard to size, density, hardness, or other features, than 



ADDnESS. 27 

by aiming at an approach to identity in the characters of the individual 
grains or masses. 

When our attention was fii'st actively directed to the modification of 
the ballistic properties of powder, the subject had already been to some 
extent dealt Avith, in the United States, by Rodman and Doremus, and the 
latter had proposed the employment, in heavy guns, of charges consisting 
of large pellets of prismatic form. While this prismatic powder, which 
was first used in Russia, was being perfected, and extensively applied 
there as well as in Germany and England, the pi'oduction of powder- 
masses more suitable, by the comparatively gradual nature of their ex- 
plosion, for the very large charges required for the heavy artillery of the 
present day, was actively pursued in Italy, and by our own Government 
Committee on Explosives, the outcome of exhaustive pi-actical investi- 
gations being the very efficient Fossano powder, or poudre progressif 
of the Italians, and the boulder- and large cylindrical-powders produced 
at Waltham Abbey. 

Researches carried out by Captain Noble and myself, some years ago, 
with a series of gunpowders presenting considerable differences in com- 
position, indicated that decided advantages might be secured, for heavy 
guns especially, by the employment of such a powder as would furnish a 
comparatively very lai-ge volume of gas, its explosion being at the same 
time attended by the development of much less heat than in the case of 
ordinary black powder. In the course of these researches much light 
was thrown upon the causes of the wearing or erosive action of powder- 
explosions upon the inner surface of the gun, an action which, especially 
in the larger calibres of artillery, produces so serious a deterioration of the 
arm that the velocity of projection and accuracy of shooting suffer consider- 
ably, the wear being most considerable where the products of explosion, 
while under the maximum pressure, can escape betv^een the projectile and 
the bore. The great velocity with which the very highly-heated gaseous 
and liquid (fused solid) products of explosion sweep over the heated sur- 
face of the metal, gives rise to a displacement of the particles composing 
the surface of the bore, which increases in extent as the latter becomes 
roughened, and thus opposes increased resistance ; at the same time, the 
high temperature to which the surface is raised reduces the rigidity of 
the metal, and its consequent power of resisting the force of the gaseous 
torrent ; and, lastly, some amount of chemical action upon the metal, by 
certain of the highly-heated, non-gaseous products of explosion, contri- 
butes towards an increase in the erosive effects. Experiments made upon 
a large scale by Captain Noble with powders of different composition, 
and with other explosives, have afforded decisive evidence that the explo- 
sive agent which furnishes the largest proportion of gaseous products, 
and the explosion of which is attended by the development of the smallest 
amount of heat, exerts least erosive action. 

Some eminent German gunpowder-manufacturers, who were at this 



28 REPORT — 1890. 

time actively engaged upon the production of a suitable powder for heavy 
guns, directed their attention, not merely to an alteration of the propor- 
tions of the ingredients, but also to a modification in the character of char- 
coal employed ; the eventual result was the production of a new pris- 
matic powder, composed of saltpetre in somewhat higher proportion than 
in normal black powder, and of a very slightly-burned charcoal of reddish- 
brown colour, quite similar to the charhon roux which Violette produced 
about forty years ago for use in sporting-powder, by the action of super- 
heated steam upon wood or other vegetable matter. This brown prismatic 
powder (or ' cocoa powder ') differs from black powder not merely in 
colour : it burns very slowly in the open air, and in guns its action is com- 
paratively gradual and long-sustained. The products of its explosion are 
simple ; as the powder contains saltpetre in large proportion relatively to 
the sulphur and charcoal, these become fully oxidised, and a relatively very 
large amount of water-vapour is produced, partly because of the com- 
paratively high proportion of water in the finished powder, and partly 
from the large amount of hydrogen in the slightly-charred wood or 
straw used. The smoke from a charge of brown powder differs but little 
in volume from that of black powder, but it disperses much more rapidly, 
owing to the speedy absorption of the finely-divided potassium salts, 
forming the smoke, by the large proportion of water- vapour through 
which they are distributed. 

This kind of powder has been substituted, with considerable advan- 
tage, for black powder in guns of comparatively large calibre, but it soon 
became desirable to attain even more gradual action in the case of the 
very large charges required for guns of the heaviest calibres, such as 
the 110-ton gun, from which shot of about 1,800 lb. weight are propelled 
by a powder-charge of 960 lb. Brown powder has therefore been modi- 
fied in composition to suit these conditions ; while, on the other hand, a 
powder intermediate in rapidity of action between black powder and the 
brown prism powder has been found more suitable than the former for 
use in guns of moderately large calibre. 

The importance which machine-guns and comparatively large, quick- 
firing guns have assumed in the armament of ships, has made it very 
desirable to provide a powder for them which will produce comparatively 
little or no smoke, as their efficient employment becomes greatly limited 
■when, after a very few rounds rapidly fired, with black powder, the objects, 
against which it is desired to direct the fire are more or less completely 
hidden by the interposed smoke. Hence much attention has of late been 
directed to the production of smokeless, or nearly smokeless, powders for 
naval use. At the same time, the views of many military authorities 
regarding the importance of dispensing with smoke in engagements on 
land, have also created a demand for smokeless powders suitable for field- 
artillery and for small-arms. 

The properties of ammoniiim-nitrate of which the products of decom- 



I 



I 



ADDKESS. 29 

position by heat are, in addition to water-vapour, entirely gaseous, bav© 
rendered it a tempting material to those %Yho have striven to produce a 
smokeless powder ; but its deliquescent character has been a formidable 
obstacle to its application as a component of a useful explosive agent. By 
incorporating charcoal and saltpetre in j^articular proportions with am- 
monium-nitrate, F. Gaus recently claimed to have produced an explosive 
material free from the hygi'oscopic character common to other ammonium- 
nitrate mixtures, and furnishing only permanently gaseous and volatile, 
or smokeless, products of explosion. These anticipations were not real- 
ised, but they led the talented German powder-maker, Mr. Heide- 
mann, to produce an ammonium-nitrate powder possessing remarkable 
ballistic properties, and producing comparatively little smoke, which 
speedily disperses. It yields a very much larger volume of gas and 
water- vapour than either black or brown powder, and is considerably 
slower in action than the latter ; the charge required to produce equal 
ballistic results is less, while the chamber-pressure developed is lower^ 
and the pressures along the chase of the gun are higher, than with brown, 
powder. No great tendency is exhibited by it to absorb moisture from 
an ordinarily dry, or even somewhat moist, atmosphere, but it rapidly 
absorbs water when the hygroscopic condition of the air approaches 
saturation, and this greatly restricts its use. 

About five years ago reports began to reach us from France of the 
attainment of remarkable results with a smokeless powder employed with 
the repeating or magazine rifle then in course of adoption for military ser- 
vice, and of marvellous velocities obtained by the use of this powder, in 
specially constructed artilleiy of great length. As in the case of the explo- 
sive agent called Melinite, the fabulously-destructive effects of which were 
much vaunted at about the same time, the secret of the nature of this smoke- 
less powder was well preserved by the French anthorities ; it is now 
known, however, that more than one smokeless explosive has succeeded 
the original, and that the material at present in use with the Lebel 
repeating rifle belongs to a class of nitro-cellulose or nitro-cotton pre- 
parations, of which several have been made the subject of patents in 
England, and of which varieties are also being used in Germany and 
other countries. 

A comparison between the chemical changes attending the burning 
or explosion of gunpowder, and of the class of nitro-compounds repre- 
sented by gun-cotton, at once explains the cause of the production of 
smoke by the former, and of the smokelessness of the latter. Whilst 
the products of explosion of the nitro-compounds consist exclusively of 
gases and of water- vapour, gunpowder, being composed of a large propor- 
tion of saltpetre, or other metallic niti-ate, mixed with charred vege- 
table matter and variable quantities of sulphur, furnishes products of 
which over 50 per cent, are not gaseous, even at high temperatures, and 
which are in part deposited as a fused solid — which constitutes the 



30 EEPORT — 1890. 

fouling in a firearm — and in part distribnted in an extremely fine state 
of division througli the gases and vapours developed by the explosion, 
thus giving to these the appearance of smoke as they escape into the air. 

So far as smokelessness is concerned, no material can surpass gtm- 
coiton (or other varieties of nitro-cellulose) ; but, even if the rate of 
combustion of the fibrous explosive in a firearm could be controlled with 
certainty and uniformity, its application as a safe propulsive agent is 
attended by so many difficulties that the non-success of the numerous 
eai'ly attempts to apply it to that purpose is not surprising. Those attempts, 
commencing soon after the discovery of gun-cotton in 1846, and continued 
many years later in Austria, consisted entirely in varying the density and 
mechanical condition of employment of the gun-cotton fibre. No diffi- 
culty "was experienced in thus exercising complete control over the 
rapidity of burning in the open air ; but when the material was strongly 
confined, as in the bore of a gun, such methods of regulating its explosive 
force were quite unreliable, as some slight unforeseen variation in its com- 
pactness or in the amount and disposition of the air-spaces in the mass, 
would develop very violent action. Much more promising results were 
subsequently obtained by me by reducing the fibre to a pulp, as in the 
ordinary process of making paper, and converting this into highly-com- 
pressed, homogeneous masses of the desired form and size. Some favour- 
able results were obtained at Woolwich, in 1867-8, in field-guns, with 
cartridges built up of compressed gun-cotton variously formed and 
arranged, with the object of regulating the rapidity of explosion of the 
charge. But although comparatively small charges often gave high 
velocities of projection, without any indications of injury to the gun, the 
uniform fulfilment of the conditions essential to safety proved to be beyond 
absolute control, even in guns of small calibre ; and military authorities 
not being, in those days, alive to the advantages which might accrue from 
the employment of an entirely smokeless explosive in artillery, experi- 
ments in this direction were not persevered in. At the same time, ' 
considerable success attended the production of gun-cotton cartridges 
for sporting purposes, the rapidity of its explosion being controlled 
by various methods ; very promising results were also attained with 
the Martini-Henry rifle and a lightly-compressed pulped gun-cotton 
charge, of pellet-form, the uniform action of which was secured by simple 
means. 

A nearly smokeless sporting-powder had, in the meantime, been pro- 
duced by Colonel Schultze, of the Prussian Artillery, from finely- 
divided wood, converted after purification into a mildly explosive form 
of nitro-cellulose, and impregnated with a small portion of an oxidising 
agent. Subsequently this powder was produced in a granular form, and 
rendered considerably more uniform in character, and less hygroscopic ; 
it then closely resembled the well-known E.G. sporting powder, which 
consists of a nitro-cotton reduced to pulp, incorporated with the nitrates 



ADDRESS. 3 1 

of potassium and barium, and converted into grains through the agency 
of a solvent and a binding material. Both these povrders produce very- 
little smoke compared with black powder, but they do not compete with 
the latter in regard to accuracy of shooting, when used in military arms. 

In past years both camphor and liquid solvents have been applied to the 
hardening of the surfaces of granulated or compressed masses of gun-cotton 
and of this class of its preparations, with a view to render them non-porous, 
lu some smokeless powders of French, German, Belgian, and English 
manufacture, acetic ether and acetone have been also used, not merely to 
harden the granules or tablets of the explosive, but also to convert the 
nitre-cellulose, in the first instance, into a more or less gelatinous con- 
dition, so that it can readily be incorporated witli other components and 
rolled, or spread into sheets, or pressed into moulds, or squirted into 
wires, rods, or tubes, while still in a plastic state. When the solvent 
has afterwards been removed, the hardened, horn-like, or somewhat 
plastic product is cut up into tablets, or into strips or pieces of suitable 
dimensions, for conversion into charges or cartridges. 

Another class of smokeless powder, similar in physical characteristics 
to these nitro-cellulose powders, but containing nitro-glycerine as an im- 
portant component, has been originated by Mr. Alfred Nobel, the well- 
known inventor of dynamite, and bears resemblance in its physical charac- 
teristics to another of his inventions, called blasting-gelatine, one of the 
most interesting of known violent explosive agents. When one of the 
lower products of nitration of cellulose is impregnated with the liquid 
explosive, nitro-glycerine, it gradually loses its fibrous nature, becoming 
gelatinised while assimilating the liquid ; and the resulting product 
almost possesses the characters of a compound. This preparation, and 
certain modifications of it, have acquired high importance as blasting- 
agents more powerful than dynamite, and are possessed of the valuable 
property that their prolonged immersion in water does not separate 
from them any appreciable proportion of nitro-glycerine. The nitro- 
glycerine powder first produced by Mr. Nobel was almost perfectly 
smokeless, and developed very high energy, accompanied by moderate 
pressures at the seat of the charge; but it possessed certain practical 
defects, which led to the development of several modifications of that 
explosive and various improvements in manufacture. The relative 
merits of this class of smokeless powder, and of various kinds of 
nitro-cellulose powder, are now under careful investigation in this and 
other countries, and several more or less formidable difficulties have been 
met with in their application, in small-arms especially ; these arise in part 
from the comparatively great heat they develop, which increases the 
erosive effects of the products of explosion, and in part from the moro 
or less complete absence of solid products. The surfaces of the barrel 
and of the projectile being left clean, after the firing, are in a con- 
dition favourable to their close adhesion while the ballet is propelled 



32 EEPORT — 1890. 

alonf^ the bore, with tlie consequence tliat very greatly increased friction 
is esTablislied. The latter difficulty lias been surmounted by more than 
one expedient, but always at the cost of absolute smokelessness. 

Our knowledo-e of the results obtained in France and Germany 
with the use of smokeless powders in the new rifles and in artillery 
is somewhat limited ; our own experiments have demonstrated that 
satisfactory results are attainable with more than one variety of them, 
not only in the new repeating-arm of our infantry, but also with our 
machine-guns, with field-artillery, and with the quick-firing guns of 
laro-er calibre which constitute an important feature in the armament 
of our Navy. The importance of ensuring that the powder shall not 
be liable to undergo chemical change detrimental to its efficiency or 
safety, when stored in difTerent localities where it may be subject to 
considerable variations of temperature (a condition especially essential 
in connection with our own Naval and Military service in all parts of 
the world), necessitates qualities not very easily secured in an explosive 
ao-ent consistino- mainly of the comparatively sensitive nitro-compounds 
to which the chemist is limited in the production of a smokeless powder. 
It is possible, therefore, that the extent of use of such a material in our 
ships, or in our tropical possessions, may have to be limited by the practica- 
bility of fulfilling certain special conditions essential to its storage without 
dan O'er of possible deterioration. If, however, great advantages are likely 
to attend the employment of a smokeless explosive, at any rate for certain 
Services, it will be well worth while to adopt such special arrangements 
as may be required for securing these without incurring special dangers ; 
this may prove to be especially necessary in our ships of war, where 
temperatures so high as to be prejudicial even to ordinary black powder 
sometimes prevail in the magazines, consequent mainly upon the positions 
assio-ned to them in the ships, but which may be guarded against by 
measures not difficult of application. 

The Press accounts of the wonderful performances of the first smoke- 
less powder adopted by the French — which, it should be added, were 
in some respects confirmed by official reports of officers who had wit- 
nessed experiments at a considerable distance — engendered a belief that 
a very great revolution in the conduct of campaigns must result from the 
introduction of such powders. It was even reported very positively that 
noiselessness was one of the important attributes of a smokeless powder, and 
hio-hly-coloured comparisons have in consequence been drawn in Service- 
periodicals, and even by some military authorities, between the battles of 
the past and those of the future : the terrific din caused by the firing 
of the many guns and the roar of infantry-fire, in heavy engagements, 
beino- supposed to be reduced to noise so slight that distant troops would 
fail to know in what direction their comrades were engaged, and that 
sentries and outposts would no longer be able to warn their comrades of 
the approaching foe by the discharge of their rifles. Military journals of 



ADDRESS. 33 

renown, misled by such legendary accounts, chiefly emanating from France, 
referred to the absence of noise and smoke in battles as greatly enhancing 
the demands for skill and courage, and as surrounding a fight with mystery. 
The absence of recoil when a rifle was fired with smokeless powder was 
another of the marvels reported to attend the use of these new agents 
of warfare. It need scarcely be said that a closer acquaintance with 
them has dispelled the credit given to such of the accounts of their sup- 
posed qualities as were mythical, and a belief in which could only be 
ascribable to a phenomenal combination of credulity with ignorance of the 
most elementary scientific knowledge. 

The extensive use which has been made in Germany of smokeless or 
nearly smokeless powder in one or two special military displays has, 
however, aSbrded interesting indications of the actual changes likely 
to be wrought in the conditions under which engagements on land will be 
fought in the future, provided these new explosives thoroughly establish 
and maintain their positions as safe and reliable propelling agents. 
Although the powder adopted in Germany is not actually smokeless, 
the almost transparent film of smoke produced by independent rifle- 
firing with it is not visible at a distance of about 300 yards ; at shorter 
distances it presents the appearance of a puff from a cigar. The most 
rapid salvo-firing by a large number of men does not have the effect of 
obscuring them from distant observers. When machine-guns and field- 
artillery are fired with the almost absolutely smokeless powder which we 
are employing, their position is not readily revealed to distant observers 
by the momentary vivid flash of flame and slight cloud of dust produced. 

There now appears little doubt that in future warfare belligerents on 
both sides will alike be users of these new powders ; the screening or 
obscuring eS"ect of smoke will therefore be practically absent during 
engagements between contending forces, and while, on the one hand, the 
very important protection of smoke, and its sometimes equally important 
assistance in manoeuvres, will thus be abolished, both combatants will, 
on the other hand, secure the advantages of accuracy of shooting and of 
the use of individual fire, through the medium of cover, with comparative 
immunity from detection. Such results as these cannot fail to afiect, more 
or less radically, the principles and conditions under which battles have 
hitherto been fought. With respect to the Naval Service, it is especially for 
the quick-firing guns, so important for defensive purposes, that a smoke- 
less powder has been anxiously looked for ; by the adoption of such a 
powder as has during the past year been elaborated for our artillery, 
should experience establish its reliability under all Service conditions and 
its power to fulfil all reasonable requirements in regard to stability, these 
guns will not only be used by our ships under conditions most favour- 
able to their efliciency, but their power will also be very importantly 
increased. 

The ready and safe attainment of very high velocities of projection 

1890. D 



34 REPORT— 18G0. 

through the agency of these new varieties of explosive agents, employed in 
guns of suitable construction, would appear at first sight to promise a very im- 
portant advance in the power of artillery ; the practical difficulties attending 
the utilisation of these results are, however, sufficiently formidable to place, 
at any rate at present, comparatively narrow limits upon our powers of 
availing ourselves of the advantages in ballistics which they may present. 
The strength of the gun-carriages and the character of the arrangements 
used for absorbing the force of recoil of the gun need considerable modi- 
fications, not easy of application in some instances ; greater strength and 
perfection of manufacture are imperative in the case of the hollow pro- 
jectiles or shells to be used with charges of a propelling agent, by the 
firing of which in the gun they may be submitted to comparatively 
very severe concussions ; the increased friction to which portions of the 
explosive contents of the shell are exposed by the more violent setting 
back of the mass may increase the jjossibility of their accidental ignition 
before the shell has been projected from the gun ; the increase of con- 
cussion to which the fuse in the shell is exposed may give rise to a 
similar risk consequent upon an increased liability to a failure of the 
mechanical devices employed for preventing the igniting arrangement, 
designed to come into operation only upon the impact or graze of the 
projected shells, from being set into action prematurely by the shock 
of the discharge ; lastly, the circumstance, that the rate of burning 
of the time-fuse which determines the efficiency of a projected shrapnel 
shell is materially altered by an increase in the velocity of flight of the 
shell, also presents a source of difficulty. 

The fallibility of even the most simple forms of fuse, manufactured in 
very large numbers, although it may be remote, must always engender a 
feeling of insecurity, when shells are employed containing an explosive 
agent of the class which, in recent years, it has been sought, by every 
resource of ingenuity, combined with intimate knowledge of the pro- 
perties of these explosives, to apply as substitutes for gunpowder in shells, 
on account of their comparatively great destructive power. 

One of the first uses, for purposes of warfare, to which it was attempted 
to apply gun-cotton, was as a charge for shells. But even when this was 
highly compressed, and accurately fitted the shell-chamber, with the in- 
tervention only of a soft packing between the surfaces of explosive and 
of metal, to guard against friction between the two upon the shock of the 
discharge, no security was attaiaable against the ignition of the compara- 
tively sensitive explosive by friction established within its mass at the 
moment when the shell ia first set in motion. By the premature explosion 
of a shell charged with gunpowder, no important injury is inflicted upon 
the gun, but a similar accidental ignition of a gun-cotton charge must 
almost inevitably burst the arm. The earlier attempts to apply gun- 
cotton as a bursting-charge for shells were several times attended by very 
disastrous accidents of this kind ; but the fact, afterwards discovered, 



ADDEESS. 35 

that wet compressed gau-cotton, even when containing safEcient water to 
render it quite uninflammable, can be detonated through the agency of a 
sufficiently powerful charge of fulminate of mercury, or of a small quantity 
of dry gun-cotton imbedded within it, has led to the perfectly safe appli- 
cation of gun-cotton in shells, provided the fase, through the agency of 
which the initiative detonating agent in the shell comes into operation, 
is secure against any liability to premature ignition when the gun is 
fired. Many successful experiments have been made with shells thus 
charged with wet gun-cotton, which is now recognised as a formidable 
destructive agent applicable in shells with much less risk of casualty than 
attends the use of many other of the violent explosive bodies which it 
has become fashionable, in professional parlance, to designate as ' hio-h 
explosives.' 

Many devices and arrangements, more or less ingenious and compli- 
cated, have been schemed, especially in the United States, for applying 
preparations of the very sensitive liquid, nitro-glycerine, such as 
dynamite and blasting-gelatine, as charges for shells. Some of these 
consist in subdividing the charge by more or less elaborate methods ; 
in others the shell is also lined with some soft elastic packing-mate- 
rial, and paddings of similar material are applied in the head and the 
base of the shell-chamber, with the object of reducing the friction and 
concussion to which the explosive is exposed when the projectile is first 
set in motion. Such arrangements obviously diminish the space available 
for the charge in the shell, and the best of them fail to render these ex- 
plosives as safe to employ as wet gun-cotton. In order to avoid exjjosin"- 
shells loaded with such explosives to the concussion produced when pro- 
pelling them by a powder-charge, compressed air has been applied as the 
propelling agent, and guns of special construction and very large dimen- 
sions, from which shells containing as much as 500 lb. of gun-cotton or 
dynamite are projected through the agency of compressed air, have 
recently been elaborated in the United States, where great expectations 
ai'e entertained of the value, for war-purposes, of these so-called pneumatic 
guns. 

A highly ingenious device for utilising a class of very powerful 
explosives in shells, without any risk of accident to the gun, was not long 
since brought forward by Mr. Griisen, the well-known armour-plate and 
projectile manufacturer of Magdeburg. It consisted of a thoroughly 
efficient arrangement for applying the fact, first demonstrated by Dr. 
Sprengel, that mixtures of nitric acid of high specific gravity with solid 
or liquid hydrocarbons, or with the nitro- compounds of these, are sus- 
ceptible of detonation, with development of very high energy. The two 
agents, of themselves non-explosive — nitric acid and the hydro-carbon, or 
its nitro-product — are separately confined in the shell ; when it is first set 
in motion by the firing of the gun, the fracture of the receptacle containing 
the liquid nitric acid is determined by a very simple device ; the two 



36 REPORT — 1890. 

substances are then free to come into contact, and their very rapid mixture 
is promoted by the rotation of the shell, so that, almost by the time that it 
is projected from the gun, its contents, at first quite harmless, have become 
converted into a powerfully explosive mixture, ready^to come into opera- 
tion through the action of the fuse. Although safety appears assured by 
this system, the comparatively complicated nature of the contrivance, and 
the loss of space in the shell thereby entailed, place it at a disadvantage, 
especially since some other very violent explosive agents have come to 
be applied with comparative safety in shells. 

Between four and five years ago intelligence first reached us of 
marvellously destructive effects produced by shells charged with an 
explosive agent which the French Government was^ elaborating. The 
reported results surpassed any previously recorded in regard to violently 
destructive effects and great velocity of projection of the fragments of 
exploded shells, and it was asserted that the employment of this new 
material, Melinite, was unattended by the usual dangers incident to this 
particular application of violent explosive agents, an assertion scarcely 
consistent with accounts which soon reached us of several terrible calami- 
ties due to the accidental explosion of shells loaded with Melinite. 

Although the secret of the precise nature of Melinite has been 
extremely well preserved, it transpired ere long that extensive purchases 
■wei-e made in England, by or for the French authorities, of one of the 
many coal-tar derivatives which for some years past has been extensively 
manufactui-ed for tinctorial purposes, but which, although not itself classed 
among explosive bodies until quite lately, had long before been known 
to furnish, with some metals, more or less highly explosive combinations, 
some of which bad been applied to the production of preparations sug- 
gested as substitutes for gunpowder. 

The product of destructive distillation of coal from which, by oxida- 
tion, this material is now manufactured, is the important and universally- 
known antiseptic and disinfectant, carbolic acid, or phenol. Originally 
designated carbazotic acid, the substance now known as picric acid was 
first obtained in small quantities as a chemical curiosity by the oxidation 
of silk, aloes, &c., and of the well-known blue dye indigo, which thus 
yielded another dye of a brilliant yellow colour. To the many who may 
regard this interesting phenol-derivative as a material concerning the 
stability and other properties of which we have little knowledge, it will 
be interesting to learn that it has been known to chemists for more than a 
century. It was first manufactured in England for tinctorial purposes by 
the oxidation of a yellow resin (Xanthorrhcea hastilis), known as Botany 
Bay gum. Its production from carbolic acid was developed in Manchester 
in 1862, and its application as a dye gradually extended, until, in 1886, 
nearly 100 tons were produced in England and Wales. 

Although picric acid compounds were long since experimented with as 
explosive agents, it was not until a very serious accident occurred, in 1887, 



ADDBESS. 37 

at some works near Maucliester where the djo had been for some time 
manufactured, that pubhc attention was directed in England to the power- 
fully explosive nature of this substance itself. The French authorities 
appear, however, to have been at that time already engaged upon its 
application as an explosive for shells. It is now produced in very large 
quantities at several works in Great Britain, and it has been extensively 
exported during the last four years, evidently for other than the usual 
commercial purposes. Large supplies of phenol, or carbolic acid, have, at 
the same time, been purchased in England for France, and lately for 
Germany, doubtless for the manufacture of picric acid, very extensive 
works having been established for its production in both those countries. 
It has been made the subject of experiment by our military authorities, 
and its position has been well established as a thoroughly stable explosive 
agent, easily manufactured, comparatively safe to deal with, and very 
destructive when the conditions essential for its detonation are fulfilled. 

The precise nature of Melinite appears to be still only known to the 
French authorities : it is asserted to be a mixture of picric acid with some 
material imparting to it greater power ; but accounts of accidents which have 
occurred even quite recently in the handling of shells charged with that 
material appear to show that, in point of safety or stability, it is decidedly 
inferior to simple picric acid. Reliable as the latter is, in this respect, its 
employment is, however, not unattended with the difficulties and risks 
which have to be encountered in the use, in shells, of other especially 
violent explosives. Future experience in actual warfare can alone determine 
decisively the relative value of violent explosive agents, like picric acid 
or wet gun-cotton, and of the comparatively slow explosive, gunpowder, 
for use in shells; it is certain, however, that the latter still presents 
distinct advantages in some directions, and that there is no present pro- 
spect of its being more than very partially superseded as an explosive 
for shells. 

With regard to submarine mines and locomotive torpedoes, such as 
those marvels of ingenuity and constructive skill, the Whitehead and 
Brennan torpedoes, the important progress recently made in the prac- 
tical development of explosive agents has not resulted in the provision 
of a material which equals wet compressed gun-cotton in combining with 
great destructive power the all-important essential of safety to those 
who have to deal with these formidable weapons and to man the small 
vessels destined to perform the very hazardous service of attacking ships 
of war at short distances by means of locomotive torpedoes. 

Although the subject of the development of explosive force for purposes 
of war has of late received from workers in applied science, from seekers 
of patentable inventions, and even from the public generally, a somewhat 
predominating shai-e of attention, considering that we congratulate our- 
selves upon the enjoyment of a period of profound peace, yet the produc- 



38 REroRT — 1890. 

tion of new explosive agents for mining and quarrying purposes, which 
present or lay claim to points of superiority over the well-established 
blasting-agents, has been by no means at a standstill. For many years 
the main object sought to be achieved in this direction was to surpass, 
in power or adaptability to particular classes of work, the well-known 
preparations of nitro-glycerine and gun-cotton, which, during the past 
twenty years, have been formidable competitors and, in many directions, 
absolutely successful rivals of black powder. It is both interesting and 
satisfactory to note, however, that this object has of late, and especially 
since the publication of the results of labours of English and foreign 
Commissions on the causes of mine-accidents, been prominently associated 
with endeavours to solve the important problems of combining, in an 
explosive agent, efiBcicncy in point of power with comparative non- 
sensitiveness to explosion by friction or percussion, and of securing 
its effective operation with little or no accompaniment of i^rojected flame. 
Safety-dynamites, flameless explosives, water- cartridges, and other classes 
of materials and devices connected with the getting of coal, the quarry- 
ing of rock, or the blasting of minerals, have claimed the attention of 
those who guide the miner's work ; in some of these directions the 
practical results obtained have been beyond question important, and, 
indeed, conclusive as regards the great diminution of risks to which 
men need be exposed in those coal-mines where the ordinary use of 
explosives, although not altogether inadmissible, may at times be attended 
with dano-er. It is to be feared that those results are still far from 
receiving the amount of application which might reasonably be hoped 
for ; but, at any rate, there are, among the extensive mining districts 
where the employment of explosives in connection with the getting of coal 
cannot be dispensed with, several of importance where the use of gun- 
powder has almost entirely given place to the adoption of blasting-agents 
or methods of blasting, the employment of which is either not, or only 
very exceptionally, attended by the projection of flame or incandescent 
matter into the air where the shot is fired. 

The mining public is especially indebted to German workers for much 
of the success which has been obtained in this direction, and also to the emi- 
nent French authorities, Mallard and Le Chatelier, for their thorough theo- 
retical and practical investigations bearing upon the prevention of acci- 
dental ignition of fire-damp during blasting operations. Having arrived at 
the conclusion that fire-damp- and air-mixtures are not ignited by the firing 
of explosive preparations which develop by their detonation temperatures 
lower than 2220° C, they found that ammonium-nitrate, although in 
itself susceptible of detonation, does not develop a higher temperature than 
1180° C, while the temperature of detonation of nitro-glvcerine and gun- 
cotton are, respectively, 3170° and 2036°. Hence the admixture of that 
salt with nitro-glycerine or gun-cotton in suflBcient proportion to reduce 
the temperature of detonation to within safe limits should allow of the 



I 



ADDRESS. 39 

employment of those explosive agents in the presence of fire-damp mixtures 
without risk of accident, and the pi'actical verification of this conclusion 
has led to the effective use of such mixtures as safe blasting-agents in coal. 

Those who have been content to labour long and arduously with the 
objects steadily in view of advancing our knowledge of the causes of 
mine-accidents and of developing resources and measures for removing 
or combating those causes, can cherish the conviction that recent legis- 
lation in connection with coal-mines, based upon the results of those 
labours, has been already productive of decided benefits to the miner, 
even although it has fallen short of what might reasonably have been 
hoped for as an outcome of the very definite results and conclusions 
arrived at by the late Royal Commission on Accidents in Mines (in the 
recent much-lamented death of whose universally respected chairman, my 
late esteemed friend and colleague. Sir Warington Smyth, the scientific 
world has sustained the loss of an ardent worker, and the miner, of an 
invaluable friend). 

The fearful dangers arising from the accumulation of inflammable dust 
in coal-mines, and the equality of mine-dust with fire-damp in its direful 
power of propagating explosions, which may sometimes even be, in the first 
instance, established chiefly or entirely through its agency, have now been 
long recognised as beyond dispute ; audit is satisfactory to know that permis- 
sion to fire shots in mine-workings which are dry and dusty has, by recent 
legislation, been made conditional upon the previous laying of the dust 
by effective watering. In some mining districts, moreover, the purely 
voluntary pi'actice has been extensively adopted, by mine-owners, of 
periodically watering the main roads in dry and dusty mines, or of 
frequently discharging water-spray into the air in such roads, which must 
tend greatly to reduce the possible magnitude of the disastrous results 
of a fire-damp- or dust-explosion in any part of the mine-workings. 

The encouragement given to the application of the combined resources 
of ingenuity, mechanical skill, and knowledge of scientific principles, 
through the elaborate, but thoroughly practical, comparative trials to 
which almost every variety of safety-lamp has, during the last few 
years, been submitted by competent and conscientious experimenters, 
has resulted in the provision of lamps to the hand of the miner which 
jcombine the essential qualities of safety, under the most exceptionally 
iBevere conditions, with good illuminating power, simplicity of construc- 
tion, lightness, and moderate cost. Very important progress has also 
jeen made, since the first appointment of the late Accidents in Mines 
[Commission, towards the provision of thoroughly serviceable and safe 
aortable electric lamps for use in mines. Of those which have already 
been in the hands of the miners, several have fairly fulfilled his require- 
ments as regards size, weight, and good illuminating power of suSicient 
Iduration ; but much still remains to be accomplished with respect to 
lurability, simplicity, thorough portability, and cost, before the self- 



40 REPOET — 1890. 

contained electric lamp can be expected to compete successfally with the 
greatly imjrjroved miners' lamps which are now in use, or available. 

The recent legislation in connection with mines is certainly deficient 
in any snfBciently decisive measure for excluding from mine-workings 
certain forms of lamps which, while fairly safe in the old days of sluggish 
ventilation, are unsafe in the rapid air-currents now frequently met with 
in mines ; it is, however, very satisfactory to know that the strong repre- 
sentations on this siibject made by the late Commission, combined with 
force of example and with the conclusive demonstration, by exhaustive ex- 
periments, of the superiority of other lamps, have led within the last two 
years to the very general abandonment of the unprotected Davy, Clanny, 
and Stephenson lamps in favour, either of simple, safe modifications of 
these, or of other safe and efficient lamps, and that one possible element 
of danger to the miner has thus been eliminated, at any rate in many 
districts. In one imjjortant respect recent improved legislation has failed 
to effect a most desirable change, namely, in the substitution of safety- 
lamps for naked lights in workings where small local accumulations of 
fire-damp are discovered from time to time. There appears little doubt 
that one of the three fearful explosions which have occurred within the last 
twelve months — the catastrophe at Llanerch Colliery, near Pontypool — 
was caused by the continued employment of naked lights in a mine where 
inspection constantly revealed the presence of fire-damp. This explosion, 
and two other terrible disasters, at Mossfield Colliery, in Staffordshire, 
and at Morfa Colliery, near Swansea, which have occurred since the last 
meeting of the Association, may have seemed to weaken the belief that 
the operation of the recent Mines Regulation Act, which was based upon 
some of the results of seven years' arduous labour of the late Mines 
Commission, must have resulted in very substantial improvement in 
the management of mines and in the conduct of work by the men. 
Happily, however, there is a consensus of opinion among those most 
competent to judge — i.e. the Government Mine Inspectors — that very 
decided benefits have already accrued from the operation of the new Act. 
Although far from embodying all that the experienced mine-owners, 
miners, and scientific workers upon that Commission, as well as practical 
authorities in Parliament, concurred in regarding as reasonably adaptable, 
from the results of observation and experiment, to the furtherance of the 
safer working of mines, this Act does include measures, precautionary 
and preventive, of undeniable utiHty, well calculated to lessen the dangers 
which surround the miner, and to add to his personal comfort underground. 
We may hope, moreover, that the operation of the Act is paving the way to 
more comprehensive legislation in the near future ; for it can scarcely be 
doubted, by the light of recent sad experience, that there are directions in 
which both masters and men still hesitate to adopt, of their own free will, 
measures or regulations, methods of working or appliances and precau- 
tions, which are calculated to be important additional safeguards against 



ADDRESS. 41 

mine-accidents, and which are either left untouched, or only hesitatingly 
and imperfectly dealt with in the recent enactments. 

My labours upon the late Mines Commission represent only one of 
sevei'al subjects in connection with which it has been my good fortune to 
have opportunities of rendering some slight public service in directions 
contrasting with one of the main functions of my career, by endeavouring 
to apply the results of scientific research to a diminution of the risks to 
which particular classes of the community, or the public at large, are 
exposed — of being sufferers by explosions, the results of accidents or other 
causes. 

During the pursuit of bread- winning vocations, and even in ordinary 
domestic life, the conditions, as well as the materials, requisite for deter- 
mining more or less disastrous explosions are often ready to hand, and 
their activity may be evoked at any moment through individual heedless- 
ness or through pure accident. Steam, or gases confined under pressure, 
volatile inflammable liquids, combustible gases, or finely-divided inflam- 
mable solids, are now all well recognised as capable of assuming the 
character of formidable explosive agents ; but with respect to the three 
last-named, it is only of late that material progress has been made towards 
a popular comprehension and appreciation of the conditions conducive to 
danger, and of those by the fulfilment of which danger may be avoided. 
Thus, the causes of explosions in coal-laden ships, together with 
the occurrence of spontaneous ignition in coal-cargoes, another fruitful 
source of disaster, were made the subject of careful inquiry some 
years ago by a Royal Commission, upon which I had the pleasure of 
working with the late Dr. Percy, whose invaluable labours for the 
advancement of metallurgic science will always be gratefully remembered. 
The light thrown by that inquiry upon the causes of those disasters, and 
upon the conditions to be fulfilled for guarding against the accumulations 
of fire-damp, gradually escaping from occlusion in coal, and of heat, 
developed by chemical changes occurring in coal-cargoes, has unquestion- 
ably led to an important reduction of the risks to which coal-laden ships 
are exposed. Subsequent official inquiries and experimental investigations, 
in which I took part with the late Sir Warington Smyth and some eminent 
naval officers, consequent upon the loss of H.M.S. ' Doterel ' through the 
accidental ignition of an explosive mixture of petroleum spirit-vapour 
and air (and other calamities in warships originating with the gradual 
emission of fire-damp fi'om coal), have resulted in the adoption of efficient 
arrangements for ventilating all spaces occupied by, and contiguous to, 
the large supplies of fuel which these vessels have to carry. 

The thorough investigation, by Rankine and others, of the causes of 
explosions in flour-mills, which in years past were so frequent and disas- 
trous, has secured the adoption of efficient measures for diminishing 
the production, and the dissemination through channels and other spaces 



42 EEPORT — 1890. 

in the mills, of explosive mixtures of flour-dust and air, and for guarding 
ao-ainst their accidental ignition. The numerous terrible accidents caused 
by the formation and accidental ignition of explosive mixtures of inflam- 
mable vapour and air in ships carrying cargoes of petroleum stored in 
barrels or in tanks, have, by the investigations to which they have given 
rise, led to the indication of effective precautionary measm^es for guard- 
inf acrainst their recurrence. Again, the many distressing accidents, 
frequently fatal, which have attended the domestic use of those valuable 
illuminants, petroleum and mineral oils of kindred character, have been 
made the subject of exhaustive investigations, which have demonstrated 
that these disasters may readily be prevented by the employment of 
lamps of proper construction, and by the observance of very simple pre- 
cautions by the users of them ; and a recent official inquiry which I have 
conducted with Mr. Boverton Eedwood has furnished most gratifying 
proof that very substantial progress has been made within the last few 
years by lamp-manufacturers in the voluntary adoption of such principles 
of construction as we had experimentally demonstrated to be essential for 
secui'ing the safe use of mineral oils in lamps for lighting and heating 
purposes, the employment of which has, within a brief period, received 
enormous extension in this and other countries. 

The creation and rapid developnient of the petroleum industry has, 
indeed, furnished one of the most remarkable illustrations which can be 
cited of industrial progress during the period which has elapsed since the 
British Association last met in Leeds. One year after that meeting, viz., 
on August 28, 1859, the first well, drilled in the United States with the 
object of obtaining petroleum, was successfully completed, and the rate 
of increase in production in the Pennsylvania oil-fields during the suc- 
ceeding years is shown by the following figures : — 

In 1859, 6,000 barrels (of forty-two American gallons) were produced. 
In the following year the production increased to 500,000 barrels ; while 
in the next year (18G1) it exceeded 2,000,000 barrels, at which figure it 
remained, with slight fluctuations, until 18G5. The supply then continued 
to increase gradually, until, in 1870, it reached nearly 6,000,000 barrels ; 
while in 1874 it amounted to nearly 11,000,000 barrels. In 1880 it 
amounted to over 26,000,000 barrels, and in 1882 it reached 31,000,000. 
Since then the stipply furnished by the United States has fallen some- 
what, and last year it amounted to 21,500,000 barrels. The production 
of crude petroleum in the Pennsylvanian fields, large as it has been, 
has not, however, kept pace with the consumption, for we find that the 
accumulated stocks, which on December 31, 1888, amounted to over 
18,000,000 barrels, had become reduced to about 11,000,000 barrels 
at the close of last year. At this rate the surplus stock above 
ground will have vanished by the end of the current year. In addi- 
tion to the petroleum raised in Pennsylvania, there is now a very 
large production in the State of Ohio ; but this has not as yet been em- 



ADDEESS. 43 

ployed as a source of lamp-oil ; it is, however, transported by pipe line in 
great quantities to Chicago, for use as liquid fuel in industrial opera- 
tions. 

A few years after the development of the United States petroleum- 
industry, the production of crude petroleum in Russia also began to extend 
very rapidly. For more than 2,500 years Baku, on the borders of 
the Caspian Sea, has been celebrated for its naphtha springs and for the 
perpetual flames of the Fire "Worsliippers, fed by tlie marvellous subter- 
ranean supplies of natural gas. To a limited extent neighbouring nations 
appear to have availed themselves of the vast supplies of mineral oil at Baku 
during the past one thousand years. By the thirteenth century the 
export of the crude oil had already become somewhat extensive, but the 
production of petroleum from it by distillation is of comparatively recent 
date. In 1863 the supplies of petroleum from the Baku district amounted 
to 5,018 tons ; they increased to somewhat more than double during the 
succeeding five years. In 1869 and following three years the production 
reached about 27,000 tons annually, and in 1873 it was about 64,000 
tons; three years later, 153,000 tons w^ere produced, and in the follow- 
ing five years there was a steady annual increase, until, in 1882, the 
pi'oduction amounted to 677,269 tons; in 1884 it considerably exceeded 
1,000,000 tons, and last year it amounted to about 3,300,000 tons. The 
consumption of crude petroleum as fuel for locomotive purposes has, 
moreover, now assumed very large proportions in Russia, and many 
millions of gallons are annually consumed in Avorking the vast system of 
railways on botli sides of the Caspian Sea. 

The imported refined petroleum used in this country in lamps for 
lighting, heating, and cooking, was exclusively American until within the 
last few years, but a very large proportion of present supplies comes 
from Russia. The imports of kerosene into London and the chief ports 
of the United Kingdom during 1889 amounted to 1,116,205 barrels of 
United States oil, and 771,227 bai'rels of Russian oil. During the same 
period the out-turn of mineral oil for use in lamps by the Scottish Shale 
Oil Companies probably amounted to about 500,000 barrels. 

Another important feature connected with the development of the 
petroleum industry is the great extent to which the less volatile products 
of its distillation have replaced vegetable and animal oils and fats for 
lubricating purposes in this and other countries. The value of petroleum 
as a liquid fuel and as a source of gas for illuminating purposes has, 
moreover, been long since recognised, and it is probable that one outcome 
of the attention which is now being given to the hitherto unworked 
deposits of petroleum in the East and West Indies, South America, and else- 
where, will be a very large increase in its application to these purposes. 
In the East Indies there are vast tracts of oil-fields in Burmah, Baluchis- 
tan, Assam, and the Punjab. The native Rangoon oil industry is one 
of great antiquity, although the oil -was only used in the crude condition 



44 KEroKT— 1890. 

until about thirty-five years ago, at which time Dr. Hugo Miiller, with 
the late Warren De la Rue, whose many-sided labours and generous bene- 
factions have so importantly contributed to the advancement of science, 
made valuable researches on the products furnished by crude oil imported 
from Rangoon. The resources of the oil-fields of Upper Burmah, especi- 
ally of the district of Yenangyoung (or creek of stinldng water), have since 
then been developed b}^ British enterprise, and have attained to consider- 
able importance since our annexation of Upper Burmah. 

The great extension of the petroleum trade is gradually leading to 
very important improvements in the system of transjjort of the material 
over water and on land. Until recently this has been carried out entirely in 
barrels and tin cases ; the consequent great loss from leakage and evapora- 
tion, accompanied by risk of accident, is now becoming much reduced by 
the rapidly- increasing employment of tank-steamers, which transport the 
oil in bulk. Tank railway-wagons have for some time past been in use in 
Russia, and thei'c is pi'ospect of these and of tank-barges being adopted 
here for the distribution of the oil ; while in London, the practice is 
already spreading gradually of distributing supplies to tradesmen from 
tank road- wagons. Some considerable doubt as to whether the risk of 
accident has not rather been altered in character than actually reduced 
by the new system of transport, has not unnaturally been engendered in 
the public mind by the occurrence within a comparatively short period of 
several serious disasters during the discharge of cargoes from tank- vessels. 
The memorable explosion which took place in October 1888, on board 
the ' Ville de Calais,' in Calais Harbour, with widespread destructive 
effects, was followed by a similarly serious explosion in the ' Fergusons,' 
at Rouen last December, and, more recently, by a fire of somewhat 
destructive character at Sunderland, resulting from the discharge into 
the river of petroleum-residues from a ship's tanks. In all these cases 
the petroleum was of a nature to allow inflammable vapour to escape 
readily from the liquid, so that an explosive mixture could be rapidly 
formed by its copious diffusion through the air. No similar casualty has 
been brought to notice as having happened to tank-ships carrying petro- 
leum oil of which the volatility is in accordance with our legal require- 
ments, and this points to the prudence of restricting the application of 
the tank system to the transport and distribution of such petroleum as 
complies with well-established conditions of safety. 

Another most remarkable feature connected with the development of 
the petroleum industry is presented by the utilisation, within the last few 
years, of the vast supplies of natural inflammable gas furnished by the 
oil-fields. 

In America this remarkable gas-supply was for a long time only 
used locally, but before the close of 1885 its conveyance to a distance 
by pipes, for illuminating and heating purposes, had assumed large 
proportions, one of the companies in Pittsburgh having alone laid 335 



ADDRESS. 40 

miles of pipes of varions sizes, through which gas was supplied equivalent 
in heating value to 3,650,000 tons of coal per annum. Since then the 
consumption in and around Pittsburgh has probably been at least 
tripled. At the close of 1886 six different companies were conveying- 
natural gas by pipes to Pittsburgh from 107 wells ; 500 miles of pipe^ 
ranging in diameter from 30 inches to 3 inches, were nsed by these 
companies, 232 miles of which were laid within Pittsburgh itself. The- 
Philadeljihia Company, the raost important of these associations, then 
owned the gas supply from 54,000 acres of land situated on all the anti- 
clinals around Pittsburgh, but drew its supplies only from Tarentum 
and the Murraysville field. It supplied, in 1886, 470 factories and about 
5,000 dwellings within the city, besides many factories and dwellings in 
Alleghany and in numerous neighbouring villages. The average gas- 
pressure at the wells, when the escape is shut off, is about 500 lb. per 
square inch, and in the case of new wells this pressure is very greatly ex- 
ceeded. In order to minimise the danger from leakage, the gas-pressure 
in the city is reduced to a maximum of 13 lb., and is regulated by valves 
at a number of stations under the control of a central station. The usual 
pressure in the larger lines is from 6 to 8 lb., while in the low-pressure 
lines it does not exceed 4 to 5 ounces. 

The effect of the change from coal gas to natural gas upon the atmo- 
sphere over Pittsburgh has been most marked: formerly the sky wa& 
constantly obscured by a canopy of dense smoke ; now the air is clear, 
and even white paint may with impunity be employed for the house 
fronts. 

The very rapid development of the employment of natural gas is not 
confined to the neighbourhood of Pittsburgh ; it is used for heating- 
purposes in the cities of Buffalo, Erie, Jamestown, Warren, Olean, Brad- 
ford, Oil City, Titusville, Meadville, Toungstown, and perhaps twenty 
more towns and villages in Pennsylvania and North-western New York. 
In North-western Ohio, the cities of Toledo and Sandusky, the towns of 
Pindlay, Lima, TifiQn, Fostoria, and others in that section are also supplied 
with natural gas ; a pipe line has moreover been recently laid to Detroit, 
Mich., and it is estimated that in these localities 36,131,669,000 cubic 
feet of the gas were consumed during last year, superseding 1,802,500 tona 
of coal. To the south-west of Pittsburgh there are many smaller places 
which consume natural gas ; it also occurs in considerable quantity, and 
is being utilised, in Indiana (whence an account has recently reached us 
of a terrific subterranean explosion of the gas) ; and it is at the present 
time contemplated to carry a natural gas-supply to Chicago. 

The utilisation of the natural gas of the Russian oil-fields, although 
of very ancient date, has hitherto not been extensive, neither does the 
magnitude of the supply appear to bear comparison with that of the 
Pennsylvanian district. 

A form of gaseous fv>«l which has long boon known to technical 



46 REPORT— 1890. 

chemists and metallurgists, bat which hag of late attracted considerable 
attention, especially in connection with the recent interesting work relat- 
ing to its applications pursued by Mr. Samson Fox, of Leeds, has become, 
within the last four years, a competitor, in the United States, both of the 
natural gas of Pennsylvania and of coal-gas. Since Felix Fontana first 
produced so-called water gas in 1780, by passing vapour of water over 
highly-heated fuel, many methods, differing chiefly in small details, have 
been proposed for carrying out the operation, with a view to the ready 
and cheap production of the resulting mixture of hydrogen and carbonic 
oxide, and numerous technical applications of water-gas have been sug- 
gested from time to time, with no very important results, excepting as 
regards its use for lighting-purposes. Being of itself non-lnminous, its 
utilisation in this direction is accomplished, either by mixing it with a 
highly luminous gas, or by causing a hydrocarbon vapour to be diffused 
through it ; or the non-luminous flame, produced by burning it in the air, 
is made to raise to incandescence some suitably prepared solid substance, 
such as magnesia, lime, a zirconium salt, or platinum, whereby bright 
light is emitted. The objection to its employment as an illuminant for 
use in buildings, to which great weight is attached by us, and rightly, 
as sad experience has shown — viz., that, as it consists, to the extent of 
about one-half its volume, of the highly poisonous gas carbonic oxide, the 
atmosphere in a confined space may be rendered irrespirable by a small 
accidental contamination with water-gas, by leakage or otherwise, not 
detectable by any odour — appears to constitute no great impediment to 
its employment in the United States, as it is now manufactured for 
illuminating and heating purposes by a large proportion of their gas- 
works, being in some places employed in admixture with a highly luminous 
coal-gas, in others rendered luminous by the alternative methods men- 
tioned. It is stated that about three-fourths of the illuminating gas now 
supplied to the cities of New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Jersey, St. 
Paul, and Minneapolis, is carburetted water-gas ; in Chicago the entire 
supply now consists of this gas, and Boston will also soon be supplied 
exclusively with it. The use of water-gas for metallurgic work does not 
appear to be contemplated in the United States, but it is esijecially to 
such applications of the gas that much attention has been devoted here 
in Leeds ; and although some eminent experts are sceptical regarding the 
attainment of advantages, especially from an economical point of view, 
by the employment of this form of gaseous fuel, especially after practical 
experience in the same direction acquired in Germany, the technical world 
must feel grateful to Mr. Fox for his work in this direction, affording, as it 
does, an interesting illustration of the qualities of perseverance and energy 
which, when combined with sound knowledge, oftenachieve success in direc- 
tions that have long appeared most unpromising ; qualities which have 
been characteristic of many pioneers in industrial progress in this country. 
Leeds has been especially fortunate in the possession of such pioneers, 



ADDRESS. 47 

wbo, when competition brought about great changes in the particular trade 
through which, for many generations, this city chiefly enjoyed prosperity 
and high renown, developed its power and resources in new directions, 
from which success soon flowed in continually increasing measure. The 
rapid rise of Leeds to its present high position in industrial prosperity 
and national importance most probably dales from the period when its 
chief staple industry began to experience serious rivalry, in its own 
peculiar achievements, on the part of other districts of the kingdom and of 
other countries. From early days a flourishing Centre of one of the pro- 
vinces of Great Britain most richly endowed with some of JSTatui-e's best 
treasures, Leeds could scarcely have failed, through the energy, acute intel- 
ligence, and powerful self-reliance especially characteristic of the men of 
Yorkshire, to rapidly acquire fresh renown in connection with industries 
which either were new to the town and disti-ict, or had been pursued in 
comparatively modest fashion, and which have combined to place the Leeds 
of to-day upon a higher pinnacle of commercial prosperity, power, and 
influence than her patriotic citizens of old could ever have dreamt of. 

An examination into the present educational resources of Leeds places 
beyond any doubt the fact that her present prosperity in commerce and 
industries is in no small degree ascribable to the paramount import- 
ance long since attached here to the liberal provision of facilities for the 
difi:usion of knowledge among the artisan and industrial classes, and 
especially for the acquisition of a sound acquaintance with the principles of 
the sciences and their applications to technical purposes, with particular 
reference to the prominent local industries, by all grades of those who 
pursue or intend to pursue them. There is, probably, no town in the 
kingdom more amply provided with efficient elementary and advanced 
schools for both sexes, while the special requirements of the artisan are 
efficiently met by the prosperous School of Science and Technology. The 
resources of the Yorkshire College provide, in addition, a combination of 
thorough scientific education with, really practical training in the more 
important local industries ; indeed, during the sixteen years of its con- 
tinually-progressive work, this institution has acquired so widespread 
a reputation that students come from abroad to reap the advantages 
afforded by the unrivalled textile and dyeing departments of the Leeds 
College. The keen competition now existing between these departments 
and the corresponding branches of the much younger but most vigorous 
sister College at Bradford, can only conduce to the further development 
of both, and to their thorough maintenance up to the requirements of 
the day. 

The very important pecuniary aid afforded to these establishments, 
and to a number of other technical schools in Yorkshire, by one of 
the most important of the ancient companies of the City of London, the 
Clothworkers, affords an interesting illustration of the good work in the 
cause of education performed by those Guilds and, especially of late years, 



48 REPORT — 1890. 

by means of tlieir flourlsliing Institute for the advancement of tecbnical 
education, wliich, througb its two great instructional establishments in 
London, and through the operation of its system of examinations through, 
out the country, extending now even to the Colonies, has aflForded very 
important aid towards eradicating the one great blot upon our national 
educational organisation. To have been first in the field in practically 
developing a far-reaching scheme for the advancement of technical educa- 
tion in this country must continue to be a source of pride to the City of 
London and its ancient Guilds in time to come, when the operation of 
efficient legislation, supported and extended by patriotic munificence and 
by the hearty co-operation of associations of earnest and competent 
workers in the cause, shall have placed the machinery and resources for 
the technical instruction of the people upon a footing commensurate with 
our position among Nations. 

The remarkable Address delivered by Owen here in 1858, wherein 
the condition, at that time, of those branches of natural science 
which he had made particularly his own was most comprehensively 
reviewed, included some especially interesting observations on the 
importance to the cultivation and progress of the natural sciences, and 
to the advancement of education of the masses in this country, 
of providing adequate space and resources for the proper develop- 
ment of our National Museum of Natural History ; and it cannot 
but be a source of great satisfaction and pride to him to have lived to 
witness the thoroughly successful realisation of the objects of his own 
indefatigable strivings and powerful advocacy in that direction. Com- 
prehensive as were the views adopted by Owen regarding the scope and 
possible extension of that museum, it may, however, be doubted whether 
they ever embraced so extensive a field as was presented for our contem- 
plation by his successor last year, when he told us that a natural history 
museum should, in its widest and truest sense, represent, so far as they can 
be illustrated by museum-specimens, a,ll the sciences which deal with 
natural phenomena, and that the diSiculties of fitly illustrating them have 
probably alone excluded such subjects as astronomy, physics, chemistry, 
and physiology, from occupying departments in our National Museum of 
Natural History. 

The application, in its broadest signification, of the title. Natural 
History Museum, may doubtless be considered to include, not only illustra- 
tions and examples of the marvellous works of the Creator and of the 
results of man's labours in tracing their intimate history and their relations 
to each other, but also illustrations of the means employed, and of the 
results attained, by man in his strivings to fathom and unravel the laws 
by which the domains of Nature are governed. But the reason why 
representative collections, illustrative of the physical sciences, do not form 
part of our National Natural History Museum, has, I venture to think. 



ADDRESS. 49 

scarcely been correctly ascribable to any difficulty of organising fit 
illustrations of methods of investigation, of the attendant appliances, 
and of the results attained by experimental research ; it appears rather, 
to exist in the fact that physical science has hitherto had no share in such 
a combination of circumstances as has been favourable to the good fortunes 
and advancement of the natural sciences, and as is analogous to those which, 
from time to time, give rise to the provision of increased accommodation 
for our Xational Art Treasures. Our present National Science Collection, 
which has, indeed, had a struggle for existence, does not owe the de- 
velopment it has hitherto experienced to any such moral pressure as 
has been several times exercised in the case of our art collections, by 
the munificence of individuals, with the result of securing substantial 
aid from national resources ; its gradual increase in importance has 
been due to the untiring perseverance of men of science, and of a few 
prominent influential and public-spirited authorities, in keeping before 
the public the lessons taught by careful inquiries, such as those en- 
trusted to the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction, into the 
opportunities afforded for the cultivation of science and the development 
of its applications, in other Countries, as compared with those provided 
here. 

The success of tte efforts made in 1875 by a committee thoroughly 
representative of every branch of experimental science, to bring together 
in London an international loan collection of scientific apparatus, and the 
widespread interest excited by that collection, led the President of the 
Royal Society, in union with many distinguished representatives of science, 
to lay before our Department of Education a proposal to establish a national 
museum of pure and applied science, including the Museum of Inven- 
tions, which had already existed since 1860 as a imcleus of a science- 
museum, the establishment whereof had formed part of the original 
scheme of the Science and Art Department. The Loan Collection of 
1876 did, in fact, and in consequence of the urgent representations then 
made, first put into practical shape the long-cherished desire of men of 
science to see an Institution arise in England similar to the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiei's of France, and it became the starting-point of the 
National Collection, representative of the several branches of experimental 
science, which has been undergoing slow but steady development since 
that time, patiently awaiting the provision of a suitable home for its 
contents. This collection, which illustrates not only the means whereby 
the triumphs of experimental research have been and are achieved, but 
also the methods by which these departments of science are taught, 
yields, small as it is, to none of our national museum treasures in interest 
and importance. 

In yet another way did that Loan Collection become illustrious : one 
of the most interesting features connected with it was the organisation of 
a series of important conferences and explanatory lectures, serving to 
189U. E 



50 ijEroRT— 1890. 

illustrate, and also greatly to enhance, its value, and affording tlie best 
exempliflcation of tlie way in which such collections must exercise direct 
influence upon the advancement of science and upon the diffusion 
of scientific knowledge. These lectures and conferences demonstrated 
the wisdom of the suggestion made by the illustrious representative 
of associated Science in Leeds eighteen years previously, that public 
access to museums should be combined with the delivery of lectures 
emphasising and amplifying the information afforded by tlieir contents. 
The example then set of thoroughly utilising for instructional purposes, 
and for the advancement of science, a collection illastrative of the 
physical sciences, has since been followed by the Science and Art 
Department ; illustrative lectures connected with the existing nucleus of 
a national science-collection have been delivered from time to time, and 
the objerts in the collection are constantly utilised in the courses of 
instruction at the adjoining Normal School of Science. 

Although the national importance of thoroughly representative and 
continuously-maintained science collections has long been manifest, not 
only to all workers in science, but also to all who have cared to inquire, 
even superficially, into the influence of the cultivation of science upon the 
industrial and commercial prosperity of the country, the labours of a 
Royal Commission, and of successive Committees, in demonstrating the 
necessity for the provision of adequate accommodation for such collections, 
and for their support upon the basis of that afforded to the natural 
history collections, have been very long in bearing fruit. However, 
lovers of science, and those who have the prosperity of the country near 
at heart, have at length cause for rejoicing at the acquisition by the 
Nation of a site in all respects suitable and adequate for the accommoda- 
tion of the science collections, which, as soon as appropriate buildings are 
provided for their reception, will not fail, in comprehensiveness and com- 
pleteness, to become worthy of a Country which has been the birthplace 
of many of the most important discoveries in science, and of a People who 
have led the van among all Nations in making the achievements of 
science subservient to the advancement of industries and commerce. 

The site selected as the permanent home of our National Science 
Collections is immediately in rear of the Natural History Museum, and faces 
the stately edifice, now rapidly progressing towards completion, for the 
erection of which, as an Imperial memorial of the Queen's Jubilee, funds 
were provided by voluntary contributions from every portion of the Empire 
and every class in the Empire's Nations. The Imperial ■ Institute, the 
conception of which we owe to His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales, occupies a central position among buildings devoted to the 
illustration and cultivation of pure and applied Science and of the 
Arts — i.e. the Normal School of Science, the Technical College of the 
City and Guilds of London, the National Schools of Art, the Science 
Museum, the South Kensington Museum, and the Royal College 



ADD?.ESS. 51 

of Music ; to which list we may ere long see added a iSTational Gallery 
of representative British Art. A more fitting location could scarcely 
be conceived for this pre-eminently National Institution, which has for its 
main objects the comprehensive and continuously progressive illustra- 
tion—of the practical applications of the vast resources presented by the 
Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms to Industries and the Arts ; of 
the extent, and the progressive opening up, of those resources in all parts 
of the Empire ; of the practical achievements emanating from the results 
of scientific research ; and of the utilisation of the Arts for the purposes of 
daily life. With the attainment of these objects it will be the function 
of the Imperial Institute to combine the continuous elaboration of 
systematic measures tending to stimulate progress in trades and handi- 
crafts, and to foster a spirit of emulation among the artisan and industrial 
classes. Another branch of the Institute's work, upon which it is already 
cno-ao-ed, is the systematic collection of data relating to the natural 
history, commercial geography, and resources of every part of the Empire, 
for wide dissemination together with all current information, bearing upon 
the commerce and industries of the Empire and of other Countries, which 
can be comprised under the head of Commercial Intelligence. The 
achievement of these objects should obviously tend to maintain intimate 
intercourse, relationship, and co-operation between the great Home and 
Colonial centres of Commerce, Industries, and Education, and to enhance 
importantly our power of competing successfully in the great struggle, in 
which Nations are continuously engaged, for supremacy in commercial 
and industrial enterprise and prosperity. 

To the elaboration of the practical details of a system of operation 
calculated to secure the objects I have indicated, eminent public-spirited 
men are now devoting their best energies, with the sanguine expectation 
of realising the hope cherished by the Royal Founder of the Imperial 
Institute, that this memorial of the completion, by our beloved Sovereign, 
of fifty years of a wise and prosperous reign, is destined to be one of the 
most important bulwarks of this Country, its Colonies and Dependencies, 
by becoming a great centre of operations, ceaselessly active in fostering the 
unity, and developing the resources, and thus maintaining and increasing 
the powir and prosperity, of our Empire. 



B 2 



EEPORTS 

ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



EEPOETS 

ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Galtox {Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Eawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
E. Meldola {Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Eivers, and Mr. W. 

TOPLEY. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association beg to 
report to the General Committee that the two meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates were held on Thursday, Sejjtember 12, and Tuesday, Sep- 
tember 17, 1889, at 3 p.m., in the Committee Room of Section C, at 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The following Delegates were nominated for the Newcastle Meet- 



Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. 

Mr. William Graj-, iI.E.I.A. . 
Mr. John Drown . . . . 

Mr. Charles Pumpliroy . 

Prof. B. C. A. Windlc, M.D. . 
Mr. Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. . 
Mr. Peter Price .... 
Mr. W. P. J. Fawcus, C.E. . 
Mr. W. F. Howard, Assoc.M.Tnst. 

C.E. 
Mr. Thomas Gushing, F.Pv.A.S. 

Mr. J. Goodchild, F.G.S. 



Mr. A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. . 
Mr. Robert Brown, R.N. 

Mr. William White, F.K.S. . 
Mr. D. Corse Glen, F.G.S. . 
Prof. F. O. Bower, M.A., D.Sc. 



Bath Natm-al History and Antiquarian 
Field Club. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- 
cal Society. 

Birmingham Natural History and Micro- 
scopical Society. 

Birmingham Philosophical Society. 

Bristol JIuseum and Library. 

Cardiff Naturalist.s' SocietJ^ 

Chester Society of Natural Science. 

Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- 
tution of Engineers. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- 
tory Club. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Literature 
and Science. 

East Kent Natural History Society. 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' 
Societies. 

Essex Field Club. 

Geological Society of Glasgow. 

Natural History Society of Glasgow. 



56 KEPOET — 1890. 

Mr. "\V. C. Crawford, M.A. . . Philosophical Societj' of Glasgow. 

Kev. A. G. Jnj'ce .... Hampshire Field Club. 

Dr. John Evans, Treas.K.S. . . Hertfordshire Natural History Society 

and Field Club. 

His Honour Deemster Gill . . Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 

Mr. S. A. Adamson, F.G.S. . . Leeds Geological Association. 

Mr. G. H. Morton, F.G.S. . . Liverpool Geological Society. 

Mr. I. C. Thompson, F.L.S. . . Liverpool Microscopical Society. 

Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S. . . Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 

Society. 

Mr. Eli Sowerbutts . . . Manchester Geographical Society. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. . . Manchester Geological Society. 

Prof. G. A. Labour, M.A., F.G.S. . Northof England Institute of Mining and 

Mechanical Engineers. 

Dr. J. T. Arlidge, A.M. . . . North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field 

Club. 

Mr. C, A. Markliam, F.E.Met.Soc. Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety. 

Mr. Robert Brown, R.N. . . Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 

Mr. H. R. Mill, D.Sc. . . . Royal Scottish Geographical Society. 

Mr. W. Andrews .... Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archfeolo- 

gists' Field Club. 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan, M.A. . . . Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 

Mr. J. W. Davis, F.G.S. . . Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 

Societ.v. 

Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A. . . Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

By the sanction of the Council, the Lisbon Geographical Society was 
represented by Professor Batalha-Reis. 

At the first Conference the chair was taken by Mr. Francis Galton, 
the Correspondinof Societies Committee being also represented by Dr. 
John Evans, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. W. Topley. 

The Chairman proposed that the Report of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties Committee to the General Committee, printed copies of which had 
been distributed among the Delegates, should be taken as read in order 
to save time. The proposal was put to the meeting and cacrried. The 
Chairman theii invited the Delegates to make any statements respecting 
the work done by Committees appointed last year, or in connection with 
other subjects referred to in the Report. He suggested that the various 
Sections should be taken in alphabetical order. 

No statements were made respecting Sections A and B. 

Section C. 

Erralic Boulders, c^-c— The Rev. E. P. Knubley called attention to 
the fact that the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, working in harmony with 
the British Association, were endeavouring to form a Boulder Committee. 
They had done very good work for about three years, and they had this 
year submitted a number of reports to the British Association Committee, 
all of which had been accepted. They had also added a Yorkshire Fossil 
Flora Committee, which was working on the same lines as that proposed 
by the British Association. No report had been presented as yet, but a 
great deal of matter had been collected, and an interim report was to bo 
presented in November, when the York.shire Naturalists' Union held their 
annnal meeting. They had also appointed a Coast-Erosion Committee, 
wLicu was working in connection with the British Association, and a 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 57 

j^farine Zoological Committee, •which had had one dredging excursion this 
year. 

Geolorji'cal Photography. — Mr. Knubley next referred to the subject of 
geological photography, which had been brought forward in 1888. It 
■was then felt that the proposal was too vague to bring in any definite 
form before the different Societies, but the matter had become more 
definite in the course of the year, and he thought that the time had 
arrived for proposing that a Committee should be formed to arrange the 
collection of photogra,phic views illustrating the geological features of 
each county of the United Kingdom. 

A discussion ensued as to the mode of procedure to be adopted in 
order to give practical effect to the conclusions already arrived at by those 
members cf the Corresponding Societies who had been working at the 
subject during the year. 

Mr. 0. W. Jeffs, having been called upon by the Chairman, stated 
that the matter had been brought before the Delegates at Bath in 1888, 
and had been discussed on that occasion. The proposal had then been 
left in an informal condition, and he undertook to communicate Avith the 
Delegates of the different geological societies of the kingdom. He had 
done this in an unofficial and private circular, and now had a list of 
what each had obtained, as well as a large collection of photogi'aphs, some of 
which were very interesting. He added that he had received letters from 
a large number of Delegates highly approving of the scheme, and offering 
suggestions. These letters would be placed at the disposal of Section C 
or of anyone taking the matter up. 

No formal recommendation with respect to the subject was passed at 
the Conference, as the matter was to be brought before the Committee of 
Section C the following day. 

Earth Tremors. — Professor Lebour said he had very little to say on 
this subject except that the work in his district had been suspended as 
the result of the recommendation of the Earth Tremor Committee of the 
British Association, which considered that the spot selected for the 
instruments was too near the sea, and rocks containing great cavities, and 
therefore unsuitable for the experiments. A good deal of time had been 
taken up last year in having a new set of instruments made and placed 
in another position. They were now ready for work, but no observations 
had been taken owing to the change of position. 

The Geological Hecord. — Mr. Topley called attention to a circular 
which had been distributed among the Delegates, in which it was pointed 
out that the publication of this Record of geological literature could 
not be continued unless the number of subscribers was increased, and he 
urged upon those present to assist the cause of science by giving their 
own and getting others to give their support. Mi". Whitaker also spo\e 
on behalf of the Record. 

No subjects coming within the province of Sections D, E, F, or G 
were brought forwai-d. 

Section H. 

Catalogues of Ancient Bemains. — Mr. "William Gray said that a Com- 
mittee of the British Association had been appointed for this purpose, 
and the Society which he represented had made a commencement m 



58 REPORT— 1890. 

Ireland, taking the two counties Antrim and Down. They had prepared 
a list and maps, plotting on the latter the sites of monuments and ancient 
settlements in accordance with the regulation code of signals adopted by 
the International Congress on Archa3ology some years ago. He had the 
maps with him, but had not been able to send the communication to the 
Secretary of the Committee (Mr. J. W. Davis) in time for that year's 
Report. The list as at present prepared was simply a catalogue in which 
it had not been thonght desirable to give any great amount of detail 
beyond references to such authorities as could furnish further information. 
The list was to be regarded simply as tentative, and he now submitted it 
to the Conference in order to see whether a right start had been made, 
and whether any amendments could be suggested. The one-inch Ordnance 
sheets had been used as a basis, and these had been plotted in accordance 
with the scheme referred to, but they had also tried to avoid a difficulty 
(genei'ally met with in catalogues of this kind), and that was the difficulty 
of indicating to a stranger the exact position of any given object. They 
had adopted a method which he hoped would meet with the approval of 
the Conference. Instead of stating the latitude and longitude, or the 
relative position from any stated town, they had adopted the simple plan 
of stating the sheet on which the object occurred and its distance in 
inches from north and west on that sheet. Thus if a certain place A was 
said to be six miles from B, no one would get much idea of the position, 
but if it was recorded that the place was on sheet 26, six inches irom the 
top (north) and eight inches from the west, the exact position of the 
monument could be at once entered on any other copy of the map, and 
then the catalogue reference would give details of any published infor- 
mation concerniun- that monument. 

Mr. Gray then exhibited one of the maps (Antrim), and explained 
that, instead of making the signs in the same way as that adopted by 
the International Congress, which rendered them somewhat indistinct, he 
had punched out small pieces of red paper and gummed these on to the 
map. In addition to this a concise tabular form had been prepared 
giving much information on the subject, a list of the ancient settlements 
or sites and the monuments found, their characters and relative numbers, 
&c. A list of the standing stones had also been commenced, this list 
containing some of the more important ones, and it was hoped to complete 
it by degrees so as to comprise all. There was also a list of stone circles, 
tumuli, and other sepulchral monuments, castles and stone forts of 
Irelaud, caves, artificial and natural, &c. 

Dr. John Evans said ^.hat the Delegates might like to know that the 
Society of Antiquaries bad undertaken an archaeological survey of 
England. The principle on which that survey was being carried on was 
in the main that adopted by Mr. Gray, but for ordinary publication maps 
could not be employed on so large a scale. They entered not only the 
prehistoric, but the Roman and Saxon remains and earthworks. Each, 
county would be accompanied by a list which would be classified under 
different heads and indexed, so as to show the discoveries which had been 
made. It seemed to the Society of Antiquaries that a survey of this 
sort would be of great use throughout the kingdom, and they were 
appealing to the members of differeut archaeological societies to assist in 
carrying it out. Some of the Societies represented, in addition to looking 
after the natural history of their districts, were also concerned with their 
antiquities. A congress of Delegates had been held in the rooms of the 



CORItESrOMUING SOCIETIES. 59 

Society of Antiquaries, and it was hoped that tliis would become an. 
annual gathering. They did not intend to compete with the Correspond- 
ing Societies Meeting in this matter ; they rather looked upon the 
Societies meeting here as representing the biological side of all the 
questions brought forward, whereas the Society of Antiquaries repre- 
sented the purely archa3ological side. The survey of Kent had been pub- 
lished, others were io hand. The scale was only eight miles to the inch, 
but that scale would be found of sufficient size to note all the dis- 
coveries, and by means of the index he thought it would prove a most 
useful addition to the archaeological publications of the country. 

In concluding the business of the first meeting the Chairman ex- 
pressed their indebtedness to Professor Meldola, who had acted as 
Secretary to the Corresponding Societies Committee throughout the 
year, and to Professor Lebour, who had consented to act as Secretary to 
the present Conference. 

At the second Conference the chair was taken by Mr. Wm. Topley, 
F.R.S., the Corresponding Societies Committee being also represented 
by Dr. Garson. The Secretary having read the minutes of the first Con- 
ference, the Chairman suggested that it would be convenient to follow 
the usual course, and before going to miscellaneous business to take up 
the suggestions and recommendations from the various Sections. 



&&"■ 



Section A. 

Temperature Variation in LaJics, Rivers, and Estuaries. — Dr. Mill 
stated that the report of the Committee appointed last year had been 
adopted by Section A with a recommendation for its reappointment with 
a grant. The object of the Committee was to accumulate as great a number 
of data with regard to the temperature of the surface of lakes, rivers, and 
estuaries, and the sea near the shore, as could possibly be obtained, in 
order to discuss these in connection with the meteorology of the country. 
It was a problem of some difficulty, and the object sought to be obtained 
in bringing it before the Corresponding Societies was to spread the work 
over a very wide tract of country, so as to get such diverse conditions as 
it was impossible to obtain by a few isolated workers. As a result of the 
circulars sent to the Corresponding Societies last year, they had obtained 
twenty-four sets of observations on the rivers and some estuaries in Eng- 
land, twenty-one in Scotland, eleven in Ireland, and one in the Isle of 
Man. Pie did not think it necessary to read the names of the rivers, 
but he would merely say that he would be very pleased if the Delegates 
present, representing Societies which had not yet seen their way to take 
up this work, should, on their return, be able to find out some members 
able and willing to make these daily observations on exposed water in 
their own neighbourhood. He would be very pleased if they would 
communicate with him, or any other member of the Committee, and 
instructions would be immediately sent for setting the observations going. 
He had a report recently from the Manchester Geological Society 
showing the observations made there on the reservoirs of the Oldham 
Waterworks — observations of great interest, and evidently, from the 
record published in the Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 
carried out with great detail and in a thoroughly satisfactory and trust- 
worthy manner. The success of the research depended entirely on the 



60 REPORT— 1890. 

extent and fulness with whicli the different observers cai-ried out their 
"work. 

Mr. John Brown said he had brought the matter before the Belfast 
Natural History and Philosophical Society. Professor Everett, one of the 
members, was strongly of opinion that it was not the business of the local 
Societies, but should rather be given to the observers of rainfall, who 
were accustomed to making observations of a similar kind, and to a 
certain extent were better organised for getting the information than 
their own Society. 

_ Mr. A. S. Reid said the East Kent Natural History Society had taken 
this matter up since the last meeting, and were now carrying it on, having 
two observers on the river Stour. They had not yet published an actual 
report in their Transactions, but simply an interim report ; a fuller 
report was being prepared. The Committee was doing work, and he 
believed good work, and was certainly taking a great deal of interest in 
the matter, and it had been the means of giving the local Societies some- 
thing to do, and also of helping them to affiliate with other Societies round 
them. He expressed the opinion that the indication of lines of useful 
investigation of this kind had done a great deal of good in bringing 
together the Societies in his district. 

Dr. Mill, in answer to the remarks made, said that this work which 
had been taken up by the Committee, and in which the help of the 
Corresponding Societies was wanted, did not in the least degree clash 
with any other organisation or the carrying on of any other work. If 
all the meteorological observers were willing and able to carry on addi- 
tional experiments, it would add a very great deal to the fulness and 
completeness of their meteorological reports ; but, in point of fact, those 
observers had their hands suiBciently full as a rule in taking their daily 
observations, and might not care to add to their work. Professor Fitz- 
gerald, however, had taken the matter up in Ireland and had obtained 
the services of a number of observers, many of whom were rain-gauge 
observers — in fact, he thought almost all. 

No communication with respect to Section B was brought forward. 

Section C. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. De Ranee had been nominated by 
the Committee of Section C to represent that Section at the Conference. 

Mr. De Ranee said that the Committees in which Section C was more 
particularly interested, and in which the Corresponding Societies could 
be — and, indeed, were — of great value were — 

The Underground Waters Committee, of which he happened to be 
Secretary. It was appointed some fifteen years ago in the town of Belfast 
to inquire into the water of the New Red Sandstone and Permian for- 
mations as concerned with the water supply of the town and district. 
At subsequent meetings of the Association the scope of its inquiry had 
been enlarged until at the present time it comprised the whole of the 
porous or permeable formations of this country. The Committee of the 
British Association which had been doing this work had done it by 
means of forms of inquiry as to the nature of the sections passed through 
in wells and borings for water, the effect of faults upon the water- 
siipplj> the character and quality of the water obtained, and the varying 



CORRESrONDING SOCIETIES. 61 

beiglits at which the water was found to stand, when the works were 
first commenced and after long pumping. The questions were drawn up 
with considerable care, and had been added to from time to time, and 
he thought they now practically grasped the whole subject. The Secre- 
tary of the Committee would have great pleasure in giving either a 
number of these forms, or a sample copy, to any Secretary of the Corre- 
sponding Societies throughout the country who might be desirous of 
being supplied with the same. The Committee in their present report 
(the fifteenth) laid before Section C comment on the fact that no less 
than three Societies have printed valuable information on this subject on 
the lines which had been adopted by the Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation, and the more important of their sections and details had been 
printed in this fifteenth report. 

Then there was the Committee of Inquiry into the position and 
character of — 

Erratic Boulders. Dr. Crosskey, its indefatigable Secretary, intended 
in the future to get a series of maps on which the position of the more 
important boulders should be entered, and he (Mr. De Ranee) believed 
it was intended to take the one-inch Ordnance maps and to place upon 
them the actual position of the boulders which had been recorded ; as 
far as possible, the character and point of origin of those boulders are also 
being determined. Dr. Crosskey had presented his last report — the seven- 
teenth — before Section C, and he (Mr. De Ranee) believed that already 
the bringing of this work before the Corresponding Societies had borne 
fruit. He had received, independently of the British Association, a 
circular from the Liverpool and some other area in which evidently an 
endeavour had been made to form a committee to go into the subject 
on the lines of the original inquiry which had been carried out with so 
much success by Dr. Crosskey, who, he knew, was most anxious to give to 
the Secretaries of the Societies represented by Delegates copies of the 
pi-inted forms of inqnixy as to the position of boulders, their nature and 
character, and to ascertain from them whether steps should be taken to 
preserve them as memorials of the past. 
Another Committee was the — 

Coast-Erosion Commiitee, which had been taken up by his colleague, 
Mr. Topley, who had drawn up all the. valuable reports on coast erosion 
already published by the British Association. That Committee required 
the rate of ei-osion of the sea on the coast of this country, and inquired 
as to how far that regular erosion had been artificially increased by the 
operations of man, by the cutting away of stone upon the sea-cliffs for 
economic and building purposes, and by the building of sea-walls in posi- 
tions and under conditions which were unadvisable, and by breakwaters 
not leading the water in the right waj', which in many cases increased 
the coast erosion. Already much valuable information had been put to- 
gether by Mr. Topley in the reports which had been published ; but these 
only covered a portion of the country, and erosion was gradually and 
steadily going on all round the coast. The Corresponding Societies which 
happened to be on the seaboard had great facilities for studying this 
question : first, in seeing the actual rate of erosion going on at the 
present time, and, secondly, in regard to looking up old plans, docu- 
ments, and deeds, which might show the position of the land in times 
gone by. 

Geological Photography. — Mr. De Ranee said that all would admit 



62 REroiiT— 1890. 

the great importance of the subject. Mr. Jeffs had already recorded a 
number of photographs, and this was a suitable matter for the local 
societies, for there were many local circumstances to be dealt with, and 
the best mode of photographing, the best time, and so forth, could only 
be dealt with by people living on the spot. All the Delegates would feel 
that this was a subject they could represent to their Societies as one 
which should be carried out. 

Mr. Gray said there were erratic blocks in Ireland, particularly in the 
north ; he did not know whether these blocks had been recorded, but if 
such a catalogue would be of any assistance to Mr. De Ranee he would 
be glad to undertake its preparation for Antrim, Down, and Derry. 

Mr. Topley said there should certainly be a record of the boulders of 
Ireland, but he was afraid the present Committee only referred to the erratic 
blocks of England and Wales ; it would, however, be very easy to extend it 
next year if Mr. Gray would forward the information to Dr. Crosskey, 
and if that gentleman were not prepared to take charge of it another 
Committee could be formed. 

Mr. De Ranee stated, with resjiect to the question of erratic blocks, 
that as Dr. Crosskey was not pi'esent, and as he had had some con- 
versation with that gentleman on the question of including Ireland, he 
would venture to suggest that it was first of all exceedingly important 
and necessary that the boulders of Ireland should be recorded in the 
same manner as in England ; secondly, as it was too late this year to 
include the Irish with the already existing English Committee, a Com- 
mittee could easily be formed by Mr. Gray himself, or by others in Ireland 
who would undertake the inquiry. It should follow the lines, and the 
questions should be put in the same way as that adopted by the English 
Committee on Erratic Boulders. At the meeting at Leeds the Irish Com- 
mittee could, he thought, be amalgamated with the English one ; it would 
then be a general Boulder Committee, and the reports might be taken to- 
gether or separately, and the facts collected during the year would make 
the first report. 

Professor Lebour, referring to the subject of Geological Photography, 
said that, as Mr. De Ranee had already mentioned. Section C, since the 
first Conference, had had this matter referred to them for consideration, 
and he might say there was the greatest possible unanimity when it was 
brought up. The subject was one which all geologists would agree was 
a most useful one. Mr. Jeffs, as a member of Section C, explained the 
system which he and Mr. Adamson had so far adopted ; that method was 
regarded as no doubt a good one, but the whole question of detail was left 
to the Committee to report upon. He might say that it had been passed 
on to the Committee of Recommendations that same day. The members 
of the Committee were Professor Geikie (Chairman), Professor Bonney, 
Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. S. A. Adamson, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Mr. W. Gray, 
and Mr. Jeffs as Secretary. He thought they would see that the Com- 
mittee was chosen with some thought as representing different parts of the 
country, so that a considerable area would be covered, and the different 
features of the various districts would not be overlooked. The Committee 
was not only appointed to do the work of collecting, preserving, and regis- 
tering in a systematic way the photographs of places of geological interest, 
geological sections, and so on, but he thought in the first instance it was 
chiefly for the purpose of seeing how the work could best be carried on in 
the future, and one of the most important points they would have to con- 



CORKESrONBING SOCIETIES. 03 

sider was where the photographs, when once obtained, were to bo lodged 
and preserved in safety for consultation. That was left, however, to the 
Committee to report npon, but tliere was no reason why the Conference 
should not express its views as to what would be a good i)1aco. He 
thought the best thing would be to communicate to the Secretary of the 
Committee any suggestions the Conference might discuss. 

Mr. Topley said he would like to say a few words about the Coast- 
Erosion Committee. The importance of local observation in this subject 
was much impressed on him lately when he paid a visit to Selsea. He 
was sure the loss of land at various places (comparing it with the large 
six-inch Ordnance Survey maps made, he thought, sixteen years before) 
Avas very large ; he did not know the coast well pi-eviously, and could not 
tell the annual wear, nor whether it went on evenly. He spoke to Mr. 
Clement Reid about it, and he said it was lost during the years since the 
maps were made, but the average did not represent the annual loss, as of 
late the rate of erosion had been very rapid. It was impossible for any 
but local observers to record such an important fact as that. Local ob- 
servers wei'e wanted to take measurements from certain known positions 
— the corner of a house, a hedge, or any other fixed object — to make notes 
and compare them, and by such means to accui-ately record what was 
going on, and at the same time it would be seen whether the loss was 
greater at one place or at one time than at another. It would be a most 
desirable thing for local Societies to take up. The Yorkshire Naturalists 
Union, as Mr. Knubley told them at the last meeting, had already done 
BO. He had hoped that the Isle of Man Society would also have taken 
it up ; they had applied for forms, and perhaps Deemster Gill would see 
to the matter. From East Kent they had most valuable information from 
Mr. Dowker, a member of the East Kent Natural History Society. 

Section D. 

Mr, Knubley said that he had been asked to repi'esent Section D and 
to bring before the Conference two matters : — 

Disappearance of Native Plants. — They would remember that Professor 
Hillhouse came last year prepared with a report and found no Committee 
existing ; that Committee was, however, revived, and during the course of 
the year it had appai-ently done a considerable amount of work. In this 
report, which he held in his hand, they treat of the disappearance, or par- 
tial disappearance, of fifty-five different kinds of plants in Scotland, their 
attention being confined entirely to Scotland for the present; they 
attribute most of the disappearances to the action of dealers and collectors ; 
they would be very glad if local naturahsts' societies would take the 
matter up and try to chronicle the disappearance of plants as far as they 
can. Professor Hillhouse suggests the use of the eighth edition of the 
' London Catalogue ' as a basis for their observations. He calls attention 
particularly to the disappearance of certain plants, and shows the way in 
which they might disappear — for instance, Hypericum quadrangulum dis- 
appeared, having been eaten by cattle or trodden down. In another case 
Sedum reflexum has disappeared from a wall owing to repairs. Various 
other ways are mentioned, and amongst these drainage seemed to have 
been a great cause of the disappearance of native plants'.' 

' See lii-jmis, 1889, p. 435. 



64 EEroKT— 1890. 

Investujalion of the Invertebrate Fauna and Cnjptogamic Flora of the 
British Isles. — The other matter he was commissioned to bring before the 
Conference was the Committee appointed that day for the above piirpose. 
The Committee had Canon Norman for its chairman and Professor 
Ewart as secretary ; three members for Ii-eland — Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor W. R. M'Nab, and Professor W. J. SoUas ; three for England 
— Professor Lapwortb, Mr. F. E. Beddard, and Dr. H. Scott ; and three 
for Scotland — Professor Bayley Balfour, Professor J. C. Ewart, and Pro- 
fessor J. Geikie. The object of that Committee is to make a systematic 
investigation of the rivers and lakes, and it is hoped that the microscopists 
will undertake definite scientific work : they are exhorted, if they take up 
this investigation, to take note of the physical features of the stream or 
the lake which they study (of course including the geological features), 
and of the temperature at different periods of the year, and, in the case of 
lakes, at different depths, so that they would be working in conjunction 
with the Committee Dr. Mill referred to. 

Local Museums. — JNIr. John Brown said it was generally admitted that 
the casual visitor to local museums finds a want of interest in the latter 
through not knowing what to look at. Of course a scientific person 
wishing to look at a particular object goes to that department in which 
he is interested. Ih occurred to some of them in Belfast to give gratis a 
visitors' guide, pointing out objects of interest, so that they could see 
them at ouce without going through the whole museum. The idea was 
to make it as concise as possible, so as to draw attention to the objects of 
interest by putting them in heavy type, and therefore enabling the 
visitors to find out at once what was to be seen in each department. He 
had with him a few copies if any Delegate desired to see them. 

Mr. Topley said there was a Committee of the British Association 
concerning local museums, but it had lapsed ; it might be reappointed, 
and if so, it would be a very good thing to bring that matter before them 
as well. It was quite right to mention it at this Conference, but he 
thought there had been a Committee specially concerned with these 
matters. 

Life Histories of Native Hants. — Mr. Knubley, in reply to the Chair- 
man, said that he was not asked to say anything about this subject, but it 
seemed to him an admirable sns:a:estion, and one which their Committee 
should take up. 

Mr. Topley asked if anything with respect to Professor Balfour's 
valuable paper, submitted to the Conference last year, had been done in 
Section D. Mr. Knubley replied in the negative. 

Mr. Gray said that he brought the matter before the Society he 
represented, and he knew that a friend of his, Avho was very well 
acquainted with the collection and cultivation of ferns, had undertaken a 
series of experiments outside his ordinary work with a view of endeavour- 
ing to promote Professor Balfour's objects. 

Mr. Topley suggested that it would be well to bear the subject in mind 
and bring it before Section D next year. 

Section E. 

The Chairman said that he was not aware whether there was present 
any gentleman representing Section E, but they were in the interesting 
position this year of having a representative of a foreign Society, Professor 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 65 

J. Batalha-Reis, as a Vice-President of that Section. By the sanction 
of the Council that gentleraan represented at the Conference the Lisbon 
Geographical Society. If he had anything to tell them as to the way in 
which local Societies could do geographical work they would be glad to 
hear him. 

The Geographical Society of Lisbon. — Professor Batalha-Reis said that, 
having been sent by the Geographical Society of Lisbon as a Delegate, he 
should be very glad if his presence on the present occasion led to some good 
scientific result. He saw the good work which local Societies were doing 
in England in connection with the British Association, and that led him to 
the belief that perhaps foreign Societies connected with the Association 
might do something useful if they could work systematically under apian. 
He called attention to the capabilities of work of his Society and expressed 
the hope that the Geographical Society of Lisbon might perhaps help the 
"work prosecuted by the British Association in some way. To begin with, 
the limits of geography as a science were rather vague, that is to say, 
geography was more or less in connection with all other sciences repre- 
sented by the different Sections of the British Association. Thus the natural 
features of a district, its animals, minerals, and plants were strictly 
geographical, and at the same time had relationship with the biological, 
geological, and other sciences. Then, as they were aware, his country 
had in Africa, by the peculiar situation of their colonies, a large field where 
experiments and researches could be prosecuted. At that moment they 
had six expeditions working in Central Africa, and not only the leaders of 
.those expeditions, but, he was pretty sure, all the naturalists connected with 
Ithem, were members of the Geographical Society of Lisbon, most of them 
Iworking under the instruction of that Society. Then, too, their colonies 
iwere in a very intimate connection with the English colonies in Africa, 
po that, if they could establish a joint plan of exploration, say from the 
[Cape of Good Hope to the furthermost Portuguese settlement, valuable 
scientific results ought to be achieved. 

No communications or recommendations from Section F were brought 
forward. 

Section G. 

Committee on Flameless Explosives. — Professor Lebour said the North 
lof England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers had one Com- 
littee which was mentioned last year (that on explosives) in full working 
order at the present time. When mentioned last year it was only about 
jto be appointed ; now it had begun its work, which was not simply that of 
examining the properties of all the so-called flameless explosives ; the main 
object was a philanthropic one, so that an explosive which a dealer liked to 
call flameless, and which was not really flameless, might not be used 
inwarily by miners in positions where the use of an explosive carrying a 
lame under certain circumstances might be exceedingly dangerous. Now 
that they had a good deal more knowledge than formerly of such things as 
jal-dust explosions, it became very important indeed to avoid as far as 
could be any possibility of having a flame projected by a blown-out shot 
or any other currents of that kind in an atmosphere laden with particles of 
dust. It was a disputed question as to whether coal-dust itself was 
dangerous. If coal-dust did not cause an explosion itself it certainly 
conducted it. The explosion might be there before the coal-dust had any- 

1890. F 



66 REPORT— 1890. 

thing to do with it, bat if the coal-dust were pi-esent it carried the ex- 
plosion farther than it would otherwise have gone, and changed what 
might be a harmless, or comparatively harmless, accident into sometimes 
a catastrophe of a very destructive character. 

Committee on Fan-ventilation. — There was another Committee men- 
tioned, he thought, last year — a joint Committee of three of the Mining 
Institutes of England- — the Midland, South Wales, and North of Eng- 
land Institutes — ajjpointed to carry out experiments on fans, especially 
with a view of observing the working where circumstances were such as 
to allow of two kinds of fans working in the same pit, and he had no 
doabt the result would be valuable to mining men. They must not 
forget that this Conference was one of the local scientific Societies, using 
the word in its wide sense, and not only of geological, natural history, 
and microsco2:)ic clubs, and he thought the report of this joint Committee 
would be of very great value to engineers connected with mines and with 
such other works as requii-ed artificial ventilation. As they had repre- 
sentatives from other engineering Societies he would like to say that the 
North of England Institute and the others he had mentioned as being 
jointly on the Committee would be exceedingly glad to receive any hints 
or any information which would tend to the carrying out in the best 
possible manner the objects referred to. 

Mr. Howard, referring to the combination of the Mining Institutes 
which was about to take place, said that if this federation succeeded it 
might be a good hint to other local Societies to combine and have some- 
thing in the way of joint publication. That was the principal thing the 
Mining Institutes were aiming at at present without at all destroying their 
individuality. He thought it was likely to prove successful, and whether 
it succeeded or not it was worthy the consideration of other Societies, 
concerned in difi"erent matters, to see whether they could not similarly 
combine, as it would be of great mutual advantage and economy. 

Section H. 

Committee of Aid. — Dr. Garson said he had to bring forward a matter 
of importance from Section H in which the local Societies could assist very 
materially. The Anthropological Institute during the preceding year had 
had under its consideration the fact that a large number of barrows and 
other antiquarian remains were year by year destroyed, not willingly but 
by injudicious exploration. They took into consideration whether there 
was any possibility of having the explorations of old barrows made on 
some definite plan, and for that purpose a Committee of Aid was foi'med, 
consisting of General Pitt-Rivers, Professor Flower (the President of the 
Association), Mr. Read (of the British Museum), Mr. Hilton Price, Mr. 
Lewis (Treasurer of the Anthropological Institute), and himself. This 
Committee was elected by the Council of the Anthropological Institute to 
draw up a series of directions for those who desire to explore barrows and 
other ancient remains. Special directions might be wanted in certain 
cases, and they would be extremely glad if anyone who was desirous of 
exploring a barrow would communicate with the Secretary of this 
Committee of Aid. The Committee was not formed for the purpose of 
exploring barrows, but to give advice to those who were about to under- 
take such exploration. They wished it distinctly understood that they did 
Dot want to interfere in any way with or to take the credit for any work under- 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 67 

taken. They only ^slied to have the work performed to the best advantage. 
It was not uncommon for a certain investigator, who was interested in. 
pottery, to dig up one of those ancient structui'es and extract all the 
pottery. There might be other relics of great im^iortance — there might 
be skulls or bones of various animals, all of which were important in 
fixing the date of the barrow or the habits of the people, and these things 
were all lost. In like manner people who were searching for human 
remains only were likely to overlook all the other things, such as works 
of art and other objects, which yield very valuable information. What 
they wanted made known as widely as possible was that the Committee was 
anxious to have communications sent to it and to know of all the work 
that was going on, and he thought they would see that that was a matter 
in which local Societies could materially assist. He had no doubt that if 
the explorations were carried on on a distinct system, such as that which 
the Committee would be able to suggest, very valuable results would be 
obtained where now a great deal of information was lost. He therefore 
commended this subject very specially to their attention. In local 
museums they had placed a printed card giving the address of the 
Secretary at the Anthropological Institute, 3 Hanover Square, London, 
where all communications regarding finds or explorations about to be 
made should be sent. 

Prehistoric Remains Committee. — In reply to a question put by the 
Chairman, Dr. Garson said that this Committee, of which Mr. J. W. 
Davis was the Secretary, had through an oversight been allowed to lapse 
last year. They had, however, presented a very excellent report this year, 
and had applied for reappointment.' 

At the conclusion of the scientific business a discussion took place 
respecting the placing of Delegates on the Sectional Committees. The 
following resolution was finally put to the meeting and carried : — • 

' That the relations of Delegates to the Sectional Committees as at 
present existing are unsatisfactory, and that the matter be referred to the 
Corresponding Societies Committee for their consideration.' 

With reference to this resolution the Committee have to report that, 
after giving the matter careful consideration, they have come to the 
conclusion that they possess no power under the present rules of the 
Association of attaching Delegates to the Sectional Committees. 

The Committee beg to recommend that the General Committee should 
sanction the retention of all the Corresponding Societies now enrolled, 
and that the Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Association should be 
added to the list. 

' The Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock (Chairman), Mr. J. W. Davis 
(Secretarj'), Dr. J. Evans, Professor Boyd Dawkius, Dr. K. JIunro, Messrs. Pengelly 
and Hicks, Professor Meldola, and Dr. Muirhead, was appointed. 



F 2 



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78 



EEPOET — 1890. 



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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 79 



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T) — -t^ O .^ •; I^ .-• ^ 'Vj ° ^ S 

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Bl llii lii!1Piiti|i:i^l^ili ^sil 111! 

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f" < HHl^icC IB PhO oqO Ph O Hfn O H I^i <! O H W 02 H 



I I S S-sS.S-^ ^ ? S 2 2 2 §-3 S si® s-^S S S 



80 



KEPORT — 1890. 



1 13 



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strict 

tal Fungi o 
of the Spe 
Collecting- 
Essex 
es from the 
f 1889 




..3 

rt x! 
be to 


P ?^. d 2 =S . o ° 




Clapbam, and 
he Hymenomy 

with a Catalog 
aggestions on t 

Minute Fungi 
rnithological N 

in the Autumn 


|g^ 


otato Di 
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rt of the 


PhPlh O 


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COREESPONDINQ SOCIETIES. 



81 







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tn .5 -^ a: 

.fl -" ' 5 o 

"■S b:;'fl -S fl ' 

« ^ ^ .2 S • 

QJ CU GJ ^ -^^ L 

-fl j:: X3 o ' 



S' 



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GJ to 



!« 



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' c o 






rn ^^ 



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o 
S 
fl a> 3 

- ^5 
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fl 3 
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c3 -— o; 

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cl ^Ph -^ 

CO -; a «-i 
00 <! .S o 

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coi; 2 
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fl M,2 t: 



o 

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05 

i t^ . 

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i tu.l: 
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; fl-a 

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< 2 fl 

I &. o 



fl 
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. (D 

a 

3 
O 



2 O 



Sn3 
S fl 

<= O 

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*^ o p 






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fl <4-l 

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o 



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a 



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:« c« n! 

IS S P^ 






CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



83 



o as 

=5 00 - 
00 03 " 



O C5 o 

C5 00 C5 
00 OO 00 



C5 
CO 
00 



o 

- -00 



C5 
00 
00 



O 

"00 



00 
00 



O 00 to ira n 

I- -^ rH (M C>1 



CO h- 00 O ^- 
50 ■* Oi 



CO 
O 






CO CO 

—I (M 
(M 1-1 






C5 






00 ■— I . =^ 

lJ '00 r»-J^^ u^ 00 , : 



00 



CO 

00 !_; 



> 5 



=8 : 

CO 



X 



g 






1 s 



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S3 



9 & 



•" S g 



s 'a 



"S 



v,^ <; -i^ to 






Is*-'* 



tf=: 'S -S- 

tx n ?-( 



IS 






53 



e 

s; 



o 



o 
o 






'A 



■ o 

_ o e -' 
: oj C3 « 






ci 



ra ^ up (u 



a. 



c 
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0>H 



a 



o 
o 

CO 

w 
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.2 dd 



.2 6 
a • o 

t* 2 






o 
o 



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o 

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o 

w 

CI 






o 
Q 



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as 



o 



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a 

s> 

■ a 

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lb o 

'- w 

lio "^ 
IB c« 



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0) 



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o-S ,. 

tf^ C (D 

go. 2 

p C o 

Si P » 



03 



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eft tu 

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1 o — 
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• o a 

I o 
=2 a 

. CO s 

Sa 

^ -a 

a -^ 
i 55 
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a 
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3 



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.— >•, tn . ^ 



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|| 
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^ 2i^ 2« -gs 



/= tS 



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3 

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o 
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o 

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CD Cli*^ 

a s-f 
go & 



113 

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03 OJ a tM 

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03 



^ a; 



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pi"' 

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a<*i a 
03 a s 

03 03 O 

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■ X! 
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3 
p 



o 

Q 

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a 
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a 

m 03 

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a-i 03 yj 
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73 03 

3 OJ .§ tS 
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P-i 2 

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3h 



Co 

O ^ 



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a 
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s 

CM 
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cc g bo 

-as 
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9'o.a: 

£«3 § 



C 1—1 
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84 



EEPORT — 1890. 






-« 



cs 

c 

o 



CO 









a; 
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P. 



3 

O 
V 

ci 



00 



C3 



O Ci 
Ci 00 - 
QO CO • 



O 02 
>CV CO . > 

■ CO CO •• " 



I— ( C5 — ' 3; CS — ^ lo 

to C5 !M -1< CC -* CO 
^ .-H O] -M C'S 



lo c^ »n c<i 

CC O CM (M 

CC rt (M 



1.-5 -n 

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lO 00 05 to -^ <M CO 
C<l •— ■* OS 00 ■* 00 

CO I— I IM rt 






CI 



o 



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<» • 00 



-* 



o 






Ph « 

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^ ^ :: ^ -^ s 



o 

00 
00 

to m 

o 



o 

o 

)_; »-H I— ' 1—3 ' 

w ^ •> ^ ' 

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00 
00 



o 



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fa 



s 

s 






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a; 5^ 









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o 
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en 
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bo's 2 

Co tn 
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g !(H .d Jt 

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^ d & 

-£ bccStH 

2 'o M 
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0) ^ (P J3 

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50 

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3 
02 



PU 

d" 



COURESrOKDINQ SOCIETIES. 85 



o 


33 




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Oi 


O 05 


o 


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33 


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cr. 


00 




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x> . 


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00 -00 


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00 - 


CO 


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f-H 


w—t 






—-1 ^-t 


^^ 


^^ 


-^ 


^^ 


'^ 


^^ 


"* 


f-4 


« 


M 


CO 


CS 00 05 «0 — < 


CO 


IM CI 


«: si 


s; 00 » t- «5 -H 


c -o 


d 


00 33 -J <M 


00 


(N 


»— 1 


■^ CO »o o 


OJ 


(M -^ 


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iC -^ 


-t< 


— • (N t^ -r 






1— * 




t— 1 


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era c<i 


K 


M 


1— t ^^ 




(M 


05 C< I^ 




OS 


























00 




C3 


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6 
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■ o c 
. C£ -^- 13 




K^ 




o d 


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sg 


o 
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d 




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3 




lasgow 
ristol N 
orks. N 






- O tn 

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a 




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Pd 


CK 


KPh 


ca>^ 


s 


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*^ .a <uoJS >-r ino ••a^ S^ •r"^ S-3 

^ Sg go ^|f^5rc ^ 2^ 12S"| "l^-g.^ ^^-a^g 



^ b 



: ^ «^'^|l-2g°8==g'S§|§^d^g;S5l&^^s|ogg'S°.« 
J-^-^ d^l-^s-gt|s^>^lill2ll|ai^2|5^5-l|||:a 






/^rh m 1-5 . . .— . . .,• "^ . .?" . " • .(n ••> 






^ 



124 






a i 



•2 fe r* a H -^ hp; = two °o •" tj & •^ :■- •« : -5 K J2 c J r o o S 



86 



EEPOUT 1890. 



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a- 
■< 
Pi 
o 
o 
w 

Ci3 



el 



CQ 



z"^ 


o 






n 


o 




c; 


c 






o: 




o 




C50 




o; 


*. •« 


fc •» 


en 


, ,0: 


, 


Cf) 


Gi 


^ 




CO 




. ,a: 


•I •■ » 


- OO Ci 




CO 


•. *. 


r, r. 


m 


' -co 




no 


00 


' 




CO 




- -co 


— — - 


-00 00 


P-«;= 


r—t 






r—l 






l-H 


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^^ 




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1^ 










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o 


o rv 


CO t^ 


rr., 


CO 00 >o 


M 


-H 00 >n 


■* 


•*" 


05 


a: 'O 'O 


a CO <~- 


CO t~ OO 


CO 


«C -H 


^ OD 


fM 


CD ^ <N 


l~ 


<M 


05 


(— t 


CO 


O 


rt CI s^ 


O -ti 


CO C^l I- 


Ph 


T-H 


I— 1 I— « 


I— 1 ^H 




CO CC (M 


(-H 




.— ( 


CO 


<N 


00 


o 


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CO CO 


o 
















Oi 
































oo 


















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ro 




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1- 


















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53 
8. 









IS 



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CO 

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is 

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o 

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. 32 

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bbifi bb 
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ca (3; ca 



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<-^ -^ ^ g (u 0) -c 

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pqc5 oPCQ 



. - be 2 

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n; o t, 3 " 
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o c: 
51 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 87 



a> 


o cs 


O C5 


O 05 






O 


o o 


o c 


a c 


a-. 


O C-. 




00 


05 OO 


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00 


cr. 00 . 


^ 


00 


00 00 


CO - CO - 


OCj OO 


•• 


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00 00 


00 oc 


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" 




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C5 


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OS to 


CO 


1— 1 O ^H 


lO C5 


o — 


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O 


ta 


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00 CO M cc 


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03 




7A 


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b- O 


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^.c3 . cS cB^es c3 c3 71 






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be 



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92 REPOKT— 18yO. 

Third Report of the Committee^ consisting of the Hon. Ealph 
Abercromby, Dr. A. Buchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. J. 
Willis Bund, Professor Chrystal, Mr. D. Cunningham, Pro- 
fessor Fitzgerald, Dr. H. R. Mill {Secretary), Dr. John 
Murray {Chairman), Mr. Isaac Egberts, Dr. H. C. Sorby, 
and the Eev. C. J. Steward, appointed to arrange an 
investigation of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in 
Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in various parts of the United 
Kingdom in co-operation loith the local societies represented on 
the Association. 

As in previous years, the work of this Committee was carried on by cor- 
respondence and by occasional informal meetings of a few of the members. 
The Committee was reappointed at the Newcastle meeting of the Asso- 
ciation in 1889 without a grant, and its work has been carried on at the 
expense of the Secretary. Four new observing stations were instituted, 
and regular observations have been carried on at thirty, at least, of the 
stations existing at the date of last report. 

Most of the original observers for the Committee have, for various 
reasons, been obliged to cease observing, and many of them, on account of 
their other duties, have only been able to keep occasional recoi'ds of tem- 
perature. Mr. G. Taylor, gardener to His Grace the Duke of Argyll, at 
Inveraray, and Mr. J. Paterson, Almond Bank, commenced the daily 
observation of temperature in rivers at the beginning of January 1888, 
and are prepared to carry on the work. Thanks to the interest taken in 
the subject by many of the Corresponding Societies of the Association, a 
number of very valuable records are now being obtained, with a continuity 
and completeness which could not be expected from unattached observers. 
The Dumfries and Galloway Natural History Society, through the Rev. 
Wm. Andson, an enthusiastic meteorologist, has accumulated many data 
regarding the rivers Nith and Dee and their estuaries in the Sol way Fii'th. 
Mr. Andson has discussed and summarised the earlier observations in a 
very interesting paper presented to his Society. The Bristol Channel, 
analogous in many respects to the Solway, has received attention from 
the Bristol Naturalists' Society and the Cardiff Naturalists' Society, each 
of which employs several observers, the former having the English and 
Welsh Grounds Lightship and the latter the Breaksea Lightship as 
observing stations. The East Kent Natural History Society maintains 
observations on the Stour and the Medway, and Colonel W. H. Horseley, 
R.E., who takes a keen interest in the subject, has sent in a valuable sum- 
mary of the results already obtained to the Committee. The Manchester 
Geological Society has printed the complete series of observations made 
under its auspices by Mr. W. Watts, P.G.S., on the Denshaw and Piethorn 
reservoirs, near Oldham. Mr. J. Reginald Ashworth, of the Rochdale 
Literary and Scientific Society, has made similar observations on the 
reservoirs at Cowm, Clay Lane, and Springmill, and Mr. Eunson has 
made an admirable comparison of the temperature of the Northampton 
reservoir and the river Nene, under the auspices of the Northampton 
Natural History Society. Mr. H. Preston, for the Grantham Scientific 
Society, and Mr. F. E. Lott, for the Burton-ou-Trent Natural History 
Society, are investigating the conditions of their neighbouring rivers. 
The Marlborough College Natural History Society has also undertaken 



ON THE SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF TEMPERATURE. 



93 



similar work. To all of these Societies, to their secretaries, and espe- 
cially to their observers, the Committee has to record deep obligations. 

The object which the Committee has in view is to investigate the 
changes in the temperature of exposed water-surfaces with the seasons, 
and the modifying influences of situation, rapidity of flow, and other con- 
ditions. The rivers in which observations have now been made differ 
widely in geographical and climatic condition, the cool, equable climate of 
Caithness and the great range of temperature experienced in Kent being 
extreme types. In addition to the observations detailed in the accom- 
panying tables, the Committee will have access to a good deal of previously 
printed but undiscussed observations, and to an immense mass of unpub- 
lished observations in the keeping of the Scottish Meteorological Society. 
It is also hoped that the observations of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 
the Tweed River Commission, the Severn Fishery Board, and other 
public bodies which have been induced by various members of this Com- 
znittee to undertake observations will become available for discussion. 
Impressed with a sense of the importance of this research to the science 
of Meteorology, and incidentally to many practical matters, the Committee 
appeals to the British Association for assistance in discussing these obser- 
vations, asking to be reappointed, with a grant of 60Z., for the purpose of 
drawing np a complete report. 



Statement 


of Observations Collected hy 


the Committee. 


Eiver, &c. 


Observers 


Period of Observations 


I.— In England. 




Lugg 


Mr. A. Ward, Aymestrey 


Apl. 25, 1880- Sept. 27, 1889 


Avon (Warwick) . 


Mr. G. Duke, Hill Wooton . 


— 


Severn . 


Mr. E. Cohens, Stourport 


Mar. 25, 1889-May 31, 1890 


'TafE 


Mr. Pettigrew, Cardiff . 


Feb. 17, 1889 (in progress) 


' Breaksea Lightship 


Mr. Walters .... 


Mar. 1, 1889 „ 


- Avon 


Mr. S. W. Sutcliffe, Clifton . 


— 


- English and Welsh 


Messrs. Pain and Bartlett 


Feb. 6, 1889 (in progress) 


Grounds Lightship 






' Kennet . 


Messrs. W. B. and H. G. 
Maurice, Marlborough 


Dec. 9, 1888 (in progress) 


■' Stour . 


Mr. H. Dean, Canterbury 


Dec. 13, 1888 „ 


' Medway . 


Sergeant-Major Bolton, New 
Brompton 


Mar. 25, 1889 „ „ 


Nidd . ■ . 


Mr. G. Paul, Knaresborough . 


Mar. 16, 1889 „ 


Dove 


Mr. H. H. Brindiey, Uttoxeter 


Mar. 17, 1889-Nov. 27, 1889 


^ Trent . 


Mr. F. E. Lott, Burton . 


Jan. 7, 1889 (in progress) 


" Nene and reservoir . 


Mr. Eunson, Northampton . 


Jan. 1, 1889 „ 


• Witham . 


Mr. H. Preston, Grantham . 


Apl. 2, 1889 „ 


" Denshaw and Pie- 


Mr. W. Watts, F.G.S., Old- 


Jan. 1, 1889 „ 


thorn Eeservoirs 


ham 





' Under 
- Under 
^ Under 

* Under 
Col. W. H. 

* Under 
" Under 
" Under 
" Under 

Secretary. 



the care of the Cardiff Naturalists' Society; Mr. R. W. Atkinson, Secretary. 

the care of the Bristol Naturalists' Society ; Mr. A. Leipner, Secretary. 

the care of the Marlborough College Natural Histor}' Society. 

the care of the East Kent Natural History Society ; special oversight of 

Horseley, R.E. 

the care of the Burton-on-Trent Natural History Society. 

the care of the Northampton Natural History Society. 

the care of the Grantham Scientific Societ3^ 

the care of the Manchester Geological Society; Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., 



94 REPORT — 1890. 

Statement of Observations Collected by the Committee (^continued). 



River, &c. 


Observers 


Period o'f Observations i 




In England (^continued'). \ 


' Cowm, Clay Lane, 


Mr. J. Reginald Ashworth, 


Mar. 1, 18!>0 (in progress) i 


and Spi-ingmill 


Rochdale 




Reservoirs 






Sea at Dover . 


Capt. J. Gordon McDakiu 
II.— In Scotland. 


Feb. 7, 1889 „ 


Docharfc, Lochay, 


Messrs. P. Macnair and J. 


Jan. 4, 1888- June <J, 1888 j 


and Loch Tay 


McRae 




Tummel . 


Mr. J. Kennedy, Ballinling . 


Jan. 25. 1888- July 21, 1888 


Tay and Braan 


Mr. C. Macintosh, Dunkeld . 


Mar. 17, 1889- June 20, 1890 


Almond . 


Mr. J. Paterson, Almond Bank 


Jan. 4, 1888 (in progress) 


Tay at Perth . 


Messrs. Dow, Wilson, and 
Mechie 


Dec. 4, 1886-May 13, 1888 


Earn 


Mr. J. Ellis, Bridge of Earn . 


Jan. 18, 1888-June 9, 1888 


Thurso at Lochmore, 


Messrs. J. Gunn, A. Harper, 


Oct. 15, 1885-Dec. 17, 1888 


Dale and Thurso 


J. B. Johnstone, D. Gunn, 
D. Campbell, and others 




Forss 


Mr. W. Smith, Forss, Caith- 
ness 


Aug. 2, 18S8-Dec. 11, 1888 


Wick . 


Sergeant McKay, Watten 


Jan. 16, 1888-April 16, 1888 


»» • • • 


Mr. Simpson, Wick 


Jan. 28, 18S8-April 16, 1888 


Glass . 


Rev. C. C. McKenzie, Strath- 
glass 


Nov. 24, 1888-Mar. 16, 1889 


Dee 


Mr. J. McKav, Kincardine 

O'Neill 





Eden 


Mr. F. Peddie, Cupar-Fife . 


Nov. 30, 1888-JaD. 12, 1889 , 


Aray 


Mr. G. Taylor, Inveraray 


Jan. 4, 1888 (in progress) 


Lochrutton (Kirk- 


Mr. Lindsay .... 


Sept. 13, 1888-Aug. 19, 1889 ; 


cudbright) 




1 


2Nith 


Rev. W. Andson, Dumfries . 


Apl. 15, 1889 (in progress) \ 


-Nith Estuary . 


Mr. Lewis, Kingholm Quay . 


June 25, 1889-May 31, 1890 \ 


2 Dee(Kirkcudbright) 


Rev. W. Ireland Gordon, 
Tongland 


Sept. 9, 1889 (in progress) 


2 Dee Estuary . 


Mr. Neil McDonald, Little 
Ross Lighthouse 


Aug. 1, 1889-July 31, 1890 


Sea at Scrabster 


Mr. J. Watson Kerr 


Feb. 22, 1888-Mar. 22, 1890 


(Caithness) 


III. — In Ireland. 


i 


Belvedere Lake 


Mr. Bayliss, MuUingar . 


Jan. 1, 1889-Dec. 31, 1889 


Sea at Moville 


Mr. Lowry .... 


Jan. 14, 1889-June 22, 1890 



The periods of observation given above are merely the dates of the 
first and last observation ; in some cases the work was not continuous. 

' Under the care of the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society. 

« Under the care of the Dumfries and Galloway Natural History Society. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



95 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Profes.sor G. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. Gr. Adams, Lord Eayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. E. T. Glaze- 
brook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Pro- 
fessor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the 
purpose of constructing and issuing Practical Standards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. 

The work of testing resistance coils has been contiuued at the Cavendisb 
Laboratory. A table of values found for the coils is appended : — 





Legal ( 


Ohms. 




No. of Coil 


Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


j Nalder, 1.577 . 


. ^^ No. 189 


•99981 


16°-9 


i Nalder, 1578 . 


. ^ No. 190 


1-00089 


16°-9 


Nalder, 1579 . 


. ^ No. 191 


1-00041 


i6°-y 


Edison Swan, 16 


. ;^ No. 192 


•99846 


13°-9 


Elliott, 229 


. ^ No. 193 


1-00028 


16°-9 


Elliott, 230 


. "^^ No. 194 


1-00021 


16°-9 


Simmons . 


• ^ No. 195 


•99992 


16°-8 


Nalder, 1626 . 


. ^^ No. 196 


1'00045 


15°-;i 


Nalder, 1627 . 


. ^ No. 197 


100056 


lo°-3 


Nalder, 1628 . 


. ^ No. 198 


1-00058 


14°^8 


Nalder, 1580 . 

i 


. 1^ No. 199 


1-00072 


15°'3 



It -would be of considerable advantage in the testing if all the coils 
■were made of a nuiform size. The original standards of the Association 
measure G| inches from the bottom of the case to the underside of the 
horizontal portion of the copper connecting-rods, -while the vertical portion 
of these rods is 8 inches in length. These dimensions should be adopted 
in all coils sent to be tested. If this be done, the bath.s, &c., made to hold 
the standards hold the coils equally -well, and the additional convenience 
in testing is very great. 

The original standards of the Association have again been several 
times compared among themselves. 

The results of the comparisons appear to show that while the coils A, 
B, C, D, E, and Flat have remained constant relative to each other; the 
three platinum silver coils F, G, and H have changed. 



96 



REPORT 1890. 



The change in F was referred to at the end of the Report in 1888, and 
is now very large. The coil has increased in resistance by abont "0006 
B.A. unit; G, on the other hand, has fallen by about '0002 B.A. unit, 
and H by about -0001 unit. The evidence for these various statements is 
given in an appendix to the Report by the Secretary. 

It is perhaps worth remark that in each case the change either took 
place during the time that the coil was immersed in ice or was found to 
have happened when the coil was next measured after its removal from 
the ice. 

The legal ohm coils have not varied relative to Flat. 
The investigations into the resistance of copper have been continued 
by Mr. Fitzpatrick. The Committee desire again to thank the gentlemen 
who have rendered him assistance. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick has examined various specimens of copper supplied 
him as wire. He has also examined copper prepared for him as pure by 
Messrs. Sutton, as well as some which he prepared himself electrolytically 
from carefully purified copper sulphate. These last two specimens lead 
to practically the same value as that obtained by Matthiessen for the 
specific resistance of copper — viz., 1767x10-^ B.A. units at 18°; the 
specific gravity of these specimens is about 890. Two wires supplied to 
him have, however, a distinctly lower resistance : the value for one being 
1731 X 10~^, and for the other 1724 x 10"^ ; a difference in the one case of 
2 and in the other of 24 per cent. The specific gravity of the first of 
these wires is 8"940 and of the other 8'946, and Mr. Fitzpatrick assigns 
the increased conductivity to increased density rather than to greater 
purity. 

Matthiessen gives his results for the resistance of copper at 0°. The 
observations were, however, made mostly at a temperature of 18° or 20°, 
and reduced to 0° by the use of a temperature coefficient ; so that the 
value at 18° found from that at 0° by the same coefiicient will probably 
represent the result of Matthiessen's work more accurately than the one 
he gives himself. Various other points of importance are discussed in 
Mr. Fitzpatrick's appendix. He hopes to be able to give the results for 

some copper prepared by chemical 
means by Mr. Skinner and himself. 
He has also made a number of mea- 
surements on silver, but these are not 
yet complete. 

Dr. Muirhead and the Secretary 
have both been working indepen- 
dently at the constriiction and mea- 
surement of a standard air condenser. 
Two such condensers have been 
made for the Committee by the Cam- 
bridge Scientific Instrument Com- 
pany, on a plan suggested by Dr. 
Muirhead, and mentioned in the last 
report. The capacity of each of these 
is about '02 microfarad. Some slight 
alterations are required to one of 
these, the other is completely satis- 
factory. Its capacity has been repeatedly found, and remains constant 
to at least within 1 in 2,000, which is about the limit of accuracy 



Fig. 1. 



ZJ 



«o 



00 



.V-. 



ON STANDARDS FOK USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUKEMENTS. 97 



o 



attained. Its insulation resisfance is good, the loss by leakage beiii^ 
about 1 in 1,000 of the total charge per 1 minute. It has bet-u found 
possible to compare readily with this standard various mica condensers 
having capacities of 1, '5, "1, and '05 microfarad. The accuracy of these 
determinations is about 1 in 2,000. A full account of the construction of 
the condensers and of the method of making the various tests is given iu 
an appendix by the Secretary, while Dr. Muirhead has contributed some 
notes on his own condensers and tests. 

Another appendi.'t contains an account of a very carefnl and interest- 
ing comparison between the standard mercury thermometers of the Asso- 
ciation and a platinum resistance thermometer constructed by Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths. The resistance thermometer was graduated by means of 
Regnault's numbers for the vapour pressure of water at various tempera- 
tures between 0° and 100°. 

The curve of corrections obtained in this way is exactly parallel to that 
given by the Kew comparisons ; there is throughout the range a constant 
difference of 0°-02 between them. This amount is within the limits of 
error on the mercury thermometer. 

The question of the best value to adopt for the dimensions of a 
mercury column having a resistance of 1 ohm has been raised by some 
members of the Committee during the year. There is no doubt that the 
column of 106 centimetres adopted by the Paris Conference in 1884 
is too short. 

After a discussion of the results of the most recent observations, the 
following resolutions were adopted by the Committee : — 

1. The Committee recommend for adoption as a standard of resistance 
sufficiently near to the absolute ohm for practical purposes the resistance 
of a column of mercury 1063 era. in lengtli 1 square mm. in section at a 
temperature of 0° C. 

2. That for the purpose of issuing practical standards of resistance 
the number •9866 be adopted as the ratio of the B.A. unit to the ohm. 

Thus the new unit ma}- be obtained from the B.A. unit by increasing 
it in the ratio unity to -9866 ; or, to put it diffei-ently, the specific resist- 
ance of mercury, in B.A. units is taken as "DSSS X 10"'', and the lengtli of 
a column of mercury which has a resistance of 1 B.A. unit as 104:-87 cm. 
The specific resistance of mercury in ohms is "9407 xlO"'', while the ohm 
is 1-0136 B.A. units. 

In conclusion, the Committee wish to ask for reappointment, to enable 
them to continue the work of constructing and issuing standard instru- 
ments. Of the grant of 50/. made at Newcastle only 12/. 17s. has been 
drawn. In order to check any further change in the values of the B.A. 
units and to render it less necessary to employ the original standards in 
all the comparisons which are made, it is desirable that the Committee 
should possess three or four copies of the B.A. unit ; while, to enable 
comparisons to be made between the new air condensers and condensers 
of capacity comparable with a microfarad, a resistance bos going up to 
several hundred thousand ohms is required. 

The Committee are of opinion that they should be in a position to 
purchase these resistances ; they therefore recommend that they be reap- 
pointed, with a grant of 100/., that Professor Carey Foster be the Chair- 
man and Mr. R.T. Glazebrook the Secretary. 

1800. n 



98 



REPORT — 1890. 



APPENDIX I. 

On the Values of certain Standard Resistance Coils. 
By R. T. Glazebrook, F.B.8. 

The B.A. Unit Standards. 

The Standard B.A. units of tlie Association have during the year 
been several times compared together both by the Secretary and by Mr. 
Fitzpatrick. Table I. gives the results of two sets of comparisons made 
in August 1890 ; the differences between the various coils and the 
platinum silver standard Flat are given in the third column in bridge- 
wire divisions. One bridge-wire division is very nearly '00005 B.A. 
unit. 

Table 1.— Resistance of the B.A. Standards, August 1890. 







Difference between eacli coil 










and Flat in bridge-wire 




Change of 


Coil 


Tempera- 
ture 


divisions 


Difference 

observed — 


resistance 
per 1° in 








calculated 






Observed 


From chart 




b.w.d. 






Aug. 15, 1890 


1888 






A 


17-2 


27-8 


33-0 


- 5-2 


28-6 


B 


17-4 


30-5 


30-5 


00 


28-8 


C 


17-6 


22-2 


23-0 


- 0-8 


14-2 


D 


17-25 


61-2 


63-5 


- 2-3 


61-7 


E 


17-3 


79-2 


79-5 


- 0-3 


60-7 


F 


17-3 


3-2 


- 9-5 


12-7 


6-7 


G 


17-5 


- 220 


- 18-0 


- 40 


6-5 


H 


17-4 


- 170 

August 19. 


- 150 


- 2 


5-6 


A 


18'8 


67-5 


69-5 


- 2-0 


28-6 


B 


17-8 


60-6 


62-0 


- 1-4 


28-8 


C 


19-2 


31-6 


36-0 


44 


14-2 


D 


18-8 


145-7 


151 


5-3 


Gl-7 


E 


190 


170-6 


17-3 


2-4 


60-7 


F 


18-9 


2-9 


- 9-5 


12-4 


5-7 


G 


190 


- 21-8 


- 180 


_ 3-8 


5-5 


H 


190 


- 17-7 


- 15-0 


- 2-7 


5-6 



In the fourth column are given the corresponding differences 
obtained from the chart made in 1888. In the next column will be found 
the differences between the observed values and those given by the chart, 
while the sixth column gives the change in resistance for 1° C. for the 
various coils. It will be seen that for the first five coils the differences 
between observation and the chart are such as would be readily 
accounted for by a small error in the temperature, and we may say that 
there is no evidence of a change in the resistance of these coils relative 
to Flat. This conclusion is borne out by the results of a series of obser- 
vations made in January and February by Mr. I'itzpatrick. But when 
we come to the three platinum silver standards, F, G, H, the results are 
at once seen to be quite different. Thus F would appear to have risen 
relatively to Flat by about 12-5 bridge- wire divisions, while G and H have 
fallen by 4 and 2-5 divisions respectively. 

Since these are the most important standards, their temperature 
coefficients being all very small, it was necessary to examine their history 



ON STANPAUDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



99 



■with some care. A cliange in F li.ad been noted in a postscript to the 
Report for 1888. The general conclusions of that Report were that up 
to the summer of 1888 there had been no change in the value of the coils. 
It was shown that all the original platinum silver coils examined then — 
those of Messrs. Elliott, H. A. Taylor, and others, as well as those belong- 
ing to the Committee — had apparently fallen in value relatively to the 
mean B.A. unit by about '0007 B.A.U. since 1867, but evidence was 
adduced to show that the fall was only apparent, due to an error in the 
temjjerature coefficient used at that date. A single observation of 
Chrystal in 1876 pointed to the possibility of a change in F, but that 
change was not confirmed by other evidence ; while so far as the platinum 
silver coils were concerned, the observations of Dr. Fleming in 1881, and 
myself in 1888, agreed closely. 

Since 1888, however, changes have shown themselves. 

These are evidenced by the three following tables II., III., and IV., 
which give the differences Flat — F, Flat — G and Flat — H respectively. 

Table U.— Value of Flat— F. 



Date 


Temperature Value | 


Chart 1888 . . . <^ 


100 
15-0 
20-0 


10-5 
9-5 
8-5 


May IG, 1888 
Julv 2, „ 
July 3, „ 
July 13, „ 
July 13, „ 
Jufy 14, „ 
July 28, „ 
Jan. 1890 
May 
Aug. 
Aug. 










14-8 
0-0 
14-8 
14-2 
14G 
14-7 
16-7 
10-0 
144 
16-9 
16-7 


90 

30 

3-8 

4-2 

3-3 

3-3 

4-2 

-4-0 

-3-5 

-3-2 

-30 



Table III.— Value of Flat—G. 



Date 


Temperature 


Value 


Chart 1888 . . . -j 


100 
150 
20-0 


17-5 

18-0 

18-5 


July 1888 
Jan. 27, 1890 
Jan. 29, „ 
Feb. 4. „ 
May 31, „ 
June 10, „ 
June 11, „ 
June 12, ,, 
June 13, „ 
Aug. 9, „ 
Aug. 15, „ 
Aug. 29, „ 
Aug. 29, „ 










14-6 
10-0 
4-5 
6-0 
14-4 
16-0 
16-0 
1(50 
160 
190 
170 
lG-5 
16'5 


16-6 
16-9 
16-7 
16-C 
21-5 
21-4 
22-2 
22-2 
22-2 
21-8 
22-3 
22-6 
22-5 



100 



REPORT — 1890. 







Table 


I 


v.— Value of Flat—R. 


Date 


Temper.ature 


Value 


Chart 1888 . . . -^ 


100 


155 


15-0 


loo 


20 


15-5 


July 1888 .... 


14-6 


141 


Jan. 27, 1890 










10-0 


17-6 


Jan. 29, „ 










4-.5 


17-5 


Feb, 4, „ 










60 


16-5 


May .SI, „ 










141 


18-3 


June 10, „ 










160 


18-1 


June 11, ,, 










16-0 


17-7 


June 12, „ 










16-0 


ia-4 


June 13, „ 










160 


16-8 


Aug. 9, „ 










190 


17-7 


Aug. 15, „ 










17-4 


170 


Aug. 28, „ 










170 


17-8 


Aug. 29, „ 










16-4 


18-2 


The first th 


ree 1 


ines 


in e 


ac 


;h table sixe the differ 


ences. at the temrjera- 



ture shown, taken from the cliart drawn in 1888 ; the remaining Hnes give 
the differences actually observed, with the dates and temperatures. Thus, 
taking the various coils, it is clear that while up to May 1888 the difference 
between Flat and F remained the same as shown by the chart and obser- 
vations up to that date, a change took place during the low-tempera- 
ture observations in July 1888, while by the time the coils were again 
examined in January 1890 a further change had manifested itself. This 
continues up to the present date, so that now at temperature of about 
15° the coil F has increased in resistance relatively to Flat by about 
12-7 bridge-wire divisions. This, assuming the whole change to be in F, 
will correspond to a rise of resistance of -00063 B. A., unit, or in other 
words the temperature at which the coil is right has fallen by about 2°-3. 
In January 18'J0 the coils were again exposed to a low temperature, and 
it seems probable that the changes took place when the coils were in ice. 
From the values in Table III., which gives the values of Flat — G, we 
see there is no evidence of change till May 1890. The observations in 
July 1888 and January and February 1890 are quite in accordance with 
the chart, but in May 1890 it is clear that G has fallen relativelv to Flat. 
The value of the difference at a temperature of 16° is 22T'b.v7.d. as 
against IS'l given by the chart. Thus G has fallen relatively to Flat by 
4 b.w.d., or -0002 B.A. units. This change was first observed after the 
coils had been exposed to a low temperature. 

Witli regard to H the change first showed itself during the low- 
temperature observations in January and February 1890, and Table IV. 
indicates that the difference between Flat and H is now 17o divisions as 
against IS'S in 1888, or in other words, that G has fallen by 0001 B.A. 
unit. Also since Flat-F changed in 1888, while Flat-G and Flat-H 
did not, we infer that the change at that date was in F, not in Flat; 
while since Flat — H changed in January 1890 without a change in 
Flat-G, it appears that the change was in H, not in Flat; and finally, 
Irom the observations in May 1890, which show a change in Flat-G, 
but never in Flat — H and Flat — P\ we infer a chano'e in G. 



ON STAXDAHDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASDEEMENTS 



101 



As to the cause of tbese changes, we can say but little. AVe hope to 
investigate them more completely by the aid of the coils lent by Mr. 
H. A. Ta^'lor and others, and referred to in the 1888 Report ; but it 
seems possible that they are due to strains set up in the wire by the 
great contractions and expansions produced by cooling and heating in 
the paraffin in which the coils are embedded. The coil Flat is of a 
different shape from the others, and little or no paraffin has been used in its 
construction. The other coils, F, G, H, are embedded in paraffin in the 
usual way. On cooling down to 0°, this shrinks greatly, and it is quite 
conceivable that this shrinkage may have strained the coils and so caused 
the change. We hope to test this by having coils made free from paraffin 
and investigating with them the effects of repeated heating and cooling. 
The fall of H and G would be accounted for by a loss of insulation 
causing a slight leak either from the ^\u■e to the case or across the surface 
of the paraffin. The insulation resistance for F, G, H, was therefore 
tested and found in each case to be several thousand megohms, while the 
surface of the paraffin which had become dirty with time was scraped, 
but without producing any change in the resistance. A leak, of course, 
would not produce the rise found in F. 

Observations of the coils at 0° have always been unsatisfactory and 
attended with considerable difficulty. This is mainly due, 1 believe, to 
the fact that the temperature of the room in Avhich the observations have 
been made has usually been above zero, and that heat is conducted into 
the coils by the thick copper connecting-rods. It would seem possible, 
however, that part of the difficulty (See Report of the Committee for 
1888, Table VII.) may have been due to real changes in the resistance 
arising from strains set up by the cooling. 



The Legal Ohji Standards. 

The results of observations on the legal ohm standards of the Associa- 
tion ai-e given in the Report for 1886. Experiments made on these 

between July 188l! and January 1886 showed that while one coil, ^ 100, 

had retained its value unchanged, the other, ^ 101, had varied. These 

observations have been continued, and the results are shown in the 
following tables, which give the value of each coil as found by direct 
comparison with the standard B.A. units, and its value as given by the 
chart in 1880. 

Table V .— Eesidts for '^ 100. 



Date 


Standard used iu 
coniiiari-ou 


Tem- 
pcvntiire 


Value 


Value on 
Chart 


Difference 


Feb. 1887 


F 


1(5-3 


1-00009 


1-00008 


-00001 


Nov. 1889 


G 


1.5-8 


■99997 


■99996 


•00001 






14-8 


-99971 


•99908 


-oooo;^ 






l(i-0 


-99998 


1-00000 


-00002 


Dec. 1889 


Flat 


14 -l 


-99902 


-99959 


-0000:5 






14-8 


•999G9 


-99908 


-00001 






l.S-2 


•99925 


•99924 


-0000 1 








li-2 


-99744 


•997:15 


-00009 


— 


— 


5-7 


-99729 


-99720 


•00009 



102 



REPOET — 1890. 



Table YL— Results for ^ 101. 





Standard used in 


Tem- 


A'alue 


Value on Chart 


Difference 


Date 


comparison 


perature 


found 


in 1S85, 1886 


Feb. 1887 


F 


lG-3 


•99970 


•99930 


•00040 


Nov. 1889 


G 


15-9 


•99955 


•99920 


•00035 






15-1 


•99932 


•99899 


•00033 






l(5-() 


•99955 


•99922 


•00033 


Dec.'lSSO 


Flat 


14-i 


■99909 


•99880 


•00029 






150 


•99925 


•99897 


•00028 






13-3 


•99879 


•99850 


•00029 


" 


. 


7-6 


•99725 


•99695 


•00030 


— 


— 


66 


•99701 


•99668 


•00033 



These tables show three facts conclusively : (1) That up to December 
1889 no appreciable change had taken place in the relative values of 
^ 100 — the Legal Ohm Standard — and Flat or G ; (2) that between 

J anuary 1886 and February 1887 ^ 101, which had varied pre- 
viously, changed by about •0004 ohm ; and (3) that the greater part of 
that change has remained permanent up to December 1889. At present 

the difference between ^ 100 and !^ 101 is about -0004; in 18SG it 
was about "0008. The agreement between the obseivations in November 
and December 1889 — in one set of which Flat was the standard of com- 
parison, while in the other G was used — show that the relative change in 
G and Flat took place after this date. 



APPENDIX II. 

On the Air Condensers of the British Association. By R. T. Glazebeooe 
(with a Note hij Dr. A. Muirhead). 

The question of issuing certificates of capacity has from time to time 
been discussed by the Committee. The following paper gives an account 
of some experiments that have been in progress during the past two 
years with this object in view. 

In the Report for 1887 the Committee express the opinion that it is 
desirable to proceed with the construction of an air condenser. In con- 
formity with this opinion a meeting was held in London, at which Dr. A. 
Muirhead exhibited an air condenser consisting of a series of concentric 
brass cylinders insulated by glass rods, which appeared to the Committee 
to possess great merits ; and it was decided that the Secretary should 
test this and two similar condensers which Dr. Muirhead offered to lend, 
before proceeding further with the construction of condensers for the 
Association. The tests were carried out with satisfactory results. 

The capacity of each condenser was determined repeatedly, using the 
method of a vibrating commutator, due to Maxwell, already employed by 
J. J. Thomson, 'Phil. Trans.,' 1883, and Glazebrook, 'Phil. Mag.,'' 
August 1884. The values found were : — 

Ci = -0030514 microfarad. 
C2 = -0031258 
C3 = -0033288 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 103 

Ifc was found tliat the capacities remained constant from day to day, 
and that the accuracy of a single determination was about 1 in 1,000, 
although the capacity to be measured was so small. 

Some mica condensers belonging to the Cavendish Laboratory were 
compared with these — details of the method will be given shortly — and it 
was found that when comparing a condenser of 1 microfarad with the 
three air condensers combined, having thus a capacity of -009506 micro- 
farad, so that the ratio of the two was about 100 to 1, an accuracy of 
about 1 in 1,000 was attained. It was also shown that the capacity of 
the mica condensers as thus found differed by nearly 2 per cent, from their 
values as determined by the rapid commutator, thns proving that the 
commutator method was unsuitable for a condenser showing absorption. 

Thns for three mica condensers the following values were found : — 



With commutator 


By slow method of comparison 


•9690 
•4934 
•09543 


•9868 
•4994 
•09644 



These results make the necessity for an air standard all the more 
apparent. A report on the experiments made up to that date was laid 
before the Committee at a meeting in London in April 1889. It was 
then decided to adopt Dr. Muirhead's form of condenser, and to have 
two made on the same pattern for the Association. These have been 
constructed by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, following 
Dr. Muirhead's plan, but on an enlarged scale. Bach has a capacity of 
about •02 microfarad, or about six times that of one of the original 
condensers. 

Fig. 2 shows the arrangement. 

The condensers consist of twenty- four concentric tubes ; the outer tube 
is about 2 feet 9 inches high and G 'inches in diameter. Each succeeding 
tube diminishes in diameter by half an inch ; the tubes are about ■515- 
inch in thickness, and the air space between the inside of one tube and 
the outside of the next is about -f^ inch, but it was found impossible 
to get all the tubes of exactly the same thickness, so that in some cases 
the distance between the tubes is less than the above. These tubes are 
carried by two conical brass castings ; the outside surface of each casting 
forms a series of twelve steps, over which the successive tubes fit. Each 
tube is held in position by screws. The upper cone is supported by the 
outside casing of the condenser, and twelve of the tubes hang vertically 
from it. The lower cone is carried by three ebonite pillars, about 3 inches 
in height ; the twelve tubes which are attached to it come respectively 
between those which are suspended from the upper cone. Thus the 
insulation depends on the ebonite pillars, assuming there is no leakage 
across the air from the edges of the tubes. There is an opening in the 
outer casing, closed by a door, by means of Avhich the ebonite can be 
cleaned ; the whole is dried by placing inside a small vessel of sulphuric 
acid. In the centre of the upper cone there is a hole through which a 
rod passes. The rod is connected with the lower cone, and forms the 
electrode for the insulated cylinders. An ebonite plug, fitting tightly 
round the rod, can be pushed down so as to close the hole and prevent 
the ingress of dust when the condensers are not in use ; when they are 
being used the plug is removed. 



104 



EEPORT — 1890. 



Fig. 2. 



The condensers are placed in the testing room at the Cavendish 
Laboratory and covered by a wood and canvas case to protect them from 
dust. It is not intended that they should be movable. 

After this description of the condensers we will proceed to an account 

of the tests to which they have been 
subject. The first test was for 
leakage. 

One set of cylinders was put to 
the earth while the other was con- 
nected with a gold-leaf electroscope. 
An attempt was then made to charge 
them with an ulectrophorus or a 
small electrical machine, but this 
failed entirely. The electricity 
either sparked across at places 
where the tubes were very close 
together, or, before the potential 
rose sufficiently to affect the electro- 
scope, small fibres or dust particles 
which adhered to the tubes formed 
leaks across ; it was clear that the 
condenser could not be charged to 
the potential of the machine. Tests 
were then applied for leakage when 
the potential was lower. One set 
of tubes was connected to one pole 
of a battery — about thirty-six 
storage cells were generally em- 
ployed, having an E.M.F. of 75 
volts — the other set being in con- 
nection with an insulated key ; the 
second pole of the battery was con- 
nected through a galvanometer to 
the key and the condenser charged. 
After an interval, usually about 
five minutes, contact was again 
made at the key; the deflection of 
the galvanometer needle — assuming 
the E.M.F. of the battery not to 
have changed — was a measure of 
the quantity of electricity which 
the condensers in 




had leaked from 
the five minutes. 
The amount 



of leakagfe was 



very difierent in the two condensers 
and depended greatly on the dry- 
ness of the air and ebonite pillars. 
Thus on March 11, when strong 
acid had been enclosed for some 
time, for condenser I. the leak per 
cent, of the whole charge, while 



1 minute amounted to about •! per 

with condenser 11. it was about ten times as oreat 

The sulphuric acid was removed during the Easter vacation and re> 



ON STANDARDS FOR L'SE TN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



105 



placed by calcium chloride, and after this the leak in I. rose to about 
1 per cent, per minute or ten times its former value, while that in II. 
■was from 3 to 4 per cent, of the charge. "With the calcium chloride inside 
the leak was never reduced to less than about '8 per cent, per minute. 
In August, the condensers having been closed since June with calcium 
chloride, there was a leak in I. of about 3 per cent, per minute, while in 
the same time II. lost about 8 per cent, of its charge. 

On August 14, immediately after this test, the calcium chloride was 
replaced by sulphuric acid, and the leak was quickly reduced to about 
1 per cent, per minute for I. For II. no improvement showed itself at 
once. The next day the leak in I. was about '4 per cent, per minute ; 
that in II. had not been greatly reduced. On August 16 the ebonite 
was therefore well cleaned, and air was blown through the tubes of II. 
and the whole closed for about two hours ; the leak had then fallen to 
about 2 per cent, per minute. By August 18 the leaks were still more 
reduced, that in I. being '2 per cent, per minute, while that in II. was 
'G per cent, per minute. 

By the afternoon of this day, the upper parts of the condensers having 
been open to the air of the laboratory for some six hours during other 
tests, the leaks had appreciably increased, but they had fallen again tbe 
next day when the condensers were left closed during the night. 

Thus, during the observations in August, with the exception of those 
on August 14, the condenser I. was losing its charge at the rate of about 
5^^^ part per one minute, while the leakage in II. was some five or six 
times as great, being about -p'rTT P^^'t of the charge per one minute. 

As will be seen later, several mica condensers were compared with I. 
and II. ; the leaks in them were all small, and did not exceed -gi^ per 
minute. 

We come now to the experiments for determining the capacities of 
the tAvo condensers. Of these, three independent series were made, viz. 
in December 1889, May and June 1890, and August 1890. 



The method already referred to was used. 



Fig. 



o gives a diagram 



Fig. 4. 




of the method; in fig. 4 the connections actually employed are shown. 
With the notation employed ' Phil. Mag.,' August 1884, we have, if c 
be the capacity of the condenser, n the number of times it ia charged per 
one second, 



106 KEPOET — 1890. 

Jl- "^ 1 



a 
n c= 



,r, ab 1/iT ^9 \ 

I c(a+b + d)i I "^cZ(a + c + ^)J 

In most of tlie experiments about to be described, we had the following 
values in legal ohms : — 

a = 10 d= 1,000 

6 = 18 ^ = 17,600, 

while c, which was the adjustable arm, varied from 6,000 to 15,000. 

With these values, the only correction which need be included is the 
last factor in the denominator, and we may write 

a 

n c= 



cdl 1 + 



ag \ 



d (a+c + g) i 

The resistances were taken from a legal ohm box belonging to the 
laboratory ; the various coils in this box were carefully compared with 
each other by Mr. Searle, and found to be consistent with each other, at 
any rate to within 1 in 10,000. The coils were also compared with the 
standards of the Association, and it was found that at 16° they were 
greater than legal ohms in the ratio of I'OOll to 1. The standard tem- 
peratare adojoted in the experiments was 17", and since the coefficient of 
increase of resistance of the box is about "0003 per 1° C, the resistances 
require to be multiplied by 1-0014, to reduce them to legal ohms. In 
some cases, in the value of c, coils from a B.A. unit box, containing coils 
of ten, twenty, thirty, and foi'ty thousand, B.A. units were employed. 

The values found for these coils by myself in terms of the legal ohm 
box showed that they were very consistent with each other, and that the 
nominal 10,000 B.A.IJ. was equal to 9,880 legal ohms as measured by 
the legal ohm box. 

In the comparisons of two condensers certain coils from a megohm 
box were used ; the value of each of these was also determined. They 
were as follows : — 



1 



2 
3 
4 
9 
10 



98,731 Lefjal ohms of standard box. 



-o 



98,625 

98,698 „ 

28,735 

98,725 

98,776 

In the experiments on Dr. Muirhead's condensers, the vibrating com- 
mutator described in Professor Thomson's paper, ' Phil. Trans.,' 1883, or 
in my paper, 'Phil. Mag.,' 1884, v/as used, and that with complete suc- 
cess. In the experiments about to be described, this was replaced by a 
rotating commutator which had been fitted up by Professor Thomson 
and Mr. Searle for their experiments on the other value of ' v,' and which 
possesses certain advantages over the other form. Dr. Muirhead and 
Dr. Fleming have also used a somewhat similar arrangement of appa- 
ratus. Fig. 5 shows the arrangement. The split ring commutator is 
carried on the axle H k, which is driven by a water motor. Two wire 
springs, Q, B, ai-e in contact with the two halves of the commutator 
respectively, and as it rotates the brush p, made of very fine brass wire, 



ON STANDARDS FOB USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



107 



is brought into communication alternately -with Q and R. The disc l m 
■was of iron, and its mass helped to steady the motion. On one face of 
the disc a series of circles were drawn forming a number of annnli. The 

Fig. 5. 




successive annuli were divided each into a different number of divisions 
by radial marks. Thus in the innermost annulus there were four, on the 
next five, and so on. The disc as it rotated was watched in the usual 
stroboscopic manner through two slits on two pieces of thin metal 
carried by the prongs of a tuning-fork, which made about 64 vibrations 
per second. 

Wheu the frequencies of the disc and of the fork were in certain 
simple ratios to each other, the corresponding pattern on the disc was 
seen in a steady position. The driving pulley of the motor carried a 
second baud, which passed over an idle pulley near the observer at the 
tuning-fork, and the speed of the motor, and hence of the disc, was ad- 
justed partly by varying the flow of water, partly by friction on this band, 
until the desired pattern was seen in the steady position. This position 
was easily maintained by varying the friction on the string. The tuning- 
fork drove a second fork an octave above itself in frequency. This fork 
was mounted near the standard fork of the laboratory, and the beats 
between the two were coimted. The frequency of the standard fork was 
determined by Professor Thomson and Mr. Searle for their experiments 
on ' i',' recently communicated to the Royal Society. They found that it 
had changed slightly since it was determined by Lord Rayleigh, and give 
as the result of their experiments 

Frequency at temperature r=128-105{l-(i;-16)-00011} . 

The driven fork was always adjusted to a slightly lower frequency than 
that of the standard, so that there were about 20 beats to the minute 
between the two. During each sei'ies of observations the beats were 
repeatedly counted, but they rarely varied during the series sufficiently 
to affect the result. Tlie commutator was designed and partly constructed 
by Mr. Searle, who observed at the tuning-fork throughout. A little 
attention was required to secure good contact between the springs Q, R and 
the rotating parts, and also to adjust the brush p, but with moderate care 
in the adjustments the apparatus worked perfectly. 



108 



EEPOET — 1890. 



The galvanometer was one constracted in the laboratory ; it had a 
resistance of 17,600 ohms, with a long silk fibre suspension — a quartz 
fibre would have been an improvement. 

Its sensitiveness was such that 1 scale division corresponded to 
•83x10-'° C.G.S. units of current ; the time of swing was 7'2 seconds, 
so that the sudden discharge through the galvanometer of 10"'° C.G.S. 
units of electricity produced a throw of 1 division ; or, in other words, the 
quantity which, when discharged suddenly through, gave a throw of y 
divisions was yxl0-'°. This was determined by discharging through 
the galvanometer a condenser of capacity •! microfarad ; when charged to 
1 volt, the throw observed was 100 divisions, while the steady current 
due to an E.M.F. of '001 volt produced a deflection of 72 divisions. 

The observations were made by varying c. There was a commutator 
in the battery circuit. In each position of this commutator two values 
of c were taken and the corresponding resting points of the spot on the 
scale observed. From these the value of c, which corresponded to the 
zero position of the spot, was obtained by interpolation. 

These observations were made twice for each position of the commu- 
tator, and the mean taken. 

We will give one series as an example : — 

August 27, 1890.— Temperature of standard fork, 18°-8. 

» J, Beats „ „ 20 in 65-4 seconds. 

» J. ,, „ „ 20 in 65-2 „ 



Condenser No. 1 . 
Frequency, 80 approximately. 



Position of Com- 
mutator 


Zero Reading 


Resistance 


Resting Point 


/ 

\ 
/ 
\ 


48 
48 
48 
49 


f5890 
\5880 
/5880 
\5890 
/5890 
1.5880 
/5880 
15890 


47 
61 
46 
49 
48 
51 
46 
50 



Temperature of coils, 17°-5. Beats, 20 in 64-8 sees, at 19°-3. 

It will be seen that between the third and fourth series the galvano- 
meter zero has shifted slightly. 

From these we get as the four values of c the following : — 

5887-5 
5886-6 
5888-3 
5887-5 

Mean, 5887-5 at 17-5 
Correction to 17°, -9 

Value of c= 5888-4 at 17°, 

while the beats are 20 in 65 seconds at 19°, or -307 per 1 second ; at 19° 
the frequency of the standard is 128-066 ; thus the frequency of the driven 
fork is 128-066 --307, i.e., 127-759. Thus for the driving fork we have 
the octave below this, or 63-879, Avhile the frequency of the commutator 
is 5/4 of this. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



109 



Hence in this series : 



«= 79-849, 



c=5888-4. 



The accuracy attained in this series is a fair specimen of the whole. 
With these explanations we proceed to give the results in tabular form, 
showing the date, the values of n and c, and the resulting value of c. The 
wire by which the condenser was connected to the commutator, together 
with the commutator itself, had a certain capacity which was determined 
in the same way, merely disconnecting the wire from the condenser. In 
the observations in December and June we found — 

a=10 cZ=98730 c=28460 n=QZ-9, 

whence the capacity of the wires is -0000625 microfarad, while in August, 
after the ajjparatus had been set up afresh in a different position with new 
connecting wires, the value of c was 22,200 and the capacity -0000799 
microfarad ; for the wires the values of o could be determined to about 
1 per cent. 

In the table the value of c has been corrected for the capacity of the 
wires. 

Table I. — Condenser I. 



Date 


Value of c 


Value of n 


c, in micro- 
farads 


Mean of 
Series 




14762-5 


31-95 


-021025 N 




December 31, 1889 . 


7372-3 


03-90 


-021016 [ 


•021020 




5894-3 


79-875 


•021019) 




( 


14772-9 


31-93 


-021023 ^ 




May 20, 1890 . 


7376-5 


03-86 


•021017 ■ 


-021022 


I 


5896-4 


79-825 


■021025' 




June 16, 1890 . 


7375-0 


03-86 


-021022 


•021022 


August 27, 1890 . . \ 


14745-9 


31-939 


•021038 , 




7364-8 


63-879 


•021027 


-021032 


'■ 


5888-4 


79-849 


•021030 i 





Mean of the whole, -021024 microfarad. 
Table II. — Condenser II. 



Date 


Value of c 


Value of n 


C, in micro- 
farads 


Mean of 
Series 


December 31, 1889 . 


13957-4 
6963-6 
5575-1 


31^95 
63^90 

79-875 


•022238 ^ 
•022249 
•022225 J 


•022237 


May 20, 1890 . . .1 


13945-3 
6957-4 
5568-2 


31-93 
03-80 
79-825 


•022271 X 
•022283 ■ 
•022266) 


•022273 


June 16, 1890 . 


6953-4 


6386 


•022296 


•022290 


August 27, 1890 . . ' 


13774-G 

6878-6 
5500-4 


31-939 

63-879 
79-849 


•022523 > 
•022515 \ 
•022518 ) 


•022519 


August 28, 1890 


6878-0 


63-881 


•022515 


•022515 



110 



REPORT — 1890. 



Table III. — Giving the Capacity of two Mica Condensers for various 

Frequencies of Charge. 



Frequency 


June 12 


June 14 


June 16 


Mean 






Condenses A, 




21 
32 
64 
80 


•04885 
•04883 
•04868 


■04886 
•04884 
•04868 
•04859 


•04864 


•04886 
•04884 
•04867 
■04859 






Condenser B. 




21 
32 

64 


— 


•09642 
•09642 
•09634 


•09642 


•09642 
•09642 
•09638 



Taking the air condensers first, the tables show that, at any rate for 
frequencies between 32 and 80 per second, the time of charging has no 
effect on the capacity, while the individual observations in each series are 
within 1 in 2,000 of each other. 

For condenser I. the observations at frequency 64 are in all the series 
the least, but this is not the case with condenser II. 

The capacity of condenser I. shows no change between December 1889 
and June 1890. The observations in August 1890 are all rather greater 
than those in the earlier series, but the increase, about 1 in 2,000, is almost 
within the error of the experiments. With regard to condenser IL there is 
an indication of a rise in its capacity all through. It will be remembered 
that we have already shown that the insulation resistance of II. is con- 
siderably less than that of I., but it is easy to see that this leak was not 
sufficient to account for the change, for if R be the resistance of the leak 
then our approximate formula becomes 

wc + -=— , instead of wc=— . 
R cd cd 

Now, the current through the condenser when leaking most was about 
•0002 E c, where e is the E.M.F. to which it is charged and c the capacity 
of the condenser. 

Thus the resistance of the leak is ,^^^ , or -25 x 10-' C.G.S. units, 

■0002 xc 

since the value of C is '02 X 10-^^. This resistance is 250,000 megohms. 

Hence the correction to the capacity =l/wR=^0002 xc/w, and this is 
far too small to affect the result. 

There is no doubt, then, that the capacity of II. altered during the 
experiments by about 1 per cent., and it will be necessary to take it to 
pieces and set it up again. 

It will be remembered that in the early part of August the leak in II. 
was very great, and it seems probable that the steps taken to discover 
the cause of the leak have produced a change in capacity. The experi- 
ments on II., then, serve merely to show that the capacity can be found 
by the rotating commutator method to a high degree of accuracy, while 
those on I. prove that an air condenser, of "02 microfarad capacity, has 
been constructed which has retained its capacity unaltered for the eight 
months between December 1889 and August 1890. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Ill 



The values of c are given in terms of the coils of the legal ohm box 
at 17°. Hence the capacity found needs to be divided by 1'0014; to reduce 
it to legal microfarads, and it then becomes •020995. 

Moreover, since 1 legal ohm=l-01124 B.A.U., and 1 B.A.U. = -98GG 
X 10^ cm. per sec, we have 

1 legal ohm = •9977 x 10^ cm. per 1 sec. 

And the absolute electro-magnetic measure of the capacity of the con- 
denser I. is 



•021043 X 10- 



'^ sec.^ cm. ^ 



I 



The effect of the leak in condenser II. was still further investigated 
on August 28. The plates of II. were connected by a resistance of 30 
megohms. Hence the correction to c, which is 

-— becomes -^000520 xlQ-i^ when 7i=64. 

TIE 

The value of c found with the leak in was -023813 x lO-i^. 

Hence making the correction c^ '02249 microfarad, which is suffi- 
ciently close to the value found without the artificial leak. 

Table III. shows that with mica condensers not very much greater in 
separate capacity than the air condensers a change in the frequency of 
the charge from 21 to 80 produces an appreciable change in the capacity. 
This, of course, is in consequence of the absorption. With large con- 
densers, as we have already seen, the effect is more marked. 

It remains, then, to give an account of the experiments undertaken 
for the purpose of comparing mica or paraffin condensers as ordinarily 
used with the air condensers, and of investigating some of the effects of 
absorption. 

The two well-known methods of De Sauty and Sir "William Thomson 
have both been employed. 

The arrangements are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. 

Fig. 6, 




The first of these is not really suitable for use in cases in which therf 
is absorption, though, with care, a fairly accurate measure of the instar 



112 



EEroHT— 1890. 



taneous capacity can be foand. The resistances Ri Ej can always bo 
ju-ranged so that the effect of the charge rushing into the air condenser 
shows itself as a shai-p kick of the spot of light— to the left, say — followed 



Fig.' 7. 




by a slower deflection in the other direction, due to the absorption cbarge 
soaking into the mica or paraffin. The resistance for which this sharp 
kick practically disappears is fairly definite, and from it the instantaneous 
capacity can be found, while an observation of the resulting kick due to 
the absorption enables us to calculate the increase of capacity which, 
arises from that cause. This can be done in various ways. The simplest, 
perhaps, is to disconnect the condensers from the circuit, and, replacing 
the mica condenser by a variable condenser of small capacity, observe the 
kick this produces in the galvanometer when charged with the same 
battery. From this the capacity to which the absorption is equivalent 
can be approximately calculated. 

Thus a condenser of about "1 microfarad was compared with Dr, 
Muirhead's three condensers combined. Taking C2, K2 to refer to the air 
condenser, we had 

€.,=•009506 

E2=8986.50obms; 

and with Rj =89300 there was a slight tremor to the left and a movement 
of three divisions to the right. On changing Rj by 100 ohms the change 
in the motion of the spot was marked. 

This gives for the instantaneous capacity Ci=09550; the value found 
by the commutator at frequency 64 was "09543 microfarad. 

To evaluate the five divisions the air condenser was disconnected and 
the mica condenser replaced by one of capacity '001 microfarad ; the 
kick observed was 48 divisions, while with •002 microfarad it was 9 
divisions. Thus a kick of 5 divisions corresponds to about "0011 microfarad 
capacity. Hence the capacity of the mica condenser, including the full 
eff'ect of absorption, is '0966 microfarad. 

The second method, about to be described, in which the absorption 
effect is included, gave ^0965 microfarad. 

Let us now consider the second method. The current from a battery 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



113 



flows through B, p b., (Fig. 7), a large resistance of araoant R, + r_,. One 
plate of each condenser is in contact with b, and B., respectively; let V], 
¥-2 be the potentials at these points. The other plates A,, i, are insulated 
and connected together and to the galvanometer G ; the other pole of the 
galvanometer can be connected to p thi-ough the insulated key K,. The 
galvanometer can be replaced by an electrometer. Let Kj be the resistance 
p b, ; R.2 the resistance p Bo. Suppose the point pbe put to earth, the rest 
of the circuit being insulated ; then if Cj C2 be the capacities, it is easy to 
see that there will be no current through the galvanometer on making the 
key Ki, if Ci Ri = C2 R2. 

Now, in the case of a mica or paraffin condenser the capacity is a 
function of the immediate past history of the condenser, and diffei'ent 
values will be found for the resistances R,, R2, according to the time the 
charging has lasted. Dr. Muirhead, however, who uses the method 
largely, has shown how to obtain the instantaneous capacity from the 
observations. His method is described in the following extract from a 
letter to myself. ' In the method as described one pole of the battery is 
to earth instead of the point p of Fig. 7. 

Dr. Muirhead writes : ' I have "05 microfarad nearly in air condensers, 
and a series of mica condensers of "1, '2, -3, -331 (original 1/3), and '498 



Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 



-1 ! E 



^/nrTTTTTrrnnnrA. 



:/. 






|E orG 





S, 



(original "5) mf. capacity, all enclosed in a double air-tight box, to keep^ 
the temperature as uniform as possible. The capacity of these standards, 
is determined periodically by both the tuning-fork method (using a, 
revolving commutator instead of the tuning-fork) and by the ballistic 
galvanometer method. One can make comparisons of these condensers 
among themselves, and with other condensers by the method I adopt, to an 
accuracy of 4 in 10,000. The temperature coefficient of shellacked mica 
condensers is about "018 per degree Centigrade, and of paraffined mica 
•034 per cent. 

* Let Si be the capacity of the air condensers ; 

„ S2 ,, „ condenser to be compared with air 

condensers. 

' After making battery contact, supposing the charging of the con- 
densers to be instantaneous and the absorption nil, then we have 



1S90. 



V s, = (v — ti) s<> 
Sec also Electrician, Sepleruber n, 1890. 



114 EEPOET 1890. 

-where v is the potential of the junction of the two condensers. Should 
there be any delay in obtaining the balance, the position of v on the 
slides will vary — say to t'l ; then the charges on the two condensers will 
be 

Vi Si and (y — Vi) (82 + 0") 

respectively, where o- is the apparent increase of capacity of S2 due to 
absorption or soaking in of charge. On disconnecting the armature of S2 
from the slides and putting it to earth, the potential falls from V to 0, 
and immediately afterwards the potential of the junction of the two 
condensers becomes, say, Vo, so that 



Hence 



Si V1 + S2 (-yi—^) = (81 + 82) ^2 

Vi (Si + S2)-V S2=(Si + S2) V2 



or 



V,—Vo 



Y-iv^—V^) 



V and V] are known, and Vo is indicated at once on an electrometer ; or 
when a galvanometer is used it can be measured quickly thus : — As soon 
as Vi has been observed, break the galvanometer contact and move the 
index of the slides down to ; then directly after bringing the armature 
of 82 from the full potential of the slides to zero, close the galvanometer 
circuit and observe the throw, a, which is a measure of V2, the potential 
of the junction of the two condensers.' 

In my own experiments, which were made after consultation with 
Dr. Muirhead, I adopted a method practically the same as his ; but 
before describing it, it will be better to consider rather more the effects 
of absorption. Let us suppose, at first, that the leakage from either 
condenser is inappreciable. If there be no absorption, each condenser is 
charged to its full potential practically instantaneously ; and it does not 
matter when or in what order the keys, Ei, K2, are put down, the position 
of P on the slide is not affected. 

Suppose now that C] shows absorption, the capacity increases with 
the time of charging. We can get the instantaneous capacity by depress- 
ing, first, the key Ki and then Kg, but in this case we are troubled with 
the effect of the slow after charging as in the other method. Still the 
resistance, for which the kick due to the initial charging is zero, is, 
with the condensers I employed, fairly marked, and a value for the 
instantaneous capacity can be thus fairly accurately obtained. 

If, now, K2 be made for 1 second and then K'l depressed, a different 
position will be found for p. With this interval of charge the apparent 
capacity differs appreciably from its instantaneous value, and the after- 
effects of the absorption can still be observed. The same is true for 
intervals of 2, 3, or 4 seconds — the value obtained for the capacity in- 
creases, and the after-effect is still noticeable ; but with the condensers 
and battery I used, if the time of charging was prolonged to 5 seconds, 
the after-effect was inappreciable, and the position of P on the slide, and 
hence the apparent value of the capacity, was hardly affected by further 
increasing the time of charge. In the experiments on a cable recorded 
in Dr. Muirhead's paper already referred to, the absorption effects con- 
tinue much longer. In the observations recorded below, then, unless the 



ON STANDAUDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 115 

contrary is stated, the key K^ was held down for 5 seconds, and then, K, 
being depressed, the position of p determined, for which the galvanometer 
remained unaffected. The value of the capacity deduced then is the full 
capacity for the potential to which the condenser is charged. It is of 
coarse possible, though further experiments would be wanted to prove it, 
that the full eflect of absorption is not merely to increase by a definite 
amount, independent of the jaotential, the ajjparent instantaneous capacity, 
but that the increase may depend on the potential to which in each case 
the condenser is being charged. It will of course depend on the purposes 
for which the condenser is to be used whether the instantaneous capacity 
or the full capacity is required, and it probably will be best, when issuin-T 
certificates, to state both the instantaneous capacity and the maximum 
increase due to absorption — mentioning at the same time the diS'erence 
of potential used in the experiments for determining this cori'ection, and 
also the time of charging in which this maximum increase is practically 
attained. 

The method I employed in determining the correction due to absorp- 
tion was the following:— Suppose the plates, A,, A2, to be at potential 
zero and uncharged. Make the battery key, Ko, and after keeping it 
made for some little time break it again. It; there be no absorption Aj 
and A, will still be at zero potential and uncharged ; but let there be 
absorption in one of the two, A^, and let Bi be the positive pole of the 
battery, then, while the batteiy is on, negative electricity is being 
absorbed by the dielectric near Aj, and positive electricity is left free over 
the plates, A,, A,, and the wires connecting them. When the battery is 
broken the negative electricity begins to soak out, but the process takes 
time. Hence, if immediately on breaking the battery key, K.,, the 
galvanometer key, K\, is made for an instant, there is a throw of the 
galvanometer needle indicating the passage to the earth of the positive 
set free by the absorption. If, after a time, the galvanometer key be 
again depressed, there is an equal throw in the opposite direction, caused 
by the passage of the negative electricity which has again soaked out of 
the condenser. The required correction is obtained from either of these 
throws. 

For, let I be the current between Bj and B.j ; let c, be the instantaneous 
capacity of the one condenser and Cj of the other; and let q be the 
quantity of electricity absorbed. Then the quantity of negative elec- 
tricity on the plate A, is C, R, i+Q, and the quantity of positive electricity 
on the plate A2 is C2 Ro h if we assume the potential of these plates to be 
still zero. 



Therefore, 



Cj El i + Q=:C2 R2 i 



C2 Ri C2 Ri i 
Then, neglecting the battery resistance, if e be the E.M.F. of the battery, 

E 



Kl -I- R2 
C2 Kl Co E\ 






I 2 



116 REPORT — 1890. 

Now, we have seen that with the galvanometer as I used it, if y is the 
throw produced by the passage of a quantity Q, then Q=7 X 10"'". 

The battery consisted of 36 small storage cells, which, when fully- 
charged, had an E.M.F. of about 75 volts, so that 

E = 75xl0s. 

_^lso, C2='021 microfarad 

= 21xl0-'s. 

Hence, with these numbers, 

C2 E, 1575V ^^1/ 
or, writing it as a correction to c,, 

c,=^i^^_Xfi+52Aio-i8. 

Examples of the method of applying this correction will be given 
shortly. 

It will be noticed that a leak in one of the condensers may be cor- 
rected for in the same way. For, suppose the mica condenser to leak, 
then a quantity q' of positive electricity passes through to the plate a,, 
while the battery current is on, and the condition that the galvano- 
meter should not be deflected is, 

Cj E2 i — Ci K] i:=Q' 

the same equation as previously. 

There will, however, be this difference : on depressing the key K after 
breaking the battery circuit, a positive charge will in both cases pass 
from A to B through the galvanometer ; if this charge be due to absorp- 
tion, there will, when the key is again depressed after an interval, be a 
current through the galvanometer in the opposite direction ; while if the 
first charge be due entirely to a leak, there will be no effect when the key 
is the second time depressed. In practice, the leak and the absorption, 
may exist together either ia the same or different condensers. In the 
second case the leak will tend to produce opposite effects to those caused 
by the absorption ; the quantity Q', however, increases nearly in the 
ratio of the time of charging, while Q increases for the first few seconds, 
but soon reaches a maximum and then I'emains constant. 

These considerations are illustrated by some experiments in which the 
condensers I. and II. were compared with various mica condensers. The 
battery key was in each case made for 30 seconds ; it was then broken, 
and the galvanometer key was made for an instant. The resulting throw- 
was the sum of those due to (1) the leak in the mica condenser, (y), say ; 
(2) the absorption in that condenser, (a), say; and (3) the leak in the. 
air condenser, which produces an effect in the opposite direction 
(-y).say. 

After about 30 seconds more the key was again depressed ; the 
resulting throw is due to the absorbed electricity which has again leaked 
out, and will give us —a. 

The following table gives the results ; each observation entered is the 
itean of three or four. 



ON STANDARDS lOU USE I.V IXKCTUICAL MEASUREMKNTS. 



117 



ComloM.ser 








coniparecl with 


— 


I. 


II. 


Standard 








•05 


A + a-A' 


23 


-7-3 




— a 


-3 


-2^6 


•1 


A. + a-\' 


2-2 


-9 




— a 


-3 


-3 


•1 


A + a-A.' 


2-2 


-7 




— o 


-2-2 


-35 


•5 


A+a-A' 


3 3 


-4 




— a 


-33 


-2-5 


■1 


A + a — A' 


4 


-3-2 




— a 


-5 


-5-7 



If we take the comparisons with condenser I. first, it appears that 
throughout A. — A.' is small. For the 'Oo and 'l microfarad it may be 
about —"5 division, while a is about 3 divisions; for the "5 microfarad, 
a is rather larger, being about 3"3, and A— A' is zero, while for the 
1 microfarad a the absorption effect is distinctly larger, being 5 divisions, 
and A — A' is about — 1. All this is, of course, quite consistent with the 
fact that condenser I. and the mica condensers insulate well while there 
is absorption by the mica. 

When, however, we come to the condenser II. the results are quite 
different. While the absorption effects are comparable, as of course they 
■ought to be, with those obtained in the comparison with I., the leakage 
effects are very large. 

The values of A— A' in order are as follows : —9, —12, — lO'o, — 6"5, 
— 8. Now, we know that the mica condenser shows very little leak effect ; 
the above leaks are therefore almost entirely in the air condenser II. If 
we suppose the total leak to be proportional to the time, then for the 5 
second charges used in the experiments the corresponding values of y in 
the corrections to be introduced for leakage will be one-sixth of the above, 
and thus we get the following results : — 



Condensers 


1 Correction for tlie 
Value of •/ 1 Leak to Capacity 
in Microfarads 


Condensers 


Value of y 


Correction for the 

Leak to Capacity 

in Microfarads 


•05 
•1 


1-5 
2 


•00007 
•00016 


•5 
1^5 


1 

1 


•0003 
•0007 



It is clear that the corrections are in all cases small, being not much 
over 1 in 1,000, but they serve to illustrate the method. The above cor- 
rections are only those for the leak ; the correction for absorption could 
be found in the same way. 

With a view to testing the method in a case in which a leak only 
existed without absorption, a number of comparisons of I. and II. 
were made. 

In these experiments the resistance with I. was 296,240. The 
resistances with II., and the deflections due to the leak obtained by 
breaking the buttery and then making the galvanometer, are given below, 
together with the ratio of the two capacities corrected for the leak. 



118 



REPOKT 1890. 



Interval between 

Battery and 

Galvanometer 

Contacts 


Resistance 


Leak in 

Scale 
Divisions 


^'1 

1'2 


Correction 




seconds 


275,980 





1-0734 





1-0734 


5 „ 


275,180 


2-5 


1-0765 


- -0032 


1073;; 


30 „ 


271 380 


14-5 


1-091 G 


--0184 


10732 


60 „ 


267,180 


22-5 


1-1088 


-•0286 


10802 


5 „ 


91,370 


5 


4-3223 


-0168 


4-3391 


30 „ 


92,670 


22 


4-2617 


-0743 


4-33G0 


60 „ 


94,170 


42 


4-1938 


-1415 


4-3353 



The last three lines of the table give the results of a series of com- 
parisons between II., -which had a leak, and a condenser of '1 microfarad, 
which showed absorption. The resistance with II. was 394,930 ohms. 

In the first four lines the corrections ai'e negative, for the capacity of 
the leaky condenser is being found in terms of the standard. In the next 
three lines they are positive, for the ratio of the mica condenser to the 
leaky standard II. is being found. 

A comparison of the fourth and sixth columns shows the results of 
the correction. In the fourth line it is clear that the correction is not 
large enough. This probably arises from the diHlculty of making contact 
with the galvanometer circuit sufficiently soon after the battery is broken 
to insure that the whole of the charge accumulated by the leak should 
pass through the galvanometer. 

The leak correction was also tested with similar results by putting an 
artificial leak in I. 

We will now give some specimens of the observations made to com- 
pare I. with a mica condenser in order to show the accuracy attained. 
Condenser I. compai-ed with •! microfarad ; resistance with I., 493,560 
ohms ; resistance with -1 microfarad, 105,800 + a variable resistance 
given below. 

In the table in which the effect of the galvanometer is shown by the 
letters R, L, in the last column, R means there was a deflection to the 
right, L to the left. 



Interval between Galvano- 
meter and Battery Contact 


Variable Resistance to be 
added above 


Effect on Galvanometer 


5 seconds 
2 „ 
„ 


(700 

400 

'500 

(400 

J700 

Uoo 

(1200 

1300 

U400 


B 

L 

very small E 

L 
B 

L 
L 

Tremor L, then swing to E 

E 



Thus in this case the eff'^ct of n.n alteration of 100 in the resistance, 
■^•^- ttjVo o^ ^'be whole, is very marKed, and we may take the following 
values for R ; — 



5 seconds interval 
o 



105,800 + 500 
105,800 + 650 
105,800 + 1300 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



119 



Other series of observations showed that the resistance for 10 seconds' 
interval was the same as for 5 seconds' ; if the interval was prolonged to 
30 seconds a very small increase in capacity was noticeable. Thus the 
effect of absorption is to increase the capacity of the "1 microfarad by 
about 8 in 1,0LI0, or -008 of the whole ; of this -0065 shows itself in the 
first 2 seconds of charging and -0015 afterwards, the increase after 5 
seconds, if any, being extremely small. 

When comparing I. with -5 micn'ofarad the resistances iised were 
592,290 and 21,900 respectively. In this case an alteration in the latter 
resistance of 10 ohms, or 75-^, was easily seen. The following are the 
results : — ■ 



Interval 


Resistance 


1 Interval 


Resistance 


10 seconds 
5 „ 


24,900 
24,900 


2 seconds 
„ 


24,930 
25,060 



These again show that the absorption effect disappears after 5 seconds, 
and that the effect of absorption in 2 seconds is about 0052, and in 
5 seconds about •006-i of the whole capacity. 

When comparing with 1 microfiirad, the resistances were 592,290 and 
12,580, the last number being accurate to about 5 ohms, or about the 
same proportion as before. 

The results of the various observations are given in the following 
table ; the observations made with II. have been corrected for the leak, as 
already explained. 

Table giving the Capacities of certain lEica Condensers as compared with 

the Air Condensers. 



Date 


Value from I. 


V.ilue from II. 


Value found by 

Commutator 

at frequency (il 


August 19 . 
„ 23 . . 

June 17 . 
August 14 . 

., 18 . . 

„ 21 . . 

August 18 (M) . 

„ 18 (A) . 

„ 21 . . 

August 18 . 
'>1 


•04934 
•04934 

•09772 
•09751 
•09773 
•09773 

•5005 
•5007 
•5006 

•9910 
•9913 


•04938 
•04936 

•09780 

•09786 
•09781 

•5008 
•5009 
•5010 

•9912 
•9912 


•04867 
•09638 



It will be noticed that, for either condenser I. or II., the results are in 
very close accordance ; with the exception of one observation, on August 
14, the differences are barely as great as 1 in 5,000, and the method is 
clearly capable of giving the value of a mica condenser, in terms of the 
air condenser, to this accuracy. 

The reason for the low result on August 14 is to be found in the fact 
that on that day the leak was considerable, being, as we have seen, over 
1 per cent, per minute. Full observations for the correction were not 



120 EEroRT— 1890. 

taken ; it would, however, amonnt to about '0002, judged by the correc- 
tion required to observations on II., when leaking at a similar rate. 

The results from II. are equally consistent among themselves, but all 
slightly greater than those from I. This would indicate that the correc- 
tion applied for the leak in II. is rather too large. 

The capacities given in the table are those found with a 5 seconds' 
interval, by which time, as we have seen, the absorption on the mica 
condensers used is practically complete. We have already discussed the 
method of determining the instantaneous capacity, and a table of the 
corresponding values could easily be given. 

For our present purpose it is hardly necessary to do this, and indeed 
for many purposes for which condensers are employed a knowledge of 
the full capacity is more useful than one of the instantaneous one. In 
the last column the values of the capacities found by the commutator 
method are given ; the differences in both cases amount to about 1"3 per 
cent, of the capacity. 

During the forthcoming year condenser II. will be again set up and 
tested, and the permanent arrangements for rapidly comparing condensers 
and for issuing certificates will, I hope, be completed. 



APPENDIX III. 

On the Specific Resistance of Copper. By T. C. Fitzpatricit. 

All the values given in tables for the specific resistance of the metals 
are directly or indirectly obtained from the values given by Matthiessen 
in his series of papers published in the ' Transactions of the Royal 
Society ' for the years 1860-1864, and in the Reports of the British Asso- 
ciation for the same years. 

In the ' Transactions ' ' for the year 1860 is a paper by Matthiessen 
on the conductivity of pure copper, and on the effects of impurities on it ; 
no alloy of copper having as high a conductivity as the pure metal. His 
results are expressed in terms of the conductivity of a hard-drawn silver 
wire (100 at 0°). He gives the following values for samples of copper 
carefully prepared by himself : — 

Giving a mean value of 
93-08 at 18°-9 as the 
conductivity of pure 
copper. 

Numbers are given showing the effect on the conductivity of small 
quantities of oxide, and he states that he found it necessary to pass 
hydrogen through the molten metal for some time for entire reduction. 
In the ' Transactions ' for 1862 Dr. Matthiessen has a paper on the 
influence of temperature on the conductivity of metals. He again 
expresses his results in terms of a hard-drawn silver wire. On page 8 
of that paper will be found the results of his experiments on copper : 
the lowest temperature at which measurements were made was 12° or 

' Phil. Trans. IS'JO, p. 85. 



(1) 


93-00 at 18° 


•6 


(2) 


93-46 


,,20° 


■2 


(3) 


93-02 


,,18° 


•4 


(4) 


92-76 


„ 19° 


•3 


(5) 


92-99 


„ 17° 


-5 



ON STANDARDS FOR USK IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 121 



10° ; he there shows bow the results for pnro copper measured at 18° 
may be reduced to 0° C; but no measurement was actually made at 0° 
for any of the metals experimented with. 

He expresses the influence of temperature on a Lard-drawn copper 
wire, the mean result of a number of determinations, by the equation 
X=100--38701< + -0009009^2 

where 100 is the conductivity of copper at 0° C, so that a hard-drawn 
silver and copper wire have the same conductivity at 0° C. 

The values obtained by comparison with a hard-drawn silver wire are 
then largely the source of the tables of specific resistances ; but at the 
end of his appendix to the Report of the Electrical Standards Committee 
for 1864, Matthiessen gives values for hard-drawn silver and copper 
wires in terms of the new B.A. unit, expressed as the resistance of a wire 
one metre long, weighing one gramme. 

These values are : — 

Copper ...... "1469 

Silver ...... "1682 

The same table of values is given in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for 
1805, where also is given a table of specific resistances for wires one metre 
long and one millimetre diameter, expressed in terms of the B.A. unit, 
and calculated from the value of the known conducting power of gold- 
silver alloy in terms of hard-drawn silver, and also in terms of the B.A. 
unit. 

The values thus obtained do not agree at all well with the results 
calculated for the resistances of the gramme metre by the specific gravi- 
ties of the elements furnished by tables. 

Thus :— 

Calcul.itcd Observed 

Silver . . -02048 . . -02103 
Copper . . -02090 . . -02104 

Matthiessen states that he omitted to determine the specific gravity 
of the copper used in his experiments; he probably would not have 
obtained any very accurate results, as the weight of copper he used 
varied from 1-5 to 4 grammes. 

The accuracy of Matthiessen's results seems to depend, therefore, on 
the accuracy of his determination of the resistance in terms of the B.A. 
unit of a hard-drawn silver wire ; in considering, therefore, the question 
of the pi-eparation of samples of copper of higher conductivities than 
Matthiessen obtained, it may be suggested that the cause of the difference 
is not explained by the fact that Matthiessen didnot prepare pure copper, 
but by an error in the value of the standard with which the comparison 
was made. 

I have, therefore, made a series of experiments on the resistance of 
pure silver wires ; and, as a general result, have obtained a value iden- 
tical with that of Matthiessen ; the difi'erence is not due, therefore, to an 
error in the standard employed, as far as my experiments go. 

Matthiessen does not give anywhere the details of his measurements 
of the specific resistances of the metals in tei'ms of the B.A. unit; in the 
B.A. Report he simply mentions that an ap^^roximate table is subjoined, 
not even stating the fact that the values are for a temperature of 0° C. 
I conclude, therefore, that these values are calculated out from the former, 



122 BEPORT — 1890. 

of wliicli an account is given in the same B.A. Report, and which were 
performed at a temperature of 20° C. 

I have, therefore, on this account, as well as for other reasons stated 
later, made my measurements at the temperature of the air, and believe 
that as his values were reduced by a temperature coefficient to values at 
0° C, I shall, by using the same temperature coefficient, obtain results 
directly comparable with my own measurements. 

For the measurement of the resistance of the specimens of wire a 
Wheatstone's bridge arrangement was employed. Two of the arms of the 
bridge were formed by a 10 and 1 standard B.A. unit, namely, 66 and G ; 
these were so nearly 10 to 1, that they were taken to 'be in that ratio. 

The third arm was ^ of a B.A. unit, and in the fourth arm 
was the wire to be measured ; this was stretched on a flat board, and 
soldered at the ends to copper plates, to which connecting wires were 
also soldered ; the length of wire used was generally a little less than 
two metres, and the wires were, approximately, No. 18 B.W.G. The 
board had scales screwed to it at the two ends. The board and wire were 
placed in a long bath made of zinc, and filled with parafiln. Wires which 
were left in the bath for some days, and, in more than one case, several 
weeks, were not found to have been acted on by the oil. 

One end of the wire, Po, Q2, was connected by a binding screw, through 
an adjustable resistance, r (^ metre of copper wire), to the mercury cup, 
Qi, in which was one of the legs of the ^ coil, and also to a revers- 
ing key in the battery circuit. The ^ and the 10 ohm coils were con- 
nected up together through an adjustable resistance, Pj Mi ; one leg of 
each of the coils 10 and 1 was in the same mercury cup, l ; and the 
other end of the 1 B.A. unit was connected with the other end of the 
wire, P2 Q2. 

A single Leclanche cell was connected with the reversing key, and 
the fourth point of this key was connected with the mercury cup L, into 
which the legs of 10 and 1 dipped. In this circuit there was also a 
touch key. The galvanometer circuit was always made, and thus there 
was no thermo-electric effect in the galvanometer circuit. To each of 
the mercury cups Qj, P], M,, M2 were connected two thick wires with sepa- 
rate binding screws: one of these wires was welded to the copper plate 
at the bottom of the mercury cup. Each of these latter wires was con- 
nected with two way-keys ; those in Pj and Qj to the key ki ; those in M, 
to the key K, ; those in Mo to the key K2. 

The base points of the keys Kj and Ko were connected with a delicate 
reflecting galvanometer, that employed for the comparison of the stan- 
dards on the Fleming bridge. The base of the key A-j was connected 
with the third point on the key Ko, and the third point, on the key K,, 
was connected to the base point of a fourth key, A-o, the two other points 
on this key being connected with riders, with which contact could be made 
with two points on the wire Vo Qo ; the riders had straight edges, and 
thus their position on the scales could be easily determined. In perform- 
ing an experiment, the keys k, and Kj were so connected that the mer- 
cury cups, and so the ends of the coils 10 and 1, were in circuit with the 
galvanometer. The resistance, Pj Mi, was then varied till, on making 
the battery circuit, no deflection resulted. The ends of the 10 and 1 
were then at the same potential, and as the other ends of these coils were 
connected with the same pole of the battery, there was the same fall of 
potential on the two lines. 



ON STANDARDS FOK USE IX ELECTRICAL MEASDRE.MENTS. 



123 



The keys k, and Kg were then reversed, and by the keys A-, and lc.2 
one end of the ^ coil and one point on the wire P2 Q2 were connected 
through the galvanometer, and afterwards the two other ends. The 
riders were adjusted till there was no deflection of the galvanometer. 
The length of wire between the two riders had then a resistance of -^^ 



that of the ^ B.A. unit coil. 



Fig. 10. 




By means of the series of keys it was easy to repeat the observations, 
and to connect either end of the ^ coil with the wire. The resistance 
Pi Ml did not often change during the experiments, as the room was at 
a constant temperature ; any change in it only caused a shifting of the 
position of the riders. In each experiment, after all the adjustments, 
the bath was well stirred, and everything left for half an hour. It was 
generally found that the riders did not require any readjustment. The 
battery was reversed, and all the coils moved. The latter never caused 
any effect ; sometimes the reversal of the battery caused a shifting of the 
two riders a millimetre or two in the same direction. Another reading 
was taken three or four hours after. 

The coils, ^, 10, and 1, were in water baths, and their temperature 
remained the same for hours together. The temperatui-e of the paraffin 
bath was not so constant ; it was kept well stirred, and a thermometer 
divided to 0°'2 C. never showed any difference in the temperature at the 
different ends of the bath when the readings were taken. The thermo- 
meter employed was Kew-corrected ; and the corrections given were 
verified by recent comparison with a platinum thermometer by Mr. 
Griffiths. 

Since the two standard coils employed were accurately in the ratio of 
10 to 1, the accuracy of the resistance measurement depended entirely 
ou the value of the ^ B.A. unit. This was first made as nearly as possible 
^, but it was found that for the size of the wires measured (18 
B.W.G.) this was too high a resistance ; it had therefore to be reduced. 
For the determination of its value there was cut out in a block of paraffin 



12i REroET— 1890. 

wax a large central mercury cup, and outside this a circular channel ; 
thick copper plates were cut to fit them, and both plates were well 
amalgamated. By means of this cup arrangement the three B.A. units 
(H., G., and Flat) were connected in multiple arc, and bj means of 
stout copper rods the multiple-arc arrangement was connected with the 
mercury cups on the Fleming's bridge, and so compared with the ^ 
B.A. unit. The following observations were taken : — 

July 12, 1889 : ^(18°-4) + 986-6(b.w.d.)=M.A. + 24-6(b.w.d.) 

July 22, 1889: ^(17°-4) + 986 (b.w.d.)=M.A. + 24-l(b.w.d.) 

August 26, 1890: A(i6°-8) + 986-l(b.w.d.)=M.A. + 23-9(b.w.d.) 

The value of a bridge wire division (b.w.d.) is '0000498 B.A. unit at 
15°, and the wire has a temperature coefficient of -OOMS. 

It is evident from these series of values that the ^ has not changed 
in resistance during the period of the experiments. 

This comparison, however, introduced a possible error, as the tem- 
perature of the bridge wire at the time of experiment Avas not accui'ately 
known, and this is important when nearly the whole of the bridge wire 
is employed. To eliminate this possible error the ^ was compared 
with four B.A. units in multiple arc. In this case a large number of 
bridge wire divisions had to be subtracted from the A'alue of the ^, and 
the whole number of bridge wire divisions entering into the calculation 
for the values of the ^ was largely reduced. The four coils in multiple 
arc were (F, G, H, and Flat) : — 

Aug. 25, 1S90 : ^, 16°-8 + 157 (b.w.d.) = M.A. + 852-05 (b.w.d.). 
Aug. 26, 1890 : i, 16°-8 + 157-5 (b.w.d.)=M.A. +851-9 (b.w.d.). 

All the four coils were at the same temperature (16°'8). Their values 
are taken from the - B.A. Report,' 1888 : — 

Flat 1-000448 

F 1-0C0028 

G -99955 

H -99969 

They give for the two multiple-arc arrangements the values -33330 
and -24998. The connecting-rods have a resistance of -00042, and the 
value of the ^ at 16°-8 is -28537 B.A. unit. Its temperature co- 
efficient is -0001 per 1° C. 

To measure the lengths of the wires two microscopes with scales and 
verniers reading to '] of a millimetre were set up and firmly clamped in 
position ; the distance between them was determined by means of a 
beam compass and the aid of a third microscope : the distance between 
this and the other two being directly read off on the beam compass for 
set positions of the verniers. The wires were cut with a fine fret-saw 
at the jioints corresponding to the position of the riders in the resistance 
measurements. Before weighing the wires were carefully cleaned with 
methylated spirit. The balance employed was the one used by Mr. Glaze- 
brook for our determination of the specific resistance of mercury ; the 
weights were balanced against one another, and in all cases double 
weighings were taken. 

The specific gravity of most of the wires was determined ; for this pur- 
pose distilled water was boiled and cooled rapidly, the coil of wire 
immersed, and the beaker and its contents placed under the receiver of 



ON STANDARDS FOU USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



125 



an air-pump, which was connected with a water-pump ; this was left 
running for two or three hours till all air-bubbles liad disappeared ; the 
weight of the wire in water was determined, and a second reading taken 
some hours later. As the weight of wire used was from 16 to 20 grammes,, 
fairly accurate values for the specific gravity of the several wires were ob- 
tained, and thus the value for each wire in terms of the B.A. unit for the 
resistance to conduction between the opposite faces of a cube of the material 
was found. 

Resistance of Various Specimens of Wire. 



Wire 


Date 


Resistance of a wire 

sucli that 1 metre 

■weighs 1 gramme 

at 18° C. in B.A. iinits 


Specific 
gravity 


Specific resistance per 

cc. at 18° C. in 

B.A. units x 10-9 


Hard-drawn 


Annealed 


Hard-drawn 


Annealed 


I. 


July 22, 1889 
Nov. 6, 1889 


z 


1549 
1550 


8-86 

8-87 


— 


1743 
1745 


II. 


July 22, 1889 
Dec. 2, 1889 


— 


1545 
1546 


8-88 
8-89 


— 


1741 
1742 


III. 


Dec. 3, 1889 


— 


1713 


8-87 


— 


1922 


IV. 


July 10, 1889 
Aug. 1, 1889 


1578 
1578 


— 


8-89 
8-89 


1776 

1776 


— 


IV.' 


Nov. 1, 1889 


— 


1511 


8-885 


— ■ 


1724 


V. 


July 31, 1889 
Oct. 30, 1889 


1573 
1572 





8-89 
889 


1770 
1770 


— 


V.' 


July 20, 1889 
Aug. 2, 1889 
Aug. 8, 1889 


^^ 


1526 
1526 
1527 


8-89 
8-89 
8-89 


— 


1712 
1713 
1716 


VI. 


Aug. 10, 1889 
Oct. 18, 1889 
July 10, 1890 
July 14, 1890 


1545 
1549 
1549 
1548 


— 


8-94 
8-94 
8-94 
not obsrvd. 


1730 
1732 
1731 


— 


VI.' 


Aug. 8, 1889 
Oct. 11, 1889 


— 


1508 
1509 


8-94 
8-94 


— 


1688 
1688 


VII. 


Nov. 4, 1889 
July 15, 1890 


1543 
1543 





8-946 


1724 


— 


VIII. 


Oct. 23, 1889 
Oct. 28, 1889 


1700 
1702 


- 


8-95 


1903 


— 


IX. 


Aug. 5, 1890 
Aug. 18, 1890 


1572 
1572 


— 


8-90 
8-90 


1766 
1766 


— 


X. 


Aug. 5, 1890 
Aug. 26, 1890 


1573 
1569 


z 


8-91 
8-92 


1767 
1751 


— 


XI. 


Aug. 27, 1890 


1569 


— 


8-93 


1750 


— 


Matthies 
ducecl 
his ow 


sen's value re- 1 
to 18°, using \ 
n coefficient J 


1571 


— 


not given 


1766-6 -i 


As calcu- 
lated by 
Fleeming 
Jenkin and 
Fitz- 
patricli 



The first obiect of these experiments was to test directly iu com- 
parison with the B.A. standards samples of copper wire of high con- 



126 EEPORT— 1890. 

dactivities, with the view of comparing them with Matthiessen's 
standard. Application was therefore made to several firms for high- 
conductivity copper wires. My thanks are due to those who sent 
samples. 

A table of results for all the specimens tested is given, and it shows 
the variation in resistance of high-conductivity wires. 

IV. and IV.' are the same copper, but iV. is hard drawn, IV.' is 
annealed ; they were measured just as they were sent from the manu- 
facturers • the same is true of V. and V.', VI. and VI.' 

It will be noticed that VI. and VI.', which are of considerably less 
resistance than the other wires, are of higher specific gravity : the firm 
that sent them thus wrote of them : ' It is only occasionally we come 
across copper as high as this or high enough to be called the highest (in 
conductivity) we can produce. This copper has been produced electro- 
lytically by our ordinary process.' How this copper was treated after 
electro-deposition I do not know. I am inclined to think from my own 
experience that this difference in density is due rather to the condition of 
the copper than to its relative purity. Matthiessen found that very 
small quantities of impurities reduced the conductivity 20 or 30 per cent., 
and a sufficient amount of impurities to cause this decrease in density 
from 8'94 to 8'90 must make a larger increase in the resistance of the 

copper. 

The temperature coefficient is stated to be different for various 
specimens of metal, according to their purity. Matthiessen himself seems 
to have been of this opinion ; but the mere difference in density of the 
metal might be expected to affect the alteration of conductivity with the 
same chano-e in temperature. I have not been able to find any experi- 
ments bearino" on this question. It is quite easy to obtain samples of 
wire of different density by varying the process of drawing, and the 
temperature coefficients of such wires might be found to be different. 

Comparing V. and V.' with VI. and VI.' it is seen that with this in- 
crease of density there is a distinct diminution in the effect of annealing. 

IV. - IV.' = -00677 ) 

V. - V.' = -00577 [ 
VI. - VI.' = -004 ) 

I thought it might be possible that VI.' was not completely annealed, 
so for a direct comparison, two specimens of VI., which had been 
measured hard drawn on July 10 and 14, 1890, were annealed ; for this 
purpose a flat copper vessel was made of about 2 cm. height and 18 in 
diameter, with a closely fitting lid ; the wire was packed in this between 
sheet asbestos, which had been previously heated ; the vessel was filled up 
with lampblack, and heated over a big bunsen burner and gradually 
cooled ; the process generally took about twenty-four hours ; the wire 
was found not to be oxidised after the process was over. 



Wire 


Hard-drawn 


Annealed 


Difference 


I. 


1549 


1510 


•0039 


11. 


1648 


1509 


•0039 



The difference Matthiessen obtained was -0038. 

The above method of annealing was found very effective. Silver 
wires which on annealing decrease 10 per cent, in resistance, gave the 
same value after a second annealing as they did on the first occasion. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 127 

Wire VII. was a wire sent me by Mr. H. A. Taylor, and had to be 
drawn down before it could be measured ; another piece of the same wire 
drawn down on a different occasion gave the same valae ; this wire has 
the lowest resistance of any I have obtained ; it has, too, the highest 
specific gravity. Mr. Taylor says of it ' that it has a higher tempera- 
ture coefficient than that given by Matthiessen.' 

VIII. was a sample of wire obtained from Germany, and said to be 
electrolytically prepared ; its high resistance is, I think, due to the 
presence of oxide, as I fused some of it in hydrogen, and when measured 
partially annealed it gave the value "1566 at 18° for the wire, 1 metre 
weighing 1 gramme. 

IX., X., and XI. are wires of my own preparation. Pure copper was 
prepared electrolytically by Messrs. Sutton, of Norwich, and supplied 
me in thin sheet, and this was fused in a porcelain tube 18 centimetres 
in length and 1 centimetre in diameter ; the tube was fitted up in a 
small furnace ruade of sheet iron, and lined with ganister ; this was 
heated rapidly in a blast flame led in at the bottom. Some difficulty was 
experienced in obtaining the copper in a solid cylinder. In the early 
experiments hydrogen was passed into the tube while the copper was 
being fused, and was made to bubble through the molten copper ; on 
breaking the tube the copper was found to be full of small holes ; the 
copper had absorbed the hydrogen at the high temperature and given it 
oft' again on cooling ; on another occasion the copper was fused down in 
hydrogen, and the tube was connected with a water-pump and exhausted 
and the copper allowed to cool in a vacuum ; this gave a more continuous 
cylinder. It was found best to fuse the copper under boras, after pre- 
vious reduction ; a good cylinder of the metal was thus obtained. 

I was unfortunately not able to draw down the copper for myself; 
this was very kindly done for me by Messrs. Smith, of Halifax, and 
Messrs. Johnson & Matthey. The porcelain tubes had been prepared 
of such a size that the cylinder of copper could be drawn without 
further heating ; the copper, therefore, was not fused after it left my 
hands. 

Two sheets of the electrolytically prepared copper were fused on 
different days, and one cylinder was sent to Messrs. Smith to be drawn, 
and the other to Messrs. Johnson & Matthey. 

Wires IX. were drawn by Messrs. Smith, wires X. by Messrs, Johnson 
& Matthey. 

Wire XI. was drawn by Messrs. Johnson & Matthey from a sample of 
copper which I prepared by electrolysis from a pure solution of copper 
sulphate ; the copper was deposited on a plate of copper, which had had 
its surface rubbed over with graphite ; by this means the deposited copper 
was easily stripped oflf the plate ; the other plate was of platinum. After 
a time the solution was changed ; the deposition was very slow, as it was 
thought that there would be less likelihood of copper sulphate getting in 
between the layers of copper. The deposit was boiled with dilute sul- 
phuric acid and then in water, and was afterwards fused as above 
described. 

Wires IX. were measured as received ; this accounts for the close 
agreement between the two determinations. Wires X. and XI. I had to 
draw down further to measure them on my bridge. 

Wires X. (2) and XI. were drawn down with great care and not so 
much as X. (1). 



128 



KEPORT — 1890. 



Below is a table of the measurements made for the determination of 
their specific resistances : — 



Wire 


Value of 
1/3 


Temp. 


Weight 

of 

wire 


Length of 
■wire for 
determina- 
tion of re- 
sistance. 


Length cut 

and 

•vreighed 


Resistance of 

gramme per 

metre 


IX. (1) 
„ (2) 
X.(l) 

„ (2) 
XL 


•28547 
•28541 
•28550 
•28536 
•28535 


17°-9 
170.4 

18°-2 
]6°-8 
16°-7 


20-388 
20153 
19-708 
20-252 
20-262 


192-1 

192-4 

189-3 

192-39 

192-11 


192-5 

190-45 

188-8 

192-34 

192-51 


1574 
1569 
1C77 
1561 
1563 


18°-3 
17°-5 
18°-6 
17°-1 
17°-2 



These values reduced to a common temperature of 18° 
IX. (1) . . -1572 



are 



IX. 
X. 
X. 

XL 



(2) 
(1) 
(2) 



1572 


Mean value 


1573 


•1571 


1569 


B.A. unit. 


1569 





Thus ^1571 B.A.. unit is the resistance at 18° of a metre of hard- 
dra-wn copper ■wire weighing 1 gramme. 

Matthiessen in the B.A. Report ' gives as the resistance of a gramme 
metre at 0° -1469 B.A. unit. 

I have calculated fi'om this the value at 18°, using the temperature 
coefficient that he gives in his paper on the influence of temperature on 
the conducting power of metals. I have taken no account of the terms 
in t"^ as they practically cancel one another. 

R. 18° = R° (1 -I- -00387010. 
R. 18° = -1571. 

This is the value that I have obtained as the mean of my own 
observations. 

All my observations were taken at the temperature of the room, and 
in the table above the values for the different wires are given at the 
observed temperature, and then all reduced to a common temperature of 
18° 0. Most observations of this character are taken at the temperature 
of 0° C, but on the whole it seemed more satisfactory to work at the 
temperature of the room. In the comparison of the B.A. units I have 
found that with a difference of temperature between coils which are 
connected by thick pieces of copper there is always conduction of heat, 
and it is impossible to tell accurately what is the real temperature of the 
coils. 

My observations were made in the B.A. room at the Cavendish 
Laboratory, which has a north aspect, and often the temperature did 
not alter more than a few tenths of a degree, whilst the temperature of 
the coil baths often remained perfectly steady for several consecutive days. 
I cannot find any observations of Matthiessen's at 0° C. ; certainly his 
observations on copper were made at 18°, and, consequently, if the value 
given by him at 0° C. has been obtained by the use of a temperature co- 
efficient, my value might be expected to agree with his at 18°, the tem- 



B.A. TepoH, 1864, or PkU. Mag. 1865. 



I 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 129 

perature of his observation, supposing the samples of copper of the same 
character. 

Matthiessen's results are given in terms of a gramme per metre, and 
for wires of metre length and 1 mm. in diameter. 

In a paper in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' Matthiessen gives the 
value fur hard-drawn copper in these terms as — ■ 

•02104 B.A. 

From his value for the gramme metre, using the specific gravity 8'95 
given by tables, the same quantity was calculated, but gave the result 
•0209 ; in a note added he states that had he used the specific gravity 8'91 
his results would have been more nearly alike ; but a specific gravity 8 90, 
I find, would give an identical value. 

This would show, then, that Matthiessen's own table, calculated for 
values obtained by comparison with hard-drawn silver, is accurate. I 
have tested silver wires, but have not had time to draw up the results in 
tabular form ; and I obtained an almost identical value for hard-drawn 
silver wire, as supplied me from Messrs. Johnson & Matthey, as is given 
by Matthiessen for the resistance of a gramme per metre. 

It will be observed that wires IX. have the specific gravity 8"90, and 
give a value in terms of B.A. units for a cubic centimetre of the material 
identical with Matthiessen's value ; this value is not given directly by 
Matthiessen, but is calculated from his results by Fleeming Jenkin, and 
given in his table in his book ' Electricity and Magnetism ' : it is 1'6.52 
microhms. I have calculated it from Matthiessen's value, given in the 
' Philosophical Magazine,' and get the number 1'653. Using the same 
temperature coefficient as before, the resistance at 18° C. of a cubic 
centimetre of hard-drawn copper is 1766'6 xlO"^ B.A. units. 

On comparing the values for wires IX., X., and XI. in these terms, 
the results do not agree so well together as when expi-essed in terms of 
the gramme metre ; there is a corresponding difference in the values of 
the specific gravities ; these latter have been very carefully determined, 
and the experiments repeated with the results given. 

Wires, therefore, of the same resistance expressed for grammes per 
metre, may give a very different result, when expressed as per cubic 
centimetre : attention has been drawn to this fact in the discussion on 
the Elmore copper in the ' Electrician.' • M. Roux, of Paris, in a letter 
gives the following table for high-conductivity wire from a paper of 
M. Hospitalier in ' L'Electricien,' 1887 ; this paper I have unfortu- 
nately not been able to see. 



Density .... 


8-897 


9-32 


9-6 


Conductivity, equal volume 


102-4 


106-7 


110-8 


Conductivity, equal weight 


101-7 


101-2 


101-6 



What is 100 in the conductivity units is not expressed. M. Roux 
thinks that the former, /.e.,for equal volume, is the more rational method 
of expressing the result. 

Matthiessen expressed all his results in terms of equal weight, justify- 
ing it by the greater accuracy obtainable when woi-king with small weights 
of wires. Small errors in the value of the specific gravity are easily 
made, and cause a similar error in the result for equal volumes of 

' Electrician, Decemy^er 7, 18SS. 
1890. K 



130 KEPORT— 1890. 

different wires ; unless working with long lengths of thick wire the 
weight of the wire is small. The weight of the water displaced cannot 
be determined within -5 to 1 milligramme, and that only with care : this 
error in '5 of a gramme means only an accuracy of 1 in 500. The values 
given in my table are probably correct to 1 in 1,500 or 1 in 2,000, as the 
weight of water displaced was in all cases over 2 grammes. Results, 
therefore, for resistances of wires of equal weight are the most trust- 
worthy, and, I think, also the most satisfactory if used to express the 
resistance of a material and not of any given wire. 

Wires X. (1) and X. (2) are of the same copper, but drawn down 
separately: X. (1) was beginning to fray, and another specimen of the 
same copper drawn down still further had on this account to be re- 
iected ; this has affected the resistance value expressed in both ways. 
Thus :— 

X. (1) . . . -1573 . . 1767 
X. (2) . . . -1569 . . 1751 

but much more so when expressed for equal volumes. In both the 
copper is of the same quality. 

It will be noticed that with increase of specific gravity there is a 
decrease of resistance, even when the results are expi'essed for wires of 
equal weight. The resistance diminishes, therefore, more rapidly than 
the density increases. Wires of the same quality may, in consequence 
of a difference in drawing, have a different density, and so the results 
expressed in terms of equal volume will differ considerably, while those 
for equal weight are the same, or approximately so. 

The values obtained for IX., X., and XL are so nearly identical that 
it is not unfair to conclude that they are samples of pure copper ; their 
value is identical with that obtained by Matthiessen at, I believe, the 
same temperature. The greater difference obtained at 0° C. between 
Matthiessen 's value and samples of copper tested now at that tempera- 
ture is probably due to the fact that Matthiessen's value was not 
determined at 0°, but reduced in value for that temperature from observa- 
tions, as stated above, at about 20° C. 

The higher conductivity or less resistance for the two samples given 
in the table is due, not to increased purity in the preparation of the 
copper, but to the difference iu the process of preparation, whereby a 
sample of greater density is obtained than results from the working up 
of small quantities of copper in the laboratory. 

A sample of copper has been prepared by chemical means with the 
help of my friend Mr. Skinner, but has not yet been measured. 



APPENDIX IV. 



A Comparison of a Platinum Thermometer with some Mercury Thermometers 
at Low Temperatures. By E. H. Griffiths, M.A., Sidney College, 
Cambridge. 

The following communication describes the mode of constructing 
an air-tight platinum thermometer for use at low temperatui'es. The 
thermometer was graduated by means of the freezing and boiling points 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 131 

of water, and as regards intermediate points Regnault's determinations 
of the temperature and pressure of aqueous vapour were adopted. The 
precautions observed in the construction of the apparatus, and in the 
method of observation, are described. The thermometer was tested by- 
comparison with a number of thermometers standardised at Kew. The 
•curves, showing the result of these determinations, are in remarkably 
■close agreement, and when the observations were sufficiently numerous 
dt appeared possible to calibrate the bore as accurately as by the usual 
more laborious process. The further advantage of this method is that 
thermometers can be compared under the conditions in wbicb they are 
to be used. 

In a communication to the Royal Society read on June 19, 1890, 
I described a method of constructing and graduating platinum ther- 
raometers, and gave a table of boiling and freezing points for various 
substances lying between 100° and 500°, determined by means of these 
instruments. 

Subsequent observations indicate that a slight change appears to be 
taking place in the readings of these thermometers. I attribute this (1) 
to alterations in the glass, (2) to presence of moisture in the tube — the 
asbestos roll on which the spiral was wound being highly hygroscopic. I 
therefore decided to construct a thermometer in which there should be 
tio contact between the glass and the platinum, and which should be 
thoroughly dry and hermetically sealed. 

I was unable to discover any suitable non-conductor capable of resist- 
ing high temperatures ; but in anthracene (melting-point 213°) I found a 
substance suitable in every respect for use at low temperatures. I sub- 
jected a sample to severe tests, and, up to a temperature of about 130°, 
found it to be a better insulator than paraffin. 

The leads to the coil were constructed of silver, the inner one a rod 
and the outer a tube. The resistance of these leads was about -001 ohm, 
and therefore any change in the external resistance, caused by change of 
temperature, might be disregarded. The silver leads approached to within 
about 1 inch of the spiral, and were connected to it by moderately thick 
platinum wires ; thus a flow of heat from the spiral to the silver was 
•diminished. The wire forming the coil was about 56 inches in leno-th, 
and had a diameter of -005 inch. The spiral was about 2 inches long, 
having a resistance of about 135 ohms at 0° C, and the external diameter 
•of the covering tube was about -3 inch. The ends of the asbestos roll 
'were made of greater diameter than the portion on which the spiral was 
^vound, and thus there was no glass contact. The tube and contents were 
'heated up to a temperature of several hundred degrees, and dried air 
passed through for some hours. It was then exhausted and the open 
•end placed under the surface of melted anthracene, which was allowed to 
rise until nearly in contact with the coil. When cool, the whole of the 
thermometer from the spiral to the upper end (about 13 inches) was a 
solid mass, while the spiral and asbestos roll were perfectly dry and in an 
almost vacuous space. I have taken nearly 600 observations with this 
thermometer and cannot detect any signs of change. "When the lower 
part was undergoing rapid changes in temperature, thermo-electric effects 
showed themselves, but by reversing the battery and galvanometer 
connectioiiftj^luring each reading these effects were eliminated. A low- 
resistance galvanometer was used, and the current which passed through 
ithe thermometer when determining its resistance did not exceed one 



132 



REPOBT —1890. 



Lundredth of an ami^ere. To illustrate the closeness of the agreement 
in tbe results obtained at different times I give the following determi- 
nations of the resistance at a temperature of 100° determined in the 
usual manner by means of a hypsometer -with manometer attached. 
Full corrections were made in the barometric reading, and the results 
reduced to lat. 45°. 



Date 


Temperature 


Resistance (after corr. for 
temp, of coils) 


July 26 . . . 

27 . . . 

August 12 . • • 

„ 13 . . . 


100°C. 
100°C. 
100°C. 
100°C. 


18-2029 
18-2034 
18-2025 
18-2031 


Mean 182030 



The expression for the platinum temperature by this thermometer was 



R— 13-5219 
4-G811 



-tiino 



X 100, again -J-°=l-3462, 



almost exactly agreeing with the coefficient of the wire in Mr. Callendar's 
air thermometer ('Phil. Trans.' A. 1887). 

Mr. G. M. Clark, B.A. (Sidney Coll., Cambridge), now joined me m 
the investigation, and as we proposed to use this thermometer for the 
calibration and graduation of mercury thermometers between 0° and 100°, 
we decided to obtain intermediate temperatures by means of Regnanlt's 
numbers connecting the temperature and pressure of aqueous vapour. 
For this purpose we constructed a large iron tank with two plate-glass 
sides, holding about 16 gallons of water, and through two holes bored in 
the bottom inserted two barometer tubes, the upper 16 inches of each 
being within the tank. One of these was used as a standard barometer, 
and was prepared with great care, the distilled mercury with which it 
was filled having been boiled in the tube for more than six hours. The 
internal diameter of the tube was 14 mm., and the absence of any menis- 
cus was very marked. If the level of the surface of the water in the 
tank was below the top of the barometer, and the water warmed, the 
sublimation of mercury in the vacuous space was observable. The second 
barometer was made from the same length of tubing as the first, and 
communicated at its upper extremity with a small flask (A), in which was 
placed the platinum thermometer. 

Distilled water was boiled in vacuo for some hours, to expel all traces 
The flask and barometer tube were then exhausted by means of 



air. 



of ..-- 

an air-pump, and the lower end of the tube placed in a flask (B) contain- 
ing the previously boiled water, which rushed up, filling the tube and 

flask (A). ' . . n ^ ;, 

The water remaining in B was then boiled until this flask and a 
bent tube passing fi-om it into a basin of mercury, 30 inches beneath, 
were completely filled with steam, and, on coohng, the height of mercury 
in the tube enabled us to determine that the pressure on its surface was 
that of aqueous vapour only. The water in the upper flask was then 
boiled for many hours, and only allowed to cool occasionally to permit of 
the water in the lower flask being boiled away. To prevent access of air j 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASOREMENTS. 



133 



Fig. 11. 



the steam was driven off througli the mercury. "When the water in flask 
A was reduced to about a tablespoonful, the boiling was stopped, and 
the level of the mercury was raised until it flowed back first into flask 
B and thence into the barometer tube, as flask A cooled. 

The open end of the barometer tube was then sealed, the flask B 
replaced by a small cup of dry mercury, and the end of the tube opened 
below the surface. The water remaining on the top of 
the column was driven back into the flask by ponring 
hot water over the tube. 

During our experiments, water occasionally collected 
on the mercury, bat by means of a concave miiTor it 
was driven back into the flask ; the mirror was of course 
removed some time before an observation was taken. 

The tank, filled with water, was maintained at any 
required temperature by means of a gas regulator. The 
lower parts of the barometer tubes were screened by 
sheets of asbestos, and the two cups were connected by 
a small siphon. The glass sides of the tank were covered 
with white paper to prevent radiation ; openings were 
left for observations, daring which the water in the 
tank was kept in a continual state of agitation by the 
oscillation of a large paddle driven by a water motor. 
The paddle, fixed in one corner of the lid, swept across 
"the tank, driving the water before it, and lifting it at 
-be same time. We have tried several forms of stirrers, 
-and we believe this to be a more effective form than a 
screw or a plunger. 

The difference in the height of the mercury in the 
two barometer tubes was ascertained by the katheto- 
meter G. 33, in the Cavendish Laborator}^ and by 
means of it readings could be taken to '50 mm. Care 
was taken to bring both levels horizontal before each 
observation. 

As the coeflBcient of expansion of the kathetometer scale was unknown 
and the temperature of the room usually about 20°C., we decided to 
compare it with the standard scale R, whose coefficient of expansion and 
scale errors had been determined by the Standards Department of the 
Board of Trade.' 

Twenty-one comparisons were made (greatest divergence from the 
mean '10 mm.), and the result was as follows : — 300-35 mm. on katheto- 
meter scale at 20°=300-35489 of Board of Trade Standard (S.S.) at 0°. 

Thus no scale correction was necessary. 

The difference (D) of the mercury columns was corrected for tempera- 
ture, pressure of mercury vapour and latitude, and the resulting length 
denoted by Dq : the temperature corresponding to Dq was deduced from 
the very full table given in Part 3 of Carnelley's ' Melting and Boiling 
Point Tables.' 

The extremities of the curve (at 0" and 100°) having been determined, 
it was only necessary to get points between 30° and 80°. 

Ninety observations were taken, and although occasional divergences 
presented themselves, the mean path gives a curve which W3 believe to be 




' Standard metre, verified June 1882, designated R in Mr. Chaney's report. 



134 



EEPOBT — 1890. 



within less than '02° of the true path at all points. It agrees closely 
with the carve obtained by Mr. Callendar from the parabola 

looj' 



1-57 



[(looj ] 



by measuring one- tenth of the ordinate along the abscissa.' 

The following equation, however, represents its path more accurately. 

y=-018795<— -OOOlOgiiH-OOOOOOlllSil^. The curve itself is shown 
in Chart A, fig. 12. 

Fig. 12. 




We proceeded to test our conclusions by comparison with thermo- 
meters standardised at Kew ; for this purpose a rotating annular ring, 
through the centre of which the platinum thermometer passed, was 
inserted in the lid of the tank, in such a manner that the mercury ther- 
mometers, fixed in holes bored near its circumference, could successively 
be brought into the field of view of the kathetometer without any re- 
adjustment of the telescope ; the thermometers were then read by one 
observer, whilst the platinum resistances were taken by the other. The 
freezing-points were not, however, determined by this method, but by 
direct immersion in powdered ice, adopting the precautions recommended 
by Guillaume in his ' Thermometrie de Precision.' 

The following curves were then drawn, which indicate the result of 
the comparison of our platinum thermometer with those standardised at 
Kew. 



Curve 


Thermometer, Kew No. 


Standardised 


B 
C 
D 
E 


75148 

75149 

43762 

8394 


October 1888. 

October 1888. 

May 1885. 

December 1880, January 1882, April 1888. 



' It must be remembered that Callendar's difference curve gives the connection 
between platinum and air thermometer temperatures, whilst Regnault used a mercury 
thermometer (M.A.S. XXL), and thus curve A gives the relation between platinum. 
and mercury thermometer temperature. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



135 



All these thermometers were made by Hicks ; the first three were 
kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. R. T. Glazebrook ; the last is one of 
those referred to by Mr. W. N. Shaw in a communication to the B.A. 




2 
S 




136 KKPORT — 1890. 

during the Bath Meeting^, the successive curves of which, theu exhibited 
by him, he has kindly allowed us to copy. 

In these diagrams the abscissae represent the temperature — in the 
strong curves, that obtained by us, and in the faint, that obtained at 
Kew : the ordinates in each case being the divergence of the 
actual readings from these results. Where crosses occur at almost 
identical temperatures they indicate observations separated by a consider- 
able interval of time ; in no case did less than 20 minutes elapse, whilst in 
some several days. 

Three only of our observations are unrecorded on these charts, and 
in each case, owing to imperfect light, interruptions, &c., these experi- 
ments were regarded as doubtful before their results were deduced. 

The gradual rise of the zero point is clearly indicated ; apparent 
discrepancies are probably due to the fact that the Kew determinations 
ai-e less frequent than ours, and as a consequence many of the smaller 
deviations have escaped notice. 

The results show : — 

1. That thermometers whose range does not include 0° and 100° may 
have certain fixed points determined by this method. 

2. That an actual calibration of a mercury thermometer can also be 
readily accomplished. 

3. That the platinum thermometer, properly constructed, may serve 
as a standard by which to trace the changes which ma.y take place in 
mercury thermometers. 

4. That since the readings of the platinum thermometer are indepen- 
dent of the extent of the stem-immersion, it can be conveniently employed 
for the graduation of thermometers partially immersed, as in ordinary 
use. 

We have since calibrated about twenty thermometers by this method, 
and we believe the results to be satisfactoiy in all cases. 



APPENDIX V. 

On the Absolute Besiatance of Mercunj. Bi/ B.. T. Glazebeook, F.B.S. 

Th^ following table gives the results of expei'iments made since 1882 
on the absolute resistance of mercury. The first eight lines relate to 
experiments in which the resistance of a wire has been found absolutely 
\ :' ^d then expressed in terms of the resistance of mercury by direct obser- 
vation. In the next four lines the results of comparisons between certain 
colls of wire and the resistance of mercury ai'e given. It will be noticed 
that the value found by Lord Rayleigh for the resistance of 100 cm. of ^ 
mercury in B.A. units is considerably in excess of the results of other^ 
experimenters. If in obtaining from his value of the B.A. unit expressea 
in ohms the value of the ohm in mercury we use '96'io instead of •9541, 
Lord Rayleigh's values 106-24 and 106'21 become 106-30 and 106-27, and 
the mean result 106-28 is hereby raised to 106-30. 

The observers whose results are given in the last seven lines, with the 
exception of Lorenz, did not themselves directly compare the results of 
their absolute determinations with the resistance of mercury, but with 
coils usually of german silver, the value of which in mercury units was 
certified either by Siemens or Strecker. 



ON STANDARDS FOB USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 137 



a ^ u. 
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t- to C5 00 -*< CO CO 

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138 REPORT— 1890. 

The value given by Salvioni in his paper (' Rendiconti della R. Ac- 
cademia dei Lincei,' vol. v. fasc. 7) is •95404. Owing to a mistake in cal- 
culation, in consequence of which a correction was applied with the 
wrong sign, the value sent to him from Cambridge for his B.A. standard 
was in error by '0005. When this is corrected his value becomes '95354, 
thus agreeing very closely with the others. Salvioni's value in line 11 is 
obtained through a coil of Strecker's. 



Fifth Report of the. Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald 
(Ghaii-man), Armstrong and 0. J. Lodge (^Secretaries), Sir 
William Thomson, Lord Eayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Schuster, 
PoYNTiNG, Crum Brown, Eamsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, 
S. P. Thompson, McLeod, Roberts-Austen, EiJCKER, Eeinold, 
Carey Foster, H. B. Dixon, and John M. Thomson, Captain 
Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and Fleming, and Messrs. 
Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W, N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
BoTTOMLEY, E. T. GrLAZEBROOK, J. Brown, and E. J. Love, 02:^- 
jpointed for the purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis 
in its Physical and Chemical Bearings. 

During the past year the following communications bearing on the 
subject of electrolysis have been published by members of the Com- 
mittee : — 

Mr. W. N. Shaw : ' On the Relation between Viscosity and Conduc- 
tivity of Electrolytes.' (' Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc' November 1889.) 

In this communication Mr. Shaw criticises the observations and con- 
clusions of Wiedemann concerning the intimate connection between 
electric resistance and ordinary viscosity in liquids, and of the independ- 
ence between ionic migration and electric endosmose. He quotes an 
observation of Kohlrausch, showing that when fused silver iodide solidi- 
fies there is no discontinuous change of conductivity at the melting-point. 
He further examines how far the precise ionic velocity, calculated by 
Kohlrausch and verified by Lodge, can be reconciled with the view of 
electro-decomposition by help of complex molecular aggregates, as 
opposed to the simple view of free or dissociated atoms ; and concludes 
that the molecular-aggregate theory may turn out capable of explaining 
all the known facts. 

Mr. A. P. Chattock has kindly translated for the Committee an 
abstract by Dr. J. Gubkin, from Professor Warburg's laboratory (Wiede- 
mann's Annalen, 32, page 114), ' On the Electrolytic Separation of Metal 
at the free surface of a Salt in solution.' The translation is printed 
below. 

Electrolytic Separation of Metal at the free Surface of a Salt in Solution. 

By Dr. J. Gubkin. 

1. When a current of electricity passes from the sohition of a salt into a vapour 
or a gas, electrolytic separation of the metal must occur at the surface of the liquid. 
At the suggestion of Herr Warburg I have made one or two experiments to determine 
how the separation of metal takes place in such a case. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BEARINGS. 139 

2. It is best to render the space above the liquid free of air. For this purpose the 
apparatus shown in Fig. 1 was used. It consisted of a glass vessel in which twO' 
platinum wires, B and c, were sealed, B being plated electrolytically with tlie metal 
to be separated from the solution. The latter was introduced to the level d' e' and 
boiled for about ten minutes, until its surface had sunk 4 or .5 mm. below the point 
of the wire c. While the vapour was still escaping the vessel was closed at F with 
shellac ; and, after cooling, the neck was melted off at A. The apparatus thea 
appeared sufficiently free from air. 

In order to reduce the vapour-pressure, the lower part of the vessel was placed in 
ice, the upper part being freed by warming from any liquid that still clung to it. 

A battery of 1,000 Plante accumulators was then connected, the positive pole 
with B, the negative with C ; upon which there appeared at C the well-known nega- 
tive glow. 

3. When the vessel contained nitrate of silver the following was observed : Soon 
after putting on the current a small round disc of bright silver was formed just 
underneath C. As the disc increased in diameter it darkened at the centre, and there 
was formed upon it a series of light and dark concentric rings, which were sometimes 
coloured — some of these showing radial markings, which gave them the appearance 
of divided circles. The disc did not sink, provided the apparatus was kept from 
shaking. 

4. With a solution of zinc sulphate there was no separation of metal to be seen ; 
but on looking at the surface D E from below, white flocculent masses of zinc oxide 
were visible slowly sinking through the liquid. The zinc on separation by the current 
was thus immediately oxidised. 

5. For experiments with a solution of platinum chloride the apparatus i,n Fig. 2 
was used. In this the chlorine was collected over b. 




FiP. 2. 



Fig. S. 



-f 

One-third natural size. 




+ 




One-thiril natural size. 



One-third natural size. 



A short time after closing the circuit there was visible just opposite c a small 
lump of dead black platinum. On stopping the current this floated to the side of 
the vessel, but returned to its original position just opposite C when the current was 
again started, thus preventing the formation of a fresh lump. Very probably this 
phenomenon was due to electric forces. 

6. These experiments may also be carried out in air by means of an induction 
coil. The liquid is contained in a funnel, as in Fig. .3, and tlie discharge at ' break ' 
furnishes the necessary current, the spark gaps between the solution and the cathode 
being arranged to prevent a discharge at ' make ' from taking place. In this manner 
experiments with silver, zinc, and copper solution.s were carried out, with results- 
substantially the same as those described above, except that here the space flowed 
through by the current, and consequentl)- the diameter of the silver disc was; 



140 REPORT— 1890. 

.smaller than before. The concentric rings were, however, clearl}- visible. (' Phys. 
Inst, der Univ. Freiburg, i. B.") 

In connection with tliis deposition of metal obtained on the upper 
surface of a liquid, Professor Ostvfald's discovery of the deposition of 
copper at the boundaiy of a semi-pernaeable partition may also be called 
attention to, (See below.) 

Mr. J. Brown has communicated a paper, which appeared in the 
" Phil. Mag.' for July 1890, ' On the Electrification of the Effluvia from 
•Chemical or from Voltaic Reactions,' wherein he discusses and extends 
the observations of Mr. Enright on the electrification detected above a 
vessel in which chemical ebullition is occurring. He considers that the 
electrification is not due to friction or any contact effects, but that it has 
a voltaic or electrolytic significaiice. If so, the observations of Mr. 
Enright ('Phil. Mag.' January 1890, page 56) have more importance 
than'a criticism by Lodge (' Phil. Mag.' March 1890, page 292) was dis- 
posed to concede to them. It is to be hoped that Mr. Enright will pursue 
the subject, and obtain definite evidence as to how the spray-matter 
receives its charge. 

Mr. Brown's summary of conclusions is as follows : — 

Wlien gas is evolved in a chemical or voltaic reaction, the effluvium Qie. this gas 
■or something carried up with it) is usually, as shown by Mr. Enright, electrically 
charged. So far as these present exi^eriments show, no electrification is produced by 
simple effervescence unaccompanied by chemical changes. 

The sign of the electrification is influenced by the kind of chemical or voltaic 
action taking place, and is apparently not due to any contact effect. 

When the effluvium is tliat given off from zinc dissolving in HCl (taken as a typical 
experiment), and consists of hydrogen accompanied by foggy matter, it is not decided 
whether the charge is given originally to the gas or the fog particles, though the 
balance of evidence inclines perhaps towards the latter view. The fog in question is 
formed apparently at, or nearly at, the same place as the gas ; and the nature of its 
charge (if any) is tlierefore possibly influenced by the voltaic condition there 
present. 

The gas, or effluvium, fiom the decomposition of a liquid by a current from the 
poles of a separate battery immersed in it (voltameter) appears also to be elec- 
trified. 

Concerning the verification of Ohm's law in electrolytes which has 
been carried out by members of the Committee, or rather concerning the 
wider question of the validity of the Maxwell- Chrystal method in general, 
the Committee have been favoured with a letter from Professor Chrystal, 
which is reproduced with a sufliicient introduction here. 

Verification of Ohm's Law. 

In one of the circulars issued to the Electrolysis Committee of the British Asso- 

■ ciation, viz. that dated June 24, 1886, Professor Fitzgerald suggested an objection to 

the complete validity of the theory of the experimental method of verifying Ohm's 

.law with twelve-figure accuracy, devised by Clerk Maxwell and carried out bj' Mr. 

Chrystal ; doing so in the following words : — 

' There is an objection to this method that I have not seen noticed. Maxwell 

assumes that you can expand in powers of — . Now, if the law were the positive 

(C\" 
- 1 , where n differs very slightly from unity, the method would fail, for 

the current would vanish both in the numerator and in the denominator of Maxwell's 

•-expansion.' 



ON ELECTROLYSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BEARINGS. 141 

Maxweir.s theory is given in the Glasgow vohime of the British Association for 

187G. " ' , . . 

Recently Dr. Fison seems to have promnlg-ateil the same objection, and conse- 
quently Professor Fitzgerald wrote to Professor Chrystal about it. In reply he 
received a very interesting letter, which he has passed on to me, and from which I 
extract the portion referring to this subject. 

Oliver J. Lodge, 

Letter from Professor Chrystal to Professor Fitzgerald. 

. The problem which I set myself in the Ohm's law experiment was to show- 
that when a Wheatstone's bridge is balanced for any electromotive force in the 
battery circuit, it is balanced for every, or, to put it safely, for widely varying, 
electromotive force. 

The theoretical part of the paper, for which JLixwell was responsible, I do not 
remember ever having examined from a scep- 
tical or logical point of view. Fio. 4. 

It now appears to me that we ought to reason 
as follows : — 

In order to find the necessary condition 
upon the resistance-function E/C, let us make 
matters as simple as possible by considering a 
bridge in which two arms, K, R, are of equal 
resistance, of the same metal, and alih^ in every 
respect. Let the two other resistances S and T 
be made of two different metals, say of Cu and 
Fe. Let the length and section of S be Z and o ; 
and the length and section of T be V and a;'. 
The specific resistance must in each case be a 
function of the current intensity (current per 
unit of section). Temperature is supposed kept 
constant, of course. Let the whole current 

flowing through S and T when there is a balance be i, the specific resistances of 
S and T will be <f) (i/a») and i/ (//a.') respectively. 

The condition for balance will therefore be 

(z/<«)«(i/a.)=(/7o') '!'('■>') (^); 

and this equation must, by the result of the experiment, hold for all rallies of'i.' 

Let us suppose that we alter the length of the iron wire S to I", then there will' 
be a corresponding section, c", for which there will again be a balance : so that we 
must have 

(/":»")<;> ('■/«") = (^'K)'K'7<"') • • • (2); 

and this again must hold for all values of ;. 

Combining (1) and (2), we get , 

(z/a))<|)(;H = (r/c« ")<?)('' <«") .... (3). 

From ttiis equation we can readily determine the form of the function <t>. 
If we put |n = «"/£«, A = r'(oi7w", a' =;/&)", we get 

<f)(/z,r) = A()>(.r); 

whence, putting x = fi x, we get 

<t> (/uV) = A <|) (> .1') = y-<p (x) ; 




<f>{n„x)= \"<t (a;"). 



and, in general. 

Hence, putting x = \, we get 

^(ja")= A"4>(1). 

Now ;u is unrestricted, therefore we may put 

z=ti", ?(. = log5/log^. 



142 KEPOET — 1890. 

Whence, finally, 

^(,) = ;,10g./10gM^(,) 

^^logX/logM^(l) 
The general form for <p (i) is therefore 

where A and B are constants, the physical meanings of which are obvious from what 
precedes. 

We see from equation (1) that the like holds for the specific resistance of every 
metal which has the property indicated by the experiment. 

Moreover, as you have pointed out, such a law of specific resistance is suflicient 
to secure the result of the experiment. 

We conclude, therefore, that what the experiment really proves is that the spe- 
cific resistance of metals varies as a power of the current intensity, which 'porveT in 
the same for all metals. This is a good deal, but not quite so much as is concluded 
in the paper in which the experiment was originally described. The deviation spoken 
of in the paper must therefore be regarded as deviations not from absolutely constant 
resistance, but from the resistance calculated according to the above siinple law. 

To establish that the constant B is zero will not be quite so simple a matter. 
Many ways might be suggested, and will, doubtless, occur to you. The most direct 
and satisfactory would be to get the resistance for different current-intensities, in 
Joule's way, by measuring the heat evolved. 

Should the above sophistry be right, it is curious that you and Dr. Fison should 
each have suggested not««w/, but the only 2}ossiMe n-ay, in which the resistance may 
vary with the current, and Wheatstone's bridge still remain the ideal instrument that 
«lectricians have always considered it to be. 

Q. Chrystal. 

An important contribution to the theory of vacuum-tube discharges 
by Professor J. J. Thomson appears iu the ' Phil. Mag.' for August this 
year. After showing experimentally that the velocity of electric trans- 
mission through electrolytes and through vacuum tubes is at least roughly 
the same as it is along wires, viz. the speed of light, he proceeds to 
consider how this is reconcilable with the doctrine of convection by mov- 
ing molecules, without supposing the molecules themselves to be affected 
with any such extravagant velocity. He conjectures that the gas conducts 
by a series of Grotthus chains, of a length depending on the time of recom- 
bination of molecules ; that each chain propels its own current like a series 
of boys on stepping-stones; and that the junctions of the chains constitute 
the well-known striae. 

The Committee are glad to record the appearance in English of 
Professor Ostwald's work, ' Outlines of General Chemistry,' wherein is 
given an account of the work and views of Professor van 't Hoff on solu- 
tion, and the theory of electrolysis held by Dr. Arrhenius is developed 
into a large number of consequences. They likewise cordially welcome 
Professors van 't Hoff and Ostwald to England, and regret that Dr. 
Arrhenius has been unable to be present also. 

In preparation for a discussion on the extreme dissociation theory of 
solution supported by these recent investigations, as opposed to the more 
customary view held by chemists, and having reference also to Dr. Arm- 
strong's views of residual affinity, Professor Fitzgerald has written the 
following article : — 

Electrolytic Theories. By Professor Fitzgerald. 

Electrolysis has been explained on two different theories by Grotthus and Clausius. 
As generally received they differ. Grotthus' theory, as generally given, assumes that 
the molecules in an electrolyte are both polarised and moved by the electric forces 



ON ELECTKOLTSIS IN ITS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BEARINGS. 143 

-within the liquid. This seems so far untenable that it would appear that double the 
electric force would double both the polarisation and the naotion of the molecules 
and so should produce four times the electrolysis. The objection, however, assumes 
that we know the causes resisting the motion, and with proper, and not very impro- 
bable assumptions as to the resistance to motion depending on it and on the polarisa- 
tion, a linear relation between current and electromotive force, i.e. obedience to 
Ohm's law, seems possible. A modification of Grotthus' hypothesis in the direction 
of Clausius' is, however, possible. Suppose that when polarised the molecules drew 
4yne another apart at a rate proportional to the polarisation. This at once makes the 
relation between electric force and the decomposition a linear one, and so satisfied 
Ohm's law in the case of small currents. It also so far agrees with Clausius' hypothesis 
that it explains electrolysis and double decomposition as properties of the same kind. 
The molecules in a liquid will occasionally be arranged by accident in the proper 
polarised condition in a closed circuit for drawing one another apart ; and if the 
circuit includes molecules of different kinds, there will result double decomposition. 
There seem to be very serious difficulties in supposing that uncombined atoms are 
for any finite time free in the liquid ; and the supposition that it is a particular 
arrangement that is required before exchanges take place, and that with this arrange- 
ment exchanges take place of their own accord, seems to explain electrolysis and 
double decomposition without supposing free atoms to exist within the liquid. I 
have not assumed Professor Armstrong's suggestion that the proper arrangement for 
double decomposition is a double molecule ; but it seems a likely hypothesis, and one 
that should be investigated from the chemical rather than the physical side. 

There are some other phenomena that have been explained upon the supposition 
that free atoms are gadding about in a liquid. Such are the lowering of the boiling 
and freezing points by solutions of salts, and their effect on osmotic pressure. If 
dissociated atoms are going about in a liquid as in a gas, it seems impossible but that 
they must diffuse at different rates ; and that this is not observed seems conclusive 
against the hypothesis, no matter what else the hypothesis may explain. Consider 
solution simply. \Vliy does chloride of .sodium dissolve in water ? There must be 
some strong aflSnity between the two of a chemical or semi-chemical nature to break 
up the cohesion of the crystal ; and it seems reasonable to assume that this same 
affinity keeps the molecules of NaCl moving about among the water molecules, so 
that they diffuse about. Now if the forces drawing them "about be independent of 
the nature of the molecule, most of the phenomena explained by gaseous laws 
are explained. Pressure of a gas depends, at any temperature, on the number of 
molecules, and not on their kind. This is Avogadro's law, by which molecular weights 
are calculated; and if the forces drawing a molecule about in a liquid are independent 
of the kind of molecule, the very same law of pressure would hold, the pressure for- 
ward of molecules of different kinds would depend on their number only, and in the 
same way as Avogadro's law would enable molecular weights to be calculated. In 
this connection it is well to state that some bodies may be much better able to pro- 
duce pressiure than others, because of their being more easily polarised, i.e. turned 
into an effective direction. A molecule which could be easily turned into an effective 
direction would be about twice as effective as a molecule which went about in a 
higgledj-.piggledy way; and one would consequently expect electrolytes to produce 
more, nearly double, the osmotic pressure that other bodies did. As to the changes 
of boiling and freezing points, they seem explicable by exactly the same hypothesis. 
The reduction of vapour pressure by molecular affinity of dissolved salt would depend 
only on the number of molecules of salt if all salts have the same molecular affinity 
for water ; and the .same would apply to the change in freezing point. Hence all 
these phenomena are explained without assuming free atoms, and they are all 
explained by what can hardly avoid being a rem caum, namely, whatever affinities 
they are that cause solution, which latter is an unexplained phenomenon on the 
dissociation hypothesis. That it is rea.sonable to think that the forces keeping the 
molecules of salt moving about in the water are independent of the nature of the 
salt apf)ears from various considerations. In the first place, these forces are in all 
probability due to the residual affinities of the non-metallic elements. These same 
forces arc jirobably the cause of crystalhsation. These are old suggestions. That 
these residual affinities should be nearly the same for different combinations does not 
seem at all unlikely. If a rather shaky argument in favour of its likelihood on 
mechanical grounds is desired, the following may deserve attention. 

Suppose a molecule of NaCl, for instance, at rest, or nearly so, in a crystal, 
bubject It to this affinity. Its velocity, after it has gone a distance, s, will be given 



144 KEPORT — 1890. 

by some such relation asfs = h m ■>■-. Now, for the sake of temperature equilibriura,. 
with molecules of somewhat similar structure, ^ m v- must be the same in all. It 
seems likely that, at least approximately, the kinetic energy of motion is proportional 
to the total energy, and that this is the same for each molecular group ; if so, the- 
kinetic energy must be approximately the same for diflferent groups. Now, with very 
dilute solutions « must be nearly the same for different molecules, and if so we get 
that for temperature equilibrium / must be independent of the nature of the mole- 
cule. How this equalisation of / for different kinds of molecules comes about may 
be as follows. Molecules in a liquid move about among one another, but are well 
within the sphere of another's attraction, as is evidenced by superficial tension and 
by the tension to which a liquid can be subject. A very small change in the distance- 
apart of the molecules means, however, a very great change in the forces between 
them, as otherwise they would be extensible and compressible like gases. It seems 
likely, then, that when a salt dissolves in a liquid it requires for temperature equili- 
brium that the distances of the molecules should change by the verysmaU arnount 
required in order that/ may become the same for all substances. This very minute 
change in distance would not visibly affect s. 

The Committee request Mr. Sliaw to continue his report on Electro- 
lysis, with the co-operation of Mr. Fitzpatrick ; and they ask for reappoint- 
ment, with a grant of 51. to cover printing and postage expenses. 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G-. G-. Stokes 
(Chairman), Mr. G. J. Stmons (Secretary), Yroiessov ScumTEH, 
Dr. Gr. Johnstone Stonet, Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Captain Abnet, 
and Mr. Whipple, appointed for the purpose of considering the 
best methods of recording the direct Intensity of Solar Radia- 
tion. 

Owing to the death of Professor Balfonr Stewart and the mimerons avo- 
cations of Professor Schuster, the instrument constructed by this Com- 
mittee has not yet been tried. The Committee have now traced all parts 
of the apparatus and of the correspondence relating to it, and they are 
glad to state that Professor McLeod has agreed to join the Committee 
and to conduct a series of experiments with the apparatus. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John Kerr (Chairman), 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Eucker, and Mr. R. T. GtLAZE- 
BROOK (Secretary), appointed to co-operate luith Dr. Kerr in his 
researches on Electro-optics. 

Some progress in the experiments for the conduction of which the 
Committee were appointed has been made by Dr. Kerr, but the Com- 
mittee regret to have to report that they are still only in the preliminary 
stage. The first trials were made last winter at some length, but were 
without effect. The difficulty arose from some unexpected and serious 
defects in the new plate cell, which are now being remedied. 

The Committee hope that the apparatus may be in working order 
shortly, and look forward to being able to make a full report next year. 
They ask for reappointment. 



ON IIOLECULAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 145 



Report of the Covimittee on Molecular Phenomena associated 
with the Magnetisation of Iron. {Phenomena occurring at a red 
heat.) Professor G. F. Fitzgerald {Chairman), H. F. Newall, 
F. Trouton, and Professor W. F. Barrett {Secretary). 

In the interim report presented last year it was stated that this Com- 
mittee, which was appointed some time ago to enquire into tlie various 
molecular changes connected with the magnetisation of iron, proposed to 
•confine itself, as we believe was the original intention on the appointment 
■of the Committee, to those remarkable physical phenomena which are 
found to occur in iron and steel, about the temperature of a red heat 
when iron ceases to be a magnetic metal. 

The suddenness with which iron loses its magnetic susceptibility at a 
red heat has often been noticed by different observers. Professor Row- 
land ' was the first to point out that for small magnetising forces, the 
susceptibility of ii'on increases as the temperature rises, reaches a maxi- 
mum at a red heat, and then falls suddenly to zero, but that the suscepti- 
iDility diminishes as the temperature rises when large magnetising forces 
are used. Bauer ^ subsequently established the same fact. Later, one of 
us (H. F. Newall ^) has experimented with small spheres of iron and 
steel enclosed between closely fitting hemispherical caps of brass, so that 
the iron sphere was held by and heated in the brass, and thus allowed to 
Ineat and cool slowly, the susceptibility being tested by means of a mirror 
■magnetometer. It was found that during cooling from a white heat the 
reappearance of magnetic susceptibility was much more leisurely in steel 
than in soft iron, the rate of return to the magnetic state corresponding 
with the rate of recalescence ; where recalescence was absent the suscep- 
fibility suddenly returned ; where the reglow was pronounced the return 
to the magnetic state was slow. This is to be expected, for the rise of 
temperature during recalescence is more than sufficient to carry the iron 
■out of the magnetic condition it had just entered upon by cooling ; hence 
there will be a sudden oscillation at this critical temperature. Ledeboer "* 
was, we believe, the first to assign the exact temperature of the loss of 
susceptibility. By means of a thermo-electric couple formed of wires of 
platinum and an alloy of platinum with 10 per cent, of rhodium, he found 
the susceptibility of iron to disappear at a temperature ranging from 750° 
to 770° C. Hopkinson ^ more recently, in his well-known paper, has 
investigated the effect of different magnetising forces on the loss of per- 
meability of iron and steel with increasing temperature, more especially 
■near the critical temperature. Measuring the resistance of copper wire 
(exposed to the same temperature) from its known temperature coefficient, 
Hopkinson estimated the temperature, and found that with very low 
magnetising forces, less than 1 C.G.S. unit, the permeability of iron gradu- 
ally rose up to a temperature of 785° C, when it almost suddenly dropped 
down to nnity ; in like manner mild steel at first rose and then suddenly 
fell at a temperature of 735° C. : hard steel behaved similarly, falliuo- off 
at a temperature of G80° C. ° 

' Phil Maff., Nov. 1874. « Wicd. Ann., si. (1880). 

Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, vol. vi., Part 4 (1888). 

* La Lumiirc Elcctrique, t. sxvii., No. 2. , » Phil. Trans., May 1889. 

1890. L 



146 EEPORT — 1890. 

Professor J. A. Ewing has shown recently,' in Ms beautiful experi- 
mental model representing molecular magnets, how a state of magnetic 
instability may occur in the magnetic metals as a certain critical tempera- 
ture is approached, the chief facts of permeability and retentiveness, and 
what Ewing terms hysteresis, being explicable by supposing that a mag- 
netised bar is made up, as in "Weber's hypothesis, of molecular magnets, 
but ' constrained by no other forces than those due to their own mutual 
attractions and repulsions ; ' increase of permeability due to rise of te7n- 
perature, for magnetising forces far short of saturation, being caused by 
the expansion and separation of molecular centres creating a reduction of 
stability. And as regards the sudden loss of susceptibility at the critical 
temperature, Ewing conjectures that the violence of the oscillation of 
the molecular magnets at this temperature may cause a state of rotation 
to be developed, wherein, of course, all magnetic polarity would disappear. 

Professor Ewing's suggestive paper shows us that we may well expect 
other remarkable phenomena, — and abrupt changes in the physical proper- 
ties of the magnetic metals are found to take place, — at this critical 
temperature. The Committee have been engaged in investigating some 
of these. 

I. We will first take the sudden anomalous expansion observed when 
steel and some specimens of iron wire cool from a white heat first noticed 
by Gore in 1870, and the corresponding anomalous contraction on heating 
first noticed by one of us in 1873.- The observation of these effects is 
extremely easy. It is only necessary rigidly to fix one end of an iron or 
eteel wire and attach the other end to a multiplying lever, or observe 
through a reading microscope a mark on the free end, when on heating 
the wire either by a gas flame or an electric current the following 
phenomena are observed. The wire steadily expands as the temperature 
rises till a low red heat is reached, when a halt occurs, then a sudden 
momentary retraction of the wire takes place, after which expansion 
continues to the fusing point. On cooling, the wire regularly contracts 
till a temperature a little lower than that at the jerk on heating is reached, 
when a sudden momentary elongation of the wii'e occurs, and then con- 
traction ensues till it is cold. If the wire be vertical or horizontal, 
with or without tension, the effect is equally present. To perceive the 
jerk on cooHng, it is, however, absolutely essential that the temperature 
of the wire should be raised above that at which the jerk on heating 
occurs, otherwise no anomalous effect is observed. In the experiments 
made by one of us in 1875 but not hitherto published, Barrett found that 
in some specimens of steel wire tivo anomalous contractions on heating 
and expansions on cooling were noticed, the feebler one taking place at a 
lower temperature. Further, that in some specimens of iron no anomalous 
expansion or contraction was noticeable, whilst moi-e generally in other 
specimens the effect on cooling only was noticed, and that usually this 
etfect could be wiped out by a few successive heatings and coolings. But 
in steel the jerk in cooling was always present and was not wiped out, 
though at first slightly reduced, by repeated incandescence and cooling. 
Further, judging by the amount of the expansion of the wire, the effect 
on heating took place, as stated above, at a slightly higher temperature 
than the jerk on cooling. 

A series of unpublished experiments were long since made by the 

» PMl. Mag., Sept. 18110. « Barrett, Phil. Mag., Jan. 1874. 



ON MOLECULAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 147 

Secretary on the effect (a) of the diameter of tlie wire, and (h) of tlio 
tension on the wire, the effects observed being represented by a curve 
where expansion is plotted against the time in seconds taken in heating 
and cooling. A smooth curve is, of course, formed for the non-maguctic 
metals. A slight break is found in the up side of the curve for fine iron 
wire, and a sharp break on the down side, whereas for steel-wire a sharp 
break on the up side, and a much more marked break on the down side, 
was always observed. Up to Nos. 14 or 15 B.W.G. steel-wire, i.e. up to 
a diameter of about yi^ of an inch, there is, at the critical temperature, 
decided retraction on heating, but at this diameter a halt, with just per- 
ceptible retraction, occurs, and as the diameter increases the halt becomes 
more and more prolonged, until when No. 3 wire is reached (a rod of 
^-inch diameter) at the critical temperature a halt of six seconds takes 
jilace in the exj^ansion of the wire during heating, and a halt of twelve 
seconds in the contraction of the wire during cooling : the wire in all 
cases being unenclosed, and therefore freely cooling in the open air. Even 
with the thickest wire of a quarter of an inch diameter a slight expansion 
accompanies the prolonged halt in the contraction during cooling when 
the critical temperature is reached. Several observations, giving con- 
cordant results, were made with each wire. 

Next, as regards the effect of tension on the wire. As might be 
expected, tension has the effect of diminishing the anomalous retraction 
on heating and increasing the anomalous expansion on cooling. In fact, 
with a soft iron wire 20 centims. long (No. 19 B.W.G.) under a tension of 
500 grams no halt is observed on heating, and at the fourth heating only 
a halt and no expansion on cooling ; at the eighth heating the halt 
vanished, but a double tension, viz, 1,000 grams, caused an elongation 
amounting to tttott ^^ ^^^^ whole length of the wire to reappear. In a 
No. 23 hard steel wire, up to a tension of 500 grams, an anomalous retrac- 
tion on heating and expansion on cooling is exhibited, but additional 
tension destroys the retraction on heating and increases the expansion on 
cooling. After, however, thirty re-heatings of this wire the jerk on 
heating had disappeared, even under the reduced tension of 300 grams, 
nor did sudden quenching in cold water restore it, but it reappeared in a 
feeble way under a tension of 50 grams; after the fiftieth re-heating all 
that could be observed was a momentary halt on heating, but the expan- 
sion on cooling was as marked as ever. So that even in steel the 
anomalous contraction on heating appears to wear out in thin wires, but 
not the anomalous expansion on cooling. In thicker wires of hard steel, 
Nos. 12, 10, 8, 7. 6, and 3, B.W.G-., under tensions varying fi-om 50 to 
3,000 grams, continued heating and cooling appeared to make but little 
difference.' Here, however, the tension in grams per sq. centimetre was 
not so great as in the thin wire. We shall discuss later the cause of this 
curious wiping out of the jerk by annealing or repeated heating and 
cooling, and are continuing the investigation with samples of steel of 
known composition. 

The exact amount of the retraction on heating and expansion on 
cooling was measured by means of a microscope with micrometer eye- 

' It was noticed that when a flat strip of steel of the same volume as one of the 
thicker wires was tried, tlie jerk on heatings vanished on repeated heating, only a 
momentary halt remaining, the jerk on cooling being as strong as ever ; but further 
experiments are being made to determine how far the composition of the steel, or 
the effect of wire-drawing, was influential iu these cufces. 

I, 2 



148 



REPORT — 1890. 



piece. A sample of iron-wire was taken, which was found to behave very 
like soft steel in the greater permanence of the effects it exhibited, and 
except that it could not be hardened or tempered might have been mistaken 
for steel ; the wire was suspended vertically and heated by an electric 
current, a weight of 50 grams being hung from the free end. The wire 
was No. 20 B.W.G. (09 mm. diam.) and 29 centims. long. On heating it 
expanded from 290 mm. to 293-5 mm., or 1-2 per cent, of its length ; then 
it retracted to 29.3-3 mm., a retraction of 0-07 per cent., yJ^^ of its 
original length ; then expanded again till white hot, when its length was 



Fi3. 1. 



-Anomalous contraction of Iron Wire upon cooling from a bright red licat. 
Wire 0-9 mm. diam. 



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294 mm. On breaking contact and allowing the wire to cool freely, it 
contracted till its length was 2Vo mm. or 1-034 per cent, of its length; 
then it expanded to 293-4 mm., an expansion of 0-14 per cent., ^^ of its 
length, after which it contracted till it was cold, when a permanent 
elongation of 0-3 mm. remained. These amounts were diminished on the 
second heating, but the permanent elongation, even nnder the small load 
of 50 grams, was the same each time, namely, O'S mm., or a little over 



ON MOLECULAR PIIENOMKNA Ii\ MAGNETISED IRON. 149 

ToVo of its length. Earlier experiments were made witli the wire hori- 
zontal, the tension being applied by means of a pulley ; the same results 
were obtained, but the vertical method is obviously the best. A length 
of 50 centims. of the same wire gave similar results, the amount of the 
anomalous retraction and expansion being proportional to the length of 
the wire. When the load was increased to 590 grams with the same wire, 
the retraction on heating vanished, and the sudden elongation on (tooling 
had increased to no less than -j^ of tlie original length of the wire, or 
0"32 per cent. : the permanent elongation being 3'5 mm. at each heating, 
or upwards of yl-jj of the length of the wire. The diagram. Fig. 1, 
shows the actual chanjje in the dimensions of the wire. It will be 
observed that a load of 90 grams will cause the jerk on heating to vanish, 
with this wire, and that the jerk on cooling grows less as the experiment 
is repeated ; at each experiment the microscope was adjnsted to zero so 
that the total permanent elongation is the sum of that in each experi- 
ment. 

II. The permanent stretching of the wire under these loads occurs 
only when the critical temperature is reached. At this temperature an 
abrupt and remarkable softening or plasticity of the iron or steel occurs 
which renders it extraordinarily ductile. A comparative experiment was 
made with copper wire heated to the same temperature. The copper 
wire used was 50 centims. long and rather thinner, 0"76 mm. diameter. 
When heated it would only bear a load of 510 grams without rupture; 
on heating to redness no jerk or stoppage of the expansion, and on cooling 
no stop in the contraction was noticed, the permanent elongation being 
0"8 mm. or ^^y of the length of the wire. With the iron wire, which 
was considerably stouter (0'9 mm. diameter), of the same length and 
under the same load of 510 grams, the permanent stretching was 1'8 mm., 
or about ^^^ of its length, so that the iron appears to be far more ductile 
and plastic than copper when both are at a red heat. 

Mr. H. Tomlinson ' has, in fact, already published some interesting 
experiments on the enormous loss of rigidity which occurs in iron at 
the critical temperature. A torsioually vibrating iron wire has a 
logarithmic decrement at about 1,000° C, ten times greater than that of 
a tin wire at the temperature of the air, though tin has the highest 
internal friction of any metal yet examined at ordinary temperatures. 
Mr. Tomlinson finds two temperatures, one about 550° C. and the other 
about 1,000° C, when there is a sudden rise in the internal friction of 
iron. In a series of interesting papers communicated to the Physical 
Society, Mr. Tomlinson has added much to our knowledge of the j^hysical 
changes which occur in iron at the critical temperature. Mr. Tomlinson 
places near 1,000° C. the remarkable alterations he has observed in an 
iron wire under stress or strain. At this temperature ' when stretched 
by a slight weight it suddenly unstretches, when under a slight bending 
stress it suddenly unbends, when under a slight twisting stress it suddenly 
untwists, whilst on the contrary, if it has been previously bent or twisted 
permanently and then released from stress, it suddenly bends moi'e or 
twists more as the case may be.' ^ Opposite changes occur in cooling. 

One of us ^ has suggested that the probable explanation of the effects 
observed by Mr. Tomlinson is due to the difference in the rate of heating 
and cooling between the interior and exterior of the wire. Such is 
' Phil. Mag., Feb. 1888. ^ p/,,7, j,/-„^^ ggp^, igST. 

• Newall : Phil. Mag., Nov. 1887. 



150 EEPOBT— 1890. 

doubtless the case even in thin wires, and this being so the strains in 
the wire will no longer be balanced if the inner and outer portion of the 
wire be at different temperatures. For when the wire is twisted or bent 
permanently, it has been submitted to a greater twisting or bending than 
that which it retains ; a strain has been given which is larger than that 
which remains when the stress is removed. Now when the wire is raised . 
to the critical temperature, the existence of this original strain reveals 
itself, owing to the greater plasticity of the molecules of the iron which 
have reached the higher temperature, and hence the additional twisting 
or bending which Mr. Tomlinson has observed. By keeping the wire at 
the critical temperature for some time, it is rendered free from strains 
and the effect disappears. 

It is probable that the anomalous contraction and expansion in iron 
which we have been studying is an effect due to the longitudinal strains 
in the wire produced by wire-drawing, and which are destroyed by fre- 
quent heating ; the non-existence or rapid subsidence of the effect in 
some specimens of very soft iron follows from this explanation, together 
with the more pronounced and enduring effects noticed in steel. Never- 
theless, some other cause appears to exist in hard steel where the effect 
appears to be more or less permanent. We hope to throw more light on 
this point next yeai', as our experiments are being continued.^ 

During the momentary elongation of the wire at the critical tempera- 
ture in cooling, a singular creaking sound is also to be observed. The 
sound resembles that produced by bending tin ; in thick wires it more 
resembles a strip of tin struck on the edge by a piece of wood ; it is a 
succession of short sounds or ticking, lasting during the anomalous 
change. This crepitation is evidently similar to that noticed by M. Le 
Chatelier at a lower temperature. It reminds one of the crepitation 
heard on magnetisation first noticed by Page in 1837. 

III. We now come to the reglow or Becalescence of iron and steel at 
the critical temperature first noticed by Barrett (' Phil. Mag.,' 1873), and 
which Mons. Osmond has made the starting-point of his admirable 
investigations. 

What is observed by the eye is as follows : The wire heated either by 
a current or gas flame gradually becomes luminous, then as a certain 
temperature is reached the glowing of the wire ceases to increase, and 

1 In a paper published in the Comptes Ecndus for July 8, 1889, M. Andre Le 
Chatelier has shown that in the heating of iron three most remarkable phases in its 
mechanical properties are to be observ'ed. In this respect it behaves differently from 
all other metals he has examined. From 15° to 80° C. the breaking strain, slowly 
applied, decreases with an increase of temperature like other metals. But from 
100° to 2-40° C. the breaking strain is sensibly constant, and the elongation at rupture 
is much diminished. From 240° C. to 300° C. the breaking strain suddenly increases 
and the elongation also increases. From this point onwards the breaking strain 
decreases, but at 300° C. iron possesses its maximum strength to a steady strain, 
though it is then weakest as regards a sudden shock. It may here be worth noting 
that the temperature of 285° to 300° C. (as Mr. Tomlinson has recently observed) 
has a special significance in connection with the so-called Villari critical point, that 
is, the value of the magnetising force for which the permeability is not altered by 
alteration of stress on the experimental wire. This point varies both with the value 
of the load and the temperature of the wire. M. Le Chatelier, so far as we are 
aware, has not carried his investigation above 500° C, where still more interesting 
results may be expected. M. Le Chatelier finds that the elongation of iron under 
stress at about 150° C. is accompanied by a crackling sound, the lengthening not 
taking place continuously but in a series of jerks, a fact which he observed in up- 
wards of 200 experiments and in all the alloys of iron. 



1 



ON MOLECULAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 151 

even in some specimens a sudden darkening occurs. At this moment 
the anomalous contraction takes place. Heating now continues regularly 
till the wire reaches the melting-point. On cooling the luminosity de- 
creases until the moment when the anomalous expansion takes place, then 
a sudden flash runs through the wire, first beginning at the cooler parts 
and suffusing the whole with a bright glow. This phenomenon of 
jRecalescence is most beautifully observed by heating to whiteness with a 
blow-pipe flame the centre of a thin steel plate ; a concentric ring of 
darkening will be seen to spread outward and in like manner a beautiful 
incandescent circle runs inward during cooling.^ It is needless to refer 
to our experiments made long since, which showed that recalescence was 
not a mere surface effect but a rise of temperature throughout the wire, 
and that it occurred equally when the steel was enclosed in tubes con- 
taining pure nitrogen as well as in other gases. In some specimens of 
iron recalescence could not be seen, but it was present in all specimens 
of steel and was found whenever the jerk occurred in cooling. Numerous 
diagrams were also made of the duration of the after-glow in steel wires 
of various thicknesses. 

It was noticed by one of us ^ soon after the discovery of recalescence 
that a faint second glow could be seen ; the first and far stronger after- 
glow being exactly coincident with the sudden elongation of the steel 
wire during cooling. Thus in a No. 17 B.W.Gr. soft steel wire, cooling 
from a white heat unprotected in the air, five seconds elapsed before the 
first after-glow was seen and thirteen seconds before the second glow ; no 
jerk or anomalous expansion being noticed with the second glow, but an 
expansion of 02 mm. in a wire 20 ceatims. long being noticed at the first 
glow. The same result was found with different tensions. In thicker rods 
of soft steel, three glows were noticed, but it is difficult to discriminate 
the subjective and misleading effects produced by expectant attention in 
the faint glows, thermometric methods alone being rehable. This has 
since been accomplished by Osmond, who was the first to determine the 
exact temperatures of recalescence in iron and steel. Continuing the 
early experiments, an attempt was made in 1875 by Barrett to measure 
the temperature of recalescence by observing the amount of expansion 
that occurred in the steel raised from the temperature of the air to the 
critical point. Assuming that the known rate of increase of the coefficient 
of expansion in steel with rise of temperature continued regularly, it was 
found that 830° 0. was approximately the temperature of the critical 
point. The uncertainty of the data on whicli this estimate was founded 
and the difficulty of measuring these high temperatures then with any 
approach to accuracy, prevented the publication of a result which turns 
out now to be not very wide of the mark. M. Le Chatelier has lately 
found the coefficient of expansion for iron at 1,000° C. to be 0-0000145 for 
1°C.; but measurements exactly at the critical point appear to be wanting. 

We now come to M. Osmond's valuable investigations, which com- 
menced in 1880.^ By means of a pyrometer similar to tliat used by 

' Newall : Camh. Phil. Soc, January 1888. 

' Barrett, unpublished laboratory notes, 1 875. 

' ' Transformations du Fer et du Carbone dans les Fers, les Aciers et les Fontes 
Blanches,' par F. Osmond, Mcmoircs de VArtillerie de la Marine. A summary of 
M. Osmond's work is given in his paper read before the Iron and Steel Institute of 
Great Britain in the early part of the present year. M. Osmond has kindly lent us 
the specimens he has employed, and we hope to repeat some of liis determinations 
ehort'y. 



152 . REPORT— 1890. 

M. Ledeboer, devised by M. H. Le Chatelier, and consisting- of a thermo- 
electric conple of platinum and platinum rhodium alloy, associated 
with a dead beat galvanometer, Osmond has made a careful study of the 
recalescence in iron and steel. 

Osmond finds three critical points to exist in mild steel when, during 
cooling, the temperature remains stationary for a sensible interval of 
time. These three points he designates a, , a^, and 03 ; 0| being that 
at the lowest temperature about 660° C, a^ about 730° C, and 03 about 
850° C. In hard steel a, only is present, but is much more pronounced, 
and occurs somewhat higher, about 700° C. In electrolytic iron, which, 
however, contained 0'08 per cent, of carbon, u^ and a^ only are present, 
occurring at about 720° 0. and 860° C. respectively. The temperature 
of these critical points he finds, just as we found with the anomalous ex- 
pansion and contraction, to be higher during the heating than daring the 
cooling of tbe same specimen. Osmond, however, has not noticed any 
sudden rise of temperature at recalescence, only a longer or shorter halt 
in the cooling. But this difference probably arises from his mode of ex- 
perimenting; one of us has pointed out the necessity of precaution in this 
respect.' We have recently repeated our experiments, using a thermo- 
■couple similar to that employed by Osmond, and find that there is not 
the least difficulty in observing and measuring the sudden large increase 
of temperature that occurs daring recalescence. It is only necessary to 
use somewhat fine wires for the thermo-couple, to bind them to the steel 
wire under experiment, and wrap the part round with asbestos to prevent 
too rapid cooling in the air. 

The temperature of the critical point Osmond finds, as occurred with 
the jerk on heating or cooling, to be higher on the up side of the curve 
(that is, during heating) than on the down side of the curve. Like our- 
selves, he finds the critical point higher in iron than in steel, and that on 
re-heating the same sample the point of recalescence is lowered somewhat. 
Experiments we have recently made show that after the first two or three 
heatings stable conditions appear to be reached ; recalescence then occurs 
at the same temperature and to the same amount on subsequent heatings 
and coolings. This is assuming the metal to be raised to the same tem- 
perature before cooling each time; if the temperature before cooling be 
not so great Osmond finds that the critical point is raised. Our experi- 
ments point rather the other way, bnt they need repeating. When the 
cooling of iron or steel is slow recalescence begins at a somewhat higher 
temperature, and lasts longer than when the cooling is very rapid. 
Osmond finds that when the cooling is very rapid, by quenching the 
-white-hot metal in water, recalescence is entirely absent. The steel is 
thus hardened, and Osmond concludes that the latent heat of the change 
•which takes place in the metal at recalescence is still in the steel, and he 
terms it the latent heat of hardening. 

IV. The difference in the temperature at which recalescence occurs on 
the up and down side of the curve of heating, has led two of our Com- 
mittee independently to suggest the explanation of the remarkable thermo- 
electric current which is produced in iron and steel by a moving source of 
heat.^ If an iron or steel wire be heated to redness at any one point of 

' Newall, Phil Mag., June ]888. 

2 TroutoD, Proa. Royal Dublin Soc, 1887. Newall, Phil. Mag., June 1888. Mr. 
Trouton has found a similar but entirely transient E.M.F., caused by a moving tiame 



I 



ON MOLECULAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 153 

its length, and the source of heat, such as a Bnnseu flame, be moved 
along, an electric current is set up in the direction in which the flame 
travels. By means of clockwork the flame can be caused to move con- 
tinuously, and hence a continuous circuit is thereby obtained. There 
are, however, no signs of E.M.F. in the circuit until the recalescent 
point is passed ; then I'eglow takes place behind the moving flame and the 
cooling efiect in front. This thermal diSerence is, we believe, the cause 
of the resultant E.M.F., for it ceases when the flame ceases to move, 
and is absent in those metals where recalescence does not occur. 

V. The thermo-electric position of iron undergoes a sudden change at 
the critical temperature. This was first noticed by one of us in 1875; 
twisting a platinum wire round the iron or steel wire under experiment, 
and connecting the free end of the platinum and one end of the steel wire 
to a galvanometer, a thermo-electric current was of course observed on 
heating the wire, but directly the jerk occurred in heating a sudden move- 
ment of the galvanometer needle simultaneously occurred, and similarly 
in cooling the thermo-current changed along with the anomalous expan- 
sion, and a moment after the iron regained its magnetic susceptibility. 
Hot iron is thermo-electrically negative to cold iron, but at the critical 
point a large increase in the E.M.F. is suddenly developed. Mr. H. 
Tomlinson • has shown that iron at a bright red heat in contact with iron 
at the tempei'atnre of the air develops an E.M.F. of about one-twentieth 
of a volt, or upwards of twice that between a bismuth and antimony 
couple with a temperature difi"ei'ence of 100° C. between their junctions. 

Gumming was the first to notice long ago that the thermo-electric 
properties of iron changed at a red heat, but to Professor Tait's classical 
papers on thermo-electricity we owe the first exact investigation of the 
changes that heat j^roduces in the thermo-electric properties of iron. In 
his Rede lecture, delivered on May 23, 1873, Professor Tait remarks that 
when various pairs of metals were tried up to a red heat the thermo- 
electric diagram representing the relation of E.M.F. and temperature, 
always exhibited an anomaly when iron was one of the metals ; at some 
temperature near a low red heat a change occurred, the ' Thomson eff'ect ' 
being negative in iron at ordinary temperatures, became positive at a red' 
heat, and remained so until a much higher temperature was reached, 
when another change of sign appeared to be indicated. ' Iron,' Professor 
Tait remarks, ' becomes as it were a different metal on being raised above 
a red heat ; this may have some connection with the ferricnm and fer 
rosum of the chemists, with the change of magnetic properties and of 
electric resistance at high temperatures.' ^ 

VI. The electric resistance of iron at this tempei'ature also changes ; 
Smith, Knott, Macfarlane,^ and more recently Hopkinson ■* and Lo 
Chatelier,'' have published investigations on this point. Hopkinson finds 
a change in the temperature coefficient of the iron wire he used at 855° C, 
and of hard steel wire at a somewhat lower temperature. These tempera- 
te occur in other unannealed wires. This is an effect due to annealing by th& 
flame, and disappears immediately, whereas the effect in steel is persistent. 

' Proc. Phys. Society, vol. ix. p. 105 (Nov. 1887). See also on this point a paper by 
one of us (Newall, Camh. Phil. Soc, Jan. 1888.) 

' Nature, June 12, 1873. Trans. R.S.E., Dec. 1873. 
' Proc. Royal Society of Edin., Fob. 1875. 
* Phil. Trans. Roy. Society of London, May 1889. 
» Comptet Rendus, Feb. 10, 1890. 



154 



REPORT 1890. 



tares he found practically coincident with the sudden loss of magnetic 
susceptibility of the metaln. Le Chatelier finds mild and hard steel show 
two changes of curvatare in their electric resistance, one at 850° C. and 
the other at 710° C, whereas manganese steel, in which we find re- 
calescence to be absent,^ shows no such change, the curve of increased 
resistance with temperature being perfectly regular. Le Chatelier also 
finds that pure nickel undergoes a sudden change in its electric resist- 
ance, the temperature coefficient altering at 340° C, which corresponds 
to the temperature of other changes in its physical jDroperties. 

Fig. 2. — Electric Kesistance in ohms of Wires of the Metals named. 1 metre long 
and 1 mm. diam. heated from 0° to 1,000° C, in pure dry hydrogen (Le Chatelier). 

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VII. Some recent experiments made by Dr. B. Ball ^ appear to indicate 
that there is a still higher critical point than those observed by Osmond 
and ourselves. Dr. E. Ball has measured the tensile strength and 
roughly the magnetic state of iron and steel suddenly cooled down fi-om 
different high temperatures. He finds that there are three critical points 
when a change in the tensile strength and magnetic character of iron and 
steel occur with sudden quenching ; two of these points agree with 
Osmond's oj and ag, but the third point is higher than either of these ; he 
estimates it approximately as 1,300° C. More exact means of measuring 
the temperature and magnetic susceptibility are, however, necessary. 

VIII. This higher temperature is near that at which M. Pionchon^ 
has found a change in the specific heat of iron. Pionchon's results show 
that the specific heat of iron changes suddenly between 660° and 720° C, 

• Barrett, Proc. R. Soc, BuUi7i, Dec. 188fi. 

" Proc. Iron and Steel Institute of Great Britain, 1890. 

' Pionchon, Comptes Rendus, June 1886. 



ON MOLECULAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 155 

and again between 1,000° and 1,050° C, considerable absorption of heat 
taking place at these temperatures. The lower of these temperatures 
corresponds with the recalescent point and loss of magnetic susceptibiHtj 
in steel. Mr. H. Tomlinson, as already noticed, has also observed two 
critical points in iron, one about 550° 0. and the other at 1,000° C.,' when 
a sudden change occurs in the viscosity of this metal. No doubt these 
are the same points as those observed by Pionchon, for the variable com- 
position of the iron also, and errors in determination of these high tempe- 
ratures are probably sufficient to account for the differences observed. 

The amount of heat given out during recalescence we have estimated 
from the observed expansion of the metal that occurs during recalescence. 
Taking Pioncbon's determination of the specific heat of iron at a red 
heat, the heat liberated in the recalescence of a specimen of iron would 
thus appear to be somewhat over 100 times as much as would raise 
the same mass of iron 1° C. Dr. Hopkinson,^ from the length of the 
break in the time curve of cooling, has estimated that the heat liberated 
in the recalescence of hard steel is equal to 173 times that liberated 
■when the same material falls 1° C. The amount of recalescence in hard 
steel, as already stated, is considerably greater than that in iron. 

IX. Here it may be mentioned that the hardening of steel by sudden 
quenching in water cannot be produced unless the metal be raised to the 
temperature of recalescence.^ Brinnell's researches have shown that the 
carbon in steel is in two different conditions above and below the reca- 
lescence, and by sudden quenching the so-called ' hardening carbon ' is 
preserved in the condition in which it exists at a high temperature. At 
a high temperature it appears to be simply free carbon mixed with or 
dissolved in the iron ; at the temperature of the air the researches of 
Miiller, Abel, and Osmond and Werth, have shown that in ordinary steel 
carbon is combined with the iron in the form of a compound, having the 
definite composition FcaC. 

X. We must now consider the general cause of these phenomena. 
The secretary of this Committee long since suggested it was probably to 
be found in the carbon present in the iron, as recalescence was most 
marked in those specimens of iron and steel whicb contained larger per- 
centages of carbon, and this cause Osmond has now, we think, satisfac- 
torily established. 

Recalescence in steel Osmond attributes to the chemical combination 
of the iron with the carbon present in a free state, and which has been 
liberated by heat. Thus the point of recalescence is that at which iron 
carbide, FcsC, forms ; a body which is stable at ordinary temperatures 
but decomposed, with absorption of heat (producing the chilling efiect 
observed on heating) at a red heat. Now the heat of combination we 
find to be about 3,000 calories per gram of carbon present in the iron, as 
deduced from Hopkinson's estimate of the amount of heat liberated 
during recalescence ; further experiments on this part of the subject are 
necessary, and we hope to make them shortly. 

Recalescence in iron Osmond attributes to an allotropic change 
which he believes iron to undergo at a temperature of about 750° C. 
Below this temperature iron exists in one molecular state, which Osmond 

' P/iil. Mag., February 1888. 
^ Phil. Trans., May 1889. 

' J. H. Brinnell, Jernhontoret's Annaleii, 1885, and StaJil und Ehen, Nov. 1885. 
Indepeudently observed by one of us, Newall, Camh. Phil. Soc, Jan. 1888. 



156 REPOET— 1890. 

designates a iron ; between 750° and 850° the change is in process, and 
above 850° C. he asserts that iron enters the other molecnlar state, wliich 
he designates fi iron. It is, then, to the latent beat of allotropy that 
Osmond attributes the rccalescence observed in iron, heat being absorbed 
to produce this change at the critical point during heating, and liberated 
during cooling at a somewhat lower temperature. Iron, according to 
this hypothesis, is a polymorphous element like sulphur, phosphorus, 
&c. Sadden cooling from a white heat, when the change into /? iron 
has occurred, should tend to preserve the iron in this allotropic state ; 
but this is not the case, except to a small extent, and hence Osnnond 
maintains that it is the presence of carbon in the iron which keeps the 
iron in the /3 condition when suddenly cooled. Hardened steel would 
thus owe its properties principally to the presence of /3 iron, which is 
hard and brittle at ordinary temperature: ' both the iron and the cai-bon 
in hardened steel preserving more or less completely in the cold the con- 
dition which they possessed at a high temperature.' 

We think, however, that the evidence adduced by Osmond on behalf 
of his theory of recalescence in iron is as yet insufficient. No doubt iron 
does exist in an allotropic niodi6cation at a high temperature, but the 
electrolytic iron with which Osmond experimented contained 008 per 
cent, of carbon, very nearly as much as some of the pure steels with 
which we have experimented, which contained O'l per cent, of carbon. 
It is to the influence of this small amount of carbon present in Osmond's 
electrolytic iron that we are inclined to attribute the feeble recalescence 
which he observed in his specimen. The effect, («) of this residual 
carbon, and (&) of the mechanical treatment the specimen has received, 
such as hammering and wire-drawing, have yet to bo investigated, and 
this we hope to undertake during the next year. If it be possible to 
keep iron in the fi condition when cold, it should not only be hard and 
brittle but non-magnetic, and this has not yet been proved. "We have 
made some experiments on this point by suddenly' quenching at a white 
heat fine iron wires in cold mercury, and here will merely state that 
their magnetic susceptibility was not destroyed. Manganese steel, it is 
true, is practically non-magnetic, and this Osmond attributes to the part 
played by manganese in fixing the iron in the f3 condition, and Hopkin- 
son has shown that whatever slight magnetic susceptibility is found in 
manganese steel could be accounted for by a few little bits of pure iron 
distributed through the mass.' 

We believe that the difference in the temperature position of recalescence 
(and also of the jerk) on the up and on the down side of the curve of heat- 
ing or cooling is analogous to what is found in the heating of water. In 
a clean vessel water may be raised above the boiling-point ; suddenly at 
some one point steam is formed, and the whole rapidly passes into steam, 
the change of state being accompanied by a fall of temperature and large 
absorption of heat. Similarly steam in cooling down may be lowered 
below the normal point of condensation, when from some cause, such as 
the presence of solid particles, condensation begins and rapidly proceads, 
accompanied by a rise of temperature.^ The retardation of this change 
Mr. Tomlinson ^ considers to be due to the great internal friction which 
exists in iron at a red heat ; in consequence of this the change takes place 

' Phil. Tram., April 1885. " Newall, Camh. Phil. Soc, Jan. 1888. 

• Phil. Mag., Feb. 1888. 



ON MOLECnLAR PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 157 

at a lower temperature tLan it otherwise wonld, until at last a sort of 
explosive action occurs, and the change rapidly runs throughout the 
whole mass, analogous to what takes place in supersaturated solutions. 

This is what we may expect to occur in the magnetic metals which 
exhibit the phenomena of hysteresis when under stress.' The recent 
paper of Professor Ewing's on the Molecular Theory of Induced Magne- 
tism,'- to which we have already referred, throws remarkable light on the 
various phenomena we have been studying. By means of his beautiful 
experimental model, Professor Ewing has shown that the intermolecular 
magnetic forces alone are sufficient to account for the known facts of 
magnetisation, and that magnetic hysteresis is not due to anything in the 
nature of frictional resistance to the rotation of the molecular magnets, 
but simply to the molecular instability which results from these inter- 
molecular magnetic actions. And, further, that the same cause explains 
why there is ' in magnetic metals hysteresis in physical quality generally 
with respect to stress, apart from the existence of magnetisation.' We 
shall probably have occasion in our next report to deal more fully with 
Ewing's exjjlanation, and here can only congratulate the author on the 
value and beauty of his suggestive expeinments. 

Connected with this part of the inquiry, we may refer to the inter- 
esting results Hopkinson has obtained with an alloy of iron and nickel. 
This alloy Hopkinson finds to have two stable conditions, one being 
magnetic and the other non-magnetic ; a high temperature destroys the 
magnetic state, which can only be resumed by lowering the temperature 
considerably below the freezing-point; the remarkable fact, now expli- 
cable by Ewing's experiments, being that this iron-nickel alloy may be 
either magnetic or non-magnetic at the ordinary temperature, its23revious 
history determining the state in which it remains.^ 

Here we must leave the subject at present ; we are well aware that 
many matters of interest have necessarily been omitted, and that we have 
inadequately dealt with those that have come under consideration. So 
many issues of importance, both to the chemist and metallurgist, as well 
as the physicist, have been opened up by this inquiry that we trust the 
Committee, which will be enlarged, may next year present a fuller report. 



APPENDIX. 

A proof of the foregoing report having been forwarded by us to Mons. 
Osmond he has sent us the accompanying notes, which we have thought 
desirable to add to the report : — 

Page 145. — II ne parait pas possible que la recalescence fasse remonter 
la temperature au-dessus de a,, 12.3, c'est-a-dire an-dessus dn point 
reciproque pendant le chauffage ; car, aussitot qu'on atteint ce point 
reciproque, il se produit une absorption de chaleur qui doit limiter la 

' In a paper by one of us (Newall), we pointed out some time ago that the pheno- 
mena observed in recalescence ' were really signs of something of the nature of what 
Professor Ewing calls hysteresis.' 

= Phil Mar/., Sept. 1890. 

' The electric resistance of this alloy at different temperatures is shown in the 
top curve of Fig. 2. When heated in a dry atmosphere of liydrogen the resistance 
regularly increases ; when heated in an undried atmosphere a singular difference is 
observed during cooling as shown in the ' modified ' curve. 



158 EEPORT — 1890, 

recalescence. Autrement, on aurait une sorte de mouvement pevpetuel. 
Si le retour a I'etat magnetique est plus lent dans I'acier que dans le fer, 
c'est parceque la transformation moleculaire du fer ne se produit qu'au 
fur et a mesure de la combinaison du carbone, au moins dans un acier 
tres dur. 

p. 145. — Dans les experiences de Ledeboer, le couple etait place a 
I'exterieur du barreau et separe de celui-ci par une lame de mica. Comme 
le refroidissement etait rapide, je pense que le chiffre trouve par Ledeboer 
(750°-770°) pour le fer est un peu bas. Hopkinson, Le Chatelier et moi 
sommes bien d'accord pour 850° environ. D'ailleurs, la vitesse du re- 
froidissement pent faire varier la position du point critique de plus de 
100°, comme je I'ai trouve dans des experiences ineditcs. 

P. 146 {en has). — La disparition de certains effets apres un petit 
nombre de recbauffagjes me parait un phenomene curieux etqui demande 
a etre etudie completement. II s'agit peut-etre de la destruction de 
Taction d'un ecrouissage anterieur ? 

p. 14,7. — J'ai fait des experiences pour determiner le role de la ten- 
sion dans la position des points critiques. Dans ma pensee, il est liors 
de doute que la traction ou la compression doivent deplacer les points 
critiques, comme cela a ete prouve experimentalement pour I'iodure 
d'argent par Mallard et H. Le Chatelier. Cependant, les resultats de mes 
experiences sont restes douteux et je ne les ai pas publics ; mais, comme 
j'operais par traction et qu'une tige de fer au rouge ne pent supporter 
qu'une charge extremement faible, il n'est pas etonnant que I'effet dii a 
la tension soit reste dans la limite dos erreurs d'experience. J'ai I'intention 
de reprendre ces experiences si je puis le faire dans de meilleuros condi- 
tions. 

p. 149.— Les temperatures de 1,000° et de 550° donnees par Mr. Tom- 
linson ne sont guere d'accord avec I'ensemble des autres observations. 
II y aurait lieu de reprendre ces experiences de fa^on a pouvoir rattacher 
les phenomenes observes par Tomlinson a d'autres phenomenes dont la 
position soit bien connue. Vers 1,000°, ou a une temperature superieure, 
il se produit un maximum d'acceleration dans la transformation du grain 
et il peut en resulter un changement correspondant dans la rigidite. A 
mon avis, ces phenomenes se rattachent au point de fusion de la fonte 
blanche, une fusion locale pouvant alors se prodnire aux points les plus 
carbures. Mais, avant de discuter, il faudrait d'abord etre siir que les 
temperatures donnees par Tomlinson sont bien exactes. Celle de 550° 
surtout ne repond a rien de connu, a moins qu'il ne s'agisse d'acier au 
tnngstene. 

P. 150. — Les effets de contraction et de dilatation anormales observes 
sont dus en partie a I'elevation de temperature pendant le refroidissement 
et au phenomene inverse pendant le chauffage. Ces effets sont done per- 
manents pour I'acier, quelqiae soit la nombre des chauffages successifs, 
pourvu que la perte de carbone ne soit pas trop forte. Dans le fer 
doux, au contraire, cette cause de contraction ou de dilatation est moindre, 
puisque la recalescence proprement dite est faible on nulle. On comprend 
alors que I'effet disparaisse par les chauffages repetes, s'il est dii en partie 
a I'ecrouissage anterieur. {Confer Norris.) Le fer ecroui est moins dense 
que le fer recuit ; il est done naturel que, au point critique pendant le 
chauffage, le fil se raccourcisse la premiere fois qu'on le ch.auife et que 
ce phenomene ne se reproduise plus ulterieurement. Dans I'acier^ il y a 
plusieurs phenomenes superposes. 



ON MOLECULAK PHENOMENA IN MAGNETISED IRON. 159 

P. 152. — J'ai observe tres souvent I'elevation de temperature qui cor- 
respond a la recalescence. Je ne nie pas d'aillenrs rinfluence de la 
grosseur des fila ; mais, en dehors de cela, puisque j'operais toujours avec 
Jes memes tils, il y a tantot elevation de temperature, tantot simple station 
pour le metne metal au gre de causes encore obscures. Je ne crois pas 
qu'il J ait lieu d'attacher beaucoup d'importanee a cette differeuce. 

P. 152. — Dans certaines de mea experiences. I'influence de la tempera- 
ture initiale du refroidissement a pu se confondre avec celle des refroidisse- 
ments snccessifs ; il y aurait lieu de faire separement la part des deux 
influences. Je suis d'accord avec la commission pour dire que, apres deux 
on trois chauffages, gencralement des le second chaffauge, la position des 
points ci-itiques tend a devenir sensiblement fixe. II est possible que j'aie 
attribue a tort a la temperature initiale dn refroidissement I'abaissemenfc 
qui etait dii aux rechanffages successifs ; cependant, Hopkinson sio-nale 
le merae fait. Cest a vci'ifier. 

P. 152, IV. — L'explication est en effet tres satisfaisante et merae 
certaine. H. Le Chatelier a fait une pile sur le meme principe en em- 
ployant I'acier-nickel pour lequei I'ecart est beaucoup plus grand entre 
les points reciproques pendant le chauffage et le refroidissement. 

P. 154, VII. — Voir mes observations a propos de la communication 
de Ball, 'Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute,' annee 1890, p. 102. 

Pp. 154, 155, VIII. — L 'absorption de chaleur signalee par Pionchon 
entre 1,000° et 1,050° n'existe pas dans cette rec^ion, mais bien, selon moi, 
a 860°, temperature qui pent s'elever jusqu'a 900° environ selon la vitesse 
du chauffage et la composition du metal ; la methode de Pionchon presente 
de grandes difiBcultes d'application qui n'existent pas dans la methode du 
refroidissement ; s'il y avait une evolution de chaleur notable entre 1,000° 
efc 1,050"^, mes courbes le montreraient indubitablement. II convient 
toutefois d'observer que I'absorption pendant le chauffage parait etre 
beaucoup plus progressive que le degagenient inverse pendant le refroi- 
dissement : il resulte de la que les limites du phenomene manquent de 
nettete. 

P. 155, VIII. — Je crois quo Hopkinson a estime trop baut la quan- 
tite de chaleur degagee en a^ ^ parcequ'il etait trop pres du point mort 
entre le chauffage et le refroidissement, c'est-a-dire dans une periode ou 
le refroidissement n'avaitpas encore pris son allure reguliere. 

P. 155, X. — Je suis tres heureux de voir mes conclusions sur ce point 
acceptees par la commission. On peut se faire une idee de la quantite de 
chaleur degagee par la combinaison de 1 gr. de cai'bone avec le fer en par- 
tant de mes experiences calorimetriques. (' Theorie cellulaire,' p. 36 et 
suiv.) Ces experiences condniraient a un chiffre tres notablement supe- 
rieur a 3,000 Unites, et qui pourrait atteindre 8,000 Unites au maximum, 
chiffre analogue a celui de la combinaison du carbone avec I'oxygene, Je 
ne puis d'aillenrs donner un chiffre exact, ne possedant qu'uue seule 
equation pour determiner plusieurs inconnues. 

P. 156. — Je compte publier prochainement quelques observations 
nouvelles a I'appui de ma theorie et discuter a ce point de vue I'objection 
de Howe, qui me parait, en realite, etre plutot favorable que contraire a 
mes idees. Si le fer doux trempe reste magnetique, c'est qu'il est theo- 
riquement et pratiquement impossible de maintenir la totalite du fer a 
I'etat 13 pendant le refroidissement brusque. Mais il serait facile de con- 
stater, sur le fer le plus doux, que la trempe dimiiiue le magnetisme total 
a saturation et augmente la force coercitive. C'est la tout ce que Ton 



160 



EEroRT — 1890. 



peut obtenir, mais ce sera suffisaut. SI rapide que soit le refroidissement, 
le far reste dans la region oil la transformation moleculaire est possible 
pendant iin temps qui n'est jamais nul. 

P. 156 (en has). — Ces considerations et celles de Mr. Tomlinson sont 
analogues a celles que j'ai rapidement indiqaees de mon coteet me parais- 
sent jnstes. 



Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, 
Mr. K. Etheridge, Professor John Perry, Dr. Henry Wood- 
ward, Professor Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. {Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 

In consequence of the Secretary's absence from Japan during the greater 
portion of the past year, the opportunities for original investigation have 
uot been so great as in previous years. 

The Geat-Milnb Seismogkaph. 

The first of the Gray-Milne seismographs constructed in 1883, partly 
•at the expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the 
•standard instrument. The earthquakes which it has recorded since 
March 4 of last year are given in the following list. 



Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at the Meteorological Ohnervatory, Toldo, hetiveen 
March 18, 1889, and, Apnl 27, 1890, hy the Gray-Milne Seismograph. 



No. 



Montli 



Date 



Time 



Duration 



Directiou 



Period in 
seconds 



Double 

Amplitude 

in mm. 



905 
906 
907 
908 

909 

910 
911 

91-2 
913 

914 

915 
91G 

917 
918 
919 
920 

921 
922 



III. 


18 


,^ 


21 


J, 


26 


)) 


28 


)» 


>» 




31 






IV. 


3 


)1 


6 


" 


S 
U 
17 


1) 


18 




J' 
)l 



1889. 



n. M. s. 


M. S. 




6 41 12 A.M. 


— 


N.-S. 


6 9 33 r.Iit. 


— 


— 


2 41 48 r.M. 


— 


— 


1 20 40 A.M. 


1 30 


E.S.E.-W.N.W 




vertical 


motion 


10 22 55 A.M. 


1 15 


S.E.-N.W. 




vertical 


motion 


9 18 23 A.M. 


20 


E.-W. 


6 42 15 A.M. 


4 


S.S.E.-N.W. 




vertical 


motion 


8 13 3 A.M. 


— 


— 


5 59 42 r.M. 


2 


S.W.-N.E. 




vertical 


motion 


4 27 21 r.M. 


1 30 


S.E.-K.W. 




vertical 


motion 


4 40 51 P.M. 


— 


— 


7 40 13 A.M. 


50 


S.W.-N.E. 




vertical 


motion 


48 P.M. 


— 


— 


fi 22 54 A.M. 


— 


— 


9 41 43 P.M. 


— 


— 


2 7 42 P.M. 


— 


E.S.E.-W.N.W 




vertical 


motion 


2 54 11 P.M. 


— 


— 


3 39 8 P.M. 


— 


S.E.-N.W. 


4 1 P.M. 


— 


— 



0-6 
0-5 
0-5 
0-4 
0-2 
2-5 
0-6 

0-7 

0^7 
0-3 

0-5 



very 



very 



1-0 
0-7 



very 

very 
very 
very 
very 



09 



very 



slight 
1 
slight 



4-1 
0-S 
0-5 
0-1 
0-2 
3-8 
1-2 



1-2 



slight 



slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 



1-5 
0-2 



0-3 



0-8 
0-2 



slight 



very si'ght 



0-3 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 161 



No. 


Month 


Date 


Time 


Duration 


Direction 


Period in 
seconds 


Double 

Amplitude 

in mm. 


924 


IV. 


1!) 


18 46 A.M. 


__ 


_ 


very slight 


925 


»> 


„ 


2 29 19 .\.\u 


— 


— 


very slight 


92« 


ty 


29 


3 27 I'.M. 


50 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-6 0-2 


927 


J) 


11 


5 50 39 I'.ll. 


1 30 


E.-W. 


0-fi 0-2 


928 


)> 




10 53 55 I'.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


929 


tJ 


20 


4 50 33 I'.M. 


— 


— 


veryjslight 


930 


» 


28 


3 7 43 A.M. 


30 
vertical 


E.-W. 
.motion 


sli ght 
tli ght 


931 


»» 


29 


1 56 28 A.M. 


20 
vertica 


1 E.-W. 
motion 


sli gilt 
very slight 


932 


V. 


6 


11 41 41 P.M. 


1 1 S.S.\V.-N.N.E. 
vertical motion 


0-5 0-4 
very sliglit 


933 


n 


8 


6 5 34 A.M. 


30 1 S.-N. 


sli ght 










vertical 


motion 


sli gilt 


934 


„ 


t» 


24 7 I'.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


935 


») 


12 


10 4'2 11 A.M. 


2 


S.S.E.-X.N.W. 


2-0 0-6 


936 


fi 


17 


6 39 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


937 


»i 


„ 


8 34 25 A.M. 


— 


— 


verylslight 


938 


11 


„ 


9 20 35 A.M. 


— 


— 


very 


slight 


939 


i> 


»» 


9 39 37 A.M. 


— 


— 


very 


slight 


940 


It 




1 46 32 P.M. 


30 


— 


sli 


ght 


941 


») 


20 


23 30 I'..M. 


— 


— 


very 


slight 


942 


I* 


27 


6 22 56 P.M. 


12 


E.-W. 


very 


slight 


943 


II 


28 


5 26 22 A.M. 


15 


E.-W. 


sli 


ght 


944 




30 


10 27 22 A.M. 


2 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-8 


0-4 


915 


v'i. 


1 


6 15 21 A.M. 


25 


E.-W. 


0-5 


0-2 


946 


}* 


3 


1 51 30 P.M. 


— 





sli 


ght 


947 


}) 


14 


26 41 P.M. 








tli 


ght 


948 




15 


10 1(1 2 A.M. 


50 


— 


sh 


ght 


949 


»» 


16 


2 31 24 P.M. 


30 


S.E.-N.W. 


Bli 


ght 


950 




20 


9 51 10 P.M. 


1 30 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-6 


0-5 


951 


„ 


27 


7 9 17 A.M. 


1 


E.-W. 


2-5 


0-5 


952 


VII. 


2 


6 39 58 A.M. 


40 


E.-W. 


0-5 


0-3 










vertical 


motion 


very slight 


963 


)» 


6 


6 22 31 P.M. 


— 


— 


very.slieht 


954 


)» 


j^ 


8 57 9 P.M. 


— 





very, sli ght 


955 


it 


18 


10 33 18 P.M. 


3-5 


S.-N. 


sli'ght 


956 


»■ 


30 


2 3 40 A.M. 


10 


E.-W. 


Bli 


ght 


957 


VXII. 


2 


10 21 6 A.M. 


1 30 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-5 


1-3 










vertical 


motion 


0-3 


0-4 


958 


„ 


4 


2 36 12 P.M. 


— 


— 


very 


slight 


959 


»> 


5 


7 4 56 A.M. 


4 20 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


11 


1-7 


960 




15 


6 21 P.M. 





— . 


sli 


ght 


961 


)* 


20 


5 20 23 P.M. 


50 


N.-S. 


0'8 


0-3 


962 


»» 


21 


1 7 44 P.M. 


— 


— 


Bli ght 1 


9G3 


iy 


26 


3 27 13 P.M. 


1 


E.-W. 


0'6 


1-4 










vertical 


motion 


0-4 


0-2 


964 


^, 


30 


3 6 22 P.M. 


3 30 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


1-0 


0-4 


965 


IX. 


11 


7 14 3 P.M. 


— 


— 


sli ght 


966 


)» 


15 


2 34 6 A.M. 


— 


__ 


sli, ght 


967 


>» 


16 


6 37 30 A.M. 


1 30 
vertical 


W.S.W.-E.N.E. 
motion 


0-7 1-3 

sli 'ght 


968 


i» 


17 


2 4 28 a.m. 


— 


— 


veryjslight 


969 


j» 


20 


10 27 1 A.M. 





— 


shght 


970 


»» 


22 


1 56 33 A.M. 








verylslight 


971 




30 


7 41 27 A.M. 


— 





very, slight 


972 


X. 


1 


6 7 20 A.M. 


— 


__ 


very slight 


973 


M 


7 


7 41 18 P.M. 








very slight 


974 


ii 


10 


6 47 27 A.M. 


— 





sli ght 


975 


tt 


13 


10 50 24 P.M. 


2 


S.E.-N.W. 


2-0 


2-2 










vertical 


notion 


0-6 


0-4 


976 


>» 


14 


11 8 10 P.M. 


1 


E.-W. 


0-4 


0-2 


977 


i» 


16 


4 10 48 P.M. 


_ 


— 


very slight 


978 


it 


25 


11 16 3 A.M. 


— 


— 


veryjslight 


979 


It 


28 


2 16 52 A.M. 


2 
veitical 


S.E.-N.W. 
motion 


0-9 1-2 

sli 'ght 


930 


XI. 


14 


30 50 P.M. 


— , 


— , 


very slight 


»-l 


1* 


15 


8 48 40 P.M. 


— . 


— 


sli ght 


9«2 


** 


17 


1 57 66 P.M. 


. 





.sli gilt 


983 


»» 


18 


8 31 39 ».M. 


— . 





sli ght 


984 


» 


^, 


1 35 1 P.M. 


— . 


— 


very slight 


985 


}) 


20 


56 34 A.M. 


50 


N.-*. 


0-9 0-2 


986 


» 


21 


2 6 32 A.M. 


30 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-6 0-2 


987 


yy 


»» 


1 50 5 P.M. 


2 30 




sli ght 


988 




25 


2 34 8 A.M. 


16 


N.E.-S.W. 


0-5 \ 0-3 


989 


SII. 


9 


3 14 P.M. 


15 


— 


sli ght 


990 


j» 


11 


6 14 17 A.M. 


— 


— 


very s 


light 1 



1890. 



162 



EEPOKT — 1890. 



Ko. 



991 
992 
99:< 
9D4 



995 

996 

997 

998 

999 

1,000 

1,001 

1,002 

1,003 

1,004 

i,no5 

1,006 
1,007 
1.008 
1,009 
1,010 
1,011 
1.012 
1,013 

1,014 
1,015 

1,016 
1,017 
1,018 
1,019 
1,020 
1,021 
1,022 
1,023 
1,024 
1,025 



Mouth 



XII. 



Date 



26 
28 
29 
31 



I. 


7 




12 




29 


^, 


30 


II. 


13 


»1 


18 


»J 


21 




24 


III. 


7 


>) 


11 


JI 


18 


^^ 


26 




28 


IV. 


5 


„ 


11 

16 


9> 


17 


)» 


») 


)) 


)» 


S5 
3) 


18 


»» 


») 




19 




27 



Time 



8 14 11 r.M. 
lu 17 68 r.M. 
11 10 19 a.m. 

1 6 13 P.M. 



7 47 

3 43 

4 15 
11 28 

8 35 

9 48 

5 31 
9 50 
2 44 
47 
4 21 



37 A.M. 

25 P..M. 
33 A.M. 

3 r.M. 
31a.m. 
16 r.ji. 

10 A.M. 

6 A.M. 
13 A.M. 

2 A.M. 
42 A.M. 

2 A.M. 
49 P.M. 

4 P.M. 
55 A.M. 
37 P.M. 

P.M. 

2 A.M. 

47 P.M. 



11 40 3 P.M. 

4 56 45 A.M. 

5 11 3 A.M. 

6 42 36 A.M. 
3 31 38 P.M. 

10 25 15 P.M. 

6 38 37 P.M. 

7 15 57 P.M. 

11 3 P.M. 
9 45 52 A.M. 
1 7 37 P.M. 

8 36 48 P.M. 



Duration 



1 5 

5 20 



Direction 



vertical motion 



E.-W. 
E.S.E.-W.N.W. 



Period In 
seconds 



1890. 

40 
5 

57 

30 



40 
30 
20 

30 

1 
20 



1 5 

7 
vertical 

8 
vertical 

6 30 

3 30 



S.-X. 

S.E.-N.W. 

E.-W. 

E.-\X. 



E.-W. 

S.E.-N.W. 

E.-W. 

E.S.E.-W.N.W. 



E.-W. 

S.E.-N.W. 
motion 

S.E.-N.W. 
motion 

S.E.-N.W. 

S.E.-N.W. 



Double 

Amplitude 

in mm. 



very sliglit 
0-3 I O-o 

sli ght 

2-8 i 2-1 

sli ght 



3-0 
0-7 
0-2 



sli ght 



very 



slight 



2-0 
t 
0-3 



0-8 
0'4 

0-2 



0-9 
2-9 
0-6 

3-8 



3i 
2-5 



very slight 

sli ght 
sUjght 
sii'ght 



0-2 



slight 

sli gilt 
sii'ght 
sll|glit 
sii'ght 



0-2 
0-2 



0-4 



sli ght 

slight 
sli gilt 

sli ght 

slight 
sli ght 
sliight 
slijght 
slight 
slight 



0-4 

2-2-4 

0-2 

7-8 



3-3 

1-2 



In the preceding list the most remarkable earthquakes which I had 
the opportunity of observing were the series commencing on April 16, 1 800, 
at 9h. 34m. 47s. p.m. This disturbance was felt along the eastern coast 
of Japan from lat. o8°]Sr to the bay of Owari in the south— a distance of 
about 300 miles. It estended inland across the backbone of the country 
as far as Nagano. The land area shaken was 4,743 square ri (1 sq. 
ri = 5'9 sq. miles). The origin appears to have been to the west of 
Miyakijima, where about 70 shocks were felt and buildings damaged, 
about 100 miles S.S.W. from Tokio in the Pacific Ocean. The period of 
the large waves was nearly 3 seconds and the duration 7 minutes. After 
sensible motion had ceased, which lasted from 2 to 3 minutes, I was 
standing watching one of my seismographs, which every few seconds gave 
fitful movements, some of which were large enough to swing tlie pointers 
off the recording surface. These movements were far too slow to sup- 
pose them to be in any way connected with the inertia of the heavy 
masses constituting the bobs of the horizontal pendulums. In my opinion 
the movements were not due to sudden horizontal impulses, but to gentle 
and irregular tiltings of the instrument. It was in fact as if we were on 
a huge raft, beneath whicli waves of a very long period were passing. 
No movement could be felt. 

The earthquake at 4h. 56m. 45s. a.m. next morning lasted eight minutes, 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 163 

and had a period of nearly 4 seconds. It shook 3,533 square ri, but only- 
extended to lat. 37°N. 

The one at Gh. 42m. 36s. a.m., which lasted Gh minutes, and had a 
period of 3-4 seconds, extended to lat. 3f)°N., and "shook 2,23G square ri. 
All these disturbances extended southwards to Owari. 

The Kumamoto Earthqualce, 

Daring my absence in Europe, on July 28, 1889, at llh. 40m. p.m., 
the whole of Kiushiu, a portion of Shikoku, and the main island were 
disturbed by an earthquake of unusual severity. The land area shaken 
was G,520 squ.are ri, the most violent motion being on the western flanks 
of the volcano Mount Aso, which has a well-formed ring crater 7 to 12 
miles in diameter, with a smoking cone in the centre. 

Altogether some 114 shocks were felt, and subterranean roarings were 
heard 87 times. These disturbances occurred between July 28 and 
August 13. The damage may be summed up as follows : — 

Houses ruined . . . 200 
Houses shattered . . 200 
Persons killed ... 20 

At Oita, some 60 miles north of the district of greatest disturbance, a 
seismograph gave the following records : — 



Persons injured . . 7-1 
Bridges destroyed . . ]9 
Bridges broken , .21 



I 



Duration 70 sees. 

Direction S.S.W.-N.N.E. 

Maximum horizontal motion 12-4 mm. 

I'eriod 2-7 sees. 



The movement was gentle. 



&^ 



■ Earthquakes in 1887. 

In my fourth report to the British Association, I gave an account of 
387 earthquakes which had occurred in North Japan between October 
1881, and October 1883. In consequence of this work, the expenses of 
which were partly defrayed by this Association, Mr. Arai Ikunosake, 
director of the ]\Ieteorological Department, established some 600 post- 
card stations throughout the empire with a view of making similar but 
more extended observations. The results of these observations for 1886 
were given in my eighth report, and the following is an epitome of the 
results obtained for 1887. For pui'poses of comparison these latter have 
been combined with the results for 1885 and 1886. 

Frequency of Earthquakes. 

During the years 1885, 1886, and 1887, the numbers of earthquakes 
recorded in Japan were 482, 472, and 483, the numbers representing the 
daily average of shocks per day being 1-32, 1-29, and 1-32. The greatest 
number of shakings in 1887 occurred near Tokio, where 80 distinct 
shocks were recorded, and some 30 or 40 miles to the north of Tokio, in 
Shilachi, where 50 disturbances were noted. 

Distribution of Seismic Energy. 

Speaking generally, the areas which are most frequently shaken are 
the Same in successive years, the eastern side of the country being veiy 

K 2 



164 



EEPOET — 1890. 



mucli more disturbed than the western side. If we take a map of Japan, 
and commence at the north-eastern end of Yezo, and proceed southwards 
along the Pacific Coast, the districts most disturbed are, with but three 
exceptions, the extremities of all the peninsulas jutting out into the ocean 
— a fact which, when we remember that many of these peninsulas repre- 
sent earth-foldings which may be continued, or are being continued, 
beneath the ocean, is of considerable significance. The exceptions 
referred to are the earthquakes of the alluvial plain round, and to the 
north of Tokio — where at least 80 shocks were recorded — the earthquakes 
on the alluvial plain at the head of the Bay of Ovvari, and the earth- 
quakes round the flat shores of the Bay of Tosa, on the south side of 
Shikoku. 

During 1887 the Shinano earthquakes, which in 1886 were 19 in 
number, decreased to 5, whilst the Echigo disturbances decreased from 
31 to 10. These localities are inland, and are respectively at distances of 
60 miles JST.E. of Tokio and 100 miles north of Tokio. 

As in previous years, in Central Japan, where there are many earth- 
quakes and many volcanoes, the earthquakes, or at least the majority of 
them, did not come from the volcanoes. In the Kii peninsula, where 
there are no volcanoes, there have been many earthquakes ; but there are 
also districts, as for example the southern extremity of Kiushiu, where 
there have been a fair number of earthquakes, where it is possible that 
such disturbances may be directly connected with the proximity of vol- 
canoes. On the whole, however, there is no reason to consider that the 
majority of earthquakes are in any way connected with volcanoes. The 
approximate origin of shocks which have been recorded in 1886 and 
1887 is given in the following table, from which we see, at least for 1887, 
that the greater number of earthquakes, especially those of any extent, 
have chiefly originated along the coast or beneath the sea. 

Tahle of distribution of earthquake origins relative to sea and land. 





Total 


Large 


Moderate 


Small 


Earthquakes which occurred be- 
neath the sea or along the coast. 


1886 
1887 


228 
302 


15 
36 


50 
76 


163 
190 


Earthquakes which occuiTecT in- 
land 


1886 
1887 


244 
181 


11 
14 


70 
34 


103 
133 


Total number ... 


1886 

1887 


472 

483 


26 
50 


120 
110 


326 
323 


Le?sV-VM-188r . . . 


+ 


-hll 


-t-24 


-10 


-3 



Areas Shaken by Eaethquakes. 

Probably the best method we have at our command for measuring 
the seismic activity of any region, rather than considering it proportional 
to the number of disturbances which occur, is to measure it by the area 
of land which has been shaken. As has been pointed out in the Report 
for 1888, this method of measuring intensity is only approximate, but 
still it is very much better than methods used by previous investigatore. 
The unit is one square ri or 5'95 square miles. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 165 



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r-i -H 


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f-i CO 


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arf as for 

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1885, 188C 


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1G6 



kepout — 1890. 



Table of the Eartliqualies for each month of the years 188">, 1886, 1887. Arranged 
according to the area of shaken districts. (1 ar/. ri = 5-95 sq. vtiles.) 



Square Ri 


Tear 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar 

1 


1 
Apl.' 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
2 


May 

1 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
1 


Jne.l 


Jiy. 


1 
Aug 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov 


Dec. 


Total 


Avrge 


Above 7,000 . . - 
6,000 to 7,000 . . ■ 
5,000 to G,000 . 
4,000 to 5,000 . . . 
3,000 to 4,000 . 
2,000 to 3,000 . . ■ 
1,000 to 2,000 . . ■ 


1885 
18S6 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1S8S 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
I- 85 
1886 
1887 


1 

1 

1 
3 

2 


1 

1 

2 

1 
1 
4 


1 

2 

1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

2 


1 

1 
1 
1 

2 


1 
1 

3 

1 

3 
3 


1 

1 
1 
4 


1 

1 
4 


2 

1 

1 

1 
2 


1 

2 
] 
2 

1 
4 
C 
3 

13 
5 
7 
9 
9 

23 


•08 

•16 
•08 
•16 

■ns 

•3 
•5 

•25 

M 
■i 
•6 

•8 

s- 

1^9 


Total 

Average , 

Total 
No.inl887above( + ) 
or belnw ( — ) the 
average for 1885-86 


1885-86 

1885-86 

1887 


1 

7 

+ 7 


5 
2 
5 

+ 3 


1 


4 
2 
3 

+ 1 


6 
3 



-1 


5 

o 

1 
-1 


4 
2 
4 

+ 2 


3 

1 
3 

+2 


8 

4 
4 


7 
3 

-3 


1 
5 

+ 5 


4 
2 
3 

+ 1 


49 
21 
37 

+16 


4-1 
1-7 
3-1 

+ 1^4 


750 to 1,000 . . - 
500 to 700 . . j 
300 to 500 . . J 
200 to 300 . , ■ 
100 to 200 , . . 


1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1885 
1886 
1887 


2 

1 
5 

1 

2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
3 
5 
3 


1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
1 
2 
4 
1 

2 
6 
3 

1 


1 

2 

1 

1 

2 
4 
2 
4 

5 
2 
2 


1 

1 
2 

2 
1 
2 
I 
1 
1 
6 
3 
3 


2 

1 

6 
4 
3 
1 

1 
4 
2 
16 
4 
4 


2 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
4 
3 
4 
2 
2 
7 
4 
2 


1 

1 

1 
2 
1 
2 

2 
1 
4 
1 
2 


1 
2 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
2 
5 


2 

2 
1 
2 
1 

3 

1 
1 
2 
4 
4 
2 


1 
1 
2 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 

3 
2 


3 

1 

1 

9 

2 
5 
1 
1 


2 
2 

4 
2 
4 
1 
2 
2 
2 
4 
5 
4 
2 


12 
12 
9 
17 
13 
18 
24 
20 
25 
27 
20 
21 
63 
39 
24 


!• 
!• 

•8 
1^4 
1-1 
1-5 
2- 

rr 

2^1 
2^2 
1^7 
1^7 
5-2 
3^2 
2" 


Total 

Average . 

Total 
No.inl887above( + ) ) 
or below (— ) the \ 
averagefor 1885-86 I 


1885-86 

1885-86 

1887 


22 

11 

8 

-3 


20 
10 
10 


19 
9 
7 

-2 


18 
9 
6 

-3 


34 
17 
14 

-3 


26 

13 

9 

-i 

27 
18 
28 


11 
5 
7 

+ 2 

23 

30 
27 


21 

10 
4 

-6 


15 

7 
10 

+ 3 


18 
9 
6 

-3 


17 
8 
6 

-2 


26 
13 
10 

-3 


247 

121 

97 

-24 


.20^5 

10-1 

8-1 

-2- 


Below 100 . . ■ 


1885 
1886 
1887 


19 
28 
26 


27 
31 
43 


27 
23 


26 

27 
20 


28 
41 

44 


19 
33 

28 


33 
30 
29 


24 

25 
14 


32 
19 
24 


24 
28 
43 


309 
349 
349 


25^7 
29-1 
29-1 


Total 

Average . 
No.in]887above( + ) 
or below ( — ) the ■ 
average for 1885-86 


1885-86 
1885-86 


47 
23 

+ 3 


58 
29 

+ 14 


66 
33 

-10 

86 
43 


53 
26 

-C 

75 
37 


69 
34 

+ 10 

109 

54 


45 
22 

+ 6 

76 
38 
38 


53 
26 

+ 1 

68 
34 

38 


52 
26 

+ 2 
7G 


63 
31 

-2 
86 


49 
24 

-10 

74 


61 
25 

-1 

69 


52 
26 

+ 17 
82 


658 
325 

+ 24 


54^8 
27^1 

+ 2^ 


Total No. . . 1885-86 


70 
35 


83 

41 


954 79-5 


Average No. 


1885-86 


38 
35 


43 

43 


37 


34 


41 


475 


39^6 


Total No. . 


1887 


41 


58 


30 


29 


60 


20 


35 


56 


483 


40-2 


No.inl887above( + )] 
or below ( — ) tlie '■ 
average tor 1885-86 ) 


— 


+ 6 


+ 17 


-13 


-8 


+ 6 


— 


+ 4 


-3 


— 


-17 


+ 1 


+ 16 


+ 8 


10-7 



ON THE EAKTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 167 



From the above tables -we learn that in 1885, 1880, and 1887, land 
areas -were shaken -which were respectively 5-4, 3-8, and 5-5 times the 
area of the "whole empire. 

Distrihution of EarthquaJces in Time. 

The following table gives the number of earthquakes for 1885, 1886, 
1SS7, arranged according to months : — 





Jan. 


Feb. Mar. 


Apr. May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total 


Aver. 


1885 


32 


44 


37 


37 


51 


46 


32 


30 


45 


41 


47 


40 


482 


40-2 


1886 


38 


39 


49 


38 


58 


30 


36 


46 


41 


33 


22 


42 


472 


39-3 


1887 


41 


58 


30 


29 


50 


38 


38 


35 


43 


20 


35 


56 


483 


40-2 


Average ^ 






























1885,1886, 


37-0 


47-0 


38-7 


34-7 


56-3 


38-0 


35-3 


37-0 


43-0 


31-3 


.34-7 


46-0 


479-0 


39-92 


1887 






























Average 

1885, 1886' 


35 


41 


43 


37 


54 


38 


34 


38 


43 


37 


34 


41 


475 


39-6 


Xo. of Earth- \ 






























([Uiikcs in 






























1887 above 






























( + ) or be- 1 
lo\v( -)tlie 


+ 6 


-t-17 


-13 


-8 +6 


— 


+ 4 


-3 


— 


-17 


+ 1 


+ 15 


+ 8 


+ 0-7 


avci-iiye for 




























1885, 1886 / 



























The number of earthquakes for 1885, 1886, 1887, arranged according 
to the four seasons, is as follows : — 





Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 


Winter 


Total 


Average 


1885 
1886 
1887 


125 
145 
119 


108 
112 
111 


133 
96 
98 


116 
119 
165 


482 
472 
483 


120-5 

118- 

120-7 


Average 1885, 1886, 1887 
„ 1885, 1886 


129-7 
135 


110-3 
110 


109 
114 


130 
117 


479 
476 


119-75 
11-9 


No. Earthquakes in 1887") 
above ( + ) or below [ 
( — ) the average for ( 
1885, 1886 J 


-16 


+ 1 


-16 


+ .38 


+ 7 


+ 17 



The next table gives the number of earthquakes in 1885, 1886, 1887, 
arranged according to two seasons, warm and cold :- 



— 


Warm 


Cold 


Total 


Average 


1885 
1886 

1887 


241 
249 
243 


241 
223 
240 


482 
472 
483 


241 
236 
241-5 


Average 1885, 1886, 1887 
,, 1885, 1886 


244-3 
245 


234-7 
232 


479 

477 


2.39-5 
238-5 


No. Earthquakes in 1887 ] 
above ( + ) or belo-w 
( — ) the average for ( 
1885, 1886 J 


-2 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 3 



168 



REPORT — 1890. 



The distribution of earthquakes of 1885, 1886, 1887, arranged 
according to the hours of the day at which they occurred, is as follows : — 



— 


c 

■-5 






*»-. 

cu 

-^ 




a 
s 


1-5 


< 




O 


o 




■s 


— 


A.M. 


























12-1 


3 


8 


2 


4 


5 


8 


4 


3 


— 


2 


6 


5 


50 




1-2 


7 


10 


3 


2 


2 


7 


6 


1 


6 


6 


2 


6 


58 


\ 


2-3 


8 


5 


7 


6 


10 


5 


6 


13 


11 


1 


4 


6 


82 




3-4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


12 


1 


5 


7 


6 


4 


5 


5 


65 




4-5 


3 


7 


— 


3 


12 


4 


3 


3 


6 


1 


1 


2 


45 




5-6 


4 


4 


8 


2 


16 


2 


6 


5 


3 


7 


4 


1 


62 


-697 


6-7 


4 


5 


5 


3 


6 


2 


5 


3 


10 


4 


2 


8 


57 


7-8 


4 


2 


4 


6 


7 


5 


3 


3 


1 


6 


6 


4 


51 




8-9 


5 


5 


5 


6 


8 


5 


6 


4 


10 


1 


3 


5 


63 




9-10 


5 


6 


6 


5 


6 


10 


2 


4 


7 


6 


2 


3 


62 




10-11 


10 


1 


3 


7 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


6 


41 




11-13 


4 


5 


4 


5 


8 


7 


5 


2 


4 


3 


4 


10 


61 


/ 


P.M. 






























12-1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


5 


3 


4 


3 


7 


3 


8 


6 


48 




1-2 


2 


10 


5 


6 


13 


7 


4 


7 


5 


6 


5 


5 


75 


\ 


2-3 


7 


2 


9 


7 


11 


5 


7 


4 


4 


3 


7 


5 


71 




3-4 


2 


7 


1 


7 


6 


1 


7 


6 


7 


2 


6 


3 


55 




4-5 


3 


3 


6 


2 


8 


4 


2 


5 


8 


1 


2 


2 


46 




5-6 


4 


9 


5 


2 


4 


7 


4 





4 


2 


1 


1 


43 


■740 


6-7 


4 


4 


6 


6 


4 


5 


8 


5 


8 


6 


5 


6 


61 


7-8 


6 


7 


3 


4 


2 


4 


5 


4 


2 


5 


3 


5 


50 




8-9 


1 


6 


6 


5 


7 


3 


6 


5 


6 


6 


11 


11 


71 




9-10 


2 


6 


6 


2 


5 


5 


8 


6 


9 


5 


6 


10 


69 




10-11 


10 


11 


12 


6 


6 


6 


1 


6 


— 


6 


5 


13 


81 




11-12 


6 


10 


4 


3 


5 


6 


2 


10 
111 


3 


6 


5 

104 


10 


70 




Monthly- 
totals 


111 


141 


116 


104 


169 


114 


106 


129 


94 


138 


1,437 



Severe Earthquakes. 

The most severe earthquakes which occurred in 1887 were as follows : 
July 22 in Echigo ; January 15 near Tokio and Yokohama ; September 
5 in Slumosa ; and February 2 in Owari. 

The earthquake of January 15, which destroyed a number of houses 
and opened fissures in the ground, was briefly described in the Report 
for 1887. The diagram of the motion of this earthquake, together with 
diagrams of other large disturbances taken at the Imperial Meteorological 
Observatory in Tokio, are forwarded for inspection. 

The earthquake of July 22 was at least as severe as that of January 
15, cracking walls and opening many fissures in the ground. 

Earthquakes in connection with Magnetic and Electric Phenomena. 

1. Magnetic Phenomena. 

Amongst seismological records we find many accounts where magnets 
and magnetometers have been affected at or about the time of earth- 
quakes. On November 14, 1799, after the earthquake of Cumana, Hum- 
boldt observed a diminution in dip of 48 minutes, and also a change in 
declination. In 1822 Arago and Biot simultaneously observed move- 
ments in magnetometers at Paris at the time of slight shocks in Switzer- 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC rnENOJIENA OF JAPAN. 169 

land and South France. Professor M. S. di Rossi gives several interesting 
examples where magnets have dropped armatures or iron filings, or there 
have been sudden changes in magnetic elements at the time of earth- 
quakes. Amongst the observers of these phenomena we find Sarti, 
Count Malvasia, Palmieri, Secchi, Bertelli, Mascart, Lament, and others. 
In Tokio I have often observed disturbances due to mechanical shaking, 
and one of the first seismoscopes I constructed about fourteen years ago 
consisted of a small magnetic needle held in a position of iinstable 
equilibrium by the attraction of a piece of iron. On being shaken the 
needle flew to the iron, where it remained as evidence of a disturbance 
in every probability mechanical. The observations, however, of the 
greatest interest are those where the instruments which have been 
disturbed have been situated well outside any area of perceptible shaking, 
as, for instance, when magnetographs at Perpignan, Paris, Lyons, Kew, 
and other observatories were simultaneously disturbed at the time of the 
Riviera Earthquake on February 26, 1887 (see ' Nature,' March 3, 1887). 

The magnetic disturbance following the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 
progressed westwards and northwards at rates of from 761 to 939 miles 
per hour, which is apparently a rate very quick even for a dust cloud to 
travel. 

At the Magnetical Observatory in Tokio, where magnetic elements 
have been recorded photographically for the last few years there do 
not appear to have been any disturbances at or about the time of earth- 
quakes excepting those which may be accounted for as being due to 
mechanically produced movements. 

The irregularities which exist are most noticeable in the lines indi- 
cating changes in declination. They are occasionally visible in the 
record for horizontal force, but hardly ever in the record for dip. 

All the records respecting magnetic disturbances at or about the time 
of earthquakes which I have been able to collect are being published in 
vol. XV. of the * Trans. Seis. Soc. of Japan.' 

2. Electric Phenomena. 

At or about the time of earthquakes, electrical phenomena appear to 
be more frequent and more pronounced than magnetic phenomena, and 
the records of such phenomena are found in the description of many 
large earthquakes. The earthquakes in Catania 1693, at Lisbon 1755, 
in New England 1727, at Manchester 1777, in Ohio 1812, were all 
accompanied by electrical phenomena. Humboldt observed that during 
the earthquake of Cumaua the electroscope quickly showed the presence 
of electricity in the atmosphere. 

Telegraphic land lines and submarine cables have often been disturbed 
by earth-currents at the time of earthquakes. In my second report to 
this Association, in 1881, I gave an account of earth-currents produced 
by the shaking of the gi'ound at the time of an explosion of dynamite, 
and suggested that their origin might be due to the shaking, creating 
difierencea in contact between the earth and an earth plate resulting 
in varying degrees of chemical action. 

In Italy Professor Demenico Ragona observed that at the time of an 
earthquake there was a current passing through a galvanometer to a 
lightning rod-like conductor in the atmosphere. This observation led 
me to examine the photographic records of atmospheric electricity taken 



170 EEPOET— 1890. 

at the Meteorological Observatory in Tokio. In the instrument which is 
there used, which is Mascart's, the needle of the electrometer, which has 
a bifilar suspension, is kept at the potential of the atmosphere by connec- 
tion with a water dropper, while the quadrants of the electrometer are 
kept at a constant potential by connection with 50 water Daniells. 
Through the kindness of the director of the observatory I was enabled to 
examine records extending over a period of twelve months. These 
records have been compared not only with the records of earthquakes 
observed in Tokio, of which there were 99, but also with the records of 
earthquakes felt in other parts of the empire, of which there were between 
four and five hundred. The results of these comparisons are as follows : 

1. In electrical disturbances which apparently accompany certain 

earthquakes the air almost invariably becomes electro-nega- 
tive. The change in potential is sudden, sometimes rising as 
much as 30 volts. It often takes several hours before the 
electrometer needle returns to its original position. 

2. At the time of earthquakes which have not reached Tokio, 

electrical disturbances have not been recorded. 

3. When Tokio has been at the S.W. extremity of a disturbance 

shaking an elliptically formed area, the centre of which dis- 
turbance may have been 15 or 20 miles N.B. from Tokio, 
there have been three cases of electrical disturbance, and 
twelve cases without such disturbances. 

4. When the centre of a disturbance has been 50 or 60 miles N.W. 

of Tokio, there have been two cases of electrical disturbance, 
and eleven cases without such disturbances. 

5. When an earthquake has shaken a narrow band extending 

from Tokio 30 miles northwards, there have been three cases 
of electrical disturbance, and no case of no disturbance. 

6. When the centre of a disturbance has been 20 to 30 miles E. of 

Tokio, there has been one case of electrical disturbance, and 
six cases with no disturbances. 

7. When the centre of a disturbance has been from 20 to 100 miles 

west of Tokio, there have been three instances of electrical dis- 
turbance, and three instances when there was no disturbance. 

8. If there is a feeble disturbance only felt in Tokio, such disturb- 

ances have been 13 times accompanied by electrical disturb- 
ances, and 31 times without. 

9. If there is a strong disturbance with Tokio near the centre, and 

shaking an area GO or more miles in diameter, there have been 
ten cases of strong electrical disturbance, and only one case where 
there was no disturbance. Those earthquakes which are the 
most pronounced in relation to electrical phenomena have not 
always been accompanied by vertical motion, and they have 
occurred at different hours. 

Comparison of Tokio and Yokohama Earthquakes. 

In Yokohama, which is situated about 18 miles S.S.W. from Tokio, 
it has always been supposed that earthquakes are more frequent and 
more severe than in Tokio. The only lists of Yokohama earthquakes 
which I have been able to obtain extend from January 22, 1878, to 
December 31, 1881, and from March 8, 1885, to December 31, 1889. 



I 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND YOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 171 

These lists Lave been compiled without the assistance of instruments, 
and therefore are not so complete as they might have been had the 
records been founded on indications given lay seismographs. The latter 
list was made by my friend Mr. J. B. Pereira, of Yokohama. Altogether 
I find for Yokohama notes relating to 285 shocks, and of these 189 were 
felt in Tokio, or, in other words, 33 per cent, of the Yokohama disturb- 
ances do not reach Tokio. Similarly there may be disturbances peculiar 
to Tokio which do not reach Yokohama. 

VELOCixr OF Earthquake Propagation. 

In the seventh report to this Association (1885), as the result of a 
long series of experiments upon disturbances produced by the explosion 
of dynamite, and by other means, ic was stated that velocity of transit 
decreases as a disturbance radiates, that it increases with the intensity of 
the initial disturbances, and that in soft ground the author had recorded 
velocities of from 200 to 630 feet per second, &c. In the same report 
there is a brief account of the simultaneous observation of earthquakes 
at several stations in electrical connection. As one pendulum sent time 
to all these stations, which were 800 or 900 feet apart, on the assumption 
that at a given station, which we will call A, a particular wave, which 
we will call a, could be again recognised at stations B, C, &c., we had 
here the best possible means of determining velocity. 

As a matter of fact, out of 50 sets of diagrams representing 50 diffe- 
rent earthquakes, it was only in five instances that the same wave could 
be identified at several different stations. The result of these identifica- 
tions led to the calculations of velocities of 5,860, 4,270, 5,984, 2,850, 
and 1,644 feet per second. 

These determinations, however, cannot be accepted without reserve, 
because I find that waves may spread out as they pass from station to 
station, their period may alter, a given wave at one station may split up 
into two waves by the time it reaches the next station, &c. 

Thus on December 16, 1884, I found at station A two waves a and h 
separated by an interval of 1"139 seconds, whilst at station B what 
appear to be the same two waves are 1'277 seconds apart. Hence a 
Telocity calculated from the transit of a would be different from the 
velocity of the same earthquake calculated from h. This sort of obser- 
vation is not uncommon : thus on March 20, 1885, I found at A a wave 
a 1'99 seconds, and a wave h 4'11 seconds, from the <!ommencement of 
the time ticks. At J these same waves are respectively 303 and 5"26 
seconds from the first time tick. From this we must conclude that in 
travelling from A to J the wave a took 1'04 seconds, whilst the wave h 
took 1*15 seconds. 

These observations led to the conclusion that satisfactory results 
could only be expected by timing the arrival of disturbances at points on 
an area of considerable extent, and with this end in view, at the request 
of the Seismological Society, I entered into communication with the 
telegraph department of this country to obtain their assistance in observ- 
ing the velocity of earthquake transit. 

Such assistance they have given for two years, and Mr. W. B. Mason 
of Tokio is now publishing a list of the observations which have been 
made. The stations selected are from 20 to 200 miles apart, and the 
clocks from which the observations are made by personal observation are 



172 EEPOET~1890. 

corrected every day by a time signal sent from Tokio. Altbongh the 
hearty thanks of the Society are due to the Telegraph Bureau for the 
manner in which they have rendered assistance, I regret to report that 
although the observations have thrown some light on the distriljution of 
seismic energy in North Japan, records which are of value in determining 
the velocity of earthquake transmission have not yet been obtained. 

One or two of the observations, which have extended over a period of 
two years, suggest that at least sometimes a given earthquake may be 
felt simultaneously over an area of considerable extent. This was the 
case with the disturbance of Augusts, 1889, which was noted at several 
places about 100 miles apart at exactly the same time. 

At present we have reliable observations on the propagation of earth- 
waves varying between 200 and 6,000 meters per second, whilst at other 
times it appears as if a large area received an impulse in all its parts at 
the same moment. 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Grtlls 
Adams (Chairman and Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Sir 
J. H. Lefroy, Professors Gr. H. Darwin, Gt. Chrtstal, and S. J. 
Perry, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, Professor Schuster, Professor Pucker, 
Commander Creak, the Astronomer Koyal, Mr. William Ellis, 
Mr. W. Lant Carpenter, and Mr. Gr. M. Whipple, appointed 
for the purpose of considering the best means of Comparing 
and Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

An attempt has been made during the year to organise and bring into 
form the recommendation of this Committee, made in their report of last 
year, that it would be desirable to publish annually the curves of the 
three magnetic elements for different Magnetic Observatories for certain 
selected days. 

This matter has been under the consideration of the Kew Committee 
of the Royal Society, and a Sub-Committee of that body has been appointed 
to take charge of it, the Sub-Committee consisting of Professor W. Grylls 
Adams, Professor Riicker, Commander Creak, with Mr. Whipple as their 
Secretary (all of whom are members of this Committee). 

It seemed of some importance to decide how many days in each month 
would be required in order to give accurately the mean diurnal range 
without requiring the elaborate measurements and methods in use at 
Greenwich, which would be impracticable in observatories where only a 
small staff is employed. 

With this object it was proposed by Professor Riicker to employ the 
method proposed by Dr. Wild • to reduce the mean diurnal range of 
declination at Kew for two or three years previous to 1888, taking only 
five quiet days in each month. The years selected were 1883, 1886, and 
1887, the first being chosen as being a year of maximum sun-spots. The 
calculations were undertaken by Messrs. Robson and Smith (two of Pro- 
fessor Rilcker's advanced students at the Normal School of Science), and 
their results, brought before the Physical Society,^ show a remai-kably 
close agreement with the corresponding Greenwich results. The greatesb 
discrepancy between any curve in which these differences are plotted 

' See £rit. Assae. Hejjort, 1885, p. 78. " Fkil. Mag., August 1890, p. 140. 



ON MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 173 

down and tbe mean curve deduced from all the six years ■which have been 
investigated is 0'*4. They conclude that ' it would seem possible, know- 
ing one sot of values for any particular year — Greenwich or Kew — to 
determine the otlier set, correct to within four-tenths of a minute.' This 
close agreement strongly supports the views of Dr. Wild, and at the same 
time makes it possible to deal practically with the observations from 
many diHerent observatories, and to obtain trustworthy results. These 
results completely confirmed those of Mr. Whipple, who made a com- 
parison of the methods of Wild and Sabine with that in use at Greenwicli 
for the years 1870-72 (see 'British Association Report' 1886, p. 71), as 
to the nature of the difference between the diurnal variations at Green- 
wich and Kew as given by the two methods of reduction. The Astrono- 
mer Royal has not only undertaken to select the five quiet days of each 
month and communicate them to the other observatories as soon as pos- 
sible after the end of each year, but he has also offered to reduce the 
Greenwich results by Wild's method as well as by that now in use at 
Greenwich. 

The following list of quiet days has been prepared by the Astronomer 
Royal from the Greenwich records as suitable for discussion in the year 

1889 :— 

January 3, 6, 13, 24, 27. 

February 4, 10, 13, 22, 2.5. 

March 3, 10, 19, 21, 24. 

April 5, 11, 16, 17, 19. 

Way 3, 9, 16, 21, 25. 

June 5, 8, 12, 24, 27. 

July 4, 9, 15, 22, 25. 

August 3, 5. 14, 24, 30. 

JSeptember 4, 7, 15, 20, 29. 

October 4,11,16,23,27, 

November 5,1.3,15,19,21. 

December . 4, 10, 18, 19, 25. 

The Committee of the Falmouth Observatory and the Rev. W. Sid- 
greaves of Stonyhurst have expressed their willingness to accept the 
same series of days for discussion, and M. Mascart of Paris and M. Mou- 
reaux of Pare St. Maur will also select and use for discussion the same 
tj-pical days. Dr. Wild has published in the Bulletin of the Imperial 
Academy of Science of St. Petersburg a paper on the normal variation 
and the disturbances of the declination, in which he recommends the 
adoption of his method, and shows that during the last fifteen years there 
have been on an average seventy-two days per annum suitable for dis- 
cussion as undisturbed days. Dr. F. Schmidt of Gotha has discussed the 
daily variation of terrestrial magnetic force for Vienna for every month of 
the years 1879-88, and has represented them as numbers of a periodic series. 

In consequence of the expression of their opinion in their reports of 
last year, ' that the establishment of a Magnetic Observatory at the Cape 
of Good Hope would materially contribute to our knowledge of terrestrial 
magnetism,' this Committee has received a letter from Mr. David Gill, 
the Director of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, offering eveiy 
facility in his power to forward the objects of the Committee. Mr. Gill 
reports that there is ample room for the establishment of the necessary 
buildings, and that he is prepared with hearty good-will to nndertake tbe 
direction, administration, and control of the work, bnt that an additional 
observer will be required to carry out the magnetic work under his direction. 



174 EEPOET— 1890. 

The Committee greatly regret that they have to record the deaths of 
Sir J. H. Lefroy and of Professor S. J. Perry, who have done very valu- 
able work for this Committee, and who have greatly advanced our 
knowledge of the subject of terrestrial magnetism. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown 
(Secreiary),Mr. Milne-Home, Dr. John Murray, Lord McLaren, 
Dr. BucHAN, and the Hon. Ralph Abercromby ( Chairman), ap- 
pointed for the purpjose of co-operating with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in maJcing Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis. 

During the past year the hourly observations, by night as well as by 
day, at the Ben Nevis Observatory, have been made by Mr. Omoud and 
the assistants without interruption ; and the five daily observations at the 
sea-level station at Fort William have been also made by Mr. Livingstone 
with the greatest regularity. 

Again the state of the health of the observers, owing to the circum- 
stance that active exercise in the open air is practically precluded during 
most of the year, rendered it necessary to give them relief during the 
winter and spring months. This relief the directors of the observatory 
were the better able to give through tlie courtesy of the following gentle- 
men, who gave their services as observers for periods varying from four 
to six weeks: — Mr. Alexander Drysdale, M.A., B.Sc, Mr. Charles E. 
Gray, Mr. James McDonald, M.A., Mr. R. C. Mossman, and Mr. Robert 
Tnrnbull, B.Sc. During the time Messrs. Omond and Rankin were in 
Edinburgh they gave much valuable help in the discussion of the Ben 
Nevis observations, and otherwise assisted in the work of the office of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society. 

Mr. Omond has completed an important investigation of the tempera- 
ture of Ben Nevis. From the six years' observations he has calculated 
the mean temperature of each day of the year for the observatory at the 
top and for the low-level station at the foot of the mountain, and made a 
comparison of the two series of temperatures. The paper is in type, and 
will appear in the forthcoming ' Journal of the Scottish Meteorological 
Society.' He has also re-examined the estimations of wnid force and their 
equivalents in miles per hour from all the observations now available for 
the purpose, and the results are ready for publication in the same journal. 

Mr. Rankin has carried on, as the time at his disposal from his 
regular duties at the observatory permits, the work of photographing 
clouds and other meteorological phenomena. 

In the autumn of last year a grant of oOZ. was obtained from the 
Government Research Fund for carrying on an investigation into the 
numbers of dust particles in the atmosphere, by means of two sets of 
apparatus invented by Mr. Aitken, one being permanently fixed in the 
tower of the observatory, the other being a portable form of the instru- 
ment. Mr. Aitken superintended the construction of both instruments, 
and the placing of them with the necessary precautions at the top of the 
mountain. Reference will be made further on to the remarkable results 
obtained by the observations Mr. Rankin has already made. 

Messrs. Omond and Rankin are still engaged with the laboriona 



ON METEOKOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



175 



inqairy into the directions of the winds observed at the top, with the 
winds observed at low-level stations at the same hoars, and their relations 
to the weather of North-Western Europe. The comparative frequency 
with which the winds at the observatory blow, not with, but against, the 
isobarics of low-level stations, and indicate a force widely diflerent from 
the barometric gradients of the weather maps of the Meteorological 
Office, are striking elements in the meteorology of Ben Nevis. 

The ' Report for the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ' 
on the Ben Nevis and Fort William observations is in type, and will 
appear shortly. An early copy of the volume is submitted with this 
report to the British Association. 

For the year 1889 the following were the monthly mean pressures and 
temperatures, hours of sunshine, amounts of rainfall, and number of fair 
days at the observatory; the mean pressures at Fort William beino- 
reduced to 32° and sea-level, those at the Observatory to 32° only : — 













Table 


1. 
















Jan. Feb. 


March 


April 


May June 


July 1 Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 




Mean Pressure in. Indies. 






Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Difference . 


25-390 

30-014 
4-624 


2.3-202 

29-857 
4-655 


25-2S0 25-153 25-301 25-545 

29-909 29-745 29-785 30-050 
4-629 4-592 4-484 4-505 


25-406 

29-903 
4-497 


25-267 25-465 25-134 

29-746 29-994 29-668 
4-479 4-529 4-534 


25-463 

30-066 
4-603 


25-339 25-329 

29-953 29-891 
4-614 4-562 




Mea7i Temjjeratiires. 






Ben Nevis Ob- 

servaton* 
Fort William 
Difference 


o 
27-5 

41-0 
13-5 


o 
21-4 

37-4 
16-0 


o 
24-4 

41-2 
16-8 




25-9 

44-3 

18-4 


o 
38-1 

55-9 
17-8 


o 
43-1 

57-8 
14-7 


40-8 

57-6 
16-8 


o 
38-7 

5.5-9 
17-2 


o 
37-7 

53-4 
15-7 


30-3 

46-0 
15-7 


o 
30-3 

44-6 
14-3 


26-8 

41-0 
14-3 


32-1 

48-0 
15-9 




Extremes of Temperature. 






W-.ix. Temp. 
Mill. Temp. 
Difference . 


o 
39-2 
lfi-9 
22-3 


SC-3 

6-4 
29-9 


o 
40-7 
11-2 
29-5 


o 
43-7 
15-2 
28-5 


50-7 
27-7 
23-0 


o 
6u-0 
28-0 
32-0 


61-8 
29-1 
32-7 


48-1 54-4 
30-1 21-1 
18-0 33-3 




3H-3 

21-8 
16-5 


o 
44-1 
12-5 
Sl-6 


o 
3K-0 
13-2 
24-8 


o 

61-8 

6-4 

55-4 




liainfall in Indies. 






Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 

Days of uo 
Rain 

Fort William 


17-69 

6 
10-31 


14-86 
2 

8-77 


12-11 
6 
6-25 


3-89 

9 

3-12 


4-34 
10 
2-73 


1-94 
15 
0-84 


4-09 

9 

1-35 


18-32 
2 
7-58 


7-28 
10 
3-88 


6-62 

8 

4-72 


11-48 
3 
4-91 


18-04 
5 
10-90 


120-06 
85 
65-36 




Hours of SunsJdne at Ben Nevis Observatory. 






No. of Hours 1 
Possible Hours 


23 27 27 62 74 213 97 9 4G 44 
231 264 363 426 608 529 528 467 3S1 319 


11 
242 


11 1 634 

210 [4,470 



At Fort William the mean temperature was 0°-8 nnder the average, 
the greatest defect from the means being l°-8 in February, and the 
greatest excess 5°-6 in Llay — indeed, the outstanding feature of the 
meteorology of the year being the all but nnprecedentediy high tempera- 
ture of^j\Iay, a temperatui-e, as regards Scotland, only once exceeded 
since ITG-i, or during the past 126 years. At the top of the Ben the 
excess above the mean was greater, amounting to 7°-7, as happens durino- 
all unusually high summer temperatures when anticyclones prevail. 

The minimum temperature on Ben Nevis was 6°-4, which occurred at 
7 A.M. of February 10. This is absolutely the lowest temperature which 
has been recorded since the opening of the observatory in December 



176 EEPORT— 1890. 

18fi3, The maximum was 61°'8 on July 4. Thus the extreme range 
of temperature for the year was 55°-4. 

The registrations of the sunshine-recorder showed 634 hours of sun= 
shine as against 970 hours of the previous year, the latter year thus 
showing a half more hours. The largest number, 213, was recorded in 
June, and the lowest, 9, in August, being the lowest that has occurred 
hitherto in any summer month. As the highest possible hours for the 
whole is 4,470, sunshine prevailed on the top of the Ben during only one 
hour in seven in 1889. 

The amount of the rainfall during the year was 120' 66 inches, being 
about ten inches less than the average, the least rainfall being 1 '94 inch 
in June, and the greatest 18 04 inches in December, and 17 69 inches in 
January. The number of days on which the precipitation was either nil 
or less than O'Ol inch, was 86, or 15 days fewer than the avei'age ; 
the least being 2 in February and August, and the greatest 15 in June. 
On the other hand, the number of days on which 1 inch of rain or 
more fell was 37, or nearly one day in 10, being a little less frequent 
than in previous years. The highest fall for any day was 2'93 inches on 
August 28 ; and from March 23 to 25 there fell 5'83 inches. No rain 
fell from June 16 to 27 ; on the other hand, from 3 p.m. of December 7 
to 1 A.M. of the 11th, there was only one hour without rain. 

Atmospheric pressure at Fort William was 29'891 inches, or 0*063 
inch above the average pressure. In November it was 0'255 inch above 
the mean, and in October 0"183 inch below it. June was not only the 
month of greatest pressure, but it was also the month of highest mean 
temperature, being about 5 per cent, in excess of its average. This 
conjunction of high temperature with high pressure during the summer 
months is a noteworthy feature in the meteorology of the Ben, these 
occurring during the times when anticy clonic weather prevails over this 
part of Europe. It will also be observed that during the time the tem- 
perature difi'erence between the high and low level stations was only 
14°*7, or about two degrees less than the average of June. In June 
1887, when the anticyclonic systems were more pronounced than in 
1889, the difference fell as low as 12°'9. At these times the air is 
markedly dry as well as warm, pointing for the explanation to the 
descending currents of the anticyclones, and not to ascending currents 
from the superheated lower grounds. It may be remarked here that the 
observations of the wind on the top of the mountain show conclusively 
that the outflowing winds from cyclonic to anticyclonic regions set in 
sooner and at greatly lower levels than had previously been supposed. 

Observations have now been made on Ben Nevis for upwards of six 
years, or since the observatory was opened in the end of 1883, and, if 
the observations by Mr. Wragge be added, for nine years during the 
warmer months from June to October ; and during the same time 
observations have been made near sea-level at Fort William. 

As these form a unique double series of observations in meteorology, 
and as they furnish the observational data necessary in all investigations in 
atmospheric physics into which height in the atmosphere enters, it is 
thought to be useful to embody in this Report, in Table 11., the more 
prominent of the results derived from the observations of the two 
stations. The times from which the data have been deduced are six 
years from January to May, nine years from June to October, and seven 



ON METEOKOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



177 



years for November and December. The times are strictly the same for 
the two stations. The barometric observations at Fort William are 
reduced to sea-level, those for Ben Nevis only to 32°. 

Table IL— Means from 1881 to 1889. 



Jan. Feb. [March] April May I June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. I Dec. Year 



Mean Pressures in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


25-193 


25-24-1 


25-24C 


25-259 25-322 


25-460 


25-356 25-3G3' 25-384 


25-299 


servatory 








1 




! 1 




Fort William 


29-823 


29-S76 


29-873 


29-850 29-8G6 


29-970 


29-841 29-8501 29-887 


29-840 


DifEerencc . 


4-G30 


4-6a2 


4-627 


4-59ll 4-544 


4-510 


4-485. 4-487| 4-502 


4-541 



3/eaH Tempcratm'eit. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 

servatory 
Fort William 
Difference . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Difference . 



I 25-2131 25-201 1 25-29 

29-797 -^9-804 29-8.56 
4-584 4-6031 4-5G1 



30-i 



o 
25-1 


o 
22-8 


23-0 


o 
26-3 


35-1 


38-6 




40-3 




39-7 


o 
37-5 


o 
31-8 


27-8 


c 
24-9 


39-0 
13-9 


38-1 
15-3 


39-6 
16-6 


44-8 

18-5 


48-8 
17-7 


55-1 
16-5 


56-7 
16-4 


56-1 
16-4 


52-7 
15-2 


47-2 
15-4 


42-0 
14-2 


39-1 
14-2 



46-7 
15-9 



Highest Mean Temjyeratures. 



o 
28-8 


O 

27-3 


o 
24-6 


o 
27-4 




38-1 


o 
45-6 


o 
12-3 




42-3 


40-0 


350 




30-4 


28-2 


41-5 
12-7 


41-1 

13-8 


42-1 
17-5 


46-3 
lS-9 


55-8 

17-7 


58-9 
13-3 


58-5 
16-2 


59-0 
16-7 


55-2 

15-2 


■W-l 
15-1 


44-8 
14-4 


43-0 
14-8 



15-5 











Lowest Mean Temperatures. 












o 


o 





o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


C 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


20-0 


20-8 


2u-4 


25-4 


26-8 


35-6 


38-6 


37-1 


34-8 


28-5 


26-2 


2U-2 


b■ervator^■ 


























Fort William 


35-8 


350 


37-1 


43-2 


45-7 


53-3 


54-9 


53-2 


51-1 


42-4 


40-2 


34-5 


Difference . 


15-8 


14-2 


16-7 


17-8 


18-9 


17-7 


163 


161 


16-3 


13-9 


14-0 


14-3 



Mean Hainfall in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Difference . 



14-36 


11-35 


8-84 


5-55 


7-lG 


6-75 


9-76 


11-34 


10-70 


12-06 


14-09 


18-00 


9-27 
5-09 


8-09 
3-26 


4-98 
3-86 


4-02 
1-53 


3-81 
3-35 


3-20 
3-55 


5-51 
4-25 


5-46 
5-SS 


5-41 
5-35 


6-80 
6-26 


8-37 
5-72 


9.82 
8-18 











Greatest Monthly 


liab 


fall. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


17-80 


16-94 


12-82 


9-53 12-87 


12-31 


15-19 


18-32 20-87 


20-24 


20-60 25-29 ( 


servatory 






















Fort William 


12-73 


12-45 


6-25 


4-98 6-39 


G-25 


10-88 


7-58 11-71 


13-77 


13-55 


13-SG 


Difference . 


5-07 


4-49 


6-57 


2-53 1 6-48 


6-06 


4-31 


10-74 9-16 


6-47 


7-05 


11-43 



Leant Monthly Haivfall. 



Ben Nevis Ob- < 

servatorv 
Fort William 
Difference . 



Fair Days 
Maximum 
Minimum 



7-53 1 2-84 



5-63 
1-9G 



1-06 
0-22 



5-90 



3-49 
2-41 



!-89 



3-12 
0-77 



39-; 



18-6 
2-11 



1-94 

0-84 
1-10 



4-091 7-56 



1-.35 

2-74 I 



3-02 

4-54 



6-09 



1-97 

4-12 



6-41 1 8-99 



Fair Bays at Ben Xeris Observatory. 



8 


7 


10 


12 


10 


12 


5 


8 


9 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


18 


13 


20 


16 


1 


2 


3 


7 


4 


7 





2 


2 



4-04 
2-37 



6 

11 

2 



4-91 

4-08 



7 

13 

3 



10-98 

7-09 
3-89 



C, 

10 

3 



Sunshine in Ifours at Ben Xevis Ohserratory. 



in 



Sunshine 
Hours 
Maximum 
Minimum 
I'ussible Hours 



33 


44 


47 


70 


89 


149 


80 


58 


68 


33 


23 


19 


70 


73 


74 


120 


129 


250 


J02 


116 


121 


44 


51 


28 


15 


18 


27 


52 


31 


55 


47 


9 


25 


16 


8 


11 


231 


264 


365 


426 


608 


529 


528 


467 


3bl 


319 


242 


210 



16-0 



130-02 

74-74 
55-28 



6-70 



2-49 



ino 
172 
36 



719 

970 

576 

4470 



The horizontal distance between the two stations being only about 
four miles, the monthly variation in the difTerenco of the atmospheric 
1800. N 



178 



EEPOBT — 1890. 



pressures at the two stations is virtually a temperature effect. As tbe 
temperature falls to the annual minimum in winter, the air contracts, 
and a portion of it consequently falls below the level of the barometer at 
the top, thus reducing the readings there, and increasing the differences 
between the two barometers. The difference then reaches 4'632 inches, 
the maximum for the year. On the other hand, as temperature rises, a 
portion of the atmosphere is raised above the level of the higher baro- 
meter, thus increasing the pressure there, and lessening the difference to 
4*485 inches in July, the minimum of the year. The difference between 
the maximum and minimum is thus 0'147 inch. For these months the 
mean temperatures of the stratum of air between the top and bottom of 
the mountain are respectively 30°'5 and 48°"5. Hence the vertical dis- 
placement of the mass of the atmosphere for a temperature difference of 
18°'0 is represented by a barometric difference of 0'147 inch. The sea- 
level pressures in these months are, however, respectively 29"876 inches 
in February, and 29'841 inches in July. If, then, we assume the sea- 
level pressure of July to be the same as that of February, viz. 29'876 
inches, the difference between the top and bottom pressures would be not 
4'485, but 4"490 inches. From this it follows that the vertical displace- 
ment for a temperature difference of 18° '0, and at the same sea-level 
pressure, is 0'142 inch. 




Anuual curve of the differences of barometric readings for high and low level stations 
(Ben Nevis and Fort William). 

In order to determine the curve of the table of the barometric differ- 
ences, it is convenient that these should be reckoned from the mean point, 
or say 4' 560. When so treated, the differences are : — 



May- -016 

June --050 

July --075 

August — '073 

September— -057 

October- -019 



November + •024 

December + -043 

January + -070 

February + -072 

March + "067 

April + -031 

These quantities being laid down as vertical ordinates, with Time as 
the horizontal ordinate, it was evident to the eye that the curve was a 
projection of the curve of sines. The difference between the extreme 
and mean values in xttoit parts of an inch is 75. Hence, if a be the time 
expressed in arc, and 8/3 the differences in the preceding table, we have 

•Jg- SyS^siu a. 



ON JIETEOKOLOGICAL OBSEKVATIONS ON BEX NEVIS. 179 

The above diagram represents the curve of this equation, and the points 
numbered from 1 to 12 are the twelve tabular places, beginnin"- with 
May and ending with April. The curve evidently satisfies the observations. 
The relative mean readings of the thermometer are approximately 
represented by 

■^ T=sin a; 

but the deviations from the true curve are greater than in the first case. 
Comparing the two expressions, the barometric difierences are seen to be 
proportional to the increments of tlie mean temperature of the two 
stations. Accordingly, when the places of the table of barometric 
difierences are laid down as co-ordinates to the places of the temperature 
table, the points are found to lie in approximately straight lines. One 
would have expected a less simple relation between the quantities in the 
two tables. 

In consideration of the successful arrangements which have been 
made to minimise the eflfects of solar and terrestrial radiation at both 
the high and the low level observatories, and their close proximity to 
each other, the above result may be regarded as the most important 
datum hitherto contributed by meteorology for the discussion of inquiries 
deahng with the relations of height to pressure and temperature in the 
free atmosphere. The same consideration gives also a peculiar value to 
the table of corrections, empirically determined from the observations, 
for the reduction to sea-level of the barometrical observations at the top' 
calculated for every tenth of an inch of the sea-level pressure, and every 
two degrees of mean temperature of stratum of air, 4,407 feet thick 
between the two observatories. 

The mean annual differences of temperature of the top and bottom of 
the mountain, calculated from (1) the mean monthly temperatures, (2) 
the highest mean monthly temperatures, and (3) the lowest mean 
monthly temperatures, are respectively 15°-9, 15°-5, and 16°0. The 
smaller difference obtained from the highest monthly temperatures was 
entirely caused by the unusually high temperatures at the top of the 
mountam during the anticyclonic weather that prevailed in the Junes of 
1887 and 1889, in which from the prevailing strong sunshine the whole 
mountain was in a sense superheated. 

_ During these years the mean annual rainfall at the top is 130-02 
inches, and at Fort William 74-74 inches. At the top the maximum 
monthly mean is 18-00 inches in December, and the minimum 5-55 inches 
?" ^P.^'^ ' ^^^'^^*^ ''^^ ^^^^ William there are 9-82 inches in December and 
^•20 inches in June. The monthly differences are very strikino-, beino- 
only 1-53 inch in April, but 8-18 inches in December. As holds gene° 
rally in the north-west of Scotland, the rainfall shows a steady droop 
to the minimum in June, but on the top of the Ben the minimum is 
reacheu m April, and by midsummer has risen considerably above it, 
uue, in all probability, to a more copious precipitation from the ascendino- 
I currents of the warmer months of the year. ° 

I The mean monthly differences for the year between the rainf\xll at the 
top and bottom of the mountain, calculated (1) from the mean monthly 
rainfall, (' ) the greatest monthly fall, and (3) the least monthly fall, are 
: respectively 4G1, 6-9G, and 249 inches. The first of these means is 
approximately the mean of the other two, giving thus the curious result 
taat in exceptionally wet months the difference between the rain-gauges 

N 2 



180 EEPORT— 1890. 

rises just as much above the normal difference as it falls below the same 
difference in exceptionally dry months. 

At the observatory at the top the annual number of fair days, or days 
when the rainfall is less than the hundredth of an inch, on the mean of 
the six years 1884-&9, is 100, the monthly mean rising to the maximum 
of 12 days in April and June, and falling to the minimum of 5 days in 
July. For any separate month the greatest number of dry days was 20 
in August 1885, whereas in July 1880 no dry day occurred at all. 

The sunshine record extends from March 1884 to the end of 1889, 
The results show an annual mean of 719 hours' sunshine against a possible 
4,470 hours. Thus, during these six years, the hours of sunshine shown 
by the Campbell-Stokes sunshine-recorder have been nearly one-sixth of 
the number possible. The mean monthly maximum is 149 in June, ajui 
minimum 19 in December. In December the number has been persis- 
tently low, even the highest being only 28 hours in 1887. On the other 
hand, in June the number has exceeded 200 in each of the last three 
yeai'S, rising to 250 hours in 1888 ; whereas the highest number for any 
of the other eleven months was only 162 hours in July 1885. As will be 
seen from Table II. the differences between the maximum and the mini- 
mum numbers of the months are very great. For each of the five years 
of complete observations the number of houis were 680, 576, 808, 970, 
and 634 — thus also showing enormous differences among the separate 
years. 

As regards diurnal phenomena, the hourly variation for each month 
has been calculated for temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud, rainfall, 
wind-velocity, and sunshine. Results of great value have been arrived 
at, for which, however, we must, in this brief report, refer to the volume 
herewith oubmitted to the Association. 

In addition to the usual routine work of a first-order meteorological 
observatory, other observations have been carried on, mostly of a novel 
character, for which the observatory affords exceptional facilities. 

The rapid formation of snow crystals, in certain states of weather, 
from fog, on the observatory and every object exposed to these drifting 
fogs, has been carefully observed and investigated by Mr. Omond. With 
these rapid accretions, the cups of Robinson's .anemometer are no longer 
hemispheres, but irregular hollow bodies, bristling all over with pointed 
crystals, and the arms increased to many times their original thickness, 
and thus the whole instrument soon becomes a mass of immovable snow, 
and further observation is rendered impossible. The thermometer box, 
with its louvre boards, similarly becomes serrated with rows of teeth, 
which quickly coalesce into a solid, and the instruments are no longer in 
contact with the free atmosphere. In these circumstances a fresh box 
is put out. It is thus that at observatories such as Ben Nevis, owing to 
these accretions of ice on the thermometers, the continuous or hourly 
registrations of the temperature of the air must be for ever impossible. 
In truth, such observations must always be eye observations, where the 
observer personally sees that, previously to the recording of each observa- 
tion, the thermometer is in contact with the free atmosphere, and is not 
sheltered from it by a coating of ice. The importance of thermometric 
observations is emphasised by the circumstance that without them the 
barometric observations are of comparatively small value. Ben ISTevis is , 
the only observatory that has hitherto coped, and that successfully, with 
this all-important department of the work of a high-level observatory; 



ON METEOKOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 181 

and ono cannot sufficiently admire the heroic endarance with which the 
observers have made the hourly observations by night and by day, during 
summer and during winter. 

The direction of the winds indicates a well-marked diurnal variation. 
From 3 to 8 a.m. northerly winds of about 2^ miles an houi-, and from 
11 A.M. to 2 P.M. southerly winds of about 3 miles an hour pi-evail. 

From three years' observations, ending May 1887, it appears that the 
mean temperatures of the different winds are, S., o2°-6 ; S.W., o2°5 ; 
W., 31°'4; KW. and S.E., 30°-2 ; E., 27°-8; K, 27°-6, and N.E., 26°-5. 
The wai'mest point in the windrose oscillates from S.W. in winter, passing 
through S. to S.E. in summer. The annual temperature range of easterly 
winds is 20°"7, but westerly only 15°'6. 

Observations of the rainband were begun iTi June 1885. The ob- 
served higher values are accompanied, or soon followed, by a heavy rain- 
fall, which tends to become less heavy in the next twelve hours. The 
lower values, on the other hand, though they may be neither accompanied 
nor followed in the next three hours by any rain, are followed by a con- 
siderable rainfall before the twelve hours are run. With the same rain- 
band value precipitation is less with a higher and greater with a lower 
temperature. If the tempei'ature immediately falls the rainfall is greatly 
increased, but if it rises it is less than it would have been if the tempera- 
ture remained constant. The highest values, with accompanying very 
heavy rains, are part and parcel of the cyclones which come to us from 
the Atlantic laden with moisture and warmth. The rainband is not 
affected during heavy rains, the result of moisture-laden air ascending 
from lower levels ; and during the states of the air attending the rapid 
deposition of snow crystals no rain falls, though at the time the rainband 
values are high. 

As respects forecasting the weatlier, the most important observations 
are those showing a decreasing rainband from hour to hour. A compari- 
son of these observations with the daily weather-charts and subsequent 
observations show that the decreasing rainband indicates that the moist 
air aloft is slipping away or sinking below the level of the summit, and 
that the air taking its place is comparatively dry. Now this state of 
things appears to be the earliest indication we at present have that an 
anticyclone is beginning to form and settle over this part of Europe. 

St. Elmo's Fire is not an infrequent occurrence on Ben Nevis. The 
observed cases have occurred during the night and during the winter 
months from September to February. A careful discussion of the cases 
shows that tiie weather which precedes, accompanies, and follows has 
quite peculiar characteristics not only on Ben Nevis but also over the 
West of Europe generally — indeed, so well marked is the type of weather 
and so notorious is it for its stormy character, that it is familiarly known 
at the observatory as ' St. Elmo's weather.' It is further observed that in 
almost every case another cyclone, with its spell of bad weather, follows 
the particular cyclone in which St. Elmo's Fire is observed. 

The winter thunderstorms occur under the identical weather condi- 
tions under which St. Elmo's Fire occurs. They invariably occur on the 
south-east side of the cyclone's centre, with the easterlj^ passage of which 
they appear to be intimately connected. The thunderstorms and cases of 
sheet-lightning of Ben Nevis are essentially autumn and winter occun-ences, 
70 per cent, of the whole having occurred from September to February. 
Tihey are rare in summer, only eight having occurred from May to August, 



182 REPORT— 1890. 

liaviug an annual period just the reverse of what obtains in the eastern 
districts of Scotland. During the summer they are twice as frequent 
at Fort William as at the observatory, thus suggesting that a consider- 
able number must be below the summit, or in the aerial stratum between 
the high and low level observatories. All the summer thunderstorms 
have occurred when the sun was above the horizon ; but of the thirty- 
seven cases in autumn and winter thirty-two took place when the sun 
was below the horizon. These results are of great value in their relation 
to the distribution of thunderstorms and other electrical displays over the 
land and the water surfaces of the globe. 

An elaborate series of hygroraetric observations have been made at 
the observatory vi'ith the view of inquiring how far Glaisher's factors can 
be safely used. For the conduct of such an inquiry, the low-temperatiire 
humidities and remarkably dry states of the air which form so prominent 
a feature in the climatology of Ben Nevis, the observatory offers unique 
facilities. The observations were made with the ordinary dry and wet 
bulb hygrometer and Professor Chrystal's direct hygrometer, with the 
result that a specially constructed set of tables is required for the extremely 
low humidities of Ben Nevis, these being considerably lower than Mr. 
Glaisher had had an opportunity of observing. 

Professor C. Michie Smith has shown that on the edge of a dissolving 
mist the potential is lower than the normal, but higher on the edge of a 
condensing mist. Now, almost always when the top of Ben Nevis be- 
comes clear for a short time, a strong current comes up the telegraph cable, 
while as soon as the summit is again enveloped the current is reversed. The 
connection between the moisture of the atmosjjhere and the earth currents 
is still further shown by the rainfall. During a fall of rain or snow the 
current nearly alwaj^s passes down the cable ; and in the case of a sudden 
shower the current has sometimes driven the mirror of the galvanometer 
violently off the scale. A cessation of the rain or snow generally has an 
exactly opposite effect. If it be assumed that the summit of Ben Nevis 
takes the potential of the masses of vapour covering it, aiid if we consider 
the earth-plate at the base as the earth, or zero of potential, it is obvious 
that these results confirm the theory advanced by Professor Michie Smith, 
a conclusive proof of which would be of the greatest importance in inves- 
tigations connected with thunderstorms. 

Observations on the numbers of dust particles with the apparatus in- 
vented by Mr. Aitken have recently been undertaken at the observatory. 
Already noteworthy results have been obtained. On March 31, at 4.30 P.M., 
the sun)mit was clear, and the number of particles per cubic centimetre 
was 2,785; but shortly thereafter a thickness was observed approaching 
from south-west, which by 6 p.m. reached the observatory, and the num- 
ber of particles rose to 12,862, being the maximum yet observed. On 
June 15 many observations were made during the day, when the number 
of particles fell from 937 at midnight to 50 at 10.30 and 11.42 a.m. Still 
more remarkable were the observations of July 20-21. Till 10 P.M. of 
the 20th the wind at the top of tlie mountain was about the direction as 
at sea-level, viz., south-west to west-south-west ; but at that hour it went 
suddenly round to north, increasing at the same time to 40 miles an hour, 
and temperature rose from 41°0 to 47°0, and soon after to 49°'2. At the 
low-level observatory temperature remained exceptionally constant at 
55°-0 from 9 p.m. till 4 a.m. of the 21st. At the high-level observatory 
ten observations made between 2 and 3 a.m. gave the extraordinary low 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSEEVATIOXS ON BEN NEVIS. 183 

mean of only two dust particles to tbe cubic centimetre. During this 
time the high-saturated, high-temperatured north wind was blowing out 
of the cyclone which lay to northward, whilst the sea-level winds were 
south-west, or were blowing in upon the same cyclone. The observations 
already point to a daily maximum dui'ing the time of the afternoon mini- 
mum barometer, and a minimum number during the morning minimum 
barometer, or during the times of the great diurnal ascending and descend- 
inof currents of the atmosphere. It is evident that in these observations 
■we have indications of intimate relations subsisting between the numbers 
of dust particles and the cyclones and anticyclones over North- Western 
Europe at the time. It is also made clear that the dust particles vary 
enormously during the presence of mist or fog without being accompanied 
■with any difference in the appa,rent density of the fog. 

It is unnecessary to dwell at length on the prime importance of these 
observations and investigations conducted at the Ben Nevis observatories 
in their relations to cyclones and anticyclones on which our weather 
depends, and the bearing of the ■whole matter on the framing of weather 
forecasts. To this subject it is arranged that Dr. Buchan's time will be 
■wholly given during next year. In carrying out this intricate and labo- 
rious investigation, the Meteorological Council send Mr. Omond three 
copies of their 'Daily and Weekly Weather Maps,' on which are to be 
entered certain of the meteorological data from the high and low level 
observatories, and comparisons of those data, together with occasional 
remai'ks that may from time to time be made as bearing more or less 
closely on forecasting weather. One of these sets will be sent to the 
Scottish Meteorological Society, and another to the Meteorological Coun- 
cil, while the third will be retained by Mr. Omond at Fort William. 

The low-level observatory has been equipped by the Meteorological 
Council with a complete set of self-recording instruments, and the regu- 
lar observing ■work began on July 14. The directors are thus no'w in the 
best possible position for extending the scientific and practical inquiries 
they have taken in hand by the unique facilities offered by these two 
■well-equipped observatories. 



Sixth Report of the Uommittee, consisting of Professors A. 
Johnson {Secretary), J. Gr. MacG-regor, J. B. Cherriman, and 
H. T. BovEY and Mr. C. Carpmael, appointed for the purpose 
of pjromoting Tidal Observations in Canada. 

Your Committee is happy to be able to report that the Canadian Govern- 
ment has at length undertaken to establish stations for systematic tidal 
observations, and that the calculations for the tide-tables will be made 
according to the method recommended by the Association. It is under- 
stood that the construction of the tables ■v\'ill be entrusted to Mr. Roberts, 
of the Nautical Almanac Office. That the efforts of the Committee were 
not successful earlier is possibly due to the fact that there have been three 
Ministers of Marine in succession since the Committee was appointed, and 
that the Committee had, in each case, to begin Jo novo to present the 
facts to the Minister in office in order to convince him personally of the 
need of the observations for the purposes of practical navigation. The 



184 KEPOET— 1890. 

character of the British Association as scientific was, to a certain extent, 
a positive obstacle to the efforts of the Committee, instead of an aid. Not- 
withstanding the courtesy with which deputations from your Committee 
were invariably received by the Minister or the Cabinet on the occasions 
of an interview, it was obvious that there was always lurking in the 
background a suspicion that the Committee might, not unnaturally, take 
an exaggerated view of the practical value of the observations in their 
appreciation of the scientific interest of their results, and this notwith- 
standing the fact that there is not at the present moment a single ofBcial 
tide-table, giving the rise and fall of tide, for any of the ports of the 
Dominion, and that ocean steamers run aground in places Avliere they 
ought not if sufficient information were supplied them. Nor is information 
as to the tidal currents obtainable, though the want of it is the cause of 
numerous wrecks and great consequent loss of life and property, as shown 
by the annual wreck lists for years past. 

The Committee has been earnest in pressing both of these needs of 
navigation on the attention of the Government, and has been most effec- 
tively supported in its efforts by a committee of the Royal Society of 
Canada, of which Dr. Sandford Fleming, C.M.G., President of the Society, 
was chairman. Sir William Dawson, C.M.G., former President of the 
British Association, has on every occasion this year, as heretofore, given 
his valuable assistance and taken part in the efforts of your Committee. 

A petition to Parliament from nearly 400 masters and officers of ships 
asking for survey of the tidal currents (involving, of course, observations 
at fixed stations on the rise and fall) was circulated during the last 
session, and a petition to the same effect was presented also by the ' Ship- 
ping Interest ' of Montreal. This latter body obtained an interview with 
the Cabinet to discuss the question, at which were present, besides their 
own deputation headed by their chairman (Mr. Andrew Allan, of the Allan 
Line), the Chairman of the Board of Trade of Montreal (Mr. Cleghorn), 
and members of both committees, including those members above named. 

Subsequent to the interview the Minister of Marine (the Hon. C. 
H. Tupper) continued the inquiries which he had been making of the 
Committee. These were so thorough and searching that the Committee 
has the satisfaction of feeling that any extra labour thereby caused them 
is well repaid by the fulness of the proofs of the great practical value of 
the observations of both kinds presented to the Minister ; proofs to which 
the Minister himself added by his independent inquiries from others, 
including the Hydrographer of the Admiralty and the Superintendent of 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the United States. 

The only matter of regret is that the grant for the present year is not 
sufiicient to establish at the moment more than three or four stations. 
An anticipatory grant for next year to establish others was, it is under- 
stood, not presented to Parliament in consequence of the absence of the 
Minister at Washington in connection with the negotiations going on 
with the United States ; but it will, no doubt, be made next session. 
Observations of such importance to the commercial interests of Canada, 
having been once begun by the Government, must necessarily be con- 
tinued to be of any service. 

The Committee considers that it has thus brought to a successful 
conclusion the work for which it was appointed, and therefore begs to be 
discharged. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CUEMISTRT. 185 



RepoH on the Present State of our Knoiuledge in Electrolysis and 
Electro-chemistry. By W. N. Shaw, M.A. 

The scientific aim of the theory of electrolysis has been stated by F. 
Kotilrausch to consist in the reference of electro-chemical phenomena to 
mechanical processes and mechanical or electro-meclianical laws. It is 
the purpose of this report to enable its readers to form for themselves, 
by a comprehensive survey of work done in furtherance of that aim, an 
opinion as to the real steps that have been taken towards itsacliieveraent, 
the causes which have stood in the way of its more complete fulfilment, 
and, if possible, to get some idea as to probable directions of future pro- 
gress. It is hardly necessary to say that the aim in question has not 
yet been fully attained. JMultitudes of experiments have been described 
in scientific jjublications ; some generalisations and laws have been esta- 
blished, and various forms of electro-mechanical theory of electrolysis are 
at present under discussion ; but they are not yet fully developed, nor, 
indeed, have rival theories been stated in such clear forms as to lead to 
the suggestion of crucial experiments. 

A very concise yet complete summary of the facts and theories relating 
to electrolysis and electro-chemistry up to the end of 1882 has been com- 
piled by Professor G. Wiedemann, and is the more valuable as its author 
is himself so successful a worker in that field. Ths summary is contained 
in Wiedemann's ' Electricitiit,' mainly in the second volume. The whole 
of the account of electrolysis and allied subjects occupies few, if any, 
less than a thousand of Wiedemann's ample pages. No student of elec- 
trolysis can fail to owe a debt of gratitude to the author of this large 
collection of facts and theories. Since its publication, however, the atten- 
tion of many scientific men has been directed towards electro-chemistry. 
Von Helmholtz in his Faraday Lecture (April 5, 1881) ' pointed out the 
importance of the subject ; and the Electrolysis Committee of the British 
Association, appointed jointly by Sections A and B, after the discussion of 
the subject at Aberdeen in 1885 opened by Dr. 0. J. Lodge, has, under 
his able direction, maintained the interest in it. A great deal of work 
has been done, especially towards comparing the numerical values of 
electrolytic conductivity of a compound with those of its other physical 
properties ; moreover, Svante Arrhenius, in a memoir presented to the 
Academy of Sciences of Sweden in 1883, has based the numerical calcu- 
lation of a number of chemical actions upon the numbers expressing the 
electrolytic conductivity of the interacting substances. The application 
by Von Helmholtz of the second law of thermodynamics to chemical and 
electro-chemical processes in 1877 and 1882 has led to extensive researches 
in the thermodynamics of electrolysis. The years since the close of 1882 
have accordingly witnessed a very remarkable activity in the development 
of electrolytic subjects. Apart from memoirs on special sections iu 
current scientific literature, a general survey of the field by Lodge in 
1885, forming the opening address in the discussion at Aberdeen, is 
printed in the British Association report of that year, in which, perhaps, 
the foreshortening of the subject, natural to the point of view of a leader 

' Jour. Chem. Soc. 39, p. 277. 



186 REPOET — 1890. 

of discussion, is somewhat conspicuous. There is, moreover, a short but 
very interesting sketch of the subject in 1887 by one of the founders of 
its new development, published in the' Electrotechnische Zeitschrift,' June 
1887, under the title of ' Die gegenwartigen Anschauungen liber die 
Electrolyse von Losungen,' by F. Kohlrausch, and a brief statement ot 
the ])roblems in the subject was given by G. Wiedemann at the meeting 
of the British Association at Manchester in 1887 (' Report,' p. 347). 
The order of arrangement of this report will be : — 

(1.) A general statement of the actions, physical and chemical, pro- 
duced by the passage of electricity through a typical electi'olytic cell. 
This is introduced for the purpose of securing definiteness in the con- 
ceptions and language, and to set forth the phenomena which any theory 
of electrolysis must primarily be able to explain. It will also serve as a 
guide to the classification of the experimental data available for testing 
or illustrating electrolytic theories. 

(II.) A statement of those generalisations and laws which are accepted 
by all workers in the subject. References will be given to the original 
sources of the evidence upon which these laws are based, but a detailed 
historical account of the establishment of the laws will not be attempted, 
although some of them may only have been accepted after prolonged 
discussion. 

(III.) A short statement of the hypotheses and of the partial or 
general theories of electrolysis which have been proposed and are still 
under discussion, and the experiments relating to them, including especially 
the following questions : — 

(a) What is an electrolyte ? 

(h) What are the ions in any given electrolytic decomposition, 
including the cases of mixed electrolytes ? 

(c) The Williamson-Clausius theory of dissociation. 

(d) Electro-chemical thermodynamics, including thermo-electric 

effects. 

(e) The theory of electric endosmose. 

(/) The theory of the migration of ions and of specific ionic 
velocities. 

(^) The numerical relations of electrical conductivity with other 
physical and chemical properties of the electrolytic sub- 
stances. 

(IV.) A discussion of the experimental methods and the apparatus 
used in the determination of numerical values used in the previous 
section. 

(V.) An account of electro-chemical phenomena which ai'e not generally 
included in the term ' electrolytic,' but which may be used to elucidate 
the electrolytic theories. In this section will be included certain pheno- 
mena connected with the passage of electricity through solids and gases, 
and the conductivity of flame. 

(VI.) Electrolytic or electro-chemical phenomena which are not re- 
garded as having a direct bearing upon electrolytic theories, viz. secondary 
actions, electro-capillary phenomena, irreciprocal conduction, electro- 
striction, and transition resistance. 



1 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRT. 187 

Part I. 
General EledroJytic Phenomena. 

In order to analyse the actions taking place in electrolysis, wc may 
imagine the electrolyte in the cell divided into three jjortions by two 
parallel partitions of porous non-conduoting substance ; the two end 
portions, the anode and the cathode vessels, contain the positive and 
negative electrodes respectively ; the middle portion, while it allows the 
transmission of electricity through it, may be imagined protected from 
any change of composition which, in the absence of partitions, might be 
effected by diffusion, or mechanical transfusion, or convection currents of 
liquid. How far such an ideal partition is realisable in practice will 
appear later. The electrodes may be any electrical conductors, solid or 
fluid, alike or different. For a typical specimen we cannot regard an elec- 
trolytic liquid otherwise than as a mixture of solutions of chemical com- 
pounds, though the amount of all but one of the constituents of the 
mixture may be so small as to be regarded merely as impurities, which it 
•would not even be possible to detect by ordinary chemical means. The 
remarkable sensitiveness of electrolytic properties to change, in conse- 
quence of the admixture of very minute portions of impurity, renders this 
necessary. 

Thus Von Helmholtz has already said in his Faraday Lecture that he 
has detected the polarisation corresponding to the decomposition of a 
quantity of water of the order 1 xlO"" gramme. And Gore • has 
shown that the effect of chlorine upon the E.M.F. of a Pt-Mg voltaic 
couple in distilled water is such that the presence of one part of chlorine 
in seventeen thousand million parts of water could be detected thereby. 
The neglect of considerations of this kind finds very remarkable illustra- 
tion in the history of electrolysis. It is now generally known that the 
experiments upon very pure water, especially those of "Kohlrausch,^ have 
so far changed the views upon the matter that, whereas at one time water 
was regarded as the conducting part of a solution, pure water is now looked 
upon as probably not conducting at all. Kohlrausch obtained water the 
ratioof whose conductivity to that of mercury was 071 xlO ~" at 21-5° C, 
and its sensitiveness for small quantities of impurity approximated to that 
of the sense of smell, since when exposed in a room containing tobacco- 
smoke its conductivity doubled in three hours. The simplification that 
would be introduced by regarding the typical electrolytic cell as contain- 
ing a perfectly pure chemical compound liquid cannot therefore be 
realised in practice, and any part of a theory Avhich depends for its sup- 
port on such an assumption must, for the present at any rate, be held in 
suspense. 

When an electromotive force is made to act between the electrodes of 
such a cell as that described above, so that a current is shown in a gal- 
vanometer included in the circuit, the following actions take place : — 

{a.) A part of the electrolyte is decomposed, the products of the de- 
composition are deposited at theelectrodes, and these either (i.) are visibly 
set free, (ii.) unite with the electrodes, or (iii.) unite chemically with the 
solution in the anode or cathode vessel as the case may be, and in the 

' Proc. Soy. Soc. June 14, 1888, vol. 44, p. 301 
' Pogg. Ann. Ergz. B. 8, 187G, p. 1 : Wied. Elec. 



188 EEPOET— 1890. 

last two cases give rise to ' secondary ' chemical products. These second- 
ary actions are quite independent of the direct effect of electrolysis. 

If we consider this chemical action more in detail, we may regard the 
electrolytic liquid as composed of a number of molecules, and the action 
will then be the separation of a number of these molecules each into two 
constituent parts or ions : these ions are deposited at the electrodes only. 
Considering a single molecule, the one part is deposited at the cathode, and 
is called the cation ; the other part (or the corresponding part of a similar 
molecule) at the anode, and is called the anion. The terminology of the 
subject was introduced by Faraday ('Exp. Kes.' Ser. VII. 1834)'. What 
is precisely to be understood by the ' molecule ' which is decomposed is 
not yet clear. Even if we suppose the electrolyte a solution of a salt so 
pui'e that the decomposition of impurity could not in any case be 
detected, we cannot now say that all the molecules decomposed are 
similar. To take a definite instance, in a solution of sodium chloride the 
molecule decomposed may be the simple chemical molecule NaCl, or it 
may be a molecular aggregate of sodium chloride [^(NaCl)], or an aggre- 
gate of salt and water [?i(]SraCl), 9»(HoO)], or some molecules of one 
kind and some of another may be decomposed. The primary results of 
the separation of the molecules, each into two parts, are the true ions, 
and are deposited at the electrodes. But, however complicated may be 
the molecules of the electrolyte which are regarded as individually 
decomposed, in cases in which there is visible deposit on the electrodes, 
or direct combination with the electrodes, the deposit or combination 
could have been produced by the decomposition of the simple molecules 
[NaCl] of salt in the solution. 

(h.) The volume of the liquid in the cathode vessel increases ; that in 
anode vessel diminishes. This phenomenon, which is known as electric 
endosmose, is attributed to the action of the porous diaphragms, and is 
regarded as independent of the more strictly electrolytic phenomena. 

(c.) The percentage comjjosition of the solution in the anode and cathode 
vessels is altered, generally nnequally in the two, while that in the inter- 
mediate vessel remains unaltered. This phenomenon is usually attributed 
to the migration of the ions with unequal velocities through the solution, 
and is equivalent, if the ions be the result of decomposition of simple 
molecules, to a transfer of those molecules, which in the end are left in 
combination, through the body of the solution, in one direction or the 
other, 

(fZ.) There is a rise in temperature of the liquid owing to the develop- 
ment of heat by the current, just as there would be in the case of a 
metallic conductor. 

(e.) The deposit of ions upon the electrodes causes an electromotive 
force opposed in direction to the decomposing electromotive force applied. 
This B.M.F. of polarisation is in some cases sufficiently great to balance 
the latter and prevent the further flow of current. 

The current may also be considerably reduced by the resistance of 
a layer of non-conducting material produced by the action of the ions 
on the electrodes. 

(/.) Thermo-electric effects are produced at the junctions of the 
different substances in the circuit, including the junctions of metal and 
liquid. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 189 

Part II. 
Laws and Principles i/eneralhj Accepted. 

(n.) The electro-mag^ietic action of the current passing throrujh an electro- 
hjte is the same as if the elecfroli/te ivere replaced by a metallic conductor of 
the same size and shape, and of such resistance that it coidd be substituted for 
the electrolyte luiihout altering the current in the rest of the circuit. — This 
merely expresses the idea that the flow of electricity may be regarded as 
analogous to that of an incompressible fluid, even when an electrolyte 
forms part of the circuit, being either the fluid conductor of a battery cell 
or of a voltameter cell. The refei-ences quoted by Wiedemann (vol. i. 
p. 321) for this statement are: Wiedemann, ' Galvanismus,' I. Aufl. 18G1, 
p. 97 ; Schiller and Colley, Pogg. ' Ann.' 155, 1875, p. 467 ; Cooke, ' Chem. 
News,' 40, 1879, p. 22; 'Beibl.' 3, p. G32 ; R. Kohlrausch, 'Pogg. Ann.' 
97, 1856, p. 401. 

The current may for some purposes be regarded as the flowing of 
positive electricity like an incompressible fluid round the circuit in the 
direction from anode to cathode, the quantity which crosses any section 
in unit of time measuring the current. For the body of the electrolyte, 
however, the language of the two-fluid hypothesis is considered by Von 
Helmholtz as more convenient, and it is usual to regard the current in 
the electrolyte as made up of the independent flow of equal quantities of 
positive and negative electricities in opposite directions. It will appear 
later that it is possible to form an estimate of the absolute rates at which 
the positive and negative quantities respectively flow, and that the ab- 
solute rates may be unequal ; in that case the measures of the current at any 
section due to the flow in the two directions respectively will not be equal. 
But minute considerations of the disposal of the positive and negative 
electricity may lead to confusion (see Wiedemann, 2, § 1043) ; and 
evidently if we regard the current as a convective discharge, by redistri- 
bution of parts, along a single line of molecules with oppositely electrified 
sides, the current at any given section between two molecules will be 
due entirely either to the motion of positive electricity in one direction 
or of negative in the other, according to the position of the section ; and 
in that case the quantities of positive and negative electricity actually 
engaged will be double of those requii-ed, if one is allowed to suppose that 
-they pass each other instead of meeting each other. 

It is not clear that we are justified in regai'ding the positive and negative 
electricities each as separate incompressible fluids continuous throughout 
the whole circuit, as suggested by Lodge ('B.A. Rep.' 1885); but this 
point may be more completely discussed in considering the theory of 
unequal migration of ions (Part III. § e). 

(i.) There are electrolytes in u-hich conduction of electricity from the elec- 
trode to the electrolyte, and again from the electrolyte to the electrode, is entirely 
' convective,' in the sense that no electricity can pass into an electrolyte or 
out of it again without causing a deposit of a certain number of con- 
stituent ions where the current enters, and of an equal number of the 
remainders of the decomposed molecules (opposite ions) where it leaves the 
electrolyte, the weight of electrolyte decomposed bemg proportional to 
the quantity of electricity transmitted. This is included in Faraday's 
law, and is equivalent to saying that in certain electrolytes there is no 



190 BEPORT— 1890. 

conduction without chemical decomposition ; and it may be expressed by 
the formula 

W = K.E, 

where W is the weight of electrolyte decomposed by the passage of the 
quantity E of electricity, and K a constant depending on the nature of 
the electrolyte. 

I have worded the statement of this proposition in a carefully 
guarded manner ; it certainly holds for a very large number of electro- 
lytes, possibly for all. The proposition has been gi'adually evolved as the 
result of a large number of observations. Faraday (Exp. Res. ser. 8, 
§ 970, P84, 1834) allowed a slight amount of conduction without chemical 
decomposition ; and since that time the question has been much dis- 
cussed, and the causes of the apparent metallic conduction traced. An 
account of the discussion is given in Wiedemann, vol. 2, p. 488, which is 
summed up as follows : ' According to all these experiments we must 
now accept that if once the conduction of currents through electrolytes 
is associated with their simultaneous decomposition, then, besides this 
electrolytic conduction, which follows strictly the electrolytic [Faraday's] 
law, no second metallic conduction of apart of the electricity takes jilace 
therein.' Yon Helmholtz in Part III. of his ' Thermodynamics of Chemical 
Processes ' (Phys. Soc. Translation, p. 79) says : ' If the two electrodes 
of a voltameter be charged and maintained at different potentials, electric 
forces corresponding to the slope of potential act within the fluid, driving 
+ E to the cathode, — E to the anode. This movement of electricity never 
takes place, so far as we kcow, without a simultaneous motion of the ions 
of the electrolyte to which the + E and — E set in motion are attached ' ; 
and in the next page, ' I have myself succeeded in following out the pro- 
portionality between the electromotive force and the amount of condensed 
charge .... down to electromotive forces of O'OOOl Daniell.' 

Von Helmholtz also expressed the same view in the Faraday Lecture, in 
which he announced that with an air-free cell therein described he had 
detected the polarisation produced during a few seconds by a current 
which would only decompose a milligramme of water in a century; and 
he went on to say : ' But even if the appearance of galvanic polarisation 
should not be acknowledged by opponents as a sufficient indication of 
previous decomposition, it is not difficult at present to reduce the indica- 
tions of a good galvanometer to absolute measures and to calculate the 
amount of decomposition which ought to be expected according to 
Faraday's law, and to verify that in all the cases in which no products of 
electrolysis can be discovered their amount is too small for chemical 
analysis.' 

Bouty (quoted by Lodge, ' B.A. Report,' 1886, p. 348), referring in par- 
ticular to acidulated water, asserts, ' A liquid has only a single way of 
conducting electricity, whatever may be going on at the electrodes. 
The expressions "metallic conductivity" and " electrolytic conductivity" 
ought to disappear from science.' 

Experiments on the decomposition produced in acidulated water by 
the induction of electrostatic charges are described by Wiedemann (2, § 
544) and by Ostwald and Nernst (' Electrician,' 23, p. 300, 1889), who 
observed a bubble of hydrogen which would correspond to the decom- 
position of 4 X 10-'° gramme of water. Eouvet (' C. R.' 87, p. 1068) 
has found that the quantity of electricity necessary for decomposing a 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTKO-CnEMISTRY. 191 

given quantity of water is independent of the pressure up to 200 atmo- 
Bphcres. 

Thufi it may fairly be allowed that acidulated water is one of the 
electrolytes for which this proposition is true. 

It is also regarded as true for solutions of salts of silver, for which, 
according to Lord Rayleigh and Mrs. Sidgwick (' Phil. Trans.' 1884 (2), 
p. 411), every gramme of silver deposited upon an electrode corresponds 
to the passage of 84'82 C.G.S. electro-magnetic units of electricity ; ac- 
cording to F. and W. Kohlrausch (Wied. 'Ann.' 27, 1886, p. 1), 84-53 
such units. The proposition is probably equally true for all salt solu- 
tions, but the inference that it is true for all electrolytes is not j^et 
substantiated, though evidence continues to accumulate in its favour. 
Thus Faraday ('Exp. Res.' 414, 691, 692, 1340) considered that fused 
Hglj, PbF,, and HgCl2, conducted without any chemical decomposition, 
but Beetz (Pogg. ' Ann.' 92, 1854, p. 461) has shown that PbFj conducts 
in a normal electrolytic way ; and J. W. Clark (' Phil. Mag.' 20, 1885, p. 
37) showed that there was chemical decomposition in the conduction by 
the other two fused salts. 

But Gladstone and Hibbert ('B.A. Report,' 1888, p. 347), in com- 
municating to the Electrolysis Committee the results of experiments on 
alloys and solid sulphides, still make use of phrases such as ' the conduction 
was accompanied by considerable electrolysis ' ; ' the conduction was 
almost entii-ely non-electrolytic ' ; which would seem to imply that the 
practice of distinguishing between metallic and other conduction in the 
same substance is not yet entirely abandoned. 

[See an extract of a paper by Barus ' ('Electrician,' Dec. 21, 1888, p. 
199) on supposed transition from metallic conduction to electrolytic con- 
duction in gases, on passing through the critical point of the metal; also 
Lodge, ' B.A. Report,' 1885, p. 767.] 

If it be allowed that the conduction of electricity into and out of an 
electrolyte is oonvective in the sense already explained, there will be no 
difficulty in accepting the next stage in the development of the idea, namely, 
that the conduction from point to point of the liquid is similarly convec- 
tive ; and, in fact, we arrive at the general statement that the redistribution 
of electrification, which constitutes an electric current through, or statical 
chai'ge npon the surface of, an electrolyte, is accompanied by, and indeed 
consists in, the redistribution of ions carrying electric charges. 

We may here also briefly consider the second part of Faraday's law, 
namely, that the same quantity of electricity produces in different electro- 
lytes the separation of chemically equivalent amounts of ions. There is 
no doubt about the truth of the statement ; it has been experimentally 
tested for some cases where it has a definite meaning, and has been shown 
to be true for fused and dissolved electrolytes, within the limits of error 
of determination of chemical equivalents or atomic weights,^ and is, indeed, 
recognised as in some cases an accurate method of finding the ratio of 
chemical equivalents.^ But there is attaching to it whatever uncertainty 
attaches to the meaning of the term ' chemical equivalent.' Everyone would 

' -imeriran Joiiriialof iScioirc, Dec. ISSS. 

" Faradav, L'j-j). JRcs. 3, § 377; 7, § 783 (1833). Matteucci (Ann. de CJdm. 58, 
183.5, p. 75).' Becquerel (Ann. de Chim. 6G, 1837, p. 91). Soret (Ann. de C/iim. [3] 
42, 18.';4, p. 257). Renault, Ann. de Chim. [4] 11, p. 137. Gray, Phil. Mag. 22, 1886, 
p. 389. 

' For silver and copper, Shaw, B.A. Bej). 1886, p. 318. For zinc, Gladstone and 
Hibbert Journ. Chcm. t;oc. July 4, 18S9, p. 443. 



192 EEPORT— 1890. 

admit that if there are two electrolytic cells in series containing electrolytes 
AB, A' B', A and A' being cations, B and B' anions, the amounts of 
A and A' or of B and B' deposited by the same quantity of electricity 
are chemically equivalent ; but for a given electrolyte, the specification of 
the ions into which it will be decomposed by the current is not always 
known, or even ascertainable ; moreover, there are cases in which the 
elements have more than one chemical equivalent, so that it is not prac- 
ticable to state this part of Faraday's law in more definite terms than 
tliose given above. The recent work on the subject will be considered 
in the answer to the question ' What are the ions ? ' in Part III. § 6. 

But there is no question of doubt when the electrolytes are fused or 
dissolved compounds of monad elements only, and there are many other 
cases of dyad and triad compounds in which the chemical equivalence of 
the ions is well recognised, and in all these cases Faraday's law in its 
complete form may be applied with confidence; and the final result is that 
with every monad atomic ion there is associated in electrolysis a certain 
definite quantity of electricity, positive or negative ' ; with every dyad 
atomic ion twice that amount, with every triad three times, and so on. 
And in all true electrolytes, the distribution of electricity is the distribution 
of these ions carrying their specific charges. 

(c.) The conduction of electric currents through electrolytes folJoivs Ohm's 
law. — It must be remembered that for metallic conductors it has been 
shown by Chrystal and Saunder that if the relation between electromotive 
force e and current i be represented by 

e = ir (1 — hi^) 

then h is less than 10"^^ showing that for these Ohm's law is true 
with extreme accuracy. There are certain physical laws which, although 
originally discovered empirically, express as numerical relations necessai-y 
consequences of the nature of the physical quantities referred to in the 
laws. Thus Snell's law of refraction (expressing, as is now known, the 
ratio of velocities of transmission in two media) is not a law in which 
one expects further experimental investigation to detect a deviation from 
accuracy. Faraday's law is another illustrative example. The inverse 
square laws, which perhaps merely express the property of transmission 
in straight lines, are also laws which seem to be strictly true, and not 
empirical approximations. There is a difference in character between 
these and such as the gaseous laws, in which more refined ajjparatus and 
methods detect divergences from the apparent simplicity. Now Ohm's 
law for metals, being the most accurately verified of all laws, would seem to 
belong to the former class, and to be a necessary consequence of the nature- 
of conduction itself. J. Hopkinson ^ suggests that the law asserts the 
principle of the superposition of the effects of electromotive forces in bodies 
in which, the conduction is not complicated by residual charge, and it may 
therefore be regarded as a special case of the more general principle of 
superposition.^ He divides the continuous effect of electromotive force on 
glass into four successive stages, and thinks that the same might hold if 
"we could experiment fast enough for an electrolyte, the principle of super- 
position probably applying to all the continuously connected successive 
events. 

' For the calculation of the amount of electricitj' on a monad atom see Lodge. 
B.A. Hep. 1885; Budde, Wied. Ann. 25, p. 5G2, 1885. " \ 

' Phil. Trans. 167, 1877, p. 614. ^ B.A. Rei). 1885, p. 309. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CnEMISTRT. 193 

The detection of any deyiation from Ohm's law in an electrolyte 
would be of great interest, for it would probably indicate an important 
change in the nature of the conduction. From what has been said about 
Faraday's law we have concluded that the conduction in an electrolyte ia 
of the same nature for different electromotive forces, and therefore no 
deviation from Ohm's law is likely to be detected. But if the nature of 
the ions changed with increase of current w-e should expect the fact might 
be indicated by a deviation from Ohm's law; and, conversely; if it be pos- 
sible to increase the current to such a limit that Ohm's law no longer 
holds, some change in the nature of the conduction should be looked for. 

Besides gases there are some bodies which do not follow Ohm's law. I 
am under the impression that a lead-pencil mark on ground glass does not. 
According to Braun,' psilomelane, iron pyrites, and copper pyrites do not, 
and, according to Quincke,^ some of the liquids of high resistance — ether, 
CSo, turpentine oil, rock oil, and benzene — are disobedient for electromotive 
forces of, say, 30,000 volts and upwards. When the divergence shows itself 
there are indications of electrolytic decomposition. Quincke also refers to 
observations on departure from Ohm's law in thin layers of gutta-percha, 
sulphur, paraffin, and shellac for small electromotive forces by Schulze- 
Berge,^ and to anomalous conduction observed by himself.'* 

The direct verification of Ohm's law for copper sulphate has been pushed 
by Fitzgerald and Trouton^ to the extent of determining, by Chrystal's 
method, that, for this salt, h (in the formula p. 192) is less than 3 xlO"^. 
The maximum current employed was 10 amperes per square centimetre. 
The previous verifications are by Beetz ^ for ziuc vitriol solution, by 
F. Kohlrausch^ for dilute H2SO4, for E.M.F.s from y^, to \ Grove cell 
for zinc vitriol solution, by Reinold * and Rilcker for thin liquid films, 
and by E. Cohn '■* for H2SO4 and CuSO^ solution (in reply to a paper by 
Overbeck '"), using currents with periods of alternation between lOO and 
25000 per second. 

Some additional evidence in favour of the application of Ohm's law 
to conduction in electrolytes is derived from the very numerous measure- 
ments of the resistance of electrolytes. I am not aware that any of the 
many observers in this or other departments have suggested a vai'iation 
of resistance with current, as an explanation of differences in the numerical 
values obtained for the specific resistance of the same solution, with the 
•exception of Kopp " in some experiments on Joule's law. 

The one point that remains to be settled is whether any experimental 
evidence can be found for the deduction from Maxwell's ' Theory of 
Light ' that electrolytes, being transparent, should behave as dielectrics 
for rapidly alternating electromotive forces. There are two ways of 
approaching the question : (1) to find the length of the light-wave for 
which electrolytes are opaque ; (2) to find the rapidity of electrical 
vibration for which the electrolytes cease to conduct. Nothing seems to 
have been done in No. (1 ) ; as to No. (2) Prof. J. J. Thomson '^ has found 

' Pogg. Ann. \m, 1874, p. 556 ; AVicd. Ann. 1, 1877, p. 95 ; 19, 1883, p. 3i0. 

^ Wied. Ann. 2,S, 1886, p. 542. 

^ Verhandl. dcr Phys. Gcs. zu Berlin, 14, 1, 1886, p. 90. 

' Wied. Ann. 10, 1880, p. 551. 

* B.A. Itcp. 18S8, p. 341; 1886, p. .•U2 ; 1887, p. 345. 

• PoKg. Ann. 125, 1865, p. 126 ; 117, 1867, p. 15. 

' JUd. 138, 186!), pp. 280, 370. « Proe. Roy. Soc. 31, 1881, p. 524. 

» AVied. Ann. 21, 1884, p. 646. '» Wied. Ann. 6, 1879, p. 210. 

" Bcihl. 10, 1886, p. 714. '= Proc. Roy. Soc. 45, p. 288. 
1890. 



194 HEPOiiT— 1890. 

tliat electrolytes still conduct when tlie rapidity of alternation is two 
hundred miUions per second. 

If there should be evidence to show that there is no rapidity of alter- 
nation for which electrolytes behave as dielectrics and no waves so long- 
that electrolytes are opaque, we might take up Lodge's ' third suggestion,, 
that the number of molecules actually taking part in the conduction is- 
too small to affect the properties of the substance in bulk, bat this would 
have important bearings on the theory of conduction. 

(fL) The only imntediate effect of the passage of the current upon the hodij 
of a liomogeneous electrolyte is to alter its tem.perature, and the alteration 
of temperature takes place in accordance with Joule's law. 

There are two statements involved in this proposition. First, the 
chemical effects take place entirely at the electrodes : although the 
electricity is conveyed convectively through the electrolyte there is no 
change in the physical or chemical properties of the fluid in the inter- 
mediate vessel of the cell described in Part I. The electrolyte betwecD 
the anode and cathode vessel produces the electro-magnetic effect corre- 
sponding to the current, but it gives no other evidence that a current is 
passing ; it is the same fluid in the same condition as if no current were 
passing. This amounts to asserting a negative, and by it I do not intend 
to deny the possibility of some evidence of changed condition being 
ultimately discovered. Reinold and Riicker found no evidence of change 
of state in their films. Lord Rayleigh - has looked for an effect upon the 
power of transmitting light, but the result of his experiments is to show 
that in dilute sulphuric acid a current of one ampere per square centi- 
metre does not alter the velocity of light by one part in thirteen millions,, 
or fifteen metres per second. I have thought it possible that there might 
be a change in the absorption spectrum of the liquid during the passage 
of the current ; but the spectrum is a complicated phenomenon, and no 
difference is visible in the cases I have tried. It is much to be desired 
that the change, if any, in the condition of the conducting fluid should 
be speedily brought to light, as the question has an important bearing on 
the dissociation theory. Secondly, Joule's law applies equally to electro- 
lytes and metallic conductors. With the acceptance of Ohm's law, this 
does not seem really to imply more than is included in the first statement 
above. For if there is no change in the condition of the electrolyte, the 
only expenditure of energy upon it is that required to maintain the 
current, and the resistance is the amount of work required to maintain 
unit current ; so Joule's law follows if the resistance is constant. If there 
were any chemical cling, as Lodge calls it, of the atoms in the molecules, 
the law could not be true ; so if it be true we must give up the idea of 
polarisation in the interior of an electrolyte, and the idea of a finite 
electric force being required to separate a molecule into ions. A number 
of direct experimental verifications of Joule's law for electrolytes have 
been attempted by Joule,^ by E. Becquerel,'' by Jahn ^ for Cu'SO4 + 200 
11,0 and CuSOj + loOHcO (current between '106 and '162 ampere) and 
for ZnSO4 + 200B[2O and ZnSO4-H300H2O (current strength between 
•037 and -05 ampere), and by Kopp** for ZnS04. In no case has any 
deviation from the law been detected. 

' B.A. Hep. 1885, p. 768. "- Hid. 1888, p. 341. 

' Phil. Mafl. 19, 1841, p. 274. 

* Ann. de 'CMm. [3] 9, 1843, p. 54; see Wied. Eke. 2, § 482-486. 

' Wied. Ann. 25, 1885, p. 49 « Beill. 10, 1886, p. 714. 



( 



ON ELECTEOLTSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 195 

The only apparent evidence against the apphcation of Jonle's law to 
electrolytes is the ' innere Polai-isation ' observed by Du Bois-Reymoud.' ' 
This phenomenon is, however, only exhibited in heterogeneous conductoi's, 
snch as filter-paper and other porous bodies when moistened with a 
bad conductor like water. It is not shown when HqSOj, KI, or IvHO is 
used, unless the porous body is a good conductor, as cliarcoal or cylinders 
of stiff' glue containing brass filings. It may be explained by the division 
of the current between the fluid and the matrix, in the same waj as the 
decomposition of AgNO-^ in a crack in a glass partition, observed by 
Grotthuss.''^ 

For the theory of the relation between E.M.F. and difference of con- 
centration of an electrolyte, see Von Helmholtz, 'Wissensch. Abh.' vol. 1, 
p. 840. 

It is clear from what has been said above that the conduction of 
electricity through the electrolyte inay be considered quite separately 
from the actions taking place at the electrodes. We are accordingly led 
to notice two main and almost independent divisions of the subject. The 
first of these relates to the transformations of energy incidental to, and 
represented by, the sepai'ation of ions, the secondary actions, the thermo- 
electric effects, the electromotive forces of polarisation at the electrodes. 
This part may be called the thermodynamics of electrolysis, while the second 
deals with the conduction of the current throngh the liquid, the mecha- 
nism of conduction or of resistance, and its relation to other physical 
properties. In this no transformation of energy takes place but the 
frictional generation of heat. The secondary actions may in time affect 
the nature of the electrolyte, and the other effects at the electrode alter 
the magnitude of the current ; but jirimarily the two parts of the subject 
are independent. 

Part III. 

§ a. — What is an Electrolyte ? 

The complete answer to this question would imply the complete solu- 
tion of the problem of electrolysis, just as in the theory of light the 
complete solution is the answer to the question. What is common light ? 

Putting the question more definitely — What must be the physical 
state and chemical constitution of a substance in order that the conduc- 
tion of electricity throngh it may be attended with the decomposition of 
the substance into ions appearing only at the electrodes? 

In order to show that a particular substance is an electrolyte, the 
chemical decomposition produced by the current must be demonstrated 
either by the separation and exhibition of the products, or by the E.M.F. 
of polarisation. On account of the sensitiveness of electrical instruments, 
the latter is the more delicate method ; but the analogy between an 
electrolyte of high resistance and a leaky condenser is so close that the 
distinction between a dielectric and an electrolyte may sometimes be 
difficult to draw. 

The liquids whose conduction is undoubtedly electrolytic vary very 
greatly in conductivity. To give an idea of the extent of the variation, I 
have compiled a rough table of conductivities of a number of liquids, 
conductors and non-conductors (the numbers taken mainly from Wiede- 
mann's ' Electricitat '). 

• Wied. Elec. 2, p. 780. = Wied. Elec. 2, p. 783. 

o2 



196 



iiEroRT — 1890. 



Table I. — Conductivities of Liquids referred to that of Mercury xlO~^ at 

0° G. 

[Numbers marked with an asterisk are not to be regarded as final numerical 
results ; they are introduced to indicate the order of magnitude of the quantities.] 





Conductivity re- 


Tempera- 






Liquid 


ferred to Mercury 
at 0°xl0-8 


ture co- 
efficient 


Observer 


Eemarks 


PbCl, (fused) 


25,000-* 





F. Braun 




AgCl" „ 


24,000- 


— 


W. Kohlrausch 


at 600°C. 


NaNO, „ 


11,500-* 


— 


F. Braun 




HNOj in water 


7,330- 


•014 




solution of maxi- 
mum conduc- 
tivity at 18°C. 


HCI 


7,174- 


-0155 




,, 


H,SO, „ 


6,914- 


-0162 




)> 


Kon 


5,095- 


-0225 




j» 


KI 


4,100- 


-0140 


VFrom Wiede- 
mann 


sp. gr. 1-70 


NH.CI „ 


3,980- 


•0155 


„ 1-078 


AgNO, „ 


2,100- 


-0211 




„ 2-18 


NaCl 


2,016- 


-0234 




„ 1-201 


KHCO3 „ 


1,100- 


-0199 




„ 1-15 


CuSO, „ 


440- 


-0241 




„ 1-208 


C4HfiOj „ 


94- 


-0192 


/ 


solution of maxi- 
mum conduc- 
tivity at 18° C. 


ZnCL fused 


8G-* 





F. Braun 




CaCL in alcohol 


83- 


-0102 


Fitzpatrick 




C.H,Oo in water 


15-2 


-0174 


From Wiede- 
mann 


solution of maxi- 
mum conduc- 
tivity at 18° C. 


HgCl, „ 


3-91 


-0249 


Grotrian 


5 per cent, solu- 
tion 


HgBr, „ 


•24 


•032 


)» 


-422 per cent, so- 
lution 


Alcohol 


•018 


-018 


Pfeiffer 




Ether 


j-008*) 
1 -0025 ) 


— 


/ Kohlrausch 




Water at 2° 5 F. 


•0071 









„ at 14°C. 


-0065 


-035 


Pfeiffer 




Benzene 


-002* 


— 


W. i. p. 565 




SnClj 


? -0000001* 


— 





The electrolyte of highest conductivity is fused lead chloride, and by 
taking solutions more and more dilute, we obtain without any breach of 
continuity electrolytes of less and less conductivity down to that of pare 
water or pure alcohol, and the resistance of these is of the same order as 
that of benzene, and even for these and other nearly insulating liquids, ' 
as ether and oil of turpentine, evidence of polarisation has been shown. ^ 

It is clear, therefore, that the question of what constitutes an electro- 
lyte must be considered quite apart from the specific resistance of the 
substances. 

As to the physical properties of electrolytes, the majority of them are 
liquids, but there are certainly solids in which conduction is attended 
with decomposition. I may refer to a diagram by W. Kohlrausch (Wied. 
' Ann.' vol. 17, p. 642), showing his observations on the salts of silver, 

' Picker quoted by Von Hebnholtz, Faraday Lecture, Jour. Chem. Soc. 39, p. 291. 



ON ELECTllOLTSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEJIISTEY. 197 

in which the continuity of the numerical value of the conductivity of 
Agl and the mixture AgCl + AgI through their fusing points is very 
striking. The point of transition of Agl ' from the amorphous to the 
ci-ystalline state is also interesting, and is marked on the diagram. The 
conduction of these bodies below the fusing point is attended with 
chemical decomposition, but whether it is wholly or only partially of 
that nature is not demonstrated. The diagram also shows the results of 
Hittorf's observations on AgoS, which is decomposed by the current 
when solid ; this body fuses at a red heat. Solid CU2S was likewise shown 
by Hittorf - to conduct electrolytically. 

Plumbic chloride, bromide, iodide^ also conduct, and glass'' even at 
low temperature. Warburg and Tegetmeier ^ have shown that sodium 
penetrates quartz electrolytically. 

But all solid compound bodies do not conduct electrolytically ; those 
in the following table conduct metallically : — 

Table II. — Compound Bodies which conduct like Metals. 



Substance 


Olisen-er 


Cuprous selenide, Cu„Se 


Hittorf 


Cupric sulphide, CuS 


)j 


Stannic sulphide, SnS„ 


)» 


Argentic selenide, Ag.,Se 


)) 


Lead peroxide, PbO„ 




Manganese dioxide, MnO., 




Argentic oxide, Ag.,0 




Magnetite 


S. P. Thompson 


Hematite 


91 



There is also an increasing body of experimental evidence of electro- 
lytic action on the passage of electricity through gases, particularly in 
the neighbourhood of electric discharge. These phenomena will be con- 
sidered in Part V. 

There are, however, no liquids, other than pure metals and alloys, 
which conduct electricity with the same facility as fused or dissolved 
electrolytes without electrolytic conduction. Faraday ^ considered that 
fused Hgia, HgClo, and PbF2 were liquids which were capable only of 
metallic conduction, but fused PbF2 has been shown to conduct electro- 
lytically by Beetz,'' and electrolytic action has been proved to exist also in 
the other two cases by J. W. Clark,* but it is not yet clear whether the 
conduction in these cases is entirely electrolytic. If it should prove to 
be so, conduction in liquids may prove to be, as J. J. Thomson ^ suggests, 
of identical nature in metals and electrolytes. 

While, therefore, it would be unwise to say that whatever conduction 
there may be through liquids of very high resistance is not electrolytic, 
the difference in the condition and constitution of substances from which 

' See also a paper by Lehmann, Wied. Ann. 38, p. 396. 

^ Hittorf, Fogg. Ann. 84, p. 5, 1851. 

' llclmholtz, Faraday Lecture. Gross, Monatsher. der Berl. Acad. 1877, p. 500. 

■■ Wiedemann, Elec. i. p. 5.58. 

» Nachr. v. d. K. Ges. d. Wiss. Gottingen, May 30, 1888. 

« Exp. Res. vol. 1, pp. C91, ()92, 1340, and 1341. 

' Fogg. Ann. vol. 92, p. 452, 1854. » Phil. Mag. July 1885, p. 37. 

' Aj)jj!ication of Dynamics to Phijdcs, p. 297. 



Faraday 

Confirmed by Hittorf (I.e.) 



■\ 



-Bleekrode, I.e., Tables G and 7 



198 EEPOET— 1890. 

arise the phenomena that one conducts freely with chemical decomposi- 
tion while another is neai'ly a perfect insulator, still remains to be classified 
and, if possible, explained. The following is a list of some liquids which 
are practically insulators of electricity ' : — 

Table III. 

Stannic chloride, SnCl^ .... — 

Fused zinc iodide, ZnL .... (Faraday) 

Pure water (probably) .... (Kohlrausch) 

Fused anhydrous chromic peroxide, CrOj . (Hittorf, Wied. ' Ann.' 4, p. 37-1,1878) 

Sulphurous anhydride, SO^ 

Sulphuric anhydride, SO3 . 

Carbonic anhydride, C0„ . 

Boracic anhydride, BO3 

Arsenic anhydride, AsO^ . 

Nitrogen peroxide, N^O^ .... — 

?Osmic peroxide, OsO^ .... — 

?Vanadic anhydride Hittorf I.e. 

Bromic iodide, BrI „ 

Metallo-organic compounds . , . Bleekrode,Wied. 'Ann.' vol. 3, p. 178, 

Table 5. 

C.,N„ 

CS„' 

CCl^ 

c:ci, 

CCl^ 

Hydrocarbons 

Haloid compounds of the alcohol radicles . 

HCl 1 „ 

HBr \ ^°^^ 

TTj J Bleekrode, I.e., Table 1 

tt" [ Bleekrode, I.e. 

PCI3 ■.;;■..':;: - 

Anhydrous HF Moissan, 'Beibl.'x., p. 715. 

SCI3 — 

SbCL. — 

SnI, — 

Sb^Oa fused — 

Antimony oxychloride .... — 

On the other hand the following are electrolytic conductors : — 

Fused M0O3 Hittorf (I.e.) 

Liquid NH3 Bleekrode (Wied. 'Ann.' 3,p.l61,1878) 

(ijrobably impure, Hittorf, I.e.) 

„ HON 

Fused urea Dewar 

Sulphides of alcohol i-adicles, chlorides, 

bromides, iodides of the organic acid 

radicles and their chlorine and bromine 

substitution derivatives . . . . Bartoli, ' Beibl.' 11, p. IGO 

The eS'ect of physical state upon the insulators does not seem to affect 
their conductivity. SnClj does not conduct at its boiling-point at ordinary 
pressure. According to Bartoli, benzene insulates up to the critical 
temperature ; methyl alcohol conducts better and better up to the same 
and from thenceforward the gas insulates. 

A cursory survey of Table I. will show that the temperature co- 

' See also Bartoli {BeiU. vol. 11, p. 159) on the conductivity of solutions of the 
alcohols in benzene, &c. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTHO-CnEMISTRT. 199 

efficients of all the electrolytes are of the same sign and of the same order 
of magnitude. Probably all electrolytes have temperature coefficients of 
the same sign, and this may have to be explained, but it does not help 
towards classification, for some alloys ' have a positive coefficient. More- 
over, according to Arrhenius, the sign of the temperature coefhcient may 
be reversed at higher temperatures for a number of electrolytes of low 
conductivity (see p. 223). 

According to Kohlrausch,^ electrolytes must be mixtures. This is 
supported by the observations upon the effect of mixing two non-con- 
ductors as H.,0 and HCl, which together form good conductors. And, 
perhaps, we should be justified in regarding whatever conducting power 
there may be in any pure sample of a single liquid as being due to the 
presence of impurity. The conductivity of mixtures of water and alcohol 
have been carefully investigated by Pfeiffer,'' and from his curve it 
is clear that certain percentages of mixture have higher conductivity 
than either water or alcohol. 

If this is to be regarded as a satisfactory definition of an electrolyte, 
the converse proposition, that a liquid will conduct if it be a mixture, 
should also hold. That is to say, in order to make one of the liquids 
given in Table III. conduct, all that is necessary is to mix it with some 
other substance. Mr. W. Coldridge "* has examined from this point of 
view the effect of mixing various substances with SnClj, and haw found 
that whereas the absorption of a small quantity of dry HCl gas produces 
a liquid which has very slight conducting power and shows galvanic 
polarisation, platinum chloride or chloroform can be mixed with the 
tin chloride without producing any conducting power. Moreover, the 
tin chloride absorbs considerable quantity of dry HgS gas, which gives a 
yellow liquid insulating apparently as completely as the tin chloride 
itself, and at the same time no precipitation of SnS2 occurs ; but the 
addition of a minute quantity of water or alcohol to the mixture deter- 
mines at once the precipitation of the tin sulphide and at the same time 
the conduction through the liquid. There seems to be a wide field for 
useful experiments in tbis direction, with the primary object of determining 
what is the nature of the special kind of mixture Avhich causes con- 
ductivity and what are the ions when such a conducting mixture is pro- 
duced. The fact that mixture alone is not sufficient to account for 
electrolytic action may be to some extent inferred from the fact that no 
evidence of decomposition can be observed in the conduction of electricity 
through alloys."^ 

Hittorf,* in his valuable survey of the history of electrolysis, maintains 
the proposition ' Electrolytes are salts ' ; but, p. 401, he says, ' As from 
chemical phenomena no sharp distinction can be drawn between salts 
and non-salts, so it is with the distinction between electrolytes and insu- 
lators.' Hittorf's definition of a salt ^ is a compound which by double 
affinity exchanges its constituents with those of another recognised 
electrolyte, the ions of the respective compounds being those constituent 
parts which take part in the double exchange. Upon this definition 
Professor G. Wiedemann remarked at the B.A. Meeting, 1887 (' Report,' 

' "Von Aubel, Proc. Plnl. Soo. vol. 9, p. 13:]. 

- (rci/e/iiffirtir/c Anschaiiuiio, pp. 10 and 17 ; PdgS- -^nn. 150, p. 271, 1S7G. 
' Wied. Ann. 25, p. 232, 1885. ' I'liil. Ma;/, vol. 2'.t, p. 38:;, 1890. 

* See Ji.A. Report, 18.'<7, p. 341. « Wied. Ann. 4, p. 374, 1878. 

' Pogg. Ann. lOG, p. 501, § 65. 



200 REPOBT— 1890. 

p. 347), ' This is not generally true. First, we have certain bodies -wLicb 
seem not to be decomposed by the current, though they exchange their 
elements with those of other compounds which are electrolytes. Take, 
for instance, anhydrous hydrochloric acid. It does not conduct. Never- 
theless, as Dr. Gore has shown, if you put it upon carbonate of lime the 
carbonic acid is chased away and chloride of calcium is formed. And, 
to give another example, the chloride of propyle is a non-conductor; 
nevertheless, when you treat it with bromide or iodide of silver the 
chloride gets changed into bromide or iodide. With just reason you. 
may object that this is no proof, for perhaps the chloride of propyle is 
only a very bad conductor, therefore the current does not pass in a sensible 
way and we cannot observe the decomposition. In this respect we may 
refer to the researches of Mr. Bleekrode in Holland, and Mr. Bartoli in 
Italy. 

' But, on the other side, we find well-known electrolytes exchanging 
their ions with elements of other compounds which, without any doubt, 
are not their ions. So, for instance, chlor-acetic acid (CH2CICOOH) or 
the ethylic ether of this acid, and iodide of potassium exchange between 
each other the chlorine and iodine, though assuredly the ions of chlor- 
acetic acid are not 01 and CH,COOH, but CH,C1C00 and H.' (See 
also Wiedemann, 'Elec' vol. 2, p. 926, and Lodge, 'B.A. Report,' 1885.) 

If we adopt the dissociation hypothesis we may say that an electrolyte 
is a substance part of which is in a state of dissociation, each dissociated 
molecule being resolved into two parts, which form the ions in electrolysis. 
It remains to be considered whether there is any means of finding out 
(otherwise than by conductivity) whether there is any such dissociation. 

The processes of chemical reaction are, however, brought by the 
dissociation theory into close connection with electrolytic action, so that 
Hittorf's classification can only be distinguished from the definition based 
on dissociation by the consideration that the latter goes a step further 
and explains and accounts for Hittorf's empirical generalisation. The 
case of chlor-acetic acid and others similar are considered by Ostwald, and 
cause him to extend the dissociation hypothesis in order to include them 
(see below, p. 220). 

There remains, therefore, the definition forming the fundamental 
hypothesis of the dissociation theory, viz., that an electrolyte is a substance 
which contains some compound in a state of partial or complete dissocia- 
tion. It is upon this hypothesis that a great deal of recent work in 
electrolysis has been based, and nearly all the observed phenomena of 
electrolysis have been deduced from it. What the precise nature of the 
dissociation is may not be clear. The provisional hypothesis regards the 
dissociation of a compound in an aqueous solution as the resolution oi 
the molecules of the compound into atoms or their chemical representa- 
tives which form the ions in electrolysis. Large strides have been made 
towards the formation of a mechanical theory of the electrolysis of solu- 
tions on this basis, some account of which will be given below. What 
is still wanting for the completion of the theory, besides the explanation 
of small numerical differences between calculated and observed results 
and the development of its extension to include the exceptional cases 
mentioned above, is the investigation of the mode in which the solvent 
acts in producing the necessary dissociation without itself being appre- 
ciably resolved. That may no doubt be forthcoming when the actions of 
different solvents have been observed ; in the meantime it is interesting 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTKT. 201 

lo note that the definition of the electrolytic property by the dissociation 
of the electrolyte seems applicable not only to liquids but also to solids * 
and gases, ■^ 

§ b. — WJiat are the ions in any Electrolytic Decomposition ? 

In Part II., Section &, we have seen that the process of conduction 
through an electrolyte consists in the motion of ions in opposite directions, 
each carrying a definite charge of electricity. It is a matter of great 
interest to identify the ions in any particular case, and in the years fol- 
lowing Faraday's researches in electrolysis attempts to identify ions by 
the methods of chemical analysis were very numerous, and the interest 
in them was increased by the fact that the results arrived at were entirely 
opposed to the Berzelius theory of salts. This department of the subject 
is most conspicuously represented by a series of well-known papers by 
Hittorf, Pogg. 'Ann.' ?9 p. 177, 98 p. 1, 103 p. 1, 106 p. 337, and 
p. 513 (185-i-59). 

The ions are deposited at the electrodes, where they are either set free 
or take part in secondary actions, and the first step towards the identifica- 
tion of the ions is to determine the primary chemical result of electrolysis 
from the final results which are due to secondary actions. Thus when a 
solution of KBLO is electrolysed the obvious products set free are H and 
O, but the analysis of the liquid shows that both these products are 
secondary, and are due to the action of the primary products, K and HO 
respectively, upon water. 

In order to determine the primary results of electrolysis from the 
secondary products, the division of the cell ideally represented in Part I. 
has been adopted, but the simple divisions there mentioned as used by 
Daniell and Miller do not serve the purpose of ideal separation ; the 
arrangements necessary for this purpose are described in Wiedemann's 
' Electricitiit,' 2, § 549. Hittorf's arrangements are described in the 
same volume, § 550, and an apparatus used recently by Loeb and Nernst 
is figured and described in p. 950 of vol. 2 of the ' Zeitschrift fiir phys. 
Chem.' 

It might be supposed that the results of the analj^sis of the liquid 
contained in the anode and cathode vessel respectively would give the 
amount and nature of the decomposed compound, and the amount and 
nature of each of the products, and hence that the ions would be statistically 
determinate ; that is, without giving any information as to whether all the 
ions were of the same kind or not, a result would be obtained which 
would strictly represent the average process. According to the general 
view, however, chemical analysis fails to give this conclusive evidence, 
the original electrolytic process being complicated by electric endosmose, 
and the unequal dilution in solutions, mentioned in Part I. (6) (c), as 
the following example will show : — 

In the electrolysis of a solution of copper sulphate containing 
3"793 grammes of copper in 100 c.c. of solution, while one gramme 
equivalent (^ Cu) of copper is being deposited in the cathode, the total 
gain of copper in the cathode vessel, taking account both of the 
deposited and the still dissolved metal, is '75 of an equivalent, and 

' Van 't HoflE, ' Ueber feste Losungen und !Moleculargewichtsbestimmung an 
festen Kijrpcrn,' Xcitschr.fiir ph. Chem. 5, p. 322, 1890. 
* J. J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 358, 1890. 



202 REPORT — 1890. 

the volume of the liquid in the cathode vessel increases by 11'09 X 37 c.c.,^ 
so that the amount of water transferred isll'09 x37 x "9/18 gramme mole- 
cules. If we trust to the results of the chemical analysis solely to 
identify the ions we must assume that the molecule decomposed is of a 
complex nature, so that the decomposition takes place according to the 
following scheme : — 

Cum(CuS0i)n(H.20) ; SO4 m' (CUSO4) n' (B.fi). 

If now we assume that of the molecules decomposed equal numbers are 
taken from the anode and cathode vessels, we can arrange the gains and 
losses as follows : — 

Cathode vessel (1 gramme equivalent of copper deposited). 

Loss. 3 gramme molecule decomposed. 

i.e., ^ n (l + 77^ + 1)l')Cu 

and \ {n + n'yR^O. 

Gain. \ gramme molecule of the cation. 

i.e.; i Cu m (CUSO4) n (HgO) 

i.e., ^ (m + ])Cu 

hn H2O. 

Hence the net gain of Cu is — 

Hl + «i-»OCu=-75xlCu, . . . (1) 
whence 

m — m'=:'5 
and the net gain of water 

=i(w-H/)H20=^/^x37H20 . . . (2) 
n-7i' =2-2x37. 

Even on this supposition, therefore, the chemical analysis would not 
completely determine the average composition of the molecules decom- 
posed ; only the differences (m — m') and (?i — n') are determinable. We 
can, however, assign a formula to the simplest molecule that would give 
the observed result by assuming that the lesser of the two m, in! and of 
11, 11' respectively are zero ; thus in the case above, assuming that m'=0 
and n'=^0, we get m=-5 and ?i;=81"4. 

The average molecule in this case would be approximately ^ 

Cu,i(CuS04), ^H20/S04 
or getting rid of fractions 

Cu2(CuS04)163H20/(S04)2. 

This indicates the extent to which the inferences from chemical analysis 
could be pushed. It is evident on reference to the table given in Wiede- 
mann, 2, p. 592, that the average molecule would be different for different 
degrees of dilubion which would alter the numbers on the right-hand side 
of equations (1) and (2). It appears from the table referred to, that if 

' Wied. Elec. 2, p. 592. 

" In a paper in the Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. (Nov. 18S9) the complex molecule is 
erroneously calculated in consequence of my having misunderstood Wiedemann's 
data. 



ox ELECTllOLTSIS AND KLECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 203 

tlxe alteration duo to the increass of volnmcs in the cathode vessel be 
separately allowed for, the decomposed molecules for different strengths of 
solution would come out very nearly the same, and hence a great simplifi- 
cation would result. This view, to some extent on the ground of the 
probable identity of ions in solutions of different strengths, is in fact 
adopted, and the change of volumes regarded as a separate phenomenon 
due to tlie diaphragm and called electric endosmose. Separating this we 
get for the decomposed molecule 

CuaCCuSOJ/CSOJs; 

in other words, the complex molecule decomposed consists of an aggre- 
gate of CUSO4 molecules of which the electrolysis separates a portion only 
of the constituent atoms. 

But further, the nature of the decomposed molecule would still be 
somewhat different for different degrees of dilution, for the dilution of the 
liquid round the cathode only becomes constant when the degree of dilu- 
tion passes a certain limit. However, this also can be explained on the 
assumption of the simplest possible molecular decomposition, that of 
CnS04 into Cu and SO4, by attributing the alteration with the concentra- 
tion of solution to the migration of molecules of salt through the solution 
produced by the motion of the ions with unequal velocities. A separate 
section is devoted to this theory, so that it will suffice here to point out 
that its introduction reduces the electrolysis to the simplest possible form, 
namely, the resolution of a single molecule (CUSO4) into atoms or their 
equivalents, viz., Cu and SO4. As this is the hypothesis upon which the 
dissociation theory is based, but little objection arises on that score, but it 
should be borne in mind that although this resolution into atoms or 
atomic equivalents is the simplest possible, and has not met any facts that 
it is definitely incompetent to explain, yet it is only one of many more com- 
plex arrangements that might be suggested, and it is not yet clear by any 
crucial experiment whether simplicity or complexity is the rule observed 
by nature in the process of electrolysis. The following paragraph suggests 
one reason in favour of complexity. 

The phenomena that are exhibited in a battery cell, consisting of 
electrodes of different nature in a liquid or in two liquids, are paralleled 
by corresponding phenomena exhibited with two similar electrodes in 
solutions of different strengths. The electromotive force of polarisation 
in the first case is represented in the second by an electromotive force 
resisting or promoting the alteration of strength of solution ; and the 
heat of chemical action at the electrodes, part of which goes to produce 
the electi'omotive force, is represented by the heating effect of dilution of 
the solution.' There seems, on the ground here mentioned, reason for 
thinking that, in solutions which are not infinitely dilute at any rate, the 
migration of the ions may be a part of the primary electrolytic process, 
and indicate a corresponding complexity of the ions. 

It may further be remarked that Bouty classifies salts into normal and 
abnormal ones. Those of the former class tend to closer equality of 
molecular conductivity in extreme dilution, and they are characterised by 
having a migration constant equal to '5 for each ion, that is to say, they 
produce no alteration of concentration in the two vessels, or the decom- 
posed molecule as directly determined by chemical analysis is a simple 

' See papers by Moser, Wicd. Ann. ?>, p. 21G, 1878. 



204 EEPORT— 1890. 

one, or at least the same number of molecules of tbe salt are attached to 
the anion and cation respectively. 

There is a certain amount of evidence for the existence of molecular 
aggregates in electrolytic solutions. Dr. E. Wiedemann ('B.A. Report/ 
1887, p. 346) has examined the conductivity of copper-cbloi'ide solution 
dt different temperatures from this point of view. The solution is 
specially interesting, because it changes colour with temperature, and tbe 
colour change is probably due to a change in the state of hydration. The 
conductivity increases nearly at a constant rate up to 60^, and beyond this 
point the rate rapidly diminishes, and therefore indicates that the con- 
ductivity of salts varies with their degree of hydration. 

Helmholtz (Faraday Lecture, p. 289) says that it is possible that the 
majority of molecules in SO4H2 may be divided into SO4 and Hg, some of 
them on the other hand into SO4H and H. This would account for an 
alteration in the apparent velocity of hydrogen at different concentra- 
tions, for in the latter case some of the hydrogen would be carried 
backwards. 

Bouty,' also discussing the conduction of H2SO4, says, 'One does not 
see how to explain a variation of this kind except by a change in the 
nature of the electrolyte {i.e. of the dissolved hydrate).' By making the 
hypothesis v/hich Bourgoin made, that the hydrate really decomposed by 
the current was S2O66H2O, Bouty considei's that the anomaly of electro- 
lysis, as expressed by Hittorf 's values of n, and also that of conductivity, is 
explained. Hydrochloric acid is in much the same condition as sul- 
phuric acid ; it conducts as if its molecules contained three equivalents 
of basic hydrogen. Other remarks of a similar bearing might also be 
quoted.^ 

The electrolysis of strong solutions of Cdig in alcohol has been ac- 
cepted on all sides as involving the decomposition of complex molecules. 

Moreover, Arrhenius, in a letter to Lodge (May 17, 1886), ' British 
Association Ueport,' 1886, p. 311, suggests the formation of double mole- 
cules and treble molecules in concentrated solutions. 

Crorapton ^ has sought to prove the relation between hydrates existing 
in sulphuric acid and the conductivity of solutions by plotting the second 
differentials of the conductivity-concentration curves, and obtaining the 
result as a series of straight lines. The line of argument is that taken by 
Mendeleef in discussing the hydrates of alcohol and sulphuric acid by 
plotting the first differential of the density- concentration curves, but it 
is pushed a stage further. The method, however, is a somewhat uncertain 
one, and has been called in question. See Pickering ' Zeitschr. fiir phys. 
Chem.' vol. vi. p. 10, also ' Chem. Soc. Journ.' 1890, p. 64. It is liable 
to represent in a foreshortened way small irregularities of the original 
curves, which may, indeed, have a corresponding experimental basis ; 
they may also depend merely upon errors of plotting of the oi-iginal 
curve. 

Whatever evidence there may be for the existence of aggregates in 
comparatively strong solutions affecting the conductivity, it must be re- 
membered that it is not clear that the electricity is carried by the aggre- 
gates. It is possible that the solution may contain a number of dissociated 

1 Ann. de Chim. [6] 3, p. 481, 1884. 

"^ See for instance Bouty, C.R. 104, p. 1789, 1887; and especially for the electro- 
lysis of cadmium salts, see Werschoven, Zeiisclir.f. j)h. Chem. vol. 5, p. 481. 
^Joiir. Chem. Soc. 53, p. 116, 1888. 



ON ELECTEOLYSIS AND ELECTEO-CUEMISTRY. 205 

molecules as well as molecular aggregates, and that while the colour of the 
solution and a number of other properties depend upon the latter, the 
electricity may be conveyed by the former alone. It might even be sug- 
gested that if the tempei'ature coefficient of absorption of a coloured 
solution were determined, it would be found to be closely related to the 
temperature coefficient of conductivity, and when allowance was made 
for the change of viscosity it might furnish the temperature coefficient 
of dissociation. 

An interesting point in connection with the determination of the 
ions is the question whether the ions are all of one kind in an electrolytic 
solution ; in other words, whether the water conducts, or all the current 
is carried by the molecules of the dissolved salt. If an electrolyte be a 
mixture, as of HCl and HoO, do both compounds take a share in the 
conduction, or one only? Lodge ('Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1885) argued 
strongly in favour of a division of the conductivity between salt and 
solvent, and founded a theory of migration on that hypothesis ; but the 
experimental evidence seems to have left the subject in the following 
state.' It is possible to obtain water with a \evy high degree of insulat- 
ing power, but, when it is pushed to the extreme limit, it is impossible 
to tell whether the conduction is due to water molecules or undetected 
impurity. In dilute solutions the increase of conductivity which is con- 
ferred upon the water by the addition of a small quantity of salt is due to 
the added salt alone, and the conductivity of a dilute solution containing 
the added salt may be deduced from the observed conductivity of the 
solution by subtracting the conductivity of the water of which the solu- 
tion was made ; in other words, conductivity by water molecules forms 
no part of the added conductivity due to the salt.^ Thus water is 
regarded as a body of a special kind, which dissociates other salts and 
makes them conduct, but itself carries the current to no appreciable 
extent. 

The resulting chemical products are certainly different for different 
values of the current density. If a dilute solution of copper sulphate be 
subjected to electrolysis under the effect of a very high electromotive 
force, bubbles of hydrogen speedily make their appearance at the cathode, 
and it has been supposed that there is a limiting value of the current 
density beyond which the current ceases to traverse the salt solely, and 
an appreciable amount passes through the water. C. L. Weber, ' Zeitschr. 
fiir phys. Chem.' vol. 4, p. 182, 1889, has employed this phenomenon to 
determine the absolute velocity of the ions. It may, however, be explained 
by the continued impoverishment of the solution in the neighbourhood 
of the cathode ; and, in fact, if the electrolysis be continued for some 
time between platinum electrodes, the whole of the copper may be 
abstracted from the solution. 

I have tried myself to ascertain whether the water took part in the 
conduction, by interposing a very dilute solution of copper sulphate 
between two much stronger ones, so that, if the water conducted, a layer 
of copper hydrate would be formed at the junction between the strong 

' The discussion has been somewhat lengthy. Finally Kohlrausch has admitted 
that an experiment of Farada}''s may possibly be explained satisfactorily by attri- 
buting a minute conductivity to the solvent. See Wied. Elec. 2, § 583 ; Kohlrausch, 
AVicd. Ann. 26, p. IGl; Arrhenius, Brit. Assoc. Hajf. 188C, p. 311; Hermann, Ikibl, 
si. p. 831. 

- F. Kohlrausch, Wied. Ann. 2G, p. 190. 



206 EEPORT— 1890. 

anode solution and tlie dilute solution. But I found that with the electro- 
motive force at my disposal (50 volts) I was unable to determine any 
such layer of hydrate. The experiments were, however, not conclusive, 
for the hydi'ate is to a certain extent soluble in copper sulphate ; over- 
looking this defect, the dilution seemed so to diminish the current as to 
make it weak enough for the sulphate molecules to carry it. 

The roujjh agreement of Weber's results with the values of ionic 
velocities deduced by other methods is inconclusive, for the impoverish- 
ment of the solution would be itself dependent upon the ionic velocities, 
and hence the results deduced from the limit of current density would 
depend on the velocities — directly, upon the one hypothesis, and indirectly, 
upon the other. 

Summing up the results of this section, so far as regards a fused 
electrolyte or the solution of a single salt, we may say that tlie ions have 
hitherto been determined from the results of the chemical analysis of the 
liquid in the anode and cathode vessel, with the tacit understanding that 
the electrolysis shall be regarded as that due to the resolution of single 
molecules into ions which are atoms, or their chemical icpresentative 
radicles, unless the observations are such as to make such a view entirely 
untenable, even when the dilution is referred to unequal motion of the 
ions and not to complex molecular decomposition. Thus every chemical 
determination of the ions should imjily a determination of the constant of 
migration; and when the dilution at one electrode is so rapid that to 
apply the hypothesis of unequal ionic motion successfully would require 
us to assume the velocity of one ion to be negative, that is, that the ion 
would have to be moved against the electrical forces acting upon it,' then 
the decomposed molecule may be regarded as compound ; one ion is 
assumed to have associated with it one or more molecules, as may be 
necessary, of undecomposed salt. Thus a critical consideration of the 
ions in electrolysis leads us to the question of the migration of ions. 
There are, however, cases in which the ions corresponding to the simple 
molecular decomposition can be comparatively easily inferred. The 
results of a number of determinations of ions are given in the table on 
the next page (Table IV.). 

A confirmation of the results obtained may be derived from the 
electrolysis of solutions in series, in which case the anion of one solution 
combines with the cation of the adjacent one. The results exhibited in 
the table show the amounts of the respective ions corresponding to the 
deposition of one equivalent of hydrogen in a voltameter, so that they 
may be also regarded as showing the application of the second part of 
Faraday's law. 

One warning must be given about such determinations. In order to 
determine both the ions, both the anode and cathode vessel must be 
separately analysed. The analysis of one alone is not sufficient. For a 
salt such as ]Sra3P04 may be decomposed by solution into NaH2P04 and 
Na2HP04, and the electrolysis be different from what it would be if the 
deposition of Na were established, and the second ion inferred from the 
composition of the original salt. I do not think that all the results 
quoted in the table have been subjected to minute criticism from the 

' The force upon an atom or group of atoms carrying a charge + e would be 

«^— , when ^ is the slope of potential per unit of length from anode to cathode, in 

the direction towards the cathode. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CnEMISTRT. 



207 



Table IV. — lonsas deduced from the Results of Ghemical Analysis, referred, 
if possible, to the Resolution of a simple Molecule into Atoms or their 
Ghemical Representatives. 



Electrolyte 


Solvent 


Auion 


Cation 


Authority 


KHO 


Fused 


HO 


K 


Janeczek, ' Wied.' 

{5 580 


SiO.. 


5J 


— 


Si 


§ 581 


As.,S, 


»> 


S 


As 


§581 


Cu.,ci., 


)> 


CI 


Cu 


Buff, 'Vvied.'g 582 


AloCl„ + NaCl 


» 


AlCl^+Cl 


Na 


Buff and Hittorf, 
' Wied.' § 582 


JIoO, 


9) 


MoO., 





— 


K..Cr.,6, 


J» 


CrO, + |0 


K 


— 


H.SO^ 




K«o,) 


H 


'Wied.'§ 608; Gee 
& Holden, 'Proc. 
Phys. Soc.' May 
20, 1888 


HgL 


Fused 


I 


KHgJ.)? 


Clark, 'Phil. Mag.' 
July 1885, p. 37 


HNa.,POi 


In water 


iHPO, 


Na? 


Daniell & Miller, 
Hittorf, 'Wied.' 
p. 532 


NasPO, 


»> 


iPO., 


Na? 


J> »» 


Naj',0, 


ij 


jPP, 


Na? 


? See Ostwald, 










* Zeitschr. filr 
phys. Cliem.' 


NaH.,PO, 


ty 


H„PO^ 


Na? 


Daniell and Miller 


KH,.PO^ 


?> 


h:po^ 


K? 


j» )> 


H,Na,NHj,POj 


)» 


HNH.PO^ 


Na 


»> j» 


H.,KAsOj 


>> 


HjAsOj 


K 


j» j> 


kSCN 


>J 


SON 


K 


)> »» 


KsFeCCN), 


J» 


— 


K 


)j )) 


NaNH^C,H,0„ 


>» 


— 


Na 


}> 9) 


(UO.,)C].. 


99 


CI 


Kuo.,) 


n )» 


KAg(CNJ., 


J> 


Ag(CN).. 


K 


J» iy 


Na,PtCl/ 


») 


KPtClJ 


Na 


Hittorf, Wied. 
'Ann.'vol.4,p.374. 


K^Cdl^ 


»> 


Cdl, 


K 


— 


H,S 


>» 


is 


H 


Berthelot, 'Wied.' 
p. 540 


KHO 


)> 


HO 


K 


' Wied.' p. 542 


Morphin 


») 


CI 


H + C3,H,„N0„ 


' Wied.' p. 925 


H,C,0, 


>» 


i (CO J (not 
CO..) 


H 


)» )» 


SnCl^ 


t9 


Cl" 


iSn 


Becquerel, Wied. 
Elec' § 601 


AgCl 


In NH3 solutn. 


— 


Ag 


>> J> 


FeCI^ 


In water 


. — . 


iFe 


)> )> 


Cu.,Cl2 


luHCl 


— 


Cu 


I* )f 


SbCI, 


» 


— 


iSb 


»» JJ 


SbCl, 


Fused 


— 


iSb 


»> >» 


CujO 


In NH3 solutn. 


— 


Ca 


1) 9) 


CuO 


»» 


— 


iCu 


1> 9» 


Cu,S,03 


In water 


— 


Cu 


1» 19 


CuN,0„ 


It 


— 


^Cu 


»» l» 


2PbNO3H20 


»i 


— 


Pb 


J» »» 


4PbNO„8PbH20 


*> 


— 


l-75Pb 


» *> 



208 EEroRT— 1890. 

point of vie.w here indicated. The table is, in faci, merely a summaiy ot 
results as quoted by Wiedemann (' Eleo.' vol. 2), and represents the ions 
as indicated by the older experiments in electrolysis. The subject has 
not been specifically dealt with recently, but the modern work bearing 
on it will be brought under review in the section on the migration of 
ions. 

It must further be remembered ' that in the case of acids (where one 
of the ions is hydrogen) it is not possible by quantitative analysis to draw 
a distinction between the resultant effect of the motion of the positive ion 
and the deposition on the electrode. The whole result of the electrolysis, 
as far as the cathode vessel is concerned, is to develop a certain amount 
of hydrogen, and possibly increase or diminish the amount of free acid. 
Hence the distinction between primary and secondary development of the 
hydrogen fails. 

Some light might be thrown on the problem of the identification of 
the ions by the consideration of the heat- equivalents of the chemical 
action at the electrodes which should, if thoroughly understood, furnish 
evidence of distinction between the primary results of electrolysis and the 
secondary effects at the electrodes. I have already alluded to one case, 
namely, that of the representation of the heat- equivalent of the dilu- 
tion of a solution as an electromotive force, being possibly evidence of 
the complexity of the ions; but taking the evidence that I have been able 
to consult and arrange, it does not appear that the thermodynamic theory 
of electromotive force is sufficiently far advanced for it to be used with 
confidence as a means of determining the ions in electrolysis. 

We pass on now to the consideration of the ions in mixed solutions. lu 
this case the substances set free at the electrodes are more liable to be 
due to secondary actions than in the case of a solution of a single salt, so 
that for some time it was supposed that the ions depended on the current 
density. An account of the earlier observations on this subject is given 
in Wiedemann, 'Elec' 2, p. 593, from which it appears that at all current 
densities the current is divided between the two dissolved salts, but the 
ions due to one of them react upon the solution, and thus is explained the 
actual appearance of only one set of ions. 

Of recent work we may refer to S. P. Thompson's paper on the Elec- 
tro-Deposition of Alloys (' Proc. Roy. Soc' 1887, p. 387), and to a paper 
by Arrhenius on Isohydric Solutions (Wied. ' Ann.' vol. 30, p. 51, 1887, 
and 'British Association Rep.' 1886, p. 315). 

By this latter paper we may infer (from the fact that the conductivities 
of certain mixtures are the sum of what would be the conductivity of 
each if the other were removed) that the presence of the one salt in solu- 
tion does not affect the partial conductivity of another salt in the same 
solvent, provided that the concentrations are of certain values, and hence 
that the two salts are resolved into ions independently. Salt solutions 
which are of such concentration that, when mixed, the conductivities may 
be regarded as the algebraic sum of the conductivities of each salt 
separately, are called by Arrhenius isohydric solutions. And the general 
law is established that solutions which are isohydric with the same solu- 
tion are isohydric with each other, and thus a table of isohydric solutions 
formed. Bender, in two papers, Wied. 'Ann.' 22, p. 179, 1884, and 
Wied. ' Ann.' 31, p. 872, 1887, publishes the results of a number of 

' Hittorf, Wied. Ann. 4, p. 410, 1878. 



ON ELECTHOLTSIS AND ELECTnO-CHEMISTRY. 209 

observations on mixed solutions, but the results are not arranged in the 
same form as those of Arrhenius, and the isohydric law is at any rate not 
apparent. (See also Evving and Macgregror for resistances of mixtures of 
ZnSO, and CuSO, solutions, 'Trans. R.S.B.' 27, p. 51, 1873, and Bouty, 
' C.R.' 104, p. 1G99, 1887, ' Beibl.' 11, p. C50.) Bouchotte, Paalzow, and 
Klein are also referred to by Arrhenius. 

§ c. — The Williamson- Olausias Hi/potJiesis. 

We have seen in Part II. h (p. 189) that the transfer of electricity 
through an electrolyte is convective. If we consider, on the well-known 
hypothesis of Grotthuss, a chain of molecules of the electrolyte connecting 
the anode and cathode, the separation of an ion of each kind at the two 
electrodes respectively is associated with the simultaneous interchange 
of partners throughout the whole length of the chain. This assumption 
is sufficiently natural, for if the molecule at one end of the chain, at the 
anode suppose, be the one decomposed by the current, the anion remains 
at the anode, but the other part of the molecule, the cation, has to appear 
at the cathode, so far as we know, simultaneously. Now, on the assump- 
tion mentioned above, the time required for the transfer will be the same 
for long chains as for short ones (since every pair of ions into which the 
molecules are resolved will be under the action of equal separating 
forces), and is merely the time required for the separated ions to pass 
over the distance intervening between a single pair of molecules, and may 
well therefore be too small for measurement. 

The interchange of ions between molecules has indeed long been an 
accepted notion in electrolysis, and requires no defence. And from the- 
fact that the smallest electromotive force produces a current through an 
electrolyte, and that the physical properties of the liquid are, so far as we- 
know, identical in every respect, when conducting the current and when- 
not, it also seems natural to suppose that the interchange of ions between 
the molecules of an electrolyte is constantly going on whether a current 
is flowing or not, but that the direction of the interchange is fortuitous. 
The idea of the dissociation and reformation of molecules constitutiner a 
dynamical equilibrium of a chemical compound was originally suggested 
by Williamson ' to account for etherification, and the explanation of 
electrolytic action by the same idea is due to Clausius,^ who suggested 
that the effect of electromotive force was to determine the direction of' 
the average motion of the respective ions, and not itself to produce the 
dissociation and recombination. 

It would follow that the work required to produce electrolytic decom- 
position is wholly spent in setting free the ions at the electrodes. 

Whatever representation may be made of the state of the molecules- 
of an electrolyte when no current is passing, it must be so arranged as to 
take account of the fact that when a current passes the dissociation and 
recombination are attended with the development of a quantity of heat in 
accordance with Joule's law ; whereas when no current passes no heat is 
developed ; and the mere irregularity of direction of motion would not 
dispose of the heat production because that is independent of the direction 
of current and depends merely on the magnitude. Professor Fitzgerald 

' Liebig's Aimalen, d. Ckem. u. Pharm. vol. 1, p. 37, 1851. 
" Pogg. Ann. 101, p. 338, 1857. 

1890. p 



210 EEPORT— 1890. 

has remarked that the motion under an E.M.F. is constrained, whereas the 
motion without E.M.F. is free ; and the diSerence of the two cases with 
respect to the energy required is thus explained. 

Many of the observed phenomena of electrolysis are most easily 
explained on the assumption of a permanent dissociation of at least a 
portion of the electrolyte into component parts which become ' ions ' (i.e. 
move with the positive and negative electricity respectively) when an 
electromotive force acts upon the electrolyte. If we may picture to our- 
selves the whole number of molecules taking part in dissociation and 
frictionless recombination, being combined molecules for a certain fraction 
of every instant and dissociated ' ions ' ' for the remainder, the average re- 
sult for the whole electrolyte will be the same as if the same fraction of 
the whole number of molecules were permanently combined, the remainder 
being permanently dissociated. There does not seem to be any experi- 
mental method of distinguishing between these two alternatives, and in 
default of experimental evidence for the one or other we may provision- 
ally adopt whichever we please. But it- may be well to accentuate here 
what Arrhenius (' Zeitschr. f . phys. Chemie,' i. p. 638) has already men- 
tioned, namely, that the term ' dissociation,' as here used, is liable to be 
misunderstood and confounded with the same term as applied, for instance, 
to the resolution of an ammonium salt into two separate bodies at a high 
temperature. As referring to electrolysis, dissociation means the separa- 
tion of a molecule into atoms or their equivalents, and would only corre- 
spond to ordinary dissociation if atoms of the same kind were collected 
and set free from the liquid. Thus one need not expect a solution of KCl, 
even though all the salt were dissociated into K and CI atoms, to smell 
of chlorine until one has done the work necessary to accumulate the 
electrified chlorine atoms and produce molecular chlorine ; in other 
words, until the solution has been electrolysed. Free chlorine and dis- 
sociated chlorine ions are not by any means to be regarded as identical 
in physical state. In the electrolytic sense the conception of dissociation 
is new to science, and the numerical results obtained from its use are the 
more startling, as those compounds which we have been accustomed to 
regard as most capable of resisting dissociation in the ordinary sense are 
precisely those which are electrolytically most completely dissociated. ^ 

Qnite recently the dissociation theory has been put in such a form as 
renders it possible to express numerically the fraction of the whole 
number of molecules which are dissociated in the formation of an electro- 
lyte by solution of a salt in water. The first development of the theory 
is mainly due to Arrhenius. In Part II. of a memoir ^ presented to the 
Academy of Sciences of Sweden, June 6, 1883, on the ' Chemical Theory 
of Electrolytes,' he explains the action of a very large number of chemical 
changes in solutions on the assumption of a coefficient of activity for 
each acid or base, representing the ratio of the number of active or dis- 
sociated molecules to the whole number of molecules of salt in the 
solution, the action of the solvent being assumed to be merely to dissociate 
the salt to a greater or less extent. This ratio is taken to be identical 

' Mr. J. Brown takes exception to the use of the word in this sense. It avoids 
circumlocution, however, and stands for ' those parts of a molecule which would 
become ions if an E.M.F. acted.' A new name might be found for them if necessary. 

' See Armstrong, Electrician, Aug. 2G, 1887, and on the other side Ostwald, 
Zeitschr. fur jihys. Cliem. ii. p. 270 (1888). 

^ See B.A. Report, 1886, p. 357. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 211 

with, or numerically expressed by, the ratio of the molecular condnctivity 
of the solution to the molecular conductivity of an infinitely dilute solution 
of the same compound, in which all molecules are probably dissociated. 
The explanation of chemical phenomena thus given is sufficiently well 
■established to indicate some relation, at any rate, between conductivity 
and chemical activity, but a more direct comparison may be made between 
conductivity and dissociation as measured indirectly on the basis of 
Van 't Hoff's theory of the effects of osmotic pressure.' On Van 't HofE's 
theory the osmotic pressure of a salt in solution at a given temperature 
depends upon the number of molecules contained in a given volume 
irrespective of the weight of the individual molecules ; so that if the 
osmotic pressure be regarded as corresponding to gaseous pressure, 
Avogadro's law holds for salts in solution as well as gases. Van't Hoff 
verified this law for a number of bodies, leaving, however, a number of 
exceptions, and Arrhenius has shown that the exceptions may in general 
be quite satisfactorily explained by supposing that the effective number 
of the molecules is increased by the dissociation of some into ions, and 
the fraction of the whole number that must be supposed dissociated in 
order to account for the exceptional osmotic pressure is, within very small 
limits of difference, the same as the dissociation ratio — that is, the frac- 
tion of the whole number required to be dissociated in order to account 
for the conductivity on the dissociation hypothesis ; or, to express the 
fraction free from hypothesis, it is the fraction represented by the ratio of 
the molecular conductivity of a given salt-solution to the limiting value of 
the molecular conductivity of the salt when the dilution is indefinitely 
great. Let a represent this ' dissociation ratio,' or coefficient of activity, 
as it is termed by Arrhenius, Avhich can be determined from measure- 
ments of conductivity at different degrees of dilution.- Let m be the 
number of inactive, or undissociated, molecules in unit volume of solution, 
n the number of active molecules, each of which we may suppose dis- 
sociated into h ions (e.ij., for KCl, ]c=2; for BaCl2, or K.2SO4, A;:=3, and 
so on) ; then, assuming that each separate ion is as effective as regards 
osmotic pressure as each combined molecule, the osmotic pressure will be 
the same as if the whole number of molecules were vi + Jcii; the ratio i of 
this number to the whole number of original molecules is {m + kn)/(m + n), 
whereas a=n/(m Til). Whence i=l + (Z;— l)a. On the other hand, the 
osmotic pressure, and consequently the number of effective molecules in 
unit volume, can be determined on Van 't Hoff's theory by observing the 
depressions of the freezing-point of water, as Raoult has done in many 
cases, produced by the solution of one gramme-molecule of salt in a litre. 
Thus the normal ^ depression of the freezing-])oint for one gramme-mole- 
cule of salt when there is no dissociation is 1'85° C, so that if t be an 
observed depression of the freezing-point for a gramme-molecule of 

' Van 't Hoff, Zeitschr. jdr ph. Ch. i. p. 481, 1837. 'Trans.' by Eamsay, in Phil. 
Mag. ser. 5, 26, p. 81, 1888. Arrhenius, Zeitschr. fur ph. Ch. i. p. 631, 1887. B.A. 
Mcp. 1887. 

" The molecular condnctivity for infinite dilution may be arrived at by plotting a 
curve with the number of gramme-molecules per litre of solutions of different con- 
centration as absci.ssEe and the molecular conductivities (i.e. conductivity -^ number 
•of gramme-molecules per litre; as ordi nates, and continuing the curve until it meets 
the line of no concentration. (See Kohlrausch, Wied. Ann. vol. 26.) 

' For an account of the application of the depression of the freezing-point to the 
examination of the molecular constitution of dilute solutions, see also Planck, 
Zeitschr. farphys. Chem. i. p. 577 (1887) ; Wied. Ann. vol. 32, p. 499. 

P 2 



212 



EEPOET 1890. 



electrolyte, ^/1'85 is the ratio of the number of molecules in unit volume 
of electrolyte to what would be the number in unit volume if there were 
no dissociation. Hence i=tjl'85. 

These molecular depressions of the freezing-point have been deter- 
mined by Raoult by observing the effect of the dissolution of one gramme 
of the salt in one litre of water. Hence, if the conductivity of the solu- 
tion of the same strength be known, we have two independent methods of 
determining i, one of which conies from conductivity measurements and 
the other from thermal measurements, based on the assumption of dis- 
sociation. The results are given in a table ('Zeitschr.' vol. 1, p. 634). 
The numbers in the column based on conductivities are calculated from 
Ostwald for acids and bases, from Kohlrausch for most salts, but some 
also from Long, Grotrian, Klein, and Ostwald. For the better conduct- 
ing salts the figures may be 10 or 15 per cent, in error, interpolation and 
extrapolation having to be used. For worse conducting salts the possible 
error is smaller, and for acids and bases at the most 5 per cent. ' Off 
the accuracy of Raoult's numbers I am not sure ; an error of 5 or 10 per 
cent, seems likely.'' The conductivity was measured at 18° C, or 25° C, 
and the lowering of the freezing-point at about 0° C. Considering all 
this, the numbers seem fairly accordant with certain exceptions,^ of 

' Arrhenius, 'B.A. Electrolysis Committee Sixth Circular,' Zeitschr. 1, p. 636. 
' - In a subsequent communication to Zeitschr. f. ph. Chen. ii. p. 491, Arrhenius 
returns to the consideration of the comparison of tlie numbers and determines the 
freezing-point depressions, and so redetermines the values of i. Tlie results are 
contained in the following table : — 

Table V. — Table of Comparisons of ohserved and calculated Values of Freezing- 
point Depression in Aqxieous Solutions. 
(From Arrhenius, ' Zeitschr. fiir ph. Chem.' vol. 2.) 



Substance Dissolved 



A. — NON-CONDUCTOES 

1. Methylalcohol. 

CH,OH 1 



2. Ethylalcohol 
C^H^OH 



3. Propylalcohol 
CJHjOH 



4. Isopropylalcohol 



5. Isobutylalcohol 
C.HjOH 



a 



5- 



I CO 

a c- 



O o 



0319 

0-638 

1-51 

3-00 

0-575 

1-44 

2-85 

5-70 

0-61 

1-53 

3-83 

6-37 

0-61 

1-52 

3-79 

6-32 

0-91 

2-28 

5-71 

9-52 



0-100 

0-200 

0-485 

0-97 

0-125 

0-313 

0-62 

1-24 

0-102 

0-255 

0-638 

1-06 

0-102 

0-253 

0-631 

1-053 

0-123 

0-308 

0-771 

1-29 



Depression of 

Freezing-point 

d 


Molecular De- 
pression S 
= d/g 


i Observed 
1-89 


I Calculated from 

Conductivities 

l + (A-l)<i 


i 
i' 


.2- 

Or 
o 
a 


1 1 

» J* 

!l 
a 

a 

o 
--IS 
_g 
*3 


0-184 


1-84 


0-97 










0-356 


1-78 


0-94 










0-886 


1-82 


0-96 




t» 






1-831 


1-89 


1-00 




^ 






0-229 


1-83 


0-97 




O 






0-591 


1-89 


1-00 




•c^ 






1-183 


1-91 


1-01 




-C 






2-456 


1-98 


1-05 




03 
■73 






0-196 


1-93 


103 










0-479 


1-88 


100 


>1 


M 






1-202 


1-89 


1-00 


a 






2-065 


1-95 


1-03 








0-193 


1-90 


100 




o 






0-476 


1-88 


1-00 




.13 






1-212 


1-92 


1-01 




-4^ 
*> 






2095 


1-99 


1-05 




ts 






0-249 


2-02 


1-07 




.1 






0-591 


1-92 


1-02 




*-*3 

a 






1-484 


1-92 


1-02 








2-60 


202 


1-07 






, 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 



213 



whicli two are from older observations by Riidorff. The behaviour of 
one of the exceptions — HoSiFg — is explicable by its partial dissocia- 



Table of CoMFAUiso'sa—conUnued. 





■o2 


i2 

Si-! 


.2 "i"^ 












Substance Dissolved 


Ik 

a a 


IR- 
IS 

o3 


a) .5 

— - a> 
at (D 




fc^ *o JO 

i ' 




t 

i' 


a " 
■3 .2 

v .3 

o o 

^ g 


Non-conductors— cy»#. 


















/ 


0-87 


0-118 


0-22 


1-87 


099 ^ 


\ 






G. Ethylether 


1-74 


0-235 


0-42 


1-79 


0-95 






(,CM,).p 1 


2-87 


0-388 


0-73 


1-88 


1-00 










5-74 


0-776 


1-51 


1-95 


1-03 








/ 


0-952 


0-101 


0-183 


1-81 


0-96 








7. Phenol C.H^OH - 


2029 
3-381 


0-216 
0-36 


0-392 
0-639 


1-82 
1-78 


0-96 
0-94 










5-244 


0-558 


0-967 


1-75 


0-93 








8. Aniline C^H^NH^ j 


1-016 
2-54 


0-109 
0-273 


0-210 
0-499 


1-92 
1-83 


1-02 
•97 








9. Boracic acid J 
B(0H)3 1 


0-41 
1-024 


0066 
0-165 


0-129 
0318 


1-95 
1-93 


1-03 
1-02 








1-706 


0-274 


0-532 


1-93 


1-02 








/ 


0-702 


0-119 


0-233 


1-96 


1-04 








10. Acetamide 1 


1-756 


0-297 


0-568 


1-91 


1-01 








CHjCONHj 1 


4-39 


0-744 


1-423 


1-91 


1-01 




13 




I. 


732 


1-240 


2-422 


1-95 


103 




> 




/ 


0-622 


0-104 


0-209 


2-02 


1-07 




O 




11. CO(NH,), 


1-555 


0-259 


0-493 


1-90 


101 






3-887 


0-648 


1-219 


1-88 


0-99 




•f* 




. 


6-478 


1-080 


2-018 


1-87 


0-99 




^ 




12. Chloral hvdrate J 


1-759 


0-106 


0-218 


2-05 


108 




•T3 




4-397 


0-266 


0-525 


1-98 


1-05 




C3 
o 




C.,Cl3H(bH)2 j 


10-99 


0-664 


1-355 


2-04 


1-08 


1 


,a 




18-32 


1-107 


2-378 


2-15 


1-13 




a 

3 




13 Bromal hvdrate 


2-14 


0-0716 


0-137 


1-91 


1-01 






5-34 


0-179 


0-335 


1-87 


0-99 








aBr,H(bH)., 


13-36 


0-447 


0-829 


1-86 


0-98 




.a 




22-26 


0-745 


1-377 


1-85 


0-98 




.4-3 






1-346 


0-146 


0-287 


1-96 


104 




s 




14. Glycerine 

C3H,(OH)3 


2-34 
4-80 


0-254 
0-522 


0-492 
1-061 


1-93 
2-03 


1-02 
1-07 




Is 




7-603 


0-826 


1-725 


2-09 


1-11 








. 


11-16 


1-213 


2-612 


2-15 


1-14 








f 


2-93 


0-161 


0-333 


2-07 


1-09 








13. Mannite CsH,,Oa j 


7-33 


0-403 


0-835 


2-07 


1-10 








12-21 


0-671 


1-420 


2-12 


1-12 








16. Dextrose CjH,„Oj • 


1-2U 


00673 


0-132 


1-96 


1-04 








3-028 


0-168 


0-340 


2-02 


1-07 










7-57 


0-421 


0-845 


2-01 


1-06 








12-62 


0-701 


1-460 


2-08 


1-10 










1-523 


0-0445 


0-091 


2-04 


1-08 










3-246 


0-0947 


0-200 


2-11 


111 








17. Cane sugar 
CijHjjO,, 


5-629 


0-165 


0-337 


2 05 


1-08 








10-797 


0-316 


0-670 


2-12 


1-12 








16-88 


0-494 


1-113 


2-25 


1-19 










27-65 


0-809 


2-057 


2-54 


1-34 








34-56 


1-010 


274 


, 2-71 


1-43 1 


/ 







214 



EEPORT — 1890. 



tion into Si02 and 6HF.' The results are somewLat startling. That, 
■when dissolved in a hundred times its -weight of water, KHO should be 

Tablk of Comparisons — continued. 



Substance Dissolved 



B. — Electrolytes. 

18. Lithium hydrate 

LiOH 

19. Acetic acid 

CH3COOH 

20. Butyric acid 

CJHjCOOH 

21. Phosphoric acid 

H3PO, 



22. Sulphurous acid 
H,.SO, 



23. Iodic acid HIO., 

2i. Phosphorous acid 

P(0H)3 [ 

25. Osalic acid 

(COOH)2-i-2H20 \ 



26. Sodium chloride 
NaCl 



27. Lithium chloride J 
LiCl 



28. Silver nitrate I 

AgN03 1 

29. Potassium sulphate J 



30. Sodium sulphate 

Na^SOj + lOHp I 



Grammes of Sub- 
stance per 100 CO. 


Gramme-mole- 
cules per Litre 
9 


Depression of 

Freezing-point 

d 


Molecular De- 
pression S 


i Observed 


i' Calculated from 

Conductivities 


Coefficient of Dis- 


1 1 

II 

C 
_o 

C3 
■§ 


0-304 


0-127 


0-474 


3-74 


1-98 


1-90 


1-04 


90 


0-7C0 


0-317 


1-131 


3-57 


1-89 


1-86 


1-02 


86 


0-81 


0-135 


0-268 


1-98 


1-05 


l-Ol 


1-04 


01 


2-02 


0-337 


0-655 


1-96 


1-04 


1-01 


103 


01 


5-05 


0-842 


1-61 


1-91 


1-01 


1-00 


1-01 


00 


8-42 


1-403 


2-68 


1-91 


1-01 


1-00 


1-01 


00 


1-23 


0-140 


0-276 


1-97 


1-04 


1-01 


1-03 


01 


3-07 


0-349 


0-G60 


1-89 


1-00 


1-01 


0-99 


01 


7-67 


0-872 


1-.589 


1-82 


096 


1-00 


0-96 


00 


0-755 


0-077 


0-201 


2-61 


1-.S8 


1-32 


1-05 


11 


1-430 


0-146 


0-350 


2-40 


1-27 


125 


1-01 


08 


3-125 


0-319 


0-734 


2-30 


1-22 


1-20 


1-01 


07 


0-747 


0-091 


0-259 


2-85 


1-51 


1-.34 


1-12 


16 


1-31 


0-159 


0-410 


2-58 


1-36 


1-25 


1-09 


12 


2-28 


0-279 


0-690 


2-47 


1-31 


1-22 


1-07 


11 


3-82 


0-466 


1-16 


2-49 


1-32 


— 


— 


— 


6-73 


0-820 


2-01 


2-45 


1-30 


— 


— 


— 


2-009 


0-114 


0.35 


3-05 


1-61 


1-70 


0-95 


70 


4-007 


0-228 


0-69 


3-02 


1-60 


1-61 


0-99 


61 


6-01 


0-285 


0-85 


2-97 


1-57 


1-58 


0-99 


58 


0-611 


0-074 


0-227 


3-07 


1-62 


1-59 


1-02 


20 


1-018 


0-124 


0-342 


2-76 


1-46 


1-51 


0-97 


17 


2-036 


0-248 


0-654 


2-64 


1-36 


1-43 


0-95 


14 


0-867 


0-0688 


0-211 


3-07 


1-62 


1-55 


1-05 


27 


1-651 


0-131 


0-375 


2-86 


1-51 


1-47 


1-03 


23 


3-106 


0-247 


0-650 


2-64 


1-40 


1-38 


1-01 


19 


0-273 


0-0467 


0-117 


3-07 


2-00 


1-88 


1-07 


88 


0-682 


0-117 


0-424 


3-64 


1-93 


1-84 


1-05 


84 


1-136 


0-194 


0-687 


3-54 


1-87 


182 


103 


82 


1-893 


0-324 


1-135 


3-51 


1-86 


1-79 


1-04 


79 


3-155 


0-539 


1-894 


3-50 


1-85 


1-74 


1-06 


74 


0-419 


0-099 


0-363 


3-67 


1-94 


1-80 


1-08 


80 


0-698 


0-165 


0-606 


3-67 


1-94 


1-78 


109 


78 


1-167 


0-275 


1-019 


3-71 


1-95 


1-75 


1-12 


75 


1-945 


0-458 


1-729 


3-78 


2-00 


1-70 


1-18 


70 


0-952 


0-056 


0-214 


3-82 


2-02 


1-86 


1-09 


86 


2-381 


0-140 


0-501 


3-58 


1-90 


1-81 


1-05 


81 


5-932 


0-341 


1-143 


3-35 


1-77 


1-73 


1-02 


73 


0-633 


0-0364 


0-184 


5-06 


2-68 


2-45 


1-09 


72 


1-583 


0-091 


0-405 


4-45 


2-35 


2-33 


1-01 


66 


3-957 


0-227 


0-95 


4-18 


2-21 


2-18 


1-01 


59 


7-914 


0-455 


1-755 


3-86 


2-04 


2-06 


0-99 


53 


0-903 


00280 


0-141 


5-03 


2-66 


2-47 


1-07 


73 


2-258 


0-0701 


0-326 


4-65 


2-46 


2-33 


1-06 


60 


3-763 


0-117 


0-515 


4-41 


2-33 


2-29 


1-02 


63 


6-21 


0-195 


0-817 


419 


2-21 


2-17 


1-02 


58 



' For suggestions in explanation of some of the exceptions, see ZdUchr . fiir j>h. 
Chem. i. p. 639. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTHY. 



215 



dissociated to the extent of 90 per cent., BaHjOj 94 per cent., HCl 90 per 
cent., KCl 8G per cent., while the dissociation of MgS04 reaches only 40 



Table of 


C0MPARIS0N6 


—continued. 








Substance Dissolved 


Grammes of Sub- 
stance per 100 cc. 


1 Gramme-mole- 
cules per Litre 
9 


Depression of 

Freezing-point 

d 


Molecular De- 
pression fi 


5 " 


{'Calculated from 
Conductivities 

l-f(*-l)a 


I 
i' 


Coifficient of Dis- 
sociation a = V^ 
k — 1 


Electeolttes— cy«#. 
















31. Calcium chloride J 


0-530 


0-0476 


0-248 


5-17 


2-74 


2-32 


1-09 


-76 


1-224 


0119 


0-594 


4-95 


2-62 


2-42 


1-09 


-71 


CaCI. j 


2-206 


0-199 


0-993 


5-01 


2-66 


2-34 


1-13 


•67 


I 


3-677 


0-331 


1-706 


5-16 


2-73 


2-24 


122 


-62 


32. Strontium chloride 


0-664 


0-043 


0-231 


5-37 


2-84 


2-54 


112 


•77 


1-686 


0-107 


0-523 


4-89 


2-59 


2-45 


106 


-72 


SrCL 1 


3-372 


0-214 


1-053 


4-92 


2-60 


2-32 


1-12 


-60 


5-62 


0-356 


1-791 


5-03 


2-66 


2-22 


1-20 


-61 




1055 


0-0643 


0-304 


4-72 


2-50 


2-35 


106 


•67 


33. Calcium nitrate j 


1-759 


0-1073 


0-496 


4-62 


2-45 


2-23 


110 


-61 


CaCNO,), '( 


2-931 


0-179 


0-819 


4-58 


2-42 


2-08 


1-16 


•54 


(■ 


0-49 


0-0532 


0-223 


,5-13 


2-71 


2-43 


112 


•71 


34. Magnesium chlo- J 


1-224 


0133 


0-667 


5-02 


2-66 


2-38 


1-12 


■69 


ride MgCL j 


306 


0-322 


1-716 


5-33 


2-82 


2-19 


1-29 


■59 


5-10 


0-537 


306 


5-70 


3-02 


2 09 


1-44 


•54 


/ 


0-641 


00377 


0-193 


5-12 


2-71 


2-53 


1-07 


•76 


35. Cupric chloride 


1-603 


0-094 


0-455 


4-83 


2-56 


2-41 


1-06 


•70 


CuCl.,-h2H.,0 'i 


4-008 


0-235 


1-127 


4-79 


2-53 


2-19 


116 


•59 


■ ■ I 


6-68 


0-393 


1-917 


4-86 


2-57 


204 


1-26 


■52 


36. Cadmium iodide 1 


1-991 


0-0544 


0-161 


2-96 


1-57 


1-53 


1-02 


■26 


4-978 


0-136 


0-320 


2-35 


1-24 


1-39 


0-90 


■19 


Cdlj 


12-517 


0-342 


0-7 J 5 


2-09 


1-11 


1-31 


0-84 


■15 


25-03 


0-684 


1-523 


2-19 


1-16 


1-25 


0-91 


•12 


37. Magnesium sul- 
phate 
MgS04 + 7H.,0 


1-566 


0-0638 


0-164 


2-59 


1-37 


1-44 


0-95 


•44 


3-915 


0-159 


0-366 


2-30 


1-22 


1-38 


0-88 


•38 


9-787 
16-311 


0-.398 
0-663 


0-802 
1-303 


2-02 
1-97 


1-07 
104 


1-28 
1-24 


0-83 
0-85 


•28 
•24 


38. Zinc sulphate 1 


1-976 


0-0689 


0-169 


2-45 


1-30 


1-39 


0-93 


•39 


4-941 


0-172 


0-337 


2-13 


113 


1-35 


0-83 


•35 


ZnSO^ + 7H,0 


12-35 


0-430 


0-799 


1-86 


0-98 


1-25 


0-78 


•25 


20-59 


0-718 


1-296 


1-81 


0-96 


1-22 


0-78 


•22 




0-979 


0-0393 


0-099 


2-52 


1-33 


1-41 


0-95 


•41 




2-80 


0-112 


0-244 


2-17 


115 


1-34 


0-85 


■34 


39. Copper sulphate 


6-326 


0-254 


0-493 


1-94 


1-03 


1-27 


0-81 


■27 


CuSO^-t-oII.p 


13-04 


0-523 


0-92(i 


1-77 


0-94 


1-22 


0-77 


■22 




24-25 


0-973 


1-687 


1-73 


0-92 


1-18 


0-78 


•18 


/ 


1-067 


0-0417 


0-108 


2-59 


1-37 


1-39 


0-99 


•39 




2-667 


0-104 


0237 


2-28 


1-21 


1-31 


0-92 


■31 


40. Cadmium sulphatej 


5-006 


0-196 


0-420 


2-15 


1-14 


1-27 


090 


•27 


CdSO^-t-8/3H.,0" 


12-52 


0-489 


0-938 


1-92 


1-02 


1-21 


0-84 


•21 




20-86 


0-815 


1-535 


1-88 


0-99 


1-19 


0-84 


■19 


^ 


34-77 


1-.36 


2-68 


1-97 


104 


113 


0-92 


■13 



For the discussion of those cases in which the ratio i/i' differs from unity, see 
Zcitschr.fiir 2)h. Clwm. ii. p. 497, 1888. The measurements for LiCl, KCl, NH,C1, CaClj, 
SrClj, MgCl.., CuCl..., MgSO,, Ca(N03)„, FeCy^K, have been repeated, and the results 
confirmed by Van'tHoff and Reicher {iknUchr. fiir ph. Chem. iii. p. 198). MgSO, and 
the chlorides remain intractable, possibly in the former case on account of the for- 



216 REPOKT — 1890. 

per cent., and that of acetic acid only 1 per cent., HgCl2 only 3 per cent., 
is not what one would expect a priori ; but the general agreement of the 
results is so close that it can hardly be explained away. The theory is 
further supported in Arrhenius's original paper by the consideration of a 
number of properties which are additive in dilute solutions; that is to say, 
the numerical values of these properties can be regarded as the sums of 
the values corresponding to separate parts, namely, the solvent, and the 
component ions into which the molecules of the salt are separated. A 
well-known example is that of electric conductivity,' which, for a very 
dilute solution, can be numerically regarded as made up of numbers 
corresponding respectively to the solvent and the several ions. 

The other properties of dilute solutions which Arrhenius mentions in 
this connection are the heats of neutralisation, ^ specific gravity and spe- 
cific volume,^ specific refractive power,^ depression of the freezing-point '' 
and other properties connected with it, diminution of vapour pressure, 
osmotic pressure, and isotonic coefficient.^ These additive properties 
have of themselves suggested the more or less complete dissociation of 
salts.'' Perhaps the most striking corroboration of Arrhenius's theory is 
that the cases in which the additive law is not satisfactorily made out, 
are precisely the cases in which the dissociation ratios deduced from the 
resistance measurements are considerably less than unity, even in dilute 
solutions. 

Against this formidable array of reasons in favour of the dissociation 
hypothesis, Armstrong^ has urged a number of considerations, among 
which are the following : There are difficulties from the chemist's point 
of view, which dispose him to reject the idea that electrolysis is primarily 
an affair of atoms ; ' peculiarities and relationships which are patent to the 
chemist,' but which ' it is impossible at present to quantify.' Moreover, 
it seems to be difficult to accept the idea that an electrolyte can be decom- 
posed by an infinitesimal electromotive force unless further proof is forth- 
coming ; * and, again, there are anomalies that the dissociation theory 
does not explain, as, for instance, the conductivity of fused silver iodide in 
face of the non-conductivity of water and of pure hydrochloric acid, the dis- 
sociation of hydrochloric acid by water without a corresponding dissocia- 
tion of the water, and the more complete dissociation of what have always 
been regarded as the more stable compounds. The parallelism of diffu- 

mation of double molecules, even in dilute solutions, and in the case of CaCL on 

account of the formation of CaC'l (Van 't HoflE and Keicher). 

i' 
Those cases in which the ratio — is considerably less than 1 in strong solution 

can be explained by ascertaining the foimation of double molecules in the stronger 
solutions, 

' Kohlrausch, Wied. Ann. 6, p. 167 (1879) ; 26, pp. 215, 216 (1885) ; Ostwald, 
Zaitschr. far 2)h. Cheiii. 1, pp. 74 and 97 (1887). 

- Ostwald, Lehrhuch der allgemeinen Cliemie, p. 1250; Arrhenius, I.e. p. 61.3. 

3 Valson, C.R. 73, p. 441 (1871); Ostwald, Lehrhuch, i. p. 384. 

" Raoult, Ann. d. Ch. et d. Phys. [6] 4, p. 401 (1885). 

^ De Vries, Pringsheim's Jahrhiicher fiir wisg. Bot. 14, p. 519 (1883). 

« Valson, C.R. 73, p. 441 (1871) ; 74, p. 103 (1872), 75, p. 1330 (1872); Eaoult, 
Ann. de CJiim. [6] 4,401, 426. 

' Proc.Roy. Soc. 1886, p. 268 ; Electrician, Aug. 26, 1887. 

" See a paper by Ostwald and Nernst, Zeitsehr. fdri)li. Chem. 3, p. 120, 1889, ' On 
Free Ions,' in which it is shown, on the assumption that the energy developed by the 
discharge of a conductor in a liquid is proportional to the square of the loss of elec- 
tricity, that no work is done by the electromotive force in separating the molecules 
into ions. 



ON ELECTUOLYSIS AND KLKCTUO-CHEMISTUT. 217 

sive power and conductivity is said to be almost conclusive evidence against 
the theory. Armstrong suggests instead a theory of electrolysis based 
upon the formation and decomposition of molecular aggregates under the 
influence of residual affinity, and he has in his favour, so far as it goes, 
the evidence given on p. 204 for the existence of definite hydrates in 
solution. But, as he himself says, his objections to the dissociation theory 
cannot be regarded as definite experimental reasons which make the 
theory untenable, but rather as suggesting knotty points which those in 
favour of the theory have to deal with. Arrhenius bas replied to the 
objections,' and has to a certain extent met that based on the constants of 
diffusion ; the others can only be definitely decided upon by the sub- 
sequent development of the theory.^ 

Some considerable advance has already been made. Ostwald 
('Zeitschr. f. phys. Chem.' vol. 2, p. 270) explains that the theory ac- 
counts satisfactorily for the following six relations, which were previously 
accepted as empirical generalisations of the results of observation : — 

1. The molecular conductivity of all electrolytes increases with in- 
creasing dilution, and approaches asymptotically a maximum value. 

2. These maximum values on the one hand for acids, secondly for 
bases, and thirdly for salts (referred to equivalent quantities) are of the 
same order of magnitude, but not strictly equal. 

3. The maximum values can be represented as the sum of two magni- 
tudes, of which the one depends only on the positive, tbe other only on the 
negative ion (Kohlrausch's law). 

4. For electrolytes of higher concentrations as well as for weak acids 
and bases the previous statement does not hold ; an approximation thereto 
is apparent when one compares groups of salts whose ions are of equal 
valency. 

5. Electrolytes of low conductivity, such as weak acids and bases, 
have their molecular conductivity very rapidly increased with increasing 
dilution. With monobasic acids and normal bases the conductivity 
increases in proportion to the square root of the volume of solvent. 

6. The increase of molecular conductivity takes place with all mono- 
basic acids and monovalent bases, according to the same law. If one com- 
pares such electrolytes, for dilutions at which these conductivities are 
equal fractions of the maximum, the degrees of dilution (or volumes 
corresponding to one gramme-molecule) are in constant ratio. 

In order to prove these statements from the dissociation theory, 
Ostwald pushes the analogy between the state of the molecules in a solu- 
tion and the state of gaseous molecules a step further. Adopting, from 
the theory of dissociation of gases (Ostwald's ' Lehrbuch,' 2, p. 723), 

the formula R log -^ = J?-l-const., where « is the pressure of the undisso- 

ciated part, jj] and p2 ^''i^ partial pressures of the dissociated constituents, 
and assuming the temperature to be constant and the two sets of ions to be 
equally numerous, he obtains an equation ^/p,2=c, which, on the assump- 
tion of identity or strict analogy of molecular constitution in solutions, ap- 
plies to the dissociation of a salt in a solvent. Transforming this equation 
in terms of molecular conductivities, on the assumption that these depend 

' Electrician, Sept, 7, 1888. 

- Tlie theory is also criticised by E. Wiedemann, Zdtichr. fiir ph. Chem. vol. 2, 
p. 211, 1888. 



218 



KEPOKT 1890. 



on the number of molecules dissociated, and that the dissociation is com- 
plete in infinite dilution, we get (p. 277) 



^Jf^o,—f^.^ 



I^v 



-v=c . 



where ju,x is the limiting maximum of molecular conductivity, fx^ the 
molecular conductivity at volume v per gramme-molecule, and c' is con- 
stant at constant temperature. 

From this formula the above six statements may be immediately 
deduced. It also furnishes a new basis of comparison ; for writing 
m for fJi^/iMa, we get the following new relation between molecular con- 
ductivities at different dilutions : 

.2 



m^ 



=7.-. 



{l — in)v 

Ostwald gives a number of values of the constant Ic for acetic acid, 
angelica acid, a-chlorisocrotonic acid, o-oxysalicylic acid, and the num- 
bers agree quite satisfactorily ; according to Ostwald, more nearly than 
the corresponding numbers for the formula as applied to gaseous disso- 
ciation. ^ 

We give one table referring to butyric acid : 









C (corrected for high 


V 


M 


k 


pressures and changes 
of viscosity) 


2 


1-726 


0-1152 


0-1538 


4 


2-648 


0-1359 


0-1554 


8 


3-870 


0-1475 


0-1549 


16 


5-554 


0-1509 


01557 


32 


7-874 


0-1530 


0-1551 


U 


1116 


0-1545 


0-1560 


128 


1567 


0-1541 


0-1550 


256 


22-67 


0-1560 


0-1560 


512 


30-73 


0-1558 


0-1558 


1,024 


42-40 


0-1535 


0-1535 



The column headed h should give the same values throughout ; the 
earlier values are evidently too small, but the differences are accounted 
for on the hypotheses (1) that at high concentrations the osmotic pressure 
is very high, viz. 24 atmospheres in a noi-mal solution (1 gm. -molecule in 
1 litre) ; at these high pressures the gaseous laws do not hold, and a cor- 
rection term must be introduced, as in the case of gases by Van der 

Waals, which alters the formula to the form -^'?^ = C(y -6). (2) The 

1 — in 

conductivity depends not only on the dissociation but also on the fluidity 

of the solution ; hence, in order to compare the conductivities for the 

purpose of this formula, which takes account of the dissociation alone, 

the observed conductivity must be reduced to a theoretical conductivity 

' In three papers in vol. iii. of the Zeitschr. fur 'pli. Clicm. pp. 170, 241, 360, 
Ostwald has determined the value of the constant 1i in the above formula for a large 
number of organic acids. The values tabulated are those of K = 100Z!'(p. 174). An 
index of the acids thus investigated is given I.e., p. 418. The physical meaning of 
the constant is tliat at concentration 2h half of the acid is dissociated. 



ON ELECTROLTSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTKY. 219 

in a liquid of normal fluidity by multiplying by the coefficient of viscoRity 
referred to pure water. The numbers as corrected in the way thus in- 
dicated are given in the fourth column headed C (y being taken at 
•1 litre). The improvement of the agreement throughout the range of 
numbers is sufficiently apparent. 

The application of Ostwald's formula is confirmed by observations of 
Van 't Hoff and Reich er.' 

Arrhenius has further applied the dissociation hypothesis to account 
for the observed results obtained for the conductivity of mixtures, and 
has also recast his theory of chemistry to comply with the more recent 
development of the dissociation theory without interfering with its 
appositeness to the explanation of chemical observations, and he has 
deduced the effect of neutral salts upon the reaction velocities of weak 
bases and acids in saponification, and compared the results with observa- 
tion, and found a satisfactory agreement. 

De Tries, in a paper on osmotic experiments with living membranes,^ 
has compared the values of isotonic coefficients ^ as calculated from the 
molecular conductivities and observed with membranes, and found a 
satisfactory agreement.* 

In an interesting paper •' on the effect of the dissociation theory upon 
the general ideas of chemistry, Ostwald explains the thermal effects of 
reactions in dilute solutions. If, for instance, solutions of KHO and 
HCl are mixed, a quantity of heat, 137K,*^ is produced, and this heat has 
hitherto been regarded as the heat of formation of KCl. But on the 
dissociation theory the KCl remains dissociated in the solution to the 
extent, at any rate, of 90 per cent. At the same time an equivalent of 
water is formed by the union of the H of the HCl and the HO of the 
KHO ; the heat set free by this may be taken to be 135K, and it consti- 
tutes nearly the whole amount of the heat developed. On this view, for 
all those reactions in which an easily dissociated salt is formed, together 
with a molecule of water, the heat of formation will be that of the mole- 
cule of water merely, and will not depend on the other reacting bodies. 
This is amply borne out by the data supplied by Thomsen for the heat of 
neutralisation of a number of acids by soda solution. When two mole- 
cules of water are formed (with dibasic acids) the heat of neutralisation 
is doubled. The differences are accounted for by the incompleteness of 
the dissociation of the acid and bases, so that the heat of neutralisation 
of an equivalent of acid may in general be represented by a formula 
Q=1.35 + a + &. 

The theory is also extended to the explanation of the thermo-neutrality 
of solutions — that is, to the absence of heating effect when neutral salts 
are mixed, and the exceptional cases — e.g. the chloride of mercury — are 
those cases in which the dissociation of the salts is not neai'ly complete. 

It is interesting to note how far the dissociation is supposed to be 
carried. For Arrhenius's table, an electrolytic molecule may be resolved 

' Zcitschr.fUrph. Clievi. 2, p. 777, 18S8. ^ IMd. p. 415, 1888. 

' Solutions whicli have equal osmotic pressure are called isotonic, and the corre- 
sponding concentrations isotonic concentrations. The reciprocal of the isotonic 
concentration in molecular quantities is called the ' isotonic coefficient,' which is 
therefore the number of litres per gramme-molecule required to give a certain 
osmotic pressure. 

< L.c. p. 430. ' Zeitschr. fiir 2)h. Cliem. 3, p. 588, 1889. 

• K represents 100 gramme Centigrade thermal units. 



220 REPORT— 1890. 

into a number of ions, thus into two in the case of KCl, into three in the 
cases BaC]2 and K2SO4 ; the dissociation detaches but preserves intact 
a multivalent complex ion from a number of monovalent ones, and also 
separates the monovalent ones one from another. Ostwald, in his for- 
mula, refers only to binary compounds, each molecule of which is resolved 
into two ions; but in considering the application of the dissociation hypo- 
thesis to chemistry in the paper already referred to,' he touches upon an 
interesting point. He lays down the principle that chemical reactions 
consist in the exchange of ions, and therefore take place exclusively 
between ions. Thus a number of chlorine compounds give no reaction 
"with silver because the chlorine does not appear as an ion. This prin- 
ciple enables one to distinguish between salts of composite acids (as, for 
instance, NaoPtClg and K4Fe(CN)g, which show such reactions as are 
compatible with splitting up into ions Na and PtClg and K and re(CN)f, 
respectively) and true double salts, as the alums, which in solation are 
resolved, and do not exist as double salts. 

These hypotheses can be verified by the depression of the freezing- 
point in the solutions, for the number of the ions is different in the two 
cases. Thus the double salt 8K2C204-|-Cr2(C204)3 would form fourteen 
ions, whereas if it were really 2K3,CrC{,Oj2 only eight ions would be 
formed from the same molecule. 

But perhaps the most interesting, as being the least evident sugges- 
tion, is that which, based on reactions similar to the slow precipitation of 
•silver chloride with separation of glycolic acid from monochlor-acetate 
solution, is thus expressed (p. 598) : ' In oi'der to express this consideration 
in general terms we must say that an electrolyte may ultimately split up 
in different directions. Usually one definite direction is far away the most 
prominent, and the corresponding reactions are completed in immeasur- 
ably short time ; to the other directions correspond processes which pro- 
ceed slowly. Since the oi'ganic compounds in particular, in so far as 
they are not salts, belong entirely to the class of non-electrolytes in the 
ordinary sense, and are therefore not split into ions to an appreciable 
extent, we obtain on these grounds an explanation of the slowness of the 
march of the processes so characteristic of this department. It is very 
probable that tho effect of the accelerators, of the hydrogen- chloride in 
the formation of ethers, the ferric chloride in chlorination, the acetic 
•ether in the action of sodium, and so on, consists in nothing else than the 
formation of composite electrolytes.' 

In the July number of the ' Zeltschrift fiir physikalische Chemie,' 
1889 (p. 96), Arrhenius has given some interesting developments of the 
dissociation theory. He fix'st of all gives the molecular conductivities of 
a number of salts at 18° C. and 52° C. and the temperature coefficients 
deduced therefrom, for a number of solutions of different concentration, 
having in view the effects which may be due to the alteration of the dis- 
sociation ratio with temperature. Then taking, as Ostwald had done 

(p. 217), the equation of gaseous dissociation ^^=l:T and also the 
•equation 

°' P _AW 
dt K T2 

' Zcitschr. 3, p. 596. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 



221 



deduced from the dynamical theory of heat as applicable to the osmotic 
phenomena of solutions, where T is the absolute temperature, P is the 
partial pressure of the combined molecules, PiPo the partial pressures of 
the dissociated ions, A the dynamical equivalent of heat, W the heat of 
formation of the molecules from the ions, he obtains the equation 

2-35 ^hSl^ + ^-=-^ ^ 



dt 



T RT'^ 



Whence, substituting values of A and R in meter-gramme units 
(424'-i/0'981 and 84o'05 respectively), we get 

W=l-945x2-35 T^ ^ ^"g'" ^ +1-945 T, 

(It 

■where W is expressed in gramme-calories ; k can be determined from the 
conductivity measurements, and hence d log k/dt approximately deter- 
mined which is denoted by /?, and hence the value of W determined for 
the mean temperatures 35° C. (between 18° and 52°) and21°-5 (between 
18° and 25°). The results are as follows :— 

A. — Weak Acids. 











At 35° 


At 21-5° 


^^35-^21-5 


Xauie 


W55 


W01.5 


CH3COOH 
C..H5COOH 
CjHjCOOH 
CjH^(COOH% 
CHCLCOOH" 
H3PO: . 
HOPOH., . 
HF(at 33°) 








+ 220 
+ 50 
-320 
+ 1040 
-2240 
-1820 
-3030 
-2960 


+ 600 
+ 390 
+ 150 
+ 1690 
-2390 
-1530 
-3180 


-380 
-340 
-470 
-650 
+ 150 
-290 
-450 



B. — Strongly dissociated Bodies at 35° (from Observations in decinormal 

Solutions). 



Name 


W35 


Name 


W35 


KBr ... 


+ 180 


NaCHjCOO . 


+ 210 


KI 








-300 


NaCoHjCOO . 






+ 690 


KCl . 








+ 250 


NaCaHjCOO . 






+ 1140 


KNO3 . 








+ 470 


NaHC^H/COO)^ 






+ 1110 


NaCl . 








+ 140 


NaCHCl,COO 






-190 


LiCl . 








+ 210 


NaOPOH., . 






+ 410 


iBaCl^ 
|MrC1, 








+ 300 


NaHjPO^ 






+ 220 








-40 


HCl 






-460 


ICaSO, 




, 




-940 


HNO3 . 






-740 


NaF . 








+ 530 


HBr . 






-990 






NaOH . 






-670 



The table shows that heat is sometimes developed and sometimes 
absorbed by the separation of a molecule into ions. 

The values thus obtained are next applied to calculate the heat of 
neutralisation of the salts investigated. Taking Ostwald's suggestion 
of the process taking place in neutralisation and setting fZ,, rfj, d^ for 



222 



KEPORT — 1890. 



the dissociation ratio of the components in the original solutions and 
the products (exclusive of the water) in the mixture respectively, Wi, 
W2, W3, the heats of dissociation, the amounts of heat necessary to com- 
plete the dissociation of each part would be W,(l — d^), WiQ^ — d.^), and 
W3(l — CZ3) respectively. Hence, there being no work done, the heat 
developed in mixing would be 

N= -(l-d,)W,-(l-d,)W, + x + il-d,)W,, 

where x is the heat of formation of the water, deduced from the change 
of heat of neutralisation of HCl with temperature as 12950 cal.' 

In this way the following heats of neutralisation of acids were deter- 
mined and compared with the known values observed experimentally : — 











Heat of Neutralisation (with NaOH) at 21°-5 


Js ame 


Calculated 


Observed 


Difference 


HCl . 

HBr. 

HNO3 

CH.COOH 

CHjCOOH 

Cs'HjCOOH 

C,.H/COOH)., 

CHC1.,C00H 

H3PO, . 

HOPOH, . 

HF . ' . 








13700 
13700 
13810 
13070 
13400 
13750 
12240 
14980 
14910 
15460 
16120 


13740 
13750 
13680 
13400 
13480 
13800 
12400 
148.30 
14830 
15160 
16270 


+ 40 
-10 
-130 
+ 330 
+ 80 
+ .50 
+ 160 
-150 
-80 
-300 
+ 150 



The table shows, among other things, that the explanation of the fact 
that some weak acids, as HF, HOPOH2, H3PO4, have higher heat of 
neutralisation than the strong acids, is to be found in the development 
of heat in dissociation shown by the table of p. 221. 

Another deduction from the principles mentioned above is that the 
conductivity of an electrolyte may have a negative temperature co- 
efficient, if the temperature be sufficiently raised. The resistance of an 
electrolyte depends upon (1) the friction of the moving ions, (2) their 
number or the dissociation ratio, and both of these vary with the tem- 
perature. According to Ostwald's dissociation formula, if 8 be the dis- 
sociation ratio, 



and 



{l—8)v 



dlogjc^l AW 
dT T 



RT 



'2 



Assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that the right-hand side does not 
vary with the temperature, and further, supposing that the electrolyte 
is only slightly dissociated, so that 8 is small compared with unity, and 
V being constant, we get 



2d loge S 

»« -= const. 



dt 



-26 dt. 



Whence 



» '>2U2 + Oy. 



= 2HjO + 27040 cal. 



8,=Ae-'". 
or H,H,H,H + 0,0, = 2HjO + 27040 cal. 



i 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 



223 



The friction of the ions may be taken to be the same for most acids, 
since the motion is due mainly to the hydrogen, so that this may be put 
equal to a constant multiplied by (1 + a/), where a is the temperature 
coefEcient of the fluidity.' 

Whence ^ 

R,=A,e-'"(l + aO. 

This function assumes a maximum value when 

{]. + at)h=a or a^= -. 

b a 

There are obviously many rough-and-ready approximations in the 
course of this proof, but the remarkable fact remains that this behaviour 
of electrolytes of low conductivity was actually verified in the case of 
hypophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid, which gave maxima of con- 
ductivity at 54° and 74° respectively. A rough calculation of the tem- 
peratures at which the conductivity would reach its maximum value for 



other electrolytes gives the following results 


: — 




Name 


Concentia- 
tiou 


a 


$ 


Temperature of 

Maximum 
Conductivity 


CHC1..C00H . 


0-2 


0-0162 


0-0083 


81° 


HF . 






02 


0-0162 


0-0117 


56° 


C.H.COOH 






0-2 


0-0162 


0-0042 


195° 


HNO3 






0-5 


0-0157 


0-0014 


668° 


NaOH 






0-5 


0-0213 


0-0011 


882° 


iCuSO^ . 






0-5 


00256 


0-0058 


151° 


KI . 






0-5 


0-0231 


0-0024 


391° 


NaCl . 






0-5 


00253 


0-0012 


808° 



It will be seen from the foregoing sketch that the various numerical 
relations between widely different properties of solutions and the agree- 
ment of calculated with observed results are so striking that the further 
development of the theory will be looked for with great interest. The 
part which the solvent plays is still unexplained, though it is becoming 
more and more clearly defined. 



§ d. — Electro-Chemical Thermodynamics ; 
§ e. — Electric Endosmose ; 

§ f. — TJie Theory of Migration and Ionic Velocities; and 
§ g. — Numerical Belations 
are reserved for the present. 

' According to Arrhenius, it is the temperature coefEcient of molecular conductivity 
in infinite dilution. 

'' A formula identical -with this was suggested to me by a consideration of the 
numerical results for temperature variation of fluidity and conductivity of certain 
electrolytes. {Proc. Cavih. Phil. Soc. vol. 7, p. 21, 1889.) 



224 



KEPOET 1890. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Mr. J. N. 
LocKYER, Professors Dewar, Wolcott Gibbs, Liveing, Schuster, 
and W. N. Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts 
{Secretary), appointed to prepare a new series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. 

The ' Table of Corrections ' given herewith has been obtained by a careful 
comparison of Professor Rowland's photographic map of the solar 
spectrum with the maps of Angstrom and Cornn, upon which the tables 
already given in these Reports are based. 

Table of Corrections to he applied to reduce Angstroin's and Cornu's 
Numhers to the Standard of Rowland's Map. 



Wave-length 


Correction 


Wave-length 


Correction 


Above 6930 


+ 1-7 


From 4970 to 4935 


+ 1-0 


From 6930 to 6880 


-1-1-6 


„ 4935 to 4865 


+ 09 


„ 6880 to 6820 


+ 1-5 


„ 4865 to 4740 


+ 1'0 


6820 to 6800 


+ 1-4 


„ 4740 to 4650 


+ 0'9 


„ 6800 to 6765 


+ 1-3 


„ 4650 to 4470 


+ 0-8 


„ 6765 to 6720 


+ 1-2 


„ 4470 to 4380 


+ 0-7 


6720 to 6660 


+ 11 


„ 4380 to 4170 


+ 0-6 


6660 to 6230 


+ 1-0 


„ 4170 to 4130 


+ 0-7 


„ 6230 to 6180 


+ 0-9 


„ 4130 to 4100 


+ 0-8 


„ 6180 to 6155 


+ 1-0 


„ 4100 to 4060 


+ 0-7 


„ 6155 to 6135 


+ 1-1 


„ 4060 to 4040 


+ 0-6 


6135 to 6130 


+ 1-0 


„ 4040 to 3850 


+ 0-7 


„ 6130 to 6110 


H-0-9 


„ 3850 to 3730 


+ 0-6 


„ 6110 to 6080 


+ 1-0 


„ 3730 to 3720 


+ 0-5 


„ 6080 to 6060 


+ 1-1 


„ 3720 to 3660 


+ 0-4 


„ 6060 to 6000 


+ 1-0 


„ 3660 to 3640 


+ 0-8 


„ 6000 to 5970 


+ 0-9 


„ 3640 to 3620 


+ 0-6 


„ 5970 to 5810 


+ 10 


„ 3620 to 3530 


-fO-8 


„ 5810 to 5780 


+ 0-9 


., 3530 to 3480 


+ 06 


5780 to 5610 


+ 1-0 


„ 3480 to 3470 


+ 0-8 


„ 5610 to 5540 


+ 1-1 


„ 3470 to 3440 


+ 0-7 


5540 to 5485 


+ 1-0 


„ 3440 to 3420 


+ 1-1 


„ 5485 to 5435 


+ 0-9 


„ 3420 to 3360 


+ 1-7 


„ 5435 to 5350 


+ 10 


„ 3360 to 3330 


+ 2-5 


„ 5350 to 5335 


+ 0-9 


„ 3330 to 3290 


+ 2-2 


„ 5335 to 5325 


+ 1-0 


„ 3290 to 3280 


+ 2-0 


„ 5325 to 5300 


+ 0-9 


„ 3280 to 3240 


+ 1-9 


„ 5300 to 5175 


+ 1-0 


., 3240 to 3220 


+ 1-8 


„ 5175 to 5150 


+ 0-9 


„ 3220 to 3190 


+ 0-8 


„ 5150 to 4990 


+ 0-8 


„ 3190 to 3160 


+ 0-4 


„ 4990 to 4970 


+ 0-9 







The spectra of cobalt and nickel now given are upon Angstrom's scale, 
but the absorption spectrum of iodine rests upon the numbers of the Pots- 
dam catalogue of 300 solar lines, the numbers of which agree very closely 
indeed with those of Rowland, as is seen in the following comparison : — 

Potsdam Catalogue Rowland's Map 

C (Hydrogen) .... 6563-14 .... 6563042 



Di(Sodiuin) 
Do(Sodium) 
E,'(Iron) . 
E,,(Iron) . 
b| (Magnesium) 
b3(Iron) 



5896-25 
5890-23 
5270-55 
5269-90 
5183-93 
5169-33 



5896-156 
5890188 
5270-497 
5269-720 
5183-798 
5169-155 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 225 



Cobalt.' 

A number printed in italics signifies tliat the wave-length was directly measured by 
means of a grating. The numbers given under ' Oscillation Frequency ' are 
in vacuo. 

• Double, t With cobalt cliloride in oxyhyrlrogen flame. X Also a nickel line. § Alec an iron line. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




3997-3 


1 


10 


25009 


3656-1 


1 


3 


27343 


■\ 3994- 7 


10 


8 


25026 


3654-0 


1 




27359 


3991-4 




3 


25046 


36^-8 


1 




27398 


3990-3 




3 


25054 


3642-7 


3 


3 


27444 


3987-1 




1 


25073 


3641-1 


1 


1 


27456 


t3978-7 


8 


8 


25126 


3638-9 


1 


3 


27472 


3974-1 




3 


25155 


3636-1 


1 


1 


27494 


396S-S 


1 




25189 


3634-2 


4 


1 


27508 


3957-7 


1 


4 


25259 


36322 


1 


1 


27523 


3955-7 


1 


1 


25272 


■f3627-3 


6 


10 


27560 


3952-4 


1 


1 


25293 


3614-8 


1 


1 


27655 


3944 9 


1 


1 


25341 


3611-3 


1 


1 


27682 


■\394O-9 


1 


6 


25367 


p605-0 


6 


8 


27731 


f3935-5 


6 


3 


25402 


3601-6 


6 


10 


27757 


3916-2 


1 


1 


25527 


X3594-4 


6 


10 


27812 


•t3909-0 


1 


4 


25574 


3586-7 


10 


8 


27872 


3905-2 


1 


4 


25599 


^3584-7 


6 


8 


27888 


3S94-3 


3 




25671 


3577-4 


1 


3 


27945 


f3B93-4 


10 


10 


25677 


t5574-9\ 
\3574-5] 


10 


10 


27964 1 
27967/ 


3884 


1 




25739 


56?6iV-0 


6 


10 


25759 


f 3568- 9 


10 


10 


28011 


3S76-1 


1 


3 


25791 


p564-5 


6 


10 


28046 


f3S73-2 


n 


10 


25810 


3562-3 


1 




28063 


i3872-4 


8/ 


25816 


p560-5 


8 


6 


28077 


3860-5 


4 




25895 


3552-4 


1 


1 


28141 ■ 


f3844-S 


10 


8 


26001 


3550-1 


4 


6 


28159 


^3841-4 


8 


4 


26024 


3548-0 


1 


1 


28176 


3830-3 


1 




26099 


3544-7 


1 


1 


28202 


%38l5-7 


1 




26200 


3542-8 


4 


3 


28217 


\3815-1 


1 




26204 


■\35328 


4 


6 


28297 


3807-3 


1 


3 


26258 


t35S9-3 


6 


10 


28325 


3777-0 


1 


3 


26468 


}3528-4 


1 


4 


28333 


3774-0 


1 


3 


26489 


3526-3 


4 


6 


28349 


3769-7 


1 




26520 


f3522-9 


6 


6 


28377 


3753-9 


1 




26631 


%3520-9 


6 


8 


28393 


^3745-8 


10 




2G689 


3519-5 


3 


6 


28404 


S735-2 


1 




26764 


3517-7 


6 


8 


28419 


3732-8 


1 


3 


26782 


i3512-0 


4 


6 


28465 


3731-8 


4 


3 


26789 


%3509-7 


n 


6 


284831 
28487/ 


".129-8 


3 


3 


26803 


f3509-3 


4/ 


3711-6 


1 




26935 


\3505.9 


10 


8 


28517 


\3703-5 


8 


10 


26993 


3503-4 


1 




28535 


^70 1- 7 


6 


1 


27007 


3502-0 


10 . 




285-16 


3692-8\ 
3692- 4 j 


6 


6 


27072 


f 3501 -6 


10 


28549 


27075 


3501-0 


4j 




28554 


3690-2 


1 


1 


27091 


3496-0 


3 


6 


28595 


3682-3 


6 


8 


27147 


P495-1 


6 


10 


28602 


3680-8 


1 




27160 


3490-6 


3 


4 


28639 


3661-6 


6 


*4 


27303 


^3488-8 


10 


10 


28654 



1890. 



Liveing and Dewar, Phil. Trans, clxsix. 231 (1888). 



226 



REPORT — 1890. 



Cobalt — continued. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Spark 


Arc 


Spark 


Arc 


34S4-7 


4 


4 


28688 


3319-0 


6 


4 


30120 


t34?2-7 


6 


10 


28704 


3313-6 


4 


3 


30169 


34780 


1 


3 


28743 


t3311-7 


3 


3 


30187 


3476-0 


1 


8 


28760 


3309-1 


3 




30211 


i3473-4 


10 


10 


28781 


3308-2 


1 


1 


30219 


tt§S465-2 


8 


10 


28849 


3306-5 


1 


1 


30234 


^3462-2 


8 


8 


28874 


3303-2 


1 


1 


30264 


3460-6 


3 


4 


28882 


3294-2 


1 




30347 


3454-6 


4 


C 


28938 


3286-6 


3 


3 


30417 


\^3432-9 


8 


8 


28953 


3284-2 


1 




30439 


344S-9 


"^1- 


10 


28986 


3282-9 


8 


6 


30452 


f344S-6 


6/ 


28989 


3278-5 


3 


1 


30492 


ti3443-7 


4 


6 


29013 


3277-2 


1 


4 


30504 


J3443-O 


6 


6 


29036 


32760 


1 


1 


30516 


3442-3 


1 


6 


29047 


3271-3 


2 


1 


30560 


3438-2 




1 


29076 


3264-4 


*3 


3 


30624 


'. 


:3436-8 


*3 


4 


29088 


3262-7 




1 


30640 


'■ 


.3432-9 


1} 


10 


29121 


3261-7 


1 


3 


30649 


' 


3432-4 


29126 


3260-1 


4 


3 


30664 


3431-3 
P430-9 


1} 


8 


29135 
29138 


3253-7 
3249-6 


4 

1 


4 
3 


30725 
30764 


X3423-2 


*4 


6 


29204 


%3246-7 


6 




30791 


j34'l6-3 


4 


8 


29261 


%3243-4 


4 


3 


30822 


3415-2 


1 




29272 


3236-7 


3 


4 


30886 


3414-2 




8 


29281 


3235-2 


3 


3 


30900 


34120 


I] 


10 


29300 


3232-4 


3 


4 


30927 


\34li-7 


29302 


3226-5 


1 


1 


30984 


^ 340s- 6 


6 


10 


29329 


3218-7 


3 


4 


31059 


34061 


1 




29350 


3210-1 


1 


1 


31142 


X]3404-5 


8 


10 


29364 


3188-0 


3 


3 


31358 


3394s 


6 


10 


29448 


3181-7 


3 


3 


31420 


3394-2 


6 




29453 


3176-6 


4 


3 


31470 


3387-6 


6 


10 


29511 


3174-8 


1 


4 


31488 


3387-1 


6 


10 


29515 


3169-5 


3 


3 


31541 


3384-7 


4 


8 


29536 


3164-3 


1 


1 


31593 


t338o-0 


1 


10 


29577 


3161-3 


1 


1 


31622 


337S-O 


2 


1 


29594 


3159-2 


3 


3 


31644 


3376-6 


1 


2d 


29607 


3158-2 


6 


6 


31654 


3370-4 


4 


4 


29661 


3154-2 


8 


6 


31694 


3366-6 


6 


10 


29695 


31623 


1 


1 


31713 


3362-3 


1 


1 


29733 


3148-9 


3 


4 


31747 


X3360-S 


1 


6 


29746 


5^46-6 


6 


6 


31770 


3353-9 


8 


10 


29807 


3139-5 


6 


6 


31842 


3352-3 


4 




29821 


3136-8 


6 


8 


31869 


3348-9 


1 


3 


29852 


3130-4 


4 


1 


31935 


3347-7 


3 


3 


29862 


3126-7 


1 


1 


31972 


3346-4 


3 


3 


29874 


3121-1 


8 


8 


32030 


3342-2 


3 


3 


29911 


3113-0 


3 


3 


32113 


3340-8 


1} 


3 


29924 


3109-5 


1 


1 


32149 


33402 


29929 


3109-0 


1 


1 


32154 


3339-3 


3 


3 


29937 


3103-3 


3 


3 


32213 


3333-6 


8 


10 


29989 


3101-8 


1 




32228 


33290 


1 


1 


30030 


3097-6 


4 


6 


32273 


3326-4 


3 


3 


30053 


30890 


4 


4 


32363 


3324-8 


3 


3 


30068 


3086-3 


8 


8 


32392 




X3321-7 


4 


4 


30096 


3082-1 


6 


6 


32436 



ON WAVE-LENQTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 

Cobalt — continued. 





Intensi 


tv and 






Intensit}' and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




3078-9 


1 


1 


32470 


§2506-7 


4 




35618 


3073-4 


1 


1 


32528 


§2803-3 


1 


2 


35661 


30720 \ 
3071-8/ 


8 


rs 


32542 


2S0/-7 


*3 




35681 


\i 


32545 


2798-4 


1 


1 


35723 


3064-0 


1 


4 


32627 


2796-6 


1 




35746 


30630 


1 


3 


32638 


2796-3 


1 




35750 


3061-4 


8 


6 


32655 


2795-8 


1 




35756 


3059-6 


1 


1 


32674 


2793-4 


6 




35787 


3050-6 


4 


6 


32771 


§2789-1 


1 




35842 


3048-G 


6 


6 


32792 


27S6-9 


*3 




35871 


3043-(; 


6 


6 


32846 


2785-7 


*3 




35886 


30422 


1 


3 


32861 


2785-2 


*3 




35892 


3034-0 \ 
3033-8/ 


8 


{I 


32950 


2778-5 


1 


1 


35979 


32952 


2773-7 


8 




86015 


3017-0 


6 




33136 


$2774-8 


*3 


1 


36027 


3015-2 


1 


1 


33155 


276B-6 


4 


1 


36108 


3013-2 


4 


4 


33177 


2766-3 


3 




36135 


3010-3 


1 


3 


33209 


2766-0 


3 


4 


36141 


3008-5 


♦1 


1 


33229 


2763-9 


3 


4 


36169 


30001 


1 


2 


33332 


2761-0 


1 


3 


36207 


2994-7 


1 




33382 


2757-1 


1 


1 


36258 


2989-1 


6 


6 


33445 


2744-7 


3 


3 


36422 


2986-5 


6 


6 


33474 


2738-6 


1 




36503 


2983-3 


1 


1 


33510 


2734-3 


*3 




36560 


2971-2 


*1 




33646 


2732-6 


1 




36583 


2934-1 


*10 




33841 


2730-7 


1 


1 


36609 


2942-3 


*8 


8 


33974 


2728-8 


*4 




3G635 


29300 


*8 




34119 


2727-5 


*4 




36653 


29290 


1 


1 


34131 


2720-6 


•4 




36746 • 


2927-2 


1 


1 


34152 


2715-3 


3 


6 


36817 


2918-1 


*6 




34258 


2714-5 


1 




36828 


2906-5 


1 


3 


34395 


2713-9 


6 




36836 


2899-3 


1 


6 


34480 


%370%-6 


1 


1 


36908 


2897-5 


*3 




34502 


2707-4 


*3 




36925 


28900 


8 


1 


34591 


S,2:06-9 


*1 




36932 


28860 


3 


4 


34639 


'^2706-2 


♦4 




36941 


2883-1 


»1 




34674 


2701-9 


4 




37000 


2SS1-3 


1 


6 


34696 


2696-4 


1 




37075 


2879-9 


*1 




34713 


2696-0 


1 




37081 


2S70-4 


8 




34827 


2G95-9 


1 




37082 


J2865-1 


1 




34892 


2693-3 


1 


6 


37091 


2862-2 


1 


3 


34927 


2694-1 


8 


1 


37107 


28498 


1 


3 


35079 


2692-3 


3 




37129 


. §2847-9 


*3 




35102 


26S9-2 


3 




37175 


2845-2 


1 




35136 


P6S4-O 


»6 




37247 


2836-7 


1 


1 


35241 


2681-5 


1 




37281 


2S34-3 


6 




35271 


2679-8 


3 




37305 


2f!24-5 


8 


8 


35393 


2679-0 


1 


4 


37316 


2S23-2 


1 




35409 


2677-4 


3 




37338 


2822-7 


*3 




35416 


2675-4 


*6 


4 


37366 


2821-1 


*1 


3 


35436 


+26701 


1 




37441 


2819-4 


1 


1 


35457 


2669-7 


3 


1 


37446 


2818-3 


1 


1 


35471 


2662-7 


8 


1 


37545 


2815-8 


♦1 




35502 


2653-3 


6 




37677 


2S/3-2 


4 


6 


35510 


2648-4 


8 


10 


37747 


2810-3 


6 




35572 


2646-1 


3 


6 


37780 



228 



KEPOET 1890. 

Cobalt — continued. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation- 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




264i-4 


1 


1 


37804 


2524-2 


1 


10 


39C04 


2642-7 


*1 


1 


37829 


2522-5 


4 




39681 


2634-5 


3 




37946 


2520-7 


3 


10 


39659 


2631-9 


6 


1 


37984 


2519-3 


10 




39681 


^2628-4 


*1(?) 




38034 


2517-3 


3 


8 


39712 


2627-3 


1 


6 


38050 


2516-9 


4 




34719 


2626-6 


*1 


1 


38060 


2511-7 


1 


1 


39801 


2621-7 


*1 


4 


38131 


2511-4 


1 




39806 


2619-3 


4 


1 


38166 


X2510-5 


10 


10 


39820 


2618-5 


4 


8 


38178 


2509-4 


1 




39837 


2613-8 


6 


1 


38247 


2507-5 


4 


4 


89868 


2613-0 


4 




38258 


2505-8 


10 


10 


39895 


2605-3 


1 


2 


38371 


2504-1 


1 


6 


39922 


2605-2 


4 


4 


38373 


2501-7 


*3 


1 


39960 


2603-9 


3 


3 


38392 


2500-2 


3 


6 


■39984 


2600-3 


1 


3 


38445 


2498-2 


4 




40016 


§2598-8 


1 


1 


39467 


2497-1 


6 


6 


40034 


2592-9 


1 


1 


38555 


2496-3 




8 


40046 


J2586-8 


8 


1 


38646 


2495-1 




4 


40066 


2584-8 


1 


3 


38676 


2494-4 




3 


40077 


^55^2-6 


3 




38709 


2490-4 




6 


40141 


2581-7 


6 


1 


88722 


2489-8 




6 


40151 


X2379-S 


10 


8 


38751 


2486-9 






40198 


2374-4 


6 


8 


38832 


2486-7 






40201 


2573-1 


1 


4 


38851 


%2485-9 






40214 


2571-9 


1 


4 


38870 


2484-8 






40232 


2569-3 


6 




38909 


2484-4 






40238 


2567-0 


1 


6 


38944 


2484-1 






40243 


25650 


1 




38974 


2483-2 




4 


40258 


256S-6 


10 


1 


38995 


2478-6 






40332 


2561-7 


1 


10 


39024 


2477-8 






40345 


2559-6 


6 


1 


39056 


%U77-1 






40357 


255S-9 


8 


1 


38067 


2476-9 






40360 


2556-9 


4 


4 


39098 


2476-2 




6 


40371 


2556-3 


6 




39107 


2476-0 






40375 


2553-1 


1 


4 


38156 


2474-9 


*1 




40393 


t2552-7 


1 


4 


39162 


2473-5 


*1 




40415 


2552-2 


4 




39170 


2472-5 




8 


40432 


§2550-1 


4 




39202 


2469-7 




6 


40478 


§2549-7 


*1 


4 


39208 


2469-0 




1 


40489 1 


2548-9 


1 


4 


39220 


2466-5 






40530 ' 


2546-3 


8 




39260 


2463-7 


10 


4 


40576 


2545-7 


1 


3 


39270 


2460-8 






40624 1 


2544-6 


3 


4 


39286 


2460-3 




6 


40632 ' 


2544-2 


n 


6 


39293 


2459-0 






40654 


2543-9 


1/ 


39297 


2455-7 




8 


40708 


254-1-5 


1} 


8 


39334 


2453-6 






40743 


2540-2 


39355 


2453-3 




8 


40748 


2537-0 


3 


1 


39404 


2452-7 






40758 


2536-1 


1 


4 


39418 


2452-0 




1 


40770 


2535-3 


3 


4 


39427 


2449-4 


8 




40813 


2533-4 


8 




39460 


244S-7 


4 




40825 


2531-7 


1 


10 


39487 


%2447-3 


8 


3 


40848 


2529-6 


6 


6 


39519 


2445-6 


6 


1 


40876 


2528-i 


8 


8 


39543 


2443-3 


6 


3 


40915 


2524-5 


8 




89599 


2442-0 


8 




40937 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE 


ELEMENTS. 229 








Cobalt— 


■continued. 










Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Char 


acter 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




2441-2 


3 


4 


40950 


^2374-S 


4 


1 


42095 


2440-6 


1 


4 


40960 


2372-6 


3 


3 


42134 


2439-7 


*1 




40975 


2371-8 


3 


4 


42148 


2438-5 


3 


6 


40995 


2371-3 


6 


4 


42153 


2437-9 


*1 




41005 


2370-1 


3 


4 


42178 


2436-3 


1} 


8 


41029 


2366-6 


1 


3 


42219 


2436-2 


41034 


2363-3 


10 


6 


42299 


2435-8 


1 


3 


41041 


2361-2 


1 


1 


42339 


2434-6 


8 


8 


41061 


2360-8 


1 


1 


42346 


24320 


10 


10 


41105 


2360-3 


4 




42355 


2430-0 


1 




41139 


2360-2 


3 


1 


42357 


2429-6 


3 


3 


41145 


23600 


4 


1 


42360 


2427-S 


6 




4U76 


2357-7 


4 


4 


42402 


2423-7 


3 


1 


41212 


2353-0 


10 


6 


42486 


2424-3 


4 


*10 


41232 


2352-1 


1 


6 


42502 


2423-2 


6 


1 


41254 


2351-5 


1 


3 


42513 


2422-1 


1 


4 


41273 


§$2350-6 


3 


3 


42530 


2421-6 


1 


1 


41281 


2348-1 


1 




42575 


2420-3 


10 


1 


41303 


2347-4 


3 




42588 


241 S-1 


6 


4 


41341 


2347-0 


6 


3 


42595 


2417-2 


6 


6 


41356 


2346-7 


1 


3 


42600 


2416-5 


6 


3 


41368 


$2346-2 


4 


1 


42609 


2413-7 


4 




41382 


2345-2 


3 


3 


42628 


2415-5 


6 




41386 


2344-3 


4 




42644 


2414-8 


3 


8 


41397 


%2344-0 


6 




42649 


2414-1 


3 


8 


41409 


X234O-8 


8 




42708 


2413-7 


6 


4 


41416 


2338-8 


3 


4 


42744 


X2412-2 


I 


6 


41442 


2338-4 


1 


4 


42751 


2411-2 


8 


10 


41494 


2337-6 


8 


4 


42766 


2408-3 


6 


4 


41509 


$2336-6 


3 


1 


42784 


2407-8 


6 




41518 


2335-9 


6 


4 


42797 


2407-1 


6 


*10 


41530 


2333-7 


1 


1 


42838 


2406-9 


1 




41533 


X2330-0 


6 


8 


42905 


i405-1 


4 


1 


41561 


2328-7 


1 


1 


42929 


2404-0 


4 


1 


41583 


2327-3 


8 




42955 


2403-8 


6 


4 


41587 


%2326-1 


6 


4 


42977 


2403-3 


1 


1 


41596 


2323-9 


6 


3 


42981 


2402-4 


1 


1 


41611 


12324-0 


6 


4 


43016 


$2401-6 


11 


8 


41625 


$2321-0 


1 


3 


43085 


24013 


1/ 


41630 


2319-6 


1 


4 


43098 


2397-8 


4 


3 


41691 


2318-2 


1 




43105 


2396-9 


10 


3 


41707 


$2316-8 


6 


3 


43150 


2395-1 


4 


4 


41738 


$2315-5 


1 


4 


43174 


2393-4 


4 


1 


41768 


2314-5 


8 


3 


43193 


J2392-1 


4 


4 


41787 


%2313-5 


8 


6 


43211 


2391-5 


1 


4 


41801 


2313-1 


4 




43219 


2389-1 


6 


4 


41843 


2312-1 


3 


3 


43238 


2388-4 


10 


1 


41855 


X2311-1 


10 


6 


43256 


2388-3 


3 


4 


41857 


2310-4 


1 


1 


43269 


3386-1 


6 


1 


41895 


2307-4 


«10 


8 


43326 


2383-9 


8 


4 


41899 


2306-4 


1 




43344 


2382-9 


8 


4 


41952 


$2305-6 


1 




43359 


$2381-7 


3 




41973 


2303-8 


1 




43393 


S381-3 


8 


4 


41980 


2300-8 


3 


4 


43450 


2380-3 


1 


1 


41997 


2800-3 


3 


3 


43459 


S37S-1 


10 


8 


42036 


2299-3 


4 


1 


43478 



230 



KEPOKT — 1890. 



C B ALT — continued. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




■ Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




2298-3 


1 


1 


43497 


2272-0 


1 




44000 


2296-9 


3 


8 


43524 


2270-5 


1 




44030 


2295-5 


3 


4 


43550 


$2266-2 


8 




44113 


2293-0 


6 


8 


43598 


2259-7 


8 




44240 


229-1-5 


6 


4 


43626 


2256-4 


8 




44305 


2290-9 


1 


1 


43638 


2253-2 


1 




44367 


2289-9 


1 


1 


43657 


2244-8 


6 




44533 


2287-8 


1 


3 


43697 


2234-4 


1 




44741 


22S5-7 


*8 


8 


43737 


2231-5 


1 




44799 


2283-1 


3 




43787 


2229-5 


1 




44839 


2281-9 


1 




43810 


2219-6 


1 




45039 


2281-5 


4 




43817 


2215-9 


1 




45114 


2280-1 


3 




43844 


2214-1 


1 




45151 


2278-1 


1 




43883 


2205-7 


1 




45323 


2275-9 


1 




43925 


2298-2 


1 




45477 


2275-1 


1 




43941 


2293-1 


1 




45583 


$2274-2 


1 


1 


43958 


2291-9 


1 




45608 


J2273-3 


3 




43975 


2290-2 


] 




45643 



Nickel.* 

• Double. t Also In oxyhydrogen flame. % Also a cobalt line. § Also an Iron line. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




3S5~-S 


8 


8 


25913 


3624- -J 


1 


3 


27585 


3S'4S-9 


3 




25973 


f36-f8-S 


10 


10 


27625 


3S37-3 


3 






26050 


■\3612-1 


6 


6 


27676 


3831-7 


1 






26090 


3609-S 


8 


8 


27694 


f3S'06-6 


8 


6 


26263 


360S-6 


1 


1 


27703 


p~S30 


6 


4 


26426 


360-1-4 


3 




27758 


■f3773-o 


6 


6 


26482 


p597-0 


10 


10 


27792 


376S-9 


8 




26525 


35S7-2 


*3 


3 


27868 


3736-1 


8 


8 


26758 


3576-1 


8 




27955 


3724-2 




1 


26843 


%\3571-2 


8 


8 


27993 


§.972^-6 


6 




26862 


p565-7 


10 


6 


28036 


3710-9 




1 


26940 


3561-1 


1 




28072 


3697-2 




1 


27039 


3552-S 


1 




28138 


3694-6 




1 


27058 


3550-8 


1 




28154 


36S7-6 


1 




27110 


3547-5 


6 


6 


28180 


3673-4 


3 


4 


27215 


3529-9 


1 


1 


28321 


3671-5 




1 


27229 


X3529-2 


1 


3 


28.326 


3669-7 


1 


8 


27242 


3527-1 


3 


1 


28343 


■ 3666-9 




1 


27263 


3526-0 


3 




28352 


3663-4 


3 




27289 


^3523-9 


10 


10 


28369 


3659-3 




3 


27319 


3519-1 


6 


6 


28407 


3657-5 




1 


273.33 


3518-0 


1 




28416 


365.5-2 




1 


27350 


p514-4 


10 


10 


28445 


3653-0 




6 


27366 


%3513-3 


8 




28454 


3634-9 






4 


27.503 


{X3509-7 


10 


10 


28483 



• Liveing and De-war, PMl. Trans, clxxix. 231 (1888). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 231 

Nickel — continued. 





Intensi 


ty and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




3507-3 


1 


1 


28503 


3250-1 


4 




3 


30760 


3505-9 


1 


3 


28514 


3247-8 


1 




1 


30781 


3501-8 


3 


4 


28548 


3242-6 


6 




6 


30830 


3300-0 


8 


8 


28562 


3234-2 


6 




6 


30910 


^349'J-3 


10 


10 


28625 


^3232-6 


8 




10 


30925 


34S5-2 


3 


3 


28684 


3226-3 


1 




1 


30986 


3433-1 


8 


8 


28707 


3224-6 


4 




4 


31002 


3471-9 


8 


8 


28793 


3221-1 


3 


3 


31036 


3470-S 


*3 


1 


28803 


3217-4 


3 




31071 


346S-9 


8 


4 


28818 


3216-6 


1 




1 


31079 


3466-8 


3 


3 


28836 


3216-0 


1 






31081 


13465- i 


6 


8 


28850 


^3213-7 


3 






31107 


}3461-1 


10 


10 


28883 


"321 2-3 






1 


31121 


3457-9 


10 


10 


28911 


3201-5 


1 






31226 


t3457-7 


*3 


8 


28913 


%3196-6 


6 




6 


31273 


3453-5 


4 


4 


28948 


3194-9 


1 


4 


31290 


J3452-9 


3 


4 


28953 


3183-8 


1 


6 


31399 


i\3452-3 


10 


4 


28958 


%3l82-6 


1 


1 


31411 


3443-7 


10 


10 


29013 


3181-2 


1 




31425 


3441-6 


1 




29048 


3179-2 


*6 


6 


31445 


13436-7 


8 


8 


29089 


3158-9 


*3 


3 


31656 


P433-0 


10 


10 


29121 


3143-5 


3 


4 


31781 


X3423-1 


10 


8 


29205 


3134-0 


1 


1 


31898 


3420-6 


1 


1 


29224 


p133-6 


10 


10 


31902 


3413-S 


10 


8 


29284 


3113-7 


3 


4 


32106 


■\34i3-4 


4 


10 


29288 


%3105-0 


3 


6 


32196 


3412-9 


8 


8 


29292 


3101-4 


8 


8 


32233 


3409-0 


1 


3 


29325 


3101-1 


6 


6 


32236 


3406-6 


6 


6 


29346 


3098-6 


4 




32262 


%3404-5 


3 


1 


28364 


3096-6 


4 




32283 


3402-8 


1 




29379 


3086-6 


8 




32389 


3400-5 


1 


3 


29399 


3080-3 


6 


6 


32455 


3392-4 


8 


8 


29469 


3064-2 


6 


6 


32625 


3390-4 


8 


8 


29486 


^3057-2 


8 




32700 


13380-0 


10 


10 


29577 


3053-9 


8 


6 


32735 


3374-0 


4 


4 


29630 


3050-4 


8 


8 


32773 


3373-6 


1 


4 


29633 


%3044-3 


4 


4 


32836 


3373-3 


6 


6 


29636 


3037-5 


8 


8 


32912 


3371-3 


6 


4 


29653 


3031-4 


4 


4 


32978 


^3368-9 


8 


6 


29674 


3018-8 


6 




33116 


}3367-2 


1 


8 


29689 


3011-5 


10 


10 


33196 


3365-5 


4 


4 


29704 


3003-2 


8 


8 


33288 


3365-1 


4 


4 


29708 


3002-1 


8 


8 


33300 


3361-0 


3 


6 


29744 


^2994-1 


6 


6 


33389 


X3360-9 


6 


8 


29745 


2992-2 


6 


8 


33410 


3358-1 


1 


3 


29770 


2988-0 


1 




33457 


3349-8 


3 




29844 


2987-7 


*3 




33460 


X3321-6 


6 


4 


30097 


2983-6 


4 


6 


33506 


3319-7 


6 


6 


30114 


^2981-2 


6 


6 


33533 


3315-1 


6 


6 


30156 


2968-7 


*3 




33674 


3312-4 


1 




30180 


2957-8 


1 




33799 


X3311-8 


3 


1 


30186 


2954-5 


*3 




33836 


3290-1 


1 




30385 


2947-1 


4 




33921 


3282-2 


3 


4 


30458 


2943-5 


8 


10 


33963 


3274-4 


1 




30531 


§2938-7 


1 


1 


34018 


%3S70-6 


1 


I 


30566 


II %2936-3 


• 


B 




34046 



232 



EEPOET — 1890. 

Nickel — continued. 





Intensity and 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




2934-3 


1 




34069 


2557-5 


1 




39088 


§2925^-4 


*6 




34138 


2554-7 


4 




39131 


2918-8 


*1 




34250 


%2552-6 


*1 


4 


39163 


29^3-2 


8 


8 


34316 


2549-1 


1 


1 


39217 


2906-9 


3 


6 


34390 


2545-4 


6 


6 


39274 


2900-6 


1 




34465 


12543-2 


3 




39308 


2898-8 


1 




34486 


2539-5 


1 


6 


39365 


2889-1 


1 




34602 


2524-1 


1 




39605 


2882-2 


*1 




34685 


2520-0 


1 


1 


39670 


2880-9 


*1 




34700 


X2510-6 


10 


8 


39818 


$2865-1 




6 


34892 


2509-6 


1 




39834 


2S63-3 


8 




34914 


X2505-9 


6 




39893 


2823-9 


1 




35401 


2496-9 


1 


1 


40037 


2820-8 


6 


10 


35440 


2483-6 


*6 


6 


40251 


2807-8 


1 




35604 


2476-6 


1 


1 


40365 


2806-0 


*1 




35626 


%2472-8 


8 


6 


40427 


2S05-0 


8 


6 


35639 


§2471-8 


1 


8 


40443 


P774-7 


*4 




36028 


2455-4 


4 


1 


40713 


2760-4 


1 




36215 


2453-7 


1 


8 


40741 


275^7 


4 




36237 


2448-1 


3 




40835 


2708-3 


4 


4 


36913 


§2441-5 


1 


10 


40945 


^2701-2 


3 


1 


37010 


2437-5 


*10 


6 


41012 


2700-4 


1 


1 


37021 


§2433-9 


1 


6 


41073 


2690-2 


1 




37161 


§2433-2 


4 




41085 


$2684-0 


8 




37247 


2431-2 


1 




41118 


2678-8 


6 




37319 


2426-8 


1 




41193 


2674-4 


1 




37380 


2423-4 


1 


6 


41251 


2672-1 


1 




37412 


2420-8 


1 


8 


41295 


§26700 


3 




37442 


2419-0 


1 


6 


41326 


2664-9 


1 




37513 


2416-O 


*10 


8 


41377 


2639-5 


3 


3 


37590 


2412-8 


3 


6 


41432 


2655-6 


6 


1 


37645 


%2412-1 


1 


6 


41444 


2648-6 


1 


1 


37744 


2404-8 


1 


1 


41570 


2646-S 


6 


6 


37770 


$2401-7 


1 


6 


41623 . 


2643-4 


1 




37819 


\24OO-l 


1 




41648 


26410 


1 




37853 


2397-2 


1 




41741 


^2639-5 


6 




37874 


§2394-7 


1 


6 


41745 


2636-8 


1 




37913 


2394-3 


8 


8 


41752 


2632-4 


1 




37971 


%2394-0 


8 


8 


41757 


2628-4 


1 




38034 


2392-6 


4 


6 


41701 


2626-3 


1 




38065 


$2392-0 


1 


1 


41792 


^26149 


6 




38231 


I 2388-7 


1 


1 


41850 


2609-6 


6 




38308 


i ^2388-5 


4 


1 


41853 


§2606-7 


1 




38351 


2387-5 


6 


4 


41871 


I26O6-I 


1 




38360 


2386-3 


1 


6 


41892 


2600-8 


1 




38438 


t§2381-8 


8 


3 


41971 


§2593-1 


3 




38552 


j 2378-6 


1 


1 


42027 


$2586-7 


1 


1 


38647 


2375-6 


1 


6 


42080 


2584-4 


3 




38682 


i 2375-0 


8 


4 


42091 


2583-5 


4 




38695 


! 2370-9 


1 


1 


42164 


$2579-9 


1 


1 


38749 


2369-5 


4 




42189 


2575-7 


4 


4 


38812 


2368-9 


3 


1 


42199 


2571-7 


1 


1 


38873 


2367-0 


4 


3 


42233 


2568-2 


1 


1 


38926 


%2366--f 


4 


1 


42249 


2565-7 


*4 




38964 


2358-5 


1 


6 


42337 


2559-8 


4 


3 


39053 


1 2355-9 


6 


6 


42434 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 233 

Nickel — continued. 





Intensity ami 






Intensity and 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




^2350-5 


1 


1 


42531 


2277-8 


6 


4 


43888 


§2349-8 


*1 


1 


42544 


2277-0 


6 


1 


43904 


2347-6 


I 


4 


42584 


2276-3 




3 


43917 


t2346-2 


1 


4 


42C09 


%227'o-7 


3 


4 


43929 


2345-0 


1 




42631 


$!j2275-0 


4 


3 


43942 


§2-34^7 


8 


6 


42637 


$2274-1 


6 


6 


439G0 


2343-5 


1 




42658 


$2273-2 


1 


1 


43977 


23430 


4 


1 


42668 


2272-3 


1 




43995 


X2340-7 


8 




42709 


2271-1 


1 


6 


44018 


2337-1 


1 


3 


42775 


2270-3 


1 




44033 


^2336-6 


1 


6 


42784 


2269-9 


*10 


10 


44041 


2336-2 


*6 


1 


42792 


2269-1 


1 


6 


44057 


2334- i 


8 


1 


42830 


$2266-1 


1 


3 


44115 


J23301 


1 




42904 


§2264-8 


3 




44140 


2329-6 


4 


8 


42913 


^2264-1 


8 


10 


44154 


X2326-0 


8 


6 


42979 


§2263-1 




4 


44173 


2325-5 


4 


8 


42989 


2262-6 


1 


1 


44183 


$2324-0 


*1 




43016 


2261-1 


1 


4 


44213 


2323-3 


"1 




43029 


§2260-3 


1 




44228 


2322-3 


1 


6 


43048 


2259-4 


1 


6 


44246 


2321-6 


1 


3 


43061 


2258-9 


3 




44256 


%2321-0 


4 


8 


43072 


2257-6 


4 


6 


44281 


2319-3 


6 


6 


43103 


2255-7 


6 


3 


44318 


231S-0 


6 




43128 


2254-7 


6 


6 


44338 


$2310-8 


1 


6 


43150 


2263-9 


1 




44354 


X2315-6 


no 


6 


43172 


2253-5 


*10 


8 


44362 


P3/3-6 


3 


6 


43210 


2252-6 


1 




44379 


2313-4 


1 


6 


43213 


2251-4 


1 


4 


44403 


2312-5 


6 




43230 


§2251-1 


1 


1 


44409 


2311-8 


4 


6 


43243 


§2250-5 


I 


1 


44421 


$2311-2 


1 




43254 


2250-2 


1 




44427 


2310-6 


*3 


6 


43266 


2249-2 


1 




44446 


230S-1 


6 


1 


43312 


§2248-8 


1 


4 


44454 


$2305-7 


1 




43358 


2247-4 


1 




44482 


2304-8 


6 




43374 


2246-6 


3 




44498 


2303-3 


6 


4 


43403 


2245-9 


*1 




44512 


2302-3 


8 




43418 


2244-4 


*1 


8 


44541 


230-2-0 


8 




43427 


%2242-2 


1 


3 


44585 


2301-5 


1 




43437 


2241-2 


1 




44605 


2299-8 


6 




43469 


2239-8 


*1 




44633 


2299-2 


6 




43480 


2238-2 


*1 




44665 


2298-0 


*6 


1 


43503 


2237-6 


*1 




44677 


229T1 \ 


6 


1 


43520 


2235-5 


1 




44719 


2206-7 J 




43527 


2233-5 


3 




44759 


2296-2 


8 




43537 


2231-2 


1 




44805 


2295-3 


1 




43554 


$^2229-6 


*4 


6 


44837 


2292-7 


1 


1 


43603 


§2227-2 


1 


8 


44885 


2290-7 


1 




43641 


2226-7 


1 




44895 


2289-6 


4 


4 


43662 


2225-8 


6 


6 


44914 


2287-4 


8 


1 


43704 


§2225-3 


1 




44924 


2286-8 


8 


6 


43716 


2224-3 


6 


8 


44944 


2284-8 


1 




43754 


2223-8 


6 




44954 


2283-7 


1 


1 


43775 


2222-3 


6 


8 


44984 


2280-6 


*1 




43835 


2221-7 


1 




44996 


2279-2 


1 





43862 


2221-3 


1 


3 


45004 


221 8- 4 


•8 


6 


43877 


2220-6 


3 




45019 



234 



BEPORT 1890. 



Nickel — continued. 





Intensity and 






Intensity aud 




Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Spark 


Arc 






Spark 


Arc 




2219S 


6 


1 


45035 


2197-2 


♦1 


6 


45498 


22190 


1 




45051 


2193-2 


1 




45581 


2217% 


3 


3 


43084 


2190-6 


1 


4 


45G35 


2216-0 


6 


3 


45112 


2190-0 


] 


4 


45647 


X2215-8 


8 


10 


45116 


2188-2 


3 


1 


45685 


2212-5 


4 


3 


45183 


2185-0 


6 


1 


45752 


§2211-4 


1 


3 


45206 


2184-2 


6 


6 


45769 


§2210-5 


4 


4 


45224 


2182-8 


1 


6 


45798 


2209-8 


*8 


6 


45239 


2179-9 


4 




45859 


2206-1 


8 


8 


45314 


2179-4 


1 




45869 


2205-2 


*6 


6 


45333 


2176-7 


3 




45926 


22030 


*1 




45378 


21760 


3 




45941 


2200-8 


8 


4 


45424 


2174-4 


4 


6 


45975 


2198-4 


3 


4 


45473 


2173-8 


4 


6 


45988 


2198-0 


*1 




45481 











• Double. 



Iodine (Absorption).' 

t Triple. © Coincident with a solar line. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6316-51 


4 


15826-8 


6301- 16t1 


3 


15865-3 


6314-66 


2 


15831-4 


6300-51t/ 


15866-9 


6314-26 


2 


15832-4 


6300-22 


3 


13867-7 


6313-90 


2 


15833-3 


6300-00 


3 


15868-2 


6313-53 


3 


15834-2 


6299-58* 


50 


15869-3 


6313-18 


3 


15835-1 


6298-94* 


50 


15870-9 


6312-76 


3 


16836-2 


6298-29 


6 


15872-5 


6312-23* 


3 


15837-5 


6297-76* 


5 


15873-9 


6311-59* 


3 


15839-1 


6297-15* 


3 


15875-4 


6311-11 


3 


15840-3 


6296-82 


3 


15876-2 


6310-74 


4 


15841-2 


6296-31 


50 


15877-5 


6310-36 


3 


15842-2 


6295-91 


3 


15878-5 


6310-08 


4 


15842-9 


6295-31 


5 


15880-0 


6309-38 


4 


158446 


6294-75 


6 


15881-5 


6308-67t 


4 


15846-4 


6294-25 


6 


15882-7 


6308-05 


4 


15848-0 


6293-72* 


4 


15884-1 


6307-73 


2 


15848-8 


6293-29 


30 


15885-1 


6307-38 


3 


15849-7 


6292-91* 


4 


15886-1 


6307-00 


3 


15850-6 


6292-45* 


5 


15887-3 


6306-64 


3s 


15851-5 


6291-94 


6 


15888-6 


6306-13* 


3 


15852-8 


6291-46 


6 


15889-8 


6305-69 


3 


15853-9 


6290-98* 


4 


15891-0 


6305-38 


3 


15854-7 


6290-62 


30 


15891-9 


6304-83 


3 


15856-1 


6290-23* 


3 


15892-9 


630421 


4 


15857-6 


6289-83 


6 


15893-9 


630.3-57 


3 


15859-2 


6289-34 


4 


15895-1 


6302-34 


3© 


15862-3 


6288-90* 


4 


15896-2 


6301-50 


2 


15864-4 


6288-63 


2 


15896-9 



> Hasselberg, Memoires de V Academic des Sciences de St. Peterslourg, vii" sgrie, 
vol. xxxvi. (1888). 



ON WAYE-LBNGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 235 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6288-21* 


4 


15898-0 


6263-94 


3 


15959-6 


6287-82 


3 


158990 


6263-58 


2 


15960-5 


6287-36 


4 


159001 


6263-23 


3 


15961-4 


6286-83* 


4 


15901-4 


6262-91 


2 


15962-2 


6286-37 


3 


15902-6 


6262-59 


4 


15963-0 


6285-98 


4 


15903-6 


6261-95 


3 


15964-6 


6285-61 


3 


15904-6 


6261-42* 


5 


159660 


6285-40 


3 


15905-1 


6260-73* 


4 


15967-8 


6285-08 


4 


15905-9 


6260-37 


3 


15968-7 


6284-68 


4 


15906-9 


6260-10 


5 


15969-4 


6284 19 


4 


15908-2 


6259-42 


3 


15971-1 


6283-86 


3 


159090 


6258-80 


4 


15972-7 


6283-45 


8 


159100 


6258-22 


4 


15971-2 


6282-98 


4s 


15911-2 


6257-68 


4 


15975-5 


6282-59 


3 


15912-2 


6257-08 


3 


15977-1 


6282-28 


3© 


159130 


6256-42 


4 


15978-8 


6281-90* 


4 


159140 


6255-86 


4 


15980-2 


6281-14 


5 


15915-9 


6255-35 


4 


15981-5 


6280-41 


l}o 


15917-7 


6254-74* 


5 


15983-1 


6280-01 


15918-7 


6254-26 


4 


15984-3 


6279-75 


5 


15919-4 


6253-89 


3 


15985-2 


6279-46 


50 


15920-1 


6253-61 


3 


15986-0 


6279 13 


3 


15921-0 


6253-07 


6 


15987-3 


6278-79 


5 


15921-8 


6252-96* 


6 


15987-6 


6278-25 


2 


15923-2 


6252-59 


4 


15988-6 


6277-88 


50 


15924-1 


6252-12 


5 


15989-8 


6277-36 


> 


15925-5 


6251-85 


3 


15990-5 


6277-00 


15926-4 


6251-58 


3 


15991-1 


6276-36 


4 


15928-0 


6251-33 


2 


15991-8 


6275-56* 


4 


159300 


6251-00 


4 


15992-5 


6275-11* 


2 


15931-2 


6250-62 


3 


15993-6 


6274-73 


3 


15932-1 


6250-12* 


5 


15994-9 


6274-35 


2 


15933-1 


6249-63 


3 


15996-1 


6274-01 


5 


159340 


6249-15 


5 


15997-4 


6273-67 


2 


15934-8 


6248-66 


3 


15998-6 


6273-24 


4 


15935-9 


6248-19 


5 


15999-8 


6272-85 


3 


15936-9 


6247-60 


2 


16001-3 


6272-42 


4 


15938-0 


6247-27 


3 


16002-2 








6240-94 


3 


16003-0 


Group 6272 


-6234 




6240-41 
624605 


3 

4 


16004-4 
16005-3 


6272-42 


4 


15938-0 


6245-59 


4 


16006-5 


6271-75 


4 


15939-7 


6245-21 


4 y band 


16007-4 


6271-06* 


3 


15941-5 


6244-78 


16008-5 


6270-22 


2 


15943-6 


6244-48 


^ > band 


16009-3 


6269-8] 


2 


15944-6 


6243-96 


16010-7 


6269-54 


4 


15945-3 


6243-62 


4 


16011-5 


626907 


2 


15946-5 


6243-24 


4 


16012-5 


6268-78 


4 


15947-3 


6242-89 


2 


16013-4 


6268-38 


2 


15948-3 


6242-57 


4 


16014-2 


6268-06 


4 


15949-1 


6242-23 


3 


16015-1 


6267-64 


2 


15950-2 


6241-88 


4 


16016-0 


6267-30 


4 


15951-0 


6241-55 


3 


16016-8 


6266-69* 


3 


15952-6 


6241-12 


5 


16017-9 


6266-04 


4 


15954-2 


6240-89 


40 


16018-5 


6265-28 


6 


15956-2 


6240-60 


4 


16019-3 


6264-60 


3 


15957-9 


6240-26 


3 


16020-1 


6264-30 


2 


15958-7 


6239-89 


3 


16021-1 



236 



REPORT 1890. 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6239-41 


3 


16022-3 


6219-36 


2 


16074-0 


6239-09 


2 


16023-1 


6219-15 


2 


16074-5 


6238-56 


3 


16024-5 


6218-81 


3 


16075-4 


6238-24 


3 


16025-3 


6218-50 


4 


16076-2 


6237-72* 


6 


16026-7 


6218-21 


4 


16077-1 


6237-28* 


2 


16027-8 


6217-86 


3 


16077-9 


6236-95 


4s 


16028-6 


6217-58 


3 


16078-6 


6236-56 


2 


16029-6 


6217-12* 


5 


16079-8 


623621 


4 


16030-5 


6216-83 


2 


16080-3 


6235-88 


4 


16031-4 


6216-57 


4 


16081-2 


6235-46 


4 


16032-5 


6216-23 


2 


16082-1 


6235-03 


4 


16033-6 


6215-93* 


5 


16082-9 


6234-77 


3 


16034-2 


6215-27 


4 


16084-6 


6234-43 


4 


16035-1 


6214-92 


4 


16085-5 


6234-23 


4 


16035-6 


6214-64 


4 


16086-2 


6233-93 


4 


16036-4 


6214-26* 


3 


16087-2 








6213-83 


4 


16088-3 








6213-40 


4 


16089-4 


Group 6234 


-6191 




6212-95* 


5 


16090-6 








6212-41 


6 


16092-0 


6233-93 


4 


16036-4 


6212-11 


2 


16092-7 


6233-69 


2 


16037-0 


6211-87 


5 


16093-4 


6233-38 


2 


16037-8 


6211-29* 


5 


16094-9 


6232-58 


3 


16039-9 


6210-86* 


4 


16095-9 


6232-14 


3 


16041-0 


6210-53 


2 


16096-8 


623179 


3 


16041-9 


6210-18* 


6 


16097-7 


6231-41 


2 


16042-9 


6209-64 


4 


16099-1 


6230-81 


2 


16044-4 


6209-40 


2 


16099-8 


6230-51 


4 


16045-2 


6209-17 


5s 


16100-4 


6230-20 


4 


16046-0 


6208-81 


3-1 


16101-3 


6229-68 


6 


16047-3 


6208-55 


3 K band 


16102-0 


6229-31 


2 


16048-3 


620806 


4J 


16103-2 


6228-95 


4 


16049-2 


6207-56 


4 


16104-5 


6228-55 


2 


16050-2 


6207-13* 


5 


16105-6 


6228-24 \ 
6227-95/ 


5 


16051-0 


6206-69 


4 


16106-8 


16051-8 


1 6206-16t 


5 


16108-2 


6227-43* 


3 


16053-1 


6205-66 


4 


16109-5 


6226-85 


3 


16054-6 


6205-24 


5 


16110-5 


6226-51 


2 


16055-5 


6204-79* 


l\ band 


16111-7 


6226-21* 


2 


16056-3 


6204-28* 


161130 


6225-76 


3 


16057-4 


6203-88 


4 


16114-1 


6225-28 


2 


16058-7 


6203-48* 


4 


16115-1 


6224-98 


3 


16059-5 


6203-08 


3 


16116-2 


6224-58* 


2 


16060-5 


6202-88 


3 


16116-7 


6224-31 


3 


16061-2 


6202-59 


4 


16117-4 


6223-94 


3 


16062-1 


6202-21 


gj band 


16118-4 


6223-64 


4 


16062-9 


i 6201-74 


16119-6 


6223-17 \ 


4 


16064-1 


6201-44 


4 


16120-4 


6222-93J 


16064-7 


6201-03 


4 


16121-5 


6222-73 


2 


16065-3 


6200-28* 


4 


16123-4 


6222-41* 


4 


16066-1 


6199-89 


3 


16124-4 


6222-04 


2 


16067-0 


6199-48 


4 


16125-5 


6221-71 


4 


16067-9 


6199-13 


2 


16126-4 


6221-101 
6220-89/ 


4 


16069-5 


6198-86 


4 


16127-1 


16070-0 


6198-52 


2 


16128-0 


6220-54 


4 


16070-9 


6198-19 


4 


16128-9 


6220-27 


8 


16071-6 


6197-86 


3 


16129-7 


6219-97 


3 


16072-4 


1 6197-57 


4 


16130-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 2S7 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation ' 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency | 


length 


Character 


frequency 


6197-28\ 
6196-62/ 


4 


16131-2 


6177-94 


4 


16181-7 


16133-0 


6177-60\ 
6176-93/ 


4 


16182-6 


6196-32 


4 


16133-7 


16184-4 


6196-05 


2 


16134-4 


6176-62 


2 


16185-2 


6195-79 


4 


16135-1 ' 


6176-81 


3 


16186-0 


6195-53 


3 


16135-8 


6175-98 


2 


16186-9 


6195-28 


3 


16136-4 


6175-65 


4sO 


16187-7 


6195-Oi 


2 


16137-1 


6175-37 


3 


16188-5 


6191-75 


4 


16137-8 


6175-02 


3 


16189-4 


619-1-57 


4 


16138-3 


6174-67 


2 


16190-3 


6191-26* 


4 


161391 


6174-40 


2 


16191-0 


6103-8i 


4 


16140-2 


6174-09 


4 


16191-8 


6193-46 


4 


16141-2 


6173-60* 


5 


16193-1 


6192-18 


4 


16143-7 


6173 00* 


5 


16194-7 


C192-18 


2 


16144-5 


6172-58 


3 


16195-8 


6191-87 


6 


16145-3 


6172-34 


3 


16196-4 


6191-16 


4 


16146-4 


6172-00 


4 


16197-3 


6191-21 


2. 


161470 


6171-74 


4 


16198-0 


6190-97* 


5 


16147-7 


6171-39 


2 


16198-9 








6171-17 


2 


16199-5 


Group 6191 


-6149 




6170-60 
6170-17» 


2 
3 


16201-0 
16202-1 


6190-97 


5 


16147-7 


6168-93 


3 


16205-4 


6190-60 


2 


16148-6 


6168-66 


3 


16206-1 


6190-21 


3 


16149-7 


i 6168-36 


3 


16206-9 


6189-79 


2 


16150-8 


6167-94* 


4 


16208-0 


6189-46 


4 


16151-6 


6167-44* 


4 


16209-3 


6188-97 


3 


16152-9 


6167-03 


4 


16210-4 


6188-64 


3 


16153-7 


6166-45 


3 


16211-9 


6188-25 


4 


16154-8 


6166-03* 


2 


16213-0 


6187-86 


4 


16155-8 


6165-63» 


3 


16214-0 


6187-47 


3 


16156-8 


6165-31 


4 


16214-9 


6187-09 


3 


16157-8 


6164-92* 


4 


16215-9 


6186-68 


4 


16158-9 


6164-45* 


4 


162171 


6186-32 


3 


16159-8 


6163-61 


4 


16219-4 


6185-98 


3 


16160-7 


6162-92 


3 


16221-2 


6185-62 


2 


16161-7 


6162-13 


4 


16223-3 


6185-23 


4 


16162-7 


6161-59t 


4 


16224-7 


6184-88 


2 


16163-7 


6160-79 


3 


16226-8 


6184-50 


4 


16164-6 


6160-41 


3 


16227-8 


6184-13 


H band 


1G165-6 


6160-11 


3 


16228-6 


6183-79 


16166-4 


6159-78 


2 


16229-4 


6183-45 


ij band 


16167-3 


6159-42 


3 


16230-4 


6183-05 


16168-4 


6159-20 


2 


16231-0 


6182-70 


2 


16169-3 


6158-92 


3 


16231-7 


6182-33 


3 


16170-3 


6158-58 


3 


16232-6 


6181-90 


3 


16171-2 


6158-32 


2 


16233-3 


6181-60 


2 


16172-2 


6158-05 


50 


16234-0 


6181-22 


4 


16173-2 


6157-71 


5 


16234-9 


6180-89 


3 


16174-0 


6157-16* 


5 


16236-3 


6180-59 


4s0 


16174-8 


6156-77 


3 


16237-4 


6180-23 


3 


16175-7 


6156-44 


4 


16238-2 


6179-92 


4 


16176-6 


6156-12 


2 


16239-1 


6179-52 


4 


16177-6 


6155-85 


2 


16239-8 


6179-24 


4 


16178-3 


6155-47 


40 


16240-8 


6178-86 


4 


16179-3 


6155-16 


3 


16241-6 


6178-57 


4 


16180-1 


6154-80 


2 


16242-G 


6178-21 


4 


161810 


615453 


4 


16243-3 



238 



REPORT — 1890. 



Iodine (Absokption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


OscilJation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6154-33 


3 


16243-8 


6133-09 


2 


16300-1 


6154-06 


3 


16244-5 


6132-79 


3 


16300-9 


6153-76 


5 


16245-3 


6132-48 


2 


16301-7 


6153-49 


5 


16246-0 


6132-20 


3 


16302-4 


6153-08* 


6 


16247-1 


6131-89 


3 


16303-3 


6152-57 


3 


16248-4 


6131-63 


3 


16304-0 


6152-18 


4s 


16249-5 


6131-35 


3 


16304-7 


6151-44 


4 


16251-5 


6131-05 


2 


16305-5 


6151-01* 


5 


16252-6 


6130-75 


2 


16306-3 


6150-58 


6 


16253-7 


6130-45 


2 


16307-1 


6150-20* 


4 


16254-7 


6130-10 


4 


16308-0 


6149-83 


4 


16255-7 


6129-85 


2 


16308-7 


6149-48 


6 


16256-6 


6129-60 


2 


16309-4 


6149-08 


4 


16257-T 


6129-34 


2 


16310-0 








6129-07 


4 


16310-8 








6128-77 


2 


16311-6 


Group 6149 


-6111 




6128-52 


2 


16312-2 








6128-21\ 
6127-98/ 


4 


16313-0 


6149-08 


4 


16257-7 


16313-7 


6148-75 


3 


16258-6 


6127-65 1 
6127-46 r 


3 


16314-5 


6148-10* 


4 


16260-3 


16315-0 


6147-61* 


3 


16261-6 


6127-17i 
6126-95/ 


4 


16315-8 


614719 


8 


16262-7 


16316-4 


6146-94 


2 


16263-4 


6126-63 


3 


16317-3 


6146-70 


2 


16264-0 


6126-17* 


4 


16318-5 


6146-46 


3 


16264-6 


6125-74* 


3 


16319-6 


6146-20 


2 


16265-3 


6125-26* 


5 


16320-9 


6145-96 


2 


16265-9 


6124-81* 


4 


16322-1 


6145-65 


3 


16266-8 


6124-3511 


3s 


16323-3 


6145-24 


3 


16267-9 


6123-791]" 


16324-8 


6144-92* 


3 


16268-7 


6123-42 


3s 


16325-8 


6144-49 


3 


16269-8 


6123-14 


3 


16326-6 


6144-15 


3 


16270-7 


6122-89 


3 


16327-2 


6143-80 


2 


16271-7 


6122-27 


3 


16328-9 


6143-46 


4 


16272-6 


6122-00 


3 


16329-6 


6142-77 


4 


16274-4 


6121-76 


3 


16330-2 


6142-34 


3 


16275-3 


6121-51* 


5 


16330-9 


6141-63 


3 


16277-4 


6121-07* 


4 


16332-1 


6141-30 


3 


16278-3 


6120-73\ 
1 6120-30/ 


4 band 


16333-0 


6140-96 


3 


16279-2 


16334-1 


6140-64 


3 


16280-0 


6119-90 


4 


16335-2 


6140-27 


3 


16281-0 


6119-51* 


4 


16336-2 


6139-93 


2 


16281-9 


6119-30 


2 


16336-8 


6139-55 


3 


16282-9 


6119-02 


5 


16337-5 


6139-08 


3 


16284-2 


6118-63 


4 


16338-6 


6138-77 


3 


16285-0 


6118-24* 


4 


16339-6 


6137-53 


3 


16288-3 


611800 


3 


16340-3 


6136-57 


3 


16290-8 


6117-63 


3 


16341-3 


6136-21 


3 


16291-8 


6117-34 


3 


16342-0 


6135-861 


4 


16292-7 


611700 


3 


16342-9 


6135-62/ 


16293-3 


6116 75 


2 


16343-6 


6135-29 


3 


16294-2 


6116-50 


40 


16344-3 


6134-98 


3 


16295-0 


6116-02* 


4 


16345-6 


6134-64 


3 


16296-0 


6115-56 


3 


16346-5 


6134-35 


2 


16296-7 


6115-29* 


5 


16347-5 


6134-00 


3 


16297-7 


6114-93\ 
6114-40/ 


4 


16348-5 


6133-70 


3 


16298-5 


16349-9 


6133-33 


3 


16299-4 


6114-00 


3 


16351-0 



ON WAYE-LENQTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 239 



Iodine (Absobption) —continued. 



Wave- 
length 



6113-61 
6113-311 

6112-81/ 

6112-41 

6112-04 

6111-67 

6111-25* 



Intensity and 
Character 



Oscillation 
Frequency- 



Group Gil 1-6069 



6111-25* 


6 


6110-85 


2 


6110-49 


4 


611013 


2 


6109-70* 


5 


6109-30 


2 


6108-87 


6 


6108-20* 


3 


6107-80 


2 


6107-45 


3 


6107-08 


2 


6106-71 


4 


6106-35 


3n 


6106-00 


3 


6105-60 


3 


6105-20 


3 


6104-92 


3 


6104-56 


5 


6104-25 


5 


6103-86 


4 


6102-78 


4 


6102-12 


4 


6101-76 


3 


6101-44 


4s 


6101-17 


2 


6101-00 


2 


6100-72 


2 


6100-43 


1} 


6100-10 


6099-43 


3 


6099-02 


3 


6098-74 


3 


6098-44 


2 


6098-08 


3 


6097-81 


2 


6097-48 


4 


6096-86 


4© 


6096-52 


2 


6096-24 


4 


6096-00 


4 


6095-62 


3 


6095-35 


3 


6095-00 


4 


6094-74 


2 


6094-43 


3 


609414 


3 


6093-81 


3 


6093-62 


3 



• band 



16352-0 
16352-8 
16354-1 
16355-2 
16356-2 
16357-2 
16358-3 



16358-3 
16359-4 
16360-4 
16361-3 
16362-5 
16363-6 
16364-7 
16366-5 
16367-6 
16368-5 
16369-5 
16370-5 
16371-5 
16372-4 
16373*5 
16374-5 
16375-3 
16376-3 
16377-1 
16378-1 
16381-0 
16382-8 
16383-8 
16384-6 
16385-3 
16385-8 
16386-6 
16387-3 
16388-2 
16390-0 
16391-1 
16391-9 
16392-7 
16393-6 
16394-4 
16395-3 
16396-9 
16397-8 
16398-6 
16399-2 
16400-3 
164010 
16401-9 
16402-6 
16403-5 
16404-2 
164051 
16405-9 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6093-13 \ 
6092-97/ 


4 


16407-0 


16407-4 


6092-70 


2 


164081 


6092-39 


4 


16409-0 


6092-03 


4 


16409-9 


6091-79 


2 


16410-6 


6091-52 


3 


16411-3 


6091-16 


3 


16412-3 


6090-80 


2 


16413-2 


6090-48 


2© 


16414-1 


609013 


3 


16415-0 


6089-61 


3 


16416-4 


6089-36 


2 


164171 


6089-14 


2 


16417-7 


6088-89 


2 


16418-4 


6088-61 


5 


16419-1 


6088-35 


5 


16419-8 


6087-95* 


3 


16420-9 


6087-44* 


5 


16422-3 


6086-91* 


3 


16423-7 


6086-48* 


5 


16424-9 


6085-93* 


3 


16426-4 


6085-52 


6© 


16427-5 


6085-00 


4 


16428-9 


6084-51 


5 


16430-2 


6084-06 


3 


16431-4 


6083-85 


3 


16432-0 


6083-55* 


5 


16432-8 


6083-16 


3 


16433-8 


6082-64 


4 


16435-2 


6082-39 


4 


16435-9 


6081-70 


4 


16437-8 


6081-33* 


g Iband 


16438-8 


6080-92 


16439-9 


6080-46 


4 


16441-2 


6080-03 


4 


16442-3 


6079-67 


4 


16443-3 


6079-35 


3© 


16444-2 


6078-87* 


5 


16445-5 


6078-51 


3 


16446-4 


6078-14 


3 


16447-4 


6077-75 \ 
6077-39/ 


4 band 


16448-5 
16449-5 


6077-10 


4 


16450-3 


6076-69 


4 


16461-4 


6076-40 


4 


16452-2 


6076-12 


3 


16452-9 


6075-79 


4 


16453-8 


6075-49 


4 


16454-6 


6075-18 


4 


16455-2 


6074-80 


3 


16456-5 


6074-22* 


5 


16458-1 


6073-71 


4 


16459-4 


6073-34 


4 


16460-4 


6073-01 


3 


16461-3 


6072-66* 


3 


16462-3 


6072-27 \. 
6071-69/ T 


5 


16463-3 


6 


16464-9 



240 



EEPOET — 1890. 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


6071-46 


3 


16465-5 


6052-11 


4 


16518-2 


607108 


6 J. band 
3j 


16466-6 


6051-52 


6 


16519-8 


6070-71 


16467-6 


6050-98 


4 


16521-3 


6070-43 


16468-3 


6050-48 


5 


16533-6 


6069-95 


4 


16469-6 


6050-29 


2 


16523-1 


6069-67 


3 


16470-4 


6050-00 


1} 


16533-9 


6069-31 


5 


16471-4 


6049-30* 


16535-8 








6048-93 


4 


16526-8 


Group 6069 


-6031 




6048-75 


4 


16537-3 


6069-31 


5 


16471-4 


6048-42 


3 


16528-2 


6068-95 


3 


16473-3 


6048-23 


3 


16538-8 


6068-60* 


3 


16473-3 


6047-82* 


6 


16539-9 


6068-19 


2 


16474-4 


6047-33* 


4 


16531-2 


6067-80 


3 


16475-5 


6046-87* 


6 


16533-5 


6067-49 


2 


16476-3 


6046-39* 


4 


16533-8 


6067-11* 


3 


16477-3 


6045-94* 


6 


16535-0 


6066-71 


3 


16478-4 


6045-45* 


4 


16536-4 


6066-31* 


4 


16479-5 


6045-00* 


5 


16537-6 


6065-61 


5 


16481-4 


6044-53* 


4 


16538-9 


6065-28 


2 


16482-4 


6044-13* 


5 


16540-0 


6064-92* 


3 


16483-3 


6043-66* 


4 


16541-3 


6064-56 


3 


16484-3 


6043-25* 


5 


16542-4 


6064-20* 


3 


16485-2 


6042-81 


6 


16543-6 


6063-87 


2 


16486-1 


6042-43 


40 


16544-6 


6063-49 


6 


16487-2 


6042-00 


3 


16545-8 


6063-16 


2 


16488-1 


6041-61 


4 


16546-9 


6062-77* 


3 


164891 


6041-17 


3 


16548-1 


6062-46 


43 


16490-0 


6040-79 


4 


16549-1 


6062-11 


4s 


16490-9 


6040-40 


3 


16550-2 


6061-44 


4 


16493-7 


6040-07 


4 


16551-1 


6061-11 


2 


16493-6 


6039-74 


4 


16552-0 


6060-75 


4 


16494-6 


6039-39 


3 


16553-0 


6060-45 


2 


16495-4 


6039-02 


5 


16554-0 


6060-11 


4 


16496-4 


6038-63 


4 


16555-1 


6059-80 


2 


16497-2 


6038-33 


5 


16555-9 


6059-42 


5 


16498-2 


6038-02 


5 


16556-7 


6059-15 


2 


16499-0 


6037-73 


3 


16557-5 


6058-81 


3 


16499-9 


6037-39 


5 


16558-4 


6058-50 


3 


16500-7 


6036-98 


3 


16559-6 


6058-17 


4 


16501-6 


6036-79 


3 


16560-1 


6057-83 


2 


16502-6 


6036-48 


5 


16560-9 


6057-48 


5 


16503-5 


6036-19 


3 


16561-7 


6057-23 


4 


16504-2 


6035-82* 


6 


16562-8 


6056-85 


4 


16505-3 


6035-36* 


3 


16564-0 


6056-57 


2 


16506-0 


6034-83* 


6 


16565-5 


6056-29 


6© 


16506-8 


6034-45 


3 


16566-5 


6055-95 


2 


16507-7 


6034-13 


5 


16567-4 


6055-62 


4 


16508-6 


6033-89 


3 


16568-1 


6055-38 


3 


16509-2 


6033-61 


3 


16568-8 


6055-05 


3 


16510-1 


6033-40 


^jband 


16569-4 


6054-77 


2 


16510-9 


6033-05 


16570-4 


6054-41 


5 


16511-9 


6032-87 


2 


16570-9 


6054-21 


2 


16512-4 


6032-57 


5 


16571-7 


6053-89 


4 


16513-3 


6032-34 


4 


16572-3 


6053-61 


3 


16514-1 


6031-921 


6 band 


16573-5 


6053-28 


5 


16515-0 


6031-58/ 


16574-4 


6052-71 \ 
6052-50J 


4 


16516-5 


6031-33 


2 


16575-1 


16517-1 


6030-99 


6 


16576-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 241 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intcnsit}- and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity ami 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 

16637-9 
16639-6 


Group 6031 


-5992 




6008-55 
6007-94 


Hband 


603099 


6 


16576-0 


6007-52 


4© 


16640-8 


6030-60 


2 


16577-1 


6007-04 


5 


166421 


603020* 


3 


16578-2 


6006-58 


4 


16643-4 


6029-47 


4 


16580-2 


6006-14 


5 


16644-6 


6028-68 


4 


16582-4 


6005-74 


4 


16645-7 


6028-00 


4 


16584-2 


6005-28 


5 


166470 


6027-64 


2 


16585-2 


6004-86 


4 


16648-2 


6027-31 


40 


16586-1 


6004-42 


5 


16649-4 


6026-54 


4 


16588-3 


6004-03 


4 


16650-5 


6025-85 


3 


16590-2 


6003-62 


5 


16651-6 


6025-67 


2 


16590-6 


6003-26 


40 


16652-5 


6025-46 


2 


16591-2 


6002-81* 


4 


16653-8 


6025-16 


3 


16592-0 


6002-44 


4 


16654-9 


6024-38* 


60 


16594-2 


6002 06 ) 
6001-61 \ 


5 


16655-9 


6023-78 


4 


16595-9 


16657-2 


6023-44 


2 


16596-8 


6001-28 


2 


16658-1 


6023-11 


3 


16597-7 


6000-96 


4 


16659-0 


6022-85 


2 


16598-4 


6000-57 


3 


16660-1 


6022-44 


4 


16599-5 


6000-25 


4 


16660-9 


6021-80 


3 


16601-3 


5999-93 


3 


16661-8 


6021-56 


3 


166020 


5999-61 


3 


16662-7 


6021-12 


4s 


16603-2 


6999-31 


4 


16663-6 


6020-85 


2 


16603-9 


5998-97 


3 


16664-5 


6020-38* 


60 


16605-2 


5998-63 


4 


16665-4 


6019-86 


4 


16606-7 


5998-38 


4 


166661 


6019-62 


3 


16607-3 


5997-77 


4 


16667-8 


6019-28 


4 


16608-5 


5997-47 


2 


16668-7 


6019-00 


3 


16609-0 


5997-23 


2 


16669-3 


6018-62 


4 


16610-1 


599700 


4 


16669-9 


6018-37 


8 


16610-8 


5996-74 


3 


16670-7 


601804 


4 


16611-7 


5996-52 


2 


16671-3 


6017-77 


4 


16612-4 


5996-12* 


5 


16672-4 


6017-34 


4b' 


16613-6 


5995-77 


2 


16673-4 


601 6-59 


31 

3 J-band 

3j 


16615-7 


5995-40 


5 


16674-4 


6016-28 


16616-5 


599500 


3 


16675'o 


6015-99 


16617-3 


5994-65 'J 


6 


16676-5 


6015-70 


2 


16618-1 


5994-42/ 


16677-1 


6015-45 


4 


16618-8 


5993-89 


6a 


16678-6 


60] 5-05 \ 
6014-83 r 


3 


166199 


5993-03 


6 


16681-0 


16620-5 


5992-60 


2 


16682-2 


6014-47 \ 
6014-20/ 


4 


16621-5 


5992-30 


4 


16683-0 


16622-3 








6014-04 


2 


16622-7 








6013-48 


2 


16624-3 


Group 5992 


-5955 




601309 


2 


16625-3 


5992-30 


4 


166830 


6012-56 


4 


16626-8 


699200 


2 


16683-9 


6012-00* 


2 


16628-4 


5991-67 


4 


16684-8 


6011-59 


33 


16629-5 


5990-98 


4 


16686-7 


6011-34 


2 


16630-2 


5990-58 


2 


16687-8 


6010-93 


2 


16631-3 


5990-21 


4 


166S8-9 


6010-69 


3 


16632-0 


5989-87 


2 


16689-8 


6010-50 


2 


16632-5 


5989-50 


5 


16690-8 


6010-28 


2 


16633-1 


5988-80 


5 


16692-8 


6009-88 


4 


16634-3 


5988-12 


4 


16694-7 


6009-40* 


3 


16635-6 


5987-76 


2 


16695-7 


6008-85* 


6 


166371 


5987-42 


40 


16696-6 



1890. 



242 



KEPORT — 1890. 



Iodine (Absorption) —continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


5986-73 


5 


16697-6 


5961-14 


4 


16770-2 


6986-01 


4 


16700-6 


5960-92 


2 


16770-9 


5985-70 


2 


16701-4 1 


5960-63 


4 


16771-7 


5985-34* 


5 


16702-4 


5960-33 


4 


1G772-5 


5984-71* 


4 


16704-2 


5959-90 


4 


16773-7 


5984-07 


40 


16706-0 


5959-56 


4 


16774-7 


5983-71 


2 


16707-0 


5959-40 


2 


16775-1 


5983-38 


4 


16707-9 


6959-17 


8 


16775-8 


5982-74* 


5 


16709-7 


5958-80 


n 


16776-8 


5982-08* 


4 


16711-5 


5958-37 


5i 


16778-0 


5981-65 \ 


4 


16712-7 


5958-00 


4 


16779-1 


5981-40/ 




16713-4 


5957-63 


2 


16780-1 


598M3 


2 


16714-2 


5957-26 


4 


16781-2 


6980-81 


4 


16715-1 


5956-55* 


5 


16783-2 


5980-24 


4 


16716-7 1 


6956-11 


2 


16784-4 


5979-64* 


4 


16718-3 


5955-78 


5s 


16785-3 


5979-29 


2 


16719-3 


5955-43 


4 


16786-3 


5979-00 


4 


16720-1 


5954-98 


4 


16787-6 


5978-73 


2 


16720-9 








5978-41 

5977-87 


4 
5 


16721-8 
16723-3 


Group 5955 


-5917 




5977-24 


5 


16725-1 


5954-98 


4 


16787-6 


5976-75* 


5 


16726-5 


5954-32* 


4 


16789-4 


5976-11 


5 


16728-2 


5953-52 


30 


16791-7 


5975-60 


6 


16729-7 


5952-79 


3 


16793-8 


6975-05 


5 


16731-2 


5952-40 


2 


16794-9 


5974-53 


5 


16732-7 


595209 


4 


16795-7 


5974-00 


5 


16734-2 


5951-41 


4 


16797-7 


5973-49 


4 


16735-6 


5950-73 


4 


16799-6 


5973-00* 


4 


16737-0 


5950-07 


5 


16801-4 


5972-46 


5 


16738-5 


5949-36 


5 


16802-4 


5971-95 


4 


16739-9 


5948-83\ 
5948-62/ 


6 


16804-8 


5971-45 


5 


16741-3 


16805-5 


6970-97 


4 


16742-6 


5948-14 \ 
5947-94/ 


6 


16806-9 


6970-49 


5 


16744-0 


16807-4 


5970-00 


4 


16745-4 


5947-35 


4 


16809-1 


5969-58 


5 


16746-5 


5946-75 


4 


16810-8 


5969-U 


4 


16747-9 


594608 


5 


16812-7 


5968-71 


5 


16749-0 


5945-42 


4 


16814-6 


6968-22 


4 


16750-4 


5946-14 


2 


16815-4 


5967-83 


5 


16751-5 


5944-79 


4 


16816-4 


5967-37 


4 


16752-7 


6944-18 


5 


16818-1 


5966-97 


5 


16753-9 


6943-87 


2 


16819-0 


5966-52 


4 


16755-1 


6943-57 


4 


16819-8 


5966-16 


50 


16756-1 


5943-29 


2 


16820-6 


5965-71 


4 


16757-4 


5942-92 


5 


16821-6 


5965-35 


5 


16758-4 


5942-32 


4 


16823-3 


5964-96 


4 


16759-5 


5942-04 


2 


16824-1 


5964-54 


4 


16760-7 


5941-75 


4 


168250 


5964-17 


2 


16761-7 


5941-21* 


5 


16826-5 


5963-78 


4 


16762-8 


5940-60 


4 


16828-2 


5963-49 


3 


16763-6 


5940-36 


2 


16828-9 


5963-17 


3 


16764-5 


5940-05 


4 


16829-8 


5962-82 


4 


16765-5 


5939-44 


5 


16831-5 


5962-47 


3 


] 6766-5 


5938-89 


4 


16833-1 


696210 


5 


16767-6 


5938-36 


5 


16834-6 


6961 88 


5 


16768-2 


5937-84 


3 


16836-1 


5961-58 


3 


16769-0 


5937-61 


3 


16836-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 24S 



Iodine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 1 


Oscillation 


Wave- ; 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


lengtli i 


Character 1 


Frequenc-y 


lenii-th 


Character 


Frequency 


5937-29 


4 


16837-6 


5917-17 


2 


16894-9 


593(;-79 


3 


108390 


5910-S7 


2 


16895-7 


593G-5'.) 


3 


16839-(; 


5916-50 


3 


16890-8 


5030-23 


3 


10810-0 


5910-13 


2 


10897-8 


5935-72 


4 


168421 


5915-78 


3 


10898-8 


5935-30 


3 


10843-3 


5915-42 


3 


10899-9 


5934-82* 


4 


16844-0 


5915-05 


3 


16900-9 


5934-55 


2 


16845-4 


5914-00 


3 


10902-2 


5934-30 


2 


168461 


5914-30 


3 


10903-0 


5934-07 


2 


10846-8 


5914-04 : 


2 


10903-8 


5933-90 


4 


16847-2 


5913-71 


2 


16904-Y 


5933-35 


2 


16848-8 


5913-30 


4 


10905-9 


5933-00 


5 


10849-8 


5913-11 


2 


1690(i-5 


5932-53 


4 


16851-0 


5912-001 


4 


10907-9 


5932-11 


5 


10852-3 


5912-31 (" 




16908-7 


5931-45 


4 


10853-6 


5911-95 


3 


16909-8 


5931-24 


5 


16854-8 


5911-70 


3 


16910-5 


5930-80 


4 


10856-0 1 


5911-48 


4 


10911-1 


5930-40* 


5 


16857-2 1 


5911-22 


2 


16911-9 


5929-95 


40 


16858-5 


5910-57 1 


5 


10913-7 


5929-56 


5 


16859-6 1 


5910-32 / 


10914-4 


5929-12 


3 


16860-8 


5909-89 


4 


10915-7 


5928-72 


4 


16862-0 


59()9-62 


2 


1691(;-4 


5928-35 


3 


16863-0 


6909-31 


5 


10917-3 


5927-90* 


4 


10864-1 


5908-65 


4 


16919-2 


5927-03 


2 


16865-1 


5908-33 


2 


10920-1 


5927-25 


4 


ii;s(;o-i 


5908-03 


4 


16921-0 


5927-00 


4 


16860-8 


5907-42 


5 


10922-7 


592007 


3 


16867-8 


5906-87 


4 


10924-3 


5!)20-27 


4 


16868-9 


5906-22* 


5 


16926-2 


5925-98 


3 


16869-7 


5905-62 


5 


16927-9 


5925-C8 


4 


16870-6 


5905-05 


4 


16929-6 


5925-35 


4 


16871-5 


5904-50* 


5 


10931-1 


5925-03 


3 


10872-4 


5904-02 


3 


16932-5 


, 5924-59* 


6 


16873-7 


5903-97 


3 


16932-7 


5923-98 


5 


10875-4 


5903-45 


3 


16934-1 


5923-67 


5 


16870-3 


5903-24 


3 


16934-7 


5923-40 


3 


16877-1 


59()-'-90 


4 


16935-5 


5923-08 


43 


16878-0 


5902-71 


4 


16936-3 


5922-86 


4s 


16878-6 


5902-44 


3 


16937-0 


5922-53 1 
5922-04 / 




16879-6 


5902-17 


3 


10937-8 


band 


16881-0 


5901-84 


4 


16938-8 


5921-771 




10881-7 


5901-56 


3 


10939-6 


5921-24/ 


7 band 


16883-2 


5901-31 


3 


16940-3 


5921 -00 \ 
5920-58/ 




10883-9 


5900-91* 


5 


16941-4 


7 band 


16885-1 


5900-42 


5 


10942-8 


5920-34 


3 


16885-8 


5899-95 


5 


16944-2 


5920-00 


6 


16886-8 


5899-41 


5 


16945-7 


1 5919-75 


6 


16887-5 


5898-98 


5 


16947-0 


5919-36 


7 


16888-0 


5898-46 


5 


10948-5 


5919-11 


7 


10889-3 


5898-00 


5 


16949-8 


5918-64 


5 


16890-7 


5897-50 


5 


16951-2 


5918-31 


5 


l(!891-6 


5897-05* 


5 


16952-5 


5917-92 


6 


16892-7 


5890-71 


2 


16953-5 


6917-65 


5 


16893-8 


5896-02 


2 


16955-5 








5895-76 


2 


16956-2 


Group 591 


1 -5881 




5895-50 


4 


169570 


5917-55 


5 


16893-8 


5895-07 


4 


16958-2 



n 2 



244 



EEPOllT — 1890. 



Iodine (Absoeption) — cotUmued, 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 

1 


Character 


Frequency 


5894-65 


4 


16959-4 


5875-24 


2 


17015-4 


5894-22 


4 


16960-6 


6874-86 


4 


17016-5 


5893-83 


4 


16961-8 


5874-47 


2 


17017-6 


5893-43 


4 


16962-9 


6874-22 


4 


17018-3 


5893-07 


3 


16964-0 


5873-61 


5 


170201 


5892-77 


3 


16964-8 


5873-28 


2 


17021-1 


5892-40 


3 


16965-9 


5872-94 


6 


17022-1 


5892-08 


4 


16966-8 


5872-39 


4 


17023-7 


5891-72 


3 


16967-8 


6872-02 


2 


17024-7 


5891-35 


4 


16968-9 


6871-74 


5 


17025-6 


5890-97 


4 


16970-0 


5871-35 


2 


17026-7 


5890-15 


3 


16972-4 


6871-16 


4 


17027-2 


5889-86 


3 


16973-2 


5870-57 


5 


17029-0 


5889-54 


3 


169741 


5870-14 


4 


17030-2 


5889-23 


3 


16975-0 


5869-88 


4 


17031-0 


5888-84* 


4 


16976-1 


5869-58 


3 


17031-8 


5888-48 


3 


16977-2 


5869-23 


3 


17032-9 


5888-13 


4 


16978-2 


5868-95 


2 


17033-7 


5887-83 


4 


16979-0 


5868-67 


3s 


17034-5 


5887-57 


2 


16979-8 


6868-38 


2 


17035-3 


5887-28 


4s 


16980-6 


6868-05 


4 


17036-3 


58SG-95 


3 


16981-6 


5867-77 


2 


17037-1 


5886-75 


2 


16982-2 


6867-49 


3 


17037-9 


5886-45 


4 


16983 


5867-23 


2 


17038-7 


5886-13 


2 


169840 


5866-91* 


6 


17039-6 


5885-86 


5 


16984-7 


6866-42 


5 


170410 


5885-60 


5 


16985-5 


5865-93 


5 


17042-4 


5885-35 


2 


16986-2 


5865-36 


4 


17044-1 


5885-00 


6 


16987-2 


5865-04 


3 


17045-0 


5884-74 


6 


16988-0 


5864-81 


4 


17045-7 


5884 10 


6 


16989-8 


5864-32 


4, 


17047-1 


5883-83 


2 


16990-6 


5864-00 


2 


17048-1 


5883-43 


4 


16991-7 


6863-70 


3 } band 


17048-9 


5882-77 


5 


16993-6 


5863-44 


2 


17049-7 


5882-23 


3 


16995-2 


6863-22 


4 


17050-3 


5881-91 


4 


16996-1 


5862-69 


4 


17051-9 


5881-71 


2 


16996-7 


6862-26 


4 


17053-1 


5881-42 


2 


16997-5 


5861-76 


4 


17054-6 


5881-17 


5 


16998-3 


5861-33 


5 


17055-8 








6860-87 


i^ 


17057-2 


Group 5881 


-5846 




6860-54 
5860-27 


3 
3^ 


17058-1 
17058-9 


5881-17 


5 


16998-3 


5859-85 


ej 


17060-1 


5880-53 


5 


17000-1 


5859-40 


3 


17061-4 


6880-02 


2 


17001-6 


6859-00 


5 


17062-6 


5879-73* 


4 


17002-4 


6858-60 


4 


17063-8 


5879-09 


3 


17004-3 


6858-28 


2 


17064-7 


5878-75 


2 


17005-3 


5858-08 


7 


17065-3 


5878-54 


2 


17005-9 


5857-63 


7 


17066-6 


5878-18 


3 


17006-9 


5857-30 


5 


17067-6 


5877-68 


3 


17008-4 


6856-91 


5 


17068-7 


5877-48 


4 


17008-9 


5856-49* 


6 


17069-9 


5876-91 


3 


17010-6 


6856-04 


4 


17071-2 


5876-69 


3 


17011-2 


5855-69 


43 


17072-2 


5876-50 


3 


17011-8 


5855-29* 


4 


17073-4 


5876-18* 


3 


17012-7 


5854-90 


4 


17074-5 


6875-84 


2 


17013-7 


5854-55 


3 


17075-6 


5875-54 


4 


17014-5 


6854-11 


5 


17076-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 245 



Iodine (Absorption) — cmitimied. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscill;ition 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frcqusncy 


5853-78 


3 


17077-8 


5834-79 


2 


17133-4 


6853-53 


4 


17078-5 


5834-49 


4 


17134-3 


5853-13 


4 


17079-7 


5834-24 


4 


17135-0 


5852-02 


3 


170803 


5833-87 


4 


17136-3 


5852-17 


3 


17082-5 


5833-32* 


5 


171377 


5851-83 


4 


17083-5 


5832-82* 


5 


17139-2 


5851-561 
5851-30/ 


5 


17084-3 


5832-28 


4 


17140-8 


17085-0 


5831-59* 


4 


17142-8 


585100 


5 


17085-9 


5831-11 


4s 


171442 


5850-76 


5 


17086-6 


5830-56 


4s 


17145-8 


5850-51-1 
5850-22 ). 
5849-93J 




17087-3 


5830-07 


5 


17147-3 


6 


17088-2 


5829-52* 


5 


17148-9 




17089-0 


5828-97 


^}band 


17150-5 


5849-71 


2 


17089-7 


5828-44 


17152-1 


5849-37 


3 


17090-7 


5827-93* 


5 


17153-6 


5849-00 


2 


17091-8 


5827-51 


4 


17154-8 


5848-57 


7© 


170930 


5827-05 


4 


17156-2 


5848-27 


2 


17093-9 


5826-70 


3 


17157-2 


5847-981 


5 band 


17094-7 


5826-51 


3 


17157-7 


5847-50 J 


17096-1 


582613 


5 


17158-9 


5847-08 


6 


17097-4 


5825-90 


2 


17159-5 


5846-54 


6 


17098-9 


5825-67 


4 


171C0-2 


5846-22 


6 


17099-9 


5825-20 


5 


17161-6 


5845-66* 


4 


17101-5 


5824-68 


Jl band 


17163-1 








5824-25 


17164-4 








5823-83 


4 


17165-6 


Group 5846 


-5811 




5823-40* 


5 


17166-9 


5845-66* 


4 


17101-5 


5823-00 


\\ band 


17168-1 


5844-90 


5 


17103-7 


5822-63 


17169-2 


5844-52 


2 


17104-9 


5822-23 


3 


171701 


5844-14 


4 


171060 


5821-83 


4 


17171-5 


5843-79 


2 


17107-0 


5821-46 


3 


17172-6 


5843-50 


5s 


17107-8 


5821-07 


4 


17173-8 


5842-74t 


4 


17110-1 


5820-81 


3 


17174-5 


5842-17 


4 


17111-7 


5820-31 


4 


17176-0 


5841-94 


4 


17112-4 


5819-98 


4 


17177-0 


5841-62 


3 


17113-4 


5819-62 


4 


171781 


5841-35 


4s 


17114-1 


5819-28 


4 


17179-1 


5841-00 


3 


17115-2 


5818-95 


3 


17180-0 


5840-65 


4 


17116-2 


6818-54 


4 


17181-2 


5840-40 


2 


17116-9 


6818-33 


2 


17181-9 


5840-06 


5 


17117-9 


5817-91 


4 


17183-1 


5839-83 


4 


17118-6 


5817-69 


4 


17183-7 


5839-48 


5 


17119-6 


5817-40 


4 


17184-0 


5839-24 


4 


17120-3 


5817-05 


4 


17185-6 


5838-86 


4 


17121-4 


5816-78 


3 


17186-4 


5838-66 


5 


17122-0 


5816-47 


3 


171874 


6838-24 


5 


171233 


5816-23 


3 


17188-1 


5838-00 


4 


171240 


5816-02 


3 


17188-7 


5837-52 


4 


17125-4 


5815-76 


3 


171895 


6837-23 


2 


17126-2 


6815-40 


6 


17190-5 


5836-89 


4 


17127-2 


6815-03 


4 


17191-6 


6836-62 


2 


17128-0 


6814-70* 


4 


17192-6 


6836-29 


3 


17129-0 


6814-24* 


4 


17193-9 


5836-04 


3 


17129-7 


6813-90 


5 


17194-9 


6835-66* 


4 


17130-7 


5813-32 


5 


17196-7 


6835-35 


2 


17131-8 


5813-00 


3 


17197-6 


683504 


43 


17132-7 


5812-66 


1 c 


17198-6 



246 



EEPOBT 1890. 



Iodine (Absorption) — contimted. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


5812-36 


2 


17199-5 


5793-96* 


4 


17254-1 


5811-91 


4 


17200-8 


5793-47 


6 


17255-6 


5811-65 


6 


17201-6 


5793-00 


5 


17257-0 








5792-52* 


4 


17258-4 








5792-02* 


4 


17259-9 


Group 5811 


-5778 




5791-58 


4 


17261-2 


5811-65 


6 


17201-6 


5790-65 


3 


17264-0 


5811-33 


2 


17202-5 


! 5790-33 


3 


17264-9 


5811-03 


3 


17208-5 


5789-85 


4 


17266-4 


5810-77 


3 


17204-2 


5789-41 


4 


17267-7 


5810-30 


4 


17205-6 


5789-00 


4 


17268-9 


5809-63 


4 


17207-6 


5788-62* 


3 


17270-0 


5809-24 


4 


17208-7 


5787-78 


2 


17272-6 


5808-89 


2 


17209-8 


5787-44 


4 


17273-6 


6808-51 


4 


17210-9 


5787-17 


4 


17274-4 


5808-26 


4 


17211-6 


5786-78 


4 


17275-5 


5807-92 


4 


17212-6 


5786-44 


4 


17276-6 


5807-66 


4 


17213-4 


5786-03 


5 


17277-8 


5807-32 


3 


17214-4 


5785-71 


4 


17278-7 


5807-05 


40 


17215-2 


5785-36 


4 


17279-8 


5806-69 


2 


17216-3 


1 5785-06 


5 


17280-7 


5806-50 


4 


17216-9 


1 5784-75 


3 


17281-6 


5806-24 


3 


17217-6 


5784-46 


3 


17282-5 


5805-86 \ 
5805-63/ 


6© 


17218-8 


5784-24 


3 


17283-1 


17219-4 


5783-85 


3 


17284-3 


5805-27 \ 
5805-05/ 


4 


17220-5 


5783-42 


4 


17285-6 


17221-2 


5783-00 


3 


17286-8 


5804-78 


2 


17222-0 


5782-43 


4 


17288-5 


5804-531 


5 


17222-7 


5781-93* 


4 


17290-0 


5804-31/ 


17223-3 


5781-45* 


4 


17291-5 


5803-981 


4s 


17224-3 


5781-02* 


3 


17292-7 


5803-77/ 


17225-0 


5780-65 


5 


17293-8 


5803-42 


4 


17226-0 


5780-42* 


4 


17294-5 


5803-12 


4s 


17226-9 


6780-09 


5- 

g ^ band 

5, 


17295-5 


5802-72 


3 


17228-1 


5779-79 


17296-4 


5802-45 


3 


17228-9 


5779-47 


17297-4 


5802-08 \ 
5801-88 / 


6s 


17230-0 


5779-18 


17298-3 


17230-6 


5778-87 


6 


17299-2 


5801-47* 


3 


17231-8 


5778-62 


6 


17299-9 


5801-02 


3 


17233-1 


5778-28 


6 


17300-9 


5800-77 


3 


17233-9 








5800-38 
5800-11 


4 
3 


17235-0 
17235-8 


Group 5778 


-5746 




5799-83 


3 


17236-7 


6778-28 


6 


17300-9 


5799-63 


4 


17237-3 


5777-93 


2 


17302-0 


5799-22 


5 


17238-5 


5777-61* 


4 


17302-9 


5798-69" 
5798-45 


6 


17240-1 


5777-21 


2 


17304-1 


17240-8 


5776-89* 


5 


17305-1 


5798-141 


6 


17241-7 


5776-54 


2 


17306-2 


5797-93/ 


17242-3 


5776-19 


3 


17307-2 


5797-49* 


5 


17243-6 


5775-85 


3 


17308-2 


5796-97* 


5 


17245-2 


6775-42 


4 


17309-5 


5796-42 


3 


17246-8 


5775-16 


2 


17310-3 


5796-04 


3 


17247-9 


5774-85 


2 


17311-3 


5795-72 


3 


17248-9 


5774-49 


5 


17312-3 


5795-37 


^1 band 


17249-9 


5774-17 


2 


17313-3 


5794-87* 


17251-4 


5773-80 


3 


17314-4 


5794-41* 


4 


17252-8 


5773-52 


2 


17315-2 , 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 247 



Iodine (Absorption) — cmitimted. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Fretiuenoy 


5773-14 


3 


17316-3 


6753-75 


5 


17374-7 


5772-84 


2 


17317-2 


5763-36 


^ band 


173750 


5772-52 


4 


17318-2 


6752-72 


17377-8 


5772-20 


4 


17319-0 


5752-51 


2 


17378-4 


5771-93 


4 


17320-0 


5752-21 


4© 


17379-4 


5771-63 


3 


17320-9 


5751-87 


4 


17380-4 


5771-24 


3 


17322-0 


5751-49 


3 


17381-5 


5771-02 


4 


17322-7 


5751-11 


3 


17382-7 


5770-67 


4 


17323-8 


5750-68 


5 


17384-0 


5770-34 


2 


17324-7 


5750-33 


4 


173850 


5770-04 


2 


17325-6 


6749-97* 


4 


17380-1 


5769-75 


J^}band 


17320-5 


5749-01 


3 


17387-2 


5769-18 


17328-2 


5749-20 


3 


17388-5 


5768-85 


3 


17329-2 


5748-86 


4 


17389-5 


5768-59 


3 


17330-0 


5748-53 


40 


17390-5 


5768-25 


4s 


173310 


5748-13 


i© 


17391-7 


5767-90 


2 


17332-1 


5747-75 


5 


17392-8 


5767-63 


2 


173329 


5747-42 


5 


17393-8 


5767-38 


4 


17333-6 


5747-14 


2 


17394-7 


5767-12 


4 


17334-4 


5746-83 


6 


17395-0 


5766-81 


2 


17335-3 


5746-52 


2 


17396-6 


5766-48 \ 
5766- 30 J 


4 


17336-3 


5746-21 


C 


17397-5 


17336-9 


5745-92 


6 


17398-4 


5765-96 


4 


17337-9 








5765-74 
5765-47 ) 
5765-19 J 


2 
5 


17338-6 
17339-4 


Group 5746 


-5715 




17340-2 


5745-92 


6 


17398-4 


6764-85 


3 


17341-3 


5745-65 


2 


17399-2 


5764-63 


4 


17341-9 


5745-39 


2 


17400-0 


5764-35 


2 


17342-8 


j 5745-04 


3 


17401-0 


5764-08 


3 


17343-6 


5744-66 


4 


17402-2 


5763-68 


4 


17344-8 


5744-41 


3 


17402-9 


5763-07 


4s 


17346-0 


1 5744-02* 


3 


17404 1 


5762-80 


3 


17347-4 


5743-69 


3 


17405-1 


5762-53 


3© 


17348-2 


5743-36 


4 


17406-1 


5762-33 


2 


17348-8 


5743-00 


4 


17407-2 


5762-00 


3 


17349-8 


5742-04 


3 


17408-3 


5761-69 


5 


17350-8 


5742-28 \ 
'5742-10/ 


5© 


17409-4 


5761-18* 


5 


17352-3 


17410 


6760-72* 


5 


17353-7 


"6741-75 


3 


174110 


5760-26* 


4 


17355-1 


5741-41 


2 


17412-0 


5759-88 


4 


17356-2 


5741-07 


5 


17413-1 


6759-66 


2 


17356-9 


5740-79 


^^ 


17413-9 


5759-41 


3 


17357-6 


5740-43 


2 V band 


174150 


575918 


3 


17358-3 


5740-14 


3/ 


17415-9 


5758-90 


4 


17359-2 


5739-78 


4 


17417-0 


5758-57 


3 


17360-2 


5739-55 


2 


17417-7 


5758-28 


3 


17361-0 


5739-18 


3 


17418-8 


5757-96* 


3 


17362-0 


5738-94 


2 


17419-5 


5757-65* 


4 


17363-2 


5738-64 


3 


17420-5 


5757-29 


2 


17364-0 


5738-30 


3 


17421-5 


5766-94 


3s 


17365-1 


573800 


2 


17422-4 


5756-53 


3n 


17366-3 


5737-71 


3 


17423-3 


6755-98» 


4 


17368-0 


5737-33 


4 


17424-4 


5765-51 


3 


17369-4 


5737-09 


4 


17425-2 


5755-09 


5} band 


17370-7 


6736-76 


3 


17426 2 


5754-47 


17372-5 


5736-45 


2 


174271 


5764-13 


4 


17373-6 


5736-26 


4 


17427-7 



248 



REPORT — 1890. 



Iodine (Absorption) — contimied. 



Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


length 


Character 


Frequency 


5735-88 
5735-64 


2 
3 


17428-8 
17429-6 


Group 6715 


-5684 




5735-43 


3 


17430-2 


5714-92 


6 


17492-8 


5735-05 


4 


17431-3 


5714-42 


3 


17494-3 


5734-78 


4 


17432-2 


5714-11 


4 


17495-2 


5734-50 


2 


17433-0 


5713-73 


3 


17496-4 


5734-24 


2 


17433-8 


5713-45 


3 


17497-3 


5734-00 


2 


17434-5 


6713-17 


3 


17498-1 


5733-71 


2 


17435-4 


5712-89 


3 


17499-0 


6733-42 


3 


17436-3 


6712-24 


6 


17501-0 


5733-2