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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S. I. A. to. 



REPORT 



SIXTY-PIKST MEETING 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



CAEDIFF IN AUGUST 1891. 




LONDON : 

JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMAKLE STEEET. 

1892. 

OFFICE OF The association I BUSLlNGTOK fiOtJSE, LONDON, W. 



rtlxrED Br 

SPOTTISWOODE AXD CO., NEW-STUKET SQUARE 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxiv 

Places and Times of Meeting and Oificera from commencement xxxi v 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xliii 

List of Evening Lectures Ix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixiii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Cardiff Meeting.., Ixiv 

Treasurer's Account Ixvi 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixviii 

Officers and Council, 1891-93 Ixx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxi 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Cardiff Meeting 

in August 1891 Isxvi 

Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee Ixxxiv 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable Ixxxiv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixxxv 

Places of Meeting in 1892 and 1893 Ixxxvi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes Ixxxvii 

General Meetings c 



Address by the President, William: Huggins, Esq., D.C.L.,LL.D., Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S., IIon.F.R.S.E., &c 3 

A 2 



iv CONTENTS. 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Report of the Correspondinn: Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Frakcis 
Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boyd Uawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Dr. 
John Evans, Mr. J. IIopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor T. G. JioNNET, Mr. W. Whiiakee, Mr. G. J. Symons, General PiiT- 
RivEKs, and Mr. W. Toplet 41 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. Laemoe and G. H. Brtait, 
appointed to draw up a Report on the present state of our knowledge of 
Thermodynamics, specially with regard to the Second Law 85 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald (Chair- 
man), Armstrong, and 0. J. Lodge (Secretaries), Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Ratleigh, J. J. Thomson, Schuster, Potnting, Crxtm Brown, 
Ramsay, Feankland, Tilden, Haetlet, S. P. Thompson, McLeod, 
Roberts- Austen, Rucker, Reinold, Caret Foster, and 11. B. Dixon, 
{'aptain Abney, Drs. Gladstone, Hopkinson, and Fleming, and Messrs. 
Crookids, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, J. Laemoe, J. T. Bottomley, 
R. T. Glazebkook, J. Brown, and John M. Thomson, appointed for the 
purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and (Jhemical 
Bearings 122 

Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Mr. 
R. Etheridge, Professor John Perky, Dr. Heney Woodward, Profe.ssor 
Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Earthqualie and Volcanic Phenomena of 
Japan. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 123 



Lodge (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of calculating Tables of cer- 
tain Matliematical Functions, and, if necessary, of taking steps to carry out 
the Calculations, and to publish the results in an accessible form 129 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman), 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, and Mr. A. W. Clayden 
(Secretary), appointed to consider the application of Photographv to the 
Elucidation of Meteorological Phenomena. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 130 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. J. Lodge, Professor Carey 
Foster, and Mr. A. P. Chattock (Secretary), appointed to investigate the 
Discharge ot Electricity from Points ] 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord McLaeen (Chairman), Professor 
(;rdm Brown (Secretary), Mr. Milne-Home, Dr. John Mureay Dr 
BucHAN, and the lion Ralph Aberceomby, appointed for the purpose of 
co-opeiatinK with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis 

Third (Interim) Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Fitzgerald, 
Dr. John Hopkinson fth-.R. A. Hadfibld, Mr. Trouton, Professor 
Roberts- Austen Mr. H. F. Newall, and Professor Barrett (Secretary), 
on the various Phenomena connected with the Recalescent Points in Iron 
and other Metals 



39 



140 



147 



CONTENT?. V 

Page 

Second (Interim) Report of tbe Committee, consisting of Dr. John Kere, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Rucker, and Mr. H. T. Glazebeook (Secre- 
tary), appointed to co-operate witli Dr. Keer in his researches on Electro- 
optics 14/ 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Liteing, Dr. C. PiAZZi 
Smyth (Secretary), and Professors Dewae and Schxjstee, appointed to 
co-operate with Dr. C. PiAZZi Smyth in his researches on the Ultra-violet 
Rays of the Solar Spectrum 147 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Grylls Adams (Chair- 
man and Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. Schuster, Professor Rucker, Mr. C. H, 
Carpmael, Commander Creak, the Astronomer Royal, Mr. William 
Ellis, and Mr. G. M. Whipple, appointed for the purpose of considering 
the best means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations 149 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Sir 
William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor AV. 
G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Tayloe, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schustee, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
soN, Professor W. Garnett, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Mr. T. Gray, appointed for the purpose of 
constructing and issuing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments lo-' 

Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor 
Sylvestee, Mr. A. R. Forsyth, and Professor A. Lodge (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of carrying on the Tables connected with the Pellian ' 
Equation from the point where the work was left by Degen in 1817 160 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes (Chairman), 
Professor Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
Abney, Mr. Whipple, Professor McLeod, and Mr. G. J. Symons (Secre- 
tary), appointed for the purpose of considering the best methods of recording 
the direct Intensity of Solar Radiation 100 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, 
Professors Dewar, Wolcott Gibbs, Liveing, Schustee, and W. N. 
Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Maeshall Watts (Secretary), 
appointed to prepare a new series of Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements and Compounds 161 

Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Thoepe, Professor 
Hummel (Secretary), Dr. Peekin, Professor Russell, Captain Abney, and 
Professor Steoud, on the Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 26-j 

Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors McLeod and 
W. Ramsay and Mr. W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to investigate 
the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
Gases -G4 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors H. McLeod (Chair- 
man), Robeets-Austen (Secretary), and Reinold and Mr. H. G. Madan, 
appointed for the Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 264 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden and Professor 
Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric 
Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor Aemsteong) 265 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, McLeod, 
PxcKEEiNG, Ramsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. Leeds and Nicol 



/ 



^ 



Vi CONTEKTS. 

Page 
("Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting' on tlie Bibliography of ^ 
Solution 273 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tjlden and Ramsat 
and Dr. NicOL (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Properties of Solutions 273 

Tliird Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Roberts- A ustex 
(Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and J. Spiller, Professor J. W. 
Langley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Professor Tilden, and Mr. TnosfAS Turner 
(Secretary), appointed to consider the best method of establishing an Inter- 
national Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 2/3 

Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors H. E. Arm- 
strong and W. R. Dunstan and Messrs. C. H. Bothamley and W. A. 
Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to investigate the direct formation of 
Haloid Compounds from pure materials 274 

Provisional Report of the Committee, consisting of General Festing, Captain 
Abney, and Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), on the Absorption 
Spectra of Pure Compounds 275 

Kineteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwioh, Dr. 
H. W. Crosskey, Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McKenny Hughes, 
and T. G. Bonney, and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, \Y. Pengelly, J. Plant, 
and R. H. Tiddejiax, appointed for the purpose of recording the Position, 
Height above the Sea, Lithological Characters, Size, and Origin of the Erratic 
Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest 
connected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. 
(Drawn up by Dr. Crosskey, Secretary) 276 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodwaed (Chair- 
man), Rev. G. F. Whidboene, Messrs. R. Etheeidge, R. Kibston. J. E. 
Mare, C. D. Sheeboen, and A. S. Woodward (Secretary), for the Regis- 
tration of all the Type Specimens of British Fossils .°... 209 

Seventeenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Drs. E. Hull and 
H. W. Crosskey, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor G. A. Lebour, and 
Messrs. James GLAiSBtER, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, J. Pakkek, ^V. 
Pengelly, James Plant, J. Prestwich, I. Roberts, C. Fox-Strangeways 
T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-Wright, E. Wethe- 
eed, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De Range (Secretary), appointed for tho 
purpose of mvestigatmg the Circulation of Underground Waters in the 
Permeable Formations of England and Wales, and the Quantity and Character 
of the Water supplied to various Towns and Districts from these Forma- 
tions. (Drawn up by C. E. De Range, Reporter) ... 300 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chair- 
Z^J^'^'-^^^'^^^^^l^^^^^^'J^^'-'VALi.wrm^ Ball, Mr. James E. Bed- 
ford, Pi;ofessor T. G. Bonney Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. James W 
DAvn. Mr. William Gray, Mr. Robert Kidston Mr Arthur SPrin 
Mr. R. H. TiDDEMAN, Mr^W. W. Watxs, Mr. Horace BWoodw.rd and 
Mr. Osmund W. Jeeps Secretary), to arrange for the collectionrpreser'-a- 
tion and systematic registration of Photogi^aphs of Geological interest in 
the United Kingdom. (Drawn up by the Secretary) '^'°'°°''''' ^^*'^^'* '° 3^^ 



CONTENTS. VU 

Piige 
Evans, Professors Peestwich, Hull, Lebotie, Meldola, and JrnD, Mr. M. 
Walton Beown, and Mr. J. Glaisher, appointed to consider the advisa- 
bility and possibility of establisliino- in other parts of the country Observa- 
tions upon the Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar to those now being- 
made in Durham in connection with coal-mine explosions 333 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodwaed (Chairman), 
Messrs. W. D. Cetce, T. G. George, Wm. Hull, E. A. Walfoed, E. 
"Wilson, H. B. Woodward, and Beeby Thompson (Secretary), to work n(^ 
the very Eossiliferous Transition Bed between the Middle and Upper Lias 
in Northamptonshire, in order to obtain a more clear idea of its fauna, and 
to fix the position of certain species of fossil fish, and more fully investigate 
the horizon on which they occur. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 334 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. W. Davis (Chairman), Rev. E. 
Jones (Secretary), Drs. J. Evans and' J. G. Gaeson, and Messrs. W. Pen- 
GELLT, R. H. Tiddeman, and J. J. Wilkinson, to complete the investiga- 
tion of the Cave at Elbolton, near Skipton, in order to ascertain whether 
Remains of Palaeolithic Man occur in the Lower Cave Earth ■J'il 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John Evans (Chairman), Mr. B. 
Haerison (Secretary), and Professors J. Peestwich and H. G. Seeley, • 
appointed to carry on excavations at Oldbury Hill, near Ightham, in order 
to ascertain the existence or otherwise of Rock-shelters at this spot. 
(Drawn up by Mr. B. Hareison) 353 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flowee (Chairman), 
Mr. D. MoEEis (Secretary), Mr. Careuthees, Dr. Sclatee, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyer, Dr. Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, Professor Newton, Dr. 
GuNTHEE, and Colonel Feilden, appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the 
AVest India Islands, and taking steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies 
in the Fauna and Flora 3D4 

Draft of Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flowee (Chair- 
man), Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary), Dr. Blanfoed, Dr. Hickson, Professor 
Newton, Professor Riley, Mr. O. Salvin, and Dr. Sclatee, appointed to 
report on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology of the Sand- 
wich Islands, and to take steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the 
Fauna , 357 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Foster, Professor 
Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton-Dyer, Dr. Teimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Mr. Careuthers, Professor Haetos, Mr. Waltee G.^ediner, and 
Professor Bowee (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of taking steps for 
the establishment of a Botanical Laboratory at Peradeniya, Ceylon 358 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. W. Wills (Chairman), 
Mr. E. W. Badger, Mr. G. Claeidge Deuce, and Professor Hillhouse, 
for the purpose of coUectLna' information as to the Disappearance of Native 
Plants from their Local Habitats. (Drawn up by Professor Hilehouse, 
Secretary ) 359 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor Newton, Mr. John Coedeaux- 
(Secretary), Messrs. John A. Haevie-Beown, R. M. Barrington, W.. 
Eagle Clarke, and the Rev. E. P. Knubley, appointed at Leeds to make 
a digest of the observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Light- vessels, which have been carried on by the Migration Committee of 
the British Association, and to report on the same at Cardiff 363 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Floaver (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor M. Foster, Professor Ray Laneester, Professor Vines, and Mr. S. F. 
Haemee (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupa- 



■Viii CONTENTS. 

Page 

tion of a Table at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at 
Plymouth 3G4 

]leport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Eat 
Lajckkster, Professor Cossar Ewaet, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. 
Sedgavick, Professor A. M. Marshall, and Mr. Percx Sladen (Secre- 
tary), nominated, for the pur]iose of arranging for the occupation of a Table 
at the Zoological Station at Naples 3G5 

Keport of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Haddox, Professor 
W. A. Herdman, and Mr. W. E. Hotle (Secretary), appointed for im- 
proving and experimenting with a Deep-sea Tow-net, for opening and 
closing under water 382 

Keport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. S. Bofrne, Dr. Ckosskey, 
Mr. G. Gladstone, Mr. J. Hetwood, Sir John Ltibbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Professor N. Story Maskelyne, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Sir E. Temple, 
and Professors. P. Thompson, appointed for the piu-pose of continuing the 
inquiries relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 383' 

Third Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. N. Doxtglass, Professor 
Osborne Eetnolds, Professor W. C. Untfin, and Messrs. W. Toplet, 
P:. XiEadee Williams, W. Shelfoed, G. F. Deacon, A. R. Hunt, W. H. 
Wheeler, W. Anderson, and H. Bamfoed, appointed to investigate the 
Action of Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by 
means of Working Models |, 38(j 

Keport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Flower (Chairman), Dr. 
Gaeson (Secretary), Dr. Beddoe, General Piit-Rivees, Mr. Francis 
Galton, and Dr. E. B. Ttlor, appointed for the purpose of editing a new 
Edition of 'Anthropological Notes and Queries' 404 

Keport of the Committee, cousistLng of Professor Flower (Chairman), Dr. 
G arson (Secretary), Mr. Bloxam, and Dr. Wilberpoece Smith, for the 
purpose of carrying on the work of the Anthropometric Laboratory 405 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Ttlok Mr O W 
Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Daws^^n, and Vlr ' r" g" 
Halibueton, appointed to investigate the physical characters, languages 
and industrial and social condition of the North- Western Tribes of the 
Dominion of Canada am 

Fiftii Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Dr. John 
E VA-Ns, Professor W. Boyd Dawxins, Dr. R. Muneo, Mr. W. Pengelly Dr 
Henry Hicks, Professor Meldola, Dr. Muiehead, and Mr. Jamks w" 
Datis, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining and recording the localities 
m the British Islands in which evidences of the existence of Prehistoric 
Inhabitants of the country are found. (Drawn up by Mr. James W. Davis) 440 

Fourth and Final Report of the Committee, consisting of the Hon. Ralph 
Abercromby, Dr. A. Buchan, Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, Mr. J. Willis Bund, 
Mr/f T4'.o,.''f ''?\^%^- C™^^^eHAM, ProfessorFiTZGEEALD, Dr. H. R 
Mill (Secretary), Dr. John Mureay (Chairman), Mr Is^ic Robt-ets 
Dr H. C. SOEBY, and the Rev.C. J. SteVaed, appoi'nJed t aitan^e anTn-' 
vesfga^ion of the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers and 
Estuaries m various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operat on with the 
local societies represented on the Association. (Drawn^ by Dril. R 
^"^ 454 

The Recent Progress of Agriculture in India. By C. L. Tupper ..'. 532 



CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Page 
Address by Professor Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 547 

1. Interim Report of the Committee on Phenomena connected with 
Recalescence 557 

2. On the Action of a Planet upon small Bodies passing near the Planet, 

with special reference to the Action of Jupiter upon such Bodies. By 
Professor H. A. Newton 557 

3. On the Absorption of Heat in the Solar Atmosphere. By W. E. Wilson, 
M.RI.A., F.R.AS 557 

4. The Ultra-Violet Spectrum of the Solar Prominences. By Professor 
Geokge E. Hale, Director of the Kenwood Physical Observatory, 
Chicago 557 

5. Report on Researches relative to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 

By Dr. J. Lakmor and G. H. Bryan ,.., 558 

6. Note on a Simple Mechanical Representation of Carnofs Reversible 
Cycle. By G. H. Bryan 658 



FBIBA Y, A UG UST 2 1 . 

L Interim Report of the Committee on Researches in Electro-optics 558 

2. Note on the Electromagnetic Theory of the Rotation of the Plane of 
Polarised Light. By Professor A. Gray, M. A., F.R.S.E 558 

3. On an Experiment on the Velocity of Light in the neighbourhood of 
rapidly-moving Matter. By Professor Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 560 

4. The Action of Electrical Radiators, with a Mechanical Analogy. By 

J. Larmor 560 

5. On the Measurement of Stationary Hertzian Oscillations along Wires, aud 
the Damping of Electric Waves. By Professor D. E. Jones, B.Sc 561 

G. On the Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Wires. By Walter 
Thorp 562 

7. On Reflection near the Polarising Angle from the Clean Surfaces of 
Liquids. By Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S 563 



SATURDA r, A UG UST 22. 
Department I. — Physics. 

1. Sixth Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 564 

2. Interim Report on the present state of our Knowledge in Electrolysis 
and Electro-Chemistry 664 



CONTENTS. 



3. Electrolytic Problems. By Robert L. MoND 564 

4. On Clausius' Theory of Electrolytic Conduction, and on some Secret 
Evidence for (he Dissociation Theory of Electrolysis. By J. Brown ... oG4 

5. Report of the Committee on the Phenomena accompanying the Discharge 

of Electricity from Points 565 

6. On the Electrification of Needle Points in Air. By A. P. Chattock 5G5 

7. On the Measurement of Liquid Resistances. By J. Swinburne 565 

8. The Surface-Tension of Ether and Alcohol at Different Temperatures. 

By Professor William Ramsay, Ph.D., F.R.S 565 



Department II. — Mathematics. 

1. Interim Report of the Committee on Mathematical Functions 566 

2. Interim Report of the Committee on the Pellian Equation Tables 566 

3. On Periodic Motion of a Finite Conservative System. By Sir William 
Thomson, Pres.R.S 5G6 

4. On a Geometrical Illustration of a Dynamical Theorem. By Sir Robert 
Ball, F.R.S 566 

5. On the Transformation of a Differential Resolvent. Bv the Rev. Robert 
Haelet, M.A., F.R.S .' 566 

G. On the Transformations used in connection with the Duality of Differential 
Equations. By E. B, Elliott, F.R.S r,(\< 

7. Note on a Method of Research for Invariants. By E. B. Elliott, F.R.S. 568 

8. On Liquid Jets under Gravity. By Rev. H. J. Sharbe, M.A 668 

0. The Geometry of Confocal Conies. By Professor T. C. Lewis 570 

10. Some Tangential Transformations, including Laguerre's Semi-Droites 

R&iproques. By Professor R. W. Genese, M.A 571 

11. Note on the Normal to a Conic. By R. H. Pinkerton 572 

12. On the Importance of the Conception of Direction in Natural Philosophy. 

By E. T. Dixon *_ ; 572 



JUOJVBAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. Report^of the Committee on Researches on the Ultra-Yiolet Ravs of the 
bolar Spectrum • k^o 

2. Comparison of Eye and Hand Registration of Lines in the Violet and 

Ultra-Violet of the Solar Spectrum, against Photographic Records of 
the same, with the same Instrument, after a lapse of several vears. By 
C. Piazza Smtth, LL.D., F.R.S.E ... ' 573 

3. Note on Observing the Rotation of the Sun with the Spectroscope. By 

G. JouNSTONE Signet, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S "oi-"i'e- ^y ^^^ 

*■ ^Lt'S'lF.S"^^" ^'"'' '"^ ^P''*'^- By G.Johnstone Stoney, _ 

o74 

5. Seventh Report of the Committee on Solar Radiation 

C. Report of the Committee on Meteorological Photography 



0/0 

575 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

7. Report of the Committee on the Meteorological Observations on Ben 
Nevis 5/5 

8. Report of the Committee on the Redaction of Magnetic Oloservations 575 

9. Report of the Committee on the Seasonal Variations in the Temperature 

of Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries 576 

10. On the probable Nature of the Bright Streaks on the Moon. By Dr. 

Ralph Copeland, F.R.A.S., F.R.S.E 576 



TUESBA Y, A UG UST 25. 

1. Report of the Committea on Electrical Standards 576 

2. The Causes of Variation of Clark Standard Cells. By J. Swjnburne ... 576 

3. Joint Discussion with Section G on Units and their Nomenclature, 
opened by Professor Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., followed by W. H. Preece, 
F.R.S 577 

Some Revolutionary Suggestions on the Nomenclature of Electrical 
and Mechanical L'nits. By Professor W. Stroud 577 

On a Table to facilitate the Conversion of Electrostatic and Electro- 
magnetic Measures into one another. By U. Johxstoxe Stoney, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 577 

Absolute Units of Measurement. By W. Moon 580 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 26. 

L On the Measurement of Lenses. By Professor Silvanus P. Thojipson, 
F.R.S.. 580 

2. On a new Polariser. By Professor Silvantis P. Trompson, F.R.S 580 

3. Some Experiments on a new Method for the Determination of * v.' By 

A. G. Webster 580 

4. On the Magnetic Field in the neighbourhood of the South London Elec- 
trical Railwav. By Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and Professor 
RxJCKER, F.R.S 581 

5. On the Periodic Time of Tuning-Forks maintained in Vibration Electric- 
ally. By Professor J. VIRIAMT7 Jones and T. Harrison 581 

6. Magnetic Experiments made in connection with the Determination of the 
Rate of Propagation of Magnetisation in Iron. By F. T. Trouton 581 

7. On the Connection between the Crystal Form and the Chemical Compo- 
sition of Bodies. The Symmetry of Crystals accounted for by the Appli- 
cation of Boscovich's Theory of Atoms to the Atoms of the Chemist. 

By William Barlow, F.G.S 581 

8. Report of the Committee on the Volcanic and Seismological Phenomena 

of Japan 583 

9. On Phenomena which might be Observable if the Hypothesis that Earth- 
ouakes are connected with Electrical Phenomena be entertained. By 
Professor John Milne, F.R.S 583 

10. Experimental Study of a Curious Movement of Ovoids and Ellipsoids. 

By Professor Leconte 583 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Patre 

11. On Vowel Sounds. By Dr. R. J. Lloyd ^s.-j 

12. A Latent Characteristic of Aluminium. By Dr. A. Spkinger 553 



' 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Address by Professor W. C. Roberts-Austei^, C.B., F.R.S., President of 

the Section 584 

1. Report of the Committee on International Standards for the Analysis of 

Iron and Steel fiO 1 

2. Report on the Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 601 

3. Report on the Influence of the Silent Discharge of Electricity on Oxygen 
and other Gases 601 

4. Report on the Bibliography of Solution 60:3 

5. Report on the Properties of Solutions 602 

6. Report on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 602 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 2i. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Formation of Haloids G02 

2. The Spontaneous Ignition of Coal. By Professor Vivian B. Lewes 602 

o. On Nickel Carbon Oxide and its application in Arts and Manufactures. 
By LuDWiG MoND, F.R.S 602 



4, On the Electrical Evaporation of Metals and Alloys. By W. Ceookes 



F.R.S 



607 



6. On the Cause of Imperfections in the Surface of Rolled Conner lllovs 
By T. Turner, A.R.S.M .....^.. ....." 607 



MOJVDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1 . Certain Pyrometric Measurements and Methods of Recording them By 
Professor W. C. RoBEETS-AtrsTEN, C.B., F.R.S 607 

2. On the Existence of a Compound in Alloys of Gold and Tin Bv A P 

Latjeie, M.A QQj 

3. On the Relation between the Composition of a Double Salt and the Com- 
position and Temperature of the Solution in which it is formed By 

A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., and F. W. Humphert 608 

4. Some Experiments on the Molecular Refraction of Dissolved Electrolytes. 

By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., aud W. Hibbert 609 

^' ^^^^''^'°" "^^^^^ °'' Alkaline Hypochlorites. By Professor H. McLeod, 
^•^•^ 609 

6. A simple Apparatus for Storing Dry Gases. By W. Sfmons, F.C.S 609 



CONTENTS. XIU 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

Page 

1. Report on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 610 

2. Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 610 

3. Report on the Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds 610 

. 4. On the SpeciBc Heat of Basalt. By W. C. Roberts- Austen, C.B., F.R.S., 

and A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S 610 

5. An Apparatus for Testing Safety Lamps. By Professor F. Clowes, F.C.S. 611 

6. On Didymium from different Sources. By Professor C. M. Thompson, 
F.C.S. ■ 611 

7. On the Nature of Solution. By Professor W. Ramsay, F.R.S 612 

8. The Interpretation of certain Chemical Reactions. By C. H. Bothamley, 

F.C.S 612 

9. Action of Nitrosvl Chloride on Unsaturated Carbon Compounds. By J. 

J. SirDBOEOUQH,"'B.Sc., A.I.C., F.C.S 612 

10. On the Formation of Peaty Colouring Matters in Sewage by the Action 

of Micro-organisms. By W. E. Adenet, F.I.C, Assoc.R.C.Sc.I 612 

11. On a new Method of Disposal of Sewage, with some references to Schemes 

now in use. By C. G. Moor, B.A 612 

12. The Reaction of Glycerides with Alcoholic Potash. By A. H. Allen, 

F.C.S 613 

13. Note on the Electrolysis of Alloys. By Heney C. Jenkins, Assoc. M. 
Inst.C.E., F.C.S 613 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 20. 

Address by Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 

Section ^ 61-4 

1. Discovery of the Oknellus-zone in the North-west Highlands. By Sir 

Aeohibald Geikie, F.R.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey... 633 

2. On some recent Work of the Geological Survey in the Archaean Gneiss of 
the North-west Highlands. By Sir Archibald GeiKie, F.R.S. , Director- 
General of the Survey 634 

3. Report of the Committee on the Registration of Type Specimens 634 

4. Remarks on the Lower Tertiary Fish Fauna of Sardinia. By A. Smith 

WooDWAED, F.G.S ' 634 

5. Evidence of the Occurrence of Pterosaurian and Plesiosaurian Reptiles in 

the Cretaceous Strata of Brazil. By A. Smith Woodwaed, F.G.S 635 

6. The Cause of Monoclinal Flexure. By A. J. Jttkes-Beowne, F.G.S. ... 635 

7. Note on an Undeacribed Area of Lower Greensand, or Vectian, in Dorset- 

shire. By A. J. Jukbs-Beownb, F.G.S 635 



dv CONTENTS. 

Page 

8. On the Continuity of the Kellaways Beds over extended areas near Bed- 
ford, and on the Extension of the Fuller's Earth Works at Woburn. 
By A. C. G. Cameron 636 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 21. 

1. On the Discovery of the South-Eastern Coal-field. V>y Professor W. 
BoTD Dawkins, F.R.S " G37 

2. The Geology of Petroleum and Natural Gas. By W, Topley, F.R.S., 
Assoc. Inst.O.E G37 

3. The Origin of Petroleum. By 0. C. D. Ross G39 

4. A Comparison between the Rocks of South Perabrokesliire and those of 
North Devon. By Henry HiCEs, M.D., F.R.S., Sec. Geol. Soc 641 

5. Yulcanicity in Lovrer Devonian Rocks. The Prawle Problem. By W. 

A. E. UssHEE, F.G.S 642 

6. On the Occurrence of Detrital Tourmaline in a Quartz-schist west of Start 

Point, South Devon. By A. R. HuxT, M.A., F.G.S 643 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Circulation of Underground Waters ... 644 

2. Note on the Discovery of Estheria Minuta (var. Brodieana) in the New- 
Red Sandstone. By C. E. De Range, F.G.S 644 

3. Report of the Committee on Geological Photographs 644 

4. Notes upon Colobodm, a Genus of Mesozoic Fossil Fishes. By Montagu 
Browne, F.Z.S., F.G.S * 644 

5. Report of the Committee on Earth Tremors 64o 

6. Report of the Committee on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 645 



MONDAY, AUGUST 2L 

1 . The Cause of an Ice Age. By Sir Robert Ball, F.R.S 645 

2. Report of the Committee on Erratic Blocks G47 

3. Notes on the Glacial Geology of Norway. By H. W. Crosskey, LL.D , 
^•^•^ 647 

4. Recent Discoveries concerning the Relation of the Glacial Period in North 

America to the Antiquity of Man. By Professor G. Frederick Wright, 
JjLi.LJ., IMi.o.A p._ 

5. 0.1 the Evidences of Glacial Action in Pembrokeshire, and the Direction 

of Ice-flow. By IIenrt Hicks, M.D., F.R.S., Sec. Qeol. Soc 640 

^' ^BoI-ZIT!^!^ ^* ^^'^^^' '''"■ *^^'^°'^'' ^^--^y^l^^-^e- By Herbert 

650 

^' ^^Zil, F.g!s! f .^"^ ^' Levenshulme, Manchester. By Percy F. 

650 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

8. The Lara Beds of California and Idaho, and their relation to the An- 
tiquity of Man. Bj- Professor G. Feedeeick Weight, LL.D., F.G.S.A. 651 

9. Report of the Committee on Excavations at Oldbury Hill b'51 

10. Preliminary Notes on the Excavations at Oldhury Hill. By Joseph 

Peestwich, D.C.L., F.R.S 651 

11. Report of the Committee on Elbolton Cave, near Skipton 652 



I 



TVESDAY, AUGUST 2-^. 

1. On the Occurrence of Pachjtheca and a Species of Nematophycus in the 

Silurian Beds at Ty mawr Quarry, Rumney. By J. Stoerie 652 

2. Report of the Committee on the Lias of Northamptonshire 654 

3. The Mastodon and Mammoth in Ontario, Canada. By Professor J. Hotes 

Panion, M.A., F.G.S 654 

4. Note on the occurrence of Ammonites jurensis in the Irouatone of the 
Northampton Sands, in the neighbourhood of Northampton. By E. T, 
Newtoit, F.G.S., F.Z.S 655 

5. On certain Ammonite-zones of Dorset and Somerset. By S. S. BtrcKJiAN, 
F.G.S., Hon. Memb. Yorka. Phil. Soc .'. ,. 655 

6. Notes on the Polyzoa {Bryozoa) of the Zones of the Upper Chalk. By 
Geobqe Robeet Vijtb 656 



Section D,— BIOLOGY. 
THtmSDAT, AUGUST 20. 

Address by FfiANCls DAliWiSf, M.A., M.B,, F.R,S., President of the Sec- 
tion , 660 

1. Foitrth Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands, and taking steps to investigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Flora and Fauna 678 

2. Report of the Committee appointed to report on the present state of our 
knowledge of the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, and to take steps to 
investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna 678 

3. Fifth Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of taking steps 

for the establishment of a Botanical Laboratory at Paradeniya, Ceylon... 678 

4. Report of a Committee appointed to make a digest of the observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Light'vessels which have been 
carried on by the Migration Committee of the British Association 678 

6. Fourth Report of the Committee for the purpose of collecting information 
as to the Disappearance of Native Plants from their Local Habitats 673 

6. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of arranging for the 
occupation of a Table at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion at Plymouth 678 



xvi CONTEXTS. 

Page 

7. Report of the Committee appointed for Improving and Experimenting' 
with a Deep-Sea Tow-Net 678 

8. Non-sexual Formation of Spores in the Desmidiacese. By A. W. Bennett 678 

9. On a simple Apparatus for the Cultivation of small organisms in Hang- 

ing- Drops, and in various Gases, under the Microscope. By Professor 
Marshall Ward, F.R.S 678 

10. On some simple Models illustrating the Vascular System of Vertebrates. 

By Professor W. N. Parker 679 

11. On the Progress of the Investigation of the Natural History of the 
Friendly Islands. By J. J. Lister 679 



FRIDA Y, A UG UST 21. 

1. Report of the Committee nominated for the purpose of arranging for the 

occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 680 

2. On some Species of Diatoms with Pseudopodia. By J. G. Grenfell, 
F.G.S., F.R.M.S 680 

3. On Nuclear Structure in the Bacteria. By Harold Wager 681 

4. Discussion on the Systematic Position of certain Organisms that are re- 
garded by some Naturalists as Animals, and by others as Plants 682 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. On Anatomical Nomenclatm-e. By Professor W. Kratise 682 

2. On Fertilisation and Conjugation Processes as allied Modes of Protoplas- 
mic Rejuvenescence. By Professor Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 683 

3. A Preliminary Clas9i6cation of Sexual and allied Modes of Protoplasmic 
Rejuvenescence, &c. By Professor Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 683 

4. On recent Investigations of the Marine Biological Association (Fishery 
and Physical). By W. L. Calderwood, Director . 685 

6. On the Growth of Food-fishes and their Distribution at different ages. 

By J. T. Ctr.vNiNGHAM, M.A ° qo- 

0. The Reproduction of the Pilchard. By J. T. Cunninghast, M.A 6S6 

7. Observations on the LarvaB of Palinurm vulgaris. By J. T. Cunningham, 

■'^ ' 687 

8. Distribution of Crystallogobius Nilssonii, Gill. By J. T. Cunningham 
^^^■"^ ." .' 687 



MONDAY, AUGUST 24. 
^' RRs" F.L.S° ^'°*^''"' """'^ *^' Propagation of Ferns. By E. J. Lowe, 
2. On Ferns and their Multiple Parents. By E. J. Lowe, F.R.S. F.L S ' 



3. The Ciliated Organs of the Leeches. By Professor G 



687 
688 



JII.SON COO 



CONtENTS. Xvii 

Page 

4. Some Points in the Early Development of Mu5 mueculus and Mas decu- 
mauiis: the Relation of the Yolk Sac to the Decidua and the I'lacenta. 

By Arthur Robinson, M.D GOO 

5. Observations upon the Development of the Spinal Cord in Mus musculus 
and Mus decumanus : the Formation of the Septa and the Fissures. By 
Arthur Robinson, M.D (J9 1 

G. On the Innervation of the Epipodial Processes of some Nudihranchiate 
Mollusca. By Professor W. A. IIerdman, D.Sc, and J. A. Clubb 602 

7. Exhibition of a new Apparatus for opening and closing a Tow-Net by 
Electricity. By W. E. Hoyle and L. F. Masset .". G93 

8. Exhibition of, and Remarks upon, some Young Specimens of Echidna 
aculeata. By Professor W. N. Parkek, Ph.D Gl)3 

1). Experiments on Respiration in Tadpoles of the Common Frog(i?ana tern- 
poraria). By Professor W. N. Parker, Ph.D G9i 

10. On the Arrangement of the Living Fishes, as based upon the Study of 

their Reproductive System. By Professor G. B. Howes, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ... 694 

11. On the Recent Visitation of Plutella Crucifera. By VV. Fream G95 



TUESDA r, A U6 UST 25. 

1. On the Artificial Production of Rhythm in Plants. By Francis Darwin 
and Dorothea F. M. Pertz 695 

2. On Floating Leaves. By Professor Miall, F.L.S 695 

3. Notes on Internal Phloem in the Dicotyledons. By D. II. Scoit, M.A., 
Ph.D., F.L.S ." 696 

4. On the Occurrence of Diastase in Pollen. By Professor J. R. Green, 
M.A., B.Sc 696 

5. The Presence of a Diastatic Ferment in Green Leaves. By Professor 

S. H. Vines, M.A., F.R.S 697 

6. On the Nuclei of the Hymenomycetes. By Harold Wager 700 

7. New Form of Appendicularian 'Haus.' By Geo. Swainson, F.L.S 701 

8. On the Customary Methods of describing the Gills of Fishes. Bv 
Professor G. B. Howes, F.L.S., F.Z.S .". 702 

9. Exhibition of a very small Parrot from the Solomou Islands. By Canon 
Tristram, F.R.S 702 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Address by E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., President of the Section ... 703 

1. The Art of Observing. By John Coles, F.R.A.S 714 

2. Recent Geographical Progress in Great Britain. By J. Scott Keltie ... 714 

.3. Trees and Prairies. By Miller Christy 715 

1891. -a. 



Xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. The Homology of Continents. By Dr. Hugh R. Mill, F.R.S.E 715 

5. On the Comparative Value of African Lands. By Arthur Sii-Vi White, ^ 
F.K.S.E., Sec.R.Scot.G.S 'l"* 



FlilDAY, AUGUST 21. 

1. On Acclimatisation. By Robert W. Felkin, M.D 715 

2. Changes in Coast Lines. By Dr. J. S. Phen^e 716 

3. Morocco as a Field for Geographers. By J. E. Budgett Meaktn 716 

4. On the Aborigines of Western Australia. By Miss E. M. Clerke 716 

6. The Application of Indian Geographical Survey Methods to Africa. By 
Lieut.-Colouel T. IL IIoldich, R.E 717 

6. Bar-Subtense Survey. By Colonel IIenet Tanner 718 



SA TURD A Y, AUG UST 22. 

1. Suggestions for the Revision and Improvement of the Large Scale Maps 

of the Ordnance Survey. By Henry T. Crook, C.E 718 

2. Mr. Ravenstein explained a Series of Maps illustrating his Presidential 
Address to the Section 718 

3. A Local Collection of Maps was described by the Librarian of the Public 

Library 718 



MOXDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. Antarctic Exploration. By E. Delmar MoRG.iN 719 

2. Photography applied to Exploration. By James Thomson 719 

3. Journeys to the Lake Ngami Region. By Harry D. Buckle 719 

4. A Visit to Kilimanjaro and Lake Chala. By Mrs. French Sheldon ... 719 

5. The Geography of South- West Africa. By Dr. Henry Schlichteu 719 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 2b. 

1. The Siam Border. By Lord Lamington 720 

2. Colorado. By Dr. Bell 720 

3. The Physical and Industrial Geography of Florida. By Arthur 

Montefiore, F.G.S., F.R.G.S 720 

4. The Volta River. By G. Dobson 722 

5. The Bakhtiari Country and the Karun River. By Mrs. Bishop 722 

G. Physical Aspoct-o of the Himalayas, and Notes on the Inhabitants. By 

Colonel Henry Tanner 722 



7. On the propo.sed Formation of a Topographical Society in Cardiff. By 
E. Q. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S , 



722 



CONTENTS. Xix 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Page 
Address by Professor W. Cunningham:, D.D., D.Sc, F.S.S., President of 

the Section 723 

1. Labour and Capital: their Differences and how to reconcile them. By 

C. H. Perkins 735 

2. On the Coal Question. By T. Forstee Brown, M.Inst.G.E 736 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 21. 

1. ' Miners' Thrift and Employers' Liability : a Remarkable Experience.' 

By George L. Campbell 737 

2. State Provision aorainst Sickness and Old Age, and the German Inva- 
lidity and Superannuation Law. By Louis Ttlor 739 

3. On some Economic Aspects of Life Assurance. By John M. McCandlish, 

F.R.S.E 739 

4. The Survival of Domestic Industries. By Professor Gonner 740 

5. Free Travel. By S. M. Burroughs 740 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 22. 

1. The alleg-ed Differences in the Wages paid to Men and to Women for 
Similar Work. By Sidney Webb, LL.B 742 

2. The Taxation of Inventors. By Lewis Edmunds, D.Sc 743 

MONDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. Oq recent Progress in Indian Agriculture. By C. L. Tupper, Chie 

Secretary to the Punjaub Government 7<4 

2. Railway Communications of India. By W. C. Furnivall, M.Inst.C.E. 744 

3. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 745 

4. On the Upbringing of Destitute and Pauper Children. By the Rev. J. O. 
Bevan, M.A 745 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

1. On the Data available for determining the best Limit (physically) for 

Hours of Labour. By J. T. Arlidge, M.D 746 

2. The Cure of Consumption in its Economic Aspect. By G. W. Hambleton 747 

3. The Increase of Food and Population. By W. E. A. Axon 747 

4. Le Play's method of Sj'stematic Observation. By F. Auburtin 747 

5. Recent Changes in the Distribution of Population in England and Wales. 

By Edwin Cannan 747 

a2 



CONTENTS. 



Section G.-MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 20. 

Pagre 

Address by T. Fokster Brown, M.Iost.C.E., President of the Section 749 

1. Report of the Estuaries Committee 757 

2. The Ystradyfodwg and Pontypridd Main Sewerage. By G. Ohatterton 757 

3. The River Usk, and the Harbour of Newport. By L. F. Vebnon-Hak- 

COURT, M.A., M.Inst.O.E., Engineer to the Newport Harbour Commission 757 

4. On Mechanical Ventilation and Heating of Buildings. By W. Key 758 

FBI DA T, A UO UST 21 . 

1. On the Channel Tubular Railway. By Sir Edward Reed, K.C.B , M.P., 

F.R.S 758 

2. Petroleum Oil-engines. By Professor William Robinson, M.E,, Assoc. 

M.lnst.C.E 759 

3 On the Revolving Purifier for the Treatment of Water by Metallic Iron. 
By W. Anderson, D.C.L., F.R.S., M.lnst.C.E 762 

4. A Steady Platform for Guns, &c., at Sea. By Beauchamp Toweb 763 

5. Description of Lewis and Hunter's System of Coaling Ships. By C. 
Hunter '. 763 

6. On some of the Peculiarities to be observed in Portland Cements, and on 
the most advanced methods for determining their Constructive Value. 

By Henry Faija, M.lnst.C.E 764 

7. On the Compound Principle in the Transmission of Power by Compressed 
Air. By Professor A. C. Elliott, D.Sc.(Edin.) 765 

8. Sinking Wells and Shafts. By Henry Datey, M.lnst.C.E 766 

MONDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. The London-Paris Telephone. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 767 

2. On the Telephoning of Great Cities. By A. R. Bennett, M.I.E.E 769 

3. Recent Progress in the Use of Electric Motors. By Professor G Forbes 

F.R.S 771 

4. On Electric Firedamp Indicators. By N. Watts 773 

5. The Lighting of Railway Trains Electrically. By I. A. Timmis 773 

TUESDA Y, A UG VST 25. 

1. An Electrical Parcel Exchange System. By A. R. Bennett, M.I.E.E.... 774 

2. The Bonier Hot-Air Engine. By M. Bonier 776 

3. On the Internal and External W^ork of Evaporation. By W. Wokby 
Beaumont, M.lnst.C.E ' 777 

4. On a new System of Screw Propulsion with n on -reversible Engines Bv 

W. Wokby Beaumont, M.lnst.C.E .....[ . 770 

6. Action of Screw Propellers. By Major R. de Villamil, R.E 780 



CONTENTS. xxi 

Page 

6. On the Comparative Values of various Substances used as Non-conduct- 
ing Coverinofs for Steam Boilers and Pipea. By W. Hepworth Collins 
F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S 780 

7. Joint Discussion with Section A upon Units and their Nomenclature 781 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDA Y, A UO UST 20. 

Address by Professor F. Max Mijlleb, M.A., Foreign Member of the French 

Institute, President of the Section 782 

1. The Social and Religious Ideas of the Chinese, as illustrated in the Ideo- 
graphic Characters of the Language. By Professor R. K. Douglas 796 

2. On recent Progress in the Analysis of Vowel-sounds. By R. J. Lloyd, 
D.Lit., M.A 796 

3. Family Life of the Haidas (Queen Charlotte Islands). By the Rev. 
Charles Harrison ' 797 

4. Report of the North- Western Tribes of Canada Committee 798 

6. On the Work of Major J. W. Powell, Director of the U.S. Ethnological 

Bureau. By Professor Mai Muller, M.A 798 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 21. 

1. On the Ancient Language of the Natives of Tenerife. By the MAEftUESS 

OF Bute, K.T 799 

2. On the Limits of Savage Religion. By Edward B. Tyloe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 800 

3. ' Couvade.' By H. Ling Roth 800 

4. On the ' Morong ' and other Customs of the Natives of Assam. By S. E. 
Peal 801 

■5. Burial Customs of New Britain. By the Rev. B. Danes 802 



MONDA r, A UG UST 24. 

1. Barbaric Elements in Ancient Greece and Italy. By Professor G. 

HAEtWELL-JoNES, M.A 803 

2. The Morocco Berbers. By J. E. Budgett Meakin 804 

3. On the Worship of Meteorites. By Professor H. A. Newton 805 

4. On Human Remains from the Duggleby ' Howe,' Yorkshire. By J. G. 
Garson, M.D 806 

5. On Comparison of Ancient Welsh Customs, Devices, and Commerce with 
those of Contemporary Nations. By Dr. Phene, F.S.A 807 

6. The First Sea- Wanderings of the English Race. By W. M. Adams 808 

7. Points of Contact between Old-world Myths and Customs and the 
Navajo Myth entitled ' The Mountain Chant.' By Miss A. W. Buceland 808 

8. East Central African Customs. By the Rev. James Macdonald 809 

9. Report of the Prehistoric Inhabitants Committee 811 

10. Report of the Elbolton Cave Committee 811 



CONTENTS. 



TUESDA T, A UGUST 25. 

Page 

1. The Formation of a TJecord of the Prehistoric and Ancient Remains of 
Glamorganshire. By Edwin Sewakd 811 

2. Instinctive Criminalitv : its true Character and National Treatment. By 

S. A. K. Steahan, M.D 811 

3. The Anthropometric Method of Identifying Criminals. By J. G. 
Gakson, M.D 81.'i 

4. Recent Ilittite Discoveries. By Dr. Phene, F.S.A 814 

5. Account of the Similkameen Indians of British Columbia. By Mrs. S. S. 
Allison 815 

6. Nicobar Pottery. By E. H. Man 815 

7. Report of the Anthropometric Laboratory Committee 816 

8. Report of the ' Anthropological Notes and Queries C-ommittee ' 816 

9. Report of the Indian Committee 816 



Index 817 

Tables 3, 5, G, and 9 of North-Western Tribes of Canada to face page 436 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Illustrating the Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Volcanic 
Phenomena of Vesuvius and its Neiorhbourhood. 



PLATES II.— XIV. 

Illustrating the Eeport of the Committee appointed to investigate the Action of 
Waves and Currents on the Beds and Foreshores of Estuaries by means of 
Working Models. 

PLATE XV. 

Illustrating the Fourth and Final Report of the Committee appointed to investigate 
the Seasonal Variations of Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in 
various parts of the United Kingdom in co-operation with the local Societies 
represented on the Association. 



OBJECTS' AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATIOK 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the gronnd oeenpied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

KULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The OfiBcers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
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Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Cnmpnsitioofis, Subscriptions, and Pnvileges. 

Life Membrrs shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gramimushj the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
otbces of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and m each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXV 

gratvitoushj the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that n.ncl 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — • 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
pi'ice, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sura of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6c?. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Meetings. 

The Association stall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association, 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It sball consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Peemanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of tbe Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of suh- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must 
he sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Associa- 
tion. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Assoc ia- 
i-ion to he placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Tempo rakt Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Glaums under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees."^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nommated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Revised by the General Committee, 1884. 

2 Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributors of 3Iemoirs.—knXhmi are 'reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several bections before the beginning of tlie Meeting. It has therefore become 



BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXVii 

thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the General Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. '^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.'^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,* Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. [The arrangements for sectional meetings, adopted at 
the Cardiff meeting, will be continued at Edinburgh in 1892, see p. Ixxxiv.J 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length siaitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, iefore 
the conclvsion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. ^ Swansea, 1880. ' Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. 



Xxviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 

3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
isino- Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees. 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Eecommendatious adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 A.M. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furidshed by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secietaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxvi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the conT- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects' of Science, 
It IS expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth 1877 
V ' 7^'!-?*^ '^^ following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgn, lb 1 1. ' 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and dlsJmrsing the grant (if any hasheen made^ 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be us small as is consistent with its efficient luorking. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
tlieir reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Com,mittee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to tbeir number persons wbose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Recommendations. Unlc'ts this be done, the Recom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of tJiat Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
forward to the General Officers, before July 1, a statement of the sums 
which have been expended, with vouchers, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire on Jane 3u following ; nor is the Treasurer authorised, after that 
date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, unless they be 
renewed in the original or a modified form by the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 
of the British Association without special permission from the General 

• Eev'ised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

* Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., Burlington 
House, London, W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In ail cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be depcsited at the Office of the Association, when not 
employed in cari-ying on scientific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 
10 to 11 daily. The Section Rooms and api^roaclies thereto can he used for 
no notices, exhibitwvs, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of communi- 
cations, in the order previously made public, commenced. At 3 P.M. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section wbich 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can oidy be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which thev are appointed dar- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

' The sectional meetings on Saturday and on Wednesda}- may begin at any time 
which may be fixed by the Committee, not earlier than 10 or later thau 1 1. Passed by 
the Ueneral Committee at Bath, 1888, 



BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Comviittee of Recomifnendatiwis. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
■which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.' 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

All pi'oposals for establishing new Section."?, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

Corresponding Societies* 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addres.sed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
np, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 

' Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 186.3. 

* Passed by the General Committee at Uirmingham, 18G5. 
' Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1S90. 

* Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



XXxii BULBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal e.tplanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OflScers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for theMeetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Ojfficers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Council. 



In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Conncil appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
(8) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 
whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Belfast, 1874. 



1891. 



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xliii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.E.S. 



Eev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS, 



1835. 


Dublin 


1836. 


Bristol 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838. 


Newcastle 


1839. Birmingham 


1840. 


Glasgow ... 


1841. 
1842. 


Plymouth 
Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 


Cambridge 


1846. 
1847. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 


1848. 
1849. 


Swansea ... 
Birmingham 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853 


Hull 







Eev. Dr. Eobinson 



Rev. William Whewell, F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.E.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Eev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Eev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.E.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.E.S 

William Hopkins, F.E.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., 

Sec. E.S.E. 
Eev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.E.S. L. & E. 
The Very Eev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Ds, Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Eev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Eev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Eidout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine, Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 



xliv 



REPORT 1891. 



Date and Place 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 
Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 



Brighton 
Bradford 
Belfast... 



Bristol... 
Glasgow 

Plymouth 
Dublin... 
Sheffield 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.B.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S.. 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbuU. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Barnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
FleemingJenkin, Prof. H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W.K. Clifford, J. W.L.Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. RodweU. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlv 



Date and Place 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 


Southamp- 
ton. 


1883. 


Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen. . . 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 


1890. 


Leeds 


1891. 


CardiflE 



Presidents 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Eayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

■pi T> C3 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 
R.E., F.R.S. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E . Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richard- 
son. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
E. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

A. Lodge, W. N. Shaw, Prof. H. 

Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
LR. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 
I Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 



I 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



•John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Daiton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison, 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. "William Whewell,F,R. S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playf air. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Plajdiair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playf air, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, "W. Randall. 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1891. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dvmdee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 

1875. Bristol... 

1876. Glasgow 

1877. Plymouth 

1878. Dublin... 

1879. Sheffield 



Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.K.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F R S 
Prof .W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playf air, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., 

FC.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

F.C.S. 
Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Bhmdell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A, Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 
M. Thomson. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlvii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1881. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 



Presidents 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D. 
F.R.S. 

Prof . A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.E.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A, Tilden, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 

Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
C.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 

W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr.W. J.Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillip.s Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, R. E. Moyle, Dr. W. W 

J. Nicol. 
Dr. H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, 

Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattin- 

son, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 
C. H, Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, Dr. 

G. S. Turpin. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford. 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



18315. Dublin R.J.Griffith 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
Geography, R. I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 
Geography, G.B.Greenough, 
F R S 

C. Ly'eli, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.- 
Geograpliy, G.B.Greenough, 
F R S 

Charles " Lyell, Y.'K.^.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
griphy. Captain H. M. Denham 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 



xlviii 



REPORT 1891. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh" 



[■Residents 



a, I. Murchison, F.E.S 

Kichard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 

Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 
Geol. Soc. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Leonard Horner.F.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.E.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.E.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

Sir ' Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



E. W. Binney, E. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury, 

Rev. J. C. Camming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Euskin. 
Starling Benson, riof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof, Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c {continued). — geology. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen , . . 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864 


Bath 


1865 


Birmingham 


1866 


Nottingham 



"W"illiamHopkins,M.A.,F.E.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, E.E., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. 

Sir E. L Murchison, F.E.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Eupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. AVright. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,"' for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page liv. 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xlix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 
1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 



Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 



Dublin 

Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen ... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 



Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D. .. 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 



Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes» 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley> 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Tople}^ W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGT, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford iRev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge ' I Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. I Prof. Graham IW. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 

At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. liii. 

1891. c 



REPORT 1891. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANT. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., P.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S... . 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton, 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R, Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R, Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
I Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

' " [For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. liii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdefin... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L.&E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C, C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfoiir, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S, 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S, 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E, 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S..., 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S, 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D.. F.R.S...! 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W.E.Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. B. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECBETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1864. Bath Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S. 

1865. Birmingham T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S- 



Secretaries 



H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued), — biology.' 



1866, Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee . . . 
Norvs'ich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh, 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Dej)., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Antlifopoloqical Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— DejJ. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.lj.^. — Dep. of 
Anat. and Physinl.j'E'ioi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Dep. 
of EtJino., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i>e/A of Bot. and 
ZtfoZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
¥.^.S.—Dep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Allot, and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol, 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, ¥.^.S.~Dcp. of 
Anat. and Phi/siol.,Fioi. Ru- 
therford, l^l.t>.—Dep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Bcddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.B.—Dep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Z»(2>.o/^«- 
throp.,SiT W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— 7>^^.o/ 
Anat.and Physiol.,Fvoi.C\e- 
land, M.D., F.n.S.—Dep.of 
Anthropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H, 
.B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. LamjDrey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pj'e-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved: — 'That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," 
in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department" 
be substituted.' 

c 2 



Ui 



KEPORT — 1891. 



Date and Place 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin 



1879, Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 

1884. Montreal 2... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — 1)62}. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.8. — Bcp. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Bej). of Anat. and 
Phj/siol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.b. — Bej). of Anthrojml., 
Francis Gait on, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Di'2>. of Anthrojwl., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bej) 
of Anat. and Pkysiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Ant/irojjol. , 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S 
— Bej). of Anat. and Pliy- 
.fiol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bcp. of Anat. and Phy- 
trioL, F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.H.—Bep. of AntJiropoL. 

F. W. Rudler,"F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

F.n.S.—Bej/.of AnthrojjoL, 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S.—Bt'p. of Anat. and 
Physiol. ,'Proi. 3. S. Burden 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
-- Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bvp. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— i>tf/A of Anthropol... 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Jlclntosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S , 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



Secretaries 



B. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof, 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. P. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were amalgamated. 

■■! By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was 'made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1888. Bath 


W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 


F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 




F.K.S., F.L.S. 


H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 


1889. Newcastle- 


Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 


C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 


upon-Tyne 


M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 


mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 


1890. Leeds 


Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 


S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 




M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 


Dr. S. J. Hickson, Prof. F. W. 
Oliver, H. Wager, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 


1891. Cardiff 


Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 


F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 




F.R.S., F.L.S. 


Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT. 

1833. Cambridge |Dr. Haviland Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh iDr. Abercrombie Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

}842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



Dr. J. Butter, J, Fuge, Dr. R, S. 
Sargent. 

Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. , 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J.Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. 1.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
•Geography. 



liv 



REPORT 1891. 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 



1865. Birming- 
ham.' 



Presidents 



Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.K.S. 
Prof.G.Eolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S. L.& B. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith, 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C 
p. xlvii.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Dr. Pritchard jDr. King. 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. ... Prof. Buckley. 

G. Grant Francis. 

Dr. R. G. Latham. 



1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh i Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm I Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. I 

Sir R.L Murchison, G.C.St.S.,' 

F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 



Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir E. L Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B , 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. JIacAdam, Dr. Norton 
! Shaw. 
E. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Dine, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 
{ Norton Shaw. 
IR. Cull, F. D. Havtland, W. H. 

Rumscy, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. B. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C, 

Lempri&re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Himt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt» 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield^ 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet^ 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 



Vide note on page li. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Eichards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 


H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 
H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 

E. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton . . . 
Bradford . . . 

Belfast 

Bristol 



GlasgovjT ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds .. 



Cardiff 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Riitherf ord Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L.&E . 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.B., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 
K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 
G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
K.C.MG.,C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 
Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Ie. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

I F.S.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston,. 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black. E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J. S. O'HaUoran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'HaUoran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 
Sulivan, A. Silva White. 

A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 
A. Silva White. 

John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 



Ivi 



KEPOET 1891. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S I J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh I Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R.Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield, 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletclier, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Mac Adam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Chesliire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin, 



1858. Leeds 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ' Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 
W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 
1 M. Tartt. 
His Grace the Archbishop of , Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 
Dublin, M.R.LA. | Newmarch. 

Edward Baines JT. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown 

' Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIBS OF THE gECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 



Cambridge 
Newcastle . 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich .. 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Presidents 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.K.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A. ... 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D.. 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



Secretaries 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 

1888. 
1889. 



Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



James Heywood, M.A.,F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 
I S.S. 

'g. W. Hastings, M.P 

iRt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 



Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
ManchesterJRobert Qiffen, LL.D.,"V.P.S.S. 

Bath. 



.iRt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 
j LL.D., F.R.S. 

Newcastle- jProf. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 
upon-Tyne F.S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macror}'', W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 

R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. MNeel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Watson. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 
Price. 

Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 



Iviii 



EEPORT — 1891. 



Date and Place 



1890. Leeds . 

1891. Cardiff. 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Marshall, M.A.,F.S.S, 



Prof, W. Cunningham, D.D. 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 



Secretaries 



W. A. Brigg, Eev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Broiigh, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A..., 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S, 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A.,F.R.S, 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S, 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S, 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macqiiorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst 

C.B., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T, 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod,. 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J, 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet, 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Eev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Belts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. StruvS, 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall, 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock,. 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J, Oldham, J, 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J 

Thom.son. 
C. Atherton, B, Jones, jun., H, M» 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright, 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright, 
E. Abernethy, P, Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright, 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F, Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott,. 

J. F. Spencer. 
P, Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P, Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea,. 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith,. 

W. W. Urquhart. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .., 

1874. Belfast 

-1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. PljTnouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891 Cardiff. 



G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B, Vignoles, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. FleemingJenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. .James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

James Brunlees, F.R.S.E. 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst, 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.E.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 



Secretaries 



P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, 

J. P. Smitli. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brimel, J. G, 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atcliison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, B. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. ANTHEOPOLOCY. 



1884. Montreal ... ; E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

1885. Aberdeen... Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

1886. Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

1 M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam. Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 



EEPOKT — 1891, 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 



Presidents 



Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut. -General Pitt-Kivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas.R.S , 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J, 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848 
1849 
1850. 

1851. 
1862. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . . 
Belfast 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G. B. Airy,F.R. S. .Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

VV. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F'.G^S.... 
John Percj', M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faradaj-, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 

The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the ^gean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (IXdu» incptus). 

.Metallurgical Operat ions of Swansea 
and its Neighboiirhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



1853. Hull. 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



Lecturer 



Prof . J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .. 

Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal . 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S... 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S.... 



William Huggins, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

•J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.8. 
J. Norman Lockyer F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Jlacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tyler, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces, 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia, 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archseology of the early Buddliist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scient ific Use of the Imagination, 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1891. 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 



Lecturer 



Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Prof. W. CWil liamson, F.R.S 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M. P.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S, 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.B 

Sir Wj'ville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G.Adams, F.R.S..., 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A, W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Robert.'i-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



Subject of Discourse 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M. A.,F.R.S. 



Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarised Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The Clialh iiflrr Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Elemeut, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant, Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Prinu^val Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palason^ 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Bafiins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some Difficulties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 



LECTDEES TO THE OPEEATIVE CLASSES. 



Ixiii 



LECTUEES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool.,,. 



1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 

1877. 
1879, 
1880. 
1881. 

1882 

1883. 

1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 

1889. 

1890. 
1891. 



Brighton 
Bradford 
Belfast . , . 
Bristol ... 
Glasgow 

Plymouth 
Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southp irt 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 
Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

CardifE 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bajt.,M.P., 

F.E.S. 
'W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.E.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas. E.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. E.S. Ball, F.E.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. PeiTy, D.Sc, F.E.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.E.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Eaindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops.. 
Electricity in Mining. 



Ixiv REPOET — 1891. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
CARDIFF MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 
rice-Preside7its.— Sir Robert Ball, F.R.S. ; W. Crookes, F.R.S. ; Professor 

G. Carey Foster, F.R.S.; Rev. Robert Harley, F.R.S. ; Professor 

J. Viriamu Jones, M.A. ; Professor H. Lamb, F.R.S. ; Professor H. 

A. Nev^ton ; Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — R. E. Baynes, M.A. (Becorder) ; J. Larmor, M.A. ; Professor 

A. Lodge, M.A. ; Professor A. L. Selby, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

President.— Frokssov W. Chandler Roberts-Ansten, C.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice.Preside7its.— Sir F. A. Abel, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; W. Crookes, F.R.S. ; 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Professor G. D. Liveing, F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod, F.R.S. ; Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S. ; Ludwig 
Mond, F.R.S. ; Professor C. M. Thompson, M.A. 

Secretaries. — C. H. Bothamley, F.C.S. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. 
(_Becorder) ; W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. ; G. S. Turpin, M.A. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir Archibald Geikie, For.Sec.R.S. ; Dr. H. Hicks, 
F.R.S ; Professor C. Lapworth, F.R.S. ; Professor W. J. SoUas, 
F.R.S. ; Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A. ; Professor G. Frederick 
Wright ; Professor F. Zirkel, Ph.D. 

Secretaries.— W. Galloway; J. E. Marr, F.R.S.; Clement Raid; W. W. 
Watts, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President. — Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., P.R.S., P.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— D. H. Scott, M.A. ; Professor W. Stirling, M.D. ; 
Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ; Professor H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— F. E. Beddard, M.A. ; Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc. ; 
Sydney J. Hickson, D.Sc. (Recorder); George Murray, P.L.S. ; Pro- 
fessor W. Newton Parker, Ph.D. ; Harold Wager. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. Ixv 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.—^. G. Tlavenstein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., F.R.S.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., C.B. ; H. 
Seebohm, Hon. Sec. R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— John Coles, F.R.G.S. ; J. Scofcb Keltic, F.R.G.S. (Be. 
corder) ; A. Silva White, F.R.S.B. ; Dr. Yeats. 

SECTION F. — ECOXOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor Cunningham, D.D., D.Sc, F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor C. F. Bastable, F.S.S. ; Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth, F.S.S. ; Hon. Sir Charles W. Fremantle, K.C.B. ; J. B. 
Martin, F.S.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor J. Brough, LL.D. ; Professor E. C. K. Gonner, 
F.S.S. (Recorder) ■ Professor W. R. Soiley, M.A. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — T. Foster Brown, M.Tnst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — James Abernethy, M.Inst.C.E. ; Sir Beniamin Baker, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. ; J. Wolfe Barry, M.Inst.C.E. ; G". Chatterton, 
M.Inst.C.E. ; Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. ; T. Harry Riches, 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Secretaries. — Conrad W. Cooke ; Professor A. C. Elliott, D.Sc. ; W. Bayley 
Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. ; E. Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION H. — ANTHEOPOLOGT. 

President. — Professor F. Max Miiller, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Marquess of Bute, K.T. ; E. W. Brabrook, F.S.A. ; 
J. G. Garson, M.D. ; Dr. E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; H. Ling Roth ; Edwin 
Seward. 



1891. 



Ixvi KEPORT — 1891 



THE BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOE 



2),._ THE GENERAL 

From the commencement of the Leeds Meeting, 1890, and not 

18!»0-91. RECEIPTS. 

£ t. d. 

By Balance brought forward 598 16 

„ New Life Compositions at Leeds Meeting and since 250 

„ New Annual Members „ „ 194 

„ Annual Subscriptions „ ,, 598 

„ Associates' Tickets at Leeds Meeting 678 

„ Ladies' Tickets „ „ 334 

,, Sale of Publications 47 17 6 

„ Rent received from Mathematical Society, for year ended 

September 29, 1890 12 15 

„ Interest on Exchequer Bills 16 9 1 

„ Dividends on Consols 227 18 4 

,, Dividends on India 3 per cents 105 6 

,, Amount received from Mr. Sclater on account of Grant 

' Zoology and Botany of West India Islands ' 100 

„ Amount received from Dr. H. Woodward, being unexpended 

balance of Grant for ' Lias Beds in Northamptonsliire ' ... 16 12 
,, Amount received from Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, being un- 
expended balance of Grant made for ' Electrolysis ' 2 2 6 

„ Amount received from Professor M. Foster, being the unex- 
pended balance of Grant made for ' Botanical Station at 

Peradeniya' 2 



£2883 16 5 



Investments Accovni : July 31, 1891. 

£ 3. d. 

New Consols 8500 

India 3 per cents 3600 

Exchequer Bills 500 



BALANCE SHEET, 1890-91. 



Ixvii 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

inclading receipts on accoant of the CardiiF Meeting, 1891. 



Or. 



IS90-9L PAYMENTS. 

£ s. 
To Expenses of Leeds Meeting, including Priuting and Adver- 
tising, purchase of Banners, and pajTiients in respect of 

New Offices ". 362 10 

„ Salaries, one year (1890-91) 528 15 

„ Pent of Office, 22 Albemarle Street, W. (1890-91) 117 

GrB.VXTS, 

& S. d. 

Anthropometric Committee 10 

Improving Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Discharge of Electricity from Points 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri vatives 25 

Botanical Station at Peradeniya 50 

Variations of Temperature in Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological Phenomeua 5 

CoiTespoEtiing Societies 25 

Itivestigatieu of Caves at Elbolton 2a 

North-Western Tribes of Canada 20O 

Lias Beds of Northamptonshire 25 

Meteorological Obserratious ou Ben Nevis 50 

Seismological Phenomena of Japan 10 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropological Notes and Queries 50 

Electrolysis 5 

Action of Light ou Dyes 17 10 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 

TJltra-yiolet Rays of Solar Spectrum 60 

Action of Waves and Currents iu Estuaries 125 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological Interest 9 6 

Formation of Haloid Salts 25 

Disappearance of Native Plants 5 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 10 

Registration of Type-specimens of British Fossils 5 5 

Electrical Standards 100 

Marine Biological Association at PliTuouth 12 10 

1029 10 

By Balance at Bank of England, Western Pranch, 900 13 11 

Less Cheques issued, but not presented to date 57 15 

842 18 11 
In hands of Assistant to General Treasurer ... 3 2 3 

846 1 



£2883 16 5 



J. H. Gladstone, 
Herbert McLeod 



,} 



Auditors. 



Jul)/ 31, 1391. 



d2 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipti 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 .., 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .., 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22 .. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19 .. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 .. 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 

1875, Aug. 25 .. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15 .. 

1878, Aug. 14 .. 

1879, Aug. 20 .. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23 .. 

1883, Sept. 19.. 

1884, Aug. 27 .. 

1885, Sept. 9 .. 

1856, Sept. 1 .. 

1857. Aug. 31 .. 
188S, Sept. 5 .. 

1889, Sept. 11 .. 

1890, Sept. 3 .. 

1891, Aug. 19 .. 



■Where Iield 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Mancliester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Pl3'mouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 



Presiilents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 

The Kev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 

The Kev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdovvne ... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 

The Duke of Northumberland 

The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbane... 

The Rev. \V. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egertou 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut. -General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Tlie Earl of Harrowbv, F.R.S. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 

I'rof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 

The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 

H.R.H. the Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. 

VVilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A 

Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S, 

Tlie Duke of Buccleuch.K.C.B 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. AYilliamson, F.R.S, 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof .G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S, 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Caylev, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F R.S. ... 
SirLyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W.H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 
Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 



Old Life 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections ou 



at Annual Meeting 


s of the Association 










Attended by 


Amount 
received 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for Scien- 

tiflo Purposes 




Old A 
Mcml 


inual New Annual 
jers Members 


A 
ci 


7e's I--"- 


Foreigners 


Total 


during the 
Meeting 


Year 


:; 
7 


6 siV 

5 376 




'.'. IIOO* 

'.'. 60* 
33t 331* 
160 

9t 200 
37 172 
-0 196 
)5 203 
-6 197 


i?4 

40 

28 


353 

900 
1298 

1.350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 






1831 
1832 
1833 
18.34 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
18.39 
1840 
1841 
1842 












£20 o''o 

167 

435 

922 12 6 

932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 


















7 
4 


1 185 
5 190 










1565 10 2 
981 12 8 


1843 
1844 




9 

6 

19 

6 


[ 22 
5 39 
7 40 
4 25 


4 
2 
4 
3 


3.5 
36 
53 
15 


1079 
857 

1320 
819 




831 9 9 
685 16 
208 5 4 
275 1 8 


1845 
1846 

1847 
1848 






£767"b"o 


9 


3 33 


4 


t7 237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 


12 


S 42 


5 


10 273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


18.50 


6 


1 47 


2 


t4 141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


6 


3 60 


5 


LO 292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


5 


5 57 


3( 


57 236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 


12 


I 121 


7( 


)5 524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 


14 


2 101 


10! 


)4 543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 


10 


i 48 


4 


2 346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


15 


3 120 


9( 


)0 569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 


11 


I 91 


7 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 


12 


5 179 


12( 


)6 821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 


17 


7 59 


6; 


56 463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 


18 


t 125 


15$ 


S9 791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 


15( 


) 57 


4[ 


S3 242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


15 


t 209 


17( 


)4 1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


18 


2 103 


11] 


9 1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


21. 


> 149 


7( 


6 508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 


21! 


i 105 


9( 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 


19; 


{ 118 


IK 


3 771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


22( 


5 117 


75 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 


22J 


) 107 


67 


8 600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 


30.' 


$ 195 


lie 


3 910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


31 


L 127 


9? 


6 754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


28( 


) 80 


9J 


7 912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


23' 


r 99 


7£ 


6 601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


23i 


} 85 


81 


7 630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


30' 


r 93 


8S 


4 672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


33] 


L 185 


126 


5 712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


23$ 


S 59 


44 


6 283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


29( 


) 93 


128 


5 674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


231 


) 74 


52 


9 319 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


38 


9 147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 


31J 


t 176 


123 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 3 1 


1881 


25c 


! 79 


51 


6 189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 


33( 


) 323 


95 


2 841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 


31' 


' 219 


82 


6 74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1538 


1173 4 


1884 


335 


' 122 


105 


3 447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 


42f 


S 179 


106 


7 429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 


51( 


) 244 


198 


5 493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 


39f 


t 100 


63 


9 509 


35 


1984 


2107 


1611 5 


1888 


415 


! 113 


102 


4 579 


12 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 


mi 


! 92 


68 


334 


21 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 


34] 


152 


67 


2 107 


12 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 


t Includ 


ng Ladies. § 


Fellc 


ws of the Amsri 


can Associati 


3n were ad 


luitted as Hon 


Members for this 


Meetiog. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1892. 



PRESIDENT. 
WILLIAM HUGGIiS'S, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Eon. FJl.S.E., F.R.A.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. Lokd WiNijaOH, Lord-Lieutenant 

of Glamorganshire. 
The Most Hon. the Marquess op Bote, K.T. 
The Right Hon. Loed Ratleigh, M.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D.. Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 
The Right Hon. Lokd Trf.deoah. 
The Right Hon. Lord Arerdare, G.C.B., F.E.S., 

F.R.G.S. 



Sir J. T. D. LLEWET.Ttf , Bart., F.Z.S. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., D.Sc, For. Sec. 
U.S., F.R.S.E., Pres. G.S, Director-General of 
tl)e Geological Surrey of the United King- 
dom. 

Sir RnnjiRT BALL, F.R.S., Boyal Astronomer of 
IrclauiL 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Sin ARCHIBALD GBIKIE, LL.D., D.Sc. For. Sec. R.S., F.R.S.E., Prbs. G.S., Director- General of 

the Geological SuiTej of the United Kingdom. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Provost oi" Edix- 

BURGH. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Lothian, K.T. 
The Right Hod. the Earl of Koserehy, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Right Hon. Lord Kingsburgh, C.B., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.B. 



Principal Sir 'William Muik, K.CS.I. 
ProfessorSir Douglas Maclagan, M.D.,Pres.R.S.E. 
Professor Sir William Turner, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Professor P. G. Tait, M.A., F.R.S.E. 
Professor A. Crum Brown, M.D., F.R.S, P.R.S j:.. 
Pre?. CS. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Cliester Street, London, S.W. 

A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowlej Grange, Oxford. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Harrow. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor Arthur W, Rucker, M.A., F.R.S., Bui-lingtcm House, London, W. 
LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT EDINBURGH. 
Professor G. F. Armstrong, M.A., C.E., I F. Gran't Ogilvik, Esq., MA., B.Sc., F.R.S.E. 
F.R.S.E., F.G.S. I JouN Harrison, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT EDINBURGH. 

Adam Gillies Smith, Esq., C.A. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Andbrson, Dr. W., FJ^.S. 
ATUTDN, Professor W. B., F.R.3. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Bates, H. W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Professor G. H., F.R.S. 
Douglass, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Professor P. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Professor G. F., F.R.S. 
GutZEBROOK, R. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Judd, Professor J. W., F.R.S. 
Liveing, Professor 6. D., F.RA 
Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor W., F.K.S. 
Rkinold, Professor A. W., F.U.S. 
Roberts-Austen, Prof es3orW.C.,C.B.,F.R.S. 
SCHAPER, Professor E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Sidgwick, Professor H., M.A. 
Symons, G. J., Esq, F.R.S. 
Thorpe, Professor T. K, F.R.S. 
Ward, Professor Marshall, FJi.S. 
Wht'.'akee, W., Esq., P.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H, FJi.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, tlie Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presitieats and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the Genera] and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer* and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Su- John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec. R.S., F RA S. 
The Right Hon. Sir Eton Platpair, K.CB., M.P., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R S. 



Sir G. B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Waiiam R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.CS.I. 
tjir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER TEARS. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, Pres.RS. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
I Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Lord Rayleigh, D.CX., Sec. R.S. 
Sir Lyon Playfair, K.U.B., F.RJS. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., P.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir Frederick Abel, K.C.B, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER TEARS. 
F Galton, Esq F.R.S. I Prof. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. I P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D.. F.R.S, 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. | George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. Prof. Bonney, D.bi., F.R.S. 

Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



I J. B. Martin, Esq., M.A., F.SA 



Ixxi 



REPORT OF THE COITNCIL. 



Report of the Council for the year 1890-91, fresented to the General 

^ Committee at Cardiff, on Wednesday, August 19, 1891. 

The Council have received the usual Financial Reports from the 
General Treasurer, during the past year, and his account for the year 
1890-91, which was audited on the 31st July will be presented to the 
General Committee 

The Council were informed by Dr. Williamson in the early part of the 
year that he would be unable to allow himself to be nominated to the 
office of General Treasurer at the present meeting of the Association, and 
that, as he would not be able to attend the meeting at Cardiff, he 
wished to continue in office only until the commencement of that 
meeting. 

Dr. Williamson was appointed to succeed Mr. Spottiswoode in the 
year 1874, and during this long period of seventeen years his wise and 
calm judgment has afforded the Council, on all occasions of difficulty, 
most valuable assistance. 

The Council recommend that, in accordance with the wish expressed 
by Dr. Williamson, a successor to his office be appointed at this meeting, 
and they have much pleasure in recommending to the General Committee 
that Professor Arthur W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S., be elected General 
Treasurer, and that he be requested to enter at once upon the duties of 
the office. 

Lord Rayleigh, one of the Vice-Presidents elect, will not be able to 
attend the meeting. The Council recommend that Sir Robert Ball, Royal 
Astronomer of Ireland, be elected Vice-President. 

The Council received a letter from the Board of Trade requesting 
them to appoint one or two members of a committee about to be formed 
for considering the standards for the measurement of the ohm, the 
ampere, and the volt. The Council appointed Professor G. Carey Foster 
and Mr. R. T. Glazebrook members of this committee. 

The Council have elected the following Foreign Men of Science, who 
attended the last Meeting of the Association, Corresponding Members : — 

Prof. Brentano, Munich. 

Prof. V. Dwelshauvers-Dery, Liege. 

Prof. Mascart, Paris. 

Prof. W. Ostwald, Leipzig. 

Signor Maffeo Pantaleoni, Bari. 

An invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association at Not- 
tingham in the year 1893 has been received, and will be presented to 
the General Committee on Monday, 



Dr. Otto Pettersson, Stockholm. 
Mr. A. Lawrence Eotch, Eeadville, 

Mass., U.S.A. 
Prof. J. H, van't HofE, Amsterdam. 



Ixxii KKPORT — 1891. 

Kesolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if 
desirable : — 

(A) ' That the Council consider and report whether grants should be made from 
the funds of the Association for other than specific researches by specified 
individuals.' 

The Council consider that grants should not be made to any single 
institution, or in support of a single object, for many years in succession. 
It must be distinctly understood that the aid given by the Association to 
any particular scientific institution or investigator must necessarily be 
limited and intermittent. 

The Council are of opinion that grants in aid of research should not 
be made, except for specified subjects, and under snch circumstances that 
satisfactory assurances can be given to the General Committee as to the 
person or persons by whom the research is to be carried out. 

(B) ' That it is desirable that the question of publishing the papers more fully 
and expeditiously, and of adding reports of discussions, be considered by the 
Council.' 

The Council are informed that steps have been taken to insure a more 
expeditious publication of the Annual Report. 

They do not recommend that papers should be published more fully ; 
nor do they recommend that discussions should be published, excepting 
in special cases when this is strongly advocated by Sectional Committees, 
and approved of by the General Committee. They recommend that, in 
every such case, an arrangement be made by the General Officers for the 
l^roper editing of the discussion. 

(C) ' That in the arrangement of the Journal it is desirable, in the interests of 
clearness and of ease of reference, to return to the old practice of printing first the 
papers to be read in the various Sections, then the papers read on the previous day 
in those Sections, and lastly the list of Sectional Officers and of the Committees.' 

The Council recommend that the papers to be read in the various 
Sections be printed first, then the lists of the Committees, and lastly the 
papers read on the previous day, and that each page should have a suit- 
able heading. 

(D) ' That the Council be requested, if possible, to fix the date of each meeting 
two years before it is held, and to bear in mind that the middle or latter part of 
September is the time most convenient to many members of the Association. 

The Council considered that it is not practicable to fix the date of the 
Annual Meeting two years before it is held. They recommend that infor- 
mation be _ obtained at as early a date as possible as to the times which 
are convenient to the town where a meeting is to be held, and that the 
authorities in such town be informed that the last fortnight in September 
is most generally convenient to academical and other important Sections 
of the members of the Association. 

(E) ' That the hours at which the Sections and Committees meet be again con- 
sidered by the Council.' 

The Council have requested the Organising Committees to propose to 
the Council times for the meetings of their respective Committees and 
Sections, and recommend that these proposals be adopted for the Cardiff 
Meeting as an experimental measure. 



BEPOET OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxiii 

(F) ' That a general Index to the Reports of the Committees of tlie Association, 
and of all papers ordered to be printed in extenso, be published, and that the Council 
be authorised to spend such sums as may be necessary for the purpose.' 

The Council resolved that the Index to the Annual Reports of the 
Association be continued from the year 1863 to 1890 inclusive, and that 
it consist of one part only. References to Abstracts of Papers will be 
printed in italics. 

(Gr) ' That the Council urge upon the Government to take steps to hasten the 
completion of the Ordnanfce Survey, and to afEord greater facilities for the purchase 
of the Survey Maps.' 

The Council having ascertained that the maps of the Ordnance Survey 
are neither known to nor used by the public nearly to the extent they 
should be, considering their value and the vast sums of money which 
have been expended on their production, and that this neglect arises from 
various causes, chief among which are the very defective arrangements 
made for the sale of the maps to the public, the obsolete topography of a 
large poi-tion of the Survey, and the want of legal authority for the 
boundaries shown by the maps, resolved to make to the Government the 
following suggestions, with a view to the removal of the present obstacles 
to the usefulness of the maps : — 

(1) That some modification be made in the present character of 
arrangements for the sale of the maps of the Ordnance Survey, wherehy 
the maps may become more accessible to the public. 

(2) That such additions be made to the Parliamentary grant for the 
Ordnance Survey as will enable the revision to be made more complete, 
and the arrears to be brought up to date within a reasonable time. 

(3) That the boundaries and areas of the Ordnance Survey maps be 
made legal boundaries and areas in England and Scotland, as they 
already are in Ireland, so that they may form a basis for all valuation for 
local or imperial assessments. 

This memorandum was communicated to the President of the Board 
of Agriculture, together with the following letter from the President of 
the Association : — 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

22 Albemarle Street, London, W., 
March 11, 1891. 

Sir, — I have the honour to invite your consideration of the accompanying memo- 
randum, conveying the conclusions of the Council of the Britisli Association for the 
Advancement of Science, on the subject of representations made to them in the form 
of a resolution passed at the last Annual Meeting of the British Association, held at 
Leeds in 1890, relating to some points of importance connected with the Ordnance 
Survey and its value to Her Majesty's dominions generally. 

I have to express the hope that you will feel disposed to invite the favourable 
consideration of Her Majesty's Government to the recommendations included iu the 
memorandum in question, and to state that, should you desire any further informa- 
tion upon the subjects to which these recommendations relate, the Council of the 
British Association will be happy to arrange for a deputation to wait upon you for 
the purpose of affording you such additional information. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) F. A. Abel, President. 
The Right Hon. Henry Chaplin, M.P., 

President of the Board of Agriculture. 



Ixxiv REPOET — 1891. 

The following reply from the Board of Agriculture has been 

received ; 

Board of Agriculture, March 14, 1891. 

Sir,— I am directed by Mr. Chaplin to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 11th inst., forwarding a memorandum on the Ordnance Survey, and to say that 
the subject will have due consideration. 

I am, yours faithfully. 
To Sir F. Abel, C.B., F.R.S., &c., &c. (Signed) P. H. Bagenal. 

(H) ' That the Council be requested to consider the question of watching the 
operation of Acts relating to Scientific and Technical Education, and to take such 
steps as may seem desirable for furthering the objects of those Acts.' 

The Council considered this Resolution, and are of opinion that there 
is no necessity at the present time for them to take any action, 

(I) ' That the Council be requested to consider whether it is not desirable to 
make special provision for the comprehensive consideration by the Association of 
questions relating to Scientific and Technical Education.' 

"With regard to this Resolution, the Council understand that the chief 
object of the Sectional Committee which originated it was to have 
general discussions on scientific and technical questions organised, in 
which members of the various Sections who have a special knowledge of 
these questions should take part. 

The Council consider that the Sectional Committees have sufficient 
powers to deal with this proposal severally and jointly. 

(J) ' That the paper by Mr. J. F. Green on " Steam Life-boats " be printed in 
extenso, with the necessary drawings.' 

The Council decided that an abstract only of this paper should be 
printed. 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee has been re- 
ceived, and will be presented to the General Committee. 

The CoiTesponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Professor A. W. William- 
son, Sir Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Rawson 
Rawson, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. Topley, and 
Professor T. G. Bonney, is hereby nominated for reappointment by the 
General Committee, together with Mr. T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 

The Council nominate Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Chairman, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, F.Z.S., Vice-Chairman, and Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., Secre- 
tary to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be 
beld during the Meeting at Cardiff. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the Council, 
exclusive of Professor Rticker (who is recommended for the office of 
Treasurer), will be : — 

Mr. Blanford. i Mr. J. B. Martin. 

Mr. Crookes. | Capt. Wharton. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distin- 
guished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxv 



•Anderson, Dr. W„ F.R.S. 
Avrton, Prof. W. E., F.R.S. 
I'.kker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
*L!ates, H. W., Esq., F.R.S, 
Barwin, Prof. G. H., F.R.S. 
Dong-lass, Sir J. N., F.R.S. 
♦Edgeworth Prof. F. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Prof. G. F., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, R. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Judd, Prof. J. W., F.R.S. 
Liveinar, Prof. G. D., F.R.S. 
*Lodge, Prof, Oliver J., F.R.S. 



Preece, W. H.. Esq., F.R.S. 
♦Ramsay, Prof. W.. F.R.S. 
Reinold, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 
Roberts-Austen, Prof. W. C, C.B., F.R.S. 
Schafer, Prof. E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Prof. A., F.R.S. 
Sidgwick, Prof. H., M.A. 
*Symon?, G. J,, Esq., F.R.S. 
Thorpe, Prof. T. E., F.R.S. 
Ward, Prof. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Ixxvi 



REPORT — 1891. 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Cardiff Meeting in August 1891. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing ttie Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[This grant includes 111. As. 6d., 
the unexpended balance of last 
year's grant.] 



Co-operating with the Scottish Me- 
teorological Society in making 
Meteorological Observations on 
Ben Nevis. 



The Ajaplication of Photography 
to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessarj% for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 

Carrying on the Tables connected 
wdth the Pellian Equation from 
the point where the work was 
left by Degen in 1817. 

[This grant includes 51., the un- 
expended balance of a previous 
grant.] 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor Carey 
Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir WiUiam Thomson, Professors 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Lord Eayleigh, Drs. 0. J. 
Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. 
Bluirhead, Messrs. W. H. Preece 
and Herbert Taylor, Professors 
Everett and Schuster, Dr. J. A. 
Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
gerald, Chrystal, and J. J. Thom- 
son, Messrs. W. N. Shaw, J. T. 
Bottomley.and T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. 
G. Johnstone Stoney, and Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson. 

Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Messrs. John Murray and Buchan, 

Professor R. Copeland, and Hon. 

R. Abercromby. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. Clayden. 
Professor Meldola and Mr. John 
Hopkinson. 

Chair?!ian. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 

Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Cayley, Professor B. Price, and 
Messrs. J. W. L. Glaishei, A. G. 
Greenhill, and W. M. Hicks. 

Chairman. — Professor Cayley. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Professor Sylvester and Mr. A. R. 
Forsyth. 



C0M5JITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxvii 
1. Rf reiving CrranU of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Considering the subject of Elec- 
trol3sis in its Physical and 
Chemical Bearings. 



Members of the Committee 



To investigate the Phenomena ac- 
companying the Discharge of 
Electricity from Points. 

The Volcanic and Seismological 
Phenomena of Japan. 



To consider the best Method of 
establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of 
Iron and Steel. 

[This grant is the unexpended 
balance of last year's grant.] 



The Investigation of the direct 

Formation of Haloids from 

pure Materials. 
[This grant includes 5Z. 5«., the 

unexpended balance of last 

year's grant.] 

The Properties of Solutions . 



The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours. 



Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretaries. — Professors H. E. 
Armstrong and O. J. Lodge. 

Professors Sir William Thomson, 
Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, 
Schuster, Poynting, Crum 
Brown, Earn say, Frankland, 
Tilden, Hartlej', S. P. Thomp- 
son, Roberts- Austen, Eiicker, 
Reinold, Carey Foster, and H. B. 
Dixon, Captain Abney, Drs. 
Gladstone, Hopkinson. and 
Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, 
Rhelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, 
J. Larmor, J. T. Bottomley, 
R- T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, 
E. J. Love, and John M. Thom- 



Chairman. — Professor O. J. Lodge. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. P. Chattock. 
Professor Carey Foster. 

Chairman. — Sir Wm. Thomson. 
Secretary. — Professor J. Jlilne. 
Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. 

Bottomley, and Professor A. H. 

Green. 

Chairman. — Professor Roberts- 
Austen. 

Secretary. — Mr. Thomas Turner. 

Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and 
J. Spiller, Professor J. W. Lang- 
ley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, and Pro- 
fessor Tilden. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 

Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. 
C. H. Bothamley. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Til- 
den. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hum- 
mel. 

Dr. Perkin, Professor Russell, 
Captain Abney, and Professor 
Stroud. 



Grants 



s. d. 




50 



10 



8 16 



25 5 



10 



10 



Ixxviii 



REPORT— 1891. 
1. Bccciring Grants of Mone]/— continued. 



Subject for Investigatiou or Purpose 



Recording the Position, Height 
above the Sea, Lithological Cha- 
racters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blocks of England, 
AVales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and tak- 
ing measures for their preserva- 
tion. 

[This grant includes \0l. granted 
last year but not drawn.] 

The Description and Illustration 
of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 
Palaeozoic PiOcks. 

[This grant was drawn last year, 
but was not spent.] 

The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Kegistration of 
Photographs of Geological in- 
terest. 



To consider the best Methods for 
the Registration of all Type 
Specimens of Fossils in the 
British Isles, and to report on 
the same. 



The Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable 
Formations of England, and 
the Quality and Quantitj- of 
the Waters supplied to various 
Towns and Districts from these 
Formations. 



To complete the Investigation of 
the Cave at Elbolton, near Skip- 
ton, in order to ascertain whether 
the remains of Palajolithic Man 
occur in the Lower Cave Earth. 

To investigate the Extent and the 
Faunal Contents of the Sonerhiji 
Zone, and its Relationship to the 
concavum and Sauzei Zones. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor J. Prest- 
wich. 

Secretary. — Dr. H. W. Crosskey. 

Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. 
McK. Hughes, and T. G. Bonney 
and Messrs. C. E. De Ranee, 
P. F. Kendall, W. Pengelly, J. 
Plant, and E. H. Tiddeman. 



C/wirvmn.—'Rev. Prof. T. Wilt- 
shire. 
Secretary — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary.— Mr. 0. W. Jeffs. 

Professors Bonney and Bo3'd Daw- 
kins, Drs. V. Ball and T. Ander- 
son, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, E. J. 
Garwood, W. Gray, H. B. Wood- 
ward, J. E. Bedford, R. Kidston, 
VV. W. Watts, J. W. Davis, and 
E. H. Tiddeman. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward. 

Rev. G. F. Whidborne and Messrs. 
R. Kidston and J. E. Marr, 



Cltairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretarif. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir D. Gal- 
ton, Professor J. Prestwich, and 
Messrs. J. Glaisher, P. Kendall, 
E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, W. 
Pengelly, J. Plant, I. Roberts, 
T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. 
Topley, Tylden - Wright, E. 
Wethered, and W. Whitaker. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. AV. Davis. 

Secretary. — Rev. E. Jones. 

Drs. J. Evans and J. G. Garson 

and Messrs. W. Pengelly, R. H. 

Tiddeman, and J. J. Wilkinson. 

Chairman. — Professor T. Rupert 

Jones. 
Secretary. — Mr. S. R. Buckman. 
Rev. Professor T. Wiltshire. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxix 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To carry on Excavations at Old- 
bur}' Hill, near Ightham, in order 
to ascertain the existence or 
otherwise of Kock Shelters at 
that spot. 

Completion of a Keport on the 
Cretaceous Polyzoa. 



To appoint Mr. Willey to investi- 
gate the Morphology of the 
Ascidiaus at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples, or, failing this, 
to appoint some other competent 
investigator to carrj' on a defi- 
nite piece of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples approved 
by the Council. 

To arrange for the Occupation of 
a Table at the Laboratory of the 
Marine Biological Association, 
Plymouth. 



For improving and experimenting 
with a Deep-sea Tow-net for 
opening and closing under water. 

[This includes 27Z.14«. 6<?. granted 
last year but not drawn.] 



To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
of the Sandwich Islands, and "to 
take steps to investigate ascer- 
tained deficiencies in the Fauna, 
with power to co-operate with 
the Committee appointed for 
the purpose by theKoyal Society, 
and to avail themselves of such 
assistance in their investiga- 
tions as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government. 

[100/!. granted last year but not 
drawn.] 

To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and to take steps to in- 
vestigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Fauna and Flora. 

[100/. granted last year but not 
drawn.] 



Members of the Committee 



Grants 



Chairman. — Dr. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professors Prestwich and H. G. 
Seeley. 



ChaArman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. G. E. Vine. 
Professor T. Rupert Jones and Dr. 
H. C. Sorby. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretanj. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professors Kay Lankester, Cossar 
Ewart, M. Foster, and A. Milnes 
Marshall and Mr. Sedo-wick. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Bay 

Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. S. F. Harmer. 
Professors M. Foster and S. H. 

Vines. 

Chairman. — Professor A. C. Had- 

don. 
Secretai-y. — Mr. W. E. Eoyle. 
Professor W. A. Herdman. 



CItairman. — Professor Newton. 

Secretary.— T)T. David Sharp. 

Dr. Blanford, Dr. Hickson, Pro- 
fessor Riley, Mr. Salvin, Dr. 
Sclater, and Mr. Edgar A. 
Smith. 



s. d. 




Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 
Mr. Carruthers, Drs. Giinther and 
Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, 
Professor Newton, and Dr. D. H. 
Scott. 



10 



100 



17 10 



40 



100 



100 



BEPORT — 1891. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject of Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


Climatological and Hydrographi- 


ChairmaM.— Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 


75 


s. d. 



cal Conditions of Tropical 


Secretary. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 






Africa. 


Mr. Baldwin Latham. 






For carrying on the Work of the 


Chairman.—'Proiessor Flower. 


5 





Anthropometric Laboratory. 


Secretary. — Dr. Garson. 
Mr. Bloxam and Dr. Wilberforce 
Smith. 






Exploration of Prehistoric Remains 


Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 


50 





in Maslionaland. 


Secretary. — Mr. J. Theodoi'e Bent. 
Mr. Rudler, Mr. Brabrook, and 
Mr. Bloxam. 






The Physical Characters, Lan- 


Chairman.— T>r. B. B. Tylor. 


100 





guages, and Industrial and So- 


Secretary. — Mr. Bloxam. 






cial Condition of the North- 


Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Daw- 






western Tribes of the Dominion 


son, Mr R. G. Haliburton, and 






of Canada. 


Mr. H. Hale. 






The Habits, Customs, Physical 


Chairman. — Sir William Turner. 


10 





Characteristics, and Eeligions 


Secretary. — Mr. Bloxam. 






of the Natives of India. 


Professor Flower, Drs. Garson 
and E. B. Tylor, and Mr, H. H. 

Risley. 






Editing a new Edition of ' Anthro- 


Chairman. — Professor Flower. 


20 





pological Notes and Queries.' 


■ Secretary.— Br. Garson, 
Dr. Beddoe, General Pitt-Rivers, 
Mr. Francis Galton, Dr. E. B. 
Tylor, and Mr. Brabrook. 






Corresponding Societies' Com- 


Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 


25 





mittee. 


^Secretary. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Professor A. 
W. Williamson, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Dr. John Evans, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. 








Topley, and Mr. T. V. Holmes. 







2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


To co-operate with Dr. Piazzi Smyth Iq 
his Researches on the Ultra Violet 
Rays of the Solar Spectrum, 


Chairman. — Professor Liveing. 
Secretary. — Dr. Piazzi Smyth. 
Professors Dewar and Schuster, 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixxxi 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Eate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



Considering the best Methods of Ee- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Kadiation. 



To co-operate with Dr. Kerr in his 
researches on Eiectro-optics. 



The various Phenomena connected with 
the recalescent Points in Iron and 
other Metals. 



To consider the establishment of a 
National Physical Laboratory for the 
more accurate determination of Phy- 
sical Constants, and for other Quanti- 
tative Research, and to confer with 
the Council of the Association. 

Modes of measuring the Optical Con- 
stants of Microscopic, Photographic, 
and other Lenses, and of specifying 
and enumerating the Properties of 
their Combinations. 

1891. 



Chairman. — Mr. John Murray. 

Secretary. — Mr. John Murray. 

Professor Schuster, Sir William Thom- 
son, the Abbe Renard, Mr. A. Buchan, 
the Hon. R. Abercromby, and Dr. M. 
Grabham. 

Chairman. — Professor Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor Everett. 

Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. 
J. Symons, Sir A. C. Ramsay, Sir A. 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. 
Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Stra- 
han, and Professor Michie Smith. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Sir W. Thomson, Professors G. H. Dar- 
win and G. Chrystal, Mr. C. H. Carp- 
mael, Professor Schuster, Mr. G. M. 
Whipple, Captain Creak, the Astro- 
nomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and 
Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Chaiiinan. — ^Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Professor Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain 
Abney, Mr. Whipple, and Professor 
M'Leod. 

Clmirman. — Dr. John Kerr. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir W. Thomson and Professor Riicker. 

Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald . 

Secretary. — Professor Barrett. 

Dr. John Hopkinson, Mr. R. A. Hadfield, 

Mr. Trouton, Professor Roberts-Austen, 

and Mr. H. F. Newall. 

Chaiiinan. — Professor Oliver J. Lodge. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Sir William Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, 
Professors J. J. Thomson, Riicker, 
Clifton, Fitzgerald, Carey Foster, and 
J. Viriamu Jones. 

Chairman. — Professor G. C. Foster. 
Secretary. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, J. Walker, Sir 

Howard Grubb, Mr. Whipple, and 

Captain Abney. 

e 



lixxii KEPOET— 1891. 

2. Not receiving Grants of ^J/ywcy— continued. 



To examine and report how greater 
uniformity may be introduced into 
the Kecord of Spectroscopic Work. 

Reporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



To report on recent Inquiries into the 
History of Chemistry. 

The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements. 



The Influence of the Silent Discharge 
of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
Gases. 

The Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 



Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds. 



To inquire into the Proximate Chemical 
Constituents of the various kinds of 
Coai; 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wales, and the Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.— TtT. Johnstone Stoney. 
Secretary. — Dr. Johnstone Stoney. 
Dr. Huggins and Professor Liveing. 

Chairman.— Vmiessor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— Bi. W. AV. J. Nicol. 
Professors M'Leod, Pickering, Ramsay, 
and Young and Dr. A. R. Leeds. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary.— FToiessor John Ferguson. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts- Austen. 
Professor Reinold and Mr. H. G. Madan. 

Chairvia7i. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, Liveing, 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott 

Gibbs, and Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor H. M'Leod. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor Ramsay and Mr. J. T. Cundall. 



Chairman. — Dr. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney and Professors 
Hartley and W. Ramsay. 



Noel 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Cliairman. — General Festing. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. E. Armstrong. 
Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Sir I. Lowthian Bell. 
Secretary. — Professor P. Phillips Bedson. 
Mr. Ludwig Mond, Professors Vivian B. 

Lewes and E. Hull, and Messrs. J. W. 

Thomas and H. Bauerman. 

Chairman. — Mr. R. B. Grantham. 
Secretaries. — Messrs. C. E. De Ranee and 

W. Topley. 
Messrs. J. B. Redman, W. Whitaker, and 

J. W.Woodall, Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, Sir J . N. 

Douglass, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 

J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 

Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. E. 

Easton, J. S. Valentine, and L. F. 

Vernon Harcourt. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Granti of Money — continued. 



Ixxxiii 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To undertake the Investigation of the 
Sources of the River Aire, and also to 
test the value of Uranin and other 
Dyes in investigating the Courses of 
Underground Streams. 

The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 
and its neighbourhood. 



Considering the advisability and possi- 
bility of establishing in other parts 
of the country Observations upon the 
Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar 
to those now being made in Durham 
in connection with coal-mine explo- 
sions. 



To consider a project for investigating 
the Structure of a Coral Keef by 
Boring and Sounding. 



Disappearance of Native Plants from 
their Local Habitats. 



To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels. 



For taking steps to establish a Botanical 
Laboratory at Peradeniya, Ceylon. 



To consider proposals for the Legislative 
Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs. 



The Teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools. 



Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Professor Silvanus P. Thomp- 
son. 

Mr. J. Birbeck, Mr. Walter Morrison, 
M.P., Rev. G. Style, and Mr. Thomas 
Tate. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. Bauerman. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. Teall. 

ChairnMn. — Mr. G. J. S3'mons. 

Sec7rtary.^M.T. C. Davison. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor 
Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, Dr. John Evans, Professors Prest- 
wich, Hull, Lebour, Meldola, and Judd, 
Mr. M. Walton Brown, and Mr. J. 
Glaisher. 

Chairman. — Professor T. G. Bonney. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. SoUas. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors A. H. 
Green, J. W. Judd, and C. Lapworth, 
Captain Wharton, Drs. H. Hicks and J. 
Murray, and Mr. F. Darwin. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. W. Wills. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Hillhouse. 
Messrs. E. W. Badger and George Cla- 
ridge Druce. 

Chairman. — Professor Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Messrs. John A. Harvie-Brown, R. M. 

Barrington, and W. E. Clarke and the 

Rev. E. P. Knubley. 

Chairman. — Professor M. Foster. 

Secretary. — Professor F. 0. Bower. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyer, Dr. Trimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Mr. Carruthers, Professor Har- 
tog, and Mr. W. Gardiner. 

Chairman. — Mr. Thomas Henry Thomas. 
Secretary.— T)T. C. T. Vachell. 
Professors W. N. Parker, Newton, and 

Leipner, Mr. Poulton, and Canon 

Tristram. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Dr. Crosskey, Mr. George 
Gladstone, Mr. J. Heywood, Sir J. 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Professor 
N. Story Maskelyne, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Sir R. Temple, and Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson. 

e 2 



Ixxxiv 



KEPOKX — 1891. 
2. Not Teceiving Grants of Mmeiz—contiimed. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Intermarriage between widely dis- 
similar Peoples inhabiting the same 
Country. 

The Prehistoric and Ancient Remains 
of Glamorganshire. 


Chairman.— Froiessor F. Max Miiller. 
Secretary.— Mr. H. Ling Roth. 
Dr. E. B. Tylor. 

Chairman. — Lord Aberdare. 

Secretary.— Ml. E. Seward. 

Lord Bute, Messrs. G. T. Clark, R. W. 
Atkinson, Franklen G. Evans, C. Tan- 
field Vachell, James Bell, and T. H. 
Thomas, and Dr. Garson. 



Other Resolutions adopted hy the General Gomimttee. 

That Mr. W. N. Shaw be requested to continue his Report on the present state of 
our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry, 

That the Report on Thermodynamics presented by Dr. J. Larmor and Mr. G. H. 
Brypii be printed among the Reports. 

That Dr. J. Larmor and Mr. G. H. Bryan be requested to continue their Report 
on the present state of our knowledge in Thermodynamics, specially with regard to 
the Second Law. 

That Professor H. A. Newton's paper on ' The Action of a Planet upon Small 
Bodies passing near the Planet, with special reference to the Action of Jupiter upon 
such Bodies,' be printed in extenso in the Report of the Association. 

That the Report presented by the Committee appointed to arrange for the occupa- 
tion of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples be printed in full in the Reports. 

That the arrangements for Sectional Meetings adopted at the present Annual 
Meeting be continued next year at Edinburgh. 



Besolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 
if desirable. 

A Resolution relating to the Times of Meeting of the General Committee and the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

Resolutions referring to the Ordnance Survey, viz. : 

(1) That the publication of the one-inch and six-inch Ordnance Survey Maps is, 
in the interests of Science, urgently required at the earliest possible date, no less 
than in the interests of Industry, Manufacture, and Technical Education. 

(2) That steps be taken and provision made for keeping the Ordnance Maps up 
to date. 

(3) That the Maps should be made more accessible to the public, and should be 
sold at a lower price, as is the case in nearly aU other official publications, such as 
Admiralty Charts, Blue Books, &.c. 

That the following papers be printed in full : ' Recent Progress in Indian Agricul- 
ture,' by C. L. Tupper; ' Recent Progress in Indian Railways,' by W. C. Furnivall. 



Ixxxv 



k 



4 


6 













































' ■Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pur- 
poses by the General Committee at the Cardiff Meeting, in 
August 1891. The Names of the Members entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
*roster, Professor Carey. — Electrical Standards (partly re- 
newed) 27 

*McLaren, Lord. — Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 50 

Symons, Mr. G. J. — Photographs of Meteorological Phenomena 15 

*Cayley, Professor. — Pellian Equation Tables (partly I'ene wed) 15 

*B/ayleigb, Lord — Tables of Mathematical Functions 15 

*Fitzgerald, Professor. — Electrolysis 5 

*Lodge, Professor 0. J. — Discharge of Electricity from Points 50 

♦Thomson, Sir W. — Seismological Phenomena of Japan 10 

Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

*iloberts-Austen, Professor. — Analysis of Iron and Steel (re- 
newed) 8 16 

Armstrong, Professor H. B. — Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials (partly renewed) 25 5 

*Tilden, Professor W. A. — Properties of Solutions 10 

*Thorpe, Professor — Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 

(partly renewed) 10 

Geology. 

*Prestwich, Professor. — Erratic Blocks (partly renewed) ... 15 

*Wiltshire, Rev. T.— Fossil Phyllopoda (renewed) 10 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 20 
*Woodward, Dr. H. — Registration of Type Specimens of 

British Fossils (renewed) 5 

*Hull, Professor E. — Underground Waters 10 

*Davis, Mr. J. W.— Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Jones, Professor T. R. — Faunal contents of Sowerbyi Zone ... 10 

*Evans, Dr. J.— Excavations at Oldbury Hill 25 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Carried forward J371 5 6 

* Reappointed. 



IxXXVi REPORT — 1891. 

£ 8. d. 
Brought forward 371 5 6' 

Biology. 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L.— Table at the Naples Zoological Station 100 
*Lankester, Professor E. R. — Table at Plymouth Biological 

Laboratory (renewed) 17 10 

*Haddon, Professor A. C. — Improving a Deep sea Tow-net 

(partly renewed) 40 0- 

*Newton, Professor — Fauna of Sandwich Islands (renewed) 100 
*Sclater, Dr. P. L. — Zoology and Botany of the West India 

Islands (renewed) 100 

Geography. 

Ravenstein, Mr. E. G. — Climatology and Hydrography of 

Tropical Africa 75 0' 

Anthropology. 

*Flower, Professor. — Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

*Garson, Dr. J. G. — Prehistoric Remains in Mashonaland ... 50 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North- Western Tribes of Canada 100 

*Turner, Sir W. — Habits, Customs, &c., of Natives of India 

(renewed) 10 

*Flower, Professor. — New Edition of Anthropological Notes 

and Queries 20 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Corresponding Societies Committee ... 26 

£1,013 15 6 

* Keappoiuted. 



The Annual Meeting in 1892. 
The Meeting at Edinburgh will commence on Wednesday, August 3; 

Place of Meeting in 1893. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Nottingham. 



Ixxxvii 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Kain-gauges 9 13 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 

1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Kivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 

£932 2 2 

1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



£ s. d. 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 7 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue ...166 16 6 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 

£1546 16 4 



1841. 



Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 



Ixxxviii 



KEPOET 1891. 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Caeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water onlron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Eeptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Kail way Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations ...!.. 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1285 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura BritanniEe 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 16 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Eevision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 



£ s. d. 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Brit- 
ish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 6 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxix 



£ s. d. 
1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

•Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections ]5 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Eegistering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Eadiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Bed Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Mat erials 1 00 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

iPablication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Seduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Electrical Experiments at 








Kew Observatory 


43 


17 


8 


Maintaining the Establish- 








ment at Kew Observatory 


149 


15 





For Kreil's Barometrograph 


25 








Gases from Iron Furnaces... 


50 








The Actinograph 


15 








Microscopic Structure of 








Shells 


20 








Exotic Anoplura 1843 


10 








Vitality of Seeds 1843 


2 





7 


Vitality of Seeds 1844 


7 








Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 


10 








Physiological Action of Medi- 










20 








Statistics of Sickness and 




Mortality in York 


20 








Earthquake Shocks 1843 


15 


14 


8 


£831 


9 


9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 















16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 


6 


3 









1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 
£208 5 4 



zc 



REPOKT 1891. 



£ s. d. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8" 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations ■ 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18~0 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9^7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850).. 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304~6~7 



£ «. d, 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 0' 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 0" 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 O' 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 0- 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 a 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 Q 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480T6~4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 0' 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 0' 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XClr 



£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 1 5 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Eartliquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 6 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam -vessels 'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 

1860. ~^~~~~ 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew^ Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 0- 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 0' 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

ResearchesontheConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



£1111 




0- 







72 











0- 



0' 



0- 





5 la' 



5 la 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 0- 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 0- 

Rocks of Donegal 25 0- 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 0- 

Connection of Storms 20 0^ 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 



xcu 



REPORT — 1891. 



£ s. d. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

•Gauging ofWater 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Kocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 




































































3 10 

















































































3 


10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 15 g 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 



£ g. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

L-isii Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£l591~7^r6 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 60 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 60 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 29 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee .. 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methj'l series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenlaad Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws .30 

ij& £173^ 4 

^ 1868. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercuryand Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ 

Secondary Reptiles, &;c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivitj' of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel jManufacture 100 

Methj'l Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

E arthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622" 

1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 60 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 



». d. 
0' 





a- 



















































0' 





0- 











0- 







0- 



0' 





0' 







0' 



XCIV 



EEPORT — 1891. 



£ ». d. 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

"Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

■Onny Kiver (Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 5 

£1572 



J871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
.Monthly Keports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Eainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

"Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 Q 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 0" 



£ s. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

, Chemistry Record 200 

! Tidal Committee 400 

i Sewage Committee 100 

j Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

1 Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Eain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£r685 

1874. 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Chemistry Eecord 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Eocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Eainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's PjTometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 l6~0 

1875. 

Elliptic Fimctions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Eecord 100 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCV 



£ g. d. 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

JSpecific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Report on 20 



4 2 



15 























10 











15 







4 2 















11 


7 























0' 















£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less - known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£726 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



XCVl 



KEPOET 1891. 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 
New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

CTnderground Temperature ... 10 
Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 

Heat 8 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 









17 7 







£ 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Undergiound Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 












3 1 



1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms ,... 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 0' 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax ...... 15 (> 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Tertiarv Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British I'olyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Eaygill Fis- 

siure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... SO 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Kitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Kecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

:eil2C 1 11 



1883. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives : 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 60 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palteo- 

zoic Eocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Eecord 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation oE Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural Historj- of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



£ s. d. 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow ' 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra- Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 

1891, 



Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks oC England ... 10 
Fossil Phylloi^oda of Palaso- 

zoic Eocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata .'iO 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Eecord 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 



1885. 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Eeduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Eaj'gill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Eocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Eecord 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Eecord. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Eecent Polyzoa 10 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 






























































































4 


















































































































































XCVIU 



RErORT — 1891. 



£ s. d. 
]8S6. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 (i 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Jleteoroloffical Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... £0 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius no 

Geological Eecord 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleozoic 

Rocks 15 

Zoological Literature Eecord . 100 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Naples Zoological Station CO 

Eesearches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrataat St. Andrews 75 

Migration of Birds i>0 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exjiloration of New Guinea... 150 

Regulation of AVagcs under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North -Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£'9 95 6 

18S7. * 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Pen Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) ^ 20 

Standards of Light (18S7 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 2fi 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Exploration of Cae Gwyn 

Cave, North Wales 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax .^5 



£ 
Microscopic Structure of the 

Eocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight. . . 20 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

' JIanure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museum Eeports 5 
Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Statiun 50 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of tlie 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds iiO 

Bath.y-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 

Eegulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Eace of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 

1888. 

Ben Nevis Observatory ■ 150 

Electrical Standards 2 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 

Electrolysis iiO 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Intiuence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Eecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford ... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Pateontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

JIarine Laboratorj-, Plymouth 100 

IMigi-ation of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 



s. d, 



























6 







IS 





6 4 



2 :{ 





11 10 




































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 



£ s. d. 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

I,yiiiphatic Sj-stem 25 

IMological Station at Granton SO 
I'craileniya Botanical Sta- 
tion no 

Development of Teleostei ... \~> 

Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circula- 
tion 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 

Eft'ect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Preliistoric Eace in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Observations on SurfaceWater 

Temperature .30 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try ■:.. 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record .80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paheo- 

zoic Rocks '. 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

AVcst Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 

Natural History of Friendly 
Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries bj^ means of 
Working Models 100 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 150 

Characteristics of Nomad 

Tribes of Asia Minor 80 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

Bath ' Baths Committee ' for 
further Researches 100 

£1417 11 



£ s. d. 
1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Calculating Mathematical 

Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and 
Steel 10 

Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 
Oxygen 5 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Recording Results of Water 
Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 (> 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Pa- 

lieozoic Rocks 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 O 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Botanical Station at Perade- 

niya 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 G 

^99T6~8 

1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 60 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Variations of Temperature in 

Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 (> 



EEPOET — 1891. 



£ S. d. 

International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and 
Steel ". 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dj'es 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 



£ s. d. 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya.... 50 

Experiments with a Tow-Net 40 

Jlarine Biological Association 
at Plymouth 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 
Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10 



General Meetingis. 

On Wednesday, August 19, at 8 p.m., in the Park Hall, Sir 
Frederick Abel, C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., V.P.C.S., resigned the 
office of President to Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., 
who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page 1. 

On Thursday, August 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Park Hall. 

On Friday, August 21, at 8.30 p.m., in the Park Hall, Professor L. C. 
Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S., delivered a discourse on ' Some difficulties in the 
life of Aquatic Insects.' 

On Monday, August 24, at 8.30 p.m., in the Park Hall, Professor A. 
W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Electrical Stress.' 

On Tuesday, August 25, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Park 
Hall. 

On Wednesday, August 26, at 2.30 p.m., in the Dumfries Proprietary 
School, the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings 
of the General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Edinburgh. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, August 3, 1892.] 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1891. 



ADDRESS 



WILLIAM HUGGINS, ESQ. 

D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Cantab., Edin., et Dubl.), Ph.D. (Lugd. Bat.), 

r.R.S., F.R.A.S., Hon. F.R.S.E., &c., Correspondant 

de rinstitnt de France, 

PRESIDENT. 



It is now many years since this Association has done honour to the 
science of Astronomy in the selection of its President. 

Since Sir George Airy occupied the chair in 1851, and the late Lord 
Wrottesley nine years later in 1860, other sciences have been represented 
by the distinguished men who have presided over your meetings. 

The very remarkable discoveries in our knowledge of the heavens 
which have taken place during this period of thirty years — one of amazing 
and ever-increasing activity in all branches of science — have not passed 
unnoticed in the addresses of your successive Presidents ; still it seems to 
me fitting that I should speak to you to-night chiefly of those newer 
methods of astronomical research which have led to those discoveries,'and 
which have become possible by the introduction since 1860 into j^ the 
observatory of the spectroscope and the modern photographic plate. 

In 1866 I had the honour of bringing before this Association, at one 
of the evening lectures, an account of the first-fruits of the novel and 
unexpected advances in our knowledge of the celestial bodies which fol- 
lowed rapidly upon Kirchhofi"s original work on the solar spectrum and 
the interpretation of its lines. 

Since that time a great harvest has been gathered in the same field 
by many reapers. Spectroscopic astronomy has become a distinct and 
acknowledged branch of the science, possessing a large literatiire of its 
own and observatories specially devoted to it. The more recent discovery 
of the gelatine dry plate has given a further great impetus to this modem 
side of astronomy, and has opened a pathway into the unknown of which 
even an enthusiast thirty years ago would scarcely have dared to dream. 

B 2 



4 EEPOET — 1891. 

In no science, perhaps, does the sober statement of the results which 
have been achieved appeal so strongly to the imagination, and make so 
evident the almost boundless powers of the mind of man. By means of 
its light alone to analyse the chemical nature of a far distant body ; to be 
able to reason about its present state in relation to the past and future ; 
to measure within an English mile or less per second the otherwise in- 
visible motion which it may have towards or from us ; to do more, to 
make even that which is darkness to our eyes light, and from vibrations 
which our organs of sight are powerless to perceive to evolve a revelation 
in which we see mirrored some of the stages through which the stars 
may pass in their slow evolutional progress — surely the record of such 
achievements, however poor the form of words in which they may be 
described, is worthy to be regarded as the scientific epic of the present 
centni'y. 

I do not purpose to attempt a survey of the progress of spectroscopic 
astronomy from its birth at Heidelberg in 1859, but to point out what we 
do know at present, as distinguished from wiiat we do not know, of a few 
only of its more important problems, giving a prominent place, in 
accordance with the traditions of this chair, to the work of the last 
year or two. 

In the spectroscope itself advances have been made by Lord Rayleigh 
by his discussion of the theory of the instrument, and by Professor Row- 
land in the constrnction of concave gratings. 

Lord Rayleigh has shown that there is not the necessary connection, 
sometimes supposed, between dispersion and resolving power, as besides 
the prism or grating other details of construction and of adjustment of a 
spectroscope must be taken into account. 

The resolving power of the prismatic spectroscope is proportional to 
the length of path in the dispersive medium. For the heavy flint glass used 
in Lord Rayleigh's experiments the thickness necessary to resolve the 
sodium lines came out 102 cm. If this be taken as a unit, the resolving 
power of a prism of similar glass will be in the neighbourhood of the sodium 
lines equal to the number of centimetres of its thickness. In other parts 
of the spectrum the resolving power Avill vary inversely as the third 
power of the wave-length, so that it will be eight times as great in the 
violet as in the red. The resolving power of a spectroscope is therefore 
proportional to the total thickness of the dispersive material in use, 
irrespective of the number, the angles, or the setting of the separate 
prisms into which, for the sake of convenience, it may be distributed. 

The resolving power of a grating depends upon the total number of 
lines on its surface, and the order of spectrum in use ; about 1,000 lines 
being necessary to resolve the sodium lines in the first spectrum. 

is it is often of importance in the record of observations to state the 
efficiency of the spectroscope with which chey were made, Professor 



ADDRESS. O 

Schuster has proposed the use of a unit of purity as well as of resolving 
power, for the full resolving power of a spectroscope is realised in practice 
only when a sufficiently narrow slit is used. The unit of purity also is 
to stand for the separation of two lines differing by one-thousandth of their 
own wave-length ; about the separation of the sodium pair at D. 

A farther limitation may come in from the physiological fact that, as 
Lord Rayleigh has pointed out, the eye when its full aperture is used is 
not a perfect instrument. If we wish to realise the full resolving power 
of a spectroscope, therefore, the emergent beam must not be larger than 
about one-third of the opening of the pupil. 

Up to the present time the standard of reference for nearly all spec- 
troscopic work continues to be Angstrom's map of the solar spectrum, 
and his scale based upon his original determinations of absolute wave- 
length. It is well known, as was pointed out by Thalen in his work on 
the spectrum of iron in 1884, that Angstrom's figures are slightly too 
small, in consequence of an error existing in a standard metre used by 
him. The corrections for this have been introduced into the tables of 
the wave-lengths of terrestrial spectra collected and revised by a Com- 
mittee of this Association from 1885 to 1887. Last year the Committee 
added a table of corrections to Rowland's scale. 

The inconvenience caused by a change of standard scale is, for a time 
at least, considerable ; but there is little doubt that in the near future 
Rowland's photographic map of the solar spectrum, and his scale based 
on the determinations of absolute wave-length by Piei'ce and Bell, or 
the Potsdam scale based on original determinations by Miiller and 
Kempf, which differs very slightly from it, will come to be exclusively 
adopted. 

The gi-eat accuracy of Rowland's photographic map is due chiefly to 
the introduction by him of concave gratings, and of a method for their 
use, by which the problem of the determination of relative wave-lengths 
is simplified to measures of near coincidences of the lines in different 
spectra by a micrometer. 

The concave grating and its peculiar mounting, in which no lenses or 
telescope are needed, and in which all the spectra are in focus togethw, 
formed a new departure of great importance in the measurement of 
spectral lines. The valuable method of photographic sensitizers for 
different parts of the spectrum has enabled Professor Rowland to include 
in his map the whole visible solar spectrum, as well as the ultra-violet 
portion as far as it can get through our atmosphere. Some recent photo- 
graphs of the solar spectrum, which include A, by Mr. George Higgs, 
are of great technical beauty. 

During the past year the results of three independent researches have 
appeared, in which the special object of the observers has been to distin- 
guish the lines which are due to our atmosphere from those which are 
truly solar — the maps of M. ThoUon, which, owing to his lamented death 



6 REPORT — 1891. 

just before their final completion, have assumed the character of a memo- 
rial of him ; maps by Dr. Becker ; and sets of photographs of a high and 
a low sun by Mr. McClean. 

At the meeting of this Association in Bath, M. Janssen gave an 
account of his own researches on the terrestrial lines of the solar spec- 
trum, which owe their origin to the oxygen of our atmosphere. He 
discovered the remarkable fact that while the intensity of one class of 
bands varies as the density of the gas, other diffuse bands vary as the 
square of the density. These observations are in accordance with the 
work of Bgoroff and of Olszewski, and of Liveing and Dewar on condensed 
oxygen. In some recent experiments Olszewski, with a layer of liquid 
oxygen thirty millimetres thick, saw, as well as four other bands, the 
band coincident with Fraunhofer's A ; a remarkable instance of the 
persistence of absorption through a great range of temperature. The 
light which passed through the liquid oxygen had a light blue colour 
resembling that of the sky. 

Of not less interest are the experiments of Knut Angstrom, which 
show that the carbonic acid and aqueous vapour of the atmosphere reveal 
their presence by dark bands in the invisible infra-red region, at the 
positions of bands of emission of these substances. 

It is now some thirty years since the spectroscope gave us for the 
first time certain knowledge of the nature of the heavenly bodies, and 
revealed the fundamental fact that terrestrial matter is not peculiar to 
the solar system, but is common to all the stars which are visible 
to us. 

In the case of a star such as Capella, which has a spectrum almost 
identical with that of the sun, we feel justified in concluding that the 
matter of which it is built up is similar, and that its temperature is also 
high, and not very different from the solar temperature. The task of 
analysing the stars and nebula becomes, however, one of very great diffi- 
culty when we have to do with spectra differing from the solar type. 
We are thrown back upon the laboratory for the information necessary 
to enable us to interpret the indications of the spectroscope as to the 
chemical nature, the density and pressure, and the temperature of the 
celestial masses. 

What the spectroscope immediately reveals to us are the waves which 
were set up in the ether filling all interstellar space, years or hundreds 
of years ago, by the motions of the molecules of the celestial substances. 
As a rule it is only when a body is gaseous and sufficiently hot that the 
motions within its molecules can produce bright lines and a corresponding 
absorption. The spectra of the heavenly bodies are indeed to a great 
extent absorption spectra, but we have usually to study them through 
the corresponding emission spectra of bodies brought into the gaseous 
form and rendered luminous by means of flames or of electric dis- 



ADDRESS. 



charges. In both cases, unfortunately, as has been shown recently by 
Professors Liveing and Dewar, Wiillner, E. Wiedemann, and others, 
there appears to be no certain direct relation between the luminous 
radiation as shown in the spectroscope and the temperature of the 
flame, or of the gaseous contents of the vacuum tube, that is, in the 
usual sense of the term as applied to the mean motion of all the 
molecules. In both cases, the vibratory motions within the molecules 
to which their luminosity is due are almost always much greater than 
would be produced by encounters of molecules having motions of transla- 
tion no greater than the average motions which characterise the tempera, 
ture of the gases as a whole. The temperature of a vacuum tube through 
which an electric discharge is taking place may be low, as shown thermo- 
metrically, quite apart from the consideration of the extreme smallness 
of the mass of gas, but the vibrations of the luminous molecules must be 
violent in whatever way we suppose them to be set up by the discharge ; 
if we take Schuster's view that comparatively few molecules are carrying 
the discharge, and that it is to the fierce encounters of these alone that 
the luminosity is due, then if all the molecules had similar motions, the 
temperature of the gas would be very high. 

So in flames where chemical changes are in progress, the vibratory 
motions of the molecules which are luminous may be, in connection with 
the energy set free in these changes, very different from those correspond- 
ing to the mean temperature of the flame. 

Under the ordinary conditions of terrestrial experiments, therefore, 
the temperature or the mean vis viva of the molecules may have no direct 
relation to the total radiation, which, on the other hand, is the aum of the 
radiation due to each luminous molecule. 

These phenomena have recently been discussed by Ebert from the 
standpoint of the electro-magnetic theory of light. 

Very great caution is therefore called for when we attempt to reason 
by the aid of laboratory experiments to the temperature of the heavenly 
bodies from their radiation, especially on the reasonable assumption that 
in them the luminosity is not ordinarily associated with chemical changes 
or with electrical discharges, but is due to a simple glowing from the 
ultimate conversion into molecular motion of the gravitational energy of 
shrinkage. 

In a recent paper Stas maintains that electric spectra are to be re- 
garded as distinct from flame spectra, and, from researches of his own, 
that the pairs of lines of the sodium spectrum other than D are produced 
only by disruptive electric discharges. As these pairs of lines are found 
reversed in the solar spectrum, he concludes that the sun's radiation is 
due mainly to electric discharges. But "Wolf and Diacon, and later, "Watts, 
observed the other pairs of lines of the sodium spectrum when the vapour 
was raised above the ordinary temperature of the Bunsen flame. Recently, 
Liveing and Dewar saw easily, besides D the citron and green pairs and 



8 EEPOKT 1891. 

sometimes the blue pair and the orange pair, when hydrogen charged 
with sodium vapour was burning at different pressures in oxygen. In 
the case of sodium vapour, therefore, and presumably in all other vapours 
and gases, it is a matter of indifference whether the necessary vibratory 
motion of the molecules is produced by electric discharges or by flames. 
The presence of lines in the solar spectrum which we can only produce 
electrically is an indication, however, as Stas points out, of the high 
temperature of the sun. 

We must not forget that the light from the heavenly bodies may 
consist of the combined radiations of different layers of gas at different 
temperatures, and possibly be further complicated to an unknown extent 
by the absorption of cooler portions of gas outside. 

Not less caution is needed if we endeavour to argue from the 
broadening of lines and the coming in of a continuous spectrum as 
to the relative pressure of the gas in the celestial atmospheres. On 
the one hand, it cannot be gainsaid that in the laboratory the widening 
of the lines in a Pliicker's tube follows upon increasing the density of the 
residue of hydrogen in the tube, when the vibrations are more frequently 
disturbed by fresh encounters ; and that a broadening of the sodium lines 
in a flame at ordinary pressure is produced by an increase of the quantity 
of sodium in the flame ; but it is doubtful if pressure, as distinguished 
from quantity, does produce an increase of the breadth of the lines. An 
individual molecule of sodium will be sensibly in the same condition, 
considering the relatively enormous number of the molecules of the other 
gases, whether the flame is scantily or copiously fed with the sodium salt. 
With a small quantity of sodium vapour the intensity will be feeble 
except near the maximum of the lines ; when, however, the quantity is 
increased the comparative transparency on the sides of the maximum 
will allow the light from the additional molecules met with in the path 
of the visual ray to strengthen the radiation of the molecules farther 
back, and so increase the breadth of the lines. 

In a gaseous mixture it is found, as a rule, that at the same pressure 
or temperature, as the encounters with similar molecules become fewer, 
the spectral lines will be affected as if the body were observed under 
conditions of reduced quantity or temperature. 

In their recent investigation of the spectroscopic behaviour of flames 
under various pressures up to forty atmospheres, Professors Liveing and 
Dewar have come to the conclusion that though the prominent feature of 
the Kght emitted by flames at high pressure appears to be a strong con- 
tinuous spectrum, there is not the slightest indication that this continu- 
ous spectrum is produced by the broadening of the lines of the same 
gases at low pressure. On the contrary, photometric observations of the 
brightness of the continuous spectrum, as the pressure is varied, show 
that it is mainly produced by the mutual action of the molecules of a gas. 
Experiments on the sodium spectrum were carried up to a pressure of 



ADDEESS. 9 

forty atmosplieres without prodacing any definite effect on the width of 
the lines which could be ascribed to the pressure. In a similar way the 
lines of the spectrum of water showed no signs of expansion up to twelve 
atmospheres ; though more intense than at ordinary pressure, they 
remained narrow and clearly defined. 

It follows, therefore, that a continuous spectrum cannot be considered, 
when taken alone, as a sure indication of matter in the liquid or the solid 
state. Not only, as in the experiments already mentioned, such a. 
spectrum may be due to gas when under pressure, but, as Maxwell 
pointed out, if the thickness of a medium, such as sodium vapour, which 
radiates and absorbs different kinds of light, be very great, and the 
temperature high, the light emitted will be of exactly the same composi- 
tion as that emitted by lamp-black at the same temperature, for the- 
radiations which are feebly emitted will be also feebly absorbed, and can 
reach the surface from immense depths. Schuster has shown that 
oxygen, even in a partially exhausted tube, can give a continuous spec- 
trum when excited by a feeble electric discharge. 

Compound bodies are usually distinguished by a banded spectrum ;. 
but on the other hand such a spectrum does not necessarily show the 
presence of compounds, that is, of molecules containing different kinds 
of atoms, but simply of a more complex molecule, which may be mad& 
up of similar atoms, and be therefore an allotropic condition of the same 
body. In some cases, for example, in the diffuse bands of the absorption 
spectrum of oxygen, the bands may have an intensity proportional to the 
square of the density of the gas, and may be due either to the formation, 
of more complex molecules of the gas with inci'ease of pressure, or it may 
be to the constraint to which the molecules are subject daring their 
encounters with one another. 

It may be thought that at least in the coincidences of bright lines we 
are on the solid ground of certainty, since the length of the waves set up. 
in the ether by a molecule, say of hydrogen, is the most fixed and abso- 
lutely permanent quantity in nature, and is so of physical necessity, for 
with any alteration the molecule would cease to be hydrogen. 

Such would be the case if the coincidence were certain ; but an 
absolute coincidence can be only a matter of greater or less probability,, 
depending on the resolving power employed, on the number of the lines 
which correspond and on their characters. When the coincidences are 
very numerous, as in the case of iron and the solar spectrum, or the lines- 
are characteristically grouped, as in the case of hydrogen and the solar 
spectrum, we may regard the coincidence as certain ; but the progress of 
science has been greatly retarded by resting important conclusions upon 
the apparent coincidence of single lines, in spectroscopes of very small 
resolving power. In such cases, unless other reasons supporting the 
coincidence are present, the probability of a real coincidence is almost 
too small to be of any importance, especially in the case of a heavenly- 



10 REPORT 1891. 

body which may have a motion of approach or of recession of unknown 
amount. 

But even here we are met by the confusion introduced by multiple 
spectra, corresponding to different molecular groupings of the same 
substance ; and, further, to the influence of substances in vapour upon 
each other ; for when several gases are present together, the phenomena 
■of radiation and reversal by absorption are by no means the same as if 
the gases were free from each other's influence, and especially is this the 
<;ase when they are illuminated by an electric discharge. 

I have said as much as time will permit, and I think indeed sufl&cient, 
to show that it is only by the laborious and slow process of most 
cautious observation that the foundations of the science of celestial 
physics can be surely laid. We are at present in a time of transition 
when the earlier, and, in the nature of things, less precise observations 
are giving place to work of an order of accuracy much greater than was 
formerly considered attainable with objects of such small brightness as 
the stars. 

The accuracy of the earlier determinations of the spectra of the 
terrestrial elements is in most cases insufficient for modern work on the 
stars as well as on the sun. They fall much below the scale adopted in 
Rowland's map of the sun, as well as below the degree of accuracy attained 
at Potsdam by photograpliy in a part of the spectrum for the brighter stars. 
Increase of resolving power very frequently breaks up into groups, in the 
spectra of the sun and stars, the lines which had been regarded as single, 
and their supposed coincidences with terrestrial lines fall to the ground. 
For this reason many of the early conclusions, based on observations as 
good as it was possible to make at the time with the less powerful spec- 
troscopes then in use, may not be found to be maintained under the 
much greater resolving power of modern instruments. 

The spectroscope has failed as yet to interpret for us the remarkable 
spectrum of the Aurora Borealis. Undoubtedly in this phenomenon 
portions of our atmosphere are lighted up by electric discharges ; we 
should expect, therefore, to recognise the spectra of the gases known to 
be present in it. As yet we have not been able to obtain similar spectra 
from these gases artificially, and especially we do not know the origin of 
the principal line in the green, which often appears alone, and may have 
therefore an origin independent of that of the other lines. Recently the 
suggestion has been made that the Aurora is a phenomenon produced by 
the dust of meteors and falling stars, and that near positions of certain 
auroral lines to lines or flutings of manganese, lead, barium, thallium, iron, 
.&c., are sufficient to justify us in regarding meteoric dust in the atmosphere 
as the origin of the auroral spectrum. Liveing and Dewar have made a 
•conclusive research on this point, by availing themselves of the dust of 
excessive minuteness thrown off' from the surface of electrodes of various 



ADDRESS. 



11 



metals and meteorites by a disruptive discharge, and carried forward into 
the tube of observation by a more or less rapid current of air or other gas. 
These experiments prove that metallic dast, however fine, suspended in a 
gas will not act like gaseous matter in becoming luminous with its cha- 
racteristic spectrum in an electric discharge, similar to that of the Aurora. 
Professor Schuster has suggested that the principal Hue may be due to 
some very light gas which is present in too small a pi-oportion to be 
detected by chemical analysis or even by the spectroscope in the presence 
of the other gases near the earth, but which at the height of the auroral 
discharges is in a sufficiently greater relative proportion to give a spectrum. 
Lemstrom, indeed, states that he saw this line in the silent discharge of 
•a Holtz machine on a mountain in Lapland. The lines may not have 
been obtained in our laboratories from the atmospheric gases, on account 
of the difficulty of reproducing in tubes with sufficient nearness the 
conditions under which the auroral discharges take place. 

In the spectra of comets the spectroscope has shown the presence of 
•carbon presumably in combination with hydrogen, and also sometimes 
with nitrogen ; and in the case of comets approaching very near the sun, 
the lines of sodium, and other lines which have been supposed to belong 
+0 iron. Though the researches of Professor H. A. Newton and of 
Professor Schiaparelli leave no doubt of the close connection of comets 
-with corresponding periodic meteor swarms, and therefore of the probable 
identity of cometary matter with that of meteorites, with which the 
spectroscopic evidence agrees, it would be perhaps unwise at present to 
attempt to define too precisely the exact condition of the matter which 
forms the nucleus of the comet. In any case the part of the light of 
the comet which is not reflected solar light can scarcely be attributed 
to a high temperature produced by the clashing of separate meteoric 
stones set up within the nucleus by the sun's disturbing force. We must 
look rather to disruptive electric discharges produced probably by pro- 
cesses of evaporation due to increased solar heat, which would be amply 
sufficient to set free portions of the occluded gases into the vacuum of 
space. May it be that these discharges are assisted, and indeed possibly 
increased, by the recently discovered action of the ultra-violet part of the 
«un's light ? Hertz has shown that ultra-violet light can produce a dis- 
charge from a negatively electrified piece of metal, while Hallwachs and 
Righi have shown further that ultra-violet light can even charge posi- 
tively an unelectrified piece of metal ; phenomena which Lenard and 
Wolf associate with the disengagement from the metallic surfaces of very 
minute particles. Similar actions on cometary matter, unscreened as it is 
by an absorptive atmosphere, at least of any noticeable extent, may well 
be powerful when a comet approaches the sun, and help to explain an 
electrified condition of the evaporated matter which would possibly bring 
it under the sun's repulsive action. We shall have to return to this 
point in speaking of the solar corona. 



12 REPORT — 1891. 

A very great advance lias been made in our knowledge of the consti- 
tution of the sun by the recent work at the Johns Hoi^kins University 
by means of photography and concave gratings, in comparing the solar 
spectrum, under great resolving power, directly with the spectra of 
the terrestrial elements. Professor Rowland has shown that the lines 
of thirty-six terrestrial elements at least are certainly present in the solai- 
spectrum, while eight others are doubtful. Fifteen elements, including 
nitrogen as it shows itself under an electric discharge in a vacuum tube, 
have not been found in the solar spectrum. Some ten other elements, 
inclusive of oxygen, have not yet been compared with the sun's spectrum. 

Rowland remai'ks that of the fifteen elements named as not found in 
the sun, many are so classed because they have few strong lines, or none 
at all, in the limit of the solar spectrum as compared by him with the arc. 
Boron has only two strong lines. The lines of bismuth are compound 
and too diffuse. Therefore even in the case of these fifteen elements 
there is little evidence that they are really absent from the sun. 

It follows that if the whole earth were heated to the temperature of 
the sun, its spectrum would resemble very closely the solar spectrum. 

Rowland has not found any lines common to several elements, and in 
the case of some accidental coincidences, more accurate investigation 
reveals some slight difference of wave-length or a common impurity. 
Further, the relative strength of the lines in the solar spectrum is gene- 
rally, with a few exceptions, the same as that in the electric arc, so that 
Rowland considers that his experiments show ' very little evidence ' of 
the breaking up of the terrestrial elements in the sun. 

Stas in a recent paper gives the final results of eleven years of research 
on the chemical elements in a state of purity, and on the possibility of 
decomposing them by the physical and chemical forces at our disposal. 
His experiments on calcium, strontium, lithium, magnesium, silver, sodium 
and thallium, show that these substances retain their individuality uiider 
all conditions, and are unalterable by any forces that we can bring to bear 
upon them. 

Professor Rowland looks to the solar lines which are unaccounted 
for as a means of enabling him to discover such new terrestrial ele- 
ments as still lurk in rare minerals and earths, by confronting their 
spectra directly with that of the sun. He has already resolved yttrium 
spectroscopically into three components, and actually into two. The 
comparison of the results of this independent analytical method with the 
remarkable but different conclusions to which M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran 
and Mr: Crookes have been led respectively, from spectroscopic observa- 
tion of these bodies when glowing under molecular bombardment in a 
Tacuum tube, will be awaited with much interest. It is worthy of remark 
that as our knowledge of the spectrum of hydrogen in its complete form 
came to us from the stars, it is now from the sun that chemistry is pro- 
bably i\\)< wt to be enriched by the discovery of new element?. 



ADDRESS. 13 

In a discussion in the Bakerian lecture for 1885 of what we knew up 
to that time of the sun's corona, I was led to the conclusion that the 
corona is essentially a phenomenon similar in the cause of its formation 
to the tails of comets, namely, that it consists for the most part probably 
of matter going from the sun under the action of a force, possibly electrical, 
which varies as the surface, and can therefore in the case of highly 
attenuated matter easily master the force of gravity even near the snn. 
Though many of the coronal particles may return to the sun, those which 
form the long rays or streamers do not return ; they separate and soon 
become too diffused to be any longer visible, and may well go to furnish 
the matter of the zodiacal light, which otherwise has not received a satis- 
factoiy explanation. And further, if such a force exist at the sun, the 
changes of terrestrial magnetism may be due to direct electric action, 
as the earth moves through lines of inductive force. 

These conclusions appear to be in accordance broadly with the lines 
along which thought has been directed by the results of subsequent 
eclipses. Professor Schuster takes an essentially similar view, and 
suggests that there may be a direct electric connection between the sun 
and the planets. He asks further whether the sun may not act like a 
magnet in consequence of its revolution about its axis. Professor Bigelow 
has recently treated the coronal forms by the theory of spherical har- 
monics, on the supposition that we see phenomena similar to those of free 
electricity, the rays being lines of force, and the coronal matter discharged 
from the sun, or at least arranged or controlled by these forces. At the 
extremities of the streams for some reasons the repulsive power may be 
lost, and gravitation set in, bringing the matter back to the sun. The 
matter which does leave the sun is persistently transported to the equa- 
torial plane of the corona ; in fact, the zodiacal light may be the accumu- 
lation at great distances from the sun along this equator of such like 
material. Photographs on a larger scale will be desirable for the full 
development of the conclusions which may follow from this study of the 
curved forms of the coronal structure. Professor Schaeberle, however, 
considers that the coronal phenomena may be satisfactorily accounted for 
on the supposition that the coi'ona is formed of streams of matter ejected 
mainly from the spot zones with great initial velocities, but smaller than 
382 miles a second. Further that the different types of the corona are 
due to the effects of perspective on the streams from the earth's place at 
the time relatively to the plane of the solar equator. 

Of the physical and the chemical nature of the coronal matter we know 
very little. Schuster concludes, from an examination of the eclipses of 
1882, 1883, and 1886, that the continuous spectrum of the corona has the 
maximum of actinic intensity displaced considerably towards the red when 
compared with the spectrum of the sun, which shows that it can only be 
due in small part to solar light scattered by small particles. The lines of 
calcium and of hydrogen do not appear to form part of the normal spectrum 



14 KEPORT 1891. 

of the corona. The green coronal line has no known representative in 
terrestrial substances, nor has Schuster been able to recognise any of our 
elements in the other lines of the corona. 

The spectra of the stars are almost inBnitely diversified, yet they can 
be arranged with some exceptions in a series in which the adjacent 
spectra, especially in the photographic region, are scarcely distinguish- 
able, passing from the bluish-white stars hke Sirius, through stars more 
or less solar in character, to stars with banded spectra, which divide- 
themselves into two apparently independent groups, according as the- 
stronger edge of the bands is towards the red or the blue. In such an 
arrangement the sun's place is towards the middle of the series. 

At present a difference of opinion exists as to the direction in the series 
in which evolution is proceeding, whether by further condensation white 
stars pass into the orange and red stages, or whether these more coloured 
stars are younger and will become white by increasing age. The latter 
view was suggested by Johnstone Stoney in 1867. 

About ten years ago Ritter, in a series of papers, discussed the behaviour 
of gaseous masses during condensation, and the probable resulting con- 
stitution of the heavenly bodies. According to him, a star passes through 
the orange and red stages twice, first during a comparatively short 
period of increasing temperature which culminates in the white stage, and 
a second time during a more prolonged stage of gradual cooling. He- 
suggested that the two groups of banded stars may correspond to these- 
different periods : the young stars being those in which the stronger 
edge of the dark band is towards the blue, the other banded stars, which 
are relatively less luminous and few in number, being those which ar& 
approaching extinction through age. 

Recently a similar evolutional order has been suggested, which is based 
upon the hypothesis that the nebulae and stars consist of colliding meteoric 
stones in different stages of condensation. 

More recently the view has been put forward that the diversified 
spectra of the stars do not represent the stages of an evolutional progress, 
but are due for the most part to differences of original constitution. 

The few minutes which can be given to this part of the address are 
insufficient for a discussion of these different views. I purpose, therefore, 
to state briefly, and with reserve as the subject is obscure, some of the 
considerations from the characters of their spectra which appeared to me to 
be in favour of the evolutional order in which I arranged the stars from 
their photographic spectra in 1879. This order is essentially the same 
as Vogel had previously proposed in his classification of the stars in 
1874, in which the white stars, which are most numerous, represent the 
early adult and most persistent stage of stellar life, the solar condition 
that of full maturity and of commencing age ; while in the orange and red 
stars with banded spectra we see the setting in and advance of old age. 



ADDRESS. 15- 

But this statement must be taken broadly, and not as asserting tbat all 
stars, however dififerent in mass and possibly to some small extent in 
original constitution, exhibit one invariable succession of spectra. 

In the spectra of the white stars the dark metallic Hues are relatively 
inconspicuous, and occasionally absent, at the same time that the dark 
lines of hydrogen are usually strong, and more or less broad, upon a con- 
tinuous spectrum, which is remarkable for its brilliancy at the blue end. 
In some of these stars the hydrogen and some other lines are bright,, 
and sometimes variable. 

As the greater or less prominence of the hydrogen lines, dark or 
bright, is characteristic of the white stars as a class, and diminishes- 
o-radually with the incoming and increase in strength of the other lines, 
we are probably justified in regarding it as due to some conditions 
which occur naturally during the progress of stellar life, and not to 
a peculiarity of original constitution. 

To produce a strong absorption-spectrum a substance must be at the 
particular temperature at which it is notably absorptive; and, further,, 
this temperature must be sufficiently below that of the region behind 
from which the light comes for the gas to appear, so far as its special 
rays are concerned, as darkness upon it. Considering the high tem- 
perature to which hydrogen must be raised before it can show its 
characteristic emission and absorption, we shall probably be right in 
attributing the relative feebleness or absence of the other lines, not to the 
paucity of the metallic vapours, but rather to their being so hot relatively 
to the substances behind them as to show feebly, if at all, by reversion. 
Such a state of things would more probably be found, it seems to me, in 
conditions anterior to the solar stage. A considerable cooling of the sun 
would probably give rise to banded spectra due to compounds, or to more 
complex molecules, which might form near the condensing points of the 
vapours. 

The sun and stars are generally regarded as consisting of glowing 
vapours surrounded by a photosphere where condensation is taking place, 
the temperature of the photospheric layer from which the greater part of the 
radiation comes being constantly renewed from the hotter matter within. 

At the surface the convection currents would be strong, producing 
a considerable commotion, by which the different gases would be mixed 
and not allowed to retain the inequality of proportions at different levels 
due to their vapour densities. 

Now the conditions of the radiating photosphere and those of the 
gases above it, on which the character of the spectrum of a star depends, 
will be determined, not alone by temperature, but also by the force of 
gravity in these regions ; this force will be fixed by the star's mass and 
its stage of condensation, and will become greater as the star continues 
to condense. 

In the case of the sun the force of gravity has already become so 



16 EEPORT — 1891. 

great at tlie snrrace that the decrease of the density of the gases must be 
extremely rapid passing in the space of a few miles, from atmosphei'ic 
pressure to a density infinitesimally small ; consequently the temperature- 
gradient at the surface, if determined solely by expansion, must be ex- 
tremely rapid. The gases here, however, are exposed to the fierce 
I'adiation of the sun, and unless wholly transparent would take up heat, 
especially if any solid or liquid particles were present from condensation 
or convection currents. 

From these causes, within a very small extent of space at the surface 
of the sun, all bodies with which we are acquainted should fall to a con- 
dition in which the extremely tenuous gas could no longer give a visible 
spectrum. The insignificance of the angle subtended by this space as 
seen from the earth should cause the boundary of the solar atmosphere to 
appear defined. If the boundary which we see be that of the sun pi-oper, 
the matter above it will have to be regarded as in an essentially dynamical 
condition — an assemblage, so to speak, of gaseous projectiles for the most 
part falling back upon the sun after a greater or less range of flight. 
But in any case it is within a space of relatively small extent in the sun 
and probably in the other solar stars, that the reversion vyhich is mani- 
fested by dark lines is to be regarded as taking place. 

Passing backward in the star's life, we should find a gradual weak- 
ening of gravity at the surface, a reduction of the temperature-gradient 
so far as it was determined by expansion, and convection currents of less 
violence producing less interference with the proportional quantities of 
gases due to their vapour densities, while the efi"ects of eruptions would 
be more extensive. 

At last we might come to a state of things in which, if the star were 
hot enough, only hydrogen might be sufficiently cool relatively to the 
radiation behind to produce a strong absoi'ption. The lower vapours 
would be protected, and might continue to be relatively too hot for their 
lines to appear very dark upon the continuous spectrum ; besides, their 
lines might be possibly to some extent eSaced by the coming in under 
such conditions in the vapours themselves of a continuous spectrum. 

In such a star the light radiated towards the upper part of the atmo- 
sphere may have come from portions lower down of the atmosphere itself, 
or at least from parts not greatly hotter. There may be no such great 
difierence of temperature of the low and less low portions of the star's 
atmosphere as to make the darkening efiect of absorption of the protected 
metallic vapours to prevail over the illuminating efiect of their emission. 

It is only by a vibratory motion corresponding to a very high tem- 
perature that the bright lines of the first spectrum of hydrogen can be 
brought out, and by the equivalence of absorbing and emitting power 
■that the corresponding spectrum of absorption should be produced ; yet for 
a strong absorption to show itself, the hydrogen must be cool relatively 
to the source of radiation behind it, whether this be condensed particles 



ADDRESS. 1 7 

or gas. Such conditions, it seems to me, should occur in the earlier rather 
than in the more advanced stages of condensation. 

The subject is obscure, and we may go wrong in our mode of conceiv- 
ing of the probable progress of events, but there can be no doubt that in 
one remarkable instance the white-star spectrum is associated with an 
early stage of condensation. 

Sirius is one of the most conspicuous examples of one type of this 
class of stars. Photometric observations combined with its ascertained 
parallax show that this star emits from forty to sixty times the light of 
our sun, even to the eye, which is insensible to ultra-violet light, in which 
Sirius is very rich, while we learn from the motion of its companion 
that its mass is not much more than double that of our sun. It follows 
that unless we attribute to this star an impi-obably great emissive power, 
it must be of immense size, and in a much more diffuse and therefore 
an earlier condition than our sun ; though probably at a later stage 
than those white stars in which the hydrogen lines are bright. 

A direct determination of the relative temperature of the photospheres 
of the stars might possibly be obtained in some cases from the relative 
position of maximum radiation of their continuous spectra. Langley 
has shown that through the whole range of temperature on which we can 
experiment, and presumably at temperatures beyond, the maximum of 
radiation-power in solid bodies gradually shifts upwards in the spectrum 
from the infra-red through the red and orange, and that in the sun it has 
reached the blue. 

The defined character as a rule of the stellar lines of absorption sug- 
gests that the vapours producing them do not at the same time exert any 
strong power of general absorption. Consequently we should probably 
not go far wrong, when the photosphere consists of liquid or solid parti- 
cles, if we could compare select parts of the continuous spectrum between 
the stronger lines or where they are fewest. It is obvious that if extended 
portions of different stellar spectra were compared, their true relation 
would be obscured by the line-absorption. 

The increase of temperature, as shown by the rise in the spectrum of 
the maximum of radiation, may not always be accompanied by a corre- 
sponding greater brightness of a star as estimated by the eye, which is an 
extremely imperfect photometric instrument. Not only is the eye blind 
to large regions of radiation, but even for the small range of light that 
we can see the visual effect varies enormously with its colour. According 
to Professor Langley, the same amount of energy which just enables us to 
perceive light in the crimson at A would in the green produce a visual 
effect 100,000 times greater. In the violet the proportional effect would 
be 1,600, in the blue 62,000, in the yellow,28,000, in the orange 14,000, 
and in the red 1,200. Captain Abney's recent experiments make the 
•sensitiveness of the eye for the green near P to be 750 times greater than 
for red about C. It is for this reason, at least in part, that I suggested 

1891. ' C 



18 REPORT— 1891. 

in 1864), and have since shown by direct observation, that the spectrum, 
of the nebula in Andromeda, and presumably of similar nebulae, is in 
appearance only wanting in the red. 

The stage at which the maximum radiation is in the green, corre- 
sponding to the eye's greatest sensitiveness, would be that in which it 
could be most favourably measured by eye-photometry. As the maxi- 
mum rose into the violet and beyond, the star would increase in visual 
brightness, but not in proportion to the increase of energy radiated by it. 

The brightness of a star would be affected by the nature of the sub- 
stance by which the light was chiefly emitted. In the laboratory solid 
carbon exhibits the highest emissive power. A stellar stage in which 
radiation comes, to a large extent, from a photosphere of the solid parti- 
cles of this substance, would be favourable for great brilliancy. Though 
the stars ai'e built up of matter essentially similar to that of the sun, it 
does not follow that the proportion of the different elements is everywhere 
the same. It may be that the substances condensed in the photospheres 
of different stars may differ in their emissive powers, but probably not to 
a great extent. 

All the heavenly bodies are seen by us through the tinted medium of 
our atmosphere. According to Langley, the solar stage of stars is not 
really yellow, but, even as gauged by our imperfect eyes, would appear 
bluish-white if we could free ourselves from the deceptive influences of 
our surroundings. 

From these considerations it follows that we can scai'cely infer the 
evolutional stages of the stars from a simple comparison of their eye- 
naagnitudes. We should expect the white stars to be, as a class, less 
dense than the stars in the solar stage. As great mass might bring in 
the solar type of spectrum at a relatively earlier time, some of the brightest 
of these stars may be very massive and brighter than the sun — for example,, 
the brilliant star Arcturus. For these reasons the solar stars should not 
only be denser than the white stars, but perhaps, as a class, surpass them 
in mass and eye-brightness. 

It has been shown by Lane that, so long as a condensing gaseous mass 
remains subject to the laws of a purely gaseous body, its temperature will 
continue to rise. 

The greater or less breadth of the lines of absorption of hydrogen in 
the white-stars may be due to variations of the depth of the hydrogen in 
the hue of sight, arising from the causes which have been discussed. At 
the sides of the lines the absorption and emission are feebler than in the 
middle, and would come out more strongly with a greater thickness of gas. 

The diversities among the white stars are nearly as numerous as the 
individuals of the class. Time does not permit me to do more than to- 
record that in addition to the three sub-classes into which they have been 
divided by Vogel, Scheiner has recently investigated minor differences- 
as suggested by the character of the third line of hydrogen near G. He 



ADDRESS. 19 

has pointed out too that so far as his observations go the white stars in 
the constellation of Orion stand alone, with the exception of Algol, in 
possessing a dark line in the blue which has apparently the same posi- 
tion as a bright line in the great nebula of the same constellation ; and 
Pickering finds in his photographs of the spectra of these stars dark lines 
corresponding to the principal lines of the bright-line stars, and the plane- 
tary nebulae with the exception of the chief nebular line. The association 
of white stars with nebular matter in Orion, in the Pleiades, in the region 
of the Milky Way, and in other parts of the heavens, may be regarded 
as falling in with the view that I have taken. 

In the stars possibly further removed from the white class than our 
sun, belonging to the first division of Vogel's third class, which are dis- 
tinguished by absorption bands with their stronger edge towards the 
blue, the hydrogen lines are narrower than in the solar spectrum. In 
these stars the density-gradient is probably still more rapid, the depth of 
hydrogen may be less, and possibly the hydrogen molecules may be 
affected by a larger number of encounters with dissimilar molecules. In 
some red stars with dark hydrocarbon bands the hydrogen lines have not 
been certainly observed ; if they are really absent, it may be because the 
temperature has fallen below the point at which hydrogen can exert its 
characteristic absorption ; besides, some hydrogen will have united with 
the carbon. The coming in of the hydrocarbon bands may indicate a later 
evolutional stage, but the temperature may still be high, as acetylene 
can exist in the electric arc. 

A number of small stars more or leas similar to those which are known 
by the names of their discoverers. Wolf and Rayet, have been found 
by Pickering in his photographs. These are remarkable for several 
brilliant groups of bright lines, including frequently the hydrogen lines 
and the line D3, upon a continuoiis spectrum strong in blue and violet 
rays, in which are also dark lines of absorption. As some of the bright 
groups appear in his photographs to agree in position with corresponding 
bright lines in the planetary nebulae, Pickering suggests that these stars 
should be placed in one class with them, although the brightest nebular 
line is absent from these stars. The simplest conception of their nature 
would be that each star is surrounded by a nebula, the bright groups beine 
due to the gaseous matter outside the star. Mr. Roberts, however, has 
not been able to bring out any indication of nebulosity by prolono-ed 
exposure. The remarkable star 17 Argus may belong to this class of 
the heavenly bodies. 

In the nebulae, the elder Herschel saw portions of the fiery mist or 
' shining fluid ' out of which the heavens and the earth had been slowly 
fashioned. For a time this view of the nebulas gave place to that which 
regarded them as external galaxies, cosmical " sandheaps,' too remote to 
be resolved into separate stars ; though indeed in 1858 Mr. Herbert 

c 2 



20 REPORT — 1891. 

Spencer showed that the observations of nebulae up to that time were 
really in favour of an evolutional progress. 

In 1864 I brought the spectroscope to bear upon them ; the bright 
lines which flashed upon the eye showed the source of the light of a 
number of them to be glowing gas, and so restored these bodies to what 
is probably their true place, as an early stage of sidereal life. 

At that early time our knowledge of stellar spectra was small. For this 
reason partly, and probably also under the undue influence of theological 
opinions then widely prevalent, I unwisely wrote in my original paper 
in 1864, ' that in these objects we no longer have to do with a special 
modification of our own type of sun, but find ourselves in presence of 
objects possessing a distinct and peculiar plan of structure.' Two years 
later, however, in a lecture before this Association, I took a truer position. 
' Our views of the universe,' I said, ' are undergoing important changes ; 
let us wait for more facts with minds unfettered by any dogmatic theory, 
and therefore free to receive the teaching, whatever it may be, of new 
observations.' 

Let us turn aside for a moment from the nebulae in the sky to the 
conclusions to which philosophers had been irresistibly led by a considera- 
tion of the features of the solar system. We have before us in the 
sun and planets obviously not a haphazard aggregation of bodies, but 
a system resting upon a multitude of relations pointing to a common 
physical cause. i?rom these considerations Kant and Laplace formulated 
the nebular hypothesis, resting it on gravitation alone, for at that time 
the science of the conservation of energy was practically unknown. These 
philosophers showed how, on the supposition that the space now occupied 
by the solar system was once fiUed by a vaporous mass, the formation 
of the sun and planets could be reasonably accounted for. 

By a totally difi"erent method of reasoning, modern science traces 
the solar system backward step by step to a similar state of things at 
the beginning. According to Helmholtz the sun's heat is maintained 
by the contraction of his mass, at the rate of about 220 feet a year. 
Whether at the present time the sun is getting hotter or colder we do 
not certainly know. We can reason back to the time when the sun was 
sufliciently expanded to fill the whole space occupied by the solar system, 
and was reduced to a great glowing nebula. Though man's life, the life 
of the race perhaps, is too short to give us direct evidence of any distinct 
stages of so august a process, still the probability is great that the 
nebular hypothesis, especially in the more precise form given to it by 
Roche, does represent broadly, notwithstanding some difficulties, the 
succession of events through which the sun and planets have passed. 

The nebular hypothesis of Laplace requires a rotating mass of fluid 
which at successive epochs became unstable from excess of motion, and 
left behind rings, or more probably perhaps lumps, of matter from the 
equatorial regions. 



ADDBESS. 21 

The difficulties to whicli I have referred have suggested to some 
thinkers a different view of things, according to which it is not necessary 
to suppose that one part of the system gravitationally supports another. 
The whole may consist of a congeries of discrete bodies even if these 
bodies be the ultimate molecules of matter. The planets may have been 
formed by the gradual accretion of such discrete bodies. On the view 
that the material of the condensing solar system consisted of separate 
particles or masses, we have no longer the fluid pressure which is an 
essential part of Laplace's theory. Faye, in his theory of evolution from 
meteorites, has to throw over this fundamental idea of the nebular 
hypothesis, and he formulates instead a different succession of events in 
which the outer planets were formed last ; a theory which has difficulties 
of its own. 

Professor George Darwin has recently shown, from an investigation 
of the mechanical conditions of a swarm of meteorites, that on certain 
assumptions a meteoric swarm might behave as a coarse gas, and in this 
way bring back the fluid pressure exercised by one part of the system on 
the other, which is required by Laplace's theory. One chief assumption 
consists in supposing that such inelastic bodies as meteoric stones might 
attain the effective elasticity of a high order which is necessary to the 
theory through the sudden volatilisation of a part of their mass at an 
encounter, by which what is virtually a violent explosive is introduced 
between the two colliding stones. Professor Darwin is careful to point 
out that it must necessarily be obscure as to how a small mass of solid 
matter can take up a very large amount of energy in a small fraction of a 
second. 

Any direct indications from the heavens themselves, however slight, 
are of so great value, that I should perhaps in this connection call atten- 
tion to a recent remarkable photograph by Mr. Roberts of the great 
nebula in Andromeda. On this plate we seem to have presented to us 
some stage of cosmical evolution on a gigantic scale. The photograph 
shows a sort of whirlpool disturbance of the luminous matter which is 
distributed in a plane inclined to the line of sight, in which a series of 
rings of bright matter separated by dark spaces, greatly foreshortened by 
perspective, surround a large undefined central mass. The parallax of this 
nebula has not been ascertained, but there can be little doubt that we are 
looking upon a system very remote, and therefore of a magnitude great 
beyond our power of adequate comprehension. The matter of this nebula, 
in whatever state it may be, appears to be distributed, as in so many 
other nebulae, in rings or spiral streams, and to suggest a stage in a suc- 
cession of evolutional events not inconsistent with that which the nebular 
hypothesis requires. To liken this object more directly to any particular 
stage in the formation of the solar system would be ' to compare things 
great with small,' and might be indeed to introduce a false analogy ; but 
on the other hand, we should err through an excess of caution if we did 



22 REPOKT — 1891. 

not accept the remarkable features brought to light by this photograph 
as a presumptive indication of a progress of events in cosmical history 
following broadly upon the lines of Laplace's theory. 

The old view of the original matter of the nebulae, that it consisted of 
a. ' fiery mist,' 

' a tumultuous cloud 
Instinct with fire and nitre,' 

fell at once with the rise of the science of thermodynamics. In 1854 
Helmholtz showed that the supposition of an original fiery condition of 
the nebulous stuff was unnecessary, since in the mutual gravitation of 
■widely separated matter we have a store of potential energy sufficient to 
generate the high temperature of the sun and stars. We can scarcely go 
wrong in attributing the light of the nebulce to the conversion of the 
gravitational energy of shrinkage into molecular motion. 

The idea that the light of comets and of nebulse may be due to a suc- 
cession of ignited flashes of gas from the encounters of meteoric stones 
was suo-o-ested by Professor Tait, and was brought to the notice of this 
Association in 1871 by Sir William Thomson in his Presidential Address. 
The spectrum of the bright-line nebulje is certainly not such a spec- 
trum as we should expect from the flashing by collisions of meteorites 
similar to those which have been analysed in our laboratories. The 
strongest lines of the substances which in the case of such meteorites 
would first show themselves, iron, sodium, magnesium, nickel, &c., are 
not those which distinguish the nebular spectrum. On the contrary, this 
spectrum is chiefly remarkable for a few brilliant lines, very narrow and 
defined, upon a background of a faint continuous spectrum, which con- 
tains numerous bright lines, and probably some lines of absorption. 

The two most conspicuous lines have not been interpreted; for 
though the second line falls near, it is not coincident with a strong double 
line of iron. It is hardly necessary to say that though the near position 
of the brightest line to the bright double line of nitrogen, as seen in a 
small spectroscope in 1864, naturally suggested at that early time the 
possibility of the presence of this element in the nebulae, I have been 
careful to point out, to prevent misapprehension, that in more recent 
years the nitrogen line and subsequently a lead line have been eruployed 
by me solely as fiducial points of reference in the spectrum. 

The third line we know to be the second line of the first spectrum of 
hydrogen. Mr. Keeler has seen the first hydrogen line in the red, and 
photographs show that this hydrogen spectrum is probably present in its 
complete form, or nearly so, as we first learnt to know it in the absorp- 
tion spectrum of the white stars. 

We are not surprised to find associated with it the line D3, near the 
position of the absent sodium lines, probably due to the atom of some 
unknown gas, which in the sun can only show itself in the outbursts of 



ADDRESS. 23 

highest temperature, and for this reason does not reveal itself by absorp- 
tion in the solar spectrum. 

It is not unreasonable to assume that the two brightest lines, which 
are of the same order as the third line, are produced by substances of a 
similar nature, in which a vibratory motion corresponding to a very high 
temperature is also necessary. These substances, as well as that repre- 
sented by the line D3, may be possibly some of the unknown elements 
which are wanting in our terrestrial chemistry between hydrogen and 
lithium, unless indeed D3 be on the lighter side of hydrogen. 

In the laboratory we must have recourse to the electric discharge to 
bring out the spectrum of hydrogen ; but in a vacuum-tube, though the 
radiation may be great, from the relative fewness of the luminous atoms 
or molecules or from some other cause, the temperature of the gas as 
a whole may be low. 

On account of the large extent of the nebulte, a comparatively small 
number of luminous molecules or atoms would probably be sufficient to 
make the nebute as bright as they appear to us. On such an assumption 
the average temperature may be low, but the individual particles, which 
by their encounters are luminous, must have motions corresponding to 
a very high temperature, and in this sense be extremely hot. 

In such diffuse masses, from the great mean length of free path, the 
encounters would be rare but correspondingly violent, and tend to bring 
about vibrations of comparatively short period, as appears to be the case 
if we may judge by the great relative brightness of the more refrangible 
lines of the nebular spectrum. 

Such a view may perhaps reconcile the high temperature which the 
nebular spectrum undoubtedly suggests with the much lower mean tem- 
perature of the gaseous mass, which we should expect at so early a stage 
of condensation, unless we assume a very enormous mass ; or that the 
matter coming together had previously considerable motion, or consider- 
able molecular agitation. 

If the hydrogen shown by the spectroscope in the nebulae and in the 
atmospheres of the stars is retained by these bodies, we should be able to 
assign approximately an inferior limit for the force of gravity at their 
surfaces ; provided that we assume that the gas is in the uncombined 
state, and always exists in some greater proportion than in the free space 
about them. 

The inquisitiveness of the human mind does not allow us to remain 
content with the interpretation of the present state of the cosmical masses, 

but suggests the question — 

' What see'st thou else 
In the dark backward and abysm of time ? ' 

What was the original state of things ? how has it come about that by 
the side of ageing worlds we have nebulse in a relatively younger stage ? 
Have any of them received their birth from dark suns, which have col- 



24 REPORT — 1891. 

lided into new life, and so belong to a second or later generation of the 
heavenly bodies ? 

During the short historic period, indeed, there is no record of such an 
event ; still it would seem to be only through the collision of dark suns, 
of which the number must be increasing, that a temporary rejuvenescence 
of the heavens is possible, and by such ebbings and flowings of stellar life 
that the inevitable end to which evolution in its apparently uncompen- 
sated progress is carrying us can, even for a little, be delayed. 

"We cannot refuse to admit as possible such an origin for nebulae. 

In considering, however, the formation of the existing nebulaa we 
must bear in mind that, in the part of the heavens within our ken, the 
stars still in the early and middle stages of evolution exceed greatly in 
number those which appear to be in an advanced condition of condensa- 
tion. Indeed, we find some stars which may be regarded as not far 
advanced beyond the nebular condition. 

It may be that the cosmical bodies which are still nebulous owe the 
lateness of their development to some conditions of the part of space 
where they occur, such as conceivably a greater original homogeneity, in 
consequence of which condensation began less early. In other parts of 
space condensation may have been still further delayed, or even have not 
yet begun. It is worthy of remark that these nebulae group themselves 
about the Milky Way, where we find a preponderance of the white- star 
type of stars, and almost exclusively the bright-line stars which Pickering 
associates with the planetary nebulas. Further, Dr. Grill concludes, from 
the rapidity with which they impress themselves ujDon the plate, that the 
fainter stars of the Milky "Way also, to a large extent, belong to this early 
type of stars. At the same time other types of stars occur also over this 
region, and the red hydrocarbon stars are found in certain parts ; but 
possibly these stars may be before or behind the Milky Way, and not 
physically connected with it. 

If light matter be suggested by the spectrum of these nebulae, it may 
be asked further, as a pure speculation, whether in them we are witness- 
ing possibly a later condensation of the light matter which had been left 
behind, at least in a relatively greater proportion, after the first growth 
of worlds into which the heavier matter condensed, though not without 
some entanglement of the lighter substances. The wide extent and great 
diflfuseness of this bright-line nebulosity over a large part of the con- 
stellation of Orion may be regarded perhaps as pointing in this direction. 
The diffuse nebulous matter streaming round the Pleiades may possibly 
be another instance, though the character of its spectrum has not yet 
been ascertained. 

In the planetary nebulae, as a rule, there is a sensible increase of the 
faint continuous spectrum, as well as a shght thickening of the bright 
lines towards the centre of the nebula, appearances which are in favour 
of the view that these bodies are condensing gaseous masses. 



ADDBESS. 25> 

Professor G. Darwin, in his investigation of the equiHbrium of a rotat- 
ing mass of fluid, found, in accordance with the independent researches 
of Poincare, that when a portion of the central body becomes detached 
through increasing angular velocity, the portion should bear a far larger 
ratio to the remainder than is observed in the planets and satellites of the 
solar system, even taking into account heterogeneity from the condensa- 
tion of the parent mass. 

Now this state of things, in which the masses though not equal are of 
the same order, does seem to prevail in many nebute, and to have given 
birth to a large class of binary stars. Mr. See has recently investigated 
the evolution of bodies of this class, and points out their radical difiierences 
from the solar system in the relatively large mass-ratios of the component 
bodies, as well as in the high eccentricities of their orbits brought about 
by tidal friction, which would play a more important part in the evolution 
of such systems. 

Considering the large number of these bodies, he suggests that the solar 
system should perhaps no longer be regarded as representing celestial 
evolution in its normal form — 

' A goodly Paterne to whose perfect mould 
He fashioned them . . .' 

but rather as modified by conditions which are exceptional. 

It may well be that in the very early stages condensing masses are 
subject to very different conditions, and that condensation may not always 
begin at one or two centres, but sometimes set in at a large number of 
points, and proceed in the different cases along very different lines of 
evolution. 

Besides its more direct use in the chemical analysis of the heavenly 
bodies, the spectroscope has given to us a great and unexpected power of 
advance along the lines of the older astronomy. In the future a higher 
value may, indeed, be placed upon this indirect use of the spectroscope 
than upon its chemical revelations. 

By no direct astronomical methods could motions of approach or of 
recession of the stars be even detected, much less could they be measured. 
A body coming directly towards us or going directly from us appears to 
stand still. In the case of the stars we can receive no assistance from 
change of size or of brightness. The stars show no true discs in our 
instruments, and the nearest of them is so far off that if it were approach- 
ing us at the rate of a hundred miles in a second of time, a whole 
century of such rapid approach would not do more than increase its 
brightness by the one-fortieth part. 

Still it was only too clear that, so long as we were unable to ascertain 
directly those components of the stars' motions which lie in the line of 
sight, the speed and direction of the solar motion in space, and many of 



•26 REPORT — 1891. 

the great problems of the constitution of the heavens, must remain more 
or less imperfectly known. Now the spectroscope has placed in our 
hands this power, which, though so essential, appeared almost in the 
nature of things to lie for ever beyond our grasp ; it enables us to measure 
directly, and under favourable circumstances to within a mile per second, 
or even less, the speed of approach or of recession of a heavenly body. 
This method of observation has the great advantage for the astronomer 
of being independent of the distance of the moving body, and is 
therefore as applicable and as certain in the case of a body on the 
extreme confines of the visible universe, so long as it is bright enough, 
as in the case of a neighbouring planet. 

Doppler had suggested as far back as 1841 that the same principle, on 
■which he had shown that a sound should become sharper or flatter if 
there were an approach or a recession between the ear and the source 
of the sound, would apjjly equally to light; and he went on to say that 
the difference of colour of some of the binary stars might be produced in 
this way by their motions. Doppler was right in that the principle is 
true in the case of light, but he was wrong in the particular conclusion 
which he drew from it. Even if we suppose a star to be moving with a 
sufficiently enormous velocity to alter sensibly its colour to the eye, no 
such change would actually be seen, for the reason that the store of 
invisible light beyond both limits of the visible spectrum, the blue and 
the red, would be drawn upon, and light- waves invisible to us would be 
exalted or degraded so as to take the place of those raised or lowered in 
the visible region, and the colour of the star would remain unchanged. 
About eight years later Fizeau pointed out the importance of considering 
the individual wave-lengths of which white light is composed. It is, 
indeed, Doppler's principle which underlies the early determination of 
the velocity of light by Roemer; but this method, in its converse form, 
can scarcely be regarded as of practical value for the motions in the line 
of sight of binary stars. As soon, however, as we had learned to 
recognise the lines of known substances in the spectra of the heavenly 
bodies, Doppler's principle became applicable as the basis of a new 
and most fruitful method of investigation. The measurement of the 
small shift of the celestial lines from their true positions, as shown 
by the same lines in the spectrum of a terrestrial substance, gives to 
us the means of ascertaining directly in miles per second the speed 
of approach or of recession of the heavenly body from which the light 
has come. 

An account of the first application of this method of research to 
the stars, which was made in my observatory in 1868, was given by Sir 
Gabriel Stokes from this chair at the meeting at Exeter in 1869. The 
stellar motions determined by me were shortly after confirmed by Pro- 
fessor Vogel in the case of Sirius, and in the case of other stars by Mr. 
•Christie, now Astronomer Royal, at Greenwich ; but, necessarily, in con- 



ADDEESS. 



27 



sequence of the inadequacy of the insti-nments then in use for so delicate 
an inquiry, the amounts of these motions were but approximate. 

The method was shortly afterwards taken up systematically at Green- 
wich and at the Rugby Observatory. It is to be greatly regretted that, 
for some reasons, the results have not been sufficiently accordant and 
accurate for a research of such exceptional delicacy. On this account 
probably, as well as that the spectroscope at that early time had scarcely 
become a familiar instrument in the observatory, astronomers were slow 
in availing themselves of this new and remarkable power of investigation. 
That this comparative neglect of so truly wonderful a method of ascertain- 
ing what was otherwise outside our powers of observation has greatly 
retarded the progress of astronomy during the last fifteen years, is but 
too clearly shown by the brilliant results which within the last couple of 
years have followed fast upon the recent masterly application of this 
method by photography at Potsdam, and by eye with the needful accuracy 
at the Lick Observatory. At last this use of the spectroscope has taken 
its true place as one of the most potent methods of astronomical research. 
It gives us the motions of approach and of recession, not in angular 
measures, which depend for their translation into actual velocities upon 
separate determinations of parallactic displacements, but at once in 
terrestrial units of distance. 

This method of work will doubtless be very prominent in the astro- 
nomy of the near future, and to it probably we shall have to look for the 
more important discoveries in sidereal astronomy which will be made 
during the coming century. 

In his recent application of photography to this method of determining 
celestial motions, Professor Vogel, assisted by Dr. Scheiner, considering 
the importance of obtaining the spectrum of as many stars as possible on 
an extended scale without an exposure inconveniently long, wisely 
determined to limit the part of the spectrum on the plate to the region 
for which the ordinary silver-bromide gelatine plates are most sensitive, 
namely, to a small distance on each side of G, and to employ as the line 
ot comparison the hydrogen line near G, and recently also certain lines 
of iron. The most minute and complete mechanical arrangements were 
provided for the purpose of securing the absolute rigidity of the com- 
parison spectrum relatively to that of the star, and for permitting tem- 
perature adjustments and other necessary ones to be made, . 

The perfection of these spectra is shown by the large number of 
lines, no fewer than 250 in the case of Capella, within the small region 
of the spectrum on the plate. Already the motions of about fifty stars 
have been measured with an accuracy, in the case of the larger number 
of them, of about an English mile per second. 

At the Lick Observatory it has been shown that observations can be 
made directly by eye with an accuracy equally great. Mr. Keeler's 
brilliant success has followed in great measure from the use of the third 



28 KEPORT 1891. 

and fourth spectra of a grating with 14,438 lines to the inch. The mar- 
Tellous accuracy attainable in his hands on a suitable star is shown by 
observations on three nights of the star Arcturus, the largest divergence 
of his measures being not greater than six-tenths of a mile per second, 
while the mean of the three nights' work agreed with the mean of five 
photographic determinations of the same star at Potsdam to within one- 
tenth of an English mile. These are determinations of the motions of a 
sun so stupendously remote that even the method of parallax practically 
fails to fathom the depth of intervening space, and by means of light- 
waves which have been, according to Elkin's nominal parallax, nearly 
200 years upon their journey. 

Mr. Keeler with his magnificent means has accomplished a task 
which I attempted in vain in 1874, with the comparatively poor appli- 
ances at my disposal, of measuring the motions in the line of sight of 
some of the planetary nebulas. As the stars have considerable motions 
in space it was to be expected that nebulae should possess similar motions, 
for tbe stellar motions must have belonged to the nebnlse out of which 
they have been evolved. My instrumental means, limiting my power of 
detection to motions greater than twenty-five miles per second, were in- 
sufficient. Mr. Keeler has found in the examination of ten nebulae 
motions varying from two miles to twenty-seven miles, with one excep- 
tional motion of nearly forty miles. 

For the nebula of Orion, Mr. Keeler finds a motion of recession of 
about ten miles a second. Now this motion agrees closely with what it 
should appear to have from the drift of the solar system itself, so far as 
it has been possible at present to ascertain the probable velocity of the 
sun in space. This grand nebula, of vast extent and of extreme tenuity, 
is probably more nearly at rest relatively to the stars of our system 
than any other celestial object we know ; still it would seem more likely 
that even here we have some motion, small though it may be, than that 
the motions of the matter of which it is formed were so absolutely 
balanced as to leave this nebula in the unique position of absolute immo- 
bility in the midst of whirling and drifting suns and systems of suns. 

The spectroscopic method of determining celestial motions in the 
line of sight has recently become fruitful in a new but not altogether un- 
foreseen direction, for it has, so to speak, given us a separating power 
far beyond that of any telescope the glass-maker and the optician could 
construct, and so enabled us to penetrate into mysteries hidden in 
stars apparently single, and altogether unsuspected of being binary 
systems. The spectroscope has not simply added to the list of the 
known binary stars, but has given to us for the first time a knowledge 
of a new class of stellar systems, in which the components are in some 
cases of nearly equal magnitude, and in close proximity, and are re- 
volving with velocities greatly exceeding the planetary velocities of our 
system. 



ADDRESS. 29 

The K line in the photographs of Mizar, taken at the Harvard Col- 
lege Observatory, was found to be double at intervals of fifty-two days. 
The spectrum was therefore not due to a single source of light, but to 
the combined effect of two stars moving periodically in opposite direc- 
tions in the line of sight. It is obvious that if two stars revolve round 
their common centre of gravity in a plane not perpendicular to the line 
of si^ht, all the lines in a spectrum common to the two stars will appear 
alternately single or double. 

In the case of Mizar and the other stars to be mentioned, the spec- 
troscopic observations are not as yet extended enough to furnish more 
than an approximate determination of the elements of tbeir orbits. 

Mizar especially, on account of its relatively long period, about 105 
days, needs further observations. The two stars are moving each, with a 
velocity of about fifty miles a second, probably in elliptical orbits, and 
are about 143 millions of miles apart. The stars of about equal bright- 
ness have together a mass about forty times as great as that of our sun. 

A similar doubling of the lines showed itself in the Harvard pboto- 
graphs of yS Aurigse at the remarkably close interval of almost exactly 
two days, indicating a period of revolution of about four days. Accord- 
ing to Vogel's later observations, eacb star has a velocity of nearly seventy 
miles a second, the distance between the stars being little more than 
seven and a half millions of miles, and the mass of the system 4' 7 times 
that of the sun. The system is approaching us at the speed of about 
sixteen miles a second. 

The telescope could never have revealed to us double stars of this 
order. In the case of /3 Auriga3, combining Vogel's distance with 
Pritchard's recent determination of the star's parallax, the greatest 
angular separation of the stars as seen from the earth would be l-200th 
part of a second of arc, and therefore very far too small for detection 
by the largest telescopes. If we take the relation of aperture to sepa- 
rating power usually accepted, an object glass of about eighty feet in 
diameter would be needed to resolve this binary star. The spectroscope, 
which takes no note of distance, magnifies, so to speak, this minute 
angular separation 4,000 times ; in other words, the doubling of the 
lines, which is the phenomenon that we have to observe, amounts to the 
easily measurable quantity of twenty seconds of arc. 

There were known, indeed, variable stars of short period, which it 
had been suggested might be explained on the hypothesis of a dark 
body revolving about a bright sun in a few days, but this theory was 
met by the objection that no sacli systems of closely revolving suns were 
known to exist. 

The Harvard photographs of which we have been speaking were 
taken with a slitless form of spectroscope, the prisms being placed, as 
originally by Fraunhofer, before the object glass of the telescope. This 
method, though it possesses some advantages, has the serious drawback 



30 REPOET— 1891. 

of not permitting a direct comparison of the star's spectrum with ter- 
restrial spectra. It is obviously unsuited to a variable star like Algol, 
where one star only is bright, for in such a case there would be no 
doubling of the Hnes, but only a small shift to and fro in the spectrum 
of the lines of the bright star as it moved in its orbit alternately towards 
and from our system, which would need for its detection the fiducial 
positions of terrestrial lines compared directly with them. 

For such observations the Potsdam spectrograph was well adapted. 
Professor Vogel found that the bright star of Algol did pulsate back- 
wards and forwards in the visual direction in a period corresponding to 
the known variation of its light. The explanation which had been 
suggested for the star's variability, that it was partially eclipsed at 
regular intervals of 68'8 hours by a dark companion large enough to cut 
off nearly five-sixths of its light, was therefore the true one. The dark 
companion, no longer able to hide itself by its obscureness, was brought 
out into the light of direct observation by means of its gravitational 
effects. 

Seventeen hours before minimum Algol is receding at the rate of 
about 24^ miles a second, while seventeen hours after minimum it is 
found to be approaching with a speed of about 28^^ miles. Prom these 
data, together with those of the variation of its light, Vogel found, on 
the assumption that both stars have the same density, that the companion, 
nearly as large as the sun, but with about one-fourth his mass, revolves 
with a velocity of about fifty-five miles a second. The bright star of 
about twice the size and mass moves about the common centre of gravity 
with the speed of about twenty-six miles a second. The system of the two 
stars, which are about 3;^ millions of miles apart, considered as a whole, 
is approaching us with a velocity of 2-4 miles a second. The great 
difference in luminosity of the two stars, not less than fifty times, suggests 
rather that they are in different stages of condensation, and dissimilar in 
density. 

It is obvious that if the orbit of a star with an obscure companion is 
sufficiently inclined to the line of sight, the companion will pass above or 
below the bright star and produce no variation of its light. Such systems 
may be numerous in the heavens. In Vogel's photographs, Spica, which is 
not variable, by a small shifting of its lines reveals a backward and forward 
periodical pulsation due to orbital motion. As the pair whirl round 
their common centre of gravity, the bright star is sometimes advancing, 
at others receding. They revolve in about four days, each star moving 
with a velocity of about fifty-six miles a second in an orbit probably 
nearly circular, and possess a combined mass of rather more than 2^ 
times that of the sun. Taking the most probable value for the star's 
parallax, the greatest angular separation of the stars would be far too 
small to be detected with the most powerful telescopes. 

If in a close double star the fainter companion is of the white-star 



ADDRESS. 31 

type, while the bright star is solar in character, the composite spectrum 
would be solar with the hydrogen lines unusually strong. Such a spec- 
trum would in itself afford some probability of a double origin, and 
suggest the existence of a companion star. 

In the case of a true binary star the orbital motions of the pair would 
reveal themselves in a small periodical swaying of the hydrogen lines 
relatively to the solar ones. 

Professor Pickering considers that his photographs show ten stars 
with composite spectra ; of these, five are known to be double. The 
others are : t Persei, I AurigiB, 8 Sagittarii, 31 Ceti, and /3 Capricorni. 
Perhaps ^ Ljrae should be added to this list. 

In his recent classical work on the rotation of the sun, Duner has 
not only determined the solar rotation for the equator but for different 
parallels of latitude up to 75°. The close accordance of his results shows 
that these observations are suflBciently accurate to be discussed with the 
variation of the solar rotation for different latitudes, which had been 
determined by the older astronomical methods from the observations of 
the solar spots. 

Though I have already spoken incidentally of the invaluable aid 
which is furnished by photography in some of the applications of the 
spectroscope to the heavenly bodies, the new power which modern 
photography has put into the hands of the astronomer is so great, and 
has led already, within the last few years, to new acquisitions of know- 
ledge of such vast importance, that it is fitting that a few sentences 
should be specially devoted to this subject. 

Photography is no new discovery, being about half a century old ; 
it may excite surprise, and indeed possibly suggest some apathy on the 
part of astronomers, that though the suggestion of the application of 
photography to the heavenly bodies dates from the memorable occasion 
when, in 1839, Arago, announcing to the Academie des Sciences the great 
discovery of Niepce and Daguerre, spoke of the possibility of taking 
pictures of the sun and moon by the new process, jet that it is only 
within a few years that notable advances in astronomical methods and 
discovery have been made by its aid. 

The explanation is to be found in the comparative unsuitability of 
the earlier photographic methods for use in the observatory. Injustice 
to the early workers in astronomical photography, among whom Bond, 
De la Rue, J. W. Draper, Rutherfurd, Gould, hold a foremost place, it is 
needful to state clearly that the recent great successes in astronomical 
photography are not due to greater skill, nor, to any great extent, to 
superior instruments, but to the very great advantages which the modern 
gelatine dry plate possesses for use in the observatory over the methods 
of Dnguerre, and even over the wet collodion film on glass which, though 
a fr eat advance on the silver plate, went but a little way towards putting- 



32 BEPORT— 1891. 

into the hands of the astronomer a photographic surface adapted fully to 
his wants. 

The modern silver-bromide gelatine plate, except for its grained 
texture, meets the needs of the astronomer at all points. It possesses 
extreme sensitiveness ; it is always ready for use ; it can be placed in any 
position ; it can be exposed for hours ; lastly, it does not need immediate 
development, and for this reason can be exposed again to the same 
object on succeeding nights, so as to make up by several instalments, as the 
weather may permit, the total time of exposure which is deemed necessary. 

Without the assistance of photography, however greatly the resources 
of genius might overcome the optical and mechanical diflBculties of con- 
structing large telescopes, the astronomer would have to depend in the 
last resource upon his eye. Now we cannot by the force of continued 
looking bring into view an object too feebly luminous to be seen at the 
first and keenest moment of vision. But the feeblest light which falls 
upon the plate is not lost, but is taken in and stored up continuously. 
Bach hour the plate gathers up 3,600 times the light-energy which 
it received during the first second. It is by this power of accumu- 
lation that the photographic plate may be said to increase, almost 
without limit, though not in separating power, the optical means at the 
disposal of the astronomer for the discovery or the observation of faint 
objects. 

Two principal directions may be pointed out in which photography is 
of great service to the astronomer. It enables him within the compara- 
tively short time of a single exposure to secure permanently with great 
exactness the relative positions of hundreds or even of thousands of stars, 
or the minute features of nebulas or other objects, or the phenomena 
of a passing eclipse, tasks which by means of the eye and hand could 
only be accomplished, if at all, after a very great expenditure of time 
and labour. Photography puts it in the power of the astronomer to 
accomplish in the short span of his own life, and so enter into their 
fruition, great works which otherwise must have been passed on by him 
as an heritage of labour to succeeding generations. 

The second great service which photography renders is not simply an 
aid to the powers the astronomer already possesses. On the contrary, 
the plate, by recording light-waves which are both too small and too 
large to excite vision in the eye, brings him into new regions of know- 
ledge, such as the infra-red and the ultra-violet parts of the spectrum, 
which must have remained for ever unknown but for artificial help. 

The present year will be memorable in astronomical history for the 
practical beginning of the Photographic Chart and Catalogue of the 
Heavens, which took their origin in an International Conference which 
met in Paris in 1887, by the invitation of M. I'Amiral Mouchez, Director 
of the Paris Observatory. 

The richness in stars down to the ninth magnitude of the photographs 



ADDRESS. 33 

of the comet of 1882 taken at the Cape Observatory under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. Gill, and the remarkable star charts of the Brothers 
Henry which followed two years later, astonished the astronomical world. 
The great excellence of these photographs, which was due mainly to the 
superiority of the gelatine plate, suggested to these astronomers a complete 
map of the sky, and a little later gave birth in the minds of the Paris 
astronomers to the grand enterprise of an International Chart of the 
Heavens. The actual beginning of tlTe work this year is in no small 
degree due to the great energy and tact with which the Director of the 
Paris Observatory has conducted the initial steps, through the many 
delicate and difficult questions which have unavoidably presented them- 
selves in an undertaking which depends upon the harmonious working in 
common of many nationalities, and of no fewer than eighteen observa- 
tories in all parts of the world. The three years since 1887 have not 
been too long for the detailed organisation of this work, which has 
called for several elaborate preliminary investigations on special points 
in which our knowledge was insufficient, and which have been ably 
carried out by Professors Vogel and Bakhuyzen, Dr. Trepied, Dr. Scheiner, 
Dr. Gill, the Astronomer Royal, and others. Time also was required for 
the construction of the new and special instruments. 

The decisions of the Conference in their final form provide for the 
construction of a great photographic chart of the heavens with exposures 
corresponding to forty minutes' exposure at Paris, which it is expected 
win reach down to stars of about the fourteenth magnitude. As each 
plate is to be limited to four square degrees, and as each star, to 
avoid possible errors, is to appear on two plates, over 22,000 photographs 
will be required. For the more accurate determination of the positions 
of the stars, a reseau with lines at distances of 5 mm. apart is to be 
previously impressed by a faint light upon the plate, so that the image 
of the reseau will appear together with the images of the stars when the 
plate is developed. This great work will be divided, according to their 
latitudes, among eighteen observatories provided with similar instru- 
ments, though not necessarily constructed by the same maker. Those 
in the British dominions and at Tacubaya have been constructed by Sir 
Howard Grubb. 

Besides the plates to form the great chart, a second set of plates for a 
catalogue is to be taken, with a shorter exposure, which will give stars to 
the eleventh magnitude only. These plates, by a recent decision of the 
Permanent Committee, are to be pushed on as actively as possible, though 
as far as may be practicable plates for the chart are to be taken concur- 
rently. Photographing the plates for the catalogue is but the first step 
in this work, and only supplies the data for the elaborate measurements 
which have to be made, which are, however, less laborious than would 
be required for a similar catalogue without the aid of photography. 

Already Dr. Gill has nearly brought to conclusion, with the assistance 

1891. D 



34 REPORT — 1891. 

of Professor Kapteyn, a preliminary photograpliic survey of the Southern 

VipOTTOTlg 

With an exposure sufficiently long for the faintest stars to impress 
themselves upon the plate, the accumulating action still goes on for the 
brighter stars, producing a great enlargement of their images from opti- 
cal and photographic causes. The question has occupied the attention of 
many astronomers whether it is possible to find a law connecting the 
diameters of these more or less over-exposed images with the relative 
brightness of the stars themselves. The answer will come out undoubt- 
edly in the afiarmative, though at present the empirical formulae which 
have been suggested for this purpose differ from each other. Captain 
Abney proposes to measure the total photographic action, including 
density as well as size, by the obstruction which the stellar image offers 
to light. 

A further question follows as to the relation which the photographic 
magnitudes of stars bear to those determined by eye. Visual magnitudes 
are the physiological expression of the eye's integration of that part of 
the star's light which extends from the red to the blue. Photographic 
magnitudes represent the plate's integration of another part of the star's 
light — namely, from a little below where the power of the eye leaves off 
in the blue, to where the light is cut off by the glass, or is greatly re- 
duced by want of proper corrections when a refracting telescope is used. 
It is obvious that the two records are taken by different methods in 
dissimilar units of different parts of the star's light. In the case of cer- 
tain coloured stars the photographic brightness is very different from the 
visual brightness ; but in all stars changes, especially of a temporary cha- 
racter, may occur in the photographic or the visual region, unaccompanied 
by similar changes in the other part of the spectrum. For these reasons 
it would seem desirable that the two sets of magnitudes should be tabu- 
lated independently, and be regarded as supplementary of each other. 

The determination of the distances of the fixed stars from the small 
apparent shift of their positions when viewed from widely separated posi- 
tions of the earth in its orbit is one of the most refined operations of the 
observatory. The great precision with which this minute angulai 
quantity, a fraction of a second of arc only, has to be measured, is so deli- 
cate an operation with the ordinary micrometer, though, indeed, it was with 
this instrument that the classical observations of Sir Robert Ball were 
made, that a special instrument, in which the measures are made by 
moving the two halves of a divided object glass, known as a heliometer, 
has been pressed into this service, and quite recently, in the skilful hands 
of Dr. Gill and Dr. Elkin, has largely increased our knowledge in this 
direction. 

It is obvious that photography might be here of great service, if we 
could rely upon measurements of photographs of the same stars taken at 
suitable intervals of time. Professor Pritchard, to whom is due the 



ADDRESS. 35 

honour of having opened this new path, aided by his assistants, has 
proved by elaborate investigations that measures for parallax may be 
safely made upon photographic plates, with, of course, the advantages of 
leisure and repetition ; and he has already by this method determined the 
parallax for twenty-one stars with an accuracy not inferior to that of 
values previously obtained by purely astronomical methods. 

The remarkable successes of astronomical photography, which depend 
upon the plate's power of accumulation of a very feeble light acting 
continuously through an exposure of several hours, are worthy to be re- 
garded as a new revelation. The first chapter opened when, in 1880, Dr. 
Henry Draper obtained a picture of the nebula of Orion ; but a more im- 
portant advance was made in 1883, when Dr. Common, by his photographs, 
brought to our knowledge details and extensions of this nebula hitherto 
unknown. A further disclosure took place in 1885, when the Brothers 
Henry showed for the first time in great detail the spiral nebulosity issu- 
ing from the bright star Maia of the Pleiades, and shortly afterwards 
nebulous streams about the other stars of this group. In 1886 Mr. 
Roberts, by means of a photograph to which three hours' exposure had 
been given, showed the whole background of this group to be nebulous. 
In the following year Mr. Roberts more than doubled for us the great 
extension of the nebular region which surrounds the trapezium in the 
constellation of Orion. By his photographs of the great nebula in An- 
dromeda, he has shown the true significance of the dark canals which 
had been seen by the eye. They are in reality spaces between successive 
rings of bright matter, which appeared nearly straight owing to the in- 
clination in which they lie relatively to us. These bright rings surround 
an undefined central luminous mass. I have already spoken of this 
photograph. 

Some recent photographs by Mr. Russell show that the great rift in 
the Milky Way in Argus, which to the eye is void of stars, is in reality 
uniformly covered with them. Also quite recently Mr. George Hale has 
photographed the solar prominences by means of a grating, making use 
of the lines H and K. 

The heavens are richly but very irregularly inwrought with stars. 
The brighter stars cluster into well-known groups upon a background 
formed of an enlacement of streams and convoluted windings and inter- 
twined spirals of fainter stars, which becomes richer and more intricate in 
the irregularly rifted zone of the Milky Way. 

We, who form part of the emblazonry, can only see the design dis- 
torted and confused ; here crowded, there scattered, at another place 
superposed. The groupings due to our position are mixed up with those 
which are real. 

Can we suppose that each luminous point has no other relation to 
those near it than the accidental neighbourship of grains of sand upon 

B 2 



36 REPORT — 1891. 

the shore, or of particles of the wind-blown dust of the desert ? Surely 
every star from Sirius and Vega down to each grain of the light-dust of 
the Milky Way has its present place in the heavenly pattern from the 
slow evolving of its past. We see a system of systems, for the broad 
features of clusters and streams and spiral windings which mark the 
general design are reproduced in every part. The whole is in motion, 
each point shifting its position by miles every second, though from the 
august magnitude of their distances from us and from each other, it is 
only by the accumulated movements of years or of generations that some 
small changes of relative position reveal themselves. 

The deciphering of this wonderfully intricate constitution of the 
heavens will be undoubtedly one of the chief astronomical works of the 
coming century. The primary task of the sun's motion in space together 
with the motions of the brighter stars has been already put well within 
our reach by the spectroscopic method of the measurement of star-motions 
in the line of sight. 

From other directions information is accumnlating : from photographs 
of clusters and parts of the Milky Way, by Roberts in this country, 
Barnard at the Lick Observatory, and Russell at Sydney ; from the count- 
ing of stars, and the detection of their configurations, by Holden and by 
Backhouse ; from the mapping of the Milky Way by eye, at Parsonstown ; 
from photographs of the spectra of stars, by Pickering at Harvard and in 
Peru ; and from the exact portraiture of the heavens in the great interna- 
tional star chart which begins this year. 

I have but touched some only of the problems of the newer side of 
astronomy. Of the many others which would claim our attention if 
time permitted I may name the following. The researches of the Earl of 
Rosse on lunar radiation, and the work on the same subject and on the 
sun, by Langley. Observations of lunar heat with an instrument of his 
own invention by Mr. Boys ; and observations of the variation of the- 
moon's heat with its phase by Mr. Frank Very. The discovery of the 
nltra- violet part of the hydrogen spectrum, not in the laboratory, but from, 
the stars. The confirmation of this spectrum by terrestrial hydrogen in 
part by H. W. Vogel, and in its all but complete form by Cornu, who 
found similar series in the ultra-violet spectra of aluminium and thallium. 
The discovery of a simple formula for the hydrogen series by Balmer. The 
important question as to the numerical spectral relationship of difierent- 
substances, especially in connection with their chemical properties ; and 
the further question as to the origin of the harmonic and other relation* 
between the lines and the groupings of lines of spectra ; on these points 
contributions during the past year have been made by Rudolf v. Kove- 
sligethy, Ames, Hartley, Deslandres, Rydberg, Griinwald, Kayser and 
Runge, Johnstone Stoney, and others. The remarkable employment of 
interference phenomena by Professor Michelson for the determination of 
the size, and distribution of light within them, of the images of objects 



ADDRESS. 37 

•whicli when viewed in a telescope subtend an angle less than that sub- 
tended by the light- wave at a distance equal to the diameter of the 
objective. A method applicable not alone to celestial objects, but also to 
spectral lines, and other questions of molecular physics. 

Along the older lines there has not been less activity ; by newer 
methods, by the aid of larger or more accurately constructed instruments, 
by greater refinement of analysis, knowledge has been increased, especially 
in precision and minute exactness. 

Astronomy, the oldest of the sciences, has more than renewed her 
youth. At no time in the past has she been so bright with unbounded 
aspirations and hopes. Never were her temples so numerous, nor the 
crowd of her votaries so great. The British Astronomical Association 
formed within the year numbers already about 600 members. Happy is 
the lot of those who are still on the eastern side of life's meridian ! 

Already, alas ! the original founders of the newer methods are falling 
out — Kirchhoff, Angstrom, D 'Arrest, Secchi, Draper, Becquerel ; but 
their places are more than filled ; the pace of the race is gaining, but the 
goal is not and never will be in sight. 

Since the time of Newton our knowledge of the phenomena of Nature 
has wonderfully increased, but man asks, perhaps more earnestly now 
than then, what is the ultimate reality behind the reality of the per- 
ceptions ? Are they only the pebbles of the beach with which we have 
been playing ? Does not the ocean of ultimate reality and truth lie beyond ? 



EEPOHTS 

ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



I 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Report of the Corresponding Societies Comniittee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Galton (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas G-alton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Eawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
E. Meldola (Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. "W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Eivers, and Mr. "W. 
Topley. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association begs 
to submit to the General Committee the following Eeport of the pro- 
ceedings of the Conference held at Leeds. 

The Council nominated Mr. G. J. Sjmons, F.R.S., Chairman, Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., Vice- Chairman, and Professor R. Meldola, 
F.R.S., Secretary to the Conference. The meetings were held on 
Thursday, September 4, and Tuesday, September 9, at 3.30 p.m., in the 
Philosophical Hall. The Delegates (numbering 36) nominated by the 
Corresponding Societies to attend the Leeds Meeting were : — 

Mr. A. Tate, C.E Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- 
cal Society. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, M.R.I.A. . . Belfast Natui-alists' Field Club. 

Mr. Charles Pumphrey . . . Birmingham Natural History and Micro- 

scopical Society. 

Mr. J. Kenward, F.S.A. . . . Birmingham Philosophical Society. 

Mr. R. W. Atkinson, F.C.S. . . Cardiff Naturalists' Society. 

Mr. M. H. Mills .... Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- 
tution of Engineers. 

Mr. T. Gushing, F.R.A.S. . . Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- 
tory Club. 

Mr. W. Healey .... Cumberland and Westmorland Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Literature 
and Science. 

Mr. A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. . . East Kent Natural History Society. 

TEast of Scotland Union of Naturalists' 

Mr. Robert Brown, R.N. . . <| Societies. 

L Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 

Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S. . . Essex Field Club. 



42 



EEPORT 1891. 



Mr. D. Corse Glen, F.G.S. . 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, F.L.S. 

Provost Ross .... 

His Honour Deemster Gill 

Mr. J. E. Bedford, F.G.S. 
Mr. J. Stubbins, F.G.S. . 

Mr. F. T. Mott, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. G. H. Morton, F.G.S. 
Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S. . 

Mr. Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. . 
Mr. W. Watts, F.G.S. . 
Prof. J. E. C. Miinro, LL.D. . 
Prof. W. Hillhouse, F.L.S. . 

Dr. J. T. Arlidge, M.A. . 

Mr. C. A. Markham, F.S.A. . 

Mr. C. Hawley Torr 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, M.A., F.G.S. 

Mr. J. Reginald Ashworth 
Mr. A. Silva White, F.R.S.E. . 
Mr. W. Andrews, F.G.S. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. . 
Mr. J. W. Davis, F.G.S. . 

Mr. W. Cash, F.L.S. 

Mr. C. P. Hobkirk, F.L.S. . 

Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A. . 



{Geological Society of Glasgow. 
Natural History Society of Glasgow. 
. Hertfordshire Natural History Society 

and Field Club. 
. Inverness Scientific Society and Field 

Club. 
. Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 
. Leeds Geological Association. 
. Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific 

Association. 
. Leicester Literary and Philosophical 

Society. 
. Liverpool Geological Society. 
. Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society. 
Manchester Geographical Society. 
Manchester Geological Society. 
Manchester Statistical Society. 
Midland Union of Natural History Socie- 
ties. 
North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field 

Club and Archfeological Society. 
Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety and Field Club. 
. Nottingham Naturalists' Society. 
. North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers. 
Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society. 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society. 
Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archaeolo- 
gists' Field Club. 
, Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society. 



: 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union.' 



First Conference, Septembee 4. 

The chair was taken by Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., the Corresponding 
Societies Committee being also represented by Professor T. G. Bonney, 
F.R.S., Mr. W. Topley, F.R.S., Mr. J. Hopkinson, F.L.S., and Professor 
R. Meldola, F.R.S. (Secretary). 

The Chairman proposed that the report of the Corresponding Societies 
Committee to the General Committee, printed copies of which had been 
distributed among the Delegates, should be taken as read. This was put 
to the meeting and carried unanimously. The subjects dealt with in the 
report were then taken in order. 



Section A. 

Temperature Variation in Lakes, Bivers, and Estitaries.— The Chair- 
man stated that in connection with the work of this Committee, of which 
Dr. H. R. Mill was the Secretary, a large number of thermometers had 

» Three Delegates appointed under the rule which empowers a Society having its 
head-quarters in the place of meeting to send up this number of representatives. 



COREESPONDING SOCIETIES. 43 

been distributed throughout the country, and a good deal of information 
had been collected during the year. It was proposed to ask for the 
reappointment of the Committee with a grant to enable the observations 
to be tabulated. 

Mr. William Watts stated that he had been conducting temperature 
observations in two large reservoirs belonging to the Oldham Corporation 
during the last eighteen months. These results were included in the 
report of the Committee. Mr. Watts added that there was some pro- 
bability of the observations having to be discontinued for want of funds, 
although on his own part he was perfectly willing to carry on the work 
for another year. 

Mr. Cushing presented a record of weekly temperature observations 
taken in the River Wandle in Surrey. The temperatures were taken 
between 3 and 3.30 p.m. on Sunday afternoons, and extended from 
October 1888 to February 1890. The observations were taken at ten 
different stations, five of which are on the Carshalton and five on the 
Croydon branch of the river. The tabulated records were accompanied 
by a statement of the mean weekly shade temperature and the rainfall for 
the previous week, both being made up to 9 p.m. on the Saturday. The 
tables were also accompanied by a sketch of the district traced from the 
25-inch Ordnance map, showing the positions of all the stations, which 
were numbered from 1 to 10, and which corresponded with the positions 
in the temperature tables as read from left to right. The river is very 
shallow, but the tables showed some rather large mean differences ot 
temperature. While stations 1, 8, and 9 showed respectively the mean 
differences of 15-8, 16-2, and 177° F. ; station No. 5, where the water 
is only 18 inches deep, shows a mean yearly variation of only 0'7° F., 
while the mean variation of shade temperature during the same period 
was 38"7° F. These tempei'atures were taken at from 12 to 18 inches 
below the surface with a thermometer graduated on the stem and verified 
at Kew. The observations had been taken by Mr. F. C. Bayard, an active 
Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society and Secretary to the Croydon 
Microscopical and Natural History Club, which Society was represented 
by Mr. Cushing at the Conference. Mr. Bayard had expressed his 
willingness to continue the observations. 

The Secretary suggested that the results presented by Mr. Cushing 
should be handed to Dr. Mill, the Secretary of the Committee. 

The Chairman, having commented on the value of Mr. Bayard's 
observations, proceeded to state that he had recently been reducing 
experiments with respect to evaporation, which had been made during 
several years at Strathfield Turgiss in Hampshire, in which the ordinary 
small evaporators had been compared with a galvanised iron tank 6 feet 
square and 2 feet deep. The rough result was that the evaporation from 
the tank averaged about 15 inches per anniim, while the smaller ones 
(owing to the high temperature of the water) indicated an evapoi'ation 
considerably in excess of the truth. 

Meteorological Photography — Mr. Hopkinson alluded to the success 
which had been achieved by the Committee on Geological Photography, 
of which Mr. Jeffs was Secretary, and pointed out the growing import- 
ance of photography as an aid in other branches of scientific research. 
He suggested that the idea might be extended to meteorological photo- 
graphy, and that a Committee should be formed for carrying out this 
object. Photography could be advantageously applied to the investiga- 



44 REPORT 1891. 

tion of meteorological plaeuomena such as the forms of clouds, lightning 
flashes, the effects of storms, &c. It would be the function of such a 
Committee to collect the photographs and keep a register of them, which 
would be added to from year to year. The study of the forms of clouds 
would be more satisfactory if undertaken by a comparison of photographs 
than by di-awings. Mr. Hopkinson referred to the practical difficulty of 
photographing light clouds in a blue sky, and suggested that it might 
form part of the work of the Committee to investigate methods for 
eflecting this object. With respect to lightning flashes he stated that 
numerous photographs had been taken, some of which were very valuable, 
but others were useless owing to the failure on the part of the photographer 
to indicate the position of the plate in the camera. The advisabiHty of 
interesting the Corresponding Societies in the work was pointed out to 
the Delegates by Mr. Hopkinson, who also urged the special necessity of 
securing as soon as possible photographs showing the after-efi'ects of 
storms. It was proposed that a Committee of the Association with a 
small grant should be formed through Section A. If this Committee were 
sanctioned Mr. Symons and Professor Meldola would consent to serve on 
it, and Mr. A. W. Clayden, who had made a special study of the 
photography of clouds and lightning flashes, would be willing to act as 
Secretary. 

After some discussion as to the mode of procedure it was decided that 
application should be made through the Committee of Section A for the 
formation of a Committee on Meteorological Photography, and that 
the application should be also supported by a recommendation from the 
Conference of Delegates to the Committee of Recommendations. 



Section C. 

Sea Coast Erosion. — Mr. Topley stated that the Committee appointed 
for this purpose would be glad to receive any as.sistance. Some of the 
■Corresponding Societies had applied for forms, but nothing had as yet 
been done. Three years ago the Isle of Man Society had proposed to 
take the matter in hand and form a Committee. He believed some of the 
Yorkshire Societies were doing good work, but they had not yet received 
the results. 

Erratic Blocks. — The Rev. B. P. Knubley stated, with reference to 
the work of this Committee, that the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had 
been caiTying on the records satisfactorily, and that about twenty-five 
reports had been presented during the year. These had been sent to Dr. 
Crosskey, the Secretary of the Committee. 

Oeological Photography. — Mr. O. W. Jeff's stated that, through the 
action of the Conference of Delegates at previous meetings of the British 
Association, a Committee had been appointed for collecting and reporting 
on geological photographs. Very material assistance had been rendered 
to the work of this Committee by various Delegates from the several 
Corresponding Societies, many of which had sent photographs or lists of 
those that had been taken. All that had been done thus far was of a 
preliminary character, and had consisted in arranging the photographs 
which had been taken in order to select those which illustrated well- 
defined strata or sections. The work was by no means complete, and the 
report, which would shortly be presented, showed that a very large 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIEji. 45' 

proportion of the counties of England and Wales were as yet un- 
represented. Mr. JeS's asked those Delegates who had not yet done so to 
brino- the matter before their Societies, and to interest their photographic 
members in the work. The object of the Committee was to secure "hj 
systematic action in the various districts a series of photographs illustra- 
■tino- the features which geologists thought most worthy of being recorded 
in their respective localities. The only portion of England where the 
scheme had been .carried out to any extent was Yorkshire. The York- 
shire Naturalists' Union had adopted the photographic method, and had 
taken over 100 negatives. Mr. Hopkinson had brought the subject before 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, and he hoped to receive 
photographs from them shortly. A large number of the photographs 
which had been I'eceived would be exhibited in the room of Section C, 
and Mr. Jeffs invited the Delegates to inspect them. He added that the 
Committee would be glad to receive any suggestions from the Delegates. 
The counties from which photographs had been received were : — Dorset- 
shire, Cornwall (very few), Devonshire (very few), Isle of Man (several), 
Kent, Lancashire, Montgomeryshire, Nottmgham, a few from North 
Wales, Suffolk, and Shropshire, a large number from Yorkshire, and 
some from Scotland and Ireland. The list was manifestly very incom- 
plete, and he hoped that by next year's Report it would be considerably 
extended. Copies of the circular of instructions issued by the Committee 
were circulated among the Delegates. 

Professor Lebour asked if any steps had been taken with respect to 
the keeping of the photographs. 

Mr. Jeffs said that this matter had not yet been discussed by their 
Committee. They intended to keep the photographs until the collection 
had assumed a more complete form. A suggestion had been made to 
render some of the best examples more available to the Delegates and to 
the public, and more especially to those requiring them for educational 
purposes, by issuing them in the form of a publication, but the matter 
had not yet been properly discussed. 

Professor Bonney said that, as a member of the Committee on geo- 
logical photography, he was enabled to state that the work had hitherto 
been necessarily of a preliminary nature, and had been carried out by the 
zeal and energy of Mr. Jeffs. The question of publication would come 
before the Committee later on, and, speaking on his own behalf, he con- 
sidered it of great importance that some step in this direction should be 
taken. He expressed the opinion that the best destination of the photo- 
graphs would be to lodge them with the Geulogical Society if they would 
receive them. If an enlarged photograph were required for educational 
purposes, the negative could then be borrowed for the purpose. It would, 
of course, be a year or two before the photographs would be accessible. 
When a large collection had been accumulated, it would be most useful 
to select some thirty or forty of the more typical examples of geological 
phenomena and to have them enlarged for publica'ion. Professor Bonney 
expressed the opinion that, for the purposes of teaching, enlarged photo- 
graphs would be better than photographs taken on a large scale. 

The discussion was continued by Mr. W. Watts and Mr. Eli Sower- 
butts. The suggestions put forward by Professor Bonney were approved 
of, and it was pointed out that it would be desirable that the Correspond- 
ing Societies should have a list of the photographs already sent in to the 
Committee, in order to know which were wanted and which were not.. 



46 REPORT — 1891. 

Many members of the Mancliester Geographical Society had been taking 
photographs, and in time a large number of negatives would be collected, 
which the owners would, no doubt, be willing to place at the disposal of 
the Committee if it were known that they would be safely deposited in 
some accessible place, and a record giving the source and locality of each 
negative also kept. 

Mr. Jeffs stated in reply that a list of the views which had been 
received would be kept, and also a register for entering the name of the 
person responsible for borrowing a negative. He suggested that the 
Committee might make arrangements with some photographer for pre- 
paring lantern slides from the photographs at a fixed charge, for the 
purpose of lecture illustration. With respect to the photographs taken 
by the members of the Manchester Geographical Society, Mr. Jeffs said 
that their Committee would be very pleased to receive them whenever 
they were sent. 

Mr. William Gray stated that he was interested in the subject of 
geological photography in the North of Ireland, and he approved of the 
scheme put forward by the Committee, of which Mr. Jeffs was the Secre- 
tary. He had succeeded in securing a few photographs, which were 
sufficient to show the value of the method both as applied to this subject 
and to the erosion of the sea-coast. He expressed the opinion that it 
would be an advantage if each Delegate were appointed as the local repre- 
sentative of the Committee in his own district, and authorised to collect 
the photographs. There were many members of his society (Belfast 
Naturalists' Field Club) who had done a great deal of photographic work, 
but there was some amount of hesitation in forwarding negatives to the 
British Association Committee, which he thought would be got over if there 
were some person in the society directly authorised to collect the photo- 
graphs. Mr. Gray expressed his willingness to act in this capacity for 
the North of Ireland. He alluded also to the advantage of being able to 
get the photographs reproduced in the form of lantern slides, and stated 
that, if such slides were required for illustrating the physical features of 
the North of Ireland, he would be able to see that they were supplied at 
a reasonable price. Mr. A. Tate, on behalf of the Belfast Natural History 
and Philosophical Society, expressed similar views. 

Professor Meldola pointed out that, in taking photographs of geological 
sections, in which differences in the strata were often indicated only by 
small differences in colour, it would be an advantage to use orthochro- 
naatic plates. The colour differences were sometimes so slight, that the 
differentiation of strata would be imperceptible in an ordinary photo- 
graph, and he therefore expressed the hope that the Committee in their 
schedule of instructions would see their way to recommend the adoption 
of these plates, which, although somewhat more costly than ordinary 
plates, would give such superior results as to warrant their use. 

A further discussion took place respecting the desirability of adopting 
some means by which members of the British Association, and those who 
assisted in the work, would be enabled to procure copies of the photo- 
graphs either as lantern slides, prints, or enlargements. Mr. Symons 
suggested that the best plan would be for those members requiring copies 
to be allowed the temporary loan of the negative itself, while lantern 
slides should be prepared by some recognised person under the immediate 
direction of the Secretary of the Committee. In reply to a question by 
Mr. M. H. Mills as to whether any underground photographs had been 



COEEESPONDING SOCIETIES. 47 

taken, and if so, whethei- they bad proved to be of any value, Mr. Jeffs 
stated that no photographs of underground sections had yet been received. 



Section D. 

Disappearance of Native Plants. — Professor Hillhouse distributed 
among the Delegates copies of the third report of the Committee on 
this subject. He stated that the report had this year been confined to 
the North of England, the Isle of Man, and to a few records from the 
southern counties of Wales. The bulk of the material had been obtained 
directly by correspondence with the loCal Natural History Societies. 
The Committee were especially indebted to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, which had formed a committee of their own, the labours of this 
committee having largely contributed to the satisfactory results which 
had been obtained. There was still a certain amount of difficulty in 
inducing the representatives of the societies, to which circu^lars had been 
sent, to take steps in the matter, and he expressed a hope that the Dele- 
gates would do their best to promote the objects of the Committee. 
Although the Committee had not yet come to any definite decision, he 
thought that next year's report would probably deal with the whole of 
Wales, and possibly adjoining counties, and with the south-western 
counties of England, and Delegates from these districts were asked to 
bear this in mind. 

Professor Hillhouse then gave a resume of the report which had been 
presented, stating that it contained an account of the more or less com- 
plete disappearance from the localities mentioned therein of about seventy 
species. In some cases the disappearance had been due to natural causes — 
e.g., the encroachments of the sea on the Cumberland coast and elsewhere 
had brought about the disappearance of several littoral plants ; but in 
the great majority the handiwork of man had been recognisable. Dis- 
appearance through human agency he classified under two heads — per- 
sonal and impersonal. Impersonal action he illustrated by the results of 
building works, agricultural operations, drainage, &c., which cause con- 
stant changes in local floras. Thus the Isle of Man Brassica (B. monensis), 
first found by the famous botanist John Ray at the Moiragh, Ramsey, in 
1670, is in danger of extirpation there, and has already been extirpated 
at Douglas by building operations ; and the commonest of the scarlet 
poppies (Papaver rliceas) is greatly diminishing in the county of Cumber- 
land through the gradual abandonment of cereal tillage. It is only 
incidentally, however, that these impersonal changes affect plants of 
special interest, while the personal actions of man — that is, his actions 
directed intentionally at some particular plant — have naturally their chief 
influence upon plants of peculiar interest or beauty. Here again, as in 
previous reports, it is the ' collecting dealer ' whose ravages form the 
main burden of complaint. The Ladies' Slipper orchid (Oypripedium 
Calceolus), once not uncommon in Yorkshire, Durham, and Westmoreland, 
has well-nigh succumbed, and the hillsides, banks, and hedgerows are 
being rapidly stripped of their once abundant fei'ns. As an example of 
the systematic way in which this is done. Professor Hillhouse instanced 
the case of the Maiden Hair (Adiantum Capillus-veneris), which in the Isle 
of Man is regularly hunted for by men with boats and ladders, and sold 
to ' trippers ' in the Douglas market. He thought that the local Natural 



48 REPORT 1891. 

History Societies might do a great deal towards persuading holiday 
makers and tourists that it is far better, far safer, and, in the long run, 
far cheaper, to buy these plants from nurserymen who grow them, than 
to incur the trouble, expense, and risk of removing tbem at a time when 
the conditions are so unfavourable as they are during practically tbe 
holiday season, and that they might do something towards restraining 
the robbers themselves. 

Mr. Hopkinson stated that nearly the whole of the ferns in his dis- 
trict (St. Albans) had disappeared within the last twenty years. He 
attributed the extermination to the London collectors and dealers, and 
added that there was a danger of such a common plant as the prim- 
rose becoming exterminated in time from the London district, as they 
were taken to the metropolis by cartloads every year. 

Mr. Sowerbutts called attention to the inefficacy of the law of trespass 
in such cases, as no penalty can be inflicted unless damage is proved. 
He considered the worst depredator to be the botanical fanatic. 

Mr. Gray did not think that the true botanist would be guilty of such 
wilful destruction. Tbey had a special rule among their Society that no 
rare plant should be damaged or removed. One class of offenders to be 
dealt with were the persons who, without any knowledge of the habits of 
a rare species, liked to see it growing about their premises, and for this 
reason had it removed. If these persons were taught that it is often 
impossible for such plants to live away from their natural conditions their 
depredations might perhaps be checked. 

Mr. M. B. Slater said that he had known many lovers of plants in his 
district (Malton) who would tramp many miles in search of a rare species. 
Although in a sense these men were botanical fanatics he did not think 
that they were the depredators. It was the young beginner in the study 
of botany who, in his opinion, should be cautioned against exterminating 
any rare plant in his anxiety to procure specimens. He suggested that 
the best plan would be to endeavour to procure at the proper time a little 
ripe seed from the plant in its native habitat, and then to try and raise 
it. This would be the means of saving from destruction some of our 
greatest rarities. Mr. Slater had adopted this plan himself, and had 
growing under cultivation some of the rarer and most interesting of 
British plants. He believed the extension of agriculture to have been 
one great cause of the disappearance of local species, and by obtaining 
seeds, or even in extreme cases the plants themselves, some species might 
be saved from destruction. Although some practical difficulties might be 
encountered, he thought that with perseverance these would be overcome, 
and the student would certainly derive great advantage from trying to 
cultivate his plants. If successful he would thus attain a far better 
knowledge of their life histories, as he would be enabled to watch the 
plants through their various stages of growth. 

Investigation of the Invert ehr ate Fauna and Cryptogamic Flora of the 
British Isles.^The Rev. E. P. Knubley stated that no formal report of the 
work of this Committee had been presented to the Section, but that the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had been steadily carrying on the work 
during the past year. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 4? 



Section E. 

Mr. Sowerbutts made some remarks with respect to the scope of 
Geography, and suggested that detached papers on the geology, zoology, 
meteorology, botany, &c., of some particular region could be regarded ns 
coming under this science, and might with advantage be read together in 
a common Section-room. The discussion was continued by Professor 
Bonney, who considered the suggestion worthy of consideration, bub 
likely to meet with great practical difi&culties. 



Section G. 

Flameless Explosives for use in Goal Mines. — Professor Leoour stated 
that the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers 
were about to make experiments on this subject. They had recently 
obtained a grant of 300Z. for the experiments, but more would be re- 
quired. He appealed to other engineering societies represented at the 
Conference to co-operate in the investigation, which was of such general 
importance in mining districts. 

Mr. Mills said that the Chesterfield and Midland Counties Institute 
had not taken the matter up through their Council, but several indi- 
vidual members had been working at it, and the results would shortly be 
published. 

Section H. 

Catalogue of Prehistoric Remains. — Mr. Kenward said that the Bir- 
mingham Philosophical Society was fully alive to the importance of 
recording the few ancient remains in their district. He had done a great 
deal of work in this direction himself, and had induced others to promote 
the suggestions discussed at the Conferences at Bath and Newcastle, as 
well as to assist in carrying out the Archseological survey proposed by 
the Society of Antiquaries.' 

Mr. Gray stated that the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club had takeu 
the matter up in a systematic way, and would continue their co-opera- 
tion. 

At the conclusion of the Conference the Chairman remarked upon the 
advantage of being able to have at hand for reference the publications of 
the local Societies as collected by the Corresponding Societies Committee 
for the purpose of preparing the catalogue of papers which formed part 
of their annual report. He also called attention to the fact that a few of 
the older and well-known local Societies had not yet become enrolled as 
Corresponding Societies. 

Professor Meldola pointed out that this matter had already been dis- 
cussed at a previous conference (Bath, 1888) as well as by their Com- 
mittee in London. He thought that the work of the Conference of 

' The objects and mode of carrying out this survey were explained by Dr. John 
Evans, President of the Society of Antiquaries, at the Bath Conference in 1888. 
Rsport Brit. Assoc. 1889, p. 188. (Secretary Corresponding Societies Committee.) 
1891. E 



'50 BEPORT 1891. 

Delegates was row sufficiently well known, and that, althougli there were 
a few societies whose co-operation it would be extremely desirable to 
secure, no further approach could be made on the part of the Committee. 
It rested rather with the Delegates themselves to assist in securing the 
Societies in their own districts. 



Second Conference, September 9. 

The chair was taken by Mr. G, J. Symons, F.R.S., the Corresponding 
Societies Committee being also represented by Sir Rawson Raw son, 
Dr. Garson, Mr. Hopkinson, and Professor R. Meldola,F.R.S. (Secretary). 



Section A. 

Phenological Observations. — Mr. Symons made the following com- 
munication : — 

' Phenological observations, which may perhaps be said to have origi- 
nated with Gilbert White, although studied with care in Austria, received 
little attention in England until 1874, when the Royal Meteorological 
Society invited and obtained the assistance of Delegates from the Royal 
Agricultural Society, Royal Horticultural Society, Royal Botanic Society, 
Royal Dublin Society, and Marlborough College Natural History Society, 
who held several meetings, and eventually drew up an elaborate report, 
which, curiously enough, upon re-examining after the lapse of sixteen 
years, seems to show that practically few of the Delegates approved of 
it, although from motives of politeness they allowed it to pass. Flowering 
plants, insects, and birds were referred respectively to the Rev. T. A. 
Preston, Mr. McLachlan, and Professor Newton. Of plants the large 
number of seventy-one were recommended for observation, of insects only 
eight, and of birds seventeen. Mr. McLachlan, Professor Newton, Mr. Bell 
of Selborne, and Professor Thiselton Dyer all expressed the opinion that 
the list should be kept as short as possible, and although Mr. Preston's 
long list of plants was retained, it was resolved that special attention 
should be called to fifteen out of the seventy-one, by printing their names 
in capitals. 

' The Royal Meteorological Society undertook the cost and trouble of 
preparing and issuing the necessary forms, and from 1875 to 1888, both 
inclusive, the Rev. T. A. Preston prepared and the Society printed 
annual reports embodying the results obtained. Mr. Preston found it 
impossible to continue the work, and Mr. E. Mawley took it up and 
prepared the report for 1889. He has, however, arrived at the same 
conclusion as the authorities already quoted, and his recommendation to 
reduce and simplify the observations has been accepted by the Council of 
the Royal Meteorological Society, which now desires to enlist as many 
observers as possible, all of whom are to work according to the form, of 
which copies are submitted for consideration. 

' With this view the Council of the Royal Meteorological Society 
has endeavoured to obtain the assistance of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties on the British Association list, and it is with the same object that 
I have asked permission to bring these few words before this Con- 
ference.' 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 51 

Mr. Gushing said that the British Association had reported on this 
•subject at the Cambridge Meeting in 1845, and it was then abandoned 
until the Royal Meteorological Society took it up. As Mr. Symons 
had said, the list in 1874 comprised seventy-one plants, eight insects, 
•and seventeen birds. In 1883 the Society published a new schedule, 
which included seventy-nine plants, eleven insects, and twenty-one 
birds. After some years the list was reduced to thirteen plants, five 
insects, and five birds, and he asked why this reduction had been 
sanctioned. 

Professor Lebour raised the question why, among the plants, two 
species had been included which were among the most variable of British 
species ? 

The Rev. E. P. Knubley, with reference to the list of birds, said that 
the swallow had been included, but a large number of persons did not 
know the difference between a swallow, a swift, and a martin. It 
■occurred to him that it would be better to insert the sand-m;irtin in its 
place, because it was likely to arrive the first of the three. The nightin- 
gale, also included in the list, for all practical purposes ceased in the 
south of Yorkshire. The only places it had appeared so far north were 
in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, Leeds, and Harrogate. It had oc- 
curred at Scarborough once, and it might perhaps be heard near Harro- 
gate every three or four years. He suggested whether for this bird it 
would not be better to substitute the chifF-chaflr, the willow wren, or the 
redstart, which arrive about the same time and are of the same class. 
This remark applied also to the West of England, where the nightingale 
is unknown, and he thought that it would be better to have a bird which 
extended all over the country. 

Mr. Symons said that the nightingale was not included in the first 
schedule, but there was a strong feeling that the list of British birds 
would be incomplete without it, and it was therefore eventually inserted. 
He saw no reason why it should not stand, because he understood that 
the list represented only the minimum, and not the maximum, of species 
which might be recorded. 

After some remarks by Sir Rawson Rawson and Mr. Corse Glen, 

Professor Hillhouse called attention to the list of plants. He said 
there was a manifest objection to the free use of hedge plants, because 
the body of the hedge was often so protective that there might be two 
observers in close proximity watching the same species and yet quite 
diiferent dates might be entered, because of the prevailing direction of 
the wind at the season. In the next place, with regard to Cratoegus 
oxyacantha, they would not unfrequently find those plants which grew 
near or in the hedge flowering ten days before the normal period. He 
knew of two plants which were two forms of this species which grew 
side by side with interlacing branches, the periods of flowering differing 
by from seven to fourteen days. These were growing at the back of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. With respect to Bosa canina, he was not 
sure which of the eighteen to fifty forms could be identified with this 
name, but their flowering period extended over something like seven 
weeks. The records for this plant would, therefore, be very conflicting. 
Professor Hillhouse further suggested the advisability of omitting from 
the schedule the words : ' If, unfortunately, the first flowering be missed 
for a day or two, the observer is requested to give the estimated date of 
first flowering and to place an asterisk against the entry.' He was of 

B 2 



52 BEPOET— 1891. 

opinion that botanists would like to see this clause omitted, and thai; only- 
actual observations should be recorded. 

Mr. Symons, in concluding the discussion, stated that he had brought 
the matter forward on behalf of the Royal Meteorological Society, and 
as a meteorologist rather than as a naturalist. At the same time, the 
subject was one of equal importance to naturalists and meteorologists, 
and he expressed his thanks to those who had given hints and made 
remarks with the object of getting the observations made in the best 
possible way. He expressed a hope that the Societies represented at the 
Conference would be induced to assist in carrying on the work.' 

Temperature Variation in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries. — Professor 
Meldola read the following communication from Dr. H. R. Mill, the 
Secretary of the above Committee : — 

'The Committee has to thank the following local Societies for their 
assistance in obtaining observations, and to state that the work of Society 
observers is, as a rule, more regular and more accurate than that of 
isolated volunteers : — 

' Manchester Geological Society, Grantham Scientific Society, Roch- 
dale Literary and Scientific Society, Bristol Naturalists' Society, Cardiff 
Naturalists' Society, Burton-on-Trent Natural History Society, Bast 
Kent Natural History Society, Marlborough College Natural History 
Society, Northampton Natural History Society, Dumfries and Galloway- 
Natural History Society. 

' Several other Societies applied for information, and would have 
taken part in the work had there been a suitable river or lake in their 
neighbourhood. 

' It is desirable that the Societies already engaged in observations 
should continue to make them for another year with as much regularity 
as possible. Those which have not already taken it up will not be urged 
to do so, as a sufficiency of data for the purposes of the Committee is- 
now in course of being secured.' 

Meteorological Photography. — Mr. Hopkinson reported that the forma- 
tion of a Committee for this purpose had been sanctioned by the Com- 
mittee of Section A, and the form had been forwarded to the Committee 
of Recommendations.^ 

Section C. 

Professor Lebour stated that he had been asked to represent the 
Committee of this Section and to bring under the notice of the Delegates 
the following list of Committees recommended for appointment : — 

1. Erratic Blocks. — The work of this Committee had been explained 
at former Conferences, and the co-operation of those Corresponding- 
Societies which had not yet taken part in the observations was invited. 

2. The ' Geological Record.' — The continuation of this work had been 
recommended and a grant had been asked for to assist in carrying on its 
publication. 

' Mr. Symons distributer! copies of the schedule at the meetiDg. They can be 
had on application to Edward Mawley, Esq., Rosebank, Berkhampstead, Herts. 

= The Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman), Mr. A. W. Clayden 
(Secretary), Professor Meldola, and Mr. J. Hopkinson, has been appointed with a 
grant of 51. for preliminary expenses. (Secretary Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee.) 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 53 

3. Underground Waters. — -The work of this Committee had also been . 
several times brought before the Delegates, and the Secretary, Mr. De 
Ranee, was present to give any further explanations. 

4. Exploration of Oldburj/ Hill. — The exploration of this ancient 
earthwork, near Ightham, in Kent, had been recommended, with the 
special object of examining the supposed ' rock-shelters.' A committee 
had been formed for the purpose of carrying on excavations. 

5. Geological Photography. — This Committee, of which Mr. Jeffs was 
secretary, and the work of which had been discussed at the last meeting, 
had been recommended for reappointment with the addition of two 
•names. 

6. Northamptonshire Lias. — A committee for collecting and registering 
the fossils of this formation had been recommended for appointment, and 
excavations had already been commenced. 

7. Sea-coast Erosion. — This Committee, the objects of which had been 
■explained to the Delegates on former occasions, and of which Mr. Topley 
was Secretary, had been recommended for reappointment. 

8. Registration of Type Specimens. — A recommendation had also been 
sent in for the appointment of a committee for reporting on type speci- 
mens in museums, an important subject, in which great assistance might 
be rendered by the local Societies. 

9. Earth -Tremors. — This Committee, which had been referred to at 
former Conferences, had been recommended for reappointment, with 
Mr. Davison as Secretary. Professor Lebour explained that his occupa- 
tions left him no leisure for acting any longer as Secretary to this Com- 
mittee. 

10. Exploration of Elbolton Gave. — A committee had been formed for 
the excavation of this cave, which was near Skipton, and in which relics 
of human occupation had already been found. Some of the local Societies 
in Yorkshire might assist in the investigation. 

11. Source of the River Aire. — The object of the Committee appointed 
for the purpose of investigating this subject was to ascertain, if possible, 
by means of the coal-tar colouring matter, fluorescein, whether the water 
which flows out of Mai ham Tarn and disappears down a ' water sink ' to 
the south of the Tarn is the stream which emerges at Malham Cove or 
Aire Head, or at both these places. The use of the dye for this purpose 
had been suggested by Professor Meldola to Professor S. P. Thompson, 
and the latter had brought the subject before Section C in the form of a 
paper with the object of having a committee appointed for the purpose of 
carrying out the experiments. It had been suggested that the method 
might be found generally useful for investigating the course of under- 
ground waters, as a very small trace of the dye produced an intense 
green fluorescence, and had not the slightest injurious effect upon the 
water. 

Mr. C. B. De Ranee, who had also been requested to act as a represen- 
tative of Section C, made some remarks with respect to the work of the 
Underground Water Committee. The latter had been appointed in 1874 
and had just presented their sixteenth report. The objects of the Com- 
mittee were to inquire into the subject of underground water with a view 
to supply from wells or springs. A form of inquiry had been prepared 
in which questions were asked respecting the quality, quantity, and level 
of the water. They were particularly anxious to secure records of the 
water level extending over long periods of time ; they had reason 



54 REPORT — 1891. 

to' believe that many sets of observations of the level in welTs andl 
springs had been made daily or weekly during past times, and the- 
Committee thonght it highly important to secure these old records if 
possible. 

The work of the Coast Erosion Committee, which was appointed in 1882, 
had been carried on with important results, and much information had 
been derived from a study of old charts to which the Committee had been 
enabled to get access. The Committee on Erratic Blocks, of which Dr. 
Crosskey, of Birmingham, was the Secretary, was appointed in 1871 with 
the object of recording the exact positions of the more important boulders 
and, if possible, of entering these positions on the Ordnance map. Copies 
of these maps should be kept by the Societies taking part in the work, and 
copies should also be "sent to the British Association Committee. It was- 
important also to have a microscopical examination of sections of chips 
from the boulders made by competent geologists, so that the probable 
sources of the boulders might be ascertained. Another point in connec- 
tion with thi? subject, in which the Corresponding Societies might exert 
their local influence, was that the boulders where they occurred should 
not be left to the mercy of the stone-breaker, but should be preserved. 
This applied especially to public parks or gardens, where the local Socie- 
ties might well use their influence with the Corporations to induce them 
to have the boulders preserved and even placed in prominent positions,, 
where they might be readily accessible and at the same time secure from 
danger of demolition. 

With reference to the publication of the ' Geological Record,' Mr. De 
Ranee had been requested by Mr. Topley to bring the subject prominently 
before the Delegates. The woi'k was instituted, as was well known, by 
Mr. Whitaker in 1874, and entailed a large amount of unremunerated 
labour. The number of copies sold was insuSicient to meet the cost of 
publication, notwithstanding the grant made by the British Association, 
and unless more subscribers could be secured the publication would have 
to cease. The ' Geological Record ' Committee took the opportunity of 
appealing to the Delegates, and Mr. De Ranee on behalf of the Committee 
asked them to make known the character and scope of the work in order 
to increase the list of subscribers. Circulars for this purpose were dis- 
tributed among the Delegates. 

Professor Meldola made some remarks with reference to the proposed 
method for investigating the source of the Aire, after which he stated 
that he had been requested by Dr. Crosskey to render the thanks of the 
Erratic Blocks Committee to the Corresponding Societies for the aid 
which they had already given, and to express a hope that their assistance 
would be continued. Dr. Crosskey had forwarded for inspection a copy 
of a paper on the boulders of the Midland district, by Mr. F. "W. Martin, 
F.G.S., read before and published by the Birmingham Philosophical 
Society. This paper was accompanied by a map of the Midland District 
on the scale of two miles to the inch, and was considered by the Erratic 
Blocks Committee to be an example of the method of investigation which 
would yield the best results in this inquiry. In this paper attention had 
been paid to distribution of the erratics, tlieir grouping and various levels, 
their mixture with or freedom from local blocks, as well as to the import- 
ance of discriniinatiug between erratics distributed without regard to 
local hills and those that are gathered together in the valleys at present 
existing. A copy of the last report of the Committee will be forwarded! 



COREESPONDINa SOCIETIES. 55 

on application to any address sent to Dr. Crosskey, and a few copies 
of the map are also to be had by those Societies taking part in the 
work. ' 

Mr. J. W. Davis stated, with respect to the work of the Committee 
for investigating the source of the Aire, that some five or six years ago 
Mr. Walter Morrison, M.P., and several members of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, tried a number of experiments with aniline dyes, 
similar to that proposed by Professor S. P. Thompson, but they had 
all failed. 

Mr. Gray made some remarks with reference to the method of induc- 
ing the Corresponding Societies to take up the work of the various 
Committees. He thought that much force would be given to the represen- 
tations made by the Delegates to their Societies if the Committees which 
required the co-operation of the local Societies would send copies of their 
reports to and communicate directly with those Societies, pointing out 
that the work suggested by the Delegate was of real use and likely to be 
valuable to the Committee in carrying out the objects of the British 
Association. The Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, for example, had no 
Committees on Erratic Blocks or on Coast Erosion, but if these Association 
Committees sent their reports and a request for assistance he felt sure 
that many members of their Society would be glad to take these 
matters up. 

The Chairman, Mr. De Ranee, Mr. Hopkinson, and Mr. Corse Glen 
spoke in favour of Mr. Gray's suggestion. 



Section D. 

Professor Hillhouse stated that no new committees had been appointed 
this year by their Section which had any bearing on the work of the 
Corresponding Societies. 

Section E. 

Teaching of Geography in Frimary Schools. — Mr. Sowerbutts said that 
the Committee of this Section had had under consideration the teaching 
of geography in primary schools. He had undertaken to draw up a 
report on this subject with reference to the action of the local authorities, 
and especially so far as concerned his own district in Lancashire. The 
object of the report would be to make known how far the Government 
grant apportioned for technical education or allied purposes was made 
use of for the teaching of geography. His own experience went to show 
that the subject was much neglected, and he invited Delegates from other 
parts of the country to give information by sending in School Board 
reports or reports of municipal authorities dealing with educational 
matters, so that he might be able to present a fairly complete report to 
the Committee next year. He hoped by this means that pressure might 
be brought to bear upon the Government in order to have justice done 
to a subject of such importance. 

' The paper referred to appears in the Proceedings of the Birmingham Philoso- 
phical Society, vol. vii., Part 1., 1890. Dr. Crosskey 's address is 117 Gough Eoad, 
Birmingham. 



66 EEPOET— 1891. 



Section H. 

Committee of Aid for Anthropological Excavations. — Dr. Garson called 
attention to the existence of a Committee of Aid formed by the Anthro- 
pological Institute, and the purpose of which had been explained at last 
year's Conference of Delegates. He stated that every year there were 
many people who were desirous of carrying on, and who did sometimes 
carry on, investigations of this kind, but unfortunately discretion was not 
sufficiently mingled with the zeal displayed. This was, no doubt, due to 
an imperfect knowledge of the method of conducting such investigations. 
Owing to this want of knowledge a large amount of valuable material was 
often destroyed. Tor the purpose of aiding by direction or otherwise the 
exploration of ancient remains, a committee had been appointed in 1888 
by the Anthropological Institute, the chairman of this committee being 
General Pitt-Rivers, the Inspector of Ancient Monuments. Local Societies 
would find it to their advantage if they would report to the committee ot 
the Anthropological Institute when they were desirous of undertaking 
explorations. Due attention would be given to their applications, and, if 
thought desirable, the matter would be placed in the hands of some 
expert member of the Committee, every member of the latter being in 
some way a specialist; so that local exploring committees could have any 
assistance they required in the way of skilled advice in opening up 
barrows, earthworks, camps, &c. 

PreJiistoric Bemains Oommittee. — Mr. J. W. Davis said that this Com. 
mittee, of which he was the Secretai-y, was appointed in 1887. Since 
then four reports had been presented, which varied much in length, but 
of which the interest and importance had been well kept up. He expressed 
his conviction that if the various Corresponding Societies would take up 
the work the subject would become of the very greatest importance to the 
country generally. What was wanted was a record of everything that 
Lad reference to prehistoric man, his dwellings, implements, pottery, &c. 
A goodly number of reports had been promised, but it appeared that in 
many instances their compilation took a considerable amount of time. 
He hoped that next year they would present a much longer list than that 
which had been presented to the Section this year. Dr. Munro bad pro- 
mised a list of the lake dwellings of the British Isles ; and, amongst others, 
Mr. Gray, who represented the Belfast Society, had promised to send a 
one-inch map with the ancient remains in Ireland marked upon it. If 
they could get a complete map of the whole country similarly marked, 
this map, which would be the property of the British Association, would 
be of the very highest value, and the Committee would have accomplished 
most important work. He trusted the Delegates would inform their 
Societies what had already been done and what still remained to be done, 
so that they might be able to enlist the services of others who were 
interested in Archaeological research. 

At the conclusion of the business a discussion took place with reference 
to the best method for imparting to the Corresponding Societies through 
the respective Delegates a knowledge of what had taken place at the 
Conferences. Mr. Hopkinson suggested that each Delegate should read 
a'paper before his Society, giving an account of the line of work taken 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 57 

up by the various Committees, and that this paper should be published in 
the Society's Transactions or Reports as soon as possible. He distributed 
among the Delegates a paper of this kind which he had brought before 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society.^ 

Another question raised was the advisability of in some way bringing 
into relationship with the British Association those Societies which did 
not come up to the standard of excellence for enrolment as Corresponding 
Societies. It was stated that there were a large number of smaller 
Societies doing good work, but which were not in a position to publish the 
results of original investigations or to issue a publication. It was felt 
that much good would be done to these Societies if they could be afi&liated 
by some means, and allowed to take part in the meetings of the Con- 
ference, perhaps without having the privilege of sending a Delegate to the 
General Committee or of receiving gratuitously a copy of the annual 
■ volume of Reports. The matter was referred to the Corresponding 
Societies Committee for their consideration. 

On the motion of Professor Lebour, seconded by Mr. J. W. Davis, a 
vote of thanks was passed to the Chairman, Mr. Symons, and to Professor 
Meldola, the Secretary of the Conference. 

V^ With reference to the last point raised at the Leeds Conference, the 
Corresponding Societies Committee has to report that, after considering 
the question referred to, it is recommended that the attendance at the 
Conferences of representatives of local Societies which are not Corre- 
sponding Societies should be sanctioned on the understanding that these 
representatives are not actually enrolled among, and do not receive the 
privileges of, authorised Delegates. The Committee has also authorised 
its Secretary to supply any local Society which may apply for them 
with copies of the reports of the Conferences, the lists of Committees, and 
other information likely to be of use in furthering local scientific investi- 
gation. 

The Committee has received application from all the Societies now 
enrolled, and recommends their retention. It is further recommended 
to the General Committee that : — ..j 

1. The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 

2. The South London Microscopical and Natural History Society, 

3. The Tyneside Geographical Society, 

4. The Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 

should be enrolled as Corresponding Societies of the British Association. 

' This plan has been adopted in former years by the Delegates of the Manchester 
Geographical Society, the Isle of Man Natural History Society, the Essex Field Club, 
and the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (Secretary Corresponding Societies Committee). 



58 







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at Odsey G 
The Convers 


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Meteorologic 

during the 
Report on th 
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Abel, W. J. . 
Allan, G. E. . 


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Brown, J. 
Burder, Dr. G. 
Casartelli, Rev. 


C. 
Clark, J. E. . 
Comber, T. . 
Crosfleld, J. B. 
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BEPORT 1891. 






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Fielding, Ee 


Fingland, J 
Fitch, B. A. 


Fortune, E. 
Fowler, Rev 
Francis, H. 
French, J. 


Friend, Rev 


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CORRESPONDIN& SOCIETIES, 



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76 



REPORT — 1891. 



P-c2 



^ O -< 



^ O -( 



O^ t^ O^ »0 t^ Ci 

t- lo m eq (N 00 

IM I-H CO 1-1 



c» •* CO as 



> o 



o o o 

fe fe fq 



it> = <«>;a;r! 









^ ;: 









f"^ 



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■ ^ ^ K 



C5 



be 



P ccPS a 






KH ^ (EH . 






.o 






s o 



^^ 



.M 



O (B ^ to 



(P CO 



!^-g;3 



^"mh 









cS is ,1; w O 






p-fl §-« m-a s 



>>'2 






^ O 
63 



so 






w m «2i 



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"m -S '^ 
£ O <U 



;C-t 



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-a .2 



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pj S °° 
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H 


^ 


a 


a 

a 


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03 tC CC 
















COKRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 










77 


-o 


^ 


o 




^ 


o 


^ 


o 








^ 




o 


-1 O -H 








9> 


o 




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05 00 «0 


t- 


lO ^ -H (M O O CD 


^ 




CO 


<M 


O 


oq 00 


lO 00 


<M CO 


>o 






S t- 


i-( CO .<x 


«o 


o iM o »n CO T»( C30 


r— ( 






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= : 


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= 


: 


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cc 


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20 


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the Crustacea 
The Trichina spiralisand 
Calendar of Nature, 188 


o 
o 

00 

(-1 
o 

=H 

-)-:> 

!-< 
O 
Ph 

o 

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c 
"S 

^^ 

S be 

c '-3 
o a 

Ph 


S .2 M S =! 

"S Jj 0) S !- 

.fcl <u h ° tw o 

^ e -^ s o .^ 

"^ .£5 ^ .^<u -^ O 

H H[>Plz; 


<« .a 

O -i^ 

Ho ^ 
OH 


o.a 
.2^ 

.-H aj 
CO o 

o 


a 

w 


m «■ aj 
<u m (* 

s- O) O 

-si-o a 

.S'3 2 
0<3ffl 


H .. >-i 

CD O 

2.ai^ 

^S.2 

5 -Q SB 

° o.S S 


a £ ^ . iJ 2 .2 

--; CS ID „ Pnt-l 03 O J 

o"^.3cMs ^>^ £ 

m, — icoc3__,0 eg „ . ^ 
q3 -ta *^ .S O gro cS fl g 

S-a S £ oQ g-gfafa 
<l feSHco>HO 


(D 

"3 

a, o 

CC P4 

1 a; 

CD rv» 

&.2 

X' a 

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P5 


'd 


1-5 


1-5 
























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13 

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= : 


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s 


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1-5 

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i.bp 





78 



REPORT 1891. 



1 'O 

•§1 



rH O --^ O 



CO >o ■* to tH t- - 

05 t- Oi O r^ CO ! 



00 O "-H 



6 cS 

k s 



> > « ^ ^. 



.»o K 



: g § 5.- g 



•^^a;*^ 



It 



^ •^^ 



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^ 



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bo 



o o ^ o 

OD CQ ■ OD 
. ■ . t* . 

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(^jO 



s« 



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CO o b 



^ f5 be 



P g 03 
K -43 S 



gS . 

;=! o g 

to OJ 

Q O ■• 

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05 o fe 



WW 


> 




a &> 


-< 


oS 






^g- 


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Is 


t'^ 




■"iz; 



i3 cS 

a bp 
=■ S 

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OH a 

t^ o 

0) a ■ 



■S t* 





S 


a; 


fc 




bprxi 


















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> 


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ctf 


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c3 


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c« 


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a> 


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tsl 



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o^ 






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» faB c« O 'S ^ 








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f:> 


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QQQ W fefe 



C0BRE8P0NDING SOCIETIES. 



79 







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■I t> 



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<o o ■ 



bflft 



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ca o 



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■a s 






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ri £1, (u W 

m (-, (3 

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ill &I r1 

1 g fl ., tS o <-■ 
P H 






<^ 



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- „ o 
o n a 

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re ^ 



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t-i o o 

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53 -S 



80 



REPORT — 1891. 



rt o ^ o 

(J3 O^ Ci OT 
CO QO CO 00 



-^ O ^ 



r-l 00 CO 



i-( O CO t- . 



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CD OS ■* lO 



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Ph 



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•77 to CI H 



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cS >| O <B Cl 



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t> ® <D m ° g (U 



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^^s.g 

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CL, Ph Oh 



<i . 

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KM 



CC 1-5 



PL| 

P5 1-; 



■S =^ 3 



kS 



° a a a a 



03 to '-C H H H 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



-HO -HO 



00 00 ' " 00 oo 



-HO— O -H 

Ci Ji OS * as OS 

00 00 00 ' 00 03 



ccoot-cs:^rco^>' 



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1^ 






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s; s ^ s 



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0) o 

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c« 



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a 8 



ID 



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S ^ *" r& 'C 

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r^ 




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s 


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a 


^ as 

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H 



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o 9 c6 ;3 

^ 03 C S 

S o M ^ 



^1 ^"'l-l l§l iH 

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i5ajo iSdrt'-'^coRT' Sot* 



^^^ 9 S a 






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H<1 






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,,-1-5 . (s fa 5 

r-: £ . > -a . S hh" ■ 

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e *^ 

o cf^fe 

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c & 1: *? 
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a if .a 



^- ^ ^ ^ ^ 
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o M,5j a => 1) 

«P555h ■p 



REPORT 1891. 









O I—, 



So ~ 



g-a 



OH H 



Ci 



CO 



'd P SI -^ 



M ,_( V r- HH kJ 



• e, 






c;c, c;K 



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w 






Q, 03 M 



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c3 Q 



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;=i^ a 






O r^ 



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a 'a 

s ^--^ 

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s g s -g a 

0) fl-l 



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1 tj)S 



"^ - c3 2 



5s .i: 
S ? « r- a 

"S a -^ ^ "-■ 
c 5 ^ .2 S 

^ '^ 'Ti 



K r'' 



t» 0) 



fl fe m 









<D 



C'C 



^ PL, btg: « - ^ s ^ 



ii§^?^ss 



,d <u a 



, v5 „, rt .2 



O O 



Ph'72 • r! ^ f^ I^ "S -^ 

a 



O d 

S 5 "S'2 



, ;3 o 0) CD 

' " ^ J3 x: 

H H H 



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a 15 rS> ^ cS 
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C ^. ; 



gcb ^- 



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n o 

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cs .t; I-. 

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■3 S >> >^ 9 ] 

-S ■3 t3 (U m ' 

Sag fc -^, ' 

£. n 1-1 l2 cS . 

C5 cDO W T 



COEBESPONDINQ SOCIETIES. 



o 00 GO u: <-! 

H i-( eo CO OS 



M -H —I rt '-' 



sS ^ '^ ti H 



n ^ M 



. . s 



« d ^q 



O Ph o 



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a 


•ft •§ 


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tao 


les 

Safety L 
A.pparatu 
n of the 


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3 



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83 



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r-^ 00 O^ i-H CO -^ A 

^ 00 lO lO (M O 00 

■* rt (M CO .-I 



G 'O '-O 






jxj '=o '^' 



s^ 









e;^ f^^ ^c!; 



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OH 



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M 


c«"'^ 


rt 




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cr 



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nology 

n Camp at Spring 
aarian Discoverie 
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uggleby ' Howe ' 
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84 



REPORT — 1891. 



O^ G^ tAJ T^ "-w »»•' *'-' " ' 









KM '" 






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a 






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1. 



02 



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■g ° 
ffl ij^ >_; 



g O 



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t* to i3 _2 

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u "S .5 -S 

b (§ i£ 5 M 

-ti L, r^ ^ *C 

Q) <U ^ 1^ 






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q!^ So 



:a iiM 8-^ 



S 2 c3 



15 c £ 






g _flj O 01 0) ^ 






i C o 



/30 



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^° 









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Sec ■ 



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m o o 

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fl S -^ «2 S R.r=^ O S 



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W 



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H 
fiC3 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEEMODTNAMICS. 85 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. Larmor aoid 
Gr. H. Bryan, 07i the present state of our knotdedge of Thermo- 
dynam,ics, specially with regard to the Second Laiv. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed among the Reports.] 

Paet I. — Researches relating to the connection of the Second Law 
WITH Dynamical Principles. Drawn up by G. H. Bryan. 

Introdiidion. 

1. The present report treats exclusively of the attempts that have 
been made to deduce the Second Law of Thermodynamics from, purely 
mechanical principles. 

Before considering the several methods in detail it may be well to sum- 
marise the meaning of the various terms which enter into the mathe- 
matical expressions of the laws of thermodynamics, with a view of showing 
more fully what conditions must be kept in view in establishing the 
dynamical analogues. This has been done more or less fully by several 
authors of papers on the subject, but more especially by von Helmholtz 
in his paper on the ' Statics of Monocyclic Systems.' ' The substance of 
this paper will be dealt with more fully later on in the present Eeport, 
but we will now mention the principal points touched on in the introduc- 
tion. 

2. Meaning cf the Second Laiv. — Let a quantity c?Q of work in the 
form of heat be communicated to a body whose absolute temperature is 6. 
Let E be the internal energy of the body, dW the work done against 
external forces by the change in the configuration of the body which 
takes place during the addition of dQ. It is not assumed that the 
external forces are conservative. 

Then the First and Second Laws are expressed by the equations 

dQ=d^ + dW (1) 

dq=edS (2) 

where dS is a perfect differential of a quantity S, called the entropy, whose 
value depends only on the state of the body at the instant considered. 

The essential principle involved in the Second Law does not lie solely 
in the fact that dQ, has an integrating divisor 0. In fact, if we assume 
that the state of a body is completely defined by tivo variables x and y, it 
must always be jDOSsible to put dQ in the form 

dQ='M.dx + 'Ndy, 

where M, N are functions of x and y only. And it is always possible to 
find an integrating factor for an expression of this form. 

Moreover, if one integrating factor can be found for dQ, an infinite 
number of such factors can be found. For in equation (2) let .s be any 
arbitrary function of S ; then we may write the equation in the form 

dQ=e'^ds. 
ds 

' Crelle, Jmirnal, vol. scviii. 



86 KEPORT 1891. 

Hence if 

V=6^ (3) 

as 

we have 

dQ=r,ds (4) 

BO that 7j as well as 6 is the reciprocal of an integrating factor of clQ, or, 
as we may call it, an ' integrating divisor ' of clQ,. Since dS/ds may be 
regarded as a function of S, we see that the product of the temperature 
into any arbitrary function of the entropy of a body is an integrating 
divisor of (?Q, and therefore possesses properties analogous to 6 in equa- 
tion (2). 

Hence the absolute temperature $ is not fully defined by equation (2), 
and the Second Law of Thermodynamics is not, therefore, completely 
proved by the establishment of an equation of this form. 

3. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the other property by 
which temperature is characterised, namely, that heat always tends to pass 
from a body of higher to one of lower tem-perature, and in particular that 
if two bodies in contact have the same temperature there ivill be no transfer- 
ence of heat between them. 

The Second Law of Thermodynamics consists in the fact that among 
the integrating factors of dQ there is one whose reciprocal, 6, possesses 
the properties of temperature just mentioned. 

4. But, nevertheless, without considering the properties of thermal 
equilibrium between difierent bodies we derive one very important infer- 
ence from equation (2) — namely, that the thermal condition of a system 
whose parts are in thermal equilibrium can be completely defined by a 
single coordinate, or, in other words, that the consideration of thermal 
phenomena only adds one to the total number of coordinates otherwise 
required to fix the state of a dynamical system. 

5. Impossibility of a Perfectly General Mechanical Proof. — To reduce 
the First Law of Thermodynamics to the principle of Conservation of 
Energy it is only necessary to assume that heat is some form of energy ; 
no hypothesis is required as to what particular form this energy takes. 
It was natural, therefore, that physicists should at a very early date 
endeavour to reduce the Second Law in like manner to a purely dynami- 
cal principle, and the jirinciple of Least Action naturally suggested itself 
as the pi'obable analogue of Carnot's principle. But here a limitation at 
once arises f.om the necessity of giving a dynamical meaning to dQ, the 
energy communicated to the system in the form of heat, and of separating 
dQ, fi'om — dW, the energy communicated in the form of mechanical 
work. 

6. This limitation requires that some special assumption shall be made 
regarding the nature of heat, and the natural and almost inevitable 
assumption is that every finite portion of matter is built up of a very 
large number of elementary portions, called molecules, and that the form 
of energy known as Heat is due to the relative motion of the molecules 
among themselves. 

But, fui'ther, these molecules must be characterised by some peculiar 
property, such as their (practically) infinitely large number whereby 
their dynamical properties differ in some manner from those of a finite 
number of particles or rigid bodies. For without such a distinction it 
would be impossible to deduce any dynamical equations involving dQ, 



ON OUR KNOWLliDGK OV THERMODYNAMICS. 87 

the work performed on the system through the coordinates defining the 
positions of the molecules and not involving —dW, the work performed 
through the coordinates determining the external configuration of the 
system. The two portions of the work could only enter together into the 
equations in the form fZE. 

In other words, it is impossible to deduce the Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics from purely mechanical principles without making some 
axiomatic assumption regarding the nature of the molecules whose motion 
produces the phenomenon of heat. 

7. The question now arises as to what dynamical quantity represents 
temperature. We have good reasons for believing that, in gases at least, 
the absolute temperature is proportional, either to the total mean kinetic 
energy, or to the mean kinetic energy of translation of the molecules. 
But if this or indeed any other hypothesis be adopted it will be necessary, 
before the mechanical theory of heat is complete, to prove that (1) the 
molecular kinetic energy is an integrating divisor of clQ, ; (2) it deter- 
mines the thermal state of a body in relation to other bodies. 

Most of the earlier writings are concerned only with the first property. 
But a complete mechanical proof of the Second Law would involve a 
mechanical definition of temperature applicable to all kinds and states 
of matter, together with an explanation on dynamical or statistical laws 
of the principle of degradation of energy in non-reversible processes; and 
we are still far from arriving at a satisfactory solution of either of these 
problems. 

8. It will be convenient to classify the methods by which the problem 
has been attacked as follows, under three headings corresponding to the 
three different fundamental hypotheses which underlie them : — 

I. The Hypothesis of ' Stationary ' or ' Quasi-Periodic ' Motions as 
adopted by Clausius and Szily. 

II. The Hypothesis of ' Monocyclic Systems ' of von Helmholtz, and 
similar hypotheses. 

III. The Statistical Hypothesis of Boltzmann, Clerk Maxwell, and 
other writers on the Kinetic Theory of Gases. 

9. Rankine seems to have been the first who attempted to deduce the 
Second Law from dynamical principles. As early as 1855 he published 
a paper ' On the Hypothesis of Molecular Vortices,' ' in which he obtained 
•equations analogous to those of thermodynamics; and in a paper read at 
the British Association in 1865 - he explained the Second Law on the 
hypothesis that ' heat consists in any kind of steady molecular motion 
within limited space.' such as that due to circulating streams. Both of 
Rankine's hypotheses are special cases of Helmholtz's ' Monocyclic 
Systems.' 

Boltzmann seems to have been the next to take up the subject, but his 
•claim to priority has been disputed by Clausius, whose investigations 
appeared about five years later. Boltzmann was undoubtedly the first to 
regard the subject from a statistical point of view. 

Szily laid claim to the discovery of the connection of the Second 
Law with Hamilton's Principle of Least Action, and he may fairly be 
entitled to the credit of having propounded this connection. But most 
of his early investigations are not only wanting in rigour, but in many 
oases so inaccurate that they do not prove the connection at all. 

' Phil. Mac/. 1855, pp. 354, 411. " Ibid. 1865, p. 241. 



88 REPORT— 1891. 

Clerk Maxwell's theorem, named after its discoverer, was tlie first 
attempt at a kinetic analogue of thermic equilibrium. It was generalised 
by Boltzmann, and afterwards further generalised by Maxwell himself ; 
but the latter extensions are probably incorrect, as we shall see here- 
after. 

Having thus briefly mentioned the earliest researches on the present 
subject, let us turn to a consideration of the papers themselves, beginning 
with the writings of Clausius and Szily. 

Section I. — The Hypothesis of Stationary or Quasi-Feriodic Motions. 

10. Clausius and Szily. — In 1870 Clausius showed that when a sys- 
tem of particles is in stationary motion, the mean vis viva of the system 
is equal to its virial.' About a year later he gave a proof of the Second 
Law, based on the laws of motion, in a paper entitled ' On the Second 
Axiom in the Mechanical Theory of Heat.' - The methods of proof 
employed by Clausius in this paper are very laborious and complicated, 
while his arguments are artificial and, in places, not very intelligible. 

Soon after Clausius' paper had appeared, Szily endeavoured to show 
that ' what in the mechanical theory of heat is called the Second Law is 
nothing other than Hamilton's Principle of Least Action.' ' The proofs 
which Szily gave are, in many places, quite at variance, not only with 
the principles of dynamics, but also even with the laws of Thermo- 
dynamics themselves. Thus he repeatedly mistook f?E for cZQ, and tried 
to show that fZE/T is a complete difierential (a result not in general 
true) ; moreover, in endeavouring to account for the principle of degra- 
dation of energy in a non-reversible cycle, he altogether ignored the First 
Law, and supposed some of the molecular energy of the system to be 
actually lost or annihilated by friction, viscosity, or imperfect elasticity 
of the molecules, or by other similar resistances. In consequence he had 
to employ methods of proof that were far from rigorous, and even, in 
many instances, illogical. 

Szily's papers seem, however, to have had one good eSect — namely, 
that of stimulating Clausius to remodel his investigations in a simpler 
and more intelligible form. Those who care to examine the original 
papers of these writers will find them translated in the volumes of the 
' Philosophical Magazine ' from 1871 to about 1876. Among them is a 
paper by Szily,^ in which he claimed to have deduced the Second Law 
from the First ' without any further hypothesis whatever.' Yet Szily 
based this investigation on two hypotheses which are hardly more 
axiomatic than Carnot's principle. 

11. Clausius' Methods. — It would be useless to enter into further criti- 
cism. We now proceed to give a proof of the Second Law based on 
the methods of Clausius, with the object of bringing into prominence the 
more salient features of his investigations, and of presenting them in a 
concise form. 

The assumptions which form the basis of Clausius' proof may be stated 
as follows : — 

(i.) In the steady or undisturbed state of the system the motion of 
the molecules shall be stationary or quasi-jjeriodic ; in other words, the 
potential and kinetic energies of the molecules shall fluctuate rapidly 

' Phil. 3Iag. vol. xl. (1870), p. 122. - Ihid. vol. xlii. (1871) (September). 

» Hid. vol. xliii. (1872), p. 339. * Ihid. V. series, vol. i. (1876), p. 22. 



ON ODR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 89' 

about their mean values, and there shall be one or more ' quasi-periods,' 
i, satisfying the definition which will be given in the course of the proof 
(equation 13, infra). 

(ii.) When the state of the system is changed (as by the communica- 
tion of heat or by changes in the volume or external configuration of a 
body), such changes shall be capable of being treated as small variations 
of the motion from the state of steady motion. 

Helmholtz, in his paper on Monocyclic Systems, makes a similar as- 
sumption — namely, that the changes in the state of the system shall take 
place so very slowly that the motion of the system at any instant differs 
infinitesimally little from a possible state of steady motion. Tliis is the 
exact equivalent of the assumption always made in treating the Second 
Law from a physical point of view — namely, that heat is communicated 
to or taken from the working substance so slowly that at every instant 
of the process the temperature of the body is sensibly uniform through- 
out. 

12. With these assumptions, let the positions of the molecules be 
determined in the first instance by the Cartesian coordinates (*, y, z) of 
the particles (iii) forming them. 

Suppose that the state of the system also depends on the values of 
certain other coordinates, p^, p.2, &c., which, as suggested by J. J. Thom- 
son,' we shall call the 'controllable coordinates' of the system; to this 
class belong the volume of the body, the charge of electricity present 
on it, or any coordinates which can be acted on directly from without. 
The values of these latter coordinates will enter into the expression for 
the potential energy of the system. 

Let T=kinetic energy of sjstem=^^^in{x'^ + y- 4- P) . 

V=potential energy. 
E=total energy=T-FV. 

In Thomson and Tait's ' Natural Philosophy,' part i. § 327, it is 
shown that 

8 {''2Tdt=^^m{iSx + y8y + ^Sz)T+ NsT-^mixBx + ySy + zsAdt (5) 

But by D'Alembert's Principle we always have for the motion of the 
system 

whence 

^m(x8x + y8y + zSz)=-'^(^^^8x + ^l8y+'^^^8z^ . . (6) 

Now, V is a function not only of the molecular coordinates {x, y, z) 
but also of the controllable coordinates 2h> P-2i ■ • • ^^^ these latter are 
also liable to variation. Hence for the complete variation of V we have 

' Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, p. 94. 



90 REPORT 1891. 

Here the terms 

represent the woi-k done on the system by variation of the controllable 
coordinates — i.e., the external work performed on the system. Hence, if 
8W denote the external ivorlc performed by the system, as in § 2, we have 

^l^Bp=-8W (8) 

Substituting in equation (5) from (6), (7), (8), in succession, we have 

8\l'2T:dt=[^m(x8x + ySy + iSz)T+(\8T + SY + 8W)dt . (9) 

But if 8Q represents the variation of energy communicated through the 
molecular or uncontrollahle coordinates, we have, by the Principle of Con- 
servation of Energy' (equation 1), 

8Q=SE + SW = ST + 8Y + SW. 

Therefore (9) gives 

z['2Tdt=\^m{x8x-Vy8y + ~h)T+[^8qdt . . (10) 

Let t2 — ti=i, and let mean values with respect to the time be indi- 
cated in the usual way by a vinculum drawn over them, then the last 
equation (10) may be written 

8(2iT) = [^m(x8x + ySy + i8z)T '+i.Jq -. . (11) 

whence 

8Q 8(2iT)_ [^^"^"^^-'' + ^^^ + ~'^^U' ■ . . (12) 
T~ iT ~ /T 

Hence, if we assume the quasi-period i to be defined, as postulated 
(assumption 1), by the relation 



[^i«0tS.« + 7/S2/-H~S.)]''=O. . . . (13) 
=S21og (iT) = Slog(iT)2 . . (14) 



we shall have 

8Q_ S(2iT ) 
T~ tT 

13. Equation (14) is analogous to the thermodynamical equation (2) 
when written in the form 

o 

the mean kinetic energy of the molecules T taking the place of the 
absolute temperature 6. 

Thus Carnot's principle is proved for reversible transformations, pro- 

' This step was omitted by Szily, who fell into several errors in consequence, and 
it is not explicitly mentioned in Clausius' writings. 



ON ODK KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 91 

vided that the absolute temperature of a body is proportional to the mean 
kinetic energy of its molecules taken over a quasi-period of their motion. 
But to complete the proof it would still be necessary to show that a 
quantity proportional to the mean kinetic energy of the molecules fulfils 
the properties of temperature stated in § 3. The investigations on this 
point will be considered in Section III. 

The hypothesis that the quasi-period i is very short compared with, 
the time required to communicate a finite quantity of energy through the 
molecules is tacitly involved in our regarding 8Q as a small variation. 
On this hypothesis the value of T will vary very slowly, and T may 
therefore be regarded as a continuously varying function. Hence, in 
considering what takes place over a considerable number of quasi-periods, 
we may replace the sign of summation by that of integration, and thus 
obtain 

J;t"^t~ °^,T, 

the suffixes 1, 2 referring to the initial and final state of the body. 

14. The hypotheses involved in the definition of the quasi-period i by 
means of equation (13) call for some comment. In his paper ' On a New 
Mechanical Theorem relating to Stationary Motions,' ' CJausius gives a 
rather more general form of the theorem, in which he supposes that there 
may be different quantities i corresponding to different molecular co- 
ordinates ; but in this case it seems to be necessary, according to him, 
that in the varied motion all the i's shall be altered in the same ratio. If 
such is assumed to be the case, S log i will be the same for all. Hence 
we shall obtain for the portion whose quasi-period is i 

8Q=2T8 1ogi-|-28T, 

and, therefore, for the whole body 

28Q=22T . S log i-|-282T ; 

or, if we remove the signs of summation and let the quantities refer to 
the entire system, 

8Q=2T81ogi + 28T, 
whence 

^^=28(logiT) (14) 

as before. 

If we assume that each molecular coordinate {x, for example) always 
fluctuates in the same periodic time i, so that the corresponding velocity 
X vanishes at the times i,, ^j+i, <i+2i, &c., then the relation defining 
the corresponding t, 

r -]'='>+' 
mxhx =0, 

will be satisfied identically, and there will be no difficulty about the 
matter. When, however, the molecular motions do not possess even this 
amount of periodicity, Clausius gets over the difficulty by arguments of 
the following general nature : — If we are dealing with a body of finite 

' Phil. Mag. vol. xlvi. (1873), p. 236. 



92 BEPOKT 1891. 

dimensions, the molecalar coordinates (.r, y, z) mnst fluctuate between 
certain finite limits, and hence 8a;, 8y, Sz, cannot increase indefinitely with 
the time. Hence by taking the time i sufficiently large we must have 
ultimately 

^ Vm(rcSa! + i/S(/ + 3Sz) 

£..} 1 — ^=« ■ • (i^> 

since the numerator does not increase indefinitely with i. 

Now, it appears to me that the statements printed in italics are open 
to objection. There is no reason why 8,v, 8y, Sz should not increase con- 
tinually with the time until they can no longer be regarded as small' 
variations, and it seems highly probable that this ivill happen under 
certain circumstances. Take, for example, the case of a gas formed of a 
number of hard spherical molecules colliding with one another, the 
lengths of the mean free paths being great compared with the radius of 
each sphere. If the direction of motion of one of these spheres be varied 
very slightly, then at the next impact there will be a considerable altera- 
tion in the direction of the line of centres.* After the impact, therefore, 
the variation in the direction of motion will be very greatly increased, 
and a similar increase will take place at each impact, until at last the 
molecule will no longer collide with the same molecules as in the original 
motion, but will come into collision with quite a different set. By this 
time there will not be the slightest connection between the original and 
the varied motion. 

15. I would therefore suggest that the existence of a ' quasi-period ' 
i, as defined by (13), can be better explained by arguments of a statistical 
nature based on the immensely large number of the molecules present in 
a body of finite dimensions. In the steady or stationary motion of such 
a body, it is reasonable to assume (as in the kinetic theory of gases) that 
the velocities of the molecules are on the whole equably distributed as 
regards direction. Thus, for example, the average number of molecules 
for which x is positive and lies between ?t and u-^du is equal to the 
average number for which x is negative and lies between —u and 
— {u + dii) . 

Moreover, in the disturbed motion the displacements (Ss, hj, 82) of 
any molecule cannot depend in any manner on its velocity components 
(x, y, z). It is of course quite possible to conceive a disturbance of the 
motion in which some fixed relation exists between the displacements and 
the velocity components of the molecules — indeed, we might choose the 
relation to be any we please — but a disturbance of this kind would only 
be possible if the molecules were individually controllable ; in other words, 
the displacements could only be brought about by means of Clerk Max- 
well's ' demons,' and it would then be reasonable to suppose that the 
Second Law would fail altogether. 

Hence in any physically possible variation of the motion the terms 
involving positive and negative velocity components in the expression 

'^miiSx + yhj H- z8z) 

■will on the whole cancel one another, and therefore the average value of 
the expression will be zero. This proves Clausius' Theorem. 

' This is easily exemplified by means of billiard-balls. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THEBMODTNAMICS. 93 

It should be noted tbat Clausius introduces the conception of a 
* phase ' in dealing with stationary motions, but this is not an essential 
feature of the proof, and it only modifies the form of the equations. I 
have therefore dispensed with it. 

16. Connection with Hamilton's Principle. — Although Thomson and 
Tait have based their proof of the Principle of Least Action on equa- 
tion (5), the above investigations do not show more than a very indirect 
connection between that principle and the equation (14) which corre- 
sponds to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Had we used general- 
ised coordiuates to represent the positions of the molecules, equation (6) 
would have been replaced by Lagrange's generalised equations of motion, 
and the connection would hardly have been any closer, depending only, 
as it would have done, on the fact that Lagrange's equations could be de- 
duced from the Principle of Least Action, and that equation (14) would 
have been deduced from Lagrange's equations. 

Clausius recognised at the very outset of his researches the fact that 
Hamilton's principle could not be applied directly to the case of a 
system of molecules in which the variation of the motion was accom- 
panied by the performance of external work through the controllable 
coordinates of the system. For, as he puts it, Hamilton's principle only 
holds good when, in the varied motion, the Ergal has the same form as a 
function of the coordinates as in the original motion.' By the co- 
ordinates Clausius here means the molecular coordinates only, for he 
considers the controllable coordinates as variable parameters which enter 
into and affect the form of the potential energy or ' Ergal.' In consequence 
of this fact Clausius claimed that his equations involved a new principle 
which was of more general application than Hamilton's principle. We 
shall, however, show (i.) that, by means of a certain assumption as to 
the form taken by the external work, a system can be formed to which 
Hamilton's principle is directly applicable ; (ii.) that the principle leads 
immediately to the analogue of the Second Law in the form of equation 
(14) ; and (iii.) that the assumption made does not really interfere with 
the generality of the proof. 

17. Our assumption is that the external forces, acting on the control- 
lable coordinates of the body, belong to a conservative system. This 
system we may, for convenience, call the ' external system.' When the 
body performs external work 8W, the potential energy of the external 
system increases by 8W. Hence we may denote this potential energy by 
W. The external system and the original body, when taken together, 
form a complete dynamical system, to which Hamilton's principle can be 
applied ; for the potential energy of the complete system is a function 
only of the generalised coordinates of the system. 

Moreover, in the complete system the increment of the total energy is 
=SE + 8W=8Q by (1). Hence the total energy may be denoted by Q 
where 

Q=E-|-W=T-fY + W, 

the total potential energy being U where 

U=V + W=Q-T. 

Let P\, Pi . . . denote the generalised coordinates of the complete 
system, q^, q2 . ■ . the corresponding velocities, so that <7„=p„ ; and let 

» Fhil. Mag. vol. xliv. (1872), p. 365. 



94 EEPOET 1891. 

«i, s^, .... he tlie corresponding generalised momenta. Let p^ be taken 
as a type of the controllable coordinates which define the configuration of 
the external system, ^j^ as a type of the uncontrollable coordinates which 
define the positions of the molecules in the body. Since the energy of the 
external system is assumed to be wholly potential, 

.: s„=^ =0 (16) 

O'la 

With the present notation the two general forms of the equation 
expressing Hamilton's principle are 

Sr(T-U)tZ^=r2s8pT-Q8t . . . (17a) 

and 

sr2T(^^=r^s8p r+*sQ . . . (in) 

Of these the latter form must be used. Assume i to be so chosen as to 
satisfy the relation 

which, since s„=0, may also be written 

[SVpJ=0; .... (18) 

a relation identical with that assumed in equation (13) and justifiable in 
a similar manner. 

Equation (17b} now becomes, on introducing mean values, 

8(2iT)=t-8Q, 

giving, as before, equation (14), 

8Q _ 

-^=S2log(iT). 

It might at first sight appear as if the assumption as to the conserva- 
tive nature of the external forces imposed a serious limitation on the 
generality of the theorem, and, in fact, prevented its application to cyclical 
processes. But this is really not the case. To remove the limitation it is 
only necessary to suppose that the external system contains certain connec- 
tions by which periodic motion of the body is converted into progressive 
motion of some of the external coordinates, as exemplified in the crank 
of a steam-engine. In other words, the external energy W must be a 
multiple valued function of the controllable coordinates of the body. 
From equation (18), i depends only on_the state of the bodv, not on that 
of the external system, and evidently T depends only on the state of the 
body. Hence, if the initial and final states of the body be the same, 
although the initial and final states of the external system may be different, 
we must have 

f|=0 ..... (19) 



ON OCR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 95 

Since the external system of conservative forces may be chosen to be 
any we please, equation (19) mast be true for any cyclical process what- 
ever, whether or not accompanied by the production or absorption of 
external work. 

This, then, is the closest connection which exists between Hamilton's 
principle and the kinetic analogue of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 

VV"e might avoid the necessity of constructing a different multiply 
connected field of external force to suit each cyclic process by adopting a 
generalisation of the principle of Least Action, but this generalisation 
would no longer belong to the forms given by Hamilton. Thus we might 
suppose W, and therefore Q, to be a function of the time. This would 
not affect the form of (17a), but in (176) iBQ, would be replaced by 

SQdt—i.e., iSQ. 

A slightly different method adopted by Helmholtz in his papers on 
' Least Action ' (Crelle, 'Journal,' vol. c.) leads to the same result. He 
supposed the generalised external force components P^ to be functions of 
the time only; in this case we must write 2(PaPn) instead of W, and, 
therefore, B + 2(P„F„)=Q. 

18. Under the present section of this Report must be mentioned 
Prof. J. J. Thomson's theorem that 'when a system consisting of a very 
great number of molecules is in a steady state, the mean value of the 
Lagrangian function has a stationary value so long as the velocities of 
the controllable coordinates are not altered.' ' 

This ' theorem ' is nothing more or less than Hamilton's Principle of 
Least Action, which is enunciated in a form identical with the above 
by von Helmholtz in his paper on Least Action.^ In fact, if in equation 
(18) we write 

H=U-T, 
and assume the variation to be so chosen that 

8;=0, [2s,Sp,]^=0 .... (19) 

we have at once 

8{'B.dt=0, 

whence 

8(iH)=0, 
or by (19) _ 

SH = 0; 

so that H has a stationary value. 

The function H, which is merely the Lagrangian function with its 
sign changed, has been termed by Helmholtz the Kinetic Potential. 

The mean value of this function is the dynamical analogue of the 
quantity in the theory of heat which is called the Thermodijnamical Poten- 
tial by Duhem and Massieu, the Force Function of Constant Temperature by 
J. Willard Gibbs, and the Free Energy by Helmholtz himself. 

The fact that, for a system which undergoes reversible transformations 

' Apjdloatums of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, p. Ii2. 
^ Crelle, Journal, vol. c. p. 139. 



56 REPORT 1891. 

only, the tliermodynamic potential is a minimum, is thus identical with 
the principle of minimum action. For non-reversible processes the 
thermodynamic potential tends to a minimum, and this fact expresses the 
principle of degradation of energy involved in the Second Law, though as 
yet the corresponding dynamical property has not been worked out. 

J. J. Thomson's applications of his ' theorem ' have no bearing on the 
subject of this Report, as they do not depend to any extent on the 
dynamical aspect of the question. 

Section II. — Hypotheses based on the Properties of Monocyclic Systejas. 

19. The peculiarity of the theories to be discussed in this section is 
that they are not in themselves statistical. They do not therefore postu- 
late the existence of an infinitely large number of molecules the motion 
of which, taken individually, is uncontrollable. Instead of this, the funda- 
mental hypotheses on which they are based have reference to the forms 
of the kinetic and potential energy as functions of the coordinates of the 
system. Thus the equations of motion of any finite system of rigid bodies 
fulfilling the necessary qualifications will give rise to equations analogous 
in form to those which represent the laws of Thermodynamics. 

Under the present category may be classed Rankine's very early 
theories, already mentioned, Helmholtz's papers on the statics of Monocyclic 
Systems,^ and the proof of the Second Law given by J. J. Thomson in 
his ' Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistiy.' Boltzmann has 
endeavoured to show how a system satisfying the properties of a mono- 
cyclic system may be derived from statistical considerations, but this 
investigation naturally falls under Section III. of this Report. 

Rankine's hypotheses call for no comment, being only very special 
cases of those of Helmholtz. 

20. H. L. F. von Helmholtz on the Principles of Statics of Monocyclic 
Systems. — As no account of these papers has hitherto been given in Eng- 
lish, we shall now consider them somewhat fully. The introductory por- 
tion has already been noticed in §§ 2, 3. 

Helmholtz defines a polycyclic system as a dynamical system containing 
one or more periodic or circulating motions. If there is only one such 
motion, or if, owing to the existence of certain relations between the 
velocities of the diflFerent parts of the system, the circulating motions can 
all be defined by a single coordinate, the system is called monocyclic. 

As in other investigations the coordinates of the system fall under 
two classes — those which, following the suggestion of J. J. Thomson, 
we have called ' controUahle ' coordinates, and those defining the in- 
ternal or circulating motions within the system, which that writer calls 
' unconstrainahle ' coordinates. In applying the results to Thermody- 
namics, the latter coordinates are those which fix the positions of the 
molecules, and thus define the thermal state of the body; they may, 
therefore, be called ' molecular ' coordinates. 

A polycyclic or monocyclic system is assumed to possess the following 
properties : — 

(i.) The kinetic and potential energies of the system do not involve 
the actual values of the molecular coordinates which define the circulating 
motions, but only depend on their generalised velocities or rates ol 
change. 

' ' Principien der Statik monocyclischer Systeme,' Crelle, Journal, xcvii. pp. Ill, .S17. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 97 

These coordinates are therefore r/i/rosfatic or, as J. J. Thomson calls 
them, ' speed ' coordinates. The present hypothesis seems to assume that 
the molecules exert no mutual forces except those due to impact or un- 
yielding constraints. At any rate, if there be any other molecular forces 
they can only depend on the controllable coordinates of the system. 

(ii.) When the state of the system is changed the changes take place 
very slowly, so that the velocities of the controllable coordinates are small, 
and so also are the acceleratious of the molecular or gj-rostatic coordiuates. 
(This corresponds to the second assumption in § 11 ) 

21. Let the generalised coordinates of a polycyclic system be denoted 
by ^, the generalised velocities by (7, the generalised momenta by s, and 
the generalised force components exerted by the system, in the direction 
of jj increasing, by P ; also, let the suffix a refer in each case to the con- 
trollable coordinates, and b to the molecular coordinates of the system. 
Let T=kinetic energ}-, V= potential encrgj-, H=V— T, so that H is the 
Lagrangian function with its sign changed. 

The general equations of motion give 



'^ dt' ^ a^ c)(/ 

dt \ dq J dp 



(20) 



la consequence, however, of the assumptions (i.) and (ii.) we have 

= 0, qa=0, S„ = r~=0 . . (21) 

"whence the generalised equations for the polycyclic system become 

" ^^« I . . . . (22) 



^ dt dt LBt'i, J 



Hence if (ZQ is the total energy communicated through the gyrostatic 
coordinates j,, in time dt, we have 

A^=-^V,q,dt=+^q^:^\lt=^q,d^, . . . (23) 

Also, if the Lagrangian function has not been modified, or if, in other 
words, no gyrostatic coordinates have been ignored, T is a homogeneous 
quadratic function of the quantities q,^, and hence in this case 

2T=^q,/, (24) 

22. The simplest form of monocyclic syatem is that containing only 
one gyrostatic coordinate 5,, ; here 

dq=q,ds, (25) 

Thus q,, is an integrating divisor of dQ, and by § 2 the product of q^ 
with any function of s,, is also an integrating divisor of dQ. In par- 
ticular 

2T=g,.., (20) 

.-. '^=2di\ogs,) (27) 

1891. K 



98 KEPORT — 1891. 

Moreover, if E=T + V is the total energy of tbe system, 

dq=dE + ^{FJp,:) .... (28) 

so that clQ, is the analogue of the quantity of heat communicated to a 
body. 

Hence equation ('27) is analogous to the Second Law of Thermodynamics 
as given by equation (2), on the assumption that the kinetic energy T takes 
the place of the temperature. 

If S is the quantity corresponding to entropy in (27), we have on 
integration 

S=2(log S(,— log A), where A is a constant. 

This may also be put in the form 

S=logT + log(^j .... (29) 

Here s,,/qi, is of no dimensions in time ; hence Si,lqi, is a function of length 
only, and the expression for S is exactly analogous to the corresponding 
formula for a perfect gas — 

S=cJoge + {c,-c,)]ogv + G . . . (30) 

If (ji, is of the nature of angular velocity, so that qj. is of no dimensions 
in length, s,,t will be of dimensions [L]'^, and therefore Sjjq,, will be of 
dimensions [L]'^. But v is of dimensions [L]^, hence by comparing the 
dimensions of the quantities in (29), (30), we must have (c^j — Cj,)/c^=§, 
.•. c^,^=^Ci„ and this is the relation between the specific heats of a mon- 
atomic gas. 

23. Helmholtz next considers the more general case in which there 
are several velocity coordinates q^,, and he investigates the relations con- 
necting them on the assumption that dQ has an integrating divisor. 
Writing 

dQ='^qi,dsi^=\d(T .... (81) 

it is evident that the required conditions will be satisfied by assuming 
that the equation 

dq=0 (.32) 

has an integral of the form 

F(s^)=o-=constant .... (33) 

and that 

8F 
2^=^97, (^'i> 

The conditions that the kinetic energy should be an integrating divi- 
sor are also found. If the Lagrangian function has not been modified, 
Helmholtz finds that the kinetic energy is in every case an integrating 
divisor of dQ, provided that the geometrical relations between the motions 
of the various coordinates are ■purely kinematical, or such as could exist 
in nature. 

24. It has, however, been pointed out by Boltzmann, in his remarks on 
Helmholtz's paper,i that Helmholtz's proof of this theorem is based on 

1 Boltzuiann, 'Ueberclie Eigenscliaften monocyclischer Systeme,' Crelle, Journal, 
xcviii. p. 86 ct seq. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 99 

the assumption that dQ, has an integrating divisor ; or, in other words, 
that the solution of the equation 

dQ=0 

can be expressed in the form of a single primitive. Under such circum- 
stances, the proof shows that the kinetic energy of the system must 
necessarily be one of the integrating divisors of dQ. But, on the other 
hand, there may be cases in which the equation cZQ.=0 does not possess 
a solution in the form of a single primitive, and Helmholtz's investiga- 
tions are not applicable to such cases. 

In fact the theory of differential equations shows that the equation 

dQ='Sq,,ds^=0 

does not in general lead to a single primitive of the form (33) 

r(S(,)= constant. 

In order to obtain an integral of (32) it is therefore in general necessary 
to assume certain functional relations between the variables. In other 
words, we must assume the existence of certain geometrical equations 
connecting the different parts of the system, and this is equivalent to 
imposing certain constraints whereby the number of degrees of freedom 
of the system is reduced. Helmholtz finds that the kinetic energy T 
will be an integrating divisor of dQ, provided that the assumed geometri- 
cal equations are purely kinematical, and in this category are included all 
forms of constraint which are possible in a perfectly conservative dyna- 
mical system. 

There are, however, as Helmholtz has shown, certain cases in which 
(32) has for its integral a single primitive of the form (33), and in these 
cases it is not necessary to assume the existence of geometrical equations 
representing constraints on the system. Such a polycyclic system possesses 
properties identical with those of a monocyclic system, and, although the 
gyrostatic coordinates are independent, the kinetic energy is always an 
integrating divisor of dQ. 

It is probable that Helmholtz's geometrical equations can be interpreted 
thermodynamically as the conditions that the different parts of the body 
may be all at the same temperature. Unless this condition is satisfied we 
know from purely physical considerations that dQ has not in general an 
integrating divisor. 

25. The limitations, as well as the meaiaing of ' purely kinematical ' 
geometrical conditions, are, however, more clearly shown in Helm- 
holtz's second paper,' in which he deduces the analogue of the Second 
Law by means of an application of the principle of similitude, as follows : 
The geometrical conditions are considered purely kinematical when they 
allow the rate at which the system is moving to be varied without vary- 
ing the relations between the coordinates of tlie various parts. Thus 
corresponding to any state of motion of the system we may obtain another 
possible state of motion of the system by supposing all the velocities of 
the system increased n fold, provided that proportional alterations be 
made in the external forces (P) of the system. In the new motion the 

' Crellf, Journal, vol. scvii. pp. 317-322. 

H 2 



100 REPORT — 1891. 

same changes will take place in a less time ; hence, if we use accented 
letters for the original motion, we shall have generally 



q—aq 
s-=.ns' 



(35) 



The effect of communicating a quantity of energy dQ, through the 
speed coordinates of such a system will be to increase the rate of working 
of the system, and therefore to increase n. 

Now we have 

= u'^{ruds\) + ndn^{ri,^^) . . . (36) 

But when the rate is constant, c7h=0 ; cZQ=0 ; 

.-. ;^(2V7s',)=0 .... (37) 

which defines the monocycle. 

/. dq = ndn^{q',/,) .... (38) 
But 



.-. ^^Q=^^=2J(log«) . . . (39) 

T n 

The quantity corresponding to entropy — viz., 2 'log h — log (constant) } 
differs from that given by the method of Ciausius, but the two investiga- 
tions are easily reconciled. For writing (36) in the form 

dCl^ndn^{q\s\)+n''-\d^{(^,s\)-'^{s\dq:,)]=0 . (40) 
the assumption made in Clausius' method is that 

5(-s'„%'0-0 (41) 

and under such circumstances 

dq,=ndn-2T +ri?d2T .... (42) 

cZQ^rfQ^2dri 2rZT' 
•• T n'T T T'" 

=2'i(lognT')=2(ilog(T/») . . (43) 

which agrees with (14). 

26. By far the most interesting part of Helmholtz's papers is 
ihat in which he has investigated the dynamical analogue of thermal 
equilibrium between two or more bodies of equal temperature. Of this 
portion we will now give a brief sketch. 

If two bodies of equal temperature are placed in contact, the state 
of either body will be unafiected, and the system, taken as a whole, will 
be subject to the two laws of thermodynamics. 

The dj'-namical analogue to be investigated is that of two monocyclic 
systems coupled together by means of geometrical connections between 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 101 

their molecular coordinates only (not between their controllable co- 
ordinates) in such a manner that the motions of the two systems are 
individually unaffected by the coupling, but that the coupled system 
forms a single monocyclic system. Corresponding to equality of 
temperature we must have equality between two integrating divisors of 
(7Q for the two monocyclic sj'stems, and tliese integrating divisors must 
always remain equal so long as the two systems are coupled together. 

Such being the conditions imposed upon the problem from thermal 
considerations, Helmholtz investigates the general form of the integrating 
•divisors for two monocyclic systems in order that this condition may be 
fulfilled — i.e., that equality of these divisors may bo the criterion of 
the possibility of coupling the systems. This kind of coupling he calls 
' isoniorous.' As simple instances of such coupled dynamical systems 
the following are mentioned : — 

(i.) Two revolving wheels may be coupled together by joining their 
axles if their angular velocities are equal. If either wheel carries a 
Watt's governor or centrifugal regulator in which the distance of the 
revolving balls from the axis is controllable, the angular velocities of the 
two wheels can thus be equalised just as two bodies may be brought to 
the same temperature by applying suitable pressures. 

(ii.) Two circulating streams of liquid in annular vessels can be com- 
bined into a single stream wherever their linear velocities are identical, 
and the necessary conditions may be secured by suitably varying the 
form and dimensions of the containing vessels. 

The principle of limited availability when heat is converted into 
work by reversible processes depends on the impossibility of controlling 
the individual molecules of a body : all that we can do is to commu- 
nicate heat to the body by placing it in contact with another body, which 
must be at the same temperature if the process is to be reversible. Cor- 
responding to this property we must make the hypothesis that in a 
monocyclic system it is impossible to operate directly on the gyrostatic 
coordinates by means of external forces, but that work can only be 
communicated through these coordinates by coupling the system with 
another monocyclic system, and that the coupling must be ' isomorous.' 
If this assumption be made, the monocyclic system will evidently possess 
properties corresponding to the principle of limited availability. 

27. Let T/i and 172 be the required integrating divisors for tlie two 
systems, so that whenever rji^r] and ^2='7 tlie systems can be coupled 
together. Let the corresponding entropies be a-, and cto ; then for such a 
coupled system we must have 

(ZQ,=7yr7o-i "1 

dq,=y,da., } . . . (44) 

.-. dq =dq^+dq.2=7]:i(<7i+<T.:^ J 

therefore 77 is an integrating divisor of (?Q for the entire coupled system. 

Any other integrating divisor will be the product of t; with an arbi- 
trary function of the corresponding entropy (§ 2). But the kinetic 
energies Ti, T2, Ti+Tg are integrating divisors of cZQ,, r7Q,, and (?Q 
(since the coupled system is supposed to be monocyclic). Therefore 

T,-=»7,</.(^,) ) 

T,=r,,ilf(a,) I . . . . (45) 



102 KEPOET 1891. 

■whence 

x(<T,+cT,)=<l.(<T,)+iI;(cro) . . . (46) 

giving, on differentiating first with regard to cr^ and then with regard 

to 0-2, 

x"=o. 

Therefore on integration 

<f,=a + cai I . . . (47) 

ij/=h + C(r2 J 

But if s,, S.2 be the generalised momenta corresponding to the gyro- 
static coordinates of the two systems, we have 

dQ2=2T,d\ogs,=-r}da.2} • • • • K'*°-^ 

From (45), (47), and (48) 

2rZ log .,= >'-) 

'^ + ''*^'L .... (49) 
2dlogs,= /pJ 

.*. by integration, ^(a-i)=a + co-, = (si/a)^'^[ /'t;n\ 

where a, /3 are constants. Substituting in (45) we find 

.... (51) 






V-2 

These, then, are the most general forms of 17,, tj., possessing the two 
qualifications by which temperature is characterised — namely, (i.) Carnot's 
principle and (ii.) the property of defining the state of a body in relation 
to its thermal equilibrium with another body. 

28. There is still another condition to be satisfied in finding a kinetic 
analogue of temperature — namely, the property that if two bodies, A and 
B, are in thermal equilibrium, and if A and C are also in thermal equi- 
librium, then B and C will be in thermal equilibrium. 

This imposes on our monocyclic systems the condition that whenever 
a system (1) can be coupled with either of two systems (2) and (3), the 
systems (2) and (3) can also be coupled together. The examples already 
given of wheels revolving with equal angular velocity and of circulating 
streams are instances of the fulfilment of this condition. 

In all such cases the ge(<metrical equations connecting the coordinates 
of the coupled bodies must be of the form 

^i='A2=X3 • • • • • (52) 

where <^i only involves the coordinates of the first body, i/^o those of the 
second, and xs those of the third. 

Applying § 23, we see that if F (si, Sj) denote the entropy of the 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 103 

system formed by coupling (1) and (2), the geometrical equation (34) 
gives 

iL= 2a (53) 







5s7 


8P 

9^2 








\ — / 


and this must be 
form (52) 

Therefore 


reducible, 


after dividing out 


by a 


common 


factor, 


to the 








12 


• 


• 


• 


(54) 



where *'(si) is a function of s, alone and ^'(sj) is a function of Sg alone 
Therefore, comparing (53) and (54), we must have 

dF dF 



Putting 
(55) gives 



. (55) 

Hs,)=.\^'(s,)ds„ n^o)=\^'(s,)ds, . . (56) 






(57) 



The integral of this can be written in the form 

X(F(s,S2))=X(o-)=$(si)+*(«2) + . . (58) 

where X denotes any arbitrary function of F or cr. 

Equation (58) determines the general form of the quantity correspond- 
ing to entropy in the system formed by coupling the two monocyclic 
systems (1) and (2) in a manner satisfying the conditions of the present 
problem. 

Moreover, in the individual systems we have by (56) 

t ... (59) 

so that the quantities q\/^'(^i) ^^^ 22/^(^2)) which are equated when 
the systems are coupled, are integrating divisors of dQ^ and tZQ,. This 
kind of coupling is therefore 'isomorous,' and is analogous to the thermal 
contact of bodies at the same temperature. 

29. Thus Helmholtz has shown that all the thermodynamical pro- 
perties of matter can be represented dynamically by means of monocyclic 
systems which are capable of being coupled together. In coupling such 
systems it has been assumed that — 

(i.) The forces acting on the controllable coordinates are unaffected, 
so that only the motions of the molecular or gyrostatic coordinates are 
connected together, and the coupled system is monocyclic. 

(ii.) The geometrical equations connecting the two systems can be put 
in the form ^i=i/'2, so that </>, and 1/^2 possess the same properties which 



104 EEPOET 1891. 

cliaractorise temperature as the criterion of tbermal equilibrium between 
two or more bodies. 

It has also been deduced that </>! and ij/^ are integi-ating divisors for 
the two respective systems, so that tliey satisfy the definition given by 
Carnot's laws. 

The only other property of heat — namely, the principle of limited 
availability — follows at once on the hj^pothesis of § 26 as to the uncon- 
strainable nature of the gyrostatic coordinates of the system, and the 
analogue is therefore complete. 

30. Helmholtz is almost the only writer who has made any attempt 
at a complete mechanical theory of heat. The other writers have simply 
endeavoured to show that an equation of the form (2) can be deduced 
from dynamical considerations by assuming that the kinetic energy due 
to the uncontrollable motion of the system takes the place of temperature. 
This assumption is not necessary in Helmholtz's investigations — a great 
advantage considering our uncertainty as to the nature of temperature. 

Although the properties of temperature are explained by means of 
monocyclic systems, it cannot be said that they are ])roved. on these 
hypotheses. Thus, it would be very easy to couple a monocyclic system 
with two other systems in such a manner that the two latter could not 
also be coupled together — as, for example, in the case of revolving wheels 
connected together by cogs. What Helmholtz has done is to show the 
possibility of dynamical analogues and the conditions they must satisfy, 
rather than to establish an analogy between all dynamical systems and 
heated bodies. 

The omission of the work done by intermolecular forces also intro- 
duces certain restrictions on the generality of the proof. In the vortex 
atom theory of matter no difficulty of any kind presents itself, because 
the vortex atoms are essentially monocyclic in character ; but on Bosco- 
vich's hypotheses there will be difficulties, although these difficulties do 
not appear insuperable. There seems, for example, no reason why the 
molecular potential energy should not be controllable, in which case the 
work done by the intermolecular forces would be of the nature of 
available energy — available, that is, through the controllable coordinates 
of the body. Thus, for example, if we suppose a number of molecules 
enclosed in an envelope at rest under their mutual repulsions, and if we 
imagine the envelope to expand so that the distances between the mole- 
cules are increased, the intermolecular forces do work in expanding the 
envelope, and the whole of this work will be available. Thus there is 
nothing impossible in such an hypothesis. But it cannot be regarded as 
axiomatic, and can only be justified if it is found to accord with observed 
phenomena, among which must be included the Second Law itself. In 
fact, it must not be forgotten that the object of all such investigations is 
to discover theories which will account for facts, and not to prove facts 
by means of theories. 

31. Professor J. J. Thomson's Proof of the Second Law. — The investi- 
gation now to be considered is one which in its principle and fundamental 
hypotheses is intimately related to Helmholtz's researches, although the 
method of proof is somewhat different. I refer to the proof of the Second 
Law given by Prof. J. J. Thomson in his ' Applications of Dynamics to 
Physics and Chemistry,' chap. vi. §§ 46-49. It is in connection with 
this investigation that the author introduces the terms ttnconstrainahle 
and controllahle, which he uses to distinguish coordinates defining the 



ON OUIl KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 105 

states of the molecules of a body individually from those which define the 
state of the molecules in the aggregate. 

It was stated in § 24 that, under certain circumstances, a polycyclic 
system may possess exactly the same properties as a monocyclic system, 
even though the coordinates defining the circulating motions of the 
system are all independent. The system considered by J. J. Thomson 
belongs to this class, for the necessary conditions are secured by the 
assumption which the author makes in the following statement concerning 
the kinetic energy due to the molecular or ' unconstrainable ' coordinates 
«i of the system : ' — If the term 

^[(uti,)u-+ . . . } 

involves any ' controllable ' coordinate <f), then it is evident that this co- 
ordinate <f> must enter as a factor into all the terms in the form expressed 
by the equation 

i{(«w)"'^+ . . . ]=yW{(uicyn^-+ . . . } . . (60) 

where the coefficients (iiuy do not involve ^, otherwise the phenomenon 
would be influenced more by the motion of some particular molecule than 
by that of others.'^ In other words, the investigation is limited in its 
application to the thermal properties of a single body, for in the case of a 
system of more than one body it is. evident that the phenomena would 
be difi'erently influenced by the motion of the molecules in diff'erent 
bodies. In such a case the molecular kinetic energy of each individual 
body would contain a common factor f(<j>), which might be different for 
difi'erent bodies. Even in the case of a single body the assumption, 
thoiTgh plausible, can hardly be regarded as axiomatic. 

The other assumptions involved in J. J. Thomson's work are similar 
to those of Helmholtz, but they impose fewer restrictions on the gene- 
rality of the proof. While Helmholtz assumes that the changes in the 
state of the system take place so slowly that the velocities of the con- 
trollable coordinates (q„ or ^) do not enter into the energy of the system, 
Thomson merely assumes that the portions of the kinetic energy due to 
the controllable and molecular coordinates are distinct, so that the whole 
kinetic energy is of the form 

T=T, + T„ (61) 

where the part T„ alone is to be taken as the dynamical analogue of 
temperature, the part T^^^ denoting the kinetic energy due to motions of 
the body as a whole and other controllable motions. 

Moreover, Thomson only assumes that the potential energy of the 
system is a function of the controllable and not of the molecular coordi- 
nates, so that 

^^=^%^^ (62) 



and 



2^.> = (63) 



' Applications of Dynamics, pp. 94, 95. 

'' In comparing J. J. Thomson's proof with that of Helmholtz we must write 



106 REPORT— 1891. 

while Helmholtz's inYestigations involve the assumptions of (21), namely, 
that 

opi, ou oil on 

assumptions which characterise the molecular coordinates as gyrostatic 
or speed coordinates. 

With the above assumptions it is shown that 

^^=;^8 1og/(<^) + 81ogT„ . . . (65) 

an equation analogous to the Second Law (2). Also 

/^9Q^ =-T,/.^^) . . . (66) 

V Vf^J T„ constant VO i „/ * constant 

where <& is the generalised component of external force corresponding to 
the coordinate ^. This relation is analogous to the well-known thermo- 
dynamical relation 

(r) =^(l) • • • (^^) 

\0V J B constmit \UV J v constant 

32. J. J. Thomson also mentions the case in which V, the potential 
energy of the system, is a function of the molecular as well as of the 
controllable coordinates. But here he tacitly assumes that the molecular 
coordinates only enter into V in the form of the temperature, an assump- 
tion quite unjustifiable from dynamical considerations, for no dynamical 
meaning can be attached to temperature until the Second Law has been 
completely (vide §§ 2, 3) established by dynamical principles. 

On the hypothesis that T„ is the quantity which is analogous to tem- 
perature in the dynamical system, the assumption takes the form 

^'Z''=tTf- ■ ■ ■ ■ («8) 

and unless this condition is satisfied the relation (66) will not be true, as 
J. J. Thomson asserts, when the potential energy is a function of the 
molecular as well as of the controllable coordinates. 

Concerning the physical aspect of equation (68) Mr. C. V. Burton has 
suggested to me the following argument : — If we consider a vessel of 
unalterable volume containing ice, water, and steam at tlie triple point 
it is evident that heat may be communicated to the system isothermally, 
the effect being to decrease the quantity of ice and to increase the quantity 
of water and of steam without altering the pressure or volume. In this 
case the molecular potential energy would in all probability be increased 
without any concomitant change in the temperature or in the potential 
energy of the controllable coordinates. 

33. H. FoincarS on the Applicability of Monocyclic Systems to Irreversible 
Processes. — The question whether Helmholtz's monocyclic systems can 
be employed to illustrate irreversible processes has been considered by 
Mons. H. Poincare,' and answered by him in the negative ; but his inves- 
tigation is far from satisfactory. 

In the first place, he points out that an irreversible process is only 

' Comptes Rendus, cviii. (1889), p. 550. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 107 

dynamically possible when the Lagrantrian function contains odd powers 
of tha generalised velocities, and that this is the case when it has been 
modified so that some of the velocities have been ignored owing to the 
corresponding generalised momenta being constant. But this simply 
means that the ignored velocities are not to be reversed when the motion 
of the system is reversed. It is easy to see that in a dynamical 
system it is not in general possible to reverse some of the motions 
without reversing them all. 

Poincare now considers, as a test case, that in which the system is 
acted on by no external forces, and he considers, more particularly, what 
happens when the entropy is approaching its maximum, his object being 
to discover whether there is any dynamical way of proving the funda- 
mental thermodynamic property that the entropy of a system is con- 
tinually increasing. If such is the case, then, taking S as the entropy, 
dS/dt must always be positive. Now, taking E as the energy and adopt- 
ing the notation of Helmholtz, the Hamiltonian equations give 

dp_dB d.s_ _8E_ 

di~ ds' dt dp' 

whence 

dS ^fdSdE_dSdE\ ^ggv 

df-^\dp ds ds'dpj ' ' ' * ^ ' 

In the subsequent investigation Poincare assumes that when the entropy 
is a maximum the system must he in stable equilibrium, so that in this 
condition of the system we have not only 

-9S=o and f=0, 

dp OS 

but also 

1^45=0 and ^=^=0. 

dt dp dt ab 

Such a step appears to me to be quite unjustifiable, for it amounts to 
nothing less than assuming that the system under investigation is at the 
absolute zero of temperature, and the entropy in such a case will of 
course be infinite. 

If we have any number of bodies enclosed in an adiathermanous 
envelope it is known from physical, not dynamical, considerations that 
the entropy of the system will tend to a maximufii as the temperatures 
of the various bodies become equalised, and yet when all the bodies are 
at the same temperature the molecules are still in a lively state of motion, 
not at rest, as in Poincare's investigation. 

It is also to be noted that Poincare nowhere makes use of the fact 
that S is the entropy of the system. 

Hence it is difficult to see how Poincare's result can have any direct 
bearing on the principle of degradation of energy or even how it can have 
a thermodynamical interpretation at all. 

34. At the same time, there are many considerations which render it 
prima facie unlikely that the monocyclic method should be capable of 
accounting for the principle of degradation of energy. 

A system which is irreversible will certainly not be monocyclic 
according to the definition of Helmholtz, and hence we cannot assume 



108 RKPORT— 1891. 

that tbe geometrical equations which that author has investigated 
will any longer hold good ; the same may also be said with regard to the 
alternative hypothesis underlying J. J. Thomson's investigation. More- 
over, even if the latter hypothesis be assumed to hold good for an 
unequally heated body, the function which plays the part of tempera- 
ture will be the whole molecular kinetic energy, so that instead of the 
entropy we shall obtain an expi'ession which does not alter in value as 
the temperatures of the various parts become equalised. Another 
hypothesis, which does not seem to me to be unreasonable, is that 
possibly irreversible changes may take place when any portion of the 
potential energy of the system depends partly on the molecular as well 
as on the controllable coordinates of the system, so that this portion of 
potential energy, as well as the kinetic, is uncontrollable. But then 
thei'e appear to be no grounds, except from statistical considerations, for 
supposing that this enei'gy will all be rendered kinetic by the action of 
the intermolecular forces. Such would certainly not be the case in a 
system possessing only one or two degrees of freedom. 

The consideration of dissipative forces, such as friction, is of course 
precluded by the conditions of the problem, for their presence would be 
a violation of the principle of Conservation of Energy. And as we are 
thus left with a dynamical system which is pei'fectly reversible (provided 
that the system is complete and all the velocities are reversed), it seems 
necessary to accept the principle of degradation of energy as a statistical 
property and not as a dynamical principle. We shall consider the matter 
more fully in the third section of this Report. 

35. Dr. Ludwig BoUzmann on the MecJianical Representation of Mono - 
cycles. — In his paper on the properties of monocyclic systems, already 
referred to,^ Dr. Boltzmann discussed at great length a mechanical model 
illustrative of a system in which it appeared not only that dQ/T was not 
a perfect diflerential, but that clQ did not possess any integrating factor 
whatever. 

In a volume only just published ^ Boltzmann has again taken up the 
representation of monocyclic systems by means of mechanical models, and 
has slightly elaborated ideas suggested in Helmholtz's papers. On 
account of their greater simplicity we will consider the latter represen- 
tations before the former. ■ 

As a simple example of a monocyclic system Boltzmann takes a 
vertical revolving shaft having attached to it a horizontal spoke along 
which a bead can slide without friction. A string, which is attached to 
the bead, passes over a small pulley close to the shaft, and hangs freely, 
•can-ying a scale-pan, on which varying weights can be placed. The 
arrangement may be illusti-ated by the shaft C D and the spoke carrying 
the mass E in the figure of § 38. 

If we suppose the shaft and spoke to be without mass, and if m be 
the mass of the bead, r its distance from the shaft, w the angular velocity, 
T the kinetic energy of the system, and clQ the amount of work performed 
by turning a handle attached to the shaft, we have 

'^^=dlog(r*u.^-) .... (70) 

' Crelle, Journal, xcviii. p. 88. 

= Vorlcsungen ilher Maxirell's Thcorie der Electricitdt und des Lichtes, I. Theil 
^Leipzig: Johaun Ambrosius Barth, 1891), pp. 8-23. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 109 

The right-hand side is equal to d log (s-), where 5 is the angular 
momentum, thus agreeing with Helmholtz's result (§ 21, equation 27). 

Boltzmann shows how such a machine may be made to undergo a 
series of transformations analogous to Carnot's cycle. In an isothermal 
transformation the angular velocity and the distance of the bead from 
the shaft are varied in such a manner that the kinetic energy of rotation 
remains constant ; in an adiabatic transformation no work is performed 
on the shaft, and thei-efoi'e the angular momentum, mr'-u), as also the 
corresponding entropy, remains constant. 

The author gives other models of monocyclesin which several movable 
rods and beads are attached to the same shaft. A Watt's governor is 
another simple example of a monocycle. Other examples of 'kinetic 
engines ' were given by Professor Osborne Reynolds in a lecture delivered 
on November 15, 1883.' 

36. An attempt is also made by Boltzmann to extend the dynamical 
analogy to irreversible processes, by showing that for a cycle of changes 
which do not take place infinitely slowly we must have fclQ/T <0. Un- 
fortunately, however, this generalisation does not hold good if the system 
is frictiouless, and, as already remarked, the introduction of friction is 
not allowable in forming a purely dynamic analogue of the pi'operties 
of heat. Boltzmann assumes that ichen the head is sliding outwards along 
the spoke, the tension in the string is always slightly less than the centrifugal 
force, and that when the head is sliding inwards the tension is alivavs sliglithj 
greater than the centrifugal force ; for otherwise (he says) the bead and 
suspended weights would never start moving. Thus if p denote the ten- 
sion in the string, we may put 

p ^ mrtji^ — e, 

where e always has the same sign as dr. 

But the statements in italics are not true if the spoke is frictiouless, 
for the equation of motion of the bead is 

so that 

d^r 

e=m — ,. 

dt- 

If the bead be allowed to slide outwards, starting at distance r^ and 
stopping at distance r^, then d'^r/dt^ must be at first positive and afterwards 
negative, for otherwise the outward velocity dr/dt would continually 
increase. Hence e cannot always bave the same sign as dr, and Boltz- 
mann's argument fails. 

37. Boltzmann's mechanical representation of a system in whicb dQ 
has no integrating divisor consists of two parallel revolving vertical 
shafts, which we will call A, B, each similar to that described in § 35 and 
figured in § 38, each provided with a horizontal revolving spoke, along 
which a bead is capable of being made to slide. The motions of the 
two shafts are connected together through the following mechanism .- — 
The motion of A is transmitted by means of bevelled cog-wheels to a 
horizontal shaft C, carrying at its other end a i-ough disc Gr, which of 
course revolves in a vertical plane. Attached to the vertical shaft B is a 

' JVature, vol. sxix. p. 113, 



110 KEPOKT 1891. 

horizontal disc H, the edge of which is in contact with the /ace of the disc 
G. The motion of the horizontal shaft is transmitted to the vertical 
shaft B by means of the friction at the point of contact of the two discs 
G, H. The disc H is capable of being- raised or lowered on the shaft B, 
and in this way the ratio of the angular velocities of the two shafts A and 
B can be varied. Lastly, the system is set in motion by turning a handle 
attached to the shaft A. 

Let m, jn be the masses of the beads on the spokes attached to the 
shafts A, B ; let r, p be their distances from the axes, iv, u the angular 
velocities of the shafts, a the adjustable height of the horizontal disc H 
above the axis of the horizontal shaft C. Boltzmann assumes the disc H 
to be of unit radius, and the radii of the bevelled cog-wheels connecting 
A, C to be equal, so that the angular velocities of the shafts A, B are 
connected by the relation 

oj = aio. 

If, with Boltzmann, we neglect the inertia of everything except the 
sliding beads, and supposing that r, p, a only vary very slowly, the 
kinetic energy is evidently 

T = -^ (^mr^iv'^ + /Ao-o)-) = ^ (inr- + /ip-a"^) w^. 

The system has four generalised coordinates, namely, r, p, a, and the 
angular coordinate corresponding to the angular velocity w. The latter 
is the only speed coordinate of the system, for the kinetic energy does 
not involve the rates of change of the other coordinates. 

Hence if we follow Helmholtz's assumptions (i.), (ii.) of § 20, the 
coordinates r, p, a must be regarded as controllable, and the system is 
monocyclic. We have, in fact, 

3T 

s = ■■>— = (?)i9-'^ + ii.p-a^)w, T ^ ^ifs, 

and 

dq=^wds = 'Ylcl (2 logs), 

so that T is an integrating divisor of cZQ. 

This result is quite at variance with that found by Boltzmann. The 
reason is that he has not regarded r, p, a as controllable, but has included 
in dQ the woi'k brought into the system through these coordinates. 
This work properly belongs to —dW of equation (i.), § 2, and not to cZQ. 

In varying the height a there would, in the natural course of events, 
be a loss of energy through friction, as the edge of the horizontal disc 
H would have to slip up or down in contact with the face of the vertical 
disc G. This slipping may be avoided by shifting the vertical shaft B 
slightly to one side or the other of the vertical plane through the 
horizontal shaft C. The friction between the rotating discs will then 
cause H slowly to rise or fall (as the case may be) automatically and 
without slipping. 

This simple device obviates a difficulty which in Boltzmann's original 
paper requires several pages of explanation. 

38. Simple Mechanical Model of Garnofs Beversihle Heat-Enr/ine. — The 
following model appears to be new. It may be of interest as furnishing 
a mechanical representation of the properties of the source and 
refrigerator of a perfect heat engine, although to do this it is necessary 



ON OUH KNOWLEDGE OF THEBMODYNAMICS, 



111 



to take the angular velocity instead of the kinetic energy to represent 
temperature. In this respect the model resembles the example (i.) given 
in § 27, and the angular momentum takes the place of entropy. 

As in Boltzmann's models, I suppose the working substance repre- 
sented by a hollow vertical revolving shaft C D, carrying a spoke on 
which the mass E is free to slide. This shaft is terminated by circular 
discs C, D ; while the source and refrigerator of the engine are repre- 
sented by discs A, B, made to revolve with constant but unequal angular 
velocities, to,, o).,. The discs C and A or D and B may be rigidly con- 
nected together only when their angular velocities are equal, just as, in 
Carnot's engine, the working substance and the source or refrigerator 
are only placed in contact when their temperatures are equal. 

The string S passes down the interior of the shaft, and, instead of 
hanging down freely, it may be passed over a fixed pulley R, its pull 
being adjusted in any convenient manner. A frictionless swivel I 
prevents torsion accumulating in the string. 

The four operations of Carnot's cycle will now be represented as 
follows : — 

(i.) The angular velocity of the shaft C D being initially wj, work is 
done on the system by pulling out the string S (and thus bringing the 
mass E nearer to the axis of rotation) until the angular velocity has been 
increased to w,. Since the angular momentum meanwhile remains con- 
stant, this operation is isentropic. 

(ii.) The discs C and A may now be rigidly connected together, so 
that during this operation the angular velocity must remain equal to wi, 







^ 




A 




C 


1 


C 




i- E •■- 


e 






s«. 


D 








D_ 






B 




b" 




...^. 


(^ 


R 





Ang. Vel. = w, 



An?. Vel. Variable 



Ang. Vel. = ( 



Fixed 



the change being isothermal. The mass E is then allowed to slide 
further out, doing work on whatever contrivance maintains the pull in 
the string. 

(iii.) The discs C and A are disconnected, and, the angular momentum 
remaining constant, the mass E is allowed to slide still further out, again 
doing work by means of the string. This operation must continue until 
the angular velocity is reduced to wj. 

(iv.) The discs D and B are now rigidly connected, and work is done 
on the system by pulling out the string until the mass E has regained its 
original distance from the axis of rotation. 

The cycle is now complete, and is obviously reversible. If Q, is the 



112 EEPOKT — 1891. 

energy acquired by the system from A, and Q2 the energy given out to B, 
it is easy enough to show that 

^=^2 ("71) 

0)1 0)2 

corresponding to the well-known thermodynamic equation. At the 
same time the external work performed by the string is Qj — Q2. 

If ,Si and ^2 be the angular momenta of the shaft and spoke during 
the operations (i.) and (iii.) respectively, either member of (71) is equal 
to §2 — ^1- 

If two discs were brought into contact when their angular velocities 
were unequal, there would be a loss of energy by friction, so that the 
analogy with an irreversible cycle would not be complete. 

Section III. Statistical Hypotheses. 

39. The investigations now to be considered depend on the existence 
of a certain law of average distribution of speed, which holds whenever 
an enormously large number of molecules is in a state of steady or 
stationary motion. This remark applies to the Kinetic Theory of Gases, 
and the methods are only applicable when the nature of the molecules is 
such that the law of distribution in question is capable of investigation. 

Among the more recent researches bearing on the subject may be 
particularly mentioned Professor Tait's papers ' On the Foundations of 
the Kinetic Theory of Gases,' ' Dr. Boltzmann's papers on the ' Analogies 
of the Second Law ' '^ and on the ' Properties of Monocyclic and other 
Belated Systems,' ^ and Sir William Thomson's recent communication to 
the Boyal Society ' On some Test Cases for the Maxwell-Boltzmann Doc- 
trine regarding Distribution of Energy.' ■* 

40. The BoUzmann,-3Iaxivell Bodr-ine. — The law of distribution of speed 
is variously known as Boltzmann's Theorem and Clerk Maxwell's Theorem, 
being due in part to one writer and in part to the other. It seems to 
have been first discovered by Clerk Maxwell for the case of a number of 
perfectly elastic smooth colliding spheres of two or more different 
magnitudes, or, if preferred, a number of simple particles which repel 
one another when at a certain distance apart, after the manner of 
perfectly elastic spheres.^ The theorem was subsequently generalised 
by Boltzmann ^ for the case of a system of pai'ticles repelling one another 
according to any law, and was finally generalised still further by Max- 
well ^ for a number of molecules, each consisting of a dynamical system 

' Trans. M.S. Edinburgh, 188G-91. 

- ' Analogien des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik,' Crelle, Journal, c. 
p. 213. 

' 'Ueber die Eigenschaften monocyclischer und anderer damit verwandter 
Systeme,' Crelle, Journal, xcviii. p. 68. 

* Nature, August 13, 1891. 

'' 'On the Collisions of Elastic Spheres,' Pldl. Mag. 18G0; 'On the Dynamical 
Theory of Gases,' PMl. Trans. R.S. May 1866. 

« 'Ueber die mech. Bedeut. des 2"^° Haupts d. mech. Wilrmelehre,' Wiener 
Sitzb. Bd. 53, pp. 195-220. ' Studien iiber das Gleichgew. d. leb. Kraft zwischen 
beweg. mater. Punkten,' ibidem, Bd. .58 (1868). ' Ueber das Gleichgew. zwischen 
mehratom. Gasmolekiilen ' ; ' Analyt. Beweis des 2"" Haupts d. mech. Warmetheorie 
aus d. Siitzen fiir den Gleichgew. d. leb. Kraft'; ' Einige allgem. Satze iiber 
Warmegleichgewicbt,' ]Viener Sitzb. Mathem. Naturw. Klasse, Band 63. 

' ' On Boltzmann's Theorem,' &c., Trans. Camb. Pldl. Soc. 1878. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 113 

defined by means of any generalised coordinates whatever. The case 
when the molecules are iu a field of l^rce due to external influence while 
the only intermolecnlar forces are those due to impact is considered by 
Dr. Watson in his ' Kinetic Theory of Gases.' 

Clerk Maxwell's theorem in its most general form states that when 
a system of molecules has attained the ' special ' or stationary state the 
time-average of the kinetic energy is equally distributed over the different 
degrees of freedom of the system. 

It now remains to examine how far the successive generalisations 
have since been proved or disproved ; accordingly we shall consider them 
in the following order : — 

(i.) Colliding elastic spheres under no forces, 
(ii.) Colliding elastic spheres in a field of force, 
(iii.) Simple particles or smooth spheres under molecular forces, 
(iv.) Molecules of a perfectly general character. 

41. The fii'st case, that of colliding spheres under no forces, has 
been considered by Tait in his important papers ' On the Foundations of 
the Kinetic Theory of Gases.' ' Tait finds that the theorem does hold 
good provided that the following assumptions be made: — 

(a) That the particles of the two gases are thoroughly mixed. 

(b) That the particles of each gas acquire the error-law of speed. 

(c) That there are free collisions between particles of the same 
as well as of different kinds, and that one kind does not preponderate 
overwhelmingly over the other. 

42. The second case also ha-s been verified by Tait in the same con- 
tribution. He considers the case in which the field of force is uniform, 
like that due to gravity. A limitation is thus imposed on the generality 
of the proof, for the investigation does not hold good when the external 
force varies so rapidly from point to point that the change from molecule 
to molecule is appreciable. On the contrary, it must be possible to 
divide up the mass of gas into elements which are so small that the 
force over any such element may be considered uniform, and never- 
theless each element must contain such a large number of molecules that 
the distribution of energy in it can be investigated by Tait's method. 

This limitation is not assumed in the pi'oof given by Watson,'-^ but it 
seems doubtful whether the theorem is valid except under some such 
restriction. One of the ' test cases' considered by Sir William Thomson 
in his recent paper ^ may possibly throw some light on this question ; 
I refer to the case of a system of particles moving in two dimensions in a 
field of force whose potential is of the form 

Thomson concludes that the portions of average kinetic energy due 
to the two velocity components x and j/ are probably not in general equal 
to one another. The author considers a system in which no collisions 
occnr. The existence of collisions would, of course, materially affect the 

' Trafis. R.S.E., vol. xxxiii. part 1 (188G), p. 77. 
' Kinetic Theory of Gases, Prop. IV. 

' Read to the Royal Societv, June 11, 1891, Mature, August i:?, 1891, S 1.3. 
1891. 1 



114 BEPOET— 1891. 

distribution of energy between the two velocity components of the par- 
ticles, and it seems reasonable to draw the following inferences regarding 
the more general case : — 

(i.) If the molecules are very few and far between, impacts will 
seldom occur, and the distribution will approximate to what it would be 
if there were no impacts, as in the case considered by Thomson. 

(ii.) If the molecules are densely distributed, impacts will be nume- 
rous, so that the distribution of speed will depend mainly on these impacts, 
and will approximate to that investigated by Tait for a uniform field. 

(iii.) In intermediate cases the distribution of speed_ will be deter- 
mined partly by the impacts and partly by the variations in the field. lb 
-will, therefore, be intermediate between those investigated by the method 
of Thomson and that of Tait. A complete investigation of such a case 
would probably be one of great difiBculty. 

43. The third case — namely, that in which the intermolecular forces 
are other than those due to impacis — presents a new feature of difficulty : 
it now becomes necessary to take account of the possibility that three 
or more particles may be simultaneously within mutual influence of one 
another ; for the probability of this is no longer infinitely small, as it is in 
the case of simple impacts. 

In his recent paper already alluded to, Thomson considers this point, 
more especially with reference to a system composed of double molecules 
or ' doublets.' ' A compound gas is an example of such a system. Here a 
complete collision may consist of a large number of impacts, and the 
author reoiarks that ' it seems exceedingly difficult to find how to cal- 
culate true statistics of these chattei'ing collisions and arrive at sound 
conclusions as to the iiltimate distribution of enei'gy in any of the very 
simplest cases other than Maxwell's original case of I860.' ' 

It seems, however, unnecessary to consider multiple collisions if either 
of the following conditions is satisfied: — 

(a) If the I'ange of molecular action lies between narrow limits, so 
that the collision is approximately of the nature of a simple impact. 

(b) If the intermolecular force only acts when the particles are at a 
considerable distance apart. The 'radius of encounter,' as it maybe 
called, being thus very great, we may safely assume that the aggregate 
effect on any molecule of such a system of distant molecules is constant, 
and therefore equivalent to that of a field of external force. Unfor- 
tunately, hoAvever, this case is of little interest. 

A difficulty of a different kind has been indicated by Tait - — ■ 
namely, that of giving a satisfactory answer to the question, ' What is to 
be taken as the measure of the temperature ? ' According to the views 
of Clausius, Van der Waals, and others, the whole average kinetic energy 
per molecule measures the temperature ; but Tait gives reasons for be- 
lieving that the temperature depends on the mean squai*e speed of the 
free paths of the molecules, and is therefore measured by the value of 
the average kinetic energy when (with the same mean square speed of 
free path) the volume is infinite. In other words, Tait supposes the 
temperature measured by the average kinetic energy per free molecule. 
If the mean square speed be kept constant, the whole kinetic energy will 
vary with the volume of the gas, and thus on the hypothesis of Clausius 

> Nature, August 13, 1891, § 8. 

- ' On the Virial Equation for Molecular Forces, being Part IV. of a paper on the 
Foundations of the Kinetic Theory of Qasep,' Froc. H.S.E. 1890. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 115 

the temperature would vary instead of, as it should, remaining constant. 
Moreover, in the case of a liquid in contact with its vapour at the same 
temperature, the whole kinetic energy per molecule should be equal in 
the two portions, and this again appears improbable. 

44. The last and most general case of all is that investigated by 
Maxwell in 1878,' where the molecules consist of dynamical systems 
determined by means of generalised coordinates. It has now been 
proved beyond doubt tliat the theorem is not valid in this general form. 
As a test case, Burnside - has considered a system of collidino- elastic 
spheres, in which the centre of mass does not coincide with the centre 
of figure, but is at a small distance, c, from it. He finds that the average 
energies of rotation of any sphere about each of the three principal axes 
through the centre of inertia are equal, and that the whole averao-e 
energy of rotation is twice the whole average energy of translation. Had 
Maxwell's theorem been true, the whole average energies of rotation and 
translation would have been equal. 

Maxwell's proof is defective in several respects. One of the chief 
fallacies lies in his assumption that the kinetic energy of a dynamical 
system can always be expressed as a sum of squares of generalised 
velocity components. At the same time, he assumes that the Lao-rancrian 
or Hamiltonian equations of motion can be applied to the correspondino- 
generalised coordinates of the system. This is not in o-eneral true ; 
thus, for example, it is not true in the simple case of a single rigid 
body. Here the kinetic energy due to rotation can be expressed as 
a sum of squares of the angular velocities about the three principal axes 
but these angular velocities are not the rates of ch.ano-e of o-eueralised 
coordinates which determine the position of the body at any instant.^ 
Thus the want of agreement between Maxwell's theorem and Barnside's 
result is only what might have been expected. 

In the paper already referred to Thomson says, 'But, conceding 
Maxwell's fundamental assumption, I do not see in the mathematical 
workings of his paper any proof of his conclusion "that the average 
kinetic energy corresponding to any one of the variables is the same for 
every one of the variables of the system." Indeed, as a general pro- 
position, its meaning is not explained, and seems to me inexplicable. 
The reduction of the kinetic energy to a sum of squares leaves the 
several parts of the whole with no correspondence to any defined or 
definable set of independent variables. What, for example, can the 
meaning of the conclusion be for the case of a jointed pendulum (a 
system of two rigid bodies, one supported on a fixed horizontal axis, and 
the other on a parallel axis fixed relatively to the first body, and both 
acted on only by gravity) ? The conclusion is quite intelligible, however 
(but is it true ?), when the kinetic energy is expressible as a sum of 
squares of rates of change of single coordinates each multiplied by a 
function of all, or of some, of the coordinates.' ' 

45. Many physicists have objected to the Boltzmann-Maxwell 
theorem on account of ' the supposition that the mean enero-y of any 
kind of vibration in any atom must be equal to that of translation in any 

' Trans. Camh. PhU. Soc. 1878. 

' ' On the Partition of Energy between the Translatcry and Rotatory Motions of a 
Set o! non-liomogeneous Elastic Spheres,' Tians. R.S E. vol. xxviii. Part II. 
' Compare Routh, Etgid Dynamics, vol. i. § lOB, Ex. 1, 
* Nature, August 13,'l891, § 10. 

I 2 



11(> BEPORT— 1891, 

direction, and therefore capable of unlimited increase.' ' According to 
Thomson, however,^ ' what has hitherto by Maxwell, and CJausius, and 
others after them, been called an "elastic sphere " is not an clastic solid 
capable of rotation and of elastic deformation, and therefore capable of an 
infinite number of modes of steady vibration, of finer and finer degrees of 
nodal subdivision, and shorter and shorter periods, into which all trans- 
lational energy would, if the Boltzmann-Maxwell generalised proposition 
were true, be ultimately transformed. The smooth "elastic spheres" 
are really Boscovich point-atoms with their translational inertia, and witb 
for law of foi'ce zero force at every distance between two points exceeding 
the sum of the radii of the two balls, and infinite repulsion at exactly 
this distance.' 

It may also be observed that a sphere in which vibratory energy is 
set up on impact cannot be regarded as a 'perfectly elastic sphere ' witb 
coefficient of restitution equal to unity. The necessity of adopting Thom- 
son's representation by Boscovich point-atoms is otherwise apparent 
when we remember that as long as the portions of matter with which we 
are dealing are capable of subdivision, so long will the energy contained 
in them be capable of subdivision. Un]es5, therefore, we suppose each 
molecule to consist of one or a finite number of indivisible atoms, it 
would be unreasonable to expect that heat would entirely take the form 
of atomic motion. 

46. Applications to the Second Law. — The simplest proof of the Second 
Law of Thermodynamics based on the hypothesis of the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell law of distribution of speed is that due to Mr. S. H. Barbury.^ 
The proof is too well known to need description here. It leads to the 
same form for the entropy as Boltzmann's original investigation for 
the case of a system of point-atoms.^ Although Watson and Burbnry 
take the temperature as represented by the average kinetic energy of 
translation of the molecules, the fact that the average energy is assumed 
to be distributed equally among the coordinates shows that the proof 
would be equally valid if the whole average kinetic energy were taken to 
represent the temperature. Hence the proposition (when valid) does not 
afford any evidence as to what part of the molecular energy plays the 
part of temperature. 

Another proof has been given by R. C. Nichols,-^ and is based on the 
virial equation of Clausius, 

Here T is the total mean ris viva of the system, so that if Nichols' proof 
be valid, it does not seem possible to reconcile the views of Tait (§ 43) 
regarding the nature of temperature with the definition afforded by the 
Second Law. 

A general proof of the Second Law, based on Maxwell's generalisation 
of Boltzmann's theorem, has been given by Boltzmann in 1885.'' The 

' Prof. W. M. Hicks, B.A. I.'i'port, ISS.'S. 

^ A'ature, August 13, 1891, § 3. I have slightly rearranged the original wording, 
.so as to make the sentence more intelligible. 

3 Phil. Mag. January 187G, p. (Jl ; Watson's Kinetic Theory of Gases, Trop. XIII. 

* ' Analyt. Beweis des 2"" Haupts,' Wicn. Sitzh. Bd. 63, 11. Abth. 

^ 'On the Proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics,' Phil. Mag. 187G (1), 
p. 3G9. 

" Crelle, Journal, c. p. 213. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS!. 117 

author employs the method of redaction to sums of squares and subse- 
quent use of Lagrange's equations — in short, most of the steps that are 
erroneous in Maxwell's work ; the proof is therefore invalid except in 
certain special cases. One result is, however, interesting; for the case of 
a system whose configuration is determined by a single coordinate, and 
■whose period of oscillation is t, Boltzmann finds 

SQ=2T8 log, (TO .... (72) 

thus giving for the entropy the expression found by Clausius, and 
described in the first section of this Report (§ 12, equation (14) ). 

47. Statistical Construction of Monocyclic Systems. — A very interest- 
ing and suggestive paper has been published by Boltzmann,' who has 
shown how systems possessing monocyclic properties can be built up by 
combining a large number of systems which are similar to one another, 
but not individually monocyclic. This is the paper to which reference 
has been made in § .37. 

A single particle moving in an elliptic orbit about a centre of foi'ce in 
the focus is not monocyclic in itself, but a monocyclic system may be 
built up by taking a very large number of such particles, thus forming a 
stream or a kind of Saturn's ring, whose density at any point of the 
orbit is independent of the time. Here, if the attraction at distance r be 
fl/r'^, Boltzmann finds 

■where 2Ts a 

'^=T' '=T-i- 

Moreover, if jx is the total flux across any section up to the time t, and 
ni the mass of the ring, ■we have 

27r dfL 

and, therefore, fqdt may be taken as a generalised coordinate of the 
system. 

Another example is afforded by a stream of particles of total mass m 
performing rectilinear oscillations under a conservative system of forces. 
In this case Boltzmann finds 

dQ=2Td]o^,iT (73) 

■which agrees with Clausius' result (equations 14, 72). Here we may 
take for the generalised velocity and momentum of the system respec- 
tively, 

q = mji, s = 2Tlq=2iT/ui . . . (74) 

A particular case is that of a stream of particles reflected backwards 
and forwards between two fixed perfectly elastic parallel walls at a dis- 
tance a apart. If ^m is the mass of the stream going in either direction, 
V the velocity, and H the kinetic potential, we have 

dQ=mvdv + viv-— =qds .... (75) 

' Crelle, Journal, xcviii. p. 68. 



118 EEPORT — 1891. 

where 

,=^, H=-T=-2'^, s=J^=-^=2av . (76) 
^ 2a on ' clq m 

and — 9H/3a is the pressni'e on either wall. 

This system is strictly monocyclic. 

Boltzmann modifies this example slightly by considering the case of a 
mass m formed of minute particles contained in a rectangular box, whose 
sides are a, h, c, the directions of motion being parallel to the face (ah) 
and inclined to the edges a at an angle=D. Taking a, h, and v as 
variable, we have 

mv^ /" (In db\ 

-H=T=-2-, dQ=7nvdv + mv' I sm-B -^+ cos- D~^ J (77) 

and to put the last equation into Helmholtz's form we must assume 

But the kinetic energy is no longer an integrating divisor of (ZQ if we 
suppose the angle T> variable. It is not hard to explain why this case 
differs from the others considered by Boltzmann. The angle D cannot 
be considered as a controllable coordinate of the system, for it can only 
be varied by acting on all the molecules individually. Moreover, it is 
not a speed-coordinate, so that Helmholtz's methods are no longer applic- 
able. The effect of slightly rotating the box would be not merely to 
l^roduce an alteration in the angle of incidence D, but to alter the charac- 
ter of the motion entirely, for the particles which are about to impinge 
on the face ac would be differently affected from those about to impinge 
on the face be. 

Boltzmann follows up these simple examples by a perfectly general 
investigation based on Maxwell's theorem, from which it appears that 
any system which conforms to the Boltzmann-Maxwell doctrine possesses 
monocyclic properties analogous to those found by Helmholtz. The 
results obtained by Boltzmann do not hold good, except in the particular 
cases when Maxwell's theorem is valid. Two cases are considered — 
that in which all coordinates of the system are independent, and that 
in which certain coordinates are connected by invariable relations. The 
arguments employed by Boltzmann in discussing the latter case appear 
wanting in rigour, thus rendering the result liable to further objections. 
The remainder of the paper is chiefly taken up with a discussion of the 
models referred to in our second section. 

48. Application of Statistical Methods to Irreversible Plienoviena. — In a 
recent note ' Mr. E. P. CulverAvell has called attention to the principal 
difficulties attending the explanation of irreversibility on the hypotheses 
of the kinetic theory of gases. The general purport of his remarks may 
be summarised as follows : — 

(i.) Although the distribution of energy when a gas has assumed the 
Boltzmann configuration (or, as Tait calls it, the ' special state ') has 
been investigated, it has never been proved that a gas does actually tend 
towards this ' special state.' 

• 'Note on Boltzmann's Kinetic Theory of Gases, and on Sir W. Thom.son's 
Address to Section A (1884),' Fkil. Mag. 1890, vol. xxx. p. 95. 



ON OUK KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 119 

(ii.) Sacli a tendency cannot be independent of the law of force 
between the molecules, for if we take the case of a system of particles 
attracting one another with forces varying directly as the distance, the 
motion will be strictly periodic, and there will be no tendency towards 
equalisation of energy. 

(iii.) The tendency cannot be independent of initial circumstances, for 
if the motion of every point were I'eversed we should have a configura- 
tion which would tend further and further away from the ' special state.' 

(iv.) It therefore appears probable that in estimating the tendency to 
equalisation of energy among the molecules, account must be taken of 
the effects of the luminiferous a3ther. The molecules cannot be considered 
as forming a complete dynamical system in themselves. It seems, then, 
impossible to overcome the difficulties of the kinetic theory ; all that can 
be done is to shift these difficulties from the molecules on to the aether, 
and they then reappear in another form. 

We will now examine how far these difficulties have been met by the 
researches of those who take a less gloomy view of the question. 

It is no doubt impossible, from the inherent difficulty of the problem, 
to investigate any general property of non-reversible processes in a body 
composed of an infinitely large number of molecules ; for, when even the 
' Problem of Three Bodies ' has not been fully solved, how can we expect 
to fully solve the problem of an infinite number of bodies ? 

But without doing this it is jjossible to investigate certain irreversible 
phenomena by the methods of the kinetic theory, and thus to account 
for the degradation of available energy under circumstances in which the 
problem is soluble. 

49. Thus Tait ' has worked out the rate of equalisation of average 
energy in a mixture of two kinds of spheres. He has, moreover, applied 
his formula to the case of a mixture of equal parts of oxygen and nitrogen 
on the supposition that the aggregate masses are equal, that the number 
of molecules per cubic inch^o xlO-", and that the sum of the radii of 
the molecules=3 xlO"* of an inch. He finds that the dificrence of the 
average energies of the two systems of molecules will fall to '01 of its 
original value in ^ X lO"'-* of a second. This result surely affords very 
strong evidence in favour of a gener.al tendency towards the ' special 
state.' 

Moreover, the kinetic theory has been applied to explain the phe- 
nomena of heat-conduction, viscosity, diffusion of a mixture of gases, 
and other irreversible processes. These have all been worked out by 
Tait in the same series of papei's. One very great merit of his work is 
that he has in every instance clearly set forth the assumptions on which 
his proofs are based. The investigations are, therefore, not liable to 
objection, as is so often the case with the work of writers who have 
implicitly made similar assumptions without explicitly stating them. 

With regard to the second 'point, Sir W. Thomson has pointed out ^ 
that the law of the direct distance possesses unique properties distinct 
from those of any other law. It is, in fact, the only law of force under 
which the whole motion is strictly periodic and the equations of motion 
are completely integrable — a fact sufficiently vvell known to manufac- 
turers of Senate House problems. But as there is still some uncertainty 

' ' On the Foundations of the Kinetic Tbeoiy of Gases,' Trans. R.S.E. 1886, 
Section V. 

» On Some Test Cases, Sec. § 10. 



120 KEPORT — 1891. 

respecting the permanent distribution of energy in a system of material 
points under intermolecular forces, it would be premature to form con- 
clusions regarding the tendency towards the equalisation of energy, except 
in those cases where the only reactions between the points are those due 
to impact. 

50. If we regard the whole matter as one of probabilities, the argu- 
ment derived from reversing the system may be met without an appeal 
to tiie luminiferous sether. Although a conservative dynamical system 
is always reversible, the reversed motion may not unfrequently be 
dynamically unstable in the highest degree. One of the best illustrations 
in point is afforded by the impossibility of riding a bicycle backwards 
(i.e. with the steering wheel behind) ; here the forward motion is stable, 
but the reversed motion is highly unstable. 

Take, then, a system of material points or colliding spheres all tend- 
ing towards the ' special state.' If the motion is slightly disturbed they 
will still tend towards the ' special state,' and the effect of the disturb- 
ance in modifying the character of the motion will diminish without 
limit. But if we suppose at any stage of the process that the motion 
of every point is exactly reversed, then the difference between the dis- 
turbed and undisturbed reversed motions will increase without limit, and 
the disturbed reversed motion will tend towards a very different state from 
that from which we started. In a very short time we shall have entirely 
different series of collisions taking place in the disturbed and undisturbed 
reversed motions. When, therefore, we consider the immense number of 
molecules present in any body of finite size, it is not hard to understand 
that the probability of the energy tending towards an unequal distribu- 
tion is infinitesimally small, for just the same reason that if any two 
different substances in a minute state of subdivision have become 
thoroughly mixed it is impossible to separate them again by simply 
stirring them up. There is nothing inconceivable about such a separa- 
tion, but the chances are so overwhelmingly against it that we may with 
absolute certainty declare the separation impossible. In this manner 
there is no difhculty in understanding how on statistical grounds alone 
we may be able to state with absolute certainty that ' heat cannot pass of 
itself from a cold body to a hot body.' 

Of course evidence of this kind is speculative, and, moreover, only 
affords a possible explanation, and not a proof, of the principle of 
degradation of energy. 

But, as it has been necessary to suppose space furnished throughout 
with an aether in order to account for electrical and optical phenomena, 
allowance must be made for the fact that this iether will in all probability 
play a pi-omiuent part in thermal phenomena, more especially as it is the 
medium by which radiant heat is propagated. The great velocity of 
light shows that the ajther can have but a very small capacity for radiant 
energy, and, therefore, that its presence will not materially affect the 
results of investigations relating to reversible thermodynamic processes, 
while it will certainly facilitate the dissipation of energy. It must not, 
however, be thought that researches relating to heat are worthless be- 
cause they do not take account of the aether ; for do not such researches 
fulfil what should be the highest object of scientific enquiry — namely, of 
helping us to 'judge the unknown from the known ' ? 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 121 



Conclusion. 

51. Although many of the researches mentioned in this report are not 
unfrequently called dynamical proofs of the Second Law, yet to prove 
the Second Law, about which we know something, by means of mole- 
cules, about which we know much less, would not be in consonance with 
the sentiments expressed at the end of the last paragraph. The most 
conclusive evidence for regarding Carnot's principle as a theorem in mole- 
cular dynamics lies in the remarkable agreement between the results 
obtained by the methods described in the three different sections of this 
report, all of which are based on different fundamental hypotheses. It 
is worthy of note that the method of Clausius alone is independent of 
any assumptions regarding the nature of the intermolecular forces. 

It has been proved, on each of the various hypotheses, that when a 
system of molecules undergoes transformations analogous to reversible 
processes in thermodynamics the molecular kinetic energy T is an inte- 
grating divisor of the work c^Q communicated to the system through the 
molecular coordinates. Thus any quantity proportioned to T satisfies 
the definition of temperature afforded by (2), § 2. The evidence that 
such a quantity possesses the properties mentioned in § 3 is far less 
conclusive. These properties have never been investigated by the 
methods of the first section, while, if the statistical method be adopted, 
the evidence is confined to the very limited cases in which Maxwell's 
theorem is valid. The methods of the kinetic theory of gases do not 
afford a direct proof of any relation between the molecular kinetic 
energies of two substances which are in thermal contact, but which do 
not mingle. 

In the volume already alluded to in this Report, Prof. J. J. Thomson 
claims to have deduced certain thermal properties of matter from the 
generalised equations of dynamics without the use of the Second Law of 
Thermodynamics, and he further claims that the results thus obtained 
afford evidence of the connection between the Second Law and the 
Hamiltonian principle. It would seem, however, that the novelty of this 
point of view is not fundamentally very great, for the molecular assump- 
tions involved in the proofs are identical with those required in order ta 
deduce the Second Law from dynamical principles. And, moreover, 
properties of temperature are assumed which, as we have just seen, 
have not hitherto been satisfactorily deduced from dynamical principles. 

If, on the other hand, we decide, for the present at any rate, to regard 
Carnot's Principle (like Newton's Laws of Motion) as an axiom based 
on experience, the researches which we have considered show how this 
principle may be reduced to a theorem in molecular dynamics by making 
suitable assumptions as to the nature and motion of molecules. In this 
way the reversible thermal properties of matter may be represented by 
means of monocyclic or other dynamical systems, and the fundamental 
equations of thermodynamics may be replaced by particular cases of the 
ordinary dynamical equations. This is the point of view adopted by 
Helmholtz in his valuable paper on the physical meaning of the Principle 
of Least Action.' 

In conclusion we may reasonably hope that future researches in the 
domain of molecular science will still further strengthen the bond of 

' Crelle, Journal, c. 



122 EEPOET — 1891. 

connection which we suppose to exist between the Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics and Newton's Laws of Motion. 

My thanks are due to Mr. Larmor for references to many important 
papers on the present subject and to Mr. C. V. Burton for his most 
invaluable assistance in revising both the manuscript and proofs and in 
furnishing many useful suggestions. 



Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Fitzgerald 
(Chairman), Armstrong, and 0. J. Lodge (Secretaries), Sir 
William Thomson, Lord Kayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Schuster, 
PoYNTiNG, Crum Brown, Eamsay, Frankland, Tilden, Hartley, 
S. P, Thompson, McLeod, Roberts-Austen, Eucker, Eeinold, 
Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain Abney, Drs. Glad- 
stone, HoPKiNSON, and Fleming, and Messrs. Crookes, Shelford 
BiDWELL, W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. Bottomley, E. T. 
GrLAZEBROOK, J. Brown, and John M. Thomson, appointed for 
the purpose of considering the subject of Electrolysis in its 
Physical and Chemical Bearings. 

During the past year the completed portion of Mr. Shaw's report on our 
knowledge of electrolysis has been printed and circulated among the 
members, and has appeared in the annual volume of the Association. So 
also has the report of the discussion with Professors van t'Hoff and 
Ostwald and others at Leeds, which was edited by Professor Thorpe. 

Papers received from Mr. J. Brown on the subject of the electrification 
of the spray thrown up from a vessel in which chemical reaction with 
efiTervescence was occurring, to which attention has been directed by Mr. 
Enright, and on the electrolysis of solutions of the chlorides of iodine 
and bromine, were communicated to the 'Philosophical Magazine.' 

The valuable theoretical and experimental work of Professor J. J. 
Thomson, which has been described in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' and 
in the 'Proceedings of the Royal Society,' on the discharge of electricity 
through vacuum tubes, has a distinct electrolytic significance ; and some 
researches of Mr. A. P. Chattock on the discharge of electi'icity from 
points, which are to be described at the present meeting, are tending 
in very much the same direction ; and showing that all convective 
passage of electricity, whether in liquids or gases or in partial vacua, are 
essentially electrolytic, taking place pi'obably by means of a series of 
Grotthuss chains, and with atomic charges of the same order of magnitude 
as those concerned in electrolysis proper. 

Other interesting work is going on, and a document entailing a great 
amount of labour which has been drawn up by the Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
one of the members of the Committee on Electrical Standards, is nearly 
complete ; it will be published next year. 

The Committee suggest that they should be reappointed, and with a 
grant of 51. to cover printing and postage. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAX. 123 



Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. R. Etheridge, Professor John Perry, Dr. Henry 
Woodward, Professor Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne 
(Secretary), apjjoiiited for the piirpose of investigating the 
Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. [Drawn up 
hy the Secretary.) 



The Gray-Milne Seismograph. 

The first of tlie above seismographs, constructed in 1883, partly at 
the expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the 
standard instrument. The earthquakes which it has recorded since 
April 27 of last year are given in the following list. 

Catalogue of Eartliqualies recorded at the Meteorological Ohservatory, Tohio, between 
Mag 1, 1890, a^id Ajml 30, 1891, hy the Gray-Milne Seismograph. 















Horizontal 


Vertical 














motion 


motion 


No. 


Month 


Date 


Time 


Duration 


Direction 






sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 






1890. 












H. M. S. 


M. S. 










1,026 


V. 


1 


3 56 25 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,027 


„ 


„ 


8 38 50 A.Ji. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,028 


„ 


J, 


7 40 10 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


l,02y 


„ 


J, 


9 59 21 P.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,030 


„ 


4 


2 29 17 P.M. 


1 45 


S.-N. 


1-4 0-2 


— 


— 


1,031 


„ 


7 


10 4 38 A.M. 


20 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,032 


„ 


8 


8 35 56 A.M. 


1 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-8 0-3 


— 


— 


1,033 


,, 


10 


6 49 23 A.M. 


10 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,034 


J, 


15 


2 36 9 P.M. 


6 30 


N.W.-S.E. 


2-2 0-9 


— 


— 


1,035 


,j 


21 


9 54 P.M. 


35 


E.-W. 


0-4 0-2 


— 


— 


1,036 


„ 


24 


1 39 33 P.M. 


1 30 


N.W.-S.E. 


0-5 0-3 


— 


— 


1,037 


„ 


25 


8 54 45 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,038 


,, 


27 


6 49 40 P.JI. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— . 


1,039 


,, 


31 


8 42 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,040 


VI. 


7 


11 29 53 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


_ 


1,041 


„ 


15 


4 30 15 P.M. 


12 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,042 


„ 


18 


1 45 22 P.M. 


3 


N.W.-S.E. 


1-3 0-6 


sU 


ght 


1,043 


„ 


26 


9 3 13 a.m. 


— 


— . 


slight 


— 


— 


1,044 


„ 


28 


5 10 40 A.M. 


50 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-7 0-7 


— 


— 


1,045 


VII. 


2 


2 15 9 A.M. 


— 


— 


Blight 


— 


— 


1,046 


,. 


3 


11 5 55 P.M. 





— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,047 




8 


2 60 30 P.M. 


20 


N.E.-S.W. 


0-9 0'3 


— 


— 


1,048 


„ 


9 


9 S3 1 P.M. 


1 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. 


1-5 0-3 


— 


_ 


1,049 


„ 


11 


9 51 5 a.m. 





— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,050 


,, 


14 


4 10 49 P.M. 


50 


S.-N. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,051 


„ 


16 


8 15 51 P.M. 


20 


E.-W. 


0-3 0-3 


— 


— 


1,052 


„ 


18 


35 46 A.M. 


10 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,053 


„ 


19 


4 18 50 P.M. 


50 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. 


0-4 0-2 


sli 


ght 


1,054 


„ 


20 


9 15 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 




1,055 


„ 


26 


3 61 13 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,056 


„ 


28 


2 57 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,057 


VIII. 


2 


11 6 35 P.M. 


1 8 


S.-X. 


1-2 0-2 








1,058 


,, 


4 


9 38 14 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


■ 1,059 




5 


1 46 21 P.M. 


2 14 


S.E.-N.W. 


1-5 0-3 








1,060 


„ 


7 


7 27 13 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


_ 


— 


1,061 


,, 


11 


1 43 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,062 


„ 


21 


6 5 16 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,063 


,, 


29 


11 34 31 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,064 


IX. 


5 


7 57 19 P.M. 


3 


S.-N. 


2-4 0-8 








1,065 


„ 


6 


11 55 a.m. 


1 40 


S.S.W.-N.N.E. 


1-0 0-6 








1,066 


J, 


17 


G 20 57 P.M. 


55 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-6 0-2 








1,067 


.. 


30 


V 24 64 P.M. 


3 


S.-N. 


1-0 


0-2 1 


— 


— 



124 



BEPORT — 1891. 
Catalogue of Earthquakes — continned. 















Horizontal 


Vertical 














motion 


motion 


Ko. 


Month 


Date 


Time 


Duration 


Direction 






sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 








H. M. s. 


M. s. 










1,068 


X. 


6 


4 3G 50 r.M. 


2 45 


E.N.E.-W.S.W. 


1-4 0-7 


_ 


— 


1,069 


„ 


10 


9 33 30 A.M. 


— 


S.-N. 


very sliglit 


— 


— 


1,070 


„ 


12 


9 45 30 A.M. 


— 


S.-N. 


very sliglit 


— 


— 


1,071 




16 


4 5 47 A.M. 


30 




slight 


— 


— 


1,072 


„ 


17 


8 38 18 P.M. 


36 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,073 


„ 


19 


2 33 45 P.M. 


30 


E.-W. 


0-2 0-3 


— 


— 


1,074 


,, 


19 


8 34 14 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,075 


„ 


29 


10 36 61 P.M. 


15 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,C76 


XL 


2 


9 30 30 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,077 


^^ 


5 


44 29 A.M. 


30 


E.-W. 


sUglit 


— 


— 


1,078 


", 


14 


2 21 17 A.M. 


1 6 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-6 0-3 


— 


— 


1,079 


„ 


16 


3 8 6 P.M. 


30 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,080 


„ 


17 


9 31 38 a.m. 


50 


B.-W. 


slight 


— 





1,081 


„ 


22 


10 50 31 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,082 


,, 


25 


7 1 P.M. 


1 


P.W.-N.E. 


0-2 0-2 


— 


— 


1,083 


,, 


27 


24 39 A.M. 


15 


S.B.-N.W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,084 


„ 


27 


7 33 48 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,085 




29 


7 30 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


feeble 


— 


— 


1,086 


XIL 


11 


5 34 53 P.M. 


30 


S.E.-N.W. 


03 0-2 


— 





1,087 


" 


24 


7 22 27 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 






1891. 








1,088 


I. 


29 


6 20 30 P.M. 


_ 


_ 


very slight 


_ 


— 


1,089 


XL 


13 


6 30 A.M. 


2 50 


S.S.E.-N.N.W. 


1-4 0-5 


sli 


ght 


1,090 


,, 


13 


6 56 20 A.M. 


2 


S.S.E.-N.N.W. 


1-1 0-5 


_ 




1,091 




14 


10 10 34 A.M. 


1 15 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0-2 0-4 


— 


-^ 


1,092 


,, 


20 


2 17 16 P.M. 


— 


— 


slight 





— 


1,093 


III. 


1 


4 17 43 P.M. 


2 20 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-3 0-5 


03 


0-3 


1,094 


,, 


2 


7 17 40 A.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,095 


„ 


20 


8 39 38 A.M. 


— 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


1,096 


,, 


24 


10 22 31 P.JI. 





— 


slight 


— 





1,097 


,, 


25 


5 11 Oa.m. 


1 


E.-W. 


O'G 0-3 


— 





1,098 




28 


3 28 7 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


_ 


— 


1,099 


IV. 


6 


4 8 10 r.M. 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


1,100 


„ 


7 


9 49 46 A.M. 


6 


S.S.W.-N.N.E. 


1-5 0-8 


sli 


ght 


1,101 


,, 


15 


2 59 16 P.M. 


10 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 




1,102 


„ 


18 


5 6 P.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 


— 


— 


1,103 


„ 


21 


10 49 7 A.M. 


3 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. 


1-1 1-9 


sli 


ght 


1,104 




28 


10 24 23 P.M. 


— 


— 


slight 







1,105 


" 


30 


11 54 3 A.M. 


— 


— 


very slight 




— 



In the above list eighty earthquakes are recorded, a number com- 
parable with the number of disturbances recorded in previous years. 
The intensity of these disturbances has, however, been unusually feeble, 
and without the aid of instruments it is likely that not more than thirty 
of them would have been noted. Although one earthquake lasted six 
minutes, the duration has generally been small, whilst only on one occa- 
sion did the full range of motion exceed one millimetre. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the list of records is as extensive as in 
previous years, the opportunities for many kinds of observation have 
been unusually small — so small, in fact, that it is thought better to with- 
hold the results of a certain class of experiments until they have been 
amplified by the observations of another year. 

Observations in a Pit, 

In the ' Transactions of the Seismological Society,' Vol. X., the present 
•writer, in a paper entitled ' On a Seismic Survey,' gave examples of 
observations made in a pit 10 feet in depth. For certain large earth- 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN. 125 



quakes it appearocl that the motion at the bottom of the pit was very 
much less than that observed on the surface, while for small disturbances 
the difference between the surface and pit records was too small to be 
measurable. In 1886 a pit 18 feet in depth was sunk through dry 
compact earth at the Imperial University in Tokio, at the bottom of 
which seismometers were established on a brick pavement. These 
seismometers and others in the Seismological Laboratory a few yards 
distant when placed side by side gave records which were identical. 
The work was commenced by Professor S. Sekiya, and continued by myself, 
and the records obtained have now been subjected to a careful analysis 
by Mr. F. Omori, a graduate of the University, who has taken from ten 
to thirty waves in thirty different earthquakes and for each of these 
waves calculated its amplitude, period, maximum velocity, and maximum 
acceleration. Of these thirty disturbances, for each of which diagrams 
were obtained on the sui'face and in the pit, three were strong and 
twenty-seven were feeble. For each set of calculations referring to 
a particular earthquake average values were obtained, and the average 
for these average values was as follows : — 

1. Ratio of Quantities Observed on the Surface to tJiose Observed in the Pit. 



(rt) Feeble Disturbances. 

fE.W. component 
■ \N.S. component 
r E.W. component 
1 N.S. component 
/E.W. component 
LN.S. component 

4. Ratios of maximum accelerations < xt'c ' t 

l_N.S. component 



Average 



1. Ratio of amplitudes 

2. Eatio of Periods . 



3. Ratios of maximum velocities 



l-0\ 
1-3J 
0-9 \ 
1-1 /■ 
l-2\ 
13j 
1-4 t 
20/ 



1-2. 



10. 



1-3. 



1-7. 



From the above it appears that for small disturbances the motion on 
the surface is slightly greater than it is in the pit ; further, from an 
inspection of the diagrams, it is seen that those from the pit are always 
smoother than those from the surface. In severe earthquakes Mr. Omori 
points out that this latter character is strongly marked. 



(Jj) Steong Distuebances 

1. Ratio of amplitudes 

2. Ratio of periods . . . , 

3. Ratio of maximum velocities 

4. Ratio of maximum accelerations 



/E.W. component 
\^N.S. component 
/E.W. component 
J^N.S. component 
/E.W. component 
\N.S. component 

{E.W. component 
N.iS. component 



1} 
1} 

1} 



Average 
1-4. 



11. 



1-3. 



l-S. 



(c) Ripples Supeeimposed on 

1. Ratio of amplitudes . 

2. Ratio of periods . 

3. Ratio of maximum velocities 

■4. Ratio of maximum accelerations 



AVaves of Strong Distuebances. 

Average 

fE.W. component . . 2-0"\ ^y.c, 

■ 1 N.S. component . . 2-3/ " ''' 

/E.W. component . - 08 1 „ „ 

\ N.S. component . . 0-8/ "'**• 

fE.W. component . . 3-0 "1 „„ 

• t N.S. component . . 2-6/ **■ 

J E.W. component . .5-81 . _ 

(^N.S. component . . 3-5/ 



1J« REPORT— 1891. 

The ripples referred to appear amongst the waves in the early part of 
a disturbance, and, as Mr. Omori suggests, may be the continuation of 
the minute motions which are sometimes recorded in diagrams before the 
true earthquake itself has commenced. 

A conclusion of some importance, which is confirmed by the above 
observations, is that buildings which rise from a basement or which are 
surrounded by an open area receive less motion than those which rise 
from the surface. 

Obsei'vations on the vertical component of motion are now being 
made in the pit. 

The Overturning and FRACTaRiNG of Brick and other Columns. 

During the past year a long series of experiments was carried out to 
determine the accelerations necessary to overturn or fracture columns of 
T«rk)tis diescriptions. The columns were placed or fixed upon a truck 
which could be moved back and forth through a range and with a period 
comparable with what might occur in a severe earthquake. Each back 
and forth motion was recorded on a band of paper running at a uniform 
speed in a direction at right angles to the direction of motion of the 
truck. At the instant the column overturned or was fractured a mark 
was made on the paper, so that the particular wave which was being 
drawn when overthrow or fracture occuri'ed could be identified. 

On the assumption of simple harmonic motion, calling the period of 
this wave T and its amjalitude a, which were quantities measurable on 

the diagram, the maximum velocity V, or —^~ , and the maximum ac- 

celeration, or — , could be calculated. These quantities were compared 

with quantities dependent on the dimensions, density, and strength of 
the columns experimented upon. The object of the experiments was to 
furnish those who have to build in earthquake countries with data 
respecting the quantity of motion which certain forms of structure 
might be expected to withstand. 

On October 15, 1884, we recorded in Tokio a maximum acceleration 
of 210 mm. per sec. per sec, whilst on February 22, 1880, when Yoko- 
hama was considerably damaged, such records as were obtained apparently 
indicated 360 mm. per sec. per sec. A maximum range of motion of 
100 mm. and a period of 2 seconds implies a maximum acceleration of 
450 mm. per sec. per sec. As it is possible that this quantity might be 
exceeded, structures in earthquake countries ought at least to be able to 
withstand three times as much. 

For various reasons, of which the following are important, it seems 
impossible to absolutely determine the quantity of motion necessary to 
overturn a body of given dimensions. 

1. The body may be set in motion and be rocking with a definite 
period and amplitude when it receives the final impulse which 
determines its overthrow. 

2. Bodies, like columns, standing on end have a period of oscillation 
varying with the arc through which they rock. 

3. An earthquake seldom, if ever, consists of a single sudden move- 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 127 

ment, but of a series of movements, which continually vary in 
amplitude and period. 
4. A series of earthquake waves is often accompanied by a series 
of superimposed waves. 

OVEKTDRNING. 

The theoretical investigation of the OK^erturning of a body like a 
column, which, although incomplete, has yielded results comparable with 
those obtained from experiment, is due to my colleague, Professor C. D. 
West. The result may be expressed as follows : — 

Let /= the acceleration in feet per sec. per sec. which may cause 

overturning, 
y=the height of the centre of gravity of the column, 
a;=:the horizontal distance of the centre of gravity of the column 

from the edge about which it may turn, 
(7=:the acceleration due to gi'avity. 

Then f=n"^. 

y 

Experiments showed that the quantity /, which may be calculated 
from the dimensions of a body, is closely related to the maximum 

acceleration, or — , which the body experienced at the time of over- 
turning. 

When the period of motion is short / and — closely approximate, 
but when the period is great (say two seconds) / may be 30 per cent. 

greater than — . 
a 

Fracturing. 

A theoretically- derived formula, which showed a close relationship 
with the results of experiment, was 

^^ gF°A^ 

where a=the acceleration necessary to produce fracture ; 

F°=the force of cohesion, or force per unit surface, which, when 

gradually applied, is sufficient to produce fracture ; 
A=area of base fractured ; 
y3=thickness of the column ; 

/=height of centre of gravity above the fractured base ; 
W= weight of the portion broken off. 

Values for F° varying between 41 and 14-8 lbs. per square inch were 
determined by pulling portions of the brick and mortar columns asunder 
in a testing machine. 

Corresponding to these different values of F° different values of a were 
obtained. 

Out of fourteen columns which were broken, in twelve cases the values 
obtained for a, when F°=14-8 lbs., were fairly comparable with the quan- 



128 KEPOiiT— 1891. 

tity V^/a. In two cases where fracture may have occurred at a bad 
joiat the quantity V^/a Avas more near to a when F=4'l lbs. 

As an illustration of the practical ajDplication of the above investiga- 
tion, let us assume that the greatest maximum acceleration to be expected 
is 1,000 mm. per sec. per sec, which is a quantity four times greater 
than anything yet recorded in Tokio, and then determine the height to 
which a brick column 2 feet square may be built above its foundations 
and be able to withstand this motion. 

If X is the height required and iv the weight of one cubic inch of 
l)rickwork=:'0608 lbs., then by substitution we derive from the above 
formula 






When F=5 lbs. then .'c=6ft. Sin. 
When F=151bs. then a^=llft. 7 in. 

A detailed account of the relationship of this formula to the formula 
previously emjaloyed, together with a^n account of the experiments, is 
being offered by myself and Mr. F. Omori, a graduate of the Imperial 
University, to the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

For assistance in carrying out the experiments my thanks are due 
to Mr. D. Larrien, who provided the truck and rails on which the 
experiments were made ; Mr. K. Tatsuno, Professor of Architectui'e, who 
designed and built the walls and columns ; the authorities of the Univer- 
sity, who provided the workshop and workmen, to Mr. Y. Yaniagawa, 
who superintended the electrical appliances ; and, finally, to my colleagues, 
who from time to time rendered valuable assistance. 

Earthquakes in Connection with Electric and Magnetic Phenomena. 
1. Magnetic Phenomena. 

The conclusion to be derived from the notes relating to magnetic 
phenomena and earthquakes published in the Report for last year was 
that, for Tokio at least, the records of the Magnetic Observatory, which 
is continually being shaken by earthquakes, only show disturbances 
which may be the result of mechanically-produced movements. Since 
then I have read an account of the experiment of M. Mourreaux, chief of 
the Magnetic Observatory of Pare Saint-Maur, near Paris. Having had 
his instruments disturbed at the time of earthquakes, M. Mourreaux 
suspended on the same stand as the magnetograph a copper bar having 
the same foi-m as the magnetic one. The bifilar suspension for the copper 
bar was made identical with that used for the magnet, and the movements 
of each were recorded photographically. 

With three earthquakes the records for the magnet were disturbed, 
whilst the records for the copper bar were not disturbed. This experi- 
ment has been discussed by G. Agamemnone (' Atti dellaKeale Accademia 
dei Lincei,' vol. vi., January 5, 1890), who points out that for various 
reasons the period of the copper bar and the magnet must be different, 
and, therefore, by a given movement one might be caused to move whilst 
the other remained at rest— -a conclusion with which the present writer 
concurs. 

Near an active volcano, where masses of magnetic matter may be 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 129 

shifted or altered in temperature, changes in magnetic elements may 
possibly be observed, but, so far as observation and experiment have 
hitherto gone, we are inclined to the opinion that ordinary earthquakes 
are in no way connected with magnetic phenomena. 

2. Electric Phenomena. 

In the Report for last year I gave the results of a comparison of the 
records of several hundreds of earthquakes, and the photographic records 
of atmospheric electricity from a Mascart electrometer. The observations 
were made at the Meteorological Observatory in Tokio. A result arrived 
at was that at the time of many earthquakes, especially when Tokio was 
rear the epicentrum, the air often became electro-negative. In a detailed 
paper on this same subject (' Trans. Seis. Soc.,' vol. xv. p. 160) it is 
stated that these results ' must only be regarded as tentative,' and as 
during the past year I have discovered a source of error in Mascart's 
instrument, this remark must not be overlooked. Sometimes, even in 
exceedingly dry weather, the instrument rapidly loses its sensitiveness, 
and, if the mirror be displaced, it does not quickly return to zero. The 
reason does not appear to reside in the fibre nor always in the acid, for, 
if the wire dipping in the acid and attached to the needle and mirror be 
taken out and washed, the sensitiveness is regained. Now the acid is 
being changed weekly and the wire washed. The results which have 
already been recorded having an explanation in mechanical movements 
must still be regarded as tentative. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord Rayleigh, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Cayley, Professor B. Price, 
Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. Gr. GtREENHILL, Professor 
W. M. Hicks, and Professor A. Lodge (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of calcidating Tables of certain Mathematical 
Functions, and, if necessary, of taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to publish the results in an accessible form. 

The first Report was in 1889. Since then values of 1q{x) have been 
■calculated from a'=0 to a;=6'10 at intervals of 'Ol, and considerable pro- 
gress has been made in still further expanding this table, making the 
interval -001. This will enable values of Io(a;) for intermediate values 
of X to be read off by the help of first differences only. 

Progress has been made towards the calculations cf Ii(aO for values 
of X differing by the interval -01, or, if desired, -001. The method 
adopted is that of calculating the successive differential coefficients of 
I) (a;) for the values of x given in the 1889 Report by means of the 
formula 

and its derivatives, and interpolating by means of Taylor's Theorem. 

The Committee have asked for a grant of 15L, to enable them to 
employ a professional calculator to help in the continuation of the work. 

1891. K 



130 REPORT — 1891, 



First Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G-. J. Stmons 
(Chairman), Professor K. Meldola, Mr. J, Hopkinson, and Mr. 
A. W. Clatden {Secretary), appointed to consider the applica- 
tion of Photography to the Ehicidation of Meteorological 
Phenomena. [Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

In commencing operations in the autumn of last year your Committee 
considered that the first step was to make their existence and aim as 
■widely known as possible. Hence the chief work of the year has been 
the issue of circulars inviting the co-operation of others, and the taking 
of such other steps as seemed likely to help in that main object. 

The following circular was first drawn up and issued to the secre- 
taries of a large number of photographic societies, field clubs, and other 
associations throughout the world. Letters to a similar effect were 
widely distributed through the medium of the press, and personal efforts 
were made to solicit aid wherever it seemed obtainable. 

ClECULAK A.] 

'Waeleigh,' Palace Road, Tulse Hill Park, 
London, S.W. : Novemher, 1890. 

SiK, — At the Leeds Meeting of the British Association in September last the 
above-named committee was formed in order to ' report upon the application of 
photography to the elucidation of meteorological phenomena, and to collect and 
register photographs of such phenomena.' 

The success with which these instructions can be carried out necessarily depends 
in a gi'eat measure upon the voluntary co-operation of others. 

Will you therefore lend us your valuable aid by making the matter known 
among the members of the society you represent, and by giving us the names of any 
persons resident in your neighbourhood who might be willing to further the work in 
hand ? 

We shall be glad to receive copies of any photographs illustrating meteoro- 
logical phenomena, or their eifects, but we should especially welcome offers of future 
assistance in the shape of photographs taken in accordance with simple instructions 
which will be supplied on application. 

Photographs received will be numbered and registered and exliibited at the nest 
meeting of the British Association. 

The Committee wish it to be understood that, hi tlte absence of any intimation to 
the contraT]!, contributions to their collection will be regarded as their own propertjv 
with liberty of reproduction at their discretion. 

Hoping that you will co-operate in the work, 

I am, your obedient Servant, 

Aethur W. Clayden, Secretary. 

It was, however, felt that a photograph of a meteorological pheno- 
menon possessed comparatively little value for scientific purposes unless 
some infoi'mation could be gained as to the circumstances under which it 
was taken. Again, photographers generally, and amateurs in particular, 
seem to find great difficulty in securing good photographs of such things 
as clouds ; therefore it seemed desirable to endeavour to ascertain whether 
any brand of plate, make of lens, or special device deserved particular 
recommendation. The following form was therefore printed and issued, 
with a modified version of Circular A, and distributed wherever there 
seemed any probability of active co-operation. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHY OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 

FOEM.] 

Name of Observer 

Address 



131 



Focal length 



Place of Observation ' 

Description of Lens ^^ 

Make of Plate employed ' 

Please state also whether the Picture was taken by direct exposure, through yellow 
glass, by reflection from black glass, or by any other special device 



Any other information. 



No. of Print .... 
















1 i 






Date 




























Time of Day .... 


















1 










Direction'' .... 
















j 












Stop' 


























Exposure' .... 
















j 










Developer ' . . . . 






1 1 
1 1 






1 









' If more than one place is used, take a separate Fcnn for each. 
° Name of maker and his description, such as ' rapid rectilinear.' 

" Maker's description, unless a special emulsion is used, in which case the Committee would be glad of 
the full formula. 

* Insert point of compass towards which the camera was pointed. State wliether true or magnetic. 
' f.JL f_. or whatever the ratio may be. 

r'h l.l' *' 

' Great exactness is not required. 

' Insert P. for Pyro, P.S. for Pyro and Sulphite, E. for Eikonogen, P.O. for Ferrous Oxalate, Q. for 
Hydroquinone. The Committee will be obliged for the full formula. 

N.B. — It is highly desirable that all prints should show some fixed obicet, such as a tree or chimney^ 
In the absence of any such point of reference the print should be marked to show the north and the 
zenith. 

At the same time, siDce effective help might be looked foi' among the 
great mass of enthusiastic amateurs who possess little or no knowledge 
of meteorology, and from meteorologists who know little of photography, 
a short paper of elementary instructions was also distributed. 

Insteuctions.] 

Photographs are desired of clouds, lightning, hoar-frost, remarkable hailstones, 
snow-wreaths, avalanches, glaciers, storm-waves, waterspouts, tornadoes, dust- 
whirls, halos, parhelia, or any other meteorological phenomena or their consequences. 

General Instructions. 
1. As soon as possible after exposing a plate, number it and fill in the' details 
relative to it on one of the forms supplied. The more completely these are filled in 
the more valuable will the photogi-aph be. 

K 2 



132 REPORT — 1891. 

2. The size of the plate is immaterial provided that the focos is sharp. Use a 
magnifier when focussing, and for objects like clouds focus upon a distant tree or 
building. 
■ 3. Use a lens which does not distort the image. 

4. Do not touch up either negative or print. 

5. When photographing any object which is moving or changing, a series of 
views taken at short intervals, so as to show the progress of the phenomenon, will 
be of especial value. 

6. Whenever possible, a figure or other object of known dimensions should be 
introduced, in order to serve as an approximate scale. 

Cloud Plwtographj . 

For heavy clouds no special apparatus is required, but exposure must be shorter 
than for ordinary landscape work. For very thin clouds exposure must be extremely 
short and development very cautious. Fair results may then be occasionally 
obtained without special means. 

In order to obtain better and more certain results three methods have been 
adopted : — 

(a) Using a slow plate and rapid lens, with short exposure. 

(J) Using an ordinary plate and lens, but with a sheet of pale yellow glass in 

front of the lens, 
(c) Using an ordinary plate and lens, but placing a plane mirror of black 
glass in front of the lens, so that its surface makes an angle of about 
: 33° with the axis of the lens. The image reflected in the mirror is fairly 
easy to photograph. 

The Committee hope to receive examples of each of these processes, as well as 
examples and descriptions of any other special devices which may be adopted by 
observers. 

Lightning Phntograpluj . 

When a thunderstcrm occurs at night it is very easy to photograph the flashes of 
lightning. 

Fix the camera rigidly (do not hold it in the hand) and expose it to a part of the 
sky where flashes are frequent. 

As soon as one flash has crossed the field of view change the plate. 

Whenever possible, count the number of seconds between seeing the flash and 
hearing the beginning of the thunder. Note this time on the print or form. 

If you have two cameras some useful results may be attained by using one as 
described above and holding another in the hand, pointing in about the same 
direction, but kept in constant oscillation. It is hoped that two photographs of the 
same flash may be thus secured. 

Another desirable experiment is to fix both cameras in the same direction, change 
the plates in one after each flash, but leave the plate exposed in the second until six 
or eight flashes have crossed the field of view. 

If the camera is placed in a window this must be open, as the interposition of a 
window pane may give rise to multiple images. 

Be particularly careful to note the exact time and direction of each flash photo- 
graphed. 

A rapid lens, with a stop ■£ or thereabouts, should be used for lightning. 

Prints, which may be mounted or unmounted, should be sent as early as possible 
to the Secretary at 

'Waeleigh,' Tulse Hill Pakk, London, S.W. 

This work of distribution has been greatly aided by the courtesy of 
the Council of the Royal Meteorological Society. But in spite of their 
assistance the time available for the purposes of the Committee has besn 
mainly devoted to carrying out this introductory labour and conducting 
the correspondence it has involved. 

The secretary to your committee has also personally appealed to 
various societies on behalf of the work in hand by the exhibition of 
lantern slides in explanation of the Committee's object. 



ON PlIOTOGRAPHr OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 133 

In all cases promises of future help (in the shape of photographs taken 
under recorded circumstances) have been solicited, rather than the gift of 
prints from old negatives. 

The result is that some progress has been made in the organisation 
of a system of observers who will be on the look-out for interesting 
phenomena. Such offers already number between forty and fifty, and 
new names are slowly coming in. Indeed, many of the circulars inviting 
such aid have been sent to such distant places that replies could hardly be 
expected yet. However, as it is, the promises in hand include some from 
Tasmania, Mauritius, Java, Sweden, America, and the Continent, while 
those from the United Kingdom come from all parts of the country. 

Tour committee view this result with some satisfaction, because a 
wide distribution and large number of observers multiply the chances of 
securing records of rare phenomena. It is a case of sowing seed over a 
large area, and it is only the earlier parts which have yet had time to 
yield much harvest. 

Photographs Collected. 

The number of prints actually received up to the time of closing this 
report (July 20, 1891) is not large. The total number, 153, includes 96 
of clouds, 11 of lightning, 6 of damage by lightning, 2 damage by hail, 3 
of the positions of meteorological instruments, G of glacier structure, 3 of 
fog shadows, 8 of hoar-frost, 2 of snow-crystals, and some others. But 
these can only be regarded as a first instalment of the results of the 
year's work, and your committee look forward with confidence to a con- 
siderable increase in their collection during the next few months. 

The details of the collection already made can be best judged by 
reference to the appended list : — ■ 

First List of Fliotograplis. 
Class A. — Clouds. 

Nos. 1-6. From the Kew Committee of the Koyal Society. 
,, 7-23. From Eear-Aclmiral Maclear. 
„ 24-26. From Mr. A. E. Western. 
„ 27-32. From Mr. Arthur Nicols. 
„ 33-100. From Mr. A. W. Clayden (secretary). 

A considerable number of negatives are also available from which 
prints have not yet been taken. 

Class B. — Lightning. 

No. 1. Taken on moving plate, from Dr. H. H. HofEert. 

2. Keversed flash, from Mr. A. W. Clayden. 

3. Branched ,, „ ,, 

4. Multiple „ „ „ 
p. 
^' >» j» J) )» 

6. Reversed ,, „ „ 

7. Simple and multiple flashes, from Mr. A. W. Clayden. 

8. Narrow ribbon, from Mr. J. H. Bateman. 

9. from Mr. Ernest Brown. 

10. 

11. „ Mr. Avery. 



134 REPORT — 1891. 

Class C— Damage by Lightning. 

Nos. 1-4. Rear-Admiral Maclear. 
„ 5-6. Seuor Don Augusto Arcimis. 
„ 7-10. Mr. J. Hopkinson. 

Class D.— Damage by Stoems. 
Nos. 1 and 2. EflEect of hailstorms of August' 2 and 3, 1879, from Mr. G. 
W. Whipple. 

Class E.— Electric Spaeks. 

Nos. 1-10. lUustrating forms of discharge, from Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
„ 11-18. Explaining dark flashes, from Mr. A. W. Clayden. 

Class F. — Snowfall, &c. 

Nos. 1 and 2. Snow-crystals, from Mr. A.. W. Clayden. 
„ 3 and 4. Drifts, March 11, 1891, from Mr. R. G. Dnrrant. 

Class G. — Glaciers. 

No. 1. Ice-cliffs of the empty Meerjelensee, 1889, from Mr. Greenwood Pim, 
Nos. 2-7. Various glaciers from Mr. Greenwood Pim. 

Class H.— Hoae-feost. 
Nos. 1-8. From Mr. A. W. Clayden. 

Class M. — Mi.scellaneous. 
Nos. 1-3. Shadows of a camera on fog, from Mr. A. W. Clayden. 

Registration of Photographs in other Collections. 

This section of tbe work has hardly been commenced. Several pro- 
minent firms of professional photographers have been approached with a 
view to tabulating the pictures they possess, but they have not offered 
any special facilities. This is to be regretted in some ways, but there 
seems x-eason to hope that another year something of the kind might 
be done. 

The fine collection in the possession of the Royal Meteorological 
Society has been examined. It contains a large number of very beautiful 
cloud studies by Dr. Riggenbach and M. Paul Garnier, but information 
as to the methods adopted by these observers and as to the conditions 
under which the pictures were taken is at present wanting. Neverthe- 
less the work of registering these photographs would have been taken 
in hand had it not been all but impossible to' describe them properly. 
The chaotic condition of cloud nomenclature seems to render it impossible 
to describe the minute diSerences of structure so admirably shown in the 
pictures in terms which would be generally intelligible. Many cloud 
forms, especiallj' among the thinner types, are intimately related to one 
another, some being only transitional phenomena during the passage of 
one stable form into another. Tour committee have therefore laid special 
stress in their instructions to observers upon the importance of securing 
series of cloud jjictures at short intervals delineating cloud changes and 
showing, as far as possible, the relations between various forms. Until 
some satisfactory system of nomenclature has been devised, or until your 



ON PHOTOGKAPHT OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 135 

committee can form a compreliensive collection, it seems tlaat the accurate 
registration of cloud photographs must be left in abeyance. Perhaps by 
this time next year, if they are permitted to continue their work, some- 
thing of the kind may be found practicable by referring other photo- 
graphs to types in their own collection. 

Another important collection is in the possession of the chairman of 
your committee. An early opportunity will be taken for the tabulation 
and registration of its contents. 

Methods of Cloud Photography. 

Specimens of cloud photographs have been received illustrating 
several methods. 

1. By the courtesy of the Kew Committee of the Royal Society six 
specimens of the photographs taken under their direction have been 
placed at the disposal of your committee. These have been taken in a 
special form of camera provided with a rotating shutter, the opening of 
which can be varied at pleasure. The exposure given is a fraction of a 
second, and the plates ai-e of the rapid gelatine bromide type. So far as 
definition is concerned, these pictures leave little to be desii-ed. 

2. Mr. A. E. Western sends one printfrora a negative taken on Edwards' 
medium isochromatic plate, and two taken with Carbutt's orthochro- 
matic celluloid films, in all cases after placing a sheet of pale yellow glass 
in front of the lens. The definition in all three is good, but the type of 
cloud is one which is easy to photograph, and it does not yet appear 
whether the method is of very much value for thin cirrus clouds. 

3. The secretary to your committee has made a careful trial of two 
other methods. 

The first consists in placing a plane mirror of black glass in front 
of the lens, so that the plane of its surface makes an angle of about 
33° with the axis of the lens. This method has been theoretically 
described by Dr. Riggenbach in a paper read before the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society on November 21, 1888. It is supposed to depend on the 
extinction of the polarised component of the light from the blue sky. But 
in practice it is found that the mirror is of great advantage, altogether apart 
from any polarisation. It diminishes the brilliancy of the whole illumi- 
nation, so that it becomes easy to time the exposure correctly. By this 
means it is found perfectly simple to get good negatives of even very 
delicate cirrus clouds on any of the ordinary brands of dry plates. The 
negatives frequently require intensification in order to bring out all possi- 
ble detail, and it seems that transparencies on glass or prints on bromide 
paper are to be preferred to ordinary silver prints. 

The second device which has been tested is the employment of slow 
plates. Very satisfactory results have been obtained by exposing in the 
camera some of the plates prepared for transparency work by Mawson 
and Swan. This method has not been tried so thoroughly as the other, 
but enough has been done to show that it may be recommended. 

The lens used in both cases was an Optimus rapid i-ectilinear with a 

stop Z With ordinary plates and the black mirror the exposure varied 

from about a tenth to half of a second, and with the transpai-ency plate 
about twice or three times as long. 

The experiments wiU be continued throughout the summer, and your 



136 EEPOET— 1891. 

committee hope that they will soon be in a position to decide which 
method is on the whole most suitable for the purpose. The black glass 
method has the one great advantage that it works well with the ordinary 
plates, and as the mirror may be easily removed and replaced a few cloud 
pictures may be taken during any photographic excursion without the 
necessity of carrying slides charged Avith plates of little use for other 
purposes. 

Photographs of Lightxixg. 

The registration of photographs of lightning is beset with difficulty, 
just such as interfered with the description of clouds. A provisional 
classification has been issued under the authority of the Thunderstorm 
Committee of the Royal ]\Ieteorological Society. Thi.s, however, was 
premature, and cannot be regarded as satisfactory. Hence your com- 
mittee have turned their attention rather to the study of lightning than to 
recording pictures of it. 

The phenomena accompanying electric discharges do not seem to have 
been very perfectly studied, but certain facts are known, and photographs 
of lightning and of electric sparks point to others. It seems, therefore, 
that no classification can be generally accepted which ignores existing 
knowledge of the connection between the electrical conditions and the 
character of the discharge. 

The so-called black flashes have of course been disposed of. The experi= 
ments described two years ago by the Secretary to your committee showed 
that the appearance is due to reversal produced by some form of diffused 
light having fallen upon the plate. This conclusion has been subsequently 
confirmed by ^Ir. Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S., and again by Mr. Clayden in 
the photograph numbered 2B. This was taken at Bath in the early 
morning hours of June 25. After the flash had passed, the plate was 
left exposed for a few minutes in the hojje that a second flash might 
illuminate the same part of the sky. This happened, the lower part of 
the field of view being brightly lit up by a flash which was itself hidden 
in the clouds. Where the consequent glare crossed the undeveloped 
image of the flash reversal has occurred, while no reversal can be detected 
in the other portion. 

It will be noticed that this flash, like many others, shows a distinct 
ribbon-like structure. The repeated occurrence of this phenomenon has 
already given rise to considerable discussion, and Mr. W. Marriott and 
Mr. Cowper Ranyard have attributed it to a movement of the camera 
during the existence of the flash. Certainly many such photographs 
have been taken in cameras held in the hand or on no very firm base. 
Moreover, Dr. Hofl'ert's photograiDh, No. 1 B, shows this structure well in 
the successive bright flashes. Nevertheless, it must be noted that in this 
last case the camera was in rapid motion, and yet the ribbon-like struc- 
ture is hardly more pronounced than it is in other pictures where any 
accidental movement was presumably much less. Moreoverj the photo- 
graphs Nos. 2 B and 3 B show this structure very plainly, though the 
camera was standing on a steady support, and movement during the flaeh 
was quite out of the question. 

Alternative hypotheses are that the aj^pearance is due to reflection 
from the back of the plate or in the lens. If either view were true the 
brighter parts of the flash should show the ribbon form the best, whereas 



ON PH0T05EAPHT OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 137 

the contrary seems often to be the case. Again, if the former hypothesis 
were true, the position occupied by the reflected light could be ascer- 
tained by considering the direction of the incident light. Fact here 
disagrees with theory. 

The evidence at present obtainable therefore points to the conclusion 
that a bright lightning flash may often take the form of a long sinuous 
ribbon, whose sectional thickness is very different in two directions 
normal to each other. Some of the appearances noticed also indicate that 
the greater thickness throughout all the parts of a given flash lies in one 
and the same direction, and the variations in its apparent direction are- 
mei'ely an effect of perspective. 

This structure must be carefully distinguished from another, in which 
several distinct flashes follow precisely similar paths side by side. Some- 
times the bright flashes (which may or may not show the ribbon shape 
proper) are connected by a less brilliant luminosity, which converts the 
whole phenomenon into a very broad ribbon. Photographs of this class 
are exemplified by Nos. 4B, 5 B. The flash represented in Dr. Hoffert's 
photograph is evidently one of the same order, and the curious smudges 
which cross the plate must doubtless be due to the above-mentioned 
fainter light. Clearly we have here to deal with intermittent dischai'ges,. 
a number of discharges following each other along the same or closely 
contiguous paths. In some cases photographs of this kind show redupli- 
cated images of buildings corresponding fairly well with the images of 
the component parts of the dischai-ge. In such a case there seems little 
room for doubt that the flashes followed the same path or paths only a 
very short distance apart. 

The secretary to your committee, however, secured the photograph 
No. 4 B on June 25. In this case the camera was certainly not moved. 
The flash, like many others, appeared multiple to the naked eye, but as 
the motion of the eyeball might have produced tliat eff'ect, although the 
flashes formed the same path, little weight can be laid on that argu- 
ment. Indeed, the fact that the camera was standing still and quite un- 
touched is sufficient to prove that flashes of such a nature do occur. It 
is really a rapid and almost simultaneous volley of flashes connected 
partly hy a less vivid discharge which obliquely links the brighter lines. 
There is also evident a sort of half-twist of one part of the flash around 
another part. 

In order to elucidate the unexpected facts brought to light in the 
numerous photographs belonging to the Royal Meteorological Society a 
number of experiments have been made by your secretary upon electric 
sparks obtained from an induction machine. As these tend to throw 
some light upon the questions in hand, a brief account of them may not 
be out of place. 

First remove the small Leyden jars from a Voss or Wimshurst 
machine. The discharge is then pink in colour, of slight brilliancy, and 
strongly resembles the brush discharge. If the knobs are brought 
near each other the dischai'ge passes along several lines, which arrange 
themselves side by side in a plane at right angles to the direction of 
discharge. 

If now the condensers are introduced in the ordinary position, the 
spark at once becomes more brilliant, and the pink tinge disappears. 
This spark obtained from the ordinary size of condenser appears to b& 
precisely the same as the commoner varieties of lightning. If larger 



138 REPORT — 1891. 

condensers are substitated the spark becomes thicker and brighter, and 
its minor irregularities frequently disappear. 

Next remove the condensers from the machine, and connect their 
inner coatings with the prime conductors, while the outer coatings are 
imperfectly insulated, as, for instance, by placing them on a wooden 
table. If the jars are near each other, as each spark passes between 
the discharging knobs another will pass between the outer coatings. 

Gradually increase the distance between the jars. The spark be- 
tween the outer coatings will become more irregular as it grows longer, 
and at a certain distance it will suddenly cease. At this moment the 
discharge between the knobs entirely alters its character. If the strik- 
ing distance is short, the form assumed is that of a bright pink band, 
generally brighter at its margins than elsewhere, and showing a beauti- 
ful fluted structure. Its duration is short, but it is nevertheless easy to 
see that it is a really intermittent. 

Again increase the striking distance step by step. The discharge is 
still intermittent, but thin, brilliant white sparks make their appearance. 
At first the pink discharge can be recognised passing obliquely between 
these bright sparks, but as the distance increases the pink light disap- 
pears, and. the discharge becomes a rapid volley of bright sparks. 

The photographs from No. 1 E to No. 9 E show these phenomena. 

Again, if the discharging knobs are placed some distance from the 
machiue, so that the field due to their charge is but little afiected by the 
movements of the machine or operator, it may often be noticed that with 
ordinary bright sparks their form is repeatedly the same. No. 10 E shows 
a series of sparks taken under such conditions at intervals of about one 
second. 

Now, it is probable that all these forms of discharge have their 
analogues in lightning. The bright sparks with small condensers are 
the counterpart of the commoner type of lightning. Those from the 
large Leyden jars and between the outer coatings correspond to more 
powerful flashes, the latter being the 'impulsive discharge' described by 
Professor O. Lodge. The volleys of bright sparks are also the type of many 
observed multiple flashes. Thei'e remain only the pink discharges, and 
surely these are the counterpart of the flashes which yield photographs 
like No. 4 B. 

Moreover there seems to be no prima, facie absurdity in supposing 
that a short series of flashes may occur during a brief time along parallel 
paths. Such a phenomenon is conceivably explicable — 

(a) by an identity of conditions over the whole area traversed by the 
flashes ; 

(b) by the movemeut of the chai'ged cloud causing the conditions 
which held in one place at a given moment to hold a short distance 
away at another ; 

(c) by the movement of the air sweeping along the disturbance 
caused by the first spark, so that a path of least resistance resulting 
from that disturbance occupies difl"ereut positions. Your committee 
would draw attention to the similarity between the appeai'ance of the 
bright pink discharge and that through rarefied air. Some of the dis- 
charges, Nos. 3 E to 7 E, look as if the passage of the bright sparks caused 
a partial vacuum between them, and the pink sparks then struck through 
this lessened resistance along the paths of the bright sparks and across 
the low resisting interval between them, the slope of these transverse 



ON PHOTOGRAPHY OF METEOROLOaiCAL PHENOMENA. 139 

sparks being jjossibly determined by the difference of potential required 
to break through what resistance there was. 

Possibly it may be found that the ribbon structure is also due 
to some such phenomenon. The passage of the first flash will produce 
for a short time a Lighly rarefied column of air, through which a stream 
of less luminous sparks may pass until the displaced air surges back. 
Resistance will then be abnormally high exactly along the track of the 
first spark, and this column of extra dense air will be surrounded by a 
tube (so to say) of lower resistance. Indeed, the paths of subsequent 
discharges in a series may conceivably be determined either by the 
outward movement of the wave of rarefaction or by the alternate com- 
pression and rarefaction along the original path. In either case the 
movement of the air may easily sufiBce to carry the position of least 
resistance along with it. That subsequent discharges do sometimes 
follow what may be called the trough of the atmospheric wave is indi- 
cated by the tendency sometimes exhibited for one spark or flash to 
twist partly round another. 

Howevei', your committee do not wish it to be understood that they 
put forward these suggestions as definite hypotheses. They merely state 
them in order to indicate various lines along which further research is 
desirable. They hope, if they are permitted to continue their task for 
another je&v, to add considerably to the experimental and observational 
facts at present available, and possibly to reach more definite conclusions 
than existing material allows. 

Before ending their report your committee feel that a passing 
reference is due to the important paper read before the Royal Society in 
which the Kev/ Committee described some of their results, and also to 
the work which has been carried on at Berlin and elsewhere in the 
photography of the so-called luminous night-clouds and of clouds in- 
visible to the naked eye. 

They wish to express their thanks to the Kew Committee, to the 
numerous i^ersons who have volunteered their assistance, and especially 
to the Council of the Royal Meteorological Society, 

In conclusion they ask to be reappointed, with a grant of 15^., in 
order that they may have an opportunity of following up the beginning 
that has been made. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. J. Lodge, 
Professor Carey Fosteh, and Mr. A. P. Chattock (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the Discharge of Electricity from 
Points. 

Measueejiekts have been made of the strength of field necessary to start 
discharge at jjoints of radius of curvature varying from 0'7xlO"^ to 
58 xlO"^ cm. The I'esults show that the field strength inci'eases rapidly 
as the radius of curvature diminishes. They also point to the gas sur- 
rounding the point as the seat of resistance to discharge, rather than to 
the surface of the metal ; and, upon the assumption that discharge means 
the breaking down of Grotthuss chains in the gas, extrapolation indicates 
an atomic charge of dimensions approximating to those of the ionic 
charge of electrolytic ions. 



140 REPOET — 1891. 

The variations of the field strength with pressure of the gas seem to 
agree ■with the Grotthuss chain hypothesis as far as the measurements go. 

Upon the assumption that the passage of electricity from a point to a 
plate is a one-way flow, it is possible to obtain a value of the ratio of 
mass moving to electricity carried by it (i.e., the electro-chemical equiva- 
lent of the discharged matter) in terms of the slopes of potential and 
pressure brought about by the discharge, and the density of the current 
passing. Experiments are now in j^rogress to determine this ratio, rf 
possible. So far they point to a number far in excess of the electrolytic 
value. This may be due to error in the measurements, or, possibly, to 
the presence of metal dust in the discharge. 

Measurements, also still in progress, have been made on the mechan- 
ical forces which act on a point during dischai'ge. They point to interest- 
ing difiTerences between + and — electricity, and it is hoped that useful 
information may be obtained as to the manner in which the two electri- 
cities leave the point by further work in this direction. 

Tour Committee asks for reappointment with a grant of 50Z. 



Report of the Committee, consisting o/Lord McLaren (Chairman'}, 
Professor Crum Brown {Secretary), Mr. Milne Home, Dr. John 
Murray, Dr. Buchan, and the Hon. Ealph Abercromby, ap- 
pointed for the purpose of co-operating with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in inahing Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis. 

Ddeing 1890 the hourly observations by night and by day at the Ben 
Nevis Observatory have been carried on uninterruptedly by Mr. Omond 
and the assistants, and as heretofore the five daily observations at Fort 
William have been made with great regularity by Mr. Livingston. As 
intimated in last report, a vitally important advance was made in the 
system of observations on Ben Nevis by the opening of the low-level ob- 
servatory in Fort William on July 14, 1890, for regular continuous obser- 
vations. This observatory has been equipped by the Meteorological 
Council Avith a complete set of self-recording instruments, such as are in 
use at the first-class observatories of the Council. The directors have 
thus now at their disposal the best information available for extending the 
scientific and practical inquiries they have undertaken through the 
unique facilities offered by these well-equipped observatories. A begin, 
ning has also been made with an elaborate discussion of this double series 
of hom-ly observations of which some account will be given in this 
report. 

The directors were again able to give relief to the various members 
of the observing staff by the courtesy of the following gentlemen, who 
have given their services as observers for periods varying from four to 
eight weeks: — Messrs. R. C. Mossman, James McDonald, M.A., and 
Alexander Drysdale, M.A., B.Sc. ; and Messrs. P. Gillies and C. Stewart, 
from Professor Tait's Laboratory, are now (August, 1891) assisting in 
the work of observing. 

For the year 1890 the following were the monthly mean pressures and 
temperatures, hours of sunshine, amounts of rainfall, and number of fair 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



141 



days, or days of less than 001 inch of rain, at the observatory, the mean 
pressures at the Ben Nevis Observatory being reduced to 32° only, while 
those at Fort William are reduced to 32° and sea-level : — 



1890 


Jan. 1 Feb. Marchj April i May j June 1 July ) Aug. Sept. Oct. ] Nov. Dec. Year 




Mean Pressure in Inches. 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort WiUiam 
Difference . 


24'983 25-543 

29-548 30-221 
4-565| 4-G78 


25-079 

29-674 
4-595 


25-226 

29-820 
4-594 


25-316 

29-845 
4-529 


25-349 25-297 

29-878 29-802 
4-529 4-505 


25-312 25-482 

29-799 29-964 
4-487 4-482 


25-395 

29-955 
4-560 


25-147 

29-732 

4-585 


25-409 25-295 

30-084 29-860 
4-675 4-565 




Mean Temperattires. 


BenNevis Ob- 
servatory- 
Fort ■William 
Difference 


26-9 24-8 25-4 26-4 


35-3 


30-4 


37-1 


38-6 


41-9 


33-6 


2?-4 


22-2 


31-3 


42-1 39-6 42-3 44-4 
15-2 14-8 16-9 18-0 


53-2 
17-9 


54-2 

17-8 


55-0 
17-9 


17-3 


58-6 
14-7 


49-6 
16-0 


42-0 
14-6 


37-2 
15-0 


47-7 
16-4 




Extremes of Temjyerature. 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory : 
Maxima 
Minima . 
Difference . 


27-3 

16-8 
20-5 


o ' O 

46-1 36-8 37-1 
12-7 lO-l 1 16-9 
33-4 20-7 20-2 


5i-4 
22-1 
30-3 


o 1 o o o ' o 
45-6 51-7 53 7 58-9 44-9 41-0 i 39-0 58-9 
27-1 28-8 27-7 | 27-5 16-0 13-2 1 9-0 9-0 
18-5 22-9 1 26-0 31-4 28-9 27-8 ! 30-0 49-9 




Rainfall in Inches. 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 

No. of Days of 
no Rain 

No. of days 1 
in. or rnore 
fell 

Fort William 


29-42 


11 

19-07 


4-57 27-31 

17 ! 5 
2 8 

1-66 11-13 


8-09 
15 
2 

3-10 


6-01 
10 
2 

2-67 


14-67 
3 
3 

7-68 


13-22 
4 
4 

7-69 


14-33 
4 
6 

6-22 


20-71 
6 
6 

7-85 


37-30 
2 
15 

13-85 


18-96 

6 

10-31 


3-75 
15 

1 

1-29 


198-34 
83 
66 

93-12 




Hours of Sunshine. 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 


4 68 3S 78 126 


24 42 


46 : 83 


35 27 22 


591 


- - - - - 


- - 


117 102 


52 34 26 


- 



At Fort William the mean temperature of the year was 47°'7, being 0°'5 
above the mean. The exceptional departures from the monthlymeans were : 
January 2°-8, May 3°-2, September 3°-l, and October 2°-0 above, and 
July 2°'3, August 3°*1, and December 2°"4 under, the means. The mean 
annual temperature at the top of the Ben was 31°'3, or 0°'4 above the 
mean, and as contrasted with Fort William the departures from the means 
were in July 2°'8 and in August 1°'0 under and in September 4°'0 above 
it. In anticyclonic weather, such as largely prevailed in September, the 
excess of temperature at the top of the Ben is always relatively higher 
than at sea-level adjoining. 

The minimum temperature for the year was 9°'0 on December 19, being 
about the point to which the temperature has fallen each year since the 
observatory was opened. The maximum was 58°'9 on September 7. This 
is about the lowest annual maximum temperature hitherto observed, and 
it is otherwise remarkable as having occurred so late in the season. 
Indeed, low temperatures ruled during the summer in an unusual degree, 
the highest in June being 45°-6, July 51°-7, and August 53°7. Thus 
the extreme range of temperature for the year was 49°'9 ; in the previous 
year it was 55°'4. 

The registration of the sunshine-recorder showed only 591 hours out 
of a possible 4,470 hours. Excepting 1886, when the number was 570, 



142 KEPOET — 1891. 

this is the lowest since the observations began. In January only 4 hours 
were registered, being the lowest monthly amount yet observed, but in 
December the number of hours was 22, being considerably in excess of 
the hours registered at stations generally over the United Kingdom 
during this exceptional month. 

The rainfall was the heaviest yet recorded in any year, being 198'34 
inches, and if the amount were calculated for the meteorological year 
beginning with December, 1889, the annual amount would be 213-63 
inches. The rainfall for October, 37'30 inches, is the highest yet recorded 
in any month ; and 29'42 inches were recorded in January and 27'31 
inches in March. On October 3 the rainfall was 7'29 inches, but for the 
24 hours from 9 p.m. of the 2nd to 9 p.m. of the ord the extraordinary 
quantity of 8'07 inches was collected. In four months the rainfall was 
the highest yet recorded for these months. 

The number of days on which the rainfall was nil, or less than the 
hundredth of an inch, was 83, being the fewest number of fair days of 
any year since the observatory was opened. There were 17 fair days in 
February, 15 in April and December, but none in January. There were 
Q& days on which one inch or upwards fell. In October there were 15 
such days and 1 1 in January. 

The rainfall of 1890 in the eastern part of Scotland to the south of 
the Grampians was nearly everywhere iinder the average, the deficiency 
being a sixth in the Border Counties. On the other hand, in north-western 
districts it was about a fifth above the average. The annual average at 
the observatory since 1885 is 134"50 inches, and hence the rainfall of 1890 
was 63'84 inches, or 48 per cent., above the average — an excess nowhere 
approached at any observing station in Scotland. 

Atmospheric pressure at Fort William was 29-860 inches, or 0-032 
inch above the mean pressure. The monthly extremes were the minimum 
in January and the maximum in February, these being respectively 0-229 
inch below and 0-295 inch above the means of these months. 

The following shows the departures from the means of the pressure 
and rainfall of the four months of heaviest rainfall at the Ben Nevis 
Observatory : — 

Differences from fJie ]\Jeavs. 



January 

March . 

September 

October 



Pressure 


P.-iinihll 


Inch 


Inclifs 


-t)-]94 


+ 12-55 


-0-143 


+ 15-39 


+ 0-088 


+ 8-!)t; 


+ 0086 


+ 22-44 



It will be observed that during the two last months, when the rainfall 
was greatly above the average, pressure also was above the average. On 
the top of the Ben it repeatedly occurs tliat high pressures are accom- 
panied with very heavy and long-continued ivains. 

Considerable progress has been made during the year with the dis- 
cussion of the Ben Nevis obsei'vations. 

An exhaustive examination of the 'Winds of Ben Nevis,' bv Messrs. 
Omond and Rankin, has been recently completed and the results com- 
municated in a paper read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The 
authors show that while the sea-level winds in this part of Scotland are, 
with respect to the distribution of pressure, in accordance with Buys 
Ballot's Law of the Winds, the Ben Nevis winds do not at all fit in with 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS, 143 

sncli a distribution of pressure, but that on the contrary they point to a 
widely different distribution of pressure at the height of the observatory, 
4,407 feet above the sea. In large storms, with a deep barometric depres- 
sion in the centre, the Ben Nevis winds are practically the same as at lower 
levels ; but with smaller storms great differences are presented. In these 
cases it is remarkable that with a cyclone covering Scotland, the North 
Sea, and Southern Norway the winds frequently blow, not in accordance 
with the sea-level isobars, but in an entirely opposite direction, suggest- 
ing an outflow from the cyclone towards the anticyclone near at the 
time on the other side. It is further remarkable that this outflowing 
seldom or never occurs when the centre of the stoi'm is to the south or 
west, but only when it lies to the north or east. If the wind on the hill- 
top is not at a right, or greater, angle from the sea-level wind, it is 
usually nearly the same as it ; the supposed veering of the wind at great 
heights required by the theory that a cyclone is a whirling column, 
drawing the air in spirally below and pouring it out spirally above, is 
so seldom observed as to be the exception, and not the rule. This 
important result and the analogous observation that frequently in great 
storms of winds prostrated trees lie practically in one direction over wide 
regions show impressively how much observation has yet to contribute 
before any satisfactory theory of storms can be propounded. 

The winds of other high-level European observatories, which may all 
be regarded as situated in anticyclonic regions, have been examined, 
and it is found that they show the closest agreement with the winds at 
low levels in the same regions. This result separates the Ben Nevis 
Observatory from other observatories, so as to form a class by itself, the 
differentiating cause being the circumstance that Ben Nevis alone lies in 
the central track of the European cyclones. This consideration emphasises 
the value of the Ben Nevis observations in all discussions of weather. It 
may be added that, with respect to the relation of the winds to the low- 
level isobars, Ben Nevis Observatory is more pronouncedly a high-level 
observatory in winter than in summer, or, more generally, in cold than 
in warm weather. 

Mr. Rankin has communicated to the directors a paper on the results 
of the dust-counting observations of the past year. The highest number 
observed was 14,400 per cubic centimetre in- April last, whilst the lowest, 
0, was observed in July, 1890, and again in March, 1891 ; and here it must 
be noted that ea.cli observation is really the mean of ten observations taken 
at the time. The greatest amount of dust is observed when the wind is 
E., S.E., or S., both at sea-level and the top of the Ben ; but when the 
winds at the top diverge most from those at sea-level then the lowest 
dust values are obtained. We have here, broadly indicated, another con- 
tribution to weather prognosis afforded by the dust observations, since 
they point to quite different phases of weather. 

True fogs and wet mists exhibit marked differences. In fog there 
is usually a considerable amount of dust ; in mist, or wet mist, usually 
very little. It is observed when the number of dust particles noted is 
extremely small, or even 0, thattheair is surcharged with aqueous vapour, 
if such a condition be suppcsed possible, and that then, there being no 
dust particles to serve as nuclei on which the vapour might condense, it 
simply condenses en all exposed objects direct from the air. This has 
been found to be the most wetting condition of the air, a few minutes 
only being sufficient to give the observer a thorough soaking. Every 



144: EEPOET — 1891. 

post and rope seem running over -with water, though, looking out at the 
weather, one has no idea it is nearly so wet. 

Snfi&cient observations have been made to show a well-marked diurnal 
variation in the numbers of dust particles. The following are the tri- 
honrly results for March, April, and May, 1891 : — 



1 A.M. 
4 „ 
7 „ 
10 „ 


Mean . 


Means 
. 736 
. 526 
. 570 
. 526 


1 P.M. . 
4 „ . 

7 „ . 

10 „ . 


. 854 


Means 
950 
1,438 
1,035 
1,029 



The daily minimum thus occurs when the daily strength of the wind is 
greatest, and also the descending current, down the mountain, and the 
maximum when the wind is least strong and the ascending current up the 
mountain strongest. 

Mr. R. C. Mossman has communicated a paper to the Scottish 
Meteorological Society on the cases of silver thaw at the Observatory, 
which will appear in next issue of the Society's Journal. From 1885 to 
1890 there occurred 198 cases, lasting in all 873 hours — that is, cases in 
which rain froze as it fell. The maximum frequency is from November 
to March. It occasions, as may well be supposed, much inconvenience 
-and discomfort to the observers. 

The chief point established by Mr. Mossman is that the distribution 
of pressure over Western Europe is at the time always substantially the 
same. The daily weather charts show that on these 198 days the distri- 
bution of pressure was for the Ben cyclonic on 137 and anticyclonic on 
■61 days. In anticylonic cases a cyclone is off the north--«'est coast of 
Norway, while the anticyclone stretches away over the south of England 
^nd Ireland. In cyclonic cases Ben Nevis is clearly within the area of 
low pressure, the centre of which again is off the north-west coast of 
Norway, while the anticyclone is removed farther to southward over the 
Peninsula. Hence the value of this phenomenon in forecasting weather. 
The average duration is 6 hours in winter and 3 in summer. The longest 
continued was 41 hours on January 3-4, 1889. The lowest temperature 
.at which it has occurred was 18°'0, but nearly in all cases the occurrence 
takes place shortly before a thaw. 

During the past year the uni-emitting attention of Dr. Buchan has 
been given to the examination and discussion of the hourly observations 
•of the two observatories. The discussion includes the ten months ending 
May, 1891. 

In entering on the discussion it quickly became apparent that the 
influence of high winds on the barometer was the first inquiry calling for 
serious attention. The depression of the barometer during high winds 
was plainly so serious as to render the examination of many questions all 
but a hopeless task until some approximation was made to the values of 
these depressions for different wind velocities. 

Fortunately the two observatories present the conditions favourable 
for this investigation. They are so near to each other as to form vir- 
tually but one observatory, the barometer at the top being in a building 
exposed to winds of all velocities up to at least 150 miles an hour, whereas 
the other barometer is in a sheltered building, where light winds prevail 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 145 

generally, so that this barometer may be regarded as recording the 
true pressure of the atmosphere. This was more exactly secured 
in making comparisons of the two barometers by selecting only those 
cases when winds at the Fort William Observatory were light. As 
stated by the Committee in previous reports, the observations of the force 
of the wind are estimations on a scale of to 12, the equivalent of each 
figure of the scale in miles per hour having been carefully determined 
by Mr. Omond by means of Chrystal's anemometer. The barometric 
observations at the two observatories were reduced to sea-level hour by 
hour, and the differences plus or minus were entered in columns repre- 
senting the different wind forces at the higher observatory. The following 
is the result of the comparison : — 



Wind force 


Eq. 


miles per 


liour 


Bar. Depression 
Inch 







2 




-0-001 


1 




7 




-0004 


2 




13 




-0005 


3 




21 




-0010 


4 




29 




-0-014 


5 




38 




-002G 


6 




47 




-0035 


7 




57 




-0-050 


8 




67 




-0-070 


9 




77 




-0-104 


10 




88 




-0-122 


11 




99 




-0-150 



Thus in calm weather the two reduced barometers are practically the 
same, but with every increase of wind which sweeps past the hio-her 
observatory, the depression of the barometer inside steadily augments. 
It is not till a velocity of more than 20 miles an hour is reached that 
the depression amounts to one-hundredth of an inch. At 57 miles it is 
0-050 inch, at 11 miles 0-104 inch, and at 99 miles 0-150 inch. In 
forecasting weather it will be necessary to keep this effect of high winds 
on the barometer constantly in mind, with the view of arriving at a 
better approximation to the geographical distribution of pressure at the 
time the forecasts are being framed. 

These results are for all winds grouped together irrespective of their 
direction. The next inquiry grouped the winds according to their direc- 
tion to sixteen points of the compass. During the time under examination, 
all the very high winds were from E.S.E. or S.E., these being the direc- 
tions in which the wind blows freely along the slopes of the mountain to 
the observatory. In 11 cases the wind from these directions attained a 
Telocity of 100 miles an hour or more, and the reduced barometer of the 
high-level station read about one-sixth of an inch lower than the baro- 
meter of the low-level observatory. In no other of the 16 directions was 
there, during the ten months, a higher velocity than 62 miles an hour 
observed, and indeed in the directions E., E.N.B., KE., K, N.W., and 
W. the observed velocity was never greater than 29 miles an hour. 
With these northerly winds the observations at the top of the mountain 
indicate a much lower speed than that which, from the drift of the clouds, 
IS seen to be reached at a comparatively small height above the top of the 
J3en The cause of this comparatively calm state of the air immediately 
on the top is the impact of the air on the face of the tremendous cliff, 
close to the top of which the observatory is built, by which the stream 

1891. .7 ' J 



146 REPORT 1891. 

lines are suddenly deflected upwards. Now in such cases the de- 
pression of the barometer is about three times as great as that which occurs 
with an equally strong wind from other directions, and indicates clearly 
the formation of a restricted region of low pressure around and outside 
the observatory. Another curious and highly intei-esting result observed 
with other directions of the wind is that the reduced high-level baro- 
meter exceeds the I'ednced low-level barometer when the wind blows at 
the rate of about ^j miles an hour. This increased pressure accompanying 
wind rising up the slope of the hill may perhaps explain the small clear 
space immediately on the top of a hill, otherwise cloud-topped, and the 
very different force of wind on the two sides of a ridge lying about a 
right angle to the direction of the wind. 

An examination has also been made of the relations of differences of 
temperature at the two observatories to differences of the sea-level pressures 
at the same hours. During the ten months examined the temperature 
differences have ranged from the high-level observatory showing a tem- 
perature 26° lower to a temperature 6° higher than the temperature at 
Fort William at the time. A comparison has been made by sorting the 
differences into two-degrees amounts, and instituting a comparison only 
on those cases when the strength of the wind at either of the observatories 
did not exceed 2G miles an hour. 

The following show for each two-degi'ees difference of temperature 
the difference between the reduced barometer of the top and the barometer 
at Fort William, the plus sign indicating that the top barometer was the 
higher, and the minus sign that it was the lower of the two : — 



Difference of 


Difference of 


Difference of 


Difference of 


Temperature 


Pressure 


Temperature 


Pressure 




Inch 




Inch 


+ 6° to + 4° 


-f 0-047 


-10° to -12° 


+ 0-006 


+ 4 „ +2 


-f- 0-044 


-12 „ -14 


+ 0-001 


+ 2 ., -HO 


4-0-041 


-14 „ -16 


-0-005 


-0 „ -2 


+ 0031 


-16 „ -18 


-0-010 


-2 „ -4 


+ 0-020 


-18 „ -20 


-0018 


-4 „ -(3 


+ 0-008 


-20 „ -22 


-0-023 


-6 „ -8 


+ 0-009 


-22 „ -24 


-0-029 


-8 „ -10 


+ 0-007 


-24 ., -26 


-0033 



The broad result is this, and it is clear and explicit, when the higher 
observatory has the higher temperature, and when the differences of 
temperature are sm.^11, then the reduced pressure at the top of the moun- 
tain is the greater of the two ; but when the differences of temperature 
are large then the reduced pressure at the top is the less of the two. 
The regular progression of these figures show that what is substantially 
a true average has been obtained. The result, which is altogether unex- 
pected, raises questions of the greatest importance, affecting the theory 
of storms, the effect of vertical movements of great masses of air on the 
barometric pressure which accompanies cyclones and anticyclones, and 
the necessity there is for some accurate knowledge of the absolute 
amounts of aqueous vapour at different heights in the atmosphere under 
different weather conditions. Ben Nevis, with its two observatories, one 
at the top, the other at the foot of the mountain, would, with a third 
halfway up the hill, afford unique facilities for the prosecution of this 
all-important hygrometric inquiry, which would, however, require 'con- 
siderable additions, for the time it is carried on, to the observatories' 
present appliances and staff. 



ON RECALESCKNT POINTS IN IRON AND OTHER METALS. 147 



Third (Interim) Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Fitzgerald, Dr. John Hopkinson, Mr. E. A. Hadfield, Mr. 
Trouton, Professor Roberts-Austen, Mr. H. F. Newall, and 
Professor Barrett (Secretary), on the various Phenomena con- 
nected tuith the Recalescent Points in Iron and other Metals. 

The Committee reported at some length, last year, and wisli to j^ostpone 
a further report till next year. They desire, therefore, to be i-eappointed 
without a jcrant. 



Second (Interim) Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John" 
Kerr, Sir William Thomson, Professor RiJCKER, and Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), appointed to co-operate with Dr. Kerr 
in his researches on Electro-optics. 

The Committee report that Dr. Kerr is continuing his experiments on 
Electro-optics, and hopes to be able to get some definite results for the 
meeting next year. They wish to be reappointed. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Liveing, Dr, C. 
PiAZZi Smyth (Secretary), and Professors Dewae and Schuster, 
appointed to co-operate ivith Dr. C. Piazzi Smyth in his researches 
on the Ultra-violet Rays of the Solar Spectrum. 

The first proceeding of this committee after authorisation was to inquire 
into all that their Secretary was proposing to do in the way of observa- 
tion and record in the ultra-violet of the solar spectrum and the suf- 
ficiency or otherwise of the apparatus he had already collected for the 
purpose. Much correspondence followed through the autumn and in the 
winter of 1890-91, and it soon became evident that only a small part of 
what was scientifically necessary could be procured with the amount 
voted. 

In February, 1891, however, a most agreeable surprise occurred, in 
the shape of a resuscitation of a still earlier application on the same 
general lines, but on a wider basis, by Dr. C. Piazzi Smyth to the Royal 
Society's Government Grant Committee in July, 1890, and which he 
erroneously imagined, from their silence after receiving it, had not been 
approved by that body. But it had been simply kept in abeyance, and 
was finally pronounced favourably upon and granted in 1891. This 
measure happily relieved the British Association Committee from attempt- 
ing to do altogether too ranch for its small means, though still requiring the 
utmost economy in their t.isposition, as well as their limitation to the exact 
line pointed out in the resolution passed by the General Committee at 
Leeds, viz., ' to co-operate with their Secretaiy in his researches on the 
Ultra-violet Rays of the Solar Spectrum.' 

Now this part of the spectrum being absolutely invisible to the eye, 
though otherwise known fo be in the field of the Secretary's Grating 
spectroscope at the time, while the /oc2(s of the inspecting or photograpb- 

L 2 



148 REPORT — 1891. 

ing telescope thereof varied rapidly with the smallest angular change of 
its direction in spectrum place, there arose a necessity for a considerable 
improvement of the focussing arrangement over and above what is usually 
supplied for the visible parts of the spectrum, or had been furnished in the 
present instance for all parts. But this improvement has now been accom- 
plished by Messrs. T. Cooke & Sons, of York, according to a design by 
the Secretary, enabling the focus to be set distinctly and solidly to the 
thousandth of an inch without reference to anything but numerical tables 
prepared beforehand and tested by photographic record. 

Again, however, in some of the most interesting of those ultra-violet 
regions of solar spectrum light a further and more intricate difficulty of 
a physical nature was found when photographing in the second order 
of the Grating's spectra. For, though that operation was performed under 
double shields of the darkest blue glass procurable, yet the red region of 
the first order of spectrum would insist on breaking in through all ob- 
stacles, and showing itself even brilliantly by means of the anomalous ultra- 
red ray transmitted by the supposed most pure and densely blue, or violet, 
glass known ! One possible method of getting rid of this difficulty imme- 
diately seemed to be by photographing only in the first order of the 
Grating's spectrums, throughout whose violet fields there is no red band 
of any other order to come in — blue glass in place or not. But could 
sufficient spectrum separation of lines be thereby obtained, and without 
any other drawback ? 

To meet this essential problem Messrs. T. Cooke & Sons, of York, 
were again applied to, and they constructed within the grant made to 
the Committee an extra-large Barlow photo-achrom-concave lens, which 
magnified the previous image of the inspecting telescope's object-glass 
by 2*3 times, or rather more than the first order of the Grating's spec- 
trums is magnified, in separation only, by the second order. And if by 
the Barlow concave the magnifying is both in separation and in height 
of lines (and therefore weakening to the intensity of the image), it was 
hoped that longer exposures could be freely given. So that then, with 
them, would come the final trial, which has still to be made — whether the 
exquisite definition of the first order of spectrum cannot be lenticularly 
magnified to the required degree, with less loss of that still more valuable 
feature, definition, than what takes place when it is diffractionally magni- 
fied (at least in the Secretary's Grating spectroscope) by resorting to ita 
second order of spectrum ? 

This is the main point, then, up to which the Secretary's research has 
just arrived by aid of the British Association's grant of 1890. For while 
the whole of that sum has now been expended on the above-mentioned 
major subjects and a number of minor improvements and working particu- 
lars bearing on the same ends, and nothing further in the way of grant 
is now being asked for, it leaves sufficient material in Dr. C. Piazzi 
Smyth's hands for much work in the months to come. In earnest whereof 
he begs to send some of his accomplished work during the last nine 
months, in the shape of two album cases, each containing twenty-six of 
his separately mounted and scaled but continuous solar spectrum mag- 
nified photographs of lines in the violet and ultra-violet, besides a third 
and thinner album case of previously taken eye-and-hand-made drawings 
at the same instrument, but of the easier half only of the same subjects, 
for inter-comparison of the two methods which are past, and in prepara- 
tion for the third, which is to come. 



ON MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



149 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Grylls Adams 
{Chairman and Secretary), Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Gr. H. Darwin, Professor Gr. Chrystal, Professor A. Schuster, 
Professor KiJCKER, Mr. C. H. Carpmael, Commander Creak, the 
Astronomer Eotal, Mr. William Ellis, and Mr. Gr. M. W^hipple, 
appointed for the purpose of considering the best means of 
Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations. 

In accordance witli the arrangements made last year for determining the 
mean diurnal range from the observations taken on five days in each 
month, the following list of quiet days during the year 1890 has been 
selected by the Astronomer Royal as suitable for the determination of the 
magnetic diurnal variations : — 

Quiet Days in 1890. 



January 










5, 7,12,30,31 


February 










2, 7, 10, 23, 25 


March 










2, 3, 9, 29, 30 


April . 










3, 9, 18, 25, 28 


May . 










1,13,16,22,29 


June . 










6, 10, 15, 24, 30 


July . 










3, 9, 14, 28, 29. 


August 










4, 12, 13, 28, 30. 


September 










8, 9, 23, 27, 28 


October 










4, 7, 21, 28, 29. 


November 










3, 6, 11, 24, 29. 


December 










3, 7, 12, 14, 26. 



During the past year the magnetic survey of the United Kingdom, 
now in progress under the supei'intendence of Professors Riicker and 
Thorpe, has advanced rapidly. Messrs. Gray, A.R.C.Sc, and Watson, 
B.Sc, A.R.C.Sc, are at present working in Ireland and Scotland respec- 
tively. A body of computers has been organised at South Kensington, 
so that the reductions are pi'oceeding j^ari passu, with the observations, 
and by the end of this summer complete observations will have been made 
at more than 600 stations in the British Isles. 

On June 18 last, in a paper read before the Royal Society on the 
* Comparison of SimuUaneons Magnetic Disturbances at several Observa- 
tories, and Determination of the Value of the Gaussian Coefficients for 
those Observatories,' the Chairman pointed out the importance of adopt- 
ing the same scale- values for similar instruments at different observatories, 
«specially at new observatories which have been recently established, and 
discussed special magnetic disturbances, especially the disturbances of a 
great magnetic storm which occurred on June 24 and 25, 1885, for which 
photographic records have been obtained from seventeen different obser- 
vatories : eleven in Europe, one in Canada, one in India, one in China, 
one in Java, one at Mauritius, and one at Melbourne. 

In this paper the records are discussed and compared, tables are 
formed of the simultaneous disturbances, and the traces are reduced to 
Greenwich mean time and brought together on the same plates arranged 
on the same time-scale. Plates I. and II. show the remarkable agreement 
between the disturbances at the different observatories, and the tables 
show that the amount of disturbance, especially of horizontal magnetic 
force, is nearly the same at widely distant stations. 



150 REPORT — 1891. 

An attempt has also been made to apply the Gaussian analysis to 
sudden magnetic disturbances, and, with a view to their application in 
fature work, the Talues of the Gaussian coeflBcients have been obtained 
for twenty different observatories, and the numerical equations formed 
for the elements of magnetic force in three directions mutually at right 
angles, and also the equation for the magnetic potential in terms of the 
Gaussian constants to the fourth order. The observatories of Washing- 
ton and Los Angeles in the United States of America are included in 
this list. 

During the past year a very interesting volume has been published, 
giving the magnetic observations at the United States Naval Observa- 
tory at "Washington for 1888 and 1889. In accordance with the recom- 
mendatioi^ made at the International Conference held at Washington in 
1884 the hours adopted in these American tables are for the seventy-fifth 
meridian (west of Greenwich), mean time. 

The results of the Washington observations are contained in ten 
tables, as follows : — 

Table I. — Mean hourly values of declination for 1888-89. 
Table II. — Mean hourly declination for each month of 1888-89, taken from monthly 

composite curves. 
Table III. — Mean hourly values of horizont.il force for each month of 1889 in c.g.s. 

■units (dynes). 
Table IV. — Mean hourly values of vertical force for each month of 1889 in c.g..s. 

units (dynes). 
Tables V., VI., and VII. — Hourly values of declination, horizontal force, and vertical 

force respectively. 
Table VIII. — Summary of disturbances in declination during 1888-89, determined 

from the composite curve. 
Tables IX. and X.— Observations for 1888-89 for horizontal force and dip respec- 
tively. 

In addition to the tables there are fourteen plates as follows : — 

Plate I. — Examples of the daily photographic traces of declination, horizontal 
and vertical force. 

Plate II.— Mean diurnal variation of the magnetic elements for 1889. 

Plates III., IV., V., VI. — Monthly composite curves of declination for 1888 and 
1889, each plate for six months. 

Plates VII. to XIV. — Comparisons of disturbed days of declination at Washing- 
ton, Los Angeles, Toronto (Canada), and Pawlowsk (St. Petersburg). 

The traces are all placed for the same time, and are reduced to the 
same length of base line. In the horizontal-force trace increase of ordi- 
nate denotes increase of force, and in the vertical-force trace increase of 
ordinate denotes decreasing force, and the scale-value adopted for both 
horizontal and vertical force instruments is very nearly the scale-value 
recommended in the third report of this committee to the British Asso- 
ciation (1887), viz., 1 centimetre of ordinate='0005 c.g.s. units. 

The Committee entertain hopes that another of their recommendations, 
to which attention was first drawn in their third report (1887), and to 
which attention was again drawn in their fifth and sixth reports, viz., 
the establishment of a Magnetic Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, is 
about to be carried out. At a meeting of the Committee held on June 2, 
1891, at which the Chairman, Sir William Thomson, Professor Riicker, 
Commander Creak, Mr. Ellis, and Mr. Whipple were present, and at which 
Mr. Gill also attended at the request of the Committee, a statement was 
drawn up with regard to the requirements for a Magnetic Observatory 
at the Cape of Good Hope, and a rough estimate of cost and maintenance 



ON MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 151 

was supplied by Mr. Whipple at the request of the Committee. It was 
resolved to ask the First Lord of the Admiralty to consider a statement 
of these requirements and to receive a deputation of the Committee and 
other scientific men interested in the progress of terrestrial magnetism to 
urge the establishment of a Magnetic Observatory at the Cape of Good 
Hope, to be placed under the direction of Mr. Gill, the Director of the 
Cape Royal Astronomical Observatory. In answer to Sir William 
Thomson's application to the first Lord of the Admiralty, asking him to 
receive a deputation on the subject, the First Lord requested that before 
receiving a deputation he might have a statement of the requirements 
with regard to the proposed magnetic observatory at the Cape to be asked 
for by the deputation. 

At the request of Sir William Thomson a statement was laid by the 
Chairman of the Committee before the first Lord of the Admiralty, 
pointing out the importance of establishing a magnetic observatory at the 
Cape of Good Hope and submitting a rough estimate of the cost of 
observatory and apparatus and the necessary requirements. 

In a circular issued by the International Meteorological Committee, 
which will meet in Munich in September next, the following questions 
bearing on terrestrial magnetism are proposed for consideration : — 

Question 8.— Is it not necessary in the introduction to the publication of mag- 
netic observations to give the absolute values of the normal readings of diti'erential 
instruments ? 

Question 31. — Would it not be useful to come to an agreement as to the values 
of the coordinates of magnetic curves registered by magnetographs ? 

To these questions, according to the opinion of this Committee, as 
expressed in their reports, especially in their third report (1887), there 
can be but one answer. The absolute values of the normal readings of 
all magnetic instruments and their scale-values should be given in the 
publication of magnetic records, and it would be convenient that the same 
scale-values should be adopted at all Observatories for similar instruments. 
The value recommended by this Committee for changes of horizontal and 
vertical force is '0005 c.g.s. units for 1 centimetre of the scale. 

The Committee recommend that for self-registering magnetographs 
the scale values for declination, horizontal force, and vertical force should 
be arranged so that equal changes of ordinate correspond to equal in- 
crements of absolute force in three directions at right angles to one 
another, Sx, 8i/, and Sz being the changes in the horizontal force iii the 
magnetic meridian, the horizontal force perpendicular to the magnetic 
meridian and the vertical force respectively. 

The Committee also recommend that as far as possible the same time- 
scale should be adopted for the registering magnetographs at different 
Observatories, and that this scale should be 15 millimetres to the hour. 

Professor Lemstrom, of Helsingfors, also suggests the following ques- 
tions for consideration : — 

Question 29. — What loethod should be employed for the study of earth-currents ? 

Question 30. — What is the extent of our knowledge of atmospheric electricity, 
and how should we measure it quantitatively so as to get better results ' 

Question 32. — What instrument is best for studying the variations of vertical 
intensity of terrestrial magnetism ? 

With regard to Question 32 the Committee are of opinion that Lloyd's 
vertical-force magnetometer is a very satisfactory instrument for studying 
the changes in the vertical magnetic force. 



152 



REPORT — 1891. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Gr. Carey Foster, 
Sir William Thomson, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor W. Gr. Adams, Lord Eayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. 
John Hopkinson, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. 
Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. E. T. GtLAZE- 
BROOK (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Mr. H. Tomlinson, Pro- 
fessor W. GrARNETT, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Mr. J. T. BoTTOMLEY, and Mr. T. GtRAY, appointed for the 
purpose of constructing and issuing Practical Standards for 
use in Electrical Measurements. 

The work of testing resistance coils at the Cavendisli Laboratory has been 
continued. A table of values found for the coils is appended : — 



B.A. Units. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in B.A. Units 


Temperature 


Elliott, 245 . 


• ^ No. 74 


•99954 


n°d 


Elliott, 2ifi . 


• ^ No. 75 


•99949 


12°^15 


EUiott, 248 . 


• ^ No. 76 


•09988 


I3°-9 


B.A., No. 38 


• ^ No. 77 


1-00023 


I5°-7 


Elliott, 257 . 


• ^ No. 78 


1-00046 


15° 6 



Legal Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in Legal Ohms 


Temperature 


McWhirter, L.O. . . ^ No. 200 


■99836 


13°-9 


Elliott, 244 






^ No. 202 


•99871 


11°^75 


Elliott, 250 






^ No. 203 


•99924 


13°-9 


Nalder, 3081 






^ No. 204 


•998G8 


15°^2 


Elliott, 258 






:^ No. 205 


•99985 


15°-4 


Elliott, 259 






^ No. 206 


•99975 


15°-5 


ElUott, 260 






•^ No. 207 
^ No. 208 
^ No. 209 


100019 


15°-6 


Nalder, 2018 






10-0066 


17°-8 


Nalder, 2020 






100056 


]7°-7 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 153 

Ohm Coils. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in Ohms 


Temperature 


Elliott, 213 . . . ^ No. 201 
Elliott, 267 . . . *^ No. 325 
Nalder, 3059 . . ■ I^ No. 326 


•99918 
1-00010 
1-00005 


ll°-85 

16°-0 

16°-8 



Among these the coil B.A. No. 38 ^ No, 77 has a special interest ; 
it is an original platinum silver coil -which formei-ly belonged to Professor 
Balfour Ste-wart, and is no-w in the possession of Professor Schuster at 
the 0-wens College. According to the label on it, it -was right at 16°'5. 
According to the Secretary's observations, its value is one mean B.A. 
Unit at 14'9. This coil, therefore, -would appear to have risen in value 
since about 1867 by -0006 B.A.TJ., and this result is not in accordance -with 
the conclusions deduced in 1888 from the observations on the other plati- 
num silver coils then examined. 

Some further experiments have been made with satisfactory results 
on the air-condensers of the Association. A megohm resistance box has 
been purchased for use in comparisons of capacity. 

With a vie-w to testing the permanence of the resistance standards it 
was thought desirable to compare them again with the mercury standards. 
This was done in December and January by the Secretary. The coil 
riat was compared with two mercury tubes constructed in 1884 by Mr. 
J. R. Benoit, which had been filled at Cambridge early in the year 1885, 
and had remained full since. An account of the comparison was read 
before the Physical Society May 9, 1891, and appears in the ' Philoso- 
phical Magazine,' July, 1891. 

The tubes were compared with the B.A. standards. If we take, as was 
done in 1885, for the resistance in B.A. units of a column of mercury 
100 cm. long 1 sq.-mm. in section, the value -95412 B.A.U., we have the 
following results for the resistance of the tubes in Legal Ohms. 



No. 


Value in 1885 
found bv KTG 


Value in 1S91 
found by RTG 


37 

39 


•99990 
•99917 


•99986 
•99913 



The differences are only '00004 Legal Ohms, which is too small to feel 
really certain about. If we accept for the resistance of mercury the value 
•95352 B.A.U., which (B.A. Report, 1890) appears the best value, then 
we have : 



No. 


Value given bv 
Benoit 1885 " 


Value found by 
RTG in 1891 


37 

39 


1-00045 
-99951 


1-00033 
-99959 



154 REPOET 1891. 

These comparisons were made with Flat, and lead to the conclusion 
that it has remained unchanged. 

In November, 1890, the Association was invited by the President ot 
the Board of Trade to nominate two members to reiDresent the Associa- 
tion on a Committee ' On Standards for the Measurement of Electricity 
for use in Trade.' A meeting of the Electrical Standards Committee was 
held on December 2, and it was agreed to suggest to the Council of the 
Association tlie names of Professor Carey Foster and j\lr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook as representatives. These gentlemen were ajDpointed by the Board 
of Trade together with Mr. Courteuay Boyle, C.B., Major Carden, Mr. E. 
Graves, Mr. W. H. Preece, Sir Wm. Thomson, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. Jno. 
Hopkinson, and Professor Ayrton. 

This Committee after various meetings drew up a report, a copy of 
which is printed as Appendix I. to this report. 

The standards of resistance constructed in accordance with Resolution 
6 of the report are now in the hands of the Secretary, and are being 
compared with the standards of the Association. 

Numerous experiments on the methods of constructing Clark's cells, 
and on the electromotive force of such cells, have been made at the 
Cavendish Laboratory by Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. Skinner, and the Secre- 
tarj'. These are still incomplete, but the experiments so far as they have 
been finished lead to the value 1-434 volts at 15^ for the E.M.F. of the cell. 
The value found by Lord Rayleigh was 1'435 at the same temperature. 

Mr. I'itzpatrick has continued his experiments on the resistance of 
silver, and an account of these will be given in a future Report. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with omission of the names of 
Principal Garnett and Mr. H. Tomlinson, and addition of those of Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney and Professor S. P. Thompson. They recommend that 
Professor Carey Foster be Chairman, and Mr, R. T. Glazebrook Secre- 
tary. They further ask to be allowed to retain an unexpended balance of last 
year's grant, amounting to 171. 4s. 6d., as well as for a new grant of 10/. 



APPENDIX I. 



Repokt of the Electrical Standards Committee appC'Ixted by the 
Board op Trade. 

To the Eiglit Honourable Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bart., 3LP., President 
of the Board of Trade. 

In compliance with the instructions contained in your Minute of the 
16th December last, that we should consider and report whether any, and, 
if so, what action should be taken by the Board of Trade under section 6 
of the Weights and Measures Act, 1889, with a view to causing new 
denominations of standards for the measurement of electricity for use for 
trade to be made and duly verified, we have the honour to submit the 
following report : 

1. Before coming to a decision as to the points referred to us, we 
were anxious to obtain evidence as to the wishes and views of those 
practically interested in the question, as well as of Local Authorities 
who are concerned in the administration of the Weights and Measures 
Acts. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 155 

2. With this view we prepared draft resolutions embodying the pro- 
posals which, subject to further consideration, appeared to us desirable, 
and forwarded copies to the representatives of various interests for criti- 
cism. Copies were also forwarded to the Press. We also invited the 
following bodies to nominate witnesses to give evidence before us : 

The Association of Chambei's of Commerce of the United King- 
dom. 
The Association of Municipal Corporations. 
The London County Council. 
The Loudon Chamlaer of Commerce. 

3. In response to this invitation the following gentlemen attended and 
gave evidence : 

On behalf of the Association of Chambers of Commerce, Mr. 

Thomas Parker and Mr. Hugh Erat Harrison. 
On behalf of the London Council, Professor Silvanus Thompson. 
On behalf of the London Chamber of Commerce, Mr. R. E. 

Orompton. 
The Association of Municipal Corporations did not consider it 
necessary to offer any oral evidence, but the following resolu- 
tion passed by the Law Committee of that body, was adopted 
by the Council of the Association : 

' The Committee are of opinion that, assuming that the 
science of electricity has advanced so far that it is now 
possible properly to define the three units referred to 
in the Board of Trade letter,' (i.e., the ohm, ampere, 
and volt) ' and to construct an instrument for the 
purpose of standard measurement, the time has 
arrived for the Board of Trade to take action thereon.' 

4. In addition to the witnesses above referred to the following gentle- 
men were invited to give evidence, and we are indebted to them for 
valuable information and assistance. 

Dr. J. A. Fleming. 

Dr. Alexander Muirhead. 

5. We also had the advantage of the experience and advice of Mr. 
H. J. Chaney, Superintendent of Weights and Measures, who, at the 
request of our Chairman, was present at our meetings. 

6. After a careful consideration of the questions submitted to ns, and 
the evidence given by the various witnesses, we have agreed to the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

Resolutions. 

1. That it is desirable that new denominations of standards for the 

measurement of electricity should be made and approved by 
Her Majesty in Council as Board of Trade standards. 

2. That the magnitudes of these standards should be determined 

on the electro-magnetic system of measurement with reference 
to the centimetre as unit of length, the gramme as unit of 
mass, and the second as unit of time, and that by the terms 
centimetre and gramme are meant the standards of those 
denominations deposited with the Board of Trade, 



156 REPORT— 1891. 

3. That the standard of electrical resistance should be denominated 

the ohm, and should have the value 1,000,000,000 in terms of 
the centimetre and second. 

4. That the resistance offered to an unvarying electric current by 

a column of mercury of a constant cross sectional area of one 
square millimetre, and of a length of 106'3 centimetres at the 
temperature of melting ice may be adopted as one ohm. 

5. That the value of the standard of resistance constructed by a 

committee of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science in the years 1863 and 1864, and known as the British 
Association unit, may be taken as "9866 of the ohm. 

6. That a material standard, constructed in solid metal, and veri- 

fied by comparison with the British Association unit, should 
be adopted as the standard ohm. 

7. That for the purpose of replacing the standard, if lost, destroyed, 

or damaged, and for ordinary use, a limited number of copies 
should be constructed, which should be periodically com- 
pared with the standard ohm and with the British Associa- 
tion unit. 

8. That resistances constructed in solid metal should be adopted 

as Board of Trade standards for multiples and submultiples of 
the ohm. 

9. That the standard of electrical current should be denominated 

the ampere, and should have the value one- tenth (O'l) in 
terms of the centimetre, gramme, and second. 

10. That an unvarying current which, when passed through a 
solution of nitrate of silver in water, in accordance with the 
specification attached to this report, deposits silver at the 
rate of 0001118 of a gramme per second, may be taken as a 
current of one ampere. 

11. That an alternating current of one ampere shall mean a cur- 
rent such that the square root of the time average of the 
square of its strength at each instant in amperes is unity. 

12. That instruments constructed on the principle of the balance, 
in which by the proper disposition of the conductors, forces 
of attraction and repulsion are produced, which depend upon 
the amount of current passing, and are balanced by known 
weights, should be adopted as the Board of Trade standards 
for the measurement of current whether unvarying or alter- 
nating. 

13. That the standard of electrical pressnre should be denomi- 

nated the volt, being the pressure which, if steadily applied to 
a conductor whose resistance is one ohm, will produce a cur- 
rent of one ampere. 

14. That the electrical pressure at a temperature of 62° F. between 
the poles or electrodes of the voltaic cell known as Clark's 
cell, may be taken as not differing from 1-433 volts by more 
than an amount which will be determined by a sub-com- 
mittee appointed to investigate the question, who will prepare 
a specification for the construction and use of the cell. 

15. That an alternating pressure of one volt shall mean a pressure 

such that the square root of the time-average of the square of 
its value at each instant in volts is nnity. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 157 

16. That instrnments constructed on the principle of Sir W. Thom- 
son's Quadrant Electrometer used idiostaticallj, and for high 
pressures instruments on the principle of the balance, electro- 
static forces being balanced against a known weight, should 
be adopted as Board of Trade standards for the measurement 
of pressure, whether unvarying or alternating. 

7. We have adopted the system of electrical units originally defined 
by the British Association for the Advancement of Science ; and we have 
found in its recent researches, as well as in the deliberations of the Inter- 
national Congress on Electrical Units, held in Paris, valuable guidance 
for determining the exact magnitude of the several units of electrical 
measurement, as well as for the verification of the material standards. 

8. We have stated the relation between the proposed standard ohm. 
and the unit of resistance originally determined by the British Associa- 
tion, and have also stated its relation to the mercurial standard adopted 
by the International Conference. 

9. We find that considerations of practical importance make it un- 
desirable to adopt a mercurial standard, we have, therefore, preferred to 
adopt a material standard constructed in solid metal. 

10. It appears to us to be necessary that in transactions between 
buyer and seller a legal character should henceforth be assigned to the 
units of electrical measurement now suggested, and with this view, that 
the issue of an Order in Council should be recommended, under the 
Weights and Measures Act, in the form annexed to this report. 

Specification kefeeked to in Resolution 10. 

In the following specification the term silver voltameter means the 
arrangement of apparatus by means of which an electric current is passed 
through a solution of nitrate of silver in water. The silver voltameter- 
measures the total electrical quantity which has passed during the time 
of the experiment, and by noting this time the time-average of the 
current, or, if the current has remained constant, the current itself can 
be deduced. 

In employing the silver voltameter to measure currents of about 
1 ampere the following arrangements should be adopted. The kathode 
on which the silver is to be deposited should take the form of a platinum 
bowl not less than 10 cm. in diameter, and from 4 to 6 cm. in depth. 

The anode should be a plate of pure silver some 30 square cm. in area 
and 2 or 3 millimetres in thickness. 

This is supported horizontally in the liquid near the top of the solu- 
tion by a platinum wire passed through holes in the plate at opposite 
corners. To prevent the disintegrated silver which is formed on the 
anode from falling on to the kathode, the anode should be wrapped round 
with pure filter paper, secured at the back with sealing wax. 

The liquid should consist of a neutral solution of pure silver nitrate, 
containing about 15 parts by weight of salt to 85 parts of water. 

The resistance of the voltameter changes somewhat as the current 
passes. To prevent these changes having too great an effect on the- 
current, some resistance besides that of the voltameter should be inserted 
in the circuit. The total metallic resistance of the circuit should not be 
less than 10 ohms. 



158 REPORT — 1891. 

Method of Mold-)} g a Measurement, 

The platinum bowl is washed with nitric acid and distilled water, 
dried by heat, and then left to cool in a desiccator. When thoroughly 
dry it is weighed carefully. 

It is nearly filled with the solution, and connected to the rest of the 
circuit by being placed on a clean copper support, to which a binding 
screw is attached. This copper support must be insulated. 

The anode is then immersed in the solution so as to be well covered 
by it and supported in that position ; the connexions to the rest of the 
circuit are made. 

Contact is made at the key noting the time of contact. The current 
is allowed to pass for not less than half an hour, and the time at which 
contact is broken is observed. Care must be taken that the clock used 
is keeping correct time during this interval. 

The solution is now removed from the bowl and the deposit is washed 
with distilled water and left to soak for at least six hours. It is then 
rinsed successively with distilled water and alcohol and dried in a hot-air 
bath at a temperature of about 160'' C. After cooling in a desiccator it 
is weighed again. The gain in weight gives the silver deposited. 

To find the current in amperes this weight, expressed in grammes, 
must be divided by the number of seconds during which the current has 
been passed, and by •001118. 

The result will be the time average of the current, if during the 
interval the current has varied. 

In determining by this method the constant of an instrament, the 
current should be kept as nearly constant as possible, and the readings 
of the instrument taken at frequent observed intervals of time. These 
observations give a curve from which the reading corresponding to the 
mean current (time average of the current) can be found. The current, 
as calculated by the voltameter, corresponds to this reading. 



Pkovisioxal Memorandum on the Preparation op the Clark's 
Standard Cell. 

Definition of the Cell. 

The cell consists of zinc and mercury in a saturated solution of zinc 
sulphate and mercurous sulphate in water, jJi^epai'ed with mercurous 
sulphate in excess, and is conveniently contained in a cylindrical glass 
vessel. 

Preparation of the Materials. 

1. The Mercurij. — To secure purity it should be first treated with acid 
in the usual manner, and subsequently distilled in vacuo. 

2. The Zinc. — Take a portion of a rod of pure zinc, solder to one end 
a piece of copper wire, clean the whole with glass paper, carefully remov- 
ing any loose pieces of the zinc. Just before making up the cell dip the 
zinc into dilute sulphuric acid, wash with distilled water, and dry with a 
clean cloth or filter paper. 

3. Tlie Zinc Sul})hate Solution. — Prepare a saturated solution of pure 
(' pure re-crystallised ') zinc sulphate by mixing in a flask distilled water 
with nearly twice its weight of crystals of pure zinc sulphate, and adding 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTBICAL MEASUREMENTS. 159 

a little zinc carbonate to neatralise any free acid. The whole of the 
crystals should bo dissolved with the aid of gentle heat, i.e. not exceeding 
a temperature of 30° C, and the solution filtered, while still warm, into 
a stock bottle. Crystals should form as it cools. 

4. The Mercuro'U'i Sulphate. — Take mercurous sulphate, purchased as 
pure, and wash it thoi'oughly with cold distilled water by agitation in a 
bottle ; drain olF the water, and repeat the process at least twice. After 
the last washing drain off as much of the water as possible. 

Mix the washed mercurous sulphate with the zinc sulphate solution, 
adding sufficient crystals of zinc sulphate from the stock bottle to ensure 
saturation, and a small quantity of pure mercury. Shake these up well 
together to form a paste of the consistence of cream. Heat the paste 
sufficiently to dissolve the crystals, but not above a temperature of 30°. 
Keep the paste for an hour at this temperature, agitating it from time to 
time, then allow it to cool. Crystals of zinc sulphate should then be 
distinctly visible throughout the mass ; if this is not the case, add more 
crystals from the stock Ijottle, and repeat the jarocess. 

This method insures the formation of a saturated solution of zinc and 
mercurous sulphates in water. 

The presence of the free mercury throughout the paste preserves the 
basicity of the salt, and is of the utmost imjaortance. 

Contact is made with the mercury by means of a platinum wire about 
No. 22 gauge. This is protected from contact with the other materials of 
the cell by being sealed into a glass tube. The ends of the wire project 
from the euds of the tube ; one end forms the terminal, the other end 
and a portion of the glass tube dip into the mercury. 

To set up the Cell. 

The cell may conveniently be set up in a small test tube of about 
2 cm. diameter, and 6 or 7 cm. deep. Place the mercury in the bottom 
of this tube, filling it to a depth of, say, 1'5 cm. Cut a cork about 
•5 cm. thick to fit the tube ; at one side of the cork bore a hole through 
which the zinc rod can pass tightly ; at the other side bore another hole 
for the glass tube which covers the platinum wire ; at the edge of the 
cork cut a nick through which the air can pass when the cork is pushed 
into the tube. Pass the zinc rod about 1 cm. through the cork. 

Clean the glass tube and platinum wii^e carefully, then heat the 
exposed end of the platinum red hot, and insert it in the mercurv in 
the test tube, taking care that the whole of the exposed platinum is 
covered. 

Shake up the paste and introduce it without contact with the upper 
part of the walls of the test tube, filling the tube above the mercury to a 
depth of rather more than 2 cm. 

Then insert the cork and zinc rod, passing the glass tube through the 
hole prepared for it. Push the cork gently down until its lower surface 
is nearly in contact with the liquid. The air will thus be nearly all 
expelled, and the cell should be left in this condition for at least twenty- 
four hours before sealing, which should be done as follows : — 

Melt some marine glue until it is fluid enough to pour by its own 
weight, and pour it into the test tube above the cork, using sufficient to 
cover completely the zinc and soldering. The glass tube should project 
above the top of the marine glue. 



160 EEPORT — 1891. 

The cell thus set up may be mounted in any desirable manner. It is 
convenient to arrange the mounting so that the cell may be immersed in 
a water bath up to the level of, say, the upper surface of the cork. Its 
temperature can then be determined more accurately than is possible 
■when the cell is in air. 



Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, 
Professor Sylvester, Mr. A. K. Forsyth, and Professor A. Lodge 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of carrying on the 
Tables connected ivith the Pellian Equation from the point 
where the ivork ivas left by Degen in 1817. 

A LASGE part but not the whole of the work has been completed, but the 
Committee hope to have it completed in time for next year's meeting of 
the Association. 

lOL of the grant of 15L has been expended. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. Gr. Stokes 
(Chairman), JProfessor Schuster, Mr. Gr. Johnstone Stonet, Sir 
H. E. Koscoe, Captain Abney, Mr. Whipple, Professor McLeod, 
and Mr. Gr. J. Symons (Secretary), appointed for the purpose 
of considering the best methods of recording the direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. 

Your Committee have to report that, after considerable search, Professor 
Schuster found the thermometers constructed for Professor Balfour 
Stewart for use with the apparatus designed by and constructed for 
him, and that the apparatus and a mass of correspondence relating thereto 
had been placed in Professor McLeod's hands. He reports that he has 
tested all the thermometers, and made observations with the instrument 
when opportunity has offered. He has found it desirable to provide a 
screen to prevent the action of the sun on the outside of the instrument 
affecting too much, or too unequally, the reading of the internal thermo- 
meters. It was always contemplated that the action of the sun on the 
case of the instrument would affect the embedded thermometers ; but as 
care was taken that the central thermometer should be prompt in respond- 
ing to changes of temperature, while the embedded thermometers, in 
consequence of the way in which they were protected, should change but 
elowly, it was expected that the difference between the temperatures 
marked by the central thermometer and by the embedded thermometer 
respectively would be sensibly proportional to the intensity of solar 
radiation, notwithstanding the changes of temperature of the outer case. 
This anticipation, the correctness of which is of vital importance to the 
success of the instrument, has not, however, as yet been tested experi- 
mentally, and the trials would require to be made under specially favour- 
able atmospheric conditions. The Committee hope to report definitely 
in the course of another year as to the utility of the apparatus and 
desire reappointment without any grant. 



ON WAYE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 16l 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. EoscoE, INIr. J. N. 
LocKYER, Professors Dewar, Wolcott Gibbs, Liveing, Schuster, 
aoul W. N. Hartley, Captain Abney, and Dr. Marshall Watts 
(Secretary), appointed to prepare a neio series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. 



Iron (Arc Spectrum).^ 

(•f- denotes one of Rowland's ' normal ' lines, or one of MuUer and Kempf ' 300 ' 
lines, as the case may be). 











f. 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Mliller and 
Kempf 


c a >3 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


A + 


1 


6750-36 


480 




2 




1-76 


1-97 


43 


14809-7 


6708-04 






2 






1-96 


4-4 


14903-1 


t6678-14 


76-9 




8 


16678-36 


1-24 






14969-8 


6668-18 


6G-6 




1 




1-58 






14992-2 


6665-58 






1 










14998-0 


t6663-G0 


62-3 




6 


t6663-74 


l-3d 


1-96 




15002-5 


6654-30 


52-8 




1 




1-50 


1-95 




15023-5 


6647-69 


45-7 




1 




1-99 






15038-4 


6644-85 






1 










15044-8 


6640-13 


38-4 




4 




1-73 






15055-5 


t6633-90 


32-7 




6n 


t6634-14 


1-20 






15069-7 


6627-77 


26-5 




4 




1-27 


1-95 




15083-6 


6614-05 






In 






1-94 




15114-9 


6611-94 






1 










16119-8 


t6609-25 


08-7 




6 


t6609-5O 


0-55 






15125-9 


6608-00 






1 








4-4 


15128-6 


6606-34 


04-2 




1 




1-14 




4-5 


15134-8 


6597-93 


96-8 




4n 




113 






15151-8 


6594-00 


94-3 




6 




-0-3 






15160-8 


t6593-07 


92-2 




10 


t6593-61 


0-87 






15162-9 


6591-79 






1 






1-94 




15165-9 


6586-14 






1 






1-93 




151789 


6584-80 






2 










151820 


6581-45 


80-3 




2 




1-16 






15189-7 


6577-83 






1 










15198-1 


6575-19 


74-0 




6 


t6575-27 


119 






15204-2 


6572-87 






1 










15209-5 


6571-33 






1 










15213-1 


6569-36 


68-2 




8n 




1-16 






15217-7 


6556-92 


55-6 




1 




1-32 


1-93 




15246-6 


t6546-40 


46-1 




10 


16546-66 


1-30 


1-92 




15271-1 


6544-14 






1 










15276-3 


6538-77 






1 










15288-9 


6534-07 


33-0 




2n 


t6534-30 


1-07 






15299-9 


6528-81 


27-7 




1 




1-11 






15312-2 


6523-59 






1 






1-92 




15324-5 


6618-51 


17-3 




6 




1-21 


1-91 




15336-4 


6515-95 






1 










15342-4 


6510-15 


08-3 




1 




1-85 






15356-1 


6507-43 






1 










15363-4 



' Kayser and Kunge (Berlin, 1888) ; Thal6n (Upsala, 1884) ; Milller and Kempf 
(Potsdam, 1886). 

1891. H 



162 






REPOUT — 1891. 












Ikon (Arc Spbctuv])!)— continued. 










g Reduction 1 




Kayser and 
Kiinge 


Thale'n 


Intensitj' 
and 


MUUei- and 
Kempf. 




to Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Freiiueuoy 










(Rowland) 


Ingstrom 


Fievez 


^haractev 


a^ 1 


A + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


6501-;-i8 


03-3 




2 




1-08 






153119-7 


6501-77 


00-7 




2 




1-07 






15375-9 


6-199-13 


98-3 




2 




0-83 






15382-2 


6496-68 


96-1 




2 




0-58 






15388-0 


6495-13 


94-2 




10 




0-93 






15391-6 


6494-09 






1 










15394-1 


6492-81 






1 










15397-1 


6490-60 






1 










15402-4 


6488-39 






2 










15407-6 


648608 






2 






1-91 




15413 1 


6483-93 






1 






1-90 




15418-2 


6481-97 


81-0 




4 




0-97 






15422-9 


6475-73 


74-8 




4 


16175-91 


0-93 






15437-8 


6471-58 






1 










15447-7 


6469 40 


68-5 




4 




0-90 






15452-9 


t6462-76 


61-7 




4 


t0462-95 


1-06 






15468-8 


6457-19 






1 










15482-1 


6456-51 


55-2 




1 




1-31 






15483-7 


6450-08 






I 


16450-18 




1-90 




15499-2 


6439-24 






1 


{6439-38 




1-89 




15525-3 


6436-79 






1 










15531-2 


6433-42 






1 










15539-3 


6432-85 






1 










15540-7 


t6430-99 


30-1 




8 


f6431-12 


0-89 






15545-2 


6426-75 






I 










15555-5 


6421-52 


20-6 




8 


t6421-72 


0-92 






15568-1 


6420-23 


19-2 




6ii 




1-03 






15571-3 


6417-24 






1 










15578-5 


6414-23 






1 






1-89 




15585-8 


6411-83 


10-9 




8 


t6411-98 


0-93 


1-88 




15591-7 


6411-18 






1 








4-5 


15593-2 


6408-25 


07-1 




6 


16408-35 


1-15 




4-6 


15600-3 


6404-98 






1 










15608-2 


6402-74 






1 










15613-7 


6400-13 


99-1 




10 


t6400-35 


1-03 






15620-1 


6399-68 






1 










15621-2 


6398-30 






1 










15624-5 


6396-22 






1 










15629-6 


6393-83 






1 


t0393-92 








15035-5 


6393-63 


92-6 




s 




1-03 






15636-0 


6392-96 






1 










15637-6 


6391-50 






1 










15641-2 


6389-51 






1 










15646-0 


6387-44 






I 










15051-1 


6386-28 






In 










15654-0 


6385-00 






2 










15657-1. 


6383-57 






1 










15660-6 


6382-37 






1 










15663-6 


t6380-89 


79-7 


79-5 


6 


t6381-13 


1-19 






15667-2 


6379-32 






1 






1-88 




15671-1 


6378-16 






1 






1-87 




15673-9 


637609 


75-0 


735 


1 




1-09 






15679-0 


G373 89 






1 










15684-4 


6371-60 






i 1 










15690-0 


6369-79 






! 1 










15694-5 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 163 



lEON (Arc SPECTRTjyi')—co7itinued. 



Kavser and 

Kunge 
(Ro-wlaud) 


Thale'n 


Intensitj' 


Miiller and 


a Ci 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


and 
Character 


Keuipf 




A + 


1_ 

A. 


Fre<|iiency 
in Vacuo 


6367-53 






1 










15700-1 


6364-69 


63-5 


62-7 


2ii 




1-19 






15707-1 


6363-01 


61-2 


60-6 


2 




1-81 






15711-2 


6361-90 






1 










15714-0 


6361-01 






1 










15716-2 


6360-20 






1 










15718-2 


t6358-83 


57-7 


57-3 


4 


16358-99 


1-13 






15721-6 


6357-61 






1 










15724-C 


6356-39 






1 










15727-6 


6355-16 
63#-S6 


54-0 


54-0 


4 


t6355-46 


1-16 


1-87 




15730-6 






1 






1-86 




15743-7 


6344-28 


43-2 


44-0 


4 


t6344-50 


1-08 






15747-6 


6341-73 


410 




1 




0-73 






15764-0 


6339-17 


38-0 


38-0 


2u 


16339-33 


117 






15770-3 


t6336-97 


35-9 


36-0 


10 




1-07 






15775-8 


6335-43 


34-3 


34-3 


8 


t6335-72 


1-13 






15779-6 


6334-62 






1 










15781-7 


6333-49 






1 










15784-5 


6331-04 


30-5 


29-0 


2n 




0-54 






15790-6 


6328-93 






2ii 










15795-8 


6326-84 






2n 










15801-1 


6324-60 






1 










15806-7 


f6322-83 


21-6 


21-6 


6 


16323-06 


1-23 






1581 11 


6321-78 






1 










15813-7 


6320-42 






1 










15817-1 


■f6318-16 


169 


17-4 


10 


6318-41 


1-26 






16822-8 


6317-27 






1 










15825 


6315-92 






2 










15828-4 


6315-42 


13-9 


13-4 


4 


t6315-46 


1-52 






15829-7 


6311-62 


11-0 




2 




0-63 






15839-2 


6310-59 


09-5 


091 


1 




1-09 






15841-8 


6309-53 


OG-0 


05-7 


1 






1-80 
1-85 




15844-4 


6302-65 


01-6 


020 


6 


t6302-84 


1-05 






I5S61-7 


6301-61 


00-7 


00-5 


10 




0-91 






15864-4 


6300-60 






1 










15866-9 


6299-31 






1 










15870-2 


6297-90 


96-9 


97-0 


6 


t6298-24 


1-00 






15873-7 


6296-67 






1 










15876-8 


6293-94 


930 




2 




0-94 






15883-7 


6292-88 


920 




1 




0-88 






15886-4 


6291-10 


90-2 




6ii 


t6291-33 


0-90 






15890-9 


6288-67 


88-0 




1 




0-67 






15897-0 


6285-23 


84-5 




2n 




0-73 






15905-7 


6283-17 


81-6 




2u 




1-57 






159109 


6280-74 


79-6 




4 




1-14 






159171 


6280-06 






1 










15918-8 


6277-61 


76-6 




In 


t6277-95 


1-01 




15ii250 


6274-10 






In 






1-85 




15933-9 


6271-49 


69-9 




2 




1-59 


1-84 




15940-6 


6270-39 


69-1 


69-2 


6 




1-29 






15943-4 


6269-26 






1 








4-6 


15946-2 , 


6267-97 






1 








4-7 


15949-4 ! 


t6265-27 


64-1 


64-0 


8 


16265-48 


1-17 




15956-3 j 


6264-28 






I 










15958-8 < 



n 2 



164 



REPORT — 1891. 
iRon (Abc SPEC'rnxjM')—eonti7iued. 













«_ £ 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Runge 


Thale'n 


Intensity 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










(Rowland) 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


Character 


^ 1 


A + 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 


62G3-31 






In 










15961-3 


<!361-2r) 






2n 










15966-5 


6258-87 






2n 










15972-6 


6256-52 


55-3 


55-1 


6 


t6256-66 


1-23 






15978-6 


6254-40 


53-2 


53-0 


6 




1-20 






159840 


t6252-71 


51-5 


51-2 


10 


t6253-0O 


1-21 






15988-4 


G251 90 






1 










15990-4 


6250 56 






In 










15993-9 


6248-85 






In 










15998-2 


(1247-68 






1 










16001-2 


G24G-48 


45-4 


45-4 


8 


t6246-72 


1-08 






16004-3 


6245-69 






1 










16006 3 


6244-20 






In 










1G0102 


6243-06 






In 










1G0131 


6241-73 






1 










1601G-5 


6240-77 


39-2 


390 


4 


16240-93 


1-57 






16019-0 


6240-47 






1 










16019-7 


6239-54 






1 






1-84 




160221 


6238 53 






1 






1-83 




16024-7 


6237-44 






In 










16027-5 


6235-26 






• 1 










16033-1 


6232-83 


31-5 


31-5 


6 




1-33 






16039-4 


6231-76 






1 










16042-1 


t6230-88 


29-7 


29-5 


10 


t6231-U 


1-18 






16044-4 


6230-16 






1 










16046-2 


6229-34 






1 










16048-4 


6228-72 






1 










16050-0 


6227-78 






1 










16052-4 


6226-95 


25-4 


25-3 


2 




1-55 






1 6054 -5 


6224-42 






In 










16061-1 


6222-31 






In 










16066-5 


6221-57 






1 










16068-4 


622093 


19-7 


20-0 


1 




1-23 






16070-1 


t6219-42 


18-3 


18-2 


8 


t6219-61 


112 






16074-0 


6218-51 






1 










16076-3 


6217-81 






1 










16078-1 


6216-49 






In 










16081-5 


6215-29 


14-1 


15-0 


G 




1-19 






16084-6 


t6213-57 


12-3 


12-4 


8 


t6213-78 


1-27 






16089-1 


6211-25 






In 










16095-1 


6209-11 






In 










16100-7 


6206-98 






In 










16106-2 


6204-98 






In 






1-83 




16111-4 


6202-59 






1 






1-82 




16117-G 


t6200-46 


99-6 


99-2 


6 


16200-71 


0-86 






16123-1 


6199-61 






1 










16125-:i 


6196-24 






1 










16134-1 


6193-89 






1 










161402 


6191-70 


90-5 


90-7 


10 


t6191-84 


1-20 






16145-1) 


6190-84 






1 










16148-2 


6190-35 






1 








4-7 


16149-5 


6189'54 






1 








4-8 


16151-6 


6188-25 


87-1 


86-9 


4 




115 






161550 


6187-42 






1 










161571 


6185-90 


83 3 


85-6 


2 




060 






16161-1 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTir TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF XUE ELEMENTS. 165 







Ikon 


(Arc Sfecthvh)— continued. 






Knysorniul 
(Kowlaiid) 


Thaleu 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Mullerand 
Kempf 


a a a 
it's be 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


- I- 


6183-15 


83-0 




2 




0-15 






16168-3 


t6180-:34 


79-3 


79-2 


6 


t6180-66 


1-04 






16175-6 


6178-80 
















16179-7 


(5173-48 


72-3 


72-3 






1-18 






16193-6 


6172-60 
















16195-9 


6170-62 


69-4 


69-8 


6a 


t6170-S5 


1-22 






162011 


6169-77 












1-82 




16203-4 


6168-18 












1-81 




16207-5 


6166-80 
















16211-1 


6165-51 


63-8 


G3-3 






1-71 






16214-5 


6163-70 


62-3 








1-40 






16219-2 


6163-23 
















16220-4 


6162-40 








16162-53 








16222-6 


6160-'J5 
















16226-5 


6159-47 






In 










l'6230-4 


6157-87 


56-7 


56-7 






1-17 






16234-6 


6157 29 
















M236-1 


6154 86 
















l«242-5 


6153-75 
















l«245-4 


6151-78 


50-5 


50-5 






1-28 






l«250-7 


6150-47 
















16254-1 


6149-24 
















16257-4 


6147 96 


48-1 


46-6 




t6148-10 


-0-14 






16260-8 


6147-43 
















16262-2 


6146-46 
















16264-7 


H145-38 
















16267-6 


6 H 4-26 
















16270-5 


614317 
















16273-4 


t6141-S8 








16142-04 








■162769 


614113 
















16278-8 


6140-12 
















16281-5 


6139-00 
















16284-5 


6137 84 


36-6 


36-8 


10 




1-24 






16287-6 


6137-06 
















16289-6 


6136-76 


35-G 


35-5 


10 


6137-03 


1-16 






16290-4 


6135-89 
















16292-7 


' 6134-73 












1-81 




16295-8 


6133(;7 












1-80 




16298-6 


, 6132-63 
















16301-4 


6131-59 




30-3 












163042 


- 613()-48 
















16307-1 


6129-22 
















16310-5 


612804 


26-8 


26-7 






1-24 






16313-6 


j 6127-32 
















16315-5 


6126-16 
















16318-6 


6125-16 
















16321-3 


' 6123-81 


22-0 


22-0 






1-81 






16324-9 


6122-42 
















16328-6 


6119-67 
















16335-9 


6118-67 
















16338-6 


6117-49 
















16341-8 


t61 16-34 


15-3 


15-1 






1-04 






> 16344-8 


6115-50 
















16347-1 


6113-01 




12-0 












16353-7 


Clll-82 
















, 16356-9 



106 



EEPORT 1891. 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum)— 


continued. 
















OJ S 


Keduction to 




Kayser and 
Kunge 


Thale'n 


Intensity 
and 


Mttller and 
Kempt' 


a^2 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1_ 

A. 


(Itowland) 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


Character 


■ -: o i3 
" 1 


\ + 


in Vacuu 


0110-81 






1 










16359-6 


6101)-44 




07-0 


2 










16363-3 


6107-22 






1 










16369-3 ! 


6105-51 






1 










16373-8 


tG103-35 


02-0 


01-8 


8n 




1-35 






16379-6 


6102-30 


01-2 


00-8 


8n 




1-10 






16382-5 


6100-42 






1 






1-80 




16387-5 


6098-61 


97-4 


97-0 


4 




1-21 


1-79 




16392-4 


6096-89 


95-7 


95-1 


2n 




1-19 






16397-0 


6095-88 






1 










16399-7 


6094-50 


93-3 


92-8 


1 




1-20 






16403-4 


6093-84 


92-7 


92-1 


4n 




1-14 






16405-2 


6092-02 






In 










16410-1 


6090-38 






2 










16414-5 


6089-08 




88-1 


4 










164164 


6088-49 






In 










16419-6 


608700 






1 










16423-6 


6085-42 




84-0 


1 










16427-9 


6082-84 




81-3 


1 










16434-9 


6081-77 




800 


1 










16437-8 


6079-29 






2 










16444-5 


t6078-64 


77-G 


77-2 


6n 


16078-83 


1-04 






1644(i-2 


6070-66 






In 








4-8 


16451-6 


6074-21 






2 








4-9 


16458-1 


6072-12 






2 








4-U 


16463-8 


6070-10 






2 










16469-3 


6067-88 






2 










16475-3 


t6065-04 


64-5 


64-5 


10 


16065-81 


1-14 






16481-4 


6064-92 






1 






1-79 




16483-4 


6063-54 






1 






1-78 




16487-1 


6062-98 




61-4 


2 










16488-6 


6061-41 






1 










1G492-9 


6059-43 






I 










16498-3 


6057-34 






1 










16504-0 


t605G-15 


55-1 


55-0 


6n 


tG05G-35 


1-05 






1G507-2 


6054-20 


63-] 




2 




1-10 






16512-6 


6044-57 






1 










1G538-9 


6043-86 






1 










16540-8 


-[6042-24 


41-2 


41-1 


6 


16042-46 


1-04 






l(i545-2 


6040-00 






1 










16551-4 


6035-63 


35-0 


35-0 


2 




0-63 






16563-4 


6034-27 


33-0 


33 


2 




1-27 






16567-1 


6032-70 






2 










16571-4 


6031-43 






1 










16574-9 


6030-49 




29 


1 






1-78 




16577-5 


6028-56 






1 






1-77 




16582-8 


6027-22 


260 


26-0 


6 . 




122 






16586-5 


6026-47 






1 










16588-6 


16024-21 


23-0 


23-0 


lOn 


t6024-38 


1-21 






16594-8 


6022-02 






4 










16600-8 


t6020-28 


19-1 


19-2 


6n 




1-18 






16605-6 


6018-20 






1 










16611-4 


6016-87 






4 










16615-0 


6015-85 






1 










16617-8 I 


t6013-68 






4 


t6013-83 








16623-8 1 



ON WAYE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 1G7 
Iron (Arc Spectrum)— cow<m?«e<;. 





Thale'n 






S 1 


Eeduction to 




Kiij-ser and 

Kunse 
(Uowland) 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kenipf 




Vacinini 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


- 1 X- 


(;012-50 


11-2 


11-5 


1 




1-30 






16628-1 


(S008-80 


075 


07-3 


8 




1-30 






1G637-3 


6008-14 




06-7 


4n 










16639-2 


f>00(!-7-l 


05-0 




1 




1-74 






16'543-1 


6005'70 




03-9 


2 










16645-9 ( 


16003-17 


02-1 




C 


t6003-33 


1-07 






16653 ; 


6001 -3(i 




98-6 


1 










166580 ! 


5!»99-45 






1 










16663-3 


1 .V.iil8-05 


96-9 


97-0 


4n 




1-15 






16667-2 


.V,i97-04 






1 










16670-0 


ry.i95-12 






1 






1-77 




16675-3 


5993-37 






1 






1-76 




16680-2 


5991-42 






1 










16685-6 


5990 04 






1 










166896 


5988-67 






1 










16693-3 


5987-21 


86-2 


86-2 


6n 


t5987-40 


1-01 






16697-4 


5984-98 


84-2 


84-2 


8n 




0-78 






16703-6 


5983-91 


82-8 


82-7 


6n 




l-U 






16706-6 


5978-97 






1 










16720-4 


15976-93 


76-0 


76-0 


8 


t5977-n 


0-93 






107261 


T5975-51 


74-6 


74-3 


6 




0-91 






16730-1 


5974-65 






1 










16732-5 


5973-36 






1 










167361 


5972-22 






1 










16739-3 


5969-92 






1 










16745-7 


5969-28 






1 










16747-5 


5968-10 




66-5 


1 










16750-8 


5966-88 






1 










16754-3 


5964-87 






1 










16759-9 


5963-82 




61-3 


1 










16762-9 


5962-28 




59-5 


2 










16767-2 


5960-04 






1 






1-76 




167735 


t5958-38 


57-1 


57-4 


4 


■|-595S-55 


1-28 


1-75 




16778-2 


5956-85 


55-0 


56-0 


6 




1-85 






16782-5 


695586 






1 










16785-3 


5954-65 






1 










16788-7 


5952-94 


51-6 


51-0 


8 




1-34 






16793-5 


5949-55 


48-5 


48-7 


4n 




1-05 






16803-1 


5947-77 






1 








4-9 


16808-1 


5942-61 




41-6 


2 








50 


16822-6 


5941-24 




400 


4 










16826-5 


5939-34 






1 










16831-9 


5938-83 






1 










16833-3 


t")9;U-81 


33-9 


33-0 


8 


t5934-99 


0-91 






10844-7 


50)1-21 






1 










16846-4 


593025 


29-3 


28-7 


10 




0-95 






16857-7 


5928-00 


27-2 


26-2 


4 




C-80 






16864-1 


5926-95 






1 






1-75 




16867-1 


5924-83 






1 






1-74 




16873-1 


5923-66 






1 










16876-5 


5922-67 






1 










16879-3 


5921-69 






1 










16882-1 


5920-62 






1 










16885-1 


5919-11 






1 










16889-4 


5918-18 






1 










16892-1 



168 



REPORT — 1891. 



Iron (Arc Spectrum) — contimeed. 



Kayser and 

Range 
(Rowland) 



Thale'n 



Angstrom 



5917-32 

t5916'41 
5915-65 

+5914-32 
5912-37 
5910-16 
5908-14 

t5905-82 
5905-13 
5902-64 
5901-87 
5900-41 
5839-40 

t5898-33 
5895-16 
5894-49 
5892-88 
589204 
5891-23 
5889-22 
5888-10 
5884-03 
5883-52 
5881-60 
5880-27 
5879-80 
5878-01 
5876-71 
5875-76 
5874-82 
5873-44 
5871-72 
5871-28 
5864-38 

t5S62-51 
5859-83 
5857-71 
5856-24 
5855-30 
5854-01 
5853-38 
5852-35 
5849-80 
5849-07 
5848-25 
5845-93 
5845-13 
5838-64 
6837-88 
583600 
6835-52 
5834-22 
5830-80 
5827-83 

t5816-50 



15-7 
13-2 
09-4 
04-4 
01-3 

97-0 



92-0 
90-6 



83-0 



77-0 
74-0 

61-5 
58-4 

55-5 

51-3 

48-5 

47-4 

37-0 

32-5 
27-5 
15-5 



Fievez 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



15-6 

13-4 

09-0 
06-7 
Ot-3 

01-3 
00-3 

98-0 
97-0 



92-0 
90-6 
89-9 

84-4 
82-5 

80-6 

78-2 
78-0 
76-0 



72-0 



61-4 

58-5 

552 
54-2 

52-2 
51-0 

48-5 

47-2 



35-8 
35-1 

33-5 

27-5 
25-0 
15-5 



Miiller and 
Kempf 



1 
6 
1 
lOn 
2 
4 
1 
6 

1 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 
10 

8 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

2a 

1 

1 

2n 

1 

1 

2 

2n 

1 

2 

In 

1 

1 

6 



15914-47 



0-71 
1-12 
0-76 
1-42 
1-34 

1-33 



0-88 
1-44 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



15884-19 


1-05 




-0-29 




-0-56 


t5862-66 

t5857-80 


1-01 
1-43 

0-74 




1-05 
1-30 


t5848-52 


0-85 




1-64 




3-02 




3-30 


+5816-68 


1-00 



1-74 
1-73 



1-73 
1-72 



1-72 
1-71 



5-0 
5-1 



ON ■WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 169 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum)— 


continued. 








Thalcn 








Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Kayscr and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kenipf 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


\ + 


1 


5815-5i 






1 










17190-2 


581502 


14-0 


13-6 


2 




1-02 






17191-7 


5811-99 


11-0 


10-5 


1 




0-99 






17200-7 


5809 39 


08-3 


08-0 


2 




1-09 






17208 4 


580810 




06-7 


1 










17212-2 


5806-83 


05-8 


05-8 


2 


t5807-05 


1-03 






17216-0 


5805-83 






1 










17219-0 


5801-63 


03-5 


03-2 


1 




M3 






17222-5 


5804-22 




02-8 


1 










17223-7 


5800-21 




00-0 


1 










17235-7 


5798-38 


97-3 


97-3 


2 




1-08 






17241-1 


5794-09 


93-0 


92-2 


2 




1-09 






1725S-9 


5791-82 






1 










172606 


15791-14 


90-2 


90-1 


4 


t5791-30 


0-94 






17262 6 


5790-55 




89-8 


1 










17264-4 


5788-45 






I 










17270-7 


5785-50 




84-5 


I 










17279-5 


5784-78 




84-2 


1 










17281-6 


5784-00 




83-4 


1 






1-71 




17284-0 


t5782-28 


81-3 


81-6 


8 




0-98 


1-70 




17289-1 


578084 


77-5 


78-5 


2 




3-34 






17293-4 


5778-58 


76-0 




1 




2-58 






17300-2 


t5775-24 


74-1 


74-0 


6 


t5775-3G 


1-14 






17310-2 


5774-49 






1 










17312-4 


5771-28 




69-7 


1 










17322-1 


5769-37 






1 










17327-8 


5765-34 






1 










17339-9 


t5763-15 


61-9 


02-0 


10 


t5763-23 


1-25 






17346-5 


5762-58 






1 










17348-2 


5761-70 






In 










17350-9 


5761-39 




59-9 


1 










17351-8 


5760-51 






2 










17354-5 


5759-73 






la 










17356-8 


5759-37 




58-2 


1 










17357-9 


5756-85 




56-0 


m 










17365-5 


5755-24 






1 










17370-4 


5754-44 




53-9 


In 










17372-8 


t5753 28 


62-0 


52-0 


8 




1-28 






17376-3 


5752-11 


510 


51-0 


2n 




1-11 






17379-8 


5748-01 


46-7 


46-5 


2n 


t5748-19 


1-31 


1-70 




17392-2 


5745-34 






1 






1-69 




17400-3 


574304 




41-8 


1 










17407-3 


574202 


40-9 


40-9 


2 




1-12 






174104 


5740 10 




39-5 


1 










17416-2 


5738-43 






1 










17421-3 


5737 11 




36-8 


1 










17425-3 


573397 






1 










17434-8 


t5731-91 


30-5 


30-5 


6 


t5732-0r 


1-41 




51 


17441-1 


5727-86 


27-0 


28-0 


1 




0-86 




5-2 


17453-3 


5727.20 






1 










17455-3 


5724-52 






1 










17463-5 


5723-82 


23-0 


22-5 


1 




0-82 






17465-6 


5722-00 






1 










17471-2 


5720-95 


20-0 


19-8 


In 




0-95 






17474-4 


5718-03 


16-8 


16-5 


6 


t5718-13 


1-23 






17483-3 



170 



EEPOET — 1891. 







Ibon 


(Aec Specteum)— 


continued. 
















s 


Reduction to 


j 


Kayser and 
Kuna;e 


Thalen 


Intensitj' 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






1 


(Rowland) 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


Character 




A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


5716-20 


15-2 




1 




1-00 






17488-9 


15715-24 


13-8 


14-0 


4 




1-44 






17491-9 


5711-34 


13-3 


13-3 


2 




1-04 






17494-6 


5713-54 






1 










17497-1 


5712-30 




11-0 


2 










17500-9 


5712-02 


10-8 


10-7 


2 




1-22 


1-69 




17501-7 


+5709-56 


08-3 


08-5 


8 


15709-75 


1-26 


1-68 




17509-3 


5708-25 


OM 


07-1 


2 




1-15 






17513-3 


5707-15 


06-0 


OC-0 


2 




1-15 






17516-7 


5706-14 


05-0 


05-0 


4 




1-14 


^ 




17519-8 


5705-65 






2 










17521-3 


5704-87 






1 










17523-7 


5703-66 






1 










17527-4 


5702-50 






1 










17531-0 


+5701-71 


00-4 


00-5 


6 




1-31 






17533-4 


5700-37 






4 










17537-5 


5699-62 






1 


5698-70 








175398 


5698-55 


97-2 


97-5 


2 




1-35 






17543-1 


5698-23 






1 










17544-1 


6696-02 




95-5 


1 










17550-9 


6695-21 






1 










17553-4 


5693-77 


92-8 


93-0 


2 




0-97 






17557-9 


5691-64 


90-6 


90-8 


2 




1.04 






17564-4 


5690-76 






1 










17567-1 


6688-52 






1 










17574-1 


5686-60 


85-5 


85-3 


6 




1-10 






17580-0 


5684-84 






1 










17585-4 


5683-25 




82-2 


1 










17590-4 


5680-42 


79-0 


79-2 


1 




1-42 






175991 


t5679-18 


77-9 


■ 78-0 


4 




1-28 


1-68 




17603-0 


5672-33 


71-0 


70-5 


1 




1-32 


1-67 




17624-3 


5668-65 




69-1 


1 










17635-7 


5667-67 


66-0 


66-6 


4 




1-67 






17638-7 


5666-95 






1 










17641-0 


5664-85 






1 










17647-5 


5663-94 




63-0 


1 










17650-4 


t5662-68 


61-6 


61-5 


8 




1-08 






17654-3 


5661-50 




60-3 


1 










17658-0 


5660-95 




69-7 


1 










17659-7 


5658-93 


57-6 


57-9 i 


10 




1-33 






17666-0 


5657-90 






1 










17669-2 


5656-84 






1 










17672-5 


t5655-64 


54-4 


54-6 


4 




1-24 






17676-3 


5655-40 






2 










17677-0 


5654-21 






In 










17680-7 


5652-51 


51-6 


52-5 


2 




0-91 






17686-0 


5651-53 




50-4 


1 










17089-1 


5650-96 




49-5 


1 










17690-9 


6650-24 




48-8 


1 










17693-2 


5649-90 


48-0 


48-0 


In 




i-90 






17694-3 


6646-84 




47-5 


1 










17703-8 


5646-20 






In 










17705-8 


5645-95 




44-0 


1 










17706-6 


5644-15 


43-0 


42-7 


2 


t5644-27 


1-15 






17712-3 


5642-99 




42-0 


1 










17715-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SrECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 171 
Iron (Arc Spectrum) — contimwd. 













05 S 


Reduction to 




Knyser and 

Uunge 
(Kowland) 


Tlia 


en 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Jl idler and 
Kempf 


c a is. 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Fieqiiency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


A + 


1^_ 
\ 


5G42-76 






1 










17716-6 


t5641-60 
6640-60 


40-2 


40-5 


4 




1-40 


1-67 




17720-3 




39-5 


In 






1-66 




17723-4 


5638-45 


37-2 


37-3 


6 


to638-58 


1-25 






17730-2 


5637-53 




36-0 


1 










17733-1 


5637-29 






1 










17733-8 


5G36-84 




35-2 


1 










17735-2 


5636-08 




340 


1 










17737-6 


5634-16 


327 


32-5 


4 




1-46 






17743-7 


5632-54 




310 


1 










17748-8 


5631-84 






2 










17751-0 


5630-70 






1 










17754-6 


5629-33 






1 










17758-9 


5628-68 






1 










17760-9 


5627-72 






2 










17764-0 


5626-87 






1 










17766-7 


5625-95 


24-4 


241 


1 




1-55 






17769-6 


t5624-70 


23-2 


23-5 


8 




1-50 






17773-5 


5623-95 






1 










17775-9 


5623-61 






1 










17777-0 


5621-72 






1 








5-2 


17782-9 


5620-70 


19-3 


19-4 


2 




1-40 




53 


17786-1 


5619-70 




18-5 


1 










17789-2 


5618-81 


18-0 


17-7 


2 




0-81 






17792-1 


5617-90 






1 










17794-9 


5617-39 


16-1 


16-0 


1 




1-29 






17796-6 


t5615-81 


14-5 


14-6 


10 


5615-85 


1-31 






178016 


5614-09 






1 










17807-0 


5612-11 




11-0 


1 










17813-3 


561005 




09-2 


2 










17819-8 


5609-12 




07-8 


1 










17822-8 


5607-90 




05-8 


2 










17826-7 


5606-30 






1 






1-66 




17831-8 


5605-12 






1 






1-65 




17835-5 


5603-14 


01-7 


01-5 


8 




1-44 






17841-8 


5601-77 






1 










17846-2 


5600-39 


98-9 


98-6 


2 




1-49 






17850-6 


5598-37 


97-2 


97-2 


4 




1-17 






17857-0 


5596-48 






in 










17863-1 


5594-73 


93-4 


93-3 


2 


15594-82 


1-33 






17868-7 . 


5592-64 




90-8 


1 










17876-3 


5591-16 






1 


1 






17880-1 


5590-30 




88-7 


1 










17882-8 


5588-92 






1 










17887-2 


5586-93 


85-6 


85-4 


10 


t5587-04 


1-32 






17893-6 


5585-00 




83-3 


2 










17890-8 


558313 






m 










17905-8 


5580-99 






In 










17912-7 


5579-21 




78-0 


In 










17918-4 


■f5576-22 


74-9 


74-4 


8 




1-32 






179280 


5574-99 






2 










17931-9 


557305 


71-7 


71-3 


10 




1-35 






17938-2 


5571-51 






1 






1-65 




17943 2 


t5569-77 


68-5 


68-5 


10 




1-27 


1-64 




17948-8 


5568-89 






1 










17951-6 



172 



EEPORT — 1891, 







lEON 


(Arc Spectrum)— coh«»?/c 


■7. 










, 






g 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Thalen 


Intensitj' 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


ill 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


A.+ 


1_ 


6567-50 


66-4 


66-0 


4 




1-10 






17956-1 


5565-76 


64-6 


64-2 


6a 


15565-99 


1-16 






17961-7 


6563-73 


62-7 


62-5 


4 




1-03 






17968-2 


5562-78 


61-8 


61-4 


2n 




0-98 






17971-3 


5560-36 


69-3 


59-0 


2 11 




1-06 






17979-1 


655800 


67-1 


56-7 


2n 




0-90 






1T986-8 


655'l:-96 


53-9 


54-0 


6a 


15555-17 


1-06 






17996-6 


5553-70 


52-7 


62-4 


1 




1-00 






18000-7 


555000 


49-0 


49-0 


2a 




1-00 






18012-7 


5547-12 




45-7 


2 










18022-1 


55-1:6-60 


45-5 


45-3 


2 




110 






18023-8 


t5544-07 


42-7 


43-0 


4 




1-37 






18032-0 


5543-24 


42-0 


42-0 


4 


t5543-44 


1-24 






18034-7 


6542-09 






1 










18038-4 


5541-14 




40-0 


la 










18041-5 


6540-93 






1 










18042-2 


5539-91 






1 










18045-5 


6539-40 




37-7 


1 










18047-2 


5538-68 


36-3 


37-2 


2 




2-38 






18049-5 


5537-86 






1 










180523 


6536-63 






1 










18056-2 


.5535-52 






4 






1-64 




18059-8 


5534-87 






1 






1-63 




18062-0 


5533 10 


31-5 


31-8 


2 




1-60 






18067-7 


5532-87 






1 










18068-5 


5532-13 






1 










18070-9 


553116 






1 










18074-1 


5530-71 




29-7 


1 










18075-6 


5529-26 




28-4 


2 










18080-3 


5525-70 


24-7 


24-4 


4 




1-00 






18091-9 


5524-40 




230 


la 










18096-2 


5522-60 


21-5 


21-5 


2 




1-10 






18102-1 


5521-26 


20-0 


20-2 


1 




1-26 




6-3 


18106-5 


5519-69 






2 








5-4 


18111-6 


5517-25 






la 










18119-6 


6516-80 


15-6 


16-5 


1 




1-20 






18121-0 


6514-71 






1 










18127-9 


5512-47 


11-4 


11-2 


2 




1-07 






18135-3 


5510-70 


09-5 


09-2 


la 




1-20 






18141-1 


5508-53 


07-6 


07-2 


la 




0-93 






18148-3 


15506-92 


05-9 


05-9 


8 




1-02 






18153-6 


5506-06 






1 










18156-4 


5504-51 




03-3 


1 










18161-5 


5503-32 


01-9 


02-0 


2a 




1-42 






18165-4 


-f 5501 -61 


00-5 


00-5 


8 


t5501-82 


1-11 






18171-1 


5500-87 






1 










18173-5 


5499-60 






In 






1-63 




18177-7 


5497-96 






1 






1-62 




1S183-2 


5497-73 






1 


t5497-83 








18183-9 


5497-52 


96-6 


96-4 


6 




0-92 






18184-6 


5496-92 






1 










18186-6 


5495-75 






1 










18190-5 


5494-62 


93-5 


93-7 


2 




1-12 






18194-2 


6493-70 


925 


93-0 
92-5 


4 




1-20 






15I97-3 



ON "WAyE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMEI'.TS. 175 



Ikon (Arc Specteum) — continued. 





ThaHn 






StjI 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


S"; ho 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


5491-98 


910 


90-8 


2 




0-98 






182030 


549010 


89-0 


89-3 


1 




1-10 






18209-2 


548804 


86-8 


86-6 


4a 




1-24 






18216 


5486-00 


850 


84-0 


1 




100 






18222-8 


5483-28 


82-4 


81-8 


4 




0-88 






182319 


5481-62 


80-2 


80-2 


4 




1-42 






18237-4 


5481-06 


79-9 


79-6 


4 




1-16 






18239-2 


5478-60 


77-4 


78-0 


2 




1-20 






18247-4 


5476-82 


75-9 


75-8 


8 


to476-97 


0-92 






18253-4 


5476-43 




75-3 


4 










18254-7 


5474-08 


73-3 


73-6 


6 




0-78 






18262-5 


5472-88 


72-0 


72-1 


2 




0-88 






18266-5 


5470-79 




69-7 


2 










18273-5 


5470-36 


69-0 


69-1 


1 




1-36 






18274-9 


5469-11 






In 










18278-1 


5467-15 




66-2 


2 










18285-7 


5466-52 


65-6 


65-7 


4 




0-92 






18287-8 


5465-20 






1 










18292-2 


5464-46 


63-2 


63-4 
62-6 


2 




1-26 


1-G2 




18294-7 


15463-41 


62-3 


62-3 


8n 




1-11 


10] 




18298-2 


5463-19 






1 










18298-9 


5461-68 






In 










183040 


5459-69 






In 










18310-7 


5457-72 






2 










18317-3 


5455-80 


54-7 


54-7 


10 




1-10 






18323-7 


5454-53 






1 










18328-0 


5452-96 




51-5 


1 










18333-3 


5452-10 






1 • 










18336-1 


5451-00 






1 










18339-9 


5449-95 






1 










18343-4 


5449-16 






1 










183460 


5448-52 




47-3 


1 










18348-2 


t5447-05 


45-9 


46-0 


10 


t5447-20 


1-15 






18353-2 


5445-21 


44-2 


44-3 


8n 




1-01 






18359-4 


54i3-33 






1 










18365-7 


5442-42 






1 










18368-8 


5441-56 


40-0 


40-7 


1 




1-56 






18371-7 


5440-41 






1 










18375-6 


5439-48 




380 


2 










18378-7 


5438-51 






1 










18382-0 


5437-50 




36-0 


1 










18385-4 


5436-74 


35-4 


35-5 


2 




1-34 






18388-0 


t5434-66 


33-0 


330 


8 


t5434-81 


1-66 






18395-0 


5433-15 






2n 










18400-1 


5431-82 






1 










18404-6 


6429-74 


28-8 


280 


10 




0-94 






18411-7 


5429-10 






1 






1-61 




18413-9 


5428-03 






1 






1-60 




i, 18417-5 


6427-13 






1 










18420-5 


5426-14 






1 










18423-9 


t5424-20 


236 


23-4 


lOn 




0-60 






18430-5 


5422-16 






1 










18437-4 


5420-52 




19-2 


1 










18443-0 


5418-66 






1 








5-4 


18449-3 



174 



EEPORT 1891. 

Iron (Aec Spegtuum)— continued. 













P Keduction to 


1 


Kavser and 

Kunae 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Keinpf 


§'2 -2 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Angstrom 


Fievez 


A + 


1 
A. 


5417-15 


16-0 


16-2 


1 




1-15 




5-5 


18454-4 


5415-43 


14-5 


14-6 


10a 


t5415-52 


0-93 






18460-2 


5413-30 






1 










18467-5 


5411-13 


10-0 


100 


8n 




1-13 






18474-9 


5409-75 


08-5 


08-2 


1 




1-25 






18479-6 


5409-30 






1 










18481-2 


5407-73 




06-5 


1 










18486-5 


t5405-91 


04-8 


04-9 


10 


t5406-06 


1-11 






18492-8 


5404-35 


03-1 


03-3 


8n 




1-25 






18498-1 


5402-91 






1 










18503-0 


5401-97 


Vogel 




1 










18506-3 


5400-60 


99-6 


99-6 


6n 


15100-83 


1-00 






18511-0 


5399-65 






1 










18514-2 


5398-34 


97-3 


970 


2n 


5398-63 


1-04 






18518-7 


t5397-27 


96-2 


960 


10 


t5397-45 


1-07 


1-60 




18522-4 


5395-42 






In 






159 




18528-7 


5394-74 






1 










18531-1 


f5393-30 


92-1 


92-3 


8 


t5393-57 


1-2 






18536-0 


5391-75 


90-4 


90-3 


4 


5391-73 


1-35 






18541-3 


5389-71 


88-4 


88-8 


4n 


5389-76 


1-31 






18548-4 


5387-80 


86-6 


86 


In 


5387-87 


1-20 






18554-9 


5386-63 


85-5 


850 


1 


5386-76 


1-13 






18559-0 


5385-63 






1 










18562-4 


15383-50 


82-5 


82-4 


lOii 


■I-5383-68 


1-00 






18569-8 


t5379-70 


78-5 


78-0 


4 


■i-5379S3 


1-20 






18583-9 


537901 






1 










18585-3 


5377-88 


76-5 


76-2 


2 




1-38 






18589-2 


5377-08 


75-7 


75-2 


2 


5377-75 


1-38 






18591-9 


5375-57 






1 


5376-96 








18597-2 


5873-85 


72-G 


72-5 


4 


5373-85 


1-25 






18603-1 


537201 






1 










18609-5 


15371-63 


70-5 


70-6 


10 


t537I-74 


1-12 






186109 


537009 


690 


69-0 


8n 


5370-24 


1-09 






18616-2 


t5367-60 


66-4 


66-6 


8n 


15367-79 


1-20 






18C24-8 


6365-62 


64-4 


64-3 


4 


5365-67 


1-12 






18631-7 


6365-02 


63-9 


63-6 


6n 


5365-19 


1-32 






18633-8 


5362-90 


61-9 


61-8 


2 


5363-21 


1-00 






18641-1 


5361-80 


60-8 


60-6 


1 


5362-06 


1-00 






18645-0 


5359-97 






1 






1-59 


5-5 


18651-3 


5358-16 


57-3 


57-3 


1 


5358-65 


0-86 


1-58 


5-6 


18657-5 


5356-28 




550 


1 










186641 


f5353-53 


52-5 


52-5 


(i 


5353-71 


1-03 






18673-7 


5349-83 


48-8 


48-7 


4n 


5349-91 


1-03 






18686-6 


5348-58 






1 










18690-9 


5347-62 






1 










18694-3 


5346 62 






1 










18697-8 


5'!45-75 






1 










18700-8 


5344-64 






1 










18704-7 


5343-62 


42-7 


42-4 


4n 


5343-82 


0-92 






18708-3 


5341-49 






1 










18715-8 


5341-15 


40-3 


40-0 


8 


t5341-36 


0-85 






18717-0 


5340-10 


39-2 


38-9 


8 


5340-34 


0-90 ( 




18720-6 


5337-37 






In 


1 




1 




18730-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 175 



Ikon (Aug Spectrum) — continued. 







1 






0. a 


Eeduction to 




Kiiyser and 


Thalen 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Midler and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


liunge 
(Kowlaud) 


Vogel 


Fievez 


Kempf 


G« 1 


- i- 


5335-47 






1 










18736-9 


5335-25 






1 










18737-7 


t5333-04 


32-1 


32-0 


6 


t5333-16 


0-94 






18745-4 


5330-15 


29-0 


29-1 


4 


5330-07 


1-15 






18755-6 


5328-94 






1 










18759-9 


5328-50 


27-3 


27-6 


8 


"1-5328-51 


1-20 






18761-4 


5328-15 


27-0 


27-0 


10 


5328-20 


1-15 






18762-6 


5326-32 




25-2 


1 










18769-1 


5824-31 


23-2 


23-5 


10 


t5324-48 


1-11 


1-58 




18776-2 


5323-70 






1 






1-57 




18778-3 


5322-30 


21-4 


21-3 


2 


5322-45 


0-90 






18783-3 


5321-36 


20-4 


20-3 


1 


5321-51 


0-96 






18786-6 


5320-28 


19-3 


19-2 


1 


5320-39 


0-98 






18790-4 


5319-24 


18-5 


18-0 


1 




0-74 






18794-1 


5316-85 


161 


16-0 


2 


f531701 


0-75 






18802-5 


5315-19 


14-6 


14-5 


1 


5315-73 


0-59 






18808-4 


5313-44 






1 










18814-6 


5311-61 






1 










18821-1 


5309-89 






1 










18S27-2 


t5307-48 


06-5 


06-6 


G 


t5307-66 


0-98 






18835-7 


530R'31 






1 










188399 


5304-22 






1 










18847-3 


5302-46 


01-5 


01-4 


10 


t5302-60 


0-96 






18853-6 


5300-25 


99-4 


990 


1 


5300-51 


0-85 






18861-4 


5298-91 


98-1 


98-2 


2 


5399-19 


0-81 






18866-2 


5296-82 


949 


95-0 


I 




0-92 






18873-6 


5295-41 




94-3 


1 










18878-7 


5294-63 


93-7 


93-9 


1 


5294-70 


0-93 






18881-5 


5294-03 


92-7 




2 




1-55 






18883-5 


5292-78 




92-0 


2 










188881 


5291-07 






1 










18894-2 


5289-22 






1 










18900-8 


t5288-64 


87-6 


87-6 


4 


t5288-85 


1-04 


1-57 




18902-8 


5287-48 






1 






1-56 




18907-0 


5-'85-76 


84-2 


84-2 


1 


5285-33 


1-56 






18913-2 


5284-63 


83-4 


83-8 


1 


6284-66 


1-23 






18917-2 


5283-75 


82-7 


82-6 


10 


15283-93 


1-05 






18920-3 


5281-91 


80-9 


80-8 


8 


■f5282-15 


1-01 






18926-9 


5280-53 


79-7 


790 


2 


5280-68 


0-83 






18931-9 


5278-95 






1 










18937-6 


527 V -80 






1 










18941-7 


5276-19 


75-2 


750 


1 


t5276-26 


099 






189475 


5275-12 


74-5 


74-0 


In 


5275-68 


0-73 






18951-3 


5273-55 


72-5 


72-3 


6 


5273-81 


1-05 






18957-0 


5273-32 






4 








^ 


18957-8 


5272-28 






1 










18961-3 


5271-37 






1 










18964-8 


15270 43 


69-2 


69-5 


10 


t5270-55 


1-23 






18968-2 


t5269-65 


68-5 


68-6 


lOn 


{5279-90 


1-15 






18971-0 


5268-73 






1 










18974-3 


52t;6-72 


65-3 


65-5 


10 


5266-80 


1-42 






18981-5 


5264-00 






1 










18991-4 


5263-42 


62-3 


62-0 


6 


5263-67 


1-12 






18993-4 


5257-77 


56-8 


56-6 


1 


5258-16 


0-97 






19013-9 


5-'55-44 


54-7 


54-7 


1 


5256-03 


0-74 






19022-3 



176 



BEPORT — 1891. 







Iron 


(ABC Si 


'ECTRUM)— 


continued. 
















a g 1 Reduction to 




Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Ro-yvland) 


Thalen 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Mliller and 
Kempf 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Freq uency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


.0) i- M 

« o c 


\ + 


1 

A." 


6255-08 


53-9 


54-0 


2 


f5255-32 


1-88 






19023-6 


•f5253-56 


62-4 


52-6 


4 


5253-68 


1-16 


1-56 




19029-1 


5252-08 


50-8 


51-0 


2 


525207 


1-28 


1-55 




19034-5 


t5250-76 


49-4 


49-8 


6 


15250-85 


1-36 






19038-3 


-f5250-33 






1 










19040-8 


5249-17 


48-0 


47-9 


In 


5249-33 


1-17 






19045-0 


5247-20 


46-2 
44-7 


45-7 
44-0 


2 


5247-37 
5245-98 


1-00 






19062-2 


5243-95 


43-0 


42-8 


2n 


5244-24 


0-95 






190640 


6242-58 


41-8 


41-1 


6 


t5242-75 


0-78 






190G9-0 


6242-00 






1 








5-6 


19071-1 


6236-33 


35-4 


35-5 


1 


5236-46 


0-93 




5-7 


19091-6 


5235-50 


34-4 


34-7 


4 


5236-60 


1-10 






19094 7 


5234-77 


33-6 


33-8 


1 


5234-77 


1-17 






19097-3 


1523305 


32-1 


321 


10 


t5233-21 


0-95 






19103-6 


6232-48 






1 










19105-7 


6231-49 






1 










19109-3 


5229-95 


290 


290 


6 


5230-28 


0-93 






19114-9 


5228-53 


27-4 


27-6 


1 


5228-39 


1-13 






19121-1 


5227-85 






1 










19122-6 


5227-33 


26-2 


26-4 


10 


5227-47 


113 






19123-5 


5227-00 




26-1 


10 










19125-7 


5226-63 






1 










19127-1 


5226-25 






1 










19128-5 


5225-60 


24-5 


24-8 


2 


5225-66 


110 




1 19130-9 1 


5224-40 






In 










19135 3 


5223-28 


22-3 


22-0 


1 


5223-44 


1-18 






19139-3 


5222-63 


21-5 


21-4 


1 


5222-79 


1-13 






19141-7 


6221-89 




20-8 


1 










19144-4 


5221-09 


20-2 


20-0 


1 




089 






19147-4 


5219-76 


18-7 




1 


522007 


106 






19152-3 


5218-28 




177 


2 










19157-7 


521803 






2 






1-55 




19158-6 


t5217-49 


16-7 


16-7 


4 


5217-93 


0-79 


1-54 




19160-6 


5216-37 


15-6 


15-5 


6 


5216-38 


0-77 






19164-7 


t5215-28 


14-5 


14-5 


4 


t5215-56 


0-78 






19168-7 


5212-85 


09-5 


11-0 
09-5 


1 


5210-72 








19177-7 


6208-72 


07-6 


07-8 


6 


t5208-77 


1-12 






19192-9 


5208-11 






1 










19195-1 


6207-95 






1 










19195-7 


5206-13 




05-3 


2 










19202-4 


5205-17 






1 










19206-0 


15204-65 


03-8 


03-3 


4 


6204-85 


0-85 






19207-9 


t6202-42 


01-7 


01-4 


8 


f5202-01 


1-72 






192161 


5201-22 






1 










19220-6 


5199-70 






1 










19226-2 


t5198-82 


98-2 


98-2 


4 


519915 


0-62 






19229-4 


5198-09 






1 










19232-1 


5197-68 






1 










19233-6 


6196-69 






1 










19237-3 


5196-20 


95-3 


95-6 


1 


5196-46 


090 






19239-1 


6195-69 


94-6 


94-7 


4 


5195-73 


0-99 






19241-4 


6195-03 


94-0 


94-2 


8 


6195-15 


1-03 






19243-5 


5194-20 1 






1 










19246-3 



ON WAYE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 177 



lEON (Aec SPECTnvyi")—contimeed. 



Kayser and 

Uuncje 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 


MUller and 


g-al 


Reduction 
to Vacnum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


and 
Character 


Kempf 


111 


\ + 


1_ 


5193-10 






1 










19250-6 


5192-47 


91-4 


91-8 


10 


t5192-67 


1-07 






19253-0 


5192-10 






1 










19254-3 


5191-56 


90-6 


90-6 


10 


t5191-76 


0-96 






19256-3 


6188-90 






1 










19266-2 


618800 


87-2 


87-2 


2 


5188-16 


0-80 






19269-5 


5186-65 






1 










19274-6 


5184-42 


83-3 


83-8 


4n 


6184-46 


1-12 


1-54 




19282-9 


5181-90 






1 






1-63 




19292-2 


5181-40 


80-8 


80-7 


1 


5181-81 


0-60 






19294-1 


5180-14 


79-4 


79-4 


2 


5180-29 


0-74 






19298-8 


5178-89 


77-8 


78-2 


In 


5178-87 


1-08 






19303-5 


5177-40 


76-3 


76-5 


1 


5177-23 


1-10 






19309-0 


5173-85 






1 










19322-3 


5171-71 


71-1 


70-9 


8 


5171-89 


0-61 






19330-3 


5171 15 






1 










19332-4 


6170-86 






1 










19333-4 


517008 






1 










19336-4 


5169-09 


68-4 


68-9 


G 


516983 


0-69 






19340-1 


|f5ir.7-60 


67-0 


67-1 


10 


t5167-67 


0-50 






19346-0 


5166-36 


65-8 


65-7 


4 


5166-70 


0-58 






19350-3 


t5165-52 


64-8 


650 


4a 




0-72 






19353-4 


5164-65 


63-8 


64-2 


1 


5164-87 


0-85 






19356-7 


tol62-49 


61-6 


61-5 


6n 


t5162-60 


0-89 






19364-8 


5160-39 


69-6 




111 


5160-57 


0-79 






19372-7 


5159-09 


68-3 




4dl 


15159-40 


0-79 




5-7 


19377-6 


5157-18 


56-6 
66-0 
54-7 
63-7 




I 


5157-69 
5157-18 
5155-87 
5154-77 


0-58 




5-8 


19384-6 


5153-28 


52-8 




6 


5154-04 


0-48 






19399-3 


5152-00 


51-5 




4 


6152-64 


0-60 






19404-1 


15150-96 


50-6 




6 


5151-66 


0-36 






19408-1 


5149-43 






1 






1-53 




19413-8 


5148-36 


47-8 




6n 


6148-84 


0-56 


1-52 




19417-9 


5148-15 


46-4 




2 


5147-64 


1-75 






19418-6 


5146-57 


45-3 




1 


5146-56 


1-27 






19424-6 


5145-17 


44-3 




1 


5145-78 


0-87 






19429-9 


5144-17 


42-8 




1 


6143-98 


1-37 






19433-7 


t5142-99 


41-9 




4 


5143-09 


1-09 






19438-1 


5142-63 


41-6 




4 


6142-71 


1-03 






19439-5 


t5141-85 


40-8 




4 


5141-95 


1-06 






19442-5 


5139-58 


38-5 




10 


15139-72 


1-08 






19461-0 


5139-34 






10 










19451-9 


5138-12 






1 










19456-6 


5137-50 


36-3 




6n 


5137-46 


1-20 






19458-9 


5136-12 


35-4 




1 


5136-50 


0-72 






19464-1 


5133-64 


33-0 




8 


■f5134-00 


0-64 






19473-5 


6131-01 


30-8 




4 


5131-98 


0-71 






19481-6 


5129-73 


28-8 




1 


6129-92 


0-93 






19488-4 


612815 






1 










19494-4 


6127-44 


26-4 




4 


5127-55 


1-04 






19497-1 


6126-70 






1 










19499-9 


6126-31 


25-3 




1 


5126-42 


1-01 






19601-4 


5125-27 


24-4 




8n 


15125-48 


0-87 






18505-4 



1891. 



EErORT — 1891. 
IBON (Aec Spectrum) — e(yntinued. 



Kayser and 

Kuuge 
(RoAvland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

llowland 

— Angstrom 


Keduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogcl 


Fievez 


X. 


1 


5124-18 






1 










19509-5 


5123-82 


23-1 




6 


5124-31 


0-71 






1 9510-9 


5121-71 


20-9 




2n 


5121-93 


0-81 






19518-9 


6120-32 






1 










19524-2 


5119-77 






1 










19526-3 


5117-98 






1 










195332 


6115-87 


14-6 




1 


t5115-79 


1-27 


1-52 




19541-2 


5114-45 


13-6 




1 


5114-52 


0-85 


1-51 




19546-6 


5111-21 






1 










19559-0 


15110 50 


09-2 




6 


5110-03 


1-30 






19561-7 


5109-75 






1 










19564-6 


5107-76 


07-2 




6 


t5107-85 


0-56 






19572-2 


5107-53 






4 










19573-1 


5106-57 






1 










19576-8 


15105-66 


05-2 




8 


5105-83 


046 






19580-3 


5104-45 


04-0 




1 


5104-75 


0-45 






19584-9 


5104-25 


03-7 




1 


5104-35 


0-55 






19585-7 


5104-07 






In 










19586-4 


5103-37 






1 










19689-1 


5102-28 






1 










19593-3 


5100-00 






1 










19602-0 


5099-17 






1 










19605-2 


5098-77 


98-2 




6 


t5098-91 


0-57 






19606-8 


t5097-07 


96-6 




4n 


5097-36 


0-47 






19613-3 


15090-90 


90-3 




4n 


t5091-12 


0-60 






19637-1 


5088-15 


87-7 




1 


5088-48 


0-45 






19647-7 


5087-16 


85-7 




1 


5086-52 


0-46 






19651-5 


5084-26 


83-8 




1 


t5084-39 


0-46 






19662-7 


t5083-46 


82-8 




6 


5083-66 


0-66 






19665-8 


5083-14 






1 










19667-1 


5080^78 


80-6 




1 


5081-74 


0-18 






19676-2 


5080-37 


80-2 




1 


5081-11 


017 


1-51 




19677-8 


5079-85 


79-4 




6 


5080-41 


0-45 


1-50 




19679-8 


5079-36 


78-8 




6n 


5079-77 


0-56 






19681-7 


5079-00 






1 










19683-1 


5076-43 


75-7 




2 


15076-62 


0-73 






19693-1 


5074-80 


74-0 




4 


5075-03 


0-80 






19699-4 


5072-82 


72-0 




1 


5072-94 


0-82 






19707-1 


5072-04 


71-3 




1 


6072-34 


0-74 






19710-1 


15068-88 


68-2 




8 


5069-10 


0-68 






19722-4 


,5067-22 


66-6 




1 


5067-50 


0-62 






19728-9 


: 5065-09 


64-5 




Gn 


-f5065-21 


0-59 




5-8 


19737-2 


5060-11 


59-2 
57-5 
56-5 
55-S 
55-3 




1 


5060-11 

5057-44 
5056-80 
5056-11 


0-91 




5-9 


19756-5 


5054-71 


53-9 




1 


5054-7G 


0-81 






19777-6 


5053-65 


52-8 
52-2 




1 


6053-77 
505307 


0-85 






19781-8 


5051-72 


51-0 




6 


t5051-85 


0-62 






19789-3 


5050-98 






1 










19792-2 


5050-58 






1 










19793-8 


f5049-94 


49-4 




8 


foOSO-Oo 


6-54 






19796-3 


5048-57 


48-1 




2 


5048-75 


0-47. 






19801-7 



ON WATE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF TilE ELEMENTS. 179 
lEON (Arc SPECTRVM)—contimted. 





Thalon 






s-^ •? 


[ Eeduction to ' 


Kavser anc 

i; tinge 
(Kowlaud) 




Intensity 

and 
Charactei 


Millie r and 
Kempf 


2 =5 -2 

fc O P 


1 Vacuum 


i Oscillntion 


Vogel 


Fievez 


1 
X-r 


1_ 
A 


j Freqiieiicy 
in Vacuo 


5047-85 






1 






1-50 


1 


19804-5 


5044-38 


43-6 




2 


5044-50 


0-78 


1-49 




19818-1 


5041-85 


41-0 




8 


f5041-9() 


0-85 






1982S-1 


5041-17 


40-3 




4 


t5041-24 


0-87 






19830-8 


5039-:-!8 


38-5 




2 


5039-51 


0-88 






19837-S 


508f,-90 


36-2 




1 


5037-25 


0-70 






19847-6 


503(;-40 


35-7 




1 


5036-75 


0-70 






1984'.i-5 


5031-95 


31-3 




1 


5032-39 


0-65 






198671 


5030-99 


30-4 
30-3 




1 


5031-45 


0-59 






19870-9 


5029-73 


29-1 




1 


5030-16 


0-82 






19875-9 


5028-25 


27-4 




4 


5028-46 


0-85 






198S1-7 


5027-28 


26-4 




4n 


t5027-51 


0-80 






19885-6 


5025-60 


24-8 
24-0 




1 


5025-77 
5024-97 


0-80 






198:i2-2 


5023-53 


22-7 




1 




083 






199(10-4 


5022-35 


21-5 




4 


5022-45 


0-85 






199().")-1 


5021-61 


20-8 




1 


5021-84 


0-81 






19908-0 


5020-90 


20-0 




1 


5021-03 


0-90 






19910-8 


6019-89 


19-4 




1 


5020-30 


0-89 






19914 9 


5019-11 






1 










199J7 9 


5018-53 


17-7 




4 


t5018-65 


0-83 






199-'<»-:; 


5017-81 






1 










19923 1 
199l'()-2 


6017-02 


16-3 




1 


t5017-22 


0-72 






5016-40 






1 










1992S-: 
199:!2-7 
199;'>:;ii 


6015-40 






1 










5015-09 


14-4 




6 


5015-26 


69 






5014-42 






1 










l99:!t; 6 
199:;7-;) 
1991(V:! 


5014-10 






1 










5013-48 






1 










5012-86 






1 










1991i'-s 


5012-50 


11-7 




1 


5012-72 


0-80 






199 ! 1 -2 


5012-15 


11-3 




6 


5012-19 


0-85 






199 l.".-i; 


5011-42 






1 






1-49 




190l:)-4 


5007-50 


06-6 




2n 


15007-58 


0-90 


1-48 




19vii; 1 I 


t5006-24 


0-55 




8 


{5006-28 


0-75 






i99i;:i-2 


t5005-84 


05-0 




6 


5005-84 


0-84 






1997'! S 


5004-92 


04-0 




1 




0-92 






1997 1 1 


5004-14 


03-2 




1 


5004-34 


0-94 






19977-.") 


5002-95 


02-2 




2 


5003-12 


0-75 






199.SL' :; 


5002-02 


01-1 




8 


6002-16 


0-92 






l99'--;(> 


4999-23 


98-3 




1 


4999-38 


0-93 






199'. •7-:.' 


4997-00 


95-6 




1 




0-40 






20( •■■■ 1 


4995-81 


94-8 




1 


4995-89 


1-01 






2001(1 '.1 


4994-63 






1 










'20(1 i .7 1; 


t4994-25 


93-6 




4 


4994-58 


0-65 






20(:; 7 1 


4991-43 


90-5 




2ii 


t4991-44 


0-93 






20( .-■ I 


4990-56 


89-9 




1 


4990-94 


0-66 






200.; 1 :i 


4989-10 


88-3 




2n 


4989-29 


0-80 






200:^7 ^ 


4986-37 


85-9 




1 


4986-99 


0-47 






20(' ! s ,s 


4985-68 


85-3 




4 


4986-36 


0-38 






20(.v7 i-." 


4985-35 


84-7 




4 


t4985-74 


0-65 






2007 -.'■'.» 


4983-97 


84-4 




4 


4985-43 


0-57 






20 - 1 


4983-41 


83-0 




2 


4984-16 


0-11 






201 ' ■ 


4983-00 


82-4 




1 


4983-45 


0-60 






20i ,.,..■ -3 



180 



EEPORT — 1891. 







Iron 


(ABC Spectrum)— 


continued. 






Kayser and 

i-tunfje 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


MiUler and 
Kempf 


Difference 

I^owlaud 

— Angstrom 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


\ + 


1 

A." 


4982-67 


81-8 




6 


4982-81 


0-87 






20063-7 


4981-73 


79-7 








2-03 






20067-4 


4979-G6 


78-8 






4979-69 


0-86 






20075-8 


t4978-71 


78-1 






497909 


0-61 






20079-6 


4977-79 


77-0 






4978-72 


0-79 


1-48 




20083-3 


497603 












1-47 




20090-4 


4975-60 


74-7 






4975-81 


0-97 






20092-2 


4974-40 
















20097-0 


t4973-29 


72-4 






14973-40 


0-89 






20101-5 


4972-36 














5-9 


20105-3 


4970-58 


69-5 








1-OS 




6-0 


20112-4 


4970-07 


69-2 






497006 


0-87 






20114-4 


4968-79 


67-7 






4968-69 


1-09 






20119-6 


4967-97 


67-1 


; 1 


4968-05 


0-87 






20122-9 


4966-96 






1 










20127-0 


4966-23 


65-3 




6 


14966-36 


0-93 






20130-0 


49()4-65 


63-4 






4964-50 


1-25 






20136-4 


4962-63 


620 






4963-02 


0-63 






20144-6 


4962-03 


61-3 






4962-37 


0-73 






20147-0 


4961-15 


60-3 






4961-46 


0-85 






20150-6 


4959-61 
















20156-9 


4957-80 


56-8 






4957-90 


1-00 






20164-2 


4957-43 


56-6 






4957-63 


0-83 






20165-7 


495611 
















20171-1 


4955-73 
















20172-7 


4954-90 
















20176-0 


4954-60 


53-7 






4954-83 


0-90 






20177-3 


4952-64 


51-8 






4952-81 


0-84 






20185-2 


4950-25 


49-4 






14950-43 


0-84 






20195-0 


4948-38 






In 










20202-6 


4946-54 


45-7 






4946-74 


0-84 






20210-1 


4945-80 


44-9 






4945-99 


0-90 






20213-2 


4943-80 


43-7 






4944-70 


0-10 






20221-4 


4942-51 


41-7 






4942-75 


0-81 


1-47 




20226-6 


4941-32 












1-46 




20231-5 


4939-78 


?8-8 
38-3 






4939-80 
4939-43 


0-98 






20237-8 


4938-93 


37-8 






4938-93 


1-13 






20241-3 


4938-30 


37-3 






4938-31 


1-00 






20243-9 


4937-44 


36-3 






4937-34 


1-14 






20247-4 


4934 08 
















20261-2 


49'i3-44 


32-6 
31-3 






4933-67 
4932-40 


0-84 






20263-8 


4930-43 


29-7 






4930-76 


0-73 






20276-2 


4927-93 


27-3 






4928-40 


0-63 






20286-7 


4927-46 


26-7 
24-6 






4927-93 


0-76 






20288-4 


14924-89 


24-1 






4925-19 


0-79 






20299-0 


4924-00 


23-2 






t4924-25 


1-80 






20302-7 


4923-2G 
















20305-7 


4921-11 
















20314-6 


f4920-63 


19-5 




10 


t4920-79 


1-13 






20316-6 


{4919-11 


18-1 






-f4919-20 


101 






20322-9 


4918-15 


17-0 






4918-27 


115 






20326-8 


4917-41 


16-4 






4917-59 


1-01 






20329-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTIiA OF THE ELEMENTS. 181 



Ieon (Akc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayscr and 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Thalen 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 

X 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


4913-76 






1 










20345-0 


4911-93 


11-2 




1 


4912-38 


0-73 






20352-6 


4910-60 


100 




2 


4911-15 


0-60 






20358-1 


4910-15 


09-5 




4 


4910-58 


0-65 






20360-0 


4909-53 


08-7 




2 


4909-81 


0-83 






20362-5 


4907-86 


06-8 




1 


4907-97 


1-06 


1-46 




20369-5 


4906-68 






1 






1-45 




20374-4 


4905-30 


04-3 




1 


4905-33 


1-00 






20380-1 


14903-41 


02-4 
00-1 
97-8 
96-8 






-f4903-63 
4901-30 
4898-98 
4897-91 


1-01 






203880 


4896-56 


95-9 




1 


4897-01 


0-66 




6-0 


20416-5 


4893-02 


92-2 




1 


4893-12 


1-02 




6-1 


20t31-2 


4891-62 


90-8 




10 


14891-78 


0-82 






20437-0 


4890-89 


90-2 




8 


t4891-]0 


0-69 






20440-1 


4889-95 






1 










20444-0 


4889-14 


88-4 




2 


4889-32 


0-74 






20447-4 


4888-71 


87-9 




1 


4888-87 


0-81 






20449-2 


4887-39 


86-3 




1 


4887-36 


1-09 






20454-7 


4886-43 


85-6 




1 


4886-59 


0-83 






20458-7 


4885-55 


84-6 




2 


4885-63 


0-95 






20462-4 


4882-27 


81-4 




1 


4882-47 


0-87 






20476-2 


4881-80 


80-8 




1 


4881-95 


1-00 






20478-1 


4878-33 


77-4 




6 


4878-49 


0-93 






20492-7 


4876-00 


75-3 
74-3 
73-7 
730 




1 


4876-67 
4875-68 
4875-15 
4874-21 


0-70 


1-45 




20502-5 


4872-25 


71-3 




8 


4872-45 


0-95 


1-44 




20518-3 


4871-43 


70-6 




8 


14871-60 


0-83 






20521-7 


4870-14 
















20527-2 


4869-71 


68-7 
67-6 
66-6 






4869-87 
4868-76 


1-01 






205290 


4863-78 


62-8 
61-7 








0-98 






20554-0 


4862-07 


61-2 






4862-17 


0-87 






20561-3 


4860-92 


60-3 




In 




0-72 






20568-1 


t4«59-86 


58-8 






486001 


1-06 






20570-6 


4859-20 
















20573-4 


4857-40 


56-6 






4857-64 


0-80 






20581-0 


4855-80 


54-7 






t4855-89 


1-10 






20587-8 


4855-00 


54-1 






485511 


0-90 






20591-2 


4852-09 


51-2 






4852-39 


0-89 






20603-6 


4849-02 


48-8 






t484905 


0-22 






20616-6 


4848-57 


48-1 






4848-77 


0-47 






20618-5 


4845-76 


44-7 






4845-67 


1-06 






20630-5 


4844-13 


43-3 






4844-35 


0-83 






20637-4 


4843-31 


42-3 






4843-48 


1-01 






20640-9 


4841-92 


411 






4842-12 


0-82 






20646-9 


4840-42 


39-4 






4840-62 


1-02 






20653-3 


4839-66 


38-8 






4839-94 


0-86 






20656-5 


4838-66 


37-7 






-f4838-90 


0-96 






20660-8 


483604 


350 




1 


4836-31 


1-04 


1-43 




20672-0 



182 



KErORT — 1891. 
Iron (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 











S 


Ecduction to 




1 


Thalen 






§■2:0 


Vacuum 




Ka\ ser and 


[ 


utensity 

and 
!;haracter 


Miiller and 2 -| g, - 
Kempf EC o c 




DsciUation 
?reqiiency 
in Vacuo 


Runi^e 
(Eowland) 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 


4834-64 ; 


338 






4834-96 


0-84 






20678-0 


4832-84 1 


31-8 






4833-17 


1-04 






20685-7 


4827-57 


26-7 








0-87 






20708-2 


4825-44 


24-6 








0-84 






20717-4 


4824-27 
















20722-4 


t4823-63 


23-3 






14824-04 


0-33 




6-1 


20725-2 


4817-90 


17-2 




1 1 


f4818-24 


0-70 




6-2 


20749-7 


4815-42 


15-3 








1-12 






20760-4 


4813-33 


12-3 






4813-68 


1-03 






20769-4 


4811-22 


10-3 






4811-67 


0-92 






2077»-o 


4810-06 


09-3 






t4810-81 


0-76 






20783-6 


4809-65 
















20785-3 


4809-36 


08-6 








0-76 






20786-6 


4808 87 


08-0 






1480905 


0-87 






20788-7 


4808-25 


07-5 








0-75 






20791-4 


4807-86 


07-1 








0-76 






20793-1 


4804-71 


03-8 






4804-89 


0-91 






20806-7 


4803-00 


02-1 






4803-12 


-90 


1-43 




20814-1 


4801-26 












1-42 




20821-7 


4800-76 


99-8 








0-96 






20823-8 


4799-98 


99-2 








0-78 






20827-2 


4799-50 


98-6 








0-90 






20829-3 


4798-90 
















20831-9 


4798-38 


97-7 
97-3 






-|-4798-75 
4798-58 


0-58 






20834-2 


4794-15 


93-5 






4794-73 


0-65 






20852-6 


4792-62 


92-1 






4793-21 


0-52 






20859-2 


4791-33 


90-3 






4791-51 


1-03 






20864-8 


4790-54 
















20868-3 


4789-74 


88-8 






4790-02 


0-94 






20871-8 


4788-86 


87-8 






4789-10 


1-06 






20875-6 


4787-98 


86-8 




In 


4788-18 


1-18 






20879-4 


4786-91 


85-9 








1-01 






20884-1 


4786-04 


84-9 






4786-17 


1-14 






20887-9 


4783-56 


79-8 






14783-73 


3-76 






20898-7 


4779-55 


78-5 






4779-80 


1-05 






20916-3 


4776-17 


75-3 








0-87 






20931-1 


4772-95 


71-8 






t4773-24 


1-15 






20945-2 


4771-81 


70-7 






4771-95 


1-11 






20950-2 


4768-46 


67-3 






4768-70 


1-16 






20964-9 


4767-13 
















20970-8 


4766-56 


65-8 






4767-18 


0-76 


1-42 




20973-3 


4765-98 


65-3 
64-4 






4766-74 

4765-82 


0-68 


1-41 




20975-8 


4762-48 








t4762-83 








20991-3 


4761-66 


58-8 






4760-21 


0-86 






20994-9 


4757-70 


56-7 






4757-91 


1-00 






21012-4 


4756-20 


55-3 






4756-45 


0-90 






210190 


t4754-16 


54-7 






f4754-40 


0-46 






21028-0 


4752-50 


51-6 
50-2 






4752-77 
4751-47 


0-90 






21035-3 


4750-13 


49-2 






4750-29 


0-93 






21045-8 


4749-77 














6-2 


21047-4 


4747-49 


47-2 






1 14748-40 


0-29 




6-3 


21057-5 


4745-92 


450 




2 


1 4746-16 


0-92 






21064-4 



ON -WAVE-LEMaTII TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OP TUB ELEMENTS. 183 
Ikon (Aec SFECTmjn)— continued. 











a. S 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 

kun<;e 
(Kowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempt 


III 

SI S) - 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


1 
rie%'ez 


A.+ 


1_ 
A. 




43-6 


-_- 




4744-75 










4741-65 


40-7 




2 


4741-84 


0-95 






21083-4 


1741-27 


39-6 




1 


4740-69 


1-67 






21085-1 


4740-48 






1 










21088-6 


4739-26 






1 










21094-0 


4737-75 


37-1 




1 


4738-05 


0-65 




21100-8 


4736-91 


36-2 




10 


t4737-15 


0^71 






21104-5 


4735-96 


35-2 




4 


4736-16 


0^76 






21108^7 


4734-25 


33-3 




1 


4734-38 


0^95 






21116^4 


4733-71 


32-7 




4 


4733-90 


1^01 






21118-8 


4731-60 


30-7 




1 


4731-81 


0^90 


1-41 




21128^2 


4730-41 






1 






1-40 




21133^5 


4729-84 


28-9 




1 


4730-02 


094 






21136^1 


4729-13 


28-3 




1 


4729-41 


0-83 






21139-2 


4728-67 


27-9 




4 


4728-90 


0-77 






21141^3 


t4727-56 
4726-38 






4 


t4727-72 








21146-3 


25-4 




1 


4726-45 


0-98 






21151-5 


4722-27 






1 










21170-0 


4721-11 


20-3 




1 




0-81 






21175-2 


4714-31 


13-7 




1 


t4714-75 


0-61 






21205-7 


4712-21 


11-4 




1 


4712-46 


0-81 






21215^2 


4711-56 


10-7 




1 


4711-83 


0-86 






21218-1 


4710-37 


09-5 




4 


4710-62 


0-87 






21223-4 


4709-83 






1 










21225^9 


4709-18 


08-3 




4 


4709-41 


0-88 






2122S^8 


4707-45 


06-6 




8 


4707-69 


0-85 






21236^6 


4705-53 


04-7 




1 


4705-83 


0-83 






212453 


470510 


04-2 




2 


4705-30 


090 






21247^2 


4701-10 






In 










21265^3 


4700-49 


99-4 




lu 


4700-48 


1-09 






21268-1 


4698-50 


97-7 




1 


4698-78 


0-80 


1-40 




21277-1 


4694-97 


94-3 




1 


4695-41 


0-67 


1-39 




21293-1 


4691-52 


90-6 




6 


|4691-78 


0-92 






21308-7 


4690-26 


89-3 




2 


4690-37 


0-96 






21314-5 


4689-62 


88-6 




1 


4689-64 


1-02 






21317-4 


4688-39 


87-3 




In 


4688-39 


1-09 






213230 


4687-49 


86-5 




1 


4687-56 


0-99 






21327-1 


4685-27 


83-7 




1 


4684-79 


1-57 






21337-2 


14683-68 


82-7 




2 


4683-76 


0-98 






21344-4 


4682-74 






1 










21348-7 


4682-18 


81-3 




1 


4682-46 


0-88 






21351-3 


4681-58 


80-6 




1 


4681-60 


0-98 






21354-0 


4680-49 


79-7 




1 


46S0-63 


0-79 






21359-0 


t4678-97 
4675-23 


77-9 




8 


•[•4679-23 


1-07 






21365-9 






1 








6-3 


213830 


4674-78 






1 








6-4 


21385-0 


4674-37 






1 










21386-8 


4673-29 


72-2 




4 


t4673^37 


1-09 






21391-8 


4669-30 


68-3 




4 


4679^28 


1-00 






21410-1 


-14668-23 
4667-56 


67-2 




6 


4678^20 


1-03 






21415-0 


65-5 




6 


14667-81 


1-06 






21418-1 


4666-08 


64-9 




la 


466608 


1-18 






21424-9 


4664-46 






1 










21432-3 


4663-25 


62-3 




1 


4663-49 


0-95 






21437-9 


4662-09 


61-2 




2 




0-89 






21443-2 



184 



EEroET — 1891. 







Ikon 


(Aec Spectrum)— 


wtitinued. 






Kayser and 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Thal& 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


I"? Si 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


\ + 


1 


4661-61 


60-7 




1 


4661-71 


0-91 


1-39 




21445-4 


4658-77 






1 






1-38 




21458-5 


4658-42 


57-5 




1 


4658-52 


0-92 






21460-1 


4657-71 


56-7 




1 


4657-82 


101 






21463-4 


4654-70 


53-7 




10 


14654-89 


1-00 






21477-3 


4652-21 






1 










21488-8 


4651-27 


50-4 




4 


4651-55 


0-87 






21493-1 


4649-96 


49-2 




1 


4650-37 


0-75 






21499-2 


4647-54 


46-7 




8 


4647-70 


0-84 






21510-4 


4646-34 






In 


t4646-52 








21515-9 


4644-94 






In 










21522-4 


t4643-58 


42-7 




4 


4643-76 


0-88 






21528-7 


4641-12 


40-0 




In 


4641-21 


1-12 






21540-1 


4640-45 






1 










21543-2 


4638-13 


37-3 




6 


4638-32 


0-83 






21554-0 


4637-66 


36-T 




6 


4637-83 


0-96 






21556-2 


4635-95 


350 




2 


4636-19 


0-95 






21564-1 


4634-92 


33-9 




In 


4635-04 


1-02 






21568-9 


4633-87 


33-0 




1 


4634-06 


087 






21573-8 


4633-02 


32-1 




4 


t4633-24 


0-92 






21577-8 


4631-61 






1 










21584-4 


4630-91 






1 










21587-6 


4630-22 


29-3 




4 


4630-45 


0-92 






21590^8 


4629-44 






1 










21594-5 


4627-65 


26-6 




1 


4627-79 


1-(D5 






21602-8 


4626-65 






1 






1-38 




21607-5 


4625-19 


24-3 




6 


t4625-35 


0-89 


1-37 




21614-3 


4619-40 


18-6 




(-> 


461966 


0-80 






21641-4 


4618-88 


18-1 




2 


4619-14 


0-78 






21643-9 


4615 73 


14-8 




1 


4615-92 


0-93 






21658-6 


461429 


133 




1 


4614-53 


0-99 






21665-4 


4613-35 


12-5 




4 


t4613-59 


0-85 






21669-8 


t4611-38 


10-5 




8 


4611-60 


0-88 




6-4 


21679-1 


4607-79 


07-0 




6 


14607-88 


1-09 




6-5 


21695-9 


4606-34 






1 










21702-7 


4605-52 






In 










21706-6 


4604-84 






In 










21709-8 


4604-01 


03-7 




1 


4604-90 


0-41 






21713-7 


4603-03 


02-3 




8 


4603-30 


0-73 






21718-3 


t4602-ll 


01 -3 




4 


4602-35 


0-81 






21722-7 


4601-08 


00-2 




1 


4601-35 


0-88 






21727-5 


4600-09 






In 










21732-2 


4598-26 


97-4 




6 


4598-48 


0-86 






21740-9 


4597-50 






1 










21744-4 


4596-64 






1 










21748-5 


4596-13 


95-3 




2n 


4596-38 


0-83 






21750-9 


4595-48 


94-7 




4 


4595-71 


0-78 






21754-0 


4594-25 






1 










21759-8 


4593-64 






1 










21762-7 


4592-75 


91-J> 




8 


t4592-88 


0-85 






21766-9 


4591-52 


90-1 




In 


4591-10 


1-42 


1-37 




21772-8 


4587-23 


86-4 




4 


4597-45 


0-83 


1-36 




21793-1 


4586-46 






] 










21796-8 


4584-89 


84-2 


1 


2 


4595-11 


0-69 






21804-3 


4583-93 


83-3 


2 


4594-17 


0-63 






2180&-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 185 



Iron (Aec 8FBCTB,vi>i)— continued. 



Kavser and 

fiunge 
(Rowland) 


ThaWn 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Muller and 


ill 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillatiora 


Vogel 


Fievex 


Renipf 


te o g 


A + 


1_ 
A 


Frequercj- 
in Vacuo 


4583-04 






1 










21813-1 


4582-51 






1 










21815-6 


4581-66 


80-8 




4 


t4581-72 


0-86 






21819-6 


46&0-67 


79-8 




2 




0-87 






21824-4 


458004 


79-4 




1 


4580-38 


0-64 






21827-4 


4579-&3 






1 










21827-9 


4579-30 






1 










21830-9 


4575-87 






1 










21847-3 


4574-84 


74-2 




4 


4575-07 


0-64 






21852-2 


4574-34 






1 










21854-6 


4573-05 


72-2 




1 


4573-16 


0-85 






21860-7 


4571-62 


71-1 




1 


4572-00 


0-52 






21867-6 


45fi8-&3 


68-2 




4 


4569-10 


0-73 






21880-5 


4567-10 


66-3. 




1 


4567-20 


0-80 






21889-2 


4566-62 


65-8 




2 


4566-82 


0-82 






21891-5 


4565-81 


65-0 




2 


4565-87 


0-81 






21895-4 


4565-44 






1 










21897-2 


4564-87 


64-2 




2 


456504 


0-67 






21899-9 


4561-84 






1 










21914-5 


4561-09 


60-7 




1 


4561-71 


0-39 






21918-1 


4560-26 


59-4 




2 


4560-38 


0-86 






21922-1 


4558-18 


57-3. 




1 


4558-36 


0-88 






21932-1 


4557-46 






In 










21935-5 


4557-04 






1 










21937-6 


4556-22 


55-4^ 




8 


4556-33 


0-82 


1-36 




21941-5 


4554-63 






1 






1-35 




21949-2 


4554-16 






1 


t4554-35 








21951-4 


4552-66 


51-8- 




4 


4552-81 


0-86 






21958-7 


4551-76 






In 










21963-0 


4551-10 


60-1 




In 


4551-07 


1-00 






21966-2 


4549-57 


48-9' 




4 


t4549-86 


0-67 






21973-2 


4548-88 






1 










21976-9 


4547-95 


47-a 




8 


4548-16 


0-65 






21981-4 


4547-14 


46-3. 




4 


4547-28 


0-84 






21985-3 


4546-61 






1 










21987-9 


4546-13 


44-0 




1 


4544-95 


213 






21990-2 


4542-84 






In 










22006-2 


454263 


41-8 




2 


4542-80 


0-73 






22007-7 


454207 






1 










22009-9 


4541-43 






1 










220130 


4540-77 






1 








6-5 


22016-2 


4539-87 






1 








6-6 


22020-5 


4538-96 


38-0 




2 


453907 


0-96 






22024-9 


4537-74 






1 










22030-8 


4536-58 






1 










22036-4 


4536-10 






1 










22038-8 


4535-65 






1 










22041-0 


4534-94 






In 










22043-4 


4534-13 






1 










22048-3 


4533-35 


32-5 




2 


4533-47 


0-85 






22052-1 


4532-47 






1 










22056-4 


4531-73 


30-8 




4 


4531-93 


0-95 






22059-9 


4531-25 


90-4 




8 


4531-40 


0-85 






22062-4 


4530-51 






1 










22066-0 


4529-75 


28-& 




4 


4529-86 


0-95 






22069-7 



186 



BEPOKT 1891. 







lEON 


(Aec Specteum) — co)itimied. 












■u S 


Reduction to 




Kaj'ser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


1 g-csti 

\ p ^ i-* 

Miiller and ?; ^ -S 
Kempf ^ 1 c 


A'acuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogcl 


Fievez 


\ + 


1 
A. 


4528-78 


28-0 




10 


14529-02 1 0-78 






22074-4 


4527-9',) 






1 


1 






22078-3 


4527-36 






1 








22081-3 


452G-G6 


25-7 




4 


4526-75 0-96 






22084-7 


4525-99 






1 










22088-0 


4525-27 


24-4 




6 


4525-42 


0-87 






22091-5 


4524-91 






2 










22093-3 


4523-47 


22-6 




1 


4523-65 


0-87 






22100-3 


4522-72 


220 




1 


t4523-60 


0-72 






22104-0 


4520-35 


19-5 




1 


{4520-46 


0-85 1-35 




22115-6 


4518-62 


17-6 




1 


4518-67 


1-02 1-34 




22124-0 


4517-(i4 


16-8 




4 


4517-83 


0-84 




22130-8 


4515-36 


14-7 




1 


4515-63 


0-G6 




221400 


4514-29 


13-4 




2 




0-89 






22144-3 


4509-95 


08-9 




1 


4509-98 


1-05 






22166-6 


4509-41 






I 










221G9-2 


4508-40 


07-6 
OG-5 




1 


t45C8-48 


0-80 






22174-2 


4504-93 


04-2 




1 


4505-07 


0-73 






22191-3 


4502-70 


01-8 




1 


4502-86 


0-96 






22202-0 


4502-31 






1 










22204-2 


4499-03 


98-4 




1 


4499-35 


0-63 






22220-4 


4497-86 


96-2 




1 


4497-13 


0-66 






22226-2 


4496-20 




2 










22234-4 


4495-51 






1 










22237-8 


t4494-67 


93-8 




8 


14494-71 


0-87 






22242-0 


4493-95 






1 










22245-5 


4493-42 






1 










22248-2 


4492-84 


92-0 




1 


4492-90 


0-84 






22251-0 


4491-53 






1 










22257-5 


4490-88 


90-2 




2 


4491-02 


0-68 






22260-7 


4490-19 


89-3 




4 


4490-35 


0-89 






22264-2 


4489-84 


88-8 




4 




1-04 






22265-9 


4489-08 


88-3 




1 


4489-37 


0-78 






22269-7 


4488-26 


87-5 




2 


4488-47 


0-76 






22273-7 


4485-77 


84-8 




4 


t4485-98 


0-97 






22286-1 


4484-36 


83-5 




6 


4484-47 


0-86 


1-34 




22293-1 


4483-32 






1 






1-33 




22298-3 


4482-8G 


82-0 




1 


4482-99 


0-86 






22300-6 


4482-35 


81-6 




8 


4482-37 


0-75 






22303-1 


4481-72 


81-0 




1 


4481-77 


0-72 






2230G-3 


4481-03 






1 










22309-7 


4480-26 


79-4 




2 


4480-30 


0-86 






22313-5 


4479-73 


78-8 




2 


4479-81 


0-93 






22316-2 


4478-18 






1 










22323-9 


4477-71 






1 










22326-2 


4477-37 






1 










22327-9 


4476-98 






1 










22329-9 


4476-20 


1 75-4 




10 


t4476-29 


0-80 






22333-8 


4475-41 


i 




1 










22337-6 


4474-87 






1 










22340-4 


4474-13 






1 










22344-1 


4472-84 






2 


t4473-10 






6-6 


22350-6 


4471-94 






1 








6-7 


22355-0 


4471-31 






I 










22358-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 187 
Ikon (Arc Specteum) — continued. 



Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Thal^n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Muller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

Rowland 

— Angstrom 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 
A 


4470-23 






1 










22363-5 


4469-53 


68-7 




8 


4469-64 


0-83 






22367-0 


4468-44 






1 










22372-5 


4467-96 






1 










22375-9 


4467-55 






1 










22376-9 


4466-70 


66-0 




8 


t4466-97 


0-70 






22381-2 


4465-96 






1 










22384-9 


4465-39 






1 










22387-8 


4464-88 






4 








6-7 


22390-3 


4463-66 






1 










22396-4 


4463-33 






1 










22398-1 


4462-11 






4 










22404-2 


4461-75 


61-2 




6 


4461-98 


0-55 






22406-0 


4461-40 






I 










22407-8 


4460-48 






1 










22412-4 


4459-88 






1 










22415-4 


4459-24 


58-6 




8 


t4459-44 


0-64 






22418-6 


4458-35 






2 










22423-1 


4457-68 






1 










22426-5 


4457-18 






1 










22429-0 


4456-46 


55-7 




2 


4456-69 


0-76 






22432-6 


4455-85 






1 










22435-7 


4455-20 






In 










22439-0 


4454-50 


53-8 




6 


4454-76 


0-70 






22442-5 


4453-53 


52-8- 




1 


4453-71 


0-73 






22447-4 


4453-16 






1 










22449-3 


4452-22 






1 










22454-0 


4451-71 






2 










22456-6 


4450-44 


49-8 




2 


4450-81 


0-64 


1 


22463-0 


4448-66 






1 






1-33 




22472-0 


4447-85 


47-2 




8 


4448-12 


0-65 


1-32 




22476-1 


4447-23 






2 










22479-2 


4446-95 


46-3 




2 


4447-21 


0-65 






22480-6 


4446-47 






1 










22483-0 


444616 






1 










22484-6 


4445-61 


45-0 




1 


4445-85 


0-61 






22487-4 


4445-15 






1 










22489-7 


4444-79 






1 










22491-5 


4444-15 






1 










22494-8 


4443-30 


42-7 




8 


4443-57 


0-60 






22499-1 


4442-97 






1 










22500-8 


4442-46 


41-7 




8 


4442-70 


0-76 






22503-3 


4441-80 






1 










22506-7 


4441-10 


40-3 




1 


4441-32 


0-80 






22510-2 


4440-56 


39-9 




I 


4440-76 


0-66 






22513-0 


4439-96 


39-3 




2 


4440-22 


0-66 






22516-0 


4439-40 






1 










22518-9 


4438-50 


37-8 




2 


4438-69 


0-70 






22523-4 


4437-88 






1 










22526-6 


4437-04 


36-3 




2 


4437-29 


0-74 






22530-8 


4436-50 






1 










22533-6 


4435-27 






4 


14435-42 








22539-8 


4433-98 


33-2 




2 


4434-11 


0-78 






22546-4 


4433-32 


32-6 




6 


4433-53 


0-62 






22549-8 


4432-68 


32-0 




2 


4432-86 


0-68 






22553-0 



188 



BEPORT — 1891. 
IBON (Aec SPECTB,vu)—coniinved. 



Kayser and 

Bunge 
(Rowland) 


Thal^n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Muller and 
Kempf 


p a S 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A.+ 


1_ 

A. 


44320f; 
















22556-2 


4431-43 
















22559-4 


4430-74 


30-2 








054 






22563-9 


4430-33 


29-6 






4430-89 


0-72 






22565-0 


4429-44 








4430-30 








22569-5 


4428-74 
















22573-1 


4428-17 
















22576-0 


4427-44 


26-7 






4427-46 


0-74 






22579-7 


4426-74 
















22583-3 


4426-08 
















22586-6 


4425-79 








t4425-77 








22587-1 


4424-26 
















22595-9 


442401 


23-3 








0-71 






22596-2 


4423-29 


22-5 






4423-32 


0-79 






22600-9 


4422-67 


218 








0-87 






22604-1 


4422-02 
















226074 


4421-37 
















22610-7 


4418-43 






In 










22625-8 


4417-13 
















22632-4 


4416-85 
















22633-9 


4416-56 
















22635-4 


441610 
















22637-7 


4415-27 


14-3 




10 


t4415-34 


0-97 






22642-0 


4414-56 
















22645-6 


4413-99 
















22648-5 


4413-35 












1-32 




22651-8 


4412-15 












1-31 




226580 


441112 
















22663-3 


4409-25 
















22672-9 


4408-54 


07-8 






4408-37 


0-74 






22676-5 


t4407-80 


07-2 






4407-85 


0-60 






22680-4 


4406-74 
















22685-8 


4406-07 














6-7 


22689-3 


4404-88 


04-3 




10 


t4405-00 


0-58 




6-8 


22695-3 


4403-60 
















22701-9 


4402-95 
















22705-2 


4401-46 


00-7 








0-76 






22712-9 


4400-72 
















22716-7 


4400-02 
















22720-4 


4398-84 
















22726-5 


4396-76 
















22737-2 


4395-39 


94-5 






t4395-45 


0-89 






22744-3 


4392-66 


92-2 






4392-92 


0-46 






22758-4 


4391-95 
















227621 


4391-68 
















22763-5 


t439109 


90-5 




6 


4391-34 


0-59 






22766-6 


4390-59 


90-2 




1 


4390 88 


0-39 






22769-2 


4390-10 






2 










22771-7 


4389-35 


88-8 




2 


4389-61 


0-55 






22775-6 


4388-57 


87-9 




6 


4388-80 


0-67 






22779-7 


4388-01 


87-4 




4 


4388-29 


0-61 






22782-6 


4386-70 






In 










22789-4 


4385-40 


84-^ 




1 


4385-76 


0-50 






22796-1 


4384-82 


84-3 




2 


4385-12 


0-52 1 




22799-2 


4384-38 






1 






1 




22801-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



189 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum) — 


oontintied. 






Kavser and 

it 


Thale'a 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Mailer and 


^ ^ 00 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Vogel 


Fievez 


Kempf 




\ + 


1_ 


4383-70 


83-0 




10 


t4383-70 


0-70 






22805-0 


4382-88 






2 










22809-2 


4380-60 






In 










22821-1 


4379-36 






2 










22827-6 


4377-94 












1-31 




22835-0 


4377-46 


76-9 






4377-69 


0-56 


1-30 




22837-6 


4376-89 


76-4 






4577-23 


0-49 






22840-6 


t4376-04 


75-6 






4376-38 


0-44 






22844-9 


4375-06 


74-2 






4374-92 


0-86 






22850-0 


4374-59 
















22852-6 


4373-67 


73-3 






4374-01 


0-37 






22857-3 


4373-10 


72-4 






4373-23 


0-80 






22860-3 


4371-51 
















22868-6 


4371-09 
















22870-8 


4370-59 
















22873-4 


t4369-89 


69-3 








0-59 






22877-1 


4369-18 
















22880-8 


4368-67 
















22883-6 


4368-00 


67-6 




2 


4368-36 


0-40 






228870 


4367-68 


67-2 






t4368-07 


0-48 






22888-6 


4366-89 
















22892-8 


4366-02 


65-5 






4366-34 


0-72 






22897-3 


4362-47 


62-5 






4363-21 








22916-0 


4360-91 


60-5 






4361-21 


0-41 






22924-2 


4358-62 


58-1 






4358-91 


0-52 






22936-2 


4356-94 














fi-8 


22945-1 


4353-60 














6-9 


22962-6 


t4352-86 


52-3 






435312 


0-56 






22966-5 


4352-57 
















22968-0 


4351-67 


510 






4351-66 


0-67 






22972-8 


4351-11 
















22975-7 


4350-43 






lu 










22979-3 


4349-87 
















22982-3 


4349-07 


48-6 






4349-30 


0-47 






22986-5 


4348-57 






la 










22989-2 


4347-99 


47-4 






434818 


0-59 






22992-2 


4347-34 






, 1 










22995-7 


4346-66 


46-2 






4346-88 


0-46 






22999-3 


4345-17 


44-2 






4344-79 


0-97 






23007-2 


4344-62 
















23010-1 


4343-81 


43-3 






4343-96 


0-51 






23014-4 


4343-39 


42-7 






4343-49 


0-69 


1-30 




23016-6 


4340-65 


40-0 






14340-71 


0-65 


1-29 




230311 


4340-21 
















23033-5 


4338-38 


37-8 






4338-55 


0-58 






23043-2 


4338-05 
















23044-9 


4337-71 
















23046-7 


4337-14 


36-6 




10 


4337-35 


0-54 






23049-8 


4335-96 
















23056-0 


4333-88 


32-0 






4332-72 


1-88 






23067-1 


4331-89 
















23077-7 


4331-02 


30-6 






4331-44 


0-42 






23082-3 


4328-91 
















23093-6 


4328-02 


27-3 




2 


5328-34 


0-72 






23098-3 


4327-22 


26-6 




4 


4327-51 


0-62 






23102-6 



190 



REPORT — 1891. 







Ieon 


(Aec Spectrum)— 


contimied: 






Kayser and 

ilunge 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


MUller and 
Kempf 


ill 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillatinn 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 

X 


4326-86 


26-3 




1 


4327-20 


0-56 






23104-5 


t4325-92 


25-3 




10 


t4325-98 


0-62 






23109-6 


4325-19 






1 










23113-5 


4324-66 






1 










23116-3 


4322-93 






1 










23125-5 . 


4331-90 


21-4 




2 


4322-20 


0-50 






23131-1 


4320-89 


20-2 




1 


4321-23 


0-69 






23136-5 


4319-88 






1 










23141-9 


4318-78 






1 










23147-8 


4318-22 






1 










23150-8 


4317-10 






1 










23156-8 


4316-21 






In 










23161-6 


4315-83 






1 










23163-6 


4315-21 


14-6 




10 


4315-56 


0-61 






23166-9 


4314-43 






1 










23171-1 


4313-91 






1 










23173-9 


4312-28 






1 










23182-7 


4311-12 






1 










23188-9 


4310-52 


10-0 




1 


4310-98 


0-52 






23192-2 


4309-50 


09-2 




6 


4309-20 


0-30 






23197-6 


4309-14 






2 










23199-6 


G4307-96t 


07-3 




10 


t4308-25 


0-63 






23205-9 


4306-80 
















23212-2 


4306-11 
















23215-9 


4305-58 


04-7 






4305-71 


0-88 






23218-8 


4305-32 












1-29 




23220-2 


4304-66 


040 






430505 


0-26 


1-28 




23223-7 


4303-87 
















23226-0 


4303-25 
















23231-3 


4302-68 
















23234-4 


4302-31 


01-7 






4302-75 


0-61 






23236-4 


4301-16 
















23242-6 


4300-86 
















23244-3 


4300-29 
















23247-3 


4299-42 


98-8 




10 


4399-77 


0-62 






23252-0 


4298-16 


97-6 






4398-58 


0-56 






23258-9 


4297-46 










. 






23262-7 


4296-56 
















23267-5 


4296-13 
















23269-9 


4295-83 
















23271-5 


4295-45 
















23273-5 


4295-08 
















23275-6 


4294-26 


93-7 




10 


4294-64 


0-56 






23280-0 


4293-61 
















23283-5 


4293-07 






In 










23286-4 


4292-49 
















23289-6 


4292-36 


91-7 






4292-61 


0-66 






23290-3 


4291-69 


91-2 






4292-02 


0-49 




6-9 


23293-9 


4290-99 


90-5 






4291-45 


0-49 




7-0 


23297-6 


4290-50 


89-9 




2 


4290-77 


0-60 






23300-3 


4290-04 






1 










23302-8 


4289-84 






2 


14289-87 








23303-9 


4289-08 


88-7 




2 


4289-54 


0-38 






23308-0 


4288-25 


87-7 




4 


4288-63 


0-55 






23312-5 


4287-05 


86-7 




2 


4287-44 


0-35 






23319-2 



ON -WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TUE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



191 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum)— 


aontinued. 






Kavser and 

liunge 
(Kowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

Kowlaud 

— Angstrom 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogcl 


Fievez 


A + 


1_ 
A 


4286-58 


86-2 




1 


4286-99 


0-38 






23321-6 


428G-22 






1 










23323-6 


428G-02 






1 










23324-7 


4285-57 


85-2 




6 


4285-92 


0-37 






23327-1 


4285-20 






1 


' 








23329-1 


4284-90 






1 










23330-8 


4284-55 






In 










23332-7 


4284-20 






In 










23334-6 


4283-73 






1 










23337-1 


4283-35 






1 










23339-2 


4283-20 






1 










23340-0 


4282-58 


82-1 




10 


4282-87 


0-48 






23343-4 


4281-86 






1 










23347-3 


4281-24 






1 










23350-7 


4280-68 


80-0 




1 


4280-87 


0-68 






23353-8 


4279-99 


79-4 




1 


4280-20 


0-59 






23357-5 


4279-59 


79-2 




1 


4279-94 


0-39 






23359-7 


4279-01 






1 










23362-9 


4278-35 


77-9 




2 


4278-66 


0-45 






23366-5 


4277-80 


77-3 




1 


4278-02 


0-50 






23369-5 


4277-34 






1 










23372-0 


4276-80 


76-4 




2 


4277-10 


0-40 






23375-0 


4275-79 


75-3 




1 


4275-91 


0-49 






23380-5 


4275-27 






1 










23383-3 


4274-87 


73-7 




2 


4274-25 


1-17 






23385-5 


4273-99 






1 










23390-3 


427316 






1 










23394-9 


4272-61 






1 










23397-9 


4271-93 


71-6 




10 


4272-17 


0-33 






23401-6 


4271-30 


71-0 




10 


4271-54 


0-30 






23405-1 


4270-65 






1 










23408-6 


4270-13 






1 










23411-5 


4269-89 






1 










23412-8 


4269-50 






1 






1-28 




23414-9 


4268-87 


68-6 




4 


4269-12 


0-27 


1-27 




23418-4 


t4267-97 


67-6 




6 


4268-14 


0-17 






23423-3 


4267-08 


66-7 




4 


4267-35 


0-38 






23428-2 


4266-69 






1 










23430-4 


4266-09 






1 










23433-7 


4265-37 


65-2 




2 


4265-C5 


0-17 






23437-6 


4264-88 






1 










23440-3 


426437 


64-1 




2 


4264-63 


0-27 






23443-1 


4261-48 






2 










23459-0 


4260-64 


60-2 




10 


t4260-73 


0-44 






23463-6 


4260-21 






1 










23466-0 


4259 63 






1 










23469-2 


4259-39 






1 










23470-5 


4259-06 






2 










23472-4 


4258-75 


58-4 




2 


4259-00 


0-35 






23474-1 


1258-43 


58-0 




2 


4258-60 


0-43 






23475-8 


4257-80 






In 










23479-3 


4257-18 






In 










23482-7 


4256-82 






1 










23484-7 


4256-32 






1 










23487-5 


4256-00 






1 










23489-2 



192 



EEPORT — 1891. 







Ikon 


(Arc Spectrum)— 


oontinu 


ed. 






Kayser ami 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensit}- 

and 
Character 


MUller and 
Keiiipf 


a a i^ 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A + 


1 


4255-64 


55-3 




2 


4255-92 


0-14 






23491-2 


4255-08 






1 










23494-3 


t4254-45 


54-6 




2 


4255-28 








23497-8 


4254-13 


53-6 




1 


4254-22 


0-53 






23499-6 


4253-89 






1 










23500-9 


4253-25 






1 










23504-4 


4252 27 






1 










23509-8 


4250-93 


50-5 




10 


4251-13 


0-43 






23517-3 


4250-28 


49-8 




10 


4250-45 


0-48 






23520-9 


4249-07 






1 










23527-6 


4248-77 






1 










23529-2 


4248-35 


47-9 




4 


4248-60 


0-45 






23531-5 


4247-60 


47-1 




,S 


4247-72 


0-50 






23535-7 


4246-60 






1 










23541-2 


4246-18 


45-7 




4 


4246-36 


0-48 






23543-6 


4245-39 


44-9 




6 


4245-59 


0-49 






235480 


4244-38 






1 










23553-6 


4243-89 


43-4 




1 


4244-13 


0-49 






23556-3 


4243-44 


43-0 




2 


4243-67 


0-44 






23558-8 


4242-85 


42-3 




2 


4242-98 


0-55 






23562-1 


4242-44 






1 










23564-3 


4241-90 






1 










23567-3 


4241-20 


40-7 




1 


4241-41 


0-50 






23571-2 


4240-79 






1 










23573-5 


4240-50 






2 










23575-1 


4239-90 


39-4 




« 


4240-11 


0-50 






23578-5 


4238-98 


38-5 




8 


4249-10 


0-48 






23583-6 


4238-14 


37-7 




4 


4248-32 


0-44 






23588-3 


4237-26 


36-8 




2 


4237-45 


0-46 






23593-1 


4236-84 






In 










23595-5 


4236-09 


35-6 




10 


t4236-21 


0-49 






23599-7 


4235-41 






2 










23603-5 


4235-01 






1 










23605-7 


4234-51 






1 






1-27 




23608-5 


4233-76 


33-3 




10 


4233-87 


0-46 


1-26 




23612-7 


4233-25 






1 










23615-5 


4232-93 






1 










23617-3 


4232-57 






1 










23619-3 


4231-32 






1 










23626-3 


4230-75 






1 










23629-5 


4230-36 






In 










23631-6 


4229-86 






1 










23634-4 


4229-61 


29-0 




2 


4229-72 


0-61 






23635-8 


4228-98 






In 










23639-4 


4227-60 


27-0 




10 


4227-67 


0-60 




7-0 


236471 


4226-84 






4 








7-1 


23651-2 


4226-52 


25-9 




4 


4226-65 


0-62 






23653-0 


4226-08 


25-5 




4 


4226-25 


0-58 






23655-5 


4225-61 


250 




6 


4225-69 


0-61 






23658-1 


4224-63 


24-1 




2 


4224-76 


0-53 






23663-6 


4224-27 


23-7 




6 


4224-43 


0-57 






23665-6 


4223-40 






1 










23670-5 


4222-32 


21-8 




8 


4222-45 


0-52 






23676-6 


4221-36 






1 










23681-9 


4220-44 


19-8 




4 


4220-59 


0-64 






23687-1 



ox WAVE-LEXGTJI TABLES OF THE SPECIlt.V OF TUE ELEMENTS. 193 
Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continned. 



Kaysor and 

KutiRe 
(Rowland) 


Thalen 


Intensitv 
and ' 
CliaraUer 


Jliiller and 


rcnce 
■land 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


Kenipf 




-;:- 


4219-99 






1 






1 


23689-6 


4219-47 


is-s 




8 


4219 59 


0-67 






23092-6 


4218-48 






1 










23098-1 


4217-69 


17-2 




6 


4217-80 


0-49 






23702-6 


421(i-28 


15-7 




6 


4216-45 


0-58 






23710-5 


421G-08 






1 










23711-6 


4215-52 






4 










23714-8 


4213-75 


13-2 




4 


4213-85 


0-55 






23724-7 


4213-38 






1 










23726-8 


4212-61 






1 










23731-2 


4210-48 


09 8 




S 


4310-59 


0-08 




23743-2 


4208-71 


08-2 




4 


4208-83 


0-51 




23753-1 


4207-93 






I 






1 


23757-5 


4207-22 


06-7 




4 


4207-38 


0-52 




23761-6 


4206-78 


06-3 




2 


4206-90 


0-48 






23764-0 


1205-63 


05-0 




2 


4205-73 


0-63 






23770-5 


4205-12 






1 










23773-4 


4204-07 


03-5 




(i 


4204-21 


0-57 




23779-4 


4203-63 






la 








23781-9 


4203-27 






1 








23783-9 


4202-85 






2 








23780-3 


4202-15 


01-6 




10 


t4202-33 


0-55 


i 


23790-2 


4201-31 






1 






t 


23795-0 


420101 


00-3 




4 


4200-98 


0-71 


' 23796-7 


4200-01 






1 






23802-4 


-f4199-19 


987 




10 


4199-33 


0-49 


' 23807-0 


4198 75 






2 






23808-5 


4198-42 


97-7 




10 


4198-46 


0-72 


1-2G , 23811-4 


4197-32 






lu 






1-25 1 23817-0 


4196-66 






2 






' 23821-4 


4196-31 


95-7 




r, 


4196-46 


0-61 


! 23823-4 


4195-71 


95-3 




2 




0-41 


i 23826-8 


4195-46 













1 238282 


4194-56 






2 








23833-3 


4193-70 






1 






i 


23838-2 


4193-35 






1 








23840-2 


4192-62 






1 








23844-3 


4192-22 






1 








2384C6 


1191-72 






1 








23849-4 


1191-57 


90-9 




10 


4191G5 


0-67 




23850-3 


j 4190-89 






I 








23854-2 


4190-4 8 






1 






i : 23856-5 1 


419007 






1 






1 


23858-8 


4189-67 






2 






1 -. 


23861-1 


4188-99 






1 










23805-0 


4188-66 






1 










23866-9 


4187-92 


87-3 




iO 


4188-32 


0-62 






23871-1 


4187-17 


860 




10 


4187-31 


0-57 






23875-4 


4186 20 






1 










23880-9 


4185-72 






1 










23883-6 


t4184-99 


84-4 




8 


4185-12 


0-59 






23887-8 


4184-31 






1 










23891-7 


4183-11 






1 










23898-6 


4182 85 






1 










23900-0 


1 4182-46 


81-8 




(> 


4182-58 


0-66 






23902-3 



1891. 



194 



EEPORT — 1891. 
IHON (Arc fiVECTRv^)— continued. 



Kayser and 

Ivunge 
(Rowland) 


Thalen 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


0) S 


Reduction 
to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Froquency 
in Vacuo 


Yogel 


Fievez 


A.+ 


1 
A 


4181-85 


81-3 




8 


4182-00 


0-55 






23905-8 


4181-16 






1 










23909-7 


4180-00 






1 










23912-9 


4179-93 






1 










23916-7 


4179-46 






1 










23919-4 


4178-95 






1 










23922-4 


4178-64 






1 










23924-1 


4178-11 






1 










23927-2 


4177-00 


77-2 




6 


+4178-07 


0-46 






23929-7 


4177-16 






1 










23932-6 


4176-62 


76-0 




6 


4176-80 


0-62 






23935-7 


4175-71 


75-2 




8 


4175-85 


0-51 






23940-9 


4174-98 


74-3 







4175-10 


0-68 






23945-1 


4174-47 






1 










23948-0 


4174-00 


73-4 




4 


4174-20 


0-60 






23950-7 


4173-52 






1 










23953-5 


4173-39 


72 -S 




4 


4173-66 


0-59 






23954-2 


4172-81 


72-2 




6 


4172-88 


0-61 






23957-6 


4172-66 






1 










23958-4 


4172-20 


71-5 




8 


4172-26 


0-70 






23961-1 


4171-99 






1 










23962-3 


4171-79 






2 










23963-4 


4170-99 


70-4 




8 


4171-21 


0-59 






23968-0 


4170-42 






1 










23971-3 


4169-90 






1 










23974-3 


4169-03! 


es-i 




2 


41GO-20 


0-63 






23979-3 


4168-71 






1 










23981-1 


4168-33 






1 










23983-3 


4167-96 


67-S 




1 


4168-16 


0-6C 






23985-4 


4167-38 






1 










23987-8 


' 4165-51 


64-S 




2 


4165-71 


0-71 






239996 


4164-89 






1 








7-1 


24003-1 


4163-74 


63-0 




2 


4103-88 


0-74 




7-2 


24009-7 


4162C3 






1 










24016-1 


4162-19 






1 










24018-6 


4161-57 


G0» 




2 


4101-75 


0-G7 






24022-2 1 


4161-13 






2 










24024-7 


4160-59 






1 










24027-8 


4160-31 






1 










24029-5 


4159-36 






1 






1-25 




24035-0 


-[4158-89 


58-2 




6 


4159-04 


069 


1-24 




24037-7 


4157-91 


57-2 




6 


4158-03 


0-71 






24043-3 


4157-46 






1 










24045-9 


4156-88 


56-2 




8 


4157-02 


0-68 






24049-3 


4156-13 






1 










24053-6 


4154-95 


54-2 




6 


415505 


0-75 






24060-5 


4154-57 


53-8 




6 


4154-74 


0-77 






24062-7 


415404 


53-2 




6 


4154-15 


0-84 






24065-7 


4153-47 






1 










24069-0 


4152-78 






1 










24073-1 


4152-25 


51-4 




4 


t4152-34 


0-85 






24076-1 


4152-04 






2 










24077-3 


4151-34 






T 










24081-4 


4150-42 


49-7 




4 


4150-56 


0-72 






24086-7 


4149-44 


48-6 




6 


4149-56 


0-84 






24092-4 



ON WAVK-LliXGTlI TABLKS OF TIIK SPECTRA OF Til 10 ELEMENTS 



19^ 



Iron (Akc Spectui'm) — continued. 













o^ a 


Reduction to 






Thaicn 






S'O :0 


Vacuum 




Kavser ami | 

ItUDgC 1 

(Rowland) 




[iitcnsity 
and 1 
Character 


Jl idler and 
Kempf 


Diffeteu 

Rowlan 

— Angstr 


Oscillation 


Vogfl 


Ficvez 


X-V 


1_ 

A. 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


4147-74 


47-0 




8 


4147-93 


0-74 






24102-3 


4146-70 






In 










24108-4 


414612 


45-4 




4 


4146-32 


0-72 






24111-7 


4145-29 






1 










24116-6 


4144-72 






1 










24119-9 


4143-90 


43-2 




10 


4144-14 


0-76 






24124-3 


4143-50 


42-7 




10 


4143-71 


0-80 






24127-0 


4142-74 






2 










24131-4 


4142-31 


1 




1 










24133-9 


4141-94 


41-2 




2 


414211 


0-74 






24136-1 


4141-51 






1 










24138-6 


4141-11 






1 










24140-9 


4140-54 






2 










24144-2 


4139-96 


39-2 




2 


4140-20 


0-76 






24147-6 


4138-99 






1 










24153-3 


4138-15 






1 










24158-2 


4137-66 


, 




1 










24161-2 


4137-OG 


36-3 




8 


4137-25 


0-76 






24164-6 


4136-58 






1 








24167-4 


4135-98 






In 








24170-9 


4135-43 






1 








24174-1 


4134-77 


34-0 




10 


4134-92 


0-77 




24177-9 


4134-50 






2 










24179-5 


4133-96 


33-2 




4 


4134-12 


0-7G 






24182-7 


4133-67 






1 










24184-4 


4132-96 


32-2 




8 


4133-17 


0-76 






24188-5 


4132-15 


31-3 




10 


t4132-43 


0-85 






24193-3 


4131-14 






1 










24199-2 


4130-58 






I 










24202-5 


4130-08 






r 










24205-4 


4129-71 






I 










24207-6 


4129-28 






1 










24210-1 


4128-91 






I 










24212-3 


4127-86 






2 










24218-4 


4127-68 


26-9 




r. 


4127-95 


0-78 






24219-5 


4126-95 






1 






1-24 




24223-8 


4126-25 


23-5 




4 


4126-45 


0-75 


1-23 




24227-9 


4125-94 






2 










24228-7 


4125-71 






•> 










24231-0 


412517 




1 










24234-2 


4124-76 






1 










24236-6 


4124-35 






1 










24239-0 


4123-81 


23-2 




4 


4124-04 


0-61 






24242-2 


4123-16 






1 










24246-0 


4122-59 


21-8 




fi 


4122-85 


0-79 






24249-4 


4121-88 


21-1 




6 


: 4122-07 


0-78 






24253-6 


4121-48 






1 










24255-9 


4120-59 






1 




1 






24261-2 


4120-28 


19-5 




6 


. 4120-49 


0-78 






24263-0 


4119-84 






1 










24265-6 


4119-45 






2 










24267-9 


4119-00 






2 








7-2 


24270-5 


4118-62 


17-3 




10 


1411902 


0-82 




7-3 


24272-7 


4118-00 






2 










24276-:', 


4117-75 


' 




1 










1 24277-8 
o2 



196 



REPORT — 1891. 







Iron 


(ABC Spectrum) — 


wntinved. 














a 


lleduction 1 


Kayser and 

ilunge 
(Rowland) 


Thale'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempt' 


Difterence 

llowland 

— Angst rijr 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation j 


Vogel 


Fievez 


A.+ 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


4117-41 






1 








24279-8 


4116-86 






1 








24283-1 


4116-22 






1 








1 24286-8 


4115-78 






1 








24289-4 


4115-34 






2 








24292-0 


4114-98 






2 










24294-2 


t4114-53 


13-7 




6 


4114-74 


0-83 






24296-8 


4113-89 






1 










24800-6 


4113-52 






1 










24302-8 


4113-08 


12-3 




4 


4113-24 


0-78 






24305-4 


4112-47 






2 










24309-0 


4111-85 






2 










24312-7 


4111-17 






1 










24316-7 


4110-41 






1 










24321-2 


4109-88 


09-2 




8 


411009 


0-68 






24324-3 


4109-23 






4 








. 24328-2 1 


4108-23 






1 








, 


24334-1 


t4107-o8 


06-8 




8 


4107-76 


0-78 






24337-9 


4106-55 






4 










243440 


4106-37 


05-7 




4 


410i5-63 


0-67 






24345-1 


4105-28 






2 








24351-6 


4105-04 






I 








24353-0 


4104-70 






1 








24355-0 


4104-20 


03-5 




(> 


4104-40 


0-70 




24858-0 


4103-44 






1 








24362-5 


4102-50 






1 








\ 24368-1 


4101-76 






2 


t4101-98 






\ 24372-5 


4101-37 






4 










24374-8 


4100-82 


00-2 




6 


4101-00 


0-62 






24378-1 


4100-26 






4 










24381-4 


4099-87 






2 










24383-7 


409904 






1 










24388-6 


4098-26 


97-6 




8 


4098-41 


0-66 






24393-3 


4097-19 






1 










23399-7 


4096-67 






la 










24402-8 


4096-06 


95-6 




8 


4096-29 


0-46 






24406-4 


4095-35 






1 










24410-6 


4094-57 






1 










24415-3 


4093-28 






1 










24423-0 


4092-60 






4 


4092-83 








24427-0 


4092-43 






4 










24428-1 


4092-11 






1 










244300 


4091-66 






4 










24432-7 


4091-34 






1 










24434-6 


4091-12 






4 






1-23 




24436-1 


4090-17 






1 






1-22 




24441-6 


4089-28 






4 










24446-9 


4088-65 






1 










24450-6 


408795 






1 










24454-8 


4087-50 






1 










24457-5 


4087-16 


86-5 




2 


4087-35 


0-66 






24459-6 


4086-54 






1 










24463-3 


408606 






1 










24466-2 


4085-38 


84-7 




6 


4085-53 


0-68 






24470-2 


4085-07 


84-4 




6 


4085-27 


0-67 






24472-1 



ON W.VVK-LKNGTII TABLB.S OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum)— 


•sontUiiicd. 








1 


i ^ 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Tli.iU'n 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


g-a :3 
M tiller and S s "S 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


Kempf 




A + 


1 


4084-59 


83-9 


1 8 


4084-75 


0-69 






24475-0 


4083-90 




1 4 










24479-1 


4083-70 




4 










24480-3 


408303 




4 










24484-3 


4082-55 




2 










24487-2 


4082-20 




i 2 










24489-3 


4081-67 




1 1 










24492-5 


4081 -35 




1 1 










24494-4 


4080-9C 






2 










24496-7 


4080-30 


79-7 




4 


4080-47 


0-00 






24500-7 


4079-91 


79-^ 







4080-09 


0-61 






24503-0 


4079-50 




1 2 










24505-5 


4079-32 






2 










24506-6 


4078-83 






1 










24509-5 


4078-41 


77-8 







4078-65 


0-01 






245121 


4077-74 






1 










24516-1 


4077-30 






1 


14077-48 








24518-4 


407«-72 


76-0 




8 


4070-93 


0-72 




24522-2 


4076-32 






1 










24524-6 


4076-05 






1 










24526-3 


4074-87 


74-2 




6 


4075-01 


0-C7 






24533-4 


4074-49 






1 








7-3 


24333-7 


-f 4073-84 
4073 35 


73-2 




4 


4074-03 


0-04 




7-4 


24539-5 






1 










24542-4 


4072-62 






2 










24546-8 


4071-79 


71-0 




10 


t4071-86 


0-79 






24551-8 


4070-85 


69-7 







4070-50 


1-15 






24557-5 


406908 






1 










24568-2 


4008-07 


67-3 




8 


4068-21 


0-77 






24574-3 


4067-30 


66-7 




6 


4067-21 


0-60 






24578-6 


4067-04 


66-3 




6 




0-74 






24580-5 


4066-66 






4 










24582-8 


4066-29 






1 










24585-0 


4065-87 






1 










24587-0 


4065-48 






4 










24589-9 


4004-55 






2 










24595-6 


4063-63 


63-0 




10 


t4063-94 


0-63 






24001-1 


4063-40 






4 










24602-5 


4062-94 






1 










24005-3 


4062-51 


61-8 




8 


4062 73 0-71 






24007-9 


4062-00 






1 










246110 


4061-24 






1 










24615-0 


4060-88 






1 










24617-8 


4059-80 


59-2 




4 


4060-03 0-60 






24624-3 1 


4058-99 






In 




' 


24629-3 


4058-86 


58-2 




4 


4059-16 0-00 






24630-1 


4058-30 






4 










24633-8 


4057-91 


57-(; 




6 




0-31 






24635-8 


4057-43 


56-7 




4n 


1 4057-77 


0-73 






24038-7 


4056-01 






1 










24043-7 


4050-04 






1 










24047-2 


-f4055-63 






4 






1-22 




24649-7 


4055-12 






2 






1-21 




24652-8 


4054-94 


54-2 




2 


' 4055-18 1 0-74 






24653-9 


4054-25 




1 


1 










24658- 1 



198 



RKPOUT — 1891. 



lEOsr (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 









1 




0= si 


Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Eunice 

(Rowland) 


Thalen 


Intensity 

and 
Dharactcr 


Milllpi- and 


9 S'ai ' 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Vogcl 


Fievez 


Kempt' 


S ^ to 1 


1 1 


4053-87 










] 






24660-4 


4053-31 






.1 




i 






24603-8 


4052-75 










: 




24667-2 


4052-50 


51-7 






1052-77 


0-86 




24668-4 


4052-43 






1 




i 




24669-1 


4052-03 






1 1 










24671-0 


4051-40 














1 


24075-4 


4050-83 
















24678-9 


: 4049-92 
















24084-4 


4049-40 
















24087-6 


t4048-82 


48-2 






4049-12 


0-62 






24691-2 


4047-40 
















24099-8 


4045-90 


45-3 




10 


14040-00 


0-60 






24709.0 


4044-69 


44-0 






4044-94 


0-69 






24716-4 


4044-00 


43-3 






4044-27 


0-70 






24720-6 


4041-44 


40-5 








0-94 






24736-3 


4040-74 


39-5 








1-24 






24740-5 


404012 
















24744-3 


4038-83 






In 










24752-2 


f4035-76 
















24771-1 


4034-59 


33-9 






4034-86 


0-69 






24778-3 


4033-16 


32-4 






4033-47 


0-70 






24787-1 


4032-72 


320 






4032-97 


0-72 






24789-8 


4032-54 
















24790-9 


4032-06 


31-3 






4032-38 


0-76 






24793-8 


4031-33 
















24798-3 


4030-84 


30-0 






t4030-85 


0-84 






24801-3 


4030-60 
















24802-8 


4030-26 














7-4 


24804-9 


4029-72 














7-5 


24808-1 


4027-63 
















248210 


4025-93 
















24831-5 


4024-86 


24-0 






4025-05 


0-86 






24838-1 


4024-20 
















24842-2 


4023-51 














24846-4 


4022-80 
















1 24850-8 


4022-25 
















! 24854-2 


4021-96 


21-3 






4022-27 


0-66 






24856-0 


4021-69 








j 








24857-7 


4020-54 












1-21 




24864-8 


4019-75 












1-20 




24809-7 


4019-13 
















24873-5 


4018-79 
















24875-6 


4018-36 


17-5 






4018-54 


0-86 






24878-3 


4018-21 








1 








24879-2 


4017-23 


16-4 




4 


; 4017-53 


0-83 






24885-3 


4016-55 
















i 24889-5 


i 4015-40 
















1 24896-6 


; 4014-63 


13-6 






\ 4014-68 


103 






24901-4 


4014-41 








1 








24902-8 


4013-91 


13-0 






1 4014-22 


0-91 






24905-9 


4013-75 














24906-9 


: 4011-81 














24918-9 


4011-49 














1 24920-9 


401105 
















I 24923-6 



ON WAVK-LEKGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS 



idu 







Iron 


(Arc Spectrum) — continued. 






Kiiyser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Thalun 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miillcr and 
Kcmpf 


8.1 

llf 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
iu Vacuo 


Vogel 


Fievez 


\-f- 


1_ 

A. 


4009-80 


09-0 







4010-08 


0-80 


j 




24931-4 


4008-97 






1 






1 




24936-6 


4007-36 


oo-o 




4 


4007-68 


0-76 






24946-6 


4006-71 






2 










24950-6 


4006-39 


05-5 




2 


4000-67 


0-89 






24952-6 


4005-33 


04-3 


04 3 


8 


t4005-46 


1-03 






24959-2 


4005-07 






1 






i 




24900-8 


4004-90 






1 










24961-5 


4003-88 






2 










24968-3 


4002-77 






1 










24975-2 


4001-77 


00-9 




4 


4002-03 


0-87 






24981-4 


4000-57 


99-5 




2 


4000-59 


107 






24988-9 


4000-30 






I 










24990-2 


3998-70 






1 










25000-2 


3998-10 


97-2 







3998-33 


0-97 






25004-0 


3997-49 


90-7 


90-7 





3997-77 


0-79 






25008-2 


3997-25 






1 










25009-7 


3997-06 






2 










25010-9 


:!996-42 






1 










25014-9 


3996-08 






4 










25017-0 


3995-34 






1 










25021-7 


3994-22 






4 










25028-7 


S990-48 






4 










25052-1 


3989-94 






2 








7-5 


25055-5 


3980-27 






G 


t3987-04 






7-6 


25078-5 


3985-40 






4 










25083-6 


t3984-08 









3984-23 




1-20 




25092-3 


3983-47 






1 






1-19 




25096-1 


3981-87 






6 










25106-2 


3981-21 






1 










25110-4 


3979-73 






1 










25119-7 


3978-91 






1 










25124-9 


3978-55 






1 






i 


25127-2 


3977-83 




. 


8 








25131-7 


397706 






1 










25132-8 


3976-95 






1 










25137-3 


3976-71 






2 










25138-8 


3976-47 






1 










25140-3 


3976-00 






1 










25143-3 


3975-33 






1 










25147-5 


3974-81 






1 










25150-8 


3974-46 






1 










251530 


3974-10 






In 










25155-3 


3973-75 






4 










25157-5 


3973-00 






1 








i 


25162-1 


3971-41 






G 








' 


25172-4 


3970-51 






4 










25178-1 


3970-35 






1 








! 


25179-1 


3969-72 






1 








j 


25182-1 


3969-34 




66-7 


8 


3969-52 






i 


25185-5 


3968-55 






4 


t3968-79 






i 


25190-5 


3968 05 






2 








1 


25193-7 


3967-51 






1 








! 


25197-1 


3966-70 






4 








1 


25202-3 


3960-lC 




i 


4 










25205-7 



200 



REPORT — 1891. 



Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continved. 



\ 


j 






Reduction to 




Kayser nnd 
Kun£;e ; 
(Rowland) j 

1 


Intensify ; 

Cornu , and ■ 

Character i 

1 


Jldllcr and 
Kempf ! 


Difference 

It^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
I'rennoncy 
in Vacuo 


- \r 


3965-(;2 i 




1 1 




; 25209-1 


3964f.l 1 




2 






25215-6 


3963-24 1 




4 1 


3963-61 




25224-3 


3'.)62-80 




1 1 






25227-1 


3962-42 




1 


3962-57 


1 


25229-5 


3961 -63 




2 




1 




25234-5 


3961-24 




1 










25237-0 


3960-38 


2 


3960-46 








25242-5 


3958-48 


1 










25254-6 


3958-29 


1 










25255-8 


3957-80 


1 


1 


3958-10 








25259-0 


3957-17 




2 










252630 


3956-77 


55-9 


6 




0-87 


1 

! 




25265-5 


3956-54 


1 


4 










252670 


3956-05 




4 


395612 








25270-1 


3955-50 




2 










25273-6 


3954-78 




1 










25278-3 


3953-93 


1 










25283-7 


3953-25 




4 


3953-65 








25288-0 


3952-71 




6 


t3953-00 






■ 


25291-5 


3951-25 




C 










25300-,S 


395005 


G 


3949-27 




1-19 




25308-5 


3949-25 




1 




118 




2531 3-r 


3948-87 




6 










253161 


3948-23 




4 










25320-2 


3947-64 




4 


3947-87 








25324 


3947-11 




2 


3947-4S 








25327-4 


2945-22 




2 


3945-47 








25339-5 


3945-00 




2 


3945-28 








25340-9 


3944-82 




1 










25342-1 


3944-11 




2 










25346-7 


3943-4;'. 




2 










25351-0 


13942-54 




6 


3942-92 








25356-8 


3941-40 




2 










25364-1 


3940-98 




6 


3941-36 








25366-8 


3940-14 




1 










25372-2 


3938-59 




1 










25382-2 


393816 




1 










25385-0 


3937-42 




4 










25389-7 


3935-92 




« 


3936-00 








25399-4 


3935-40 




2 










25402-8 


3934-81 




1 










25406-6 


3934-4T 




1 










25408-8 


3933-75 


32-9 


6 


3933-79 


0-85 






25413-4 


393301 




1 










25418-2 


3932-71 




2 










25420-3 


3931-22 




2 






[ 

1 




25429-8 


3930-37 


1 29-8 


8 


3930-44 0-57 






25435-3 


3929-24 




2 


3939-31 






25444-6 


3928-17 




1 










22449-5 


392805 


1 27-3 


8 


3938-27 


0-75 




7-6 


254503 


392605 




i 4 








7-7 


25463-2 


3925-74 




i 4 


1 








25465-2 


3925-31 


j 


i 1 










25468-0 


3923-00 


i 22-0 


1 8 


392304 


1-flO 






25483 



ON W.VYK-LKNGTIl TABLES OF THE SPECTUA OF TIIK lOLEilENTt;. 2U1 
Iron (Arc Spkctrvji)— cojjrt/iw^-rf. 













liednction to 




Kayser niul 

ftuDfJC 


Cornu 


Intensity 
.iiid 


Miillei-.-ind 
Kempt" 


Difference 
llowlaiid 


Vacuum 


0^cillation 






Frequency 


(Kowlaiul) 




Cliaracter 


— Angstrom 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


302i;u 




1 








25493-8 


3920-9:5 




1 










55496-4 


3920-3(; 


18-4 


6 


3920-11 


1-96 






25500-2 


39)9-18 




2 


3919-28 








25507-8 


3918-7-1 




4 


3918-82 








25510-7 


3918-49 


17-8 


4 




0-69 






25512-3 


3917-29 




(i 


3917-36 








25520-1 


t3916-82 




6 


3916-92 








25523-2 


3914 35 




1 


3914-55 








25539-3 


3913-74 




4 


3913-87 




1-18 




25543-3 


3910-95 




2 






1-17 




25561-5 


3909-95 




4 


391014 








25568-1 


3909-78 




1 


3909-89 








25569-2 


3909-40 




1 


3909-50 








25571-7 


390802 




4 


3908-20 








25580-7 


3907-58 




1 


3907-75 








25583-6 


390G-84 




2 


3907-02 






25588-4 


390G-58 


05-9 


6 


3906-74 


0-68 






25590-1 


3905-G4 




1 


13905-87 








25596-3 


3904-00 




i; 


3904-1 6 








25607-0 


3903-OG 


01-9 


8 


3903-24 


1-16 






25613-2 


3902-43 




1 


3902-60 








25617-4 


3900-64 




2 


3900-86 








25629-1 


3899-80 


98-4 


6 


;!900-04 


1-40 






256346 


3899-13 




2 










25639-0 


3898-73 




1 










25641-7 


389805 


97 


6 


3898-32 


1-05 






25646-1 


13897-54 




2 


3897-82 








25649-5 


3895-75 


94-7 


(! 


13895-78 


1-05 






25661-3 


3894-56 




1 










25669- 1 


3894-09 




2 










25672-2 


8893-47 


92-6 


4 




0-87 






25676-3 


3893-00 




1 










25679-4 


3892-54 




1 










25682-5 


389202 




4 










25685-9 


3890-94 




4 










256930 


3890-49 




1 










256960 


3890-02 




1 










25699-1 


3888-92 


880 


4 




0-92 






25706-4 


3888«3 


87-4 


C 




1-23 






25708-3 


3887-17 


86-4 


6 




0-77 






25717-9 


3886-38 


860 


i; 




0-38 






25723-2 


388561 


S4-7 


4 




0-91 






25728-3 


3885-25 




1 










25730-7 


3884-46 




4 










25735-9 


3883-39 




4 










25743-0 


3882-11 




1 










25751-5 


3878-82 


80-3 


S 




-1-48 






25773-3 


3878-63 




2 










25774-6 


3878-12 


77-4 


8 




0-72 


1-17 




257780 


3876-81 




1 






1-16 


25786-7 


387614 




4 










25791-2 


3874-95 




1 










25799-1 


3874-55 




1 










25801-7 


3874-18 




1 










26804-2 



202 



REPORT 1891. 







lEOX 


[Aec Specteum)— cwi<irt?<«Z. 
















Reduction to 




Kayser and 




Intensity 


Sliiller and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


ilunge 


Cornu 


and 


Kempf 


Ro-n-land 




Frequency 


(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


! 1 
^+ 1 r 


in Vacuo 


3873-88 




6 






1 


25806-2 


3873-69 




1 








25807-5 


3873-04 




1 








25811-8 


3872-Cl 


71-3 


8 




1-31 




25814-7 


3871-86 


70-6 


4 




1-26 




25819-7 


3871-36 




1 








25823-0 


3869-69 




4 






7*7 


25834-2 


3868-71 




1 






7-8 


25840-6 


3868-37 




1 










25842-9 


3868-03 


65-5 


2 




2-53 






25845-1 


3867-33 


65-2 


6 




213 






25849-8 


3865-65 


64-8 


8 




0-85 






25861-1 


3864-42 




1 










25869-3 


3864-16 




1 










258710 


3863-87 




4 










25873-0 


3861-69 




1 










25887-6 


3861-46 


60-6 


4 




0-86 




25889-1 


386003 


59-3 


10 




0-73 




25898-7 


3859-34 




6 








25903-4 


3856-49 


55-7 


8 




0-79 






25922-5 


3856-00 




1 










25925-8 


3855-45 




] 










25929-5 


3854-51 


53-7 


2 




081 






25935-8 


3853-60 


52-7 


1 




0-90 




25942-0 


3852-71 


51-8 


6 




0-91 




25947-9 


3850-96 


50-0 


(i 




0-96 




26959-7 


3850-11 


49-7 


8 




0-41 




259655 


3848-42 




1 




1 




25976-9 


3S46'96 


45-9 


6 




loi; 




25986-7 


3846 55 




o 










25989-5 


3846-18 




1 










25992-0 


3S45-84 




1 










25994-3 


3845-58 




1 










25996-1 


3845-30 


44 (i 


4 




0-70 






25998-0 


384408 




] 










26006-2 


3843-40 


41-9 


6 




1-50 


116 




26010-8 


3843-04 




1 










260133 


384119 


40-5 


8 




0-69 


115 




26025-8 


3840-58 


40-1 


8 




0-4S 






26029-9 


3839-78 




1 










26035-4 


3839-38 


38-5 


6 




0-8S 






26038-1 


3838-87 




1 










26041-9 


3837-27 




2 










26052-4 


3836-48 




G 










26057-8 


3834-37 


33-6 


8 




0-77 






26072-1 


3833-44 




4 










26078-4 


3830-95 




2 










26095 5 


3830-54 




1 










26098-2 


3830-29 




1 




■ 






26099-9 


3829-86 




2 










26102-8 


3829-59 ■ 




1 










26104-7 


3829-30 




1 










26106-6 


3829-02 




1 










26108-5 


3828-65 




1 










26111-1 


3827-96 


27-7 


8 




026 






26115-8 



ON AVAYE-LKXGTU TABLKS OF THK SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



203 







Ikon 


[Aec Specteum) — continued. 












1 


Rednetion to 




Kayser and 
Kun}{c 


Cornu 


Intensity 


JUiillci- and 1 Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 1 K-»n,„f 


liowiana 






Frequency 


(Rowland) 




Character 




— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


3827-72 




2 








7-8 


26117-4 


3826-90 




1 








7-9 


26122-3 


3S2li()l: 


25-3 


8 




0-74 






26128-8 


382.V.-)4 




1 










26132-2 


3824-58 


24-1 


8 




0-48 






26138-8 


:{824-24 




1 










26141-1 


3823-06 




1 










26145-1 


3822-39 




1 










26153-7 


3821-98 




2 










26156-5 


3821-71 




1 










26158-4 


•3821-32 




4 










26161-1 


L 3820-56 


19-7 


8 




0-86 






26166-3 


3819-75 


192 


1 




0-55 






26171-8 


3818-77 




1 










26178-5 


3818-43 




1 










26180-9 


3817-84 




1 










26184-9 


3817-11 




1 










26189-9 


3Sl6-t8 


16-9 


4 




-0-42 






26194-3 


3815-97 


15-3 


8 




0-67 






26197-9 


:'.8l4-94 




1 










26204-8 


:',S14U6 


14-0 


4 




0-66 






26206-8 


:;sl4-03 




2 










26211-1 


3813-77 




2 








26212 9 


3813-12 


12-6 


8 




0-52 






26217-3 


3812-03 




4 






• 




26224-8 


3811-19 




1 










26230-6 


3,slO-89 




4 










26232-7 


3809-70 




2 










262409 


3809-20 




1 










26244-3 


3808-8G 




4 










26246-7 


3808-43 




1 










26249-6 


3807-68 




4 








y 


26254-8 


3807-39 




1 










26256-8 


3806-84 




6 










26260-6 


3806-36 




2 










26263-9 


380(;-12 




1 










26265 6 


3805-82 




1 










26267-6 


3805-47 


05-0 


6 




0-47 


1-15 




26270-1 


3804-15 




1 






1-14 




262792 


3802-41 




2 










26291-3 


3801-92 




1 










26294-6 


3801-81 


02-0 


4 




-019 






26295-3 


3801-54 




1 










26297-2 


3801-15 




2 










26299-9 


3799-68 


99-4 


6 




0-28 






263101 


3798-65 


98-7 


6 




-0-06 






26317-2 


3798-09 




1 










26321-1 


3797-65 


96-8 


6 




0-85 






26324-2 


3797-04 




1 










26328-4 


3796-67 , 




1 










26331-0 


379612 ! 




1 










263348 


8795-66 




1 










26338-0 


3795-13 


94-9 


8 




0-23 






26341-7 


3794-46 


93-3 


4 




116 


1 




26346-3 


3793-99 




1 






1 




263496 



204 



KEPOKT 1891. 



Ihon (Akc Spectkum) — roniinucd. 



Kayper and i 


Intensity 


Runge 


Cornu 


and 


(Rowland) 




Character 


3793-60 




1 


3793--18 




1 


3792-96 




1 


3792-62 


92-7 


1 


3792-28 


92-2 


2 


3791-89 




1 


3791-65 




1 


3791-38 




111 


3790-88 




1 


3790-22 


90-5 


6 


3789-31 


89-8 


4 


3788-01 


87-1 


6 


3787-30 




1 


3786-81 


862 


4 


3786-30 




4 


378G07 


85-4 


4 


3785-83 




1 


3782-7-i 




2 


3782-56 




2 


3782-23 




1 


3782-05 




2 


3781-31 




4 


3779-58 




6 


3779-32 




1 


3778-82 




1 


3778-63 




4 


3778-45 




1 


3777-56 




2 


3777-20 




1 


3776-58 




4 


3775-93 




1 


3774-95 




4 


3773-84 




2 


3773-51 




1 


3770-43 




2 


3770-12 




2 


3768-15 




2 


3767-31 


66-8 


8 


3766-74 




1 


376619 




1 


3765-66 


66-0 


8 


3763-90 


63-4 


8 


3762-30 




1 


3761-52 


1 


3760-60 




4 


3760-17 




4 


3759-30 




1 


3758-36 


57-7 


8 


3757-60 




1 


3757-06 




2 


375617 




1 


3754-63 




1 


3753-74 


53-4 


4 


3763-27 




1 


3752-57 




1 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 



0-62 
0-G7 



7-9 
8-0 



1-14 

1-13 



0-51 



0-66 
0-50 



0-66 



0-34 



I 



i i 



1 


r re(|uenc_\ 
in Vacuo 


\ 






26352-3 




26353-1 




263567 




26359-1 




26361-5 




26364-2 



ox WAYK-LENGTII TABLES OF Xni: SirECTUA OF THE ELEMENTS. 205 
Iron (Akc i^PECTHVM)— continued. 











! 


lleduction to 




Kayser and 


Coriiii 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

1 


Miillernnd 


Difference 
I!(>wlan<l, , 
— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


RuDKe 
(Rowland) 


A.+ 


1 

A. 


Frtquency 
in Vacuo 


.;75l-97 




: 








26644-7 


:;74!»-Gl 


49-5 


8 




0-11 






26661-4 


37490G 




2 










26665-3 


3748-39 


48-2 


6 




0-19 






26670-1 


•f3747-09 




4 










26679-4 


H74G-5fi 




1 








8-0 


26683-1 


:?745-95 




6 








8-1 


26687-4 


:!745-G7 


45-5 


8 




017 






26689-4 


:'.r44-21 




2 










26699-8 


:i743-58 




4 










26704-3 


3743-45 


42-9 


6 




0-55 






26705-2 


37*2-77 




2 










26710-1 


3740-44 




2 










26726-7 


3740-22 




1 










2G728-3 


3739-73 




2 










2G731-8 


3739-45 




1 










26733-8 


3739-22 




1 










2G735-4 


3738-44 




6 










26741-0 


3737-27 


36-5 


S 




0-77 






26749-4 


3735-45 




6 










2(;762-4 


:;:;i5-00 


34-4 


8 




0-60 






26765-7 


:i7H3-46 


33-2 


4 




0-26 






2677G-7 


3732-54 


32-4 


6 




0-14 


1-13 




26783-3 


3731-51 




2 






1-12 




2G790-9 


3731-07 




2 










26793-9 


:!730-53 




4 


^ 








26797-7 


3728-81 




1 










26810-1 


,,,3727-78 


27-0 







0-78 






26817-5 


*'\3727-13 


26-7 


4 




0-43 






26822-2 


3725-62 




1 










26833-1 


3724-51 


24-1 


6 




0-41 






26841-1 


3722-69 


21-9 


G 




0-79 






26854-2 


3722-07 




1 










26858-7 


3721-69 




2 










26861-4 


3721-57 




1 










26862-3 


3721-41 




I 










26863-4 


3720-07 


19-7 


10 




0-37 






26873-1 


3718-55 




4 










26884-1 


37)G-59 


16-4 


G 




019 






26898-3 


3716-04 


15-5 


4 




0-54 






26902-3 


3711-54 




1 










26934-9 


3711-35 




2 










26936-3 


3/09-79 




1 










26947-6 


3709 66 




1 










26948-5 


3709-37 


09-0 


G 




0-37 






26950-7 


3708-72 




1 










20955-4 


3708-03 


07-8 


G 




0-23 






2G960-4 


3707-73 




1 










269G2-6 


3707-GO 




1 








81 


26963-5 


3707-18 


07-5 


4 




-0-32 




8-2 


2G966-5 


3705-70 


05-5 


4 




0-20 






26977 2 


3704-59 


03-7 


6 




0-89 






1 26985-3 


3703-96 




2 










i 26989-9 


3703-83 




1 










: 26990-9 


3703-68 


03-2 


4 




0-48 






i 269920 



206 



BEPORT — 1891. 



Ikon (Aec Specteum) — continued. 











Reduction to 




Kayser and 

llunge 
(Kowlaud) 


Cornu 


Intensity 

aiid 
Character 


Miiller and Difference 


Vacuum 


OsciUati 


Kempf 


li^owlana 
— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 
A 


Freqiicr 
in Vaci 


3702-63 




1 










26999 


3702-16 




2 










27003 


3701-20 


00-8 


(> 




0-40 






27010 


3699-23 




1 










27021 


3698-73 




'2 










27(»2s 


369817 




1 








27032 


3697-58 




4 




1-12 




27036 


3695-68 




1 




1-11 




27050 


3695-18 




4 


\ 






2705) 


3694-13 


93-7 


6 


0-43 






270(51 


3693-16 




1 










270(!8 


3692-79 




1 










27071 


3691-49 




1 










27081 


3691-19 




1 










27083 


3690-86 




2 










27085 


3690-60 




1 










27087 


3690-23 




1 










27090 


3689-98 




1 










27092 


3689-58 




4 










27095 


3688-65 




1 










27102 


3687-77 


87-2 


(i 




0-57 






27108 


3687-58 




6 










27109 


3687-21 




1 










27112 


3686-65 




1 










27116 


3686-40 




1 










27118 


3686-10 


85 -S 


6 




.0-30 






27120 


3684-24 


85-0 


4 




0-76 






27134 


3683-77 


83-9 


2 




0-13 






27137 


3683-18 




1 










27142 


3682-35 


81-7 


G 




0-65 






27NS 


3681-79 




1 










27152 


3681-35 




1 










27155 


3680-90 




2 










27159 


3680-03 


80-3 


4 




-0-27 






27165 


3679-49 




1 










27169 


3679-13 




1 










27172 


3678-99 




2 










27173 


3677-76 


77-r, 


4 




0-16 






27182 


3(;77-(i0 




1 










27183 


3677-42 




2 










27184 


3677-03 




1 










27187 


3676-44 




4 










27192 


3675-29 




1 










27200 


3674-89 




1 










27203 


3674-55 




1 










27206 


3674-12 




1 










27209 


3673-19 




1 










27216 


3672-85 




1 










27218 


3671-80 




1 










27226 


3671-64 




1 










27227 


3670-95 




1 










27232 


3670-20 




4 










27238 


3669-65 


69-3 


6 




0-35 






27242 


S669-29 




2 










27245 


3669-04 




1 










27246 



ON WAVE-LENaiH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 
Ikon (Aec Spectkum)— cOTi<i««e«i. 



:07 











Reduction to 


1 


Kayser and 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

Eowland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


iKunge 
(Rowland) 


Doruu 


A + 


1 
A. 


3668-82 












27248-5 


3668-68 












27249-6 


3668-35 














27252-0 


3668-11 












8-2 


27253-8 


3667-45 












8-3 


27263-6 


3660-99 














27262-0 


3666-41 














27266-3 


3665-90 














27270-1 


3665-33 














27274-4 


3664-74 














27278-8 


3664-10 














27283-5 


3663-60 














27287-3 


3663-41 (12 4 






1-01 






27288-7 


3663-04 


62-0 






104 






27291-4 


3661-52 














27302-8 


3661-08 














273060 


3660-53 










1-11 




27310-1 


3659-65 


56-2 






3-45 


110 




27316-7 


3658-68 1 












273240 


3658-07 1 












27328-5 


3657-66 












27331-0 


3657-27 j 












27334-5 


3656-37 












27341-2 


3655-93 












27344-5 


3655-60 












273470 


3655-12 












27350-6 


3654-83 












27352-7 


365411 1 












27358-1 


3653-90 














27359-7 


3651-61 


51-7 






-009 






27370-n 


3650-64 














27384-2 


3650-42 


49-4 


4 




1-02 






27385-8 


3650-14 




2 










27387-9 


3649-65 


48-r. 






1-05 






27391-0 


3649-44 














27393-2 


3647-99 


46-9 






1-09 






274040 


3647-57 














27407-2 


3645-96 




4 










27419-3 


3645-63 














27421-8 


3645-22 














27424-9 


3644-97 














27426-8 


3644-73 














27428-6 


3643-80 














27435-6 


3640-53 














27460-2 


3638-44 


37-7 






0-74 i 




274760 


3637-98 














27479-5 


3637-39 














27483-9 


3637-16 




In 










27485-7 


3636-73 




In 










27488-9 


3636-32 














274920 


3635-39 




In 










27499-1 


3634-80 














27503-5 


3634-48 


33-3 






0-68 






27506-0 


3633-98 














27409-7 


363316 




2 










27515-9 



208 



EEPOKT — 1891. 
Iron (Arc Specteum) — continued. 



1 






Reduction to 1 




Kavser and 
RunRe 


Intensity 
Cornu and 


Miiller and ^}«^r^^^f ' 
Kemiif ' I^owland 


Vacuum 


O'lcillation 
Frequency 


1 




(Eowland) 


Cliaractei- 




-Ang&trora ^^ 


1 
\ 


in Vacuo 


3632-71 












27519-4 


3632-20 








1 




27523-2 


3631-62 


30-9 6n 




0-72 




27527-6 


3631-23 










27530-6 


3630-50 








8-3 


27536-1 


3628-97 










8-4 


27547-6 


3628-22 












27553-3 


3627-91 












27555-7 


382719 












27561-2 


3626-64 










27565-3 


3626-31 










27567-8 


3625-30 


237 4 




1-60 




27575-5 


3624-95 












27578-2 


3624-46 












27581-9 


3623-94 












27585-9 


3623-58 












27588-6 


3623-33 


22-7 6 




0G3 


1-10 




27590-5 


362215 


21-0 (•) 




1-15 


1-09 




27599-5 


3621-87 












27601-6 


3621-61 


20-6 (! 




1-01 






27603-6 


3621-21 












27606-4 


3620-62 












27611-2 


3620-37 












27613-1 


3619-89 


! I 










27616-7 


3619-54 












27619-4 


3618-92 


17-s : N 




1-12 






27624-1 


3618-54 


o 








276270 


3617-94 


lG-9 G 




1-04 




27631-6 


3617-47 










27635-2 


3617-23 












27637-1 


3616-76 












27640-7 


3616-46 












27642-9 


3616-29 












27644-2 


3615-80 




■ 








27648-0 


3615-41 












27651-0 


3614-78 


1 










27655-8 


3614-26 












276598 


3613-75 












27663-7 


3613-58 






i 




27665-0 


3G13-26 












27667-4 


3613-10 












27G68-7 


3612-25 












27675-2 


3610-86 


1 ^ 










27685-8 


3610-29 


09-7 G 




0-59 






27690-2 


3608-99 


OS-3 1 8 




0-69 






27700-2 


3608-33 












27705-3 


3607-72 


1 i 










27709-9 


3606-83 


06-0 1 G 




0-83 






27716-8 


3606-05 


1 










27722-8 


3605 62 


04-6 (! 




1-02 






27726-1 


3604-88 












27731-8 


3604-54 












27734-4 


3504-29 












27736-3 


3603-98 












27738-7 


i 3603-83 


1 










27739-9 



ON AVAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 209 



Kayser and 




Intensity 


iiunj^e 


Cornu 


and 


(Rowland) 




Character 
1 


3603-71 




3603-59 




1 


3603-34 


02-1 


4 


3G02-64 


01-8 


2 


3602-23 




] 


359;»-77 




2 


3599-30 




1 


3599-12 




1 


359885 




1 


3597-84 




1 


3597-23 




2 


3596-35 




2 


3596-03 




1 


3595-78 




1 


3595-43 




1 


3594-71 


94-0 


6 


3593-63 




1 


3593-46 




1 


3592-97 




1 


3592-83 




1 


3592-61 




1 


3592-13 




1 


3591-48 




1 


359113 




1 


3590-80 




1 


3590-21 




1 


3589-73 




1 


3589-58 




2 


3589-25 




4 


3589-05 




1 


3588-75 




2 


3587-87 




2 


3587-55 




2 


3587-34 




1 


3587-10 


86-2 


8 


3586-62 




1 


3586-24 




6 


3585-84 




4 


3585-43 


84-9 


4 


3585-33 




2 


3585-08 




4 


3584-78 


84-1 


G 


3583-74 




1 


3583-45 




2 


3582-76 




1 


3582-32 




4 


3581-94 




1 


3581-73 




1 


N 3581-32 


80-6 


10 


3578-80 




2 


3578-49 




1 


357803 




2 


3576-89 




2 


3576-11 




1 


3575-49 




4 



IBON (Arc SPEcrnvM')— continued. 



Miiller and 
Kempf 



Diflerence 


lleduction to 
Vacuum 


liowland 
— Angstrom 


X + 


1_ 


1-24 
0-84 






0-71 




8-4 

8-5 


0-90 


1-09 
1-08 




0-53 






0-68 






0-72 







Oscillntion 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



27740-8 
27741-7 
27743-6 
27749 
27752-2 
27771-3 
27774-8 
27776-2 
27778-3 
27786-3 
27790-8 
27797-6 
27800-0 
27802-0 
27804-7 
27810-2 
27818-7 
27819-9 
27823-7 
27824-8 
27826-5 
27830-2 
27835-2 
27837-9 
27840-4 
27845-0 
27848-7 
27849-9 
27852-5 
273540 
27856-3 
27863-2 
27865-7 
27867-3 
27869-2 
27872-9 
27875-8 
27879-0 
27882-1 
27882-9 
27884-9 
27887-2 
27895-3 
27897-6 
27902-9 
27906-4 
27909-3 
27911-0 
27914-2 
27933-8 
27936-2 
27939-8 
27948-7 
27954-8 
27959-7 



1891. 



210 



KEPORT — 1891. 
Irox (Arc Spectrum) — contimted. 



Kayser and 




Inteusity 


Kunge 


Cornu 


aud 


(liowland) 




Character 


?.575:57 




1 


3575-22 




1 


nu74-00 




6 


3573-52 




2 


3272-79 




1 


:!572-12 




fi 


:i571-34 




2 


3570-45 




4 


3570-23 


68-9 


10 


3569-GO 




1 


3509-09 




•> 


3568-94 




I 


35()8-53 




1 


3567-52 




1 


3567- 15 




2 


3566-70 




1 


3566-46 






3565-72 




I 


3565-50 


64-1 


10 


3564-61 




1 


3664-22 




1 


3560-81 




2 ' 


3559-62 




2 


3559-39 




1 : 


3559-18 




1 . 


3558-62 


58 1 


iS ; 


3556-99 


56-0 


S i 


3555-04 


54-0 


10 1 


3554-62 




1 1 


3554-24 




4 1 


3553-84 




4 i 


3553-58 




I 


3553-29 




1 1 


3552-95 




4 


3552-58 




1 


3552-24 




2 1 


t3549-97 




2 


3548-13 




2 


3547-89 




2 


3547-31 




2 I 


3546-29 




1 ■ 


3545-95 




1 


3545-74 




6 


3544-74 




2 


3543-78 




2 


3543-53 




1 


3542-37 




o 


3542-20 


41-5 


6 


3541-22 


40-1 


6 ( 


3540-82 


39-2 


2 


t3540-24 




2 


3538-87 




1 1 


3538-68 




1 1 


3538-48 




1 1 


3538-01 




4 1 



Miiller and 
Kempt' 



Ditference 
E^owland 
- Ansstrom 



1-33 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



1-40 



0-52 
0-99 
1-04 



0-70 
1-12 
1-62 



1-08 
1-07 



8-6 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



ON WAVE-LENGXir TABLES OF THE SPECTUA OF THE ELEMENTS. 211 



Iron" (Arc SFEcrytvii)—cpnfi7nted. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
I'tunge 


Cornu 


Intensity 
and 


1 MUllcr and 
i Kempf 


Difference 
Rowland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A.-1- 


1_ 
A. 


in Vacuo 


3537-84 




4 










28257-2 


3537-60 




2 










28259-2 


3536-65 


35-4 


(i 




1-25 






28266-7 


3535-01 




I 










28279-9 


3534-63 




1 










28282-9 


3533-30 




6 










28293-6 


353308 




4 










28295-3 


3532-71 




1 










28298-3 


3532-17 




1 










28302-6 


3531-90 




1 










28304-8 


3531-56 




1 










28307-5 


3530-48 




2 










28316-2 


3529-90 




4 










28320-8 


3529-63 




1 










28323-0 


3529-44 




1 










28324-5 


3527-90 


27-0 


6 




0-90 






28336-9 


3526-76 




4 










283460 


3526-51 


25-7 


(! 




0-81 






28348-0 


3526-25 




(i 










28350-1 


3526-08 




o 










28351-5 


3525-97 




1 










28352-4 


3524-62 




2 










28363-2 


3524-34 




2 










28365-5 


3524-15 




2 










28367-0 


3523-38 




1 










2S373-2 


3522-97 




1 










28376-5 


3522-37 




2 










28381-4 


3521-93 




2 










28384-9 


3521-36 


20-6 


8 




0-76 






28389-5 


3520-95 




1 










28392-8 


352014 




1 










28399-4 


351896 














28408-9 


3518-80 




1 










28410-2 


3517-19 




1 








8-6 


28423-2 


3516-66 




I 








8-7 


28427-4 


3516-50 




2 










28428-7 


3515-39 




1 










28437-6 


3515-15 




2 










28439-6 


3514-72 




1 










28443-1 


3513-91 


13-7 


8 t 




0-21 


1-07 




28449-6 


3513-15 




1 t 






1-06 




28455-8 


3513-05 




1 ! 










28456-6 


3512-78 




1 










28458-8 


3512-30 




1 










28462-7 


3511-80 




1 










28466-7 


3511-49 




1 










28469-2 


3510-76 




1 










28475-2 


3510-52 




4 










28477-1 


3510-43 




1 










28477-8 


3509-95 




2 










28481-7 


3509-23 




1 










28487-6 


3508-58 




4 










28492-9 


3507-23 




1 










28503-8 


3506-59 


05-8 


4 




0-79 






28509-0 


3506-39 




I 








1 


28510-7 



p 2 



212 



KEPOKT — 1891. 







Iron 


[Aec SFECTKVii)— continued. 
















Reduction to 


i 
i 


Kay8er and 




Intensity 


Miiller and 


Dltference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation i 
Frequency 


RuQge 


Cornii 


and 


Kempf 


Rowland 






(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


3505-15 










28520-7 


3504-95 




2 










28522-4 


3504-52 




1 










28525-9 


3502-35 




1 










28543-6 


3500-64 


01-8 


4 




-116 






28557-5 


3498-84 




1 










28572-2 


3497-92 


96-8 


t; 




112 






28578-7 


3497-20 


95-9 


6 




1-30 






28585-G 


3496-27 




1 










28593-2 


3496-96 




1 










28595-7 


3495-37 


94-5 


4 




0-87 






28600-6 


3494-7G 




1 










28605-6 


3494-24 




1 










28600-8 


3493-78 
3493-3/ 




2 










28613-6 




1 










28617 


3493-04 




2 










28619-7 


3492-68 




1 










28622-6 


3490-65 


91-9 


8 




-1-25 






28639-3 


3489-74 


89-8 


6 




-0-06 






28646-7 


3489-49 


88-9 


1 




0-59 






28648-S 


3486-63 


88-0 


1 




-1-37 






28672-3 


3485-42 


85-4 


4 




0-02 






28682-2 


3485-06 




1 










28685-2 


3484-92 




1 










28686-4 


3483-91 




1 










28694-7 


3483-09 




2 










28701-4 


3482-23 




1 










28708-5 


3481-87 




1 










28711-5 


3481-64 




1 








8-7 


28713-4 


3480-45 




1 








8-8 


28723-1 


3479-73 




1 










28729-1 


3478-69 




2 










28737-6 


3477-93 




2 






1-06 


28743-9 


3477-0» 




1 






1-05 




28750 8 


3476-93. 




4 










28752-2 


3476-75 


761 


S 




0-65 






28753-7 


3476-39 




I 










28756-7 


3476-17 




1 










28758-5 


3475-95 




1 










28760-3 


3475-7-i 




4 










28762-2 


3475-52 


71-0 


8 




0-62 






28763-9 


3474-51 




2 










28772-2 


3474-U 




1 










28775-3 1 


3473-78 




1 










28778-3 


3473-59 




1 










28779-9 


3473-3» 




1 










28781-5 1 


3472-61 




1 










28788-0 


3472-29 




In 










28790-6 


3472-06 




la 










28792-5 


3471-40 


70-4 


8 




1-00 






28798-0 


3470-78 




1 










28803-2 


3469-91 




4 










28810-4 


3469-70 




1 










28812-1 


3469-49 




1 










28813-9 


346909 




^ 










28817-2 



ON WAYE-LENGTII TABLES OF THE SPECTHA OF THE ELEMENTS. 213 
Ikon (Arc Sfectuvu}— continued. 









1 


! Keduction to 




lyser nnc: 


Conm 


Intensity 

and 
Charactei 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


DiflFerence 

P^owland 

—Angstrom 


1 Vacuum 


1 Oscillation 
1 Frof|iiency 
! in Vacuo 

1 


{owlanil) 


X + 


1 


!4G8-92 




4 








28818-6 


i46G-t)8 




2 








28834-7 


U66-57 




4 








28838-2 


U65fl5 


65'5 


10 




045 


i 


! 28843-3 


!464-98 




1 1 






i 


28851-4 


54641C 




1 In 






1 


28858-2 


J463-39 




i 1 






1 


28864-6 


!462-87 




1 1. 






; 


28869-0 


1462 43 




2 






1 


28872-6 


J461-3 




2 






1 


28878-5 


546115 




In 






1 


28883-3 


i460-40 




1 










28889-6 


.46002 


61-5 


6 




-1-48 






28892-8 


4o9-83 




1 










28894-3 


459-51 




2 






1 


28897-0 


458-55 




2 










28905-0 


458-39 


57-8 


4 




0-59 






28906-4 


457-53 




1 










28913-6 


457-] 5 




In 










28916-8 


456-32 




In 










28923-7 


455-41 




In 










28931-3 


454-26 




1 










28941-0 


453-60 




1 










28946-5 


45310 


53-2 


4 




-0-1 






28950-7 


452-35 




6 










28957-0 


451-99 




G 










28960-0 


451-71 




2 










28962-3 


450-41 




« 










28973-3 


447-37 


45 7 


6 




1-67 






28998-8 


44700 




I 










29001-9 


446-86 




1 










290031 


446-34 




2 










29007-5 


445-87 




la 










29011-4 


445-22 


44-4 


8 




0-82 




8-S 


29016-9 


443-96 


43-0 


10 




0-96 




8-;» 


29027-4 


443-30 




In 










29033-0 


443-03 




In 










29035-3 


442-75 


! 


2 










29037-6 


442-44 


40-8 


4 




1-64 






29040-3 


442-07 




1 






1-05 




29043-4 


141-07 


39-9 


10 




117 


1-04 




29051-8 


440-69 


39-6 


10 




1-09 






29055-0 


439-93 




2n 










29061-5 


139-09 




In 










29068-6 


13886 




la 










29074-7 


138-02 




2 










29077-6 


137-68 




la 










29080-5 


137-37 




In 










29083-1 


137-11 




2a 










29085-3 


136-06 




In 










29094-2 


133-64 




4 










29114-7 


133-09 




1 








1 


29119-4 


131-00 




4 








1 


2i> 129-5 


128-81 




In 










29155-7 


128-26 




6 










29160-4 



214 



REPOllT 1891. 

Iron (Arc S^ECTUVuy—continwd. 



Kayser and 




Intensity 


Runge 


Coruu 


and 


(Rowland) 




Character 


3427-21 


26-7 


S 


3426-71 




f, 


3426-44 


25-4 


(! 


3425-08 


24-8 


6 


3424-36 


22-8 


10 


3423-7!) 




1 


3422fi!t 


20-9 


10 


3419'7G 




4 


3419-25 




1 


3418-91 




1 


3418-58 


lG-0 


8 


3418-28 




1 


3417-92 


Ib'o 


8 


3417-30 




1 


3416-65 




1 


3416-30 




1 


3415-61 




G 


3414-83 




4 


3413-22 


11-8 


10 


3412-43 




\ 


3411-43 




4 


3411-22 




1 


3410-98 




1 


3410-26 




6 


3409-22 




2 


3408-52 




1 


3407-55 


06-1 


10 


3406-88 




G 


t3406-50 




2 


3405-89 




2 


3405-65 




1 


3405-45 




1 


3405-24 




1 


3404-75 




1 


3404-41 


o;t-i 


10 


3403-39 




2 


3402-33 




G 


3401-60 




fi 


3400-50 




1 


3399-39 


97-6 


10 


3398-29 




1 


3397-68 




2 


3397-05 




4 


339613 




1 


3394-65 




G 


339413 




2 


3393-72 




1 


3393-46 




1 


339307 




1 


3392-74 


91-0 


8 


3392-37 




4 


3392-12 




2 


3391-21 




1 


3390-61 




1 


3389-83 




2 



Miiller and 
Kempf 



Diflerence 
Rowland 
— Angstrom 



051 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



1-04 
0-28 
1-56 

1-79 



2-58 
2-42 



1-42 



1-45 



1-31 



1-79 



1-04 
103 



1-74 



9-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 215 







Iron 


(Arc STEC-niVM}—eontinuc(7. 












] Reduction to 




Kavser and Intensitj 


IVIiiller ciid 


nillerence 


i Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kungc Cornu 
(Kowland) 


I .-md 
Charactei 


Kempf 


■ i;owl;md 
— Angstrii]) 


: A+ 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuiu 


338901 


I 






1 




29498-1 


3388-84 


1 










29499-6 


3387-48 


4 










295115 


3385-58 


2 










29528-0 


3385-02 


1 










29532-9 


338405 


8 










29541-4 


3383-80 




4 










29543-6 


3382-48 




4 










29555-1 


3381-42 




2 










29564«4 


3380-62 




2 










29571-4 


3380-17 




8 










29575-3 


3379-11 




6 










29584-6 


3378-77 




6 










29587-6 


3378-06 




1 










29593-8 


3376-58 




2 










29606-8 


3375-64 




1 










29615-0 


3374-58 




1 










29624-3 


3374-01 




1 








9-0 


29629-3 


3372-90 




1 








9-1 


29639-0 


3372-18 




4 










29645-3 


3370-87 




10 










29656-8 


3369-62 




8 










29667-8 


3368-16 




1 






103 




29680-7 


3366-88 




6 






1-02 




29692-0 


3364-66 




1 










29711-6 


3364-34 




1 










29714-4 


3363-77 




1 










29719-4 


3363-63 




1 










29720-7 


3362-37 




1 










29731-8 


3362-09 




1 










29734-3 


336103 




1 










29743-7 


3359-84 




1 










29754-2 


3359-55 




1 










29756-8 


3358-41 




1 










29760-9 


3356-44 


j 


4 










29784-4 


3355-27 




6 










29794-8 


3354-16 




4 










29804-6 


3353-42 




1 










29811-2 


3353-10 




1 










298140 


3351-85 




4 










29825-2 


3351-65 




2 










29826-9 


3350-45 




1 










29837-6 


3348-03 




6 










29859-2 


3347-03 




2 










29868-1 


3345-12 




1 










29885-2 


3343-83 




1 










29896-7 


3343-29 




1 










29901-6 


3342-35 




6 










29910-0 


3342-01 




4 










299130 


334101 




1 










29922-0 


3340-64 




6 










29925-3 


3339-70 




2 










29933-7 


3339-24 




2 








9-1 


29937-8 


3338-70 




2 








9-2 


29942-0 


3337-73 


1 


6 










2995 l-;i ; 



216 



BEPORX 1891. 



iKox (Akc Spectrum) — co7ithiucd. 













Reduction to [ 


Kayscr luid 

Kun^e 
(Rowland) 


Cdi-nu 


Inten'ity 

and 
Cliarat-tcr 

2 


Mullev aud 
Keiiiiif 


Difference 

It^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Freq uen^y 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 
X 


333(i-30 










299041 


3335-85 




4 








1 29908-2 


3334-31 




2 






1-02 


i 29982-0 


3331-74 




4 






1-01 


I 30005-1 


3330-37 




] 










30017-5 


3329-04 




a 










30024-1 


3329-00 




8 










30029-8 


3327-CO 




1 










30042-5 


3325-50 




4 










30000-9 


3324-G2 




4 










30069-4 


3323-84 















30070-5 


3322-05 




2 










30087-3 


3320-8G 




2 










30103-5 


3320-30 




1 










30108-0 


3319-35 




4 










30117-2 


3317-24 




4 










30130-3 


3310-00 




1 










30142-2 


3315-75 




1 










30149-9 


3314-80 




8 










30158-0 


3314-00 




I 










30160-3 


3314-25 




1 










30163-5 


3313 98 




1 










301660 


3312-82 




1 










30176-6 


3312-40 




1 










301804 


3311-23 




1 










30191-1 


3310-53 















30197-4 


3308-89 




1 










30212-4 


3307-87 




1 










30221-7 


3307-33 


01-7 







2-03 






30220-7 


3307-10 




1 










30228-2 


3300-50 


04-1 


10 




2-40 






30234 3 


3300-09 


03-7 


10 




2-39 






30238-0 


3305-28 




1 










30245-4 


3304-45 




1 








9-2 


30253-0 


3303-09 




1 








9-3 


30259-9 


3302-87 




1 










30267-4 


330202 




1 










30275-2 


3301-35 




1 








1 30281-3 


3300-09 




I 








30287-4 


3299-01 




1 








' 30297-3 


3299-14 




1 








30301-0 


3298-77 




1 








30305 


3298 25 


90-0 


s 




2-25 




30309-8 


3290-91 




1 








1 30322-1 


3290-50 




1 








! 30325-3 


3295-94 




1 








! 303311 


3295-12 




1 






I-Ol 




30338-6 


3293-17 




1 






1-00 




30356-0 


3292-70 


90-8 


8 




1-90 






30360-9 


3292-13 


90-0 


8 




213 






30366-2 


3291-10 


89-3 


6 




1-80 






30375-7 


3290-80 




1 










30377-9 


3290-03 




1 










30385-6 


3289-51 




1 










30390-4 


3289-04 




1 










30394-7 i 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 
Iron (Akc Spectrum)— «m^irtMe<?. 



217 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 




Intensity 


JliiUer and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kunge 


Cormi 


and 


Kenipf 


Rowland 






Frequency 


(Rowland) 




Character 


—Angstrom 


A.+ 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


3288-77 




1 










30397-2 


3288-14 




1 










304030 


3:87-09 




2 










30412-7 


Q 3286-87 


84-8 


1 10 




2-07 






30414-8 


3286-11 


84-6 


1 




1-51 






30421-8 


3285-.')0 




2 










30427-5 


3285-33 




1 










304290 


3284-71 


83-4 


4 




1-31 






30436-2 


3283-64 




1 










30444-7 


328300 


82-7 


4 




30 






30450-6 


3282-40 




1 










3045(;-2 


3281-95 




1 










30460-4 


3281-40 




1 










30465-5 


3280-37 




8 










304751 


3279-87 




1 










30479-7 


3278-83 




2 










30489-4 


3277-42 




1 










30502-5 


3276-55 




2 










30510-6 


3275-84 




1 










30517-2 


327453 




I 










30529-4 


327405 


72-2 


8 




1-85 






30533-9 


3272-75 




I 










30546-0 


3271-75 




2 










30555-4 


3271-58 




2 










30567-0 


3271-12 


69-3 


8 




1-82 




9-3 


30561-3 


327008 




1 








9-4 


30570-9 


3269-40 




1 










30577-2 


3268-33 




4 










30587-3 


3265-73 


63-9 


8 




1-83 






30611-6 


3265-15 




4 










306171 


3264-80 




In 










30620-3 


3264-60 




4 










30622-2 


3263-46 




2 










30632-9 


3263-05 




1 










30636-8 


3262-40 




2 










30642-9 


3262-10 




1 










30645-7 


3261-41 




2 










30652-2 


3260-32 




2 










30662-4 


3260-09 




4 










30664-6 


325915 




1 






1-00 




30673-4 


3258-50 




1 






0-99 




30679-6 


3257-69 




6 










30687-2 


3257-33 




2 










30690-6 


3256-80 




1 










30695-6 


3256-20 




1 










30701-2 


3255-97 




1 










30703-4 


3254-79 




1 










30714-5 


3254-47 


52-4 


8 




2-(7 






30717-6 


3254-03 




1 










30721-7 


3253-70 




2 










30724-8 


325300 




2 










30731-4 


3252-55 




2 










30735-7 


325131 




6 










30747-4 


3350-75 




2 










30752-7 


3350 50 




1 










30755-1 1 



218 



BEPORT — 1891. 



Ieon (Abc SrECTKL'ii) — coniinued. 



KavBer and 




Intensity 


Kunge 


Cornu 


and 


(Kowland) 




Character 


3249-94 




1 


3249-27 




1 


3248 53 




1 


3248-31 


46-8 


6 


3247-70 


401 


4 


3247-39 




4 


3247-08 




2 


3246-55 




1 


3246 09 




4 


3245-59 




1 


3245-35 




1 


3244-97 




1 


3244-27 


42-8 


8 


3243-94 




1 


3243-50 




1 


3243-22 




1 


3242-35 




1 


3241-54 




1 


3240-59 




1 


3239-53 


38-9 

38-7 


8 


323907 


37-3 


1 


3238-60 




1 


3237-92 




1 


3237-43 




1 


3236-88 




2 


3236-31 


34-3 


4 


3235-66 




1 


3234-71 




2 


3234-07 


32-3 


6 


3233-14 




4 


3232-42 




1 


3231-72 




1 


3231-05 




6 


3230-80 




1 


3230-29 




4 


3230-01 




2 


3229-64 




1 


3229-19 




2 


3228-97 




2 


3228-64 




1 


3228-36 




4 


3228-11 




2 


3227-88 


26-5 


6 


3227-17 




2 


3226-80 




1 


3225-90 


24-4 


10 


3224-98 




1 


3224-27 




1 


3223-89 




1 


3223-31 




1 


3222-12 


21-0 


10 


3219-92 


18-7 


8 


3219-67 




8 


3218-60 




1 



Miiller anil 
Kempf 



r)iffcrence 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


I?owlantl 
-Angstrom 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


1-51 
1-00 






1-47 




1 

1 
1 

! 


0-63 






1-27 






2-01 




9-4 
9-5 


1-77 






1-38 


0-99 
0-98 


j 
i 


1-50 






1-12 

1-22 




i 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in V'acuo 



ON -WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF TTTE ELEMENTS. 219 







Iron 


(Arc Spectruj 


a) — continued. 












1 ' 


1 


Reduction to 


1 


Ka yser and 




Intensity 


Miillor .-mil 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Fi-e<nicncy 


Uunge 


Cornu 


and 


Kcmpf 


I Ijowland 






(Kowland) 




Charactci 


— AngstrOm 


X + 


1 

a"" 


in Vacuo 


3217-49 




8 




! 






31070-6 


321G-03 




8 




i 






31084-7 


3215-49 




1 










310900 


3214-48 




2 










31099-7 


3214-14 


12-2 


8 




1-94 






311030 


3213-43 




1 










31109-9 


3212-08 


10-8 


6 




1-28 






311230 


3211-77 


10-5 


2 




1-27 






311200 


3211-63 




2 










31127-3 


3210-92 


09-8 


4 




1-12 






31134-2 


3210-35 


09-3 


i 




1-05 






31139-7 


3209-45 




4 










31148-5 


3208-60 




4 










31156-7 


3207-22 




2 










31170-1 


3205-45 


04-3 


8 




1-15 






31187-4 


3204-15 




1 










31190-0 


3203-14 




1 








9-5 


31209-9 


3202-65 




2 








9-6 


31214-5 


3201-52 




1 










31225-G 


3200-81 




1 










31232-5 


3200-58 


99-7 


8 




0-88 






31234-7 


3199-G2 


98-8 


8 




0-82 






31244-1 


3198-38 




In 










31256-2 


3197-67 




In 










31263-2 


3197-04 


9C-3 


8 




0-74 


0-98 




31269-3 


3196-24 




2 






0-97 




31277-2 


3195-35 




1 










31285-9 


3194-73 




1 










31291-9 


3194-52 




1 










312940 


3193-92 




1 










31299-9 


3193-37 


92 7 


6 




0-67 






31305-3 


3192-93 


92-3 


6 




0-63 






3 J 309-6 


3192-66 




1 










31312-2 


3191-77 




6 










31321-0 


3191-22 




1 










3132G-4 


3190-80 




1 










31330-5 


319013 




1 










31337-1 


3188-96 




4 










31348-6 


3188-67 




4 










31351-4 


3188-14 




2 










3135G-6 


3187-70 




1 










31361-0 


3187-35 




2n 










31364-4 


3186-83 




2 










31369-5 


3185-72 




1 










31380-5 


3185-34 




1 










31384-2 


3185-00 




4 










31387-6 


3184-73 




1 










31390-2 


3184-24 




1 










31395-1 


3183-67 




1 










31400-7 


3183-11 




4 










31406-2 


3182-13 




2 










31415-9 


3181-97 




4 










31417-5 


3181-60 




4 










31421-1 


3180-85 




4 










31428-5 


K 3180-30 


79-8 


10 




0-50 






31434-0 



220 



REPORT 1891. 



Iron (Arc Spectrum) — contintted. 





i 




Reduction to 




Kayeer and 
Kunse 


Intensity jj-j^^^ ^^^^ 


Difference 
Bjswland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






1 Frequency 


(Kowlaod) 


— Angstrom 


A.4- 


l_ 
\ 


i iu Vacuo 


3179-61 


2 










31440-8 


3179 06 


1 










31446-2 


3178-64 


1 










31450-4 


3178-08 




6 










31455-9 


3177-64 




I 










314603 


317709 




1 










31465-7 


3176-44 




2 










31472-2 


3176-09 




1 










31475-7 


3175-53 




8 










31481-2 


3175-18 




1 










31484-7 


3173-75 




4 










31498-9 


3173-53 




1 










31501-1 


3172-14 




2 










31514-9 


3171-73 




1 










31518-9 


3171-44 




6 








9-6 


31521-8 


3170-43 




2 








9-7 


31531-8 


3168-94 




4 










31546-6 


3168-15 




1 










31554-5 


3167-97 




4 










31556-3 


3166-55 




6 










31570-4 


3165-97 




6 










31576-2 


3165-11 




4 










31584-8 


3164-40 




1 










31591-9 


3163-95 




2 










31596-4 


3162-45 




2 










31611-3 


316204 


60-9 


() 




1-14 






31615-4 


3161-44 




2 










31621-5 


3160-74 




8 










31628-5 


316037 




4 






0-97 




31632-2 


3159-20 




1 






0-96 




31643-9 


315908 




2 










31645-1 


3158-48 




1 










31651-1 


3157-99 


67-4 


6 




0-59 






31656 


3157-15 


56-7 


8 




0-45 


; 


31664-4 


3156-35 




4 








31672-5 


3155-89 




1 






1 


31677-1 


3155-37 




2 






1 


31682-3 


3154-61 




2 






1 
t 


31689-9 


3154-29 




1 






j 


316931 


3153-85 




1 






} 


31697-6 


3153 31 




6 






1 


31703-0 


3151-95 




1 






i 


31716-7 


3151-43 




8 






1 


317220 


315035 




2 : 






i 


31732-8 


3149-64 




1 








31740-0 


3148-47 




2 1 






1 


31751-8 


3148-31 




1 : 






I 


31753-4 


3147-84 




2 






i 


31758-1 


314770 




2 








1 


31759-5 


3147-40 




2 










31762-5 


3146-52 




1 










31771-4 


314513 




2 










317^5-5 


3) 44-61 


44-4 


4 


1 


0-21 






31790-7 


314406 


44-2 


6 


1 


-U-14 






31796-3 


3143-33 


1 


1 


1 






i 


31803-7 



ON 'WAYE-LENGTII TABLES OF THE SrECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 221 







Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 
















Reduction to 




Kayser and 
(Kowlaud) 


(.'orrii 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempt' 


Difference 

IJowland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency ! 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1 

K 


3142-97 


43-3 


4 




-0-33 






31807-3 


3142-54 


12-6 


6 




-0-06 






31811-7 


3140-47 




4 










31832-7 


3140-00 




4 










31837-4 


3139-76 




1 










318399 


3138-62 




2 










31851-4 


3137-84 




1 








9-7 


31859-4 


3136-8» 




1 








9-8 


31868-9 


3136-59 




4 










31872-0 


3135-76 




1 










31880-4 


3135-51 




2 










31882 9 


3134-21 




8 










31896-2 


3132-61 




6 










31912-5 


3129-45 




4 










31944-7 


3129-20 




2 










31947-2 


3129-05 




2 










31948-8 


3126-89 




1 










31970 8 


3126-25 




6 










31977-4 


3125-77 




8 










31982-3 


3125-00 




1 










31990-2 


3124-16 




1 










31998-8 


3123-43 




1 






0-96 




3200C-3 


3122-41 




2 






0-95 




32016-7 


3121-83 




1 










32022-7 


3120-95 




4 










32031-7 


3120-54 




4 










32035-9 


3120-41 




1 










32037-3 


3119-58 




6 










32045-8 


3117-69 




2 










32065-2 


311673 




8 










32075-1 


3116-47 




1 










32077-8 


3115-86 




1 










32084-1 


3113-70 




2 










32106-3 


3112-16 




4 










32122-2 


3111-90 




2 










32124-9 


3111-81 




2 










32125-8 


3110-97 




2 










32134-5 


3110-37 




4 










32140-7 


3109-73 




1 










32147-3 


3109-07 




1 










32154-2 


3108-07 




2 










32164-5 


3107-46 




1 










32170-8 


3106-59 




1 








9-8 


32179-8 


3105-69 




1 








9-9 


32189-1 


3104-34 




1 










32203-1 


3103-96 




1 










32207-1 


3102-96 




4 










32217-4 


3102-76 




6 










32219-5 


3102-23 




1 










32225-0 


3101-96 




1 










32227-8 


3101-63 




4 










32231-2 


3101-10 




1 










32236-7 


3100-97 




2 










32238 1 


3100-77 


99-8 


8 




0-97 






32240-1 


Sj3100-38 


99-5 


6 




0-88 






32244-2 



REPORT — 1891. 







Iron 


(Abc SFECTnvM)—contmved. 








i 








Reduction to 




Kavser and 
llunge 


Coi-nu 


Intensitj 
and 


Sliiller and 


Difterence 
Ilowland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 

A. 


iu Vacuo 


:5 100-04 


99-2 


10 




0-84 






32247-7 


309911 




1 










32257-4 


3098-25 




6 










32266-4 


:i097-70 




1 










32272-1 


3097-00 




1 










32279-4 


309G-12 




1 










32288-6 


3095-37 




2 










32296-4 


309iJ-03 




1 










32300-0 


3093-92 




6 










32311-6 


3093-45 




2 










32316-5 


3092-87 




1 










32322-5 


3091-67 


90-4 


8 




1-27 






32335-1 


3091-25 




1 










32339-5 


8090-31 




1 










32349-3 


3089-64 




1 










32356-3 


3088-93 




1 






0-95 




32363-8 


3088-25 




1 






0-94 




32370-9 


3087-49 




1 










32378-9 


308G-85 




la 










32385-6 


3085-78 




In 










32396-8 


3083-81 




10 










32417-5 


3083-22 




I 










32423-7 


3082-75 




1 










32428-7 


3082-27 




1 










32433-7 


3081-97 




1 










32436-9 


3081-26 




I 










32444-3 


3081-09 




1 










324461 


3080-11 


79-3 


4 




Q-81 






32456-5 


3079-81 




1 










32459-6 


3078-50 




4 










32473-5 


3078-10 




4 










32477-7 


3077-77 




2 










32481-2 


3077-32 




1 










32485-9 


3076-CO 




1 










32493-5 


3075-80 




10 










32502-0 


3074-53 




2 










32515-4 


3074-24 




2 










32618-5 


3074-08 




2 








9-0 


32520-1 


3073-28 




1 








10-0 


32528-5 


3072-28 




In 










32539-1 


3071-54 




la 










32547-0 


3070-33 




1 










32659-8 


3069-56 




In 










32568-0 


3068-89 




1 










325751 


3068-25 




4 










32581-9 


3068-06 




1 










32583-9 


3067-30 


65-5 


10 




1-80 






32594-8 


3066-55 




4 










32599-9 


3066-13 




1 










32604-4 


3065-40 




1 










32612-2 


3064-82 




1 










32618-3 


3064-01 




2 










32627-0 


3063-28 




1 










326347 


3062-96 




1 










32638-2 


3062-47 




1 










32643-4 



ON W.VVE-LENGTir TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 223 







Iron 


(Aiic ^i>Ecnivu)—cont'mv£d. 






, 








Kediiction to 




Kayser and 




Intensity 


Miilli^i- and l;>ifterence 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


llungc 


Cornu 


and 


Kemp" KoOwland 
ivcmpi -Angstrom 

1 






Frequency 


(Uowland) 




Chnractei 


X + 


1 
A. 


in Vacuo 


3062-29 




1 


1 : 
1 






32645-3 


;;061-89 




1 










32649-6 


3061-08 




4 










32G58-2 


;5060-63 




2 










326630 


3059-19 


57-3 


10 




1-89 






32678-4 


3057-55 




10 










32695-9 


3056-39 




2 










32708-6 


3055-82 




1 










32714-4 


3055-35 




G 










32719-5 


3054-45 




2 










32729-1 


3053-95 




1 










32734-5 


3053'53 




\in 










32739-0 


3053-15 




6 










32743-1 


3051-84 




1 










32757-1 


3050-90 




4 










32767-2 


3049-53 




2ii 










32781-9 


3048-61 




2n 






0-93 




32791-7 


s 3047-71 


46-5 


10 




1-21 






32801-5 


3047-15 




4n 










32807-5 


304702 




1 










32808-9 


3045-70 




2 










32823-2 


3045-16 




6 










328290 


3044-68 




2 










32834-2 


3043-36 




1 










32848-4 


3042-75 


41-5 


8 




1-25 






32855-0 


3042-13 


40-7 


6 




1-43 




10-0 


32861-7 


3041-83 


40-3 


8 




1-63 




101 


32864-8 


3041-08 




1 










32872-9 


3040-54 


39-2 


8 




1-34 






32878-8 


3040-07 




1 










32883-9 


3039-44 




2 










32890-7 


3039-19 




In 










32893-4 


3038-47 




1 










32901-2 


3037-80 




2 










32908-6 


3037-54 


3G-2 


(I 




1-34 






32011-3 


3037-37 




« 










329131 


3035-86 




2n 










32929-5 


3034-63 




2ri 










32942-8 


3034-26 




2 










32946-9 


3033-45 




1 










32955-7 


3033-20 




2 










32958-4 


3031-74 




6 










32974-3 


3031-31 


29-8 


6 




1-51 






32978-9 


3030-75 




1 










32985-0 


3030-24 


28-7 


8 




1-54 






32990-6 


3029-33 




4 










33000-5 


3026-57 


25-3 


8 




1-27 






33030-6 


3026-00 




4 










33036-8 


3025-75 


24-6 


C 




115 






33039-6 


3025-39 




L' 










33043-5 


3024-13 


22-7 


8 




1-43 






33057-3 


3022-89 




] 










33070-8 


J3021-15 
^\3020-70 


19-9 


S 




1-25 






33089-9 


19-4 


10 




1-30 






33094-8 


3019-31 


1 


2 










33110-0 



224 



REPORT — 1891. 



IROX (Aec Specttivm')— continued. 



Kayscr and 


1 


Intensity 


KuDJiO 


Cornii 


and 1 


(Rowland) 




Charactei- 


301908 


17-7 


8 


301823 




1 


3017-72 


16-5 


8 


301i;-29 


150 


6 


301(;04 




4 


301501 




1 


3014-27 




2 


3012-51) 




2 


301207 




1 


3011-57 




6 


3010-28 




1 


3009-6(; 


08-4 


10 


3009-18 




4 


3008-23 


07-3 


10 


3007-30 


06-3 


10 


3005-40 




4 


3004-73 




1 


3004-20 




2 


3003-74 




1 


3003-14 


027 





3002-74 


02-4 


4 


3002-58 




1 


300218 




1 


3001-80 




1 


300105 


00-2 


8 


3000-56 




6 


2999-Gl 


990 


lOn 


2998-61 




1 


2997-51 




1 


2996-49 




G 


2995-96 




1 


2995-41 




1 


t 2994-54 


94-4 


10 


2992-63 




1 


2992-34 




1 


2991-78 




6n 


2990-48 




6 


2989-43 




1 


2989-00 




1 


2988-58 




2 


2987-82 




1 


2987-40 


87-1 


8 


2986-72 




1 


2986-54 




2 


2985-65 




6 


2984-92 


84-1 


8 


2983 68 


82-0 


10 


2982-94 




1 


2982-78 




1 


2982-31 




1 


2981-95 




6 


2981-54 


79-7 


8 


2980-62 




6 


2979-98 




1 


2979-44 




1 



MUller and 
Keiupf 



i Difference | 
I J^owland , 
— Anffstrom 



l-3f 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



1-22 
1-29 



10-1 
10-2 



0-93 
0-92 



1-26 



0-93 
1-00 



0-44 
0-34 



0-85 



0-(U 



014 



10-2 
10-3 



0-30 



0-82 
1-68 



1-84 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 225 
Iron (Arc Spectrum)— cowiiwwe^f. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Kunge 


Cornn 


Intensity 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 
Rowland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Uowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


2978-16 




1 










33567-5 


2976 91 




1 










33581-6 


2976-66 




1 










33584-4 


2976-22 


76-8 


6 




-0-5S 


0-92 




33589-4 


2974-86 




1 






0-91 




33604-7 


2973-41 


73-8 


8 




-0-39 




10-3 


33621-1 


297317 




8 








10-4 


33623-7 


2972-36 




4 










33632-9 


2971-89 




1 










33638-2 


2970-60 




4 










33652-8 


297020 


70-7 


10 




-0-5 






33657-4 


2969-52 


70-0 


10 




-0-48 






83665-1 


2968-95 




1 










33G71-5 


2968-58 




4 










33675-7 


2966-99 


67-4' 


10 




-0-41 






33693-8 


2966-31 




2 










33701-5 


2965-92 




4 










33705-9 


2965-35 


65-6 


8 




-0-25 






33712-4 


2965-12 




4 










3a715-0 


2964-72 




2 










33719-6 


2964-30 




2 










33724-4 


2963-77 




In 










33730-4 


2962-67 




1 










33742-9 


2962-20 




2 










33748-3 


2961-74 




1 










33753-5 


2961-30 




4 










33758-5 


2960-75 














33764-8 


2960-64 




1 










33766-1 


2960-39 




4 










33768-9 


296007 


60-5 


8 




-0-43 






33772-6 


2959-76 




2 










33776-1 


2959-44 




1 










33779-8 


2958-55 




1 










33789-9 


2958-04 




In 










33795-8 


2957-57 




6 










33801-1 


2957-48 


57-4 


6 




0-08 






33802-2 


2957-38 




6 










33803-3 


2956-94 




2n 










33808-3 


2955-76 




1 










33821-8 


2954-39 




In 










33837-5 


2954-13 




6 










33840-5 


2953-99 




4 










33841-9 


2953-86 


53-8 


6 




0-06 






33843-6 


2953-59 




6 










33846-7 


2952-65 




In 










33857-5 


2951-69 




In 








10-4 


33868-5 


2950-34 


50-5 


8n 




-0-16 




10-5 


33883-9 


2949-83 




1 










33889-8 


2949-28 




6 










33896-1 


2949-07 




1 










33898-5 


2948-79 




2 










33901-7 


2948-52 




6 










33904-8 


U 2948-00 


47-8 


8 




0-20 






33910-8 


2947-77 




8 










33913-4 


2947-45 




4 










33917-1 I 



1891. 



226 



REPORT — 1891. 
Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Runge 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 
R^owland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


2947-26 




1 










33919-3 


2946-54 




1 










33927-6 


2945-79 




2n 










33936-2 


2945-20 


44-6 


4q 




0-60 






33943-0 


2944-49 


440 


6 




0-49 






33951-2 


2943-73 


43-1 


2 




0-63 






33960-0 


2942-79 




1 










33970-8 


2941-93 




1 










33980-8 


2941-42 


40-8 


8 




0-62 






33986-7 


2940-68 


39-9 


4n 




0-78 






33995-2 


2939-39 


38-7 


4 




0-69 






34010-2 


2939-15 




2 










34012-9 


2937-90 


37-3 


8u 




0-60 






34027-4 


2936-99 


36-4 


10 




0-59 






34038-0 


2936-18 




4 










34047-4 


2934-45 




1 










34067-4 


2934-04 




1 






0-91 




34072-2 


293314 


32-4 


4 




0-74 


0-90 




34082-6 


2932-06 




1 










34095-2 


2931-92 


*31-1 


1 




0-S2 






34096-8 


2931-55 




2 










34101-1 


2931-18 




1 










34105-4 


2930-72 




1 










34110-8 


2930-49 




1 










34113-5 


2929-67 




4 










34123-0 


2929-20 ; 


28-3 


8 




0-90 






34128-5 


2929-04 -■ 




2 








10-5 


34130-4 


2928-83 




4 








10-6 


34132-7 


2928-20 




2 










34140-1 


2928-02 




1 










34142-2 


2927-66 




4 










34146-4 


2927 08 




1 










34153-1 


2926-65 ' 


26-0 


8 




0-65 






34158-2 


2925-96 I 


25-2 


6 




0-76 






34166-2 


2925-43 ; 


24-7 


6 




0-73 






34172-4 


2924-66 ; 




In 










34181-4 


2923-94 , 


23-2 


6 




0-74 






34189-8 


2923-39 


22-8 


8ii 




0-59 






34196-3 


2922-81 ■ 




In 










34203-0 


2922-46 


*21-5 


2 




0-96 






34207-1 


2921-86 i 




1 










34214-2 


2921-19 




In 










34222-0 


2920-76 


20-0 


6 




0-76 






34227-1 


2920-41 




1 










34231-2 


2919-95 




4 










34236-6 


2919-31 




1 










342441 


2919-11 




1 










34246-4 


2918-42 




4 










34254-5 


2918-11 


17-4 


8 




0-71 






34258-2 


2917-58 




1 










34264-4 


2916-20 ' 




In 










34280-6 


2914-34 : 


13-6 


6 




0-74 






34302-5 


2913-70 




In 










34310-0 



Those marked with an asterisk (*) were observed only in the Spark-spectrum. 



ON AVAVE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 



lEON (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayper and 
Rungc 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


ten,«ity 
and 


MUIler and 
Kempf 


Difterence 
Rowland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequencj' 






(Rowland) 




aracter 


— Angstrom 


A + 


1_ 
A. 


in Vacuo 


2912-20 


n-5 


10 




0-76 






34327-0 


2911-01 


*10-5 


4 




0-51 






34341-7 


2909-91 




1 










34354-7 


2909-0- 


OS -9 







067 






34358-7 


2909-3.S 




1 










34361-0 


2908-97 


08-2 


6 




0-77 






34365-8 


2907-94 




1 










34378-0 


2907-59 


07-1 


G 




0-49 




10-6 


34382-1 


2906-70 




1 








10-7 


34392-6 


2906-53 


05 8 


4 




0-73 






34394-6 


2906-23 




1 










34398-1 


2905-60 




1 










34405-6 


2905-46 




2 










34407-3 


2904-66 




1 










34416-7 


2904-22 


035 


4n 




0-72 






34421-9 


2903-53 




1 










34430-2 


2902-55 




1 










34441-8 


2902-02 


01-3 


8a 




72 






34448-0 


2901-46 


00-8 


G 




0-66 






34454-7 


2899-49 


98-9 


8 




0-59 






34478-1 


2898-93 




2 










34484-8 


2898-74 




1 










344870 


2898-52 


97-3 


6a 




0-72 






34489-7 


2897-69 




I 










34499-5 


2897-33 


*96-7 


1 




0-63 






34503-8 


2897-14 




1 










34506-1 


2890-63 




1 










34512-2 


2895-11 


94-5 


8 




0-61 






34530-3 


2894-59 


f-40 


8 




0-59 






34536-5 


2893-97 


93-2 


4 




0-77 






34543-9 


2893-86 




2 










34545-2 


2893-47 




1 










34549-9 


2893-17 




1 










34553-5 


2892-89 




1 










34556-8 


2892-50 


92-0 


6 




0-56 


0-90 




34560-7 


2891-98 


91-2 


2 




0-78 


0-89 




34507-7 


2891-82 




2 










34569-6 


2891-49 




1 










34573-5 


2890-99 




2 










34579-3 


2890-53 




lu 










34585 


2890-12 




2 










34589-9 


2889-96 


89-2 


4 




0-76 






34591-9 


2889-66 




1 










34595-4 


2888-01 


''■■87-6 


1 




0-41 






34615-2 


2887-88 


87-3 


6 




0-58 






34616-8 


2887-43 




1 










34622-2 


2887-22 




1 










34624-7 


2886-38 


85-8 


6 




0-C8 






34634-8 


2885-46 




2 










34(;45-8 


2884-45 




la 










34657-9 


2883-80 


83-3 


6 




0-50 






34665-8 


2882-99 




1 










34675-5 


2881-65 




LO 










34091-6 


2880-84 


80-4 


(! 




0-44 






34701-4 


2880-67 




2 










34703-4 



Q 2 



228 



EEPORT — 1891. 
Ieon (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Run?e 


Liveine; and 
Dewar 


Intensity 
and 


Midler and 
Ktmpf 


Difference 
E/iwland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1_ 


(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


\ + 


in Vacuo 


2879-60 




1 










34716-3 


2879-01 




1 










34723-5 


2878-84 


78-2 


4 




0-64 






34725-5 


2878-75 




1 










34726-6 


2877-95 




1 










34736-2 


2877-37 


76-8 


8 




0-57 




10-7 


34743-3 


2876 80 


76-4 


2 




0-40 




10-8 


347500 


2870-24 




In 










34756-8 


2875-78 




1 










34762-4 


2875-35 


74-9 


2 




0-45 






34767-6 


2874-98 




4 










34772-0 


2874-24 


73-6 


8 




0-64 






34781-0 


2873-74 


73-0 


2 




0-74 






34787-1 


2873-48 




2 










34790-2 


2872-93 




1 










34796-9 


2872-54 




1 










34801-6 


2872-38 


72-0 


8 




0-38 






34803-5 


2871-83 




1 










34809-6 


2871-39 


*70-7 


1 




0-69 






34815-5 


2871-16 




1 










34818-3 


2870-37 




1 










34827-9 


2869-93 




2 










34833-3 


2869-38 


690 


8 




0-38 






34839-9 


2868-94 




2 










34845-3 


2868-50 


G80 


4 




0-50 






34850-6 


2868-33 




2n 










34852-7 


2867-94 




1 










34857-4 


2867-G3 


G7-1 


4 




0-53 






34861-2 


2867-37 




4 










34864-4 


2867-09 


*66-5 


1 




0-59 






34867-8 


2866-68 


66-2 


8 




0-48 






34872-8 


2865-90 




1 










34882-3 


2865-43 


*64-7 


In 




0-73 






34888-0 


2863-92 


63-r, 


8 




0-32 






34906-4 


2863-46 


631 


10 




0-36 






349120 


2962-56 . 


62-4 


6 




0-16 






349230 


2862-00 




1 










31929-8 


2861-48 


*60-C) 


1 




0-58 






34936-1 


2861-29 




1 










34938-5 


2860 50 




4 










34948-1 


2859-48 




1 










34960-6 


2858-96 


58-3 


G 




0-66 






34966-9 


2858-41 


*57-9 


4 




0-51 






34973-7 


2858-13 




2 










34977-1 


2857-88 




2 










34980-2 


2857-29 


*56-7 


1 




0-59 






34987-4 


2857-09 




1 










34989-8 


2856-19 




1 






0-89 




35000-9 


2855-75 


*55-3 


2 




0-45 


-0-88 




35006-3 


2853-81 




10 










35030-1 


2853-02 




1 










35039-8 


2852-19 















35050-0 


2851-85 




10 










35054-1 


2851-58 




2 










35057-5 


2850-69 




6 










35068-4 



<3N WAVE-LEXGTII TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 229 



Iron (Akc Spectrum) — continued. 



j 










Reduction to 




Kavf er and 


Livcins and 


Intensity 


Milllei- and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


itunge 


Dc\v;ll- 


and 


Kempf 


Ivowland. 




Freqnency 


(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


1 


in Vacuo 


2849-91 


*49-3 


1 




001 






35078-0 


2849-67 




1 










35081-0 


2848-77 


48-2 


8 




0-57 






35092-1 


2848-13 


48-0 


2 




0-13 




10-8 


351O0-0 


2847-72 




In 








10-9 


35104-9 


284G-87 


46-5 


6 




0-37 






35115-4 


2845-75 




2 










35129-2 


2845-03 


45-3 


8 




0-33 






35130 7 


2844-04 


436 


10 




0-44 






35150-3 


2843-69 


43-1 


8 




0-59 






35154-7 


2843-30 




2 










35159-5 


2842-96 




2 










35163-7 


2842-46 




1 










35169-9 


2842-06 




In 










35174-8 


2841-72 




In 










35179-1 


2841-32 




In 










351840 


2840-99 




4 










35188-1 


2840-73 




2 










35191-3 


2840-50 


40-3 







0-20 






35194-2 


2840-06 


39-6 


10 




0-46 






35199-6 


2839-66 




1 










35204-6 


2838-51 




2n 










35218-8 


283819 


37-7 


8 




0-49 






35222-8 


2836-45 




In 










35244-4 


2836-02 




4 










35249-8 


2835-76 




2 










352530 


2835-51 


*35-2 


« 


031 






35256-1 


2834-81 




4 










35264-8 


2834-48 




1 










35268-9 


2834-22 




1 










35272-2 


2834-07 




1 










35274-0 


283395 


32-S 


In 




1-15 






35275-5 


2833-47 


32-4 


2 




1-07 






35281-5 


2832-47 


31-8 


10 




0-67 






35294-0 


2831-04 




4 










35311-8 


2830-85 




1 










35314-2 


2830-55 




In 










35317-9 


2829-58 




In 










35330-0 


2828-87 


28-3 


6 




()-57 






35338-9 


2828-70 




1 










35341 -Oj 


2828-44 




In 










35344-3 


2827-98 


27-3 


4 




a68 






35350-0 


2827-68 


*270 


2n 




0-68 






35353-8 


2827-20 




In 










35359-8 


2826-88 




In 








10-9 


35363-8 


2826-56 




4 








110 


35367-7 


282607 




2 










35373-8 


2825-75 




6 










35377-8 


2825-60 


251 


8 




0-50 






35379-7 


2824-73 




2 










35390-6 


2824-42 


23-9 


6 




0-52; 






35394-5 


2823-32 


22-9 


8 




0-42 






35408-3 


2821-95 




1 










35425-5 


2821-69 




1 










35428-7 


2621-33 




1 










35433-3 



230 



BEPORT — 1891. 
Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to | 


Kayser and 

Runge 
(Rowland) 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 
E^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


OsciHation 


A + 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


2821-09 




1 










35436-3 


2820-86 


20-4 


2 




0-46 






35439-2 


2820-35 




In 






0-88 




35445-6 


2819-51 




2 






0-87 




35156-1 


2819 35 


19 


6 




0-35 






35458-2 


2818-28 




1 










35471-6 


2817-98 




1 










35475-4 


281755 


17-0 


8 




0-55 






35480-8 


2816-74 




In 










35491-0 


2815-58 


15-1 


6 




0-48 






35505-7 


2815-14 




2 










35511-2 


2813-67 


*)3-4 


2 




0-27 






35529-8 


2813-36 


12 8 


10 




0-56 






35533-7 


2812-60 


*12-2 


1 




0-40 






35543-3 


2812-36 




1 










35546-3 


2812-09 


11-7 


4 




0-39 






35549-7 


2811-23 


*10-9 


In 




0-33 






35560-6 


2810-94 




In 










35564-3 


2810-37 


09-7 


In 




0-67 






35571-5 


2808-73 




1 










35592-3 


2808-37 


07-9 


G 




0-17 






35596-8 


2808-03 




1 










35601-2 


2807-32 




2 










35610-2 


2807-03 


06-7 


10 




0-33 






35613-8 


2806-53 




In 










35620-2 


2806-13 




2 








110 


35625-3 


2805-87 


*05-4 


2 




0-47 




11-1 


35628-5 


2804-92 




4 










35640-5 


2804-56 


04-2 


10 




0-36 






35645-1 


2804-13 


*03-8 


In 




0-33 






35650-6 


2803-68 


03-2 


6 




0-48 






35656-3 


2803-20 




2 










35662-4 


2802-76 


01-8 


4 




0-96 






35668-0 


2801-15 


00-8 


8 




0-35 






35688-5 


2800-73 


00-1 


In 




0-63 






35693-9 


2800-31 


994 


1 




0-91 






35699-2 


2799-87 




1 










35704-8 


2799-34 




1 










35711-6 


2799-21 


98-8 


4 




0-41 






35713-3 


2798-64 




1 










25720-5 


2798-31 


97-9 


8 




0-41 






35724-7 


2797-82 


97-4 


8 




0-42 






35731-0 


2796-91 


*96-3 


2 




0-61 






35742-6 


2796-38 




In 










35749-4 


2795-90 




1 










35755-6 


2795-58 




8 










35759-7 


2795-00 


94-5 


10 




0-50 






35767-1 


2794-77 




6 










357700 


2794-21 




1 










35777-2 


2793-97 


*93 3 


2 




0-67 






35780-3 


2792-89 




1 










35794-1 


2792-44 


92-2 


6 




0-24 






35799-9 


2791-84 


91-5 


6 




0-34 






35807-6 


2791-51 




6 










35811-8 


2791-00 


*90-3 


1 




0-70 






35818-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 231 
Iron (Arc Spectrum)— co«<i»t?<e<f. 











Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Runge 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity j^jj^^ „„^ 

.,, """l, ! Kempf 
Character ' 


Difference 
B^owland 


Vacuum 


OscUlation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 


2789-87 


89-5 


8 




0-37 




11-1 


35832-9 


2789-54 




4 








11-2 


35837-0 


2788-19 


jss-o 


10 




0-12 






35854-4 


2788-05 


10 










35856-2 


2787-16 




1 










35867-6 


2786-84 




4 










35871-7 


2786-26 




1 










35879-2 


2785-25 




1 










35892-2 


2785-11 




1 










35894-0 


2784-40 


84-2 


4 




0-20 






35903-2 


2784-07 




2 






0-87 




35907-4 


2783-75 


*83-4 


8 




0-35 


0-86 




35911-6 


2782-12 




1 










35932-6 


2781-89 


81-6 


8 




0-29 






35935-6 


2780-93 




1 










35948-0 


2780-77 




4 










35950-1 


2780-61 




1 










35952-1 


2780-28 




4 










35956-4 


2779-85 




4n 










35962-0 


2779-34 


78-9 


6 




0-44 






35968-6 


2778-89 


78-3 


6 




0-59 






35974-4 


2778-64 




1 










35977-6 


2778-29 


77-9 


8 




0-39 






35981-2 


2778-15 


*77-7 


G 




0-45 






35984-0 


2776-86 


•-'^76-1 


1 




0-76 






36000-7 


2776-47 




2n 










36005-7 


2775-92 




1 










36012-9 


2775-11 




1 










36023-4 


2774-76 


74-5 


8 




0-26 






36028-0 


2774-47 




1 










36031-7 


2774-21 




1 










36035-1 


2773-96 




2 










36038-3 


2773-28 


73-1 


8 




0-18 






36047-2 


2772-89 




2 










36052-3 


2772-56 




4 










36056-5 


2772-40 




2 










36058-6 


2772-15 


71-9 


8 




0-25 






36061-9 


2771-94 




1 










36064-6 


2771-30 


711 


1 




0-20 






36072-9 


2770-75 


70-3 


4 




0-45 






36080-1 


2770-57 




1 










36082-4 


2770-06 




1 










36089-1 


2769-73 


69-4 


4 




0-33 






36093-4 


2769-37 


691 


6 




0-27 






36098-1 


2768-98 


68-8 


4 




0-18 






36103-2 


2768-52 




2n 










36109-2 


2768-19 




2n 










36113-5 


2767-56 


67-2 


10 




0-36 






36121-7 


2766-99 


66-8 


6 




0-19 






361291 


2766-75 




2 










36132-3 


2766-45 














36136-2 


2766-07 














36141-2 


2765-73 


*65-3 






0-43 






36145-6 


2765-30 


*64-7 






0-60 






36151-2 


2765-13 












11-2 


36153-5 



232 



EEPOET 1891. 

Ieon (Arc Specteum) — continued. 













Keduction to 




Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


MuUer and 
Kempf 


Difference 

B^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


2764-80 




1 








11-3 


36157-7 


2764-41 


64-0 


8 




0-41 






36162-8 


2763-17 


63-0 


6 




017 






36179-0 


2762-82 


*62-4 


6 




0-42 






36183-6 


2762-62 




1 










36187-5 


2762-12 


61-9 


8 




0-22 






36192-8 


2761-83 


61-7 


8 




0-13 






36196-6 


2761-57 




1 










36200-0 


2761-30 




1 










36203-5 


2760-96 




6 










36208-0 


2760-71 




1 










36211-3 


2760-42 




1 










362151 


2760-20 




1 










362180 


2759-86 


59-7 


8 




010 






36222-4 


2759-42 




1 










36228-2 


2759-02 




1 










36233-6 


2758-20 




1 










36244-2 


2757-91 




6 










36248-0 


2757-38 


57-2 


8 




0-18 






36255-0 


2757-09 


*56-9 


1 




0-19 






36258-8 


2756-85 




1 










36262-0 


2756-36 


56-2 


. 8 




0-16 






36268-4 


2755-77 


55-5 


10 




0-27 






36276-2 


2755-25 




4 










362830 


275501 




2 










36286-2 


2754-72 




1 










36290-0 


2754-48 


54-3 


6 




0-18 






36293-2 


2754-09 


53-9 


6 




0-19 






36298-3 


2753-74 


53-5 


6 




0-24 






36302-9 


2753-37 


53-0 


6 




0-37 






36307-8 


275319 




2 










36310-2 


2752-20 




1 










36323-3 


2752-89 




4 










36327-4 


2751-44 


*50-8 


2 




0-64 






36333-3 


2751-20 




1 










36336-5 


2750-95 


50-6 


8 




0-35 






36339-8 


2750-82 




1 










86341-5 


2750-21 


49-8 


10 




0-41 






36349-6 


2749-58 




6 










36357-9 


2749-42 


49-0 


6 




0-42 






36360-0 


2749-23 




6 










36362-5 


2748-49 




1 










36372-3 


2748-25 




1 










36375-5 


2747-64 




6 










36383-6 


2747-03 


46-6 


10 




0-43 






36391-6 


2746-54 


46-1 


10 




0-44 






36398-1 


2745-87 




2 






0-86 




36407-0 


2745-52 




1 






0-85 




36411-7 


2745-13 




6 










36416-8 


2744-60 


44-2 


8 




0-40 




11-3 


36423-9 


2744-12 


43-7 


8 




0-42 




11-4 


36430-3 


2743-63 


43-3 


6 




0-33 






36436-7 


2743-2; 


42-8 


10 




0-43 






36442-0 


2742-45 


42-0 


10 




0-45 






36452-3 


2742-11 




4 










36456-9 



ox WAYE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 233 
lEON (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 

kunge 
(Kowland) 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

E^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


1 
A. 


2741-65 


*41-1 


2 




0-55 






36463-0 


274148 




1 










36465-2 


2741-20 




4 










36469-0 


2740-42 




In 










36479-4 


2739-59 


39-1 


10 




0-49 






3G490-4 


2738-92 




1 










36499-3 


2738-55 




2 










36504-3 


2738-28 




4 










36507-9 


2737-93 




4 










36512-5 


2737-72 




2 










36515-3 


2737-37 


36-9 


8 




0-47 






36520-0 


2737-02 


36-5 


8 




0-52 






36524-6 


2736-61 




1 










36330-2 


2736-31 




1 










36534-2 


2735-71 




G 










36542-2 


2735-61 




G 










36543-5 


2735-51 


35-0 


6 




0-51 






36544-9 


2734-98 




o 










36551-9 


2734-70 




2 










36555-7 


2734-39 


33-9 


8 




0-49 






36559-8 


273407 


33-7 


4 




0-37 






36564-1 


2733-65 


33-1 


10 




0-55 






36569-7 


2732-88 


*32-5 


1 




0-38 






36580-0 


2732-53 




1 










36584-7 


2731-93 


*31-5 


In 




0-43 






36592-8 


2731-37 




2 










36600-3 


2731-04 




4 










36604-7 


2730-79 


30-2 


8 




0-59 






36608-0 


2730-16 




1 










36616-5 


2729-45 


*29-l 


1 




0-35 






36626-0 


2729-02 




1 










36631-8 


2728-90 


28-3 


G 




0-60 






36633-4 


2728-45 




1 










36639-4 


. 2728-11 


27-5 


6 




0-61 






36644-0 


2727-61 


27-1 


8 




0-51 






36650-7 


2727-48 




1 










36652-5 


2726-90 




In 










36G60-3 


2726-20 


25-5 


10 




0-70 






36669-7 


2725-92 




1 










36673-5 


2725-68 




2 










36676-7 


2725-37 




4 










36680-9 


2724-97 


24-3 


8 




0-67 






36686-2 


2724-78 




2 










36688-8 


2724-42 




1 










36693-7 


2723-66 


23-1 


10 




0-56 






36703-9 


2723-08 




1 








11-4 


36711-7 


2722-10 




2 








11-5 


36724-8 


2720-99 


20-3 


10 




0-69 






36739-8 


2720-28 


19-7 


6 




0-58 






36749-4 


2719-51 




G 










36759-8 


2719-11 


18-5 


10 




0-61 






36765-2 


2718-51 


18-0 


8 




0-51 






36773-4 


2717-84 


17-4 


4 




0-44 






36782-4 


2717-43 




2 










36788-0 


2716-52 




1 










36800-3 



234 



KEPORT — 1891. 



Ieon (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 


Liveing and 


Intensity 


Muller and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kunge 


Dewar 


and 


Kempf 


Kp-wland 






Frequency 


(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


2716-31 


15-7 


4n 




0-61 






36803-1 


2715-38 


14-9 


In 




0-48 






36815-8 


2715-24 




1 








36817-7 


2714-93 


14-4 


4 




0-53 






36821-9 


2714-48 


13-8 


10 




0-68 






36828-0 


2714-15 


13-5 


4 




0-65 






36832-4 


2713-64 




1 










36839-4 


2712-42 


*ll-9 


2 




0-52 






36855-9 


2711-92 


*ll-5 


2 




0-42 






36862-7 


2711-71 


11-2 


6 




0-51 






36865-6 


2711-02 




1 










36875-0 


2710-61 


101 


6 




0-51 






36880-6 


2710-08 


09-7 


2n 




0-38 






36887-8 


2709-74 




1 










36892-4 


2709-47 




1 










36896-1 


2709-13 


*08-7 


2 




0-43 






36900-7 


2708-64 


08-1 


10 




0-54 


0-84 




36907-4 


2708-00 




1 






0-83 




36916-1 


2707-57 


06-7 


2 




0-87 






36922-0 


270713 




1 










36928-0 


2706-63 


06-0 


8 




0-63 






36934-8 


270607 


05-6 


6 




0-47 






36942-5 


2705-61 




1 










36948-7 


2705-30 




In 










36953-0 


2704-80 




In 










36959-8 


2704-06 


*03-6 


6 




0-46 






36969-9 


2702-83 


02-6 


In 




0-23 






36986-8 


2702-52 




4 










36991-0 


2701-99 


01-2 


4 




0-79 






36998-3 


2701-08 




In 








11-5 


37010-7 


2699-93 




In 








11-6 


37026-4 


2699-18 


98-6 


8 




0-58 






37036-7 


2698-68 




1 










37043-5 


2698-23 


97-7 


In 




0-53 






37049-7 


2697-58 


*970 


1 




0-58 






37058-7 


2697-08 


96-6 


8 




0-48 






37065-5 


2696-41 


95 9 


8n 




0-51 






37074-7 


2696-12 


95-6 


6n 




0-52 






37078-7 


2695-64 


950 


4n 




0-64 






37085-3 


269512 


94-4 


4 




0-72 






37092-5 


2694-63 


940 


4n 




0-63 






37099-2 


2694-37 


*93-4 


1 




0-97 






37102-8 


2692-91 




2 










37122-9 


2692-71 


92-1 


4 




0-61 






37125-7 


2692-31 


91-7 


2 




0-61 






37131-2 


2691-80 


*91-2 


1 




0-60 






37138-3 


2691-46 


90-9 


1 




0-56 






371430 


2690-80 




In 










371521 


269012 


89-5 


6 




0-62 






37161-5 


2689-92 


89-3 


6 




0-62 






37164-2 


2689-71 




4n 










37167-1 


2689-28 


88-8 


8 




0-48 






37173-1 


2687-91 


87-3 


2n 




0-61 






37192-0 


2687-59 


86-8 


In 




0-79 






37196-5 


2686-82 


86-0 


2n 




0-82 






37207-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEME>iTS. 235 







Iron (Aec SPKCTRVVL)—ccntinued. 
















Eeduction to | 


Kayser and 


Liveing anc 


Intensity 


Miiller and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


0,-cillation 


Kuneie 
(Rowland) 


Dewar 


and 
Characte 


Kempf 


Ep-wland 
— Angstrom 


A + 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


2686-77 




In 










37221-7 


2085-19 




1 










37229-7 


2684-86 


84-2 


4 




0-66 






37234-3 


2084-10 


83-5 


4n 




0-60 






37244-8 


2G82-28 


81-5 


2ii 




0-78 






37270-1 


2681-62 


80-8 


4n 




0-82 






37279-3 


2680-99 


*80-4 


1 




0-59 






37288-1 


2680-53 


79-9 


6 




0-63 






37294-5 


2680-26 




2 










37298-2 


2679-97 




1 








n-6 


37302-2 


2679-14 


78-5 


10 




0-64 




11-7 


37313-7 


2678-25 


77-2 


In 




105 






37326-1 


2677-30 




1 










37339-4 


2676-97 


*76-l 


2 




0-87 






37344-0 


2676-56 




1 










37349-7 


2676-21 


75-1 


In 




1-11 






37354-6 


2676-37 


74-6 


4n 




0-77 






37366-3 


2674-74 




2 










37375-] 


2674-32 




1 






0-84 




37381-0 


2673-28 


72-4 


6 




0-88 


0-83 




37395-5 


2672 30 


71-8 


In 




0-50 






37409-2 


2671-49 


*70-8 


1 




0-69 






37420-6 


2670-86 




I 










37429-4 


2670-59 


69-9 


1 




0-69 






37433-2 


2670-00 


*69-2 


1 




0-80 






37441-5 


2669-55 


68-7 


8 




0-85 






37447-8 


2669-00 


*68-5 


1 




0-50 






37455-5 


2668-84 




In 










37457-8 


2668-30 




1 










37465-3 


2667-97 


67-2 


6 




0-77 






37470-0 


2667-72 




1 










37473-5 


2667-36 




1 










37478-5 


2667-05 




6 










37482-9 


2666-94 


66-1 


8 




0-84 






37484-4 


2666-72 




4 










37487-5 


2666-43 


65-7 


8 




0-73 






37491-6 


2663-87 


64-2 


1 




0-67 






37499-5 


2665-15 


64-0 


1 




1-15 






37509-6 


2664-74 


63-5 


8 




1-24 






37515-4 


266416 




4n 










37523-6 


2663-28 


*62-2 


In 




1-08 






3753G-0 


2662-42 




2 










37548-1 


2662-13 


61-6 


8 




0-53 






37552-2 


2661-57 




1 










37560-1 


2661-31 


60-8 i 


8 




0-51 






37563-8 


2660-48 




6 










37575-5 


2659-26 




In 










37592-7 


2658-48 


57-8 


2 




0-68 




11-7 


37603-8 


2656-85 


56-4 


6 




0-45 




11-8 


37626-7 


2656-22 


55-7 


8 




0-52 






37635-7 


265517 


*54-4 


1 




0-77 






37650-6 


2653-40 




2 










37661-5 


2653-87 


*53-3 


1 




0-57 






37669-0 


2652-53 


*52-2 


1 




0-33 






37688-1 


2651-78 


50-9 


6 




0-88 






37698-7 



236 



KBPORT 1891. 

lEON (Aeg S-pECTRV M^—contimied. 













Reduction to 




Kayser nnd 
(Rowland) 


jiveins and 
Dewar 


[ntensity 

and 
Character 


Miiller and 
Keuipf 


Difference 

R^owland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1 
A 


2651-27 


50-4 


4 




0-87 






37706-0 


2648-57 




4 










87744-4 


2648-29 




1 










37748-4 


2647-64 


47-3 


H 




0-34 






37757-7 


2646-40 


45-2 


I 




1-20 






37775-4 


2645-52 


44-9 


6 




0-62 






37787-9 


2644-07 


43-8 


10 




0-27 






37808-7 


2641-74 


41-4 


8 




0-34 






37842-0 


2641-13 


*40-7 


2 




0-43 






37850-8 


264035 




1 










37862-0 


2639-60 


*39-2 


1 


0-40 




11-8 


37872-7 


2637-69 


36-6 


1 


1-09 


0-83 


11-9 


379001 


2636-54 


36-1 


4 




0-44 


0-82 




37916-6 


2635-87 


35-5 


8 




0-37 






37926-2 


2635-00 




In 










37938-8 


2633-68 


*32-9 


1 




0-78 






37957-8 


263309 




1 










37966-3 


2632-66 


32-3 


2 




0-36 






27972-5 


2632-30 


32-0 


4 




0-30 






37977-7 


2631-72 




2 










37986-1 


2631-37 


31-0 


10 




0-37 






37991-1 


2631-07 


30-7 


10 




0-37 






37995-4 


2630-13 


29-7 


2 




0-43 






38009-0 


2629-66 


29-2 


1 




0-46 






38015-8 


2629-28 




1 










38021-3 


2628-35 


27-9 


10 




0-45 






38034-8 


2627-18 


26-8 


2 




0-38 






38051-7 


2626-52 


26-2 


1 




0-32 






38061-3 


2625-72 


25-2 


10 




0-52 






38072-9 


2624-84 




1 










38085-7 


2624-21 


23-6 


2 




0-61 






38094-8 


2623-58 


23-1 


10 




0-48 






38104-0 


262200 




1 










38126-9 


2621-72 


21-2 


8 




0-52 






38131-0 


2620-73 


*20-4 


1 




0-33 






38145-4 


262047 


19-9 


6 




0-57 




11-9 


38149-2 


2619-06 


*18-6 


1 




0-46 




12-0 


38169-6 


2618-78 


18-3 


4 




0-48 






38173-7 


2618-47 




1 










38178-2 


2618-10 


17-6 


4 




0-50 






38183-6 


2617-71 


17-2 


C 




0-51 






38189-3 


2617-25 




2 










38196-0 


2616-50 




1 










38207-0 


2615-94 




1 










38215-2 


2615-50 


150 


6 




0-50 






38221-6 


2614-62 


14-0 


4 




0-62 






38234-5: 


2614-27 




1 










38239-6] 


2613-01 


13-3 


8 




61 






38244-9 


2613-33 




2 










38253-4 


2612-96 


12-3 


4 




0-66 






38258-8 


2611-94 


11-4 


10 




0-54 






38273-7 


2611-16 


10-7 


2 




0-46 






38285-1 


2610-87 


10-3 


1 




0-57 






38289-4 


2609-79 


09-1 


In 




0-69 






38305-3 


2609-30 


08-7 


1 




0-60 






38312-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TUE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 237 
Iron (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 













Eeduction to 




Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 


Liveing anc 


Intensity 


Miiller and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Do war 


and 
Charactei 


Kempf 


Kj)wland 
— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


2608-65 


08-2 


4n 




0-45 






38322-0 


260716 


06-7 


8 




0-46 






38343-9 


2606-92 


06-5 


4 




0-42 






38347-4 


2606-36 


*06-l 


2 




0-26 






38355-7 


2005-77 


05-3 


8 




0-47 






38364-4 


2604-90 


04-4 


6 




0-50 






38377-2 


2603-71 


03-5 


4 




0-21 




12-0 


38394-7 


2600-25 


99-7 


4 




0-55 


0-82 


121 


38445-7 


2599-53 


989 


10 




0-63 


0-81 




38456-4 


2598-95 




1 










38465-0 


2598-44 


97-8 


10 




0-64 






38472-5 


2596-60 


90-0 


2n 




0-60 






38499-8 


i 2595-41 


95-2 


1 




0-21 






38517-5 


2594-20 


93-5 


6 




0-70 






38535-4 


2593-75 


93-1 


6 




0-65 






38542-1 


2592-90 


*92-2 


4 




0-70 






38554-8 


2592-35 


91-7 


2 




0-65 






38562-9 


2591-65 


91-0 


8 




0-65 






38573-4 


2591-34 




4 










38578-0 


2590-65 


*900 


1 




0-65 






38588-3 


2588-96 


*8S-2 


1 




0-76 






38613-4 


2588-11 


87-5 


10 




0-61 






38626-1 


2586-50 




1 










38649-3 


2585-93 


85-4 


10 




0-53 






38658-7 


2584-59 


84-0 


8 




0-59 






38678-8 


2582-50 


82-0 
81-7 


10 




0-50 




12-1 
12-2 


38710-1 


2581-57 


80-9 


2 




0-67 






38723-9 


2581-05 


80-3 


1 




0-75 






38731-7 


2580-52 


79-9 


2 




0-62 






38739-7 


2579-92 


79-5 
79-3 


6 




0-42 






38748-7 


2579-35 


78-7 


4 




0-65 






38757-3 


2578-86 


78-3 


1 




0-56 






38764-6 


2578-01 


77-4 


10 




0-61 






38777-4 


2577-41 


*76-5 


1 




0-91 






38786-4 


2576-76 


70-2 


8 




0-56 






38796-2 


2576-20 


75-7 


6 




0-50 






38804-7 


2575-83 


75-3 
74-8 


10 




0-53 






38810-2 


2574-43 


740 


6 




0-43 






38831-3 


2573-84 




1 










38840-3 


2573-23 


*72-8 


1 




0-43 






38849-5 


2572-82 


72-5 


6 




0-32 






38855-7 


2571-67 


*71-2 


4 




0-47 






38873-0 


2570-92 


*70-6 


1 




0-32 






38884-4 


2570-56 . 


70-1 


8 




0-46 






38889-8 


2569-73 


69-4 


6 




0-33 






38902-4 


2568-97 


680 


4 




0-37 






38913-9 


2568-49 


*68-l 


2 




0-39 






38921-2 


2567-93 




4 










38929-7 


2566-99 


66-7 


8 




0-29 






38933-9 


2565-55 


65-1 


2 




0-45 






38965-8 


2564-63 


64-2 


4 




0-43 


0-81 




38979-8 


2563 99 




1 






0-80 




38989-5 



238 



REPOET 1891. 



Iron (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Runge 


Liveinc 
Dew 


and Intensity 
ar and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 
B^owland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




1 


(Rowland) 




Character 




— Angstrom 


A.+ 


in Vacuo 


2563-53 


63: 


J 10 




0-33 




12-2 


38996-5 


2562-63 


62-. 


5 10 




33 




12-3 


39010-1 


2562-35 


61-' 


) 4 




0-45 






39014-4 


2561-87 


61- 


> 4 




0-37 






39021-7 


2561-33 


60- 


) 4 




0-43 






39029-9 


2560-65 


60- 


i 6 




0-35 






39040-3 


2560-43 


60{ 


1 4 




0-43 






39043-6 


2551)-91 


*59- 


3 2 




0-31 






39051-6 


2559-25 


*58- 


) 1 




0-35 






39061-6 


2558-GO 


58- 


i 4 




0-30 






39071-6 


2557-42 


*57- 


2 1 


0-22 






390!)0-4 


2556-92 


66- 


5 6 




0-32 






39097-2 


2556-38 


56- 


3 6 




0-38 






39105-5 


2555-59 


*55- 


2 4 




0-39 






39117-6 


2555-37 


54- 


3 4 


0-47 






39121-0 


2555-04 


*54- 


^1*1 


0-24 






39126-0 


255400 


*53- 


11 0-60 




391420 


2553-32 


52- 


^ 1 8 1 0-52 1 




39152-4 


2552-74 


52- 


5 4 0-44 






39161-3 


2551-19 


50 


? 1 8 ' 0-39 






39185-1 


2550-75 


50- 


5 2n 


0-45 






39191-8 


2550-07 


49- 


r 2ii 


0-37 






39202-3 


2549-63 


49- 


i 8 


0-43 






39209-1 


2548-76 


*i8-i 


^ 6 1 


0-36 






39222-5 


254817 


47 


i 2 


0-37 






39231-5 


2547-0!) 


46- 


J 8 


0-46 






39248-6 


2546-26 


45- 


3 8 


0-46 






39261-0 


2545-95 


*44- 


) 2 


1-05 




12-3 


39265-8 


2544-83 


44- 


> 8n 


0-33 




12-4 


39283-0 


2544-02 


43- 


r 6 


0-32 






39295-5 


2543-47 


43- 


1 4 


0-47 






39304-0 


2542-85 


*42- 


1 1 


0-45 






39313-5 


2542-20 


41- 


7 \ 8 




0-50 






39323-6 


2541-18 


40- 


5 6 




0-38 






39339-4 


2540-90 


-^40- 


I 4 




0-50 






39343-7 


2540-00 




1 










39357-7 


2539-48 


39- 


\ 2 




0-38 






39365-7 


2538-98 


38- 


3 10 




0-38 






39373-5 


2537-21 


36- 


J 10 




0-31 






39401-0 


2536-90 


36- 


i 8 




0-30 






39405-8 


2585-67 


35- 


I 6 




0-47 






39424-9 


2535-25 




4 










39431-4 


2534-52 


34- 


I 4 




0-32 






39442-8 


2.")33-8fi 


33- 


4 10 




0-46 






39453-1 


2533-26 


32- 


5 2 


0-66 






39462-4 


2532-H8 


32- 


1 1 i 


0-58 






39466-8 


2532-37 


32- 


^ ' 6 1 


0-37 






39476-3 


2531-62 


31- 


1 1 1 


0-52 






39488-0 


2530-79 


30- 


4 , 8 1 


0-37 






39500-9 


253003 


29- 


k 4 


0-43 






39512-8 


2529-65 


*29- 


i 4 


0-45 






39518-8 


2529-40 


28- 


? 1 8n 


0-50 






39522-7 


2529-03 




. 1 . 4 








39528-4 


2528-57 


28- 


I i 6 


0-47 






39535-6 




27- 


» 1 













ON AVAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TUE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 239 
lEON (Arc Specteum) — cmvtinued. 



Kayser and 

Kunge 
(Rowland) 



Liveinc: and 
Dewar 



2527-67 
2527-30 
2520-30 
2525-48 
252511 
2524-52 
2524-32 
2523 76 
2523-19 
2522-93 
2522-67 
2521-97 
2521-09 
2519-71 
2519-30 
2518-93 
2518-25 
2517-76 
2517-25 
2516-65 
2516-19 
2514-84 
2514-38 
2513-94 



2513-33 


13-2 


2512-38 


12-2 




12-0 


2511-84 


11-6 


2511-41 


11-4 


2511-05 \ 
2510-87 / 


10-6 


25C9-43 


*08-8 


2508-78 


08-5 


2507-99 


07-6 


2507-49 




2506-98 


06-6 


2506-70 


06-2 


2500-25 


*05-8 


2505-64 


05-2 


2505-09 


04-9 


2503-89 


*03-6 


2503-50 


03-0 


2502-53 


02-1 


2501-87 


01-4 


2501-00 


00-9 


2498-96 


98-7 


2498-37 




2497-88 


97-5 


2497-15 




2496-60 


96-3 


2496-01 


95-6 


2495-35 




2494-30 


93-9 


2494-10 


93-7 


2493-34 


92-9 



27-1 
*26-7 
26-0 
25-1 
24-7 
23-9 

23-3 



22-5 
21-5 

20-8 
19-3 
18-8 
18-5 
17-8 
17-4 
16-8 
16-3 
15-8 
14-3 
14-1 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



10 
6 
6 
2 



In 

6 

6 



10 
2 
6 
6 
6 
8 
1 
1 
4 

10 







Reduction to 




Miiller and 


Difference 
E^owland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kempf 






Frequency 




— Angstrom 


A.+ 


1 


in Vacuo 




0-57 






39549-7 




0-60 


0-80 


12-4 


39555-5 




0-30 


0-79 


12-5 


39571-1 




0-38 






39583-9 




0-41 






39589-7 




0-62 






39599-0 
39602-1 




0-46 






39610-9 
39619-9 
39623-9 




0-17 






39628-0 




0-47 






39639-0 




0-29 






39652-9 




0-41 






39674-6 




0-50 






39681-1 




0-43 


< 




39686-9 




0-45 






39697-6 




0-36 






39705-3 




0-45 






39713-4 




0-35 






39722-9 




0-39 






39730-1 




0-54 






39751-5 




0-28 






39758-7 
39765-7 




0-13 






39775-4 




0-18 






39790-4 




0-24 






39799-0 




0-01 






39805-8 




0-36 






f39811-5 
\ 39814-3 




0-63 




12-5 


39837-2 




0-28 




12-6 


39847-4 




0-39 






39860-0 
39867-9 




0-38 






39876-0 




0-50 






39880-5 




0-45 






39887-6 




0-44 






39897-4 




0-19 






39906-1 




0-29 






39925-3 




0-50 






39931-5 




0-43 






399470 




0-47 






39957-5 




0-10 






39971-4 




0-26 






40004-0 
40013-5 




0-38 






40021-3 
40033-0 




0-30 






40041-9 




0-41 






40051-3 
40061-9 




0-40 




40078-8 




0-40 




40082-0 




0:44 i 


1 




40094-2 



240 



EEPORT 1891. 



Iron (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 

iiunge 
(Rowland) 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


[ntensity 
and 

Character 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

Rowland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1 


2i92-72 




1 










40104-2 


249212 


92-0 


4 




012 






40113-9 


2491-50 


91-0 


6 




0-50 






40123-9 


2490-98 


90-5 


6 




0-48 




12-6 


40132-2 


249050 




4 






0-70 


12-7 


40139-9 


249001 


89-5 


4 




0-51 


0-78 




40147-8 


2489-63 


*89-2 


4 




0-43 






40153-9 


2489-04 


88-7 


6 




0-34 






40163-4 


2488-23 


87-7 


10 




0-53 






40176-5 


2487-44 


87-1 


1 




0-34 






40189-3 


2487-18 


86-8 


2 




0-38 






40193-5 


248G-77 


86-4 


2 




0-37 






40200-1 


2486-42 


86-1 


2 




0-32 






40205-8 


2486-04 


85-7 


2 




0-34 






40211-9 


2485-47 




1 










40221-1 


2485-21 


84-7 


1 




0-51 






40225-3 


2484-35 


83-7 


8 




0-65 






40239-3 


2483-34 


82-9 


10 




0-44 






40255-6 


2482-16 


81-8 


4 




0-36 






40274-8 


2481-11 


*80-7 


1 




0-41 






40291-8 


2480-25 


80-0 


6 




0-25 






40305 8 


2480-01 




6 










40309-7 


2479-64 


79-5 
79-2 


10 




014 






40315-7 


2478-67 


78-3 


2 




0-37 






40331-5 


2478-22 


*77-9 


1 




0-32 






40338-8 


2477-41 


*771 


1 




0-31 






40352-0 


2476-77 


765 


8 




0-27 






40362-5 


2476-40 


75-8 


1 




0-60 






40368-5 


2474-88 


74-5 


8 




0-38 






40393-3 


2473-30 


*72-9 


1 




0-40 






40419-1 


2473-15 


72-7 


6 




0-45 




12-7 


40421-6 


2472-83 


72-4 


6 




0-43 




12-8 


40426-7 


2472-40 


71-9 


6 




0-50 






40433-7 


2471-05 


70-5 


4 




0-55 






40455-8 


2470-78 


*70-3 


4 




0-48 






40460-2 


2470-01 




1 










40472-9 


2469-60 


*69-0 


1 




0-GO 






40479-6 


2468-97 


68-4 


8 




0-57 






40489-9 


2468-41 


*67-8 


1 




0-61 






40499-1 


2467-80 


67-2 


6n 




0-60 






40509-1 


2466-81 


66-4 


en 




0-41 






40525-4 


2466-02 


*65-4 


2 




0-62 






40538-4 


2465-23 


64-7 


8 




0-53 






40551-4 


2465-05 


*fi4-5 


1 




0-55 






405543 


2464-09 


*63-7 


1 




0-39 






40570-1 


2463-86 


63-4 


4 




0-46 






40573-9 


2463-39 


62-8 


2 




0-59 






40581-7 


2462 81 


62-3 


6 




0-51 






40591-2] 


2462-60 




4 










40594-7 


2462-30 


61-9 


4 




0-40 






40599-6 


2461-89 


*61-4 


4 




0-49 






40606-4 


2461-28 


610 
60-8 


8 




0-28 






40616-5 


2460-37 


60-2 


6 




0-17 






40631-5 



ON WATK-LE.NGTII TABLES OF TUE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 241 
IHON (Aec Spectrum) — continncd. 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
kunge 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intensity 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempt' 


Difference 
IJowland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 


— Angstrom 


X + 


1 
A 


ia "Vacuo 


2459-53 




1 










406454 


2458-78 


58-5 
58-2 


8 




0-28 






40657-8 


2457-68 


57-4 


8 




0-28 






40676-0 


2456-67 


*56-4 


2a 




0-27 






40692-7 


2456-14 


56-0 


2 




014 




12-8 


40701-5 


2455-66 


55-3 


4a 




0-36 




12-9 


40709-3 


2454-55 


*54-3 


2q 




0-25 


0-78 




40727-8 


2453-57 


53-2 


8 




0-37 


0-77 




40744-0 


2452-67 • 


523 


2a 




0-37 






40759-0 


2452-29 


51-8 


] 




0-49 






40765-3 


2451-80 


51-3 


2 




0-50 






40773-5 


2451-55 


51-0 


2 




0-55 






40777-6 


2451-28 


50-7 


2 




0-58 






40782-1 


2450-56 


500 


2 




0-56 






40794-1 


2449-93 


*49-fi 


1 




0-33 






40804-6 


2448-88 


48-5 


la 




0-38 






40822-1 


2448-50 


48-1 


2 




0-40 






40828-4 


2447-81 


47-5 


8 




0-31 






40839-9 


2447-25 


*47-l 


1 




0-15 






40849-3 


2446-53 


4(;-3 


2 




0-23 






40861-3 


2446-30 


*45-9 


1 




0-40 






40865-2 


2445-68 


45-4 


4 




0-28 






40875-5 


2445-23 


44-9 


2 




0-33 






40883-0 


2444-58 


44-3 


6 




0-28 






40893-9 


2443-94 


43-7 


6 




0-24 






40904-6 


2442-68 


42-3 


10 




0-38 






40925-7 


2441-73 


41-5 


2 




0-23 






40941-7 


2440-25 


39-8 


8 




0-45 






409G6-5 


2439-82 


39-4 


8 




0-42 






40973-7 


2439-36 


*:i9-o 


« 




0-36 




12-9 


40981-5 


2438-27 


37-9 


fi 




0-37 




130 


40999-7 


2437-33 


*3(i-9 


la 




0-43 






41015-5 


2436-45 


36-0 


8 




0-45 






41030-3 


2435-93 


35-6 


4 




0-33 






41039-1 


2435-04 


34-7 


6 




0-34 






41054-1 


2434-86 


34 3 


4 




0-56 




41057-1 1 




33-9 














2433-54 


■►33-2 


1 




0-34 






41079-4 


2432-97 


*32-5 


2 




0-47 






410890 


2432-34 


31-8 


4 




0-54 






41099-7 


2431-38 


30-7 


4 




0-68 






41115-9 


2431-08 


30-5 


8 




0-58 






41121-0 


2430-16 


29-7 


6 




0-46 






4113G-5 


2429-53 


290 


8 




0-53 




13-0 


41147-2 


2429-00 


28-5 


1 




0-50 




131 


41156-1 


242841 


*27-9 


4 




0-51 






41166-1 


2427-11 


*27-0 


1 




o-ii 






41188-2 


2426-46 


25-4 


In 




0-06 






41199-2 


2425-68 


250 


In 




0-68 






41212-5 


242504 


*24-3 


1 




0-74 






41223-3 


2424-22 


23-8 


8 




0-42 






41237-3 


2423-25 


22-9 


2 




0-35 






41253-8 


2422-73 


224 


1 




0-33 






412G2-6 


2421-79 


21-3 


8 




0-49 






41278-7 



1891. 



242 



BBPOET — 1891. 
Iron (Aeo Spectrum) — conti 













Keduction to 




Kayser and 


Liveing and 
Dewar 


Intenisity 

and 
Character 


IMuller and 
Kempf 


Difference 

liowland 

— Angstrom 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Runge 
(Rowland) 


A + 


1 

A 


2421-02 


20-7 


1 




0-32 






41291-8 


2420-39 


20-0 


1 




0-39 






41302-6 


2419-80 


19-4 


1 




0-40 






41312-6 


2419-49 


18-9 


4n 




0-59 






41317-9 


2419-17 


18-2 


4 




0-97 






41323-4 


2417-94 


17-5 


4n 




0-44 






41344-4 


2117-58 


17-1 


2 




0-48 


0-77 




41350-6 


241C-68 


16-3 


1 




0-38 


0-76 




41366-0 


2416-00 


15-4 


2n 




0-60 






41377-6 


2415-29 


14-8 


1 




0-49 




13-1 


41389-8 


2414-50 


13-8 


1 




0-70 




13-2 


41403-2 


2413-37 


13-0 


10 




0-37 






41422-6 


2112-45 




1 










41438-3 


2111-79 


11-4 


In 




0-39 






41449-8 


241116 


10-7 


10 




0-46 






41460-6 


2410-56 


10-2 


10 




0-36 






41470-9 


2408-13 


07-6 


2 




0-53 






41512-8 


2407-66 


07-3 
06-9 


2n 




0-36 






41520-9 


2406-72 


06-3 


10 




0-42 






41537-1 


240502 


04-5 


10 




0-52 






41566-5 


2404-48 


04-2 


8 




0-28 






41575-8 


2402-67 


02-3 


4 




0-37 






41607-2 


2402-23 


01-9 


1 




0-33 






41614-8 


2401-60 


01-1 


2 




0-20 






41625-7 


2401-25 


01-0 


1 




0-25 






41631-8 


2400-39 


00-0 


2 




0-39 






41646-7 


2399-31 


99-0 


10 




0-31 






41665-4 


2398-29 


98-0 


1 




0-29 






41683-2 


2395-62 


9.V4 

95-2 


10 




0-22 




13-2 


41729-6 


2394-33 


941 

92-8 


1 




0-23 




13-3 


41752-0 


2392-70 


92-4 


1 




0-30 






41780-5 


2391-53 


91-3 


6 




0-23 






41800-9 


2390-03 


89-9 


4 




0-13 






41822-4 


2388-71 


88-4 


8 




031 






41850-3 


2388-42 


*S8-0 


In 




042 






41855-4 


238603 


87-2 
85-8 


1 




0-23 






41897-3 


2385-07 


84-8 


4 




0-27 






41914-2 


2384-48 


84-2 


6 




0-28 






41924-6 


2383-24 


83-0 

82-7 


8 




0-24 






41946-4 


238215 


81-7 


10 




0-45 






41965-6 


238082 


80-5 


G 




0-32 


0-76 




41989-0 


2379-38 


790 


8 




0-38 


0-75 


13-3 


42014-5 


2378-03 


77-6 


2 




0-43 




13-4 


42038-2 


2377-33 


76-9 


2 




0-43 




; 42050-6 


2376-54 


76-2 


1 




0-34 






42064-6 


2375-90 




1 










42075-9 


2375-30 


74-9 


8 




0-40 






42086-5 


2374-59 
2373-79 


74-1 
73-4 


2 
10 




0-49 
0-39 






42099-1 
42113-3 


2372-65 


72-7 


1 




0-05 






42133-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 243 
Ikon (Aec Spectrum) — coiitmued. 













Reduction to 




Kavser and 
Runge 


Living anc 
Dewar 


Inteoisity 
and 


Miiller and 
Kempf 


Difference 
R^owland 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Charactei 


— Angstrom 


A + 


1 
A 


in Vacuo 


2371-51 


71-1 


4 




0-41 






42153-8 


237056 


70-1 


6 




0-46 






42170-7 


2369-55 


69-1 


2 




0-45 






42188-7 


2868-66 


68-2 


8 




0-46 






42204-6 


2366-66 


66-2 


6 




0-46 






42240-2 


2365-61 


65-1 


1 




0-51 






42259-0 


2364-88 


64-4 


10 




0-48 






42272-0 


2363-81 


63-5 


1 




0-31 




13-4 


42291-2 


2362-11 


*61-6 
60-3 


8 




0-51 




13-5 


42321-5 


2360-37 


59-9 


8 




0-47 






42352-7 


2360-OG 


59-7 
59-2 


8 




0-30 






42358-3 


2359-16 


58-7 
55-6 


6 




0-46 






42374-5 


2355-37 


551 


1 




0-27 






42142-7 


2354-93 


53-6 
541 
51-5 


6 




0-33 






42450-6 


2351-22 


50-9 


2 




0-32 






42517-6 


2350-50 


49-9 


1 




60 






42530-6 


2349-91 


49-5 


4 




0-41 




13-5 


42541-3 


2348-28 


48-0 
47-8 
45-9 


10 




0-28 




13-6 


42570-8 


2345-29 


44-7 


2 




0-59 






426250 


2344-37 


43-9 


6 




0-47 






32641-8 


2344 09 


43-6 


6 




0-49 


0-75 




42646-9 


2343-52 


431 


6 




0-42 


0-74 




42657-3 


2341-69 


41-2 


In 




0-49 






426110-6 


2340-30 


40-0 


2n 




0-30 






42716-0 


2339-62 


39-3 
39-0 


2n 




0-32 






42728-4 


2338-08 


37-7 
34-8 


8 




0-38 






42756-5 


2334-83 


34-5 
34-2 
33-1 


4 




0-33 




13-6 
13-7 


42816-1 


2332-87 


32-5 


10 




0-37 






42852-0 


2331-38 


30-9 


8 




0-48 






42879-3 


2329-67 


29-3 


In 




0-37 






42910-8 


2327-40 


26-9 


8 




0-50 






42952-7 


2321-48 




1 










43062-3 


2320-42 


19-9 
19-6 
19-2 


6 




0-52 




13-7 


43081-9 


2318-23 


17-7 
17-5 


4 




0-53 




13-8 


43122-6 


2317-32 


16-7 


4 




0-62 






43139-5 


2314-10 


13-6 


1 




0-50 






43199-5 


2313-17 


12-7 


6 




47 






43216-9 


2312-40 


12-0 
11-6 
11-0 
10-6 


1 




0-40 






43231-3 



244 



EEPOKT— 1891 
Iron Arc Spectrum — (continued). 











Reduction to 




Kayser and 

Runge 
(Kowland) 


Liveing and 
Dcwar 


Intensity Miillpr nnd 


Difference 
E^owland 

— Angstrom 


"Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


and 
Character 


Kemp 


\ + 


1_ 




09-3 














230903 


08-6 


6 




0-45 


0-74 




43294-0 


2306-35 


06-0 
05-8 


4 




0-35 


0-73 




43344-7 


2304-83 


04-4 
03-4 


2 




0-42 




13-8 
13-9 


43373-5 


2303-53 


03-2 


6 




0-32 






43397-9 


2301-75 


01-4 
01-0 


4 




0-35 






43431-3 


2300-70 


00-4 


I 




0-30 






43451-1 


2300-20 


00-0 
99-2 


2 




0-20 






43460-6 


2299-30 


99-0 
98-6 


4 




0-30 






43477-6 


2298-34 


98-0 


6 




•24 






43497-7 


2297-85 


97-G 


6 




0-25 






43505-0 


2297-04 


96-8 


4 




0-24 






43520-4 


2296-23 




1 










43535-7 


2294-45 


94-2 


2 




0-25 






43569-5 


2293-90 


93-6 


6 




0-30 






43580-0 


2292-56 


92-3 
91-4 


2 




0-26 






43605-5 


2291-18 


90-9 
90-6 


6 




0-28 






43631-7 


229061 


90-3 


4 




0-31 






43642-6 


2290-05 


89-9 


1 




0-15 






436533 


2289-05 


88-8 


8 




0-25 






43672-3 


2288-19 


87-9 


2 




029 






43688-8 


2287-70 


87-4 






0-30 




13-9 


43698-1 


2287-37 


87-1 






0-27 






43704-3 


2284-13 


84-0 
83-6 
83 2 






0-12 




14-0 


43766-5 


2283-15 


83-0 

82-8 


n 




0-15 






43785-1 


2282-17 


81-8 
800 






0-37 






43803-9 


2280-05 


79-7 






35 






43844-7 


2277-73 


77-5 






0-23 






43889-4 


2277-12 


769 






0-22 






43901-1 


2276-07 


75-7 
75-2 
74-9 


n 




0-37 






43921-4 


2274-09 


73-8 






0-29 






43959-6 


2272-83 


72-5 
71-8 






0-33 






43984-0 


2271-84 


71-5 






0-34 




14-0 


44003-2 


2270-87 


70-5 






0-37 


0-73 


14-1 


44021-9 


2270-47 










0-72 




44029-6 


2268-96 


G8-8 






0-16 






44059-0 


2267-51 


67-2 






0-31 






44087-1 


2267-06 


66-8 
66-6 






0-26 






44095-9 


2266-37 


05-7 






, 0-67 
/ 0-35 






44109-3 


2265-05 


64-7 1 










441350 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 245 
Iron Arc Spectrum — (continued). 













Reduction to 




Kayser and 
Runge 


Liveing and 


Intensity 
and 


Mliller and 


Difference 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


' —Angstrom 






(Rowland) 




Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2264-51 


64-2 






0-31 






44145-6 


2263-37 


63-2 
62-8 
62-4 
GO-7 






0-17 






44167-8 


2260-83 


60-4 






0-43 






44217-4 


2260-15 


59-8 






0-35 






44230-7 


2259-50 


59-2 






0-30 






44243-5 


2255-94 


55-4 






0-54 




14-1 


14313-3 


2253-15 


52-8 
61-6 
51-2 
50-6 






0-35 




14-2 


44368-1 


2250-82 


50-5 






0-32 






44414-0 


2248-97 


48-8 






0-17 


0-72 




44450-6 


2230-01 


29-7 
&c. 






0-31 
&c. 


0-71 




44828-6 



The Telluric Lines of the Solar Spectrum.* 





Intensity 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 
(Rowland) 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


tion to 
Vacuum 




Rowland 


Angstrom * 


6020-33 


10? 


9 


16610-4 


4-9 


16605-5 




6019-25 


7 


2 


16613-4 




16608-5 




6016-56 


6? 


— 


16620-8 




16613-9 




6016-06 


8 


2 


16622-2 




16617-3 




6015-88 


9 


3 


16622-7 




16617-8 




6015-48 


8? 


1 


16622-8 




16618-9 




6015-22 


6 


1 


16624-5 




16619-6 




6014-64 


4 


2 


16626-1 




16621-2 




6014 03 


4 


1 


16627-8 




16621-9 




6012-93 


6 


2 


16630-8 




16625-9 




601217 


5 


— 


16632-9 




166280 




6011-83 


5 


— 


16633-9 




16629-0 




6011-58 


5 


2 


16634-5 




16629-6 




6011-18 


5 


2 


16635-7 




16630-8 




6010-09 


4 


2 


16638-7 




166338 




6009>53 


9 


2 


16640-2 




16635-3 




6009-43 


5 


1 


16640-5 




16635-6 




6008-50 


5? 


— 


16643-1 




16638-2 




6007-20 


5 


1 


16646-7 




16641-8 




6006-81 


4? 


2 


16647-8 




16642-9 




6006-08 


5 


1 


16649-8 




16644-9 




6005-03 


5 


1 


16652-7 




16647-8 




6004-82 


8 


2 


16653-3 




16648-4 




6004-33 


4 


— 


16654-6 




16649-7 




6003-96 


8 


2 


16655-7 




16650-8 




6002-78 


8 


3 


16659-0 




16654-1 





' Becker, Trans. Hoy. Soc. Edin. xxxvi. I. 1890. - Coruu, Piazzi-Smyth, and Fievez. 



246 KBPOET — 1891. 

The Tellueic Lines of the Solae Sfect-rvm— continued. 



Becker 


Intensity- 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 
tion to 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 






1 


(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


Vacuum 


Ro-n^land 


Angstrom 


6002-22 


7 


2 


16660-5 


4-9 


16655-6 




6001-68 


6 


1 


16662-0 




16657-1 




6001-39 


5 


2 


16662-8 




16657-9 




6000-34 


7 


2 


16665-7 




16660-8 




5999-83 


11 


4 


16667-1 




16662-2 




5998-73 


3? 


2 


16670-2 




16665-3 




5998-37 


6d 


2 


16671-2 




16666-3 




5997-43 


10 


4 


16673-8 




16668-9 




5996-67 


5 


— 


16675-9 




16671-0 




5996-53 


5 


— 


16676-3 




16671-4 




5995-39 


5 


1 


16679-5 




16674-6 




5994-74 


11 


4 


16681-3 




16676-4 




5994-08 


6 


2 


16683-1 




16678-2 




5993-81 


5 


2 


16683-9 




16679-0 




5993-27 \ 
5993-17/ 


8d 


3 


16685-5 




16680-6 




5992-17 \ 
5992-01/ 


lid 


{I 


16688-4 




16683-5 




16688-9 




16684-0 




5991-03 


11 


4 


16691-6 




16686-7 




5990-74 


10 


3 


16692-4 




16687-5 




5990-50 


6 


1 


16693-1 




16638-2 




5989-44 


11 


4 


166961 




16691-2 




5989-06 


4 


1 


16697-1 




16692-2 




5988-75 \ 
5988-67/ 


lOd 


4 


16698-1 




16693-2 




5988-27 


8 


2 


16699-3 




16694-4 




5987-20 


11? 


8 


16702-3 




16697-4 




5986-25 


4 


2 


16705-0 




16700-1 




5985-86 


5 


2 


16706-0 




16701-1 




5985-37 


10 


4 


16707-4 




16702-5 




598500 


8 


— 


16708-4 




16703-5 




5984-41 


7 


3 


16710-1 




16705-2 




5984-24 


6 


2 


16710-6 




16705-7 




5983-55 


7 


2 


16712-5 




16707-6 




5983-00 


6 


2 


16714-0 




16709-1 




5982-47 


5 


2 


16715-5 




16710-6 




5982-16 


8 


2 


16716-4 




16711-5 




5981-89 


7 


2 


167171 




16712-2 




6981-40 


9 


3 


16718-5 




16713-6 




5980-96 


4 


1 


16719-7 




16714-8 




5980-70 


6 


1 


16720-4 




16715-5 




5980-31 


8 


3 


16721-5 




16716-6 




5979-93 


4? 


— 


16722-6 




16717-7 




5979-33 


5 


— 


16724-3 




16719-4 




5979-08 


6 


2 


167250 




167201 




5978-18 


6 


1 


16727-5 




16722-0 




5977-94 


12 


4 


16728-2 




16723-3 




5977-55 ' 


8 


3 


16729-3 




16724-4 




5977-14 


12 


5 


16730-4 




16725-5 




5976-94 


10? 


7 


16731-0 




16726-1 




5976-66 


8 


3 


16731-8 




16726-9 




5976-04 


7 


2 


16733-5 




16728-6 




5975-27 


12 


5 


16735-6 




16730-7 




5974-40 


8 


3 


16738-1 




16732-2 




5973-72 


4 


2 


16740-0 




16735-1 




C972-95 


6 


1 


16742-1 




16737-2 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 247 
The Tellueic Lines of the Solar Spectrum — continued. 





Intensity 






Oscillation 


Frequency 


Becker 




Oscillation 


Keduc- 


in \' 


acuo 


(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


Frequency 


Vacuuiu ' ,, , , 
1 Rowland 


Angstrom 


5972-77 


3? 


. 


16742-6 


4-9 


16737-7 




5972-71 


5 


2 


16742-8 




16737-9 




5971-53 


11 


5 


16746-1 




16741-2 




5970-871 


K 


/2 


16748-0 




16743-1 




5970-70/ 


o 


12 


16748-5 




16743-6 




5970-24 


10 


5 


16749-7 




16744-8 




5969-24 


10 


4 


16752-5 




16747-6 




5968-64 


4? 


. — 


16754-2 




16749-3 




5968-49 


12 


3 


16754-7 




16749-8 


16752 


5967-87 


11 


5 


16756-4 




16751-5 


16754 


5967-66 


10 


4 


16757-0 




16752-1 


16735 


5967-39 


7 


3 


16757-8 




16752-9 




5967-18 


3? 


— 


16758-3 




16753-4 




5966-81 


10 


5 


16759-4 




16754-5 




5966-421 
5966-33/ 


lOd 


3 


16760-6 




16755-7 


16759 


5965-40 


4 


2 


16763-3 




16758-4 


16761 


5965-05 


8 


3 


16764-3 




16759-4 


16762 


5963-98 


4 


1 


16767-3 




16762-4 




5963-71 


5 


2 


16768-1 




16763-2 




5963-30 


4 


2 


16769-2 




16764-3 




5962-65 


10 


4 


167711 




16766-2 




5962-35 


6 


I 


16771-9 




167670 




5961-89 


5 


1 


16773-2 




16768-3 




5961-59 


8 


3 


16774-0 




167691 




5960-82 


3? 


2 


16776-2 




16771-3 




5960-38 


2? 


— 


16777-4 




16772-5 




5960-13 


9 


3 


16778-2 




16773-3 




5959-84 


5 


2 


16779-0 




16774-1 




5959-39 


6 


2 


16780-2 




16775-3 




5959-14 


6 


2 


16780-9 




167760 




5958-98 


8 


— 


16781-4 




16776-5 




5958-85 


12 


5 


16781-8 




16776-9 


16779 


5958-481 
5958-42/ 


12 


5d 


16782-9 




16778-0 


16781 


5958-02 


12 


5 


16784-1 




16779-2 


16782 


5957-95 


4? 





16784-3 




16779-4 




5957-37 1 
5957-27/ 


5 


{j 


16785-9 




16781-0 




16786-2 




16781-3 




5956-76 


8? 




16787-6 




16782-7 


16785 


5956-50 


9 


4 


16788-4 




16783-5 


16786 


5955-90 


6 


2 


16790-1 




16785-2 




5955-10 


11 


5 


16792-3 




16787-4 


16790 


5954-61 


6 


2 


16793-7 




16788-8 




5953-88 


3? 





16795-8 




16790-9 




5953-61 


8 


2 


16796-5 




16791-6 


16795 


5952-81 


8 


— 


16798-8 




16793-91 


16797 


5951-68 


10 


5 


16802-0 




16797-1/ 


5951-50 


8 


2 


16802-5 




16797-6 




5951-05 


9 


3 


16803-7 




16798-8 


16801 


5950-91 


4? 


— 


16804-2 




16799-3 




5950-49 


10 


4 


16805-3 




16800-4 


16803 


5950-35 


8 


2 


16805-7 




16800-8 




5949-92 


11 


4 


16807-0 




16802-1 


16804 


5949-80 


7 


1 


16807-3 




16802-41 


16805 


5949-69 


5 


— 


16807-6 




16802-7/ 



248 



REPORT 1891. 



The Telluric Lines of the Solae Sfectuum— continued. 





Intensity 




Reduc- 
tion to 


Oscillation 


Frequency 


Becker 






Oscillation 


in^ 


acuo 






(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 


Frequency 








(J 




Altitude 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5949-42 


10 


6 


16808-4 


4-9 


16803-51 


16807 


5949-25 


11 


6 


16808-8 




16803-9/ 


594918 


2? 


— . 


16809-0 




16804-1 


16808 


5948-96 


8 


3 


16809-7 




16804-8 




5948-78 


4? 


— 


16810-2 




16805-3 




5948-35 


10 


2 


16811-4 




16806-5 




5947-54 


8 


3 


16813-7 


5-0 


16808-7 




5947-24 


12 


6 


16814-5 




16809-5 


16811 


5947-02 


11 


5 


16815-1 




168101 


16813 


5946-73 


4 


— 


16816-0 




16811-0 




5946-18 


(5?) 


__ 


16817-5 




16812-5 




5946-14 


12 


6 


16817-6 




16812-61 


16816 


5945-81 


10 


4 


16818-6 




16813-6J' 


5945-39 


10 


4 


16819-8 




16814-8 


16817 


5944-84 


10 


4 


16821-3 




16816-3 


16819 


5944-42 


lOfl 


5 


16822-5 




16817-5 


16820 


5943-58 


3? 


2 


16824-9 




16819-9 


16822 


5943-22 


3? 


2 


16825-9 




16820-9 




5942-73 


12 


6 


16827-3 




16822-31 


16826 


5942-57 


12 


6 


16827-7 




16822-7/ 


5942-35 


8 


. — 


16828-4 




16823-4 


16827 


5941-73 


10 


5 


16830-1 




16825-11 


16828 


5941-19 


11 


5 


16831-6 




16826-6/ 


5941-01 


8 


4 


16832-2 




16827-2 


16830 


5940-54 


9 


4 


16833-5 




16828-5 


16832 


5940-27 


4 


— 


16834-2 




16829-2 




594003 


8 


3 


16834-9 




16829-9 


16833 


5938-72 


7 


2 


16838-6 




16833-6 




5938-41 


4 


_ 


16839-5 




16834-5 




5938-21 





4 


16840-1 




16835-1 


16S37 


5938-01 


8 


3 


16840-6 




16835-6 




5937-58 


8 


2 


16841-9 




16S36-9 




5937-37 


6 


1 


16842-5 




16837-5 




5937-22 


2 


— 


16842-9 




16837-9 




5936-85 


4 


2 


16844-0 




168390 




5936-42 


4 


2 


16845-2 




16840-2 




5935-96 


10 


4 


16846-5 




16841-5 


16846 


5935-66 


2 


— 


16847-3 




16842-3 




5935-38 


7 


2 


16848-1 




16843-1 


16847 


5934-32 


9 


2 


16851-1 




168461 


16849 


5934-14 


4 


— 


16851-6 




16846-6 




5933-91 


7 


3 


16852-3 




16847-31 


16851 


5933-16 


5 


1 


168544: \ 


16849-4 J' 


5932-96 


U 


5 


16855-0 


' 


168500 




5932-51 


3 


1 


16856-3 




16851-3 




5932-28 


12 


6 


16856-9 




16851-9 


16855 


6932-13 


3 


1 


16857-4 




16852-41 


16857 


6931-17 


8 


3 


16860-1 




16855-1/ 


5930-77 


8 


2 


16861-2 




16856-2 




5929-57 


6 


i 


16864-6 




16S59-61 


16862 


5929-25 


9 


2 


16865-5 




16S6U-5J' 


6928-99 


9 


3 


16866-3 




1686: ■:'. 


16863 


5928-69 


4 


— 


16867-1 




16S621 




5928-53 \ 
5928-43/ 


lid 


5 


16867-7 




16862-7 




6927-86 


6 


— 


1G869-5 




16864-5 


16868 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 249 
The Telluric Lines of the Solar SPECTRVM—conti7i,ued. 





Intensity 






Oscillation 


Frequency 


Becker 
(liowland) 






Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


tion to 
Vacuum 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5926-94 


5 


2 


16872-1 


5-0 


16867-1 


16869 


5926-74 


8 


2 


16872-7 




16867-7 




5926-29 


4 


1 


16874-0 




16869-0 




5925-82 


4 


1 


16875-3 




16870-3 




5925-19 


12 


5 


16877-1 




16872-1 




5924-96 


6 


1 


16877-7 




16872-7 




5924-49 


12 


6 


16879-1 




16874-1 


16877 


5923-98 


11 


5 


16880-5 




16875-5 \ 
16876-0/ 




5923-82 


11 


5 


16881-0 






5923-39 


7 


3 


16882-2 




16877-2 


16881 


5922-87 


9 


3 


16883-7 




16878-7 \ 
16879-3/ 


16882 


5922-66 


10 


4 


16884-3 




5922-54 


8 


4 


16884-7 




16879-7 




5921-83 


7 


3 


16886-7 




16881-7 


16885 


5921-39-1 
5921-25 J 


6d 


3 


16888-1 




16883-1 


16886 


5920-73 


10 


4 


16889-8 




16884-8 


16888 


5920-29 


6 


2 


16891-1 




168861 




5919-83 


12 


6 


16892-4 




16887-4 




5919-22 


12 


5 


16894-1 




16889-1 


16893 


5918-62 


12 


4 


16895-8 




16890-8 


16894 


5918-08 


7 


2 


16897-4 




16892-4 


16896 


5917-53 


8 


3 


16898-9 




16893-9 




5917-29 


5 


— 


16899-6 




16894-6 




5916-93 


6 


2 


16900-6 




16895-6 




5916-77 


7 


2 


16901-1 




16896-1 


16900 


5916-21 


C 


2 


16902-7 




16897-7 


16901 


5915-77 


9 


4 


169040 




168990 


16902 


5915-52 


9 


4 


16904-7 




16899-7 \ 

16901-0 r 


16903 


5915-06 


9 


4 


16906-0 




5914-64 


4 


1 


16907-2 




16902-2 i 
16904-3 J 


16906 


5913-92 


4 


1 


16909-3 




5913-15 


10 


4 


16911-5 




16906-5 


16909 


5912-82 


8 


3 


16912-4 




16907-4 




5912-70 


8 


3 


16912-7 




16907-7 




5912-15 


7 


2 


16914-3 




16909-3 




5911-99 


7 


2 


16914-8 




16909-8 




5911-56 


5 


2 


16916-0 




16911-0 




5911-33 


5 


— 


16916-7 




16911-7 




5911-06 


3? 


— 


16917-5 




16912-5 




5910-95\ 
5910-87/ 


lid 


^1 


16917-8 
16918-0 




16912-8\ 
169130/ 


16916 


5910-79 


4 




16918-2 




16913-2 




5910-S2 


3? 


— 


16919-6 




16914-6 




5910-25 


lid 


4 


16919-8 




16914-8 


16918 


5909-57 


7 


3d 


16921-7 




16916-7 


16919 


5909-14 


10 


5 


16922-9 




16917-91 


16921 


5908-85 


3 


1 


16923-8 




16918-8/ 


5908-36 


9 


4 


16925-2 




16920-2 


16923 


5907-98 


9 


5 


16926-2 




16921-2 


16923 


5907-58 


8 


3 


16927-4 




16922-4 


16925 


6907-42 


8 


4 


16927-9 




16922-9 




5907-16 


6 


— 


16928-6 




16923-6 


16927 


5906-53 


6 


2 


16930-4 




169254\ 
16925-8/ 


16928 


5906-38 


6 


2 


16930-8 




5905-68 


5 


— 


16932-8 




16927-8 





250 



REPORT — 1891. 



The Telluric Lines of the Solar Specteum — oontinnsd. 





Intensity- 






Oscillation 


Frequency 


Becker 






Oscillation 


Reduc- 
tion to 
Vacuum 


in Vacuo | 






(Kowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


Frequency 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5905-46 


9 


3 


16933-5 


5-0 


16928-5 


16932 


5905-25 


7 


1 


16934-1 




16929-1 \ 
16929-9/ 


16932 


5904-97 


5 


3 


16934-9 




5904-53 


5 


3 


16936-2 




16931-2 




5904-16 


8 


3 


16937-2 




169322 




5904-04 


8 


3 


16937-6 




16932-6 




5903-87 


7 


4 


16938-0 




16933-0 \ 
16933-7/ 


16937 


5903-64 


9 


2 


16938-7 




5903-34 


(4?) 


3 


16939-6 




16934-6 


16938 


5902-90 


5 


2 


16940-8 




16935-8 




5902-73 


4 


— 


16941-3 




16936-3 




5902-53 


5 


4 


16941-9 




16936-9 




5902-25 


10 


3 


16942-7 




16937-7 


16941 


5902-13 


8 


3 


169430 




16938-0 




5901-62 


12 


7 


16944-5 




16939-5 




5901-43 


9 


3 


16945 




16940-0 


16944 


5901-07 


8 


3 


16946-1 




16941-1 




5900-60 


7 


2 


16947-4 




16942-4 


16945 


5900-22 


11 


6 


16948-5 




16943-5 


16947 


590006 


10 


5 


16949-0 




16944-0 


16948 


5899-17 


10 


4 


16951-5 




16946-5 


16949 


5898-94 


6 


1 


16952-2 




16947-2 


16950 


5898-56 


6 


2 


16953-3 




16948-3 


16951 


5898-33 


11 


7 


16954-0 




16949-0 


16953 


5898-10 


6 


2 


16954-6 




16949-6 




5897-90 


6 


— 


16955-2 




16950-2 




5897-58 


9 


4 


16956-1 




16951-1 


16954 


5897-22 


6 


— 


16957-1 




16952-1 


16955 


5896-97 


10 


4 


16957-8 




16952-8 


16956 


5896-72 


4b 


— 


16958-6 




16953-6 




5896-58 


11 


4 


16959-0 




16954-0 


16957 


5896-37 


5b 


— . 


16959-6 




16954-6 




5895-89 


5 


2 


16961-0 




16956-0 




5895-64 


lb 


— 


16961-7 




16956-7 




5895-26 


10 


3 


16962-8 




16957-8 


16960 


5895-11 


10 


3 


16963-2 




16958-2 


16962 


5894-71 


5 


1 


16964-4 




16959-4 


16963 


5894-51 


9 


4 


16964-9 




16959-9 




5893-88 


4? 


— 


16966-8 




16961-8 




5893-72 


10 


4 


16967-2 




16962-2 


16965 


5893-52 


4 


1 


16967-8 




16962-8 




5893-24 


9 


4 


16968-6 




16963-6 


16966 


5892-88 


6 


4 


16969-6 




16964-6 


16967 


5892-59 


10 


5 


16970-5 




16965-5 


16968 


5892-40 


(3?) 


1 


16971-0 




169660 




5892-09 


4? 


2 


16971-9 




16966-9 




5891-87 


11 


5 


16972-5 




16967-5 


16970 


5891-73 


10 


4 


16972-9 




16967-9 


16971 


5891-37 


8 


5 


16974-0 




16969-0 


16972 


5891-11 


6 


1 


16974-7 




16969-7 




5890-02 


7 


1 


16975-3 




16970-3 


16973 . 


5890-42 


7 


1 


16976-7 




16971-7 




589034 


14 


— 


16977-0 




16972-0 




5889-78 


11 


5 


16978-6 




16973-6 


16977 


5889-23 


5 


2 


16980-2 




16975-2 




5888-86 


9 


4 


16981-2 




16976-2 


16980 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 251 
The Tellueic Lines of the Solae Spectrum — continued. 



Becker 


Intensity 


Oscillation 


Reduc- 
tion to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in "Vacuo 




(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 


Frequency 












Altitude 




Kowland 


Angstrom 


5888-01 


7 


3 


16983-7 


5-0 


16978-7 




5887-82 


9 


5 


16984-2 




16979-2 


16982 


5887-60 


4b 


1 


16984-8 




16979-8 




5887-36 


10 


5 


16985-5 




16980-5 


16984 


5887-10 


3 


1 


16986-3 




16981-3 




5886-84 


6 


1 


16987-0 




169820 




5886-55\ 
5886-51/ 


9 


4d 


16987-9 




16982-9 


16985 


5886-34 


3b 





16988-5 




16983-5 




5886-12 


lOd 


5 


16989-1 




16984-1 


16987 


5885-77 


6 


2 


10990-1 




16985-1 


16988 


5885-68 


6 


2 


16990-4 




16985-4\ 
16987-3/ 


16989 


6885-02 


3? 


2 


16992-3 




5884-68 


4? 


2 


16993-3 




16988-3 




5884-34 


8 


2 


16994-3 




16989-3 




5884-04 


11 


7 


16996-1 




16990-1 


16994 


5883-52 


4 


1 


16996-6 




16991-6 


16996 


5883-12 


8 


2 


16997-8 




16992-8 




5882-92 


8 


3 


16998-4 




16993-4 




5882-58 


6 


— 


16999-4 




16994-4 


16997 


5882-51 


6 


— 


16999-6 




16994-61 


16998 


5882-02 


8 


3 


17001-0 




16996-0/ 


6881-91 


8 


3 


17001-3 




16996-3 




6881-79 


6 


— 


17001-6 




16996-6 


17000 


5881-53") 
5881-45 J" 


(5?) 


4d 


17002-6 




16997-5 




5881-21 


8 


3 


17003-3 




16998-3 




5881-03 


8 


3 


17003-8 




16998-8 




5880-84 


8 


2 


17004-4 




16999-4 




5880-651 
5880-59/ 


6d 


3 


17005-0 




17000-0 


17003 


5879-98 


6 


4 


17006-9 




17001-9 


17004 


5879-77 


9 


4 


17007-5 




17002-5 




5879-64 


9 


4 


17007-8 




17002-8 


17007 


5879-24 


7 


1 


17009-0 




17004-0 


17008 


5877-66 


6 


1 


17013-6 




17008-6 




5877-43 


6 


2 


17014-2 




17009-2"! 


17012 


5877-21 


4 


1 


17014-9 




17009-9/ 


5877-04 


3 


_ 


17016-4 




17010-4 


17013 


6876-44 


9 


3 


17017-1 




17012-1 \ 
17012-7/ 


17015 


5876-22 


9 


3 


17017-7 




5876-71 


9 


3 


17019-2 




17014-2 




5875-56 


5 


1 


17019-7 




17014-7 




5875-24 


5 


3 


17020-6 




17015-6 


17019 


5874-771 
5874-68/ 


4d 


2 


17022-1 




17017-1 


17020 


5874-37 


4 


1 


17023-1 




17018-1 




5874-02 


5 


2 


17024-1 




17019-1 




6873-71 


7 


2 


17025-0 




17020-0 




5873-37 


6 


5 


17026-0 




17021-0 




5872-37 


5 


Id 


17028-9 




17023-9 




5872-09 


4 


1 


17029-7 




17024-7 




5871-85 


4 


1 


17030-4 




17025-4 




5871-38 


9 


3 


17031-8 




17026-8 




5871-26 


5 


— 


17032-1 




17027-1 




5870-73 


9 


3 


17033-7 




17028-7 





252 



REPOET 1891. 



The Tellueic Lines op the Solar SF-Ecinvu— continued. 





Intensity 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 
(Rowland) 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 


tion to 
Vacuum 






o 




Altitude 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5869-94 


6 


3 


17036-0 


5-0 


17031-0 




5869-82 


6 


3 


17036-3 




17031-3 




5868-89 


7 


2 


17039-0 




170340 




5867-71 


9 


5 


17042-4 




17037-4 




5866-31 


4 


2 


17046-5 




17041-5 




5865-90 


7 


2 


17047-7 




17042-7 




5865-66 


7 


2 


17048-4 




17043-4 




5864-90 


4 


1 


17050-6 




17045-6 




5864-38 


6 


3 


17052-1 




17047-1 




5863-37 


4 


1 


17055-0 




17050-0 




5863-18 


4 


— 


17055-6 




17050-6 




6861-86 


5 


2 


17059-4 




17054-6 




5861-77 


6 


2 


17059-7 




17054-7 




5859-73 


10 


8 


17065-6 




17060-6 




5859-04 


3 


— 


17067-6 




17062-6 




5857-13 


4? 


2 


17073-2 




17068-2 




5854-97 


5 


2 


17079-5 




17074-5 




5854-52 


4 


2 


17080-8 




17075-8 




5853-43 


(4?) 


3 


17084-0 




17079-0 




5853-29 


(4?) 


2 


17084-4 




17079-4 




5851-52 


8 


3 


17089-6 




17084-6 




5851-34 


3 


— 


17090-1 




17085-1 




5851-051 
6850-97/ 


8 


Id 


17091-1 




17086-1 




5849-89 


5 


3 


17094-3 




17089-3 




5848-82 


5 


1 


17097-5 




17092-5 




5846-09 


(4?) 


2 


17105-4 




17100-4 




5845-76 


8 


1 


17100-4 




17101-4 




5845-15 


(4?) 


2 


17108-2 




17103-2 




5844-00 


3 


2 


17111-6 




17106-6 




5842-87 


6 


2 


17114-9 




17109-9 




6842-63 


5 


2 


17115-6 




17110-6 




5842-29 


3? 


2 


17116-6 




17111-6 




5841-3? 


4 


1 


17119-4 




17114-4 




5841-02 


6 


1 


17120-3 




17115-3 




5839-84 


4 


2 


17123-8 




17118-8 




5839-61 


5 


2 


17124-4 




17119-4 




5838-90 


4 


8 


17126-5 




17121-5 




5838-64 


6 


3 


17127-3 




17122-3 




6838-44 


4 


2 


17127-9 




17122-9 




5837-46 


4 


1 


17130-7 




17125-7 




5836-62 


4 


1 


17133-2 


5-0 


17128-2 




5835-80 


5 


3 


17135-6 


5-1 


17J30-5 




5834-78 


4? 


2 


17138-6 




17133-5 




5834-20 


8 


4 


17140-3 




17135-2 




5833-51 


4 


1 


17142-4 




17137-3 




5832-64 


4d 


2 


17144-9 




17139-8 




6832-07 


4 


1 


17146-6 




17141-5 




5831-55 


4 


— 


17148-1 




17143-0 




5831-14 


4d 


2 


17149-3 




17144-2 




5830-28 


5 


2 


17151-8 




17146-7 




5830-06 


4 


2 


17152-5 




17147-4 




5829-56 


4 


2 


17154-0 




17148-0 




5828-90 


4 


2 


17155-9 




17150-9 




5828-49 


5 


1 


17157-1 




17152-0 




5827-89 


7 


1 


17158-9 




17153-8 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 253 
The Telluric Lines op the Solae Spectbum — continued. 



Becker 


Intensity 


Oscillation 


Reduc- 
tion to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 






(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


Frequency 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5827-13 


(3?) 


2 


17161-1 


5-1 


17156-0 




5826-47 


(3?) 


2 


17163-0 




17157-9 




5825-32 


4? 


2 


17166-4 




17161-3 




5824-90 


4 


— 


17167-7 




17162-6 




5824-61 


4 


2 


17168-5 




17163-4 




5823-82 


4 


2 


17170-9 




17165-8 




5823-53 


5 


— 


17171-7 




17166-6 




5823-36 


(3?) 


2 


17172-2 




17167-1 




5823-13 


(3?) 


2 


17172-9 




17167-8 




5822-56 \ 


4 


{j 


17174-6 




17169-5 




5822-50 / 


17174-8 




17169-7 




5822-27 


4? 




17175-4 




17170-3 




5822-10 


4 


3 


17175-9 




17170-9 




5821-51 


3 


2 


17177-7 




17172-6 




5821-23 


3? 


— 


17178-5 




17173-4 




6821-12 


3? 


— 


17178-8 




17173-7 




5820-98 


3 


1 


17179-2 




17174-1 




6820-62 


4 


1 


17180-3 




17175-2 




5820-13 


4? 


2 


17181-7 




17176-6 




5819-51 


3 


2 


17183-6 




17178-5 




5819-07 


4 


— 


17184-9 




17179-8 




5818-76 


4 


2 


17186-8 




17180-7 




5818-34 


6 


2 


17187-0 




17181-9 




5818-18 


(3?) 


2 


17187-5 




17182-4 




5817-79 


4 


1 


17188-7 




17183-6 




5817-59 


4 


1 


17189-2 




17184-2 




5817-00 


4 


2 


17191-0 




17185-9 




5815-80 


4 


2 


17194-5 




17189-4 




5815-30 


(5?) 


4 


17196-0 




17190-9 




5814-96 \ 
5814-87/ 


(5?) 


5d 


17197-2 




171921 




5813-74 


4 


2 


17200-6 




17195-5 




5813-13 


4 


2 


17202-5 




17197-4 




5812-75 


3 


2 


17203-6 




17198-5 




5811-61 


3 


1 


17207-0 




17201-0 




5811-35 


2? 


— 


17207-7 




17202-6 




5809-94 


3 


— 


17211-9 




17206-8 




5809-70 


4 


1 


17212-6 




17207-5 




5809-07 


4 


2 


17214-5 




17209-4 




5808-84 


3 


— 


17216-2 




17210-1 




5807-86 


4 


2 


17218-0 




17212-9 




5806-79 


4? 


— 


17221-2 




17216-1 




5806-44 


4 


1 


17222-3 




17217-3 




5806-14 


3 


I 


17223-2 




17218-1 




5805-14 


3 


2 


17226-1 




17221-0 




5804-07 


3? 


— 


17229-3 




17224-2 




5803-57 


5 


1 


17230-8 




17225-7. 




5803-16 


3 


1 


17232-0 




17226-9 




5802-91 


4 


1 


17232-7 




17227-6 




5802-74 


4 


1 


17233-2 




17228-1 




5802-53 


3? 


2 


17233-9 




17228-8 




5802-40 


3 


1 


17234-3 




17229-2 




5802-03 


3? 


2 


17235-4 




17230-4 




5801-39 


4 


2 


17237-3 




172321 




5801-04 


5 


2 


17238-3 




17233-3 




5800-78 


5 


1 


17239-1 




17234-0 





254 KEPOKT— 1891. 

The Telluric Lines of the Solar Spectrum — continued. 



Becker 


Intensity 


Oscillation 


Eeduc- 

tion to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 






(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 


Frequency 






Q 




Altitude 






Eo-svland 


Angstrom 


5800-17 


3 





17240-9 


5-1 


17235-8 




5800-01 


4 


2 


17241-4 




17236-3 




5799-49 


5 


1 


17242-9 




17237-8 




5799-25 


(3?) 


2 


17243-6 




17238 5 




5798-661 
5798-61/ 


4d 


1 


17245-4 




17240-3 




5798-36 


9 


6 


1724C-3 




17241-2 




5798-24 


4 


— 


17246-6 




17241-5 




579803 


9 


6 


17247-2 




172421 




5797-77 


4 


2 


17248-0 




17242-9 




5797-53 


3 


— 


17248-7 




17243-6 




5797-32 


2 


1 


17249-3 




17244-2 




5796-99 


4 


2 


17250-3 




17245-2 




5796-65 


4 


— 


17251-3 




1724G-2 




5796-421 
5796-28/ 


(4?) 


4d 


17252-2 




17247-1 




5796-10 


4 


1 


172530 




17247-9 




5795-77 


3 


1 


17254-0 




17248-9 




6795-51 


2 


1 


17254-7 




17249-6 




5795-31 


3 


2 


17255-3 




17250-3 




5794-93 


2 


1 


17256-5 




17251-4 




5794-71 


2 


— 


17257-1 




17252-0 




5794-51 


4 


2 


17257-7 




17252-G 




5794-02 


5 


— 


17259-2 




17254-1 




5793-67 


4 


1 


17260-2 




172551 




5793-06 


3 


— 


17262-0 




17256-9 




5792-301 
5792-15/ 


4d 


2 


17264-5 




17259-4 




5791-84 


4 


2 


17265-7 




17260-6 




5791-48 


3 


1 


17266-7 




17261-6 




5791-01 


4 


— 


17268-1 




17263-0 




5790-33 


5 


3 


17270-2 




17265-1 




5790-05 


4 


2 


17271-0 




17265-9 




5789-80 


2 


— 


17271-8 




17266-7 




5789-35 


5 


— 


17273-1 




17268-0 




5789-03 


5 


2 


17274-1 




17269-0 




5788-871 
5788-76/ 


4d 


2 


17274-7 




17266-6 




5788-31 


4 


1 


17276-2 




17271-1 




5787-63 


2? 


1 


17278-2 




17273-2 




5787-41 


6 


2 


17278-9 




17273-8 




5787-19 


5 


3 


17279-5 




17273-4 




5786-911 
5786-76 J 
5782-67 


3cl 


I 


17280-6 




172751 




4 


1 


172931 




17288-1 




5782-05 


4 


— 


17294-9 




17289-8 




5780-34 


5. 


1 


17300-0 




17294-9 




5779-50 


4 


2 


17302-5 




17297-4 




5778-11 


3 


1 


17306-7 




17301-6 




5777-83 


3 


1 


17307-5 




17302-4 




5776-56 


6 


• — 


17311-3 




17306-2 




5776-31 


4 


2 


17312-1 




17307-0 




6776-19 


6 


— 


17312-4 




17307-3 




5775-82 


3 


1 


17313-6 




17308-5 




5775-60 


3 


— 


17314-2 




17309-1 




5774-65 


4 


2 


173171 




17312-0 





ON WAVE-LENGTn TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 255 
The Telluric Lines of the Solae Specteum — continued. 





Intensity 




Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 




Oscillation 


Keduc- in Vacuo 




(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


Frequency 


tion to 
Vacuum 


1 


Rowland 


Angstrom 


5774-38 


4? 


3 


17317-9 


5-1 


17312-8 




5774-15 


4? 


3 


17318-6 




17313-5 




5773-79 


3 


2 


17319-6 




17314-5 




5773-34 


7 


2 


17321-0 




17315-9 




5773-16 


7 


2 


17321-5 




17316-4 




5772-88 


4? 


— 


17322-4 




17317-3 




5772-77 


8 


2 


17322-7 




17317-6 




5771-81 


7 


2 


17325-6 




17320-5 




5771-70 


5 


— 


17325-9 




17320-8 




5771-53 


6 


2 


17326-4 




17321-3 




5770-89 


2 


1 


17328-8 




17323-2 




5770-41 


7 


1 


17329-8 




17324-7 




5770-31 


4 


1 


17330-1 




17325-0 




5769-GO 


7 


1 


17332-2 




17327-1 




5769-38 


6 


2 


17332-9 




17328-8 




5768- n 


3 


— 


17334-9 




17329-8 




5768-55 


5 


2 


17335-4 




17330-3 




5767-84 


3 ■ 


1 


17337-5 




17332-4 




5767-32 


8 


2 


17339-1 




17334-0 




576713 


3 


— 


17339-6 




17334-5 




576647 


6 


2 


17341-6 




17336-5 




5766-08 


3 


1 


17342-8 




17337-7 




5765-88 


2? 


— 


17343-4 




17338-3 




5765-70 


2 


1 


17343-9 




17338-8 




5765-14 


2 


1 


17345-6 




17340-5 




5764-84 


2 


1 


17346-5 




17341-4 




5764-48 


4 


1 


17347-6 




17342-5 




576415 


(3?) 


2 


17348-6 1 


17343-5 




5763-64 \ 


8 


2 


17350-1 


17345-0 




5763-55 J 


7 


2 


17350-4 i 


17345-3 




5762-76 


3 


1 


17352-8 




17347-7 




5761-75 


8 


3 


17355-8 




17350-7 




5761-36 


3 


2 


17357-0 




17351-9 




5759-72 


(4?) 


3 


173620 




17356-9 




5759-39 


5 


1 


17363-0 




17357-9 




5759-04 


5 


2 


17364-0 




17358-9 




5758-59 


4 


2 


17365-4 




17360-3 




5758-08 


3 


2 


17366-9 




17361-8 




5757-65 


3? 


2 


17368-2 


173631 




5757-41 


3 


— 


17368-9 




17363-8 




5757-16 


5 


1 


17369-7 




17364-6 




5756-68 


3 


1 


17371-1 




17366-0 




5755-91 


5 


1 


17373-5 




17368-4 




5755-64 


5 


2 


17374-3 




17369-2 




5754-37 


9 


2 


17378-1 




173730 




5754-13 


5 


2 


17378-8 




17373-7 




5753-55 


3 


1 


17380-6 




17375-5 




5753-13 


8 


3 


17381-8 1 


17376-7 




5752-68 


3 


2 


17383-2 ! 


17378-1 




5751-99 


6 


2 


17385-3 1 


17380-2 




5750-74 


4 


2 


17389-1 : 


17384-0 




5750-56 


3? 


— 


17389-6 1 


17384-5 




5749-49 


4d 


2 


17392-9 


17387-8 




5748-12 


7 


5 


17397-0 j 


17391-9 




5747-83 


7 


5 


17397-9 1 


17392-8 




5747-45 


3 


1 


17399-0 




17393-9 





256 EEPOBT^1891. 

The Telluric Lines of the Solae Spectrum — contimied. 





Intensity 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 
(Rowland) 






Oscillation 
frequency 


Reduc- 
tion to 


in Vacuo 






Horizon 


Medium 


Vacuum 









Altitude 






Rowland 


Angstrom 


5747-02 


3 


1 


17400-3 


5-1 


17395-2 




5746-67 


3 


1 


17401-4 . 




17396-3 




5745-92 


10 


2 


17403-7 




17398-6 




5745-44 


4 


1 


17405-1 




17410-0 




5745-05 


9 


1 


17406-3 




17401-2 




5744-37 


3 


1 


17408-3 




17403-2 




5744-11 


2? 


— 


17409-1 




174040 




5743-94 


5 


2 


17409-7 




17404-6 




5743-58 


Od 


2 


17410-8 




17405-3 




5742-72 


4 


1 


17413-4 




17408-3 




5742-30 


10 


1 


17414-6 




17409-5 




5741-49 


4? 


2 


17417-] 




174120 




5741-10 


4 


2 


17418-3 




17413-2 




5740-19 


4 


2 


17421-0 




17415-9 




5739-59 


4? 


3 


17422-8 




17417-7 




5739-14 


4 


1 


17424-2 




17419-1 




5738-57 


4 


3 


17426-0 




17420-9 




5738-30 


5 


2 


17426-8 




17421-7 




5737-82 


11 


2 


17428-2 




17423-1 




5737-53^ 
5737-38/ 
5737-16 


5 


2cl 


17429-3 




17424-2 




5 


2 


17430-2 




174251 




5736-49 


4 


1 


17432-3 




17427-2 




5735-96 


3 


— 


17433-9 




17428-8 




5735-74 


9 


2d 


17434-6 




17429-5 




5735-20 


4 


2 


17436-2 




17431-1 




5734-66 


4 


1 


17437-8 




17432-7 




5733-80 


7 


1 


17440-4 




17435-3 




5733-27 \ 
5733-11/ 


8 


2d 


17442-3 


5-1 


17437-2 




5732-77 


4 


1 


17443-6 


5-2 


17438-4 




5731-46 


4 


2 


17447-6 




17442-4 




5731-02 


4 


2 


17448-9 




17443-7 




5730-27 


5 


1 


17451-2 




17440-0 




5729-95 


9 


2 


17452-2 




17447-0 




5729-78 


9 


2 


17452-7 




17447-5 




5729-30 


4? 


2 


17454-1 




17448-9 




5728-92 


7 


2 


17455-3 




174501 




5728-58 


7 


2 


] 7450-3 




17451-1 




5727-95 


3 


1 


17458-2 




17453-0 




5727-76 


(4?) 


3 


17458-8 




17453-6 




5727-18 


10 


7 


17400-6 




17455-4 




5720-98 


9 


3 


17461-2 




17456-0 




5726-79 


6 


— 


17461-8 




17456-6 




5726-10 


3 


1 


17463-7 




17458-5 




572600 


3 


1 


17464-2 




17459-0 




5724-70 


3 


1 


17468-2 




17463-2 




5724-54 


(4?) 


3 


17468-7 




17463-5 




572412 


9 


1 


17469-9 




17464-7 




5723-74 


4 


1 


17471-1 




17466-9 




5722-98 


2? 


— 


17473-4 




17468-2 




5722-34 


6 


2 


17475-4 




17470-2 




5722-07 


10 


2 


17476-2 




17471-0 




5721-92 


4 


1 


17476-6 




17471-4 




5721-05 


5 


3 


17479-3 




174721 




5720-51 


8 


2 


17481-0 




17478-8 





ox WAVE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE SPECTKl OF TUK ELEMENTS. 257 
The Telluric Lines of the Solae SPECTRVn^—notitinucd. 





Intensity 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 
(Rowland) 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 


• tion to 
Vac uiini 






Q 




Altitude 






Ro-nrland 


Angstrom 


5719-94 


5 


2 


17482-7 


5-2 


17477-2 




5719-75 


11 


2 


17483-3 




17478-1 




5719-15 


8 


2 


17485-1 




17479-9 




5718-51 


4 


2 


17487-1 




17481-9 




5717-65 


9 


2 


17489-7 




17484-2 




571713 


4 


2 


17491-3 




17486-1 




5716-16 


(3?) 


2 


17494-3 




17489-2 




5715-87 


3 


1 


17495-2 




174900 




5714-271 


8 


4d 


17500-1 




17494-9 




5714-21/ 














5712-76 


4 


2 


17504-7 




17499-5 




5711-69 


5 


1 


17507-0 j 


17502-8 




5711-50 


8 


1 


17508-.-i 


17503-4 




5710-97 


5 


I 


17510-2 1 


17505-0 




5710-07 


4 


2 


17512-9 1 


17507-8 




5709-18 


3 


2 


17515-6 




17510-4 




5707-26 


7 


— 


17521-5 




17517-3 




5706-69 


i 


1 


17523-3 




17518-1 




5705-24 


(3?) 


2 


17527-7 




17521-9 




5704-67 


4 


— 


17529-5 




17524-4 




5704-42 


7 


2 


17530-3 




17525-1 




5704-05 


3 


— 


17531-4 




17526-2 




5703-44 


6 


1 


17533-3 




17528-1 




6702-95 


5 


3 


17534-8 




17529-6 




5702-12 


3 


1 


17537-3 




17532-1 




5700-90 


9 


2 


17541-1 




17535-9 




5700-78 


3? 


— 


17541-5 




17536-3 




5700-17 


2? 


1 


17543-3 




17538-1 




5699-52 


10 


4 


17545-3 




17540-1 




5699-14 


3 


1 


17546-5 




17541-3 




5698-93 


6 


— 


17547-1 




17541-0 




5698-751 
5698-60/ 


(5?) 


5 


17547-7 




17542-5 




5 


17548-2 




17543-0 




5698-31 


10 


2 


17549-1 




17543-9 




5697-921 
5697-79/ 


4d 


— 


17540-5 




17544-3 




— 


17550-4 




17545-2 




5697-51 


4 


1 


17551-5 




17546-3 




5697-31 


(3?) 


2 


17552-1 




17546-9 




6696-96 


8 


1 


17553-2 




17548 




5696-58 


4 


1 


17554-4 




17549-2 




5696-06 


8d 


3 


17556-0 




17550-8 




5695-65 


3 


1 


17557-2 




17552-2 




5694-34 


6 


1 


17561-3 




17556-1 




5693-76 


8 


— 


17563-1 




17557-9 




5693-38 


4 


2 


17564-3 




17559-1 




5692-91 


8 


2 


17565-7 




17560-5 




5692-57 


10 


2 


17566-8 




17561-6 




5692-35 


4 


I 


17567-4 




17562-2 




5690-81 


4 


— 


17572-2 




175670 




5690-62 


10 


6 


17572-8 




17567-6 




5690-42 


8 


__ 


17573-4 




17568-2 




5690-07 


5 


-^ 


17574-5 




17569-3 




5689-74 


9 


3 


17575-5 




175703 




5689-20 


4 


1 


17577-2 




17572-0 




5688-74 


6 


2 


17578-6 




17573-4 




5687-80 


5 


2 


17581-5 




17576-3 





1891. 



258 EEPORT — 1891. 

The Telluric Lines op the Solar Spectrum — continued,. 





Intensity 






Oscillation 


Frequency 


l?ccker 
(Kowiaiul) 






Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 
tion to 


in V 


acuo 






Horizon 


Medium 


Vacuum 




o 




Altitude 






Kowland 


Angstrom 


5687-66 


10 


3 


17581-9 


5-2 


17576-7 




5686-49 


5 


3 


17585-5 




17580-3 




5686-38 


(5?) 


4 


17585-9 




17580-7 




5685-97 


5 


1 


17587-1 




17581-9 




5685-61 


8 


2 


17588-3 




17583-1 




5685-55 


4? 


— 


17588-5 




17583-3 




5685-28 


5 


2 


17589-3 




17584-1 




5684-05 


9 


3 


17593-1 




17587-9 




5682-98 


6 


— 


17596-4 




17591-2 




5681-97 


8 


2 


17599-5 




17594-3 




5681-74 


3 


— 


17600-2 




17595-0 




5680-98 


5 


1 


17602-6 




17597-4 




5680-10 


5 


2 


17605-3 




17600-1 




5679-79 


5 


2 


17606-3 




17601-1 




5676-94 


8 


2 


17615-1 




17609-9 




5674-79 


4 


1 


17621-8 




17616-6 




5674-49 


4 


— 


17622-7 




17617-5 




5674-42 


4 


1 


17622-9 




17617-7 




5674-15 


5 


1 


17623-8 




17618-6 




5672-07 


4 


— 


17630-2 




17625-0 




5671-58 


4 


2 


17631-8 




17626-6 




5670-50 


5 


2 


17635-1 




17629-9 




5668-70 


3 


i— 


17640-7 




17635-5 




5667-94 


3 


1 


17643-1 




17637-9 




566603 


4 


2 


17649-0 




17643-8 




5652-01 


(3?) 


2 


17692-8 




17687-6 




5634-37 


(2?) 


2 


17748-2 




17743-0 




5633-23 


(2?) 


2 


17751-8 




17746-6 




5631-02 


(2?) 


2 


17758-8 


5-2 


17753-6 




5575-53 


3 


— 


17935-5 


5-3 


17930-2 




5548-72 


3 


2 


18022-2 




18016-9 




5529-92 


3? 


2 


18083-4 




18078-1 




6523-03 


3 


1 


18106-1 


5-3 


18100-8 




5520-23 


3 


1 


18115-2 


5-4 


18109-8 




5519-95 


(3?) 


2 


18116-1 




18110-7 




5519-41 


4 


1 


18117-9 




18112-5 




6516-49 


3 


2 


18127-5 




18122-1 




5516-09 


3 


1 


18128-8 




18123-4 




5515-52 


4 


1 


18130-7 




18125-3 




5513-91 


4 


2 


18136-0 




18130-6 




5511-37 


5 


2 


18144-3 




18138-9 




5509-64 


4 


2 


18150-0 




18144-6 




5509-11 


2 


— 


18151-7 




18146-3 




5507-67 


(3?) 


2 


18156-5 




18151-1 




5506-57 


(3?) 


2 


18160-1 




18154-7 




5505-37 


4 


2 


18164-1 




18158-7 




6502-00 


3? 


— 


18175-2 




18169-8 




5500-44 


3 


2 


18180-4 




181750 




5499-70 


3 


1 


18182-8 




18177-1 




5499-39 


3 


— 


18183-8 




18178-1 




5499-05 


4 


2 


18185-0 




18179-6 




6498-56 


3 


— 


18186-6 




18181-2 




6496-98 


5 


2 


18191-8 




18186-4 




5496-33 


3 


— 


18194-0 


1 18188-6 




5495-65 


4 


— 


18196-2 


18190-8 




6491-70 


3 


2 


18209-3 




j 18203-9 





ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE Sl'ECTKA Ob' THE ELEMENTS. l!.39 
The Tellueic Lines op the Solae Spectvlvu— continued. 





Intensity 




Reduc- 


Oscillation Frequency 


Becl<er 
(Rowland) ■ 




Oscillation 
Frequcnc)' 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 

Altitude 


tion to 
Vacuum 


Rowland 


Angstrom 


5491-22 


4 


2 


18210-9 


5-4 


18205-5 




5491-04 


(4?) 


— 


18211-5 




18206-1 




5485-20 


3 


2 


18230-9 




18225-5 




5484-28 


O 


1 


18233-9 




18228-5 




5482-76 


4 


2 


18239-0 




18233-6 




5482-09 


6d 


4d 


18241-2 




18235-8 




548052 


(4?) 


— 


18246-4 




18241-0 




5479'51 




2 


18249-8 




18244-4 




5478-93 


4 


2 


18251-7 




18246-3 




5478-32 


7 


2 


18253-8 




18248-4 




5475-41 


2 


— 


18263-5 




18258-1 




5473-54 


5 


3 


18269-7 




18264-3 




5470-35 


8 


2 


18280-4 




18275-0 




5466-90 


6 


2 


18291-9 




18286-5 




546617 


3 


2 


18294-4 




18289-0 




5465-47 


5 


2 


18296-7 




18291-3 




5465-21 


6 


3 


18297-6 




18292-2 




5464-84 


(3 


2 


18298-8 




18293-4 




5462-59 


(7?) 


7 


18306-3 




183009 




546218 


5 


2 


18307-7 




18302-2 




5459-54 


7 


— 


18316-6 




18311-2 




5459-05 


(3?) 


2 


18318-2 




18312-8 




5458-65 


5 


2 


18319-5 




18316-1 




5457-62 


7 


4 


18323-0 


18317-6 




5457-34 


4 


2 


18323-9 




18318-5 




5456-58 


8 


4 


18326-5 




18321-1 




5455-28 


4 


2 


18330-9 




18325-5 




5452-54 


3 


1 


18340-1 




18334-7 




5451-26 


4 


2 


18344-4 




183390 




5450-43 


4 


1 


18347-2 




18341-8 




5449-57 


5 


1 


183501 




183447 




5449-16 


4 


2 


18351-5 


18348-1 




5449-07 


4 


2 


18351-8 i 


18348-4 




5448-22 


G 


2 


18354-6 i 


18349-2 




5446-25 


8 


1 


18361-3 




18355-9 




5444-23 


4 


2 


18368-1 




18362-7 




5442-51 


7 


4 


18373-9 




18368-5 




5439-91 


3 


1 


18382-7 




18377-3 




5439-06 \ 
5438-99 J 


5d 


2 


18385-6 




18380-2 




5438-43 


4 


2 


18387-7 




18382-3 




5438-16 


4 


2 


183880 




18383-2 




5437-36 


6 


4 


18391-3 




18385-9 




5437-23 


6 


4 


18391-7 




18386-3 




5435-76 


7 


2 


18390-7 




18391-3 




5435-49 


3/ 


— 


18397-6 




18392-2 




5434-92 


6 


1 


18399-5 




18394-1 




5434-04 


4 


2 


18402-5 




18397-1 




5431-82 


5 


3 


18410-0 




18404-6 




5431-60 


5 


3 


18410-8 




18405-4 




5431-25 


3 


1 


18412-0 




18406-6 




5430-46 


4 


3 


18414-7 




18409-3 




5428-88 \ 
6428-78/ 


Id 


3 


18420-0 




18414-6 




3 


18420-4 




18415-0 




5428-091 
5427-89/ 


5d 


3 


18422-7 




18417-3 


1 


3 


18423-4 




184180 





s 2 



260 iiEPOKT — 1891. 

The Telluric Lines of the Solar Spectrum — continued. 



Becker 
(Ro-wland) 


Intensity- 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 
tion to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


1 


Kowland 


Angstrom 


5427-17 


5d 


2 


15425-8 


5-4 


18420-4 




5426-85 


(3?) 


3 


18426-9 




18421-5 




5420-42 


(3?) 


3 


18428-4 




18423-0 




5425-96 


3 


2 


18429-9 




18424-5 




5425-09 


4 


1 


18432-9 




18427-5 




5423-66 


3 


— 


18437-7 




18432-3 




542306 \ 
5422-98/ 


9cl 


?, 


18439-9 




18434-5 




5421-31 


7d 


5 


18445-7 




18440-3 




5420-71 


7 


2 


18447-8 




18442-5 




5420-49 \ 
5420-41 / 


(8?) 


6 


f 18448-5 
1 18448-8 




18443-1 






18443-4 




5419-49 


8 


3 


~ 18451-9 




18447-5 




5418-4.'5 


5 


2 


18455-5 


5-4 


18450-1 




5418-07 


5 


3 


18456-8 


5-5 


18451-3 




5417-39 


5 


1 


18459-1 




18453-G 




5416-68 


4 


2 


18461-5 




18456-0 




5416-47 


4 


— 


18462-2 




18456-7 




5416-25 


6 


■2 


18463-0 




18457-5 




5415-66 


4 


1 


1816.--0 




18459-5 




541518 


4 


— 


18466-6 




1S461-1 




5414-86 


4 


1 


18467-7 




18462-2 




5414-50 


8 


3 


18468-9 




18463-4 




5414-23 


7 


6 


18469-8 




184G4-3 




5413-30 


8d 


4 


18473-0 




18467-5 




5413-00 


7 


4 


184740 




18468-5 




5412-34 


7 


2 


18476-3 




18470-8 




5411-92 


5 


1 


18477-7 




18472-2 




5410-61 


(3?) 


3 


18482-2 




18476-7 




5409-80 


6 


3 


18485-0 




18479-5 




5408-98 


5 


— 


18487-8 




18482-3 




5408-40 


6 


2 


18489-8 




18484-3 




5408-20 


6 


2 


18490-4 




18484-9 




5407-25 


4 


1 


18493-7 




18487-2 




5402-43 


4 


2 


18510-2 




18504-7 




5400-07 


3 


1 


)85l8-3 




18512-8 




5398-66 


4 


— 


18523-1 




185176 




5398-12 


7 


1 


18525-0 




18519-5 




5391-31 


(3?) 


2 


18548-4 




18542-9 




5390-93 


(3?) 


2 


18549-7 




18544-2 




5386-02 


5 


1 


18566-6 




18561-1 




5383-01 


(3?) 


3 


18577-0 




1 8571-5 




5307-85 


(3?) 


3 


18629-4 




18523-9 




5366-95 


(3?) 


2 


18632-6 




18527-1 




6364-09 


(3?) 


2 


18642-5 




18537-0 




5362-32 


4 


3 


18648-6 




18543-1 




5301-08 


3 


2 


18653-0 




18547-5 




5360-51 


2? 


— 


18654-9 


5-5 


18549-4 




5359-95 


2? 


— 


18656-9 


5-0 


18651-3 




5354-10 


3d 


2 


18677-3 




18671-7 




5353-07 


(3?) 


2 


18680-9 




18675-3 




5351-82 


3 


1 


18685-2 




18679-6 




5351-28 


4 


— 


18687-1 




18681-5 




5350-52 


4? 


3 


18689-8 




18684-2 




5349-23 


4 


1 


18694-3 




18688-7 




5348-93 


4? 


3 


18095-3 




18689-7 





ON WATE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 261 
The Tellueic Lines of the Solar SPECTRVM—continited. 





Intensity 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 






Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


(Rowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


tion to 
Vacuum 


Rowland 


Angstrom 


5347-62 


3? 


2 


18699-9 


5-6 


18694-3 




5342-21 


3? 


3 


18718-8 




18713-2 




5340-42 


3? 


2 


18725-1 




18719-5 




5322-64 


(3?) 


2 


18787-7 




18782-1 




5316-19 


3 ? 


1 


18810-5 




18804-9 




5314-02 


3? 


1 


18818-2 




18812-6 




5290-52 


4 


2 


18901-7 




18896-1 




5288-00 


5 


;•) 


18910-7 




18905-1 




5283-58 


(7?) 


5 


18926-6 




18921-0 




5277-19 


3 


1 


18949-5 




18943-9 




5275-40 


(7?) 


6 


18955-9 




18950-3 




5275-11 


(7 7) 


6 


18957-0 




18951-4 




5251-66 


4? 


2 


19041-6 




19036-0 




5251-52 


3 


1 


19042-1 


5-6 


19036-5 




5205-40 


4 


2 


19210-8 


5-7 


]920n-l 




5205-12 


4 


2 


19211-9 


5-7 


19206-2 




5143-94 


5d 


— 


19440-4 


5-8 


19434-6 




5142-10 


(2?) 


2 


19447-3 




19441-5 




5132-25 


(3?) 


2 


19484-6 




19478-8 




5125-20 


(10?) 


8 


19511-4 




19505-6 




5117-02 


(5?) 


4 


19542-6 




10536-8 




5116-72 


(5?) 


4b 


19543-8 




19538-0 




5111-16 


4 


1 


19565-0 




19559-2 




5110-20 


3 


1 


19568-7 




19562-9 




5105-07 


4d 


1 


19588-4 




19582-6 




5103-86 "I 
5103-77/ 
5102-57 


(3?) 


2d 


19593-2 




19587-4 




8 


3 


19598-0 




19592 2 




5101-90 


6 


2 


19600-5 




19594-7 




5097-40 


5 


3 


19617-8 




19612-0 




5096-23 


5 


1 


19622-4 




19616-6 




5095-95 


7 


2 


19623-4 




19617-6 




5094-52 


8 


5 


19628-9 




19623-1 




5094-20 


6 


— 


19630-2 




19624-4 




5094-04 


6 


2 


19630-8 




19625-0 




5093-78 


2 


— 


196318 




196260 


■ 


5092-58 


8 


4 


19636-4 




19630-6 




5092-37 


7 


o 


19637-2 




19631-4 




5091-32 


4 


2 


19641-3 




19635-5 




5090-39 \ 
5090-25 / 


4d 


2 


19645-1 




19639-3 




5089-92 


4 


2 


19646-7 




19640-9 




5089-36 


(4?) 


4 


19648-8 




19643-0 




5089-23 


(4?) 


3 


19649-3 




19643 5 




6086-75 


6 


2 


19658-9 




19653-1 




5086-21 


6 


— 


19661-0 




19655-2 




5085-39 


4 


2 


19664-2 




19658-4 




5085-11 


3 


— 


19665-3 




19659-5 




5084-64 


5 


2 


19667-1 




19661-3 




5083-91 


7 


2 


19669-9 




19664-1 




5083-12 


6 


2 


19673-0 




19667-2 




5080-53 


8 


5 


19683-0 




19677-2 




5079-70 


7 


1 


19686-2 




19680-4 




5078-57 


6 


3 


19690-6 




19684-8 




5078-18 


3 


1 


19692-1 




19686-3 




5077-57 


7 


3 


19694-5 




19688-7 


j 



^^i2 






EEPORT 1 


891. 






The Telluric Likes of the Solae Spectrum — eontimied. 




Intensity- 






Oscillation Frequency 


B6ck6r 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


Reduc- 


in Vacuo 


(Kowland) 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 


tion to 
Vacuum 




Ro-wland 


Angstrom 


5076-65 


9 


2 


19698-0 


5-8 


19692-2 




6075-98 


5 


2 


19700-6 




19694-8 




5074-43 


3? 


1 


19706-H 




19700-8 




6073-89 


4? 


3 


19708-7 




19702-9 




5073-09 


7 


6 


19711-8 




19706-0 




5072-06 


4 




19715-8 




19710-0 




5071-40 


5 


1 


19718-4 




19712-6 




5071-21 


5 


2 


19719-2 




19713-4 




5070-35 


5 


— 


19722-5 




19716-7 




5070-04 


5 


3 


19723-7 




19717-9 




6069-53 


4 


3 


19725-3 




19719-5 




5069-26 


5 


7 


19726-7 




19720-9 




5068-88 


11? 


9 


19728-2 




19722-4 




5068-45 


5 


4 


19729-9 




197231 




5067-29 


11 


8 


19734-4 




19728-6 




5066-49 


6 


3 


19737-5 




19731-7 




5066-04 


9 


6 


19739-3 




197335 




5065-85 


(3?) 


3 


19740-0 




19734-2 




5063-74 


4 


1 


19748-2 


5-8 


19742-4 




5062-44 


(3?) 


2 


19753-3 


59 


19747-4 




5061-18 


6 


2 


19758-2 




19752-3 




5060-56 


5 


2 


10760-7 




19754-8 




5060-19 


10 


8 


19762-1 




19756-2 




6059-58 


8 


1 


19764-5 




19758-6 




6058-32 


6 


2 


19769-4 




19763-5 




5C57-69 


9 


— 


19771-9 




197660 




5056-95 


5 


5 


19774-8 




19768-9 




6056-58 


10 


3 


19776-2 




19770-3 




5056-44 


5 


2 


19776-8 




19770-9 




5055-28 


4 


2 


19781-3 




19776-4 




5054-52 


4 


— 


19784-3 




19778-4 




5053-92 


6 


3 


19786-6 




19780-7 




5053-64 


5d 


3 


19787-7 




19781-8 




5052-52 


6 


1- 


19792-1 




19786-2 




5052-31 


6? 


3 


19792-9 




19787-0 




5050-49 


4 


2 


19800-1 




19794-2 




5049-72 


5 


1 


198031 




19797-2 




5047-56 


(4?) 


3 


19811-5 




19805-C 




5047-14 


(4?) 


3b 


19813-2 




19807-3 




5046-65 


3 


— 


19815-1 




19809-2 




5046-35 


3 


2 


19816-3 




19810-4 




5045-76 


4 


— 


19818-6 




19812-7 




5044-73 


3 


2 


19822-7 




19816-8 




5044-08 


8 


3 


19825-2 




19819-3 




5043-13 


8 


:; 


19829-0 




198231 




5042-97 


8 


3 


19829-6 




19823-7 




5042-62 


3 


2 


19831-0 




19825-1 




5041-46 


8 


4 


19835-5 




19829-6 




6040-67 


4 


3 


19838-6 




19832-7 




5040-39 


5 


3 ' 


19839-7 




19833-8 




5039-86 


7 


2 


19841-8 




19835-9 




5039-03 


5 




19845-1 




19839-2 




5038-91 


5 


2 


19845-R 




19839-7 




5038-42 


9 


7 


19847-5 




19841-6 




5038-23 


(5?) . 


— 


19848-3 




19842-4 




5038-00 1 


5 


2 


19849-1 




19843-2 





ON WAVE-LENGTU TABLES OF THE .SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 263 



The Tellueic Lines of the Solae Specteum — contimted. 





Intensity- 






Oscillation Frequency 


Becker 
(Rowland) 






Oi!oilla.tion 


Iteduc- 


in Vacuo 


Horizon 


Medium 
Altitude 




tiori to 




h reouencv ^_ 

j Vacuum 


Rowland 


Angstrom 


5037-82 


9 


4 


19,S49-9 


5-9 


19844-0 




5037-43 


8 


3 


19851-4 




19845-5 




5035-83 


8 


2 


19857-7 




19851-8 




5035-19 


5 


— 


19860-2 




19854-3 




5034-80 


8 


1 


19861-8 




19855-9 




5034-69 


7 


__ 


19862-2 




19856-3 




5034-45 


5 


2 


19863-1 




19857-2 




:'034-23 


5 


2 


19864-0 




19858-1 




5033-17 


5 


2 


19868-2 




19862-3 




6031-34 


6 


2 


19875-4 




19869-5 




5030-52 


4 


1 


19878-7 




19872-8 




5029-82 


8 


— 


19881-4 




19875-5 




5028-98 


6 


2 


19884-7 




19878-8 




5028-72 





1 


19885-8 




19879-9 




5026-26 


6 


. — 


19895-5 




19889-6 




5025-94 


G 


3 


19896-8 




19890-9 




5024-81 


6 


2 


19901-3 




18895-4 




5024-39 


6 


a 


19902-9 




19897-0 




5019-49 


4 


— 


19922-4 




19916-5 




5019-26 


4 


3 


19923-3 




19917-4 




5018-65 


5? 


— 


19925-7 




19919-8 




5018-55 


11 


9 


19226-1 




19920-2 




5018-00 


r 


I 


19928-3 




19922-4 




5017-23 


5 


2 


19931-3 




19925-4 




5016-07 


5 


1 


19935-9 




19930-0 


* 


5015-33 


4 


2 


19938-9 




19933-0 




5006-90 


4 


2 


19972-4 




19966-5 




5004-48 


5 


3 


199821 




19976-2 




5002-75 


4 


2d 


19989-0 




19983-1 




4998-14 


5 


3 


20007-4 




20001-5 




4996-13 


3 


1 


20015-5 




20009-6 




4988-50 


(3 ?) 


2 


20046-1 




20040-2 




4984-91 


4 


1 


20060-5 




20054-6 




4983-69 


4 


1 


20005-5 




20059-6 




4981-48 


6 


2 


20074-4 




20068-5 




4975-95 


3? 


2 


20096-7 


5-9 


20080-8 




4969-61 


(3 ?) 


2 


20122-3 


6-0 


20116-3 




4969-41 


(3?) 


2 


20123-1 




20127-1 




4964-80 


(4?) 


2 


20141-8 




20135-8 




4913-10 


2 


— 


20353-7 




20147-7 




4902-52 


4? 


3 


20397-7 




20191-7 




4902-21 


4? 


3 1 


20399-0 




20193-0 





Interim Report of the Committee consisting of Professor Thobpe, 
Professor Hummel (Secretary), Dr. Perkin, Professor Eussell, 
Captain Abney, and Professor Stroud, on the Action of Light 
upon Dyed Colours. Drawn up by the Secretary. 

The primary object of the -work of this Committee is to determine 
accurately the relative fastness to light of all the various colours at 
present employed by the dyer of textile fabrics. This is to be attained 



264 BEPOET— 1891. 

by exposing to direct sunliglit and tbe ordinary atmospheric inflaences, 
patterns of silks, wool, and cotton, specially dyed with the various 
natural and artificial colouring matters. 

The work of purifying these colouring mattei-s, dyeing the patterns, 
recording the dyed and faded colours of each pattern, &c., &c., must 
necessarily require much time. Moreover, owing to the very large 
number of colours to be examined, the long exposure needed to give 
useful results (one year at least), and the limited capacity of the exposing- 
frame employed, the work will naturally proceed but slowly, and will 
extend over a period of some years. 

During the past year the Secretary of the Committee has been 
engaged in collecting samples of the colouring matters required for the 
investigation, and in making preliminary exposure experiments with the 
view of determining the best method of procedure to be adopted. 

Having decided to expose the patterns in groups according to colour, 
the work of pui-ifying and dyeing with the red colouring matters has 
been begun, and is now in progress in accordance with a scheme in the 
hands of members of the Committee. 

Of the 20^. originally granted to the Committee at the last meeting 
of the Association in Leeds, the sum of \7l. 10s. has been expended in 
the purchase of the necessary silk, wool, and cotton material, also an 
exposing frame, which has been erected at Adel in the neighbourhood of 
Leeds. 

Particulars of this expenditure have been forwarded by the Chairman 
of the Committee to the General Treasurer. 



Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors 
M'Leod and W. Eamsay, and Mr. W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the Influence of the Silent Discharge 
of Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases. 

The Committee regrets to state that, owing to various circumstances, 
very little further progress has been made during the past year. The 
necessary means for securing assistance in part of the work have, how- 
ever, lately been secured, and its continued progress may therefore now 
be looked for ; and it is recommended that the Committee be reappointed. 
No grant is asked for, as the necessary apparatus is at the command 
of the Committee. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors H. 
M^LEODi Chairman), Eoberts-Austen (Secretary), and Eeinold, 
and Mr. H. Gr. Madan, appointed for the Continuation of the 
Bibliography of Spectroscopjy. 

The collection and verification of the titles of papers on spectroscopy 
have been continued during the past year, but there is not yet suflGcicnt 
matter for publication. 

The Committee desire to be reappointed. 



ON ISOMERIC NArnXHALENE DEEIVATIVES. 265 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Tilden and 
Professor Armstrong {Secretary), appointed for the pw^ose of 
investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. {Drawn up 
by Professor Armstrong.) 

The isomeric d'uMoronaiMlmlenes. — Since the publication of the pre- 
vious report Mr. Wynne and the writer have completed their examination 
of the dichloronaphthalenes. As mentioned in the third report, no 
fewer than twelve isomerides were reputed to exist ; one of these, however 
— strange to say, the a-modification, the oldest member of the set — has 
proved to be non-existent as a distinct isomeride, being a mixture of two 
others inseparable by the ordinary methods of crystallisation ; while 
another has been shown to have been improperly ranked as a dichloro- 
derivative, being a trichloronaphthalene. The remaining ten have been 
characterised and their constitution determined by logical and consistent 
arguments, which leave no doubt that they actually are the ten dichloro- 
naphthalenes which, according to theory, can exist if the simple double 
hexagon formula for naphthalene be adopted. 

The formulte of the ten dichloronaphthalenes are given in the table 
below, those of the acids into which they are converted on sulphonation 
being given in the second column of the table, and those of the corre- 
sponding trichloronaphthalenes in the third. In this table S is printed 
for SO3H ; the melting points of the chloride and amide of the acid are 
indicated below the symbol of the acid.' 



aa-BLldoronapldlialenes. 



CI CI CI 

/\/\ s/\/\ ci/\A 

Ml - Ml - i 

W ^'Y ^MT 

M. p. = (;7°o. SO..CI, m. p. = 132°. M. p. = G6°. 
SOjSH,, m. p. = 244°. 

Ci CI CI CI CI C'l 

/\/\ /x/\ /Y^i 

'\/x/ Vx/ \yyf 

« Ul 

M. p. = 82°. S0„C1, m. p. = m°. M. p. = 131°. 
.SO',NH„ m. p. = 228°. 

CI CI 

CI Cl 

SO.Cl, m. p. = 139° 5. M. p. = 103° 
bOnNH.,, m. p. = 20-1°. 




-^ 



Cf. Chen. Soc. rrocccdin/jn, 1S90, pp. 77-84. 



266 



KEPOKT 1891. 



M. p. = 119°-5. 



Cl/VVl 



\y\/ 

M. p. = 114°. 



PfS-DicMoronapJithalenes. 

I ' "ci " 

S0„C1, m. p. = 142°. 
SO.>H„, m. p. = 2GS°. 



y\y\, 



,C1 



Cl! 



\y\/ 

M. p. = 135° 



/\/\ 



I I ' (0 

S0,,C1, m. p. = 178°. 

ci/Y^ci 

Sa.Cl, m. p. = 163°-5. 
SO.NH., m. p. = 218°. 

/V^ci 

I j 1 -> 

S0.,C1, m. p. = 13G°. 
SOoNH,, 111. p. = 2G1I°. 

a/3-DicMoronapJifhalencs. 

Cl 

,/\/\ci 



Cl 

/y^ci 

' I 'ci 

M. p. = 109°-5. 



Cl; 



/\y\ 



M. p. = 91 



Cl) 
Cl 



/\/\, 



Cl 



CL 



Cl 
M. p. = 113°. 



Cl 

/VNci 



Cl 



Cl 



\/\/ ^ 



s 

S0.,C1, m. p. = 104°. 
SO.]XPL, m. p. = 217°. 

Cl 

/yxci 

S0.,C1. m. p. = 1G7°5. 
SO",NH,, m. p. = 190°. 

Cl 
/\y\ 



Cl 

M. p. = 78°-5. 



Cl 

^Y^ci 

M. p. = 91°, 

Cl 
/\X\ 



Cl 



Cl 



M. p. = or. 



S0.,C1, m. p. = 148°-5. 
SO'.NH.,, m. p. = 272°, 

Cl 



Cl 
M. p. = 103°. 



Cl 

ci^,/^ 



S0..C1, m. p. = 121°. 
BOJNH., m. p. = 228° 



M. p. = 113°. 



ON 


ISOMERIC NArUXHALENE DEEIVATITES. 


CI 

ci/\/\ 




-> 


Cl 

1 1 -> 


Cl 

ci/\/\ 


\x\y 






s 


Cl 


M. p. = C2-U— G3 


;°-5. 




S0.,C1, m. p = 118°. 
SO.NH,,, m. p. = 220°. 


M. p. = GG° 


CI 




-> 


Cl 

->• 


Cl 


^'\/%/ 








Cl 


M. p. = 48°. 






S0„C1, m. p. = 151°. 


M. p. = GG°. 



267 



SO,NH., m. p. = 216°. 

The establishment of the existence of such a series of ten isomeride.s 
formed by the introduction of but two atoms of chlorine into a hydro- 
carbon is in itself remarkable ; it is still more remarkable when the 
diversity of properties which the isomerides manifest is taken into con- 
sideration ; moreover the identification of ten isomerides and the recog- 
nition of their constitution afford striking testimony to the completeness 
of modern methods of inquiry and the truth of our theory of constitution : 
however much our symbols may differ from actuality, there cannot be a 
doubt that they afford a most accurate presentment of intramolecular 
relationship. 

It may be added that the facts now established place it beyond ques- 
tion that the hydrocarbon naphthalene has a symmetrical structure such 
as is indicated by the conventional double hexagon formula ; it remains 
to solve the far more difficult problem involved in the determination of 
its exact inner structure. 

The opportunity afforded by a series of ten isomerides for the com- 
parative study of physical properties in their relation to constitution is 
obviously very great, and it is intended ere long to enter on this branch 
of the inquiry. 

The isomeric dihromonaphtJialenes. — With the object of securing the 
data necessary for the exact comparison of the chloro- and bromo-deriva- 
tives of naphthalene, and especially the behaviour of naphthalene towards 
chlorine and bromine, much time has been devoted by the writer and Mr. 
Rossiter to the study of the dibromonaphthalenes. The results are not 
yet sufficiently complete to render their publication desirable. 

The isomeric trichloronaphthale^ies. — Theoretically fourteen isomeric 
trichloronaphthalenes can exist. As the determination of the constitu- 
tion of a large number of naphthalene derivatives — including many of 
technical importance — is dependent on a knowledge of the trichloronaph- 
thalenes, Mr. Wynne and the writer have paid much attention to their 
study ; besides the seven already known, they have succeeded in preparing 
six others, and are at present endeavouring to prepare the only modifica- 
tion which remains to be discovered. The melting points of the thirteen 
known trichloronaphthalenes and their probable constitution are indicated 
in the following table, in which also are given the letters by which they 
have been distinguished. 



268 



KEPOET — 1891. 



- 


Ccinstitution 


Jlelting Point 


1 - 


Constitution 


Melting Point 


[«] 


1 : 2 : :5 


81° 


i M 


1:3:2' 


113° 




1:2:4 


92° 


1 W 


1:3:3' 


80° 





1 : 2 :i' 


unknown 


[7] 


1:3:4' 


103° 





1:2:2' 


84° 


! [8] 


1:4:1' 


131° 


— 


1 : 2 : ;5' 


92°-5 


1 [6 and Q 


1:4:2' 


66° 





1:2:4' 


78°-5 




2:3:1' 


109°-3 


?M 


1:3:1' 


90° 


1 — 


2:3:2' 


91° 



It will be noticed that three modifications melt at about 80°, and four 
near to 90° ; hence it is important to ascertain the distinctive properties 
of the several modifications, so that their identification may be rendered 
easy and certain. This difficult and wearisome task will, it is hoped, be 
completed during the coming year. 

Naplithalenedisulphonic acids.- — By eliminating the NH2 group from 
beta-naphthylaminedisulphonic acid G, Mr. Wynne and the writer, since 
the publication of the last report, have succeeded in preparing naph- 
thalene 1 : 3 or jjie^a-disulphonic acid ; the same acid has been inde- 
pendently prepared in this manner in the laboratory of the Badische Anilin 
und Soda Fabrik. It is noteworthy that although in a measure the 
analogue of benzenemetadisulphonic acid, which readily yields resorcinol 
on fusion with alkali, naphthalene I : o disulphonic acid is converted by 
fusion with alkali with remarkable facility into a trihydroxynaphthalene. 
Five of the ten possible disulphonic acids are therefore now known. 
Their properties are summarised in a table in the ' Chemical Society's 
Proceedings,' 1890, p. 14. 

Naphthylamine-, iiapldhol- and chloronaj^htlialene-dis^dplionic acids. — A 
large number of disulphonic acids of the uaphthylamines and naphthols 
are now in technical use,' and both on this account and in order to obtain 
the material for a discussion of the comparative influence of NHg and 
OH, the constitution of these acids has been determined by Mr. Wynne 
and the writer, and they have also prepared disulphonic acids by sulpho- 
nating the chloronaplithalenesiilphonic acids in oi'der to compare the 
influence of what may be regarded as a neutral radicle with that of the 
alkylic NH2 and acidic OH; the results have been recorded during the 
past two years in nine communications to the Chemical Society, and 
appear in the 'Proceedings.' One interesting result of the examination 
of the disulphonic acids, to which attention may be called, is that ap- 
parently there is an ' invincible objection ' on the part of two SO3H 
groups to remain in either contiguous or para- or peri-positions. The 
expression ' remain in ' is used advisedly, as it appears probable that 
initially such positions are not infrequently taken up by sulphonic groups. 
The formation of heta-derivatives. — In previous reports emphasis has 
over and over again been laid on the fact that in the majority of cases 
naphthalene gives rise to aZjs/ia-derivatives, ieia-derivatives being formed 
only when a group is present which determines the entry of the new 
group into the contiguous beta-position or owing to the occurrence of 
secondary change. Attention must now be called to certain important 
exceptions to this rule. 

' A very complete description of the various naphthalene derivatives which are 
used technically will be found in the art. Naphthalene by Mr. Wynne in the recently- 
published vol. ii. of Thorpe's ZUctMiiari/ uf Ajiplicd Chcmistri/ (Longmans). 



ox ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DlJaVATIVE?. 269 

One of these exceptions is that afforded by the formation from napli- 
thalene 1 : 3' disuliilionic acid on nitnition of a nitro-acid of the formula 

(cf. 'Chem. Soc. Proceedings,' 1801, p. 27) ; this acid, however, is but a 
subsidiary product, the main product being an acid of the formula 

NO,, R 

It has long been known that when the 1 : 4' disulphonic acid is 
nitrated, it yields an ct-nitro-acid ; recently Mr. Wynne and the writer 
Lave found that the product also contains the isomeric /3-nitro-acid. 

Other exceptions are afforded by the production of beta-chloro- and 
bromo- naphthalene on cblorination and brominationof naphthalene;' and 
by the pi'eSence of a certain proportion of beta-naphthylamine in com- 
mercial alpha-naphthylamine — a proof that naphthalene yields some beta- 
nitronaphthalene on nitration ; the writer's attention has been called to 
this last fact both by Dr. H. Caro and by Professor Noelting. 

Lastly Mr. Rossiter and the writer have found that beta-naphthol 
when brominated yields a dibromo-derivative of the formula 

Br 

and in this case there appears to be no alpha-compound formed, so that 
the departure from the alpha-law is complete. 

But the explanation of these results is not difficult. In no case 
probably is the substitution derivative the direct product of change ; but 
its formation is preceded by that of an addition compound. This is 
generally admitted in the case of chloro- and bromo-derivatives, but 
evidence of the formation of addition compounds has not hitherto been 
forthcoming in other cases. Mr. Rossiter and the writer, however, have 
recently given proof that a compound with nitric acid is initially formed 
in the process of nitration.'^ Obviously, in the case of a symmetrical 
molecule such as that of bromine, either an alpha- or a beta- derivative will 
result, according as either the beta- or the alpha-atom of bromine becomes 
eliminated from the bromide, thus : — 

HBr Br 

HBr H 

^/\ HBr /\/\ Br 

I \^^^ = I I I + HBr 



• Cf. Chevi. Soc. Proceedings, 1890, p. 85. - IhiiL, 1891, p. 89. 



270 , EEroKi— 181)1. 

The alpha-law in this case is expressed by saying that in the main the 
tendency is for the beta-bromine atom to be removed. 

In the case of a dissymmetrical molecule, such as that of nitric acid, 
the formation of the one or the other derivative will depend on the 
nature of the addition compound — i.e., on the distribution of the radicles 
of the acid — assuming them to be ' distributed ' when addition takes 
place, thus : — 



NO, 

HO 




I I j + HO.NO, = 
\/\/ 

y\/\ 

111+ HO.NO, = 

In this case the alpha-law is expressed in the statement that in the main 
the tendency is for the acid radicle to assume an alpha-position in the 
addition compound first formed. 

This question has already been discussed by Mr. Wynne and the 
writer with reference to the tetra-chlorides of naphthalene and of its 
derivatives, naphthalene tetrachloi-ide affording the three possible di- 
chloronaphthalenes, but the 1 : 'A compound in largest and the 1 : 2 in least 
proportion, thus : — 

HGl CI CI 

/\/^ HCl /\/\ /\/\ y\y\ CI 



HCl CI 

The behaviour of the substituted chlorides is as follows : — 

Chief product of iictioa 
Chief chloride. of potash on chloride. 

CI Cl„ CI 

/\/\ /X/X HCl /\A CI 

I "^ M "' 

I 1 ! Ill TTpi I I I PI 

\/\y \/v/ \/\/ 

HCl M. p. = 81°. 

HCl CI 

i/\ A CI HCl /VN CI /\/\ CI 



HCl M. p. = 113°. 

S0„C1 HCl S0„C1 SO3K 

i/\A HCl /\/\ CI /V^ 

I I I Hn III I I I 

HCl CI 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 271 

Chief product of action 
Chief chloride. of potash on chloride. 

HCl CI 

/\^\ S0,C1 HCl /'^.'^ SOX'l /^/^i SO3K 



HCl 



HCl CI 

The influence of the substituent both as affecting tlie addition of 
chlorine and the elimination of hydrogen chloride is especially note- 
worthy. It will be seen that the sulphochlorides behave alike, but the 
two chloronaphtbalenes dissimilarly towards chlorine, and that each 
compound decomposes in a manner peculiar to itself on treatment with 
alcoholic potash. 

As yet no evidence has been obtained that a heta-hromo-, chlorp-, or 
nitro-derivative may result by isomeric change from a previously formed 
aZp^a-derivative. 

With regard to the suIpJwnic acids, on reference to the previous 
table in which the constitution of the acids formed on sulphonating 
the ten dichloronaphthalenes is indicated, it will be observed that in some 
cases an a- and in some cases a /3-sulphouic acid is formed, or a mixture 
of both. Mr. Wynne and the writer have expressed the opinion that the 
a-acid is always initially produced, and that in some cases this is so 
unstable that it spontaneously passes over into the ^-isomeride and 
escapes observation, while in others it is partially preserved. They base 
this conclusion on the fact that in all cases hitherto studied in which both 
acids are formed it is possible to convert the a- into the y8-acid by heating. 
Thus 1 : 2-dichloronaphthalene affords about two-thirds a- and one-third 
yS-acid ; but when the product is heated the latter is practically the sole 
product. In like manner the initial product of sulphonation from 
1 : 3-dichloronaphthalene contains about one-fifth /3-acid ; but if it be 
heated at 160° during eighteen hours complete convei'sion into the yS-iso- 
meride is effected. 

Should this conclusion with reference to the manner in which beta- 
sulphonic acids are formed be ultimately established it would follow that, 
unlike nitric acid, sulphonating agents regularly act in one way, and that 
the formation of the addition compound takes place in such a manner 
that the sulphonic radicle always attaches itself in an alpha-position. 

Isomeric cltange in the case of sulphonic acids. — The problems which 
this subject presents are of extreme interest ; some idea of their character 
is afforded by the following example. When heated at about 150-160'* 
1 : 4 a-chloronaphthalene sulphonic acid undergoes a change into the more 
symmetrical ftZ^/tot-isomeride, while 2 : l'-y8-chloronaphthalenesulphonic 
acid is converted in a similar manner into the more symmetrical leta- 
isomeride — results which may be regarded as indicative of a tendency to a 
final state of symmetry, thus : — 



CI 

1 

1 


-> 


Cl 


SO,H 

ci/VA. 

1 


-> 1 


SO3H 




\y\/ 

SO,H 


\/\/ 


\/\/^«'^^ 



In the case of the dichlorosulphonic acids it is noteworthy that tlie 



'272 REPoiJT— 1801. 

position ultimately taken up by the SO3H radicle appears to be deter- 
mined by the beta-chlorine-atom, perhaps because the /8-salphonic acids 
ai'e the most ' degraded ' products, thus : — 

CI CI CI CI 

/\/\ci /\/\ci /\/\ s/\/^- 




\x\/ ^\y\x x/v/^^ \/^ ^^^ 

s 

With reference to these examples it may be pointed out that the 
apparent passage of the sulphonic radicle in the one case from one 
nucleus into the other, in another from an alpha- into the contiguous beta-, 
and in a third from an alpha- into the more distant beta-position, are 
remarkable variations of the phenomenon of intramolecular mobility. 

There is a striking difference in the behaviour of the 1 : 4, 1 : 4', and 
1 : 2 oa-dichloronaphthalenes, to which attention may be directed, the non- 
formation of the acid containing a chlorine atom and the sulphonic radicle 
in the 1:1' position being noteworthy, thus : — 

Cl Cl Cl Cl 

1 viflds 



s 

Cl 




01 
Cl 

y\/\ 



Cl 

In the case of the 1 : 4 and 1 : 4' compounds the sulphonic radicle is 
obviously influenced in two directions, and may be said to take up a 
mean position. 

A case of isomeric change which at present appears altogether para- 
doxical is that which is said to occur on heating sodium naphthionate 
(NH, : SOsNa = 1 : 4) at 200-250°, whereby it is converted into the 
isomeric 1 : 2-compound. 

The foregoing brief reference to the work of the Committee will 
suffice to show that the study of naphthalene derivatives is fraught with 
interest, more especially as it is to be anticipated that results of general 
application will be obtained in the course of the inquiry. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOLUTION. 273 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden, 
McLeod, Pickering, Eamsay, and Young and Drs. A. R. Leeds 
and NicoL (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the Bibliography of Solution. 

During the past year no progress has been made with the work of 
cataloguing the papers on Solution in the few remaining selected 
journals. 

The Committee invite the co-operation of members who have access 
to large scientific libraries and are willing to take an active part in the 
work. 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Tilden 
and Eamsay and Dr. Nicol (Secretary), appointed for the 
picrpose of investigating the Properties of Solutions. 

The Committee have to report that, owing to the pressure of other work 
but little progress has been made with experiments on the atomic 
volumes of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen when substances containing 
these elements are dissolved in water or other solvents. A preliminary 
research on the volume of oxygen in the oxy-acids of chlorine, bromine, 
and iodine has been completed with somewhat startling results, which 
lead the Committee to hope that valuable data will be obtained when 
the work is complete. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Egberts- 
Austen {Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Eiley and J. 
Spiller, Professor J. W. Langley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Professor 
Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner (Secretary), appointed to 
consider the best method of establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

In the two previous reports of this Committee the objects of the 
Committee were defined, and an account was give a of the preparation 
and distribution by the American Committee of four out of the five 
international steel standards which Professor Langley had been requested 
and had kindly undertaken to prepare. A year ago it was hoped that a 
final report would be presented at the Cardifi' meeting, but, unfortunately, 
this hope has not been realised, and the completion of the work has been 
deferred. In the second report mention was made of the fact that the 
American Committee had entered upon an investigation of the relative 
accuracy of different methods of analysis, particularly in connection with 
the estimation of carbon in steel. This work was not considered within 
the province of the British Association Committee when its obiects were 
1891. •* J 



274 REPORT — 1891. 

defined in accordance with the discussion which took place at Bath and 
with subsequent correspondence with Professor Langley. 

The British Association Committee have during the past year care- 
fully considered the course of action taken by the American Committee 
and the position of British analysts now that the scope of the inquiry 
entered into by the former has been thus enlarged, and it has been 
considered advisable to publish the results of the determinations of the 
British analysts as soon as their work is completed. This view was 
communicated to Professor Langley, who in a letter received on August 7, 
1891, endorses the proposed publication of the results hitherto obtained 
by the British Association Committee. 

Owing to the very short time which has elapsed since the receipt of 
Professor Langley's letter and the fact that two of the British analysts 
have not yet forwarded their reports to the Committee, it has not yet 
been possible to institute a comparison of results obtained, but no time 
will be lost in completing the examination of the four standards at present 
in hand and in then prejjaring a report on the English results. Dr. 
Wedding has informed Professor Langley that the work of the German 
Committee is now nearly completed. 

The fifth standard has not yet been prepared, some difficulty having 
been met with in obtaining so large a quantity of mild steel of perfectly 
uniform composition. It was originally proposed to make the standard 
of basic steel, but it was urged that greater uniformity could be obtained 
with crucible metal. Professor Langley states that he has made several 
attempts to make crucible steel sufficiently low in carbon, but finds it 
impossible to do so in the plumbago crucibles used in the United States. 
This matter is now under consideration, and it is hoped the fifth standard 
will be prepared shortly. 



Report (jprovisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professors H. E. 
Armstrong and W. E. Dunstan and Messrs. C. H. Bothamley 
and W. A. Shenstone (Secretary), appointed to investigate the 
direct formation of Haloid Compounds from pure materials. 

Having confirmed "VYanklyn's early observation that carefully dried 
chlorine was practically without action on sodium, R. Cowper in 1883 
(' Chem. Soc. Journ.' 1883, pp. 153-155) made a number of experiments 
on the behaviour of dried chlorine towards other metals, and in several 
cases found that if dried by contact with freshly-fused calcium chloride 
it was without action. Thus Dutch metal was apparently still unacted 
on after three months' exposure in the dried gas ; and zinc, in the form of 
foil, and magnesium wire were also unattacked. Silver and bismuth, 
however, were slightly acted on, and tin, antimony, and arsenic were 
rapidly attacked ; mercury appeared to be acted on as rapidly by dried 
chlorine as by the moist gas. 

Pringsheim has since shown that, even in tlie case of hydrogen and 
chlorine, the interaction is affected by the presence of moisture. 

These, and similar observations by H. B. Dixon and others with 
reference to the formation of oxides from dry materials, render it desirable 
to more fully elucidate the conditions which determine the formation of 



ON THE FORMATION OF HALOID COMPOUNDS. 275 

metallic and other chlorides and analogous compounds ; and it is in this 
direction that the Committee are woi'king. 

Mr. Shenstone has already obtained results which are both interest- 
ing and suggestive. Chlorine prepared in the ordinary manner dried by 
exposure in contact with phosphoric oxide during several months was 
found to very readily attack mercury — a result in accordance with 
Cowper's observation. Nevertheless chlorine prepared in another 
manner was found to behave differently. With the object of testing the 
quality of chlorine prepared by heating platinous chloride in vacuo, tubes 
of such chloi'ine, dried by contact during several hours with phosphoric 
oxide, were opened under highly-purified recently-heated mercury : 
although the surface of the mercury in contact with the gas was very 
quickly tarnished, no sensible absorption occurred during many hours in 
dayhght, but afterwards absorption took place, at first gradually, and 
subsequently with tolerable rapidity. Several such experiments were 
made with chlorine prepared from different specimens of platinous chlo- 
ride, and in every case a colourless gaseous residue, not exceeding 5 per 
cent., was obtained, which proved to be partly soluble in water, partly in 
alkaline pyrogallate, and partly insoluble, (? Nitrogen.) The fact that 
absorption at first took place with exceeding slowness, and subsequently 
proceeded at a more and more rapid rate, is apparently a significant 
indication that the interaction of chlorine and mercury is conditioned by 
the presence of some third substance, and the importance of continuing 
the enquiry is unquestionable. 

It is probable that the impurities in the gas from platinous chloride 
are derived from a basic compound. Mr. Shenstone finds that platinous 
chloride is to a slight extent volatile — a fact which is ordinarily overlooked, 
although it has been noticed by Mr. G. Matthey ; hence the analysis of 
the substance by the ordinary method of ignition is liable to afford falla- 
cious results. 

Nearly 201. has ah-eady been expended, chiefly in the purchase of 
platinum and platinum apparatus. The Committee desire to be re- 
appointed, with a grant of ,30/., as the experiments are now being extended 
to a number of other compounds. 



Provisional Report of the Committee, consisting of General Festing, 
Captain Abnet, and Professor H. E. Armstrong {Secretary), 
on the Absorption Spectra of Pure Compounds. 

The determination of the spectra of the compounds which the Committee 
have fixed upon as essential has been continued, and several have been 
measured and classified. The work is very laborious and can only 
progress slowly owing to the difficulty of obtaining absolutely pure 
compounds, and other difficulties in the photographic method employed 
have also arisen. The Committee wish for reappointment to continue the 
investigation. 



T 2 



276 KEPOiiT — 1891. 



Nineteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prest- 
AViCH, Dr. H. W. Ckosskey, Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. 
McKenny Hughes, and T. (r. Bonney and Messrs. C. E. 
De Eance, W. Pengelly, J. Plant, and K. H, Tiddeman, 
appointed for the purpose of recording the Position, Height 
above the Sea, Lithological Characters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blochs of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking 
measures for their preservation. (Draivn up by Dr. Crosskey, 
Secretary.) 

In their last report the Committee gave some of the general results of 
their survey of the erratic blocks in the Midland district of England ; 
they are unable, however, this year still further to address themselves to 
the task of giving a scientific arrangement to the vast number of fa^ts 
that have been collected in consequence of the number of new facts 
which have been reported to them, and which it is necessary to record 
before any more systematic generalisations can be attempted. 

The destruction of erratics, moreover, is going on so rapidly that 
already many of those described in the reports of this Committee have 
disappeared, and in a few years these reports will be the chief evidence 
of the very existence of a large series of phenomena of great importance 
in glacial geology. 

During the past year a N.W. of England Boulder Committee has 
been formed, with Mr. C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S., as President and Mr. 
Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S., as Secretary, which has already done valuable 
work, and promises to accomplish a survey of the erratics of the district 
it has undertaken to explore, so thorough, as ultimately to render a 
scientific arrangement of the facts possible and enable their meaning to 
be understood. 

The Committee have to thank the N.W. of England Boulder Com- 
mittee for the following communications, which contain several features 
of especial interest : — 

(1) The group of boulders reported from Hest Bank (Lancashire) is 
of importance. The stones are exclusively such as might have been 
derived from the country at present draining into the internal angle of 
Morecambe Bay. Account must be taken of this fact in any attempt to 
explain their origin. 

(2) The area occupied by drift containing Lake District erratics is 
extended and help given towards defining the area of their distribution 
on the western slopes of the Pennine chain. 

(3) The remarkable sporadic grouping of large boulders is shown ; 
for example, in the group in the river Tame when taken in connection 
with the records of Cheshire groups. 

(4) Evidence is given of the transport and glaciation of local blocks ; 
e.g., by the discovery of a large angular block of Ardwick lirdestone at 
Haughton Green, the nearest known outcrop of the rock being about 
three miles to the N.W., as well as many other angular blocks of the 
same limestone. 

(5) The mode of transport of some erratics and their behaviour 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND^ ^WALES, AND IRELAND. 277 

towards the solid rocks over which they have been carried are illustrated, 
the account given of the Levenshnlme group furnishing evidence of ice 
in motion. 

Many noteworthy boulders and groups of boulders are also described. 

Lancashire. 

Eeported by Mr. Thomas Ransome. 

Bolt on-le- Sands. — On eastern shore of Morecambe Bay, 1 mile north 
of Hest Bank Railway Station ; 12 ft. 6 in. x 8 ft. x 8 ft. ; oblong ; 
moved ; mountain limestone ; fallen from boulder clay to the sea beach. 

Grojip. 

This is a series of specimens representing all the varieties met with in 
an examination of the boulder clay exposed in the cliffs at Hest Bank. 
The determinations are by Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. — 

1. Shap granite. 

2. Breccia ; red base with large fragments ; ? Brockram. 

3. Grit; gTeenish grey ; very tine and micaceous ; ? Silurian. 

4. Limestone ; red base with many white encrinite stems ; Carboniferous. 

5- ,, black with lithostrotion ; Carboniferous. 

6- « pale buff with ochreous markings ; Carboniferous. 
7. „ pale buffi with encrinite stems ; Carboniferous. 

^. „ earthy buffi with mollusca ; Carboniferous. 

5. „ dark buffi with dendrites ; Carboniferous. 

10. „ earthy red with Spirifera glabra ; Carboniferous. 

11. Chert with many microzoa ; Carboniferous. 

12. „ black with cuboidal jointing; Carboniferous. 

13. Grit; very coarse, dark red, with quartz and other pebbles the size of a 

pea ; ? origin. 

14. Sandstone, buffi, speckled with brown ; Carboniferous. 

15. „ dark brick red ; micaceous; ? Carboniferous. 
1«. Grit; coarse quartzose with felspar ; '.'Millstone grit. 

17. Breccia; andesitic with rhyolitic fragments ; ? Yewdale breccia. 

18. ' Halleflinta ' ; buffi greenish ; Borrowdale. 

19. Rhyolite ; liver-coloured ; flinty with few felspars and no quartz ; Borrowdale. 

20. ? Volcanic rock, stained with copper ; 1 Borrowdale. 

21. Breccia ; andesitic with rhyolitic fragments ; Yewdale. 

22. Ash ; greenish to purple ; Borrowdale. 

23. Mica trap. Cf. those of Sedbergh and Kendal. 

24. Granite ; a small fragment grey, with a portion of felspar crystals contain- 

ing inclusions of quartz ; ? Shap. 

[All these rocks appear to have been derived from the area immediately 
to the northward.— P. F. K.] 

Eeported ly the Rev. C. R. Barker, S.J., B.A. 

A group of boulders from Stonyhurst College, near Whalley, Lanca- 
shire. Stonyhnrst lies four miles to the west of Whalley Station, at a 
height of 360 feet above O.D., on the gentle south-eastern slope of Long- 
ridge Fell. The whole district is made up of Yoredale limestones and 
shales beautifully exposed on the banks of the river Hodder to the 
°°''^|^-63,st, and of the Yoredale grits which form the Longridge Fell and 
all the neighbouring hills ; and up to a considerable height the country 
is covered with a uniform coat of boulder clay, from which (except when 



278 EEPOET— 1891. 

otberwise specified) the erratics in question Lave been extracted. 
Glacial striae may be seen on the mountain limestone at various points 
some five to six miles to the north-east, near Clitheroe : these stria?, as 
shown by the geological survey map, point a few degrees west of south. 

The two rocks which seem to be most abundantly represented among 
the erratics found near Stonyhurst are — first, a compact, deep, purplish 
red Permian marl, which is slightly exposed four miles to the north-east, 
near Clitheroe ; secondly, a compact yellow sandstone, very persistently 
characterised by speckles of brown iron-oxide. I have coupled this rock 
with the one first mentioned because I think it likely that it, too, is 
Permian or Triassic. The erratics composed of these two rocks all seem 
to be of quite small size. 

Almost as numerous as the above mentioned, and far exceeding them 
in size, are boulders composed of various andesitic rocks, showing a strong 
family likeness, perfectly fresh and hard, of a grey colour, slightly varied 
in different specimens by greenish and bluish tints. Many of these 
measure a full cubic foot or more, and show well all the characters of 
ice-borne boulders. Most of them are certainly identical with rocks in 
Borrowdale (andesites of the well-known Borrowdale series). 

Next, perhaps, in frequency of occurrence come small rounded or 
flattened boulders of a fine-grained rose-coloured rock of syenitic aspect. 

Of another rock, also of syenitic aspect, but much larger grained, I 
procured a single bouldei", the size of an infant's head, from a field-drain 
close to the college. 

[Mr. Kendall is of opinion that both of these are varieties of the 
Buttermere granophyre.] 

A single piece of a compact, homogeneous pink rhyolite, picked up 
within a mile or two of Stonyhurst. 

This specimen seems to me certainly identical with a similar pink 
rhyolite, composing a remarkable group of large boulders a mile or two 
west of Dungeon Ghyll Hotel, near Grasmere, by the side of a broad 
path or cart-track leading up the valley to the west from the back of 
the hotel. Some of the boulders measured two or three cubic feet. 

A few hundred feet above the college, on the slope of Longridge Pell, 
boulders of other than local rocks become very rare ; at a height of 1,10(> 
feet, or so, all drift has disappeared, while on the top, at a height of 
some 1,300 feet, I have often walked for miles, examining ground, walls, 
and cairn, and have never been able to find a single woi-n pebble or 
boulder — nothing but angular fragments of the local sandstone. On 
Fairsnape Fell, to the north, at about the same height, I have noticed 
the same fact. 

Reported hy Mr. G. J. C. Broom, F.G.S. 
Group. 

St. Helen's. — New Street, on east side of borough between Lancaster 
Street and Coburg Street. Largest, 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. x — ; Smallest, 
6 in. diam. ; the majority were of small size ; all water-worn. [? Rounded. — 
P. F. K.] They occurred in boulder clay about 10-20 ft. beneath the 
surface in a trench 600 ft. long and 6 ft. wide. About two cartloads 
were found. One specimen examined was of Buttermere granophyre. 
[P. F. K.] G in. X 4| in. x 2 in. ; flat ; egg-shaped ; water-worn 
[? Rounded. — P. F. K.] ; finely scratched and grooved upon two faces ; 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 27U 

grey sandstone or grit. [? L. Silurian of Lake District or Galloway. — 

P- F. K.] , . , 

Tontine Street, Central Ward. 1 ft. 4 in. X 10 m. X 7 m. ; angular ; 
scratched obscurely on the top side, which is flat; grey granite. [Gallo- 
way.— P. F. K.] 

Water Street, Central Ward. 2 ft. X 1 ft. 10 m. X — ; water-worn ; 
grey granite. 

Oxford Street, South Windle Ward. 7 ft. x 2 ft. x — ; lying at 
present north and south, widest end north; andesite, L.D.' ; 160 ft. O.D. ; 
? if it has been moved by man. 

Norman's Road, Sutton. 3 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. ; long axis north and 
south ; water-worn ; red granite [? Eskdale] ; embedded in boulder clay 
at about 12 ft, deep. 

Group. 

St. Helen's, between Vincent Street and Charles Street, Hardshaw 
Ward. — This group consists of red granite and blue (trap) rock varying 
in size from 3 in. diam., egg-shaped, to about 27 in. diam. and 10 in. to 
20 in. deep. They occur in the space of every 20 yards square, in 
about equal proportions as to rock ; if anything the blue predominates. 
But few show scratches and all are water- worn [? rounded]. [The 
specimens, eleven in number, accompanying this report comprised the 
following : — 

Andesites (L.D.) 6 

Buttermere granophj'ie . . 1 

Eskdale granite ? 1 

Galloway granites 3 

II 

—P. P. K.] 

The following list was of the larger sizes taken at random : — 

(a) 2 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. ; angular ; flat on top ; red granite. 

(ft) 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. x 10 in. ; angular ; fiat on top ; well-defined scratches, 

though not deep ; blue [? andesite]. 
(c) 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 9 in. ; angular ; blue [? andesite]. 
{d) 2 ft. 11 in. X 3 ft. X — ; angular ; blue [? andesite] ; in situ, 
(e) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 9 in. ; angular ; blue [? andesite]. 

These cover an area of about an acre. The smaller sizes are given 
as about 50 cartloads to about 70-100 square yards superficial. 

(/) Tliree boulders, each about 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. x 8 in. ; angular; red 

granite. 
ig) 2 ft. 1 in. X 1 ft. C in. x 1 ft. ; angular ; coarse-grained grey granite 

[? Galloway]. 
(70 Three others of like size, but not accessible. 

Reported by Mr. S. S. Platt, Assoc.Mem.Inst.O.E. 
All the following are from the neighbourhood of Rochdale : — 
Facit.— At top of incline in H. Heys & Co.'s quarry — 

(1) 2 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. x 2 ft. ; subangular ; striated at top ; granophyre, 

Buttermere. 

(2) 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. X 10 in. ; rounded ; weathered. 

' L.D. = Lake District. 



280 REPORT— 1891. 

(3) 8| in. X G in. X 7| in. ; rounded ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(4) Sic.diam.; rounded. 

(4a) 5 in. X 5 in. x 5 in. ; rounded. 

Mean Hey Quarry — 

(5) 5 in. X 4 in. x 4 in. ; angular : rhyolite ; L.D. [ = Lake District, andbelowj. 

(6) 1| in. ; pebble ; quartzite. (Found near Nos. 5 and 7 in drift under peat.) 

(7) 3 in. X 3 in. X 3 in. ; angular ; andesite ; L.D. 

(8) 5| in. X 31 in. x 3J in. ; sxibangular ; andesite ; L.D. 

(9) 9 in. X 6 in. X 7 in. ; rounded ; granite. 

Near Butterworth and Brooks' office in qnarry — 

(10) 10 in. X G in. X 4 in. ; subangular ; faintly scratched in direction of long 

axis ; ? Needle's Eye ; syenite. 

[I think ifc probable that this and other specimens so named may be 
abnormal varieties of the Battermere granophyre. — P. ¥. K.] 

(11) About same dimensions as 12 ; andesite ; L.D. 

(12) 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. G in. X 1 ft. ; weathered ; andesite ; L.D. 

(13) 2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. ; subangular ; polished on top but not 

scratched. (This lay just under the peat, which is here 8 ft. thick.) 

(14) 4 in. X 4 in. x 2 in. ; flat ; quartz. 

(14a) 1 ft. I in. X 9 in. x 6 in. ; slightly scratched in direction of long axis ; 
granophyre, Buttermere. 
<15) 9 in. X 4i in. x 4 in. ; flattened ; polished ; granophyre, Buttermere. 
(15a) 9 in. X 7j in. x .5| in. ; subangular ; polished ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

Hall Cowm Quarry — 

(16) 1 ft. 8 in. X I ft. X 9 in. ; scratched in direction of long axis ; marks jp_ in. 

deep; chert. 

(17) 6i in. X 4 in. X 2i in. ; subangular ; scratched in direction of long axis. 

(18) 10| in. X 7 in. X 5 in. ; subangular. 

Ditto, on Cowm side — 

(19) 12 in. X 9 in. X G in. ; rounded ; porphyritic andesite ; L.D. 

(20) 8 in. X G in. x 4 in. ; rounded ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

Ditto, above Cowm — 

.(21) 8 in. X C in. X 5 in. ; slightly scratched in direction of long axis ; andesite ; 
L.D. 

Gro?(]i. 

Heytvood. — Hopwood brickworks, about 1 mile south of the centre of 
Hey wood. The section shows a bed of pnrple boulder clay 7 feet thick, 
covered by drift-sand about 6-7 feet thick. Where unspecified the 
boulders are from the clay. About 460 feet above O.D. 

(58) 8 in. X 4 in. x 5 in. ; angular ; Carboniferous limestone. 

(59) 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 9 in. ; subangular ; weathered ; ? variety of Cree- 

town granite ; from drift sand. 

(60) 7 in. X 6 in. X 3 in.; subangular ; longitudinally scratched; porphyrite ; 

L.D. 

(61) 10 in. X 9 in. X 8 in. ; rounded ; granite ; Eskdalc. 

(62) 9 in. X 6 in. x 6 in. ; rounded ; andesitic agglomerate ; L.D. 

(63) 8 in. X 5 in. x 3 in. ; angular ; andesite ; L.D. 

(64) 9 in. x 6 in. x 5 in. ; flattened ; slightly scratched at ends ; granophyre, 

Buttermere. 
(66) 1 ft. X 9 in. X 8 in. ; rounded ; andesite : L.D. 
(66) 1 ft. X 9 in. x 8 in. (in two pieces) ; andesite ; L.D. 



ON THE ERBATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 281 

(67) 10 in. X 7 in. X 6 in. ; subang^ilar ; crossed scratches on flat face ; ande- 

site ; L.D. 

(68) 1 ft. X 1 ft. X 8 in. ; ellipsoidal ; scratched longitudinally ; quartzose rock, 

(69) 8 in. X 10 in. x 8 in. ; rounded with one flat face ; a little scratched near 

ends ; variety of granophyre, Buttermere. 

(70) 1 ft. X 10 in. X 7 in. ; rounded with flattened faces ; scratched on faces ; 

quartzose rock. 

(71) 1 ft. 3 in. X 9 in. x 6 in. ; snbangular ; well scratched longitudinally and 

some cross scratches ; quartzose rock. 

(72) 1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. x 9 in. ; rounded ; granite, Eskdale. 

(73) 10 in. X 8 in. X .5 in. ; snbangular ; scratched on flat side; quartzose rock. 

(74) 10 in. X 8 in. X 5 in. ; subangular ; much striated ; quartzose rock. 

(75) 6 in. X 5 in. x 4 in. ; angular ; rhyolitic ash ; L.D. 

(76) 1 ft. 6 in. X ] ft. 1 in. x 9 in. ; longitiidinall}- .scratched ; red-brown grit- 

stone. 

(77) 6 in. diameter ; rhyolite ; L.D. 

(78) 8 in. X 6 in. x 5 in. ; purple gritstone. 

(79) 1 ft. X 9 in. X 9 in. ; subangular ; .scratched ; andesite with epidote ; L.D. 

(80) 9 in. X 6 in. x 4 in. ; subangular ; quartz porpliyry. 

(81) 6 in. X 8 in. ; quartz porphyry. 

With these are many limestones and andesites 3 in.-6 in. in diameter. 
Many of them are scratched. 

Heywood. — In hedge on west side of road — 

(82) 1 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 10 in. ; subangular; flattened ; granophyre, Butter- 

mere. 

(83) 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. x 1 ft. ; subangular ; granite. 
(83a) 1 ft. X 10 in. x 10 in. ; subangular ; andesite ; L.D. 

Near Heber's toll-gate — 

(84) 1 ft. 6 in. diameter ; andesite ; L.D. 
Bochdale. — King Street South, Grove Street — 

(97) 9 in. diameter ; granite. Cf. Dahy, New Galloway. O.D. 470 feet; out of 

gravel about 6 feet below surface. 
(38) — X 5 in. X 4 in. ; granite, Galloway. 

Between Bam Edge and Knot Booth, 2^ miles south-east of centre of 
Rochdale, above side of road — 

(99) 4 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 9 in. : subangular ; sandstone or grit. 
Near Haugh Hey, in field above Wood Mill— 

|(100) 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. ; very much rounded with hummocky ends ; 
andesitic agglomerate ; L.D. 

(101) 1 ft. 2 in. X 11 in. x 10 in. ; subangular ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(102) 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. ; subangular with flattened sides : 

scratched longitudinally ; quartz felsite with epidote. 

Group. 

Sparth' Bottoms, Norman Eoad, half a mile S.W. of Town Hall, 
Rochdale. The section (which is for brick clay) shows above 16 ft. of 
strong purple boulder clay surmounted by 9 ft. of drift sand and gravel. 
The gravel is at the top, and is about 4 ft. thick. The bottom of the 
cutting is at about 400 feet O.D. 

(105) 8 in. X 6 in. x 4 in. ; subangular ; granite, Gallowaj'. 

(106) 8 in. X (5 in. x 6 in. ; subangular ; andesite ; L.D. 

(107) 9 in. X 8 in. x 4 in. ; flattened ; scratched longitudinally ; grit. 



282 EEPOKT— 1891. 

(108) 2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft.; subangular ; scratched longitudinally; 

Clitheroe grey limestone. [? Locality. — -P. F. K.] 

(109) 6 in. X 4 in. X — ; rounded ; granite, Galloway. 

(110) 7 in. X 5 in. x 4 in. ; rounded ; granite ? Cairnsmore of Fleet. 

(111) 2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. ; rectangular ; scratched longitudinally, and 

on one side diagonally ; sandstone grit. 

There are many like this about 3 ft. x 2 ft., and many andesitic and 
breccias or agglomerates about 3 in.-4 in. diameter. 

(lllA) 2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. ; < cank.' 

(112) 6 in. X 4 in. (broken) ; granite with red felspar ; Gallowaj\ 

(1 13) 7 in. X C in. x 5 in. ; scratched longitudinally and at rounded corners ; 

limestone. 

(114) 5 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 9 in. ; long and angular; well scratched and grooved 

longitudinally; 'cank.' 

(115) 1 ft. 2 in. diam. ; nearly splierical ; subangular ; sandstone grit. 
(IIG) 3 in. X 2 in. X — ; granite ? var. of Eskdale. 

(117) 3 in. X 2 in. X — ; granite, Eskdale. 

(118) 1 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. x 7 in. ; subangular to round; much scratched 

longitudinally and diagonally ; flag-rock. 

(119) 4i in. X 3 in. X 3 in. ; oval ; purple quartzite. 

(120) 10 in. x 7 in. x 6 in. ; rounded ; rectangular ; granite ? var. of Eskdale. 

(121) 7 in. X 5 in. X — ; subangular ; granite, Galloway, 

(122) 7 in. X 7 in. x 4 in. ; andesite ; L.D. 

(123) 7 in. X 6 in. x 4 in. ; subangular ; ? var. of granophyre, Buttermere. 

(124) 4 in. X 3 in. X — ; subangular ; rhyolite ; L.D. 

(125) 3^ in. X 2i in. x 2^ in. ; subangular ; granite ? Cairnsmore of Fleet. 

(126) 5 in. X 4 in x — ; rounded ; grey granite ? var. of Creetown. 

(127) 1| diam. ; subangular ; scratched ; haematite. [There were several of 

these.] 
(127a) 4 in. X 2 in. ; triangular ; hornblende-andesite ; L.D. 
(127b) ; well scratched; red variety of Carboniferous limestone. [This 

much resembles the rocks exposed in the bed of the Ribble, near 

Mytton Bridge.— P. F. K.] 

Greenbooth, Naden Vallej^, two miles N.W. of the centre of Roch- 
dale — 

(128) 2 ft. X 1 ft. G in. X 1 ft. 6 in. ; subangular; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(129) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. ; subangular ; broken ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(130) 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. ; subangular ; quartz porphyr}'. 

(131) 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; rectangular with rounded corners ; under 

side flattened and scratched longitudinally ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(132) 3 in. X 2 in. X — ; rectangular ; quartzite. 

(133) About 1 in. cube ; hsematite. 

(134) 1 ft. 4 in. X 9 in. x 8 in. ; subangular ; granite, Eskdale. 

(135) 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 f t. x 8 in. ; subangular ; smoothed ; ? syenite, Needle's Eye, 

Colvend [see No. 10]. 

(136) 1 ft. 6 in. X 8 in. x 4 in ; flat ; angles very little rounded ; quartz felsite 

with epidote. 

(137) 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. X 7 in. ; subangular ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(138) 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. x 10 in. ; rectangular ; bedded ash ; ? Borrowdale ; L.D. 

(139) 1 ft. 2 in. x 9 in. x 7 in. ; subangular ; hornblende-andesite : L.D. 

(140) 1 ft. 3 in. X 9 in. x 10 in. ; irregular ; rhyolite ; L.D. 

Groiip. 

Heywood "Waterworks Reservoir, 675 ft. O.D., near by-wash of 
lowest reservoir near Meter House ; many andesites and syenites, about 
2 ft. diameter and upwards. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 283 

Heywood Waterworks Reservoir, in bottom of lowest reservoir near 
iron-pipe outlet — 

(141) 2 ft-. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. ; subangular ; scratched at sides ; granophyre, Butter- 

mere. 

(142) 5 in. X 3 in. X — ; oval ; quartz vein-stuff ; L.D. 

(143) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. ; subangular ; sides smoothed ; granophyre, 

Buttermere. 

(144) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; irregular ; subangular ; smoothed and 

weathered ; ? syenite, Needle's Eye, Colvend [see No. 10]. 

(145) 3 ft. X 2 ft. X — ; smoothed ; weathered ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(146) 1 ft. X 9 in. X 6 in. ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(147) 1 ft. 6 in X 1 ft. 6 in. x — ; volcanic ash ; L.D. 

(148) 2 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

At foot of by-wash to middle reservoir. 

(149) G in. X 6 in. x 1^ in. ; flattened ; quartzose grit. 

(150) 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. ; subangular ; rounded ends ; scratched 

longitudinally ; ? syenite, Needle's Eye, Colvend [see No. 10]. 

(151) 1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft, 10 in. x 1 f t. ; angular to subangular ; flattened and 

rounded ; ? syenite, with marked crystals of epidote [see No. 10]. 

(152) 2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. ; subangular ; smoothed ; ? syenite, with 

marked crystals of epidote [see No. 10]. 

(153) 3 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. ; irregular ; subangular ; smoothed and weathered ; 

? syenite, with marked crystals of epidote [see No. 10]. 

Near Moorside, west side Spring Mill Reservoir, Rochdale Water- 
works, about 850 O.D. — 

(158) 4 ft. X 1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 9 in. 

(159) 1ft. 6 in. X 10 in. X 5 in.; subangular; quartzose grit, with slaty frag- 

ments. [Cf. ' Haggis Rock, Queensberry grits. — P. F. K.] 

(160) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft.; subangular, with rounded corners; ? var. of 

granophyre, Buttermere. 

Near Hill Top Farm, Castleton, Ih mile S. of centre of Rochdale, 
500-550 ft. O.D.— 

(169) 2 ft. X 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. ; irregular ; subangular ; flattened on one side ; 

volcanic ash, L.D. 

(170) 11 in. X 10 in. X 7 in.: angular, with flattened sides and ends ; corners 

rounded ; weathered ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(171) 1 ft. 1 in. X 10 in. x 8 in. ; tetrahedral; three sides polished and grooved; 

granite, Galloway, 

(172) 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. x 10 in. ; siibangular ; weathered ; millstone grit. 

(173) 8 in. X 7 in. x 6 in. ; subangular, with rounded ends and flattened sides ; 

andesitic breccia, L.D. 

(174) 8 in. X 5| in. x 3^ in. ; subangular ; weathered ; volcanic ash ; L.D. 
(174a) 10 in. x 7 in. x 5 in. ; volcanic ash ; L.D. 

(175) 9 in. X 8 in. x 5 in. ; rounded, weathered ; granophyre. Buttermere. 

(176) 5 in. X J in. X 4 in. ; rounded, and very much weathered ; granite, Esk- 

dale. 

(177) 11 in. X 8 in. x 4 in.; irregular; flattened side; scratched diagonally; 

' cank.' (There are many grits and canks not enumerated.) 

(178) 5 in. X 3^ in. x 2 in. ; oval ; rhyolitic ash ; L.D. 

(179) 1 ft. 3 in. x 10 in. x G in. ; flattened, with rounded corners ; grooved a 

little on flattened sides ; andesite ; L.D. 

(180) 2 ft. 3 in. ( + )x2 ft. x 1 ft. G in.; subangular; a little grooved at 

rounded corner ; Gannister, fine siliceous rock. 

(181) 2 ft. x 1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 3 in.; subangular, with rounded corners ; red- 

brown grit, like those ending N.W. of Rochdale. 

(182) 1 ft. 4 in. X 10 in. X 3 in. ( + ) ; fiat side up. 

(183) 1 ft. 3 in. X 11 in. X 4 in.; oval; two sides, flattened and scratched 

longitudinally ; andesitic breccia ; L.D. 



28-i KEPORT— 1891. 

(18-t) 1 ft. 2 in. X 9 in. x C in. ; subangular ; quartz fel.site witli epidote. 
(185) — subangular; hornblende andesite. 

(18<)) 6 in. X 5;^ in. x 4 in. ; rounded ; porphyritic andesite ; L.D. 

(187) 5 in. X 4 in. x o in. ; rectangular ; red devitrified rhyolite ; L.D. 

(188) 9 in. X 7 in. x .5 in. ; subangular; porphyritic andesite ; L.D. 

(189) 8 in. X 5 in. x 4 in. ; subangular ; ? Silurian grit. 

(190) 8 in. X 5 in. x 5 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

(191) 65 in. X 4 in. X 3 in.; subangular; andesite, containing garnets (? Kes- 

wick). 

(192) 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. x 8 in. ; subangular; irreguL"ir ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

Facit Cemetery, in front of mortuary cliapels — 

(193) 7 ft. X 4 ft. X 2 ft. 9 in. : oblong ; angular with rounded corners ; scratched 

diagonally to length ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

North end of mortuary chapels — 

(194) 6 ft. X 3 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. ; rounded ; flattened ; one side hummocky ; 

granophyre, Buttermere. 

(195) 9 in. X () in. x 5 in. ; ? syenite ; Needle's Eye, Colvend [see No. 10]. 

Groxip. 

Road from Hill Top by Grange Barn, Cowni Top, &c., to Hardy 
Bridge, abont If miles south of centre of Rochdale. 550-600 ft. O.D. 

(196) 9 in. X 6 in. X — ; rounded ; grit. 

(197) 6 in. X 3 in. x 2 in. ; flat ; granite, Galloway. 

(198) 6 in. diam. ; granite, Eskdale. 

(199) 9 in. X 6 in. x 4 in. ; irregular : rhyolitic ash ; L.D. 

(200) 6 in. X 4 in. X — ; oval ; granite, Galloway. 

(201) 4 in. X 3 in. x 2 in. ; subangular ; red rhyolite ; L.D. 

(202) — quartzite. 

(203) 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. G in. x 1 ft. ; quartz porphyry or porphyritic rhyolite. 

(204) 8 in, X 6 in. x 4 in. ; rounded ; rhyolitic ash with well-marked crystals of 

hornblende. 

(205) 6 ft. in. x 4 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. G in. ; subangular ; two sides smoothed, 

flat and striated, one especially so, with long grooves lengthwise. 
Also on rounded edge near the same. Above this on the top (as lying 
at present), the striations are at an angle of about G0° divergence 
from the last, and here it is rounded and polished. Flag rock. This 
is a very well-marked local glacial boulder, and from authentic infor- 
mation I learn that it was discovered about 1870 in driftsand about 
4 ft. beneath the surface, 400 ft. O.D., and 25 yds. south of the river 
Eoch. 

lieported by Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

First field north of Peel Moat, Heaton Chapel, near Stockport — 

3 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. 7 in. x 2 ft. G in. ; subangular ; moved grey Coal-measure 
sandstone, weathering in a bright buff ; source not determinable ; the 
at present upper surface is striated longitudinally, i.e., in direction of 
long axis ; adjacent hills are covered with glicial sand, but this stone 
was found in the underlying clay ; boulder clay. 

GroujJ. 

The specimens were from a heap in the brickyard. They had been 
obtained from very fine sticky clay containing very few stones and 
occasional shells in fair preservation. The clay exhibits very compli- 
cated folds and contortions. It is overlain by sands, and rests upon red 



ON THE EBKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 285 

sandstone rock. This group is very notewortby, as it contains so many 
varieties of basic rocks (dolerites, &c.) of a type either absent or very 
rare in other localities. 

Heaton Merseij, near Stockport, Bailey's brickyard — 

Largest about 1 cub. ft., smallest about .3 cub. in. ; some in each con- 
dition ; all moved ; several are well scratched longitudinally, especially 
the limestones ; Dalbeattie, Criffel, Eskdalc (Cumberland), Butter- 
mere ; ? Cairnsmore of Fleet (Galloway). 

Specimens 

Eskdale granite .......... 3 

Buttermere granophyre ........ 2 

Yewdale breccia ......... 2 

Bright pink micaceous porphp-y 1 

Crififel granite 1 

Dark green rock with augite ....... 1 

Fine hornblende syenite 1 

Granite 1 Cairnsmore of Fleet 1 

Yellowish quartz porphj-ry ....... 1 

Ehyolite ..." 2 

Andesite ........... 5 

Dalbeattie granite 1 

Dalbeattie oranite ? 1 

Dolerite (fresh) 3 

Dolerite (coarse) 1 

Dolerite 1 

Peridotite (much decomposed) ? 1 

Andesitic ash 3 

Millstone grit 3 

Coal-measure sandstone 4 

Coal-measure sandstone (red) ....... 1 

Gaunister ........... 1 

Carboniferous limestone ........ 3 

Silurian grit 3 

New Ked sandstone 3 

47 
Manchester. — Stretford Road, opposite No. 530 — 

4 ft. X 4 ft. X 3 f t. ; scratched on all \isible faces, mostly parallel to long 
axis ; scratches on one flat surface are parallel to but in opposite 
direction to those on the other ; Coal-measure sandstone ; in boulder 
clay, about 30 ft. from the surface ; boulder clay. 

Stretford Road, junction with Chester Road. About three tons of 
broken-up Coal-measure sandstone — relics of a great boulder found in 
a sewer-heading. It was finely striated, but no direction could be assigned. 

Barton-upon-Inuell. — Manchester Ship Canal, 200 yards west of 
Barton Hospital — 

3 ft. 10 in. X 3 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. ; subangular; well scratched on visible 
face ; grey Coal-measure sandstone. 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; 
rounded, triangular in section ; longitudinally scratched ; granite, 
Eskdale. 

50 yards from east end of Sticking's Island — 

3 ft. C in. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. G in. ; river- worn ; andesite ; L.D. 

2 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. ; river-worn ; andesitic ash ; L.D. 

Irlam, in Railway Goods- Yard — 

2 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. : subangular; Coal-mcasurc sandstone. 



286 REPOET — 1891. 

Reported hy ]\Ir. J. W. Gray, F.O.S. 

Group. 

Levensliulme. — New railway cutting about 200 yards east of Slade 
Lane. A large boulder of Coal-measure sandstone is to be seen having 
a group of smaller stones packed in front of it, the whole resting on the 
soft purple shales associated with the Ardwick limestone. The large 
stone was separated from the underlying Coal-measures by a thin layer 
of brownish boulder clay, and (immediately in contact with the boulder) 
a film about 3 in. thick of worked-up shale, which was also massed in 
front (i.e., to eastward) of it, and formed the nidus of the smallest 
stones before mentioned. In this case the evidence was held to be con- 
clusive as showing the direction of movement. The packed shale and 
fragments of stone were on the easterly side of the large boulder, and the 
largest subangular fragment, 2 ft. x 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 2 in., consisted of 
Ardwick limestone of a kind which cropped out 50 yards to the west- 
ward. The dimensions of the sandstone boulder are 5 ft. x 4 ft. 3 in. 
X 2 ft. 4 in. Long axis about N. 50° W. magnetic. It is scratched upon 
all visible faces. The principal scratches upon the upper surface are 
from N". 50° "W., i.e., in the direction of the long axis. They clearly 
originate at the north-westerly end, and finish at the south-easterly end. 

[A boulder of igneous rock, resembling rocks from the Lake District, 
weighing 2^ tons, found in Coronation Street, Reddish, has been described 
by Mr. Gray in the ' Annual Report of the Stockport Society of Natu- 
ralists,* 1889. It has been removed for preservation to the Vernon 
Park.] 

Reported hy Mr. Thomas Axon. 

In river Tame on Lancashire side, about 100 yds. below Arden Paper 
Mills, near Woodley, Cheshire — 

8 ft. 3 in. X 7 ft. 8 in. x G ft. 6 in. ; siibangular ; has fallen out of some 
glacial deposit ; no distinct striations ; volcanic rock, probably rhyo- 
litic, and from the Borrowdale series of the Lake District ; about 10 
yds. to northwards of boundary between Lancashire and Cheshire ; 
isolated from any glacial deposit ; river silt. 

HaugJdon Green, about 200 yds. below the river Tame from Arden 
Paper Mills,, near Woodley, Cheshire — 

6 ft. 6 in. X 7 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. (visible). A great mass lies beside the 
stone which has been broken from it. This would make the length 9 ft. 
6 in. instead of 6 ft. G in. ; rounded ; has fallen out of the river-bank ; 
well scratched on the side which is now uppermost in direction of long 
axis ; a rather coarse andesite, from Borrowdale series, L.D. ; 5 yds. 
on Cheshire side of Lancashire and Cheshire boundary ; isolated ; on 
bed of river Tame. 

5 ft. X 2 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. ; none of these is full measurement, as the 
stone is partly under water ; rounded ; fallen out of river bank ; 
probably andesite, Borrowdale series, L.D. ; 5 yds. on Cheshire side 
of Lancashire and Cheshire boundary ; isolated ; bed of river Tame. 

In the bank of the river Tame, under Arden Paper Mills, near 
Woodley, Cheshire — 

4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. G in. (visible) ; rounded ; has been moved ; 
isolated ; river silt. 



ON THE EUnATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 287 

Near Woodley, Cheshire, Mill Lane, Bredbury, at corner of lane lead- 
ing down to the bridge and quarry — 

2 ft. 5 in. X 2 ft. 2 in. x 8 in. (visible) ; rounded ; moved ; granite, Esk- 
dale, Cumberland ; isolated ; doubtful, but probably boulder clay. 

In river Tame on Lancashire side, 160 yds. below Arden Paper Mills, 
near Woodley, Cheshire — 

3 ft. >: 2 ft. 4 in. X 8 in. ; rounded ; gi-anite, Eskdale, Cumberland. 
Haughton Green, 20 yds. on Lancashire side of Gibraltar Bridge — 

2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. x 9 in. ; rounded ; flat : andesite ; L.D. 

Burrow's farmyard, opposite Conservative Club, Haughton Green 

Road — 

2 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 f t. 3 in. ; angular ; Ardwick limestone. Both 
came out of the main sewer excavation. 

Farmhouse, opposite Prospect Place, Haughton Green Road — 

2 ft. 2 in. (visible) x 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. (visible) ; well rounded ; scratched 
longitudinally ; andesite ; L.D. 

Vaudry Lane, corner of Twotree Lane — 

2 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 9 in. ; rounded ; black-mica granite, Gallo- 
way. 

Group. 
Tib Street, corner of Stockport Road — 

(1) 2 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

(2) 2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. (visible) ; rounded ; granite, Eskdale.' 

(3) 2 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. x 10 in. (visible) ; subangular ; granophyre, Buttermere. 

(4) 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. (visible) ; subangular ; andesitic breccia. 

(5) 1 ft. 10 in. X I ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. (visible) ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D, 

Comer of Clayton Street — 

2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. (visible) ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

Corner of Town Lane — 

2 ft. X 1 ft. X 11 in. ; subangular ; andesite or rhyolite ; L.D. 

Corner of Acre Street and Town Lane — 

2 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. X 11 in. ; subangular ; granophyre, Buttermere. 
2 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

Hyde Hall— 

2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; andesite ; L D. 

2 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. ; rhyolite ; L.D. 

100 yards west of Hyde Hall — 

1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; subangular, cuboidal ; 'granophyre, 
Buttermere. 



288 EEPOBT— 1891. 



Cheshike. 

Hazel Grove, beside gate leading to Mill Hill, Norbury — 

1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. x 2 f t. 1 in. (visible) ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

Beported by Mr. Thomas Kay, J.P. 

Tabley House, near Knutsforcl. — At south-west side in Ryde Wood, east 
of Tabley Pool— 

5 ft. X 4 ft. C in. X 2 ft. ; .scratched on side which is now towards east ; 

grey granite [Galloway .'—P. F. K.]. This stone is set on end. 
3 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. ; rounded ; red granite. 

3 ft. 6 in. diam. ; triangular ; rounded. 

These boulders, with a few smaller ones, were probably dug up when 
the lake was enlarged. 

Reported hy W. R. Dambrill-Davies, Surgeon-Major. 
Wilmslow. — Lindow Common, in the centre of Common — 

4 ft. X 3 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. (visible) ; angular ; andesite ; L.D. ; the stone 
protrudes through peat which is underlain by glacial sand. 

Near the old workhouse — 

4 ft. 4 in. X 2 ft. X — ; almond-shaped ; andesite ; L.D. ; removed from 
the Common. 

Mr. Henshall's field — 

3 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X — ; andesite ; L.D. ; removed from the Common. 
Near W. Worth's pig-cote— 

3 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. in. X 2 ft. 3 in. ; rounded : granite, Eskdale ; removed 
from the Common. 

Potts's turf -field— 

2 ft, 3 in. diam. ; almost perfectly sjoherical ; granite ; has been moved. 

Macclesfield. — Birtles-of-the-Hill on H. Rostock's farm — 

Nearly 4 ft. in diam. ; somewhat triangular ; granite ; has been moved. 

Beported hy Mr. W. Bkockbakk, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
NortJien Etchells. — Heyhead Farm, Woodhouse Lane — 

12 ft. X 6 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. (visible) ; very sharp and angular ; bean-shaped ; 
S. 80° E. geographical ; andesitic rock from L.D. ; 22G ft. O.D. ; Dr. 
Ashworth, of Heaton Moor, Stockport, has photographed it ; the 
boulder protruded through the turf for many years. It rests on 
reddish buttery boulder clay, containing L.D., Scottish, and other rocks 
and flint. 

The stone has now been removed to the grounds of Sir Edward Watkin 
at Northenden. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 289 

liepurted hij Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Heyhead Farm, Woodhouse Lane — ■ 

Two boulders of similar composition to the above, but weighing only 
about 2 cwt. each. 

Woodhouse Lane, 50 yards east of above — 

3 ft. X 2 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft-. 6 in. ; well rounded and weathered ; moved ; 

andesitic ash ; L.D. ; 226 ft. 
1 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. ; well rounded and weathered ; moved ; 

andesitic ash ; L.D. 

Woodhouse Lane, half a mile south from Heyhead Farm — 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 10 in. ; rounded ; Eskdale granite, Cumberland. 

1 ft. in. X 1 ft. 2 in. x 10 in. ; rounded ; grey granite, Galloway. 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. X 9 in. ; rounded ; rhyolite with much iron pyrites ; L.D. 

1 ft. G in. X 11 in. x 8 in. ; subangular ; vesicular andesite ; L.D. 

1 ft. G in. X 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. ; rounded ; ? felsite ; L.D. 

1 ft. X 9 in. X 6 in. ; rounded ; andesitic ash ; L.D. 

1 ft. X 10 in. X 10 in. ; rounded ; dolerite. 

1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. X 1 ft. ; rounded and much weathered ; grey granite with 

much black mica ; Galloway. 

2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. ; rounded ; Buttermere granophjrre. 

1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. X 10 in. ; subangular ; grey granite, Galloway. 

1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. X 10 in. ; subangular ; cherty felsite ; L.D. 

2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

2 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. ; subangular ; striated ; andesite ; L.D. 
1 ft. 9 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded; andesite ; L.D. 

1 ft. X 1 ft. x 9 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

These have all been moved ; they are lying by the roadside. 

Sfyal. — ]3eside footpath, 300 yards west by north of ' Ship ' Inn — 

2 ft. 10 in. X 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; rounded ; probably moved ; Eskdale 
granite ; rests on boulder clay. 

Group. 

Macclesfield. — ' Setter Dog ' Inn, 3 miles on Buxton Road. Largest, 
2 ft. X 1 ft. X ? ; smallest, 6 in. X 6 in. x 6 in. ; all rounded. 

Analysis. 

Nature Source No. of Specimens 

Granophyre .... Buttermere 6 

Granite Dalbeattie ? 1 

Andesite .... L.D 4 

Agglomerate .... ,, 1 

Rhyolite with much biotite . .. (?) 1 

Quartz porphyry ... » (?) 1 

Brick-red porphyry . . Dee above Tongland (?) . .1 

Granite Crififel 2 

Quartzite .... — 1 • 

18 

The boulders have all been moved. Altitude about 1,400 feet above 
O.D. 

100 yards east of * Setter Dog ' Inn — ■ 

3 ft. X 1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; subangular ; andesite from L.D. ; 1,400 ft. ; 
has been moved. 

1891. g 



290 EEPOET — 1891. 

CJieadle Village. — Just behind the church — 

2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. X 9 in. ; roundecl ; striated obliquely across the 
visible face ; andesitic ash ; L.D. ; 130 ft. ; has been moved. 

Woodley. — Back Lane — ■ 

2 ft. X 2 ft. X 1 ft. 1 in. ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. ; has been moved. 
2 ft. X 1 ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; rounded ; Yewdale breccia, Cumberland ; 
has been moved. 

Group. 

Behind Buckley's lower mill — 

Largest, 2 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. x 1 ft. ; small, G in. cube ; gannister ? ; granite, 
Eskdale ; hornblendic granite, Galloway ; granophyre, Buttermere ; 
Coal-measure sandstone ? ; rhyolite, L.D. ; Carboniferous limestone ? 

The boulders were embedded in soft buttery boulder clay resting on 
the shales of the middle Coal-measures. The Coal-measure sandstone. 

Beported hij Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 
Group. 
Hyde. — Clay-pit on bank of canal, near Apethorne Mill — ■ 

1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 1 in x 10 in. ; cuboidal ; scratched ; andesite; L.D. 

2 ft. 7 in. X 1 ft. 5 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; triangular in section ; well striated on 
two faces ; andesitic agglomerate ; L.D. 

2 ft. X 1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. ; obscurely scratched ; andesite ; L.D. 

1 ft. 5 in. X 1 fc. 3 in. x 1 ft. ; cuboidal ; well scratched, the scratches 
upon upper surface parallel to but originating at the opposite end to 
those on the lower surface ; andesite; L.D. 

2 ft. G in. X 2 ft. 4 in. x 1 f t. 3 in. ; subangular ; scratched ; Coal-measure 
sandstone. 

1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 3 in. ; well rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 

2 ft. G in. X 2 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 11 in; cuboidal and slightly rounded; 
andesite ; L.D. 

1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. x 1 ft. ; angular ; Ardwick limestone. South-east Lanca- 
shire. 

10 in. X 8 in. x 8 in. ; rounded ; Carboniferous limestone. 

1 ft. 6 in. X 1 1 in. X 8 in. ; well rounded ; granite, Eskdale. 

1 ft. X 10 in. X 8 in. ; Ardwick limestone, brecciated variety. South-east 

Lancashire. 
I ft. 4 in. X 1. ft. 2 in. X 9 in. ; very well scratched in many directions ; 

andesite ; L.D. 
2, ft. 2 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. x 8 in. (visible) ; rounded ; andesite ; L.D. 
1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. x 9 in. ; not much rounded ;. scratched ; granite. 
9.in. X 8 in. x 8 in. ; very coarse granite, Eskdale. 
1 ft. X 10 in. X 9 in. ; well rounded ; granophyre, Buttermere. 
1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded ; red black-mica granite, 

Galloway. 

3 ft. X 2 ft. 10 in. X 2 ft. (visible) ; well scratched longitudinally ; Carbo- 
niferous limestone. 

1 ft. 8 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 2 in. ; rounded ; scratched ; yellow quartz- 
porphyry (? origin). 
8 in. X G in. x 6 in. ; angular ; Ardwick limestone ; South-east Lancashire. 

11 in. X 10 in. x 6 in. ; ? Permian limestone. 

6 in. X 4 in. x 4 in. ; ? Permian limestone. 

1 ft. 2 in. X 9 in. x 9 in. ; rounded; andesite; L.D. 

1 ft. X 9 in. X 8 in. ; much exfoliated ; grey black-mica granite, Galloway. 

1 ft. 2 in. X 8 in. X 8 in. ; well scratched longitudinally ; rhyolite ; L.D. 

7 in. X 5 in. x 5 in, ; angular ; Ardwick limestone. South-east Lancashire. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 291 

] I in. X 9 in. X 8 in. ; rounded, but one end sul lani^'ular ; andesite ; L.D. 
1 ft. 6 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. X 8 in. (visible) ; rounded ; andesitic ash ; L.D. 
1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. x 10 in. ; rounded ; granophyre (coarse var.), Buttermere. 
1 ft. 2 in. X 10 in. x 8 in. ; rounded ; granopliyre (fine var., drusy), 

Buttermere. 
1 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. X 9 in. ; rounded ; granophyre, Buttermere. 
1 ft. X 1 ft. X 9 in. ; dark grey porfDliyrite with tinge of red ; L.D. 

1 ft. .3 in X 10 in. x 9 in. ; well rounded ; longitudinally scratched ; 
banded grey grit ; ? silurian. 

Eeported hy Mr. J. Reeves. 

Hazel Grove, Brook House Farm —