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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S \ ' A^\ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SIXTY-SECOND MEETING- 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADYANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



EDINBUEGH IN AUGUST 1892. 






LONDON : 
JOHN MUERAY, ALBEMAELE STEEET. 

1893. 

Office of the Association -. Burlington House, London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



■ 6 1 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xxs 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xl 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement 1 

List of Evening Lectures Ixvii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixx 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Edinburgh Meeting Ixxi 

Officers and Council, 1892-93 Ixxiii 

Treasurer's Account Ixxiv 

Table showing the Attendance and Pieceipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxvi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixx viii 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Edinburgh Meeting 

in August 1892 Ixxxi 

Other Resolutions adopted by the General Committee xc 

Resolutions, &c., referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable xc 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xci 

Places of Meeting in 1893 and 1894 xcii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes xciii 

General Meetings cvii 

Address by thePresident,SirAECHiBALDGEiKiE,LL.D.,D.Sc.,For.Sec.R.S., 
F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey of the United 

Kingdom 3 



vi CONTENTS 



f 
t 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galtos^ (Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Professor Boxd Dawkins, Sir Rawson Rawson, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Sir 
John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonne?, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt- 
RiVEKS, Mr. W. TopLEY, and Mr. T. V. Holmes 29 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 5IcLaeen (Chairman), Professor 
< ;rijm Brown (Secretary), Dr. John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, the Hon. 
Ralph Abercromby, and Professor Copeland, appointed for the purpose of 
co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. (Drawn up by Dr. A. Buchan) 68 

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Fitzgerald (Chair- 
man), Professors H. E. Armstrong and 0. J. Lopge (Secretaries), Profes- 
sors Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, A. Schuster, J. H. 
PoYNTiNG, A. Crum Brown, W. Ramsay, E. Franeland, W. a. Tilden, 
W. N. Hartley, S. P. Thompson, W. C. Roberts-Austen, A. W. Rucker, 
A. W. Reinold, G. Carey Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain "\V. de W. 
Abney, Drs. J. H. Gladstone, J. Hopeinson, and J. A. Fleming, and 
Messrs. W. Ceooees, Shelford Bidwell, W. N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
BoTTOMLEY, R. T. Glazebrooe, J. Brown, E. J. Love, and John M. Thom- 
son, appointed to consider the subject of Electrolysis in its Physical and 
Chemical Bearings 72 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. J. Lodge, Mr. A. P. Ohat- 
TOCE, and Professor G. Cakey Foster, appointed to investigate the pheno- 
mena accompanying the Discharge of Electricity from Points. (Drawn up 
by Mr. A. P. Chattoce) 72 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Liteing, Dr. C. Piazzi 
Smyth (Secretary), and Professors Dewar and Schuster, appointed to 
co-operate with Dr. C. PiAZZi Smyth in his researches on the Ultra-violet 
Eiays of the Solar Spectrum 74 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman), 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopeinson, and Mr. A. W. Clayden 
(Secretary), appointed to consider the application of Photography to the 
Elucidation of Meteorological Phenomena. (Drawn up by the Secretary)... 77 

Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rt. Hon. Lord Kelvin, Mr. 
R. Etheridge, Professor John Perry, Dr. Henry Woodavard, Professor 
Thomas Gra.y, and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of 
Japan. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 93 

Nineteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Pro- 
fessor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir A. Geieie, Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Mr, W. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor Prestwich, Dr. C. 
Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. 
Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, appointed for the purpose of investigat- 
ing the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under Water. (Drawn up by Professor 
Everett, Secretary) 129 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Caret Foster, 
Lord Kelvin, Professor Atrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor W. 
G Adams, Lord Raileigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A Mi:iRHEA.D, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Herbert Taylor, Professor Everett, 
Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, 
Mr R T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Professor J. J. 
Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Mr. J. T. Bottomlet, Mr. T. Gray, Professor 
J. V. Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, and Professor S. P. Thompson, 
appointed for the purpose of constructing and issuing Practical Standards 

for use in Electrical Measurements 132 

Appendix L— Information circulated hy the Secretary for the Meeting 

of the Committee on August 4, 1892, with additional Notes 135 

Appendix II —On the Change of Resistance of Mercury with Tem- 
perature. By M. G. GuiLLAUME 138 

Appendix III.— On a Special Form of Clark Cell. By Professor H. J. 

Carhar 12^ 

Appendix IV —On Wire Standards of Electrical Resistance. By Dr. 
St Lindeck, Assistent bei der Physikalisch-Technischen Reichs- 

anstalt, Charlottenburg, Berlin 139 

Appendix V — On the Clark Cell. By Dr. Kahle 147 

Appendix VI.— On the Values of certain Standard Resistance Coils. 

By R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S •••■ 150 

Appendix VII.— On the Standard Condensers of the Association, and 

on certain Resistance Coils. By R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S 152 

Appendix VIII.— On the A^alues of certain Standards of Resistance and 
Electromotive Force sent from Berlin for Comparison with the 
British Association Standards. By R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S 154 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John Kerr, Mr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Lord Kelvin, and Professor A. W Rucker, on Electro-optics 157 

Appendix. On Dispersion in Double Refraction due to Electric Stress. 

By Dr. John Kerr 1^^ 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes (Chairman), 
Professor A. Schuster, Mr. O. Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. RoscoE, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. G. M. Whipple, Professor McLeod, and 
Mr. G. J. Symons, appointed for considering the best methods of recording the 
direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. (Drawn up by Sir G. G. Stokes) ... 158 

Report on Constants and Units. By C. E. Guillaume 165 

On the Application of Interference Methods to Spectroscopic Measurements. 
By Albert A. Michelson 170 

Fourth Report of the Committee,consisting of Professor W. C. Roberxs-Austen 
(Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Mr. E. Riley, Mr. J. Spiller, Professor J. W. 
Langlby, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner 
(Secretary), appointed to consider the best method of establishing an Inter- 
national Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 18^ 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of inves- 
tigating Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. (Drawn up by Professor Arm- 
strong) 1^1 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. M'Leod, Mr. W. 
C. Roberts- Austen (Secretary), Professor A. W. Reinold, and Mr. H. G. 
Mad AN, appointed for continuing the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 192 



Viii CONTENTS. j 

Page j 

Eaport of the Committee, consistiug of Dr. AV. J. Russell, Professor W. N. j 

Haetlet, Professor W. Ramsay, Captain W. de W. Abxey, and Dr. A. 

Richardson, appointed for the inTestigatiou of the Action of Light on the 

JBydracids of the Halogens in presence of Oxygen 192 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Marshall 
Watts, Mr. J. N. Lockter, Professors Dewar, Liveing, Schvster, W. N. 
Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain Abxey, on Wave-length 
Tables oF the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. (Drawn up by 
Dr. M.arshall AVatts) 193. 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Tilden, Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod, Mr. S. U. Pickering, Professors AV. Ramsay and S. 
Young, and Drs. A. R. Leeds and W. AV. J NicoL (Secretary), ap- 
pointed for the purpose of reporting on the Bibliography of Solution 261 

Si.xth Report of the Committee, con.sisting of Professor W. A. Tilden, Pro- 
fessor AV. Ramsay, and Dr. AV. W. J. S'icol (Secretary), appointed for the 
purpose of investigating the Nature of Solution. (Drawn up by Dr. Nicol) 261 

Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong, 
Professor AV. R. Dunstan, Mr. C. H. Botha mley, and Air. AV. A. Shen- 
8T0NE (Secretary), appointed to investigate the formation of Haloids from 
pure materials. (Drawn up by Mr. W. A. Suenstone) 2G2 

Report (provisional) of a Committee, consisting of Professor 11. McLeod, Pro- 
fessor W. Ramsay, Mr. AA'. A, Shenstone (Secretary), and Mr. J. Tudor 
CuNDALL, appointed to investigate the Iniiuence of the Silent Discharge of 
Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 263 

Report (provisional) of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. E. Thorpe, 
Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), Dr. NV. H. Perkin, Professor AV. J. 
Russell, Captain W. de AV. Abney, and Professor W. Stroud, on the 
Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. (Drawn up by Professor J. J. 
Hummel) 263 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Professor P. 
Phillips Bedson (Secretary), Mr. Ludwig AIond, I'rofe.ssor A'ivian B. 
LEWiss, Professor E. HuLL,'Mr. J. AV. Thomas, and Air. II. Bauerman, 
for inquiring into the Proximate Constituents of the various kinds of Coal 264 

Eighteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hull (Chair- 
man). Rev. Dr. H. AV. Crosskey, Sir D. Galton, Mes.^rs. J. Glaishek 
and Percy Kendall, Professor G. A. Lebour, Alessrs. E. B. Marten, G. H. 
Morton, AV. Pengelly, and J. Plant, Profes.sor .T. Prestwich, and Messrs. 
I. Roberts, Thos. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, Tylden-AVright, 
E. AVetheked, AV. AA^hitaker, and De Rance (Secretary), appointed for 
the purpose of investigating the Circulation of Underground AVaters in 
the Permeable Formations of England and A^'ales, and the Quantity and 
Character of the AVater supplied to various Towns and Districts from' these 
Formations. (Drawn up by C. E. De Rance, Reporter) 264 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. AV. Davis (Chairman), Rev. 
E. Jones (Secretary), Sir J. Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, and Messrs. AA'. 
Pengelly, R. H. Tiddeman, and J. J. Wilkinson, appointed to complete 
the investigation of the Cave at Elbolton, nearSkipton, in order to ascertain 
whether Remains of Paleolithic Man occur in the Lower Cave Earth. 
(Drawn up by Rev. E. Jones) 2C6 



Twentieth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. Prestwich, Dr 




I 



[ 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Position, Height above the Sea, Lithological Characters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters 
of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for their preserva- 
tion. (Drawn up hy Dr. Crossket, Secretary) 267 

Thii-d Keport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. IIenet Woodwaed (Chair- 
man), Eev. G. F. Whidboe>^e, and Messrs. E. Kidston, J. E. Mare, and 
A. S. Woodwaed (Secretary), to consider the best methods for the Eegis- 
tration of the Type Specimens of British Fossils. (Drawn up by A. S. 
Woodwaed) 289 

Third Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chair- 
man), Dr. Tempest Andeeson, Dr. Valentine Ball, Mr. James E. Bed- 
ford, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. James W. 
Davis, Mr. Edmund J. Garwood, Mr. William Grat, INIr. Eobeet Kids- 
TON, Mr. Arthur S. Eeid, Mr. E. H. Tiddeman, Mr. W. AV. Waits, Mr. 
Horace B.Woodward, and Mr. Osmund W. Jeffs (Secretary), to arrange 
for the collection, pre.servation, and systematic registration of Photogiaphs 
of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. (Drawn up by the Secre- 
tary) 



290 



t 



Ninth Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Profe,=sor T. Wiltshire (Chair- 
man), Dr. H. Woodward, and Professor T. Eupeet Jones (Secretary), on 
the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Eocks. (Drawn up by Professor T. 
EuPERT Jones) 298 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. Woodward, Mr. G. E. Vine 
(Secretary), Professor T. Eupeet Jones, and Dr. H. C. Soebt, appointed for 
the completion of a report on the Cretaceous Polyzoa. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 301 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. H. B.aueeman, F. W. Eudler, 
and J. J. H. Teall and Dr. II. J. Johnston-Lavis, appointed for the in- 
vestigation of the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its Neighbourhood. 
(Drawn up by Dr. Johnston-Lavis) 338 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G J. Stmons, Mr. C. Davison 
(Secretary), Sir F. J. IBeamwell, Mr. E. A. Cowpee, Professor G. H. 
Darwin," Professor J. A. Ewing, Mr. Isaac Eoberts, Mr. Thomas Gray, 
Sir John Evans, Professors J. Prestwich, E. Hull, G. A. Leboue, E. 
Meedola, and J. W. Judd, Mr. M. Walton Brown, and Mr. J. Glaisher, 
appointed to consider the advisability and possibility of establishing in 
other parts of the country observations upon the prevalence of Earth Tremors 
similar to those now being made in Durham in connection with coal-mine 
explosions 343 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor Eay 
Laneester, Professor Cossar Ewart, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor A. M. Marshall, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secre- 
tary), to appoint Mr. Willey to investigate the Morphology of the Ascidians 
at "the Zoological Station at Naples, or, failing this, to appoint some other 
competent investigator to carry on a definite piece of work at the Zoological 
Station at Naples approved by the Council 344 

Fifth Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater (Chairman), 
Mr. George Mueray (Secretary). Mr. W. Oarruthees, Dr. A. C. L. G. 
GuNTHER, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. DuCane Godman, Professor A. Newton, 
and Dr. D. H. Scott, appointed for the purpose of reporting on the present 
state of our knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, 
and taking steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and 
Flora 363 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Second Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Newtoit (Chair- 
man), Dr. W. T. Blanfoed, Dr. S. J. Hickson, Professor Riley, Mr. O. 
Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary), 
appointed to report on the present state of our knowledge of the Zoology of 
tbe Sandwich Islands, and to take steps to investigate ascertained deficiencies 
in the Fauna, with power to co-operate with the Committee appointed for 
the purpose by the Royal Society, and to avail themselves of such assistance 
in their investigations as may he offered by the Hawaiian Government 355 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Rat Lankester (Chair- 
man), Professor M. Foster, Professor S. H. Vines, and Mr. S. F. Harmer 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of 
a Table at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth 356 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor M. Foster (Chairman), 
Professor F. 0. Bower (Secretary), Professor I. Batlet Balfour, Mr. W. 
T. Thiselton-Dter, Dr. H Trimen, Professor Marshall AVard, Mr. W. 
Carruthers, Professor M. M. Hartog, and Mr. W. Gardiner, for taking 
steps to establish a Botanical Laboratory at Peradeniya, Ceylon 363 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Mr. 
JohnCordeaux (Secretary), Messrs. R. M. Barrington, John A. Harvie- 
Beoavn, and W. Eagle Clarke, and the Rev.E. P. Knublet, appointed to 
make a digest of the observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light- vessels, and to report on the same 366 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Hadbon, Professor 
W. A. Herdman, and Mr. W. E. Hotle (Secretary), appointed for im- 
proving and experimenting with a Deep-sea Tow-net, for opening and 
closing under water 366 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Thomas H. Thomas (Chairman), 
Professors "W. Newton Parker, A. Newton, and A Leipner, Mr. E. 
Potjlton, Canon H. B. Tristram, and Dr. 0, T. Vachell (Secretary), 
appointed to consider proposals for the Legislative Protection of Wild Birds' 
Eggs 366 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, Mr. Baldwin 
Latham, and Mr. G. J. Stmons (Secretary), appointed to inquire into the 
Climatological and Hydrographical conditions of Tropical Africa. (Drawn 
up by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein) 367 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. S. Bourne, Dr. Crossket, 
Mr. G. Gladstone, Mr. J. Hetwood, Sir John Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Professor N. Story Maskelyne, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Sir R. Temple, 
and Professor S. P. Thompson, appointed for the purpose of continuing the 
inquiries relating to the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 368 

Second Report on the Development of Graphic Methods of Mechanical Science. 
By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, M.Inst.C.E 373 

Shield Tunnelling in Loose Ground under Water Pressure, with special refer- 
ence to the Vvrnwy Aqueduct Tunnel under the Mersey. By George F. 
Deacon, M.Inst.C.E 532 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Dr. 
J. G. Garson (Secretary), Dr. J. Beddoe, General A. H. L. Pitt-Rivers, 
Mr. Francis Galton, Br. E. B. Tylor, and Mr. E. W. Brabrook, appointed 
for the purpose of editing a new Edition of ' Anthropological Notes and 
Queries' 537 



» 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 



Report of the Committee, consisting: of Dr. J. G. Gaeson (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Theodoee Bent (Secretary), the late Mr. H. W. Bates, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, 
Mr. J. Stuaet Glennie, Sir Frederic Goldsmid, Mr. W. Pengellt, and 
Mr. F. W. Rtidler, for investigating the ruins of Mashonaland and the 
habits and customs of the inhabitants. (Drawn up by Mr. J. Theodore 
Bent) 538 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. Seward (Secretary), the 
Marquess of Bute, Messrs. G. T. Clare;, E. W. Atkinson, Franklen G. 
Evans, C. Tanfield Vachell, James Bell, and T. H. Thomas, and Dr. J. 
G. Garson, appointed to report on the Prehistoric and Ancient Kemains 
of Glamorganshire. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 544 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Ttloe, Mr. G. W. 
Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. Q. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Haliiueton, 
and Mr. H. Hale, appointed to investigate the physical characters, languages, 
and industrial and social condition of the North-Western Tribes of the 
Dominion of Canada 545 

Remarks on Linguistic Ethnology : Introductory to the Report of Dr. A. 
F. Chamberlain on the Kootenay Indians of South-Eastern British 
Columbia. By Mr. Hoeatio Hale 545 

Report on the Kootenay Indians of South-Eastern British Columbia. By 
Dr. A. F. Chamberlain 549 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W^illiam Txtenee (Chairman), 
Mr. G. W. Bloxam (Secretary), Sir William H. Flowee, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, 
Mr. H. H. RisLET, and Dr. E. B. Ttlor, appointed to investigate the 
Habits, Customs, Physical Characteristics, and Religions of the Natives of 
India. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 615 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flowee (Chairman), Dr. 
J. G. Garson (Secretary), Mr. G. W. Bloxam, and Dr. Wilberfoece 
Smith, for the purpose of carrying on the work of the Anthropometric 
Laboratory. (Drawn up by Dr. Gaeson, Secretary) 618 



Xli CONTENTS, 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSBAY, AUGUST i. 

Page 

Address by Professor Aethur ScHtrsTEK, Ph.D., F.E.S., F.E.A.S., President ■ 

of the Section 627 ] 

1. Report of the Committee on the Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 636 i 

2. Second Report of the Committee on Meteorological Photography 636 

3. Eighth Report ,of the Committee on Solar Radiation G36 

4. Report of the Committee on ]\leteoric Dust 636 j 

5. Twelfth Report of the Committee on the Seismological Phenomena of ; 
Japan 636 : 

6. Nineteenth Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 636 j 

7. Preliminary Account of Oceanic Circulation, based on the Challenger \ 

Observations. By Dr. A. Buchan 636 ; 

8. On the Advantage of making Astronomical Time agree with Civil Time. ' 

By Dr. Sandfoed Fleming, C.M.G 636 , 

9. York Weather from 1841 to 1890. By J. Edmund Claek 636 : 

FRIBA T, A UG UST 5. ; 

1. On Leaky Magnetic Circuits. By Dr. H. E. J. G. dtj Bois 636 ; 

2. On M. E. Branly's Experiments on Electrical Resistance. Bv Dawson i 

Turnee, M.D ; 637 1 

I 

3. On Electrical Discharges. By Professor Eilh. Wiedemann and Dr. H. 
Ebert , 637 i 

4. On Primary and Secondary Batteries in which the Electrolyte is a Gas. I 
By Arthur Schuster, F.R.S 638 j 

5. On the Stability of Periodic Motion. By Lord Kelvin, F.R.S 638 : 

6. The Efficiency of Transformers. By Professor W. E. AyRTON, F.R.S., and ! 

W. E. Sumpner 638 ■ 

7. Note on the Registration of Transformers. By Professor W. E. Atrton, I 

F.R.S., and E. W. Smith 638 ! 

8. Specific Conductivity of Thin Films. By Professor A. W. Reinold, ] 

F.R.S., and Professor A. W.RtJcxER, F.KS 639 : 

9. Some Experiments with a RuhmkortF Coil. By Magnus Maclean, M.A., 
F.R.S.E., and Alex. Galt, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 639 , 

10. A Contribution to the Theory of the perfect Influence Machine. By J. i 

Gray, B.Sc 640 ! 

SATURBA Y, A UG UST 6. ' 

Department I. — Phtsics. \ 

1 . Sources of Heat generated in the Galvanic Battery. By Magnus Maclean, ' 

M.A., r.R.S.E 640 . 



CONTENT?. Xlii 

Page 

2. On the Electric Conductivity of Bismutli and Copper in Magnetic Fields. 

By Dr. W. Peddte, F.R.S.E 641 

3. The Application of Interference Methods to Spectroscopic Measurement. 

By Professor A. Michelson 641 

4. Photographs of Electrical Discharges. By A. A. Campbell Swinton 641 

5. Slow Oscillations produced on discharging Electric Condensers of great 
Capacity. By Jajies H. Geay, M.A., B.Sc 642 

6. Inducto-Script. By Rev. Fredeeick J. Smith, M.A 644 

7. On a Periodic Effect which the Size of Bubbles has on the Velocity of their 
Ascent in Vertical Tubes containing Liquid. By Feed. T. Teouton, M. A., 
D.Sc 645 

8. Experiments on Flame Spectra. By Professor Aethttb Smithells, B.Sc. 645 

Department II.— Mathematics. 

1. Models of Mathematical Surfaces. By Professor A. Ceum Brown, F.R.S., 
F.R.S.E 646 

2. Interim Report of the Committee on Tables of Mathematical Functions... 646 

3. Interim Report of the Committee on Tables connected with the Pellian 
Equation 646 

4. Note on the Glissettes of an Ellipse and of a Hyperbola. By Professor P. 

G. Tait, Sec.R.S.E 646 

5. A Curious Point connected with the Parallel Axiom. By Professor 
Chetstal 647 

6. On Conjugate Circle Groups. By Lieut.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E. 647 

7. A Method of Finding the Logarithms of Large Numbers. By the Rev. 

Dr. T. Smith 647 



JUO^'BAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Ultra-Violet Rays of the Solar Spectrum 647 

2. On the Construction of the New Physical Laboratory at Groningen, Hol- 
land. By Professor P. H. Schotjte 647 

3. Report of the Committee on Measuring Optical Constants 647 

4. On a Method of Determining Thermal Conductivities. By Charles H. 
Lees, M.Sc 647 

5. Interim Report of the Committee on a National Physical Laboratory 648 

6. A Discussion on a National Physical Laboratory, opened by Professor 
Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 648 

7. On Graphic Solution of Dynamical Problems. By Lord Kelvin, Pres.R.S. 648 

8. Reduction of every problem of Two Freedoms in Conservative Dynamics, 
to the drawing of Geodetic Lines on a Surface of given Specific Cur- 
vature. By Lord Kelvin, Pres.R.S 652 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 9. 

1. Report of the Committee on Electrolysis 653 

2. Report of the Committee on the Discharge of Electricity from Points 663 

3. A Magnetic Curve Tracer. By Professor J. A Ewing, F.R.S 653 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 
4. On a Magnetic Balance and its Practical Use. By Dr. II. E. J. G. DU Bois 654 

6. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards 654 

6. On Wire Standards of Electrical Resistance. By Dr. St. Lindeck 654 

7. On the Clark Cell. By Dr. K. Kahle 654 

8. A Discussion on the Nomenclature of Units, opened by Professor 

Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 654 

9. On the Dielectric of Condensers. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 654 

10. Earth-currents. By W. H. Preece, F.R.S 656 

11. On the Physics of the Voltaic Arc. By Professor Silvanxts P. Thomp- 
son, F.R.S 657 

12. Preliminary Note on the Temperature Variation of the Magnetic Permea- 
bility of Magnetite. By Edwin H. Barton, B.Sc, and W. Wil- 
liams, B.Sc 657 

13. On the Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen, and on the Refraction Indices of Liquid 
Oxvffen, Nitrous Oxide, and. Ethylene. By Professor G. D. Liveing, 
F.R.S., and Professor J. Dewar, F.R.S 658 



WEBNESDAT, AUGUST 10. 

1. Interim Report of the Committee on Recalescence 658 

2. The Magnetic Curve. By the Rev. F. J. Smith, M.A 659 

3. Certain Volume Effects of Magnetisation. By Professor Cargill G. 
Knott, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 659 

4. On Polarising Gratings. By Dr. II. E. J. G. Dtr Bois 660 

5. An Estimate of the Rate of Propagation of Magnetisation on Iron. By 
Professor G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S 660 

6. Remarks on the Early Rise and Progress of Electrical Illumination. By 

Dr. Alexander Keiller 660 

7. Report of the Committee on Electro-optics 660 

8. On Dispersion in Double Refraction due to Electric Stress. By Dr. 
John Kerr 660 

9. Proof that Densitv of Illumination does not affect Absorption. By W. 
Peddie, D.Sc ." 661 

10. Physical Conditions of the Waters of the English Channel. By H. N. 
Dickson, F.R.S.E 661 

11. On the Analysis and Synthesis of Colour. By J. W. Lovibond 661 

1 2. On the General Laws of Energetics. By Professor W. Ostwald 661 

13. On a Delicate Calorimeter. By J. A. Haeker, D.Sc, and P. J. Haetog, 
B.Sc 662 

14. Some Notes connected with the Electromotive Force of a Secondary Bat- 
tery. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., and W. IIibbeet 662 



CONTENTS. XV 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 4. 

Page 
Address by Professor Herbert McLeod, F.R.S., F.C.S., President of the 

Section 663 

1. Electrolytic Synthesis. By Professor A. Ceum Brown, F.R.S., F.U.S.E., 
and Dr. J. Walker 671 

2. Impurities in Chloroform. By Professor W. Ramsat, F.R.S 671 

3. Report of the Committee on the Nature of Solution 671 

4. Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Solution 67 1 

5. Report of the Committee on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements and Compounds 671 

6. A Note on Alloys of Aluminium with Ferro-manganese. By T. W. Hogs 671 

FRIBA Y, A UG UST 5. 

1. The Explosion of Ethylene with less than its own Volume of Oxygen. By 

B. Lean, B.A., B.Sc, and W. A. Bone, B.Sc 673 

2. On the Luminosity of Hydrocarbon Flames. By Vivian B. Lewes 674 

3. Experiments on Flame. By Professor Arthur Smithells, B.Sc 674 

4. Report of the Committee on the Direct Formation of Haloids from Pure 
Materials 675 

5. The Reaction of Hydrogen with Mixtures of Oxygen and Chlorine. By 

J. A. Haeker, D.Sc 675 

6. Preliminary Note on the Action of Dry Ammonia Gas on Sulphates. By 
Professor W. R. Hodgeinson, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., and C. C. Trench, 
Col. R.A 675 

7. Note on the Action of Dry Sulphur Di-oxide on Oxy-salts. By Professor 

W. R. HoDGKiNSON, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., and J. Young, A.R.S.M 676 

MONDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. On the Application of a Hydrogen Flame in an Ordinary Safety-lamp to 

the Detection and Measurement of Inflammable Gas or Vapour. By 
Professor Frank Clowes, D.Sc 678 

2. Report of tbe Committee on the Influence of the Silent Discharge of 
Electricity on Oxygen and other Gases 679 

3. Report of the Committee appointed to consider the best method of esta- 

blishing an International Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel ... 679 

4. Notes on the Molecular Refraction and Dispersion of (a) Metallic Carbonvls, 

{b) Indium and Gallium, (c) Sulphur. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. 679 

5. The Effect of Small Quantities of Foreign Matter on the Properties of 

Metals. By Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, C.B., F.R.S 679 

6. Researches on Diffusion. By Dr. Svante Aerhenius 679 

7. The Transpiration of Hydrogen through Palladium. By Professor W. 
Ramsay, F.R.S ." 679 



XVI CONTENTS. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Pasje 

1. The Impurities of Town Air. By G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D 679 

2. Syntheses with the Aid of Butane and Pentane Tetra-carboxylic Ethers. 

By Professor W. II. Peekin, jun., F.RS 680 

3. Synthesis of Hydrindon Derivatives. By Dr. F. Stanley Kippiitg 680 

4. Heptamethylene Derivatives. By Dr. F. Stanley Kipping 680 

5. Action of Phosphoric Anhydride on Fatty Acids. By Dr. F. Stanley 
Kipping '... 680 

6. Methyl Salts of Camphoric Acid. By James Walker, PhD., D.Sc 680 

7. The Halogen Addition Products of Salts of Organic Bases. By Leoxaed 
Dobbin, Ph.D., and James Walker, D.Sc, Ph.D 681 

8. The Production of Acetic Acid from the Carbohydrates. By J. F. V. 
Isaac, B.A 682 

9. On the Molecular Volumes of Organic Substances in Dilute Solution. 

By W. W. J. NicoL, D.Sc 683 

10. Report of the Committee on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 684 

11. Report of the Committee on the Action of Light on Dyed Colours 684 

12. On the Amount of Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions of Salts of Strong 
Bases with Weak Acids. By Dr. J. Shields 684 

13. A new Method for Measuring the Pressure produced in Gaseous Explo- 
sions. By Bevan Lean, B.A., B.Sc, and W. A. Bone, B.Sc 684 

14. The Determination of small Quantities of Nitrogen in Soils. By Dr. F. E. 
Matthews 686 

15. On a Vanadiferous Lignite found in the Argentine Republic, with Analysis 

of the Ash. By Professor John J. J. Kyle, ScD 686 

16. Sewage Precipitation. By G. Caerington Purvis 687 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1. Atomic Weight of Boron. By W. Ramsay, Ph.D., F.R.S., and Emilt 

Aston, B.Sc. (Lond.) 687 

2. On the Preparation of pure Glucina, and the Atomic Weight of Glucinum. 

By Dr. J. Gibson 689 

3. On the Assumed Potential Difference between a Metal in the Molten and 

the Solid State. By Professor W^. Ostwald 689 

4. Note on Exact Weighing. By Dr. J. Gibson 690 

6. Analysis of Manganese Nodules. By Dr. J. Gibson 690 

6. On the Iodides of Sulphur. By Professor Herbert McLeod, F.R.S 690 

7. On Solutions of Iodine. By W. W\ J. Nicol, D.Sc 691 

8. Persulphates. By Dr. II. Marshall 692 

9. Cobaltic Salts. By Dr. H. Marshall 692 

10. Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy , 692 

11. Report of the Comniittee on the Action of Light on the Hydracids of the 
Halogens in presence of Oxygen 692 



CONl'ENTS. Svii 

Page 

12. Report of the Committee on the Proximate Constituents of the various 
kinds of Coal . 692 

13. Note on Valency or Atomicity. By Wm. Durham, F.R.S.E 692 

14. On a Method for Determining the Vapour-pressures of Solutions. By 
Thomas Ewan, B.Sc, Ph.D., and \V. R. Ormaudy 693 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

Address by Professor C. Lapworxh, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 60.5 

[Delivered on Monday, August 8.] 

THURSDAY, AUGUST i^. 

1. Report of the Committee on Photographs of Geological Interest 707 

2. On the Glacial Distribution of the Riebeckite-Eurite of Ailsa Craig. By 
Joseph Lomas, Assoc. Roy. Coll. Science 707 

3. Report of the Committee on Erratic Blocks 708 

4. The Cause of the Ice Age. By J. W. Gray, F.G.S., and Percy F. Ken- 

dall, F.G.S 708 

5. The Devon and Cornish Granites. By W. A. E. Ussher 709 

6. Malvern Crystallmes. By A. Irving, D.Sc, F.G.S ; 709 

7. The Igneous Rocks of the neighbourhood of Builth. By Henry Woobs, 
B.A., F.G.S 710 

8. Note on a Green Sand in the Lower Greensand, and on a Green Sandstone 

in Bedfordshire. By A. C. G. Cameron 710 

9. The Fullers' Earth Mining Company at Woburn Sands. By A. C. G. 

Cameron 711 

10. Report of the Committee on the Circulation of Underground Waters ... 711 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. On a Widespread Radiolarian Chert of Arenig Age from the Southern 

Uplands of Scotland. By B. N. Peach, A.R.S.M., F.R.S., F.G.S 711 

2. On the Contact Metamorphism of the Radiolarian Chert in the Lower 

Silurian Rocks along the Margin of the Loch Doon Granite. By J. 
Horne, F.G.S 712 

3. On the ' Grampian Series ' (Pre-Cambrian Rocks) of the Central High- 

lands. By Henry Hicks, M.D., F.R.S., Sec.G.S 712 

4. On the Still-possible Cambrian Age of the Torridon Sandstone. By J. F. 
Blake, M.A., F.G.S 713 

5. On the alleged Proofs of Submergence in Scotland during the Glacial 

Epoch. By DuGALD Bell, F.G.S. 713 

6. On some Calcareous Tufas in Norway. By Professor Axell Blytt 714 

7. Fossil Arctic Plants found near Edinburgh. Bv Clement Reid, F.L.S., 
F.G.S .". 71(5 

8. The Cutting.? on the Crieff and Comrie Railway. By Henry Coates, 

F.R.S.E 717 

1892. a 



xviii CONTENTS. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 6. 

Page 

1 On the Physical Geology of Arabia Petr£ea and Palestine. By Professor 

Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 718 

2 On Two Tunnel Sections in the Cambrian of Carnarvonshire. By J. F. 

Blake, M.A., F.G.S 718 

3. Report of the Committee on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 718 

4. Report of the Committee on Elbolton Cave 718 

5. Interim Report of the Committee on the Excavations at Oldbm-y Hill ... 718 

MONDAY, AUGUST ?,. 

Address by Professor C. Lapwoeth, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 695 

1. On the Relation of the Bunter Pebbles of the English Midlands to those 
in the Old Red Sandstone Conglomerates of Scotland. By Professor 

T. G. Bonnet, D.Sc, F.R.S 719 

2. On the Relations of the Rocks of the Lizard District. By A. Someevail 719 

3. The Ice Shed in the North-West Highlands during the Maximum Glacia- 

tion. By B. N. Peach, F.R.S., F.G.S., and J. Hoknb, F.G.S 720 

4. On a Bone Cave in the Cambrian Limestone in Assynt, Sutherlandshire. 

By B.N. Peach, F.R.S., F.G.S., and J. Horne, F.G.S 720 

5. Interim Report of the Committee for investigating the Structure of a Coral 

Reef 721 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 9. 

1. Landslips in the St. Cassian Strata of S. Tyrol. By Miss M. M. Ogilvie 721 

2. On a Granite Junction in Mull. By J. G. Goodchild 722 

3. The St. Bees Sandstone and its Associated Rocks. By J. G. Goodchild 722 

4. The Sequence of Gneissose Rocks. By J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 723 

5. Supposed Radiolarian Remains from the Slates of Howth. By Professor 

W. J. SoLLAs, F.R.S., F.G.S. 723 

6. Supposed Radiolarian Remains from the CuldafF Limestone. By Professor 

W. J. SoLLAs, F.R.S., F.G.S '. 723 

7. On some Dicynodont and other Reptile Remains from the Elgin Sandstone. 

By E. T. Newton, F.G.S., F.Z.S * 723 

8. Report of the Committee on the Registration of Type Specimens 724 

9. Report of the Committee on the Cretaceous Polyzoa 724 

10. Report of the Committee on Earth Tremors 724 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1 Additions to the Eurypterid Fauna of the Upper Silurian. By Malcolm 
Laurie, B. A., B.Sc.,F.L.S 724 

2. Report of the Committee on Fossil Pbyllopoda 725 



CONTENTS. XIX 

Page 

3. On the Occurrence of (Jhonetes Pratti, Davidson, in the Carboniferous Rocks 

of AVestern Australia. By R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S 725 

4. On Porphyritic Quartz in Basic Igneous Rocks. By Alfred Haeker, 

M.A., F.G.S 726 

5. On the Occurrence of Pisolitic Tuff in the Pentlands. By H. J. Johnston- 

Latis, M.D., Bac.-es-Sci., F.G S 72t5 

6. On some Limerick Traps. By W. W. Watts, M.A. F.G.S 727 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 4. 

Address bv Professor W. Rotherfoed, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., President of 

tlie Section 728 

\. Fifth Report of the Committee on the present state of our knowledge of 
the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and on taking steps 
to investigate ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 742 

2. Report of the Committee for carrying on a definite piece of Work at the 

Zoological Station at Naples 742 

3. Draft of Report of the Committee on the present state of our knowledge 

of the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 742 

4. Fifth Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of taking steps 

for the establishment of a Botanical Laboratory at Paradeniya, Ceylon... 742 

6. Report of the Committee on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Light-vessels 742 

6. Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of arranging for the 
occupation of a Table at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion at Plymouth 742 

7. Report of the Committee for improving and experimenting with a Deep- 
Sea Tow-Net, for opening and closing- under water 742 

8. Report of the Committee appointed to consider proposals for the Legisla- 
tive Protection of Wild-birds' Egc-s 742 

9. On the Physiology of Protoplasm. By Professor W. Preter 742 

10. On Rabl's Doctrine of the Personality of the Segments of the Nucleus, and 
Weismann's ' Idant ' Theory of Heredity. By Professor Maectjs Haetog, 
D.Sc, M.A .' 742 

i 

FBIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

Department op Botany. 

1 . A proposed World's Congress of Botanists at Chicago in 1893. By Dr. J. 

C. Arthur 744 

2. Observations on Secondary Tissues in Monocotyledons. By D. H. Scott, 

M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., and Georbe Beebner 744 

3. On the Simplest Fta-m of Mosse?. By Professor Dr. Goebel, For.F.L.S. 745 

a 2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 
4. On the Cause of Physiological Action at a Distance. By Professor L. ^ 

Errera ''**^ 

5 Notes on the Morphology of the Spore-bearing Members in Vascular 

Cryptogams. By Professor F. 0. Bower, F.R.S lii 

6. Notes on an Aposporous Fern Seedling. By C. T. Droery 747 

7. A Chytridian Parasitic on Cyclops' Eggs. By Professor M. Haetog, D.Sc. 747 

8. On the Arrangement of the Buds in Lemna Minor. By Miss Nina F. ^ 
Latard '^' 



Department of Physiology. 

1. Vital Absorption. By Professor E. Waymouth Reid 748 

2. On Animal Heat and Physiological Calorimetry. By Professor Rosenthal 749 

3 Proteid Hydrochlorides. By A. Lockhart Gillespie, M.D., CM., 
F.R.aP.E 750 

4 On the Structure of the so-called Hibernating Gland in the Hedgehog. 

By E. W. Carlibk, M.D., B.Sc, F R.M.S 752 

.6 The Functions, Staining Reactions, and Structure of Nuclei. By Gustav 
Mann, M.B., CM 753 



Department of Zoology. 

1. On the Social Habits of Spiders. By Dr. McCook 754 

2. On a Use of the External Ear. By Professor A. Crum Brown, F.R.S... . 754 

3. The Method of Comparative Psychology. ByProfessorCLLOXD Morgan 754 

4. On the Relationships and Role of the Archoplasmic Body during Mitosis 

in the Larval Salamander. By J. E. S. Mooee, A.R.CS.Lond 755 

5. On an Abnormal Horse's Foot. By Professor J. Coss.\R Ewart 756 

6. The Origin of Sex. By Gustav Mann, M.B., CM 756 

7. Larvae and their Relations to Adult Forms. By J. Beard, M.Sc, Ph.D. 757 

8. The Exploration of the Irish Sea to the South of the Isle of Man. By 
Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S 757 

SATURDAY, AUGUST G. 

1. On a Myograph for the Projection of Muscle Curves, and on a Method of 

Recording the Time of Voluntary Movements. By Professor John G. 
McKendrick, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E ." 757 

2. On the Origin of the Electric Nerves in the Torpedo, Gymnotus, Mormy- 
rus, and Malopterurus. By Professor Gustav Feitsch 757 

3. On the Leaf of Victoria Regia. By Professor L. C Miall, F.R.S 758 

4. The Blood-vessels and Lymphatics of the Retina. By James Musgeove, 

M.D 758 

5. Remarks on a Series of Extinct Birds of New Zealand, recently discovered. 

By H. 0. Forbes, F.Z.S 760 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 

6. Natural Relations between Temperature and Protoplasmic Movements. 

By Jas. Clare, M.A., Ph.U 760 

7. Experimental Observations on the Function of the Nucleus in the Vege- 

table Cell. By Jas. Clare, M.A., Ph.D 761 

8. Co-ordination of Cellular Growth and Action by Physical Forces. By 
Francis Warner, M.D 761 



MONDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. A Sketch of the Scottish Fisheries, chiefly in their Scientific Aspects, 
during the past decade (1882-1892). By Professor W. C. McIntosh, 
F.R.S.L. & E 762 

2. On Sea Fisheries. By Professor J. Cossar Ewakt, F.R.S.E 763 

3. On the Destruction of Immature Fish, and a Discussion on Remedial 
Measures. By the Staff of the Marine Biological Association ;.. 763 

Part I. Introductory Statement. By W. L. Calberwood, Director 

M.B.A. Laboratory 763 

Part II. On the Relation of Size to Sexual Maturity : 

(i) North Sea Grounds. By Ernest W. L. Holt 765 

(ii) Plymouth District. By W. L. Calderwood 767 

Part III. The Protection of Immature Fish. By J. T. Cunning- 
ham, M.A 767 

Part IV. (i) On the Destruction of Immature Fish in the North Sea. 

By Ernest W. L. Holt 768 

(ii) On Remedial Measures. By Ernest W. L. Holt 771 

4. The Food of Fish. By W. Ramsat Smith, B.Sc, M.B., CM 772 

6. Notes on Teleostean Development. By E. W. L. Holt 772 

6. The Effect of Sea Water on the Vitality of the Salmon Fungus. By 

A. P. Swan 772 

7. On the Formation of Argenteous Matter in the Integument of Teleosteans, 

By Professor E. E. Prince 772 

8. The Development of the Pharyngeal Teeth in the Labridae. By Professor 

E. E. Prince 773 

9. On the Skin of the Hedgehog. By E. W. Caklier, M.D., B.Sc, F.R.M.S. 773 

10. On the Industry and Intelligence of Insects in relation to Flowers. By 

Rev. Alex. S. Wilson 774 



TUESDA Y, A UG UST 9. 

Department of Botany. 

1. Tubercles on the Thallus of some Floridea3. By Professor Schmitz 774 

2. On a Comparison of the Marine Floras of the Warm Atlantic and the 

Indian Ocean. By George Murray, F.R.S.E., F.L.S 775 

3. On the Structure of the Stem of a Typical Sigilhiria. By W. Car- 
RUTHERS, F.R.S 776 



XXll CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. Calamostacliys Binneyaiia (Sctimp.), By Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc 776 

5. Notes on Specimens of Myeloxylon (Brong.) from the Millstone Grit and 

Coal Measures. By A. C. Sewaed, M.A., F.CI.S 776 

6. Observations on the Structure of Cystopus Caudidus. By Harold W. T. 

Wageb 777 

7. On the Affinity of Nuclein for Iron and other Substances. By Professor 

G. GiLSON 778 

8. A Method of Staining Chromatin by Chemical Means. By Professor G. 

GiLSON 780 

9. A proposed Reform in Botanical Nomenclature. By James Britten . . . 780 

10, Conditions affecting Plant Life in a Town Atmosphere. By G. H. 
Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D 781 

11. Some Albucas and their Hybrids. By John H. Wilson, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 781 

12. The Embryo-sac of Angiosperms is a Sporocyte and not a Macrospore. 

By Gustav Mann, M.B., CM 782 

13, On the Disappearance of Native Plants from their Local Habitats. B3' 
Professor W. Hillhouse, M.A., F.L.S 783 



Depaktment of Zoology. 

1. Presentation de Planches inedites de Zoologie coucernaut les Recherches 

du Yacht I'Hirondelle. Par Baron Jules de Guekne 785 

2. Crustaces Copepodes des Eaux sursatur^es de Sel do la France et des 
Canaries. Par Baron Jules de Gtjerne 785 

3. Observations on the Development of the Posterior Cranial and Anterior 

Spinal Nerves in Mammals. By Arthur Robinson, M.D 785 

4. On Cranial Ganglia, By Professor J. Cossar Ewakt, M.D., F.K.S E. ... 786 

5. Renevi'ed Experiments on the Modification of the Colours of Lepidopterous 
Pupae. By E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 786 

6. An Observation bearing on the Non-transmission of Characters required 

by certain Pupa3. By E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 786 

7. On the Cerebral Commissures in the Marsupialia and Monotremata. By 

Johnson Symington, M.D., F.R.S.E 787 

8. The Early Development of the Isopod Crustacea. Bv Professor J. Play- 
fair M'MuRRicH .'. 787 

9. Note on the Geographical Distribution of Ascidians. By Professor W, A. 
Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S 787 

10. Note on Atrial, or Circumcloacal, Tentacles in the Tunicata, By Professor 

W. A Herdman, F.R.S 788 

11. Notes on Lampreys and Hags. By J. Beard, M.Sc, Ph.D 789 

12. On the Skeleton and Teeth of the Australian Diigong. By Professor 

G. B. Howes and J. Harrison 790 

13. Can Spiders prognosticate Weather Changes? By Dr. M'Cook 790 

14. Some Notes on Marine and Fresh Water Ohironomus. By G. Swainson 790 

15. The Earthworms of Great Britain. By the Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S. 790 



<« 



I 



CONTENTS. Xxiil 

Page 

16. The Human Body as a Conductor of Electricity, By H. Newman Law- 
rence 792 

17. Fertilisation of the Eggs of the Stickleback. By Professor J. B. Hat- 

CEAPT 792 

18. On the Canalisation of Cells and the Continuity of Living Matter in 
Plants and Animals. By Dr. Louis Olivier 792 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 4. 

Address by Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.,F.R.S.E., F.G.S., 

President of the Section 794 

1. First Ascent of the Oraefa Jokull, Iceland. By F. AV. W. Howell 810 

2. Place Names. By Dr. J. Buesess 810 

3. Rainfall in Formosa and some of the Effects on the Island and Mainland 

of China. By J. Thomson 811 

4. On the Windings of Rivers. By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S 812 

5. Travels in Lesser Thibet. By Mrs. Bishop 812 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. On Meteorological Observations in the Atlantic Ocean. By the Peince of 

Monaco 812 

2. The Density, Temperature, and Motion of the Waters of the Gulf of 

Guinea. By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S 813 

3. Physical Geography of the Firth of Forth. By Hugh Robeet Mill, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.E 813 

4. On the Need for Teaching in Meteorology. By H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E., 

F.R.Met.Soc 813 

5. The Desert of Atacama. By Mrs. Lillie Grove 814 

6. Photography as a Means of Surveying. By Colonel H. C. 0. Tannee ... 814 

7. Some Notes on a New Method for the Determination of Geographical 
Longitudes by Lunar Distances. By Dr. H. Schlichtee 815 



MONDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. Notes on a Portion of the Kalahari. By E. Wilkinson , 815 

2. The Geography of the Zimbabwe Ruins in Mashonaland. By J. Theo- 

dore Bent 816 

3. Report of the Mashonaland Committee 816 

4. The Orientation and Architectural Features of the Ruined Temples of 
Mashonaland. By Robert M. W. Swan 816 



XXiv CONTENTS. 



Page j 

5. The Industrial Geography of Nyassaland. By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S. 816 : 

6. Across the Veldt to Lobengula's Capital. By Lieut. H. Ceichton ** 

Browne 7 817 ij 

7. On Opening Relations with the Haiisa Race of West Soudan. Bj- A. ; 
Heebert Hallen 817 J 

8. Report of the Committee on the Climatological and Hydrographical Con- % 
ditions of Tropical Africa 817 s 



TUESBA Y, A UG UST 9. 

1. On Professor Albrecht Penck's proposed Map of the World on a Scale of 

1: 1,000,000. By E. CI. Ravenstein 817 

2. A recent Journey in Yemen. By Walter B. Haekis 818 

3. A recent Visit to the Chatham Islands, and some points in connection 
with Geographical Distribution. By II. 0. Foebes, F.Z.S 819 

4. On some recent Explorations in British New Guinea. By Coutts Trotter 819 

5. The Eastern Laos States of Siam in the Mekong Valley. By W. R. D, 

Beckett 819 

6. Cadamosto: 'The Marco Polo of West Africa.' By H. Yule Oldham... 820 

7. North Korea. Ry C. W. Campbell 820 

8. On a new Project for drying up the Zuyder Zee. By Professor P. H. 

SCHOUTE ■ 820 

Discussion with Section B on Oceanogi-aphy : — 

(a) New Results m the Density and Temperature of the Bottom Water 

of the Atlantic oft' the Brazilian Coast. By J. Y. Buchanan, 
F.R.S : 821 

(b) The Hydrography of the Baltic, the Kategat, and the Skagerak. 

By Professor Otto Petteesson 821 

(c) The Physicaland Biological Conditions of the Black Sea. By 

M. N. Andeesoff 821 

{d) The Chemical Composition of Sea Water. By Dr. Gibson 821 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THUR8DA F, .4 UG UST 4. 

Address by the Hon. Sir Charles W. Feemantle, K.C.B., President of the 

Section gog 

1 . Methods of Social Inquiry. By Professor P. Geddes 835 

2. La Science Sociale et sa M(;thode. Par M. Demolins 836 

3. Some Notes on the Compilation of Monographs on the Economics of laige 
Cities, with Illustrations from the case of Glasgow. By Professor Jambs 
^i^^o« 835 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 

4. The Slums of Manchester. By Chas. W. Smiley, M.A 836 

5 Parliamentary Returns on Social and Economic Subjects. By C. S. 

Loch, B.A 836 

6. The Relation of Ethics to Economics. By J. S. Mackenzie, M.A 837 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1 . Old-age Pensions. By Rev. W. Mookb Ede, M.A 838 

2. The Poor-law: Can it be Maintained? By Rev. T. W. Fowle, M.A. ... 839- 

3. Old-age Pensions and Friendly Societies. By Rev. J. Feome Wil- 

kinson, M.A 839 

4. The Better Housing of the Wage-earning Classes in Rural Districts. By 

Rev. J. 0. Bbvan, M.A., F.G.S 839 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. Adam Smith and his Relations to recent Economics. By L. L. 
Price, M.A 840 

2. The Effects of Consumption of Wealth on Distribution. By William 

Smaet, M.A 84a 

3. On Copyright and Patents. By Robekt A. Macfie 841 

MONDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. The Continuance of the Supply of Wheat from the United States with 

Profit to the Western Farmers. By Edwaed Atkinson, Ph.D., LL.D. 841 

2. The Agricultural Position in the United Kingdom. By Professor R. 

Wallace 841 

3. Legislation in America and elsewhere on behalf of Destitute and Aeglected 
Children. By RosA M. Baeeatt 842 

4. A Plea for the Study of Railway Economics. By W. M. Acworth 842 



TUESDA Y, A UG UST 9. 

1. Illegitimacy in Banflishire. By Wm. Ceamond, A.M., LL.D 843 

2. Taxation of Building Land. By Maek Davidson 843 

3. Report on the teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 844 

4. The Methods of Industrial Remuneration. By David F. Schloss, M.A., 

S.C.L 844 

5. The Criminal and the Habitual Offender from an Economic, Statistical, 

and Social Standpoint. By J. F. Sutheeland, M.D. (Edin.) 845 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 4. 

Address by Professor W. Cawthoene Unwin, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., President 

of the Section 847 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

1. The World's Columbian ]''xposition for 1893. By Jajuos Dkkdge, and 
ROBEET S. McCORJIlCK 858 

2. The Application of Destructors, especially to the I'^leetric Lig'hting of 
Edinburgh. By Professor G. Foebes, F.R.S., F.R.S.E \ 860 

3. The Disposal of Refuse. By G. Watsox 860 

4. The Absorption and Filtration of Sewage on Sandy and other Soils. By 
RiCHAED F. Geaxtham, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S 863 

5. Shield Tunnelling in Loose Ground under Water Pressure. ]Sv G. F. 
Deacon ." 863 

6. Proposed Forth and Clyde Ship Canal. By David A. Stevexson, B.Sc, 
F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E 863 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. An Automatic Railway for the Carriage of Packages. By David Cun- 
ningham, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S.E " 864 

2. On Electric Locomotives. By Alexander Siemens 865 

3. The Utilisation of the Energy of Flowing Water. Description of the 
Purdon- Walters Motor. By 5lessrs. PrKDOX' and Walters 866 

4. On the Extended Use of the Principle of the Hydraulic Ram. By H. D. 

Pearsall, Assoc.MJnst.C.E ' 867 

5. On a new Form of Windmill. By Professor James Bltth, M.A 869 

6. Flexible Metallic Tubing. By Gilbert R. Redgrave, Assoc.lnst.C.E.... 870 

JVO^^I>Ar, AUGUST s. 

1. Report on Graphic Methods. By Professor H. S.Helk-Shaw, M.Inst.C.E. 871 

2. The Destruction of Lightning Protectors by recent Municipal Legislation. 

By W. H. Peeece, F.R.S 871 

3. Secondary Batteries in use at the Central Telegi-aph Office, London, for 
Telegraphic Purposes. By W. H. Peeece, F.R.S 872 

4. Power Transmission by Alternating Current. By Gisbeet Kapp 873 

6. A new Electric Locomotive. By E. H. Woods 874 

6. Coin-counting Machine at the Royal Mint. By Lieut. W. B. Basset, R.N. 876 

7. Antifriction Materials for Bearings used without Lubricants. By Killing- 
worth Hedges, M.Inst.C.E 876 

8. Notes on the Design of Steam Generators especially adapted for High 
Pressures. By H. B. Thwaite, C.E., F.C.S 877 

9. The Strength of Small Chains. By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, 
M.Inst.C.E .' 878 



TU-ESBA r, A UG VST Vi. 

1. Dredgers. By A. Brown 879 

2. Note on Motors used for Fog Signals in the Northern Lighthouse Service. 

By David A. Stevenson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E 879 

3. On the Progress of the Dioptric Lens as used in Lighthouse Illumination. 

By Charles A. Stevenson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E 879 

4. Smoke-consuming Apparatus. By A. R. Sennett 880 



CONTENTS. XXVll 

Page 

5. A System of Purifying the Smoke from Domestic and other Fires. By 
Colonel E. Dflier 880 

6. The London Sewage Question. By Ckawfoed Baelow, B.A., M.Inst.C.E. 881 

7. City Sanitation as practically conducted in Edinburgh. By John CoorEK, 

Assoc.M.Inst.C.E ": 882 

8. On the Extinction of Fires in Ships' Holds. By H. C. Carter 883 

9. On a new Form of Steam Brake for Locomotives. By William Cross, 
C.E 884 

10. On a new Form of Gas Engine. By Joseph Day, A.M.Inst.O.E 884 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 4. 

Address by Alexanber Macalistee, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in 

the University of Cambridge, President of the Section 886 

1. On the Organisation of Local Anthropological Research. By E. W. 
Brabrook 896 

■2. Report of the Anthropometric Laboratory Committee 896 

3. Report of the Anthropological Notes and Queries Committee 896 

4. Discovery of the Common Occurrence of Palaeolithic "Weapons in Scotland. 

By Rev. Frederick Smith 896 

6. Notes on Cyclopean Architecture in the South Pacific Islands. By R. A. 

Sterstdale 897 

-6. On a Fronto-limbic Formation of the Human Cerebrum, By Dr. L. 
Manouvrier 897 

7. The Indo-Europeans' Conception of a Fixture Life and its Bearing upon 

their Religions. By Professor G. Haetwell Jones, M.A 898 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. Exhibition of Photographs, Weapons, &c., of Toba Indians of the Gran 
Chaco. By J. Graham Keee 900 

2. Exhibition of pre-Palteolithic Flints. By J. Montgomeeie Bell 900 

3. The Present Inhabitants of Mashonaland, and their Origin. By J. Theo- 

dore Bent 900 

4. Report of the Mashonaland Committee 901 

5. On the Value of Art in Ethnology. By Professor A. C. Haddon 901 

6. Similarity of certain Ancient Necropoleis in the Pyrenees and in North 
Britain. By Dr. Phen^, F.S.A 901 

7. A Contribution to the Ethnology of Jersey. By Andrew Dunlop, M.D., 
F.G.S : 902 

8. On the Past and Present Condition of the Natives of the Friendly Island.^!, 

or Tonga. By R. B. Leepe 903 

9. Damma Island and its Natives. By P. W. Bassett-Smith, Surg. R.N., 
F.R.M.S 903 

10. Report of the North- Western Tribes of Canada Committee 904 

11. Discussion on Anthropometric Identification, opened by Dr. L. MANOtrvEiER 904 



XXVlll CONTENTS. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 6. 

Page 
Some Developmental and Evolutional Aspects of Criminal Anthropology. 
By T. S. Clouston, M.D., F.R.S.E. (followed by a Discussion on Criminal 
Anthropology) 904 

MONDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1 . On a Coiffure from the South Seas. By Sir W. Turnee 90& 

2. On the Articular Processes of the Vertebrte in the Gorilla compared with 
those in Man, and on Costo-vertebral Variation in the Gorilla. By Pro- 
fessor Stkuthees, M.D., LL.D 906 

3. On the probable Derivation of some Characteristic Sounds in certain Lan- 

guages from Cries or Noises made by Animals. By J. Mansel AVeale 907 

4. On the Prehensile Power of Infants. By Dr. Lotris Robinson 909 

5. The Integumentary Grooves on the Palm of the Hand and Sole of the Foot 
of Man and the Anthropoid Apes. By David IIepbtjen, M.D., CM., 
F.R.S.E 909 

6. On the Contemporaneity of Man and the Moa. By H. 0. Foebes 910 

7. Discussion on Human Osteometry, opened by Dr. J. G. Gaeson 910 

TUESDA Y, A UG UST 9. 

1. Exhibition of Composite Photographs of United States Soldiers. By Dr. 

J. G. Gaeson 910 

2. Observations as to Physical Deviations from the Normal as seen among 
50,000 Children. By" Francis Warner, M.D 910 

3. On the Brain of an Australian. By Professor A. Macalistee 911 

4. On Skulls from Mobanga, Upper Congo. By Professor A. Macalistee... 911 

5. On some Facial Characters of the Ancient Egyptians. By Professor A. 
Macalistee 912 

6. On some very Ancient Skeletons from Medum, Egvpt. By J. Q. Gaeson, 
M.D ". 912 

7. On a Skull from Port Talbot, Glamorganshire. By C. Phillips, B.A. ... 912 

8. On Trepanning the Human Skull in Prehistoric times. By Robeet Muneo, 
M.A., M.D 912 

9. On the Use of Narcotics by the Nicobar Islanders, and certain Deforma- 
tions connected therewith. By E. H. Man 913 

10. Report of the Indian Committee 914 

11. Report of the Prehistoric Remains of Glamorganshire Committee 914 

12. Report of the Elbolton Cave Committee 914 

13. Exhibition of the Philograph — a simple Apparatus for the Preparation 

of Lecture Diagrams. By G. W. Bloxam, M.A 914 

14. Exhibition of Photographs representing the Prehensile Power of Infants. 

By L. Robinson, M.D 914 



Index 915 



XXIX 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.— IV. 



Illustrating Professor A. A. Michelsou's paper on the Application of Interference 
Methods to Spectroscopic Measurements, 



Errata in 3891 {Cardiff) Report. 



Page 154, line 10, for Garden, read Cardew. 

Page 564, last line hut one, for Secret, read Recent. 



Errata in 1892 (Edinburgh) Beport. 
Page 138, line S,for M, G. Guillaume, 7-ead C, E, Guillaume. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

KULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association, 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive cjrattiitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



EULKS OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

gratvitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay luitJiout intermissioyi their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this cliiss (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
(dlfuhire years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membershii? and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the followincr classes : — 



P 



1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1881 to 1889 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1889, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Membei's nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to jjurcJiase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Oralis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 184.5 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 184-5, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 
Annual Members v:lio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 
— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
8. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
I5nly be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets,^1831 to 1874, are on sale, at jglO the set. 



XXxii RULES OF THK ASSOCIATION. 



Meethigs. 

Tlie Association shall meet aunaally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be ajapointed hy the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
OflBcers of the Association. 

General Co'inmittee. 

The General Committee sball sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considei-a- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vierv of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they m,ust 
he sent to the Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Associa- 
tion. Tike decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Associa- 
tion to be placed on the list of the General Committee iv be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rale to be ajjproved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Uomrmttees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names ai"e submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the INIemoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Revised by the General Committee, 1884. 

'' Passed by the G-eneral Committee, Edinburah, 1871. 

3 Notice to Contributors of 3femoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIU 

thereon, and on the oi'der in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. '^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Pi-oceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,* Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association, and specified below. The 
Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of 
meeting of the Section and the Sectional Committee [see p. xc]. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 
the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2, No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

Lnecessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
jeveral Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
If a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
nd that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

efore , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

le Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

_ iat his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Secretary, hefcre 
the conclusion of the Meet'mg. 

' Sheffield, 1879. ^ Swansea, 1880. ' Edinburgh, 1871. 

' The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. 
1892. b 



XXxiv RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee of the Section, and entered on tlie minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee. ^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs mid Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs fmidshed by Aikthors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxii), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitlinsr them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be nam,ed, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
2 This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin» 
burgh, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in ivriting his loillingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the resjyonsihility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient vjorking. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement ichether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, hut that the Members to 
serve on such Committee he nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recoramendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Secretary for presentation 
to the Committee of Eecommendations. Unless this be done, the Becom- 
mendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Eecommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money, 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the pi-osecution of particular researches 
in science, are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
forward to the General Officers, before July 1, a statement of the sums 
which have been expended, with vouchers, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire on June 30 following ; nor is the Treasurer authorised, after that 
date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, unless they be 
renewed in the original or a modified form by the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 
of the British Association without special permission from the General 



Revised by the General Committee, Batli, 1888. 
Passed by tlie General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



b2 



XXXVl RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance witli the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on tlie Treasurer, Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., Burlington 
House, London, W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, when not 
employed in carrying on scientific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of 
meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee. Passed by the General Committee 
at Edinburgh, 1892. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVll 



Cominittee of Recommendations. 



9 The Genei'al Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.' 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

All proposa!s for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

Corresponding Societies.* 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Cori'esponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee .shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Secretary of the Association, a schedule, properly filled 
up, which will be issued by the Secretary of the Association, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 

' Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 1863. 
- Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
■■' Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 
■* Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



XXXVlll RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
(those Members of the Association whose assistance they may depire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 



Council. 



In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Pi'esidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Membei's, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of General Com- 
mittee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditor 
appointed by the General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee, Belfast, 1874. 



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REPORT 1892. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

18.S3. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1833. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 



1840. Glasgow 



1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William "Wniewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Wliewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. "Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Whcatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, AV. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smitli. 
Prof. Stcvollv. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof.' Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevellj', 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



li 



Date and Place 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec 

E.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S. L. & E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A.,K.P., 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W, Thomson, D.C.L., 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.LA. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
FleemingJenkin,Prof.H. J.S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. ClifiPord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof, W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

c 2 



Hi 



EEPORT 1892. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1S1)2. 



Swansea .. 



York. 



Southamp- 
ton. 

Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen, . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.B. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 
R.E., F.R.S. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 



Secretaries 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. G. Richard- 
son. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. B. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

A. Lodge, W. N. Shaw, Prof. H. 

Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



•John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. .Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth... 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Tliomson, F.R.S Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C.Henry, W.Hera- 
path. 

Michael Faraday, F.R.S Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Reynolds. 
, Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 

Prof. T.Graham, F.R.S Dr. Goldinu- Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S.; Dr. R. D. "^Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 

Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

B. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Gralaam, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming- 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 



Oxford iKev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 
Swansea ... Eichard Phillips, F.E.S 



Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich . . 
Belfast 



Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.E.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M,D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S. ... 



Dublin I Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., 

I M.E.I.A. 

Leeds jSir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Aberdeen. . . j Dr. LyonPlayf air, C.B., F.E.S. 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. Oxford iProf. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 



1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878, 

1879. 



Manchester Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.E.S 
Cambridge Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.E.S. 

Newcastle 

Bath 



Birmingham 



Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Dublin 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

W. ' ddiing, M.B., F.E.S., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.E.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.E.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.E.S.. 

F.C.S. 
Dr. H. Debus, F.E.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Eoscoe, B.A., 

F.E.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Eussell, F.E.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.E.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.E.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.E.S 

F. A. Abel, F.E.S., F.C.S. ... 



Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 
F Tr S ^^^ P s 
Sheffield ...Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, E. Hunt, T. Williams. 

E. Huiat, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Eonalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Eoscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Eey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Eoscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, E. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Eussell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Eus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Eussell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Tliorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Eoberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. E. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Eoberts, J, 
M. Thomson. 



liv 



REPORT — 1892. 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen.. 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardife. 



1892. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
C.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H.McLeod,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 

W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dison, 

T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J.Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, R. E. Moyle, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 
Dr. H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagcl, 

Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattin- 

son, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, Dr. 

G. S. Turpin. 
Dr. J. Gibson, Dr. H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol". 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

1832. Oxford 'B. I. Murchison, F.R.S John Taylor. 

1833. Cambridge. Ig. B. Greenough, F.R.S JW. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

1834. Edinburgh . Prof . Jameson Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 

I Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 

1835. Dublin R. J. Griffith 

1836. Bristol JRev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

I Geograph]!, R. I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



1837. Liverpool. 



1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 
Geography, G.B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
Geography, G.B.Greenough, 
F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, V.^.B.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
I F.R.S. 
1841. Plymouth... H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... W. J.Ham'ilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 
' 1 R. Hutton, 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 



Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Gee 
graphy. Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge, 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Presidents 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh" 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner,F.R.S.— Geo- 

qraphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,P.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E, Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E, H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay» 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geof/rajihy , Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prcf. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c (continued?). — geology. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen,.. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S.IC. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

I Searles "Wood. 
Lieut.- Col. Portlock, R.E., James Bryce, James MacAdam, 
y R.S. j Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 

Prof, iscdgwick, F.R.S ' Prof . Harkness, William Lawton. 

Prof Edward Forbes, F.R.S. John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

\ G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

i Nicol. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S....! Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 

j worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 
T. Wright. 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw, 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
D. C. L. Woodall. 



William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. Warington W. Smyth 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 
Jones, H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 
Sorbv, Thomas Sopwith. 
LL.D., I W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. AVright. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 18.50, it was resolved ' That 
the subiect of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section,'" for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page Ixi. 



Ivi 



REl'ORT 1892. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.K.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 



Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

SirPhilipde M.Grey Egerton,i W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

]!art., M.P., F.R.S. " I W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Jlorton. 

Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S.; R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

j Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen,! L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
F.R.S., F.G.S. I Topley, Henry Woodward. 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 



Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S. 

Prof. John Youna:, M.D 

W. Pengelly, fTr.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J.Armstrona:,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Toplej-, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 



Prof. W. 



J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley 

W. Whitaker. 
T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West 
lake, W. Whitaker. 
C. Williamson, 'R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



ley, W. Whitaker 
F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W 

Topley, W. Whitaker. 
C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. .J. H 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top 

ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W, 

W. Watts, IL B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Slarr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. \V. Watts. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford jRev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge" Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.'c. C. Babinofon, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. 'Prof. Graham .^._^ |W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 

' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



I 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



J 837, Liverpool... 
1838. Newcastle 

] 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGT AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay ,C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart jJ. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, 

I Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. \ Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. 

Patterson. 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Chester. ; Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
F.R.S. j Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D {continued). — zooLOor and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsec- 
tions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ix.] 



1848. Swansea ... 



1849. 
1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 



Birmingham 
Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . . 

Belfast 



Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



L. W. DilUvyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.E.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S. I 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

I 
Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S..., 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D.. F.R.S.... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



Iviii 



EEPORT — 1892. 




Date and Place 

1864. Bath Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 

1865. Birmingham T. Thomson, M.D„ F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T.. 

. Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. i 

Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke, Rev. i 

, H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. | 



SECTION D (confimted). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee . . . 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh, 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford .. 



1874. Belfast , 



1875. Bristol .... 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D.. F.R.S. 

— Phyaiokuiicnl Dip., Prof. 

Humi3liry," 31. D., F.R.S.— 

Anihropoliiipcal Dcp., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.U.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bi'p. of Zool. and Jiot.. 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dcp. of Pliysioloyi/, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S.. F.L.S. 
— Dip. of Dot. and XooL, 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dip.of FAhno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G.Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — /^/y. of 
Anat. find P/ii/.fioI., Trof.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.>>.— Dip. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
¥.^.Q.—Dcp. of Hot. and 
.2yoZ.,rrof.WyvillcThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of Aiitlnvpol.. 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.— 
Dej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— i>e^. of Anthropol. 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— />(;//. of 
Anat.and P/iy.yiol.,Fiof . lin- 
therf ord, M .i>.—Dcp. of A n- 
thropuL, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.'D.—Dip. of 
Zool. and Dot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— ft;/A o/^l /i- 
throp.,tiiT W.R.Wilde. M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.T>..S.— Dep.of 
Anat.andPJn/sii'l.,Fioi.Cle- 
land, M.D., F.'R.S.—Dep.oJ 
Anthropol. ,'Pvoi. Rolleston. 
M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright, 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev.. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. AV. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wrisjht. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson,. 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans^ 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton,. 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson,. 

R. M'Laclilan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 

Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 

H. Lamprej'. 
VV.T. Thiselton-Dyer, E.O.Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 

Pye-Smith, J. J, Murphy, F. W. 

Riuller. 
E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 

W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 

Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 

W. Spencer. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved:— 'That the t 

title of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection,'" \ 

mthe rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department"' ' 
be substituted.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport" 



1884. Montreal 2. 

1885. Aberdeen. 



1886. Birmingham 



I 



1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



A. Kussel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Dvp. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z^c^y. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.GwynJeffreys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Dej). of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.b. — Bej}. of Anthropol., 
Francis Galton, M.A.jF.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anthrojjol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bcj). 
of Anat. ami Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. Geoi-ge Mivart, 
F.R.S.— iJe/A of Anthrojwl., 
B. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Be}}, of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
Y.Ti.ii.—Bej). of Atithrojjol, 
F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 

Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 
F.R.S. — Bej}. of Anthroj)ol., 
Prof. W. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
- Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— 2>(7A of Amthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S. 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



B. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden^ 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof, 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. R. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



■ By direction of the General Committee at Southampton (1882) the Departments 
of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomj- and Physiology were amalgamated. 

2 By authority of the General Committee, Anthropology was made a separate 
Section, for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixvii. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1892. 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdou Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.K.S. 



Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



Secretaries 



F. B. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Hai-- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, Prof. F. W. 
Oliver, H. Wager, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Was:er. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, Prof. W. Stirling, H. 
Wager. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT. 

1833. Cambridge IDr. Haviland jDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh I Dr. Abercrombie IDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. Pritchard ! Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 



Dr. Roget, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vo.se. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couj^er, Prof. 

Reid. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. ; Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. Dr. ciiaytor. Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... Dr. John Poj^ham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

.... I. Ericlisen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
....Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
. . . C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
....Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



J. C. Pritchard, M.D. 
Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S, 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Strutliers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. Ivii.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



)ate and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 



1865. 



Birming- 
ham.' 



Presidents 



Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.K.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.K.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Hoileston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, 

F.K.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., 

F.R.S. 



LL.D., 
LL.D., 



Secretaries 



Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presid<;nts and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
liv.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis, 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 


Ipswich . . . 


1852, 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull. 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


18.56. 


Cheltenham 


18.57. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862, 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864, 


Batb 


1 865. Birmingham 



Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S, 
Sir J, Richardson, M,D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 
Sir R.L Murchison, G.C. St. S., 

F.R.S, 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr, Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, P. D. Havtland, W. H, 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr, C. 

Lempriire, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Mui-chison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright, 



Vide note on page Iviii, 



Ixii 



REPORT 1892. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 


H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 

R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 

Stiirrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 

Markham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford.., 



SECTION E [continued). - 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. LMiTrchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 



1874. Belfast Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 

1875. Bristol Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E..C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S., F.G.S. 

1876. Glasgow ... Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 



1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 



Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 

York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiee , 

Edinburgh 



Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S. L.&E . 
Clements R. Markham, C.B., 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B.,K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.CM.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 



-GEOGRAPHY. 

H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. ^larkham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black. E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'HaJloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 
Sulivan, A. Silva White. 

A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 
A. Silva White. 

John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 
Keltic, A. Silva White. 






PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



I 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 



1833. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh I Sir Clmrles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1 835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plj^mouth . . . 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
liev. Dr. Bj'rth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletoiier, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Clieshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Chesliire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W, H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



p SECTION p (continued). — economic science and statistics. 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 

1858. Leeds ., 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 
] M. Tartt. 
His Grace the Ai-chbishop of | Prof . Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 
Dublin, M.R.I.A. | Newmarch. 

Edward Baines jT. B. Baines. Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1892. 



Date and Place 



1859. 
1860. 
1801. Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Aberdeen... I Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Oxford Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.E.S.... 



1862. 
1863. 

1861. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 



Cambridge Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

Newcastle . William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 



William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
E.t. Hon. Lord Stanle}', LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 

M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P 



Plymouth. 
Dublin.... 



1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. 
Actuaries. 

Exeter Et.Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Liverpool... Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Edinburgh Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Brighton ... Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Bradford ... Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Belfast Lord O'Hagan 

Bristol ' James Heywood, M.A. , F.R.S., 

! Pres. S.S. 
Glasgow ... Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 
M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.E.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 
S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 
M.A., F.R.S. 
Southamp- Rt. Hon. G. Sclater- Booth, 

ton. I M.P., F.R.S. 

Southport R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

i 
Montreal ... Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 

i G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 
Aberdeen... Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 

Litt.D. 
Birmingham J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Manchester.Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



1879. Sheffield 



Swansea ... 
York 



1888. Bath 

1889 



.jRt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 



Newcastle- Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 
upon-Tyne' F.S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmimd Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Roger.s 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. JIacrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 

R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, .James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips?. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

JlacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrorv. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Noilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock. C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. \V. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 
Prof. J. Wat.«on. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 
gant. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 
Price. 

Rev. Dr. Cunnino-hnni, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 






PRESIDENT^! AND SECUETAIIIES OF THE SECTION.S. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1890. Leeds 


Prof. A. MarshaU, M.A.,F.S.S. 


W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 
T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 
L. L. F. R. Price. 


1891. Cardiff 


Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 


Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 




D.Sc, F S.S. 


E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 
Prof. W. R. Sorley. 


1892. Edinburgh 


Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 


Prof. J. Brousjh, J. R. Findlav, Prof. 




K.C.B. 


E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. LiverpooL.. 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford.... 

1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1892. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S. . 



Prof. Willis, P.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..P.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Wm. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, .J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M, 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H, 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marsliall, Walter May. 

d 



Ixvi 



KEPORT 1892. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1866, 

1867. 

1868, 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1S84. 
1885, 
1880. 
1887, 
1888. 
1889. 
1890, 
1891 
1892. 



Nottingham Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Dundee Prof .W.J. MacquornEaukine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Norwich ... G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plj-mouth.., 
Dublin , 

Sheffield .. 

Swansea .. 

York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 



C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. P.. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S. E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward East on, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 



Secretaries 



P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Jolm P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P, Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iseliu, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster. T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie. 

J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Briinel, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawksliaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. E. Browne, H. M. Brimel, J. G. 

Gamble. J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G, Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 



James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker. M.Inst.C.E 



Birmingham ' Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

! C.E. 
Manchester j Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 
] LL.D., F.E.S. ■ 

Bath W. H. Preece, F.E.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Newcastle- [W. Anderson. M.Inst.C.E. ... 
upon-Tyne 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E., 



Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. 
M.Inst.C.E. 



A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. v. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward. W. B. 

Marshall, K. Rierg. 
C. F. Budenberg,'' W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Mar.sball, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. \V. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



18811. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION H. ANTHROPOLOGY. 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.K.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.K.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max MiiUer, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 
M.D., F.R.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 



LIST OF EVENING- LECTUKES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



Lecturer 



1844. York. 



184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

SirM. I.Brimel 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Mm-chison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lj-ell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S... . 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faradav, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the jEgean Sea. 
{The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 
'■ The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

■ Properties of the Explosive substance 

discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 

some Researches of his own on the 

Decomposition of Water bj' Heat, 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Bidus ini'iHus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

d 2 



Ixviii 



REPOKT— 1892. 



Date and Place 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull. 



Lecturer 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S, 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron, 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S , 

ProL Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 



Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geogi'aphy 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomoriihous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

.Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, w^ith the results of 
Cuneiform research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Pliysical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath tlie red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 



p 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Norwich .. 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873, 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Bradford 
Belfast . . . 



Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



I 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Lecturer 



1884. Montreal... 



188.5. Aberdeen. 



1886. 
1887. 



Birmingham 
Manchester 



J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odlincf, F.K.S 

Prof. J. Pliillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockj'er F.E.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. i\racquorn Rankine, 

LL.D.. F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Ti'lor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. ClifEord 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S. E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Ct. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S. 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 
K.C.M.G. 



Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulse. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamori^hosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Though t. 
Coal and Coal Plants. 
Molecules. 
Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarised Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The CJmUciiffer Expedition. 
The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palfeon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 



Ixx 



UEPOiiT — 1892. 



Date and Place 


I.,c'ct:urer 


Subject of Discourse 


1888. 


Bath 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 


The Electrical Transmission of 






Power. 






Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 


The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 






F.E.S. 


Crust. 


1889. 


ISlewcastle- 


Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 


The Hardening and Tempering of 




upon-Tyne 


F.E.S. 


Steel. 






Walter Gardiner, M.A 


How Plants maintain themselve.s in 






the Struggle for Existence. 


1890. 


Leeds 


E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S... . 


Mimicrv. 






Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 


1891. 


Cardiff 


Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 


Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 






Prof.A.W.Eucker,M.A.,r.R.S. 


Electrical Stress. 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. A. Mibies Marshall, 
D.Sc. F.R.S. 


Pedigrees. 






Prof. J. A E wing, M. A., F.R.S., 


Magnetic Induction. 






F.R.S.E. 





LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool- . 

1872. Bria-hton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southp-irt 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburtrh 



Lecturer 

Prof. J. Tvndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. AjTton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas. R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.B 



Subject of Discourse 

Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tionof the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 
I Fuel. 
i The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 



Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. Spinning Tops. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. | Electricity in Mining. 

Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. i Electric Spark Photograph.s. 



Ixxi 



OrFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

EDINBURGH MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President— Professor Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. A. Buchan, F.R.S.E.; Professor Chrystal, F.R.S.E. ; 
Professor Copeland, F.R.S.E. ; Professor H. von, Helmholtz, F.R.S. ; 
Lord M'Laren, F.R.S.E.; Professor 0. J. Lodge, F.R.S. ; Lord 
Kelvin, Pres.R.S. ; Professor Sir G. G. Stokes, F.R.S. ; Professor 
P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — R. E. Baynes, M.A. (^Recorder); J. Larmor, F.R.S.; Pro- 
fessor A. Lodge, M.A. ; Dr. W. Peddie, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION B. CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Professor Herbert M'Leod, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor A. Crum Brown, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
F.R.S. ; Professor F. R. Japp, F.R.S. ; Professor W. H. Perkin, Jun., 
F.R.S.; Professor Otto Pettersson ; Professor T, Purdie, F.C.S. ; 
Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, F.R.S. ; Professor W. C. Roberts- 
Austen, C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Dr. J. Gibson, F.R.S.E. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. 
{Becorder) ; D. H. Nagel, M.A. ; Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, M.A. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. ^Professor Bonuey, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; R. Etheridge, F.R.S. ; 
Professor T. M'K. Hughes, F.R.S.; Professor T. Rupert Jones, 
F.R.S. ; B. N. Peach, F.R.S. ; Professor A. F. Renard ; Baron F. von 
Richthofen ; Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— B.. M. Cadell, F.R.S.E. ; J. E. Marr, F.R.S. ; Clement 
Reid, F.G.S. ; W. W. Watts, M.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— Professor W. Rutherford, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor I. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S. ; Professor F. O. 
Bower, F.R.S. ; W. Carruthers, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Cossar 
Bwart, F.R.S.E. ; Professor M, Foster, Sec.R.S. ; Dr. George King, 



Ixxii KEPORT — 1892. 

C.I.E., F.R.S. ; Professor M'Intosh, F.R.S. ; Professor J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S. ; Professor Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. ; Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— G. Brook, F.R.S.E. ; Professor W. A. Herdraan, F.R.S. 
{Recorder) ; George Murray, F.R.S.E. ; Professor William Stirling, 
M.D. ; Harold Wager. 

SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT. 

Prm'c^eiii.— Professor James Geikie, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Colonel Godwin -Austen, F R.S. ; J. Y. Buchanan, 

F.R.S. ; Dr. George Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. ; H. J. Mackinder, 

F.R.G.S. ; E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S. ; Baron F. von Richthofen ; 
Coutts Trotter, F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— J . G. Bartholomew, F.R.S.E.; John Coles, F.R G.S. ; 
J. Scott Keltic, F.R.G.S. (Recorder) ; A. Silva White, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— The Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, K.C.B. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Cunningham, D.D. ; Professor J. E. C. 
Munro, LL.D. ; Professor J. S. Nicholson, F.R.S.E. ; R. H. Inglis 
Palgrave, F.R.S, ; T. Bond Sprague, F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — Professor J. Brough, LL.D. ; J. R. Findlay, B.A. ; Professor 

E. C. K. Conner, M.A. (Recorder) ; Henry Higgs, LL.B. ; L. L. 

F. R. Price, M.A. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor G. F. Armstrong, F.R.S.E. ; Sir Benjamin 
Baker, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. ; Professor George Forbes, F.R.S. ; Alex- 
ander Leslie, M.Inst.C.E.; D. A. Stevenson, F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — Conrad W. Cooke ; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. ; W. C. 
Popplewell, B.Sc. ; E. Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION H. — ANTHEOPOLOGT. 

President. — Professor Alexander Macalister, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Joseph Anderson, M.D. ; Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B. ; 
Robert Munro, M.D. ; Sir William Turner, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— G. W. Bloxam, M.A. (Recorder) ; Dr. D. Hepburn, F.R.S.E. ; 
Professor R. Howden, M.A. ; H. Ling Roth, 



fl 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1892-3. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D., D.Sc, Fun. Skc. R.S., F.li.b.E., F.O.S., Director-General of 
tlie Geological Survey of the United Kiugdou:. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



the LoRp PROVosr oP Edin- 



MFhe Biglit Hon 

■ _ BURGH. 

T^he Most Hon. the Marqukss of Lothian, K.T. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Ro.sebery, K.G., 

LL.b., P.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Right Hon. J. H. A. Macdonald, C.B., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

6 PRESIDENT ELECT. 

PROFESSOR J. S. BURDON SANDERSON, M.D., LL.D., D.C.L., P.R.S., F.R.S.E, 
VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



Principal Sir Wn.LrAJi Mum, K.O.S.I., D.C.L. 
Professor Sir Douolas Maclagan, M.D ., Pres.R.S.E. 
Professor Sir William Turner, P.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Professor A. CnuM Brown, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 

Pres.C.S. 
Professor P. G. Tait, M.A., F.R.S.E, 



His Grace the Duke of St. Albans, Lord Lien- 
tenant of Nottinghamshire. 

His Grace the Duke op Devonshire, K.G., Chan- 
cellor of the Uuiversitj' of Cambridge. 

His Grace the Duke of Portland, Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Caithness . 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastlk. 

The Right Hon. Lord Belper. 



The Right Worshipful the Mayor op Nottino - 

HAM. 

The Right Hon. Sir W. R. Grove, M.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Sir John Turkey, J.P. 
Professor Michael Foster, M.A., M.D., LL.D. 

Sec.R.S., F.L.S.. F.C.S. 
W. H. RANSOJr, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, London, S.W. 
A. G. Tbenon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.C.S., Cowley Grange, O.xford. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. ' 

Professor Arthur Rijcker, M.A., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 



THE MEETING AT 
A. p. J( 



NOTTINGHAM. 
IINSON, Esq., M.A. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR 

Professor F. Clowes, D.Sc, F.C.S. 
Professor W. H. Heaton, M.A. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT NOTTINGHAM 
Edward Goldsch.midt, Esq., J.P. 



ORDINARY 
Anderson, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Ayrton, Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Ball, Sir R. S., F.R.S. 
Duff, Sir M. E. Grant, G.C.S.I., F.R.S, 
Edgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Professor G. F., F.R.S. 
Glazeerook, R. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
Green, Professor A. H., F.R.S. 
Ln-EING, Professor G. D., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Olivek J., F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Ra.msay, Professor W., F.R.S. 
Reinold, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 
RoBKRTS-AuSTEN,ProfessorW.C.,C.B., F.R.S. 
SCHAFER, Professor E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Sidgwick, Professor H., M.A. 
Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
Ward, Professor H. M.*.rshall, F.R.S. 
Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL, 
iie Trustees, the President and President Elect, tlie Presidents of former yeai-s, the Vice-Presidents and 
hoe-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
lie Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
eeretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L. , LL.D., Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Playfair, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OP FORMER TEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, LL.D., Pi-es.R.S. 



Prof. WUUamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. TvndaU, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Sec. R.S. 
Loril Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir. W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Frederick Abel, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Dr. Wm. Huggins, F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. I G. Gilfflth, Esq., M.A., F.C.S. I Prof. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. | P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. | Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. H. McLcod, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
J. B. Martin, Esq., M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.Sc. 



Ixxiv iiEPORT — 1892. 



THE BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOR 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT 

1891-92. RECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance brought forward 846 

New Life Compositions at Carclili' Meeting and since 330 

New Annual Members" Subscriptions at Cardiff Meeting and 

since 318 

Annual Subscriptions „ , 655 

Sale of Associates' Tickets at Cardiff 672 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets at Cardiff 107 

Sale of Publications 233 

P^ent from Mathematical Society for the year ending Sep- 
tember 29, 1891 12 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 13 

Dividends on Consols 170 

Dividends on India ;> per cents 78 

Unexpended Balance of Grant made ' for improving a Deep- 
sea Tow-net ' 27 14 6 



s. 


d. 


1 


•2 
































2 


8 


15 





8 


2 


18 


9 


19 


6 



£3364 19 9 



Investments. 

£ 

New Consols 8500 

India 3 per cents 3600 

Exchequer Bills 500 



s. 




a. 

















£12000 



BALANCE SHEET, 1891-92. IxXV 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



(from August 1, 1891, to June 30, 1892). Gr. [ 

I 

1891-92. PAYMENTS. ] 

£, s. d. 
Expenses of Cardiff Meeting, including Printing and Adver- 
tising, payment of Clerks, &;c 141 3 9 

Eent and OfBce Expenses, including Furniture, &c 196 19 8 ] 

Salaries 512 10 j 

Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co., printing, binding, &c 1321 7 10 ■^ 

Grants. < 

£ *-. d. 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis .50 , 

Pliotograplis of Meteorological Plienomena 1500 J 

Pelliau Equation Tables 10 j 

Discharge of Electricity from Points 50 j 

Seismological Plienomena of Japan 10 | 

Formation of Haloids 12 1 

Properties of Solutions 10 ' 

Action of Light on Dyed Colours 10 i 

Erratic Blocks 15 ] 

Pliotograplis of Geological Interest 20 i 

Underground Waters 10 i 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

E.xoavations at Oldbiury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polvzua 10 

Table at Naples Zi mlogical Station 100 

Table at Ph-mouth Biological Laboratory 17 10 

Improving a Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Saudwich Islands 100 

Zoology and Botany of West India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthroporuetric Laboratory 5 

Anthropological Notes and Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Mashonaland SO 

North- Western Tribes of Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 



8G4 10 



By Balance at Bank of England, Western Branch 436 18 6 

Less Cheques drawn but not presented 119 10 

317 8 6 

In hands of General Treasurer 11 



328 8 6 
£3364 19 9 



Arthur W. Eucker, General Treasurer. 

J. H. GLADSTONE, \ ,,^ii,,„„ 

John B. Martin, / ^i'«^*^'""«- 





Table 


showing the Attendance and Receipt A 


Date o£ Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


\ 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 1 
Members 1 


1831, Sept, 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept, 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 .. 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept, 20 ... 

1855, Sept, 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept, 4 ... 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept, 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 

1881, Aug. 31 ... 

1882, Aug. 23 ... 

1883, Sept. 19... 

1884, Aug. 27 ... 

1885, Sept. 9 ... 

1886, Sept. 1 ... 

1887, Aug. 31 ... 

1888, Sept, 5 ... 

1889, Sept. 11 ... 

1890, Sept. 3 ... 

1891, Aug. 19 ... 

1892, Aug. 3 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne . . . 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. MurchisoD,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H.R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G. Ai-mstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Bucc]euch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
SirJohnHawkshaw,C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.G.J.Allman.M.D.,F.R.S. 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D.. F.R.S.... 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F R.S. ... 
Sir Lyon Playf air, K.C.B.,F.R,S. 
Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W.H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 


169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 


1 


Oxford 








Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 


LiverDOol 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Birmingham 

Glass'ow 




65 1 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 { 

8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
3& 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 


Manchester 


Cork 


York 


Cambrido"e 


Southampton 

Oxford 


Swansea 


Birmingham 


Edinburgh 


Ipswich 

Belfast 


Hull 


Liverpool 


Glasgow 


Cheltenham 

Dublin 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dundee 


Norwich 


Exeter 


Liverpool 


Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 


Bristol 


Glasgow 


Plymouth 


Dublin 


Sheffield 


Swansea 


York 


Southampton 

Southport 


Montreal 


Aberdeen 


Birmingham 


Manchester 


Bath 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Leeds 


Cardiff 


Edinburgh 


14 



* Ladies ^yere not admitted by purcliasil Tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections onl; 



t Annual Meetings of 


the Association 










Atteurletl by 


Auiouiit 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for Scien- 
tific Purposes 




Did Annual 
Members 


New Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Year 








... 


... 


353 






1831 
1832 






















31 


7 


•• 




1100* 

60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 


34 

40 

28 

35 
36 
53 
15 


900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 

891 
1315 

... 

1079 
857 

1320 
819 






1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 






£20 

167 

435 

922 12 6 

932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 1 8 








......... 














46 




75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 
54 


376 
185 
190 
22 
39 
40 
25 


33t 

"at 

407 
270 
495 
376 














iioioQ 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 


142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 


HI 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2783 


684 11 1 


1859 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45} 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


18.56 


1931 


1622 


1869 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


i 3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 S 1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1116 1 11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60 H.§ 


1777 


1538 


1173 4 


18S4 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


35 


1984 


2107 


1611 5 


1888 


412 


113 


1024 


579 


12 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 


368 


92 


680 


334 


21 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 


341 


152 


672 


107 


12 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 


4 


13 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 



Including Ladies. 



§ Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 



Isxviii EEPOKT — 1892. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Oouncil for the year 1891-92, presented to the General 
Committee at Edinhurgh, on Wednesday, August 3, 1892. 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer during- 
the past year, and his account from August 1, 1891 to June 30, 1892, 
which has been audited, will be pi'esented to the General Committee. 

An invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association at 
Oxford in 1894 has been received, and will be brought before the General 
Committee on Monday. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if 
desirable : — 

(A) ' That Mr. 0. L. Tupf)er's paper on " Recent Progress in Indian Agriculture," 
and Mr. W. C. Furnivall's paper on " Kecent Progress in Indian Railways," be 
printed in ewienso.' 

The Council resolved that Mr. Tupper's paper should be printed in 
full, and Mr. furnivall's in abstract. 

(B) ' That the General Committee meet on the Monday at 3.30 P.M., and the 
Committee of Recommendations meet on the Tuesday at 3.30 P.M.' 

The Council recommend to the General Committee that their meeting 
on Monday be held at 3.15 p.m., and that the meeting of the Committee 
of Recommendations on Tuesday be held at .3.1.5 P.M. 

Resolutions referring to the Ordnance Survey, viz. : — 

(C) 1. 'That the publication of the one-inch and six-inch Ordnance Survey Maps 

is. in the interests of Science, urgently required at the earliest possible 
date, no less than in the interests of Industry, Manufacture, and 
Technical Education.' 

2. ' That steps be taken and provision made for keeping the Ordnance Maps 

up to date.' 

3. ' That the Maps should be made more accessible to the public, and should 

be sold at a lower price, as is the case in nearly all other official publica- 
tions, such as Admiralty Charts, Blue-Books, etc' 

The Council have been informed that the President of the Board of 
Agriculture has appointed a Departmental Committee to inquire into the 
state of the Ordnance Survey, and as this Committee has not yet re- 
ported, the Council have taken no further action in the matter. 

The following Resolutions, which were passed by the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science at the meeting held at 
Christchurch, New Zealand, 1891, have been received by the Council : — 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxix 



Resolutions. 



' (1) That it is desirable to secure greater uniformity in Biological 
nomenclature, especially in the department of Morphology. 

' (2) That in order to secure such uniformity the following steps be 
taken : — 

' (a) The appointment of an International Committee to define terms of general 
importance, e.g., terms common to Botany and Zoology, terms relating to Position, 
etc. 

I' (h) The preparation of an authoritative historical glossary of Biological terms. 
' (fc") The systematic record of new terms in the various recording- publications. 
' (3) That copies of these Resolutions be transmitted to the British and 
American Associations, and to the Anatomische Gesellschaft.' 

The Council appointed a Committee consisting of Dr. Sclater, Dr. 
Woodward, Professor Marshall Ward and Professor Howes to consider 
these proposals, and have adopted their report in the following tei'ms : — 

' After considering the Resolutions submitted by the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science, we think from the context 
that by the word " nomenclature " in the first resolution, is meant " ter- 
minology." Assuming this to be the case, we quite agree that it would 
be desirable to secure greater uniformity in Biological terminology, but 
we doubt whether the appointment of an International Committee would 
tend to secure that object. 

'As regards the recommendation (h) in the second Resolution, we 
also quite agree that the preparation of a good glossaiy of Biological 
terms would be of great advantage, if a qualified person could be induced 
to undertake the task of editorship. We also agree that the glossary 
ought to be supplemented from time to time by records, to be kept up in 
the various recording publications.' 

This Report will be transmitted to the Australasian Association. 

The Report of the Coi'responding Societies Committee has been 
received, and will be presented to the General Committee. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor R. Meldola, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Topley, Professor T. G. Bonney, and Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, is hereby nominated for re-appointment by the General Com- 
mittee, together with Mr. B. B. Pouiton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and the 
Rev. Canon Tristram, in the place of Professor A. W. Williamson, Pro- 
fessor Boyd Dawkins, and General Pitt Rivers. 

The Council nominate Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., Chairman, Mr. 
G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, F.G.S., 
Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to 
be held during the Meeting at Edinburgh. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the Council, 
exclusive of the late Mr. H. W. Bates, will be : — 

Prof. G. H. Darwin. i Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Sir J. N. Douglass. | Prof. T. E. Thorpe. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are 
! distinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Izxx 



REPORT 1892. 



Anderson, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Avrton, Prof. W. E., F.R.8. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., P.R.S. 
*Ball, Sir R. S., F.E.S. 
Edge worth Prof., M.X. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Fitzgerald, Prof. G. F., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, R. T., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Grant-DufE,SirM.E.,G.C.S.I., F.R.S. 
*Green, Prof. A. H., F.R.S. 
Liveing, Prof. G. D., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Prof. Oliver J., F.R.S. 
*Meldola, Prof. R., F.R.S. 



Preece, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Prof. W., F.R.S. 
Reinold, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 
Roberts-Austen, Prof. W. C, C.B., F.R.S. 
Schiifer, Prof. E. A., F.R.S. 
Schuster, Prof. A., F.R.S. 
Sidgwick, Prof. H., M.A. 
Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Unwin, Prof. W. C, F.R.S, 
Ward, Prof. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. H., F.R.S. 



Ixxxi 



Committees appointed by the Gtenekal Committee at the 
Edinburgh Meeting in August 1892. 

1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of tlie Couiinittee 



Grants 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[Including an unexpended balance 
of IQl. from last j'ear's grant.] 



Co-operating with the Scottish Me - 
teorological Society in making 
Meteorological Observations on 
Ben Nevis. 



The Application of Pliotography 
to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 

[Last year's grant renewed.] 
1892. 



Chairman. — Professor G. Carey 
Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors Ayr ton, 
J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and 
O. J. Lodge, Lord Eayleigh, Drs. 
John Hopkinson and A. Muir- 
head, Messrs. W. H. Preece 
and Herbert Taylor, Professors 
Everett and Schuster, Dr. J. A. 
Fleming, Professors G. F. Fitz- 
gerald, Chrystal, and J. J. Thom- 
son, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Mr. J. T. 
Bottomley, and Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
patrick. Professor J. Viriamu 
Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, and 
Professor G. Forbes. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Mr. John Murray and Dr. A. Buchan, 

Professor R. Copeland, and Hon. 

R. Abercromby. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldola and Mr. John 
Hopkinson. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor Cayley, 

Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. 

L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. 

Greenhill, and Professor W. M. 

Hicks. ' 



s. fl. 





150 



10 



15 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 1892. 



1. Beceirlrig Grants of Money — continued. 




Members of the Committee 



Considering the best Methods of 
Kecording the Direct Intensity 
of Solar Kadiation. 



To co-operate with the Royal Corn- 
wall Polytechnic Society in pro- 
moting the Magnetic work of 
the Falmouth Observatory. 

Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements. 



To consider the best IMethod of 
establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of 
Iron and Steel. 



The Investigart,ion of the direct 

Formation of Haloids from 

pure Materials. 
[This grant includes 13/!. 5«., the 

balance of last year's grant not 

drawn.] 

The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



Kecording the Position, Height 
above the Sea, Lithological Cha- 
racters, Size, and Origin of 
the Erratic Blocks of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and tak- 
ing measures for their preserva- 
tion. 



Chairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Professor A. Schiister. Mr. G John- 
stone Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. G. 
M. Whipple, BIr. G. J. Symons, 
and Mr. W. E. Wilson. 

Chairman. — Mr. Howard Fox. 
Secretary. — Mr. Howard Fox. 
Professors A. W. Riicker and W. 
G. Adams. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Mr. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, 
Liveing, Schuster, W. N. Hart- 
ley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and 
Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor Roberts- 
Austen. 

Secretary. — Mr. Thomas Turner. 

Sir F. Abel, Messrs. E. Riley and 
J. Spiller, Professor J. W. Lang- 
ley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, and Pro- 
fessor W. A. Tilden. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 

Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. 
C. H. Bothamley. 



Professor T.E.Thorpe. 
Professor J. J. Hum- 



Chairman 

Secretary. 
mel. 

Dr. Perkin, Professor Russell, Cap- 
tain Abney, Professor Stroud, 
and Professor Meldola. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. F. Kendall. 

Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. 
McK. Hughes, T. G. Bonne3% and 
J. Prestwich, Dr. H. W. Cross- 
key, Messrs. C. E. De Ranee, 
R.H. Tiddeman, J. W. Woodall, 
and Prof. L. C. Miall. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE 
1. lieceiving Grants of Money — coiitimied. 



Ixxxiii 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Description and Illustration 
of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 
Palasozoic Eocks. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Begistration of 
Photographs of Geological in- 
terest. 




The Circulation of the Under- 
ground Waters in the Permeable 
Formations of England, and 
the Quality and Quantity of 
the Waters supplied to various 
Towns and Districts from these 
Formations. And that a Digest 
of the eighteen Reports should 
be prepared by the Committee, 
and sold in a separate form. 



To investigate the character of 
the high-level shell-bearing de- 
posits at Clava, Chapelhall, and 
other localities. 



The Investigation of the Euryp- 
terid-bearing Deposits of the 
Pentland Hills. 



To appoint Mr. Cecil Duncan to 
investigate the effect of light 
on Algte at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples, or, failing this, 
to appoint some other competent 
investigator to carry on a defi- 
nite piece of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples approved 
by the Council. 



To arrange for the Occupation of 
a Table at the Laboratory of the 
Marine Biological Association, 
Plymouth, in order to enable Mr. 
F. Gamble, B.Sc, to investigate 
the British Turbellaria. 



Chairman.— Rev. Prof. T. Wilt- 
shire. 
Secretary. — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 



Cltairnian. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary.— Mr. 0. W. Jeffs. 

Professors Boniiey and Boyd Daw- 
kins, Drs. V. Ball and T. Ander- 
son, and Messrs. A. S. Reid.E. J. 
Garwood, W. Gray, H. B. Wood- 
ward, J. E. Bedford, R. Kidston, 
W. W. Watts, J. W. Davis, and 
R. H. Tiddeman. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Dr. H. W. Crosskey, Sir D. Gal- 
ton, Professor J. Prcstwich, and 
Messrs. J. Glaisher, P. F. Ken- 
dall, E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, 
W. Pengelly, J. Plant, I. Roberts, 
T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. 
Topley, Tylden - Wright, E. 
Wethered, and W. Whitaker. 



Chairman. — Mr. J. Home. 
Secretary. — Mr. Dugald Bell. 
Messrs. J. Eraser, P. F. Kendall, 

J. F. Jamieson, and David 

Robertson. 



Chairman.— T)r. R. H. Traquair. 
Secretary. — Mr. M. Laurie. 
Professor T. Rupert Jones. 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary.— Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professors Ray Lankester, Cossar 
Ewait, M. Foster, and A. Milnes 
Marshall and Mr. A. Sedgwick. 



Chairman. — Professor E, Ray 

Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. S. F. Harmer. 
Professors M. Foster and S. H. 

Vines. 



£ s. cJ. 
5 



10 



5 



20 



10 



100 



30 



e2 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT — 1892. 
1. Receiring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To report on tlie present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
of the Sandwich Islands, and to 
take steps to investigate ascer- 
tained deficiencies in the Fauna, 
with power to co-operate with 
the Committee appointed for 
the purpose by the Eoyal Society, 
and to avail themselves of such 
assistance in their investiga- 
*tions as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government. 



To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and to take steps to in- 
vestigate ascertained deficien- 
cies in the Fauna and Flora. 

Exploration of Irish Sea. 



The Physiological Action of the 
inhalation of oxj'gen in as- 
phyxia, more especiall}- in coal- 
mines. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



The Exploration of the Glacial 
Region of the Karakorum 
Mountains, Physically, Geologi- 
cally, and Biologically, by Mr. 
W. M. Conway and com- 
panions. 



Scottish Place-Names. 



Climatological and Hydrographi- 
cal Conditions of Tropical 
Africa. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

St'cretari/. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blaiiford, Dr. S. J. Hick- 
son, Professor Riley, Mr. 0. Sal- 
vin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and Mr. 
Edgar A, Smith. 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 

Mr. W. Carruthers, Drs. A. C. Giin- 
ther and D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du 
Cane Godman, Professor A. 
Newton, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 



Chairman.- 
man. 



-Professor W. A. Herd- 



Secretary. — Mr. I. C. Thompson. 
Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. Hoyle, 

Mr. A. O. Walker, and Mr. G. 

Brook. 



Chairman. — Professor John G. 

McKendrick, M.D. 
Secretary.— ^\x. J.E. F. Thomson, 

M.B. 
Mr. J. T. Bottomley. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Brook. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. H. Woodward. 



Chairman. — Colonel Godwin- 
Austen. 
Secretary. — ProfessorT. G. Bonney. 
Colonel H. C. B. Tanner 



Chairman. —"^vc: C. W. Wilson. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Burgess. 
Mr. Coutts Trotter. 



Chairman. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. R. Mill. 
Mr. G. J. Symons and Mr. Bald- 
win Latham. 




50 



30 



20 



20 



50 



10 



50 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IXXXV 

1. Receiving GraMi of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


The Methods of Economic Train- 


CJuiirman. — Professor W. Cun- 


£ 
5 


*•. d. 



ing adopted in this and other 


ingham. 






countries. 


Secretary. — Professor E. C. K. 








Gonner. 




/ 




Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, Pro- 








fessor H. S. Foxwell, Dr. J. N. 








Keynes, and Mr. H. Higgs. 






For carrying on the Work of the 


ChaWman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 


5 





Anthropometric Laboratory. 


Secretary. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 
Mr. G. W.Bloxam, Dr. Wilberforce 

Smith, and Professor A. C. 

Haddon 






Exploration of Ancient Kemains 


Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 


25 





at Axume and Adule in Abys- 


Secretary. — Mr. J. Theodore Bent. 






sinia. 


Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. E. W. Bra- 
brook, and Mr. Bloxam. 






The Physical Characters, Lan- 


Chair7ua>i.~T)T. E. B. Tylor. 


100 





guages, and Industrial and So- 


Secretary. — Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 






cial Condition of the North - 


Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. K. G. 






Western Tribes of the Dominion 


Haliburton, and Mr. H. Hale. 






of Canada. 








The Habits, Customs, Physical 


Chairman. — Sir William Turner. 


10 





Characteristics, and Keligions 


Secretary. — Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 






of the Natives of India. 


Sir W. H. Flower, Drs. Garson 






[Last year's grant renewed.] 


and E. B. Tylor, and Mr. H. H. 
Risley. 






Corresponding Societies' Com- 


Chai/rmoM.- — Professor R. Meldola. 


30 





mittee. 


Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Gal ton. Sir Eawson Rawson, Mr. 
G. J. Symons, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkin- 
son, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
W. WTnitaker, Mr. W. Topley, 
Mr. E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, and Rev. Canon H. B. 
Tristram. 







2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


To consider the establishment of a 
National Physical Laboratory for the 
more accurate determination of Phy- 
sical Constants, and for other Quanti- 
tative Research, and to confer with 
the Council of the Association. 


Chairman. — Professor Oliver J. Lodge. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Sir H. B. 
Roscoe, Professors J. J. Thomson, 
Riicker, Clifton, Fitzgerald, Carey Fos- 
ter, J. Viriamu Jones, A. Schuster, and 
W. E. Ayrton. 



Ixxxvi 



KEPORT 1892. 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The various Phenomena connected with 
the recalescent Points in Iron and 
other Metals. 



The Volcanic and Seismological Phe- 
nomena of Japan. 



Carrying on the Tables connected with 
the Pellian Equation from the point 
where the work was left by Degen 
in 1817. 

To investigate the Phenomena accom- 
panying the Discharge of Electricity 
from Points. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



Modes of Measuring the Optical Con- 
stants of Microscopic, Photographic, 
and other Lenses, and of specifying 
and enumerating the Properties of 
their Combinations. 

To co-operate with Dr. Piazzi Smyth in 
his Researches on the Ultra Violet 
Rays of the Solar Spectrum. 

The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor Fitzgerald. 

Secretary. — Professor Barrett. 

Dr. John Hopkinson, Mr. R. A. Hadfield, 

Mr. Trouton, Professor Roberts-Austen, 

and Mr. H. F. Newall. 

Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 

Secretary.- — Professor J. Blilne. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottom- 
ley, Professor A. H. Green, and Profes- 
sor C. G. Knott. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Cayley. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Professor Sylvester and Mr. A. R. For- 
syth. 

Clumrman. — Professor O. J. Lodge. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. P. Chattock. 
Professor Carey Foster. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors G. H. Dar- 
win and G. Chrystal, Mr. C. H. Cai-p- 
mael. Professor Schuster, Blr. G. M. 
Whipple, Captain Creak, the Astro- 
nomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and 
Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Chainnan. — Professor G. C. Foster. 
Secretary. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. J. Walker, Sir 

Howard Grubb, Mr. Whipple, and 

Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor G. D. Liveing. 
Secretary. — Dr. Piazzi Smyth. 
Professors J. Dewar and A. Schuster. 

Chairman. — Mr. John Jlurraj^ 
Secretary. — Mr. John Mm-ray. 
Professor Schuster, Lord Kelvin, the 

Abbe Renard, Dr. A. Buchan, the Hon. 

R. Abercromby, Dr. M. Grabham, and 

Mr. John Aitken. 

Ch airman. — Professor E v erett . 

Secretary. — Professor Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pen- 
gelly. Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. 
Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Gallo- 
way, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Stra- 
han, and Professor Michie Smith. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxvii 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To co-operate with Dr. Kerr in his 
researches on Electro-optics. 



Tlie Properties of Solutions. 



Eeporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



The Continuation of the Bibliographj' 
of Spectroscopy-. 



The Influence of the Silent Discharge 
of Electricity on Oxygen and other 
Gases. 



The Action of Light on tl:e Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



To inqiiire into the Proximate Chemical 
Constituents of the various kinds of 
Coal. 



To report on recent Inquiries into the 
History of Chemistry. 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wales, and tlie Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action , 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman.— Dt. John Kerr. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 
Lord Kelvin and Professor A. W. Rucker. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor W. Ramsay. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professors McLeod, Pickering, Ramsay, 
and Young. 



Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 



Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor W. Ramsay and Mr. J. T. Cun- 
dall. 



Chairman.— Dx. W. J. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney and Professors 
Hartley and W. Ramsay. 



Noel 



The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 
and its neighbourhood. 



Chairman. — Sir I. Lowthian Bell. 
Secretary.— Vvoiessox P. Philhps Bedson. 
Mr. Ludwig Mond, Professors Vivian B. 

Lewes and E. Hull, and Messrs. J. W. 

Thomas and H. Bauerman. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Professor John Ferguson. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretarie.<i.— Messrs. C. E. De Ranee and 
W. Topley. 

Messrs. J. B. Redman and J. W. Woodall, 
Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, Admiral Sir E. 
Ommanney, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 
J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, and Messrs. E. 
Easton and J. S. Valentine, and Pro- 
fessor L. F. Vernon Harcourt. 



Chairman. — Mr. H. Bauerman. 
Secretary.— Jix. H. J. Johnston-Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. Teall. 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1892. 
2. Xdt rccclring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Invtstigation or Purpose 



Considering the advisability and possi- 
bility of establishing in other parts 
of the country Observations upon the 
Prevalence of Earth Tremors similar 
to those now being made in Durham 
in connection with coal-mine explo- 
sions. 



To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 

To complete the Investigation of the 
Cave at Elbolton, near Skipton, in 
order to ascertain whether the re- 
mains of Palaeolithic Man occur in 
the Lower Cave Earth. 

To carry on Excavations at Oldbury 
Hill, near Ightham, in order to ascer- 
tain the existence or otherwise of 
Eock Shelters at that spot. 

To consider a project for investigating 
the Structure of a Coral Reef by 
Boring and Sounding. 



For improving and experimenting with 
a Deep-sea Tow-net for opening and 
closing under water. 

To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels. 



For taking steps to establish a Botanical 
Laboratory at Peradeniya, Ceylon. 



Members of the Committee 



Cluiirman. — Mr. G. .J. Sj'mons. 

Secretary.— -My. C. Davison. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. E. A. Cowper, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor 
Ewing, Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, Sir John Evans, Professors Prest- 
wich, Hull, Lebour, Meldola, and Judd, 
Mr. M. Walton Brown, Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor J. H. 
Poyuting, and Mr. Horace Darwin. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Si'cretari/. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F. Whidborne and Messrs. 
Kidston and J. E. Marr. 



R. 



C/ia-irma/i.—'Mr. J. W. Davis. 

Si'crrtanj. — Rev. E. Jones. 

Sir J. Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson.and Messrs. 

W. Pengelly, R. H. Tiddeman, and J. 

J. Wilkinson. 

Chairman. — Sir J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professors Prestwicli and H. G. Seeley. 



Chairman. — Professor T. G. Bonney. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. SoUas. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors A. H. 
Green, J. W. Judd, C. Lapworth, A. C. 
Haddon, Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Dar- 
win and A. Stewart, Captain Wharton, 
Drs. H. Hicks, J. Murray, and H. B. 
Guppy, Messrs. F. Darwin, H. O. 
Forbes, G. C. Bourne, S. Hickson, A. R. 
Binnie, and J. W. Gregory, and Hon. P. 
Fawcett. 

Chairman. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 
Professor W. A. Hcrdman. 

Chairinan. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. Jolm Cordeaux. 
Messrs. John A. Harvie-Browu, R. M. 

P.arrington, and ^V. E. Clarke and tlie 

Rev. E. P. Knuliley. 

Chairman. — Professor M. Foster. 

Secretary. — Professor J. B. Farmer. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Mr. Thiselton- 
Dyer, Dr. 'J'rimen, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Jlr. Carruthers, Professor Har- 
tog, Professor F. O. Bower, and JMr.' 
W. Gardiner. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider proposals for tlie Legislative 
Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs. 



The Teaching of Science in Elementary 
Schools 



To report on Methods of determining 
the dryness of Steam in boiler trials. 



To draw uj) a Third Eeport on the 
Development of Graphic Methods in 
Mechanical Science. 



To organise an Ethnographical Survey 
of the United Kingdom. 



The Prehistoric and Ancient Remains 
of Glamorganshire. 



Ascertaining and recording the Locali- 
ties in the British Islands in which 
evidence of the existence of Prehis- 
toric Inhabitants of the Country are 
found. 

To consider Uniformity in the Spelling 
of Barbaric and Savage Languages 
and Race Names. 



To investigate the Physical Deviations 
from the Normal among Children in 
Elementary and other Schools. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. Thomas Henry Thomas. 
Secretarij.—DY. C. T. Vachell. 
Professors W. N. Parker, Newton, and 

Leipner, Mr. Poulton, and Canon 

Tristram. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. S. Bourne, Dr. Crosskey, Mr. George 
Gladstone, Mr. J. Heywood, Sir J. 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Professor 
N. Story Maskelyne, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Sir R. Temple, and Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson. 

Chairman. — Sir F. J. Bramwell. 

Secretary. — Professor W. C. Unwin. 

Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, Mr. Mair 
Rumley, Mr. Jeremiah Head, and Pro- 
fessor Osborne Reynolds. 

Chairmam,. — Mr, W. H. Preece. 
Secretary. — Professor H. S. Hele Shaw. 
Lord Kelvin and Sir Benjamin Baker. 

CJuiirman. — Mr. Francis Galton. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. Joseph Anderson. 

Chairman.— T)!. C. T. Vachell. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Seward. 

Lord Bute, Messrs. G. T. Clark, R. W. 
Atkinson, Franklen G. Evans, James 
Bell, and T. H. Thomas, and Dr. J. 
G. Garson. 

Chairman. — Sir John Lubbock. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Davis. 

Sir John Evans, Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins, Dr. R. Munro, Mr. Pengelly, Dr. 
Hicks, and Professor R. Meldola. 

Chairman. — Mr. F. Galton. 
Secretary.— Mr. C. E. Peek. 
Dr. E. B. Tylor, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. G. W. Blosam, and Mr. Ling Roth. 

Chairman.— Bir Douglas Galton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 
Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Mr. E. W. Brabrook, 
and Dr. J. G. Garson. 



XC REPORT — 1892. 



Other Resolutions adopted hy the General Committee. 

That Mr. W. N. Shaw be requested to continue his Report on the present state of 
our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistr}\ 

That Dr. J. Larmor and Mr. G. H. Bryan be requested to continue their Report 
on the present state of our Knowledge in Thermodynamics, specially with regard to 
the Second Law. 

That Professor A. Michelson's paper on ' The Application of Interference-Methods- 
to Spectroscopic Measurement ' be printed in extenso in the Report of the Asso- 
ciation. 

That M. Guillaume's paper on ' Physical Constants and Units ' be printed in ex- 
tenso among the Reports. 

That the Report drawn up by Professor H. S.Hele Shaw on 'Graphic Methods 'be 
printed in extenso, with the necessary drawings, among the Reports. 

That the paper by Mr. G. F. Deacon on ' Shield Tunnelling in Loose Ground under 
Water Pressure ' be printed in extenso with the necessary diagrams. 

That the Organising Committee of a Section be empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and the Sectional Committee. 



Resolutions, Sj-c, referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be requested to draw the attention of the Local Government 
Board to the desirability of the publication of the Report on the Examination into 
Deviations from the Normal amongst 50,000 Children in various Schools, which has 
been presented to that Board by the British Medical Association. 

That the Council be requested to draw the attention of Her Blajesty's Government 
to the Anthropometric Method for the measurement of criminals, which is success- 
fully in operation in France, Austria, and other continental countries, and which has 
been found effective in the identification of habitual criminals, and consequently in 
the prevention and repression of crime. 

The letter of Professor E. Wiedemann and the communications from the Com- 
mittees of Sections B and C on the subject of the Headings of Reports, 



XCl 








































Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Fur- 
poses by the General Covfimittee at the Edinburgh Meeting, in 
August 1892. The Names of the Members entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 



Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 
*Foster, Professor Carey — Electrical Standards (partly re- 
newed) 25 

*McLaren, Lord. — Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 150 
*Symons, Mr. G. J. — -Photograplis of Meteorological Phenomena 10 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Tables of Mathematical Functions 15 

*Stokes, Sir G. G. — Recording the Direct Intensity of Solar 

Radiation 10 

Fox, Mr. H. — Magnetic Work at the Falmouth Observatory 25 

Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

*Roscoe, Sir H.— Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements 10 

*Roberts-Austen, Professor— Analysis of Iron and Steel 20 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials (partly renewed) 15 

*Thorpe, Professor T. B. — Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

*Tilden, Professor W. A. — Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 20 

Geology. 

*Prestwich, Professor J. — Erratic Blocks 10 

*Wiltshire, Rev. T.— Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 10 

*Hull, Professor E. — Underground Waters 5 

*Home, Mr. J. — Shell-bearing deposits at Clava, Chapel- 
hall, &c 20 

Traquair, Dr. R. H.— Eurypterids of the Pentland Hills 10 

Carried forward iI865 

* Reappointed. 



xcii REPORT — 1892. 

£ s. d. 
Bronglit forward 365 

Biology. 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L.— Table at the Naples Zoological Station 100 
*Lankester, Professor E. R. — Table at the Plymouth Biological 

Laboratory 30 

*Newtoii, Professor A. — Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L. — Zoology and Botanv of West India 

Islands ■ .'. 50 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

M'Kendrick, Professor J. G. — Physiological Action of Oxygen 

in Asphyxia 20 

Flower; Sir W. H, — Index of Genera and Species of Animals 20 

Geography. 

Godwin-Austen, Col. — Exploration of Karakorum Mountains 50 U 

Wilson, Sir C. W.— Scottish Place Names 10 

*Ravenstein, Mr. E. G. — Climatology and Hydrography of 

Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Science and Statistics. 
Cunningham, Professor W. — Methods of Economic Training 5 

Anthropology. 

*Flower, Sir W. H. — Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Garson, Dx*. J. G. — Exploration of Ancient Remains in 

Abyssinia 25 

*Tylor, Dr. E. B.— North- Western Tribes of Canada 100 

*Turner, Sir W. — Habits, Customs, &c., of Natives of India 

(renewed) 10 

Corresponding Societies. 
*Meldola, Professor R. — Corresponding Societies' Committee 30 

£1,000 
* Eeappointed. "~'~~"^~^~"~' 



The Annual Meeting in 1893. 

The Meeting at Nottingham will commence on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 13. 

Place of Meeting in 1894. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held at Oxford. 



XCUl 



I 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for ScientijiG Purposes. 



d. 



183i. 



Tide Discussions 20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossillchthyology ... 1050_0 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discu.'isions 163 

British Fossillchthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 8 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



±'922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron ( Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Grovrth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 



Meteorological Committee 



31 






1 
12 


6 

3 
8 

9 






10 
10 


6 


7 

5 



£■932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossillchthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 



£ s. 



Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



2 
18 

11 
4 

7 
1 


18 


16 

10 


1 







d. 


6 


7 

2 
4 

6 

6 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 62 17 6 

Foreis'n Scientific Memoirs ... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Maaruetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperatm-e 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

IMud in Rivers 5 







8 











7 
























XCIV 



REPORT 1892. 



£ s. d. 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magne deal Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Eadiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments.. 113 

Anoplura Britannise 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

■Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire C61este) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Grov?th of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 
Questions on Human Race ... 7 

£1449 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 













10 







8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 
Revision of tlie Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 



£ 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Jleteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
wa}' Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks , 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Brit- 
ish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength 
of Materials 60 

£1565 



«. 


d. 














12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

s 




11 









5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



GENERAL SXATEMENT. 



XCV 



£ 



I 



1844. 
Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 
Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 

Publication of the British 

Association Catalogue of 

Stars 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland . . . 
Kevision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 



12 








35 








25 


8 


4 


35 







1 


100 








2 


9 


6 



Maintaining 
ment at 



the Establish- 
Kew Observa- 



tory 

Instruments for 



117 17 3 



Kew Obser- 



vatory..., 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 
Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Dravirings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

ofthe Lower Tertiary Strata 100 
Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 
Radiata and Mollusca of the 

Mge&n and Red Seas 1842 100 
Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 



£981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 



£ s. d. 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura ... 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£831 9 9 



15 






































7 


















14 8 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of tlie Gai;ssian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplui-a 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 



1847. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



XCVl 



KEPORT- 



1892. 



£ s. 
1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 1 5 

£275 1 



d. 



11 
9 






""8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19~6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Kesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9~7 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



£ s. d, 
1853. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 
Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 0' 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 O' 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 ' 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 0- 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 a 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 S 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£48016^4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£73 r'l3 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCVll 







































8 






£ s. d. 

Investigations into the Mol- 
lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Eesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Keport on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

ll £.507 15 4 

1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kevir Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredffing near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 

ktion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
Iland ■ 10 
£618 
1839. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata , 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry , 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents .S9 

£684 11 i 
ip 1860. — — — 

Maintainina: the Establish- 

ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .,- 20 
1892. 


































































1 


11 






18 2 



£ s. d. 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts'" of Scotland 23 

Dredgine Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 7.> n n 

1861 £22 0/ '-^ ^ ^ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 U 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 10 

Constituents of Manures 25 

5^10 



£1111 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 () 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kev/ 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 n 

Connection of Storms ., 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland , 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents ]0 

Balloon Committee 200 i) 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 (i 



XCVlll 



EEPOHT— 1892. 



£ g. 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamsljips' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... .5 

£l2;i:-i ](i 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging Xorth-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee sujperin- 

tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

'Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

PhotoheliograiDh 100 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Eocka 8 

Hydroida 10 




































































3 10 


















































































3 10 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges ]f) 1.5 g 

Cast-iron Invest igation 20 



£ s. d. 
Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Kays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 

186.5. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oj'ster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath AVaters Analysis 8 10 10 

Laminons Meteors 40 

£1591 7^10 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 0' 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 60 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall SO 

Kilkenny Coail Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -Bed ... 15 

Luminoua Meteors SO 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitjrtion of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... SO 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals \ 29 C 



OENEEAL STATEMENT. 



XCIS 



» 



& s. 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Dicline Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 0_ 

£1 750 13 
1867. — ^^— 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 60 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &;c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



1868. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercuryand Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bag-shot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 



£ n. d. 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methjd Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperat ure ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

i'1622 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 2.5 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 


























































































t> 


















































































































































































EEPORT — 1892. 



£ 
Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewao^e 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50_ 

£1572 



«. 


d. 



































1871. 
Maintainina: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Rlood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2~6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Tei-ato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood ]5 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution. &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£]2S5~0~0 



£ S. d. 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 1.50 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables KX) 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£r685 

1874. 

Zoological Record 100 G 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables ...100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

liightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 60 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pj'rometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 It; 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 



GEKEUAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



£ 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



«. 


d. 





















































































I 



1876. 
Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5^ 

£1092 



4 2 



15 















































10 



































15 
















4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acids in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors ,S0 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpse, Report on 20 















1 


7 







































£ s. d. 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &o • 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Syphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less -known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks ■ 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 Q 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 
less-known Alkaloids 25 



Cll 



REPORT — 1892. 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Caves in 
Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Eecorcl of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra ... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for .5th and 6tli Millions ... 150 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 

Specitic Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datirm Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 
Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 
the Speed of Ships 17 

Tidal Observations in the 
English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 











































































15 


6 




















14 


9 














1 


8 









1880. 
New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

fTnderground Temperature ... 10 
Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 

Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specitic Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 



£ s. (J. 

Caves of South Ireland 10 u 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthj'O- 

saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 
Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 60 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fosfsil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 



GEKEnAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



£ s. d. 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Irelaud 20 

British Polj'zoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Kaygill Fis- 
sure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 U 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Ehmination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Mio-ration of Birds 15 

NaturalHistory of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

ill26~l 11 

1883. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

I Screw Gauges 5 
£1083 3 3 
1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra- Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 














































£ s. d. 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks o£ England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological IMap 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 
Anthropometric Committee . . ■ 10 

£1173 



1885. 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vai^our Pressures, &;c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 






























































































4 


















































































































































CIV 



REPORT 1892. 



£ «. d. 



1886. 



Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 100 

Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Exploration of Caves in North 

Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Kocks 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 

Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 1.5 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius , 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Exploration of Cae Gwj-n 

Cave, North Wales 20 



£ ». d. 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museum Reports 5 
Investigation of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsograpliical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



1888. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Intiuence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Palasontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 









6 


4 








2 


3 














1 


10 



































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



£ 
Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

3Iarine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 
Peradeniya Botanical Sta- 
tion 50 

Itevelopment of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Kegions 5 

Precious Metals in Circula- 
tion 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands • 20 

£1511 



s. 



d. 




















































Marine Biological Association 200 
Bath ' Baths Committee ' for 
further Researches 100 



s. d. 






















5 



1889. 

Ben Fevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Observations on SurfaceWater 

Temperature 30 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Bocks 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries by means of 

Working Models 100 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 150 

Characteristics of Nomad 

Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 











4 8 









































16 



3 



































£1417 11 



1890, 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Calculating Mathematical 

Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and 

Steel 10 

Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hvdracids in 

Sunlight '. 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Pa- 

1 £60 zoic Rocks 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 4 3 9 
Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 
Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 
Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 S 

1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 60 

Electrical Standards.." 100 

Electrolj'sis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Variations of Temperature in 

Lakes 20 



CVl 



REPORT 1892. 



£ «. d. 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 
the Analysis of Iron and 
Steel 10 

Isomeric Xaphthaleue Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Liglit on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record.... 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil PhYllopoda 10 

Photograplis of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elboltou 
Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tovf-Net 40 

Marine Biological Association 

at Plymotith 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 



£1,029 10 



£ «. d. 



1892. 



Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricitj^ from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Table at Naples Zoological 

Station 100 

Table at Plymouth Biological 

Laboratory 17 

Improving a Deep-sea Tow- 

uet 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 























































































10 
















































cvu 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesdaj, August 3, at 8 p.m., in tlie Synod Hall, Dr. W. 
Hu-^o-ins F.R.S., Hon. P.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., resigned the office of Presi- 
dent to Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., D.Sc, For.Sec.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see 
page 3. 

On Thursday, August 4, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 
Museum of Science and Art. 

On Friday, August 5, at 8.30 P.M., in the Synod Hall, Professor A. 
Milnes Marshall, M.A., M.D., F.R.S , delivered a discourse on 'Pedigrees.' 

On Monday, August 8, at 8.30 p.m., in the Synod Hall, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Magnetic Induction.' 

On Tuesday, August 9, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the Music 

Hall. 

On Wednesday, August 10, at 2.30 P.M., in the Upper Library Hall, 
University (Old Buildings), the concluding General Meeting took place, 
when the Proceedings of the General Committee and the Grants of Money 
for Scientific Purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Nottingham. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 13, 1893.] 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEEBb. 



1892. 



R 



p 



ADDRESS 



BY 



SIR ARCHIBALD G E I K I E, 

LL.D., D.Sc, For.Sec.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Director-General of the 
Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, 

PRESIDENT. 



In its beneficent progress through these islands the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science now for the fourth time receives a 
welcome in this ancient capital. Once again, under the shadow of these 
antique towers, crowded memories of a romantic past fill our thoughts. 
The stormy annals of Scotland seem to move in procession before our eyes 
as we walk these streets, whose names and traditions have been made 
familiar to the civilised world by the genius of literature. At every turn, 
too, we are reminded, by the monuments which a grateful city has 
erected, that for many generations the pursuits which we are now 
assembled to foster have had here their congenial home. Literature, 
philosophy, science, have each in turn been guided by the influence of 
the great masters who have lived here, and whose renown is the 
brightest gem in the chaplet around the brow of this ' Queen of the 
North.' 

Lingering for a moment over these local associations, we shall find a 
peculiar appropriateness in the time of this renewed visit of the Asso- 
ciation to Edinburgh. A hundred years ago a remarkable group of men 
was discussing here the great problem of the history of the earth. 
James Hutton, after many years of travel and reflection, had communi- 

B 2 



4 REPORT — 1892. 

cated to the Royal Society of tliis city, in the year 1785, the first outlines 
of his famous ' Theory of the Earth.' Among those with whom he took 
counsel in the elaboration of his doctrines were Black, the illustrious dis- 
coverer of ' fixed air ' and ' latent heat ' ; Clerk, the sagacious inventor of 
the system of breaking the enemy's line in naval tactics; Hall, whose fer- 
tile ingenuity devised the first system of experiments in illustration of the 
structure and origin of rocks; and Playfair, through whose sympathetic 
enthusiasm and literary skill Hutton's views came ultimately to be 
understood and appi-eciated by the world at large. With these friends, 
so well able to comprehend and criticise his efi'orts to pierce the veil that 
shrouded the history of this globe, he paced the streets amid which we 
are now gathered together ; with them he sought the crags and ravines 
around us, wherein Nature has laid open so many impressive records of 
her past ; with them he sallied forth on those memorable expeditions to 
distant parts of Scotland, whence he returned laden with treasures from 
a field of observation which, though now so familiar, was then almost 
untrodden. The centenar}^ of Hutton's ' Theory of the Earth ' is an 
event in the annals of science which seems most fittingly celebrated by a 
meeting of the British Association in Edinburgh. 

In choosing fi'om among the many subjects which might properly 
engage your attention on the present occasion, I have thought that it 
would not be inappropriate nor uninteresting to consider the more salient 
features of that ' Theory,' and to mark how much in certain departments 
of inquiry has sprung from the fruitful teaching of its author and his 
associates. 

It was a fundamental doctrine of Hutton and his school that this 
globe has not always worn the aspect which it bears at present ; that, on 
the contrary, proofs may everywhere be culled that the land which we 
now see has been formed out of the wreck of an older land. Among 
these proofs, the most obvious are supplied by some of the more familiar 
kinds of rock, which teach us that, though they are now portions of the 
dry land, they were originally sheets of gravel, sand, and mud, which had 
been worn from the face of long-vanished continents, and after being 
spread out over the floor of the sea were consolidated into compact stone, 
and were finally broken up and raised once more to form part of the dry 
land. This cycle of change involved two great systems of natural 
processes. On the one hand, men were taught that by the action of 
running water the materials of the solid land are in a state of continual 
decay and transport to the ocean. Ou the other hand, the ocean-floor is 



ADDRESS. O 

liable from time to time to be upheaved by some stupendous internal 
force akin to that which gives rise to the volcano and the earthquake. 
Hutton further perceived that not only had the consolidated materials 
been disrupted and elevated, but that masses of molten rock had been 
thrust upward among them, and had cooled and crystallised .in large 
bodies of granite and other eruptive rocks which form so prominent a 
feature on the earth's surface. 

It was a special characteristic of this philosophical system that it 
souo-ht in the changes now in progress on the earth's surface an explana- 
tion of those which occurred in older times. Its founder refused to 
invent causes or modes of operation, for those with which he was familiar 
seemed to him adequate to solve the problems with which he attempted 
to deal. Nowhere was the profoundness of his insight more astonishing 
than in the clear, definite way in which he proclaimed and reiterated his 
doctrine, that every part of the surface of the continents, from mountain- 
top to sea-shore, is continually undergoing decay, and is thus slowly 
travelling to the sea. He saw that no sooner will the sea- floor be 
elevated into new land than it must necessai-ily become a prey to this 
universal and unceasing degradation. He perceived that, as the transport 
of disintegrated material is carried on chiefly by running water, rivers 
must slowly dig out for themselves the channels in which they flow, and 
thus that a system of valleys, radiating from the water-parting of a 
country, must necessarily result from the descent of the streams from the 
mountain crests to the sea. He discerned that this ceaseless and wide- 
spread decay would eventually lead to the entire demolition of the dry 
land, but he contended that from time to time this catastrophe is pre- 
vented by the operation of the underground forces, whereby new 
continents are upheaved from the bed of the ocean. And thus in his 
system a due proportion is maintained between land and water, and the 
condition of the earth as a habitable globe is preserved. 

A theory of the earth so simple in outline, so bold in conception, so 
full of suggestion, and resting on so broad a base of observation and 
reflection, ought, we might think, to have commanded at once the atten- 
tion of men of science, even if it did not immediately awaken the interest 
of the outside world ; but, as Playfair sorrowfully admitted, it attracted 
notice only very slowly, and several years elapsed before anyone showed 
himself publicly concerned about it, either as an enemy or a friend. 
Some of its earliest critics assailed it for what they asserted to be its 
irreligious tendency — an accusation which Hutton repudiated with much 
warmth. The sneer levelled by Cowper a few years earlier at all inquiries 



6 EEPORT— 1892. 

into the history of the universe was perfectly natural and intelligible 
frona that poet's point of view. There was then a widespread belief that 
this world came into existence some six thousand years ago, and that any 
attempt greatly to increase that antiquity was meant as a blow to the 
authority of Holy Writ. So far, however, from aiming at the overthrow of 
orthodox beliefs, Hutton evidently regarded his ' Theory ' as an important 
contribution in aid of natural religion. He dwelt with unfeigned pleasure 
on the multitude of proofs which he was able to accumulate of an orderly 
design in the operations of nature, decay and renovation being so nicely 
balanced as to maintain the habitable condition of the planet. But as he 
refused to admit the predominance of violent action in terrestrial changes, 
and on the contrary contended for the efficacy of the quiet, continuous 
processes which we can even now see at work around us, he was con- 
strained to require an unlimited duration of past time for the production 
of those revolutions of which he perceived such clear and abundant 
proofs in the crust of the earth. The general public, however, failed to 
comprehend that the doctrine of the high antiquity of the globe was not 
inconsistent with the comparatively recent appearance of man — a distinc- 
tion which seems so obvious now. 

Hutton died in 1797, beloved and regretted by the circle of friends 
who had learnt to appreciate his estimable character and to admire his 
genius, but with little recognition from the world at large. Men knew 
not then that a great master had passed away from their midst, who had 
laid broad and deep the foundations of a new science; that his name 
would become a household word in after generations, and that pilgrims 
would come from distant lands to visit the scenes from which he drew his 
inspiration. 

Many years might have elapsed before Hutton's teaching met with 
wide acceptance, had its recognition depended solely on the writings of 
the philosopher himself. For, despite his firm grasp of general principles 
and his mastery of the minutest details, he had acquired a literary style 
which, it must be admitted, was singularly unattractive. Fortunately 
for his fame, as well as for the cause of science, his devoted friend and 
disciple, Playfair, a,t once set himself to draw up an exposition of Hutton's 
views. After five years of labour on this task there appeared the classic 
'Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory,' a work which for luminous 
treatment and graceful diction stands still without a rival in English 
geological literature. Though professing merely to set forth his friend's 
doctrines, Playfair's treatise was in many respects an original contribu- 
tion to science of the highest value. It placed for the first time in the 



ADDRESS. 7 

clearest light the whole philosophy of Hntton regarding the history of 
the earth, and enforced it with a wealth of reasoning and copionsnesa 
of illustration which obtained for it a wide appreciation. From long 
converse with Hutton, and from profound reflection himself, Playfair 
gained such a comprehension of the whole subject that, discarding the 
non-essential parts of his master's teaching, he was able to give so lucid 
and accurate an exposition of the general scheme of Nature's operations 
on the surface of the globe, that with only slight corrections and expan- 
sions his treatise may serve as a text-book to-day. In some respects, 
indeed, his volume was long in advance of its time. Only, for example, 
within the present generation has the truth of his teaching in regard to 
the origin of valleys been generally admitted. 

Various causes contributed to retard the progress of the Huttoniau 
doctrines. Especially potent was the influence of the teaching of "Werner, 
who, though he perceived that a definite order of sequence could be 
recognised among the materials of the earth's crust, had formed singularly 
narrow conceptions of the great processes whereby that crust has been 
built up. His enthusiasm, however, fired his disciples with the zeal of 
proselytes, and they spread themselves over Europe to preach everywhere 
the artificial system which they had learnt in Saxony. By a curious fate 
Edinburgh became one of the great headquarters of Wernerism. The 
friends and followers of Hutton found themselves attacked in their own 
city by zealots who, proud of superior mineralogical acquirements, turned 
their most cherished ideas upside down and assailed them in the uncouth 
jargon of Freiberg. Inasmuch as subterranean heat had been invoked 
by Hutton as a force largely instrumental in consolidating and upheaving 
the ancient sediments that now form so great a part of the dry land, his 
followers were nicknamed Plutonists. On the other hand, as the agency 
of water was almost alone admitted by Werner, who believed the rocks 
of the earth's crust to have been chiefly chemical precipitates from a 
primeval universal ocean, those who adopted his views received the 
equally descriptive name of Neptunists. The battle of these two con- 
tending schools raged fiercely here for some years, and though mainly 
from the youth, zeal, and energy of Jameson, and the influence which his 
position as Professor in the University gave him, the "Wernerian doctrines 
continued to hold their place, they were eventually abandoned even by 
Jameson himself, and the debt due to the memory of Hutton and 
Playfair was tardily acknowledged. 

The pursuits and the quarrels of philosophers have from early times 
been a favourite subject of merriment to the outside world. Such a feud 



8 REPORT— 1892. 

as that between the Plutonists and Neptunists would be sure to famish 
abundant matter for the gratification of this propensity. Turning over 
the pages of Kay's 'Portraits,' where so much that was distinctive of 
Edinburgh society a hundred years ago is embalmed, we find Hutton's 
personal peculiarities and pursuits touched ofi" in good-humoured carica- 
ture. In one plate he stands with arms folded and hammer in hand, 
meditating on the face of a cliff, from which rocky prominences in shape 
of human faces, perhaps grotesque likenesses of his scientific opponents, 
grin at him. In another engraving he sits in conclave with his friend 
Black, possibly arranging for that famous banquet of garden-snails which 
the two worthies had persuaded themselves to look upon as a strangely 
neglected form of human food. More than a generation later, when the 
Huttonists and Wernerists were at the height of their antagonism, the 
humorous side of the controversy did not escape the notice of the author 
of ' Waverley,' who, you will remember, when he makes Meg Dods 
recount the various kinds of wise folk brought by Lady Penelope Pen- 
feather from Edinburgh to St. Konan's Well, does not forget to include 
those who ' rin uphill and down dale, knapping the chucky-stanes to 
pieces wi' hammers, like sae mony road-makers run daft, to see how the 
warld was made.' 

Among the names of the friends and followers of Hutton there is one 
which on this occasion deserves to be held in especial honour, that of Sir 
James Hall, of Dunglass. Having accompanied Hutton in some of his 
excursions, and having discussed with him the problems presented by the 
rocks of Scotland, Hall was familiar with the views of his master, and 
was able to supply him with fresh illustrations of them from different 
parts of the country. Gifted with remarkable originality and ingenuity, 
he soon perceived that some of the questions involved in the theory of 
the earth could probably be solved by direct physical experiment. Hutton, 
however, mistrusted any attempt ' to judge of the great operations of 
Nature by merely kindling a fire and looking into the bottom of a little 
crucible.' Out of deference to this prejudice Hall delayed to carry out 
his intention during Hutton's lifetime. But afterwards he instituted a 
remarkable series of researches which are memorable in the history of 
science as the first methodical endeavour to test the value of geological 
speculation by an appeal to actual experiment. The Neptunists, in 
ridiculing the Huttonian doctrine that basalt and similar rocks had once 
been molten, asserted that, had such been their origin, these masses would 
now be found in the condition of glass or slag. Hall, however, triumph- 
antly vindicated his friend's view by proving that basalt could be fused. 



ADDRESS. J> 

and thereafter by slow cooling could be made to resume a stony texture. 
Again, Button had asserted that under the vast pressures which must be 
effective deep within the earth's crust, chemical reactions must be power- 
fully influenced, and that under such conditions even limestone may 
conceivably be melted without losing its carbonic acid. Various specious 
arguments had been adduced against this proposition, but by an ingeni- 
ously devised series of experiments Hall succeeded in converting lime- 
stone under great pressure into a kind of marble, and even fused it, and 
found that it then acted vigorously on other rocks. These admirable 
researches, which laid the foundations of experimental geology, constitute 
not the least memorable of the services rendered by the Huttonian school 
to the progress of science. 

Clear as was the insight and sagacious the inferences of these great 
masters in regard to the history of the globe, their vision was necessarily 
limited by the comparatively narrow range of ascertained fact which up 
to their time had been established. They taught men to recognise that 
the present world is built of the ruins of an earlier one, and they 
explained with admirable 'perspicacity the operation of the processes- 
whereby the degradation and renovation of land are brought about. But 
they never dreamed that a long and orderly series of such successive 
destructions and renewals had taken place, and had left their records in 
the crust of the earth. They never imagined that from these records 
it would be possible to establish a determinate chronology that could be 
read everywhere, and applied to the elucidation of the remotest quarter of 
the globe. It was by the memorable observations and generalisations of 
William Smith that this vast extension of our knowledge of the past 
history of the earth became possible. While the Scottish philosophers 
were building up their theory here. Smith was quietly ascertaining by 
extended journeys that the stratified rocks of the West of England occur 
in a definite sequence, and that each well-marked group of them can be 
discriminated from the others and identified across the country by means 
of its enclosed organic remains. It is nearly a hundred years since he 
made known his views, so that by a curious coincidence we may fitly 
celebrate on this occasion the centenary of William Smith as well as that 
of James Hutton. No single discovery has ever had a more momentous 
and far-reaching influence on the progress of a science than that law ot 
organic succession which Smith established. At first it served merely 
to determine the order of the stratified rocks of England. But it soon 
proved to possess a world-wide value, for it was found to furnish the key 
to the structure of the whole stratified crust of the earth. It showed that 



10 EEPOET 1892. 

within that crust lie the chronicles of a long history of plant and animal 
life upon this planet, it supplied the means of arranging the materials for 
this history in true chronological sequence, and it thus opened out a mag- 
nificent vista through a vast series of ages, each marked by its own dis- 
tinctive types of organic life, which, in proportion to their antiquity, 
departed more and more from the aspect of the living world. 

Thus a hundred years ago, by the brilliant theory of Hutton and the 
fruitful generalisation of Smith, the study of the earth received in our 
country the impetus which has given birth to the modern science of 
geology. 

To review the marvellous progress which this science has made during 
the first century of its existence would require not one but many hours 
for adequate treatment. The march of discovery has advanced along a 
multitude of different paths, and the domains of Nature which have been 
included within the growing territories of human knowledge have been 
many and ample. Nevertheless, there are certain departments of investi- 
gation to which we may profitably restrict our attention on the present 
occasion, and wherein we may see how the leading principles that were 
proclaimed in this city a hundred years ago have germinated and borne 
fruit all over the world. 

From the earliest times the natural features of the eai'th's surface 
have arrested the attention of mankind. The rugged mountain, the cleft 
ravine, the scarped cliff, the solitary boulder, have stimulated curiosity 
and prompted many a speculation as to their origin. The shells embedded 
by millions in the solid rocks of hills far removed from the sea have still 
further pressed home these ' obstinate questionings.' But for many long 
centuries the advance of inquiry into such matters was arrested by the 
paramount influence of orthodox theology. It was not merely that the 
Church opposed itself to the simple and obvious interpretation of these 
natural phenomena. So implicit had faith become in the accepted views 
of the earth's age and of the history of creation, that even laymen of in- 
telligence and learning set themselves unbidden and in perfect good faith 
to explain away the difficulties which Nature so persistently raised up, 
and to reconcile her teachings with those of the theologians. In the 
various theories thus originating, the amount of knowledge of natural 
law usually stood in inverse ratio to the share played in them by an 
uncontrolled imagination. The speculations, for example, of Burnet, 
Whiston, Whitehurst, and others in this country, cannot be read now 
without a smile. In no sense were they scientific researches ; they can 
only be looked upon as exercitations of learned ignorance. Springing 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

mainly out of a laudable desire to promote what was believed, to be the 
cause of true religion, tbey helped to retard inquiry, and. exercised in that 
respect a baneful influence on intellectual progress. 

It is the special glory of the Edinburgh school of geology to have 
cast aside all this fanciful trifling. Hutton boldly proclaimed that it was 
no part of his philosophy to account for the beginning of things. His 
concern lay only with the evidence furnished by the earth itself as to its 
origin. With the intuition of true genius he early perceived that the 
only solid basis from which to explore what has taken place in bygone 
time is a knowledge of what is taking place to-day. He thus founded 
his system upon a careful study of the processes whereby geological 
changes are now brought about. He felt assured that Nature must be 
consistent and uniform in her working, and that only in proportion as 
her operations at the present time are watched and understood will the 
ancient history of the earth become intelligible. Thus, in his hands, the 
investigation of the Present became the key to the interpretation of the 
Past. The establishment of this great truth was the first step towards 
the inauguration of a true science of the earth. The doctrine of uni- 
formity of causation in Nature became the fruitful principle on which the 
structure of modern geology could be built up. 

Fresh life was now breathed into the study of the earth. A new spirit 
seemed to animate the advance along every pathway of inquiry. Facts 
that had long been familiar came to possess a wider and deeper meaning 
when their connection with each other was recognised as parts of one 
great harmonious system of continuous change. In no department of 
Nature, for example, was this broader vision more remarkably displayed 
than in that wherein the circulation of water between land and sea plays 
the most conspicuous part. From the earliest times men had watched the 
coming of clouds, the fall of rain, the flow of rivers, and had recognised 
that on this nicely adjusted machinery the beauty and fertility of the 
land depend. But they now learnt that this beauty and fertility involve 
a continual decay of the terrestrial surface ; that the soil is a measure of 
this decay, and would cease to afford us maintenance were it not continu- 
ally removed and renewed ; that through the ceaseless transport of soil 
by rivers to the sea the face of the land is slowly lowered in level and 
carved into mountain and valley, and that the materials thus borne out- 
wards to the floor of the ocean are not lost but accumulate there to form 
rocks, which in the end will be upraised into new lands. Decay and 
renovation, in well-balanced proportions, were thus shown to be the 
system on which the existence of the earth as a habitable globe had been 



12 KEPORT— 1892. 

established. It was impossible to conceive that the economy of the 
planet could be maintained on any other basis. Without the circulatioa 
of water the life of plants and animals would be impossible, and with 
that circulation the decay of the surface of the land and the renovation 
of its disintegrated materials are necessarily involved. 

As it is now so must it have been in past time. Hutton and Playfair 
pointed to the stratified rocks of the earth's crust as demonstrations that 
the same processes which are at work to-day have been in operation from' 
a remote antiquity. By thus placing their theory on a basis of actual 
observation, and providing in the study of existing operations a guide to 
the interpretation of those in past times, they rescued the investigation of 
the history of the earth from the speculations of theologians and cosmo- 
logists, and established a place for it among the recognised inductive 
sciences. To the guiding influence of their philosophical system the pro- 
digious strides made by modern geology are in large measure to be 
attributed. And here in their own city, after the lapse of a hundred 
years, let us offer to their memory the grateful homage of all who have 
profited by their labours. 

But while we recognise with admiration the far-reaching influence of 
the doctrine of uniformity of causation in the investigation of the history 
of the earth, we must upon reflection admit that the doctrine has been 
pushed to an extreme perhaps not contemplated by its original founders. 
To take the existing conditions of Nature as a platform of actual know- 
ledge from which to start in an inquiry into former conditions was logical 
and prudent. Obviously, however, human experience, in the few cen- 
turies during which attention has been turned to such subjects, has been 
too brief to warrant any dogmatic assumption that the various natural 
processes must have been carried on in the past with the same energy 
and at the same rate as they are carried on now. Variations in energy 
might have been legitimately conceded as possible, though not to be 
allowed without reasonable proof in their favour. It was right to refuse 
to admit the operation of speculative causes of change when the pheno- 
mena were capable of natural and adequate explanation by reference to 
causes that can be watched and investigated. But it was an error to take 
for granted that no other kind of process or influence, nor any variation 
in the rate of activity save those of which man has had actual cognisance, 
has played a part in the terrestrial economy. The uniformitarian writers 
laid themselves open to the charge of maintaining a kind of perpetual 
motion in the machinery of Nature. They could find in the records of the 
earth's history no evidence of a beginning, no prospect of an end. They 



ADDRESS. 1 3 

saw that many saccessive renovations and destrnctions had been effected 
on the earth's surface, and that this long line of vicissitudes formed a 
series of which the earliest were lost in antiquity, while the latest were 
still in progress towards an apparently illimitable future. 

The discoveries of William Smith, had they been adequately under- 
stood, would have been seen to offer a corrective to this rigidly uniformi- 
tarian conception, for they revealed that the crust of the earth contains 
the long record of an unmistakable order of progression in organic types. 
They proved that plants and animals have varied widely in successive 
periods of the earth's history, the present condition of organic life being 
only the latest phase of a long preceding series, each stage of which re- 
cedes further from the existing aspect of things as we trace it backward 
into the past. And though no relic had yet been found, or indeed was 
ever likely to be found, of the first living things that appeared upon the 
earth's surface, the manifest simplification of types in the older formations 
pointed irresistibly to some beginning from which the long procession 
had taken its start. If then it could thus be demonstrated that there 
had been upon the globe an orderly march of living forms from the low- 
liest grades in early times to man himself to-day, and thus that in one 
department of her domain, extending through the greater portion of the 
records of the earth's history. Nature had not been uniform but had 
followed a vast and noble plan of evolution, surely it might have been 
expected that those who discovered and made known this plan would 
seek to ascertain whether some analogous physical progression from a 
definite beginning might not be discernible in the framework of the globe 

itself. 

But the early masters of the science laboured under two great disad- 
vantages. In the first place, they found the oldest records of the earth's 
history so broken up and effaced as to be no longer legible. And in the 
second place, they lived under the spell of that strong reaction against 
speculation which followed the bitter controversy between the Neptunists 
and Plutonists in the earlier decades of the century. They considered 
themselves bound to search for facts, not to build up theories ; and as in 
the crust of the earth they could find no facts which threw any light 
upon the primeval constitution and subsequent development of our planet, 
they shut their ears to any theoretical interpretations that might be 
offered from other departments of science. It was enough for them to main- 
tain, as Hutton had done, that in the visible structure of the earth itself 
no trace can be found of the beginning of things, and that the oldest ter- 
restrial records reveal no physical conditions essentially different from 



14 REPORT— 1892. 

those in whicli we still live. They donbtless listened with interest to the 
speculations of Kant, Laplace, and Herschel, on the probable evolution 
of nebulte, suns, and planets, but it was with the languid interest attach- 
ing to ideas that lay outside of their own domain of research. They re- 
cognised no practical connection between such speculations and the data 
furnished by the earth itself as to its own history and progress. 

This curious lethargy with respect to theory on the part of men who 
were popularly regarded as among the most speculative followers of 
science would probably not have been speedily dispelled by any discovery 
made within their own field of observation. Even now, after many years 
of the most diligent research, the first chapters of our planet's history 
remain undiscovered or undecipherable. On the great terrestrial palimp- 
sest the earliest inscriptions seem to have been hopelessly effaced by those 
of later ages. But the question of the primeval condition and subsequent 
history of the planet might be considered from the side of astronomy and 
physics. And it was by investigations of this nature that the geological 
torpor was eventually dissipated. To our illustrious former President, 
Lord Kelvin, who occupied this chair when the Association last met in 
Edinburgh, is mainly due the rousing of attention to this subject. By 
the most convincing arguments he showed how impossible it was to 
believe in the extreme docti'ine of uniformitarianism. And though, 
owing to uncertainty in regard to some of the data, wide limits of time 
were postulated by him, he insisted that within these limits the whole 
evolution of the earth and its inhabitants must have been comprised. 
While, therefore, the geological doctrine that the present order of Nature 
miist be our guide to the interpretation of the past remained as true and 
fruitful as ever, it had now to be widened by the reception of evidence 
furnished by a study of the earth as a planetary body. The secular loss 
of heat, which demonstrably takes place both from the earth and the sun, 
made it quite certain that the present could not have been the original 
condition of the system. This diminution of temperature with all its 
consequences is not a mere matter of speculation, but a physical fact of 
the present time as much as any of the familiar physical agencies that 
affect the surface of the globe. It points with unmistakable direct- 
ness to that beginning of things of which Hutton and his followers could 
find no sign. 

Another modification or enlargement of the uniformitarian doctrine 
was brought about by continued investigation of the terrestrial crust and 
consequent increase of knowledge respecting the history of the earth. 



ADDRESS. 15 

Though Hutton and Playfair believed in periodical catastrophes, and 
indeed required these to recur in order to renew and preserve the 
habitable condition of our planet, their successors gradually came to 
view with repugnance any appeal to abnormal, and especially to violent 
manifestations of terrestrial vigour, and even persuaded themselves that 
such slow and comparatively feeble action as had been witnessed by man 
could alone be recognised in the evidence from which geological histoiy 
must be compiled. Well do I remember in my own boyhood what a 
cardinal article of faith this prepossession had become. We were taught 
by our great and honoured master, Lyell, to believe implicitly in gentle 
and uniform operations, extended over indefinite periods of time, though 
possibly some, with the zeal of partisans, carried this belief to an extreme 
which Lyell himself did not approve. The most stupendous marks of 
terrestrial disturbance, such as the structure of great mountain chains, 
were deemed to be more satisfactorily accounted for by slow movements 
prolonged through indefinite ages than by any sudden convulsion. 

What the more extreme members of the uniformitarian school failed 
to perceive was the absence of all evidence that terrestrial catastrophes 
even on a colossal scale might not be a part of the present economy of 
this globe. Such occurrences might never seriously affect the whole 
earth at one time, and might return at such wide intervals that no 
example of them has yet been chronicled by man. But that they have 
occurred again and again, and even within comparatively recent geologi- 
cal times, hardly admits of serious doubt. How far at different epochs and 
in various degrees they may have included the operation of cosmical influ- 
ences lying wholly outside the planet, and how far they have resulted from 
movements within the body of the planet itself, must remain for further 
inquiry. Yet the admission that they have played a part in geological 
history may be freely made without impairing the real value of the 
Huttonian doctrine, that in the interpretation of this history our main 
guide must be a knowledge of the existing processes of terrestrial change. 

As the most recent and best known of these great transformations, the 
Ice Age stands out conspicuously before us. If any one sixty years ago 
had ventured to affirm that at no very distant date the snows and 
glaciers of the Arctic regions stretched southwards into France, he would 
have been treated as a mere visionary theorist. Many of the facts to 
which he would have appealed in support of his statement were already 
well known, but they had received various other interpretations. By 
some observers, notably by Hutton's friend, Sir James Hall, they were 
believed to be due to violent debacles of water that swept over the face 



16 REPORT 1892. 

of the land. By others they were attributed to the strong tides and 
•currents of the sea when the land stood at a lower level. The uniformi- 
tarian school of Lyell had no difficulty in elevating or depressing land 
to any required extent. Indeed, when we consider how averse these 
philosophers were to admit any kind or degree of natural operation other 
than those of which there was some human experience, we may well 
wonder at the boldness with which, on sometimes the slenderest evidence, 
they made land and sea change jDlaces, on the one hand submerging 
mountain-ranges, and on the other placing great barriers of land where 
a deep ocean rolls. They took such liberties with geography because 
only well-established processes of change were invoked in the operations. 
Knowing that during the passage of an earthquake a territory bordering 
the sea may be upraised or sunk a few feet, they drew the sweeping 
inference that any amount of upheaval or depression of any part of tho 
earth's surface might be claimed in explanation of geological problems. 
The progx'ess of inquiry, while it has somewhat curtailed this geo- 
graphical license, has now made known in great detail the strange story 
of the Ice Age. 

There cannot be any doubt that after man had become a denizen of 
the earth, a great physical change came over the northern hemisphere. 
The climate, which had previously been so mild that evergreen trees 
flourished within ten or twelve degrees of the north pole, now became so 
severe that vast sheets of snow and ice covered the north of Europe and 
crept southward beyond the south coast of Ireland, almost as far as the 
southern shores of England, and across the Baltic into Prance and 
Germany. This Arctic transformation was not an episode that lasted 
merely a few seasons, and left the land to resume thereafter its ancient 
aspect. With various successive fluctuations it must have endured for 
many thousands of years. When it began to disappear it probably 
faded away as slowly and imperceptibly as it had advanced, and when 
it finally vanished it left Europe and North America profoundly changed 
in the character alike of their scenery and of their inhabitants. The 
rugged rocky contours of earlier times were ground smooth and polished 
by the march of the ice across them, while the lower grounds were 
buried under wide and thick sheets of clay, gravel, and sand, left 
behind by the melting ice. The varied and abundant flora which 
had spread so far within the Arctic circle was driven away into more 
southern and less ungenial climes. Bat most memorable of all was 
the extirpation of the prominent large animals which, before the advent 
of the ice, had roamed over Europe. The lions, hyisnas, wild horses, 



ADDRESS. 17 

hippopotami and other creatures either became entirely extinct or were 
driven into the Mediterranean basin and into Africa. In their place came 
northern forms — the reindeer, glutton, musk ox, woolly rhinoceros, and 
mammoth. 

Such a marvellous transformation in climate, in scenery, in vegetation 
and in inhabitants, within what was after all but a brief portion of geo- 
logical time, though it may have involved no sudden or violent convul- 
sion, is surely entitled to rank as a catastrophe in the history of the 
globe. It was probably brought about mainly if not entirely by the 
operation of forces external to the earth. No similar calamity having 
befallen the continents within the time during which man has been re- 
cording his experience, the Ice Age might be cited as a contradiction to 
the doctrine of uniformity. And yet it manifestly arrived as part of the 
established order of Nature. Whether or not we grant that other ice ages 
preceded the last great one, we must admit that the conditions under 
which it arose, so far as we know them, might conceivably have occurred 
before and may occur again. The various agencies called into play by 
the extensive refrigeration of the northern hemisphere were not different 
from those with which we are familiar. Snow fell and glaciers crept as 
they do to-day. Ice scored and polished rocks exactly as it still does 
among the Alps and in Norway. There was nothing abnormal in the 
phenomena save the scale on which they were manifested. And thus, 
taking a broad view of the whole subject, we recognise the catastrophe, 
while at the same time we see in its progress the operation of those same 
natural processes which we know to be integral parts of the machinery 
whereby the surface of the earth is continually transformed. 

Among the debts which science owes to the Hattonian school, not the 
least memorable is the promulgation of the first well-founded concep- 
tions of the high antiquity of the globe. Some six thousand years had 
previously been believed to comprise the whole life of the planet, and 
indeed of the entire universe. When the curtain was then first raised 
that had veiled the history of the earth, and men, looking beyond the 
brief span within which they had supposed that history to have been 
transacted, beheld the records of a long vista of ages stretching far away 
into a dim illimitable past, the prospect vividly impressed their imagina- 
tion. Astrouomy had made known the immeasurable fields of space; the 
new science of geology seemed now to reveal boundless distances of time. 
The more the terrestrial chronicles were studied the farther could the 
eye range into an antiquity so vast as to defy all attempts to measure or 

1892. c 



18 REPORT— 1892. 

define it. The progress of research continually furnished additional evi- 
dence of the enormous duration of the ages that preceded the coming 
of man, while, as knowledge increased, periods that were thought to have 
followed each other consecutively were found to have been separated by 
prolonged intervals of time. Thus the idea arose and gained universal 
acceptance that, just as no boundary could be set to the astronomer in 
his free range through space, so the whole of bygone eternity lay open to 
the requirements of the geologist. Playfair, re-echoing and expanding 
Hutton's language, had declared that neither among the records of the 
earth nor in the planetaiy motions can any trace be discovered of the 
beginning or of the end of the present order of things ; that no symptom 
of infancy or of old age has been allowed to appear on the face of Nature, 
nor any sign by which either the past or the future duration of the uni- 
verse can be estimated ; and that although the Creator may put an end, as 
He no doubt gave a beginning, to the present system, such a catastrophe 
will not be brought about by any of the laws now existing, and is not 
indicated by anything which we perceive. This doctrine was naturally 
espoused with warmth by the extreme uniformitarian school, which re- 
quired an unlimited duration of time for the accomplishment of such slow 
and quiet cycles of change as they conceived to be alone recognisable in 
the records of the earth's past history. 

It was Lord Kelvin who, in the writings to which I have already re- 
ferred, first called attention to the fundamentally erroneous nature of 
these conceptions. He pointed out that from the high internal tem- 
perature of our globe, increasing inwards as it does, and from the rate of 
loss of its heat, a limit may be fixed to the planet's antiquity. He showed 
that so far from there being no sign of a beginning, and no prospect of 
an end to the present economy, every lineament of the solar system bears 
witness to a gradual dissipation of energy from some definite starting- 
point. No very precise data were then, or indeed are now, available for 
computing the interval which has elapsed since that remote commence- 
ment, but he estimated that the surface of the globe could not have con- 
solidated less than twenty millions of years ago, for the rate of increase 
of temperature inwards would in that case have been higher than it 
actually is ; nor more than 400 millions of years ago, for then there would 
have been no sensible increase at all. He was inclined, when first dealing 
with the subject, to believe that from a review of all the evidence then 
available, some such period as 100 millions of years would embrace the 
whole geological history of the globe. 

It is not a pleasant experience to discover that a fortune which one 



ADDRESS. 1 9 

has unconcernedly believed to be ample has somehow taken to itself 
wings and disappeared. When the geologist was suddenly awakened 
by the energetic warning of the physicist, who assured him that he had 
enormously overdrawn his account with past time, it was but natural 
under the circumstances that he should think the accountant to be mis- 
taken, who thus returned to him dishonoured the large drafts he had 
made on eternity. He saw how wide were the limits of time deducible 
from physical considerations, how vague the data from which they had 
been calculated. And though he could not help admitting that a limit 
must be fixed beyond which his chronology could not be extended, he 
consoled himself with the reflection that after all a hundred millions of 
years was a tolerably ample period of time, and might possibly have been 
quite sufficient for the transaction of all the prolonged sequence of events 
recorded in the crust of the earth. He was therefore disposed to acquiesce 
in the limitation thus imposed upon geological history. 

But physical inquiry continued to be pushed forward with regard to 
the early history and the antiquity of the earth. Further consideration 
of the influence of tidal friction in retarding the earth's rotation, and of 
the sun's rate of cooling, led to sweeping reductions of the time allowable 
for the evolution of the planet. The geologist found himself in the 
plight of Lear when his bodyguard of one hundred knights was cut down. 
' What need vou five-and-twenty, ten or five ? ' demands the inexorable 
physicist, as he remorselessly strikes slice after slice from his allowance 
of geological time. Lord Kelvin is willing, I believe, to grant us some 
twenty millions of years, but Professor Tait would have us content with 
less than ten millions. 

In scientific as in other mundane questions there may often be two 
sides, and the truth may ultimately be found not to lie wholly with either. 
I frankly confess that the demands of the early geologists for an unlimited 
series of ages were extravagant, and even, for their own purposes, unneces- 
sary, and that the physicist did good service in reducing them. It may 
also be freely admitted that the latest conclusions from physical con- 
siderations of the extent of geological time require that the interpretation 
given to the record of the rocks should be rigorously revised, with the view 
of ascertaining how far that interpretation may be capable of modification 
or amendment. But we must also remember that the geological record 
constitutes a voluminous body of evidence regarding the earth's history 
which cannot be ignored, and must be explained in accordance with as- 
certained natural laws. If the conclusions derived from the most careful 
study of this record cannot be reconciled with those drawn from physical 

c 2 



20 EEPORT 1892. 

considerations, it is surely not too much to ask that the latter should be 
also revised. It has been well said that the mathematical mill is an ad- 
mirable piece of machinery, but that the value of what it yields depends 
upon the quality of what is put into it. That there must be some flaw 
in the physical argument I can, for my own part, hardly doubt, though 
I do not pretend to be able to say where it is to be found. Some as- 
sumption, it seems to me, has been made, or some consideration has been 
left out of sight, whicb will eventually be seen to vitiate the conclusions, 
and which when duly taken into account will allow time enough for any 
reasonable interpretation of the geological record. 

In problems of this nature, where geological data capable of numerical 
statement are so needful, it is hardly possible to obtain trustworthy com- 
putations of time. We can only measure the rate of changes in progress 
now, and infer from these changes the length of time required for the com- 
pletion of results achieved by the same processes in the past. There is for- 
tunately one great cycle of movement which admits of careful investigation, 
and which has been made to furnish valuable materials for estimates of 
this kind. The universal degradation of the land, so notable a character- 
istic of the earth's surface, has been regarded as an extremely slow 
process. Though it goes on without ceasing, yet from century to cen- 
tury it seems to leave hardly any perceptible trace on the landscapes of 
a country. Mountains and plains, hills and valleys, appear to wear the 
same familiar aspect which is indicated in the oldest pages of history. 
This obvious slowness in one of the most important departments of 
geological activity, doubtless contributed in large measure to form and 
foster a vague belief in the vastness of the antiquity required for the 
evolution of the earth. 

But, as geologists eventually came to perceive, the rate of degradation 
of the land is capable of actual measurement. The amount of material 
worn away from the surface of any drainage-basin and carried in the form 
of mud, sand, or gravel, by the main river into the sea, repi'esents the 
extent to which that surface has been lowered by waste in any given 
period of time. But denudation and deposition must be equivalent to 
each other. As much material must be laid down in sedimentary accu- 
mulations as has been mechanically removed, so that in measuring the 
annual bulk of sediment borne into the sea by a river, we obtain 
a clue not only to the rate of denudation of the land, but also to the 
rate at which the deposition of new sedimentary formations takes 
place. 

As might be expected, the activities involved in the lowering of the 



ADDEESS. 2] 

surface of the land are not everywhere equally energetic. They are 
naturally more vigorous where the rainfall is heavy, where the daily 
range of temperature is large, and where frosts are severe. Hence they 
are obviously much more effective in mountainous regions than on plains ; 
and their results must constantly vary, not only in different basins of drain- 
age, but even, and sometimes widely, within the same basin. Actual 
measurement of the proportion of sediment in river water shows that 
while in some cases the lowering of the surface of the land may be as 
much as y^ of a foot in a year, in others it falls as low as ij-g'oo^. In 
other words, the rate of deposition of new sedimentary formations, over 
an area of sea-floor equivalent to that which has yielded the sediment, 
may vary from one foot in 730 years to one foot in 6,800 years. 

If now we take these results and apply them as measures of the length 
of time required for the deposition of the various sedimentary masses 
that form the outer part of the earth's crust, we obtain some indication of 
the duration of geological history. On a reasonable computation these 
stratified masses, where most fully developed, attain a united thickness of 
not less than 100,000 feet. If they were all laid down at the most rapid 
recorded rate of denudation, they would require a period of seventy- 
three millions of years for their completion. If they were laid down 
at the slowest rate they would demand a period of not less than 680 
millions. 

But it may be argued that all kinds of terrestrial energy are growing 
feeble, that the most active denudation now in progress is much less 
vigorous than that of bygone ages, and hence that the stratified part of 
thie earth's crust may have been put together in a much briefer space of 
time than modern events might lead us to suppose. Such arguments are 
easily adduced and look sufficiently specious, but no confirmation of them 
can be gathered from the rocks. On the contrary, no one can thought- 
fully study the various systems of stratified formations without being 
impressed by the fulness of their evidence that, on the wtole, the accu- 
mulation of sediment has been extremely slow. Again and again we 
encounter groups of strata composed of thin paper-like laminae of the 
finest silt, which evidently settled down quietly and at intervals on the 
sea bottom. We find successive layers covered with ripple-marks and 
sun-cracks, and we recognise in them memorials of ancient shores where 
sand and mud tranquilly gathered as they do in sheltered estuaries at the 
present day. We can see no proof whatever, nor even any evidence which 
suggests, that on the whole the rate of waste and sedimentation was more 
rapid during Mesozoic and Pateozoic time than it is to-day. Had 



22 REPORT— 1892. 

there been any marked difference in this rate from ancient to modern 
times, it would be incredible that no clear proof of it should have been 
recorded in the crust of the earth. 

But in actual fact the testimony in favour of the slow accumulation 
and high antiquity of the geological record is much stronger than might 
be inferred from the mere thickness of the stratified formations. These 
sedimentary deposits have not been laid down in one unbroken sequence, 
but have had their continuity interrupted again and again by upheaval 
and depression. So fragmentary are they in some regions, that we can 
easily demonstrate the length of time represented there by still existing 
sedimentary strata to be vastly less than the time indicated by the gaps 
in the series. 

There is yet a further and impressive body of evidence furnished by 
the successive races of plants and animals which have lived upon the 
earth and have left their remains sealed up within its rocky crust. No 
one now believes in the exploded doctrine that successive creations and 
universal destructions of organic life are chronicled in the stratified 
rocks. It is everywhere admitted that, from the remotest times up to 
the present day, there has been an onward march of development, type 
succeeding type in one long continuous progression. As to the rate 
of this evolution precise data are wanting. There is, however, the 
important negative argument furnished by the absence of evidence of 
recognisable specific variations of organic forms since man began to 
observe and record. We know that within human experience a few 
species have become extinct, but there is no conclusive proof that a 
single new species has come into existence, nor are appreciable variations 
readily apparent in forms that live in a wild state. The seeds and plants 
found with Egyptian mummies, and the flowers and fruits depicted on 
Egyptian tombs, are easily identified with the vegetation of modern 
Egypt. The embalmed bodies of animals found in that country show no 
sensible divergence from the structure or proportions of the same animals 
at the present day. The human races of Northern Africa and "Western 
Asia were already as distinct when portrayed by the ancient Egyptian 
artists as they are now, and they do not seem to have undergone any 
perceptible change since then. Thus a lapse of four or five thousand 
years has not been accompanied by any recognisable variation in such 
forms of plant and animal life as can be tendered in evidence. Absence 
of sensible change in these instances is, of course, no proof that consider- 
able alteration may not have been accomplished in other forms more 
exposed to vicissitudes of climate and other external influences. But it 



ADDRESS. 23 

furnislies at least a presumption in favour of the extremely tardy progress 
of organic variation. 

If, however, we extend our vision beyond the narrow range of human 
history, and look at the remains of the plants and animals preserved in 
those younger formations which, though recent when regarded as parts 
of the whole geological record, must be many thousands of years older 
than the very oldest of human monuments, we encounter the most 
impressive proofs of the persistence of specific forms. Shells which 
lived in our seas before the coming of the Ice Age present the very same 
peculiarities of form, structure, and ornament which their descendants 
still possess. The lapse of so enormous an interval of time has not 
sufficed seriously to modify them. So too with the plants and the higher 
animals which still survive. Some forms have become extinct, but few 
or none which remain display any transitional gj-adations into new 
species. We must admit that snch transitions have occurred, that indeed 
they have been in progress ever since organised existence began upon our 
planet, and are doubtless taking place now. But we cannot detect them 
on the way, and we feel constrained to believe that their march must be 
excessively slow. 

There is no reason to think that the rate of organic evolution has ever 
seriously varied ; at least no proof has been adduced of such variation. 
Taken in connection with the testimony of the sedimentary rocks, the 
inferences deducible from tossils entirely bear out the opinion that the 
building np of the stratified crust of the earth has been extremely 
gradual. If the many thousands of years which have elapsed since the 
Ice Age have produced no appreciable modification of surviving plants 
and animals, how vast a period must have been required for that 
marvellous scheme of organic development which is chronicled in the 
rocks ! 

After careful reflection on the subject, I affirm that the geological 
record furnishes a mass of evidence which no arguments drawn from 
other departments of Nature can explain away, and which, it seems to 
me, cannot be satisfactorily interpreted save with an allowance of time 
much beyond the narrow limits which recent physical speculation would 
concede. 

I have reserved for final consideration a branch of the history of the 
earth which, while it has become, within the lifetime of the present gene- 
ration, one of the most interesting and fascinating departments of geo- 
logical inquiry, owed its first impulse to the far-seeing intellects of Hutton 



24 REPORT— 1892. 

and Playfair. With the peneti'ation of genius these illustrious teachers 
perceived that if the broad masses of land and the great chains of moun- 
tains owe their origin to stupendous movements which from time to time 
have convulsed the earth, their details of contour must be mainly due to 
the eroding power of running water. They recognised that as the surface 
of the land is continually worn down, it is essentially by a process of 
sculpture that the physiognomy of every country has been developed, 
valleys being hollowed out and hills left standing, and that these in- 
equalities in topographical detail are only varying and local accidents in 
the progress of the one great process of the degradation of the land. 

From the broad and guiding outlines of theory thus sketched we have 
now advanced amid ever- widening multiplicity of detail into a fuller and 
nobler conception of the origin of scenery. The law of evolution is 
written as legibly on the landscapes of the earth as on any other page of 
the Book of Nature. Not only do we recognise that the existing topo- 
graphy of the continents, instead of being primeval in origin, has gradu- 
ally been developed after many precedent mutations, but we are enabled 
to trace these earlier revolutions in the structure of every hill and glen. 
Each mountain-chain is thus found to be a memorial of many successive 
stages in geographical evolution. Within certain limits, land and sea 
have changed places again and again. Volcanoes have broken out and 
have become extinct in many countries long before the advent of man. 
Whole tribes of plants and animals have meanwhile come and gone, and 
in leaving their remains behind them as monuments at once of the slow 
development of organic types, and of the prolonged vicissitudes of the 
terrestrial surface, have furnished materials for a chronological arrange- 
ment of the earth's topographical features. Nor is it only from the 
organisms of former epochs that broad genei'alisations may be drawn 
regarding revolutions in geography. The living plants and animals of 
to-day have been discovered to be eloquent of ancient geographical 
features that have long since vanished. In their distribution they tell 
us that climates have changed, that islands have been disjoined from 
continents, that oceans once united have been divided from each other, 
or once separate have now been joined ; that some tracts of land have 
disappeared, while others for prolonged periods of time have remained in 
isolation. The present and the past are thus linked together not merely 
by dead matter, but by the world of living things, into one vast system 
of continuous progression. 

In this marvellous increase of knowledge regarding the transforma- 
tions of the earth's surface, one of the most impressive features, to my 



ADDRESS. 25 

mind, is the power now given to us of perceiving the many striking 
contrasts between the present and former aspects of topography and 
scenery. We seem to be endowed with a new sense. What is seen by 
the bodily eye — mountain, valley, or plain — serves but as a veil, beyond 
which, as we raise it, visions of long-lost lands and seas rise before us in 
a far-retreating vista. Pictures of the most diverse and opposite cha- 
racter are beheld, as it were, through each other, their lineaments subtly 
interwoven and even their most vivid contrasts sub'dued into one blended 
harmony. Like the poet, ' we see, but not by sight alone ' ; and the ' ray 
of fancy ' which, as a sunbeam, lightened up his landscape, is for us 
broadened and brightened by that play of the imagination which science 
can so vividly excite and prolong. 

Admirable illustrations of this modern interpretation of scenery are 
supplied by the district wherein we are now assembled. On every side 
of us rise the most convincing proofs of the reality and potency of that 
ceaseless sculpture by which the elements of landscape have been carved 
into their present shapes. Turn where we may, our eyes rest on hills 
that project above the lowland, not because they have been upheaved 
into these positions, but because their stubborn materials have enabled 
them better to withstand the degradation which has worn down the 
softer strata into the plains around them. Inch by inch the surface of 
the land has been lowered, and each hard rock successively laid bare has 
communicated its own characteristics of form and colour to the scenery. 

If, standing on the Castle Rock, the central and oldest site in Edin- 
burgh, we allow the bodily eye to wander over the fair landscape, and 
the mental vision to range through the long vista of earlier landscapes 
which science here reveals to us, what a strange series of pictures passes 
before our gaze ! The busy streets of to-day seem to fade away into the 
mingled copsewood and forest of prehistoric time. Lakes that have long 
since vanished gleam through the woodlands, and a rude canoe pushing 
from the shore startles the red deer that had come to drink. While we 
look, the picture changes to a polar scene, with bushes of stunted Arctic 
willow and birch, among which herds of reindeer browse and the huge 
mammoth makes his home. Thick sheets of snow are draped all over the 
hills around, and far to the north-west the distant gleam of glaciers and 
snow-fields marks the line of the Highland mountains. As we muse on 
this strange contrast to the living world of to-day the scene appears to 
grow more Arctic in aspect, until every hill is buried under one vast 
sheet of ice, 2,000 feet or more in thickness, which fills up the whole 
midland valley of Scotland and creeps slowly eastward into the basin of 



26 REPORT— 1892. 

the Nortli Sea. Here the curtain drops upon our taoving pageant, for in 
the geological record of this part of the country an enormous gap occurs 
before the coming of the Ice Age. 

When once more the spectacle resumes its movement the scene is- 
found to have utterly changed. The familiar hills and valleys of the 
Lothians have disappeared. Dense jungles of a strange vegetation — 
tall reeds, club-mosses, and tree-ferns — spread over the steaming swamps 
that stretch for leagues in all directions. Broad lagoons and open seas 
are dotted with little volcanic cones which throw out their streams of 
lava and showers of ashes. Beyond these, in dimmer outline and older in 
date, we descry a wide lake or inland sea, covering the whole midland 
valley and marked with long lines of active volcanoes, some of them several 
thousand feet in height. And still further and fainter over the same 
region, we may catch a glimpse of that still earlier expanse of sea which 
ill Silurian times overspread most of Britain. But beyond this scene our 
vision fails. We have reached the limit across which no geological 
evidence exists to lead the imagination into the primeval darkness 
beyond. 

Such in briefest outline is the succession of mental pictures which 
modern science enables us to frame out of the landscapes around Edin- 
burgh. They may be taken as illustrations of what may be drawn, and 
sometimes with even greater fulness and vividness, from any district in 
these islands. I cite them especially because of their local interest 
in connection with the present meeting of the Association, and because 
the rocks that yield them gave inspiration to those great masters whose 
claims on our recollection, not least for their explanation of the origin of 
scenery, I have tried to recount this evening. But I am further impelled 
to dwell on these scenes from an overmastering personal feeling to which 
I trust I may be permitted to give expression. It was these green hills 
and grey crags that gave me in boyhood the impulse that has furnished 
the work and joy of my life. To them, amid changes of scene and 
surroundings, my heart ever fondly turns, and here I desire gratefully to 
acknowledge that it is to their influence that I am indebted for any claim 
I may possess to stand in the proud position in which your choice has 
placed me. 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE 



Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Francis Galton {Chairman), Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir 
Douglas Galton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Sir Eawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. HopkinsOxY, Professor 
R. Meldola {Secretary), Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. W. 
ToPLEY, and Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British AssociatiOli begs 
leave to submit to the General Committee the following Report of the 
proceedings of the Conference held at Cardiff. 

The Council nominated Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Chairman, Dr. J. 
G. Garson, Vice-Chairman, and Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., Secretary 
to the Conference. These nominations were confirmed by the General 
Committee at the meeting held at Cardiff on Wednesday, August 19. 
The meetings of the Conference were held on Thursday, August 20, at 
3.30 P.M., and on Tuesday, August 25, at 1 p.m., in the Dumfries Street 
Proprietary School. The following thirty-six Delegates were nominated 
by the Corresponding Societies as their representatives at the Cardiff 
Meeting : — 

Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. Bath Natural History and Antiquarian 

Field Club. 

Mr. John Brown .... Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- 
cal Society. 

Mr. William Gray, M.E.I.A. . . Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

Mr. C. J. Watson .... Birmingham Natural History and Micro- 
scopical Society. 

Mr. J. Kenward, F.S.A. . . Birmingham Philosophical Society. 

Prof. A. Leipner .... Bristol Naturalists' Society. 

Mr. Peter Price "] 

Mr. T. H. Thomas \ . . . Cardiff Naturalists' Society.' 

Dr. C. T. Vachell J 

Mr. M. H. Mills, F.G.8. . . . Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- 
tution of Engineers. 



' Three Delegates appointed under the rule which empowers a Society having its 
headquarters in the place of meeting to nomhiate this nuinber of representatives. 



30 



REPOBT — 1892. 



Mr. Thomas Gushing, F.K.A.S. 
Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S. . 



Mr. A. S. Eeid, M.A., F.G.S. 
Mr. Henry Coates , 



Prof. E. Meldola, F.E.S. 
Mr. D. Corse Glen, F.G.S. 
Dr. A. T. Brett 

Mr. C. J. Alford . 
Mr. P. M. C. Kermode . 

Mr. B. Holgate, F.G.S. . 
Mr. Osmund W. Jeffs . 
Mr. M. B. Slater, F.L.S. 

Mr. Eli Sowerbutts, F.E.G.S, 
Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 
Dr. J. T. Arlidge, M.A. . 

Mr. C. A. Markham, F.S.A. 

Prof. J. H. Merivale, M.A. 

Mr. E. Eobinson . 

Mr. A. SOva White, F.E.S.E. 

Mr. E. Chisholm Batten 

Mr. F, W. Hembry, F.R.M.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A. 

Mr. G. E. T. Smithson . 
Mr. W. Andrews, F.G.S. 

Eev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. . 
Rev. E. P, Knubley, M.A, 



Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- 
tory Club. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Literature 
and Science. 

East Kent Natural History Society. 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists 
Societies and Perthshire Society of 
Natural Science. 

Esses Field Club. 

Geological Society of Glasgow. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society 
and Field Club. 

Hampshire Field Club. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 

Leeds Geological Association. 

Liverpool Geological Society. 

Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society. 

Manchester Geographical Society. 

Manchester Geological Society. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field 
Club and Archfeological Society. 

Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety and Field Club. 

North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers. 

Eochdale Literary and Scientific Society. 

Eoyal Scottish Geographical Society. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natu- 
ral Histoi-y Society. 

South London Microscopical and Natural 
History Club. 

Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of 
Ireland. 

Tjmeside Geographical Society. 

Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archaeolo- 
gists' Field Club. 

Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 



First Confeeence, August 20. 

The chair was taken by Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., the Corresponding 
Societies Committee being also represented by Sir Douglas Galton, 
Dr. Garson, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. W. Topley, and Professor R. Meldola 
as Secretary. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee, printed copies 
of which had been circulated among the Delegates, was, on the motion 
of the Chaii'man, taken as read. The subjects Created of in the Report 
were then dealt with in the order of the Sections. 



Section A. 

Temperature Variation in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries. — Mr. Mark 
Stirrup stated that the Manchester Geological Society had been of some 
use in this inquiry. Some few years ago he had solicited the Water 
Committee of the Manchester Corporation to undertake observations iu 
their lai-ge reservoirs at Woodhead, but although these were commenced. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 31 

a difficulty was soon experienced in finding reliable observers, and they 
had consequently to be given up. Mr. Wa.tts had, however, at his request, 
taken the matter up with regard to the Oldham reservoirs, and had been 
at great pains to make trustworthy observations, which had received the 
warm appi-oval of the Temperature Committee. 

Mr. M. H. Mills thought that it might be advantageous if similar 
observations were extended to the temperature variations of underground 
waters. 

Tbe Chairman explained that there was already a Committee of the 
Association dealing with underground temperatures, and he suggested 
that they might extend their work to water as well as soil. 

Meteorological Photography. — The Chairman stated that some progress 
had been made during the year with the work of this Committee, and 
they had been fortunate in obtaining some very good photographs of 
clouds, lightning, frost effects, &c. These photographs were exhibited in 
the meeting-room of Section A, and he invited the Delegates to inspect 
them. A report of what had been thus far done would be presented 
during the meeting, and he expressed the hope that the Delegates would 
assist the Committee by securing the co-operation of amateur photo- 
graphers throughout the country. 

Mr. Gushing presented two photographs showing the effects of a snow- 
storm taken during the previous vrinter. 

Section C. 

Oeological Photography. — The Rev. J. O, Bevan announced that on 
his representation the Woolhope Club had recently appointed a Committee 
to deal with this subject, and he hoped that their efforts during the year 
would be of use to the Geological Photographs Committee. 

Mr. O. W. Jeffs stated that the work of this Committee, of which he was 
Secretary, had made satisfactory progress during the year, and he ex- 
pressed his thanks to the Corresponding Societies not only for the assist- 
ance which they had rendered by supplying photographs, but also for 
the interest which they had raised in different parts of the country. 
As a result of the work an exhibition of photographs had been arranged 
in the meeting-room of Section G. The total number of photographs 
received during the year was 300. "With respect to amateur photographic 
societies Mr. Jeffs stated that their Committee had not yet received from 
them the assistance which they had hoped. Although a large number of 
people in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales had helped them, it was 
necessary to point out that what was now wanted was work of a more 
systematic character. The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had sent in the 
largest number of photographs received from any one society. The Bast 
Kent Natural History Society had also formed a photographic section and 
had sent in the results, but in other parts of the country work had not 
been carried on to the same extent, and he hoped that some of the 
Delegates would advocate their cause and promote local photographic 
surveys on a systematic plan. 

Mr. Wm. Gray remarked that the Committee must not be discouraged 
by the limited number of photographs which might be sent in during any 
particular year, because at the present stage, when the whole scheme was 
being organised, the number of photographs did not indicate the amount 
of work that was being done. Thus the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club 



■■o 



32 REPORT— 1892. 

had been well represented last year, but would not be so well represented 
this year, because they were engaged in organising their work and pre- 
paring their own lists. When these were ready the work would progress 
more rapidly. 

Mr. Gushing presented two photographs on behalf of the Croydon 
Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

The Rev. H. H. Win wood raised a question with respect to the obtain- 
ing of copies of the photographs. The amateur photographer took the 
negatives, but did not wish to be troubled with multiplying prints. He 
thought it desirable that the name of the person holding the negative 
should be made known in order that copies of any particular photograph 
might be obtained. 

Mr. Gray stated that this was one of the points which had been con- 
sidered by their Society in Belfast, and they proposed to inform the public 
where copies of the photographs were to be obtained. 

Mr. Sowerbutts said he knew a considerable number of amateur 
photographers who would not send away their negatives to be printed 
from, nor would they allow prints to be made without their consent. He 
had tried to do something for the Committee with amateur photographers 
in Lancashire, but had found that the amateur who went out to photo- 
graph did not usually confine himself to such subjects as were required 
by the Committee. About 120 negatives had been taken by the Man- 
chester Geographical Society, but these had not been taken specially for 
geological purposes, and only four had been sent to the Committee. The 
Manchester Geological Society, represented by Mr. Mark Stirrup, took 
photographs for scientific and not for mere pictorial purposes, and these 
would, no doubt, be of greater value. Their Geographical Society had, 
however, arranged to take a series across Lancashire for their own pur- 
poses, and any of the photographs showing geological features would, he 
thought, be at the service of the Committee. 

Mr. Jeffs said that, in order to remove any misconception which might 
exist with respect to the purpose of the Committee, he would state that 
their first object was to have a typical collection of photographs illus- 
trating the geological features of the country. Their next object was to 
enable teachers and lecturers to have copies of any of the photographs 
that might be desired. In furtherance of this object they had already 
published in their Report for 1890,' and had continued in their present 
Report, a list of photographs, giving particulars and the name of the 
photographer from whom they could be procured. Any person wanting 
copies could obtain them by writing. Of course the fixing of price was a 
local matter and beyond the control of the Committee ; he thought that 
some of the photographers might be generous enough to present copies 
in the interests of science. Mr. Jefl"s added that their Committee could 
not undertake to hold the negatives. 

Mr. C. J. Watson suggested that copies of the photographs should be 
circulated among the Corresponding Societies, as they could not tell 
from the pnbUshed list which of the photographs would be of use to a 
local Society. He thought that this would be met by having an album 
of duplicate prints for circulation in the manner suggested. 

Mr. A. S. Reid said that he had been engaged for some time in incit- 
ing the local Societies to take up this work. He found that the amateur 

> B A. Bej)orf, Leeds, 1890, p. 429. 



COREESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

geologist was not inclined to add to the weight which he had to carry. 
The appliances for taking good photographs need not, however, be verj' 
heavy, as he had been experimenting with an ordinary hand camera, 
weighing five pounds, which he h;id carried over some of the rockiest 
parts of Scotland. He had contribated a short paper to the ' Photo- 
graphic Quarterly ' for January 1891, showing what could be done with 
one of these smyll cameras. Mr. Reid exhibited a print taken from one 
of these quarter-plate negatives, which he considered quite good enough 
for preparing larger diagrams from for teaching and lecturing purposes. 

Mr. Holgate expressed his regret that the Committee could not under- 
take the care of the negatives, as he was of opinion that many photo- 
graphers would be willing to take two negatives of any section, one for 
the use of the Committee, for the purpose of supplying prints at some 
fixed charge to the societies or individuals requiring them. 

The Chairman stated that the Meteorological Photographs Committee 
had never experienced any of the difficulties referred to with respect to 
the negatives ; those who took the photographs were in all cases willing 
that free use should be made of them by the Committee, and he expressed 
the hope that in the interests of science it might be the same with kindred 
subjects. 

Sea Coast Erosion. — Mr. Topley said that a mass of information had 
been accumulated by this Committee, and it had been decided to conclude 
their work this year. For some parts of the country the records were 
fairly full, but for other parts very meagre. He mentioned that the 
French Government had appointed a commission to do similar work, 
which had adopted the form of questions circulated by this Committee. 

Section D. 

Disappearance of Native Plants. — Mr. D. Corse Glen reported that 
two papers on this subject had been sent in to the Committee by the 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science, but these had apparently not been 
made use of. 

The Rev. E. P. Knubley explained that the Committee probably 
intended to confine their report this year entirely to Wales and the 
adjoining counties in the West of England. In view of the meeting 
being at Edinburgh next year, it was likely that the Perthshire lists 
would be taken for the next report. 

Destruction of Wild Birds' Eggs. — Dr. Vachell said that the Cardiff 
^Naturalists' Society had taken up a case in 1890 with respect to the 
destruction of birds and eggs on the island of Grassholme, in the Bristol 
Channel. A Bill had been introduced into Parliament last year by Mr. 
Pease, but this had unfortunately not been proceeded with. The pro- 
tection of the birds, and of the eggs during the breeding season, was a 
very important matter, and he would be very glad if the Delegates would 
give some practical aid with the object of furthering the Bill. 

The Chairman suggested that a recommendation from the Committee 
of Section D, backed up by a similar recommendation from the Confer- 
ence, might be sent up to the Council through the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

Dr. Garson concurred with this suggestion ; he thought that the 
recommendation might be referred to the Council directly by the Sec- 
tional Committee. 

1892. » 



3-1 REroKT — 1892. 

Mr. Kermode said that in the Isle of Man they did pi-otect the eggs 
as well as the birds, and he hoped that they would succeed in getting 
similar protection in Great Britain. 

Section E. 

Teaclting of Geography in Primarij Schools. — Mr. Sowerbutts said 
that he had not received any communications on this subject from the 
Delegates, so that he could make no statement beyond what he had 
gathered in a general way as to the education in the Manchester district. 
He distributed among the Delegates a report on geographical education 
which had been presented to the Council of the Manchester Geographical 
Society, and which contained evidence of very great improvement in the 
teaching of this subject. They had communicated with all the primary 
schools in Lancashire and Yorkshire, offering to conduct examinations and 
to give prizes. Replies had been received from three School Boards, a 
number of children had sat for examination, and all the prizes had been 
awarded. The two difficulties which had been met with were, first, the 
pressure of time in primary schools ; and, secondly, that geography was 
not a compulsory subject under the Code. He considered the report itself 
as of great interest and value. One paper by Mr. Cardwell, of St. Bede's 
College, might almost be nsed as a text-book by any teacher who would 
adopt it for his pupils. Mr. Sowerbutts expressed his willingness to 
follow up the subject, Avhich in his opinion had not received much en- 
couragement from the Government Departments, and he added that if 
the Delegates would refer to the report which he had circulated, and 
communicate with him, he sliould be in a position to give a report at the 
next meeting.' 

' ' Ordnance Maps. — The Chairman stated that at the Leeds meeting 
last year a strong recommendation had been sent up to the Council as to 
the cost, the antiquity, and the difficulty of procuring copies of the 
Ordnance maps. The Council had communicated with Mr. Chaplin, of 
the Board of Agriculture, and they had heard unofficially that material 
alterations would be made, so that these maps would be very much more 
accessible than heretofore. He added that, so far as his experience went, 
nineteen-twentieths of the people of this country did not know how to 
make use of an Ordnance map.^ 

Mr. Holgate said that it would be desirable to have the contours 
of different heights printed in different colours. It would then be easy for 
teachers to get their pupils to trace out these contours and cut them out 
in cardboard. For teaching geography in an interesting way they could 
not, in his opinion, have anything better than a raised map, made in this 
manner. 

Mr. Peter Price mentioned, as an illustration of the slow progress of 

' Communications to be addresseil to I\Ir. Eli Sowerbutts, 44 Brown Street, Man- 
chester. 

H^' ^ The following resolutions were referred by the General Committee to the 
Council for consideration and action if desirable at the Cardiff meeting : — 

(1) ' That the publication of the one-inch and six-inch Ordnance Survey Maps i.s, 
in the interests of Science, urgently required at the earliest possible date, no less 
than in the interests of Industry, Manufacture, and Technical Education. 

(2) That steps be taken and provision made for keeping the Ordnance Maps up 
to date. 

(3) That the I\Iaps should be made more accessible to the public, and should be 
sold at a lower price, as is the case in nearly all other official publications, such as 
Admiralty Charts, Blue Books, kc' 



CORRESrONDIXG SOCIETIES. 35 

the survey, that the town of Cardiff" had purchased new maps, which had 
been found to show only about one-half the present town. The survey 
had been made ten years ago, and the maps were quite useless for the 
purpose for which they had been purchased. 

Mr. Mills said that it was only fair to state that he had never written 
to Stanford's for any map without receiving it by return of post. 

Mr. Gray was of opinion that the maps should be sent gratuitously to 
schools. The children often had no idea of what a map meant, and they 
should have the maps of their own districts on different scales, in order 
that they might gain a better knowledge of geography. 

The Chairman stated that he had recently been to Clevedon, and had 
been unable to procure the Ordnance map from the best shop in the town. 
He had written to Stanford and obtained one in two days, and had found 
that the map was twelve years old. 

Mr. Whitaker said that there was no difficulty in getting one-inch 
maps with the contours printed on them, as the Ordnance Survey was 
now engaged in producing such maps. The work required time, however, 
as the copper plate of a one-inch map took a year to engrave. If the 
Government could be forced into using photo-zincography the maps might 
be produced more rapidly. He knew that nearly all the one-inch maps 
were to be procured with contours, although not with hill shading. 
Processes were now being tried at Southampton for printing in the hill 
shading in a transparent ink which would not obscure the lettering, the 
roads, rivers, or contour lines, &c. The chief delay occurred in the en- 
graving, but the maps were always dated. With respect to the six-inch 
maps, Mr. Whitaker said that local surveyors or anyone who could pace 
accurately could fill in new features for themselves. In condemning a 
map as being of no use, all that was meant was that the new features had 
not been put on it, and that, of course, was bound to happen in growing 
towns like Cardiff, Manchester, and Southampton. The Government 
did not give the Survey the means of going over the ground again. The 
only way of hastening matters and of insuring the insertion of the latest 
features would be to influence the Treasury, which controls all the 
Government Departments. 

Mr. Sowerbutts expressed his belief that the delay was mainly in the 
method of producing the maps. He had been surprised at the facility 
with which the Survey maps were produced in Brussels for about four- 
pence each directly from the zinc plates. 

Mr. Kenward expressed his admiration for the one-inch Oi'dnanco 
map. He said that he had made forty or fifty journeys on foot through 
every part of North Wales and had never found the map at fault. 

Section G. 

Flameless Explosives. — Professor Merivale stated that there was 
nothing new to report this year. The work was still going on, and next 
year they would have something definite to bring before the Delegates. 

Mr. Mills said that the Chesterfield and Midland Counties Institution 
had been carrying on similar experiments, and it was to be regretted 
, that both institutions were spending money and time over the same 
' work. 

The Chairman expressed the hope that they would combine to carry 
on the experiments together. 

D 2 



36 REPORT— 1892. 

Section H. 

Aid in Anthropological Exploration. — Dr. Garson stated that at last 
year's Conference lie had called attention to the existence of a Committee 
for giving advice on this subject. As an illustration of the evil arising 
from neglecting the assistance thns offered he mentioned a case vphich 
had come under his notice during the year, in which a large barrow had 
been opened at a cost of 100/. A large number of valuable skeletons had 
been found, but only the skulls and a few long bones of at most three of 
the skeletons had been sent to him to work up ; the rest of the bones had 
not been preserved. Thus a barrow with a number of skeletons had been 
simply destro^'ed and the money wasted. The exploration had been done 
as a piece of local work, and if application had been made to the Com- 
mittee of Aid they could have given directions or sent some one down to 
assist the local Committee. Dr. Garson pointed out that the Committee 
of Aid did not pi-opose to take the work out of the hands of, or to lay 
claim to the credit due to, local effort ; they wished only to give assistance 
and advice. He thei'efore urged the Delegates to bring the existence of 
this Committee under the notice of their Societies. 

Dr. Yachell said that he could bear out the remarks made by Dr. 
Garson. Some Roman remains had been found at Llantwit Major, 
amongst them being some very fine skeletons. Permission had been 
obtained to carry on excavations, but they were uncertain whether they 
would be stopped, and ultimately they were prevented from carrying on 
the work. Several skulls were obtained, but not the remaining portions 
of the skeletons, as they had no means at hand of preserving the bones, 
which in a few days crumbled to pieces. The skulls were sent to 
General Pitt-Rivers, who reported that these were of no use without 
the other parts of the skeletons. 

Registration of PreMstoric Ttemains. — Dr. Garson said that the Secre- 
tarj^ of this Committee, ]\Ir. J. W. Davis, was not present at the Cardiff 
Meeting, but a report had been presented to Section H. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan stated that the Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club had decided to prepare a map showing the antiquities in their county. 
It was to be based on the prospectus issued by the Society of Antiquaries, 
and they wished to produce a map similar to that which had been pre- 
pared for Kent. They were going to appoint representatives in every 
parish, and to request them to send particulars of any objects of interest 
and to enter the positions of such objects on the Ordnance maps. He had 
been empowered by his Society to ask any of the Delegates who might 
have seen other schemes to furnish any hints that might be of use before 
they issued their own prospectus. 

Dr. Garson suggested that those who were undertaking this kind of 
work should communicate with the Secretary of the Prehistoric Remains 
Committee of the British Associaticm,' as that Committee was making a 
record of all ancient remains thi'oughout the country, and they had a 
.system which it would be desirable to adopt in order to bring all the 
records into harmony. 

Mr. Ken ward approved of this suggestion. 

Mr. Whitaker requested the Delegates to communicate any discoveries 
of or concerning ancient remains to the Ordnance Survey. They would 
often find errors of omission in the maps, or the periods of antiquities 

• Mr. J. W. Davis, Chevinedge, near Halifax. 



I 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 37 

definitely stated althougli still under discussion by arcbfeologists. If 
errors of this kind were communicated to the Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey they would be attended to. As an instance he men- 
tioned that a member of the Hampshire Field Club had discovered a 
British earthwork which was not on the map ; this omission had been 
made known to the Survey, and it was now being or would be surveyed 
and inserted. 

Mr. Kenward stated that he had been able to do a similar thing in 
the case of the unnoted Roman camp at Metchley Park, near Birmingham. 

Second Conference, August 25. 

The chair was taken by Mr. G. J. Symons,F.R..S., the Corresponding 
Societies Committee being further represented by Sir Douglas Galton, 
Mr. Whitaker, Dr. Garson, and Professor Meldola as Secretary. 

Section A. 

Temperature Variation in Lakes, Jtivers, and Estuaries. — Dr. H. R. 
Mill, the Secretary of this Committee, stated that last year the Committee 
had been recommended to draw up its fourth and final report. The 
report which had been presented took the form of a discussion of the 
observations which had been made during the past three years chiefly 
through the agency of the various Corresponding Societies. Their Com- 
mittee had been appointed about the time when the Conference of Dele- 
gates had taken shape, and it was one of the first pieces of work recom- 
mended to be taken up. The object was to ascertain by observations, 
taken twice daily, the temperature of rivers, estuaries, and lakes in all 
parts of the kingdom. A very good beginning was made in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, but unfortunately the Irish observations were 
not continued, some of the observers writing to say that they had com- 
menced observations but were tired of them, and others that they could 
see no good in them. The Cardiff' Naturalists' Society had distinguished 
itself by the energy with which the subject had been taken up. 
Dr. Mill exhibited a diagram which he had prepared, showing the results 
of two sets of observations, the first set made in the River Tafif in the 
Castle grounds, and the second set in the Bristol Channel from one of the 
lightships. The curve drawn from the first set showed the temperature 
during the winter months and the way it varied, falling greatly during 
cold weather and rising rapidly during warm weather. The curve drawn 
from the second set showed that the water in the Channel was generally 
at a higher temperature, and that it kept its temperatm-e more uniformly. 
In fact the temperature frequently rose when the land teraperatiire fell, 
and fell when the land temperature rose. The subject had also been in- 
vestigated by the Fishery Board of Scotland, whose report was being 
published. The observers at Rochdale and Oldham had also made an 
extremely valuable series of observations, some of which had been pub- 
lished by the Rochdale Society. The same thing had been done by the 
Manchester Geological Society in connection with the Oldham observa- 
tions to which he had referred. The East Kent Natural History Society 
had made careful observations in the River Stour, which were accom- 
panied by a series of reports drawn up by Colonel Horsley. These reports 
would be published in extenso. Observations had been made in the sea 
at Dover with the object of ascertaining whether any diff'erence was pro- 



38 KEPOiiT— 1892. 

duced by the current running from the North Sea to the Atlantic, 
or from the Atlantic to the North Sea, but the result was nega- 
tive. The complete list of local societies which had interested them- 
selves in the work was a very considerable one, and he mentioned only 
those whose contributions were most valuable. In addition to the Cardiff, 
East Kent, and Manchester Geological Societies, the Northamptonshire, 
]5urton-on-Trent, and Rochdale Societies had all done admirable work. 
At Kuaresborough one of the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union had made some of the most interesting- observations of all, because 
ho had taken the readings in conjunction with the air temperature, and 
also the earth temperature, thereby bringing out in a very interesting 
way the great activity of the sui'face water in responding to changes in 
the atmosphere. This observer had also made a number of most admir- 
able observations under the ice during the severe winter of last year. 
He found that in tlie first spell of freezing the average temperature under 
the ice was under 34°. There was a thaw and another frost, and it fell 
to 83°. Another thaw followed, and then a third frost, and it was only 
(.luring the third period of freezing that the average temperature of the 
Avater came down to 32°. It was very fortunate that the work of the 
Committee had been extended over last year, and that the observers had 
met with such favourable conditions. He thanked the Delegates, the 
observers, and the Secretaries for the completeness with which the 
observations had been carried out. In several cases the observers had 
carried on the work on their own account, and he trusted that such 
observations would be continued and extended. Dr. Mill, in conclusion, 
expressed his willingness to render all possible assistance to such observers. 

The Chairman said that for some reasons he regretted that the work 
of this Committee had come to an end, but he thought that their efforts 
had prepared the waj^ for future organisation. He did not see why the 
Royal Meteorological Society, which dealt with the question of air and 
earth temperatures, should not deal with water temperature. Neither 
did he see why the Scottish Meteorological Society should not deal with 
this subject. He was inclined to hope that these two Societies might 
make some arrangement for conducting and co-ordinating such observa- 
tions. 

Meteorological Photography. — Mr. A. W. Clayden, the Secretary of this 
Committee, stated that although a large number of circulars had been 
sent to the various local Societies asking for contributions of meteoro- 
logical photographs very few had as yet responded. The majority of the 
photographs Avhich had been sent had come from isolated observers. He 
therefore urged the Delegates to bring the subject before their Societies, 
with a view to securing organised co-operation. 

Section B. 

Inquiry iiito the Condition of the Atmosphere of Manvfaduring Toivns. — 
Professor Meldola said that he had received a letter from Mr. J. R. 
Ashworth, the Secretary of the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society, 
asking whether it would be of use for the British Association to appoint 
a Committee for this subject, which was attracting some attention in 
Manchester at the present time. 

Mr. Mai'k Stirrup said there was a Committee in Manchester busy 
collecting information with respect to the exceptional atmo.sphere of that 



f 



CORKESrONDING SOCIETIKS. 39 

town and its effect on vegetation and the health of the community.' The 
investigation was going on, and the report would be published by the 
Society ; if any of the Delegates desired copies he would be happy to 
forward them on application. He suggested that other towns might be 
induced to carry on similar work. 

The Chairman said that the Manchester Corporation had recently 
started a meteorological observatory in the centi-e of the town under the 
guidance of Dr. Tatham. He referred to the use of ozone papers, which 
had been shown by chemists to be coloured by several other gases besides 
ozone. Thirty years ago he had made some experiments in London with 
identical test-papers, which had been exposed in ditJerent parts of the 
town. He found that, in whichever direction the wind blew, the air 
coming from the country always coloured the papers more or less, but 
air which had passed over the town always lost the power of colouring 
the papers. It appeared to him that some simple test of this kind w^s 
wanted if it could only be made reliable. Mr. Symons also called atten- 
tion to the fact that the Royal Horticultural Society had appointed n 
Committee for investigating the atmosphere of London in relation to 
fog and plant life. 

Dr. Mill referred to the excellent work which the late Professor 
Carnelley had carried out in connection with the determination of the 
number of micro-organisms present in the atmosphere of rooms, &c. 

Section C. 

Geological Plwtography. — Mr. A. S. Reid said that their Committee 
had met since the last Conference, and had arrived at certain conclusions, 
which would be made known in due course. They had applied for a 
grant for the purpose of mounting the photographs, and a systematic 
method had been agreed upon, so that the prints could be mounted and 
handled without injury. The subject of lantern slides had been men- 
tioned, but they had decided that the collecting of these did not come 
within their province. 

Earth Tremors. — The Chairman stated that this Committee had during 
the past year been collecting apparatus and diagrams of apparatus for 
recording earth tremors. They had not yet come to any decision as to 
the best form of instrument, and they would be glad of any suggestions 
Irom those interested in the subject.^ Application had been made lor 
leappointment without a grant. 

Section D. 

Disappearance of Native Plants. — The Rev. E. P. Knnbley reported 
that the Committee had been reappointed. From what had been said 
at the last meeting of the Conference he said that he might conclude 
that it was the wish of the Delegates that the reports from the North of 
England and Scotland should be incorporated in next year's report. 
The Committee for investigating the Invertebrate Fauna and Cryptogamic 
Flora of the British Isles had not been reappointed. 

Destruction of Wild Birds' Eggs. — Dr. Vachell said that this subject 

' The Town Gardening Committee of the Manchester Field Naturalists' and 
Archajologists' Society. The Secretarj' is Mr. Alfred Griffiths, IG Kennedy Street, 
Albert Square, Manchester [Sec. Corres. Soc. Comm.]. 

- The Secretary of the Committee is Mr. C. Davison, 38 Charlotte Road, Bir- 
mingham. 



40 HEPORT — 1892. 

had been bronglit forward at, the meeting of the Sectional Committee, 
and a Committee liad been recommended for appointment. It had been 
suggested to him by Professor Meldola that the action of the Committee 
might be strengthened if the matter were again brought under the 
notice of the local societies throughout the country through the Delegates 
at the present Conference, and he therefore detailed the facts which had 
led to the proposal for the formation of a Committee. In March 1890 
the CardiS' Naturalists' Society had visited the island of Grassholme, 
and while there observing the ha.bits of some of the wild birds a number 
of young men from one of H.M. steamships had landed and shot puffins 
and gulls, and wantonly destroyed a large number of the eggs. The 
affair had been fully reported in the ' Daily Graphic ' at the time. As there 
seemed to be a wholesale destruction of wild birds' eggs going on, the 
matter had been brought forward last year in Parliament by Mr. Pease, 
and at the time he (Dr. Vachell) had done what he could to bring it 
under the notice of the local societies. He had also called the attention 
of their Members of Parliament to the subject, but the latter had taken 
the view that it was not very serious, and that when boys were home for 
their holidays they could not be prevented from taking birds' eggs. 
Mr. Pease's Bill proposed to render the destruction of wild birds' eggs 
prohibitory under a penalty not exceeding 5s. each egg, and left action 
to county councils in England and the magistrates and quarter sessions 
in Ireland. They did not wish to pin themselves to the exact text of 
Mr. Pease's Bill, but they wanted some legislation for the better pro- 
tection of wild birds' eggs. He therefore moved : ' That a Committee be 
appointed to take steps for furthering legislative enactment for the better 
protection of wild birds' eggs.' ' 

Mr. Mills was opposed to the resolution, because in his opinion there 
were a great many birds which did harm. He thought that it was neces- 
sary for the v/elfare of the country and the preservation of game that 
such birds should be destroyed. 

Professor Leipner said it was not proposed to include all birds in the 
Bill ; it left liberty of action to the county councils, and he was in favour 
of its becoming law. 

Mr. Chisholm Batten expressed his belief that there would be some 
difficulty in getting the law efficiently carried out. 

Mr. Hembry approved of the resolution, and said that some good 
would be done even if the law were only partially cai'ried out. 

The Chairman pointed out that there had, no doubt, been an abuse, 
and it should, if possible, be checked. The proposal was as yet in its first 
stage, and all action would }'est with the county councils and the justices, 
to whom he thought the proper administi-ation of the law might very 
well be left. As it stood, the proposal did not appear to him to do harm to 
anybody's interests, and it did not follow that because such a law might be 
in existence any person who took a bird's egg would necessarily be fined 5s, 

Mr. Slater remarked that gamekeepers were in the habit of destroy- 
ing birds of prey because the latter destroyed the game. The balance of 
nature was tiius upset, and the small birds allowed to increase and to 
destroy the crops. 

' The following is the resolution passed by the General Committee : ' That 
Mr. Thomas Henry Thomas (Chairman), Dr. C. T. Vachell (Secretary), Professors 
AV. N. Parker, Newton, and Leipner, Mr. Ponlton, and Canon Tristram be a Com- 
mittee to consider proposals for the Legislative Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs.' 



COERESPONDIMG SOCIETIKS. 41 

Dr. Vacbell said that the proposal to form a committee had been 
seconded in Section D by Canon Tristram, who had strongly advocated 
three Bills which had passed through the House of Commons, and whose 
extensive practical knowledge of the subject was beyond question. 

The resolution was finally put to the meeting and carried with one 
dissentient. 

Popularising of Natural History Studies. — Professor Merivale said 
that it might interest the Delegates to learn what was being done in 
Newcastle to popularise natural history, especially among young people. 
They had a ' Dicky Bird Society,' numbering some 220,000 members, 
and articles were published from time to time in the ' Newcastle Weekly 
Chronicle.' One hundred and twenty species of birds had already been 
described and illustrated, and the whole series, when complete, would be 
rejjublished in a separate form. 

Mr. Sowerbutts also alluded to the useful dissemination of geo- 
graphical and zoological knowledge through the same publication ('New- 
castle Weekly Chronicle'), and spoke in high terms of the illustrations, 
which, especially in the case of the birds, had been executed with 
remarkable success by some photo-mechanical process. 

Botanical Demonstrations for Teachers. — Professor Lelpner called 
attention to this subject, and invited all teachers in public, private, and 
Board schools to attend two demonstrations at University College, 
Bi-istol. His plan was to select three or four familiar wild flowers and 
demonstrate their structure by means of diagrams on the blackboard. 
T'he experiment had been tried one year, and had been so successful that 
he had been asked to repeat it a second year. 

Section H. 

Description of Museum Specimens. — Dr. Garson said that it was very 
necessary for all workers in anthropology to know where specimens were 
preserved, especially in the case of local museums. It was sometimes 
impossible to visit these museums personally, and the best thing under 
the circumstances was to have a good description of the different speci- 
mens. This was a subject which the members of local societies might 
very well take up. Not only should the implements and other finds be 
described, but the conditions under which they were found should be 
carefully and completely recorded. 

Registration of Frehistoric Remains. — Dr. Garson announced that this 
Committee, of which Mr. J. W. Davis was the secretary, had been re- 
appointed. He urged upon the Delegates the importance of assisting in 
this work, and asked those who desired information as to the method of 
recording to communicate with Mr. Davis. 

Aid in Anthropological Exploration. — Dr. Garson made some further 
remarks on this subject in continuation of the observations which he had 
made at the last Conference. He said that there was a general notion 
that in the case of human remains the skull was the only part of the 
.skeleton worth preserving. This was a great mistake. The skull 
was undoubtedly valuable, but no less valuable were the other parts of 
the skeleton, particularly the long bones and the pelvis. Great care 
should be taken to preserve all bones and to keep the bones of each 
skeleton sepai-ate, so that the stature and other characteristics of each 
individual skeleton could be ascertained. It happened sometimes from 



42 REPORT— 1892. 

want of knowledge on the part of those engaged in excavations that 
after the exploration was completed all the bones except the skall had 
been reinterred. In some cases sentimentality came into question, and 
he instanced a case where, in deference to the wishes of the proprietor's 
wife, some extremely valuable remains had been reinterred and thus lost 
to anthropological science. He recommended skeletons to be sent to 
anthropological museums in preference to being preserved by individuals. 
Thus he knew of a case where at the death of the excavator some valuable 
skeletons he possessed were buried by his executors, and would have been 
entirely lost but that a friend of his having heard of the circumstance 
promptly dug them up, and they were now in an anthropological 
museum.' 

Mr. Kenward said that, with reference to the registration of ancient 
remains, it would be a good thing if Mr. Davis would issue a short circular 
of instructions, so as to secure uniformity of results. He mentioned that 
the Society of Antiquaries had been working in the same direction and 
had appointed local secretaries in different parts of the country. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan also expressed a desire for information respect- 
ing the best form of prospectus to issue on behalf of the Woolhope Club, 
which, as he had stated at the last Conference, had decided to take up 
the subject of the registration of ancient remains. 

The Chairman remarked upon the desirability of having uniformity 
of method in this work, and thought that the Society of Antiquaries 
would be the most efficient body for organising the whole system. 

Dr. Garson agreed with this, and, in reply to a question by Mr. Ken- 
ward, he stated that the simplest means of estimating the stature of a 
body from the remains was to measure the femur and the tibia, making . 
tbe measurements with extreme care and using the metric system. The 
spike on the upper surface of the tibia was not to be included in the 
measurement, and the femur was to be measured along its greatest length, 
the head and inner surface of the lower end of the bone lying in the same 
plane. 

Interchange of PuhIicatio7is. — Among subjects of general interest dis- 
cussed at the Conference was the importance of the Corresponding 
Societies freely interchanging their Transactions, Proceedings, and other 
publications. It was pointed out that, while printing, the additional cost 
of an extra 50 or 100 copies would be very trifling. Many of the Corre- 
sponding Societies are already in the habit of sending their publications 
to kindred Societies. The Hampshire Field Club deposits all such 
publications in the Southampton Public Library, so as to render them 
i'reely accessible. 

On the motion of Mr. Holgate a vote of thanks was passed to the 
Chairman for presiding at the Conferences. 

The Committee recommends the addition of the following Societies to 
the list : — 

1. The Federated Institution of Mining Engineers. 

2. The Liverpool Geographical Society. 

On the other hand it has to announce the withdrawal of the Royal 
Scottish Geographical Society. - 

' Communications for the Committee of Aid to be addressed to the Secretary of 
the Anthropological Institute, li Hanover Square, London, W. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



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64 



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66 



REPORT — 1892. 





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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



67 



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68 BEPOKT— 1892. 

Report of the Committee, consisting o/Lord McLaren (Ghairman)^ 
Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), Dr. John Murray, Dr. 
A. BucHAN, the Hon. Ralph Abercrombie, and Professor Cope- 
land, appointed for the purpose of co-operating with the Scottish 
Meteorological, Society in making Meteorological Observations on 
Ben Xevis. {Drawn up by Dr. A. Buchan.) 

During the past year the bourly eye observations by night and by day 
Lave been made at the Ben ^N'evis Observatory vritbont interruption hj 
]\[r. Oinond and the assistants. At the Low Level Observatory at Fort 
William, the continuous registration and other observations have been 
also successfully carried on as detailed in last year's report. 

The Directors have been again indebted to Mr. R. C. Mossman, 
F.R.S.E., Mr. Drysdale, M.A., Mr. Craig, Mr. H. F. Rankin, and Mr. 
Stewart, B.Sc, from Profes.sor Tail's Laboratory, who have generously 
given their services as ol).servers for periods varying from four to eight 
weeks during the winter and summer mouths, thus extending much- 
needed relief to the regular members of the observing staff. 

For the year 1891 the following were the monthly mean and extreme 
pressures, temperatures, hours of sunshine, amounts of rainfall, number 
of fair days, or days of less than 001 inch of rain, at the Observatory, the 
mean pressures at the top of the Ben bein? reduced to .32° F. only, while 
those at Fort William are reduced to 32° and sea-level (see table next 
page) :— 

The mean temperature of the whole year at Fort William was 47°-0, 
being 0°-2 under the mean of previous years. This was the deficiency 
in the temperature of IS'Jl over a large district surrounding Fort William. 
On ihe other hand, the mean temperature at the top of the mountain was 
31°'3, or 0°3 above the average of the year. The mean temperature at 
the top as compared with the bottom of the mountain was thus half a 
degree relatively warmer, and it may be noted that this excess of the 
annual temperature held good in insular situations to the west and south- 
west from Barrahead to Islay. 

The lowest mean monthly temperature occurred at both Observatories 
in IMarch, the mean at the top being 2U°0 which was also the mean for 
January 1^86, this being the lowest monthly mean since the Observa- 
tory was opened. The highest monthly mean at the top was 43°-l in 
June, and at Fort William 57°7, also in June. The general character 
of the weather for the year was anti-cyclonic, with therefore a large 
amount of sunshine, and for the time of the year a small difference in 
the temperatures at the two Observatories. The temperature of February 
was very high, and the weather exceptionally fine. At Fort William 
temperature was 4°-l above the average, but at the top the average was 
exceeded by 7°-5. This was by far the mildest winter n.onth hitherto 
experienced by the observers. The weather was largely anti-cyclonic, and 
on many occasions the atmosphere Avas unusually dry, and temperatures 
were higher at the top than at Fort William at the same time. Conse- 
quently the difference between the mean temperatures at the top and 
bottom was unprecedentedly small, being indeed only approached in this, 
res I ect by the singularly fine month of June 1887. 

The maximum temperature for the year wan 64°-9 at the to|., and 
79°-9 at Fort William, both in June; and in Febinarv temperatures of 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



69 



1891 



Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 1 Dec. I Year 



Mean Pressure in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


25-325 


25-65G' 2-5-119 


25-373 


25-230 


25 --3.54 


25-381 


2.5-lSS 


-2-5-294 


25-049 23-158 


25-087 


servatory 






















Fort William 


29-989 


30-303 29-782 


29-999 


29-794 


30-054 


29-880 


29-659 


29-792 


29-601 29-751 


29-676 


DiCEerences . 


4-664 


4-647 4-663 


4-626 


4-564 


4-500 


4-499 


4-471 


4-498 


4-552 4-593 


4-588 











Mean Tempei 


•atures. 










BenNevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences 




23-2 

38-4 
15-2 


o 
30-6 

43-1 
12-5 




20-0 

37-9 

17-9 


2?-l 

42-6 
18-5 


O 

29-9 

47-7 
17-8 


o 
43-1 

57-7 
14-6 


4g-7 

57-0 
18-3 


39-0 

56-0 

17-0 


38-8 

54-2 
15-4 


O 

31-5 

47-5 
16-0 


o 
28-0 

41-2 
13-2 


o 1 
26-4 

40-8 
14-4 1 









Extremes 


of Temperature, 


Maxi 


ma. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Port William 
Differences . 


o 
38-1 

51-0 
12-9 




43-7 

56-2 
12-5 


o 
40-0 

54-8 
14-8 


3i-9 

55-1 

19'2 


4g-l 

71-4 
25-3 


o 
64-9 

79-9 
15-0 


o 
52-8 

73-5 
20-7 


o 
49-1 

72-0 
22-9 




59-0 

74-8 
15-8 




44-3 

60-0 
15-7 


o 
50-6 

56-9 
6-3 


35-8 

55-8 
20-0 









Extremes of Te 


mperatim-e, 


Minima. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


o 

11-5 




18-1 


o 
5-6 




15-8 


o 
14-3 


o 
27-2 


O 

29-1 




28-8 


o 
27-9 


o 
22-4 


18-7 


o 1 

16-1 ; 


servatory 


























Fort William 


22-7 


28-9 


17 2 


28-0 


31-0 


36-0 


44-0 


36-4 


35-4 


26-8 


23-8 


26-8 


Differences . 


11-2 


10-7 


11-6 


12-2 


16-7 


»-8 


14-9 


7-6 


7-5 


4-4 


6-1 


10-7 ! 



Rainfall in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Forr, William 
Diff'n-ences 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 



14-20 


15-09 


14-78 


2-50 


7-00 


7-51 


10-53 


19-16 


43-55 


14-34 


11-88 


17-48 


7-88 
6-32 


7-42 
7-67 


4-37 
10-41 


1-41 
1-09 


2-.'0 
4-SO 


3-27 
4-24 


3-68 

6-85 


8-37 

10-79 


13-02 
30-53 


■ 9-38 
4-96 1 


6-01 
5-87 


11-80 
5-68 



25-204 



29-867 
4-563 



31-3 



47-0 
15-7 



64-9 



79-9 
15-0 



5-6 



17-2 
11-6 



178-02 



78-81 
99-21 







Numher of Days of no Haiti. 










5 


10 


12 


19 


11 18 5 1 


3 


7 


8 


7 


8 


9 


13 


21 


18 19 14 5 


5 


8 


10 


8 



Numher of Days 1 in. or more fell. 



6 


4 


5 





1 


5 


2 


9 


16 


6 


5 


9 


3 


3 


1 














2 


3 


1 


1 


4 











Hours 


of Sunshine 












Ben Nevis Ob- 


14 


87 


92 


109 


104 


212 


84 


44 


46 


61 


31 


24 


servatory 


























Fort William 


24 


56 


122 


159 


182 


238 


116 


92 


78 


98 


25 


10 


Differences . 


10 


—31 


30 


50 


78 


26 32 


48 


32 


37 


--6 


—14 



106 
138 



18 



908 



1,220 
312 



43°-7 and 56°'2 were recorded at these places respectively. The minimum 
temperature at the top was o°-6, and at the bottom 17°'2, both in March. 
This gives for the top the unusually large range of 59°-3 of temperature 
for the year at the top of the Ben, being nearly 10°-0 larger than for the 
previous year. It may be here added that the minimum temperature re- 
corded since the Observatory was opened was 3°-5 on ]\Iarch 27 at 6 a.m. 
of the present year. 

The registrations of the sunshine-recorder show 908 hours out of a 
possible 4,470 hours. In 1890 the number was only 591 hours. In 1891 
the maximum was 212 in June, and the minimum 14 in January. In 
February the unusually large number of 87 hours was recorded for this 
winter month, this being 31 hours greater than the sunshine at Fort 
William. At Fort William the number of hours for the year was 1,220, 



70 EEPORT— 1892. 

being 312 bours in excess of tbe number of bours registered at tbe top. 
It may be pointed out tbat tbe number of bours of possible sunsbine is, 
particularly in winter, considerably greater at tbe top tban at Fort 
William, Tvbicb is enclosed by bills. 

Tbe rainfall for tbe year was 178 02 incbes ; in 1890 tbe amount was 
IDS'S-i incbes. Tbese are by considerable amounts the beaviest annual 
rainfalls yet observed. At Fort William tbe amount was 78'81 incbes, 
or nearly lOO'OO incbes less tban on tbe top of tbe mountain. Hence 
while tbe rainfall at Fort William was tbe average, tbat of Ben Nevis 
was 24 per cent, above tbe average. Tbe rainfall of September was 
phenomenal, amounting at tbe Observatory to 43'55 incbes ; tbe amount 
for the same month at Fort William being 13'02 inches. One inch of 
rain or upwards fell on each of 16 days of the month, and on the 1st 
4'9o incbes were recorded, and 3'37 inches on the 2Dd. It is remarkable 
that during tbe extraordinarily heavy rains near the east coast on tbe 
20th and 21st, the rainfall at the top of Ben Nevis was light ; and on tbe 
other hand, while practically no rain fell in the east on the 17tb, 18tb, 
and 19tb, the rainfall on tbe Ben amounted to 405 incbes. At several 
of the stations of the Scottish ]\Ieteorological Society tbe rainfall over 
this part of Scotland was fully double tbe average of the month ; but at 
the Observatory it was three times tbe average. 

The number of days un which tbe rainfall was nil, or less tban the 
hundredth of an inch, was 106, there being only one fair day in August, 
but the unusually large number of 19 fair days is reported in April, and 
18 in June. At Fort William there were 138 fair days during 1891, and 
in April, May, and June 21, 18, and 19 are respectively recorded. 
Again, while at Fort William at least an inch of rain fell on 18 days 
during the year, there were 68 such days at the top of tbe Ben ; and 
while at Fort William there was an entire absence of such wet days in 
April, May, June, and July, only in April at the top was no such wet 
day recorded. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was 29'857 incbes, 
or 0"030 inch above the mean pressure. The monthly extremes were, 
the maximum 30'303 incbes in February, and the minimum 29601 incbes 
in October, these being 0-328 inch above and 0'219 below tbe means 
respectively. 

On tbe suggestion of Mr. J. T. Buchanan, who has recently been 
examining some phases of the bygrometry of Ben Nevis in connection 
with the cloud and fog observations, it bas been agreed to institute a 
systematic series of observations, having for their object a carefal record 
of tbe height above sea-level of the lower surface of clouds tbat from 
time to time cover the side of the mountain facing Fort Wilham. The 
importance of this new series of observations will be I'ecognised when the 
large portion of the year the Observatory is enveloped with a completely 
saturated atmosphere is taken into considei'ation. 

Mr. R. C. Mossman has investigated the remarkable squall which 
occurred in tbe British Islands on the morning of February 1, 1892. 
Tbe more important of tbe results are the rapid rate, about forty miles an 
hour, with which it swept over the country from N.W. to S.E., tbe sud- 
den fall and equally rapid rise of pressure being at many places fully six - 
hundredths of an inch, the sudden great fall of temperature fully ten 
degi-ees at many places, and tbe sudden change of wind. Tbese features 
are well marked in the Ben Nevis observations, which show well, among 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 71 

other points, the great height in the atmosphere the squall reached, bear- 
ing in its train totally changed conditions of temperature and moisture. 
Mr. Mossman has been engaged in discussing the remarkable series of 
observations made by Mr. Wragge in 1882 at eight stations well dis- 
tributed up the slopes of Ben Nevis from Fort William to the top. The 
work is so far advanced as to indicate the important bearing of the re- 
sults as regards the vertical distribution of pressure, temperature, and 
moisture during the changes of weather of that year. 

Steps have been taken to make the observation of dust particles in the 
atmosphere part of the regular work of the Observatory. Eight observa- 
tions are made daily, and as each of these eight is the mean of ten, there 
are really eighty of these observations made every day. The observa- 
tions now accumulated amply confirm the tentative results given in your 
Committee's last year's report, as showing a well-marked diurnal varia- 
tion. Further, dry, thick fog is shown to contain a great amount of dust, 
but thin, wet mist very little. It is when a tbin drizzling mist envelops 
the summit that the lowest values are obtained, and the all-important 
observation has been made, after consulting the daily weather maps of 
Europe at the time, that the winds differ in direction 90°, or even more, 
from the winds then prevailing near sea-level. In other words, the 
drizzling and practically dustless winds blow out from a shallow cyclone 
overspreading this part of Europe at the time. The significance to 
weather forecasting of these different types of wind, as regards dustiness, 
or dustlessness, to the cyclones and anti-cyclones prevailing is too evident 
to call for further remark. 

In your Committee's last report, expression was given to a desire that 
a system of special observations on the hygrometry of the atmosphere be 
instituted at the two Observatories, with the view of arriving at some 
accurate knowledge of the absolute amounts of aqueous vapour at differ- 
ent heights under the different weather conditions. With reference to 
this, the Directors of Ben Nevis Observatory report that the University 
of Edinburgh has awarded the Scholarship placed at their disposal by the 
Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851 to Mr. A. J. Herbertson ; and 
that the research to which he will devote his attention during the two 
years he holds the scholarship is the hygi'ometry of the atmosphere, and 
it is understood that the investigation will begin at Ben Nevis Observa- 
tory, and will proceed on the lin'es indicated by the Directors. 

During the past year Mr. Omond has been engaged in an important 
inquiry into the relations of the Ben Nevis High and Low Level Observa- 
tories to the cyclones and anti-cyclones, or the weather changes of the 
British Islands. In this large inquiry the instances dealt with are 
arranged into eight groups, according to the direction, N., N.E., E., &c., 
of the gradient from Ben Nevis in the direction of the cyclone or anti- 
cyclone. To these are added two groups, first when Ben Nevis is inside the 
highest isobar; and second, when it is inside the lowest isobar; in other 
words, when the Observatories are approximately either in the centre of 
an anti-cyclone or of a cyclone. 

Dr. Buchan is investigating the observations at the two Observa- 
tories during February and September, 1891, in their relations to the 
changes of weather. These two months have been selected owing to the 
exceptional character of the weather which prevailed, and the admirable 
illustrations afforded of the more striking meteorological conditions, and 
meteorological contrasts of the two Observatories, and other striking 



72 REPORT — 1892. 

meteorological phenomena already referred to in our previous reports. A 
considerable proportion of the observations beginning with July 1890, 
when the Low Level Observatory was fully equipped, having been re- 
arranged on daily sheets, on which hour by hour the double set of obser- 
vations are contrasted, and the changes noted from each hour to the hour 
following. These changes are then compared with the bi-daily weather 
maps of the Meteorological Council, and more particularly with the 
observations made at the stations of the Scottish Meteoi'ological Society, 
which include the valuable observations made at the northern lighthouses 
of storms of wind and rain, and other phenomena, which are made night 
and day by the keepers of the lighthouses. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Vrofessor Fitzgerald 
(Chaii^man), Professors H. E. Armstrong and 0. J. Lodge (^Secre- 
taries), Professors Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, 
A. Schuster, J. H. Poynting, A. Crum Brown, W. Ramsay, 
E. Frankland, W. a. Tilden, W. N. Hartley, S. P. Thompson, 
W. C. Roberts-Austen, A. W. Rucker, A. W. Reinold, Gr. Carey 
Foster, and H. B. Dixon, Captain W. de W. Abney, Drs. J. H. 
Gladstone, J. Hopkinson, and A. J. Fleming, and Messrs. W. 
Crookes, Shelford Bidwell, W, N. Shaw, J. Larmor, J. T. 
Bottomley, R. T. Glazebrook, J. Brown, E. J. Love, and 
John M. Thomson, appointed to consider the subject of Electro- 
lysis in its Physical and Chemical Bearings. 

The document refen'ed to in last year's report as being drawn up by the 
Rev. T. 0. Fitzpatrick, of Christ's College and Cavendish Laboratory, 
Cambridge, is now nearly finished, and represents a great amount of labour, 
for which the best thanks of the Committee are due to the compiler. It 
consists of a table summarising the results obtained by many experimenters 
on the electro-chemical properties of solutions in water, and gives, for 
various concentrations, the conductivity, migration, and viscosity data 
of a great variety of salts. It will be printed in next year's report. 

The work of the active members of the Committee is proceeding, but 
it is not in a condition for annual reports. In the opinion of the members 
present at a meeting held in Edinburgh it was thought best to suspend 
the official existence of the Committee for a time in order to be able to 
make a more full and satisfactory report on the progress achieved after 
the lapse of a few years. Tbey therefore do not at present ask for reap- 
pointment. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 0. J. Lodge, 
Mr. A. P. Chattock, and Professor G. Carey Foster, appointed 
to investigate the phenomeyia accompanying the Discharge of 
Electricity from Points. [Draivn up by Mr. A. P. Chattock.) 

During the past year a large number of experiments have been made 
on the passage of sparks between points and flat plates, especially with 
regard to the differences exhibited by the two kinds of electricity in this 



ON THE DISCHAEGE OF ELECTRICITY FKOM POINTS. 73 

respect. It was hoped that the results thus obtained would have been 
sufficiently complete to submit to the meeting this year, but owing to 
unavoidable delays in carrying out the experiments this is not the case. 
The main conclusion, however, appears, so far, to be that in the formation 
of sparks the anode is a far more important factor than the cathode, 
disturbing influences having little or no effect when applied to the latter, 
though they may prevent the passage of sparks altogether if applied to 
the anode. This is in accordance with Lehmann's recently described 
experiment on the effect of a strong blast of air upon sparks. It is also 
borne out by experiments now in progress on the critical distance 
between a point and a plate at which discharge from the point changes 
from the form of a silent glow to that of a spark, the distance being 
appreciably greater when the point is the anode than when it is the 
cathode. 

Another line of investigation, which was indicated in last year's 
report, has been followed up in the attempt to measure the ratio of the 
mass of the gas molecules concerned in carrying a current of electricity 
to the quantity of electricity carried. The discharge being arranged to 
take place convectively along a non-conducting tube of uniform bore, the 
slopes of mechanical pressure and electrical potential along its axis are 
determined. The apparatus for this purpose has undergone many 
changes, chiefly on account of the difficulty experienced in bringing the 
electrometer to the potential of that part of the tube with which it is 
connected. Stationary conductors within the tube were found to be 
unreliable for this purpose, and a modification of the well-known ' water- 
dropper ' has therefore been adopted in the latest form of the instrument. 
The slope of potential is measured by observing the differences of 
potential between successive pairs of positions one centimetre distant 
from each other along the tube. The electrometer has thus to measure 
small differences of potential at a high mean potential with respect to the 
earth. For this purpose an instrument has been specially designed, from 
which the leakage to earth seems negligible. To obtain the slope of 
pressure in the discharge tube the motion of an indiarubber diaphragm, 
separating two air-tight chambers, is observed, the chambei's being 
connected, like the terminals of the electrometer, to successive pairs of 
points along the tube, and the movement of the diaphragm being 
magnified optically. A difference of pressure of about five dynes per 
squai-e centimetre causes a movement of one scale division in the present 
insti'ument, and this is found to be quite sufficient for the purpose. 
With this apparatus it is hoped that reliable results will shortly be 
obtained. 

Finally, preparations are being made to extend the measurements 
already obtained of the strength of field at a discharging point to higher 
than atmospheric pressures. For this purpose a powerful compression 
pump and a strong discharge chamber are being constructed. Upon the 
assumption that discharge occurs by the breaking down of electrically 
polarised molecular chains in the gas, it is possible to obtain from such 
measurements another rough estimate of the value of the electrical charge 
associated with a gas atom, by extrapolating to the pressure at which 
the gas molecules are brought close together. It seems desirable to 
obtain all the evidence possible which bears upon this important point. 

Tour Committee ask for reappointment withont a grant. 



74 EEPOET — 1892. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Liveing^ 
Dr. C. PiAzzi Smyth (Secretary), and Professors Dewar and 
ScHUSTEE, appointed to co-operate tvith Dr. C. Piazzi Smyth in his 
researches on the Ultra-violet Rays of the Solar Spectrum. 

The present report is on the proposed experiments (from September, 
1891, to January, 1892) for enabling Dr. C. Piazzi Smyth to improve 
certain points in the taking of his solar-spectrum photographs in the 
ultra-violet by aid of additions to the apparatus obtained through means 
of a grant from the British Association at Leeds in 1890. 

The Report continuates the last one by the same committee, as 
printed in the British Association's Cardiff volume of 1891, at pp. 147 
and 148 thereof, said space being then taken up with little more than 
descriptions of vrhat the apparatus, then only just finished, was intended 
for. Now, however, a sufficient amount of experiments have been obtained 
to allow the results to be classified and collated under three several 
heads, or thus : — 

(1) Improved focussing means for setting the focus of the viewing, 
or photographic telescope, both more accurately and easily as well, 
from previous book-record, rather than from renewed eye-and-hand 
observation on every occasion. This was carried out mainly and success- 
fully by supplying wheels ten inches in diameter, and nicely graduated 
on their circumferences, to either end of the ordinary axle of pinion- 
movement of the focussing tube, taking care also to turn the said pinion 
at the last moment in the direction of increasing the readings and noting 
what they were. This record method of focussing, too, it is believed, is 
one which will be found of very general application, and much used every 
coming year, now that photography is continually substituting more and 
more the observer's eye and hand, with almost all kinds of optical notation 
of luminous phenomena. 

(2) Improved magnifying means were next required for the viewing, 
and equally photographing, telescope. The chief feature necessary here 
was a large field with the increased magnifying power, and was given to 
a considerable extent by a grand Barlow-achromatic concave lens placed 
inside the usual telescope tube, by Messrs. T. Cooke & Sons, of York. 

For mere magnifying, however, wherever the part of the spectrum 
under examination permits it without other addition, I have since then fully 
made up my mind that the second order of Professor Rowland's later and 
nnprecedentedly fine Gratings from his new ruling engine, give sharper 
magnifying to the spectrum than any lens I have experimented with. 

But they give it in a different way, i.e. the second orders of Grating's 
spectra do ; for they magnify only in one direction — that of separation — 
while a lens magnifies in a direction at right angles to that also. That 
feature is no doubt so much the worse for the lens, because it weakens 
the intensity of a continuous spectrum operated upon by it. But then 
there is another feature which is bad for the second, or any subsequently 
still more magnified, spectrum-order of a Grating, viz. that they admit 
the red light of a previous order in the middle of their own violet ; unless 
some possibly very absorptive liquid be employed to stop such red light 
where it is not wanted. 



ON ULTRA-VIOLET RAYS OF THE SOLAR SPECTRUM. 



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76 REPORT — 1892. 

Kow Messrs. Cooke's Barlow concave lens wants no help of that kind, 
for it was constructed to magnify the first order of spectrum only, and 
that has no red light of any other order intruding into its own ultra- 
violet, or requiring some chemical liquid to dull its potency. Hence I 
have actually found that I have been able to carry Messrs. Cooke's lenti- 
cular magnifying of the first order of a Grating's spectrum, four plates 
further into the invisible, than I was able to do with the second order of 
the very same Grating's spectra, assisted in various chromatic modes. 
As an illustration of which I beg to append a list of spectrum photographs 
so obtained last autumn. 

(3) Lastly, my attention was kindly and earnestly directed by 
Professor Liveing to keep on the look-out for possible changes in some 
part or parts of the solar spectrum, depending on time and date only, 
especially if their origin should appear to be in the Sun. 

Now it did so happen one morning that one of the glass negatives of 
the H and K region of the solar .spectrum did show a very strange and 
anomalous difference fi-om all the others, so different indeed that my 
first impression was to throw it away as irretrievably spoilt by some acci- 
dent. But on considering what such an accident could be, or how it 
could be reproduced if desired, I was still more confounded and non- 
plussed. Having, moreover. Professor Liveing's letter still before me, 
the most respectful course seemed to be, on second thoughts, to describe 
publicly how the anomaly brought itself forward so far as I knew, and to 
leave gentlemen with more experience than myself to form their own 
opinions, either for or against its being anything important. 

Now the main point of the anomaly is, that the whole space between 
H and K is bright, while that outside them is dark, even very dark. To 
understand which feature thoroughly and in the terms worked in by 
Nature, it was necessary that there should be several plates employed, and 
each of them should show, not only the whole space between those giant 
lines or bands, but at least as much more on either side. 

Moreover, as good definition does not continue to hold all along even 
so small a plate of glass as a quarter size, but has to be set and reset 
several times in its course, while the appearance of the lines alters almost 
radically on account of the mere curvature of the field, I enclose in an 
album case in the first place thirteen ordinary photographs of the H and K 
lines, taken at successive foci all across the field, and then three various 
impressions from one and the same anomalous photograph. No. 14; 
following that by Nos. 15 and 16, ordinary, but focussed to the right, 
views : the whole eighteen now exhibited being enlarged on paper to six 
times the size of the glasses, for convenience of examination. And I 
should perhaps duly forewarn all and sundry that ' date ' plays no part 
in the arrangement of this bundle of repetitions of the H and K lines — only 
the continual progress from left to right of the place of sharpest definition. 



ON PUOTOaRAPIIS OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 77 

Second Report of the Gommittee, consisting of Mr. Gr. J. Symons 
(Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, and Mr. 
A. W. Clatden (Secretary), appointed to consider the applica- 
tion of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological 
Phenomena. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Tour Committee report tliat the work has been continued daring the past 
year on the lines laid down in the Report for 1891. 

Considerable additions have been made to the number of observerp 
from whom assistance may be expected, in spite of the removal of several 
names from last year's list. 

The total number of photographs received up to July 23 was 361, 
representing a variety of phenomena, but chiefly illustrating the results 
obtainable in cloud photography by various methods. This number, 
however, does not adequately represent the progress made, for many 
other photographs have been promised, and will in all probability be 
received in a few weeks. 

The adoption by the majority of the International Meteorological 
Congress at Munich of the classification of clouds, proposed by Messrs. 
Hildebrandson and Abercromby, suggested to your Committee that it 
would be well for them to adopt it, at least provisionally. They cordially 
agree with the action of the English delegates at the Congress in 
opposing the acceptance of a system which is entirely empirical ; bul 
since the great majority of foreign meteorologists have determined to 
employ it, your Committee consider that they should adopt it provision- 
ally. They think it will be well to follow the example set by other 
countries until the further study of cloud-forms, and their relation to one 
another, render it possible to make a more scientific code. 

Arrangements have therefore been made for the cataloguing of the 
collections of meteorological photogi'aphs in the possession of the Royal 
Meteorological Society, and of the Chairman of your Committee. 

Photographs of Lightning. 

Very few new photographs have been sent in as yet, but from Mr. 
J. H. Bateman two of great interest have been received. Following the 
suggestions in the instructions issued last year, two cameras were em- 
ployed, the first being stationary, and the second moved rapidly from 
side to side. The plate exposed in the fixed camera shows four flashes, 
while the one which was moved shows six. A flash which is single or 
the fixed plate is resolved into three on the moving plate, showing that 
the flash did consist of a series of discharges along much the same path. 
The absence of reduplication in the others points to the conclusion that 
they were single. Two of these single flashes occupy exactly the same 
relative positions on the two plates, showing that they must have been 
simultaneous. 

Your Committee regret that there should have been no opportunity of 
carrj'iiig out any further experiments upon the phenomena presented by 
lightning photographs. However, recent discoveries concerning high- 
tension discharges ought to elucidate the subject. Thus it seems highly 
probable that the hazy continuous luminosity shown by many photo- 
graiihs may be due to the flame of burning nitrogen. ^ 

Before leaving the subject of lightning, it may be pointed out that in 



78 REPORT — 1892. 

Mr. Bateman's photographs the narrow ribbon structure in each flash is 
not more pronounced in the moving photograph than in the one which was 
stationary. 

The Royal Meteorological Society has received several new photo- 
graphs of lightning. They all show the narrow ribbon structure ; one 
shows reduplication of the images of some chimneys as well as the flash, 
while another shows a bright flash and several dark ones. Of this last 
Mr. Robert Law, who took the negative at Melbourne, remarks that there 
were two flashes, the second reversing the image of the first. 

Methods of Cloud Photography. 

The information at the disposal of your Committee does not, as yet, 
seem sufficient to enable them to pronounce definitely in favour of any 
one method as the best. They have made some progress in ascertaining 
the methods adopted abroad, and also in experimental work at home. 
The subject divides itself naturally into two sections, dealing respectively 
with cumulus or heavy clouds, and with cirrus or other light clouds. 

Cumulus. — With all heavy clouds it is certain that admirable results 
may be obtained with a little practice in adjusting the stop and length of 
exposure. So far as the quality of the results obtainable is concerned, 
there does not seem to be any manifest advantage in the use of a coloured 
screen, of a black mirror, of specially slow, or of orthochromatic plates. 
Nevertheless, it is quite certain that results of a given excellence are 
more easily obtained on a slow plate with a strong developer considerably 
restrained. It is equally certain that the use of the coloured screen, or 
of the black mirror, renders the process easier still. 

With correct exposure and careful development it should not be 
necessary to resort to intensification of the image. If some such treat- 
ment should be required, inexperienced observers should be warned that 
in the use of mercurial salts it is well to keep the plate in constant 
movement while in the mercury bath, in order to avoid undue granulation 
of the image. 

Cirrus. — Those who have made a special study of the photography of 
thin clouds appear to be agreed that in order to bring out all the details 
of their structure some special device must be adopted. 

By extremely nice adjustment of the exposure and subsequent intensi- 
fication of the image, very fair results can be sometimes obtained ; but the 
process is difficult, and only practicable in experienced hands. 

Dr. Riggenbach, who first described the black mirror device, recom- 
mends that exposure should be so arranged that the sky leaves practically 
no impression on the plate, while the thin image of the cloud must be 
intensified by means of Schlippe's salt (sulphantimoniate of soda) . 

M. Angot, in a report presented to the Meteorological Society of 
France, remarks that a black mirror is only advantageous when the 
cloud is about 90° from the sun. In theory this is of course correct, 
but the Secretary to your Committee has found that there is a manifest 
practical advantage in its use for all parts of the sky, including even the 
immediate neighbourhood of the sun itself. M. Angot then goes on to 
say : ' The best results are obtained by coloured screens, yet the ordinary 
screens are insufficient. The following formula, due to M. Leon Vidal, 
gives every satisfaction. In a small glass trough with parallel faces 
there is placed a solution made with the proportions — sulphate of copper 
175 grams, bichromate of potash 17 grams, sulphuric acid 2 cubic 
centimetres. These are dissolved in 100 to 500 cubic centimetres of 



ON PHOTOGBAPHS OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 79 

■water, according to the thickness of the trough and the results to be 
obtained. The sulphate of copper arrests the red rays, and the bichro- 
mate the blue and violet. The plates used were Luniere's orthochromatic, 
and the exposure from '5 to "8 second.' 

Your Committee regret that they have not yet received any illustra- 
tions of the results obtainable by the above means, but it is hoped that 
an exhaustive trial of the method may be carried out in the course of the 
coming year. 

The Secretary to your Committee has continued the comparative 
trial of slow and ordinary plates with or without a black mirror. He 
reports that ordinary plates and direct exposure may often give satis- 
factory results when the background of sky is a clear deep blue. If, 
however, it is at all hazy, the correct exposure becomes extremely diffi- 
cult. With slow plates, however, such as Mawson & Swan's trans- 
parency plates or photomechanical plates, it is fairly easy to obtain 
results of considerable excellence. 

With the black mirror ordinary plates give excellent results ; but 
here again, unless the clouds are moving with unusual rapidity, or unless 
the light is very bad, there is a great advantage in the use of slow plates. 
i- It is, indeed, easy to obtain a fairly dense image of any cloud, however 
luminous and however thin, by the combined use of mirror and slow 
plate. Such means give abundant detail and full gradation of light and 
shade, even when the sun is actually in the field of view. Exposure 

would vary from about '2 to about -8 second with an aperture — . 

The developer used in all these experiments is the familiar formula 
with pyrogallol and sulphite of soda considerably restrained. 
* Special attention should be drawn to the admirable series of cloud 

studies presented to the Committee which were taken by Signor 

rMannucci at the Vatican Observatory under the direction of the Rev. 
Padre Denza, S.J. These show what can be done by direct exposure, 
Signor Mannucci recommending a slow plate for the more difficult 
subjects. The pictures taken by the Secretary to your Committee in a 
similar manner show the value of the slow plate and black mirror. 

Miscellaneous Photographs. 

With regard to miscellaneous photographs of meteorological interest, 
your Committee regard with some satisfaction the number of pictures 
they have been able to secure which show the violence and severity with 
which the great blizzard of March 1891 visited the South-west of England. 
They believe it is of great importance that fairly complete pictorial records 
should be kept of all such abnormal events. 

They are also pleased to be able to report that several of the photo- 
graphic periodicals have recently manifested considerable interest in the 
work, one paper, the ' Practical Photographer,' having just offered a series 
of prizes for the best meteorological studies ; and the editor has promised to 
present any competing pictures to your Committee. Several photographic 
societies are also taking the matter up, and your Committee hope that the 
effect of such powerful aid may rapidly make itself felt, both by increasing 
their collection and by adding to the number of contributors. 

In order to show the widespread interest already taken in the subject, 
brief catalogues of the three principal collections are appended. 

In conclusion, your Committee ask to be re-appointed with a grant of 
15?., in order to follow up properly what they regard as a satisfactory start. 



80 



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1-2 




;:t3 


<u 

a 


r r 




s 









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a 




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J * 




0) *= 


!z; 









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&:-s 










en 










rd 










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W QJ 


r^lC 


rel*-WH|»r4|-n 




■^■3 


(» 


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bofl 


X 


X X 


X X 




-♦n 


H|(a-i|,,«o "]■* 




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CO 




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<U to 

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C 3 










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88 



REroRT — 1892. 



« 






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o 

PQ 



O o 

•^■^ 

<— ' ,^ 

rt -4-3 
o o 

PQ 4) 

=4-1 5 -^^ 

■ o 3 cc 



5, -/-. to — --^ 



Ph+s 



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O 

a> 
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a 

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Si's 
I- 



be 

s 



bo 



<u cs S 

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^ o 



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a 
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bo 



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Its 



n 13 CD 






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a 



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S -^ g be J > 



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a 



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O ^ 

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a' 



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is a 






bo 



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^ 




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a 2 

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bo 
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P 






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T-H 


OO 






T-H 




02 


t^ 


o 








a 





t^ 


3 


1-5 


ct 


t-3 




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00 
00 






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1-5 



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Hi 



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a; 



3 
P- 







3 


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a 


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bo 



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-g X X X X X 

(3 CO MI-*rH|,n-|(n ^1^ 

I— I 10 to 00 O 





^00 
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CO 




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«locn|cc-l» 
to 50 to 


X 


X X 


X X 


X 


X 


X 


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■* 


U3 




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00 00 00 00 



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125 

SB 

o 

Pj 



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CO CO 



to 



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to 



O >— I e-i CO 
t- l:~ t- l^ 



ON PHOTOGRAPHY OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 89 



^ d a . g>ar ^oT . a . ^g ^o g-s 

•= 5zi I s § §^ g g5 s § s ^ 1° Pn° " •§•§ 

i^ =^ 3 S oOcog SPiS o a .2 S n -^ »< S 5 

-§!> s 3 |£||s|3|al I533 ||^-|||: i °-o 






H? pg <) W W H wS« Ph <iW H la p3 O W 






fl o 2 £? b-g "S ^ 



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Hits Wit 

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CO 


X 


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X 


XXX 


X 


X X 


X 


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CO 


CO 


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10 


eo 


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to 




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00 


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cs 


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05 


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90 



REPORT — 1892. 



t 

B 
P4 






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M 

aj 
tc 
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K 
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to fl c| o =3 a '^ 

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g sout 
36 and 
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lookin 

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lookin 


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1 xxxxxxxx 


x 


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COt-OOCTSOi— INCOr»< 

(MiNNiNcocfjcoeoai 









ON PHOTOGRAPHY OF METEOEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 



91 



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X X xxxxxxx 

CO H« «|a>H(cjH|«nlo&-i|ei— lei-Qt^ 



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X X x X X X 

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CO CO CO -*i -^ -J" 
X X X X X X 

CO CO CO «c o 



CO 






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92 



REPORT — 1892. 



B 







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Tl 


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r— 1 




bn 




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ON TKE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



93 



Ttvelfth Rejport of the Cornmittee, consisting of the Et. Hon. Lord 
Kelvin, Mr. K. Etheridge, Professor John Perry, Dr. Henry 
Woodward, Professor Thomas Gray, and Professor John Milne 
(Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the 
Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. {Draivn up 
by the Secretary.) 

The Gi!Ay-Milne Seismograph. 

The first of the above seismographs, constructed in 1883, partly at 
the expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the 
standard instrument at the Central Observatory in Tokio. I am indebted 
to Mr. K. Kobayashi, the Director of the Observatory, for the following 
table of its records : — 

Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at the Central Meteorological Observatory 
between Maxj 1891 and April 30, 1892. 



No. 



1,106 
1,107 
1,108 
1,109 
1,110 

1,111 

1.112 
1,113 
1,114 
1,115 
1,116 
1,117 
1,118 
1,119 
1,120 
1,121 
1,122 
1,123 
1,124 
1,125 
1,126 
1,127 
1,128 
1,129 
1,130 
1,131 
1,132 
1,1.33 
1,134 
1,135 
1,138 
1,137 
1.1 3S 
1,139 
1,140 
1,141 



Mouth 



Date 



Tiui. 



V. 


5 


,J 


9 


,J 


14 




18 




19 




25 




26 




30 


VI. 


1 


„ 


4 


" 


19 


„ 


22 


,^ 


25 


VII. 


6 


" 


7 1 


" 


15 1 


'' 


19 


JJ 


21 


,J 


24 


VIII. 


4 


J, 


5 


,J 


21 1 


., 


24 ' 


IX. 


3 




8 1 




9 1 


^, 


18 


X. 


4 


,, 


•5 1 


„ 


6 1 



H. M. 

8 16 

9 51 

4 13 
9 40 

10 53 

11 21 



1 37 
19 

2 20 
111 11 

38 
9 22 

11 19 
6 41 
9 43 

3 41 
11 2 

1 38 
6 
9 18 

2 21 

5 57 
8 19 

6 15 

4 40 

8 14 

26 

9 44 
2 11 

10 49 

11 49 
8 46 
6 28 

5 10 

1 1 



48 A.M. 

38 A.M. 

39 r.M. 
52 A.M. 
39 A.M 

22 A.M. 
15 I'.M. 
44 P.M. 
55 r..M. 

19 P.M. 
A.M. 

43 P.M. 

13 P.M. 
15 P.M. 

49 A.M. 
42 A.M. 
48 A.M. 

28 A.M. 

11 I'.M. 

12 l-.M. 
A.JI. 

58 P.M. 
30 P.M. 

20 P.M. 

35 A.M. 

21 A.M. 
51) A.M. 

8 J'.M. 
10 P..M. 

23 I'.M. 
25 A.M. 
58 A.M. 

9 A.M. 
38 I'.M. 
23 P.M. 

27 A.M. 



Duration 



Direction 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Horizontal 

Motion 



Ma.xituum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Vertical 

Motion 



sees. mm. 



1891. 



M. .«. 


2 30 


20 


4 40 


1 20 


1 30 


1 23 


1 30 


50 


1 10 


4 30 


7 30 


1 20 . 


6 i 


1 30 


38 


45 


30 


1 30 


30 i 


1 


1 30 



S.S.E.-N.N.W. 
E.-W. 



E.S.E.-W.N.W. 
W.S.W.-E.N.E. 

W.N.W.-E.S.B. 

S.-N. 
W.S.W.-E.N.E. 

N.E.-S.W. 
E.S.E.-W.N.W. 

N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



S.S.W.-N.N.E. 



N.E.-S.W. 
S.W.-N.E. 

S.E.-N.W. 

S.-N. 

E.N.E.-W.S.W. 

S.-N. 
E.S.E.-W.N.W. 

S.-N. 

S.W.-N.E. 

W.S.W.-E.N.E. 



I 1-3 0-6 

very slight 

slight 
very slight 
very slight 

sUglit 
1-3 0-5 
0-7 0-3 
very slight 
0-9 0-55 

very sliglit 
0-7 0-4 
0-8 0-3 
0-6 0-35 
0-4 0-5 

slight 
1-0 0-9 
very slight 
very slight 
2-9 1-4 

slight 
slight 
1-0 I'O 
3-6 10-5 

feeble 
0-2 0-5 
0-7 0-4 
0-1 0-2 

slight 
0-8 0-6 

slight 
0'6 0-4 
0-8 0-5 

slight 



sli ght 



sli ght 



gl)t 
ght 



sli ght 

sli ght 

sli ght 
0-3 I 0-5 

slight 

sli gilt 



sli 
sli 



Nature 

of 
Shock 



ght 
ght 



slow 
slow 

slow 

II 

slow 
quick 

slow 
alow 
slow 



quick 
slow 
quick 

slow 
quick 

slow 
quick 
slow 



94 



REPORT — 1892. 



Catalogue op Earthquakes — continued. 



No. 


Month 


Date 


' 1,142 


X. 


6 


1,143 


J» 


„ 


1,144 


»» 


7 


1,145 


J» 


8 


1,146 


» 


11 


1,147 


»» 


12 


1.148 


«1 


,j 


1,149 


»» 


„ 


1,150 


)» 


16 


1.151 




22 


1,152 


» 


,, 


1,153 


1> 


24 


1,154 


It 


27 


1.155 




„ 


1,15G 


^^ 


28 


1,157 


,, 


J, 


1,158 






1,159 


1, 


J, 


1,160 




jj 


1,161 


j^ 


jj 


1,162 


)» 


„ 


1.163 






1,164 


It 


J, 


1,165 


ti 


)» 


1,166 




)» 


1,167 


ti 


J> 


1,168 


It 


1) 


1,169 


») 


It 


1,170 




5» 


1,171 


,, 




1,172 




'] 


1,173 


i> 


)) 


1,174 






1,175 


" 




1,176 






1,177 


»» 




1,178 




29 


1,179 


}i 


30 


1,180 






1,181 


J, 


a 


1,182 


J, 


5» 


1,183 


11 




1,184 


XI. 


'i 


1,185 


,j 




1,186 


,^ 


2 


1,187 




5 


1,188 


„ 


6 


1,189 


)» 


7 


1.190 


)i 




1,191 


„ 


20 


1,192 


)» 


23 


1,193 




„ 


1,194 


,, 


28 


1,195 






1,196 


xii. 


'3 


1.197 


„ 




1,198 






1,199 


1, 


"4 


1,200 


„ 


8 


1,201 


,, 


11 


1,202 


„ 


15 


1,203 


„ 


21 


1,204 


„ 


22 


1,205 


„ 


24 


1,206 


„ 


,^ 


1,207 


„ 


j» 



Time 



H. M. R. 

6 47 30 A.M. 
2 19 2 IMI. 

11 23 47 A.M. 



9 

4 16 
2 7 

5 28 
9 31 

7 4 

6 26 
9 

8 17 

6 16 

7 9 



10 38 

11 29 
11 58 

12 

1 3 
3 3 
3 27 
3 33 

3 57 

5 32 

6 12 

7 15 

7 28 

8 25 
7 8 

15 

2 27 
2 25 

7 9 
10 32 

6 2 

9 20 

4 59 

1 2 

10 

2 18 

3 36 
9 45 

30 
2 39 
9 41 

11 y 
2 2 

1 11 
9 51 
9 29 

4 2 

8 44 



34 A.M. 

27 I'.M. 

28 V.M. 

17 i'..M. 
40 I'.M. 
15 A.M. 

20 A.M. 

5 I'.M. 
49 J'.M. 

13 A.M. 

45 I'.M. 
11 A.M. 
40 A.M. 

46 A.M. 
32 A.M. 
23 A.M. 
59 A.M. 

47 A.M. 
42 A.M. 
11 A.M. 
19 A.M. 

22 A.M. 

6 P.M. 
19 I'.M. 
57 P.M. 

P.M. 
47 P.M. 
11 P.M. 

28 P.M. 
32 P.M. 
37 P.M. 
25 I'.M. 

10 P.M. 
31 A.M. 

14 A.M. 
47 A.M. 
56 P.M. 

7 P.M. 

25 P.M. 

29 A.M. 
6 P.M. 

23 I'.M. 

18 P.M. 

14 A.M. I 
5 A.M. I 

54 P.M. 

26 P.M. ' 

11 A.M. 
45 A.M. 

4 A.M. I 
36 A.M. 

27 A.M. 
54 J'.M. I 

15 I'.M. 
4 P.M. 

17 P.M. 
4 I'..M. 



11 23 45 P.M. 

2 20 15 P.M. 

4 23 38 A.M. 

5 33 14 A.M. 

5 52 22 A.M. 

6 26 16 A.M. 







Max 


inium 


Maximum 








Period and 


Period and 








Amplitude of 


Amplitude of 








Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature 


Duration 


Direction 


Motion 


Motion 


of 
Shock 




sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 


M. 8. 










1 50 


S.-N. 


0-2 0-2 


sli 


ght 


slow 


40 


— 


— — 


— 


— 


— 


1 


S.-N. 


1-2 0-2 


— 




very 

slow 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


2 30 


S.B.-N.W. 


2-U 2'0 


0-2 


0-6 


quick 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sliglit 


— 


— 


— 


1 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0-3 0-2 


— 


— 


quick 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


1 20 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


1-1 1-3 


sli 


ght 


quick 


1 


N.W.-S.E. 


0-4 0-3 


— 




slow 


1 25 


S.-N. 


10 0-3 


— 


— 


^, 


2 10 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0'8 0-9 


sli 


gilt 


quick 


1 10 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0-7 0-5 


— 




slow 


7 


E.-W. 


2-4 31-5 


2-4 


4-5 


,j 


^ 


— 


slight 


— 




— 


— 


— . 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


1 13 


S.-N. 


0-7 0-2 


— 


— 


slow 


1 30 


S.S.E.-N.N.W. 


1-0 0-6 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 




3 


S.S.W.-N.N.E. 


2-0 0-7 


— 


— 


slow 


2 


S.-N. 


1-1 0'3 


— 


— 


,, 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 




— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


1 50 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-9 0-6 


— 


— 


slow 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


1 30 


S.-N. 


0-5 0-2 


— 


— 


slow 


1 10 


S.-N. 


0-7 0-2 


— 


— 


JJ 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


2 30 


S.-N. 


1-2 0-7 


— 


— 


slow 


1 30 


S.-N. 


1-1 0-4 


— . 







30 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


11 


35 


S.-N. 


sliglit 


— 


— 


,» 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 




-- 


"^ 


slight 


— 


— 


— 


I 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-6 0-3 


— 


— 


slow 


1 10 


S S.E.-N.N.W. 


0-8 0-2 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


; 


1 


E.-W. 


0-6 0-2 


— 


— 


alow 


3 


S.-N. 


1-8 0'4 


— 


— 


„ 


2 30 


N.W.-S.E. 


0-5 0'3 


sli 


ght 


quicli 


1 20 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-8 0-2 


— 




slow 


1 30 


S.E.-N.W. 


0-5 1-0 


sli 


ght 


quick i 


— 


— 


slight 


— 




— 


1 30 


E.-W. 


1-1 0-2 


— 


— 


slow 1 


1 


E.-W. 


slight 


— 


— 


,, 1 


1 


S.-N. 


0-9 0-2 


— 


— 


" I 








very slight 


— 





Z i 


1 30 


N.W.-S.E. 


0-8 0-4 


— 


— 


slow 


1 


S.W.-N.E. 


0-7 0-3 


sli 


ght 


quick 


2 50 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0-8 0'9 


sli 


gbt { 


very 
quick 1 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— 1 


— 


— . 


very slight 


— 


— 


- 1 


3 40 


N.W.-S.E. 


1-9 16-2 


0-9 


2-0 


quick i 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


) 


— 


— 


slight 


— 


— 


— ! 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PirENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



95 



Catalogue of Earthquakes — continued. 



No. 


Month 


Date 


1,208 
1,209 
1,210 


511. 


25 
26 
2!) 



Time 



H. M. s. 
7 38 13 P.M. 

10 22 37 r.M. 

11 13 20 P.M. 



Duration 



1,211 


I. 


3 


1,212 


„ 


4 


1,213 


„ 


6 


1,214 


„ 


13 


1,215 


» 


17 


1,216 


)) 


JJ 


1,217 


„ 


24 


1,218 


„ 


28 


1,219 


„ 


31 


1,220 


II. 


2 


1,221 




3 


1,222 


,, 


12 


1,223 


,, 


5» 


1,224 


„ 


15 


1,225 


J, 


17 


1,226 


„ 


„ 


1,227 


„ 


18 


1,228 


„ 


20 


1,229 




21 


1,230 




29 


1,231 


III. 


8 


1,2.32 




9 


1,233 




22 


1,234 


IV. 


2 


1,235 




3 


1,236 


„ 


13 


1,237 


,j 


19 


1,238 




22 


1,239 




24 


1,240 


t* 


30 



Direction 



M. 

1 
1 



N.W.-8.R. 
S.E-N.W. 



1892. 



4 22 9 P.M. 


2 


10 10 31 A.M. 


1 20 


2 63 36 A.M. 


1 20 


10 48 27 A.M. 


— 


3 29 8 A.M. 


SO 


11 35 12 P.M. 


2 40 


9 59 2 A.M. 


— 


11 20 10 P.M. 


50 


10 23 16 A.M. 


1 40 


9 22 9 P.M. 


40 


6 53 39 P.M. 


2 


7 21 18 A.M. 


— 


38 35 P.M. 


— 


3 20 35 A.M. 


— 


11 53 A.M. 


— 


9 41 58 P.M. 


— 


59 33 P.M. 


— 


2 39 43 A.M. 


— 


3 49 52 A.M. 


2 


3 38 31 A.M. 


— 


8 7 19 P.M. 


— 


2 24 25 P.M. 


— 


6 42 53 A.M. 


— 


35 23 A.M. 


1 20 


3 18 15 A.M. 


1 20 


4 13 a.m. 


50 


6 54 1 A.M. 


1 


1 26 46 A.M. 


1 30 


41 8 A.M. 


— 


5 59 57 A.M. 


— 



S.W.-N.E. 

S.-N. 
N.W.-S.E. 

P.S.W.-N.N.E. 
E.S.E.-W.N.W. 

N.E.-S.W. 

E.S.E.-W.N.\V. 

S.-N. 
S.E.-N.W. 



S.W.-N.E. 



W.S.W.-E.N.E. 

S.W.-N.E. 

S.-N. 

E.-W. 

S.-N. 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Horizontal 

Motion 



sees. mm. 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Vertical 

Motion 



0-7 
0-9 



0-3 
0-2 



0-8 0-3 
0-7 0-3 
0-8 0-2 

slight 
0-8 0-5 



0-8 



2-4 



slight 
08 0-3 

0-8 1-6 

0-6 0-2 
0-4 0-7 
slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 
0-8 0-5 
slight 
slight 
slight 
slight 



0-2 
0-2 
0-8 
0-1 
0-2 



0-3 

0-4 
0-4 
0-2 
0-4 



slight 
sliglit 



sees, mm, 



Nature 

of 
Shock 



0-6 



0-2 



sU 



0-2 I 

0-2 I 
ght 



sli 



sli 



0-2 



sli 



ght 



ght 
0-2 



ght 



slow 



slow 



slow 
very 
quick 

slow 
very 
quick i 
slow I 



quick 



quick 
slow 
quick 



The Earthquakes op 1888 and 1889. 

In my fourth Report to the British Association I gave an account of 
387 earthquakes which had been recorded in North Japan between 
October 1881 and October 1883. In the sixth, eighth, and tenth Reports 
accounts are given of the earthquakes felt throughout the whole Empire 
of Japan during the years 1885, 1886, and 1887. The records of these 
disturbances were obtained from some 700 observing stations under the 
control of the Central Meteorological Bureau. Through the kindness of 
the director of this bureau, Mr. K. Kobayashi, I am now able to give to 
the Association an epitome of the observations for 1888 and 1889. 



I, Earthquakes in 1888. 
In 1888 no less than 630 earthquakes were recorded. 



96 



EEPORT 1892. 



1. Nu77iber of Eart7ir[uakes in each Season. 

The following table gives the iiumber of earthquakes recorded during 
each month of the year 1888 : — 





&> 


>i 


^ 






O 










u 






& 1 


Month 


eg 

a 

1-3 




a 


P. 

< 


C3 

3 


3 

"-3 


1^ 


bo 
< 


a 
■a 

<5S 


1 
o 


a 


a 

O 

a 


o 


< 


Frequency 


53 


77 


46 


42 


69 


40 


40 


34 


42 


47 


85 


55 


630 


52-5 



The maximum frequency occurred in November, while the minimum 
was in August. The following table gives the frequency in each 
season : — 



Seasons 


Snriug 

(March, 

April, 

May) 


"SSI' '^' 

August) November) 


Winter 

(December, 

January, 

February) 


Total 


1 

1 

Average ' 


Frequency . 


157 


114 i 174 


185 


630 


157-5 



The maximum seismic frequency occurred in winter, while the mini- 
mum was in summer. If we divide a year into the hot and cold seasons 
we have : — 



Season 


Hot 

(from April to September 

iuclusive) 


Cold 

I'from Ootiibcr to March 

inclusive) 


Total 


Average 


Frequency 


267 


,363 


630 


315-(i 



2. Number of Tjartlbquahes in each Hour. 
The following table shows earthquake frequency in each hour 















Hours 














Mouths 
























Total 


0-1 


1-2 


2-3 


3-4 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 


8-9 


9-10 


10-11 


11-12 




Forenoon— 




























January 


3 


2 


■i 


4 


1 


2 


— 


— 


3 


1 


1 


1 


21 


February 


■2 


5 


3 


2 


2 


1 


4 


— 


2 


2 


4 


5 


32 


March . 


— 


1 


1 


3 


3 


— 


4 


1 


1 


— 


1 


5 


20 


April 


1 


— 


1 


2 


— 


4 


3 


5 


1 


— 


2 


'> 


21 


May 


2 


4 


2 


2 


10 


2 


1 


3 


1 


3 


5 


1 


36 


June 


2 


— 


2 


1 


— 


— 


4 


5 


— 


1 


1 


1 


17 


Jnlv 




— 


3 




4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


3 


20 


August . 


— 


2 


1 


4 


— 


2 


1 


2 


' 3 


3 


— 


3 


21 


September . 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


— 


2 


3 


1 


4 


2 


25 


October . 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


1 


1 


2 


— 


26 


November 


8 


5 


5 


o 


4 


i) 


1 


3 


5 


5 


1 


2 


43 


December 
Total . 


3 


5 


3 


4 


4 


5 


1 


2 


4 


1 


— 


1 


33 


24 


28 


29 


27 


33 


27 24 


30 


25 


19 


23 


26 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



97 















Hours 














Months 
























Total 


0-1 


1-2 


2-3 


3-4 


4-5 


5-6 G-7 


7-8 


8-9 


9-10 


10-11 


11-12 




Ajtehnoon-— 










1 














January 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


3 1 4 


6 


3 


2 


3 


3 


32 


February 


4 


4 


3 


11 




3 4 


— 


2 


5 


1 


6 


45 


March . 


•1 




3 


5 


— 


3 2 


5 


3 


2 


1 


— 


26 


April 


1 


3 


5 


2 


3 


1 — 


1 




1 


2 


2 


21 


May . . 


i 


— 


2 


o 


1 


3 3 


5 


4 


6 


4 


2 


33 


June 


3 


3 


3 


i 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


5 


3 


1 


23 


July . 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


— 


2 


— 


2 


1 


2 


20 


August . 


— 


— 


1 


1 


1 


— 


i 


1 


— 


6 


2 


— 


1:1 


September . 


1 


2 


2 


3 


— 


2 


1 


2 


1 


— 


2 


1 


17 


October . 


1 


1 


— 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


4 


21 


November 


5 


4 


4 


— 


7 


4 3 


1 


6 


1 


2 


5 


42 


December 
Total . 


1 
22 


2 


1 


2 


2 


— 4 


4 


— 


1 


3 


2 


22 


22 


27 


35 


24 


24 23 


30 


21 


33 


26 


28 


630 



From the above we see that the greatest number of earthquakes oc- 
curred between 3-4 p.m., and the next maximum frequency between 
4-5 A.M. and between 9-10 p.m. ; whereas the minimum was between 
9-10 A.M. and between 8-9 p.m. If we took 6 o'clock as the limit between 
day and night, we should have at night a greater number of earthquakes 
than during the day by 26. 

3. Areas of Seismic Disturbances and Intensity. 

The area shaken by an earthquake varied from a mere local tract up 
to an area of several thousand square ri, depending chiefly on the intensity 
of the shock. In the following table the number of earthquakes during 
the year has been classified according to the size of the area disturbed. 
One square ri=5'9 square miles. 



Area 


1 

i 


& 

g 

1 

4) 




< 




c 

3 


>> 
a 
Ha 


4^ 
CO 

P 

B 


1 


1 


<L» 

s 

1 




oa 


1 
> 
< 


Over 1,000 square ri . . . 


2 


6 


3 


8 


5 


3 


2 


1 


•2 


1 


7 


4 


44 


3-7 


1,000-100 square ri . . . 


8 


15 


7 


2 


16 


9 


10 


8 


i 


6 


9 


10 


104 


8-T 


Under 100 square ri . 


43 


56 


36 


32 


48 


28 


28 


25 


36 


40 


69 


41 


482 


40-2 


Total 


53 


77 


46 


42 


69 


40 


40 


31 


42 


47 


85 


56 


630 


52-5 



4. Area Shaken during each Month in Square Ri. 



\- 




X! 
Pi 


1 


< 






3 


1 

< 


1 

s 

02 


October 


November 


December 


c 
H 




6,950 


36,410 


7,730 


20,000 


20,810 


8,620 


11,000 


5,870 


6,240 


4,510 


18,760 


12,970 


161,870 



5. Intensity of Earthquahes. 

Of the 630 earthquakes in the year 1S88, severe earthquakes numbered 
58, moderate ones 264, and feeble ones 308. Thus 9 per cent, of the 
1892. H 



98 



REPORT — 1892. 



total number of earthquakes in the year were severe, 42 per cent, mocie- 
rate, and 49 per cent, feeble. 

Notes on Special Earthqual-es. 

1. On February 5, at 1 a.m., an earthquake was felt over nearly the 
whole of North Japan, extending from Tezo in the north to Tokio in the 
south. The area shaken was 9,670 square ri. This is the first time since 
1884, Avhen extended observations were commenced, that so large an area 
was disturbed. Whatever damage occurred was slight. 

2. On April 11, at 3 a.m., an area of 2,190 square ri was shaken in 
Central Japan. The provinces of Tango and Tanba were most seriously 
affected. 

3. On April 29, at 10 a.m., North Japan was disturbed by a shock 
■extending over 1,930 square ri. In Nasu-gori river banks gave way, at 
Utsonomiya walls were cracked, and to the south, in Tokio and other 
places, clocks were stopped and articles overturned. The motion was 
generally horizontal. 

4. On July 15, at 7.30 a.m., an elliptical area of 600 square ri near 
Lake Inawashiro was suddenly shaken. This was followed by a second 
shaking, and whilst this continued Bandaisan, which overlooks the lake, 
exploded, and in a few minutes buried nearly 28 square miles of country 
beneath a sea of earth and boulders 30 to 100 feet in depth. 

Whether the preliminary shakings were unsuccessful efforts of the 
steam beneath Bandaisan to obtain a vent, or whether they were shakings 
due to faulting or other causes, which destroyed the equilibrium between 
internal forces and the rocky cover which restrained them, is a matter 
for speculation. It may here be mentioned that one result of the Ban- 
daisan explosion has been to form a lake which is 83 miles long and from 
1 to 3 miles in breadth. 

Earthquakes Observed at the Central Ohservatory in Tohio 

in 1888. 

A list of the earthquakes felt in Tokio in 1888 has been published in 
a previous Report. Between January and December 101 disturbances 
were recorded. 



1. Earthqual-e Frequency per Month. 

During the year 1888 the number of earthquakes in each month was 
as follows : — 



Month 


1" 

1 


1 


1 


V. 
P. 

< 






5 




s, 

< 


0. 


a 
B 




B 



December 

Total 


Frequency 


1 
4 i 15 


7 


7 


11 


9 


9 


7 


11 


i 


13 


4 


101 



From the above it is seen that the maximum frequency occurred in 
February, and the minimum frequency in January, October, and 
December. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 99 



2. Earthquake Frequency per Season. 



Year 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 


Winter 


Average 


1888 


25 


25 


28 


23 


25 


3. Frequency during Sot and Gold Periods. 


Tear 


Hot 


Cold 


Average 


1888 


54 


47 


50 



4. Sourly Frequency of Earthquakes. • 

The number of earthquakes in each hour during the year will be 
found from the following table : — 







Hours 


Total 




0-1 


1-2 


2-3 


3-4 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 


8-9 


9-10 


10-11 


11-12 


FOHBNOOl 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May. 

June 

July. 

August 

Septembe 

October 

Novembei 

Decembei 


^ — 
r 


1 

1 

1 
3 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
3 

1 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

3 


1 
1 

1 

1 


2 
2 

1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 

2 
2 


1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
2 


1 
4 
3 
4 
6 
4 
5 
6 
10 
3 
6 
3 

2 
11 
4 
3 
5 
5 
4 
1 
2 
1 
7 
1 


Total 


6 


2 


4 


2 


8 


5 


4 


7 


4 


6 


3 


4 


AFrERNO( 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May. 

June 

July 

August 

Septembe 

October 

Novembei 

December 


r 


1 

1 


1 



1 
3 


1 
2 

1 


5 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
2 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
2 


1 

1 


1 


1 

2 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


Tota 


1 . 


i 
2 


5 


4 


8 


4 


4 


4 


2 


1 


5 


3 


4 


101 



We see from the above that the maximum frequency was between 
3-4 P.M. and 4-5 a.m., and the minimum between 8-9 p.m, 0-1 p.m., 7-8 
P.M., 1-2 A.M., and 3-4 a.m. 

H 2 



100 



REPORT 1892. 



5. Intensity of Earthqiiakes. 

Of the 101 earthquakes which took place in Tokio in the year 1888, 
the following are the most notable : — 



Date 


Time of Occurrence 


Duration 


April 29 


lOh. Om. 33s. A.ii. 


8' 



Date 


Horizontal Motion 


Vertical Motion 


Maximum 
Range in mm. 


Maximum 
Velocity 
in mm. 


Maximum 

Acceleration 

in mm. 


Direction 


Maximum 

Amplitude 

in mm. 


April 29 . 


5-6 in 0-8 sec. 22 in 1-0 sec. 


172-8 in 1-0 sec. 


S.E. to N.W. 


1-5 in 0-6 sec. 



The origin of this earthquake must have been somewhere in the Gulf 
of Tokio. In the provinces on the Gulf river banks gave way, rents were 
made in walls, articles fell down, liquids flowed from vessels, clocks were 
stopped, &c. The duration was long. The next shocks of long duration 
were those which occurred at 61i. 9m. 20s. p.m. on May 12, and at 
8h. 13m. 33s. on November 3, each having a duration of 1^ minutes. 
All the remaining shocks had a duration of less than 4 minutes. There 
was only one earthquake which had a range greater than 10 mm., 8 
earthquakes which had ranges 1-10 mm., 28 which were less than 1 mm., 
and the remaining 64 were so feeble that measurement was impossible. 

Prom the preceding facts we may conclude that severe eai'thquakes 
were few in number this year, about 90 per cent, of them being feeble. 

6. Direction of Earthquakes. 

The principal directions of motion of the 101 earthquakes this year 
were as follows : — 



Year 


S. to N. 


S.S.W. 

to 
N.N.E. 


s.w. 

to 
N.E. 


S.W.W. 

to 
N.E.E. 


E. to W. 


S.E.E. 

to 
N.W.W. 


S.E. 

to 

N.W. 


S.S.E. 

to 
N.N.W. 


Unknown 


1888 


5 


3 


4 


2 


27 




8 


2 


45 



Earthquake motion was therefore chiefly E.to "W.,and after that S.E. 
to N.W. It occurred least in the directions S.S.E. to N.N.W., and 
S.W.W. to N.E.E., the next being S.S.W. to N.N.E. Besides these, 
there were 45 feeble earthquakes having unknown directions. 



7. Nature of Eart^lq^^a'kes. 

An earthquake may have a horizontal or vertical motion, 
motion may be rapid or slow. In the following table we 
nature of the earthquakes in 1888 : — 



And 
show 



the 
the 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 101 



Nature 


Months 


Total 


^ 


1" 


.a 










■s 


J3 


^ 








1 




i 




& 
S 


3 


"3 


ho 


2 

a> 

P. 
© 
CO 


O 


a 


3 




Combination of horizontal and ver- 


1 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


2 




11 


tical motion 




























Horizontal motion .... 


2 


12 


7 


3 


9 


8 


7 


4 


5 





9 


3 


69 


Unknown 


1 


2 


— 


2 


1 


— 


1 


3 


5 


3 


2 


1 


21 


Rapid 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 


3 


— 


1 


2 


1 


4 


— 


21 


Slow 


2 


10 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


2 


2 


— 


S 


3 


34 


Unknown 


1 


3 


2 


3 


9 


4 


5 


4 


7 


3 


4 


1 


46 



Thus, of 101 earthquakes, 69 were horizontal, 11 were a combination 
of horizontal and vertical, and 21 were not definite, being very feeble. 
The number of slow earthquakes exceeded that of rapid ones by 13, while 
46 were so feeble that it was difficult to determine their period of 
vibration. 

II. Earthquakes in 1889. 

In 1 889 the number of disturbances recorded in the Empire was 930. 
The great increase in the number of disturbances this year was due to the 
number of small shocks which succeeded the great earthquake of Kuma- 
moto, which I described in the tenth Report (1890). The great earth- 
quake took place on July 28, and on the 29th and 30th 62 shocks were 
recorded. Subsequently the exact time of occurrence of 281 disturbances 
was noted. The total number of shocks following the great earthquake 
was therefore 343, and the total for the Empire, 992. As in previous years, 
certain parts of the western side of Japan appear to have been free from 
earthquakes. 

1. Number of Earthquakes in each Season. 

The number of earthquakes observed every month from January to 
December 1889 is given in the following table : — 



i 


1 


1 
3 


'u 

P. 




03 

a 

s 


a 


3 

bo 
3 


1 

P. 

m 


1 
o 


> 
o 


g 

Q 


i 


1 

> 

<1 


53 


57 


63 


67 


60 


39 


65 


192 


79 


103 


82 


72 


930 


77-5 



From the above table it will be seen that we have the maximum fre- 
quency in August, and the minimum in June. The general increase in 
frequency is due to repeated shocks after the terrible earthquake in 
Hiogo already referred to. 

The frequency in each season may be deduced from the above table ; 
thus : — 



Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 


Winter 


Total 


Average 


190 


296 


264 


180 


930 


232-5 



102 



REPORT 1892. 



From the preceding table we see that the average frequency per 
season was 232'5, and also that the maximum frequency was in summer, 
and the minimum in winter. 

If we call the six months from April to October the hot season, and 
those from October to April the cold season, we have : — ■ 



Hot 


Cold 


Total 


Average 


502 


428 


930 


465 



Thus the average frequency of the two seasons was 465, and the 
earthquakes occurred more frequently dui*ing the hot season than in the 
cold one. 



2. Number of Earthquakes in each Hour, 

The occurrence of earthquakes according to the honi's of the day and 
night is shown in the following table : — 















Hours 














Mouths 
























Total 


0-1 


1-2 


2-3 


3^ 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 


8-9 


9-10 


10-11 


11-12 




Forenoon— 




























January 


— 


_ 


3 


2 


4 


5 


2 


4 


— 


2 


3 


— 


25 


February 


— 


— 


1 


1 


2 


4 


2 


5 


5 


3 


2 


2 


27 


Marcli . 


2 


1 


3 


2 


— 


2 


5 


2 


2 


4 


2 


3 


28 


April . 


4 


3 


3 


5 


2 


1 


1 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


28 


May 


3 


1 


1 


5 


— 


5 


7 


1 


4 


5 


3 


3 


38 


June 


— 


2 


1 


3 





1 


3 


3 


1 


1 


4 


1 


20 


July 


4 


4 


8 


5 


1 


5 


3 


2 


— 


3 


2 


2 


39 


August . 


6 


8 


12 


15 


10 


9 


7 


9 


8 


5 


7 


6 


102 


September . 


1 


5 


6 


3 


3 


3 


3 


6 


3 


2 


8 


3 


46 


October 


1 


6 


6 


4 


2 


6 


6 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


44 


November 


3 


1 


5 


1 


3 


2 


2 


4 


5 


8 


1 


4 


39 


December 
Total . 

Afte)in-oon — 


1 


4 


4 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


3 


4 


6 


33 


25 


35 


53 


48 


29 


45 


42 


45 


35 


38 


40 


34 


























January 


3 


4 


3 


1 


2 


4 


— 


2 


4 


4 


— 


1 


28 


February 


1 


3 


4 


4 


2 


1 


— 


3 


1 


6 


4 


1 


30 


March . 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


6 


1 


2 


1 


4 


35 


April 


5 


7 


6 


3 


5 


4 


— 


3 


3 


2 


1 


— 


39 


May 


4 


2 


2 


1 


— 


3 


3 


2 


— 


2 


1 


1 


21 


June 


1 


4 


3 


1 


— 


2 


2 


1 


— 


4 


1 


— 


19 


July . 


3 


a 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


4 


3 


4 


26 


Augiist . 


11 


10 


10 


9 


11 


8 


6 


6 


4 


5 


4 


6 


90 


September . 


5 


3 


3 


1 


4 


1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


3 


5 


33 


October . 


6 


4 


3 


2 


7 


3 


7 


5 


S 


2 


12 


5 


61 


November . 


7 


3 


4 


5 


2 


3 




1 


5 


5 


4 


4 


43 


December 
Total 


5 


4 


4 


1 


2 


3 


— 


5 


3 


1 


8 


1 


37 
931 


53 


48 


47 


32 


40 


1 ^^ 


23 


40 


29 


39 


42 


32 



From the above table we see that the maximum frequencies occurred 
between 2-3 a.m. and 0.1 p.m., whereas the minimum frequencies are 
between 6-7 p.m. and 0-1 a.m. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN, 103 
3. Area Sliaken in each Month in Square Bi. 



















^4 




^1 






>. 

-M 

H 


i 




< 


!> 
a 


1-3 




1 


1 

03 


o 
o 

O 


o 


a 
o 




18,230 


14,820 


21,520 


18,060 


13,010 


10,700 


11,830 


14,410 


9,250 


19,240 


9,310 


14,320 


174,700 



4. -4rea o/ Seismic Disturbances. 

The area shaken by the earthquakes varied with their intensity from 
a mere local tract up to several thousand square ri. 1 square ri=about 5 9 
square miles. The following table is a classification of the earthquakes 
according to the area disturbed : — 



Areas 


3 

1 


>> 

1 

ft 


S 


< 


1^ 




>> 

3 

1-5 


1 


■a 

ft 


Qi 

S 

u 
O 


> 
o 

•a 


i 


Id 

-s 


2 

< 


More tbau 1,000 square ri 
Frjm 1,000 down tii 100 square 

ri 
Lks than 100 square ri . 

Total 


5 
10 

38 


5 
9 

43 


7 
5 

61 


6 
16 

45 


3 
13 

44 


4 
9 

26 


1 

14 
50 


8 
181 


3 
7 

69 


5 

9 

89 


3 

8 

71 


1 

9 
60 


46 
117 

767 


3-8 

9'8 

63-9 


53 


57 


63 


67 


60 


39 


65 192 


79 


103 


82 


70 


930 


77-5 



From the above table we see that TGI earthquakes out of the total 
number of 930 disturbed areas less than 100 square ri, 117 areas between 
100 and 1,000 square ri, and 46 areas greater than 1,000 square ri. We 
may add that one earthquake shook an area of nearly 6,000 square ri, 
whilst another shook an area of about 9,000 square ri. 

5. Intensity of Earthquakes. 

During the year 1889, as we have seen, the total number of earth- 
quakes was 930, of which 51 were of a severe character, 290 of moderate, 
and the remaining 589 were slight, shocks. Thus, severe ones were 
6 per cent, of the total number of earthquakes, moderate ones 31 per cent., 
and slight ones 63 per cent. 

Notes on Special Earthquakes. 

1. February 18, at 6h. 9m. Os. a.m., 6h. 27m. Os. a.m., 7h. 48m. 52s. 
A.M., 8h. 2m. Os. A.M., and lOh. 10m. 56s. a.m. The first shock was the 
strong one, shaking 5,750 square ri ; 300 square ri near Tokio, where 
walls were cracked, tombstones overturned, clocks stopped, &c., was 
severely disturbed. The centre appears to have been in the Bay of 
Tokio. Earthquakes which are severe in Tokio seldom shake more than 
one or two neighbouring provinces, and, as measured by the land area 
which is shaken, they can only be considered as moderate disturbances. 
This earthquake, however, was felt on the West Coast, and shook 21 
provinces {see ninth Report, 1889). 

2. May 12, at 10.40 a.m. The shock disturbed 4,800 square ri in Centra! 
Japan. Thirty-seven provinces were shaken, Mino and Owari, the sile of 



104 



REPORT — 1892. 



the terrible catastrophe which occurred last year (1891), suffering the 
most. 

In the neighbourhood of Gifa people were thrown into a state of 
alarm. The banks of the Nagara River were rent for some distance. 
There was much damage to porcelain, wine-bottles, &c. Pendulum- 
clocks, especially those facing towards the south or north, were stopped. 
According to the observations of the Gifa Observatory, the duration of 
the earthquake was about 2 minutes 30 seconds. The movement, which vas 
very slight at first, was followed three minutes after by a violent shaking, 
and at the fifth second the range of motion to the north and south was 
4 bu 4 rin (about -^ in.). But, from the moment at which the east and 
west motion came into play, the intensity was so much increased that the 
two leaden cylinders of the seismometer, together with the index, were 
overthrown, which put an end to the observations. The maximum range, 
however, seems to have been about 21 mm. 

S. July 28, at 11.40 p.m. A short description of this earthquake, by 
which 20 persons were killed, 74 wounded, and many buildings destro_5ed, 
is given in the tenth Report (1890). For a full account see the paper 
by Messrs. Sekiya and Kikuchi forming vol. xiii.. Part II., of the ' Trans- 
actions of the Seismological Society,' also vol. xvi. of the same publication. 

4. December 31, 1 p.m. This earthquake extended from Yezo in the 
north to beyond Tokio in the south, shaking 9,210 square ri of country. 
It seems to have originated in the bed of the Pacific. 



Earthquakes Olserved at the Central Observatory in Tokio. 

Between January and December, in Tokio, 113 shocks were recorded, 
a list of which has appeared in pi'evious Reports. 

I. Frequency of Earthquakes per Season. 
The following table will show the seismic frequency per month : — 





i-t 

•3 


1 

03 

3 






1^ 


1^ 


< 


u 

a 
■s. 

03 


.o 

3 

8 


S 


a 


o 


5 


16 


11 


18 13 


7 


5 


8 


7 


8 


9 


6 


113 



From the above table we see that the maximum frequency was in 
April, while the minimum one was in January and July. 

The following table shows the seismic frequency per season :- 



Spring 


Summci' 


Autumn 


Winter 


Average 


42 


20 


24 


27 


28 



The following table shows the frequency in the hot and cold 
seasons : — 



October to March. Cold 



53 



April to September. Hot 



58 



Average 



66-5 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 105 



2. Daily Frequency of EartJiquaJces. 

The following table is a classification of earthquakes according to the 
time of occurrence •• — 







Hours 


Total 




0-1 


1-2 


2-3 


3^ 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 8-9 


9-10 


10-11 


11-12 


FOREXOO 
January 
Februarj 
March 
April 
May 
June 
July 
August 
Septemb 
October 
Novemb 
Deeembe 


r— 

cr . 

3r 
r 


1 
1 


1 

1 

1 


1 

1 

2 
1 
2 


1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
2 

1 


2 
2 

1 

1 
2 


1 
2 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 


2 

1 

1 
1 


2 


1 


1 

1 
1 


1 
9 
6 
6 
7 
2 
1 
2 
6 
S 
4 
2 

4 
7 
5 
12 
6 
5 
4 
6 
1 
3 
9 
4 


Total 


2 


3 


7 


1 


S 1 8 


8 5 


2 


6 


3 


Al'TBRXO 
January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
June 
July 
August 
Septemb 
October 
Novemb 
Deeembe 


ox— 

r 

er . 

er . 
>r 


1 
2 

1 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

a 
1 


1 
2 

1 
2 

1 

1 


1 

1 

2 

2 


1 

4 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

1 


1 

1 

1 
1 


2 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 


Tots 


1 . 


7 


7 


8 


6 


5 


5 


.t 


4 4 


4 


5 

1 


3 


113 



Thus we see that the maximum frequency occurred from 6 to 8 A.M. 
and from 2 to 3 p.m.. whereas the minimum frequency occurred from 3 to 
-5 a.m. 



3. Intensity of Earthquakes. 

The remarkable earthquakes recorded in Tokio were those of February 
18 and December 31, already referred to, which had durations of 8 minutes 
and 5 minutes 20 seconds respectively ; and one on August 5, which had a 
duration of 4 minutes 20 seconds. 

There was only one earthquake which had a maximum range greater 
than 20 mm. No other earthquake occurred with a maximum range 
.greater than 10 mm. There were 12 earthquakes with a maximum range 
greater than 1 mm., and 25 earthquakes less than 1 mm. There were 
75 earthquakes whose movement was so slight as to render it impossible to 
■observe the range of oscillation. We therefore had very few severe dis- 
.tui'bances during the year, although a large number of earthquakes 
were recorded. 



106 



REPORT — 1892. 



4. Direction of Earthquakes. 

The following table shows the number of earthquakes arranged' 
according to direction : — 



N. to S. 


s.s.w. 

to 

N.N.E. 


S.W. 
to 

N.E. 


W.S.W. 

to 
E.N.E. 


E. to W. 


E.S.E. 

to 
W.N.W. 


S.E. 
to 

N.W. 


S.S.E. 

to 
N.N.W. 


Uucertain 


11 


1 


8 


1 


18 


5 


11 


2 


S6 



5. Nature of Earthquakes. 

The following table shows the number of earthquakes according to> 
the nature of movement : — 



Nature 



Both vertical and liorizontal 
Horizontal . . . . 
Uncertain . . . . 

Eapid 

Slow 

Uncertain . . . . 













Months 












1 

^ ! 

-8 


5 
s 


1 




P. 
< 


*' 
H 


1 


>> 


2 


1 

a 

GJ 
P. 


u 

o 
O 


i 


o 

a 

CD 


2 


1 


4 


6 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 




2 


24 


1 


9 


2 


2 


3 


4 


2 


3 





1 


4 


— 


31 


2 


6 


5 


10 


8 


2 


2 


3 


G 


5 


5 


4 


58 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


— 


1 


21 


1 


6 


3 


6 


2 


3 


1 


3 


— 


2 


4 


1 


31 


2 


7 


5 


11 


9 


2 


2 


3 


6 


5 


5 


4 


61 



From the above we see that the number of earthquakes which were 
felt as a horizontal movement was greater than those in which horizontal 
and vertical motions were combined. There were 58 earthquakes the 
movement of which was indeterminate. As regards the velocity of back 
and forth motion, 31 out of 113 earthquakes were slow, 21 were rapid, 
and 61 were indeterminate. 



Remarks on the above Reports. 

The above notes are based on two epitomes of the work done in 1888 
and 1889, by the Central Meteorological Bureau, which I have recently 
published in vol. xvi. of the 'Transactions of the Seismological Society.'^ 
The tables are altogether the work of the officers in the Meteorological 
Bureau. 

Laws relating to the frequency of earthquakes which are sharply 
defined have not yet been discovered. During the winter months we 
know that earthquakes are more numerous than they are in summer, 
and if, instead of reckoning our earthquakes as efforts of equal value, we 
give to each a value corresponding to the area shaken, the fact that 
seismic energy is more intense during the winter than in summer becomes 
more pronounced. All areas given in this and previous Reports are laMcl 
areas. A more satisfactory method of determining earthquake intensity 
would be to give total areas. In estimating frequency, it would seem 
that a series of secondary shocks, which may spread over a period of 
several months, but which are the outcome of a primary disturbance, 
ought either to be omitted, or at least to be regarded as belonging to the 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 107 

disturbance which gaA^e them birth. If this is not done, then a large 
disturbance which took place, for example, near the end of the winter 
months may have the long series of shocks which follow, and which indi- 
cate that the conditions which lead to earthquakes are being destroyed, 
added in with the summer disturbances, and the rule that earthquakes 
are more frequent in winter is obliterated. An effect of this description 
is shown in the tables for 1889, which might have been drawn up omit- 
ting 281 secondary disturbances which occurred in Hiogo. In connection 
with these analyses it would .=!eem desirable that earthquakes should be 
grouped according to their origins, and, in addition to what is done at 
present, separate analyses be made for each group. Some of the earth- 
quakes which occur in the north of Japan do not appear to have any 
more connection with those which occur in the south of Japan than the 
earthquakes of Great Britain have with the earthquakes of Switzerland. 
The earthquakes from all these regions may conform with the law of 
winter frequency, but it is also desirable to know the relationship between 
earthquakes of a given group. Do the earthquakes which originate 
beneath the ocean follow the same laws as those which originate in our 
mountains ? Is the occurrence of earthquakes at one particular origin 
more in accordance with some rule than the occurrence of similar dis- 
turbances at some other focus ? With the aid of the four or five thousand 
maps showing the area shaken by every earthquake since 1885 such 
questions might be answered, but time and means for their analysis are 
thus far wanting. 



On a New Method which may be Employed foe Investigating Earth 

Tremors or Earth Tips. 

In Reports to this Association in 1887 and 1888 I gave an epitome 
of the work which had been accomplished in investigating small earth 
movements called earth tremors. The more important results were, 
that tremors were most frequent with a low barometer, and they were 
especially noticeable if there was a steep barometric gradient. They 
often occuri'ed when it was absolutely calm in Tokio, and often heralded 
the approach of a wind from the south-west. The instrument employed 
was automatic in its action, the records being made at intervals of five 
minutes. Being, like all other tromometers, of the ordinary pendulum 
type, it only indicated when tremors were strong and the time of their 
occurrence. The instruments which I have been using for the last few 
months give perfectly continuous records of earth tremors, measure them 
as to amount and direction, and throw considei-able light upon the nature 
of these movements. From the character of the records it is also seen 
whether the column on which ihe instruments are placed remains 
horizontal or suffers tilting. Anyone possessing a small metal stand 
which has three levelling screws and a metal upright can, with a silk 
fibre, a small sewing-needle, a small shot, and a glass fibre, construct one 
of these instruments. In the sketch, a h represents the needle, with the 
shot fixed at a, and a c the fibre, which is secured at a and c by shellac. 
The glass fibre is joined to 6 a as a continuation of its length. This acts 
as a pointer, and moves above a mirror, on which there is a finelj'- divided 
scale. The fibre may be replaced by a rigid wire, when it must be properly 
pivoted. Agate cups at b and c give greater sensibility. A complete- 



108 



REPORT — 1892. 




k\\\\\X\NJx\V\^ 




arran^-ement requires two such pieces of apparatus, which may be placed 
to work on the same scale as shown in the plan. 

Everything must be well sheltered from currents of air. For a 
continuous record the glass pointer is replaced by a small galvanometer 
mirror, which reflects a ray of light through a slit into a box, where it is 

photographed upon a moving plate. 
The screws B and C serve to adjust 
the pointei's and to measure the 
.amount of tilting corresponding to 
any given displacement. By moving 
A the degree of stability is adjusted. 
I adjust ah c, which may be briefly 
described as an extremely light 
conical pendulum, until it has a 
period of about five seconds. With 
this adjustment the mirror or pointer 
may at any time be set swinging, 
and it will return to rest and show 
the reading from which it was dis- 
placed. Sources of error which may 
possibly interfere with the records 
which these instruments are sup- 
posed to give are as follow : — 

1. By unequal expansion of dif- 
fei-ent portions of one of these in- 
struments the pointer or ray of light 
might be displaced. As at least four of these instruments, which are 
differently constructed, some with wire suspensions, and others with 
fibre suspensions, only vary in amount of displacement, and seldom, if 
ever, in direction, whilst the temperature is changing, it v.'ould seem that 
temperature effects are too small to be observed. Lighting a stove in 
the room and raising the temperature quickly does not appear to pro- 
duce any effect. Good spirit-levels are subject to great changes by 
changes in temperature, and therefore it is diificult to use them as 
recorders of changes in level. I have had a pair of such levels under 
glass cases, standing on excellent stone columns, for several years, but 
the results were too unsatisfactory for publication. When they were 
side by side and parallel the bubble of one might move to the right, and 
the other to the left. 

2. In consequence of hygroscopic changes the instruments carried by 
a silk fibre may possibly be affected. I have not observed such changes, 
but Mr. F. Omori, who is repeating my work, tells me that they are 
evident. I cannot imagine them to exist in the instruments which have 
wire suspension, and by the use of quartz fibres which Mr. F. Boys, 
F.R.S., has sent me, this possible source of error may be eliminated 
where fibres are employed. 

3. Because the horizontal member of the conical pendulum has in 
several cases been a fine steel needle, magnetic effects may be introduced. 
If these are measurable, they must be extremely small. With a 
8-foot ray of light during a tremor storm, the image may be continuously 
moving through a range of from 1 to 2 inches. This is too large to be 
magnetic. If a record for twenty-four hours is repi'esented by a straight 
line 12 inches in length, I find that this from time to time is gradually 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 101^ 

deflected from ^ to |- inch from its true path, and the line, which is often 
straight, has one or two bow-like bends, suggesting that the column on 
which the instruments rest has been gradually lifted or warped for a 
period of, say, five or six hours, and then for the next four or five hours 
been gradually lowered or gradually returning to its original form. 
Occasionally this lifting process only takes from fifteen to thirty minutes. 
The character of the record is hardly that which would be expected as a 
result of magnetic influences. 

Obseevatioks. 

All my observations have hitherto been made upon a table-like stone 
column which forms the foundation of a column built some fifteen years 
ao-o to carry an equatorial telescope. It is 4 feet square, made of 
carefully squared blocks of stone measuring 4'x2'xl' 3", and rises 
3' 6" above the floor of one of the rooms in my house which for many 
years was the Astronomical Observatory of the Imperial University. 
Unless the shutters of a window are closed for three or four hours the 
midday situ strikes the south face of the column. A fibre instrument 
photographically recording N. and S. motion stands near the N.B. 
corner of the column. On the N.W. corner a second fibre instrument 
shows B. and W. motion as a spot of light on a scale. Between these 
two a pair of wire instruments records N.S. and E.W. motions, and a 
second set of instruments records similar motions on the south side of the 
column. In between them, from time to time, similar instrunaents have 
been used in varying positions. 

In regular use there were, therefore, three instruments recording N. 
and S. motion, and three which recorded E. and W. motion. Observa- 
tions were commenced on December 18, 1891, and with but few interrup- 
tions they are being continued. A few of the more important results are 
as follows : — 

Ti-emors. 

1. On many occasions a stiff" gale has been blowing, and although we 
should expect tremors if they were a direct eff'ect of the wind, all the 
instruments have been still : as, for example, on January 15, with W. and 
S.W. wind; January 18, with N.W. wind ; February 8, with S. wind ; 
February 24, everything remarkably steady, with N.W. wind; February 27, 
strong N. wind and very slight tremors ; March 1, N.W. wind ; March 27, 
W. wind. 

On each of the above days the wind was unusually strong. The 
I'evolving roof above the column and the shutters rattled, whilst each 
gust of wind caused my bouse, which is of wood, to shake. When this 
latter happened, by carefully watching the pointers of an instrument 
through a magnifying glass, they were seen to tremble, and each 
trembling, which was momentary, corresponded with the impulses of the 
wind upon the outside of the building. There was no swing produced in 
the pointers, but only a temporary vibration along their length. The 
movements consequent on ' earth tremors ' are distinct and continuous 
angular displacements, and not the vibration of pointers. 

2. Tremors often occur when the wind is high. They also occur 
when it is modei-ate, and when it is absolutely calm. The relationship of 



110 REPORT — 1892. 

such tremors to winds at a distance, and to barometrical gradients, have 
been discussed in previous Reports. Sometimes the tremors are only 
shown on the instruments recording N. and S. motion, sometimes only on 
those which record E. and W. motion, and sometimes they are marked 
on all the instruments. 

8. One of the most important results obtained from the new method 
of observation is that the so-called earth tremors do not appear to be 
movements resulting from a general vibration in the soil, such as might, 
for example, be caused by the falling of heavy weights. With a tremo- 
meter of the ordinary pendulum type a simple swinging, corresponding 
to the period of the pendulum, is only seen ; and although it has been 
observed that the swing is not always uniformly to the right and left of 
the same point, this swinging might still represent a cumulative effect of 
minute vibrations. With the conical pendulum arrangement, the inertia 
of which is extremely small, although they sometimes appear to be 
moving with their natui-al period, it is oftener that their vibrations 
appear to be forced. By watching the spot of light as it fitfully swings 
from side to side, sometimes quickly and sometimes slowly, during a 
tremor storm, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the movements 
are produced by the tilting of the column. For example, on the night of 
February 14, when the barometer was low (29'6) and but little wind, all 
the E. and W. instruments were moving, while the N. and S. were still. 
The E. and W. light from time to time swung between 32 and 39 (i divi- 
sion =2"5 mm.), and it seemed as if at irregular intervals, which did 
not correspond with gusts of wind, that the east side of the column had 
been lifted. On February 16, in the afternoon, whilst a strong N.W. 
wind was blowing for some time, the E.W. spot of light rested at 30, 
then it would move to 34, but return to 30. Five minutes later it stood 
at 35, but now and then it would move quickly to 40, and return to 30. 
It did not swing evenly on either side of any point. Similar observations 
have been made on other days. With the N. and S. recorder these 
effects, which are apparently due to tilting, have only been observed 
once or twice, and they were not well pronounced. It is probable that 
these movements may be due to the same causes, which at the time of 
very heavy winds I have seen to cause the bubble of a delicate level to 
pulsate. One result of these observations is that, for the present, at least, 
I can no longer regard earth tremors as movements which correspond in 
■character to vibrations like those which may be produced by a steam- 
hammer or a railway train — on which I have often experimented — bat 
rather that they ai'e wave-like pulsations, irregular in period, and 
producing changes in level. 

They may possibly be the result of sudden variations in barometric 
pressure over large areas. 

4. During a tremor storm, which sometimes lasts for twenty-four 
hours, the range of motion is very variable, the intervals between periods 
of maximum movement being sometimes ten or fifteen minutes. If these 
motions are due to tilting, this means that the slopes of the wave-like 
pulsations are not equally steep. 

5. The photographic records, which refer to N. and S. motions — 
whether there are tremors or whether tremors do not exist — by the 
deviation of the spot of light, sometimes to the right or sometimes to the 
left, give evidence of angular motion of the mirror, which may be ex- 
plained on the assumption of tilting of the ground, warping of the column 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. Ill 

or portions of the instrument by change of temperature, a variation in 
the condition of the fibre by change in moisture, or as an effect due to 
magnetic influences. Sometimes it appears that the southern side of the 
column had risen or sunk within a period of fifteen minutes. At other 
times the movement takes several hours. Usually it takes about as long- 
to sink as it did to rise ; but this is by no means invariable, the upward 
motion being sometimes accomplished in a few minutes, whilst the 
lowering extends over several hours. The following are examples of 
these movements, which for convenience are described as an actual lifting 
or sinking of the south side of the column. 

February 9. — Daring the day the south side rose shghtly, and sank 
again towards night. 

February 10. — About 4.30 A.M. the south sunk suddenly 2 mm., but in 
one hour returned to its normal position. 

February 11. — Between the morning and the afternoon the south side 
rose slowly. 

February 12. — No movement observable. 

February 13. — Steady rise of the south side, commencing in the morn- 
ing, and continuing until 8 p.m. and on to midnight. 

February 14. — Fi-om midnight of the 13th the south sank, the greatest 
fall taking place during the afternoon. This sinking continued steadily 
to the 15th. On the 16th this sinking was irregular. 

February 17. — ^Between 3.30 and 4.30 a.m. the spot of light moved 
2 mm. to the right and back to the left, indicating a rising and then a 
sinking of the south side. A similar movement, but of from 4 to 5 mm., 
took place in fifteen minutes, commencing at 9.30 p.m. 

February 18. — The south rose slightly during the day, and sank to- 
wards night. About midday there was a deflection like the two which 
took place on the 17th. 

February 19. — During three hours the south sank, and then rose in 
three hours, the range of motion being about 6 mm. During the night 
the south ag^in sank, and rose within a period of about three hours. 

February 21. — Early in the morning the south slightly sank, and this 
continued until the afternoon, when within an interval of ten minutes it 
quickly rose. There was a sudden but slight sinkage at midnight. 

February 24. — During the whole day, and also at night, the south was 
slightly sinking. 

Febriiary 25. — During the day the south was rising. 

February 26. — From 4 to 7 a.m. the south sank, after which it rose to 
■9 A.M. In the afternoon it again sank ; &c. 

The deflections referred to as measured on the photographic record 
are usually about 2 mm. ; it is not unfrequent that they reach 5 or 6 mm., 
and once they were as much as 15 mm. 

When the mirror has a period of four or five seconds, and it is 29 inches 
from the photographic plate, a deflection of 1 mm. might be due to a 
tilting represented by '25 inch per mile. The sensitiveness of the 
apparatus may be changed by altering the period of the mirror. The 
approximation given may also be used in giving angular values for the 
tremors which have been observed. 

The fact that the south side of the column appears to rise when the 
sun is on the south side of the house would indicate that the tilting was 
due to temperature, but as the same movements also take place during 
the night, and at irregular intervals, it cannot be an immediate effect of 



112 EEPOKT — 1892. 

sun-heat. Closing the shutters and blinds of the one window in the 
room does not alter the angular displacements. The N. and S. pointer 
of a glass fibre instrument standing on the S.E. corner of the column may- 
be altered by lighting a small stove which stands within 3 feet of the 
column, and raising the temperature of the room 20° to 30° Fahr. In a 
few hours this corner of the column becomes quite warm to the hand, 
and the pointer shows that the southern side has been warped or tilted 
upwards. Although the fire may burn all day, I do not observe any 
change in the other instruments, and it is therefore difficult to imagine 
that the deflections which have been noted are the immediate result of a 
chano-e in the temperature or hygrometric state of the atmosphere in the 
room where the column is situated. The character of the movements 
is hardly such as might be expected from changes in declination. At 
the Magnetical Observatory, about two miles distant from my house, 
whatever changes have been recorded do not coincide either in character 
or in time with the movements under discussion. 

The conclusion arrived at is, that from time to time there is evidence 
that the column in my house is tilted sometimes quickly, but more gene- 
rally slowly. The cause of this tilting is not inside the house, but outside. 
It may be local, and due to variation in the temperature or the moisture 
in the ground. 

To determine whether the tilting extends over a considerable area a 
second photographic recorder is being erected in a seismological labora- 
tory about 400 yards distant from my private observatory. 

6. On January 28, at about 11.20 p.m., a small earthquake took place, 
after which it was observed that the N. S. pointers of all the instruments 
had been displaced in the same direction. It appeared as if the south 
side of the column had been slightly tilted. East and west pointers 
were not disturbed. Subsequent earthquakes in February did not pro- 
duce any change. 

Earthquakes are recorded as streaks of light across the plate, and as 
the instruments are so sensitive, they are capable of recording disturb- 
ances which ordinary instruments fail to indicate. 

In making these investigations I am now receiving valuable assistance 
from Mr. F. Townley, in Yokohama, and Mr. James Murdoch, in Omori, 
each of whom is provided with tromometers. My colleague. Professor 
W. K. Burton, has given me most valuable assistance in carrying out the 
photographic part of my work. 



Earth Tremoes and Firedamp. 

In 1884 I repoi'ted to this Association that in the previous year I had 
established a tromometer and other instruments underground in the 
Takashima Colliery, near Nagasaki. Shortlj' after they were put up a 
fall of the roof cut off access to the chamber where they were placed, and 
ever since they have remained buried beneath the bed of the Pacific 
Ocean. As Mr. John Stoddart, who took charge of the instrument, has 
died, and Nagasaki is so far distant, I have not been able to re-establish 
these observations, one of which was to determine whether the giving off 
of firedamp was in any way connected with earth tremors. 

In the ' Proceedings of the Nox'thern Institute of Mechanical and 
Mining Engineers,' Mr. Walton Brown drav^s attention to the possible 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND TOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 113 

connection between earth shakes, tremors, and the issue of firedamp, and 
refers to the work attempted at Takashima. 

Some years later the British Association appointed a committee to in- 
vestigate their possible re]ationships, and I believe that seismographs and 
delicate seismoscopes were set up in the Newcastle district. At the time I 
pointed out that such instruments could only record earthquakes, and it 
was unreasonable to suppose that there could be any connection between 
earthquakes and the ordinary outpourings of firedamp. The instru- 
ments required were tromometers, rather than seismometers and seismo- 
scopes, and in this Report I have defined the nature of the phenomena 
to be looked for, which are more like wave-pulsations than tremors. 
The instrument by which these may be investigated is the light form of 
conical pendulum already described. The records are not the same as 
those obtained from the swinging of a pendulum tromometer. We know 
that a curve showing the microseismic activity in Italy closely follows a 
curve showing the colliery explosions between 1860 and 1881 which have 
occurred in Germany. Unfortunately, we do not know anything about 
microseismic activity in Germany. From tromometric observations 
made at the ^Ecole de Douai, by M. Chesneau, during February and ]\Iarch 
1886, and from observations on the escape of gas estimated by a Pieler 
lamp at the Herin Mine (Compagnie d'Anzin), we learn that certain 
relationships between these two phenomena were established (.see ' De 
I'etude des mouvements de I'ecorce terrestre poursuivie particuliere- 
ment au point de vue de leurs rapports avec les degagements de produita 
gazeux,' par M. Raynal, Ministre des Travaux publics ; M. B. de 
Chaucourtois, inspecteur general, assiste de MM. Ch. Lallemand et G. 
Chesneau, ingenieurs au Corps des Mines, ' Annales des Mines,' Mars- 
Avril, 1886). 

Earth pulsations, like escapes of firedamp, usually take place when 
the barometer is low ; but a more general rule for the occurrence of the 
former phenomena is, that they are observable whenever the district of 
observation is crossed by a steep barometric gradient. It would be of 
interest and of value to determine whether the escape of firedamp follows 
a similar rule, and, for the welfare of our mines and miners, tromometric 
observations oug-ht to be inaugurated in the neighbourhood of some of 
the more fiery of our mines. The movements to be sought for are not 
minute earthquakes, tremors, or vibrations, but pulsatory movements 
which may be compared to the swell upon an ocean. 

On the Overturning and Fracturing of Columns. 

In the Report for 1891 a short account of the results of experiments 
on the overturning and fracturing of columns was given. Partly in 
consequence of the terrible disaster on October the 28th of that year, 
when thousands of structures of all descriptions were overturned, 
shattered, or utterly ruined, these experiments are being extended. 

With regard to overturning we can now state with considerable 
accuracy the acceleration necessary to overturn a column-like structure 
of given dimensions. One set of experiments, in which Mr. F. Omori 
has continued to assist me, shows most clearly that a group of similar 
columns, whether they are large or small, heavy or light, so long as they 
have tlie same ratio of height to breadth, with horizontally applied motion 
will fall simultaneously. Further than this, the acceleration which was 

1892. I 



114 BEPORT— 1892. 

recorded as having caused them to overturn is practically identical with 
that which may be calculated from their dimensions. The ratios of 
breadth to height varied from 1 : 2^ up to 1 : 9, and in each group there 
were at least six columns. These ratios are identical with the dimensional 
ratios of gravestones and other bodies overturned by the last earthquake. 
The actual sizes of the columns experimented on were not small ; for 
example, one column, where the ratio of breadth to height is 1 : 2^, was 
9^ in. square and 25| in. high. One result of this work is that we can 
now go from place to place through the shaken district, and state with 
considerable accuracy the accelerations that were experienced. As we 
have one or two diagrams from the shaken area, we know, at least 
approximately, the period of the motion, and we can therefore calculate 
the amplitude and maximum velocity of motion which was experienced. 
Such calculations are now being made by Mr. F. Omori. 

From the formula given in the last Report, which showed a relation- 
ship between the dimensions, weight, and strength of a structure, and the 
acceleration which would shatter the same, we are now able to calculate 
accelerations from shattering phenomena. The greatest difficulty which 
had to be overcome in making these investigations was the collecting 
and subsequently determining the strength of portions of masonry 
structures which had been ruined. Altogether, 26 cases of brickwork 
have been obtained from the earthquake district, and the testing of their 
contents has been completed. Reference is made to the results of the 
calculations based on these experiments under the section relating to the 
Great Earthquake. 

The only new development of the fracturing formula has been to 
determine the form of a wall or pier which, rather than snapping at its 
base — as was the case with many structures at the time of the last earth- 
quake, and also with all the columns subjected to back and forth motion 
on the earthquake track — would be as likely to break at any one 
horizontal section as at any other. The effect of the last earthquake was 
to cause brick piers of railway bridges to snap at their bases, and it 
would therefore seem that the basal section required greater strength. 
This might possibly be obtained by increasing the basal dimensions at 
the expense of a portion of the brickwork in their upper parts, which, so 
far as offering resistance to effects resulting from their own inertia, were 
apparently more than sufficiently strong. As a result both of reasoning 
and observation, it is evident that in earthquake countries, piers, walls, 
chimneys, and the like should have vertical sections different from 
those which they receive in ordinary practice. A full account of these 
experiments will be published in a ' Journal of Seismology ' which is 
shortly to be issued. 

The Gkeat Eakthquake op October 28, 1891. 

If we may judge from the contortions produced along lines of railway, 
the Assuring of the ground, the destruction of hundreds of miles of huge 
embankments which guard the plains from river-floods, the utter ruin 
of structures of all descriptions, the sliding down of mountain sides and 
the toppling over of their peaks, the compression of valleys, and other 
bewildering phenomena, we may confidently say that last year, on the 
morning of October 28, Central Japan received as terrible a shaking aa 
has ever been recorded in the history of seismology. It is a subject 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 115 

that might be written about at interminable length, and therefore in this 
short Report no attempt is made to give detailed descriptions of all that 
happened. 

Mr. F. Omori, who works with me in the Seismological Laboratory, 
has spent several weeks in the shaken district, and ever since has been 
busily engaged in analysing the materials he collected. Professor 
Tanakadate, with a staff of assistants, devoted himself to observations 
relating to the velocity of propagation of earth- waves, the curious sound 
phenomena, and, lastly, to a redetermination of magnetic elements in the 
devastated district. Dr. B. Koto has studied the phenomena from a 
geological standpoint. 

Under the title of ' The Great Earthquake in Japan,' in conjunction 
with Professor W. K. Burton, I have published a general account of the 
more striking phenomena which were observed, illustrating the same by 
a series of photographs. The questions to which greatest attention has 
been given are those of importance to engineers and builders, but 
inquiries and investigations have been made relating to everything 
which was thought to be of interest. A few days after the disaster, at 
the request of Professor D. Kikuchi, I drew up a circular containing 
some fifty queries. Ten thousand of these documents were issued, and 
now, here and at the Central Observatory, we are surrounded by boxes 
filled with newsjDaper cuttings and replies. Five per cent, of the whole 
may be of value, but yet it has all to be patiently examined. In addition 
to this material, there is that of our own collecting, which, in addition to 
what has already been mentioned, includes some hundreds of diagrams 
taken by seismographs of what seemed to be at one time an unending- 
series of shocks which followed the great disaster. This chaotic mass of 
material is gradually being sifted, and assuming a form suitable for 
systematic investigation. Although many of the results may be marked 
by the magnitude of the phenomena they represent rather than by 
their novelty, we have already gone sufficiently far to see that certain 
observations can hardly fail in widening the circle of our present 
knowledge. 

The first notice that I received of the earthquake was at 6h. 39m. lis. 
on the morning of October 28, whilst I was in bed. From the manner in 
which the house was creaking and the pictures swinging and flapping on 
the wall I knew the motion was large. My first thoughts were to see 
the seismographs at work ; so I went to the earthquake-room, where to 
steady myself I leaned against the side of the stone table, and for about 
two minutes watched the movements of the instruments. It was clear 
that the heavy masses suspended as horizontal pendulums were not 
behaving as steady points, but that they were being tilted, first to the 
right, and then to the left. Horizontal displacements of the ground were 
not being recorded, but angles of tilting were being measured. That 
whenever vertical motion is recorded there must be tilting, and therefore 
no form of horizontal pendulum is likely to record horizontal motion, is 
a view I have often expressed. What I then saw convinced me that 
such views were correct. Next I ran to a water-tank which is 80 feet 
long, 28 feet wide, and 25 feet deep. Its sides are practically vertical. 
At the time it was holding about 17 feet of water, which was running 
across its breadth, rising first on one side and then on the other to a 
height of about 2 feet. It splashed to a height of 4 feet. It seemed 
clear that the tank was being tilted, first on one side, and then on the 

I 2 



116 EEPOKT — 1892. 

other. Whilst this was going on trees were swinging about, telegraph- 
wires were clattering together, the brickwork of the tank was cracked, 
and the college workshop, a few yards away, was so far shattered that it 
has had to be partially rebuilt. The effect of the motion upon niyself 
was to make me feel giddy and slightly sea-sick. The chimney of a 
paper-mill in Tokio fell, and also a chimney at the electric-light works in 
Yokohama. 

The constructor of the latter chimney derived some satisfaction from 
the fact that it fell as a heap of loose brick round its base, for had it 
been made of better materials, it might have toppled over in large 
masses, and destroyed neighbouring buildings. Many sti-uctures were 
slightly fractured. During the day twenty-one other shocks were re- 
coi'ded, but nearly all of them were so slight that they failed to give a 
diagram sufficiently large for analysis. From the slow and easy, swing- 
ing nature of the motion, it was known that the shock was not of local 
origin, but that it had originated at a distance. As disturbjinees of this 
character had often reached ns from an area beneath the Pacific Ocean 
about 400 miles to the north-east, it was from the northern parts that 
we expected to receive further information. The surmise that the origin 
was at a distance proved correct, but instead of being beneath the ocean 
to the north-east, it was beneath the land in an exactly contrary direction. 
The first news was that in Kobe, which is about 400 miles towards the 
south, many chimneys had fallen, earthquake shocks continued, and all 
were in alarm ; whilst at Osaka, which is 356 miles from Tokio, a cotton- 
mill had collapsed and many people had lost their lives. Little by little 
news of destruction arrived from many towns, and as it came it grew 
more terrible. The scene of greatest disaster was the Nagoya-Gifu Plain, 
which lies about 140 miles W.S.W. of Tokio, and 80 miles N.E. of Kobo. 
In this district destruction had been total. Cities and villages had been 
shaken down, the ruins were burning, bridges had fallen, river embank- 
ments had been destroyed, the ground was fissured in all directions, and 
mountain sides had slipped down to dam the valleys. More accurate 
estimates of certain damages are now before us. The killed numbered 
9,960, the wounded 19,994, and the houses which were totally destroyed 
were 128,750. In addition to these there were many temples, factories, 
and other buildings. In an area of 4,176 square miles, which embraces 
one of the most fertile plains of Japan, and where there is a population 
of perhaps 1,000 to the square mile, all the buildings which had not 
been reduced to a heap of rubbish had been badly shattered. To rebuild 
the railway, reconstruct bridges, roads, and embankments, and to relieve 
immediate distress, about one and three-quarter million pounds sterling 
have been poured into the district, the greater portion of which came 
from the Imperial treasury. This sum, however, only measures a 
fraction of the total destruction. One hundred thousand houses have yet 
to be rebuilt, irrigation works have to be repaired ; a value has to be 
given to land which has been buried by landslides or lost by what 
appears to be a permanent compression of valleys ; there has been a six- 
months interruption of traffic and of industries, and nearly 10,000 
people have lost their lives — all of which ai-e factors which cannot be 
overlooked when measuring the effect of an earthquake by the sum it 
takes to replace the damage it has occasioned. 

The immediate cause of this great disturbance was apparently the 
formation of a fault which, according to Dr. B. Koto, can be traced on 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OV JAPAN. 117 

the surface of the earth for a distance of between forty and fifty miles. 
In the Neo Valley, where it runs nearly N. and S., it looks like one side 
of a railway embankment about 20 or 30 feet in height. The fields at 
the bottom of this ridge were formerly level with the fields now at the 
top of it. In Mino, where it strikes towards the east, it is represented 
by subsidences and mound-like ridges, suggesting the idea that they 
might have been produced by the burrowing of a gigantic mole. 
Although there is only 20 feet of displacement on the surface, from what 
we know of surface disturbances resulting from the caving in of sub- 
terranean excavations, the maximum throw of this fault is in all prob- 
ability veiy much greater than that which is accessible for measurement. 
Not only have the rice-fields been lowered, but, according to the 
peasants, the mountain peaks on the western side of the valley have 
decreased in height. 

Not only is there evidence of subsidence along this line, but there are 
many evidences of horizontal displacements. Lines of roads have been 
broken, and one part of them thrown to the right or left of their original 
direction ; whilst fields which were rectangular have been cut in two, and 
one-half relative to the other half been shifted as much as 18 feet up or 
down the valley. One result of this is that landowners find there has 
been a partial alteration in the position of their neighbours. A more 
serious change has been the permanent compression of ground, plots 
which were 48 feet in length now measuring only 30 feet in length. It 
appears as if the whole Neo Valley had become narrower. A similar efiecfc 
is noticeable in the river-beds, where the piers of bridges are left closer 
together than they were at the time of their construction. 

Since the big shock about 3,000 minor shakings have been recorded. 
At Gifu and Nagoya, where most of these were felt, their distribution with 
regard to time was as follows, the numbers representing the number of 
shocks which were recorded during successive intervals of ten days : 



Month 


Day 


Month 


Day 


Nagoya 


Gifu 


1891: X. 


29 


1891 : XL 


7 


559 


1,132 


XI. 


8 


XL 


17 


123 


341 


XI. 


18 


XL 


27 


76 


116 


XL 


28 


XII. 


7 


48 


139 


XII. 


8 


XII. 


17 


40 


190 


XII. 


18 


XII. 


27 


27 


75 


XII. 


28 


1892 : I. 


6 


36 


87 


1892: I. 


7 


I. 


16 


9 


60 


I. 


17 


I. 


26 


6 


36 


I. 


27 


IL 


5 


9 


45 


II. 


6 


II. 


15 


7 


37 


II. 


16 


II. 


25 


11 


39 


II. 


26 


III. 


6 


9 


40 


III. 


7 


III. 


16 


3 


28 


III. 


17 


III. 


26 


3 


13 


III. 


27 


IV. 


5 


9 


42 


IV. 


6 


IV. 


15 


1 


26 


IV. 


16 


IV. 


25 


4 


28 


Total 


980 


2,474 



The most violent shakings took place high up in the Neo Valley, on 



118 EEPOKT— 1892. 

the line of the great fault, and again in a district to the west of Nagoyal, 
about 25 miles farther south, in the middle of the Owaii Plain. This 
second area of great disturbance may indicate the proximity of a second 
line of fracture not visible on the surface, or it may be an area where 
waves from various sides of the plane coalesced. 

With the first of these shakings great landslips took place, and moun- 
tains which were green with forest now look as if they had been painted 
yellowish white. The valleys in these districts have been filled with 
debris, and behind one of the dams which has been formed there is now 
a lake six miles in circumference. In one district on the eastern side of 
the plain we are told that mountain peaks fell in and depressions were 
formed. Depressions also occurred in some of the valleys, and the houses 
of farmers suddenly sank up to their eaves, burying their inmates in a 
sea of earth and mud beneath the floor on which they once lived. 

In the plains, river embankments which on the top are from 20 to 30 
feet in width, and have slopes of 3 to 1 and 2 to 1, were very much 
cracked and fissured. Usually these cracks were 2 or 3 feet in width, but 
in places they had so far united that openings 10 or 15 feet wide and 
about the same in depth had been formed. In all cases the fissures were 
parallel to the river bank, and it was in villages near these banks where 
destruction had been most complete. It might be expected that these 
fissures would occur at distances of half wave-lengths from the river bank, 
and at similar distances from each other, but no such rule was observable. 
The general appearance of the ground was as if gigantic ploughs, each 
cutting a trench from 3 to 12 feet deep, had been dragged up and down 
the river banks. 

Fissures, out of which sand and water had been poured, sometimes to 
form small craters, were also to be seen on the open plains. These fissures, 
which seldom exceeded a foot in width, and which may have been formed 
by the compression of watery strata beneath, may possibly give an ap- 
proximate measure of maximum horizontal displacement, the direction of 
motion being at right angles to the direction of the fissure. 

Along the railway-line many curious appearances were presented. It 
was almost everywhere more or less disturbed, the exceptions being 
where it passed through small cuttings. Along these cuttings, although 
they might not be more than 20 or 50 feet in depth, the rails and sleepers 
were unmoved ; from which it may be inferred that the movement on the 
free surface of the plain had been much greater than the movement at a 
comparatively shallow depth. Measurements of the motion experienced 
on the surface and that recorded in pits 10 to 20 feet in depth have 
already been given in former reports. The results of these experiments 
have been practically applied to several buildings in Tokio, by giving 
them basements and a free area. The Imperial College of Engineering 
is such a building. It does not show the slightest trace of damage after 
the last earthquake, whilst at a distance of 20 yards the workshop, which 
is also a strong brick building, but rising from the surface, as already 
stated, has had to be rebuilt. This is the third time the Engineering 
College has escaped damage, whilst neighbouring brick buildings have 
been cracked in almost every room. 

Where the line was on the open plain, and only separated from it by a 
narrow ditch on either side, it appeared as if the ground had moved back 
and forth beneath the track until the gravel ballast had been piled up into 
bolster-like ridges between the sleepers. This indicated a longitudinal 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 119 

motion, but in many places it was noticeable that the sleepers, relatively 
to the ground, had been moved endways. Neither of these movements 
greatly exceeded 6 inches. Wherever the line crossed a small depres- 
sion in the general level of the plain, even if it did not exceed 2 or 3 feet, 
at such places the whole of the track was bent from its straight course 
into a bow-like form, suggesting the idea that along these depressions, 
which are probably filled with softer material than that composing the 
plain, a greater quantity of motion had been transmitted, which, striking 
the line like a flood, had caused a permanent deflection. The more reason- 
able explanation is that these lines of soft material, like the valleys and 
river-beds, had been permanently compressed, and the amount of com- 
pression was measured by the amount of bending. Effects of compression 
were most marked on some of the embankments, which gradually raise 
the line to the level of the bridges. On some of these the track was bent 
in and out until it resembled a serpent wriggling up a slope. Not only 
were there these horizontal foldings, but by subsidence or compression 
there were vertical folds, which in places gave the line the appearance of 
a switchback. Close to the bridges the embankments had generally 
disappeared, and the rails and sleepers were hanging in the air like huo-e 
catenaries. 

At the bridges, one of which, over the Kisogawa, and made up of 
200-feet spans, is 1,800 feet in length, the destruction was various. In 
neai'ly all cases wing walls had given way. At one brick bridge the abut- 
ments had been forced backwards, and the arch had fallen bodily between 
them down upon the roadway, where it lay in two big segments, looking 
like a gigantic toggle-joint. At the Nagara Bridge the piers, each of 
which consisted of five large iron columns filled with concrete and braced 
together, had in several instances not simply been broken at their bases 
but they were snapped in pieces and thrown out upon the shingle beach 
of the river, where they lay like bits of broken carrot. The bridge 
was thrown 19 feet out of a straight line, and one of the foundations 
near the centre of the river moved 5 feet 2 inches up-stream. Where the 
greatest deflections occurred the foundations could not be positively 
recognised. 

Mr. 0. A. W. Pownall, who constructed these bridges, and who o-ave 
me the above measurements, estimates the deflection on the line where it 
approaches the bridges at 1 foot 6 inches in a distance of 90 feet. The dis- 
tance through which the foundations of the Kiso Bridge have permanently 
approached each other is 2 feet in a span of 200 feet — that is to say, the 
contraction across the river-bed is 1 per cent. When all the piers of a 
bridge had not been broken, it was observed that those which escaped 
were the shorter ones, near the river banks. The longer piers of the 
Kisogawa Bridge had a cross-section of 22-5 feet by 10 feet, and a heicht 
of 29 feet above the plane of fracture, which was 4 or 5 feet above their 
foundations. They carried girder's weighing about 200 tons. The shorter 
piers, which also had a cross-section of 22'5 feet by 10 feet, had heights 
of about 21 feet above their planes of fracture. They carried girders 
weighing about 22 tons. 

The tensile strength of the brick and cement work of these piers was 
as shown by actual tests, unusually high, often reaching 100 lb. to the 
square inch. When making these tests, it was seldom that the cement 
gave way, fracture taking place either by the breaking of the brick or by 
separation between the cement and brick. 



120 KEPOET— 1892. 

The tensile strength of brick and mortar work from cotton-factories 
and other private buildings seldom exceeded 5 lb. to the square iucb. 

Professor Tanabe, of the Imperial College of Engineering, has very 
kindly applied the fracturing formula to the Kisogawa and other structures, 
with the following results : — 

The tall piers at the Kisogawa Bridge, which were broken, were 
capable of resisting an acceleration of 505 feet per sec. per sec, whilst 
the shorter piers, which were also broken, could have resisted a force in- 
volving an acceleration of 10'8 per sec. per sec. 

The acceleration in the neighbourhood of this bridge was therefore 
greater than the higher of these two numbers ; because there is no 
necessity that one set of piers out of a series should only have half the 
strength of another group in the same series, or that any given structure 
should be weaker at its base than it is in its upper parts. So far as resist- 
ance to stresses consequent on horizontal movement is concerned, the 
writer ventures to express the opinion that when constructing in an 
earthquake country, ordinary engineering practice requires modification. 
Such modifications are being made by Mr. C. A. W. Pownall in the con- 
struction of a series of bridges now being built up the Usui Pass, in this 
country. 

For the Nagara Bridge, where cast-iron j^iers have snapped in two, 
the accelerations experienced have not yet been calculated. 

Leaving the railway works, and examining the various brick-and- 
mortar structures, like public buildings and mills, which existed at many 
towns upon the plain, we meet with hardly anything but absolute ruin. 
Two conspicuous brick-and-mortar ruins in Nagoya were the Post Office 
and a cotton-mill. Walls like these, even if not weakened by openings 
near their base, assuming them to have been 40 feet high and 1^ foot 
thick, and with a tensile strength for their brickwork of 5 lb. per square 
inch — which is not an underestimate — might have resisted a suddenness 
of motion of a few inches per sec. per sec. From overturning phenomena 
and diagrams we know the acceleration impressed upon buildings in this 
area may have been as much as 15 feet per sec. per sec. 

One curious form of destruction was that which was observed with 
many mill chimneys, which, with the exception of one in Yokohama, in- 
stead of breaking at their bases, gave way at about two-thirds their 
height. Sections near the bases of these chimneys were apparently 
sufficiently strong to resist the stresses due to the inertia of the upper 
parts, while sections at about two-thirds the height were so weak that 
they failed to resist the inertia effect of the upper one-third of the 
chimney. Calculations respecting these structures have not yet been 
made. 

The ruins of ordinary Japanese buildings existed along all the roads 
in never-ending lines. In some streets it appeared as if the houses had 
been pushed down from the end, and they had fallen like a row of cards. 
Where a row of buildings had only been partially pushed over, it was 
noticeable that those at the end had suffered more than their neighbours. 
Sometimes you passed acres of heaped-up rubbish, where sticks and earth 
and tile were so thoroughly mixed that traces of streets or indications of 
buildings had been entirely lost. 

Many of the ruined towns, like Kasamatsu and Gifu, caught fire, and 
all that remained was a sea of reddish earth and broken tile. At several 
places people were caught in the fallen ruins, and subsequently burnt ta 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 121 

death. The chief causes which led to the destraction of Japanese build- 
ings were : — 

1. The heavy roofs, which are usually made of a heavy framework 
carrying a layer of heavy tiles bedded in a thick layer of mud. The 
roofs of the farmers' houses are covered with a heavy thatch. These 
latter fell intact, and even now the country is covered with these saddle- 
shaped masses, which have served as temporary tent-like shelters. 

2. The want of cross-bracing and the thinness of the vertical sup- 
ports, the strength of which is reduced to perhaps an eighth of what it 
might be by a variety of tenons, mortices, and other cuts, made for the 
reception of cross-timbers. 

Both of these faults in the construction of an ordinary Japanese 
dwelling might be easily overcome, but from the buildings which are now 
being erected it is clear that the survivors prefer that to which they have 
been accustomed and can easily obtain. Buildings to resist earthquake 
motion are outside the experience of ordinary carpenters in Japan, and 
any novelty in construction would be expensive. For these reasons, 
coupled perhaps with the idea that severe earthquakes only recur at long 
intervals, the inhabitants of the Nagoya district are giving another trial 
to the old forms of construction. 

Among the buildings which were only shattered, but which did not 
fall, are two castles and several heavy-roofed temples. 

The castles stood, partly, perhaps, because they were well built, partly 
because they were surrounded by deep moats, but chiefly on account of 
their pyramidal form, their bases being sufficiently wide and strong to 
withstand effects due to the inertia of their upper parts. 

The temples undoubtedly resisted the severe movements partly 
because they were well built, but chiefly, perhaps, on account of the multi- 
plicity of jointed corbel-work, which comes between the upper parts of 
the supporting pillars and the heavy roof. If this had not existed, and 
acted as a yielding medium between the roof and its supports, it seems 
impossible that the latter could have resisted the inertia of the load above 
them. 

A class of buildings which here and there escaped entire destruction 
were structures like some of the school- houses, which were built of wood, 
and framed according to foreign methods. 

The movements which caused all this terrible destruction throughout 
the Gifu and Nagoya Plain do not appear to have been waves which were 
entirely those of elastic compression and distortion. On the coast-line to 
the north of the devastated district we are told that the shore-line rose 
and fell, and with this rising and falling the waters receded and advanced. 
In the district itself many eyewitnesses tell us that they saw the ground 
in waves. 

Mr. Kildoyle, an engineer, who at the time of the disaster was in 
Akasaka, says that the waves came down the street in lines. Their 
height may have been 1 foot, and the distance from crest to crest any- 
thing between 10 and 30 feet ; but he very naturally added that he 
could not be sure of any measurements, as he was expecting that the 
houses on one side or the other of the street might at any moment fall in 
upon him. It may here be remarked that because on the street side of 
the houses in a town there are many openings, which make this side of 
the buildings weaker than they are at the back, the tendency is to fall 
forwards from two sides into the street. For the safety of the inhabitants 



122 EEPOBT— 1892. 

of a town, special attention ought to be given to the construction of shop 
and other frontages, and the streets be made wide. 

Another indication of wave movement is the statement of people who 
say that after they had been thrown upon the ground the movements of 
the earth rolled them from side to side. A station-master, who tumbled 
on the line as the station-house fell close behind him, showed the writer 
the manner in which he seized one of the rails whilst lying on the 
ground, the rail passing between his legs. While in this position he 
was tumbled from side to side, first striking the ground with one 
shouldei', and then with the other. 

Reasons for believing that in Tokio the ground was thrown into long 
undulations have already been given. First, there was the evidence of 
our sensations ; secondly, the observation of the manner in which water 
moved in ponds ; and, thirdly, the observations on the movements of 
bracket seismographs, which were tipped from side to side. The most 
certain evidence about the tilting is, however, that which is furnished by 
the diagrams of many seismographs, which, rather than showing a series 
of irregular waves with superimposed irregularities, in almost all cases 
show a series of clean-cut curves. In one instrument which was tested 
the periodicity of these curves did not agree with the period of the 
instrument, from which we may conclude that they had not been formed 
by swinging. Further, the periods of a consecutive series of waves are 
not constant. For example, one set of east and west tiltings followed 
each other, with periods measured in seconds of 3'4, 2'0, 2'7, 17, 4-1, 3'1, 
3'1, 2'7. On another instrument another set of waves, taken at random, 
followed each other at intervals of 1'9, 2*5, 1'3, and 2'6 seconds. These 
observations also preclude the idea that the records were obtained by 
swinging. The most interesting observation, however, is that a pair of 
conical pendulums, the bobs of which were supposed to be steady points, 
and which had no pointers for multiplication, gave diagrams about twice 
as large as similar, but smaller, conical pendulums which carried pointers 
to multiply any motion relative to their bobs six times. 

The actual records are as follows : — 



— 


N.S. 
Motion 


E.W. 
Motion 


Large pendulums with booms 18 inches long 

Small pendulums with booms and jjointers 9"5 inches long 


in. 

8 
4 


in. 

13 

8 



I 



On the assumption that the bobs of these machines had acted as 
steady points, we should come to the conclusion that the range of north 
and south motion had been 8 inches, as given by one instrument, whilst 
it was only "66 inch as given by another, both instruments being in the 
same building. It is clear that these two instruments had not behaved 
as modern seismographs are supposed to behave at the time of an earth- 
quake, but because the displacements indicated are practically proportional 
to the length of boom, or the length of boom and pointers, that the 
instruments had been tilted, and the extent of the displacement measures 
maximum slopes of earth-waves. To interpret these measurements, it is 
necessary to place a level on the stand of the seismograph, and determine 
by experiment the angular values of tilting corresponding to measured 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 123 

movements of the writing-pointers, the latter quantities varying with 
the amount of stability given to the horizontal pendulums. Immediately 
after the earthquake Mr. F. Omori very kindly made such determinations 
for a seismograph in the laboratory of the Imperial University, with the 
result that the maximum slopes which this seismograph had recorded were 
about one-third of a degree. Waves with these slopes, as shown on the 
diagram, succeeded each other at intervals of about 2'2 seconds. The 
vertical motion which was recorded was about 10 mm. ; but as ordinary 
lever spring instruments, when the levers are not parallel to the wave- 
fronts, are as sensitive to tilting as horizontal bracket or conical pendu- 
lum seismographs, these measurements must be regarded as maximum 
rather than actual values. Combining the maximum wave-slopes with 
these records of vertical motion, we obtain certain values for the lengths 
of the waves, which may be taken at 18 or 20 feet ; and as we know their 
period, we may determine their velocity of propagation, which appears to 
have been about 8 feet per second. This is exceedingly slow, but not- 
withstanding the errors in the observation of vertical motion, I do not 
think the velocity exceeded double this amount. The velocity of propa- 
gation of more truly elastic vibrations will be referred to later. 

From these observations, which I think are made for the first time, 
rather than concluding that modern seismographs are useless whenever 
vertical motion occurs, we see that on such occasions they must be 
regarded as angle-measurers. The action of any bracket seismograph 
when recording horizontal motions depends greatly upon its inertia, but 
to obtain the best measurements of tilting, any cause likely to produce 
swinging should be minimised. To obtain a true measurement of vertical 
motion, the method which first suggests itself is to have a number of 
spring lever arrangements in different azimuths, the one which happened 
to have its arm at right angles to the direction in which the wave 
advanced being the one which would give the best results. 

Independently of any new instruments which may be devised to 
measure tilting, we now know that the instruments we already possess 
have a double function, not only naeasuring horizontal displacements, but 
also measuring angles of tilting. In order to take advantage of this 
second function, it is necessary that when a bracket or conical pendulum 
instrument is once set up, experiments should be made to determine the 
effects of tilting, otherwise, should it be tilted by an earthquake, its records 
will not be measurable. 

An investigation of considerable importance in connection with the 
intensity and direction of motion, which has been carried out by Mr. F. 
Omori, relates to the overturning of bodies of various dimensions. At 
all temples, which are more thickly distributed than the towns and 
hamlets, there are stone lanterns, standing on circular or square pedestals, 
whilst in the vicinity there are hundreds of gravestones, which are square 
or rectangular in section, and stand freely on their ends. Applying the 
overturning formula to some thousands of these which were overturned 
in the Nagoya-Gifa Plain, average minima and maxima values for the 
accelerations experienced at different points within the earthquake area 
have been determined. Inasmuch as the results given by the formula, 
which is due to Professor C. D. West, conform with the results obtained 
by experiment, we have every confidence in the figures given in the 
following table : — 



124 



EEPOET — 1892. 



Average Intensity and Mean Direction of Shock as experienced at Various 
Places in the Shaken Area. Calculated hy Mr. F. Omori. 





Intensitv in Milli- 




Place, District, and Province 


metres per sec. per sec. 


Direction 


Tsu, Ano, Tse 


< 2,000 


S.70°E.-N. 70°W. 


Yokkaichi, Miye, Tse ... • 


< 1,900 


S.E. by E.N.W. 
by W. 


Kuwana, Kuwana, Tse .... 


2,000 


E. 10° N.-W. 10° S. 


Tokonabe, Chita, Owari .... 


< 2,400 


E.-W. 


Handa, „ „ . . . . 


2,000-2,700 


S.E.-N.W. 


Toyohaslii, Atsumi, Mikawa . 


1,700-1,800 


S. 75° E.-N. 75° W. 


Okazaki, Nukada, „ . . . 


< 900 




Atsuta, Aichi,. Owari .... 


2,300-3,500 


E.N.E.-W.S.W. 


Northern part of Nagoya (Toshogo) 


2,600 


S. 80° W.-N. 80° E. 


North-eastern corner of Nagoya 




S. 60° W.-N. 60° E. 


(Kenchinji) 


2,600 




Central part of Nagoya .... 


2,500 




Mean for Nagoya 


2,600 


S. 65° W.-N. 65° E. 


Bamba, Kaito, Owari .... 


> 4,100 


E.N.E.-W.S.W. 


Tsushima, „ „ . . . . 




E.-W. 


Jimmokuji „ „ . . . . 




E.-W. 


Shimo-Osai, Nishi Kasugai, Owari . 




Nearly N. and S. 


Komaki, Higashi-Kasugai, „ 


> 4,000 


Chiefly E. and W. 
sayW.S.W.-E.N.E. 


Twakura, Niwa, „ 


> 4,300 


Chiefly N. and S. 
sayS.S.W.-N.N.E. 


Koori, „ „ . . 


> 2,100 


S.W.-N.E. 


Tmaichiba „ „ . . 


>2 ,60 




Tnagi „ „ . . 


2,300-4,000 


S. 15° W.-N. 15° E. 


Tchinomiya, Nakajima „ 


2,500-3,. 500 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. 


Kasamatsu, Haguri, Mine 


4,000 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. 


Gifu, Atsumi „ ... 


3,000 


W.S.W.-E.N.E. 


Ogaki, Ampachi, „ ... 


3,000 


N.N.E.-S.S.W. 


Kitagata, Motosu „ ... 




Nearly E.-W. 


Beppu, „ „ . . . 


> 3,900 




Kurono, Katagata, „ ... 




S. 60° W.-N. 50° E. 


Monju, Motosu, „ ... 




S. 60° W.-N. 60° E. 


Kojibara, „ „ . . . 


< 1,900 


N. 20° W. 


Komi, „ „ . . . 


> 2,000 


S. 60° W. 


Higashi-Katabira Kani, Mine . 


> 2,400 


N.-S. 


Dota, „ „ . 


< 2,200 


S. 20° W.-N. 20° E. 


Tmawatari, „ „ . 




N.-S. 


Mitake, „ „ . 


About 1,600 


W.N.W. 


Takayama, Toki, „ . . . 


> 1,800 




Tokiguchi, „ „ . . . 


> 2,000 


N. and S. 


Tajimi, „ „ . . . 




S.S.W.-N.N.E. 


Tkeda-Machiya, „ „ . . . 




S. 20° W.-N. 20° E. 


Utsutsu, Higashi-Kasugai, Mine . 


2,000 


S. 35° W.-N. 35° E. 


Akechi _ „ „ . . 


> 2,000 




Ono, Ono, Echizen . 


> 1,200 


E.-W. 


Katsuyama, „ „ . . . 


About 1,200 


Nearly N.-S. 


Fujishima, Yoshida, „ . . . 


> 1,300 


„ N.-S. 


Fukui, Asuwa „ . . . 


2,500 


N.N.E.-S.S.W. 


Asozu, „ „ . . . 


< 1,100 


S. 30° W. 


Midochi, Tmadate „ . . . 


About 2,000 




Sabai, „ ,, . . . 


„ 1.800 




Takefu, „ „ . . . 


„ 1,200 


N.-S. 


Higashiura, Tsuruga, „ . . . 


„ 1,300 




Tsuruga, ,. _ ,, 


„ 1,200 


N.N.W.-S.S.B. 


Nagahama, Sakata, Omi . . . . 


„ 2,400 


Nearly N.-S. 


Hikone, Onukami, „ . . 


„ 2,700 


N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



ON THE EAKXHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 125 
Average Intensity and Mean Direction of Shock, &c. — continued. 



Place, District, and Province. 


Intensity in Milli- 
metres per sec. per sec. 


Direction 


Kioto, Yamashiro 
Tnari, Kii, „ 
Fukakusa, „ „ 
Fushimi, „ ,, 
Nara, Yamato . 
Horiuji „ 
Osaka, Suttsu . 






< 1,200 

About 1,000 

> 1,000 

About 1,300 
„ 1,000 


S.S.W.-N.N.E. 
N. 10° W.-S. 10° E. 
N.-S. 
S.S.E.-N.N.W. 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. 
S.S.E.-N.N.W. 



The principal measurements obtainable from tbe records of seismo- 
graphs are as follows :— 

1. Tohio. Central Meteorological Station. 

Maximum horizontal motion, N. and S., about 28 mm. Period, 1-4 sec. 

„ „ „ E. and W. > 32 mm. „ 2-5-4:.0 sees. 

„ vertical ,, 31 mm., with period -84 sec, and 4-4 mm. with 

period 2-3 sees. 

2. Tohio. Imperial University. 

Maximum horizontal motion, > 35 mm. Period, 2-0 sees. 
„ vertical „ 9-5 mm. „ 2-4 sees. 

3. Osaka. 

Maximum liorizontal motion, 30 mm. Period, 1-0 sec. 
„ vertical „ 8 mm. „ 1-0 sec. 



4. Nagoya. 



Maximum horizontal motion, 
vertical 



26 mm. Period, 1-3 sec, 
6-2 mm. ,, 1"5 sec. 



5. Gifu. 

Maximum horizontal motion, 18 mm. Period, 2'0 sees. 
„ vertical „ > 11-3 mm. „ 0-9 see. 



At the two latter places the records only showed the first half-dozen 
vibi'ations of the disturbance, after which the buildings fell, and the 
instruments were buried. 

At several places in the Neo Valley objects like gateposts have 
apparently shifted their positions by jumping, each leap being from 1 to 
4 feet. 

Another observation, also due to Mr. Omori, is that the greater 
number of columns in one district fell in one direction, whilst those in 
another district fell in some other direction. Thus, in the southern part 
of the Nagoya-Gifn Plain, on its eastern side, columns fell towards the 
coast, whilst at towns on the western side of the plain they fell towards 
the east — an observation which suggests that the movements causing 
overturning had advanced eastwards and westwards, from a line or tract 
running north and south down the centre of the plain. In the northern 



126 



EEPORT — 1892. 



part of the plain the direction of motion, similarly determined, must have 
been more north and south. 

From the measurements of maximum acceleration, and from the 
records of seismographs which at Nagoya and Gifu gave for the com- 
mencement of the disturbance the period of the back and forth motions, 
we may approximately- determine the amplitude and maximum range of 
motion. The following are a few of such determinations, which it will 
be observed do not materially differ from the width of fissures found in 
the open country. The period taken is one and a half second : — 



Place 


Acceleration mm. per sec. 


Range of Motion 


West of Nagoya 

Komaki and Kasamatsu . 

Gifu and Ogaki 


4,500 
4.000 
3,000 


495 mm. = 19^ inches 
440mm. = 17|- „ 
330 mm. = 13" 



It must be remembered that all the numbers given referring to 
acceleration and range of motion only apply to the open plain, and not 
to free surfaces like river banks or lines of soft material like river-beds. 
A phenomenon which seemed to accompany most, if not all, of the 
Nagoya-Gifu shocks was a hollow, booming sound. These sounds, which 
accompany all great earthquakes, and even small ones, if they occur in 
rocky regions, have been discussed at considerable length in the ' Transac- 
tions of the Seismological Society' (see vol. xii. p. 53, and p. 115). They 
are evidently the result of vibrations conveyed through the earth, and 
may be continuous with the large vibrations which constitute the earth- 
quake. Professor Tanakadate endeavoured to determine the intervals in 
time between the sounds and the subsequent shakings. Sometimes there 
was an interval of one or two seconds, whilst at other times the two 
phenomena were synchronous. The distance of the point of observation 
from the origin of these disturbances was in all probability at least 10 or 
12 miles. While the writer was at Nagoya, which may have been 
from 25 to 35 miles distant from the earthquake origins, the 
sounds never preceded a shaking by more than two seconds. Some- 
times they were synchronous, and often there were sounds without any 
subsequent shaking. 

Very many observations were made in Tokio, on the Gifu Plain, and 
in other places, to determine the velocity of propagation. These have not 
yet been computed, but disturbances appear to have reached Tokio at 
rates of about 8,000 feet per second. 

From observations made at the Zikawei Observatory, near Shanghai, 
which is, roughly, 1,000 miles distant, the velocity with which the move- 
ment was transmitted was about 5,104 feet per second. As stated in 
newspapers, the time taken to reach the Berlin Astronomical Observatory, 
in round numbers, was forty-nine minutes, the velocity of transmission 
being about 9,840 feet per second. The disturbance appears also to have 
been noted at the Magnetical Observatory in Potsdam. 

Although numerous experiments and observations have been made to 
determine the velocity with which motion is conveyed through the earth, 
we have not as yet any satisfactory explanation of the great diflFerences 
which have been observed. 

From a long series of experiments, extending over several years, 
which were made in Tokio, where earth disturbances were caused by 



ON THE EAETHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 127 

exploding charges of dynamite, velocities were obtained varying from 
200 to 630 feet per second. All these experiments were made in 
alluvium. Amongst other results the following were of importance : — 

1 . The velocity of transit decreases as a disturbance radiates. 

2. The velocity of transit varies with the intensity of the initial 
disturbance. 

3. The motions transmitted most rapidly are vertical free-surface 
vibrations ; normal motions come nest, whilst the lowest records obtained 
were for transverse motions (see 'Trans. Seis. Soc.,' vol. viii. p. 50, &c.). 

Mr. Mallet determined a velocity in sand of 824-915 feet, and in 
granite, of 1664-576 feet per second. General Abbott, at the destruction 
of Flood Rock, noted velocities as high as 20,526 feeb per second. 
Professor S. Newcomb and Captain C. Button determined velocities for 
the Charleston earthquake of 17,072 feet per second. The highest velocity 
for a sound-wave through piano steel of density 7 '7 is given by Tomlin- 
son at 5,198 metres (17,049 feet) per second. 

Although elastic vibrations may have been transmitted from the 
earthquake district 150 miles to the Tokio Plain at the rate of several 
thousand feet per second, the resultant gravity-waves in the Tokio Plain 
itself do not seem to have been propagated at a greater rate than a few 
feet per second. With these results before us, all we can say is, that 
earthquakes have caused motions in the ground, which apparently have 
been transmitted at rates varying between 10 feet per second and 20,000 
feet per second, the latter being a rate which is higher than that at 
which sound-waves are propagated through hard steel. Attention has 
often been called to these facts, but any explanation for them has not yet 
been formulated. 

The result of Professor Tanakadate's magnetic survey has not yet 
been published, but I believe he finds that there is a slight irregularity 
in the curve, showing the daily change in declination, which does not 
appear to have been noticed before the earthquake. A curious observa- 
tion, made by Dr. Julius Scriba and other medical men, was that many 
of the troubles amongst tbe wounded, like tetanus and erysipelas, were 
in great measure due to the result of nervous excitement. From my 
own observations at a time when all were camped in the midst of ruin, 
and every few minutes a shock was heralded by a booming sound, the 
only effect that the great catastrophe had produced upon the people was, 
when they heard one of these unaccountable noises, to cause them to act 
with unusual quickness in seeking safety. Amongst the Japanese, so 
far as I could learn, there was no hysteria, fainting, or nervous prostra- 
tion like that which was observed amongst European women. Although, 
they were surrounded by ruin, the dead, and the dying, all that happened 
when a hollow thundering announced a coming shock was that they ran 
quickly for the open, shortly afterwards coming back laughing and 
talking about the terrible effects of earthquakes. Notwithstanding this, 
it is not unlikely that this disaster will have produced an impression 
sufficiently great that for many a year to come it will be commemorated 
by a religious ceremony, when services will be performed in honour of 
the dead. 

The Nagoya-Gifu Plain is a flat expanse of rich alluvium, covering 
an area of about 600 square miles. On its east and west sides it is fringed 
by low hills made out of tertiary tuffs lying at the feet, pateozoic moun- 
tains which rise to heights of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. These latter, 



128 BEPORT— 1892. 

which stand np in serrated ridges and overlook the plain, are composed 
of slates, schists, and other metamorphic rocks. Here and there beds of 
limestone are found, and rising from the midst of these hills are several 
larger granite bosses. Volcanic rocks do not exist in this jaart of Japan. 
From ancient maps and historical accounts we know that the southern 
portion of this plain has rapidly been encroaching on the sea. This is, 
no doubt, lai'gely due to sedimentation ; but because evidences of elevation 
exist at so many places along the eastern coast of Japan, it is reasonable 
to infer that the growth of land may in part be attributable to this 
cause. A certain number of earthquakes are every year recorded in the 
Nagoya-Gifu Plain, but it is by no means so often shaken as many other 
parts of the Empire. A somewhat remarkable observation connected 
with the seismological history of this portion of Japan is the fact that, 
although written records of natural phenomena are usually fewer the 
further we go back in time, yet, from what has been chronicled, great 
earthquakes were more frequent in the district between Nagoya and 
Osaka in bygone times than they have been during more recent times. 
The last severe shakings at and near Gifu took place in 1826, 1827, and 
in 1859. Many ordinary buildings and even mountains suS'ered, people 
and animals were killed, rivers were stopped up, and floods occasioned. 
The shocks lasted for several days. A rather severe shock was felt on 
May 12, 1889. In 1880 there were shocks and sounds coming froni the 
north-west. From 1885 to 1890 the number of shocks annualTy recorded 
in that district was respectively 9, 4, 10, 12, 15, and 36. In 1888, in 
one locality near to the centre of the late disturbance, 19 shocks were 
recorded ; in 1889 the number was 15 ; in ] 890 there were 20 shocks ; 
and between January and October 1891, that is, up to the time of the 
great distui'bance, 26 shocks were noted. These figures suggest the 
idea that for four years before the Gi-eat Earthquake there was a marked 
increase in seismic activity, and that an unusual number of small dis- 
turbances had heralded the great collapse. 

Even if it is only sometimes true that small shakings warn us of 
larger ones to follow, because the latter are so terrible in their effects, it 
would seem well to carefully study districts in which from time to time 
there are definite indications of an increase in underground activity. 

Earthquakes generally occur in mountainous countries where the 
mountains are geologically young, or in countries where there is evidence 
of slow secular movements like elevation. These latter movements are 
usually well marked in volcanic countries, and it is not unlikely that 
the majority of earthquakes, even in volcanic countries, are the result of 
the sudden yielding of rocky masses which have been bent until they 
have reached a limit of elasticity. The after-shocks are suggestive of 
the settling of disjointed strata. 

In Japan, the majority of the earthquakes which we experience do 
not come from the volcanoes, nor do they seem to have any direct con- 
nection with them. Assuming that the greater number of earthquakes 
represent interruptions in the general process of rock crumpling, it would 
appear that light might le thrown upon the time of their occurrence by 
careful observations on the change of level in a district where seismic 
disturbances were frequent. To accomplish this it is suggested that 
several miles of water-pipes be laid at right angles to a known axis of 
elevation, and that continuous photographic records be kept showing the 
height of the water in standards at each end of the line. A more com- 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 129 

plete arrangement would be to have two lines of piping, placed at right- 
angles. The cost of the installation would be about 5001. 

In conclusion to this Report it must not be overlooked that the re- 
marks on the Great Earthquake only aim at giving an outline of phe- 
nomena which have been observed, and the general character of the 
results to which they lead. More detailed accounts will not be ready 
for publication for some months. 



Nineteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, 
Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Sir A. G-eikie, Mr. J. 
G-LAiSHER, Mr. W. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor 
Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. HERSCHELy 
Professor Gr. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway,. 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahax, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase 
of Underground Temperature downivards in various Localities 
of Dry Land and under Water. {Drawn up by Professor 
Everett, Secretary.) 

Regret has been expressed in previous Reports at the scarcity of observa- 
tions from America. An important contribution towards supplying this 
lack is described in the ' American Journal of Science and Art ' for 
March, 1892, under the heading ' Preliminary Report of Observations 
at the Deep Well, Wheeling, West Virginia, by William Hallock.' A coiay 
of this Preliminary Report was sent by Mr. Hallock to the Secretary, 
and further details have been elicited by correspondence. The passages 
between inverted commas in the following account are in Mr. Hallock's 
own words. 

The well belongs to the Wheeling Development Company. ' It was 
commenced in September, 1890, and sunk with rapidity to about 4,100 ft. 
by April, 1891. Then the Company, despairing of getting oil or gas, 
were about to abandon it, when Professor I. C. White persuaded them 
to deepen it and give it to science. Drilling was recommenced, and early 
in May they stopped at a depth of 4,500 ft., fearing to go further with the- 
old Manilla rope.' 

' The hole was sunk by the ordinary oil-well outfit, i.e., a jumper drill 
on a rope.' It is dry, with the exception of a few feet of water at the 
bottom. 

' About ten days after drilling stopped, Mr. F. H. Newell ' and Mr. 
Hallock ' took a series of temperatures at every 250 ft.' 

' The thermometers, immersed in zinc buckets of water, 3 ft. high and 
4 inches in diameter' (^ inch less than the diameter of the bore), 'were 
left in place for twenty-four hours. This series of May does not differ 
essentially from the later ones of June and July, and shows no sign of 
heat due to jumper.' 

' In June ' Mr. Hallock ' returned to Wheeling, and during June and 
July made two very careful and complete series, which are given in the 
table. Each series touched evei-y 250 ft. ; but the two series were shifted 

1892. K 



130 BEPORT— 1892. 

so that the points of one series fell midway between those of the other 
eeries, thus touching every 125 ft. or thereabouts. When it is considered 
that these two series were taken a month apart, and yet nowhere differ 
by more than 0°-3 F., it seems pretty good evidence of the accuracy and 
constancy of the results. Many of the points, as at 1,590, 2,500, 3,000, 
3,500, 4,000, and 4,460, were checked as many as four or five times.' 

The thermometei'S were raised and lowered by steel wire, which also 
served to measure the depths. They were lowered to place about 11 a.m., 
and left till next morning, though trials showed that they had practically 
i-eached a stationary condition by 5 or 6 P.M. Sometimesthey were left in 
for several days. They were of the Negretti maximum kind, used upside 
down. They were carefully compared, and corrections were applied not 
only for their index errors, but also ' for the contraction of the recording 
column in cooling from the maximum tempei'atnre to the temperature at 
which they were read. They were put two (sometimes three) together, 
and hence always checked each other, agreeing very satisfactorily. They 
were hung upon a long spiral spring in the zinc bucket in water, or upon 
the wire 250 ft. from the bucket at the end.' 

The well is cased with iron tubes to the depth of 1,750 ft. There 
are three of these tubes, the first reaching from the top to the depth 
of 400 ft., the second from the top to 1,200 ft., and the third or innermost 
from the top to 1,570 ft., the internal diameter of tliis last being 4| inches. 
No reliance was placed on the temperature of the cased portion. 

The strata are nearly horizontal, their dip being only 50 ft. to the 
mile ; and the uncased portion consists almost entirely of shale, the only 
important exception being an oil sand at from 2,900 to 3,000 ft. The 
conditions are eminently favourable for the purposes of the Committee. 

In view of the disturbance of temperature by convective circulation 
of water, which was proved to exist in the deep bores at Sperenberg and 
Schladebach (see Reports for 1876 and 1889), and was obviated by the 
use of special plugs for isolating any required portion, Mr. Hallock made 
careful experiments on the effect 'of isolation. Two series of woollen 
wads were placed ten feet apart, and thermometers in the intervening 
space gave the same indications as other thermometers above and below 
the wads. ' In fact a thermometer simply tied on to the steel wire 
recorded the same as an isolated one.' Nevertheless, as a measure of pre- 
caution to prevent circulation, long blocks nearly filling the hole were 
nearly always placed above and below the thermometers, except when 
they were in the long buckets. 

In endeavouring to account for the absence of convection in this dry 
bore, we are confronted with the fact that air is much more expansible 
than water, and therefore more easily put in motion by difference of 
temperature. On the other hand, the process of 'jumping ' which was 
employed in the present case leaves the sides much rougher than diamond 
boring, which was the method employed at Sperenberg and Schladebach ; 
and this roughness tends to hinder circulation. 

The main difference to which we must look for the explanation is the 
difference of thermal capacity ; this capacity, for equal volumes, being 
about 3,000 times as great for water as for air. It would thus appear 
that the air is so easily warmed and cooled, that the heat whicli it gives 
and takes does not sensibly affect the temperature of the walls, surrounded 
as they are hy a practically infinite extent of rock tending to maintain 
them at their original temperatures. 



ON THE RATE OF INCREASK OF UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 131 




When these observations are plotted they give a remarkably smooth 
curve. The portion from 1,835 to 3,232 ft. is nearly straight, with an 
average gradient of 1° P. for 82*4 ft. It then becomes gradually steeper. 

Beginning at the point where the casing stops, viz., 1,591 ft., the first 
244 ft. (1,691 to 1,835) give an average gradient of 1° in 92 ft. 

The next 651 ft. (1,835 to 2,486) give 1° in 84-5 ft. 
The next 746 ft. (2,486 to 3,232) give 1" in 80-6 ft. 
The next 643 ft. (3,232 to 3,875) give 1° in 62-4 ft. 
The next 587 ft. (3,875 to 4,462) give 1° in 58-1 ft. 

The mean gradient for these 2,871 ft. (1,591 to 4,462) is 1° in 71-8 ft. 

To determine the surface temperature, advantage was taken of a 
heading at the depth of 100 ft., which was being driven into new ground 
in a neighbouring coal-mine. A thermometer inserted in a hole bored 
3 ft. into the face of the heading showed 51°'3 on five successive days. 
This is checked by the mean annual temperature of the two neighbouring 
towns, Marietta and Steubenville, which, according to the Coast Survey, 
is 51°-5. Comparing the .temperature 51°-3 at 100 ft. with 110°-15 at 
4,462 ft., we have a mean gradient of 1° T. in 74-1 ft. 

The public spirit shown by the Wheeling Development Company in 
deepening this bore at great expense for purely scientific purposes cannot 
be too highly commended. There is reason to hope tbat the boring will 
be continued, with the aid of a steel rope, to at least 6,000 ft., so as to 
make this the deepest well in the world. 

Mr. Hallock, by whom the plan of observation was devised and carried 
out, is senior assistant in the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington. 

[A request for information as to the temperature of the water at the 
bottom has been answered by Mr. Hallock since the reading of the Report. 
The temperature of the water was observed in May 1891, and found to 
be 110°-36 at the depth 4,492 ft., as the mean of three obsei-vations, viz., 
110°-4, 110°-5, 110° 2, at the respective depths 4,500, 4,500. and 4,475 ft. 

Mr. Hallock adds that this water leaked in at the depth of about 
2,900 or 3,000 ft. and i-an down, amounting to about ten or fifteen gallons 
per day.] 

K 2 



132 



REPORT — 1892. 



Report of the Gommittee, consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, 
Lord Kelvin, Professor Ayrton, Professor J. Perry, Professor 
W. Gr. Adams, Lord Kayleigh, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, Dr. John 
HoPKiNSON, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Mr. Her- 
bert Taylor, Professor Everett, Professor Schuster, Dr. J. A. 
Fleming, Professor Gr. F. Fitzgerald, Mr. R. T. GtLAZEBrook 
{Secretary), Professor Chrystal, Professor J. J. Thomson, Mr. 
W. N. Shaw, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, Mr. T. G-ray, Professor 
J. V. Jones, Dr. Gr. Johnstone Stoney, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson, appointed for the purpose of constructing and issu- 
ing Practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements. 

The work of testing resistance coils at the Cavendisli Laboratory has 
been continued. A table of values found for the coils is appended. The 
Committee have ceased issuing standards in terms of the legal ohm of 
the Paris Congress. As will be seen from Table I., most of the coils 
tested are ohms as defined by the resolutions of the Committee and the 
Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of Trade (see ' B.A. Reports,' 
1890 and 1891). According to these 

1 B.A. unit= -9866 ohm. 
1 ohm =1-01358 B.A.U. 

Table I. 
B.A. Units. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance in B.A. Units 


Temperature 






fNo. U 


-99929 


17°-7 






No. lb 


•99973 


170.7 


Warden Box ^ 79 . 


' 


No. Ic 
No. 10a 


•99954 
9-9928 


170.7 
17°-8 






No. lOb 


9-9947 


17°-8 






I No. 10c 


9-9941 


17°-8 


Elliott, 230 . 


• ;^^ No. 80 


1-00016 


140.4 




Ohrr 


IS. 




No. of Coil 


Resistance in Ohms 


Temperature 


Elliott, 259 


. ;^ No. 206 


■99744 


15°-5 


ElUott, 260 ■ . 


• ^ No- 207 


9-9788 


15°-6 


Nalder, 3059 . 


. ^ No. 326 


•99941 


14°-5 


Elliott, 271 


. ;^ No. 327 


•99805 


15°-4 


Elliott, 272 


. ^ No. 328 


•99810 


15°-8 


Elliott, 273 


. ^ No. 329 


•99795 


15°-4 


Elliott, 276 


t.^ 


io. 330 


-99811 


15°-5 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



133 









Table I. 




Ohms — continued. 




No. ofCoU 


Resistance in Otms 


Temperature 


EUiott, 274 . . . ^ No. .331 


9-9860 


17° 


Elliott, 275 






. !^ No. 332 


9-9862 


17°1 


Elliott, 277 






. ;^, No. 333 


9-9862 


17°-1 


Nalder, 3260 






. !^ No. 334 


■99912 


14°-7 


Nalder, 3261 






. ^ No. 336 


9-9970 


14°-5 


Nalder, 3058 






. ;^^ No. 336 


-99897 


13°-9 


Nalder, 3265 






. ^^ No. 337 


-99668 


13°-9 


ElUott, 28i 






. "^ No. 338 


-99870 


12°-7 


Elliott, 285 






. J^ No. 339 


•99856 


12°-9 


EUiott, 286 






3^^ No. 340 


-99670 


12°-8 


Elliott, 287 






$^ No. 341 


9-9707 


12°-8 


Nalder, 3259 






. ^ No. 342 


-99879 


13°-2 


Nalder, 3262 






!^ No. 343 


9-9965 


13° 


Edison Swan 






. 1^ No. 344 


0-9946 


14°-5 


Nalder, 3402 






. 5^^ No. 345 


•99971 


16°-7 


Nalder, 3403 






^ No. 346 


■99967 


16°-6 


Nalder, 3404 






'^^ No. 347 


•99970 


16°-7 


Nalder, 3405 






1^^ No. 348 


•99960 


16°-4 


Nalder, 3406 . 






^^ No. 349 


•99960 


16°-3 


Nalder, 3664 . 






'^^ No. 350 


•99962 


16°-4 


Nalder, 3565 . 






J^ No. 351 


-99957 


16°-4 


Nalder, 3666 . 






^ No. 352 


-99960 


16°5 


Nalder, 3567 . 






"^ No. 363 


•99949 


16°-4 


Nalder, 3568 . 






^ No. 354 


•99961 


16°-5 


Nalder, 3569 . 






;^ No. 355 


•99964 


16°-5 


Nalder, 3658 . 






* No. 356 
:f ^ No. 357 

* No. 358 

* No. 359 


9-9928 


15° 


Nalder, 3557 . 






99-902 


14° 


Nalder, 3558 . 






99909 


13°-8 


Edison Swan 






•99994 


14°-4 



Of the olim coils the three first in the table have been tested before 
(' Report,' 1891). It was thought desirable to reissue the certificates in 
terms of the new ohm standards. A large number of the other coils 



;|^ No. 300 


1 + 


•000309 (t- 


-1535) 


:£ No. 301 


1 + 


•000310 (!!- 


-1535) 


'^ No. 302 


1 + 


■000300 (t - 


-15-4) 


•* No. 303 


1 + 


•00031 C^- 


-15^4) 



134 REPOET— 1892. 

were constructed as legal ohms, hence the values of the resistance given 
in ohms at temperatures of 14° or 15° are low. The coils in many cases 
are very nearly legal ohms at the temperatures given, while they will be 
ohms some 8° or 10° higher. 

In addition to the coils given in the table, four ohm coils constructed 
by Messrs. Elliott Bros, for the Board of Trade, one of which is to be 
selected as the legal unit of resistance for the United Kingdom, were 
tested very carefully. Some fourteen or fifteen comparisons were made 
for each coil at temperatures between 9° and 18° between June 1891 and 
January 1892. The coils were compared directly with the B.A. unit 
' Flat,' the difference being expressed in terms of the bridge wire ; while 
in another series of observations a coil of resistance, 100 ohms, was put 
in multiple arc with the ohm standard and the difference between ' Flat ' 
and the combination found ; in this case the length of the bridge wire 
used was small, and the possible error arising from uncertainty as to its 
exact temperature was avoided. That this error was very small was 
proved by the fact that the two sets of observations gave practically 
identical results. The following are the results : — 

Elliott, 261 

EUiott, 262 

EUiott, 263 

Elliott, 264 

In the case of two of the coils, Nos. 261 and 263, there was one 
observation for each which differed from the value given by the above 
formula by '00015 ohm, and this was due to the fact that the ends of the 
coils had got dirty and needed reamalgamation. None of the other 
errors in the sixty observations exceeded '00008 ohm, and there were 
only eight which were as great as '00005. Thus the resistances of these 
coils are known in terms of the B.A. standards to a very high degree of 
accuracy. 

During the year Messrs. Elliott Bros, have supplied the Committee 
with two 1-ohm and two 10- ohm standards; the tests of these are in 
progress ; two 100-ohm standards are on order. Messrs. Nalder Bros, 
are also constructing some standards. The Fleming biidge belonging to 
the Association has been put into thorough repair ; the mercury had 
damaged some of the copper connecting pieces. 

The Secretary and Mr. Skinner have continued during the year their 
experiments with Clark cells. These have been communicated to the 
Royal Society, and the paper is being printed in the ' Phil. Trans.' 

They find that the E.M.F. of their standard cell is 1'4342 volt at 
15° C, while cells set up by Lord Rayleigh in 1883, 1884, Mr. Elder in 
1886, Mr. Callendar in 1886, Dr. Muirhead in 1890, Dr. Kahle of Berlin, 
Dr. Schuster, Mr. "Wilberforce, Mr. Griffiths, and themselves in 1891 and 
1892 agree closely, the variations among them all being very rarely 
greater than '0005 volt. 

During the Edinburgh meeting the Committee were honoured 
with the presence of Dr. von Helmholtz, M. Guillaume of Paris, Pro- 
fessor Carhart of the United States, Dr. Lindeck and Dr. Kahle of the 
Berlin Reichsanstalt. These gentlemen came by invitation to consider 
the question of establishing identical electric standards in various 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 135 

countries, and two meetings of the Committee were held, at which dis- 
cnssions took place. Major Cardew, of the Board of Trade, was present, 
and took part in the discussion. Dr. von Helmholtz drew special 
attention to the need for having a unit of resistance defined in terms of a 
specified column of mercury, and pointed out that the difficulty arising 
from the uncertainty of the relation between the centimetre and the 
gramme might be avoided by defining the mass of mercury column of 
given length, which has a resistance of cue ohm. After discussion the 
following resolutions were agreed to : — 

1. That the resistance of a specified column of mercury be adopted 
as the practical unit of resistance. 

2. That 14'4521 grammes of mercury in the form of a column of 
uniform cross section 106'3 m. in length at 0" C. be the specified column. 

3. That standards in mercury or solid metal having the same resist- 
ance as this column be made and deposited as standards of resistance 
for industrial purposes. 

4. That such standards be periodically compared with, each other, and 
also that their values be redetermined at intervals in terms of a freshly 
set up mercury column. 

It was further agreed that these resolutions should be communicated 
to the Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of Trade. 

With regard to the unit of current and of electromotive force, it was 
agreed that the number '001118 should be adopted as the number of 
grammes of silver deposited per second from a neutral solution of nitrate 
of silver by a current of 1 ampere, and the value 1'484 as the electro- 
motive force in volts of a Clark cell at 15° C. 

Dr. von Helmholtz expressed his full concurrence in these decisions, 
which are, as he informed the Committee, in accord with the recommen- 
dations which have already been laid by the Cnratorium of the Reichs- 
anstalt, as well as by himself, before the German Government. 

The Committee wish to place on record their thanks to Dr. von 
Helmholtz and the other visitors for the help they have aff'orded them in 
coming to so satisfactory a conclusion. 

Dr. Lindeck laid before the Committee some information as to the 
properties of the manganese alloy used at the Reichsanstalt for resistance 
coils (see Appendix IV.), and it was agreed that it was desirable to obtain 
copies of the German standards in manganese for further comparison with 
the standards of the Association. The Committee therefore recommend 
that they be reappointed, with the addition of the name of Mr. George 
Forbes, and with a grant of 251., including an unexpended balance of 
101. ; that Professor G. Carey Foster be Chairman, and Mr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Secretary. 



APPENDIX I. 



Information circulated by the Secretary for the Meeting of the Committee on 
August 4, 1892, ivith additional Notes. 

The Report of the Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of 
Trade is printed in the 'B.A. Report ' for 1891. Further information as 
to the values of the units is given in the ' B.A. Report ' for 1890. The 
following summary may be of use : — 



136 



REPORT--1892. 



t-H 


't^ 


4^ 




•<i 




tH 


t^ 




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1— WJ 














s s >, 




























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rH t~ SI 0-1 CI Ci -^ 't' — 1 


1— t 


<M CO 


I-H 


t* Ci 00 1* CO CO 




=« a 2 


noicfico':p<>-icomeo 


CO 


CO CO CO CO 


CO 


CO i^ 00 05 (N C5 




o-^S 53 


cbd^^bcbo^bcbcbcb 





(i> CO cb 


ia 


>n cb ih lb is cb lb 




§gs 


000000000 




I-H 


0000 

T—H r-l I-H rH 




t-H 


000 0000 

I-H I-H r-i T— 1 rH i-H i-H 




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Bo 














^=►.2 














• .2 










1 

rr! to . 














parei 

coil 

icker 




f 100 
fMer 
.A.U 


C<l •*< 05 00 (M "O r-4 




-* IM N ^ 


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wire 
Stre 




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CO lO CO 10 


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ON STANDABDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 137 

The Board of Trade Committee recommended for adoption the values 
-9866 and 106-3. 

The specific resistance of mercury in ohms is thus 

•9407 X 10-^ 

Also 1 Siemens unit = "9407 Ohm 

= -9535 B.A.U. 
1 Ohm =1-01358 B.A.U. 

The results found by Lord Eayleigh were reduced by the use of the 
value for the specific resistance of mercury in B.A. units found by him. 
If instead we use the value •9585, the mean of the best determinations, 
we have, as in the table, for the length of the mercury column having a 
resistance of 1 ohm the values 106'27 and 106'31. At the meeting of the 
Committee M. Guillaume stated that a correction should be made to M. 
Wuilleumeier's value, which would raise it to 106;31. This arose from 
some uncertainty as to the correction required to the resistance of mercury 
for change of temperature on which M. Guillaume had been working 
lately. Taking these corrections we arrive at 106'31 as the mean of the 
above. 

2. The Electrolysis of Silver. 

The following values have been found for the mass of silver deposited 
from a solution of silver nitrate in one second by a current of 1 ampere : — 

Mascart, ' J. de Physique,' iii. 1884 .... -0011156 

Eayleigh, ' Phil. Trans.,' ii. 1884 .... -0011179 

Kohlrausch, ' Wied. Ann.,' sxvii. 1886 . . . -0011183 

T. Gray, ' Phil. Mag.,' sxii. 1886 . . about -001118 

Potier et Pellat, ' J. de Physique,' ix. 1890 . -0011192 

Dr. Schuster has shown ('Proc. R.S.,' 1. 1892) that the amount of 
silver deposited when the voltameter is in a vacuum is about '04 per 
cent, greater than when it is in air. 

3. Clark Cells. 

The following values have been found for the E.M.F. of a Clark cell 
at 15° C. They have been reduced from those given in the original papers 
on the supposition that 1 B.A.U. :='9866 ohm, and that the mass of 
silver deposited per second per ampere is •001118 gramme : — 

Eayleigh, 'Phil. Trans.,' ii. 1884 .... 1-4345 Volt 

Carhart 1-4340 „ 

Kahle, ' Zeitschrift fiir Instrumentenkunde,' 1892 . 1-4341 „ 

Glazebrook and Skinner, 'Proc. E.S.,'li. 1892 . 1-4342 „ 

A comparison has been made between the standards of the Association 
and the Berlin standards through a Clark cell and a resistance coil 
belonging to Dr. Schuster. By the kindness of Dr. von Helmholtz the 
Secretary is able to communicate the results of a direct comparison 
between the two sets of standards to the meeting (see Appendix VIII.). 



138 EEPORT— 1892. 



APPENDIX II. 

On the Change of Resistance of Mercury tuith Temperature. 
By M. G. GuiLLAUME. 

At the meeting of the Committee M. Guillanme communicated the 
results of his determination of the relation between the resistance of 
mercury and the temperature. Great precautions were taken with the view 
of ensuring that the whole of the mercury in the tube should be at the 
temperature of the bath. 

Two series of determinations with different arrangements in the 
bridge were made. The results of these two series give for the resistance 
of mercury in a glass tube in terms of the temperature the values — 

(a) Rt= Ro (1 + •00088023T + -OOOOOlOOeST^) ; 
(6) Rt=Ro (1 + -00088157T + -000000990912). 

And for the specific resistance of mercury the values — 

{a) p,=po (1 + -00088745T + -00000018112) ; 

(b) p,=po (1 + -OOOSSSrOT + •0000010022T2). 

In the formulae T is the temperature reckoned from freezing-point by the 
air thermometer. According to Mascart, de Nerville, and Benoit — 

Rt=Ro (1 + -0008649T+-00000112T2) ; 

while according to Strecker — 

Rt=Ro (1 + -0009001 + -00000045T2). 



APPENDIX III. 

On a Special Form of Clark Cell. By Professor H. J. Carhart. 

Portahility. — Standard cells must be portable in order to make them 
serviceable for general, technical, and scientific purposes. To secure 
portability I have adopted the following construction : Into the bottom of 
a glass tube | in. x 2\ in. is sealed a platinum wire. In filling pure dis- 
tilled mercury is first poured into the tube. On this is placed the 
mercurous sulphate paste. A tightly fitting cork diaphragm is then 
pushed down firmly upon the paste. Some zinc sulphate solution is 
then poured in, and a zinc rod is immersed in this solution, its lower end 
touching the cork. The tube is then securely sealed. Such a cell is 
perfectly portable, and may be sent by post without disturbance to its 
contents. 

Temperature Coefficient. — It is well known that an increase in the 
density of the zinc sulphate solution decreases the E.M.F. of a Clark 
cell. This effect is included in the temperature coefficient of a Clark 
cell containing crystals of zinc sulphate, since some of the crystals 
dissolve when the tempei-ature rises and the density increases. When 
the temperature falls recrystallisation occurs. To avoid the change in 
E.M.F. due to this change in density I have preferred to use a solution 
saturated at 0° C. Such a solution I have found to have a specific 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 139 

gravity of 1-397 at 20° C. The E.M.F. of the cell is then 1-44 volt if 
the Clark cell as made by Lord Rayleigh be taken as 1-434 volt. 
The temperature coefficient may be written as follows : — 

Et=Ei5{l- -000386 (<-15) + -0000005 (t-l5y} , 

or per degree the coefficient is 

-•000387 + -000001 (<-15). 

This is almost exactly half the value usually obtained for the Clark cell 
with crystals. 

A cell made with such a solution has the advantage that it reaches its 
equilibrium quickly after a change of temperature. Cells made in the 
old way require time for the process of crystallisation and for diffusion. 



APPENDIX IV. 

On Wire Standards of Electrical Resistance. By Dr. St. Lindeck, 
Assistent hei der Physikalisch-Technischen Eeichsanstalt, Charlottenburg, 
Berlin. 

It is well known that electrical resistances made out of the alloys gene- 
rally used for this purpose, as German- silver, nickelin, &c., change their 
value in the course of time, and this in a degree which cannot be allowed 
ia measurements meant to be at all accurate. Such a variation is natu- 
rally the greater the more unstable the material and the shorter the time 
elapsed since winding. 

The following is a short account of the researches conducted in 
the Physikalisch-Technische Eeichsanstalt in Charlottenburg on this 
subject by Dr. Feussner and myself. That investigation had to be under- 
taken specially, as it is one of the duties of the Blectrotechnical Labora- 
tory of this institution to secure that reliable standards of resistance may 
be obtainable by electricians. 

"We found by preliminary experiments that by more or less continued 
heating a coiled wire showed an interesting variation of its resistance, 
which led to a systematic investigation of the whole question.' 

For different materials we determined : — 

1. The chemical composition, the temperature- coefficient, and the 
specific resistance of the material. 

2. The variation of resistance through the strain produced by winding. 

3. The time- variation during the period subsequent to winding. 

4. The influence of heating to different temperatures. 

A piece of the double silk-covered wire was wound on a wooden 
bobbin and its ends soldered to thick copper bars. The bobbin was 
placed directly in a petroleum bath, in order to determine exactly the 
temperature, and its resistance was acciirately measured by a Wheat- 

' Some of the results here quoted as to the influence of stress and of a moderate 
rise of temperature were previously arrived at by Dr. T. KlemenCiC {Sitz.-Ber. TI ien. 
Ahad. 97, 1888). 



140 EEPOET— 1892. 

stone's bridge arrangement. As regards the variation of resistance 
through winding, it was observed that the resistance of all kinds of wire 
increased by winding, as would be expected, the increase being more pro- 
nounced for a given gauge of wire the less the bobbin's diameter. This 
increase is due to a mechanical hardening of the wire by strain, and it is 
well known that the resistance of any metal is less in the annealed state 
than in the hardened condition. At the same time an elongation can 
hardly be avoided, especially with thin wires, also causing an increase 
of resistance. As the gauge of the wires generally was 1 mm., this 
second cause was of secondary importance. 

In the first place we investigated a German-silver alloy which the 
firm of Siemens & Halske in Berlin used for standards at that time. It 
appeared that the increase of resistance through winding could amount 
to 1 per cent., and that the time-variation during the following months 
was very considerable ; the latter showed itself always as an increase of 
resistance. Another remarkable circumstance is the further increase of 
resistance (amounting to a few tenths per cent.) by heating such a wire 
for several hours at about 100° C. 

It might be supposed that the wire would be annealed by the effect of 
the high temperature, and that its resistance would therefore decrease. 
But our extensive investigations gave the important i^esult that heating 
causes an increase of resistance in all alloys containing zinc to any con- 
siderable amount. On the other hand, all alloys examined containing no 
zinc show a decrease of resistance under the same conditions. The 
increase of resistance by winding is also much more pronounced with 
alloys containing zinc than with those in which this metal does not occur. 
All this seems to point out that in the former alloys changes of structure 
go on, which are accelerated by any kind of stress or by variations of tem- 
perature, and always tend to increase the resistance. These changes of 
structure also become apparent by the time- variations, which occur when 
tlie resistance coil is left to itself. The latter observations are in perfect 
agreement with what was found by former observers on the time- variation 
of German-silver. The interesting result was then arrived at, that the 
time- variation would be much accelerated by heating the resistance at a 
high temperature, say 100° C, for a few hours. Within two months 
after winding, the period in which German-silver varies most, variations 
•could not be shown within the errors of observation in wires treated in 
the manner described. During longer periods, say one or two years, 
variations would still occur, even with annealed German-silver coils. But 
they hardly reach the tenth part of those occurring when this process has 
not been gone through. 

The following table shows the results of one of the experiments with 
two wires of German-silver (60 per cent. Cu ; 25 '4 per cent. Zn ; 14'6 
per cent. Ni), the specific resistance of this material being 30 microhms 

per 2? a-nd its temperature-coefficient 0'036 per cent, per degree Cen- 
tigrade. In both cases the wire (1 mm. in thickness) was wound on 
a bobbin of 10 mm. diameter. The wire marked I, was left to itself 
after winding, whereas the wire II. was annealed after winding by 
heating it to a temperature of 90° Centigrade during three hours. The 
resistance of each was measured at intervals of nearly two months 
from time to time. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASDKEMENTS. 141 



Table III. — German-silver. 



I. (not annealed after ^vinding) 


11. (annealed after winding) 










idf 




Date 


.2SO 


Remarks 


Date 


.||o 


Kemarka 










«--a 




1889 






1889 






13/n. 


2-2160 


Before winding; 


13/11. 


2-2470 


Before winding 


14/11. 


2-2594 


After windins;. In- 


14/11. 


2-2666 


After winding. In- 




crease throu2:h wind- 






crease through wind- 






ing, 0-60 per cent. 


1 




ing, 0-87 per cent. 


15/11. 


2-2597 




1 1.5/II. 


2-2733 


After heating t o 

90° C. during three 

hours ; increase 

through heating, 

0-29 per cent. 


16/11. 


598 


— 


16/11. 


732 


— 1 


22/11. 


603 


— 


22/11. 


733 


— 


4/III. 


608 


— 


4/III. 


734 


— 


19/III. 


612 


" 


19/III. 


729 


Temperature changed 
during the measure- 
ment 


6/IV. 


615 


Time- variation in two 
months, 009 per cent. 


6/IV. 


732 


Time-variation in tu-o 
months, practically 
nothing 



The above table shows clearly that annealing a wire after v^inding 
has a very good effect on the constancy of the resistance. 

Quite analogous results were obtained with other alloys containing 
zinc, e.g., nickelin, which has been much used for standards in Germany. 
The less the percentage of zinc, the less became the above-mentioned 
variations of resistance. 

As these zinc-containing alloys showed themselves so unreliable, we 
extended our investigations to other alloys. 

A few years ago the firm of Siemens & Halske in Berlin made use of 
an alloy on account of its comparatively low tempei-ature-coeflficient (0-02 
per cent, per 1° C), called patent-nickel. This was tested in the 
Keichsanstalt in the same way as the other alloys. It contains about 
25 per cent, of nickel and 75 per cent, of copper. The experiments 
gave the following results : — 

1. The variations of resistance by winding are considerably less for 
this material than with alloys containing an appreciable amount of zinc. 

2. Heating produces a decrease of resistance ; this decrease is some- 
times greater than the increase by winding, because the hardening 
produced by drawing the wire is also diminished. There is, however, 
not the slightest evidence for a change of molecular structure. 

Materials with such properties are evidently much more appropriate 
for the construction of standard resistances. It was, indeed, found, by 
comparison with mercury resistances, that coils of ' patent-nickel,' which 
had been, as we call it, artificially aged by heating at about 140° C, have 
I'emained constant for two years within a few thousandths per cent. In 
the following table, for instance, ai'e stated the differences of two patent- 
nickel standards of 1 ohm (No. 22 and No. 23), as observed at different 
times : — 



142 



REPORT 1892. 



Table IV. 



Date 


Difference of No. 23-No. 22 
in Ohms 


Date 


Difference of No. 23-No. 22 
in Ohms 


1890 
21/VI. 
11/VII. 
25/Xl. 

1891 

29/1. 

2/7. 


0-00012 
11-5 
11-5 

10 
8 


1 1891 

1 9/V. 

30/VII. 

1892 

l/lll. 

21/V. 

19/VII. 


000009 
10 

8-7 
9-5 
9-4 



On the other hand, from comparisons of the sum of No. 22 and 
No. 23 with four different mercury standards (I., II., III., and IV., each 
of about 1 ohm), I proved that the absolute values of the two standards 
had remained constant within the errors of observation, as the following 
numbers show : — 







Table 


V. 






— 


Values of No. 23 at 20° C. deduced from Comparisons of No. 22 
+ Xo. 23 with the Mercury Standards 


Date 


II. + III. 


i. + lll. 


III. + IV. 


I. + lV. 


I.+ II. 


Nov. 1890 
Feb. 1891 
June 1892 
July 1892 


0-99989 
85 
89 


0-99990 
88 
88 
89 


0-99986 


0-99988 


0-99986 
89 



The ' patent-nickel ' would therefore be a material well fitted for 
resistance-coils. A large number of alloys were also examined, consisting 
of nothing but nickel and copper. An alloy containing about equal 
amounts of each metal was found to have an extremely small tempera- 
ture-coefficient, the latter amounting to about 0-003 per cent, per 
Centigrade degree as against 002 per cent, for patent-nickel. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the thermo-electric effect of these alloys against copper 
is very high. For the alloj^ just mentioned (consisting of 50 per cent. 
Ca and 50 per cent. Ni, called ' constantan ') it amounts to nearly forty 
microvolts per degree Centigrade, considerably surjjassing the fchermo- 
electromotive force of most of the usual thermo -junctions, like iron — 
German- silver, for instance. This high thermo-electric effect evidently 
constitutes a considerable drawback, as the connecting pieces have to be 
made of copper. 

On the whole oar experience has led us to the conclusion that for 
standards such alloys do best which, besides copper and nickel, also 
contain manganese. A few years ago Mr. Weston, of Newark, U.S., 
discovered that alloys containing manganese possess a very small tem- 
perature-coefficient, and that it is even possible to obtain metals with 
negative temperature-coefficient in this way. I am not aware how far 
this discovery has been practically taken advantage of in the United 
States. After hearing of Weston's observation the further investigation 
of manganese alloys was taken up at the Reichsanstalt, and we obtained 
very interesting results. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



143 



The alloy, which is now being regularly manufactured and brought 
out under the name of manganin, consists of 84 per cent, of copper, 
12 per cent, of manganese, and about 4 per cent, of nickel. As the 
observations made by nie for the last two years in the Reichsanstalt have 
shown, this is a most appropriate material for standard resistances. 

The general character of the resistance- variations of manganin with 
temperature may be best understood from the diagram (fig. 1), in which 



Fig. 1. 



OhjfL. 



700,030 



tocmo 



/00.0W 



roo.ooo 



3^990 









f 1^ 




\ 










/ 


/ 


V H 


'^ 


\!' 








/ 








\ 






A 


\ 














/ 














/ 


/ 















W ZO' 30- *0' M' 

Tcmpe-T'cutLLre- «*»— 



60' 



70° e 



temperatures are taken for abscissEe, and the resistances of a hundred-ohm 
standard are plotted as ordinates. In this case up to 40° C. the tern- 
perature-coefEcient is positive, the absolute value, however, being very 
small, as the following table of the mean linear coefficients between the 
temperatures stated in the first column shows : — 



Table VI. 



Range of Temperature 


Mean Linear T.C. 


Range of Temperature 


Mean Linear T.C. 


10° to 20° 
20 „ 30 
30 „ 35 
35 „ 40 
40 „ 45 


+ 25 X 10-= 
+ 14 „ 
+ 4 „ 
+ 3 „ 
+ 1 ,, 


45° to 50° 
50 „ 55 
55 „ 60 
60 „ 65 


- 1 X 10-= 

- 2 

- 4 „ 

- 5 „ 



For most purposes the variability of resistance with temperature may 
now, indeed, be quite neglected. As a matter of fact, very elaborate and 
sensitive methods are required to demonstrate the existence of any 
temperature-coefficient at all. On raising the temperature beyond 60° C. 
the resistance attains a maximum, thence to diminish again. In this 
latter part of the curve we therefore actually have a negative temperatui-e- 
coefficient. 



144 



BEPORT 1892. 



In order to show that at the same temperature the resistance always 
returns to the same value — in other words, that there is no hysteresis in 
the relation between those two quantities, some points of the curve were 
determined with temperatures descending from 70° C, whereas others 
were obtained with ascendir.g temperature. This process was repeated 
several times. The spots marked / correspond to descending, the spots 
marked ^ to ascending temperature, and the points belonging to the 
same series of observations have the same sign. All points are extremely 
close to the same continuous curve, and it is quite obvious that this 
curious behaviour is a constant physical quality of the material. Of 
course such a resistance-coil must have been artificially aged before the 
beginning of the observations ; it was indeed heated during live hours at 
a temperature of about 140° C. Otherwise, as I mentioned before, a 
progressive process of decrease of resistance through annealing would 
superpose upon the regular variation of resistance according to the curve. 
It is true that this maximum resistance-point does not always occur at 
exactly the same temperature for wii'es of different size ; it is well known 
that the electrical constants of all resistance alloys change slightly with 
the gauge of the wire. But it is also true that the maximum resistance- 

FiG. 2. 




point of manganin of a thicker size — say 1 ram. — occurs, as a rule, afc 
about 30° C, and so at ordinary temperatures the temperature-coefficient 
is even less than for this particular specimen of wire. 

The material is very soft, and can be drawn to the finest gauges ; but 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



145 



Fig. h. 



it must not be annealed in free air, because the manganese then would 
oxidise, and the qualities of the material would be altered. Thus it is 
not possible to buy, for instance, a ^vire, say 1 mm. thick, and to draw it 
dowa to the required gauge without taking proper precautions. 

In concluding, I will very briefly refer to the construction of our 
wire-standards — for instance, to a standard of one ohm (fig. 2).' 

The double silk-covered wire is wound on a metal bobbin, h b, which 
is previously covered with a thin piece of silk, coated with shellac var- 
nish and heated, in order to secure good insulation. The bobbin can be 
screwed to the ebonite disk d, but it is not fixed to it before the accurate 
adjustment of the resistance. The resistance of the wire must be 1-2 per 
cent, larger than one ohm to begin with ; then it is wound on the bobbin, 
heavily coated with shellac varnish, and heated in an air-bath at a 
temperature of 140° C. during about five houi-s. By this procedure we 
obtain, as already stated, very constant 
resistances ; further, the shellac is melted 
at this temperature, and becom.es after 
cooling a hard, highly insulating mass, 
which at the same time protects the 
wire against any chemical action. 

To the ends of the wire are previously 
soldered with silver two small copper 
rings. The exact adjustment is made 
by means of a fine wire-resistance,/, of 
100-200 ohms put in multiple arc with 
the thick wire. A comparatively great 
length of this fine wire corresponds to 
a' very small change of the whole resist- 
ance, and so it may be easily adjusted to 
a few thousandths per cent. Then the 
small rings at the ends of the two wires 
are screwed together and soldered to 
the stout connecting pieces, pp. A wide 
brass case, c c, serves to protect the wire. 

In taking observations the resistance 
is put in an oil-bath (fig. 3) ; the tem- 
perature of the wire may then easily be 
determined, and besides that, there can- 
not exist any thermo-electric force be- 
tween the two solderings. It is a matter 
of fact that the thermo-electric force of 
manganin against copper is very small 
indeed; it amounts only to 1"5 micro- 
volt for 1° C. ; the corresponding value 
for other resistance materials is generally 20-30 microvolts. We see that 
even in this respect the manganin is much preferable. 

The construction of standards of O'l ohm, and, on the other hand, of 
10, 100, 1,000 ohms and more, is essentially the same as described. Of 
course there is no multiple arc to those of 10 ohms and more. 

As to the constancy of manganin resistances 1 will quote a few 
figures. Table VII. refers to a resistance which is used to determine 




1892. 



See Dr. K. Feussner, Zeitsctvrift fiir Instrumentcnhunde, 1890, p. 6. 



146 



REPORT 1892. 



the electromotive force of the standard Clark cells with the silver- 
voltameter. Thus very often (more than fifty times) a current of 
about one half of an ampere was passed through it for one hour each 
time. At 18° C. I found the following values : — 

Tadle VII. 



Date 


Resistance in Ohma 


Date 


Resistaufc in Ohms j 


6/1. 1890 
15/IV. „ 
12/11. 1891 


2-9998 
99 

98 


22/VII. 1891 
9/11. 1892 
17/VII. „ 


2-9996 

98 

9<; 



Again, in the following table are stated in microhms the differences 
in the resistance of four manganin standards (No. 148 to No. 151) of 
one ohm. The numbers marked * were observed by Drs. Kreichgauer 
and Jager, using Kohlrausch's differential galvanometer method, the 
others by myself, using a Wheatstone's bridge arrangement. 







Table VIII. 






— 


December 1891» 


February 1892 


July 1892» 


July 1892 


Xo. US-No. 149 

-No. 150 

No. 151 

No. 149-No. 150 
-No. 151 

No. 150-No. 151 


-121xlO-"01jm3 
-135 

- 80 

- 14 
-1- 41 
+ 56 


-124xlO-'OImis 
-135 

- 79 

- 15 
+ 39 
+ 53 


-117x10-" Ohma 
-129 

- 86 

- 12 
+ 31 
+ 43 


-16 

+ 48 



]V] easurements were also made of these standards shortly after their 
construction in July 1891, but not with quite the same accuracy as the 
later ones. Anyhow, they show, in connection with numerous com- 
paripons of the four coils with other standards, which were checked by 
mercury resistances, that the manganin coils were constant for the space 
of ore year within a few thousandths per cent. 

The patterns referred to are intended to be standards oi resistance. 
On the other hand, resistances of 0-01, O'OOl, and even 0001 ohm are 
used for measuring large currents up to a few thousand amperes by 
corof ensating the potential difierence which the current itself produces 
in flowing through the resistance. These resistances consist of manganin 
plates, which are soldered with silver to stout copper bars. The dimen- 
sions of the plates are chosen in such a manner that the value of the 
resistance is too small to begin with, and the definitive adjustment is 
arrived at by boring small holes in the plates ; the latter are again 
coatf d with varnish in order to protect thpm against any chemical action 
of the oil, and so on. For uncovered wires, as they are used, for instance, 
in 1 ridges, or in technical resistance?, the manganin is perhaps not so 
appropriate as the alloys commonly used. For all other resistances, 
b<'W< ver, we think it is the best alloy hitherto known, because it facili- 
tati s the electrical measurements, and brings them to a higher degree of 
accuiacy than was formerly attainable. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 147 

APPENDIX V. 

On the Clark CelU By Dr. BZahle. 

In connection with the report of the Committee I beg to call your 
attention to some researches I made, by order of the Physico-Technical 
Institute at Berlin, on Clark cells. The time is too short for communi- 
cating my measuring methods and results in full extent ; I can only give 
you a short summary of the chief points. 

I used in my researches Lord Rayleigh's H form, the positive 
electrode being mercury once distilled, the negative an amalgam con- 
taining ninety parts of mercury and ten parts of zinc. The last was poured 
into the vessel as a hot liquid, and solidified on the bottom. The paste, 
which covers the positive electrode, is made by grinding together 
mercurous sulphate, mercury, and a mixture of crystals and concentrated 
solution of zinc sulphate. No heat was used in preparing this paste. 
The mercurous sulphate was bought, and contained, according to 
chemical analysis, no foreign ingredients. The zinc sulphate was made 
basic by boiling with rods of metallic zinc ; after cooling, the dissolved 
oxide of zinc precipitates, and with it the oxides of the metals more 
negative than zinc. For oxidising the ferrous sulphate, which is always 
present in commercial zinc sulphate, a small current was semt between 
two platinum electrodes through the boiling basic solution ; the ferrous 
sulphate was changed by the generated oxygen into ferric oxide, and fell 
out. The H cells set up with these materials showed a great agreement 
in their B.M.F.'s. I never found a difference greater than x^wo^'t of a 
volt between the E.M.F. of any two of them. 

The next point I studied was the influence of the impurities in the 
different materials composing the cell on the E.M.F., because on the one 
hand it is well known that the smallest impurity of the mercury alters 
very distinctly the E.M.F., and on the other hand the mercurous sulphate 
I bought never contained impurities of a remarkable amount, and 
different samples always had the same qualities ; I only investigated, as 
the most important matter, the impurities of the zinc and its sulphate. 
It was fon nd that the foreign ingredients of the zinc sulphate are of very 
little importance, and that only the presence of free acid in the above- 
described cleaning process, the result of boiling with metallic zinc, alters 
the E.M.F. in a considerable degree. Among the impurities of the zinc 
only those caused by metals more positive than zinc are of importance ; 
the zinc may contain considerable quantities of the negative metals 
without any alteration of the E.M.F. I conclude that the impurities of the 
zinc are of greater importance. If we use it in the form of rods amalga- 
mated on the surface, it seems to be a great advantage to dissolve the 
zinc in mercury, using it then as a solid amalgam. 

The following are the values I found by a great number of observa- 
tions for the temperature coefficient of different forms of cells, measuring 
between 1"° and 30° in rising and decreasing temperature. The figures 
here giv r, are the mean values of some cells of the same form^ treated in 
the same inanner : — • 

' For a detailed account see ZeiUclirift fur Tnstrumentenkunde, Ajril 1892, and 
Electrotechnischt ZeitschHft, Heft 30, 1892. 

L 2 



148 



REPOBT 1892. 



Table IX. 



Form of the cell 


Temperature-coetBcient 


Mean differ- 
ence between 

calculated 
and observed 

values of 
E.M.F. 


Mean differ- 
ence between 
the E.M.F. of 
the different 
cells and that 
of the mean 
of several H 
cells used as 
standards 


The unit being tooVooth of 
a volt 


H cell set up in Lord 
Kayleigh's manner 


0000812 + 0000013(^-15) 


12 


+ 3 


H cell, the paste cover- 
ing both electrodes 


0000774 + 0000020 (t - 15) 


12 


+ 7 


A new form for re- 
search ' purposes, 
the paste covering 
both electrodes 


0-000791 +0-000017 (it -15) 


9 


+ 9 


The cell issued hi- 
therto by the Ger- 
man Reichsanstalt 


0-000806 + 0-000006 (*- 15) 


30 


-29 



The mean value of the temperature-coefficient, therefore, would be 
0-000796 + 0-000014 (i-15). 

Lord Rayleigh has given the following values for the two different 
cells he investigated : — 

+ 0-000827 + 0-000018 (t-lb) 

+ 0-000740 + 0-000016 {t-16) 
the mean being 

+ 0-000783 + 0-000017 (t-U). 

I suppose, for practical purposes, the values found by Lord Rayleigh 
and by me are identical. 

The most important matter is to obtain the absolute term of the 
E.M.F. For the purpose I used a measuring arrangement similar to 
Lord Rayleigh's. The current, which produces on the terminals of a 
known resistance a pressure equal to that of the Clark cell, was obtained 
by the silver voltameter. It was found that the same current deposits 
the more silver the more oxide of silver is dissolved in the solution of the 
nitrate. I made a solution of nitrate crystals, and boiled a part of it a 
long time with oxide of silver ; the deposit obtained with this basic solution 
was about ^ Q^p^ ths greater than that with the original solution. There- 
fore, using a certain number for the equivalent of silver, there will be a 
little uncertainty of some parts in 10,000 in measuring currents by the 
deposit of silver. Now, as first shown by Professor Schuster, and also 
proved by me by a good deal of experimenting, the deposit, when the 
voltameter is in vacuo, is about four parts of 10,000 greater than in 
ordinary air. But the absolute value of the E.M.F. is not touched by 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 14& 

this fact, because making the electrolysis in this manner one has 
certainly to take a greater figure for the equivalent, and therefore the 
ratio between the unit and the measured amount of current remains the 
same. The following figures are given by taking one ohm=l-063 S.U., 
and by assuming that a current of one ampere strength deposits in an 
hour 4-0259 grammes ; the last figure exceeds that given by the Board 
of Trade only by six parts in 100,000. I found by some thirty experi- 
ments the E.M.F. of the H cells, set up with clean materials in the 
above- described manner, as 1-4332 volt at 15°, and am sure that, when 
using the same arrangement of the silver voltameter, this value will be 
right by five parts in 10,000 if the equivalent is certain to this extent. 
If I express the value given by Lord Rayleigh for the cells of the original 
Clark's form in this unit, it is 1-4346 volt at 15°. Lord Rayleigh finds 
the E.M.F. of this H cell a few ten-thousandths of a volt greater than 
that of the old form. Therefore it would, perhaps, be 1-4350 volt at 15°i 
Recently Mr. Glazebrook has made a new determination, and finds the 
E.M.F. of the original Clark cell, in the above fixed units, to be 1-4342 volt 
at 15°. He has also compared H cells set up by me, and now brought 
to England, and finds their E.M.F. smaller by Twoot^'s of a volt than 
that of the original form. Therefore the E.M.F. of the H cell is 1-4338 
volt at 15°. This last value and that found by me are in good agree- 
ment. It is to be noted that the anodes and cathodes in my voltameters 
are much smaller than those in the English ones. 

It may be mentioned here that the mean E.M.F. of four H cells set 
up in the same manner as before, but containing, in accord with Professor 
Carhart's directions, a solution of sulphate of zinc, saturated at 0°, was 
found to be 1-442 volt at 16°, using the same units as above. 

It only remains to give some directions on the best form of Clark 
cells._ I suppose it will be good to distinguish such cells which are to 
remain as standards in the laboratories and are used by their maker, and 
such as are to be used for practical purposes. These do not need to have 
the same degree of accuracy, but they must be able to be carried about. 
In the Board of Trade memorandum the original Clark cell is adopted as 
the standard ; but I think Lord Rayleigh's H form gives more accu- 
racy and is easier to set up. In the old form not all the parts of the 
zinc rod are in saturated solution, and therefore the value of the E.M.F. 
will be a little uncertain. Another disadvantage is that parts of the zinc 
rod may fall down in the mercury, and will so produce a considerable 
variation of the E.M.F. On the other hand, the electrodes of the H form 
are always in concentrated solution, and there is no possibility of parts 
of the negative electrode coming over to the positive one. I have set np 
about sixty H cells, and have found no difficulty, when using carefully 
cleaned materials, to keep the difference of the E.M.F. of the single cells 
under a ten-thousandth of a volt. 

To construct cells for practical purposes which will stand carriage, 
the most simple way is to separate the two electrodes by a porous wall. 
I can show here such a cell of a form constructed by Dr. Feussner, and 
issued hitherto by the German Reichsanstalt. The positive electrode is 
an amalgamated platinum plate with the surrounding paste in a porous 
vessel of clay. The zinc rod forming the positive electrode is on the 
upper part protected by a glass tube ; the lower part is blown rectan- 
gularly and covered with crystals of sulphate of zinc. The whole glass 
vessel is filled with a concentrated solution of this salt. The E.M.F. of 



150 REPORT— 1892. 

such cells is about -i- QQm ^tbs of a volt higher than that of the H cells. 
The agreement of different cells of this form is very sufficient for practical 
purposes ; the difference between the E.M.F. is always smaller than 
T o 6 ^^ of a volt. The only disadvantage of this form is that its E.M.F. 
does not follow quickly the alterations of temperature ; but I suppose one 
could improve that by diminishing the size of the cell. 

We endeavoured in the Reichsanstalt to make Lord Rayleigh's H form 
transportable on account of its good qualities, and to do this without 
introducing foreign substances as porous walls. The investigations in 
this direction are not yet finished, but I am able to exhibit a cell which 
was constructed for this purpose and seems to be good. The positive 
electrode is formed by an amalgamated platinum plate fixed on a wire of 
the same metal, which is melted in the bottom of one of the two tubes 
forming the vessel. The negative electrode is formed by the 10 per- 
centage zinc amalgam solidified on the bottom of the other tube, and 
also connected with a platinum wire melted in the glass. The whole 
vessel is filled with paste and closed by a glass .stopper perforated by a 
thermometer, of which the bulb is within the vessel. Such a cell can be 
turned without any danger, and is suitable for transport. The E.M.F. 
is about 100 00 ^^ o^ ^ ^^^^ smaller than that of the H cells ; the dis- 
agreement between the E.M.F. 's of different cells constructed in similar 
manner does not exceed -j-y^f^y^ths of a volt. But before using such cells 
for practical purposes, they must be observed for a longer time till one 
is sure that their behaviour will not be altered by age. 

These are the principal results obtained recently in the Reichsanstalt 
on this matter. Some of them will be already known here ; but I 
hope to have given new proof that the Clark cell is a very accurate 
standard for E.M.F., and a good measuring instrument for practical 
purposes. 



APPENDIX VI. 

On the Values of certain Standard Resistance Coils. 
By R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.8. 

In the report of the Committee for 1800 it was stated that during the 
early part of the year small changes had taken place in the values of some 
of the old B.A. standards, which had been subjected to a very low temper- 
ature early in that year. These coils have been compared together at 
intervals since that date, and the following tables will show that at the 
temperatures given there is no indication of any further change. The 
difference between the coils and the standard coil flat is given in bridge 
wire divisions. The value of one bridge wire division is about "00005 
ohm. 

The first few lines in Tables X. and XI. give the values of the differ- 
ences observed in 1890. These are followed by those of the more recent 
observations which were taken at a temperature of about 16°. 

These observations are sufiBcient to show that there has been no appre- 
ciable change in the relative values of these coils. 

The observations on the legal ohm standards given in Table XL 
lead to the same conclusion. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USK IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



151 



Table X.- 



-Showing the Differences between tlie Flatinum Silver B.A. Units 
in 1890 and in 1892. 



Date 


Temperature 


Flat-F 


Flat-G 


Flat-H 


May 1890 .... 
June 1890 

August 1890 . 


14-4 

16 

16-5 


-3-5 
-3-2 
-8 


21-5 
22-2 
22-6 


18-3 

17-8 
18 


July 23, 1892 . 
July 24, 1892 . 
July 27, 1892 . 


16 
16 
16-2 


-3-7 
-3-5 
-3-2 


21-6 

22 

21-6 


18-4 
18-3 
18-3 



Table XI. — Giving Differences in Bridge Wire Divisions between the 
Legal Ohm Standards and Flat. 



Date 


Temperature 


^100 -Flat 


^101 -Flat 


August 1890 . 
November 1890 . 
January 1891 . 
July 25, 1892 . 
July 27, 1892 . 


15-7 

15 

11-6 

16-3 

161 


216-7 
217-2 
216-1 
215-6 
216 


206-6 
206-7 
206-8 
205-8 
206-3 



In November 1890 two new coils marked J and K were made of plati- 
•num silver wire, supplied by Messrs. Elliott Bros. The wires of the coils 
are wound in a loose spiral inside the case, being secured at intervals by 
silk threads to an ebonite central stem. They are thus in contact with air 
only, and there is no paraffin inside the case. It was hoped in this way to 
secure freedom from the strains set up by changes of temperature in the 
paraffin, which appeared from the results given in the ' Report ' for 1890 
to have some connection with the changes of resistance there described. 

The results are shown in fig. 4. From the six observations for 
each coil there recorded it is clear that there has been no change during 
ihe time for which the observations have lasted. 

Fig. 4.— Showing the values of the B.A. Units Flat, J and K, from observations 
between November 1890 and July 1892. 





















^, 


^iooaa 




















^^ 




















^ 


mm 
















^ 


<^ 


/- 












^ 


^ 


^ 






IMW 














^ 














rf^ 


">. 


^ 










33B3S 








.^^ 


^ 














y. 




?"*— 

' 












33339 




g 


^ 
















^ 


z^ 


;^^ 


y~ 














astifa 




r>^ 


I" 














.^ 




















asKsf 




1 
1 

















JO » /Z f3 74 /6 K f7 /S 7S Za /O /J /2 /3 /# /5 /€ /7 fe J3 Z9 



The vertical divisions are 0005 B.A.U. 

The horizontal divisions are 1° C. 

Flat = l B.A.U. at 14°-8. Temp. Coeff. -00027 (Fleming's observations, 1876). 

•J = 1 B.A.U. at 14°-. Temp. Coeff. •000260. 

K = l B.A.U. at 14°-15. Temp. Coeff. 000261. 



152 



KEPORT — 1892. 



Two observations were made at a much lower temperature, and these 
would seem to indicate a slightly less temperature-coefiBcient than is 
shown by the observations between 10° C. and 20° C. 

The values of the two new coils in B.A. units between temperatures of 
10° and 20° are given by 

J=l + -000260(^-14). 
K=l + •000261(^-14-15). 

"We may thus conclude that during the past two years there has been 
no relative change in the values of the platinum silver unit standards of 
the Association. 

Four of these are the original standards made in 1865-67 ; two 
others v^ere made by Messi-s. Elliott Bros, in 1885, and the last two by the 
assistant at the Cavendish Laboratory from wire supplied by Messrs. 
Elliott in 1889. 



APPENDIX VII. 

On the Standard Condensers of the Association, and on Certain Resistance 
Coils. By R. T. Glazebrook, F.B S. ■ 

The report of the Committee for 1890 contains as an appendix a very 
full account of the tests on the air condensers belonging to the Associa- 
tion. It was there stated that while the insulation resistance of No. I. 
was very high, that of No. II. was not completely satisfactory ; No. II. 
was therefore taken to pieces and set up fresh. Its capacity and also that 
of No. I. were determined afresh, using the commutator method described 
in the previous paper. 

The following values wei^e found : — 

Table XII. 



Date 


Capacity in Microfarads 


Mean of each Series 




COXDEXSER No. I. 




Dec. 23, 1890 . 


•021059 




»» J> • • • 


•021052 


•021050 


»» >» ' • • 


•021046 




Dec. 29 „ . 


■0210-14 
Condenser No. 11. 




Dec. 23, 1890 . 


•021396 




»» ») • • • 


•021392 


■021395 


»> ., • • . 


•021399 




Dec. 23, 1890, afternoon 


•021365 




»» »J )» 


•021399 


•021389 


»» »» n 


•021403 




Dec. 29 „ 


■021381 




" 5) », 


•021409 


•021390 


?» >» J) 


•021389 





Mean of the -whole, •021391 microfarad. 

The different values in each series correspond to different rates of 
revolution of the commutator. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



153 



The value found originally for the capacity of No. I. was •021024 
microfarad ; it would appear therefore that it may be slowly increasing ; 
the capacity of No. II. has been changed by being taken to pieces, and 
from •022515 to 021391. 

The two condensers were also compared, directly assuming the value 
of No. I. to be •021050 ; that of No. II. was found to be •021390— 
practically the same value as that given by the commutator. 

As a further check on the values a mica condenser was compared 
with the two in the nsual way. The values found were : — 



Table XIII. 



Date 


lu Terms of I. 


In Terms of II. ' 


Dec. 29, 1890 . 
Jan. 1,] 891 


•5017 
•5013 


•5013 
•5012 



In March 1892 the insulation of the condensers was tested by the 
Secretary and Mr. A. S. Bowley ; they were both found to lose rather less 
than -jj-i^ of their charge per one minute. A divided condenser, Elliott 
No. 144, No. 3, was compared ; the results are interesting as showing 
the effect on the capacity of the time of charging, and are given in 
Table XIV. 

Table XIV. 



Nominal Value 


Time of Charging, 
in seconds 


Value in Terms of I. 


Value in Terms of II. 


■05 




5 

10 


•05022 
•05072 
•05080 




■05+ 

5 

10 


•05055 
•05106 
•05109 




■2 



2 
5 

10 

20 


•1988 
•1999 
•2007 
•2010 
•2012 


•1981 
•2002 
•2009 
•2013 


■2 + 




2 

5 

10- 
20 
30 


•2003 
•2018 
•2027 
•2033 
•2039 
•2046 




■5 




2 

5 

10 

20 


•5032 
•.5058 
•5078 
•5081 
•5092 





The first observation in each case marked as 0* was made by con- 



154 REPORT— 1892. 

necting tbe galvanometer, and then momentarily making tbe battery 
-circuit for a very small traction of a second. The observations on the 
condenser "2 show that there has been no appreciable change in the 
relative value of Standards I. and II. The observations throughout are 
accurate to about one part in 10,000. 

During the process of the work Mr. Bowley compared several of the 
resistance boxes of the Association together. As these are used as 
standards in many experiments it will be useful to put the results on 
record. 

Box Elliott 1253 is a Wheatstone's bridge box of platinum silver in 
legal ohms, said to be right at 17° C. Assuming that the two 1,000-ohm 
coils of the bridge are equal, and the experiments showed no appreciable 
difference, the following values were found for certain coils in terms of a 
nominal 10,000 ohms taken from 1253. 

The temperature of all the coils was about 15°'6 C. 

Thus the box Elliott 1825 is right at about 4° below the box 1253, 
-while the box Nalder 1870 is right at about l°-5 below 1253. 

Table XV. 



Nominal Value 


Value found 


Elliott 1825. 


10,000 


10,012 


20,000 


20,024 


30,000 


30,034 


40,000 


40,049 


Nalder 1870. 


100,000 No. 1 


100,042 


„ 2 


100,044 


., 3 


100,050 


„ 4 


100,034 


„ 5 


100,042 


„ 6 


100,042 


„ 7 


100,052 


„ 8 


100,032 


„ 9 


100,047 


„ 10 


100,052 





APPENDIX VIII. 

■On the Values of certain Standards of Resistance and Electromotive Force 
sent from Berlin for Comparison with the British Association Standards. 
By R. T. Glazebeook, F.B.S. 

Towards the end of July Dr. Lindeck, of the Physikalische Blectro- 
technische Reichsanstalt at Berlin, brought to Cambridge three resist- 
ance coils of nickel-manganese-copper alloy in order to compare them 
with the British Association standards. Experiments to determine the 
value of these coils in terms of the resistance of mercury are in progress 



I 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



155 



a,t Berlin ; -when they are completed a comparison of the British Associa- 
tion units with the mercury standards of the Reichsanstalt will become 
possible. 

A fourth coil, constructed for the Berlin Reichsanstalt by Messrs. 
Elliott Bros., was also tested. Table XVI. contains the results of the 
comparison : — 

Table XVI. 



No. of Coil 


Date 


Temp. 


Value in B.A. Units 


Mean Value 
of Series 


Wolflf, 150 . 


July 25 
,, 27 
„ 25 
„ 26 

,, 27 


16-5 

17 

16-5 

16-3 

17-1 


101118* 
101116* 
1-01119 
101119 
1 01120 


1-01118 
at 16"-7 


Wolff, 139 . 


July 25 
„ 27 
„ 26 
„ 26 

„ 27 


16-5 
16-9 
16-5 
16-3 
17-1 


1-01110* 
1-01112* 

lomo 

1-01114 
1-01110 


1-01112 
at 16°-7 


Wolff, 147 . 


July 25 
„ 27 
„ 25 
,. 26 
„ 27 


16-5 
16-9 
16-5 
16-3 
17-1 


1-01 112* 

1-01112* 

1-01113 

1-01112 

1-01115 


1-01113 
at 16°- 7 


Elliott, 250 


July 25 
„ 27 

„ 28 
., 28 


17 
17 
17 
17 


1-01107* 
1-01107* 
1-01108* 
1-01108 


101107 

at 17° 



In the experiments marked thus * a considerable length, 200 cm., 
•of the bridge wire was used. An error of 1° in the temperature of this 
•would produce an error of 00003 in the result. In reducing the results 
the temperature of the bridge has been taken as 18°, the value given by 
a thermometer laid alongside the wire on July 28. In the other experi- 
ments a coil of ] 00 ohms was put in multiple arc with the Berlin standard, 
and the difference of the combination and the British Association units 
was found. The length of bridge wire was very small, so that an exact 
inowledge of its temperature was not wanted, while the 100-ohm coil 
"was known -with all the necessary accni-acy. 

Another set of comparisons, leading to results which do not differ from 
the above by more than -00003 British Association unit, were made by 
Dr. Lindeck, using apparatus he had brought from Berlin ; but a 
•complete discussion of the whole can best be given when the values of 
the Berlin coils in terms of the mercury standard have been found. 

Dr. Lindeck also brought four Clark cells. Of these two, Nos. 69 
and 71, were of the pattern described by Dr. Kahle (' Electrotechnische 
Zeitschrift,' July 22, 1892; 'Zeitschrift fiir Instrumentenkunde,' April 
1892). The mercurous sulphate is enclosed in a porous pot. The zinc 
dips among the crystals of the zinc sulphate, its end being bent so as to 
be horizontal. The vertical portion of the zinc is covered with a glass 
tube, so that the horizontal part alone is effective. 



156 



EEPOET — 1892. 



The other two, Nos. 12 and 29, were H cells of the pattern described 
by Lord Rayleigh. 

These cells were compared with the standard at tbe Cavendish 
Laboratory with the results shown in Table XVII., which gives the 
differences between the four cells and the standard in hundred thou- 
sandths of a volt. 

Table XVII. 



- 1 


Values of Berlin Cell— Standard in -00001 Volt 


Date 


July 26 


July 27 


July 29 


Temperature 


16°-1 


15°-9 


15°'9 


Cell No. 69 
„ 71 
,, 29 

,. 12 


-15 
-11 
-36 
-39 


-18 
-15 
-35 
-38 


-14 

-36 
-39 



On July 29 cell No. 71 had been taken away. Dr. Kahle kindly 
determined the differences between No. 69 and each of the other cells 
before they left Berlin. Values for these same differences can be obtained 
from Table XVII. 

We thus get Table XVIII. 

Table XVIII. 



Ditterences between Cell No. 69 and the others sent from Berlin 


Date and Place of Observation 


No. 71 No. 12 


No. 29 


July 19, 1892) 
„ 20 „ j- Berlin 
21 


-2 
-4 
-4 


29 
28 
25 


29 

25 ' 
26 


July 26, 1892) ( 
„ 27 „ r Cambridge ■ 


-4 
-3 


21 
19 
22 


24 
20 
25 



Thus the relative values of the cells as found at Cambridge are 
practically the same as those found at Berlin. Moreover, taking the B.M.F. 
of the Cambridge standard as 1'4<342 volt at 15° C, that of the Berlin 
cells, with porous pots, is 1'43405, and of the Berlin H cells about 
1-4338. 

The value actually found by Dr. Kahle for the B.M.F. of the porous 
pot cells is 1'4336 volt, so that the agreement is satisfactory. In all the 
above it has been assumed that the resistance of 106"30 centimetres of 
mercury is 1 ohm, and that the amount of silver deposited per second by 
a current of 1 ampere is 001118 gramme. 

The H form of cell in all cases examined at Berlin has a slightly 
lower B.M.F. than those with the porous pots, the difference being about 
•0003 volt. 



ON ELECTRO-OPTICS. 



157 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. John Kerr, Mr. E. T. 
GrLAZEBROOK, Lord Kelvin, and Professor A. W. Eucker, on 
Electro-optics. 

The Committee report that Dr. Kerr has continued his work on 
electro-optics during the year. His results are given in the appendix to 
this report. 

Appendix. 

On Dispersion in Double 'Refraction due to Electric Stress. 
By Dr. John Kerr. 

The object of the experiments was to find whether the optical effect 
of electric stress varies with wave-length. The only dielectric examined 
was CSj, and the cell was that described in the ' Phil. Mag.' for 
March, 1880. The two nicols at the ends of the cell were placed with 
principal sections parallel, and at 45° to the lines of force. Immediately 
after the second nicol came a spectroscope, which received no other light 
than that which passed through the two nicols and the uniform part of 
the electric field. The lunette of the spectroscope was focussed, and 
directed so that one of Fraunhofer's lines passed through the intersection 
of the wires, and the instrument was untouched until the end of the 
measurement. 

When the electric force is applied, the spectrum darkens ; and as the 
potential rises through a sufficient range, a black fringe passes gradually 
over the spectrum, entering at the violet end, and leaving at the red. 
This fringe we know to be the place of phase- difference tt, or of retardation- 
difference ^\, of the two component rays. 

The one measurement made in each case was that of the potential at 
which the black fringe was bisected by the above-mentioned Fraunhofer's 
line. The following table contains the results of the two sets of measure- 
ments last taken. In each of the last three divisions of the table the first 
two lines of numbers correspond to the two sets of measurements, and the 
third line to their averages. The quantities represented by the numbers 
are indicated in the first column, V standing for potential, Q for corre- 
sponding optical effect, and Q' for the value of Q when V=180.^ 



— 


C 


D 


F 


G (hydrogen) 


Wave-lengths 


6562 


5892 


4860 


4340 


Q = ^; 


194 
194 
194 


180 
179 
179i 


155 
156 
155i 


142 
14.S 
142i 


V = 180; Q'=- 


565 
558 
562 


589 
589 
589 


655 
640 
647 


697 
680 

688 


Q'-v/A= I 


457 
451 
455 


452 
452 
452 


456 
446 

45] 


459 
448 
453 



The values of Q' are calculated from those of Q by the law of squares, this law 
being verified for the three monochromatic lights G, F, D with the present apparatus 
and arrangements, and through a range of effect equal to K. 



158 KEPURT— 1892. 

From the fact that Q' undergoes a regular increase from the red end 
of the spectrum to the blue, and from the approximate equality of the 
lowest line of numbers, it may be inferred — 

(1) That the optical effect of electric stress in a given medium (CSj) 
increases as the wave-length diminishes. 

(2) And more definitely, that the optical effect varies exactly or very 
nearly in the inverse ratio of the square root of wave-length. 



Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir Gr. G. Stokes 
(Chairman), Professor A. Schuster, Mr. Gr. Johnstone Stonet,. 
Sir H. E. KoscoE, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. Gr. M. Whipple, 
Professor McLeod, and Mr. Gr. J. Stmons, appointed for con- 
sidering the best methods of recording the direct Intensity of 
Solar Radiation. {Draxvn up by Sir Gr. Gr. Stokes.) 

The work of the Committee during the past year has been confined to an 
examination, both experimental and theoretical, of Balfour Stewart's 
second actinometer when used as a dynamical instrument. Actinometers 
may be divided into two classes, which may conveniently be denominated 
dynamical and statical respectively. In those of the dynamical class the 
mercury or other fluid employed is examined while the head of the 
column is in motion, in consequence of the exposure being varied by 
suitable manipulation, and readings of the column are taken at chosen 
times, or else the times are noted when the top of the column reaches 
chosen readings. In the statical class the instrument is allowed to attain 
its permanent state, subject of course to a secular change, such as that 
due to the varying altitude of the sun, and the results are deduced from 
the stationary readings of two or more thermometers. Herschel's, 
Hodgkinson's, and Stewart's first actinometers are examples of the 
dynamical kind ; the black bulb thermometer, Violle's actinometer, and 
Stewart's second actinometer, when used as he intended, are examples of 
the statical class. 

Stewart's second actinometer has been already described (see Reports 
of the Association for 188G, p. 63, and 1887, p. 32), but to save the 
trouble of reference it may be well briefly to mention that it consists of 
an envelope of thick copper, closed on all sides except as regards a small 
hole to allow the sun's rays to enter, and one to allow the stem of the 
central thermometer to pass through. In the actual instrument the 
envelope is cubical, and its temperature is determined by three thermo- 
meters, with their bulbs sunk in hollow chambers in the thick metal, two 
(a, b) in the front face of the cube, or that turned towards the sun, the 
third (c) in the back face. The internal thermometer (d) has a lenti- 
cular bulb, which is mounted so that it lies at the centre of the cube, or 
nearly so, and has its plane perpendicular to the incident rays. Th& 
copper cube is surrounded by a thick coating of felt, and this by a cover- 
ing of thin brass. The object of this arrangement is to make the tem- 
perature of the copper cube sensibly the same all round, and at the same 
time to prevent it from changing more than very slowly when the indtru- 
ment is exposed. The thermometers a, b, c were graduated to degrees, 
D to half-degrees, all Fahrenheit. 



ON THE INTENSITY OF SOLAK BADIATION. 159 

With a view to increasing the eflfect of the radiation from the sun on 
the thermometer d its bulb was ordered to be of green glass of a particu- 
lar kind. This, as we ascertained from Mr. Casella, who made the instru- 
ment, occasioned a great deal of trouble, as not only had a pot of green 
glass to be made specially for the purpose, but many thermometers broke 
in the process of construction, the fracture taking place at the junction of 
the green glass of the bulb with the colourless glass of the stem. In a 
future instrument we should not think of encountering these difficulties, 
since, as will presently appear, our researches led us to the conclusion 
that little advantage, if any, was gained by the substitution of green for 
colourless glass in the construction of the bulb. 

The principle of the instrument was to make any point of the radia- 
tion thermometer (d) look, so to speak, in all directions outwards at an 
envelope of uniform temperature, except as to directions lying within a 
very small solid angle (that subtended by the hole), within which the 
sun's rays were admitted. If the direct rays of the sun had been used 
the solid angle in question could only be made small on condition of 
admitting only a very small amount of the sun's rays, which would not 
have sufficed to raise the temperature of d sufficiently above that of A, b, c. 
To reconcile the two conditions of allowing the bulb of D to be almost 
wholly surrounded by the copper envelope, and at the same time permit- 
ting a sufficient amount of solar radiation to fall upon it, a lens was intro- 
duced, mounted on a stem perpendicular to the front face, to which face 
the plane of the lens was parallel, and from which the lens was distant by 
its focal length. In this way the necessary hole in the envelope need 
hardly be wider than the image of the sun, though it was convenient to 
allow some margin in order to provide for the contingency of the pointing 
of the instrument not being very exact. The lens was provided with 
two diaphragms for optional use, one having twice the area of the other. 

The observations which have been taken at intervals during the past 
year with a view to test the practical working of Stewart's second actino- 
meter have been made by Professor McLeod ; the reduction of the obser- 
vations has been mostly done by the Chairman, with whom also Professor 
McLeod has been in frequent communication as to the lines of inquiry. 
In consequence of other engagements, the observations have not yet been 
subjected to so complete a reduction as the care with which they have 
been made deserves ; but enough has been done to serve as a guide to the 
inquiry, and to permit of some general conclusions as to the^behaviour of 
the instrument. 

As has been already stated, the instrument was intended for use as a 
statical actinometer with permanent exposure. But it seemed desirable 
in the first instance to study the march of the thermometers when the 
instrument was first exposed to radiation from the sun, or the sun's rays 
were cut off after it had been exposed for some time. This seemed to 
hold out a better prospect of obtaining a thorough insight into the work- 
ing of the instrument than if it had been at once used as a statical 
actinometer ; besides which the latter use would have involved some 
outlay in the way of providing some sort of equatorial mounting and 
clock movement, and it did not seem desirable to go to the expense of 
this unless preliminary testinj; showed that the instrument was likely to 
be successful when used as a statical actinometer. 

The temperature of the case was determined from the readino-s of the 
thermometers a, b, c by taking first the mean of a and B, and "then the 



160 REPORT— 1892. 

mean of that and c. It was found, however, that A and B always read 
almost exactly alike, and c was not usually more than one or two tenths 
of a degree lower. In any future instrument it would douhtless be 
sufl&cient to determine the temperature of the copper case by a single 
thermometer sunk in one of the side faces, midway between the front and 
back face. 

In spite of the felt packing the temperature of the case was found to 
change more rapidly when the instrament was exposed to the sun than 
was to be desired, and Professor McLeod found it an improvement to 
introduce a screen of tinned iron placed a little distance in front of the 
front side of the cube, and of course provided with a hole for letting the 
sun's rays through that were to fall upon the thermometer D. In most 
of the observations the case thermometers were mei'ely sunk in their 
holes, the sides of which the bulbs might or might not touch in one or 
two places. It was feared that in spite of the slowness of the change of 
temperature of the case, the lagging of the case thermometers might 
possibly introduce a sensible eri'or. Accordingly the effect was tried of 
introducing a packing of reduced silver between the bulb of the thermo- 
meter and the wall of the cavity in which it was inserted. By packing 
in this manner one of the thermometers A, B, and leaving the other 
unpacked, it was possible to judge whether any sensible error was to be 
apprehended from lagging. It was found that the packed thermometer 
was a little more prompt, but the difference of temperatures read oS was 
very small, little more than emerging from errors of observation. 

In the first regular observation on the march of the thermometers 
under insolation, the four thermometers were read before exposure, then 
the instrument was exposed, and the thermometers read at intervals of a 
minute for a quarter of an hour, by which time thermometer D had 
become sensibly stationary, having risen 61°'3, while the case thermo- 
meters rose about 2°, the excess of D over the temperature of the case 
rising to 49°7. The sun was then screened off, and the reading of all 
the thermometers at intervals of one minute continued for about half an 
hour. During this time the case thermometers continued slowly to rise, 
the total rise in the half-hour amounting to 1°"5 ; the central thermometer 
fell, pretty rapidly towards the beginning, slowly near the end, till it 
stood only 0°'4 or 0°'5 above the case thermometers. The sky was very 
clear, and there were no clouds near the sun ; and as the insolation began 
at XII., 26, the decrease of the sun's altitude during insolation was but 
small. 

It remains to be shown whether, and if so in what way, a measure of 
the radiation can be obtained from the results. 

Let be the tempei^ature of the insolated thermometer, T that of the 
case as measured by the case th'ermometers, q the coefficient of cooling, 
the rate of cooling being taken as following Newton's law, r the rate of 
heating of D due to solar radiation. Then in the time dt the increment 
dO of d's temperature is made up of the gain, rdt, due to radiation and 
the loss, q(6 — t), due partly to convection, partly to the excess of the 
radiation from D to the case over that from the case to D. We have 
therefore ^^ 

|^ + 2(^-T)=r (n 

If we suppose r and t constant, or subject only to slow secular changes, 
so that they may be deemed constant in the integration, we have 



ON THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR lUDIATION. 161 

^=T + -+ce-«' (2) 

q ' 

Hence if u denotes the excess of temperature of the central thermometer 
over that of the case, we see from (2), or directly from (1), that u tends 
to the limit 

IT 

u= ~=:\r, say ..... (3) 

■when the time t which has elapsed since exposure, or whatever other 
change it may have been in the disposition of the instrument, is large 
enough to permit of our neglecting the last term in (2). The constant 
X, the reciprocal of q, in (3) denotes a time, which may conveniently be 
called the lagging time of the thermometer n. 

Were the actinometer used as a statical instrument the simple ex- 
pression (3) is all that we should be concerned with. The quantity r 
varies as the radiation, but involves a coefficient depending on the par- 
ticular instrument and for a given instrument on the area of the dia- 
phragm used, and on the presence or absence of the quartz plate which 
is furnished for covering the aperture. The constant q need not be 
determined, as it is associated with a coefficient depending on the instru- 
ment. By itself alone the actinometer gives only the ratio of variation 
of the radiation. To obtain an absolute measure the actinometer would 
have to be compared, once for all, with some actinometer which gives 
absolute results. We believe that the main object which Stewart had in 
view was to furnish an instrument which might supply a means of 
detecting possible variations in the intrinsic intensity of radiation from 
the sun, corresponding, suppose, to the sun-spot period ; and for this 
object the same instrument would be employed throughout, so that we 
should not be concerned with absolute measures. 

In studying, however, the march of thermometer D when the instru- 
ment is exposed, or else the sun's rays cut off", we must have recourse to 
equation (2), and now we can no longer dispense with a knowledge of 
the value of the constant q. The easiest way of determining it seemed 
to be to make use in the first instance of the readings in the latter 
portion of the observation, when thermometer D, after having been 
heated by exposure, was cooling in consequence of the sun's rays having 
been intercepted by a screen. In this case r=0, and we have simply 
^^°°^(2) ^_^^_,, (4^ 

Hence, if we plot the observations, taking the time for abscissa and the 
logarithm of the excess u for ordinate, we ought to get a series of points 
lying in a straight line. 

On laying down the observations on paper it was found that, after a 
slight initial irregularity, the dots representing the observations lay 
extremely closely in a straight line until the excess u, which began at 
49°-7, was reduced to about 3°. They then began to fall a little too 
high, and the height above the straight line representing the previous 
observations kept increasing as we proceeded. We have not investigated 
the cause of this variation, but it seems possible that it may have been 
due to a slight lagging of the case thermometers. As these were still 
rising, though D was falling, the lagging would make the temperature of 
the case appear a little too low, and therefore the excess u a little too 
great, and therefore the actual reduction of ti, would be somewhat less 

1892. M 



162 REPOET— 1892. 

than the calculated. The difference between the real and apparent 
temperature of the case would be too small sensibly to affect the result 
until the absolute excess u became comparatively small. We are not, 
however, concerned with such small excesses u in the actual use of the 
instrument. The lagging time deduced came out 5'6 minutes. 

The reciprocal of this was then introduced into equation (2), which 
was then applied to the reduction of the first portion of the observation, 
that portion, namely, which was concerned with the rise of D consequent 
on exposure. As and T are observed and q deemed to be known, the 
equation contains only two unknown quantities, namely, r, which depends 
on the radiation, and the ai'bitrary constant c. These might be deter- 
mined by any two not unfavourably selected observations of the series, 
and then the observed and calculated values of u ought to agree for the 
rest. This, however, was found to be by no means the case, and the 
differences between theory and observation wei'e far too methodical to ba 
attributable to errors of observation. Equation (2) was then tried as a 
mere formula of interpolation, q being taken as a disposable constant as 
well as r and c. Any three observations would of course theoretically 
suffice for the determination of the three constants, and then the formula 
would give the calculated final excess, to which r is theoretically propor- 
tional, or the calculated value of u for any other observation of the series. 

The numerical calculation is much facilitated by choosing for the 
determination of the constants three observations equidistant in time. 
If t„ be the time of the first of the three and Ai the chosen interval, we 
have from (2) 

1*0=- + ce '" ; 



These equations give 



1 
Atto=— ce-'^'°(l — e-'^') ; 

A2«o=ce-'"°(l-e-«^')"- 



which determines q, and then 

2-"*° ~A^«T' 

which gives the calculated final excess. 

A rough calculation showed that four minutes was a very suitable 
interval A^ to choose, which also agreed with the result of actual trials. 
When various trios were taken from different parts of the series not too 
near the end, as there the differences became small, and consequently 
errors of observation would be telling, the calculated final excesses came 
out remarkably accordant. It thus appeared that equation (2) was no 
mere formula of interpolation, but that it was very well satisfied, pro- 
vided, at least, the higher part of the series were not included. The 
limit to which the excess tended when it had become nearly stationary 
was evidently a little, though only a little, lower than the calculated 
limit. This is not to be wondered at, because in the calculation it was 
assumed that the cooling followed Newton's lavv, which it is known is 
not sufficiently accurate when the excess of temperature is as great as 
40° or 50°, the cooling in such a case being more rapid than if Newton's 
law had been followed exactly, the constant involved in it being determined 
by observations taken with more moderate excesses of temperature. 



ON THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION. 163 

The values of q as determined by different trios did not come out so 
closely accordant as the calculated final excesses, as might indeed have 
been expected from the nature of the equations. Still they agreed in 
showing that to satisfy the insolation observations the coefficient of cool- 
ing q must be taken distinctly larger, in the ratio of about 5 to 4, than 
when the thermometer cooled after exposure. When a beam of the rays 
of the sun falls on the front face of the thermometer a portion of heat is 
absorbed directly by the mercury under the place where the rays strike. 
As mercury is opaque the portion thus warmed would in the first 
instance form a thin stratum adjacent to the surface by which the rays 
entered. Of course currents of convection would arise in the mercury, 
and also the fluid metal would conduct the heat.. But if the heat thus 
tends to get diffused, on the other hand there is a constant renewal of 
the superficial heating. Now this specially heated stratum, however 
thin, helps to raise the mean temperature of the surface, but contributes 
comparatively little to the mean temperature of the mass ; in fact, if it 
were infinitely thin it would contribute infinitely little. Now the rate of 
cooling is determined by the average temperature of the surface taken 
all round, whereas the indication of the thermometer is determined by 
the average temperature of the whole mass of mercury. Hence the 
mean temperature of the surface is greater than the mean temperature 
of the mass ; and therefore, if the rate of cooling is supposed to be 
determined by the temperature indicated by the thermometer, in other 
words, to be what it would have been if there had been no such inequality 
of temperature in different parts of the mass, we must to make up for it 
take a larger coefficient of cooling. 

Hitherto a single series only of observations has been mentioned. 
In fact, a considerable number of series were taken, but as the general 
mode of treatment and the general character of the results are prettj^ 
nearly the same throughout, it does not seem necessary to mention them 
except when they were made for the special elucidation of particular 
points. 

In the first sei-ies the diaphragm used with the lens was the larger 
one, of ^/2-inch diameter. It seemed desirable to compare the results 
obtained with this and with the smaller diaphragm of 1-inch diameter. 
Accordingly, on a day when the sky was clear, series were taken with 
the two diaphragms in succession. On reducing the results it was fouad 
that the effect of radiation through the larger diaphragm was as nearly 
as possible double that through the smaller. 

The object of the quartz plate was to prevent possible irregularities 
arising from the action of wind, which, it was thought, might cause some 
interchange between the air inside and outside the cube. It seemed 
desirable to try the instrument with and without the quartz plate. 
Comparative series were accordingly taken on a clear and not windy day 
_with and without the quartz plate. The efl'ect was in round numbers 
about 10 per cent, less with plate on than with plate off. When the 
plate is used there is loss by reflection from the two surfaces, besides 
which there may also conceivably be loss by absorption. The loss by 
reflection can easily be calculated by Fresnel's formula for the intensity 
of reflected light. If we disregard the double refraction, and take /x for 
the refractive index answering to the mean of the heat rays incident, and 
take account of the rays reflected an even number of times, as well as of 
those which are not reflected at all, we have for the intensity of the 



164 KEPOET— 1892. 

transmitted light, that of the incident being 1- 

2/x 



On multiplying the calculated final excess got from the observations 
without any plate by the above factor, it came, within the limits of errors 
of observation, the same as the calculated final excess obtained from the 
observations with the quartz plate on. It follows that there is no 
seusible loss due to absorption in the quartz plate. It is to be re- 
membered that the rays that fell upon the quartz had already passed 
thi-ough the glass lens, and also that in the radiation from the sun it is a 
CO inpai-atively small proportion of heat rays that are absorbed by glass 
and similar substances. 

It remains to be explained in what way we were led to the conclusion 
tliat the employment of green instead of coloui-less glass for the bulb of 
tlie insolation thermometer must have made but little difference in the 
results obtained. 

Imagine a thermometer to be suddenly exposed to solar radiation, as 
in Stewart's second actiuometer, and consider what its behaviour ought 
to be on the two extreme suppositions: (I) that the mercury in contact 
with the glass reflects perfectly all the rays that fall upon it, but that the 
shell is partially opaque ; (2) that the mercury reflects only partially, but 
that the shell is perfectly diathei-manous. 

On the first supposition the mercury would not be warmed at all by 
the rays which fell upon it, but only by conduction from the shell, which 
itself would be heated by absorption of a portion of the rays that fell 
upon it, either as they came from the sun or as they were on their way 
back after reflection at the surface of the mei-cury. The rise of tempera- 
ture of the shell would ultimately vary as the time elapsed. But if the 
shell were at a given temperature the total heat received by the mercury 
from the shell would vary ultimately as the time during which it has been 
passing in. But as the temperature of the shell is not constant, but its 
rise varies ultimately as the time since exposure, the total heat received 
by the mercury will vary ultimately as the integral of a quantity which 
varies as the time, and will therefore vary ultimately as the square of 
the time. 

On the second supposition the mercury receives its heat directly from 
the sun, and the total heat received varies ultimately as the time daring 
which it has been receiving it. 

Now in the actual observation the gain of heat was found to be 
ultimately sensibly proportional to the time elapsed, not to the square 
of the time, as may be inferred from the fact that the rate of increase 
was decreasing from the first. We may conclude therefore that the gain 
of heat was due almost entirely to the imperfection of the reflection from 
the mercury, which entails direct absorption by the mercury of the 
portion which failed to be reflected, and only in a comparatively in- 
significant degree due to absorption of heat by the shell in the passage of 
the heat through it. "We may therefore infer that the substitution of 
green for colourless glass in the shell of the bulb would make but little 
difference in the results obtained. This agrees with the experience of 
Captain Abney, who was led by his experiments on the diathermancy 
of various kinds of glass to suppose that a thermometer with a bulb of 
green glass would rise decidedly higher in sunshine than one with a shell 



ON THE INTENSITY OF SOLAll lUDIATION. 165 

of colourless glass, but found on trial that the substitution of green for 
colourless glass made only a slight difference. 

That the rise should be due chiefly to absorption of radiant heat by the 
mercury is not to be wondered at. We do not know -whether actual 
experiments have been made on the reflecting power of mercury in 
contact with glass, but we should probably not be far wrong in estimating 
it at about 65 per cent., which is about the reflecting power of speculum 
metal in air. This would leave as much as 35 per cent, of the incident 
rays to be absorbed by the mercury. 

In some of the experiments the change of temperature of the case was 
barely slow enough to allow of regarding T as constant in the integration 
of (1). But it is easy to pi-ove that if T vary slowly, though not 
infinitely slowly, in order to correct for the finiteness of the rate of 
change, we have merely to add the term —dijqdt to the right-haud 
member of (2). 



Report on Constants and Units. By C. E. GtUILLAume. 

[A Communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extcnso 

amongst the Reports.] 

The report which I have the honour of presenting to the British Associa- 
tion does not constitute a coherent whole, but has, on the contrary, the 
character of detached notes, which notes can, however, be classified in 
three groups. In the first I will give the value of several constants deter- 
mined in modern times. The second embraces various propositions which 
seem to me already in a sufiiciently advanced state for it to be possible 
to come to a decision with regard to them. Lastly, in the third part I 
have made brief allusion to various units which will doubtless come 
under discussion in a few years, and about which it may be convenient 
meantime to endeavour to form an opinion. 

First Part.— Values of Certain Constants. 

Up to quite recent modern times a certain number of geodetic data 
■were derived from the ancient toise of Peru, or from the toise of Bessel. 
Many physical constants are given in terms of a yard, foot, inch, or mil 
(•001 inch) ; it is therefore important to know the value of these various 
units in terms of the metre, which tends to become more and more, 
thanks in part to the British Association, the international _ scientific 
unit. I ought to say first that, since the Conference of Weights and 
Measures held in Paris in 1889, the metre and kilogramme are no longer 
defined by the standards of the Archives of France, but by the copies of 
these standards which are deposited in the International Bureau of 
Weights and Measures : these copies are the common property of the 
nations who adhered to the convention of the metre. 

Toises. — According to a determination of M. Benoit, Director of the 
International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the true value of the 
ancient toise of France is 

l'»-94909a, 

and that of the toise of Bessel is 

l'»-949061. 



166 REPOET — 1892. 

Yard. — The accepted value of the metre, according to Kater, is 

39-3708 inches ; 
or, according to Clarke, 

39-3704 inches. 

These numbers were deduced from standards of the metric system 
■whose value was insufficiently known. But, thanks to modern determi- 
nations, we have beeu enabled to obtain an accurate reduction of these 
ancient values, as well as those of Mr. Comstock ; M. Tittmann has thus 
found 

lm=39-3698 inches. 

According to other measurements by Clarke we should have 

lm=39-3699 inches. 

If we adopt this last value, which seems at present the most probable 
one, we have 

1 yard =0914404 metre. 
1 foot =0-304801 „ 
1 inch =0-025400 „ 
1 metre=l 093608 yard. 
1 „ =3 280825 feet. 

Electric Standards. — A great number of researches have been devoted 
to the measurement of the variation of the specific resistance of mercury 
with temperature ; the divergences of these results induced me to under- 
take the redetermination, and to spare no pains to obtain an accurate result. 

I would not trespass on your patience by describing the precautions 
I have taken, the difficulties encountered in the work, and the reasons 
which make me leel that this result is sufficiently free from systematic 
errors. By sixty-four series of measurements made between 0° and 61°, 
I have arrived at the following mean result : — 

1. Apparent resistance of mercury in hard glass, in terms of the 
hydrogen thermometer : 

'•t=»-o(1+0-0008809T-(-0000000999T2). 

2. True resistance of mercury (corrected for dilatation of the glass) 
in terms of the same scale : 

|Ot=Po(1 + 0-0008881T-^0-000001010T2). 



Second Paet. — Propositions. 
Introduction. 

I wish first to demonstrate by some examples the three following 
principles : — 

1. There would be danger, from the point of view of precision, in sup- 
pressing intermediary units which are theoretically unjustifiable, but 
which can be represented by precise standards. 

2. In certain cases it would be advantageous to reduce the constants 
to the C.G.S. system more than has been done. 

3. For ordinary physics and industrial application certain approximate 
definitions are clearly sufficient, while metrologists can, for their own use, 
apply the necessary corrections to their results. 



ON UNITS. 167 

1. In theory one unit of each kind is enough to express all quantities of 
the same nature, but in practice it is usefnl to keep several units. 

The unit of energy in all its forms is the erg, or one of its decimal 
multiples, and if we knew with sufficient exactness an official value of the 
mechanical equivalent of heat we could express in ergs all the constants 
which calorimetry requires. This will, without doubt, be done in the 
future, but for the present the final result would lose in precision if we did 
not keep an intermediate unit, the calorie, of which everyone can easily 
procure for himself an exact standard ; for the reduction to the erg would 
introduce in certain cases a greater uncertainty than the crude result. In 
theory we should have gained somewhat, but the result would have been 
rendered more vague. 

2. Let us take, on the contrary, the case of the mechanical equivalent 
of heat in which several intermediate constants occur more or less, accord- 
ing as it is expressed in normal or in local kilogrammetres or in joules. 
The most exact mode of realising a given amount of loork is by absorbing 
the effect produced by the earth on a heavy body. Then, knowing the 
mass of a body, it will be necessary, in order to measure the work which 
it does in falling, to know the value of ' ^ ' at the place of observation and 
the pressure of the air which are well determined. The whole reduction 
of the experiment will not introduce an error of 1 : 10,000 in the result, 
an error which is in this case quite negligible. 

Hence, if there is any practical interest in keeping the value of the 
equivalent in gramme-force centimetre, the question of precision does 
not come in at all, and unification cannot but gain by completing the 
reduction to the C.G.S. system. 

3. After having theoretically defined a unit it is useful to give a legal 
value and a standard of it ; this legal value carries a special name, and by 
an odd reversal of the problem, in the progress of measurements, the 
theoretical unit becomes expressed in terms of the legal standard. If one 
is afraid that this unnatural state of things might cause inconvenience it 
is only necessary to consider the case of the metric system to convince 
oneself that this is not so at all. Originally the kilogramme was defined in 
terms of the decimetre, taking the density of water as equal to 1. To- 
day the litre is deduced from the kilogramme, but the litre is no longer 
rigorously equal to a cubic decimetre. 

A certain number of physical constants determined by hydrostatic 
weighings or by volumetric measures are expressed in terms of the (milli- 
litre)* or (millilitre)', and not in terms of the centimetre or cm^. 

The occasions in which it would be necessary to establish a difiereuce 
between these quantities are so rare that I do not believe I am going be- 
yond the truth in saying that the half of physicists have never expressed 
this difficulty. 

With these preliminaries I pass to the propositions. 

Unit of Pressure. 

So far the unit of pressure has escaped reform, but by a very happy 
chance we could, by a change of little importance, adopt a unit of pres- 
sure which would be in harmony with the C.G.S. system, and whose 
value would be as convenient and exact a one as possible. 

Let us admit provisionally that the absolute density of water at 4° 
is equal to unity ; we shall have for the density of mercury at 0° the 



168 EEPORT — 1892. 

number 13"5956, wliich expresses its relative density (specific gravity). 
The pressure being given by the equation 

jp=hgd, 

we must choose for rj some normal value. Now, there can be no hesitation 
on this point Meteorologists, metrologists, and geodesists have adopted 
the normal value at 45°, and at sea-level ; physicists have begun to adopt 
this unity, and any exceptional cases can only be attributed to pre- 
conceived ideas. The normal value of g is 

cm 



Hence fffrm . cm' 



P 

L8 



980-65 

sec" 



= ;» X 980-65 X 13-5956 f-^"^ . ^""'l. 

Lsec" cm^J 



Let^=10«; then /i = 75-005 cm. 

Starting from this result I propose to adopt as the imit of pressure 
the pressure exerted by a column of mercury of 76 cm. at 0° under the 
normal conditions of gravity, and to call this unit the barie. This 
decision would in no wise prevent one from keeping as secoudary units 
the pressures exercised by colnmns of mercury 1 mm., 1 cm., or 1 m. in 
heiglat, which bear a simple ratio to the unit pressui'e.' 

I do not think that any measurements have been made in which it 
would be of use to take into account the compressibility for a pressure of 
one barie ; but as this correction varies as the square of the height, 
the limit beyond which it is no longer negligible is 2 or 3 metres of 
mercury, a correction must be applied in certain experiments on this 
account. 

The Temperature Scale. 

The thermometric system is an entirely arbitrary one, and is subject 
to only one condition, namely, that of offering a simple relation with 
precise experimental data. The adoption of a normal unit of pressure in 
nowise renders it necessary to make use of this unit for the determina- 
tion of the higher fixed point of the system of temperatures. The 
adoption of a thermometric system (that is to say of a fundamental 
interval and of its subdivision) by all physicists alike would evidently be 
extremely useful, and it is doubtless to avoid breaking suddenly with 
popular customs that the Centigrade system has not yet come into 
universal use. 

Altogether different is the question of a thermometric scale, that is 
to say of a function of some natural phenomenon which represents 
the temperature when it is made to satisfy two equations of condition. 
Carnot's principle, as Lord Kelvin has shown, allows us to define a scale 
of temperatures independently of the thermal properties of any given 
body. The most accurate experiments may lead to the belief that, 
■within the limits of temperature measured as yet, the hydrogen thermo- 
meter furnishes us with a scale of temperatures which is practically 
equivalent to the thermodynamic scale ; and it is for this reason that 
this standard scale has been adopted by the Comite International des 
Poids et Mesures. I would propose, therefore, that all physicists should 
be recommended to reduce all exact measui'ements to the Centigrade scale 

' For the unit of pressure to be completely defined it is necessary to state 
whether account shall be taken of the compressibility of mercury and of its vapour 
pressure, of which the value at 0° is as yet not very well determined. 



ON UNITS. 169 

of the hydrogen thermometer, to which the name of normal thermometric 
scale should be given. ^ 

Third Part. 

Certain proposals still awaiting their final form and considerations ou 
certain points : — 

The Calorie. 

It has been pi-oposed on various occasions not to adopt an independent 
unit of heat-energy. In the equation 

, aMcd=i 

we have — 

M = unit of mass of water ; 

c = specific heat of water ; 

6 = the interval of temperature corresponding to one degree ; 

j = either the C.Gr.S. unit or the practical unit of energy ; 

a = the heat-equivalent of this energy. 

The proposal in question is equivalent to putting a = 1, and, as we 
cannot modify M, to fixing c and Q so as to satisfy the equation. 

Messrs. Preece and Forbes proposed in 1889 to modify the temperature 
system, while Prof. Ostwald prefers to attribute to water a specific heat 
difiering from unity (equal to 4*2, when M = 1 gramme, 6 = 1° C, and 
j = 1 joale). I am also of opinion that it would be best to agree to this 
last alternative finally ; but I have pointed out previously why I think it 
preferable for the moment to adhere to the status quo, and to consider this 
reform one of those to be accomplished ia a more or less distant future. 
For the present it is, above all things, necessary to define the calorie — 
that is to say, the temperature at which the specific heat of water shall 
be considered equal to unity — but I do not think this decision can be 
taken before the question has again been submitted to a very accurate 
experimental investigation. The temperature measurements would, of 
course, be necessarily referred to the normal scale. 

Radiation. . 
No special unit has hitherto been employed for radiation in general, 
and the only unit which has been used in a particular case is irrational ; 
for in solar radiation all authors have taken for their unit the calorie yer 
minute, a unit which conforms to no system at all. No radiation has 
hitherto been measured to an approximation equal to that with which we 
know the mechanical equivalent of the calorie, hence there would be no 
inconvenience in using the watt as the unit of intensity of radiation. 
This unit would yield very acceptable numbers for the majority of cases 
of total radiation which we have to measure. We might even push our 
analysis still further, and divide the spectrum of an incandescent body into 
bands O'l /^ (/x=micron) in breadth ; the unit would then be the watt in each 
of these bands. The spectram would thus be completely defined, and 
moreover the sums of the partial intensities would be numerically equal to 
the total intensity of the radiation. 

' The differences between the indications of various kinds of mercury thermo- 
meter and the hydrogen thermometer have been determined by very accurate 
experiments. The comparisons carried out by M. P. Chappuis with mercury thermo- 
meters of hard French glass are the most complete ones that have hitherto been 
made. We also possess reduction tables for thermometers made of hard Jena glass, 
of French lead glass, English lead glass, &c. It is much to be desired that only 
samples of hard glass should be used in the construction of thermometers. 



170 



EEPORT — 1892. 



On the Application of Interference Methods to Spectroscopic 
Measurements. By Albert A. Michelson. 

Plates I.-IV. 
[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso among the Reports.] 

The theoretical investigation of the relation between the distribution of 
light in a source, as a function of the wave-length, and the resulting 
' visibility curve ' has been given in a paper bearing the same title as the 
present one in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for April 1891. 
The physical definition of ' visibility ' there adopted is 

ii + V 

in which I, is the intensity at the centre of a bright interference band, 
and I2 the intensity at the centre of the adjoining dark band. In order 
to interpret the actual curves obtained by observation of interference 
fringes, it is first necessary to reduce the results of the eye-estimates of 
visibility, which may be designated by V,,, to their absolute values as 
above defined. 

For this purpose two quartz lenses, one concave and the other convex, 
and of equal curvatures, were mounted with their crystalline axes at 
right angles to each other between two nicols. Under these conditions 
a series of concentric interference rings appeared. If a be the angle 
between the principal section of the polariser and the axis of the first 
quartz, and to the angle between the axis and the analyser, the intensity 
of the light transmitted will be 

I = cos^ (co — a) — sin 2a sin 2ijiSm'^Tr 1- — ^ , 

where ty is the thickness through the first quartz, and t^ that through 
the second. If the analyser and polariser are parallel, cu = a, and 



•whence 



and 



I=l-sin2 2a8in2 7r'^-^^^ 

Ii=l, and l2= 1 — sin^ 2a, 

Y__ I] — I2 __ 1 — cos^ 2a 
ii + I2 ~ 1 + cos^Ta' 



This curve, together with the mean of a number of eye-estimates, 
given in fig. 2 on opposite page. From these the following table of cor- 
rections may be obtained : — 



V. 


Cor. 


■00 


•00 


•05 


+ •03 


•10 


+ •04 


•15 


+ 03 


•20 


+ 02 


•25 


•00 


•30 


-03 


•35 


-•05 


•40 


-•07 


•45 


-•08 


•50 • 


-•10 



v„ 


Cor. 


■•)a 


_ 


12 


•60 


— 


14 


•65 


— 


15 


•70 


— 


16 


•75 


— 


16 


■80 


_ 


14 


•85 


— 


13 


•90 


_ 


11 


■95 


_ 


08 


■00 




00 



ON SPECTBOSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS. 



171 



_a_ 




t- 



-A- 



p-,3 I 




■^■•■. 




0- 30' 


te' 


so' 


loO' 70' Bo 




Ti.^ 


■a. - 




jViC-UfVC - 






"Em\V CvLTve ' 


1 ♦ C*A* »b 






5Si^e E.sX;™cJc,6a - V, 



172 BEPORT— 1892. 

The curves show a general tendency to estimate the visibility too 
high when the interference bands are clear, and too low when they are 
indistinct. This tendency may be modified by a number of circum- 
stances ; thus it increases with the refrangibility of the light used ; it 
is greater when the field contains a large number of bands than when 
there are but few ; it is greater while the visibility carve is falling than 
when it is rising ; it does not seem to be greatly affected by the intensity 
of the light ; finally it varies on different occasions and with different ob- 
servers. Notwithstanding these disturbing causes, the result, after 
applying the correction, will rarely be in error by more than one-tenth of 
its value, and ordinarily the approximation is nauch closer than this.' 

The observations necessary to construct the visibility curves, from 
which the distribution of light in any approximately homogeneous source 
is to be deduced, may be made with any form of interference apparatus, 
which allows a considerable alteration in the difference of path between 
the two interfering streams of light. 

The apparatus actually employed for this purpose was designed for 
the comparison of wave-lengths, and while admirably adapted for the 
observation of visibility curves it contains many parts not necessary for 

• The formula for visibility deduced in the preceding paper is 

in which 

C = \<p(x) cos kxdx, 

S = U) («) sin Jixdx, 

P= [<)(«) <^a-, 

ft = 2irD, 

D = Difference in path, 

and <p(x) represents the distribution of light in the source. 

In this expression no account was taken of the effect of extraneous light, and it 
was assumed that the two interfering pencils were of equal intensities. It can be 
shown that the error due to both these causes tends to lower the visibility ; but in 
either case the correct values may be obtained by multiplying by a constant factor. 

In the first case let e be the intensity of the extraneous light, and V the result* 
ing visibility ; then by definition — 

^ -(I,+e) + (I. + e)~I, + I., + 2e ' ^"^ ^"^ I. + Ij" ' " (I, + 1.,) (1 + r) ' 

whence V = (1 + r) V. 

In the second case, let p be the ratio of intensities of the interfering pencils ; 
then it can readily be shown that the resulting intensity is 

I = (l + p-)P + 2p (C cos a-S sin »), 

and hence the visibility is 

^ "l + p2 P ' 
whence 

2p 

l+p- 
If the interfering pencils differ by 25 per cent, the factor —x — differs from unity 

by about 4 per cent., so that, in most cases, this cause of error may be neglected. 



ON SPECTKOSCOJfIC MEASUREMENTS. 173 

this use. Fig. 1, page 171, presents tlie plan of an arrangement which, 
while showing all the essential parts, is much Jess complicated. Starting 
from V, a vacuum tube containing the substance whose radiations are to 
be examined (and which is usually enclosed in a metal box in order that 
it may be raised to any required temperature), the light is analysed by 
one or more prisms, forming a spectrum from which any required 
radiation may be separated from the re-st by passing through the slit S.^ 

The light from S is rendered nearly parallel by a collimating lens, and 
then falls on a transparent film of silver on the surface of the plane 
parallel plate Gr,.^ 

Here it divides, part being transmitted to the fixed plane mirror M, 
and part reflected to the movable mirror M2. These mirrors return the 
light to the silvered sui'face, where the first part is reflected and the 
second transmitted, so that both pencils coincide on entering the observ- 
ing telescope.^ 

A little consideration will show that this arrangement is, in all respects, 
equivalent to a film or plate of air between two plane surfaces. The 
interference phenomena are therefore the same as for such an air-plate. 

The theory of these interference bands has been given in an article 
entitled Interference Phenomena in a New Form of Refractometer, ' Philo- 
sophical Magazine ' for April 1882. As is there shown, the projections of 
the bands are, in general, conic sections, the position of maximum dis- 
tinctness being given by the formula 

P= -^ tan i cos2 6, 
tan 9 

in which t^ is the thickness of the equivalent air-plate, where it is cut by 
the axis of the telescope, 4>, the inclination of the two surfaces, 6 and i, 
the components of the angle of incidence parallel and perpendicular re- 
spectively to the intei'section of the surfaces, and P, the distance of the 
plane of maximum distinctness from the surfaces. If 6 be small, the 
variations of P with 6 may be neglected, and we have then 

P=-i5_tan i, 
tan ^ 

or with sufl&cient accuracy, 

P=^-?i. 

<i> 

' In the case of close groups of lines the image of the source is first thrown on a 
slit, otherwise the lines at S would overlap. 

- The light entering the telescope is a maximum when the thickness of the silver 
film is such that the intensity of the transmitted light is equal to that of the reflected 
light. The silvering has another important advantage in diminishing the relative 
intensity of the hght reflected from the other surface. Indeed, for this purpose it 
is advisable to make the tilm heavier ; even so thick that the reflected light is twice 
as bright as the transmitted. This does not atTect the ultimate ratio of intensities 
of the interfering pencils — for what is lost by transmission on entering the plate G, 
is made up by reflection on leaving it, the effect being simply to diminish somewhat 
the whole intensity. Another advantage of the thicker film is that it can be made 
uniform with far less ditficulty than the thin film. It may be mentioned that with 
this form of instrument the interference fringes in white light present a purity and 
gorgeoui-ness of coloration that are surpassed only by the colours of the polariscope. 

' The second plane parallel plate G„ is made of the same thickness as the first, 
and is required to equalise the optical paths of the two pencils. 



174 REPORT— 1892. 

rrom this ifc will be seen tliat the focal plane varies very rapidly with i, 
so that, unless 0=0, it is impossible to see all parts of the interference 
bands in focus with equal distinctness. If, however, 0^0, that is, if 
the two surfaces are strictly parallel, then P=co, and if the observing 
telescope is focussed for parallel rays, all parts of the bands are equally 
distinct. Under these circumstances the interference fringes are concen- 
tric circles, whose angnlar diameter is given by 

cos 5'=^--. 
If for A we put It^—vX, and for cos S' its approximate value 1 — , we have 



Wt- 



In order to obtain an idea of the order of accuracy required in this 
adjustment, suppose the angle •& to be so small that its influence on the 
distinctness may be neglected. The intensity at the focus of the observ- 
ing telescope will be 

1= cos^ \K^dxdii, where Z; = — - . 

If the aperture be a rectangle, whose height is 26 and width^2a, 

I=2&['^"cos2 \K\dx. 

But 

A=2 (^0 + <^ ■^), 
whence 



The maximum value of I is 



and the minimum value is 



whence 



T oi, ■" I o < sin 2kd)a~| 

1=20 I a -H cos IkIq --- — ^_ . 
L 2c<^ J 

'I is 

f), r , sin 2(>-<ia~l 

in 2/v-^a"] 



2h\a 



sin 2K<^a 



2K:(^a 

In attempting to verify this formula, by actual observation, one is met 
by the difficulty that all parts of the bands are not in focus at the same 
time, the right and left bands being more distinct than the central one, 
to which attention ought to be directed. Notwithstanding the rather 
rough character of the observations, the results agree fairly well with 
theory. If <^o is the ratio of the wave-length to the width of the rectan- 
gular aperture, the above formula becomes 

V = si n 27r(^ /^o 



ON SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS. 



175 



(calc.) 


V (obs.) 


100 


1^00 


■94 


•94 


•75 


•73 


•50 


•40 


■24 


•13 


•00 


•09 


■15 


•10 


•22 


•09 


■19 


•07 


•15 


•05 


•00 


•04 



from which the second column in the following table was calculated. 

<t>/<po 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


From this table it appears that if the visibility is to be estimated by 
observations with a telescope of 12 mm. aperture (or with a circular 
aperture about one-fourth greater) an error in the adjustment of 
the surfaces of a second of arc would produce a diminution of 4 or 5 
per cent, in the visibility. Accordingly, if the ways on which the mirror 
carriage moves are not true to this degree, it is necessary to make the 
adjustment for every observation. 

This can be done with very great accuracy by moving the beam of 
light from side to side and adjusting the mirror until there is no percep- 
tible alteration in the size of the rings. Since the admissible error in 
adjustment is inversely proportional to the aperture, the observations may 
be facilitated by making this as small as possible if there be light to 
spare. This is all the more necessary for the same reasons, if the sur- 
faces be not true. However, the error due to this source may be easily 
corrected (since all the observations are affected alike) by multiplying by 
a constant factor. 

In order that the visibility curve may extend as far as possible, it is 
necessary that the vapour should be very rare. Accordingly, in all but a 
few cases to be mentioned later, the substance to be investigated was in- 
closed in a vacuum tube which was previously heated to drive off any 
moisture or occluded gases. 

The vapour was rendered luminous by the discharge from the second- 
ary of a large induction coil, whose primary current was interrupted by a 
rotary break attached to the armature of an electric motor, making 
about twenty to thirty breaks per second. The steadiness of the light 
thus obtained was far greater than with the ordinary Foucault inter- 
rupter. Probably it would have been still more satisfactory to use an 
alternating dynamo properly wound to give a strong current with com- 
paratively few alternations. 

The box surrounding the vacuum tube was heated just sufficiently to 
give a steady bright light, and the temperature then kept as nearly uni- 
form as possible. This temperature was usually taken to represent that 
of the vapour within the tube. This is, of course, only a rough approxima- 
tion to the truth ; and in some cases the estimate was much too low. 

As it was not intended to include in the present work an elaborate 
study of the effect of temperature, this matter was not of great conse- 
quence. It may be suggested, however, that a very much closer approxi- 
mation to the real temperature could be obtained by winding a platinum 
wire about the capillary portion of the tube and deducing the tempera- 
ture from the variation of its resistance. A preliminary experiment in 
which a platinum wire passing through the tube and heated by a current 



176 KEPORT — 1892. 

until the platinum spiral outside the tube was raised to fixed temperatures 
would give a means of deducing from the indications of the spiral the 
true temperature within the tube. 

These adjustments being eS'ected, the screw of the ' wave-comparer' 
was turned to zero ; that is, till there was no difference of path between 
the interfering pencils. At this point the visibility should be as great 
as possible, and was accordingly marked 100. The screw (of 1 mm. 
pitch) was then turned through one turn, thus giving a difference of 
path of 2 mm., and the visibility again estimated, and so on. The curve 
was then drawn, giving the estimated visibihty for each 2 mm. difference 
of path, and this was corrected for the personal equation as before 
described. 

Hydrogen.^ 

The full curve in 'fig. Bh, Plate I., represents such a curve for the 
red hvdrogen line at a pressure of about 1 mm. and a temperature of 
about 50° C. 

The dotted curve represents 

V=2~^°'"' cos -7/30.2 

It follows that the visibility curve is practically the same as that due 
to a double source, whose components have the intensity ratio 7 : 10, and 
in each of which the light is distributed according to the exponential law, 
expressed by the first term. 

The formula for a double soui'ce, where the components are similar, is 

l + ,.2 + 2rcos27r5 
V 2= P V-, 

l + ,.2 + 2r 

in which D, the period of the curve, is inversely proportional to the 
distance between the components. 
But D = ]SIAi = (lSr + l)A2, whence 

Hence, in the present instance, we have for the distance between the 
components of the red hydrogen line 

gV X (6-56 X 10~ V =1'4 X 10" Vm., 

or 0'14 division of Rowland's scale. 

Again, if 8 be the ' half- width ' of the spectral line (the value of x 
when (f>(x)=^^), then 

</)(.-«) =2 r, and V=e — r.' 

' The hydrogen was prepared by dropping distilled water upon sodium amalgam, 
and allowing the gas to pass through sulphuric acid into the vacuum tube, which 
was repeatedly exhausted until the spectrum of hydrogen was nearly pure. 

- As frequent use is to be made of the function 

l+»-- + 2rcos2ir-'^ 
D 



it will be abbreviated to the form cos r/D. 




F\o fc Ka^ 



Plate I. 




iv« i^a **o it» 



tVQ LM> UO • 



T4,j1 Ua, 



ia<t 4to • 





copic Mcasicrcmcnts. 



M^ 2(p)ri Br^ JiMC f »?. 





-4L 





1 



UiiiHr'Uui'j Mr. A. A. Mi. h. J-5,.;,5 i',i/;,'i- o/t Uie Aj,i,ln;.l:o<( u/ /Hi.r,;u rente ,l/d/i."(j (■■ Si.,;-lr,w>iuc ma4ur€>,iaiU. 



ON SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS. 177 

If A be the value of X for V=^, then 8= — -, or, with sufficient ac- 

. -22 
curacy, o=— , 

Substituting the value of 8 in the equation for V, we have V=2 ^• 
The value of A in the hydrogen carve is 19. Accordingly, after reducing 
to the same units as above, we have 8=0"049. 

From these data fig. 3a was constructed, the full curve showing the 
distribution of light in the source. 

Fig. 4&, Plate I., gives, in the fall curve, the corrected values of 
the visibility of the blue hydrogen line, at the same temperature and 
pressure as before. The dotted curve represents a double exponential, as 
before. The formula for this curve is 

V=2~^°'^*' cos -7/28, 

thus giving a=0'08 for the distance between the components, and 
8=0'057 for the ' half-width ' of each. These values give for the distribu- 
tion of light in the blue hydrogen line the fall curve in fig. 4a. 



Oxygen. 

Fig. 5, Plate I., represents the results obtained from oxygen prepared 
by heating a tube containing mercuric oxide, drying the gas by sulphuric 
acid, and exhausting and filling repeatedly, till the spectrum was nearly 
pure. The lines are much less bright than those of hydi'ogen, and in 
order to obtain satisfactory results,\the current had to be increased so 
far that the tube was frequently broken. Notwitbetanding the somewhat 
uncertain character of the observations, it wlir be seen from fig. 5a that 
the curve for the orange-red line corresponds very well with that given 
by the formula 

V=2~^''^*"[-36 + -32 cos 27rX/2-69 + -16 cos 27rX/4-85 

+ -16cos27rX/l-73]*. 

The agreement between the coefficient 2 and the general curve 

drawn through the maxima is also shown in fig. 6&. 

The interpretation of these results is that the orange-red oxygen line 
is a triple, whose components have intensities in the ratios 1:1:1/2, 
and whose distances apart are 1"51 and 0*84 respectively, and whose 
' half- width ' is 0-027. This is shown in fig. 5c. 



Sodu 



lum. 



The results obtained from metallic sodium in the vacuum tube are so 
varied, the character of the lines being so considerably altered by tem- 
perature and pressure, that a complete study is at present impossible. 

This is especially true of the yellow lines, and the difficulty is con- 
siderably increased on account of the insufficiency of the dispersion used, 
which does not permit the separate examination of the lines. Some 
reference to the changes mentioned will be given at the close of this 

T?92. N 



178 REPORT — 1892. 

paper. At present it will suffice to take a particular case, the pressure 
being very low and the temperature about 250°.' 

The full curve in fig. 6b, Plate I., gives the experimental result for 
the visibility at the maxima for yellow sodium light, corrected for the 
personal equation. The dotted curve corresponds to the formula 

V=2~^'^^'' cos -7/50 cos -1/140. 

The complete equation, assuming that the two lines are alike, is 

Y=2~^''^^^' cos •8/Q-58 cos -7/50 cos •1/140. 

The interpretation of these results is that each of the sodium lines is 
a close double, as shown in fig. 6a. 

The yellow-green sodium-line at A.= 5687 is a double whose com- 
ponents are about the same distance apait as the yellow pair. It was 
found to be far less variable than the yellow ; and the full visibility 
curve, neglecting slight irregularities, gives the experimental results 
corrected for personal equation. Fig. 7b, Plate I., shows that its com- 
ponents are single, and correspond in distribution of light fairly well 
with the exponential curve, fig. 7a. 

The same may be said of the orange-red double at 6156 also, except 
that this seems to have a companion of feeble intensity. 

The doubles at 5150 and at 4982 were also examined, the curves 
showing nearly the same results as the red. 

Zinc. 

The temperature at which the radiations from metallic ziuc could be 
conveniently observed was in the neighbourhood of the melting-point of 
the glass of which the vacuum tubes were made. But few observations 
were recorded, though these were quite consistent. The results of the 
observations, corrected for personal equation, are given in figs. 8 and 9, 
Plate I. The former is the record obtained from the red line near 
6360, and shows that this line is single, the distribution of light agreeing 
very well with a simple exponential curve, the ' half-width ', being 0013. 
The latter shows the results of observation on the blue line near 4811. 
The dotted curve is the visibility curve due to a distribution represented 
in fig. 9a. 

Cadmium. 

Metallic cadmium in the vacuum tube at a temperature of about 280° 
gives a number of very bright lines, widely separated, and varying very 
slightly with temperature or pressure. Fig. 106, Plate II., shows the 
experimental visibility curve of the red line near 6439, corrected for the 

personal equation, together with the simple exponential curve V=2 
The remarkably close agreeruent leaves no doubt that the distribution of 
light in the source follows very nearly the exponential law, giving the 
curve in fig. 10a, in which the 'half-width ' of the source is 0'0065. 

The result of a single set of observations on the green line at 5086 is 
given in fig. lib, Plate II., the approximate agreement between the 
full line and the dotted curve (which corresponds to the equation 

' The curve given above was obtained a year ago ; and since then it has been 
impossible to reproduce it exactly. 



Plate 11. 



I n II I lK ly ^ Y'f^ , -t SiiOiaamt^eaimmmmUamMaamSMmmM^^HBm 




lOO IXO ItO 1^0 ttO 300 120 arO 2*0 



Ti^ iB K^^ 



3(^ JXD 




■«*() xro — 




U0 ArO J*0 '«» J00 UO IM 



ato veo •>•>• 



Tl^ IT K^, 




It' 109 txo f'ytf /to •»•• 



I 



troscopic Measurements. 




U..„.ii., M,. A.X »,«</,..■. r.,.r m ll. A,.,M" •/ '«'"/"<»" ■"'"■"'• " »/«"'»"'■» •"»"««"'«• 



ON SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUEEMENTS. 179 

V=2~'^°'^^^' COS -2/115) showing that the source is a close double, the 
intensity of whose components is in the ratio 5:1, and whose distance 
apart is' '022, the 'half-width ' of each component being 0-0048. 

The curve for the blue radiation at 4800 is given in fig. 126, Plate 
[I., and shows that the results may be approximately represented by 
V=2~^°'^* cos -1/32, which corresponds to the distribution of intensity 
given in fig. 12a. 

Thallium. 

The metal is not sufficiently volatile at the temperatures attainable, 
but the chloride answers admirably, giving a brilliant green light, the 
visibility cui-ve varying but little with temperature. This curve is 
given in fig. 136, Plate II., together with the dotted curve representing 
the equation 

V=i cos -2/160 n/4V,2 + V22+4ViV2 cos 27rX/25-3, 
in which 

and 

This is the visibility curve due to a double source, each of \\ hose 
components is a close double, as shown in fig. 13a. 

Mercury. 

Mercury in a vacuum tube gives two yellow lines, 5790 and 5770, a 
very brilliant green line at 5461, and a violet line at 4358. 

The yellow lines are not very bright, and are., so close together that it 
is somewhat difficult with the dispersion employed to prevent the light 
from overlapping. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the close agree- 
ment of a number of observations shows that the curve for the lower line, 
given in fig. 146, Plate II., is a close approximation to the truth. 
Neglecting the effect of a line of feeble intensity at a distance of about 
■24 from the principal line, the distribution of light in the source is 
represented in fig. 14a, which gives for the visibility curve 



in which 
and 



V=i>/3V,2 + V22 + 6YjY^ cos 27rX/28, 



^_2-X7200»^ 



¥2=2"^°'''°' COS -5/280. 



Fig. 156, Plate II., represents the results of observations on the 
upper yellow line, omitting some peculiarities due to the presence of one 
or naore lines of feeble intensity. The curve agrees closely with the 
formula 



in which 
and 



V=Jn/3V,2+\V + 6ViV2 cos 27rX/70, 

V,=2-^"'^^^ 

N 2 



180 EEPOKT— 1892. 

which, represents the visibility curve produced by two lines of intensities, 
1 : 3 and separated by 0-019 division as shown in fig. 15a. 

The green mercury line is one of the most complex yet examined. 
The constituent lines are, nevertheless, so fine that the interference bands 
are frequently visible when the difference of path is over four-tenths of 
a metre. The full curve in fig. 1€6, Plate II., gives the results of 
observations corrected for personal equation, while the dotted curve 
represents the equation 

V=2~''^^''^^V-69Vi2 + -03V2^+^8V,V2 cos 27rX/31-4, 
in which 

V,=-62 + -38 cos 27rX/360, 
and 

V2=77 + -23 cos 27rX/110. 

This is the visibility curve corresponding to the distribution repre- 
sented in fig. 16a. The components of the line, for simplicity, have been 
assumed to be symmetrical, as figured ; but the observations are not 
sufficiently accurate to determine whether, for instance, each component 
is a double or a triple line. In this case, also, as in the preceding ones, 
it is impossible, from the data given, to determine whether the smaller 
component is to the right or left of the principal line. . A direct obser- 
vation with the grating showed, however, that the smaller component is 
towards the red end of the spectrum. 

The full curve shows that there is at least one other line — probably 
more than one — whose intensity is roughly one-twentieth of the principal 
line, and whose distance from it is about three times that of the chief 
components. 

The violet mercury line is much more difficult to observe than the 
others. The results obtained by observation, corrected for personal 
equations, are given by the full curve fig. 176, Plate II. The formula 
for the dotted curve is 



in which 
and 



V=n/ •88V,2-i--12ViV2 cos 27rX/23, 
V,=2"^''^*' [-62-1- -38 cos 27rX/200], 

* 2 — - ) 



the resulting distribution of light shown in fig. 17a. 

The results of the preceding work are collected for comparison in 
fig. 18, Plate III., together with the D group in the solar spectrum. 
From these, as well as from the curves, it will be seen that it is easy by 
this method to separate lines whose distance apart is only a thousandth 
of that between D, and Dj, and even to determine the distribution of 
light in the separate components. The conditions most favourable to 
high values of the visibility are low density and low temperature, and 
these conditions were complied with as far as possible. Still, in many 
cases, the range of visibility due to slight variations of the conditions 
shows that the behaviour of each substance must be carefully studied 
tinder all possible circumstances of temperature, pressure, strength of 



Plate lU. 



I I I I I - I 



5893 

I I — 




Zn, 



I I I I I 




JVV 



Cci^ 



5636 



I9 



UPv 



scopic Measurevients. 




j\'a,'„ 



- Bifcrt Brii. Aaoc ««« 



II 




II 



il 



n I ill 

I I II i 



I 



I 1 1 

\ ill 1 1 II 



lllMtrating Mr. A. A. MielmUon'a Paper on the Ayplicalwn of Inlcr/creiice Mellwth to Sfeclmcapio MeantrminU. 



ON SPECTEOSCOriC MEASUREMENTS. 181 

current, size and shape of the electrodes, diameter of the vacunna 
tube, &c. 

The effect of temperature and of pressure on the visibility may be 
readily accounted for on the kinetic theory. In fact, there is but little 
doubt that these are the chief, if not the sole, causes of the broadening of 
the spectral lines, and the consequent diminution of visibility, the latter 
cause acting by altering the period of the source by frequent collisions, 
and the former by the alteration in the wave-length of the light due to 
the motion of the source in the line of sight. 

If, now, the density of the vapour is very low, the second cause may be 
ignored, and it will be shown that in the case of hydrogen this is the case 
when the pressure is one or two millimetres. 

In most of the cases investigated the pressure was so low that the dis- 
charge passed with difficulty. Supposing, then, the effect of collisions to 
be insignificant, let it be proposed to find the effect due to the motion of 
the molecule in the line of sight. If v be the mean velocity of the mole- 
cule and V that of light, then the formula for the resulting visibility 
curve as given by Lord Rayleigh^ is h^{l — a") /Q + a"). 

If the definition of visibility as given above be taken, however, this 
becomes 

If A be the difference of path at which the visibility is reduced to 
half its value at X=0, then 

A=-A/ ~ • ^' 

or approximately, 

A V 

If we take for hydrogen 17=2000 metres per second, then , =22500. 

Again, if we ignore the difference in the temperature (about which 
there is considerable uncertainty), at which the other substances were 
examined, the velocities v would vary inversely as the square root of the 
atomic weight, and the number of waves in the difference of path at 
which the visibility is 0'5 is therefore 22500 n/to. 

Considering the difficulties and uncertainties of the problem, the 
following table shows a very remarkable agreement between the values 
actually found and the calculated results.^ 

' ' On the Limit to Interference when Light is Kadiated from Moving Molecules, ' 
PMl. Mag., April 1889. 

- It should be stated that the value of A for the yellow sodium line, if taken 
from the curve, would be much larger than that given. This was the mean of a 
number of observatioDs taken within the past month. As has been stated before, 
this particular curve has not been obtained since last year. A few other substances, 
very difficult to examine, either because the lines are too feeble, or because the 
spectrum is so unstable, have given results not quite so consistent as the above, 
though all are of the same order of magnitude as that required by theory. 



182 



BEPOET — 1892. 



Substance 


At. Wt. 


1 


A 


--! 


N (calc.) 


H, . 


1 


656 


19-0 


30,000 


22,500 


Hb. 






1 


486 


8-5 


18,000 


22,500 


. 






16 


616 


34-0 


55,000 


80,000 


Na, 






23 


616 


660 


107,000 


108,000 


Nay 






23 


589 


80-0 


133,000 


108,000 


Nagy 






23 


567 


62-0 


109,000 


108,000 


Nag' 






23 


515 


44-0 


85,000 


108,000 


Nag" 






23 


498 


55 


110,000 


108,000 


Zn, 






65-5 


636 


660 


104,000 


182,000 


Zub 






65-5 


481 


47-0 


98,000 


182,000 


Cdr 






112-0 


644 


138-0 


215,000 


238,000 


Cdg 






1120 


509 


120-0 


236,000 


238,000 


Cdb 






112-0 


480 


640 


134,000 


238,000 


Hgy' 






2000 


579 


230-0 


400,000 


317,000 


Hgy" 






200-0 


577 


1540 


270,000 


317,000 


Hgg 






• 200-0 


546 


230-0 


420,000 


317,000 


Hgb 






200-0 


436 


100-0 


230,000 


317,000 


Tl . 






203-6 


535 


220-0 


400,000 


322,000 



In order to sho-w conclusively that the effect of density may be 
neglected in the foregoing observations, as -well as to ascertain the law 
governing the broadening of spectral lines by pressure or density, a 
sei'ies of observations was made on the red hj-drogen line at varying 
pressures, with the results shown in fig. 19a., Plate IV.' 

Prom these curves the following table was calculated : — 



Pressure in mm. 
90 
71 
47 
23 
13 

9 

3 

5 



S 

•128 
•116 
•095 
■071 
•056 
•053 
-050 
-048 



In fig. 196 the curved line gives the relation between 8 and -, and 

-^. 
shows clearly that when p is less than 5 mm. the effect of collisions 

has almost entirely ceased. If we take as variables 8 and j5, the results 

agree very closely with the straight line S — 8o=^12^> ^^ which 8o="047 

(the ' half-width ' of the line at zero pressure in the units adopted), 

/i;=-00093, andp is the pressure in millimetres.^ 

The same results were found for the blae hydrogen line, though, as 
might be expected, these were not so consistent. 

It thus appears that in the case of hydrogen — and probably in all 
other cases — the width of the spectral line diminishes towards a limit 
as the pressure diminishes, which depends upon the substance and its 
temperature ; and that the excess of width over this limit is simply 
proportional to the pressure. 

In general, it may be said that under considerable ranges of tem- 
perature and pressure the character of the visibility curve remains the 

' The numbers against the curves denote pressure in millimetres. 
2 In the figure the numbers representing values of the abscissse for this line 
should be multiplied by 100. 



^"'' Report Brit. Assoc, f 



Plate IV. 





•0 «- 




/r* »oo • 




4> ••'y ' 



♦ - .*y 



«r# *fc0 



^> Kfttlt) 



lectroscopic Measurements. 




1 




«.,..™.™j J/r, A. A.MioM,«.: r.,» «. II:, il,.,,UMio„ of ;.,..r/m„« VMol, I. S,«<r..«;,i. ll™»r«„,.,. 



ON SPECTKOSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS. 183 

same ; but it may be important to note that there are a number of excep- 
tions to this rule, among which the green mercury line and the yellow 
sodium line may be especially mentioned. 

Thus, fig. 20a, Plate IV., represents the visibility curve usually 
observed for the green mercury line, and fig. 20c represents that obtained 
when the vacuum is so high that the discharge passes with difficulty, 
while fig. 206 represents the intermediate stage. This last observation 
was obtained by placing the mercury in an atmosphere of hydrogen whose 
pressure could be measured by a McLeod gauge. 

It might be objected that the presence of a foreign substance might 
of itself aifect the distribution of light in the source, and therefore the 
form of the curve. In order to test this point, a series of observations of 
the red hydrogen line was taken, while the tube contained liquid mercury, 
which was heated until the mercury spectrum was at least ten times as 
bright as that of the hydi'ogen. The character of the visibility curve was 
not perceptibly altered. 

In the same series of experiments it was found that, provided the 
pressure of the hydrogen remained constant, the effect of a change in 
temperature from 75° to 140° had no appreciable effect on the result. In 
this connection it may be mentioned that the character of the curve for 
the green mercury line was not essentially altered when, in place of 
metallic mercury, the nitrate, iodide, or the chloride was suljstituted, the 
only important effect being a diminution in the visibility in the order 
named. 

In the case of yellow sodium light it has already been mentioned that 
the character of the curve is more variable than that of any other line 
thus far examined. This is illustrated by the curves in fig. 21a and 
fig. 21b, Plate IV. It has not been possible thus far to devote the 
attention which a systematic investigation demands. These changes are 
very puzzling to trace, but undoubtedly much of the difficulty is due to 
the fact that the dispersion employed was not sufficient to permit the 
separate examination of the components. Still, there can be no doubt 
that the width of the lines, their distances apart, and their relative inten- 
sities vary rapidly with changes in temperature and pressure. 

In addition to the preceding investigations of visibility curves for 
light emanating from a rare gas or vapour in a vacuum tube the cui-ves 
for sodium, thallium, and lithium, in the flame of a Bunsen burner, have 
been observed, and the results are given in fig. 22, Plate IV. The thal- 
lium and lithium lines are clearly double, the distance between the com- 
ponents of the former agreeing very well with the results obtained with 
the vacuum tube. 

These substances were brought into the flame in the ordinary way, 
and the results obtained were at least as good as when a finely divided 
solution was used according to the method of Gouy. It appears from 
these curves that the width of the line is about ten times as great as 
when the vacuum tube is used. But if the temperature of the flame be 
taken at 1500° C, and that in the vacuum tubes at 350° C, the lines 
should be only twice as broad in the former case as in the latter. It 
appears, then, that notwithstanding the small quantity of substance 
present (barely enough to colour the flame) the real density must be com- 
parable to that of the vapour of the substance boiling under atmospheric 
pressure. 

The principal object of the foregoing work is to illustrate the advan- 



184 REPOET— 1892. 

tages which may be expected from a study of the variations of clearness 
of interference fringes Avith increase in difference of path. The funda- 
mental principle by which the ' structure ' of a line or group of lines is 
determined by this method is not essentially different from that of spec- 
trum analysis by the grating, both depending, in fact, on interference 
phenomena, but in consequence of the almost complete freedom from 
errors arising from defects in optical or mechanical parts, the method 
has extraordinary advantages for this special work. A glance at fig. 18, 
Plate III., will give a fair idea of the 'resolving power ' of the method as 
compared with that of the grating. In order that the comparison be 
quite fair, however, it would be necessary to take for a comparison spec- 
trum that of the substances here used, and under the same conditions. 
With the best instrumental appliances now in use, it is difficult to ' re- 
solve ' lines as close together as the components of either of the yellow 
sodium lines. It is evident, however, that by Li'ght-tvave Analysis, if I 
may venture so to call the foregoing method, a tenth of this distance is 
obviously within the limit ; indeed, if the width of the lines themselves be 
less than their distance apart, there can be no limit. 



Supplement. 

I. It has already been pointed out that in many cases it is difficult or 
impossible to decide between two or more distributions of lines which 
give very nearly the same visibility curve ; and when there are many 
lines in the source, the combinations of intensities and arrangements of 
these from which a type may be selected are enormously great. Indeed, 
even when the number of lines is greater than three, excepting perhaps 
the cases where the lines may be in pairs (as in the case of yellow sodium 
light), the resulting visibility curve becomes so complex that it is very 
difficult to analyse. Doubtless in many cases where the components are 
not too close, the grating will give the information necessary for the in- 
vestigator to select the proper combination. 

It may readily be shown that the formula 

for the visibility curve due to a distribution of light, y=<f>{x), is identical 
with that of the intensity curve at the focus of a telescope provided with 
apertures which produce this distribution in the light passing through. 
Accordingly, if a telescope be provided with apertures adjustable in 
width, or length, and distance apart, the diffraction image of a distant 
illuminated slit will give, at once, a representation of the whole visibility 
curve, and by adjustment of intensities and distances any particular 
visibility curve may be more or less accurately copied, thus furnishing a 
means of studying the relations between V and 9f)(a;), which, while 
giving, perhaps only a rough approximation to the truth, may prove more 
convenient than analytical or graphical methods. 

II. One of the purposes which led to these investigations was the search 
for a radiation of sufficient homogeneity to serve as an ultimate standard 
of length. It will appear from the curves of cadmium that there are 
three lines which may be used for this purpose. The red cadmium line 
is almost ideally homogeneous, and will readily permit the estimation of 



ON SPECTROSCOPIC MEASDEEMENTS. 185 

a change of phase in the interference fringes of one-hundredth of a fringe 
in a total distance of 200 millimetres, or over 300,000 waves. 

Both the green and the blue lines are fairly well adapted for the pur- 
pose, and will prove very valuable as checks. Each of these, however, 
has a small companion, and it is necessary to know the effect of this in 
altering the phase of the interference bands. 

If (j) be the fraction of a wave by which the position of a minimum is 

shifted on account of the presence of the companion, a the number of 

' periods ' in the difference of path, and r the ratio of the intensities, 

then 

, ct , '>' sin 27ra , 

tan 27rd)=— ^ - ^ 

1 + r cos ZTTii 

Thus, if r=l/4, is a maximum when a is about 1/3, and for this 
we have, approximately, 

0=--O4. 

This is the largest correction to be applied, and is negative if the 
brighter line has the greater wave-length. It is theoretically possible by 
this means to determine, in case of an unequal double or a line unsym- 
metrically broadened, whether the brighter side is toward the blue or the 
red end of the spectrum. 

III. It has been argued that, even if all practical difficulties in making 
large gratings could be removed, nothing further could be gained in 
resolution of groups of spectral lines on account of the real width of the 
lines themselves, caused by the lack of homogeneity in the radiations 
which produce them. The results of the preceding investigations show 
that, while this is very far from being true with present gratings, such a 
limit undoubtedly exists. The accordance between the measured widths 
of eighteen lines shows further that this broadening of lines in a rare gas 
can be fully accounted for by the application of Doppler's principle to the 
motion of the vibrating atoms in the line of sight, and, indeed, furnishes 
what may be considered one of the most direct proofs of the kinetic 
theory of gases. 

The form of the ultimate components of all the groups of lines thus 
far examined is found to agree fairly well with an exponential curve, 
<j^(a!)=e""°''°, which shows that the distribution of velocities cannot vary 
widely from that demanded by Maxwell's theory. 

If the limit abovementioned were due solely to the motion of the 
molecule, and the radiating substance could be rendered luminous while 
its temperature was very low, it might be possible to observe interference 
phenomena with a difference of path of many metres. But it must be 
considered that, since every vibrating molecule is communicating its 
energy to the ether in the form of light waves, its vibrations must 
diminish in amplitude ; consequently the train of waves is no longer homo- 
geneous, even though the vibrations remain absolutely isochronous, and 
the result is a broadening of the line and limitation of the difference of 
path at which interference is visible. 

' See PJdl. Mar/., April 1891, p. 345. (The value of r is the reciprocal of that 
here used.) 



186 



REPORT — 1892. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. 
EoBERTS-AusTEN {Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Mr. E. Eiley, and 
Mr. J. Spiller, Professor J. W. Langlet, Mr. Gr. J. Snelus, 
Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner {Secretary), appointed 
to consider the best method of establishing an International 
Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

In the previous report of this committee it was mentioned that four 
out of the five proposed international standards had been prepared and 
distributed as previously arranged, and that the work of the British 
analysts was practically completed. Dumng the past year a meeting of 
the British analysts has been held, and the analytical results have been 
discussed. It was found that the agreement among these numbers was 
good, more particularly so in view of the relatively small quantity of 
material which could be supplied to each analyst, and it was decided fco 
publish an account of the work of the British chemists so far as the 
investigation has proceeded. This intention was communicated to 
Professor Langley, as representing the American Committee, and received 
his cordial approval. The results now communicated have therefore to 
do only with the work of the British analysts and with the standards 
Nos. I, 2, 3, and 4. 

It will be remembered that the analysts entrusted with the investiga- 
tion in this country were as follows : — 



Mr. 



A. H. Allen 
W. Jenkins 
G. S. Packer 
J. Pattmson 
E. Riley 
J. E. Stead 



Sheffield, 

Dowlais, 

Glasgow, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

London, 

Middlesbrough, 



and the Royal School of Mines, London, 

Complete reports have been received from Messrs. Jenkins, Packer, 
Pattinson, Riley, and Stead, while Mr. Allen, who was prevented by 
other engagements from completely analysing the samples sent to him, 
has forwarded a report on the determination of sulphur in iron and 
steel . 

Unfortunately, the analyst attached to the Royal School of Mines has 
suffered from a long and serious illness, and his results have not been 
completed. It has therefore been decided to dispense with his report, 
and for the present the Royal School of Mines is represented by the 
work of Mr. E. Riley, whose x'eputation as an analyst is so well known 
and recognised. 

The report received from Mr. W. Jenkins gave the following values 
as the results of his analyses : — 





C 


Si 


S 


P 


Mn ! 


Standard No. 1 . 
2 

)) i> 3 . 

„ 4 . . 


1-43 

•82 
•55 
•165 


•260 
■200 
•144 
•008 


•010 
•008 
•015 
•040 


■02 
•02 
■02 
■08 


■26 
■14 
■13 
■13 

1 



ON THE ANALYSIS OF IRON AND STEEL. 



187 



These results aorree very fairly well with those of the other analysts, 
■with the exception of the carbon in Standard 3, which is 0'09 per cent, 
higher than any of the other analysts returned. Unfortunately, Mr. 
Jenkins, after a prolonged period of ill-healtli, died in May last, and hence 
no check determination has been performed in this case. The Committee 
desire to record their regret at the loss of an analyst who was so 
courteous, so skilful, and so much respected. No account has been 
received of the methods used by Mr. Jenkins, except references in a letter 
to the Secretary, which indicate that the silicon was determined by the 
sulphuric acid method, and checked by the use of nitric and sulphuric 
acids — the sulphur by an evolution process, and the manganese by an 
acetate separation and precipitation by bromine. The phosphorus was 
weighed as phospho-molybdate. 

The results obtained by Mr. Packer were as follows : — • 





C ' Si 


S 


P Mn 


Standard No. 1 . 

2 

ji » 3 . 

„ 4 . . 


1^44 
•85 
•46 
•146 


•28 

•194 

•14 

•008 


traces 

traces 

traces 

■036 


■017 
•012 
•022 
•08 


■267 
•144 
■130 
•130 



The methods employed by Mr. Packer were as follows : — 

Carbon. — 1. Ordinary colour test on O'l gram of steel. 

2. Separation of carbonaceous matter by ammonio-chloride of copper 
and subsequent oxidation of the carbon by means of sulphuric and 
chromic acids ; collecting and weighing the COo in potash bulbs in the 
usual manner. 

Silicon. — Oxidation of the steel by nitric acid, evaporation to dryness, 
and ignition ; redissolving in hydrochloric acid, filtering, and weighing 
the insoluble silica. The purity of the silica was tested by evaporating 
witb hydrofluoric acid ; any residue was weighed and suitable allowance 
made. 

Sulphur. — The steel was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and the 
evolved gases passed into a solution of copper sulphate ; the precipitated 
sulphide was filtered and weighed after ignition as oxide or sulphide (or 
mixed oxide and sulphide) of copper. 

Phosphorus. — The filtrate from the determination of silicon was 
evaporated to a small bulk and transferred to a flask, ammonia ■was then 
added till a slight permanent precipitate was produced. Ten cubic centi- 
metres of an aqueous 8 per cent, solution of ammonium molybdate was 
added and nitric acid to decidedly acid reaction. The solution was 
digested till clear, filtered, the precipitate washed with dilute nitric acid, 
and finally with water ; it was then washed on to a weighed watch glass, 
dried, and weighed. 

Manganese. — The steel was dissolved in nitric acid with the addition 
of hydrochloric acid, and the iron precipitated by addition of acetate of 
ammonia and boiling. The manganese was precipitated in the filtrate 
by addition of bromine and ammonia and weighed after ignition as 
Mn304. 

The report of Mr. Pattinson supplied the numbers which follow : — 



188 



KEPOET 1892. 





c 


Si 


S 


P 


Mn 


standard No. 1 . 

2 

;; 3 : ; 


1393 

•802 
•461 
•142 


•271 

•182 
•140 
•009 


trace 
•007 
trace 
•040 


•019 
•012 
•022 
•075 


•263 
•145 
•158 
•130 



The following is an outline of the methods adopted by Mi*. Pattinson : — 

Carbon. — The sample was dissolved in a solution of double chloride of 
copper and ammonium, filtered through asbestos, and the residue well 
washed and burnt in oxygen. The double chloride used was proved to be 
free from carbonaceous matter. 

Silicon. — The sample was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, evaporated 
to dryness, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and hot water. 
After filtration and washing, the silica was ignited and weighed ; its 
purity was tested by treatment with hydrofluoric acid and due allowance 
made for any residue. 

Sulphur. — 1. The sample was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the 
evolved gases passed into an ammoniacal solution of cadmium chloride. 
The precipitated cadmium sulphide was dissolved in the beaker by the 
addition of bromine water and acidification with hydrochloric acid, and 
the sulphur precipitated as BaSO^. 

2. The drillings were dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution evapo- 
rated to dryness with addition of hydrochloric acid, redissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid and water, filtered, and the sulphur precipitated as BaS04. 

Manganese. — 1. Estimated gravimetrically by the ammonium acetate 
and bromine process. The precipitate after ignition was weighed as 
Mn304, and the impurities carried down with the precipitate were deter- 
mined, and the necessary correction made. 

2. Also estimated volumetrically by the process described by Mr. 
Pattinson ('Trans. Ohem. Soc.,' 1879, p. 366). 

Fliospliorus. — The sample was dissolved in nitric acid and evaporated 
to dryness after the addition of hydrochloric acid. The residue was 
redissolved in hydrochloric acid, filtered, and the filtrate treated with 
metallic zinc, free from phosphorus, in order to eliminate arsenic and 
reduce the iron to the ferrous condition. The solution was then boiled, 
a few drops of ferric chloride added, and the phosphorus precipitated in 
combination with iron by addition of ammonia and acetate of ammonia. 
The precipitate was separated by filtration, dissolved in nitric acid, the 
phosphorus precipitated by ammonium molybdate and weighed as 
ammonium phospho-molybdate. 

The analytical results obtained by Mr. E. Riley are as follows : — 





c 


Si 


S 


P 


Mn 


Standard No. 1 . 
„ 2 . 

4 


1-387 
•811 
•456 
•147 


•250 
•192 
•153 
•008 


•004 

•007 

traces 

•041 


•017 
•012 
•016 
•081 


•278 
•140 
•144 
•124 



The following is a brief outline of the methods of analysis adopted by 
Mr. Riley in these determinations : — 

Carhon. — By solution of the sample in sodium copper chloride and 



ON THE ANALYSIS OF IRON AND STEEL. 



189 



combustion of the carbonaceous residue in a stream of oxygen. Cupric 
chloride was first prepared by roasting copper scale in a muffle, dissolving 
in pure hydrochloric acid, and passing chlorine into the solution to 
convert the whole into the cupric condition. To a concentrated solution 
of the cupric chloride so prepared, 10 per cent, of sodium chloride 
was added, and the solution so obtained, which is distinctly acid, is 
employed for dissolving the steel. The separated carbon was collected 
on an asbestos filter, and burned in a glass tube with pure recently 
ignited oxide of copper. 

Sulphur and FhospJiorus. — The steel was oxidised by pure nitric acid 
(sp. gr. 1'40), redistilled in Mr. Riley's laboratory, evaporated to 
di'yness, heated, dissolved in pure hydrochloric acid (also redistilled in 
the laboratory), and the silica separated; the excess of hydrochloric acid 
evaporated off until only just sufficient acid was left to keep the iron in 
solution. The sulphur was precipitated by barium chloride, allowed to 
stand twenty-four hours, and weighed as BaS04. The filtrate from the 
determination of sulphur was reduced by addition of sulphide of sodium, 
the precipitated barium sulphate was filtered off, and the phosphorus 
precipitated as basic perphosphate of iron by boiling with ammonium 
acetate. If there is not sufficient ferric oxide present, a little bromine is 
added. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, citric acid is 
added, then excess of ammonia and a small quantity of ' magnesia mix- 
ture.' After standing twenty- four hours the precipitate is filtered off and 
weighed as Mg,2P207. 

Manganese. — The iron was separated as basic ferric acetate, the 
manganese precipitated by bromine and weighed as Mn304. 

Silicon. — The silica separated in the determination of sulphur and 
phosphorus was washed, ignited, and weighed ; it was afterwards treated 
with hydrofluoric acid and any residue weighed and deducted. 

Mr. Stead reported as follows : — - 





C 


Si 


S 


P 


Mn 


Sample No. 1 

» JI 3 . 

„ 4 . . 


1419 
•796 
•455 
•154 


•252 
■186 
•130 
•009 


•007 
•007 
•008 
•040 


•016 
•012 
•024 
•075 


•229 
•137 
•161 
•137 



Mr. Stead has supplied the following brief outline of the methods he 
adopted, and which are almost identical with those employed by Mr. 
Pattinson : — 

Carbon. — The sample was dissolved in double chloride of copper and 
potassium, the carbon separated by filtration through asbestos, and after 
careful washing burned in a porcelain tube with copper oxide in air or 
oxygen. 

Silicon. — By solution in hydrochloric acid, evaporation to dryness, 
and strongly heating ; redissolving in hydrochloric acid and water, 
filtering and weighing as SiOa- 

Sulphur. — This was determined both by oxidation with aqua regia 
and also by the evolution method ; no further details were supplied. 

Phosphorus was precipitated and weighed as phospho-molybdate of 
ammonia. 

Manganese was estimated by the acetate and bromine gravimetric 
process, and also by Pattinson's volumetric ii-.3thod. 



190 



KEPOET 1892. 



Mean of the Analytical Results. — If it be assumed that all the results 
previously given are of equal value, and that the proportion of suljahur 
returned as ' traces ' does not exceed '005 per cent., the following figures 
give the composition of Standards 1, 2, 3, and 4 as deduced from the 
analyses by the five chemists from whom reports have been received : — 





No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 3 


No. 4 


Carbon .... 


1-414 


•816 


•476 


•151 


Silicon .... 


•263 


•191 


•141 


•008 


Sulphur, not more than . 


•006 


•007 


•008 


•039 


Phosphorus 


•018 


•014 


•021 


•078 


Manganese 


•259 


■141 


•14.5 


•130 



It is, however, probable that, as a doubtful result is included among 
the carbon determinations in Standard No. 3, this mean value is about 
•02 per cent, too high, and should be about •456 per cent. 

When it is remembered that each analyst employed the methods of 
analysis which he individually preferred, it must be acknowledged that 
the agreement in the results is closer than might have been anticipated, 
as it is well known that certain methods for which one analyst has a 
marked preference are distrusted by other experimenters. This appears 
to show that methods which are unsatisfactory, or even incorrect, in the 
hands of one analyst may, with slight modifications, give excellent results 
with another operator. In such detei-minations we have to deal, not only 
with the inherent accuracy or inaccuracy of the process itself, but also 
with the manipulative and analytical skill of the operator, derived from 
long experience in the use of the process he adopts. 

The proportion of sulphur present in the Standards Nos. 1, 2, and 3 is 
very small, being less than 001 per cent. It is noticed that in many 
cases the amount of sulphur present in American pig irons and steels is 
less than is usually found in British samples, and it would be interesting, 
if possible, to determine the cause of this difi'erence. 

All the samples were tested for chromium, but in no case was the 
presence of this element detected. 

Standard No. 5 has been prepared during the past winter by Mr. 
J. E. Stead at Middlesbrough, and the Committee desire to acknowledge 
the importance of the assistance which Mr. Stead has thus rendered. 
The American and British Committees have already been supplied with 
their portions of the standard thus prepared, and the remaining portions 
of the standard will be distributed as soon as possible. It is hoped that 
the analyses will be completed, so as to allow of a final report at the next 
meeting of the Association. 

The American Committee has nearly completed its work on Standards 
1, 2, 3, and 4, and it is proposed to publish the results in a few months. 
These results have not yet been revised for publication, but on the whole 
it is believed that a close agreement will be noticed between the work of 
the British and American Committees. 

The German Committee has devoted much attention to the study of 
methods of analysis in connection with the international standards, but 
the results are not yet ready for publication . No report has been received 
at present from the French and Swedish Committees. 



ON ISOMERIC NAPHTHALENE DERIVATIVES. 191 



Sixth Report of the Cotiimittee, consisting of Professor W, A. 
TiLDEN and Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), appointed 
for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives. {Drawn up by Professor Armstrong.) 

It was stated in the last report that Mr. Rossiter and the writer had 
devoted much time to the study of the dibromonaphthalenes, but that the 
results were not sufficiently complete to render their publication desirable ; 
an account of the work contemplated in this passage was communicated 
to the Chemical Society late in the year (cf. ' C.S. Proceedins's,' 1891 
p. 182). 

In this communication data were given which suffice to characterise 
and diffisrentiate^/ii;e of the isomeric dibromonaphthalenes, i.e., the 1 : 4, 
1 : 4', 1 : 3, 1 : 2', and 1 : .3' modifications. The action of bromine on 
a- and ^-dibromonaphthalene was also described, and the nature of the 
complex product formed on c/i-brominating naphthalene, which has occu- 
pied the attention of so many observers, was finally determined, it being 
shown to consist of 1 : 4 dibromonaphthalene (m.p. 82-83°) mixed 
with the 1 : 4' isomeride (m.p. 132°). 

When naphthalene is dibrominated, 1 : 4 dibromonaphthalene is the 
major product, so much so that this modification crystallises out in an 
almost pni-e state from the solution of the crude product in alcohol. It 
has been stated by Darmstaedter and Wichelhaus that when naphthalene- 
a-sulphonic acid is bromiuated a product is obtained which on crystal- 
lisation from alcohol first affords 1 : 4' dibromonaphthalene, the remainder 
of the product melting at 68-70°, and resembling that obtained from 
naphthalene. It therefore seemed probable that, whereas naphthalene 
yields chiefly 1 : 4 dibromonaphthalene, the a-snlphonic acid yields chiefly 
the 1 : 4' derivative, and that consequently the acid radicle exercises a 
marked influence in determining the entrance of bromine into the un- 
substituted nucleus (cf Report for 1886), an influence much greater 
than that of bromine towards sulphuric acid, as bromonaphthalene yields 
little but the 1 : 4 acid when sulphonated. Darmstaedter and Wichelhaus' 
experiments have been repeated by the writer, and the accuracy of this 
conclusion confirmed ; a very considerable amount of 1:4' bromosul- 
phonic acid is formed on brominating naphthalene-sulphonic acid, 1 : 4 
dibromonaphthalene being quite a minor product. 

On comparing the dibromo-products obtained from naphthalene with 
the dichloro-products, an nnusual divei^gence is apparent ; there can be 
no doubt, however, that this is attributable to the extreme instability of 
bromine addition compounds of naphthalene. The dichloronaphthalenes 
are, in fact, products of the withdrawal of 2HC1 from the tetrachloride, 
while the dibromonaphthalenes are products of the action of bromine on 
bromonaphthalene, and hence it is that the 1 : 3 modification, which is 
the chief product of chlorination, is absent from the product of bromination. 
When the conditions are similar the difference in behaviour of naphtha- 
lene towards chlorine and bromine is of the ordinary character, and such 
as was to be expected ; thus when a-chloronaphthalene is chlorinated by 
means of SOoCl., at such a temperature (100-180°) as to prevent the 
persistence of an addition compound, it yields pure 1 : 4 dichloronaph- 
thalene and no trace of the 1 : 3 isomeride, which is the principal pro- 



192 REPORT— 1892. 

duct of the hydrolysis of naphthalene tetrachloride. /3-Chloronaphthalene 
in like manner yields a mixture of the 1 : 2 and 1 : 2' derivatives. The 
results of a series of experiments on the formation of chlorinated naph- 
thalenes at high temperatures by means of SO2CI2 and similar chlorinating 
agents which the writer and Dr. Wynne are engaged in carrying out 
will be given on a subsequent occasion ; they desire, however, here to 
recognise the assistance which they have received from Mr. Jenks. 

Finally, it may be mentioned that Mr. Rossiter and the writer, having 
repeated Meldola's experiments on the bromonitronaphthylamines, have 
been led to interpret this author's results in a manner somewhat different 
from that originally adopted by him, but in accordance with the results 
of more modern enquiries (cf. ' C.S. Proceedings,' 1891, p. 186; Meldola, 
'C.S. Trans.,' 1892, p. 766). 

A comprehensive survey of the very numerous recorded facts shows 
that the ' laws of substitution ' in the naphthalene series are in the 
main easy to decipher, and pervaded by a few veiy simple principles. 
The writer and Dr. Wynne hope during the coming year to discuss these 
in a comprehensive memoir, dealing with the investigation which they 
have conjointly carried on now during over six years. It is perhaps not 
undesirable to state that no single fact has yet been recorded serving to 
support the view advocated by Claus, that the structure of naphthalene 
is unsymmetrical. Whatever its exact inner structure may be, the two 
nuclei of naphthalene must be represented alike. 



Fourth Report of Committee, consisting of Professor H. M'Leod, 
Mr. W. C. EoBERTS-AusTEN {Secretary), Professor A. W. Eeinold, 
and Mr. H. Gr. Madan, appointed for continuing the Biblio- 
graphy of Spectroscopy. 

The collection of titles of spectroscopic papers has been continued 
during the year, but as Mr. Madan is not now residing in Oxford, he has 
not been able to verify all the references. 

Mr. Nagel has undertaken some portion of the work, and he is pro- 
posed as a member of the Committee in place of Professor Reinold, who 
wishes to retire. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. J. Russell, Professor 
W. N. Hartley, Professor W. Eamsay, Captain W. de W. Abney, 
and Dr. A. Richardson, appointed for the investigation of the 
Action of Light on the Hydracids of the Halogens in presence 
of Oxygen. 

A LARGE amount of work has been done during the past year, but the 
Committee feel that the results obtained cannot at this stage be profitably 
laid before the Section. They hope, however, to be able to present a 
detailed report to the Association at the next meeting. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 193 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Dr. 
Marshall Watts, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, 
LivEiNG, Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, aoid 
Captain Abney, on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the 
Elements and Compounds. {Drawn up by Dr. Marshall 
Watts.) 

Lithium. 
Kayser and Range (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente.' Berlin, 1890). 



Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 



6708-2 
6103-77 
4972-11 
4602-37 
4273-44 
4132-44 
3985-94 
3915-2 
8838-3 
8794-9 
8718-9 
8670-6 
3232-77 
2741-39 
2562-60 
2475-13 
2425-65 
2394-54 
*(2373-9) 
*(2359-4) 



Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


0-2 


lOsr 


0-03 


lOsr 


0-1 


6bn 


01 


lOsr 


0-2 


4n 


0-2 


8nr 


0-2 


2n 


0-2 


6nr 


3-0 


In 


5-0 


4n 


5-0 


2n 


50 


In 


0-03 


8sr 


0-03 


6sr 


0-03 


4sr 


0-1 


4sr 


0-1 


2sr 


0-2 


Isr 



Previou^s Measurements 
(AngPtrbm) 



6706-7 Thalen 

6102-2 „ 

4971-2 „ 

4602-2 „ 

4273-3 „ 

4131-7 Liveing & Dewar 

3984-5 

3913-5 

3838- ? 

3799-0 



8232-0 
2741-0 
2567-5 
2475-0 
2425-5 
2394-5 
2373-5 
23590 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.-I- 



1-96 
1-80 
1-47 
1-37 
1-28 
1-24 
1-20 
1-18 
1-15 
1-14 
1-12 
1-11 
0-99 
0-85 
0-80 
0-78 
0-77 
0-76 
0-75 
0-75 



4-4 

4-8 

5-9 

6-5 

70 

7-2 

7-6 

7-7 

7-8 

7-9 

8-1 

8-2 

9-5 

11-4 

12-3 

12-7 

13-1 

13-2 

13-4 

18-5 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



14902-7 
16378-5 
20106-3 
21721-4 
23393-3 
24191-6 
25080-6 
25533-8 
26045-4 
20343-3 
26881-5 
27235-3 
30923-7 
36466-4 
39010 6 
40389-2 
41214-7 
41748-5 
42111-4 
42370-2 



Sodium. 

Kayser and Kunge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente.' Berlin, 1890). 



Wave-lenpth 
(Rowland) 



*(8200-3) 
*(8188-3) 
6161-15) 
6154-62) 
5896-16) 
5890-19) 
5688-26 > 
5682-90 r 
5675-92 , 
5670-401 
1892. 





Inten- 


Limit 

of 
Error 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


0-1 


8n 
8n 




lOsr 




lOsr 


0-15 


8n 
8n 


0-15 


2n 
2n 



Previous 
Measurements 
(Angstrom) 



8199 Abney 

8187 „ 

6160-2 Thalen 

6154-4 

5895-13 

5889-12 

5687-3 

5681-5 

5674-4 

5668-0 



Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 



absent 
absent 

6161-50 ? 

6154-49 ? 

5896- D. 

5890-19 , 

5688-42 ? 

5682-58 ? 

5675-90 ? 
absent 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


A.+ 


1_ 


? 


7 


1-81 


4-8 


i 1-74 


5-0 


1-68 


5-2 


1-67 


)) 
»> 


l» 


)» 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



12197 7 
12215 7 
(16225-9 
1 16242-2 
, 16955-2 
116972-4 
( 17574-9 
1 17587-4 
r 17613-1 
1 17680-2 



194 



REPORT 1892. 



Sodium — continued. 







Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 






Reduction 




Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Previous 

Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


1 


5153-72 


01 


6n 


5155-0 Thalen 


5153-60 ? 


1-53 


5-8 


( 19397-7 
119414-7 


514919 r 


6n 


5152-7 


5149-29 1 






4983-53 1 
4979-30 ) 


0-2 


6n 


4983-3 


4983-71 ? 


1-48 


5-9 


, 20060-2 
1 20077-2 


6n 


4982-0 


4979-41 ? 


)» 


f) 








4980-5 L. & D. 










4752-19, 
4748-36 


0-15 


4n 


4751-4 „ 


4752-30 ? 


1-41 


6-2 


(21036-7 


4n 


4747-5 „ 


4748-36 ? 


» 


»» 


1 21053-7 


4669-4 1 
4665-2 ) 


0-5 


4n 


4667-5 „ 


4669-47 ? 


1-39 


6-4 


(21409-6 
121428-9 


4n 


4663-7 „ 


4665-32 ? 




„ 


4546-03 1 
4542-75 f 


0-2 


2n 


4543-6 „ 


4546-10 1 


1-35 


6-5 


(21990-7 
1 22004-6 


2n 


4540-7 „ 


absent 






45000 ) 
4494-3 ) 


10 


2n 


4496-4 „ 


1 


1-34 


6-0 


(22216-2 
1 22244-4 


2n 


4494-5 „ 


1 


)j 


*» 


(4423-7) , 
(4420-2) f 






4423-0 „ 


1 


1-32 


6-7 


(22598-8 
122616-7 






4419-5 „ 


1 






(4393-7) , 
(4390-7) f 






4393 


1 


1-31 


6-8 


(22753-1 
122768-6 






4390 


■i 


)» 


>» 


(4343-7) 1 
(4325-7) f 






4343 


1 


1-30 


6-9 


, 23014-9 
123110-7 






4325 


1 


1-29 


*» 


3303-07 
3302-47/ 


0-03 


8r 


3301-2 Cornu 


3303-07 


1-01 


9-3 


( 30265-6 
130271-1 


8r 


3308-8 „ 


3302-47 


)> 


„ 


2852-91 


005 


6r 


2853-3 L. & D. 




0-88 


10-9 


35041-0 


2680-46 


01 


4r 


2679-0 „ 




0-84 


11-6 


37295-4 


2593-98 


01 


2r 


2593-3 „ 




081 


12-1 


38538-7 


2543-85 


0-1 


Ir 






0-80 


12-4 


39298-1 


251223 


0-2 


Ir 






0-79 


12-5 


39792-8 



Lines within brackets not measured by Kayser and Runge. 



Potassium. 

Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die .Spectren der Elemente.' Berlin, 1890). 



Wave-length 
(Rowland) 



7699-3 1 
7665-6 / 
69388 
6911-2 
6832-23) 
5812-54 f 
5802-01 r 
5782-67) 
5359-88) 
5S43-35 I 
5310-08 r 
6323-55 J 



Limit 

of 
Error 



5-0 

0-5 

0-5 



0-05 



0-15 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



lOnr 
lOnr 



4n 
2n 
6n 
6n 
4n 
2n 
4n 
4n 



I 



Previous 
Measurements 



Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 



7696-5 Deslandres 

7663-2 

6946 L. de B.* 

6913 

5831 

[5812 

I58O2-I Thalen 

5782-6 „ 

5353-6 „ 

5338-6 

6334 5 

5322-6 



L. & D.f 
Thalen 



absent 



Reduction 
to Vacuum 



A.+ 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



2-2 


3-7 


2-2 


3-7 


2-03 


4-2 


2-02 


4-3 


1-72 


61 


1-71 


5-1 


1-71 


5-1 


1-70 


51 


1-59 


5-5 


1-58 


5-6 


1-58 


5-6 


1-67 


5-6 



12984-5 
13041-5 
14407-5 
14465-1 
17141-0 
17199-1 
17230-3 
17288-0 
18651-6 
18709-2 
18720-7 
18778-9 



ON -W^AVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 195 



Potassium — contimied. 







Inten- 








Rediiction to 


1 


Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Previous 
Mea^urements 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


Vacuum 


Osfillation 
F'requency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1 

A ~ 


5112-68) 




2n 


5112 L. 


deB. 


absent 


1-51 


5-8 


19553-4 


5099-64 


0-20 


2n 


6098 L. 


&D. 


1 


1-51 


5-8 


19603-4 


5097-75 
5084-49 J 


In 


5095 L. 


deB. 


1 


1-51 


5-8 


19610-7 




2n 


5081 


)) 


1 


1-51 


5-8 


19661-9 


4965-5 ) 




In 


4963 


»» 




1-47 


6-0 


20133-0 


4956-8 


1-0 


In 


4956 L. 


&D. 


■ 1 


1-47 


6-0 


20168-3 


4952-2 


In 


4950 




1-47 


0-0 


201870 


4943-1 / 




In 


4942 




, 


1-47 


6-0 


20224-2 


(4870-8)) 






4870 






1-44 


6-1 


20526-1 


(4863-8) 






4863 






1-44 


61 


20555-6 


(4856-8) '' 






4856 






1-44 


6-1 


20585-3 


(4850-8)/ 






4860 






1-44 


6-1 


20610-8 


(4808-8) s. 






4808 






1-43 


6-2 


20790-7 


(4803-8) 








4803 






1-43 


6-2 


20812-4 


(4790-8) 


U 






4796 






■1-42 


6-2 


20842-8 


(4788-8) 








4788 






1-42 


6-2 


20877-6 


(4759-8) 






4759 






1-41 


6-2 


21004-8 


4047-36 ) 
4044-29 1 


0-03 


6r 


4045 


>» 


absent 


1-21 


7-4 


24700-1 


8r 


4042 


j» 


)i 


1-21 


7-4 


24718-8 


3447-49 1 
3446-49) 


0-03 


6r 


3445-0 


It 


? 


1-05 


8-8 


28997-8 


8r 


3443-6 


f> 


? 


1-05 


8-8 


29006-2 


3217-76) 
3217-27) 


0-03 


4r. 
6r; 


3216-5 






0-98 


9-5 


31068-0 


fi 




0-98 


9-5 


31072-7 


3102-371 
310215r 


0-1 


2r, 
4r[ 


3101-0 






0-95 


9-9 


32223-5 


1* 




0-95 


9-9 


32225-8 


3034-94 


0-1 


4r 


3033 


»t 




0-93 


10-1 


32939-5 


2992-33 


0-15 


2r 


2992-0 


}» 




0-92 


10-3 


33408-5 


2963-36 


0-2 


Ir 


2963 4 


ji 




0-91 


10-4 


33735-8 


2942-8 


1-0 


Ir 


2942-0 


" 




0-91 


10-5 


33970-8 



L. de B. = Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 



f L. & D. = Liveing and Dewar. 



Rubidium. 

Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. III. 5. Berlin, 1890). 



Wave- 

lenfjth 

(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Angstrom) 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1_ 
A 


7950- 

7811- 

6298-7 

6206-7 

6159-8 

6071-2 

5724-41 

5654-22 

5648-18 

5431-83 


5-0 

5-0 

0-2 

0-2 

0-2 

0-2 

0-15 

0-15 

015 

0-15 


lObr 
lObr 
4n 
4n 
In 
2n 
6n 
2n 
4n 
2n 


7951-0 L. de B. 
7800-0 „ 
6296-7 Thalen 
6204-2 „ 
6160-2 „ 
6070-2 „ 
5724-0 L. de B. 

1 5650-0 

5429-0 


absent 

? 6298-65 

absent 

»» 

" 

? 5654-10 
absent 


2-3 

2-3 

1-85 

1-83 

1-81 

1-79 

1-69 

1-67 

1-67 

1-61 


3-6 
3-8 
4-(i 
4-7 
4-8 
4-9 
5-2 
5-2 
5-2 
5-4 


12575-0 
12799-7 
15871-7 
1610(;-9 
16229-5 
16466-3 
17464-8 
17680-7 
17699-6 
18405-6 



o 2 



196 



HEPORT — 1892. 



Rubidium — continued. 













Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 


Limit 
of 


Intensity 
and 


Previous 

Measurements 


Fraunliofer 
Lines in 
Rowland's 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(KowlaDd) 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


Map 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


5362-94 


0-2 


2n 


5359-0 L. de B. 


1 5362-96 


1-59 


5-5 


18641-0 


15259-8) 






5259-0 „ 




1-56 


5-6 


19006-5 


(5194-8) 






5194-0 




1-54 


5-7 


19244-3 


(5161-8) 






5161-0 




1-53 


5-7 


19367-4 


(5085-8) 






5085-0 




1-51 


5-8 


19656-8 


(5021-8) 






5021-0 




1-49 


5-9 


19907-3 


4215-72 


003 


6r 


42160 


absent 


1-26 


7-1 


23713-6 


4201-98 


0-03 


8r 


4202-0 


f> 


1-26 


7-1 


23791-2 


3591-74 


005 


4r 




1 3591-63 


1-09 


8-5 


27833-2 


3587-23 


0-05 


6r| 




? 


1-09 


8-5 


27868-2 


3351-03 


0-05 


2r 




1 3351-03 


1-02 


91 


29832-2 


3348-86 


0-05 


4r 




? 3348-80 


1-02 


9-1 


29851-8 



Cjisium. 
Blayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente.' Berlin, 1890). 













Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 


Previous 


Fraunhofcr 
Lines in 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


length 
(Rowland) 


and 
Character 


Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Rowland's 
Map 


A-1- 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


6973-9 


50 


6n 


6975-0 L. de B. 


absent 


2-0 


41 


14335-1 


6723-C, 


5-0 


8n 


6723-0 „ 




1-97 


4-3 


14868-7 


6213-4 


0-5 


2n 


6219-0 


»i 


1-83 


4-7 


16089-5 


6010-6 


0-3 


4n 


6007-0 




1-77 


4-9 


16632-4 


5845-1 


0-5 


4n 


5850-0 


1 5845-2 


1-72 


5-0 


17103-3 


5664-0 


0-5 


6n 


56620 


? 5664-25 


1-67 


5-2 


17650-2 


5635-1 


0-5 


4n 


6637-0 


absent 


1-66 


5-2 


17740-7 


5579-3 


0-5 


In 


5572-0 




1-65 


5-3 


17918-1 


(5501-9) 






5501-0 




1-63 


5-4 


181701 


5465-8 


0-1 


2n 


5464-0 




1-62 


5-4 


18290-1 


(5410-9) 






5410-0 




1-60 


5-5 


18475-7 


(5345-9) 






5345-0 




1-58 


6-6 


18700-3 


(5310-8) 






5310-0 „ 




1-57 


5-6 


18824-0 


(5257-8) 






5257-0 




1-56 


5-6 


19013-8 


4593-34 


005 


6r 


4592-2 Lockyer 


1 4593-31 


1-37 


6-5 


21764-2 


4555-44 


0-05 


8r 


4554-9 


absent 


1-35 


6-5 


21945-3 


3888-83 


0-1 


4r 






1-17 


7-7 


25707-0 


3876-73 


01 


6r 






1-16 


7-7 


25787-2 


3617-08 


0-3 


2r 






1-09 


8-4 


27638-2 


3611-84 


0-2 


4r 






1-09 


8-4 


27678-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 



Magnesium. 

Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. IV. Berlin, 1891). 











j 




Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 


Intensity | 


Previous 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


length 


of 


and 




Me^asurements 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 






(Rowland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


5711-56 


0-15 


2 




5710-7 L. & D. 


5711-32 ? 


1-69 


5-2 


17503-1 


5528-75 


0-10 


6 




5527-4 


5528-625? 


1-63 


5-3 


18082-0 


r 5183-84 
< 5172-87 
[5167-55 


0-03 


lOr 


3t 


5183-0 


6183-798 


1-54 


5-7 


19286-0 


0-03 


lOr 


Sl- 


5172-0 


5172-867 


1-53 


5-7 


19325-9 


0-03 


8r 


at 


5167-0 


5167-580 


1-53 


5-7 


19345-8 


4730-42 


0-25 


In 






4730-22 1 


1-40 


6-3 


21133-5 


4703-33 


005 


8n 




4703-5 


4703173 


1-40 


6-3 


21255-2 


4571-33 


005 


4 




4570-5 


4571-26 


1-36 


6-6 


21869-0 


4352-18 


0-05 


8n 




4351-2 


4352-10 


1-30 


6-9 


22970-1 


4167-81 


010 


In 




4166-0 


4167-40 ? 


1-25 


71 


23986-3 


4058-45 


1-00 


2n 




4057-3 


4058-10 ? 


1-22 


7-4 


24632-5 


8987-08 


1-00 


2n 






? 


1-20 


7-6 


25073-4 


r 3838-44 
{ 3832-46 
L 3829-51 


0-03 


lOr 


4* 


3837-9 H. & A. 


3838-43 


1-15 


7-8 


26044-4 


0-03 


lOr 


4* 


3832-1 


3832-43 


1-15 


7-8 


26085-1 


003 


lOr 


4» 


3829-2 


3829-53 


1-15 


7-8 


26105-2 


f 3336-83 


003 


lOn; 


4t 


3336-2 


3336-83 


1-02 


9-2 


29959-4 


<^ 3332-28 


0-03 


8n 


4t 


3331-8 


3332-27 


1-01 


9-2 


30000-3 


[3330-08 


0-03 


8n 


it 


3329-1 


3330-06 


101 


9-2 


30020-1 


f 3097-06 


0-03 


lOr 


5* 


3096-2 


3097-02 


0-95 


9-9 


32278-8 


< 309314 


003 


8r 


5* 


3091-9 


3093-20 


0-95 


9-9 


32319-7 


L309118 


003 


8r 


5* 


3089-9 


3091-20 


0-95 


9-9 


32340-2 


r2942-21 


003 


8n 


5t 


2942-0 L. & D. 




0-91 


10-5 


33977-6 


< 2938-67 


0-03 


6n 


5t 


2938-5 




0-91 


10-5 


34018-5 


[2936-99 


0-03 


4n 


5t 


2937-5 




0-91 


10-5 


340380 


2936-61 


0-05 


4 




2935-8 H. & A. 




0-91 


10-5 


34042-4 


2928-74 


0-06 


4 




2928-1 „ 




090 


10-6 


34133-8 


2915-57 


0-05 


4 




2913-8 




0-90 


10-6 


34288-0 


f 2852-22 


003 


lOnr 6* 


2851-2 




0-88 


10-8 


35049-6 


< 2848-53 
[2846-91 


0-15 
015 


4n 
4n 


6* 
6* 


2847-9 




0-88 
0-88 


10-8 


35095-0 


2845-9 „ 




10-9 


35114-9 


2802-80 


003 


lOr 




2801-6 




0-87 


11-1 


35667-5 


279807 


0-03 


4 




2796-9 




0-87 


11-1 


36727-8 


2795-63 


0-03 


lOr 




2794-1 „ 




0-87 


11-1 


35769-0 


2790-88 


0-03 


4 




2789-6 „ 




0-87 


111 


35818-9 


278308 


0-03 


8r 




2781-8 




0-86 


11-2 


35980-2 


r2781-53 


0-03 


8r 


6t 


2780-7 L. & D. 




0-86 


11-2 


36940-2 


1 2779-94 


003 


lOr 




2779-4 




0-86 


11-2 


35960-8 


1 2778-36 


0-03 


8r 


6t 


2778-2 




086 


11-2 


35981-3 


[277680 


0-03 


8r 


6t 


2776-9 




0-86 


11-2 


36001-5 


2768-57 


0-15 


4n 




2767-5 




0-86 


11-2 


36108-5 


2765-47 


0-15 


4n 




2764-5 




0-86 


11-2 


36149-0 


r2736-84 
«^ 2733-80 
[2732-35 


0-15 


2n 


7* 


2736-0 




0-85 


11-4 


36527-1 


0-15 


2n 


7* 


2732-5 




0-85 


11-4 


36567-7 


0-15 


2n 


7* 


2731-0 




0-85 


11-4 


36587-1 


f2698-44 


0-15 


2n 


7t 


2698-0 




0-83 


11-6 


37046-9 


<^ 2695-63 


0-15 


2n 


7-- 


2695-0 „ 


' 


0-83 


11-6 


37086-9 


[2P93-97 


0-15 


2n 


7t 


2693-5 




0-83 


11-6 


i 37108-3 



198 



EEPORT — 1892. 



Magnesium — coniimied. 



Wave- 
length 
(Kowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensit}' 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Angstrom) 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 


1_ 

A 


f 2672-90 
< 2669-84 


0-20 


In 8* 


2672-5 L. & D. 




0-83 


11-7 


37400-8 


0-20 


In 8* 


2670-0 




0-83 


11-7 


37443-7 


L 2668-26 


0-20 


In 8* 


2668-5 




0-83 


11-7 


37465-9 


r 2649-30 

2646-61 

U645-22 


0-50 


In 8t 


2649-0 




0-83 


11-8 


37734-0 


0-50 


In 8t 


2646-0 „ 




0-83 


11-8 


37772-4 


0-50 


In 8t 






0-83 


11-8 


37792-2 


2633-13 


1-00 


In 


2633-0 




0-82 


11-9 


37965-7 


2630-52 


1-00 


In 


2630-0 „ 




0-82 


11-9 


38003-4 


(2605-4) 






2605-0 




0-82 


12-0 


38369-8 



The lines marked * and f form a series of triplets, of •which the oscilla- 
tion frequencies (in air) can be calcvdated (very near!}') from the formula 



\ 



hn- 



■cn-\ -where a = 39796-10 for the first line, 39836-79 for the second. 



and 39857-00 for the tJdrd line of the triplets, J = 130398, c = 1432090 in the triplets 
marked *; and in those marked f, a = 39836-74 for the first line, 39877-95 for the 
second, 39897-91 for the third, &= 125471, c = 518781. The figure preceding the sign 
* or f shows the value of n. 



Note. — Lines at 

4808-0, 38950, 3893-0, 3852-0, 3848-0 
3073-6, 3050-6, 3046-7 



are given by Liveing and Dewar. 



Calcium (Arc Spectrum). 

Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. IV. Berlin, 1891). 













Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 


Intensity 


Previous 


Fraunhofer 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


length 


of 


and 


Measurements 








Frequency 


(Rowland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


Map 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


6499-85 


0-10 


4 


6498-3 1. & Th. 


6499-870 


1-91 


46 


15380-5 


6493-97 


0-10 


4 


6492-4 „ 


6493-998 




91 




15394-4 


6471-85 


0-10 


4 




6471-889 




90 




15447-0 


6462-75 


0-10 


6r 


6462-0 „ 


6462-840§ 




90 




15468-8 


j 6449-99 


0-10 


1 


6449-3 „ 


6450-028 




90 




15499-5 


, 6439-36 


0-10 


lOr 


6438-5 „ 


6439-301 




89 


4-5 


15525-0 


6169-87 


0-10 


6 




6169-774 




82 


4-8 


16203-0 


6169-36 


0-10 


4 


6168-0 Thalen 


6169-2 




82 




16204-3 


6166-75 


0-10 


4 


6166-5 „ 


6166-6 




81 




16211-2 


6163-98 


010 


4 


6163-6 „ 


6163-95 




81 




16218-5 


(6162-46 


10 


lOr 3t 




6162-395d 




81 




16222-5 


1 6161-t)0 


0-10 


2 


6161-1 „ 


6161-45 


I 


81 




16224-8 


1 6122-46 


0-05 


lOr 3t 


6121-2 „ 


6122-432 




80 




16328-5 


( 6102-99 


0-05 


8r3t 


6101-2 „ 


6102-940 




80 


4-8 


16380-6 


5867-94 


0-10 


6b' 




5867-78? 




73 


5-0 


17036-8 


6857-77 


0-10 


lOn 


5856-4 „ 


5857-675 




73 


5-0 


17066-3 


6603-06 


0-05 


8 




5603-099t 




65 


5-3 


17842-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 199 



Calcium (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 















Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 


Limit 
of 


Intensity 
and 


Previous 

Measurements 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

liowlfind'si 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angs 


trijm) 


Map 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 


5601-51 


0-05 


8 


5600-3 Thalen 


5601-45 






17847-0 


5598-68 


005 


8n 


5597-3 


J) 


5598-7 






17856-0 


5594-64 


0-05 


lOn 


5593-4 


J) 


5594-7 






17869-9 


5590-30 


005 


8 


5588-9 


f* 


5588-9 






17882-8 


5588-96 


005 


10 


55S7-5 


»» 


5588-976 






17883-9 


6682-16 


0-05 


8 


5580-9 


>» 


5582-192 


1-65 


5-3 


17908-9 


551307 


0-10 


8 






5513-194 


1-63 


5-4 


18133-3 


5349-66 


0-05 


10 


5348-4 


» 


5349-6 


1-58 


5-6 


18687-2 


5270-45 


0-05 


10 . 


5269-2 


»» 


5270-497§ 


1-56 


5-6 


18968-1 


5265-79 


0-05 


8 


5264-6 


>» 


5265-75 






18984-9 


5264-46 


005 


6 


5263-2 


If 


5264-4 






18989-7 


5262-48 


0-06 


6 


5261-4 


M 


5262-4 






18996-8 


6261-93 


0-06 


6 


5261-0 


If 


5261-885 






18998-8 


526058 


0-05 


4 






5260-6 


1-56 


5-6 


19003-7 


5189-05 


0-05 


6 






6188-947d 


1-54 


5-7 


19265-7 


5041-93 


0-05 


8b' 


5041-0 


» 


5041-9 


1-50 


6-9 


19827-8 


4878-34 


0-10 


10b' 


4877-3 


ff 


4878-35§ 


1-45 


6-1 


20492-7 


4847-22 


0-20 


4b'- 


4846-5 


$f 


? 


1-44 




20624-3 


4833-85 


1-00 


lb' 


4832-6 


If 


4833-8 1 


1-43 




20681-3 


4823-04 


1-00 


lb' 


4822-3 


ff 


1 


1-43 


6-1 


20727-7 


4807-47 


1-00 


lb' 


4806-7 


ff 


4807-4 ? 


1-43 


6-2 


20794-8 


4685-40 


0-50 


4b' 


4684-3 


f) 


4685-4? 


1-39 


6-3 


21336-6 


4624-71 


0-50 


lb' 


4622-4 


ff 


4624-7? 


1-37 


6-4 


21616-6 


4586-12 


0-10 


10 


4585-3 


J) 


4586-1 


1-36 


6-6 


21798-4 


4581-66 


0-10 


8 


4580-8 


ff 


4581-7§ 


1-36 


6-5 


21819-6 


4578-82 


0-10 


8 






4578-723 


1-36 


6-5 


21833-2 


4527-17 


0-10 


6 


4526-3 


ff 


4527-1 


1-35 


6-6 


22082-2 


4512-73 


100 


In 






4512-5? 


1-34 




22152-9 


4509-89 


1-00 


In 






4509-9 ? 






22166-9 


4508-04 


1-00 


In 






4508-1 ? 


1-34 


6-6 


22176-0 


4456-81 


0-03 


4 


4456-1 


ff 


4456-8 


1-33 


6-7 


22430-9 


4456-08 


0-03 


8r4* 


4456-3 


1) 


4456-05 






22434-5 


4454-97 


0-03 


lOr 


4454-3 


ff 


4455-0 


1-33 




22440-1 


\ 4435-86 


0-03 


8r4* 


4435-1 


ff 


4435-9 


1-32 




22536-8 


4435-13 


0-03 


lOr 


4434-4 


ff 


4435-1 






22540-5 


4425-61 


03 


lOr 4* 


4424-9 




4425-6 


1-32 


6-7 


22589-0 


4355-41 


0-10 


6b 


4355-0 


ff 


4355-22 ? 


1-30 


6-9 


22953-0 


4318-80 


0-03 


8r 






4318-828 


1-29 




23147-7 


4307-91 


0-03 


8r 






4308 023^ 


1-29 




23206-2 


4302-68 


0-03 


lOr 


4302-1 


ff 


4302-7 


1-28 




23234-4 


4299-14 


003 


6 


4298-5 


ff 


4299-16 




6-9 


23253-6 


4289-51 


003 


8r 


4289-0 


ff 


4289-6 




7-0 


23305-7 


4283-16 


0-03 


8r 


4282-7 


ff 


4283-16 


1-28 




23340-2 


4240-58 


0-10 


4 


42400 


It 


4240-6 


1-27 


7-0 


23574-7 


4226 91 


0-03 


lOr 


4226-4 


fl 


4226-9 


1-26 


7-0 


23650-0 


4098-82 


0-10 


4b' 


4098-0 


If 


4098-8 


1-23 


7-3 


24390-0 


4095-25 


0-10 


2b' 


4094-3 


If 


4095-1 


1-23 


7-3 


24411-2 


4092-83 


0-10 


2b' 


4092-2 


ff 


4092-9 


1-23 


7-3 


24426-1 


(■3973-89 


0-05 


6b' 4t 


3972-3 I 


,. &D. 


3973-95 


1-19 


7-6 


25156-7 


3968-63 


0-03 


lOr 


3967-7 


»> 


3968-7 


1-19 




251900 


■ 3957-23 


0-05 


6b' 4t 


3956-0 


JJ 


3957-15 


1-19 




25262-6 


U94909 


0-05 


4b' 4t 


3947-9 


)) 


3949 2 


1-18 




26314-7 


3933-83 


0-03 


lOr 


3933-0 


I) 


3934- 


1-18 


7-6 


25412-9 


3737-08 


003 


4 


3736-4 


,f 


3737-2 


113 


8-1 


26750-7 


370618 


0-03 


4 


3705-6 


f. 


3706-2 


112 


8-2 


26973-8 



200 



REPORT 1892. 



Calcium (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave- 

lengtli 

(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 
Mgasurements 
(Angstrom) 


Fraunhofer 

Lines in 

Rowland's 

Map 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequence 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1 
X 


3653-62 


0-05 


4 






3653-6 


1-10 


8-3 


27361-8 


(3644-45 


0-05 


lOr 


6* 


3644-0 L. & D. 


3644-5 






27430-7 


\ 3630-82 


005 


8r 


5* 


3631-0 „ 


3630-9 




8-3 


27533-7 


3624-L5 


0-05 


8r 


5* 


3623-5 „ 


3624-2 


1-10 


8-4 


27584-3 


(3487-76 
J 3474-98 
(3468-68 


0-05 


6b^ 


5t 


3486-5 „ 


3487-8 


1-06 


8-7 


28663-0 


005 


4b' 


5t 


3474-5 „ 


3474-95 


1-05 


8-8 


28768-3 


0-05 


4b' 


5t 


3468-0 „ 


3468-65 


1-05 


8-8 


28820-6 


(3361-92 


0-10 


8b' 


6* 


3359-5 „ 


3361-95 


1-02 


9-1 


29735-8 


■ 3350-22 


0-10 


8b> 


6* 


3347-5 „ 


3350-3 


1-02 


9-1 


29839-7 


(3344-49 


0-10 


6b-- 


6* 


3342-0 „ 


3344-3 1 


1-02 


9-1 


29890-8 


(3286-26 


0-10 


4b'- 


6t 


3285-0 „ 


3286-1 


1-00 


9-3 


30420-4 


J 3274-88 


0-10 


2b^ 


6t 


3273-0 „ 


3274-8 


1-00 


9-3 


30526-2 


3269-31 


0-10 


2bv 


6t 


3268-5 „ 


3269-3 


100 


9-4 


30578-1 


(3225-74 


0-50 


4b'- 


7* 


3224-5 „ 


3225-9 


0-98 


9-5 


30991-1 


. 3215-15 


0-50 


4b'- 


7* 


3213-0 „ 


3215-3 


0-98 


9-5 


31093-2 


3209-68 


0-50 


2b'- 


7* 


3208-0 „ 


3209-3 ? 


0-98 


9-5 


31146-2 


(3181-40 


0-03 


4 


7t 


3181-0 „ 


3181-4 


0-97 


9-6 


31423-1 


J 3179-45 


0-03 


6 




3179-0 „ 


3179-4 




9-6 


31442-3 


13170-23 


0-50 


2 


n 


3168-5 Cornu 


31 70-3 




9-7 


31534-7 


(3166-95 


2-00 


In 


n 




3166-9 






31566-4 


3158-98 


0-03 


In 




3158-8 L. & D. 


3159-0 


0-96 




31646-1 


(3150-85 


0-50 


6 


8* 


3151-0 „ 


3150-9 






31727-8 


3140-91 


0-50 


2n 


8* 


3141-0 „ 


3140-95 




9-7 


31828-2 


(3136-09 


0-50 


2n 


8* 


3136-0 „ 


3136-0 


0-96 


9-8 


31887-2 


(3117-74 


1-00 


In 


St 


3117-5 „ 


3117-85 


0-95 




32064-7 


3107-96 


1-00 


In 


St 


3108-0 „ 


3107-9 




9-8 


32171-5 


(3101-87 


1-00 


In 


8t9* 




3102-0? 




9-9 


32228-6 


j 3006-95 


005 


4 


9* 






0-92 


10-2 


33246-1 


12999-76 


0-10 


4 


9* 










33335-8 


2997-42 


05 


4 












33351-8 


2995-06 


005 


4 








0-93 


10-2 


33375-1 


2398-66 


0-05 


8r 




2398-0 „ 




0-76 


13-1 


37676-8 


2275-60 


0-10 


8r 








0-73 


14-0 


43930-4 


2200-84 


0-10 


8r 








0-70 


14-3 


45423-0 



The lines marked * and f form a series of triplets, of -which the oscillation 
frequencies (in ail") can be calculated, very nearly, from the formula 

8 \ 

10 ^ = '^ - in--~c)i~\ where « = 33919-51 for fhe first line, 34022-12 for the second, 

and 34073-82 for the third line of the triplet, J =123547, ^ = 961696, in the triplets 
marked * ; and in those marked f a = 34041-17 for the first line, 34146-95 for the 
second, and 3419909 for the third, J = 120398, c = 346097. The figure preceding the 
sign * or f sho-ws the value of v. 



§ Double; — calcium and iron. 



d Double. 



t Triple. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 201 



Zinc (Arc Spectrum). 

Kayser and Eunge (' Ueberdie Spectrender Elemente,' Ft. IV. Berlin, 1891). 













55 ^ ^ 


Eeduction to 


CI b-- _ 


Wave-length 
(Eowland) 


Limit 
of 


lutensity 
and 


Previous 
Measurements 




Vacuum 


illatioi 
queue; 
Vacuo 




1_ 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


Fra 

lines 

lane 


A.+ 


a P „ 

-S rr .S 


6182-20 


0-10 


8b' 








1-53 


5-7 


19286-1 




f4810-71§ 


0-03 


lOr 


3t 


4809-8 Thalen 


4810-68 


1-43 


6-2 


20780-7 




4722-26§ 


0-05 


lOr 


3t 


4721-5 


4722-30 


1-40 


6-3 


211700 




4680-38!? 


0-05 


lOr 


3t 


4679-6 „ y 




1-39 


6-'3 


21359-5 


4630-06§ 


0-10 


8b> 




4680-45 ? 


1-38 


6-4 


21591-6 


4298-64 


0-10 


2n 




4680-28 ? 


1-28 


6-9 


23256-8 


4293-02 


0-05 


2 








1-28 


6-9 


23286-7 


4101-94 


010 


2 








1-23 


7-3 


24371-4 


4058-02 


0-03 


8 






4058-10 ? 


1-22 


7-4 


24635-2 


4019-75 


0-05 


4 








1-20 


7-5 


24869-7 


3740-12 


0-10 


4 








1-13 


8-1 


267290 


3683-63 


0-03 


8b 






3683-70 


1-1] 


8-2 


27138-9 


3671-71 


0-05 


6 






3671-80 ? 


1-11 


8-2 


27227-1 


3572-90 


0-03 


2 








1-08 


8-5 


279800 


3515-26 


0-20 


In 






3515-20 ? 


1-07 


8-7 


28438-7 


3346-04§ 


0-10 


4 






3346-12 


1-02 


9-1 


29877-0 


3345-62§ 


0-05 


8r 






3345-72 ? 


1-02 


9-1 


29880-7 


(3345-13§ 


0-03 


lOr 


4* 


8342-0 L. & D. 


3345-10 ? 


1-02 


9-1 


29885-1 


3303-03§ 


0-03 


8r 


4» 




3303-00? 


1-01 


9-3 


30265-9 


■ 3302-67§ 


0-03 


8r 




3301-0 „ 


3302-72 


1-01 


9-3 


30269-2 


U282-42§ 


0-03 


8r 


4* 


3281-0 




1-00 


9-3 


30456-0 


3075-99§ 


0-03 


8r 








0-94 


9-9 


32500-0 




3072-19§ 


0-05 


lOr 


4+ 


3070-0 




0-94 


10-0 


32540-1 




3035-93§ 


0-05 


lOb 


4t 


3035-0 




0-93 


10-1 


32928-7 




3018-50S 


0-05 


8b- 


4t 


3017-0 „ 




0-93 


10-2 


33118-6 


2913-63' 


0-05 


4 








0-90 


10-6 


34310-8 


2873-39 


0-03 


6 








0-89 


10-8 


34791-3 


2863-43t 


0-03 


6 








0-89 


10-8 


34912-3 


2833-13 


003 


8r 








0-88 


10-9 


35285 7 


2823-27^ 


0-03 


6 








0-88 


11-0 


35408-9 


2802-11 


0-03 


4r 








0-87 


11-1 


35676-3 


,2801-00§t 


0-03 


lOr 


5* 


2800-0 „ 




0-87 


11-1 


35690-4 


2781-33 


0-20 


4b-- 








0-86 


11-2 


35942-8 


. 2771-05 


0-03 


6r 








0-86 


11-2 


36076-2 


2770-94§ 
l2766-53§t 


0-03 


8r 


5* 


2770-0 




0-86 


11-2 


36077-6 


0-10 


6r 


5* 


27560 




0-86 


11-3 


36266-2 


2751-49 


0-20 


2^ 








0-86 


11-3 


36332-6 


273S-96J 


0-20 


2b 








0-85 


11-4 


36525-5 


/2712-60^|| 
2706-64$ 


0-05 


Sb" 


5t 


2713-3 




0-84 


11-5 


36853-5 


0-05 


6 








0-84 


11-5 


36934-7 


4 2697-54 


0-10 


2b 








0-84 


11-6 


37059-2 


2684-29§ 


005 


8b' 


5t 


2684-0 




0-84 


11-6 


37242-2 


l2670-67§ 


0-05 


6b' 


5t 


2670-5 




0-83 


11-7 


37432-1 


2663-25 


0-05 


8 








0-83 


11-7 


37548-1 


2623-87 


1-00 


In 








0-82 


11-9 


38111-6 


,2608-65§ 


0-05 


8r 


6* 


2608-5 




0-82 


12-0 


38322-0 


2601-03 


1-00 


2n 








0-82 


121 


38434-2 


)2582-57§t 


0-10 


8r 


6* 


2582-0 




0-81 


121 


387090 


■ 


2577-34 


005 


4 








0-81 


12-2 


38787-5 




2575-15 


0-15 


2n 








0-81 


12-2 


38820-5 




^257000§ 


010 


6r 


6* 


2569-7 




0-81 


12-2 


38898-3 



202 



REPORT — 1892. 



Zinc (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Angstrom) 


Fraunhofer 
Lines in Row- 
land's Map 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


(Rowland) 


A + 


1 

A. 


,2567-99 


0-10 


6b- 6t 






0-81 


12-2 


38928-8 




2562-70 


1-00 


2n 






0-80 


12-3 


39009-0 




2558-03 


0-05 


4 






0-80 


12-3 


39080-3 




2542-53 


0-10 


6b' 6t 






0-80 


12-3 


39318-6 




12530-34 


010 


2b'' 6t 






0-80 


12-4 


39508-0 


2516-00§ 


0-20 


6n 7* 


25160 L. & D. 




0-79 


12-5 


39723-1 


2502-11 


0-10 


4 






0-79 


12-6 


39950-9 


\ 2493-67 


0-15 


4n 7t 






0-79 


12-6 


40088-9 


2491-67§ 


0-15 


6n 7* 


2491-5 




0-79 


12-6 


40121-1 


^2479-85gt 


0-15 


4b'' 7* 


2480-0 




0-78 


12-7 


40312-3 


\ 2469-72 


0-15 


2b'' 7t 






0-78 


12-8 


40477-6 


/ 2463-47^ 


0-20 


4n 8* 


2464-5 „ 




0-78 


12-8 


40680-4 


V 


2457-721 


0-25 


Ib'Tt 






0-78 


12-8 


40675-3 




2449-76 


0-25 


1 8t 






0-77 


12-9 


408O7-4 




2439-94i5t 


0-30 


4n 8* 


2440-0 




0-77 


12-9 


40971-7 




12430-745, 


0-30 


In 8*9* 


2430-0 „ 




077 


130 


41126-7 


2427-05 


0-30 


In 8t 






0-77 


13-1 


41189-2 


I 2415-54 


0-30 


In 8t 






0-76 


13-1 


41385-5 


2407-98 


0-30 


In 9* 






0-76 


13-2 


41515-4 


2393-88 


0-05 


8 






0-76 


13-3 


41759-9 


2246-90 


0-15 


6 






0-72 


14-2 


44491-4 


(2138-3) § 












14-8 


46751-3 



The lines marked * and t form a series of triplets, of which the oscillation 
frequencies (in air) can be calculated (very nearly) from the formula 

IQ"^ = a ~hn--- en-*, ivhere a = 42945-82 for the >-s« line, 43331 71 for the seeond, 

A 

and 43521-48 for the third line of the triplet, & = 131641, <;= 1236125 in the triplets 
marked * ; and in those marked t a = 42954-59 for the prst line, 43343-65 for the 
second, a.nCi 4353332 for the third, ft = 126919, c= 632850. The figure preceding 
the sign * or t shows the value of n. 

§Ames. 4810-7, 4722-3, 4680-3, 46301,3346-2, 33457, 3345-1, 33031, 3302-8, 
3282-35, 3076-1, 30721, 3035- 9, 3018-5, 2800-9 (double), 2770-9 (double), 2756-5, 2712-6, 
2684-2, 2670-7, 26087, 2582-5, 2570-0, 2516-2, 2491-6, 2479-9, 2463-7, 2440-4, 2429-0, 
2138-3. X See Iron. || See Cadmium. 



Strontium (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser and Runge (* Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. IV. 



Berlin, 1891). 



Wave-length 
(Rowland) 



6550-53 

650417 

6408-65 

6386-74 

6380-95§ 

5970-38 

584801 

5817-01 



Limit 

of 
Error 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Previous 

Measurements 

(Angstrom) 



0-20 


6 


010 


4 


0-10 


6 


0-10 


6 


0-10 


4 


0-05 


4b' 


0-10 


1 


0-05 


2 



6550-3 Thalen 

6501-8 

6407-3 

6387-3 „ 

6380-3 

5970-7 

5860-1 

5816-0 Huggins 






absent 
6.504-35 
6408-80 

absent 
6380-94 
5970-27 

absent 
5817-05 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A-h 


1_ 
A. 


1-92 


4-5 


16261-4 


1-91 


»» 


15370-2 


1-88 


4-6 


15599-3 


)l 


)T 


15652-8 


>» 


4-6 


15667-0 


1-76 


4-9 


16744-4 


1-72 


5-0 


17094-8 


1-71 


5-1 


17185-9 



ON WAYE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECT«A OF THE ELEMENTS. 203 







Strontium (Arc Spectrum)— continu 


ed. 


\ 












IH 


Reduction to 


a t.. - 


Wave-lenstli 
(Kowlaud) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Angstrom) 


Fraunhoff 
Lines 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc; 
in Vacuo 


1 
A.+ i 


1 

A. 


5767-2'J 


0-10 


2 


5766-0 Huggins 


5767-37 


1-70 


51 


17334-1 


5543-4y§ 


0-05 


6b 


5543-0 


5543-30 


1-64 


5-3 


18033-8 


6540 28 


0-05 


6 


5540-1 Thalen 


absent 


)) 


)J 


180-14-3 


553501 


0-05 


6 


5533-0 


5535-05 


1-63 


)1 


18061-5 


5522-02 


0-05 


8 


5522-6 


absent 


jj 


1? 


18104-0 


5504-48 


005 


10 


5503-6 


5504-55 


• 1 


5-4 


18162-6 


5480-37 


0-05 


8 


5485-1 


absent 


1-62 


»J 


18221-6 


5481-15§ 


0-03 


10 


5480-1 


5481-05 


)» 


>» 


18239-0 


5451 08 


0-03 


8 


5450-0 Huggins 


5451-00 


1-61 


)) 


18339-6 


5257 12 


0-03 


10 


5256-1 Thalen 


5267-15 


1-56 


5-6 


19017-2 


5238-76 


0-03 


10 


5238-7 


5238-73 


1-55 


J? 


19082-9 


5229-52 


0-03 


8 


5228-7 „ 


absent 


J) 


5-7 


19116-5 


5225-35 


0-03 


8 


5225-7 „ 


5225-15 


)) 


)) 


19131-8 


6222-43 


003 


8 


5223-7 „ 


5222-55 


1-64 


>> 


19142-5 


6213-23 


003 


4 


5217-0 Huggins 


521320 


»» 


7) 


19176-3 


5156-37 


005 


10 


5156-0 


5156-28 


1-53 


5-8 


19387-7 


497185 


0-05 


4 4» 




absent 


147 


5-9 


;i0107-3 


4968-11 


0-03 


8 


4967-6 Thalen 


4968-10 


»» 


6-0 


20122-4 


4962-45 


0-03 


lOr 


4961-6 


4962-55 


)) 


Ji 


20145-3 


4892-20 


0-03 


8 


4893-0 Huggins 


absent 


1-45 


6-1 


20434-6 


4876-35 


0-03 


Br 4* 


487G-1 Thalen 


4876-57 


J' 


JJ 


20501-0 


4872-66 


0-05 


lOr 


4872-1 


absent 


1-44 


>) 


20516-6 


4869-41 


0-10 


4n 




486968 


)J 


)» 


20530-3 


4868-92 


0-03 


6n 


48650 Huggins 


absent 


)) 


u 


20532-3 


4855-27 


0-05 


6n 


4853-0 


»» 


J) 


)> 


20590-1 


4832-23 


0-03 


lOr 4» 


4831-6 Thalen 


4832-28 


1-43 


!» 


20688-3 


481201 


0-03 


lOr 


4812-1 „ 


4812-22 


>» 


6-2 


20775-1 


4784-43 


0-05 


6 


4783-6 „ 


4784-25 


1-42 


)» 


20894-9 


4755-59 


0-10 


2 


4750-0 Huggins 


4765-35 


1-41 


J> 


21021-6 


4742-07 


0-03 


6 


4740-6 Thalen 


absent 


»» 


6-3 


21081-5 


4729-93 


0-10 


2n 




4729-82re 


1-40 


1» 


21135-7 


4722-421 


0-03 


8 


4721-1 


absent 


11 


H 


21169-3 


4678-39:: 


0-10 


6n 




4678-37 


1-39 


J) 


213f-8-6 


4607-52 


0-03 


lOr 


4607-6 „ 


4607-51 


1-37 


6-4 


21697-2 


4531-54§ 


0-03 


6 




absent 


1-35 


6-6 


22061-0 


4480-96 


010 


2ii 




4481-00 


1-33 


n 


22310-0 


4438-22 


0-03 


6n 


4437-0 Lockyer 


absent 


1-32 


6-7 


22524-9 


4412-82 


0-03 


4 




)} 


131 


,, 


22654-6 


4361-87 


0-03 


6n 


4365-0 


)> 


1-30 


6-8 


22919-1 


4338-00 


0-05 


eb' 


43360 „ 


4338-05 


1-29 


6-9 


23045-2 


4326-60 


0-03 


4 


4325-0 


4326-55 


)) 


11 


23105-9 


4319-39 


0-05 


4b' 


4319-0 Huggins 


absent 


»J 


11 


23144-5 


4308-49 


0-10 


2b' 




4308-37 


It 


11 


23203-1 


, 4305-60§ 


0-10 


6 


4305-3 Thalgn 


4306-48 


J) 


11 


23218-6 


4215-66§ 


0-03 


lOr 


4215-3 


4215-70 


1-26 


7-1 


23714-1 


' 4161-95 


003 


6 


4161-0 „ 


4161-97 


1-25 


7-2 


24020-0 


4077-88 


003 


lOr 


4078-5 „ 


4077-90 


1-22 


7-3 


24515-2 




^4032-51 


0-05 


4b' 5* 


( 4031-7 Lockyer 
14031-5 


4032-60 


1-21 


7-4 


24791-0 




4030-45§ 


0-05 


6b' 


4029-4 


4030-50 


J, 


)T 


24803-7 


■ 


3970-15 


0-05 


4b 


3969-1 „ 


397021 


1-19 


7-6 


26180-4 




3969-42S 


0-05 


4 5* 




3969-40Fe 


») 


J> 


25185-0 


" 3940-91 § 


0-05 


4b' 5* 


3939-5 


3940-80 


118 


»» 


25367-2 


i 3705-88 


0-20 


6n 6* 


37050 L. & D. 


3705-80 


1-12 


8-2 


26975-9 




1 3653-90 


0-10 


2n 


3663-0 „ 


3653-90Fe 


110 


11 


27359-8 



204 



KEPOBT 1892. 



Stkontium (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 











M 


Reduct 


!■ n to 1 


C X * 


Wave-length 


Limit 


Intensity 


Previous 


=2 

O m 


Vacuum 


•2 If 
* S s 


(Rowland) 


of 


and 


Measurements 


c .3 
3 -1 






5 a-t> 


Error 
0-10 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


2^ 


A + 


1 
A 


=^ 2 a 


J 3653-32f 


4n 6* 




3653-48 


1-10 


8-2 


27364-2 


" 


362915 


0-10 


4 6» 




absent 


»» 


8-3 


27546-3 




3628-62 


0-10 


2 




)> 


J, 


8-4 


27550-3 




r 3577-45 


0-10 


1 




3577-40 


1-08 


8-5 


27944-4 




3547-92 


0-30 


6n 7* 


3547-8 L & D. 


3547-92 


1-07 


8-6 


28176-9 1 




3504-70 


0-30 


2n 




3504-80 


1-06 


8-7 


28524-4 1 




3499-40 


0-20 


6n 7* 


3498-0 


? 


»» 


n 


28567-6 




i. 3477-33 


010 


2ii 7* 




3477-30 


)J 


8-8 


28748-9 


3475-01 


0-05 


6 




absent 


T> 


)J 


28768-1 


3464-58 


0-03 


8 


3464-0 


3464-60 


1-05 


>j 


28854-7 j 


/ 3457-70 


0-20 


In 8* 


3458-0 


3457-70 


)J 


1) 


28912-2 


3450-78 


0-20 


1 






J) 


)J 


28919-9 


-^3411-62 


0-50 


In 8* 






1-04 


8-9 


29303-7 


3400-39 


0-00 


In 9* 






1-03 


90 


29399-4 


V 3390-09 


0-50 


In 8* 






J> 


JJ 


29488-7 


3380-89 


0-03 


8 


3379-5 


? 




Jf 


29569-0 


33GG-43 


0-03 


8 


3365-5 


absent 


1-02 


9-1 


29696-0 


3351-35 


0-05 


lOr 




»» 


»» 


)» 


29829-6 


3330-15 


0-03 


8 




3330-08Mg 


1-01 


9-2 


30019-5 


3322-32 


0-03 


8 




3322-93 


t» 


„ 


30090-2 1 


3307-64 


0-05 


lOr 


3305-2 


ii 


»J 


)» 


30223-8 ' 


3301-81 


0-05 


8 




3301-77 




)j 


30277-2 


3200-4 § 


0-20 


2n 






0-98 


9-6 


31236-5 


3199-1 


0-20 


2n 






)) 


)» 


31249-2 


3190- 1 


0-20 


2n 






0-97 


I) 


31337-4 


3189-4 


0-20 


2n 






»T 


)f 


31344-2 


3182-4 


0-50 


In 






»> 


»» 


31412-2 


3172-3 


0-50 


In 






») 


)T 


31513-3 


2931-98 


003 


« 


2931-0 „ 




0-90 


10-5 


34096-1 



* These lines form a series of triplets for which, in the formula 10*- =a — hn-" 

-c7i-\ a = 31030-64 for the first line, 81424-67 for the second, and 31610-58 for the 
tJdrd, &= 122328, and (;= 837473. 

§ See Iron. || See Zinc. J See Cadmium. ^ See Calcium. 



Cadmium (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. IV. 



Berlin, 1891). 











t- fe CL, 


Reduction 


e t». 


Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Rowland) 


Fraunhnff 

Lines in Re 

land's Ma 


to Vacuum 


Oscillatio 
Frequenc 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 


5154-85 


0-20 


6b' 


5154-2 Thalen 


absent 


1-53 


5-8 


19393-4 


5086-06 


0-05 


lOr 3t 


5086-1 Ames 




1-51 




19655-8 


• 4800-09 


0-05 


lOr 3t 


4800-0 


4800-04 


1-42 


6-2 


20826-7 


U678-37 


0-05 


lOr 3t 


4678-3 „ 


4678-33 


1-39 


6-3 


21368-7 


4662-69 


0-10 


8b' 




4662-73 


1-39 


6-4 


21440-4 


4413-23 


005 


6 


4413-1 


absent 


1-32 


6-7 


22652-4 


4306-98 


0-05 


4b 




4307-0 


1-29 


69 


23211-2 


3981-92 


0-10 


2b' 




absent 


1-19 


7-6 


25105-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 205 



Cadmium (Arc Spectuvm')— continued. 



Wave- length 


Limit 

of 
Error 


(Rowland) 


3729-21 


0-20 


3619-74 


0-03 


3614-58 


0-10 


3613-04 


005 


3610-66 


03 


3595-64 


0-10 


- 3500-09 


005 


3467-76 


0-03 


3466 33 


003 


\ 3403- 74 


0-03 


3299-11 


0-03 


3261-17 


003 


(3252-63 
3133-29 


0-05 


0-20 


^ 3081-03 


0-10 


3005-53 


0-20 


2981-46 


0-20 


/2980-75 


0-03 


2961-64 


0-15 


2908-85 


0-50 


2903-24 


0-50 


• 2881-34 


03 


2880-88 


003 


2868-35 


003 


2862-36 
^2837-01 


0-10 


0-03 


2818-66 


0-10 


2775-09 


003 


2764-29 


0-10 


/2763-99 


0-03 


2756-69 


0-50 


2748-68 


0-03 


2733-97 


0-05 


' 2712-65 


005 


{2677-65 
2670-81 


0-20 


0-50 


2660-45 


0-20 


2657-10 


0-20 


2654-65 


0-20 


2639-63 


0-10 


2632-29 


10 


2629-15 


0-10 


2601-99 


0-30 


2592-14 


0-10 


2582-86 


0-30 


2580-33 


0-10 


257312 


0-10 


2553-61 


0-20 


2544-84 


0-20 


2525-57 


50 


2521-74 


0-50 


2507-93 


0-50 


(2491) 




247415 


0-50 


2329-35 


0-05 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4b' 

2b' 

4 

8r 4* 
lOr 

lb' 

4b' 

8r 4* 
lOr 
lOr 4* 

4 
lOr 

8b' 4t 

8b' 4t 

6b' 4t 

lb' 

4r 

8r 5* 



5* ) 

5t 
5* 

5t 
6* 



Previous 

Measurements 

(Rowland) 



3614-6 Ames 

3613-1 

3610-6 

3499-2 H. & A. 
3467-7 Ames 
3466-15 „ 
3403-7 

3261-1 
3252-6 
3133-2 
3081-0 



2980-8§ 

2881 -0§ 
2868-2 

2837-0 

27750 

2763-9§ 



5t 2748-45 Bell 
6t 2733-8 Ames 



6* 


2677-6§ „ 


n 


2660-3 


6* 


2639-4 


7+ 




6t 




8* 


26021 


6t 




^t 




7* 


2580-2 




2572-95 Bell 


7t9t 




7* 


2544-8 Ames 


8* 


2525-3 


8* 


2491-0 


8t 






2329-22 Bell 



1 


Reduction to 


P tK « 


oCSg 


Vacuum 










^ 2 rt 






Frau 

ines i 
land 


\ + 


1_ 


O OJ ^ 

f« ^H C3 


J 








absent 


1-12 


8-1 


26807-2 


)j 


1-10 


8-3 


27390-9 


)» 


1-09 


8-4 


27657-3 


»» 


»» 


»* 


27669-1 


3610-67 


}> 


>» 


27687-3 


absent 


)♦ 


)» 


27803-1 


)» 


.. 


ij 


28562-3 




1-05 


8-8 


28828-3 


3466-35 


" 


)) 


28840-2 


3403-80 


1-03 


9-0 


29370-4 


3299-12 


1-01 


9-3 


30301-9 




1-00 


9-4 


30654-4 




0-99 


»» 


30734-9 




0-96 


9-8 


31905-5 




0-94 


9-9 


32446-8 




0-92 


10-2 


33261-8 




» 


10-3 


33530-3 




)) 


»? 


33538-3 




0-91 


10-4 


33754-7 




0-90 


10-6 


34367-2 




»» 


10-7 


34433-6 




0-89 


H 


34695-4 




»» 


10-8 


34700-8 




99 


)» 


34852-4 




)» 


T» 


34925-4 




)> 


10-9 


35237-5 




0-87 


)) 


35466-9 




0-86 


11-2 


36023-7 




}f 


91 


36164-4 




3» 


i» 


36168-4 




11 


11-3 


36264-1 




>» 


)) 


36379-8 




0-85 


11-4 


36565-4 




)» 


»> 


36852-9 




0-84 


11-7 


37334-5 




0-83 


J» 


374301 




>1 


)) 


37575-9 




)» 


11-8 


37623-2 




»> 


S? 


37657-9 




)» 


»» 


37872-3 




0-82 


>» 


37977-9 




»t 


»» 


38023-3 




»» 


12-0 


38420-1 




0-81 


12-1 


38566-1 




)» 


)) 


38704-7 




)> 


12-2 


38742-5 




Jt 


»» 


38851-1 




0-80 


12-3 


39148-0 




») 


12-4 


39280-5 




0-79 


12-5 


39582-5 




» 


>i 


39642-7 




it 


12-6 


39860-9 




0-78 


12-7 


40405-2 




0-74 


13-7 


42916-7 



206 



KBPOET — 1892. 



Cadmium (Aec Sfectwjw.)— continued. 









a^e< 1 


Reduction to 


=> >. o 


Wave-length 
(Kuwland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous 

Measurements 

(Rowland) 


Fraunhof 

Lines in K( 

land's Mf 


Vacuum 


.2 1 § 


A.-1- 


1_ 

A. 


o£-S 


2321-23 


0-20 




2321-14 Bell 




0-74 


13-7 


43066-0 


2312-95 


015 




2312-83 „ 






18-8 


43221-0 


230672 


003 




2306-9 L. & D. 




0-73 


»» 


43337-8 


2288-10 


0-05 




2288-1 Ames 




»» 


13-9 


43690-5 


22(57-53 


010 




2268-9 H. & A. 




0-72 


14-1 


44086-7 


226513 


0-10 


• 


2264-88 Bell 
2264-42 „ 


1 


1) 


»> 


44133-5 


2262-36 


0-10 










»» 


44187-5 


2239-93 


0-05 




2241-7 H. & A. 




0-71 


14-2 


446300 


2194-67 


0-20 




2194-6 L. & D. 




0-70 


14-3 


45550-6 


217011 


0-50 








1* 


J» 


46066-3 


2144-45 


020 




2143-75 Bell 




0-69 


14-4 


46617-6 



* These lines form a series of triplets for which in the formula 10^ ~ = a 

A 

_ b!i---cn-*, a = 40755-21 for the first line, 41914-60 for the second, and 42456-64 
for the third, i= 128635 and (• = 1289619. 

t These lines form a series of triplets for which a = 40797*12 for the /»'«^ line, 
41968 80 for the gecond, and 42510-58 for the third, i = 126146, c = 555137. 

§ Double. 



Barium (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Pt. IV. 



Berlin, 1891). 













Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 


Intensity 


Previous 


Frauubofer 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


lennth 
(Rowland) 


of 
Error 


and 
Character 


Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Rowland's 
Map 


\ + 


1 
A."" 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


6675-30 


0-20 


1 


6677-0 Huggins 


absent 


1-96 


4-4 


14976-2 


6595-55 


0-10 


1 


65890 


„ 


1-94 


4-5 


15157-2 


6527-56 


010 


4 


6526'0 Thal6n 


6527-48 


1-92 


>» 


15315-1 


6498-93 


010 


4 




absent 


1-91 


)f 


15382-6 


6497-07 


0-10 


6r 


6495-3 


6497-12 


»J 


>» 


15387-0 


6483-10 


0-10 


4 


6483-0 


6483-06 


190 




15420-2 


6451-05 


0-10 


4 


6449-3 


absent 


*f 


>» 


15496-8 


6341-88 


0-10 


4 


6343-3 


„ 


1-86 


4-6 


15763-6 


6141-93 


003 


lOr 


6140-5 


6141-96 


1-81 


4-8 


16276-4 


6111-01 


0-03 


6 


6109-8 


absent 


1-80 


f) 


16359-1 


6083-63 


0-15 


1 






1-79 




164.327 


6063-33 


0-03 


6 


6062-0 


), 


1-78 


»» 


16487-8 


6019-69 


003 


6 


6018-2 


6019-60 


1-77 


4-9 


16607-2 


5997-31 


0-03 


4 


5991-7 


absent 


J. 




16669-2 


5978-72 


0-20 


1 




5978-76 


1-76 


)» 


16721-1 


5971-94 


003 


8 


5971-2 


absent 






16740-1 


596506 


0-20 


2 


5971-2 


5965-15 


1» 


)» 


16759-4 


5907-88 


0-05 


6 


5904-7 


absent 


1-74 


5-0 


16921-5 


5853-91 


0-10 


lOr 


5852-7 


5853-90 


1-73 


»» 


17077-6 


5826-50 


0-03 


8r 


5827-1 


absent 


1-71 


5-1 


17157-9 


5819-21 


0-05 


4n 










17179-4 


5805-86 


0-05 


6r 


5803-6 


5805-85 


tt 


»> 


17218-9 


5800-48 


0-05 


6r 




absent 






17234-8 i 


5784-24 


0-15 


2n 




5784-26 


» 


» 


17283-3 ! 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 207 



Barium (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 













Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 


Intensity 


Previous 


Fraunhofer 
Lines in 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


lenffth 


of 


and 


• Measurements 


Itowland's 
Map 






Frequency 


(Rovsland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


\ + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


5777-84 


0-03 


lOr 


5779-6 Thalfc 


absent 


1-70 


51 


17302-4 


5721-66 


0-30 


In 




»f 


1-69 


5-2 


17472-3 


5713-62 


015 


4b' 




»» 


»» 


»» 


17496-8 


J5709-82 


0-15 


4b' 




5709-75 


)♦ 


»» 


17508-5 


5680-34 


0-05 


6r 




5680-48 


1-68 


»» 


17599-4 


5620-41 


0-50 


2n 




5620-30 


1-66 


5-3 


17787-0 


5593-45 


0-10 


4n 




absent 


1-65 


»» 


17872-7 


5535-69 


0-05 


lOr 


5534-2 


5535-74 


1-64 


JJ 


18059-3 


5519-37 


0-05 


8r 


5518-4 


absent 


1-63 


J) 


18112-7 


5473-94 


010 


4n 






1-62 


5-4 


18263-0 


5437-66 


0-10 


2n 


5436-0 


5474-10 


1-61 


» 


18384-9 


5424-82 


0-05 


- { 


5425-0 „ \ 
5424-0 „ / 


5424-86 


1-60 


)> 


18428-4 


$5393-47 


0-10 


lb' 






1-59 


5-5 


18535-4 


5381-25 


0-50 


lb' 




5381-25 


»» 


)» 


18577-5 


537905 


0-00 


lb' 






)) 


)» 


18585-1 


5365-46 


0-50 


lb' 






»t 


»J 


18632-2 


5309-20 


0-30 


2b' 






1-57 


5-6 


18829-6 


5305-99 


0-20 


2b' 




6306-05 


)l 


t) 


18841-0 


6302-97 


0-20 


4b' 






ii 


») 


18852-2 


5294-40 


010 


2 






t) 


J» 


18882-3 


5291-16 


0-20 


In 






»J 


>» 


18893-8 


5279-72 


0-20 


In 






1-56 


»» 


18934-8 


5277-84 


0-15 


4n 






»» 


)> 


18941-5 


5267-20 


0-10 


6n 






it 


»l 


18979-8 


5253-94 


0-10 


In 






>» 


»> 


19027-7 


5177-60 


0-05 


2n 






1-53 


5-7 


19308-3 


5175-74 


005 


4n 






1» 


»J 


19315-2 


5160-27 


0-10 


4n 






>» 


It 


19373-1 


5055 12 


010 


2n 






1-50 


5-9 


19392-3 


4947-50 


0-10 


2n 






1-47 


6-0 


20206-2 


4934-24 


003 


lOr 


4933-3 


4934-26 


1-46 


If 


20260-5 


490311 


0-05 


6b' 






1-45 


>> 


20389-2 


4900-13 


0-05 


8 


4899-4 


4900-07 


>» 


)» 


20401-6 


4877-99 


0-15 


2n 






}> 


6-1 


20494-1 


4726-63 


0-05 


8r 


4727-0 Huggins 




1-40 


6-3 


21150-4 


4724-98 


010 


2 






It 


)» 


21157-8 


4700-64 


0-05 


6b' 




4700-70 


Jf 


»t 


21267-4 


J4691-74 


0-03 


6r 


4690-0 


4691-75 


1-39 


»> 


21307-7 


4H73-69 


0-05 


6b' 






)l 


6-4 


21390-0 


4642-38 


0-10 


lb' 




4642-40 


1-38 


1* 


21534-3 


4636-80 


0-10 


2b' 






it 


yy 


21560-2 


4628-45 


0-05 


4b' 






»» 


•» 


21599-1 


4620-19 


0-05 


4b' 






1-37 


>» 


21637-7 


4605-11 


0-05 


2b' 




4605-20 


)» 


6-5 


21708-5 


4600-02 


0-05 


4b' 


4599-1 Thalln 


4600-02 


)t 


)) 


21732-5 


4591-88 


0-05 


2b' 






)t 


)) 


21771-1 


4589-82 


0-05 


2b' 






1-36 


if 


21780-9 


4579-84 


0-03 


8r 






)l 


f9 


21828-3 


457408 


0-05 


6r 






1) 


)t 


21855-8 


4554-21 


0-03 


lOr 


4553-4 


4554-22 


1-35 


»> 


21951-2 


$4525-19 


0-05 


6 


4524-4 


452515 


yy 


6-6 


22091-9 


4523-48 


0-10 


6r 




4253-58 


)» 


" 


22100-3 


450611 


0-10 


6 






1-34 


>» 


22185-5 


4493-82 


020 


4b' 


4493-0 Lockyer 


4493-73 


t» 


» 1 


22246-2 



208 



REPORT 1892. 







Baeium (Aec Spectrum)— cofitinued. 
















Fraunhofer 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


1 


Wave- 


Limit 


Intensity 
and 


Previous 

1 I**- 


Lines in 


O.-ioillation 


length 


of 


j Measurements 


Rowlaufl's 






P'requency 


(Kowland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angst 


rom) 


Map 


A.+ 


1_ 

A. 


in Vacuo 

1 


4489'50 


0-60 


4b' 


4488-0 Lockyer 




1-34 


6-6 


22267-6 


4467-36 


0-05 


4 








1-33 


6-7 


22377-9 


4432-13 


0-03 


6r 


4433-0 


)> 


4432-30 


1-32 


»' 


22555-8 


1 4413-90 


0-05 


2 






4414-03 


»» 


)» 


22648-7 


4407-10 


0-05 


4b' 








1-31 


1» 


22684-0 


4402-75 


0-05 


8r 


4401-5 


91 




" 


6-8 


22706-3 


4359-80 


0-05 


2 






4359-80 


1-30 


5) 


22930-0 


4350-49 


0-10 


Br 


4351-0 


91 




») 


6-9 


22979-0 


4333-04 


0-05 


4ii 


4332-0 


J) 


433306 


1-29 


»> 


23071-6 


4325-38 


0-05 


2 


4325-0 


1» 




»» 


1* 


23112-5 


432315 


0-05 


4b>- 


4323-0 


ly 


4323-15 


" 


ii 


23124-4 


4291-32 


0-05 


4 


4290-6 


»> 


4291-30 


1-28 


7-0 


23295-8 


4283-27 


0-03 


8r 


4282-5 


») 




>» 


tt 


23339-6 


4264-45 


0-05 


4n 


4264-0 


9) 


4264-45 


1-27 


)» 


23442-r 


4242-83 


0-05 


4b' 


4241-5 


il 


4242-80 


»» 


»» 


23562-2 


^4239-91 


005 


2b' 


4239-0 


it 


4239-90 


)» 


»* 


23578-4 


J4224-11 


0-05 


4 


4224-0 


ft 




1-26 


7-1 


23666-5 


4179-57 


0-20 


2b' 






4179-55 


1-25 


»> 


23918-8 


4166-24 


0-05 


4 


4165-5 


9* 


4166-20 


»» 


11 


23995-4 


+4132-60 


0-05 


2 


4131-5 


9) 


4132-58 


1-24 


7-2 


24190-6 


4130-88 


0-05 


8r 


4130-5 


ff 


4130-77 


>» 


»» 


24200-7 


4110-46 


0-10 


2 






4110-42 


1-23 


7-3 


24320-8 


4087-90 


0-50 


In 


4087-0 


)f 


4087-96 


1-22 


»» 


24455-1 


t4085-35 


0-50 


In 


4084-0 


9> 


4085-46 


»» 


>» 


24470-4 


4079-56 


0-50 


In 


4081-0 


tj 


4079-58 


)» 


J» 


24505-1 


13995-92 


0-10 


6 


39950 


f» 


3995-93 


1-20 


7-5 


25018-0 


3993-60 


0-03 


lOr 


3992-7 


yt 


absent 


1» 


yi 


25032-6 


3975-55 


0-10 


2 






3975-50 


1-19 


7-6 


25146-2 


3938-09 


0-05 


6 


3937-2 


91 


3938-15 


1-18 


)» 


25385-4 


$3935-87 


0-05 


8r 


3934-7 


99 


3935-95 


*} 


»» 


25399-7 


J3917-42 


0-05 


4 






3917-45 


»» 


7-7 


25519-3 


3910-04 


0-05 


8r 


3908-5 L. 


&D. 


3910-06 


>» 


»* 


25567-4 


3906-20 


0-05 


2 






absent 


1-17 


»9 


25592-6 


3900-54 


0-05 


4n 






ft 


»» 


i» 


25649-8 


J3892-93 


0-10 


2n 






ft 


)» 


i» 


25679-8 


3891-97 


0-05 


6n 


3891-0 


If 


3891-95 


»» 


)) 


25686-2 


3889-45 


0-05 


4 






? 


i* 


If 


25702-9 


3861-87 


0-15 


2n 






? 


»1 


9i 


24886-5 


3794-77 


0-20 


2n 


3793-5 


ft 


3793-78 


1-14 


7-9 


26344-2 


3701-87 


0-15 


2n 






3701-83 


1-12 


8-2 


27005-2 


3689-28 


0-15 


2n 






3689-24 


Ml 


)» 


27097-4 


3664-76 


0-10 


2n 






3664-79 


» 


8-3 


27278-6 


3662-62 


005 


6 


3660-7 


ft 


absent 


»» 


1) 


27293-6 


3637-10 


0-50 


In • 






3637-16 


1-10 


;» 


27486-1 . 


3611-17 


0-10 


6b' ; 






3611-18 


1-09 


8-4 


27683-4 


3599-60 


0-05 


6 


3598-7 


ft 


absent 


» 


ff 


27772-5 


3593-58 


0-15 


4b' \ 


3592-8 


ft 


? 


>t 


7) 


27819-0 


3588-33 


0-10 


2n ' 






3588-40 


If 


8-5 


27859-7 


3586-64 


0-10 


2 






3586-68 


»» 


jy 


27872-7 


3579-97 


0-10 


4nr 


3579-1 


tf 


3579-97 


1-08 


JT 


27924-7 


3577-79 


0-05 


4n 






absent 


ii 


ty 


27941-7 


3576-20 


0-16 


1 






») 


1J 


11 


27944-1 


3566-90 


0-05 


2n 






»» 


IT 


11 


28027-0 


3562-23 


0-10 


In 






3562-25 


1* 


11 


28063-8 . 


3548-14 


0-05 


2n 






3548-15 


1-07 


8-6 1 


28175-2 



ON "WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 209 
Barium (Ahc Spectrum") — continued. 













Reduction to 




Wave- 


Limit 
of 


Intensity 


Previous 


Fraunhofer 
Lines in 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


length 


and 


Measurements 


Rowland's 






Frequency 


(Rowland) 


Error 


Character 


(Angstrom) 


Map 


A + 


A 


in "Vacuo 


3544-94 


0-10 


6nr 


3544-0 


absent 


107 


8-6 


28200-6 


3525-23 


0-10 


6nr 


3524-5 


3525-22 






28358-3 


3501-29 


0-05 


lOr 


3499-2 


3501-20 


1-06 


8-7 


28552-2 


3420-48 


0-10 


4r 


3419-3 


absent 


1-04 


8-9 


29226-8 


337719 


0-10 


4rb'' 


3375-6 


3377-29 


103 


9-0 


29601-4 


335700 


0-10 


6rb' 


3354-8 


absent 


102 


9-1 


29779-4 


3323-06 


0-10 


4b' 


3320-9 


3322-95 


1-01 


9-2 


30383-6 


3315-90 


0-10 


2n 




absent 






30148-5 


$3298-25 


0-10 


4b' 




3298-25 




9-3 


30009-8 


3281-96 


0-10 


4b' 


3279-8 


3281-97 


100 


,) 


30451-0 


$3262-57 


0-10 


2b' 


3261-0 






9-4 


30641-3 


3223-11 


0-20 


In 






0-98 


9-5 


31016-4 


3204-09 


0-20 


In 










31200-6 


3184-45 


0-30 


In 






0-97 


9-6 


31393-0 


$3119-48 


0-50 


In 






0-95 


9-8 


32046-8 


3108-37 


0-50 


2n 










32161-4 


3071-71 


0-03 


6r 


3070-3 




0-94 


10-0 


32545-2 


2785-22 


015 


8n 


2785-1 




0-87 


n-2 


35892-6 


2771-51 


0-10 


6 


2771-0 




0-86 




36070-2 


2702-78 


003 


4r 


2702-0 




0-84 


11-5 


36987-4 


2647-41 


0-05 


4 


2647-0 




0-83 


11-8 


37760-9 


2641-52 


0-05 


4 










37845-2 


2634-91 


0-05 


8 


2634-5 




0-82 


11-9 


379401 


2596-89 


0-05 


4r 


2596-7 




0-81 


12-1 


38495-5 


2347-67 


0-05 


6 


2347-0 




0-75 


13-6 


42581-8 


2335-33 


0-05 


8r 


2335-0 




0-74 




42807-0 


2304-32 


0-05 


8r 


304-5 




0-73 


13-8 


43383-0 


2254-80 


0-10 


4 






0-72 


14-1 


44535-7 


2245-72 


0-10 


4 








14-2 


446150 


2216-64 


010 


1 






0-70 


14-3 


46099-0 



J See Iron. 



Mercury (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser and Runge (' Ueber die Spectren der Elemente,' Ft. IV. Berlin, 1891). 











Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A-l- 


1_ 

X 


6819-05 


0-50 


In 


5817 Huggins 


1-72 


5-1 


17179-8 


6804-28 


0-30 


2b' 


6800 


1-71 




17223-6 


5790-49 


0-20 


lOr 


5789-6 Thalen 






17264-6 


5769-46 


0-20 


lOr 


5768-1 


1-70 




17327-6 


5460-97 


0-05 


lOr 3t 


5460-6 


1-61 


5-4 


18366-4 


5365-25 


1-00 


In 


5364-6 


1-59 


5-5 


18633-0 


4959-74 


0-60 


2b' 


4958-6 


1-47 


6-0 


20156-3 


4916-41 


0-10 


6b' 


4916-1 


1-46 




20334-0 


4358-56 


0-03 


lOr 3t 


::4358-l „ 


1-30 


6-8 


22936-6 


4347-65 


0-10 


6b' 


::4348-0 Hartley & Adeney 


»» 


6-9 


22994-0 


4339-47 


0-10 


4b' 


4341-0 


1-29 


11 


24037-4 



1892, 



210 



REPORT — 1892. 







Meecuey (Aec Specteum) — continued. 
















Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Measurements 
(Angstroml 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Charactei 






A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


4078-05 


0-03 


8r 3t 


14077-5 Hartley & Adeney 


1-22 


7-3 


24514-2 


4046-78 


0-03 


6r 


J4046-5 


» 


1-21 


7-4 


24703-6 


§398408 


0-05 


4 


3984-0 


J) 


1-20 


7-6 


25092-3 


3908-4 


2-00 


In 


3910-0 Vogel 




1-17 


7-7 


25678-2 


§3820-6 


0-50 


In 


38200 Hartley & Adeney 


116 


7-9 


26166-0 


§3790-36 


0-50 


2n 


37900 


»j 


114 


11 


26374-8 


3770-71 


0-50 


2n 


3770-0 


)l 


»> 


8-0 


26512-2 


3751-83 


0-05 


4n 


3751-0 


») 


1-13 


J» 


26645-7 


3680-74 


0-20 


4b'' 


3681-9 


;> 


111 


8-2 


27160-4 


3663-25 


0-05 


6r 4* 


{3662-9 


») 


»J 


8-3 


27289-9 


3654-94 


005 


6r 


$3654-4 


»» 


1-10 


l» 


27351-9 


3650-31 


0-03 


lOr 


t 




»» 


11 


27386-6 


3561-53 


010 


4n 


3560-1 


J> 


1-08 


8-6 


28069-2 


3543-65 


0-10 


4n 


3542-3 


}> 


1-07 


»> 


28210-9 


3390-50 


0-50 


6n 


3389-6 


)9 


103 


90 


29485-2 


336703 


0-50 


In 


3365-5 


>» 


)l 


9-1 


29690-7 


3351-52 


0-10 


4b' 


3351-2 


If 


1-02 


)| 


29828-1 


3341-70 


005 


6b' 4t 


3341-2 


)t 


») 


l» 


29915-8 


3305-23 


0-20 


lb' 






1-01 


9-2 


30245-9 


3264-33 


0-20 


1 






1-00 


9-4 


30624-8 


§3144-61 


0-10 


2b' 






0-96 


9-7 


31790-7 


313589 


0-20 


2n 






») 


9-8 


31879-1 


3131-94 


0-03 


8r 


1 3130-4 


- } 


)f 


II 


31919-3 


3131-68 


003 


8r 4* 




II 


31921-9 


§3125-78 


005 


lOr 


3124-5 


»» 


»J 


11 


31982-2 


3095-35 


0-20 


In 


30940 


yi 


0-95 


9-9 


32296-6 


3085-41 


1-00 


In 






0-94 


)» 


32400-7 


3050-58 


0-50 


In 






0-93 


10-0 


32770-6 


3038-69 


0-15 


4b' 






»} 


101 


32898-8 


3027-62 


0-15 


2b' 






If 


l» 


33019-1 


3025-71 


0-20 


2n 5* 






51 


II 


33061-8 


3021-64 


0-05 


4r 


3021-0 


9> 


)l 


II 


33084-5 


3011-17 


0-25 


In 






0-92 


10-2 


33199-5 


3007-02 


0-15 


2b' 






II 


n 


33245-3 


2967-37 


0-10 


lOr 4* 


2966-4 


9» 


0-91 


10-4 


33689-5 


§2925-51 


0-10 


8b' 5t 


29252 


»» 


0-90 


10-6 


34171-5 


2893-67 


0-05 


6b' 4t 


2892-9 


IJ 


)> 


10-7 


34547-5 


2865-14 


0-25 


In 






0-89 


10-8 


34891-6 


285707 


010 


4b' 






)l 


,, 


34990-1 


2847-85 


0-10 


4n 


2846-8 


)} 


0-88 


10-9 


35103-3 


2835-26 


0-25 


In 


2832-1 


)» 


It 


11 


35259-2 


2819-97 


0-10 


4n 


2819-7 


)) 


0-87 


11-0 


35450-4 


§2803-69 


0-20 


4b' 6* 


2804-5 


}} 


II 


11-1 


36656-2 


2799-76 


0-20 


1 


2798-5 


11 


»» 


J, 


36706-3 


§2774-68 


0-20 


4n 


2773-2 


)» 


0-86 


11-2 


36029-0 


§2759-83 


0-05 


6 6t 


2760-8 


)» 


11 


11-3 


36222-8 


2752-91 


003 


8b' 4t 


2751-5 


1> 


ll 


II 


36313-9 


2699-74 


0-40 


2n 7* 


2702-0 


II 


0-84 


11-6 


37029-0 


2686-61 


0-20 


2n 






II 


11 


372100 


2675-20 


0-20 


2n 7t 






II 


11-7 


37368-7 


2672-77 


0-20 


In 






0-83 


II 


37402-7 


2660-26 


0-20 


In 






)f 


II 


37578-6 


2658-59 


0-20 


In 




» 


>f 


If 


37602-2 


2655-29 


003 


6r 


2657-6 


}> 


ti 


11-8 


37648-9 


2653-89 


005 


6r 5* 


{2652-2 


>l 


)> 


>» 


37668-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 211 
Mercury (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 











Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previoijs Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A + 


1 

A. 


2652-20 


005 


8r 


t 


0-83 


11-8 


37682-7 


2648-12 


0-20 


In 




»» 


»> 


37750-8 


2642-70 


0-10 


6b' 


2644-6 Hartley & Adeney 


>» 


)» 


37828-3. 


2609-73 


0-20 


In 




0-82 


12-0 


38306-1 


2605-29 


0-10 


2n 


2602-3 


») 


J» 


38371-4 


§2576-31 


010 


8b- 5t 


2575-3 


0-81 


12-2 


38803-0 


2564-14 


0-10 


1 




0-80 


)f 


38987-2 


2540-39 


0-10 


2r 




)> 


12-4 


39351-6 


2536-72 


0-20 


lOrb 


2535-8 


J> 


)» 


39408-6 


2534-89 


005 


8r 5* 


2533-8 


J> 


»» 


39437-0 


2524-80 


0-10 


2b' 


2522-7 


0-79 


12-5 


39594-6 


2505-00 


0-50 


In 




)» 


12-6 


39907-6 


2482-14 


0-20 


4n 6* 


2484-2 


0-78 


12-7 


40274-1 


2478-09 


0-50 


2n 


2477-7 


yy 


9» 


403410 


2464-15 


0-05 


eb" 5t 


2463-7 


» 


12-8 


405691 


2446-96 


0-10 


Sb' 6t 




0-77 


12-9 


40854-1 


2412-31 


0-10 


4b- 




0-76 


13-2 


41440-8 


2399-64 


0-20 


4n 7* 




J» 


it 


41659-7 


2378-40 


0-15 


6b' 6* 




0-75 


13-3 


42031-8 


2374-10 


0-50 


2n 




» 


13-4 


42107-8 


2345-41 


0-05 


4b' 6t 


2342-2 


)> 


13-6 


42622-9 


2301-57 


1-00 


lb' 7* 




0-73 


13-9 


43434-7 


2262-23 


0-15 


4 


2263-3 „ 


0-72 


14-1 


44190-1 


2260-36 


015 


4 


2261-4 


»» 


)> 


44226-6 


2252-87 


0-15 


2 


2254-0 


»» 


14-2 


44373-6 


2224-73 


0-20 


4 


2225-7 


0-71 


14-3 


44935-0 



The lines marked * form a series of triplets for which in the formula 

10*7^^ =a-b}i---en-*, « = 40159-60 for the first Une, 44792-87 for the second, and 

46560-78 for the third, &= 127484, c = 1252695. For the triplets marked f 
a = 40217-98, or 44851-01, or 46618-44, & = 126361, c = 613268. 

X Ames (Rowland's scale) {Phil. Mag., July 1890), 4451-09, 4358-50, 4347-71, 
4077-98, 4046-67, 3663-41, 3663-03, 3654-96, 3650-28, 2653-80, 2652-15. § See Iron. 



Bromine (Absobption). 

Hasselberg, ' Kongl. Svenska Yetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar,' Bandet 24, 

No. 3, 1891. 

* Double. t Triple. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Group 6162 

6161-97 
6160-64 
6160-00 
6159-69 
6159-34 
6159-03 


-6142 

4 
5 
3 
3 
4 
2 


16223-8 
16227-3 
162290 
16229-8 
16230-7 
16231-5 


6158-79 

6158-09 

6157-30\ 

6157-06/ 

6156-78 \ 

6156-55/ 

6156-25 

6155-73 

6155-45 


4 

7 

5 

5 

4 
4 
7 


16232-1 
16234-0 
16236-1 
16236-7 
16237-5 
16238-1 
16238-8 
16240-2 
16241 



212 



REPOET 1892. 

Bbomine (Absoeption) — continued. 



\ 

Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequencj- 
in Vacuo 


6154-92 


3 


16242-4 


i 6131-92 


3 


16303-3 


6154-58 


3 


16243-3 


6131-59 


4 


16304-2 


615419 


6 


162-14-3 


6131 19 


3 


16305-2 


6153-36 


3 


16246-5 


6130-78 


3 


16306-3 


6153-00 


6 


16247-4 


6130-41 


4 


16307-3 


6152-64 


4 


16248-4 


613008 


3 


16308-2 


6152-39 


3 


16249-0 


6129-C9 


4 


16309-2 


6151-961 
6151-68/ 


5 


16250-2 


0129-31 


3 


16310-2 


16250-9 


6128-97 


3 


16311-2 


6151-271 
6151-04 / 


4 


16252-0 


6128-52 


3 


16312-4 


16252-6 


6128-22 


4 


16313-1 


6150-57 


6n 


16253-8 


6127-86 


3 


16314-1 


6149-89 


3 


16255-6 


1 6127-59 


3 


16314-8 


6149-53 


40 


16256-6 


i 6127-40 


2 


16316-3 


6149-29 


4 


16257-2 


6127-21 


2 


16315-8 


6148-96 


2 


16258-1 


6126-96 


3 


16316-5 


6148-64 


2 


16259-0 


6126-73 


2 


16317-1 


6148-36 


2 


16259-7 


6126-51 


3 


16317-7 


6148-15 


60 


16260-2 


612621 


4 


16318-5 


6147-36 


2 


16262-3 


6125-69 


4 


16319-9 


6147-11 


5 


162630 


6125-36 


2 


16320-8 


6146-76 


2 


16263-9 


6125-12 


6 


16321-4 


6146-23 


3 


16265-3 


6124-54 


5 


16323-0 


6145-97 


4n 


16266-0 


6124-01 


6 


16324-4 


6144-91 


4 


16268-8 


6123-50 


5 


16325-7 


6144-25 




16270-6 


' 6123 02 


5 


16327-0 


6143-81 


4n lb 


16271-7 








6143-53 


3n 


16272-5 








6143-19 


tV 


16273-4 


Group 6122 


-6103 




6142-84 


16274-3 














6122-47 





16328-5 








6122-00 





16329-7 


Group 6142 


-6122 




6121-60 


4 


16330-8 








612115 


4 


16332-0 


6141-37 


4 


16278-2 


6120-77 


4 


16333-0 


6141-09 


2 


16278-9 


6120-57 


2 


16333-5 


6140-81 


3 


16279-7 


6120-14 


2 


16334-7 


6140-48 


2 


16279-6 


6119-97 


2 


16335-1 


614016 


3 


16281-4 


6119-66 


3 


16336-0 


6139-84 


4 


16282-3 


6119-36 


3 


16336-8 


6139-56 


3 


16283-0 


6119-09 


4 


16337-5 


6139-16 


2 


16284-1 


6118-77 


3 


16338-3 


6138-84 


4 


16284-9 


6118-45 


3 


16339-2 


6138-55 


2 


16285-7 


6118 10* 


3 


16340-1 


6138-24 


2 


16286-5 


6117-61 


7 


16341-4 


6137-64 


2 


16287-1 


6117-23 


4 


16342-5 


6136-42 


2 


16291-3 


6116-47 


«0}b 


16344-5 


613611 


4 


16292-2 


6115-67 


16346-6 


6135-70* 


3 


16293-3 


6115-26 1 
6114-80/ 


n 


16347-7 


6135-21 


4 


16294-6 


16349-0 


6134-78 


4 


16295-7 


6114-37 


3 


16350-1 


6134-37 


4 


16296-8 


611405 


6n 


16351-0 


6133-98 


4 


16297-8 


6113-44 


5n 


16352-7 


6133-53 


4 


16299-0 


6112-701 
6112-47/ 


5] 


16354-6 


6133-13 


3 


16300-1 


b 


16365-2 


6132-73 


4 


16301-2 


6112-17 


2 " 


16356-0 


6132-34 


4 


16302-2 


6111-90 


4/ 


16356-7 



i 



ON WAVK-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 213 



Bkomine (Absoeption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


6111-36 


4) 


16358-2 


6091-30 


2 


164121 


6111-13 


2'^ 


16358-8 


6091-08 


3 


16412-6 


6110-84 


16359-6 


6090-81 


2 


16413-4 


6110-51 


4 


163G0-4 


6090-58 


5 


164140 


6109-76 


21-b 
4 


16362-4 


6090-15 


2 


16415-2 


6109-45 


16363-3 


6089-83* 


5 


16416-0 


6109-16 


163631 


6089-31 


4 


16417-4 


6108-49 


60 


163i;5-9 


6088-79 


3 


16418-8 


6108-18 


2 


16366-7 


6088-53 


3 


16419-5 


6107-90 


4 


16367-4 


6088-12 


5 


16420-6 


6107-44 


2 


16368-7 


6087-56 


2 


16422-1 


6107-22 


4s 


16369-3 


6087-26 


3 


16422-9 


6106-95 


3s 


16370-0 


6087-01 


2 


16423-6 


6106-62* 


3 


16370-9 


6086-79^ 


4 


16424-2 


6106-27 


3 


16371-8 


6086-39/ 


16425-3 


6105-95 


4 


16372-7 


6086-20 


4 


16425-8 


6005-61 


3 


16373-6 


6085-92 


2 


16426-6 


6005-34 


3 


16374-3 


6085-57 


6 


16427-5 


600506 1, 
6004-37 J 


4b 


16375-1 


6085-32 


3 


16428-2 


(4 lines) 


16376-9 


6085-02 


4s 


16429-0 


6004-02 


3 


16377-8 


6084-78 


4s 


16429-6 


6003-57 


4 


16378-0 


6084-54 


2 


16430-3 








6084-31 


4s 


16430-6 








6084 07 


4 


16431-6 


Group 6103 


-6079 




6083-75 


4 


16432-4 


6103-24 


3 


16379-9 


6083-20 


8 


16433-9 


6102-76 


2 


16381-2 


6082-50* 


6 


16435-8 


6102-04 


5 


16383-2 


6082-03 


4 


16437-1 


6101-61 


3 


16384-3 


0081-75 


5 


16437-8 


6101-26 


4 


16385-3 


G081-52 


4 


16438-5 


6100-92 


3 


16386-2 


608110 


4 


16439-6 


6100-64 


4 


16386-9 


6080-93 


5 


16440-0 


6100-21 


5n 


16388-1 1 


6080-36 


7 


16441-6 


6099-77 


4 


16389-3 1 


6079-78 


6 


16443-2 


6099-47 


3ii 


16390-1 


6079-11 


5 


164450 


6099-12 


4n 


16391-0 








6098-74 
6098-33 


5 

4 


16392-0 
16393-1 


Group 6079 


-6066 




6097-97 \ 
6097-21/ 


4b 


16394-1 


6078-54 1 


5 


16446-5 


(3 or 4 lines) 


16396-1 


6078-32 J 


164471 


6096-48 


4 


16398-1 


6077-85 


6 


16448-4 


6095-95 


3 


16399-5 


6077-49 


2 


16449-4 


6095-74 


3 


16400-1 


6077-23 


6 


16450-1 


6095-50 


3 


16400-7 


6076-83 


3 


16451-1 


6095-04 


3b 


16402-0 


6076-42 


3 


16452-3 


6094-70 1 


4 


16402-9 


6076-14 


3 


16453-0 


6094-51 J 


16403-4 


6075-67 


4 


16454-3 


6094-01 


4 


16404-7 


6075-39 


4 


16454-9 


6093-70 


3 


16405-6 


6075-06* 


4 


16455-8 


6098-46 


2 


16406-2 


6074-73 


4 


16456-7 


6093-22 


4 


16406-9 


6074-39 


4 


16457-7 


6092-76 


2 


16408-1 


6074-12 


4 


16458-4 


6092-50 


2 


16408-8 


6073-86 


3 


16459-1 


6092-25 


3 


16409-5 


6073-44 


5 


16460-2 


6092-01 


8 


164101 


6073-08 


4 


16461-2 


6091-78 


3 


16410-8 


6072-72 


4 


16462-3 


6091-52 


3 


16111.1 


6072-35 


4 


16463-2 



214 



REPORT 1892. 



Beomine (Absorption) — continvsd. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacno 


6071-96 


3 


16464-2 


6050-41 


5 


16522-9 


6071-65 


3 


16465-1 


6049-97 


4 


16524-1 


6071-31 


5 


16466-0 


6049-73 


4 


16524-7 


6070-95 


2 


16467-0 


6049-42 


4 


16525-6 


6070-68 


3 


16467-7 


6049-13 


3 


16526-4 


6070-47 


5 


16468-3 


6048-76 


5 


16527-4 


6070-14 


3 


16469-2 


6048-43 


4 


16528-3 


6069-61 


6n 


16470-6 


6048-10 


3 


16529-2 


6069-02 


2 


16472-2 


6047-80 


4 


16530-0 


6068-75 


4 


16473-0 


6047-42 


4 


16531-1 


6068-50 


3 


16473-6 


6047-09 


4 


16532-0 


6067-75 


5 


16475-7 


6046-75 


4 


16532-9 


6067-19 


3 


16477-2 


6046-46 


5 


16533-7 


6066-86 


4 


16478-1 


6046-14 


2 


16534-7 


6066-41 


3 


16479-3 


6045-82 


4 


16535-4 


6066-07 


5s 


16480-2 


6045-55^ 


4 


16636-2 








6045-15 J' 


16537-3 








6044-91 


3 


16537-9 


Group 6066 


-6042 




6044-58 


4 


16538-8 


6065-29 


5 


16482-4 


6044-31 


3 


16539-6 


6064-96 


3 


16483-3 


6044-00 


4 


16540-4 


6064-50 


6 


16484-5 


6043-66 


3 


16541-4 


6063-62 


5 


16486-9 


6043-38 


3 


165421 


6062-85 


4 


16489-0 


6043-05 


4 


16543-0 


6062-39 


3 


16490-2 


6042-69 


2 


16644-0 


6062-13 


4 


16491-0 








6061-88 
6061-52* 


4 

4 


16491-6 
16492-6 


Group 6042 


-6003 




6061-22 


3 


16493-4 


6042-20 \ 
6041-79 \ 


4 


16545-4 


6060-70 


4s 


16494-8 


16546-5 


6060-32 


3 


16495-9 


6041-54 


3 


16547-2 


6059-97 


3 


16496-8 


6041-28 


4 


16547-9 


6059-64 


2 


16497-7 


6040-96 


2 


16548-8 


6059-36 


3 


16498-5 


6040-56 


4 


16549-9 


6059-05 


3 


16499-3 


6040-16 


4 


16550-9 


6058-72 


4s 


16500-2 


! 6039-74 


5 


16552-1 


6058-38 


2 


16501-2 


6039-42 


5 


16553-0 


6058-11 


2 


16501-9 


6038-97 


4 


16554-2 


6057-80 


3 


16502-7 


6038-60 


4 


16555-2 


6057-49 


3 


16503-6 


6038-16 


6 


16556-4 


6057-09 


4 


16504-7 


6037-86 


5 


16557-3 


6056-86 


4 


16505-3 


6037-43 


4 


16558-4 


6055-95 


6 


16507-8 


6037-09 


4 


16559-4 


6055-76 


6 


16508-3 


6036-70 


5 


16560-4 


6055-22 


6 


16509-8 


1 6036-36 


5 


16561-4 


6054-78 


6 


16511-0 


6035-91 


4 


16562-6 


6054-25 


6 


• 16512-4 


6035-53 


4 


16563-6 


6054-04 


3 


16513-0 


6035-22 


4 


16564-5 


6053-74 


4 


16513-8 


6034-88 


3 


16605-4 


6053-34 \ 
6052-70/ 


6 


16514-9 


6034-55 


3 


16566-3 


16516-6 


6034-29 


4 


16567-0 


6052-47 


5 


16517-3 


6033-94 


3 


16568-0 


6052-12 


4 


16518-2 


6033-71 


3 


16568-6 


6051-82 


4 


16519-0 


6033-52 


3 


16569-2 


6051-37 


5 


16520-3 


6033-26 


3 


16569-9 


6051-01 


4 


16521-3 


6033-01 


2 


16570-6 


6050-74 


4 


16521-0 


6032-75 


2 


16571-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 215 



Bromine (Absohption) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


6032-49 


4 


16572-0 


6007-25 


2 


16641-6 


603213 


4 


16573-0 


6007-00 \ 
6006-81 J 


4b 


16642-3 


(i031-88 


4 


16573-7 


16642-9 


6031-33 


4 


16575-2 


6006-53 1 
6006-34 1 


5b 


16643-6 


6030-95 


4ii 


16576-2 


16644-2 


6030-25 


8 


16578-2 


6006-07 


4 


16644-9 


6029-87* 


5 


16579-2 


6005-83 


4 


16645-6 


6029-47 


3 


16580-3 


6005-61 


4 


16646-2 


6029-17\ 
6028-72/ 


5 


16581-1 


6005-32 


4 


16647-0 


16682-4 


6005-10 


4 


16647-6 


6028-22 


3 


16583-7 


6004-84 


4 


16648-3 


6027-67 


4 


16585-3 


6004-60 


2 


16649-0 


6027-08 


3 


16586-9 


6004-35 


4 


16649-7 


6026-79 


4 


16587-7 


6004-00 


4 


16650-7 


6026-52 


2 


16588-4 


6003-66 


4 


16651-6 


6026-15 


2 


16589-4 








6025-80 
6025-19 


5n 

2 


16590-4 
16592-1 


Group 6003 


-5977 




6024-90 1 
6024-72/ 


5 


16592-9 


6003-28 


4 


16652-7 


16593-4 


6002-70 


3 


16654-3 


6023-87 


5 


16595-7 


6002-38 


3 


16655-2 


6022-93 


5 


16598-3 


6002-11 


2 


16655-9 


6022-43 


2 


16599-7 


6001-83* 


3 


16656-7 


6022-00 


6 


16600-9 


6001-47 


3 


16657-7 


6021-58 


3 


16602-0 


6000-97 


3 


16659-1 


6021-02 


6n 


16603-6 


6000-55* 


2 


16660-2 


6020-15 


6n 


16606-0 


6000-00 


3 


16661-8 


6019-69 


3 


16607-3 


5999-61 


4 


16662-8 


6019-41 \ 
6018-92/ 


5 


16608-0 


5999-15* 


2 


16664-1 


16609-4 


5998-72 


3 


16665-3 


6018-66 


4 


16610-1 


5998-29 


3 


16666-5 


6018-40 


6 


16610-8 


5997-94* 


4 


16667-5 


6017-73 


6n 


16612-7 


5997-42 


3 


16668-9 


6017-18 \ 
6016-56/ 


6b 


16614-2 


5997-05 


3 


16670-0 


16615-9 


5996-72* 


4 


16670-9 


6015-97 


4 


16617-5 


5996-30* 


4 


16672-0 


6015-60 


3 


16618-5 


5995-88 


3 


16673-2 


6015-27 


4 


16619-4 


5995-50 


3 


16874-3 


6014-64 


3b 


16621-2 


5995-11 


5 


16675-4 


6014-45 


3b 


16621-7 


5994-63 


4 


16676-7 


601415 


4b 


16622-6 


5994-24 


4 


16677-8 


6018-46 


6 


16624-5 


5993-86 


4 


16678-8 


6013-00 


5b 


16625-7 


5993-54 


4 


16679-7 


6012-36 


5b 


16627-5 


5993-10 


4b 


16680-9 


6011-98 


8 


16628-5 


5992-60 


4n 


16682-3 


6011-73 


5 


16625-9 


5992-12 


4n 


16683-7 


6011-28 \ 
6011-02/ 


6 


16630-5 


5991-63 


5n 


16685-0 


16631-2 


5991-18 


4 


16686-3 


6010-47 


5b 


16632-7 


5990-88 


3 


16687-1 


6010-10 


2 


16633-8 


5990-57 


4 


16688-0 


6009-80 


4 


16634-6 


5990-23 


3 


16688-9 


6009-50 


2 


16635-4 


5989-92 


3 


16689-8 


6009-23 


4s 


16636-2 


5989-59 


3 


16690-7 


6008-61 


4 


16637-9 


5989-32 


8 


16691-5 


6008-26 


6 


16638-8 


5989-00 


4 


16692-4 


6008-03 


6 


16639-5 


5988-64 


2 


16693-4 


6007-56 


4 


16640-8 


5988-43 


2 


16693-0 



216 



REPORT — 1892. 



Bromine (Absobption) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequencj' 
in Vacuo 


5988-17 


8 


16694-7 


5967-42 


4 


16752-8 


5987-64 


3 


16696-2 


5967-00 


40 


16753-9 


5987-15 


3 


16697-5 


5966-72 


4 


16754-7 


5986-91 


3 


16698-2 


5966-29 


6b 


16755-9 


5986-67 


3 


16698-9 






16756-7 


5986-16 


3 


16700-3 


6965-62 1 
5965-41 r 


4 


16757-8 


5985-95 1 
5985-36 1 


4 


16700-9 


16758-4 


(4 lines) 


16702-5 


5964-97 


6 


16759-6 


6984-79 


4 


16704-1 


5964-35 


6 


16761-4 


5984-50 


3 


16704-9 


5962-95* 


5 


16765-2 


5984-31 


2 


16705-5 


5962-39 


5 


16766-9 


5983-67 


3 


16707-2 


5962-02 


5 


16767-9- 


5988-37 


4 


16708-1 


5961-44 


6 


16769-6 


5982-98 


2 


16709-2 


5961-06 


6 


16770-6 


5982-65 


6 


16710-1 


5960-54 


6b 


16772-1 


5982-34 


6 


16711-0 


5960-16 


6 


16773-2 


5981-55 


6 


16713-2 


5959-61 


5 


16774-7 


5981-30 


6 


16713-9 


5959-22 


6 


16775-8 


5980-59 


5 


16715-9 


5958-61 


5 


16777-5 


5980-25 


6 


16716-8 


5958-32 


6 


16778-4 


5979-62 \ 
597918/ 


4b 


16718-6 


5957-82 


5 


16779-8 


16719-8 


5957-46 


5 


16780-8 


5978-84 


4 


16720-7 


5956-84 


5 


16782-6 


5978-55 ] 




16721-6 


5956-38 


3 


16783-8 


5978-33 I 


4 


16722-2 


5956-03 


4n 


16784-8 


5978-12 J 




16722-7 


5955-50 


4 


16786-3 


5977-61 


3 


16724-2 


5955-16 


4 


16787-3 


5977-34 


3 


16724-9 


5954-94 


3 


16787-9 








6954-52 


4 


16789-1 








5954-23 


3 


16789-9 


Group 5977 


-5949 




5954-00 


2 


16790-5 


6976-88 


2 


16726-2 


5953-74 


4 


16791-3 


5976-67 


2 


16726-8 


5953-47 


4 


16792-0 


5976-41 


3 


16727-5 


5953-13* 


4 


16793-0 


5976-17 


3 


16728-2 


5952-24 


3s 


16795-5 


5975-95 


2 


16728-8 


5951-97 


4s 


16796-3 


5975-44 


4 


16730-3 


5951-61 


2 


16797-3 


6975-18 


4 


16731-0 


5951-24 


4s 


16798-3 


5974-89 


4 


16731-8 


5950-90 


2 


16799-3 


5974-62 


4 


16732-6 


5950-61 


3 


16800-1 


5974-34 


4 


16733-3 


5950-41 


3 


16800-7 


6973-95 


3 


16734-4 


5950-16 


2 


16801-4 


59/3-67 


4 


16735-2 


5949-96 


2 


16801-9 


5973-15 


3 


16736-7 


5949-82 


2 


16802-3 


5972-81 


4 


16737-6 


5949-61 


4s 


16802-9 


5972-52 


2 


16738-4 


1 5949-27 


2 


16803-9 


5971-97 


4 


16740-0 








5971-64 
5971-22 


3 
4 


16740-9 
16742-1 


Group 5949 


-5935 




5970-86 


2 


16743-1 


' 5948-67 


4 


16805-6 


5970-45 


4s 


16744-2 


5948-18* 


5b 


16806-0 


5970-09 


2 


16745-3 


. 5947-53 


4 


16808-8 


5969-68 


4s 


16746-4 


5947-24 


2 


16809-5 


6969-41 


2 


16747-2 


1 5946-95 


3 


16810-4 


5968-92 


4s 


16748-5 


'< 5946-64 


2 


16811-3 


5968-18 


3s 


16750-6 


5946-40 


3 


16811-0 


6967-66 


4 


16752-1 


6946-09 


3 


16812-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 217 



Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 

1 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 

1 


5945-82 


5 


16813-6 


5924-98 


4 


16872-7 


5945-07* 


4 


16815-8 


5924-62 


6 


16873-7 


5944-59 


5 


16817-1 


5924-23 


8 


16874-8 


5943-92 


5 


16819-0 


5924-00 


8 


16875-5 


5943-42 


5 


16820-4 


5923-49 


3 


16876-9 


59t3-00 


4 


16821-6 


5923-20 


4 


16877-8 


5942-78 


6 


16822-3 


592301 


2 


16878-3 


5942-28 


5 


16823-6 


5922-80 


4 


16878-9 


5941-98 


4 


16824-4 


5922-51 


3 


16879-7 


5941-67 


5 


16825-3 


5922-11 


5 


16880-9 


5941-14 


5 


16826-8 


5921-76 


2 


16881-9 


5940-78 


2 


16827-8 


5921-44 


4 


10882-8 


5940-54 


4 


16828-5 


5921-17 


5 


16883-5 


5940-02 


4 


16827-5 


5920-86 


2 


16884-4 


5939-60 


3 


16831-1 


5920-64 


4 


16885-1 


5939-26 


5 


16832-1 


5920-03 


4 


16886-8 


5938-90 


5 


16833-1 


5919-69 


3 


16887-8 


5938-49 


3 


16834-3 


5919-40 


4 


16888-6 


5938-22 


4 


16835-1 


5919-09 


3 


16889-5 


5937-91 


4 


16835-9 


5918-79 


4 


16889-3 


5937-52 


4 


16837-0 


5918-54 


4 


16891 1 


6937-22 


4 


16837-9 


5918-33 


2 


16891-7 


6936-87 1 
5936-65) 


4 


16838-9 


5918-07* 


4 


16892-4 


16839-5 


5917-73 


3 


16893-4 


5936-20 


4 


16840-8 


5917-52 


4 


16894-0 


5935-87 


4 


16841-7 1 


5917-29 


3 


16894-6 


5935-58 


3 


16842-5 ' 


5917-08 


3 


16895-2 


5935-23 


4 


16843-5 


5916-85 


3 


16895-9 








5916-60 


5 


16896-6 


Group 5935 


-5896 (D,) 


1 


5916-36 


4, 


16897-3 


5934-60 


2 


16845-3 


5916-13 


3 




16897-9 


5934-26 


4 


16846-3 


5915-92 


4 




16898-5 


5933-92 


4 


16847-3 


5915-57 


3 


-b 


16899-5 


5933-64 


2 


16848-1 


5915-32' 


4 




16900-2 


5933-36 


5 


16848-9 


591506 


2 




16901-0 


6933-04 


5 


16849-8 


5914-86 


4' 


16901-6 


5932-74 


3 


16850-6 


5914-47 


1 


16902-7 


5932-43 


5 


16851-5 


5914-17 


2 


16903-5 


5932-05 


4 


16852-6 


5913-88* 


3 


16904-4 


5931-83 


4 


16853-2 


5913-47) 
5913-21) 


4 


16905-5 


6931-55 


4 


16854-0 


16906-3 


6931-10 


4 


16855-3 


5912-96 


3 


16907-0 


5930-78 


3 


16856-2 i 


5912-53 


3 


16908-2 


5930-53 


4 


16856-9 1 


5912-31 


2 


16908-9 


5930-22 


4 


16857-8 i 


5912-00 


3) 


16909-7 


6929-33 


6 


16860-3 1 


5911-81 


3 


\h 


16910-3 


5928-88 


3 


16861-6 


5911-01 






16912-6 


5928-60 


4 


16862-4 


5910-74 


2 1 


16913-3 


5928-03 


4 


16864-0 


5910-48 


3\ 




16914-1 


5927-74 


3 


16864-8 


5910-21 


2 




16914-9 


5927-46 


2 


16865-6 j 


5909-95 


2 




16915-6 


5927-15 


> 


16866-5 \ 


5909-79 


2 




16916-1 


5926-72 


16867-7 


5909-54 


2 


V 


16916-8 


5926-42 


6 


16868-6 


5909-24 


2 




16917-6 


5926-10 


5 


16869-5 


5908-91 


2 




16918-6 


6925-63 


5 


16870-8 


5908-59 


2 




16919-5 


5925-32 


5 1 


16871-7 I 


5908-29 


2/ 




16920-4 



218 



REPORT — 1892. 
Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensitj-and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


5907-94 


4- 


16921-4 


5888-37 


2 


16977-6 


5907-68 


4 




16922-1 


5888-10 


4 


16978-4 


5907-38 


2 


- 


16923-0 \ 


5887-81 


2 


16979-2 


5907-09 


2 




16923-8 ' 


5887-53 


3 


16980-0 


5906-75 


4. 




16924-8 


5887-27 


3 


16980-8 


5906-13* 


8 


16926-6 


5887-00 


5 


16981-6 


5905-73 


2 


16927-7 ' 


5886-59 


3 


16982-8 


5905-50 


4 


16928-4 


5886-12 


4 


16984-1 


5905-22 


2 


16929-2 


5885-81 


3 


16985-0 


5004-94 


5s 


16930-0 


5885-45 


4 


16986-0 


5904-36 


6 


16931-6 


588504 


5 


16987-2 


5904-02 


3 


16932-6 


5884-66 


3 


16988-3 


5903-69 


6 


16933-6 


5884-30 


4 


16989-4 


5903-11 


4n 


16935-2 


5883-90 


4 


16990-5 


5902-73 


4 


16936-3 


5883-54 


4 


16991-6 


5902-44 


4 


16937-1 


5883-13 


4 


16992-7 


5902-13 


4 16938-0 


5882-78 


3 


16993-8 


5901-82 


50 


16938-9 


5882-36* 


5 


169950 


5901-43 


4 


16940-0 


5882-04 


4 


16995-9 


5901-12 


2 


16940-9 


5881-63 


4 


16997-1 


5900-75 


3 


16942-0 


5881-34 


4 


16997-9 


5900-31 


4 


16943-3 


5880-96 


4 


169990 


5899-93 


2 


16944-3 


5880-71 ) 
5880-33/ 


3t 


16999-7 


5899-66 


4s 


16945-1 


17000-8 


5899-31 


4 


16946-1 


5880-08 


3 


17001-6 


5898-45* 


6 


16948-6 


5879-77* 


3 


17002-5 


5898-06 


5 


16949-7 


5879-44 


5s 


17003-4 


5897-83 


i 


16950-4 


5879-09 


4 


17004-4 


6897-50 


5 


16951-3 


5878-75 


4 


17005-4 


5897-10 


5 


16952-5 


5878-46 


4 


17006-3 


5896-78 


5 


16953-4 


5878-18 


4 


17007-1 








5877-89 


4 


17007-9 


Group 5896 


(D,)-5862 




5877-60 
6877-12 


4 
4 


17008-7 
17010-1 


5895-95 


3 


16955-8 


5876-81 


3 


17011-0 


5895-68 


3 


16956-6 


5876-52 


4 


17011-9 


5895-34 


3 


16957-5 


5876-27 


4 


17012-6 


5895-01 


4 


16958-5 


5876-01 


4 


17013-3 


5894-61 


3 


16959-6 


5875-74 


4 


17014-1 


5894-37 


3 


16960-3 


5875-47 


4 


17014-9 


5894-11 


2 


16961-1 


5875-26 


3 


17015-5 


5893-86 


3 


16961-8 


5875-10 


3 


170160 


5893-62 


3 


16962-5 


5874-87 


4 


17016-7 


5893-37 


3 


16963-2 


5874-62 


3 


17017-4 


5892-95 


2 


16964-4 


1 5874-37 


2 


17018-1 


5892-71 


3 


16965-1 


5874-14 


t\^ 


17018-8 


5892-34 


4 


16966-2 


5873-56 


17020-4 


5891-98 


4 


16967-2 


5873 00 


4 


17022-1 


5891-43* 


4 


16968-8 


5872-71 


3 


17022-9 


5891-04 


3 


16969-9 


i 5872-52 


3 


17023-5 


5890-81 


2 


16970-6 


! 5872-31 


3 


17024-1 


5890-57 


3 


16971-3 


5872-09 


3 


17024-7 


5889-64 


4 


16974-0 


5871-90 


2 


17025-3 


5889-15 


4 


16975-4 


5871-65 


4 


17026-0 


5889-00 


3 


16975-8 


5871-19* 


4 


17027-3 


5888-74 


3 


16976-6 


5870-83 


3 


17028-4 


5888-56 


3 




16977-1 


5870-53 


3 


17029-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 219 



Beomine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


OsciUation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5870-23 


2 


17030-1 


5849-46 


3 


17090-6 


5869-91 


7s 


17031-0 


6849-17 


4 


17091-4 


5869-46 


4 


17032-3 


5848-83 


5 


17092-4 


5868-93 


3 


17033-9 


5848-55 


4 


17093-2 


5868-58* 


5 


17034-9 


5847-90 


4 


17095-1 


5868-17 


4 


17036-1 


5847-67 


2 


17095-8 


5867-87 


2 


17037-0 


; 6847-40 \ 
5847-18/ 


4 


17096-6 


5867-59 


3 


17037-8 


170972 


5867-37 


?}" 


17038-4 


5846-93 


2 


17098-0 


5866-75 


17040-2 


5846-59 


5 


170990 


586600 


4 


17042-4 


5846-34 


6 


17099-7 


5865-72 


4 


17043-2 


5846-06 


2 


17100-5 


5865-41 


2 


17044-1 


5845-82 


4 


17101-2 


5865-08 


3 


17045-1 


5845-52 


5 


17102-1 


5864-83 


4 


17045-8 


5845-23 


? 


17103-0 


5864-57 


3 


17046-5 


5844-78 


6 


17104-3 


5864-27 


3 


17047-4 


5844-50 


2 


171051 


5863-95 


3 


17048-3 


5844-22 


5 


17105-9 


5863-66 


3 


17049-2 


5843-93 


4 


17106-8 


5863-31 


4 


17050-2 


5843-44 


6 


17108-2 


5863-03 


1 


17051-0 


5843-10 


5 


17109-2 








5842-82 


3 


17110-0 








5842-58 


3 


17110-7 


Group 5862 


-5832 




5842-39 


2 


17111-3 








5842-12 


3 


17112-1 


5862-38 


4 


17052-9 


5841-81 


4 


171130 


5862-11 


4 


17053-7 


5841-60 


2 


17113-6 


5861-59 


3 


17055-0 


5841-34 


2 


17114-4 


5861-30 


3 


17056-1 


5841-08 


4 


17115-1 


586105 


3 


17056-8 


5840-86 


3 


17115-8 


5860-76 


3 


17057-6 • 


5840-66 


3 


17116-4 


5860-52 


3 


17058-3 


5840-46 


4 


17116-9 


5860-23 


3 


17059-2 


5840-06 


3 


17118-1 


5859-57 


2 


170611 


5839-73 


3 


17119-1 


5859-37 


2 


17061-7 


5839-44 


3 


17119-9 


5859-11 


31h 


17062-4 


8539-19 


3 


17120-7 


5858-41 


17064-5 


5838-81 


6 


17121-8 


5857-38* 


3 


17067-5 


5838-61 


3 


17122-4 


5856-97 


4 


17068-7 


5838-16 


7 


17123-7 


585G-60 


3 


170697 


5837-59 


7 


17125-3 


5856-35 


4 


17070-5 


5837-16 


3 


17126-6 


5855-51 


4s 


17072-9 


5836-95 


6 


17127-2 


5855-36 


3s 


17073-4 


5836-41 


7b 


17128-8 


5854-95* 


6 


17074-6 


5835-92 


4 


17130-1 


5854-52 


3 


17075-8 


5835-66 


2 


17130-9 


5854-00 


4© 


17077-3 


5835-44 


2 


17130-6 


6853-43 


5 


17079-0 


5835-15 


4 


17132-4 


5852-90 


5 


17080-5 


5834-89 


3 


17133-2 


5852-56 


40 


17081-5 


5834-56 


2 


17134-1 


5851-90 


4 


17083-5 


5834-20* 


4 


17135-2 


5851-59 


3 


17084-4 


5833-80 


5 


17136-4 


5851-32 


4 


17085-2 


5833-49 


4 


17137-3 


5851-03 


2 


17086-0 


5833-25 


2 


17138-0 


5850-75 


5 


17086-8 


5833-00 


3 


17138-7 


5850-41 


3 


17087-8 


5832-75 


2 


17139-5 


6850-07 


4 


17088-8 


5832-43 


6 


17140-4 


5849-74 


5 


17089-8 


5832-18 


3 


17140-9 



220 



EEPOET — 1892. 



Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Group 5832 


-5807 




5812-18* 
5811-79 


6 
3 


17200-1 
17201-3 


5831-60 


3 


17142-9 


5811-54 


4 


172020 


5831-37"\ 


4 


17143-5 


5811-16 


3 


17203-2 


583109/ 


17144-3 


5810-92 


3 


17203-9 


5830-89 


4 


17144-9 


5810-62 


5 


17204-8 


5830-53 


3 


17146-0 


5810-37 


4 


17205-5 


6830-22* 


4 


17147-9 


5809-84 


5 


17207-1 


5829-85 


4s 


17148-0 


5809-57 


6© 


17207-9 


5829-59 


4s 


17148-8 


5809-23 


2 


17208-9 


5828-60 


6ii 


17151-7 


5808-87* 


6 


17209-9 


5827-69 


3 


17154-3 


5808-45 


3 


17211-2 


5827-42 


2 


17155-1 


5808-15 


6 


17212-1 


5827-13 


3 


17156-0 


5807-95 


6 


17212-7 


5826-71 


2 


17157-2 


5807-54 


3 


17213-9 


5826-43 


2 


17158-1 


5807-35 


4 


17214-5 


5826-19 


4 


17158-8 








5825-98 
5825-74 


2 
3 


17159-4 
17160-1 


Group 5807 


-5791 




5825-28 


3 


17161-5 1 


5806-83 


2 


17216-0 


5825-04 


3 


17162-2 


5806-60 


4 


17216-7 


5824-77 


3 


17163-0 


5806-38 


4 


17217-3 


5824-27 


3 


17164-4 


5806-02* 


3n 


17218-4 


5823-88 


4 


17165-6 


5805-60 


4 


17219-6 


582356 


3 


17166-5 


5805-36 


4 


17220-4 


5823-34 


4 


17167-2 


5805-10 


3 


17221-1 


5823-10 


2 


17167-9 


5804-91 


3 


17221-7 


5822-911 


4b 


17168-4 


5804-60 


3 


172226 


5822-42/ 


17169-9 


5804-35 


2 


17223-4 


582204 


2 


17171-0 


5804-08 


3 


17224-2 


5821-81 


2 


17171-7 


5803-87 


2 


17224-8 


5821-56 


3 


17173-4 


5803-64 


4 


17225-5 


5821-38 


2 


17173-0 


5803-29 


4 


17226-5 


5820-96 


3 


17174-2 


5802-82 


6 


17228-9 


6820-73 


3 


17175-9 


5802-26 


8 


17229-6 


5820-48 


8 


17175-6 


5801-88 


2 


17230-7 


5820-24 


3 


17176-3 1 


5801-54 


5 


17231-7 


5819-81 


3 


17177-6 


5800-93 


8 


17233-5 


5819-42 


3 


17178-7 


5800-58 


3 


17234-6 


5819-20 


3 


17179-4 


5800-35 


4 


17235-2 


5818-67 


3 


17181-0 


5800-12 


2 


17235-9 


5818-33 


3 


17182-0 


5799-77 


5 


17237-0 


5818-14 


3 


17182-5 


5799-51 


3 


17237-7 


5817-90\ 
5817-07/ 


5 lines 


17183-2 


5799-23 


4 


17238-6 


17185-7 


5798-75 


4 


17240-0 


5816-26 


4n 


17188-1 


5798-48 


4 


17240-8 


5815-82* 


3 


17189-4 


5798-15 


7 


17241-8 


5815-52 


2 


17190-3 


5797-77 


2 


17242-9 


5815-14 


4 


17191-4 


5797-30* 


5b 


17244-3 


6814-76 


3 


17192-5 


5796-81 


7 


17245-8 


5814-34 


4 


17193-7 


5796-43 


4 


17246-9 


5814-12 


2 


17194-4 


! 5796-19 


3 


17247-6 


5813-77* 


4 


17195-4 


5795-96 


4 


17248-3 


5813-43 


2 


17196-4 


5795-64 


6 


17249-2 


5813-16 


4 


17197-2 


5795-44 


7 


17249-8 


5812-71 


3 


17198-6 


5795-23 


3 


17250-5 


5812-41 


7n 


17199-5 


6794-94 


4 


17251-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 221 



Bbomine (Absorption) — contiimed. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5794-57 


4 


17252-4 


5776-20 


3 


17307-3 


5794-23 


5 


17253-4 


5775-88 


4 


17308-8 


5794-04 


3 


17254-0 


5775-57 


4 


17309-2 


5793-77 


3 


17254-8 


5774-75 


7 


17311-7 


5793-41 


30 


17255-9 


5774-43 


3 


17312-6 


5793-13 


3 


17256-7 


5773-90 


7 


17314-2 


5792-92 


4 


17257-3 


5773-36 


4 • 


17315-8 


5792-74 


4 


17257-9 


5773-02 


6s 


17316-9 


5792-44 


4 


17258-8 


5772-72 


4 


17317-8 


5792-09 


3 


17259-8 


5772-11 


5s 


17319-6 


5791-65 


4 


17261-1 


5771-59 


4 


17321-1 








5771-29 


7 


17322-0 








5770-86 


3 


17323-3 


Group 5791 


-5763 




1 6770-e6 


4 


17324-2 








5770-19 


4 


17325-8 


5791-04 


3 


17262-9 


5769-89 


4 


17326-2 


5790-81 


4 


17263-5 


5769-65 


3 


17327-0 


5790-46 


4 


17264-7 


5769-40 


2 


17327-7 


5790-19 


3 


17265-5 


5769-06 


4 


17328-7 


5789-77* 


2 


17266-7 


5768-81 


4 


17329-5 


5789-23 


8 


17268-3 


5768-55 


4 


17330-8 


5789-04 


2 


17269-9 


5768-33 


4 


17330-9 


5788-86 


2 


17269-5 


; 5768-00 


4 


17331-9 


5788-36 


4 


17270-9 


5767-53 


5 


17333-8 


5788-04 


4 


17271-9 


5767-16 


5 


17334-4 


5787-76 


4 


17272-7 


5766-91 


5 


17335-2 


5787-34 


4 


17274-0 


i 5766-67 


2 


17335-9 


5786-84 


5 


17275-5 


i 5766-50 


3 


17336-4 


6786-40 


4bn 


17276-8 


6766-24 


4 


17337-2 


5785-79 


5 


17278-6 


5765-71 


7 


17338-8 


6785-28* 


4 


17280-1 


5765-03 


6 


17340-9 


5784-82 


3 


17281-5 


6764-42 


8 


17342-7 


5784-65 


8 


17282-0 


5764-13 


3 


17343-6 


5784-18 


?0 


17283-6 


5763-78 


4 


17349-6 


5783-84 


2 


17284-4 








5783-54 


4 


17285-8 








5783-12 


8 


17286-6 


Group 5763 


-5742 




6782-83 


3 


17287-5 








5782-46 


6s 


17288-6 


5763-00 


4 


17347-0 


5782-01 


6s 


17290-9 


5762-70 


5 


17347-9 


5781-64 


2 


17291-0 


5762-23 


4 


17349-3 


5781-46 


3 


17291-6 


6761-94 


4 


17350-2 


5781-13 


3s 


17292-2 


6761-70 


4 


17350-9 


5780-97 


3 


17293-0 


5761-28 


4n 


17352-1 


5780-64 


3 


17294-0 


5760-83 


4 


17353-5 


5780-38 


4 


17294-8 


5760-33 


6 


17355-0 


.5780-19 \ 
5779-76/ 


3 


17295-4 


6759-88 


3 


17356-4 


17296-7 


5759-64 


) 


17357-1 


5779-43 


4s 


17297-6 


5759-21 


5[b 


17358-4 


5779-10 


4s 


17298-6 


5758-89 


ej 


17359-4 


5778-74 


4 


17299-7 


5758-56 


4 


17360-3 


5778-47 


8 


17300-5 


5758-21 


4 


17361-4 


6778-21 


4 


17301-3 


5757-71 


5 b 


17362-9 


5777-73* 


8 


17302-7 


5767-32 


3J 


17364-1 


5777-39 


6 


17303-7 


5757-03 


5 


17366-0 


6776-98 


3 


173050 


5756-65 


5 


17366-1 


5776-50 


5 


17306-4 


6756-33 


5 


173671 



222 



REPORT — 1892. 





Bhomine (Absorption) — continued. 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5756-01 


3 


17368-0 


5738-11 


7 


17422-2 


5755-80 


Ih 


17368-7 


5737-89 


2 


17422-9 


5755-56 


17369-4 


5737-60 


2 


17423-8 


5755-36 


d) 


17370-0 


5737-25 


6 


17424-8 


5755-14 


3 


17370-7 


5736-81 


4 


17426-2 


5754-59 


3b 


17372-3 


5736-49* 


7 


17427-2 


5754-26 


5 


17373-3 


5736-14 


2 


17428-2 


5753-91 


5 


17374-4 


5735-92 


2 


17429-9 


5753-11' 


3 


17376-8 


5735-70 


4 


17429-6 


5752-84 


3 


17377-6 


5735-45 


4 


17430-3 


5752-58 


4 


17378-4 


5735-18 


3 


17431-1 


5752-35 


3 


17379-1 


5734-97 


4 


17431-8 


5751-83 


4 


17380-7 


5734-71 


4 


17432-6 


5751-49 


3 


17381-7 


5734-26 


4\ 


17433-9 


5751-30 


2 


17382-3 


5733-97 


5^ 


17434-8 


5751-00 


2 


17383-2 


5733-57* 


17436-0 


5750-78 


5 


17383-8 


5733-16* 


3J 


17437-3 


5750-49 


3 


17384-7 


5732-82 


4 


17438-3 


5750-27 


3 


17385-4 


5732-62 


3 


17438-9 


5749-69 


5 


17387-1 


5732-44 


3 


17439-5 


5749-43 


4 


17387-9 


5732-19 


5 


17440-2 


5749-20 


4 


17388-6 


5731-56 


5 


17442-0 


5748-89 


2 


17389-6 


5731-28 


2 


17442-9 


5748-57 


7 


17390-5 


5730-97 


8 


17443-9 


5747-55 


7 


17393-6 


6730-28 


5 


17446-0 


5747-19 


2 


17394-7 


5729-69 


8b 


17447-7 


5746-95 


2 


17395-4 


5729-16 


5 


17449-4 


5746-70 


3 


17396-2 


5728-87 


3 


17450-2 


5746-46 


4s 


17396-1 


5728-56 


5 


17451-2 


5746-10* 


3 


17398-0 


5728-17 


4 


17452-4 


5745-76* 


3 


17399-0 


5727-87 


3 


17453-3 


2745-45 


4s 


17400-0 


5727-63 1 
5726-98) 


8b 


17454-0 


5745-23 


3 


17400-6 


17456-0 


5744-85 


4 


17401-8 


5726-71 


5 


17456-8 


5744-46 


8 


17403-0 


5726-45 


2 


17457-6 


5744-11 


> 


17404-0 


5726-14* 


6 


17458-6 


5743-70 


17405-3 


5725-79 


6 


17459-6 


5743-48 


4s 


17405-9 


5725-54 


6 


17460-4 


5743-24 


2 


17406-7 


5725-07* 


3 


17461-8 


5743-07 


2 


17407-2 


5724-77 


5 


17461-7 


5742-80 


4s 


17408-0 


5724-43 


5 


17463-8 


5742-54 


6 


17408-8 


5724-13 


4 


17464-7 








5723-81 


5 


17465-6 


Group 5742 


-5712 




5723-52 
5723-19* 


4 
3 


17466-6 
17467-6 


5741-89 


4 


17410-7 


5722-80* 


2 


17468-8 


5741-63 


5 


17411-5 


5722-50 


8 


17469-7 


5741-32 


3 


17412-5 


5722-28 


4 


17470-3 


5741-08 


3 


17413-2 


5722-09 


5 


17470-9 


5740-74 


5 


17414-3 


5721-61 


3 


17472-4 


5740-45 


2 


17415-1 


5721-33 


3s 


17473-2 


5739-81 


8 


17417-1 


5721-12 


3s 


17473-9 


5739-41 


3 


17418-3 


5720-86 


2 


17474-6 


5739-14 


2 


174191 


5720-47 


4 


17475-8 


5738-91 


6 


17419-8 


5720-22 


2 


17476-5 


5738-58 


4 


17420-8 


5719-97 


3 


17477-4 


5738-32 


3 


17421-6 


5719-33 


2b 


17479-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 223 



Bromine (ABSonwiON)— continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5718-84 


4 


1748(f8 


5696-45 


2 


17549-6 


5718-67 


4 


17481-3 


5696-24 


4 


17550-2 


6717-73 


4 


17484-3 


5695-81 


5 


17551-6 


5717-45 


3 


17485-1 


5695-66 


5 


175520 


5717-19 


3 


17485-9 


5695-05 


4b 


17553-9 


5717-02 


4 


17486-4 


5694-73 


2 


17554-9 


5710-75 


2 


17487-2 


5694-48 


4 


17555-6 


5716-59 


4 


17487-7 


5694-25 


2 


17556-3 


5716-39 


2 


17488-4 


5693-89 


6s 


17557-5 


5716-09 


3 


17489-3 


5693-28 


5 


17569-4 


5715-70 


3 


17490-5 


5692-91 


3 


17560-5 


5715-38 


60 


17491-4 


5692-58 


4 


17561-5 


5714-94 


3 


17492-8 


5692-24 


2 


17562-6 


5714-49 


5 


17493-2 


1 5691-94 


5 


17563-5 


5714-20 


2 


17495-1 


; 5691-57 


4 


17564-6 


5713-64 


5 


17496-8 


5691-31 


8 


17565-4 


5713-35 


4 


17497-7 


5691-10 


3 


17566-1 


5713-00 


2 


17498-7 


5690-70* 


50 


17567-3 


5712-73 


2 


17499-5 


5690-38 


2 


17568-3 


5712-44 


60 


17500-4 


; 5690-05 


5 


17569-3 


5712-18 


7© 


17501-2 


! 5689-68 


4 


17570-5 








1 5689-39 


3 


17671-4 


Group 5712 


-5688 




1 568914 


2 


17572-1 






i 5688-84 


2 


17573-0 


5711-69 


2 


17502-7 








5711-38 


60 


17503-6 








5710-42 


6n 


17506-6 


Group 5688 


-5659 




5709-37 


6 


17509-8 


5688-11 


4 


17575-3 


5708-95 


2 


17511-1 


5687-88 


2 


17576-0 


5708-60* 


5 


17512-2 


' 5687-60 


2 


17576-9 


5708-40 


2 


17512-8 


' 5687-27 


4 


17577-9 


5707-94 


2 


17514-2 


5686-96 


t\^ 


17578-9 


5707-64 


5 


17516-1 


5686-44 


17580-5 


5707-28 


3 


17616-3 


6686-13 


3 


17581-4 


5706-71* 


4 


17518-1 


5686-76 


4 


17582-6 


6705-79 


5s0 


17520-8 


5686-45 


2 


17583-5 


5705-35 


3 


17522-4 


5685-14 


2 


17684-5 


6704-97 


4 


17523-4 


5684-82 


40 


17585-5 


5704-40 


2 


17525-1 


6684-52 


40 


17586-4 


5704-12 


4 


17525-9 


5683-98 


2 


17588-1 


6703-94 


4 


17526-5 


5683-68 


3 


17589-0 


5703-33 


5 


17528-4 


5683-99 


4 


17591-9 


6702-86 


2 


17529-8 


5682-38 


4 


17593-1 


6702-53 


7 


17530-8 


5681-93 


2 


17594-5 


5701-83 


6 


17533-0 


5681-64 


2 


17696-5 


5701-05 


6 


17536-3 


5681-26 


4 


17596-5 


5700-79 


2 


17536-2 


5680-90 


2 


175928 


5790-49 


4s 


17537-1 


5680-57 


2 


17593-9 


5790-13 


2 


17538-3 


5680-14 


5 


17605-2 


5699-79 


3 


17539-3 


5679-93 


3 


17605 8 


5699-44 


2 


17540-3 


6679-66 


2 


17601-5 


5699-23 


4 


17541-0 


567905 


5 


17603-4 


5698-62 


7 


17543-0 


5678-68 


2 


17604-5 


5698-19 


3 


17644-2 


5678-33 


2 


17605-6 


5697-91 


4 


17645-1 


5678-02 


6 


17606-(i 


5697-29 


6 


17547-0 


5677-71 


2 


17607-5 


5696-73 


5 


17648-7 


5677-26 


3 


17608-9 



224 



BEPOET — 1892. 



Beomine (Absorption) — cmitinued. 



Wave- 
length 



Intensity and 
Character 



5676-93 


6 


5676-31 


4 


5676-00 


4 


5675-39 


4 


564506 


4 


5674-81 


3 


5674-52 


2 


5674-06 


3 


5673-78 


3 


5673-45 


3 


5673-14 


3 


5672-73 


4 


5672-46 


2 


5672-20 


3 


5671-96 


5 


5671-65 


2 


5671-22* 


5 


5670-88 


3 


5670-42 


5 


5669-95 


3 


5669-57 


4 


5609-26 


3 


566905 


3 


5668-75 


4 


5668-49 


3 


5667-97 


7 


5667-20 


7 


5666-46 


7 


5666-06 


2 


5665-68 


4 


5665-38 


4 


5664-89 


5 


5664-63 


3 


5664-311 
566406/ 


6 


5663-52 


6 


5662-89 


3 


5662-59 


4 


5662-23 


4 


5661-85 


3 


5601-58 


4 


5661-31 ) 


b(3 1] 


5660-79 \ 


5660-47 


4 


5660-22 


3 


5659-82 


5 


5659-37 





Group 5659 


-5616 


5658-90 


4 


5658-62 


4 


5658-25 


4 


5657-86 


4 


5657-45 


6 


5656-93 


6 


5656-44 


5 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



Wave- 
length 



17609-9 


1 5656-10 


17611-9 


5655-80 


17612-8 


5655-39 


17614-7 


5654-80 


17615-8 


5654-44 


17616-5 


565414 


17617-4 


5653-60 


17618-9 


5653-16 


17619-7 


5652-91 


17620-8 


5652-56 


17621-8 


5651-91 


17622-0 


5651-68 


17623-9 


5651-39 


17624-0 


5651-04 


17625-4 


5650-76 


17626-4 


505000 


17627-7 


5649-66 


17628-8 


564917 


17630-2 


5648-81 


17631-7 


5648-59 


17632-8 


5648-27 


17633-8 


5647-88 


17634-4 


5647-46 


17635-4 


5647-04 


17636-2 


5646-42 


17638-8 , 


5646-15 


17640-2 


5645-54 


17642-5 


5645-28 


17643-7 


564500 


17645-9 


5644-77 


17646-9 


5644-30 


17647-4 


5643-58 


17648-2 


5643-20 


17649-2 


5642-84 


17650-0 


564257 


17651-7 


564217* 


17653-7 


5041-73 


17654-6 


5641-28 


17655-7 


5640-91 


17656-9 , 


5640-38 


17657-7 1 


5640-05 


17658-5 1 


5639-45 


17660-2 


563905 


17661-2 


5638-26 


176620 


5637-98 


17663-2 


5637-58* 


17664-6 


563714 




5630-78 




5636-25 


' 


563595 


17666-1 


5635-68 


17667-0 i 


5635-17 


17668-1 i 


5634-81 


17609-3 


5634-43 


17670-fi 


5633-80 


17672-2 


5633-55 


17673-7 


6633-09 



Intensity and 
Character 



2 
4 
4 
3 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
4 
5 
3 
5 
3 
2 
5 
2 
4 
6 
3 
6 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 

50 

3 

4 

3 

3 

4 

30 

30 

3 

3 

4 

4 

3 



o 

2 

5s 

3 

4s 

2 

6 

2 

7 

4 

4 

3 



Oscillation 
Frequencj' 
in Vacuo 



17674-8 
17675-8 
176770 
17678-9 
176800 
17680-9 
17682-6 
17683-9 
17684-8 
.176859 
17687-9 
17688-6 
17689-6 
17690-6 
17691-5 
17693-9 
17695-0 
17696-5 
17697-6 
17698-3 
17699-3 
17700-6 
17701-9 
17703-2 
17705-1 
17705-9 
17707-9 
17708-7 
17709-6 
17710-3 
17711-7 
17714-0 
17715-2 
17716-4 
17717-2 
17718-5 
17719-9 
17721-3 
17722-4 
17724-1 
17725-1 
17727-0 
17728-3 
17730-8 
17731-6 
17732-9 
177.S3-3 
17735-4 
17737-1 
17738-0 
17738-9 
17740-5 
17741-6 
17743-8 
17744-8 
17745-6 
17746-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 225 



Bromine (Ausoeption) — covtinued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 

i 


Intensify and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


563278 


5s 


17748-0 


5614-00 


3 


17807-8 


5632-36* 


4 


177493 


5613-51 


4 


17809-9 


5632-02 


5s 


17750-4 


5613-21 


3 


17809-8 


6631-72 


3 


17751-4 


5612-82 


3 


17811-0 


6631-37 


4s 


17752-5 


5612-46 


4 


17812-2 


6631-13 


4 


17753-2 


5612-19 


4 


17813-0 


5630-87 


2 


17754-0 


5611-83 


2 


17814-1 


5G30-63 


5 


17754-8 


5611-48 


3 


17816-3 


5630-30 


2 


17755-8 


5611-21 


3 


17816-2 


5630-00 


4s 


17756-8 


5610-91 


3 


17817-1 


5629-70 


4s 


17757-7 


5610-74 


3 


17817-7 


6629-39 


4 


17758-7 


5610-46 


3 


17818-5 


5628-96 


2 


17760-1 


6610 22 


3 


17819-3 


5628-69 


4 


17760-9 


6609-94 


3 


17820-2 


5628-41 


2 


17761-8 


5609-69 


3 


17821-0 


5628-li 


4 


17762-6 


5609-33\ 
5608-86/ 


3 


17822-1 


5627-88 


2 


17763-5 


17823-7 


5627-49 


5 


17764-7 


5608-54 


2 


17824-7 


5626-96 


5 


17766-4 


5608-22 


4 


17825-7 


5626-43 


4 


17768-1 


5fi07-9'5 


4 


17826-5 


5626-13 


2 


17769-0 


5607-63 


3s 


17827-5 


56L'5-91 ; 
5625-72 1 


4 


17769-7 


5607-17 


3s 


17829-0 


17770-3 


5606-72 


3s 


17830-4 


5625-40 


4 


17771-3 


5606-28* 


3s 


17831-8 


5625-12 


2 


17772-2 


5605-98 


2 


17832-8 


6624-60 


51 + 
4jT 


17773-8 


5605-70* 


3s 


17833-7 


5624-29 


17774-8 


5606-21 


4 


17835-2 


5624-00 


4 


17775-7 


5604-79 


5 


17836-6 


5623-60 


8 


17777-0 


5604-39 


3 


17837-9 


5623-40 


3 


17777-6 


5604-11 


5 


17838-7 


562319 


3 


17778-3 


5603-27 


6 


17841-4 


5622-90 


3 


17779-2 


6602-84 


3 


17842-8 


5622-48 


4 


17780-5 


5602-44 


6 


17844-1 


5622-16 


3 


17781-5 


5601-90 • 


3 


17845-8 


5621-90 


4 


17782-3 


5601-60 


50 


17846-7 


5621-49 


3 


17783-6 


5601-29 


4 


17847-7 


66 '.'1-24 


2 


17784-5 


5600-89 


5 


178490 


5621-03 


4 


17785-0 


5600-56 


4 


17850-0 


5620-83 


3 


17785-6 


5603-26 


2 


17851-0 


5620-59 


2 


17786-4 


5600-04 


5 


17851-7 


5620-35 


2 


17787-2 


5599-60 


2 


178531 


6620-00 


5 


17788-3 


5599-33 


4 


17854-0 


5619-65 


5 


17789-4 


5598-70* 


60 


17856-0 


6619-23 


4 


17790-7 


559818 


4] 


17857-6 


5618-70 


4 


17792-4 


5597-90 


b 


17858-5 


5618-29 


2 


17793-7 


5597-42 




17860-1 


5617-61 


6 


17795-9 


5597-14 


4 


17861-0 


561706 


3 


17797-6 


5596-94 


5 


17861-6 


5616-68 


4 


17798-8 


5696-57 


6 


17863-8 


5616-2T 


2 


17800-1 


5596-17 


6 


17864-1 








5595-69 


7 


17865-6 


Group 5616 


-5587 




5596-17 


6 


17867-3 








5594-47 


5 


17869-5 


5615-38 


4 


17803-0 


5594-00 


5 


178710 


5614-85 


2 


17804-6 


5593-65 


5 


17872-1 


5614-54 


3 


17805-6 


5593-17 


4 


17873-7 


5614-2U 


3 


17806-4 


5592-68 


8 


17875-2 



1892. 



226 



REPORT — 1892. 



Bbomine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5592-24 


4 


17876-6 


6572-73 


6 


17939-2 


5591-90 


4 


17877-7 


6672-21 


4 


17940-9 


5591-56 


4 


17878-8 


5571-95 


3 


17941-8 


5591-10 


6s 


17880-3 


6571-72 


2 


17942-5 


6590-71 


5 


17881-6 


6571-49 


4 


17943-2 


5590-38 


4© 


17882-6 


5571-16 


3 


17944-3 


5590-16 


4 


17883-3 


5570-90 


4 


17945-1 


5589-84 


4 


17884-3 


5570-67 


2 


17945-9 


5589-49* 


5 


17886-4 


5570-47^ 
5569-90 \ 
5569-66 J 




17946-5 


5589-05 


4 


17886-6 


6b 


17948-4 


5588-63 


3 


17888-2 




17949-5 


5588-40 


3 


17888-9 


6569-16* 


5 


17950-7 


5588-16 


3 


17889-7 


5568-83 


3 


17951-8 


5587-83 


3 


17890-8 


6668-41 


5 


17953-2 


5587-54 


3 


17891-7 


5568-11 


5 


17954-1 


5587-31 


4 


17892-4 


5567-57 


40 


17955-9 








5567-36 


4 


17956-5 


Group 5587 


-5555 




5567-08 
5566-75 \ 
5566-33/ 


3 
6 


17957-4 
17958-5 


5586-74 


2 


17894-3 


17959-9 


5586-46 


2 


17895-1 


5565-97 


7 


17961-1 


5586-15 


5 


17896-1 


5565-62 


5 


17962-5 


5585-8] 


5 


17897-2 


6565-26 


3 


17963-3 


5585-48 


2 


17898-3 


5565-00 


3 


17964-1 


5585-09 


4 


17899-5 


5664-70 


5 


17965-1 


5584-67 


3 


17900-9 


5564-33 


4 


17966-3 


5584-41 


2 


17901-7 


6563-90 


60 


17967-7 


5584-00 


4 


17903-0 


6563-49 


4 


17969-0 


5583-64 


3 


17904-2 


5663-00 


70 


17970-6 


5583-31 


3 


17905-2 


5562-44 


5 


17972-5 


5582-94 


5 


17906-4 


5562-20 


2 


17973-2 


5582-62 


3 


17907-4 


5561-97 


3 


17974-0 


5581-90 


\} 


17909-8 


5561-75 


5 


17974-7 


5581-63 


• 17910-6 


5561-35 


6 


17975-9 


5581-39 


4 


17911-4 


6561-00 


4 


17977-1 


5581-00 


2 


17912-6 


5560-72 


3 


17978-0 


5580-70 


4 


17913-6 


5560-44 


7 


17978-9 


5580-39 


2 


17914-6 


5560-16 


6 


17979-8 


5580-08 


3 


17915-6 


5559-86 


6 


17980-8 


5579-60* 


\v 


17917-1 


6659-53* 


5 


17981-9 


5579-25 


17918-3 


5559-20 


2 




17982-9 


5578-65 


4 


17920-2 


5568-82 


4 


. 


17984-2 


5578-30 


2 


17921-3 


5558-53 


3 




17985-1 


5578-07 


2 


17922-0 


5558-05 


4 




17986-6 


5577-79 


3 


17923-0 


5557-42 


8 


17988-7 


6577-47 


3 


17924-0 


5556-93 


8 


17990-3 


5577-18 


2 


17924-9 


5556-39 


8 


17992-0 


5576-93 


3 


17926-7 


5556-03 


6 


17993-1 


5576-74 


2 


17926-3 


; 5656-86 


6 


17993-8 


5575-99 


4 


17928-8 


6555-55 


3 


17994-8 


6575-49 


4 


17930-4 








5576-19 


2 


1 7931-3 








5574-89 


3 


17932-3 


Group 5655 


-6628 




5574-57 


4s 


17933-3 


5555-02 


2 


17996-4 


6574-32 


3 


17934-1 


5564-82 


3 


17997-1 


5573-63 


7 


17936-3 


6654-50 


3 


17998-1 


6572-93 


6 


17938-6 


6554-14 


4 




17999-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 



Bromine (A-BSouptios)— continued. 



Wave-length 


Inteosity and 
Charactei- 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


5553-86 


40 


18000-2 


5536-19 


3 


18057-7 


5553-53* 


4 


18001-3 


5535-88 


4 


18058-7 


5553 09* 


4 


18002-7 


5535-47* 


4 


18060-0 


5552G5 


4 


18004-1 


5535-04* 


5 


18061-4 


5552-39 


2 


18005-0 


5534-72 


2 


18062-4 


5552-22 


4 


18005-5 


5534-50 


6 


180G3-2 


5551-94 


3 


1800G-4 


5534-31 


5 


18063-8 


5551-72 


4 


18007-1 


5533-86 


5 


18065-3 


5551-23 


4 


18008-7 


5533-67 


2 


18065-9 


5550-83 


4 


180100 


5533-43* 


3 


18066-7 


5550-47 


4 


18011 2 


5533-06 


40 


18067-9 


6550-25 


4 


18011-9 


5632-76 


4 


18068-8 


554987 


5 


180131 


653246 


2 


18069-8 


5549-62 


2 


18014-0 


6532-24 


4 


18070-6 


5549-47 


2 


18014-5 


5532-00 


2 


18071-3 


5549-32 


3 


18014-9 


5531-68 


4 


18072-4 


5548-95 


5s 


18016-1 


5531-40 


4 


18073-3 


5548-72 


3 


18016-9 


5531-15 


5 


18074-1 


5548-45 


3 


18017-8 


5530-65 


6 


18075-7 


5548-14* 


4 


18018-8 


5630-87 


2 


18076-7 


5547-81 


2 


18019-8 


5530-08 


5 


18077-6 


5547-54 


4s 


18020-7 


552S-44 


5 


18079-7 


5547-36 


2 


180213 


5529-20 


2 


18080-5 


554714* 


4 


180220 


5529-02 


2 


18081-1 


554664 


4 


18023-6 








6546-33 
5546-06 


4 
3 


18024-G 
18025-5 


Group 5528 


-5502 




5545-81 


4 


18026-3 


5528-39 


3 


18083-1 


5545-46 


4 


18027-5 


5528-10 


2 


18084-1 


5545-11* 


2 


18028-6 


5627-87 


4 


18084-8 


5544-78* 


5 


18029-7 


5527-61 


4 


18085-7 


5544-45 


2 


18030-8 


5527-34 


2 


18086-6 


5543-97 


5 


18032-3 


5526-82 


3 


18088-3 


5543-71 


2 


18033-2 


5526-55 


V 


18089-2 


5543-44 


5s 


180340 


5526-35 


18089-8 


5543-16 




18034-9 


6626-05 


2 


18090-8 


5542-74 


5 


18035-3 


5525-80 


3© 


18091-6 


5542-34 


3 


18037-6 


5525-53 


2 


18092-5 


5542-08 


G 


18038-5 


5525-30 


3 


18093-3 


5541-71 


2 


18039-7 


5525-04 


3 


18094-1 


5541-52 


2 


18040-3 ; 


5524-85 


3 


18094-8 


5541-20 


5 


18041-3 


5624-G2 


3 


18095-5 


554099 


5 


180420 


5524-32 


3 


18096-5 


6540-72 


3 


18042-9 


5524-10 


3 


18097-2 


55t0-28 


*«}b 


18044-3 


5523-84 


3 ] 

2 [^ 
4sj 


18098-0 


5539-94 


18045-5 


5523-63 


18098-7 


5539-58 


4 


1804G-6 


5523-38 


18099-5 


5539-29 


5s 


18047-G : 


5522-98 


18100-9 


5538-98 


2 


180J8-6 


56-22-45 


2 


18102-6 


5538-78 


•iO 


18049-2 ' 


5522-10 


6 


18103-7 


5538-43 


4 


18050-4 f 


5621-78 


3 


18104-8 


5537-83 




18052-3 '; 


5521-15 


4 


18106-8 


5537-50 


4 


18053-4 1 


5520-73 


4s 


18107-1 


5537-24 


3 


18054-2 'i 


5520-53 


2 


18108-8 


5536-92 


4 


18055-3 1 


5520-32 


4s 


18109-5 


553G-70 


3 


18056-0 1 


552004 


3 


18110-4 


5536-43 


2 


18056-9 jl 


5519-80 


3 


18111-2 



Q 2 



228 



REPORT 1892. 



Bhomine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5519-40 


3 


18112-5 


5499-50 


4 


18188-1 


5518-95 


4 


18114-0 


5499-21 


3 


18189-0 


5518-63 


3 


18115-0 


549905 


2 


18189-6 


5518-23 


3 


18116-4 


6498-85 


3 


18190-2 


5518-03 


3 


18117-0 


6498-60 


6 


18191-1 


5517-58 


2 


18118-5 


6498-23 


3 


18192-3 


5517-33 


2 


18119-3 


6497-60 


2 


18194-3 


5517-03 


5 


18120-6 


5497-32 


4 


18196-3 


5516-67 


4 


18121-7 


5497-00 


2 


18196-3 


5516-22 


5 


18123-0 


5496-75 


2 


18197-2 


5515-89 


5 


18124-0 


5496-41 


6s 


18198-3 


5515-49 


3 


18125-4 


5496-01 


5 


18199-6 


5515-17 


3 


18136-4 


6495-53 


5 


18201-2 


6514-91 \ 
5514-70/ 


4© 


r 18137-3 


5495-25 


2 


18202-1 


\ 18137-9 


5494-95 


5 


182031 


551414 


3 


18139-8 


5494-69 


2 


18204-0 


5513-73 


3 


18141-1 


5494-47 


2 


18206-7 


5513-48 


2 


181420 


5494-12 


5 


18205-9 


5513-13 


5 


18143-1 


5493-78 


5 


18207-0 


5512-82 


5 


18144-1 


5493-65 


5 


18207-8 


5512-43 


4 


18145-4 


5493-28 


4s 


182087 


5512-15 


4 


18146-3 


5492-98 


4 


18209-7 


5511-65 


4* 


18148-0 


5491-98 > 


7 


18213-0 


5511-29 


5 


18149-2 


5491-36 J 


182150 


5511-03 


4 


18150-0 


5490-97 


5 


18216-3 


5510-69 


2 


18151-1 


5490-6G 


4 


18207-4 


5510-36 


4 


18152-3 


5490-34 


5 


18208-4 


6509-87 


4 


18153-8 


5489-92 


4 


18209-8 


6509-63 


3 


18154-7 


5489-67 


2 


18210-6 


5509-39 


4 


18155-4 


6489-42 


4 


18211-5 


5509-12 


4 


18156-3 


5489-13 


4 


18212-4 


5508-84 


4 


18157-2 


5488-77 


3s 


18218-6 


5508-67 


3 


18157-8 


5488-42 


5 


18214-8 


5508-45 


3 


18158-5 


5487-88 


2 


18216-6 


5508-21 


3 


18159-3 


5487-53 


4 


18217-8 


5507-91 


5s 


18160-3 


5487-22 


3 


18218-8 


5507-59 


4* 


18161-4 


5486-87 


4 


18219-9 


5506-88 \ 
5506-36 ; 


7 


18163-7 


6486-65 


2 


18220-7 


18165-4 


5486-46 


2 


18221-3 


5505-98 


2 


18166-7 


5486-22 


2 


18222-1 


5505-75 


5 


18167-4 


5486-04 


4 


18222-7 


5505-40 


4 


18168-6 


5485-73 


4 


182237 


5505-11 


4* 


18169-5 


5485-45 


3 


18224-6 


5504-72 


6* 


18170-8 


5485-191 
5484-93/ 


6 


18225-5 


5504-31 


5* 


18172-2 


182364 


5503-90 


2 


18173-5 


5484-54 


5 


18227-7 


6503-62 


6 


18174-4 


5483-92 


5 


18229-7 


5503-23 


3 


18175-7 


5483-70 


4 


18230-6 


5502-13 


5s 


18179-4 


5483-35 


3 


18231-6 








5483-01 


3 


18232-7 


Gronp 5502 


-5477 




5482-70\ 
5482-63J 


6 


18233-8 
18234-4 


5501-46 


4 


18181'6 


5482-17 


6* 


18235-6 


5501-13 


5 


18182-7 


5481-41 


5 


182381 


5500-58 


6 


18184-5 


5481-11 


5 


18239-1 


5500-34 


3 


18185-3 


6480-78 


3 


18240-2 


5499-97 


4 


18186-5 


5480-52 


3 


1824M 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 229 



Bromine (ABSOuvTiori)— continued. 



Wave-length 


Character and 
Intensity 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


5480-25 


5 


18242-0 


5462-87 


5 


18300-0 


5479-89 


3 


18243-2 


5462-68 


5 


18301-0 


5479-32 


6 


18245-0 


5462 31 


4 


18301-9 


5478-96 


8 


18246-3 


6461-81 


7 


18303-5 


5478-48 


3 


18247-9 


5461-42 


6 


18304-8 


6478-18 


3 


18248-9 


546120 


5 


18305-6 


5477-89 


3 


18249-8 


5460-74 


6 


18307-2 


5477-65 


2 


182506 


6460-19 


7 


18309-0 


547715 


4 


18252-3 


6459-67 


4* 


18310-7 








545919 


5 


18312-3 


Group 5477 


-5456 




5458-79 
5458-60 


3 
3 


18313-7 
18314-3 


5476-42 


4 


18254-7 


5458-29 


2 


18315-4 


5476-10 


4 


18255-8 


5467-97 


5 


18316-4 


547591 


4 


18256-4 


6467-53 


3 


18317-9 


5475-69 


2 


18257-1 


5457-15 


7 


18319-2 


5475-23 


5 


18258-7 


5456-89 


7 


18320-1 


5474-91 


4 


18259-7 


5466-54 


3 


18321-2 


5474-62 


4 


18260-7 


5466-27 


2 


18322-1 


5474-24 


40 


182610 


545603 


4 


18322-9 


5473-90 


4 


18263 1 








5473-67 


4 


18263-9 


Group 5466 


-5430 




5473-48 


4 


18264-5 


5455-62 


6 


18324-3 


5473-26 


3 


18265-2 


5455-28 


2 


18325-5 


5472-98 


5 


18266-2 


5455-08 


5 


18326-1 


5472-69 


4 


182671 


5454-84 


5 


18327-0 


5472-33 


3 


18268-3 


5454-64 


3 


18327-6 


5472-04 


5s 


18269-3 


5454-12 


4 


18329-4 


5471-73 


3 


18270-3 


5453-84 


4 


18330-3 


5471-43 


5 


18271-3 


5463-10 


4* 


18332-8 


547099 


3© 


18272-8 


5462-76 


6s 


18333-9 


5470-76 


3 


18273-6 


5452-50 


3 


18334-8 


5470-39 


5* 


18274-8 


5452-23 


4 


18335-7 


5470-04 


4 


18276-0 


5451-85 


5 


18337-0 


5469-72 


4 


18277-1 


5451-34 


5 


18338-7 


5469-46 


4 


18278-0 


5451-05 


4 


18339-7 


5468-94 


6 


18279-7 


5450-87 


4 


18340-3 


5468-68 


2 


18280-5 


5450-63 


2 


18341-1 


6468-49 


2 


18281-2 


5450-42 


2 


18341-8 


5468-32 


2 


18281-7 


5449-94 


4 


18343-4 


5468-13 


3 


18282-4 


5449-69 1 
5449-13/ 


4 


18344-3 


5467-90 


2 


18283-1 


18346-2 


6467-65 


2 


18284-0 


5448-83 


2 


18347-2 


5467-24 


6 


18285-4 


5448-57 


3 


18348-1 


5466-84 ] 
6466-71 l 




18286-7 


5448-15 


3 


18349-4 


SQl ' 


182*7-1 


5447-75 


3 


18350-8 


5466-29 I 




18288-4 


5447-50 


2 


18351-6 


5465-87' 


5 


18289-9 


6447-31 


5 


1&352-3 


5465-59 


3 


18290-9 


5446-52 


4 


18354-9 


6465-29 


2 


18291-9 


5446-26 


2 


18355-8 


5464-96 


6 


18293-0 


5446-09 


3 


18356-4 


6464-62 


3 


18294-1 


5445-86 


3 


18357-2 


6464-46 


3 


18294-7 


6445-49 


2 


18358-4 


5464-25 


3s 


18295-4 


6144-89 


^}b 


18360-e 


5464-05 


2 


18296-0 


5444-65 


18361-3 


6463-84 


2 


18296-8 


5444-43 "I 


5 


18362-0 


546317 


4 


182990 


5444-16/ 


1 18362 9 



260 




KEPORT- 


-189*^. 




1 




Bromine (Absorption) — eontimied. 




Wave- 


Intensity and 


Ofcillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 


Intensity and 


Oscillation 


length 


Character 


length 


Character 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


6443-75 


3 


18364-3 


5426-66 


3 


18422-1 


5443-48 


5 


18365-2 


5426-38 


4 


18423-1 


5443-16 


2 


18366-3 


5423-03 


3 


18424-3 


5442-86 


6 


18367-3 


5425-85 


3 


18424-9 


5442-52 


3 


18368-4 


5425-55 


5 


18425-9 


5442-21 


4\ 
4 


18369-5 


5425-00 


5 


18427-8 


544195 


18370-4 


5424-59 


3 


18429-2 


5441-77 


? 


18371-0 


5424-27 


5 


18430-3 


5441-32 


5^ b 


18372-5 


5423-90 


2 


18431-3 


5440-87* 


4 


18374-0 


5423-53* 


5 


18432-8 


5440-65 


4 


18374-7 


5423-06 


4 


18434-4 


544024 


4/ 


18376-1 


5422-64 


4 


18435-8 


5439-75 


(> 


18377-8 


5422-22 


5 


18437-2 


5439-53 


2 


18378-6 


5421-88 


5 


18438-4 


5439-31 


2 


18379-3 


5421-53 


2 


18439-6 


5439-05 


5 


18380-2 


5421-25 


4 


18440-4 


5438-74 


3 


18381-2 


5420-98 


3 


18441-4 


5438-46 


5 


18382-2 


5420-61 


6 


18442-7 


5438-15 


2 


18383-2 


5420-16 


2 


18444-2 


5437-90 


4 


18384-0 


5419-87 


4 


18455-2 


5437-53 


4 


18385-3 


5419-62 


2 


18456-1 


5437-32 


4 


1838G-0 


5419-31 


5s 


18457-1 


5436-98-) 
5436-74 ]. 
5436-39 J 




18387-2 


5418-99 


4s 


18458-2 


8 


18388 


5418-23 


6* 


18460-8 




18389-2 


5417-87 


2 


18462-0 


5436-12 


3© 


18390-1 


5417-50 


6 


18463-2 


5435-90 


*> 


18390-8 


5417-03 


7 


18464-8 


5435-61 


3 


18391-8 


5416-82 


2 


18465-5 


5435-31 


5 


18392-8 


5416-60 


4 


18465-3 


6435-09 


2 


18393-6 


5416-31 


4 


1S467-3 


5434-55 


20? 


18395-4 


5415-96 


6 


18468-4 


5434-28 


4 


18396-3 


5415-56 




18469-8 


5433-98 


2 


18396-4 


5415-15 


4 


18471-2 


5433-71 


4 


18398-3 


5414-76 


6 


18472-5 


5433-26 


6 


18399-8 


5414-35 


4 


18473-9 


6432-81 


3 


18401-3 


5413-91 


7 


18474-4 


5432-25 


7 


18403-2 


5413-63 


4 


18475-4 


5431-95 


2 


18404-2 


5413-48 


4 


18476-9 


5431-56 


3 


18405-5 


5413-08 


3 


18478-3 


5431-24 


4 


18406-6 


5412-89 


5 


18178-9 


5431-03 


2 


18407-3 


5412-46 


3 


18480-4 


5430-60 


4 


18409-8 


5412-23 


3 


18481-2 


5430-24 


5 


18410-0 


5411-89 


5 


18482-3 








5411-62 


. 2 


18483-2 


Gi-oup 5430 


-540G 




5410-93 
5410-64 


18485-6 
18486-6 


5429-73 


4 


18411-7 


6410-32 


2 


18487-7 


5429-43 


4 


18412-7 


5409-88 


4 


18489-2 


5429-22 


4 


18413-4 


5409-46 


3 


18490-6 


5428-77 


4 


18415-0 


5409-19 


4 


18491-6 


6428-46 


3 


184160 


6408-91 


6 


18492-5 


5428-22 


4 


18416-8 


5408-42 


3 


18493-2 


5428-00 


3 


18417-6 


5408-10 


5 


18494-3 


5427-82 


3 


18418-2 


5407-86 


3 


18496-1 


5427-54 


3 


18419-1 ! 


5407-58 


4 


18497-1 


5427-25 


4 


18420-1 


5407-23 


4 


18498-2 


5426-90 


3 


18421-3 


5407-03 


3 


18498-9 



i 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 23 1 



Bromine (Absoeption)— co«<m?<e(^. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5406-80 


2 


18499-7 


6386-591 


3 


18559-1 


6406-58 


2 


18500-5 


5386-10/ 


18560-8 


5406-33 


2 


18501-3 


5385-81 


3 


18561-8 








5385-58 \ 
5385-22/ 


3 


18562-6 








18563-8 


Group 5406 


-5372 




5384-93 


4 


18564-9 








5384-55 


5 


18565-2 


5405-52 


4 


185041 


538414 


5 


18567-6 


5405-18 


4 


18505-2 


5383-46 


3 


18569-8 


5404-76 


3 


18506-7 


5383-24 


2 


18570-7 


5403-89 


4 


18499-7 


5382-98 


3 


18571-6 


5403-16 


4 


18502-2 


5382-78 


3 


18572-3 


5402-38 


5 


18504 


5382-52 


3 


18573-2 


5402-08 \ 
5401-67/ 


3 


18504-9 


5382-25 


4 


18574-1 


18507-3 


538200 


2 


18574-9 


5401-33 


3 


18508-5 


5381-71 


2 


18576-0 


5401-00 


4 


18509-6 


5381-37* 


5© 


18577-2 


5400-25 


4 


18512-2 


5381-05 


2 


18578-2 


5499-68 


5 


18514-1 


5380-71* 


4b 


18579-4 


5499-39 


2 


18515-1 


5380-21 


4 


18581-1 


5499-09 


2 


18516-1 


5379-65 


5 


18583-1 


5498-84 


2 


18617-0 


5378-79 


4 


18586-1 


5498-55 


5 


18518-0 


5378-50 


3 


18687-1 


5497-89 


3 


18520-3 


5377-93 


6 


18589-0 


5497-37 


4© 


185220 


5377-56 


4 


18590-3 


5496-90 


5 


18523-6 


5377-33 


3 


18591-1 


5396-54 


3 


18524-9 


537702 


4 


18692-2 


6396-33 


3 


18525-6 


5376-74 


3 


18593-1 


5395-95 


3 


18526-9 


5376-26 


2n 


18594-8 


5395-73 


3 


18627-7 


5375-92 


7 


18596-0 


5395-46 


3 


18628-6 


5375-39 


3 


18598-8 


5395-24 


2 


18529-4 


5375-12 


3 


18598-7 


5395-01 


3 


18530-1 


5374-84 


3 


18599-7 


5394-66 


4b 


18531-3 


537449 


2 


18600-9 


5394-18 


4 


18533-0 


5374-25 


3 


18601-7 


5393-91 


2 


18533-9 


5373-74 


3 


18603-5 


5393-66 


4 


18534-8 


5373-57 


3 


18604-1 


5393-23 


2 


18536-3 


5373-01 


4 


18606-1 


5392-74 


4 


18538-0 


5372-65 


2 


18607-3 


5392-52 


2 


18538-7 


5372-30 


6 


18608-5 


5392-29 


2 


18539-5 


637211 


6 


18609-2 


5392-05 


3 


18540-3 








5391-77 
5391-47 


4© 
2 


18541-3 
18542-3 


Group 5372 


-5354 




5391-16 


3 


18543-4 


6371-31 


3 


186119 


5390-90 


6 


18544-3 


6371-01 


3 


186130 


5390-48 


2 


18545-7 


5370-60* 


3* 


18614-4 


5389-92* 


6 


18547-7 


5369-93 


?} 


18616-7 


5389-57 


2 


18548-9 


5369-44 


18618-4 


5389-31 


2 


18549-8 


5369-00 


3 


18619-9 


5388-93 


4 


18661-1 


5368-61* 


4* 


18621-3 


5388-61 


3 


18552-2 


5368-18 


3 


18622-8 


5388-15 


4 


18563-7 


5367-45 


3 


18625-3 


5387-72 


3 


18555-3 


53G7-21 




18626-1 


5387-49 


3 


1 85560 


5366-47 


3 


18628-7 


5387-22 


3 


18557-0 


5366-16 


2 


18629-8 


5386-92 


2 


18558-0 


5365-64 


6© 


18631-6 



232 



REPORT 1892. 



Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 


[ntensity and 


Oscillatioa 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 


[ntensity and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


length 


Cliaracter 


length 


Character 


5365-39 


3 


18632-5 


5345-02 


2 


18703-4 


5364-82 


3 


18634-4 


5344-72 


3 


18704-4 


5364-27 


5 


18636-4 ' 


5344-45 


4 


18705-4 


5364-00 


4 


18637-3 ' 


5344-09 


4 


18706-6 


5363-44 


4 


18639-2 


5343-76 


5sO 


18707-8 


5363-20 


4 


18640-1 


5343-41 


4 


18708-0 


5362-85 


3 


18641-3 


5343-12 


5 


18709-1 


5362-36 


4 


18643-0 


5342-80 


4 


18711-2 


5361-92* 


4 


18644-5 


5342-38 


6 


18712-6 


5361-62 


2 


18645-6 


5341-82 


6 


18714-6 


5361-37 


4 


18646-4 


5340-92 


6 


18717-8 


5361-07 


4 


18647-6 


5340-56 


3 


18719-0 


5360-69 


3 


18648-8 


5340-01 


4 


18721-0 


5360-33 


3 


18650-1 


5339-65 


4 


18722-2 


5360-00 


4 


18651-2 


5339-24 


4 


18723-7 


5359-73 


3 


18652-2 


5338-85 


3 


18724-0 


5359-46 


3 


18653-1 


5338-60 


2 


18725-9 


5359-22 


3 


18653-9 


5338-31\ 
5338-07 / 


7 


18726-9 


5358-95 


3 


18654-9 


18727-8 


5358-69 


2 


18655-7 


5337-76 


2 


18728-8 


5358-35 


5 


18656-9 


5337-46 


4s 


18729-9 


5357-92 


4 


18657-4 


5336-83 


2 


18732-1 


5357-64 


2 


18658-3 


5336-53 


4 


18733-2 


5357-38 


4 


18660-2 


5336-23 


2 


18734-2 


5357-06 


3 


18660-3 


5335-91 


2 


18735-3 


5356-49 


7 


18662-3 


5335-60 


4 


18736-4 


5355-62 


5 


18666-4 


5334-91 \ 
5334-70/ 


4 


18738-9 


5355-24 


3 


18667-7 


18739-6 


535501 


3 


18668-5 


5334-23 1 
5333-94 \ 


K 


18741-2 


5354-71 


3s 


18669-5 


o 


18742-3 


5353-80 


7 


18672-7 


5333-49 


3 


18743-8 








5333-11 


6 


18745-2 


Group 5354 


-5333 










5353-25 


2 


18674-6 


Group 5333 


-5317 




5353-00 


4 


18675-5 








5352-62 


3 


18676-8 


5332-80 


3 


18746-3 


5352-21 


3 


18678-3 


5332-56 


2 


18747-1 


5351-64 


2 


18680-3 


5332-28 


3 


18748-1 


5351-44 


4 


18681-0 


5332-07 


3 


18748-8 


535119 


3 


18681-8 


5331-79 


3 


18749-8 


5350-86 


3 


18683-0 


5331-55 


3 


18750-7 


5350-65 


2 


18683-7 


5331-30 


4 


18751-5 


5350-37 


4 


18684-7 


5331-02 


2 


18752-5 


5350-15 


5 


18685-5 


5330-74 


5 


18753-5 


5349-74 


5 


18686-9 


5330-44 


5 


18754-6 


5349-06 


4 


18689-3 


533006 


5 


18755-9 


5348-35 


2 


18691-7 


5329-60 \. 
5329-30/1 


8 


18757-5 


5348-06 


6 


18692-8 


18758-6 


5347-87 


18693-4 


5328-09* 


5 


18762-8 


5347-48 


4 


18694-8 


5327-81 


2 


18763-8 


5346-93 


3 


18696-7 


5327-34 


5 


18765-5 


5346-66 


4 


18697-7 


5327-00 


5 


18766-7 


5346-42 


3 


18698-5 


5326-67 


4 


18767-8 


5346-07 


3 


18699-7 


5326-40t 


'} 


18768-8 


5345-80 


4 


18700-7 


5326-10 


18769-9 


5345-41 


5 


18702-0 


6325-86 


4 


18770-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 233 





Bbomink (Absorption) — continued. 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Osoillation 1 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


5325-61 \. 
5325-24/' 


3 


18771-6 


5308-18 


2 


18833-2 


18772-9 


5307-77 


5 


18834-7 


5325-03 


4 


18773-6 


5307-27 


5 


18836-5 


5324-72 


4 


18774-7 


5306-92 


2 


18837-7 


53l'3-98 


4 


18776-3 


5306-65 


4 


18888-7 


5323-76\ 
5323-40J 


5 


18777-1 


5306-30 ) 


5 


18839-9 


18779-4 


5806-12 if 


18840-6 


5323-07 


4 


18780-5 


5305-86 


2 


18841-5 


5822-61 


4 


18782-2 


5305-59 


4 


18842-4 


5322-26 


8 


18783-4 


5305 22 


4 


18843-8 


5321-84 


2 


18784-9 


5305-09 


3 


18844-2 


5321-53* 


3* 


18785-0 


5304-90 


2 


18844-9 


5321-15 


4 


18786-3 


5304-65 


4 


18845-1 


5320-81 


3 


18788-5 


5304 34 


2 


18846-9 


5320-55 


3 


18789-4 


5304-06 


5 


188479 


5320-27 


4 


18790-4 


5803-68 


3 


18849-2 


5319-771 




18792-2 


5308-50 


2 


18849 9 


5319-56 y 


6 


18792-9 


5303-25 


3 


18850-8 


5319-11 J 




18794-5 


630305 


3 


18851-5 


5318-66 


4 


18796-1 


5302-86 


3 


18852-1 


5318-40 


8 


18797-0 


530215 


3 


18854-7 


6318-09* 


3 


18798-1 


5301-83 


4 


18855-8 


5317-70 


5 


18799-5 


5301-57 


2 


18856-7 


5317-40 


2 


18800-6 


5301-08* 




18858-5 


5317-16 


4 


18801-4 


5300-74 


3 


18859-7 








5300-57 


3 


18869-3 








5300-20 


3s 


18861-6 


Group 5317 


-5289 




5299-81 


3b 


18868-0 








6299-43 


8 


18864-8 


5316-90 


4 


18802-3 


6298-35 


4© 


18868-2 


5316-47 


2 


18803-9 


5298-06 


3 


18869-2 


5316-09 


4 b*? 


188052 


6297-48 


1 


18871-3 


5315-85 


2 


18806-1 


5296-48 


4/ 


18874-9 


5315-60 


2 


18807-0 


6296-15 : 
6295-73 


5 


18876-0 


5315-30 \ 
5315-08/ 


4 


18808-0 


t 


18877-5 


18808-8 


5295-29 


3 


18879-1 


5314-83 


2 


18809-7 


5295-04 


3 


18880-0 


5314-551 


5 


18810-7 


5294-77 


3 


18881-0 


5314-30/ 


18811-6 


5294-32 


4 


18882-6 


5313-85 


8 


18813-1 


6293-94 


4 


18883-9 


5313-46 


4 


18814-5 


6293-56 


5 


18885-3 


5313-09 


3s 


18815-8 


5293-27 


3 


18886-3 


5312-67 


3 


18816-3 


5292-94 


3 


18887-5 


5312-42 


2 


18818-2 


5292-72 


3 


18888-3 


5312-19 


2 


18819-0 


5292-42 


2 


18889-3 


5311-91 


4 


18820-0 


5292-06 


5 


18890-6 


5311-66 


2 


18820-9 


5291-78 


2 


18891-6 


5311-17 


4 


18822-6 


5291-49 


4 


18892-7 


6310-91 


4 


18823-6 


5291-30 


4 


18893-3 


5310-69 


2 


18823-3 


529102 


3 


18894-8 


5310-43 


4 


18824-3 


5290-78 


3 


18895-2 


5310-17 


=}^ 


18826-2 . 


6290-47) 


6 


18896-3 


5309-71 


18827-8 


5290-21 ■ 


18897-2 


5309-34 


3 


18829-1 


5289-93 


* 


18898-2 


530911 


3 


18829-9 


6289-53 


4 


18899-7 


5308-86 


3 


18830-8 


5289-19 


2 


18900-9 


5308-46 


4 


18832-2 


6288-85 


5 


18902-1 



234 



KEPOBT — 1892. 



Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Group 5289 


-5262 




5267-74 
5267-36 


4 
4 


18977-9 

18978-2 


fe288-63 


3 


18902-9 


5266-64 


4 


18981-8 


fe288-33 


2 


18904-0 


5266-03* 


30 


18984-0 


6288-07 


2 


18904-9 


5265-73 


2 


18985-1 


6287-76 


4 


18906-0 


6265-48 


3 


189860 


5287-51 


2 


18906-9 


6265-20 


3 


18987-0 


5287-30 


3s 


18907-6 


5264-86 


2 


18988-2 


6287-03 


3s 


18908-6 


5264-29 


4 


189903 


5286-74 


3*? 


18909-6 


5263-98 


2 


18991-4 


5286-36 


5 


18911-0 


6263-55 


4 


189930 


6285-91 


3 


18912-6 


5263-21 


3 


18994-2 


5285-49 


40 


18914-1 


5263-02 


3 


189959 


5285-11* 


4 


18915-5 


5262-37 


2 


18997-2 


5284-73 


4 


18916-8 








5284-44 
5283-75 


30 
3 


18917-9 
18920-4 


Group 5262 


-5213 




5283-44 


2 


18921-5 


6261-81 


2 


18999-3 


6283-08 


4 


18922-7 


5261-59 


2 


19000-1 


'6282-83 


3 


18923-6 


5261-37 


3 


19000-8 


5282-53 


2 


18924-7 


5261-17 


4 


19001-6 


5281-97 


2 


18926-7 


5260-96 


l> 


19001-3 


:E281-77 


2 


18927-4 


5260-40 


19004-4 


5281-50 


2 


18928-4 


5260-10 


3 


19005-4 


5281-07 


4 


18930-0 


6259-87 


3 


19006-3 


5280-74 


3© 


18931-1 


5259-54 


5 


19007-5 


5280-26 


4 


18932-9 


5259-22 


^JMin. 


19008-6 


5279-89 


2 


18934-2 


5268-87* 


19009-9 


6279-44 


4 


18935-8 


5268-54 


2 


19011-1 


6279-12 


3 


189369 


5258-32 


3 


19011-9 


5278-67 


4 


18938-6 


5258-10 


4 


19012-7 


5278-31 


2 


18939-9 


5257-83 


4 


190136 


5277-96 


3 


18941-1 


6257-43 


4 


19015-1 


'5277-71 


3 


18942-0 


5257-09 


3 


19016-3 


5277-47 


3 


18942-9 


5256-82 


3 


19017-3 


5277-23 


3 


18943-7 


5256-32 


6 


19019-1 


527700 


3 


18944-6 


5255-79 


6 


19021-0 


5276-67 


2 


18945-7 


6255-06 


2 


19023-7 


5276-19 


4 


18947-5 


5254-74 


5 


19024-8 


6275-62 


5© 


18949-5 


5254 30 


4- 


19026-4 


5274-81 


3 


18952-4 


5254-03 


2 


19027-4 


5274-34 


4 


18954-1 


5253-77 


5© 


19028-3 


5274-02 


4 


18954-3 


5253-33 


5 


19029-9 


5273-73 


50 


18956-3 


525301 


2 


19031-1 


5273-04* 


5 


18958-8 


6252-75 


3 


19032-0 


5272-68 \. 
6272-29/ T 


5 


18959-1 


5252-50 


4 


19032-9 


18961-5 


5251-87 


6 


19035-2 


5271-95 


4 


18962-7 


5251-48 


5 


19036-6 


5271-72 


3 


18963-5 


5251-24 


5 


19037-5 


5271-51 


2 


18964-3 


5250-33 


4 


19040-8 


6271-26 


4 


18966-2 


5250-06 


4 


19041-8 


5271-09 


2 


18965-8 


5249-73 


6 


190430 


5270-34* 


2 


18968-5 


5249-41 


4 


19044-2 


5269-43 


4n 


18971-8 


5248-80 


«}Min. 


19046-4 


5268-92 


4 


18973-6 


5248-30* 


19048-2 


6268-59 


4 


18974-8 


6247-61 


6 


19050-7 


i6268-06 


2 


18976-7 


6247-34 


50 


19051-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 235 





Bbomine (Absorption)— c(m<is»«e<Z. 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscilhition 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


5247-03 


2 


19052-8 


5226-65 


4 


19127-0 


5246-76 


4 


19053-8 


5226-38 


3 


19128-0 


5246-45 


3 


19054-9 


5226-18 


3 


19128-7 


6246-18 


3 


19055-9 


5225-87 


50 


19129-9 


5245-83* 


4 


19057-2 


5225-451 
6224-61/ 


PC 


19131-4 


5245-33 


6 


19059-0 


o 


19134-5 


5245-01 


4t 


19060-1 


5224-23 


4 


19135-9 


5244-60 


19061-6 


6223-97 


4 


19136-8 


6244-33 


Ih 


19062-6 


5223-75 


2 


19137-6 


5243-47 


19065-7 


5223-44 


5 


19138-8 


5242-66 


3 


19068-7 


5223-02 


5 


19140-3 


5242-37 


5 


19069-7 


5222-32 


5 


19142-9 


5241-88 


6 


19061-5 


5222-04 


3 


19143-9 








5221-82 


5 


19144-7 


Group 5243 


-5215 




5221-47 
5221-05* 


4 
4 


19146-0 
19147-5 


5241-72 


6 


19072-0 


5220-69 


5 


19148-9 


5241-48 


3 


19072-9 


5220-34 


3 


19150-1 


5241-34 


3 


19073-4 


5220-07 


3 


19151-1 


524112 


2 


19074-2 


5219-60* 


5 


19152-9 


5240-75 


5 


19075-5 


5219-28 


4 


19154-0 


5240-44 


2 


19076-7 


5218-03 


2 


19158-6 


5240-16 


50 


19077-7 


5217-54 


3 


19160-4 


6239-87 


2 


19078-7 


5217-23 


3 


19161-6 


5239-69 


8 


19079-4 


5216-95 


4 


19162-6 


5239-45 


4 


19080-3 


6216-45 


2 


19164-4 


5239-23 


4 


19081-1 


521619 


2 


19165-4 


5239-00 


3 


19981-9 


6215-92 


7 


19166-4 


5238-77 




19082-7 








5238-47 
5238-211 




19083-8 
19084-8 


Group 5215 


-5202 




5238-00/ 




19085-6 


5214-85 


3 


19170-3 


5237-66* 


o 


19086-8 


5214-53 


3 


19171-5 


5237-37 




19087-8 


5214-23 


3 


19172-6 


5236-88 




19089-6 


5213-98 


3 


19173-5 


5236-07 




19092-6 


5213-59 


2 


19174-9 


6235-70 





19093-9 


5213-31 


3 


19176-0 


5235-19 


4 


19095-8 


5213-07 


3 


19176-8 


5234-69 


3 


19097-6 


5212-82 


2 


19177-8 


5234-43 


3 


19098-6 


5212-47 


2 


19179-1 


5234-00 


6 


190991 


521214 


4 


19180-3 


5233-62 


5 


19101-5 


5211-83 


5 


19181-4 


5232-82 


5 


19104-6 


5211-56 


2 


19182-4 


6232-50 


4 


19105-6 


5211-30 


2 


19183-4 


5232-18* 


5 


19106-8 


5211-00 


3 


19184-5 


5231 91 "1 
5231-39/ 


4 4 Lines 


/ 19107-8 
19109-7 


5210-40 


4 


19186-7 


5210-08 


3 


19187-9 


5231-16 


3 


19110-5 


6209-75 


3 


19189-1 


5230-93 


3 


19111-4 


5209-41 


4 


19190-3 


5230-71 


3 


19112-2 


5208-39 


2 


19194-1 


5230-47 


4 


19113-0 


5207-80 


4 


19196-3 


5229-68 


4 


19116-9 


5207-39 


2 


19197-8 


5229-40 


4 


19117-0 


5207-21 


2 


19198-4 


5229-04 


4 


19118-3 


6206-96 


2 


19199-4 


5228-54 


2 


19120-1 


5205-77 


2 


19203-8 


5228-28 


4 


19121-0 


5205-54 


2 


19204-6 


5227-98 


4 


19122-1 


6205-28 


4s 


19205-6 



236 



KEPORT — 1892. 



Bromine (Absorption) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 


Intensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 
Frequenc}' 
in Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


[ntensity and 
Character 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


5204-5-2 


3s 


19208-4 


Group 5184 - 


-5159 




5203-96 


3 


19210-4 


5183-60 


6 


19285-9 


5203-73 I 
5203-33 f 


4b 


19211-3 


5183-25 


2 


19287-2 


19212-8 


6183-06 


3 


19287-9 


5203-04 


> 


19213-8 


5182-72 


4n 


19289-2 


5202-33 


19216-5 


5182-27 


4n 


19290-9 








5181-83 


4n 


19292-5 








5181-62 


3n 


19293-3 


Group 5202 


-5184 




5181-34 


3 


19294-3 








5180-82 


5 


192963 


620207 


3 


19217-4 


5180-39 


4 


19297-9 


5201-77 


2 


19218-5 


5180-03 


4 


19299-2 


5201-44 


4 


19219-7 


5179-68 


4\ 


19300-5 


5201-00* 


3 


19221-4 


5179-26 


2 b 


19302-1 


5200-721 
5200-44 1 


4n 


19222-4 


5178-56 


7 


19304-7 


19223-4 


5178-28 


3 


19305-7 


5200-18) 
5199-86)' 


4 


19224-4 


5178-00, 
5177-56 f 


5b 


19306-8 


19225-6 


19308-4 


5199-53 


2 


19226-8 


5177-30 


2^ 


19309-4 


5199-29 


2 


19227-7 


5177-05 


4lb 


19310-3 


5199-00 


4© 


19228-8 


5176-66 


3) 


19311-8 


5198-21 


5 


19231-7 


5176-39 


5 


19312-8 


5197-90 


5 


19232-8 


5176-07 


5 


19314-0 


5197-49 


4 


19234-4 


5175-68 


5 


19315-4 


5197-17 


2 


19235-5 


5175-41 


2 


19316-4 


5196-91 


4 


19236-5 


5174-91 


7 


19318-3 


5196-69 


5 


19237-3 


6174-46 


4 


19320-0 


5196-41 


4 


19238-3 


5173-82 


5 


19322-4 


5196-04 


4 


19239-7 


5173-52 


5 


19323-5 


5195-52 


4 


19241-6 


5172-72 


5 


19326-5 


5194-94 


3 


19243-8 


5172-43 


3 


19327-6 


5194-63 


3 


19244-9 


5171-64 


3 


19330-5 


5194-24 


5 


19246-7 


5171-08 


3 


19332-6 


5193-96 


2 


19247-4 


5170-78 


4 


19333-7 


5193-61 


4 


19248-7 


5170-60 


4 


19334-4 


5193-28 


5 


19249-9 


5170-36 


3 


19335-3 


5193-00 


5 


19251-0 


5170-11 


3 


19336-2 


5192-34 


3 


19253-4 


5169-85 


4 


19337-2 


5191-80 


50 


19255-4 


5169-60 


3 


19338-2 


5191-52 


2 


19256-5 


5168-26 


6 


19343-2 


5191-28 


3 


19257-4 


5167-41 


6 


19346-4 


5190-92 


3 


19258-7 


5167-04 


4 


19347-7 


5190-50 


4 


19260-3 


5166-87 


2 


19348-4 


5190-14 


3 


19261-6 


5166-31 


4 


19350-5 


5189-59 


6 


19263-6 


5165-93 


4 


19351-9 


5188-76 


4 


19266-7 


5165-39 


4 


19353-9 


5188-22 


5 


19268-7 


5165-05 


4 


19355-2 


5187-88 


5 


19270-0 


5164-31 


5 


19358-0 


5187-55 


3 


19271-2 


5163-86 


4 


19359-6 


5187-23 


5 


19272-4 


5163 35 


6* 


193616 


5186-89 


2 


19273-7 


5163-00 


3 


19362-9 


5186-55 


5 


19274-9 


5162-30 


4 


19365-5 


5186-00 


4' 


19277-0 


5161-93 


5 


19366-9 


5185-46* 


Hb 

5 


19279-0 


5161-471 
5161-23) 


5 


19368-6 


5185-17, 
5184-921" 


19280-1 


19369-5 


19281-0 


5160-54 


6v. 


19372-1 


5184-57 


6 


19282-3 


5159-97 


4 


19374-2 


5184-29 


6 


19283-3 


5159-70 


2 


19375-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 237 



Alumikidm Oxide (Arc Spectrum). 
Hasselberg, 'Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar,' Bandet 24, 1892. 







Reduction 


d X 




1 K eduction 


« >, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o" 

rs a" 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


.2 « 

-3 c 


A + 


1_ 
\ 


A + 


1_ 
\ 


Group 44 


71-4648 








4483-50^ 
4483-81 ]. 


5bs 


1-33 
1-34 


6-6 


22297-4 
22295-9 


4470-63 


8) 


1-33 


6-7 


22361-5 


4483-95J 








22295-2 


4471-18 


b 






22358-8 


4484-19 


5 






22294-0 


4471-30 








22358-2 


4484-90 


4 lb 
4j 






22290-4 


4471-49 


3 






22357-2 


4485-12 






22289-3 


4471-67 


2 






22356-3 


4485-27 






22288-6 


4471-86 


4 




6-7 


22355-4 


4485-64 


5) 






22286-8 


4472-11 


4 




6-6 


22354-2 


4485-81 


l^- 






22285-9 


4472-33 


4 






22353-1 


4485-97 






22285-1 


4472-59 


3 






22351-8 


4486-41 


4) 






22282-9 


4472-87* 


5 






22350-4 


4486-59 


4 






22282-0 


4473-16* 


4 






22349-0 


4486-75 


4 






22281-2 


4473-48* 


4 






22347-4 


4487-11 


4 






22279-5 


4473-78* 


4 






22345-9 


4487-40 


3 






22278-0 


4474-09 


5n 






22343-3 


4487-56 


5 






22277-2 


4474-51 


6n 






22342-2 


4487-95 


4 






22275-3 


4474-89 


5 






22340-3 


4488-18 


3 






22274-1 


4475-00 


3 






22339-8 


4488-37 


3 






22273-2 


4475-25 


5 






22338-5 


4488-75 


5n 






22271-3 


4475-36 


2 






22338-0 


4489-02 


3 






22270-0 


4475-69 


5 






22336-3 


4489-18 


3 






22269-2 


4475-80 


2 






22335-8 


4489-30 


2 






22268-6 


4476-58 \ 
4476-79/ 


5 






22331-9 


4489-61 


5n 






22267-0 






22330-8 


4489-86 


4 






22265-8 


4477-00 


5 






22329-8 


4490-04 


3 






22264-9 


4477-23 


2 






22328-6 


4490-26 


2 






22263-8 


4477-59 


5 






22326-8 


4490-46* 


4 






22262-8 


4477-87 


2 






22325-4 


4490-73 


5 






22261-5 


4478-09 


4 






22324-3 


4490-89 


5 






22260-7 


4478-22 


3 






22323-7 


4491-10 


2 






22259-7 


4478-45 


2 






22322-5 


4491-34* 


4 






22258-6 


4478-64 


6 






22321-6 


4491-63 


4 






22257-0 


4478-79 


2 






22320-9 


4491-76 


4 






22256-4 


4479-17 


5 






223190 


4492-05 


3 






22254-7 


4479-38 


3 






22317-9 


4492-21* 


4 






22254-2 


4479-70'\ 


5b 






22316-3 


4492-49 


4 






22252-8 


4479-91/ 






22315-3 


4492-69 


4 






22261-8 


4480-34 


5 






22313-1 


4493-10 


5 






22249-7 


4480-53 


3 






22312-2 


4493-38 


4 






22248-4 


4480-831 
4481-02/ 


5b 






22310-7 


4493-58 


3 






22247-4 






22309-7 


449402 


2 






22245-2 


4481-13 


2 






22309-2 


4494-22 


9 






22244-2 


4481-31 


2 






22308-3 


4495-38 


4 






22238-5 


4481-52 1 


q 






22307-3 


4495-55 


4 






22237-6 


4481-77/ 


t» 






22306-0 


4496-81 


t}' 






22236-3 


4482-14 


4n 






22304-2 


4495-98 






22235-5 


4482-63 


3 






22301-7 


4496-30 


5 






22233-9 


4482-821 
4483-22 r 


5b 






22300-8 


4496-56 


4 






22232-6 






22298-8 


4496-86 


6n 






22231-1 



238 



REPORT 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — contintced. 







Reduction 


e X 






Reduction 


a >, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensitj 

and 
Character 


to Vacuuin 


-2S 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuun 


' -2S 




1_ 




1_ 






\ + 


\ 








\ + 


\ 


6cS 


4497-19 


3 


1-34 


6-6 


22229-5 


4508-57 


2 


1-34 


6-6 


22173-4 


4497-30 


3 






22229-0 


4508-80 


4 






22172-2 


4497-53 


4 






22227-8 


4508-98 


5 






22171-4 


4497-91* 


5 






22225-9 


4509-10 


5 






22170-8 


4498-29 


^\ 






22224-1 


4509-55 


5 






22168-6 


4498-49 


2 








22223-1 


4509-77 


5 






22167-5 


4498-67 


2 


• 






22222-2 


4510-03 


2 






22166-2 


4498-88 


2 








22221-1 


4510-15 


2 






22165-5 


4499-06* 


4' 






22220-3 


4510-32 


2 






22164-8 


4499-41 \ 
4499-53/ 


4 






22218-5 


4510-48 


5 






22164-0 






22217-9 


4510-61 


5 






22163-3 


4499-71 


3 






22217-0 


4510-83 


2 






22162-3 


4499-93 \ 
4500-00 / 


5 






22216-0 


4511-06 


4 






22161-1 






222156 


4511-25 


6 






22160-2 


4500-16 


2 






22214-8 


4511-38 


6 






22159-6 


4500-43* 


5 






22213-5 


4511-89 


3 






22157-1 


4500-63 


4 






22212-5 


4512-07 


6 






22156-2 


4500-86 


4 






22211-4 


4512-20 


6 






22155-5 


4500-99 


4 






22210-7 


4512-48 


3 






22154-2 


4501-10 


4 






22210-2 


4512-67 


5 






22153-2 


4501-34 


4 






22209-0 


4512-91 


5 






22152-0 


4501-51 


4 






22208-2 


4513-05 


4 






22151-4 


4501-65 


4 






22207-5 


4513-35 


4 






22149-9 


4501-86 


3 






22206-4 


4513-52 


4 






22149-1 


4502-00 


5 






22205-7 


4513-71 


4 






22148-1 


4502-13 


5 






22205-1 


4513-84 


4 






22147-5 


4502-37 


40 






22203-9 


4514-39 


4 






22144-8 


4502-63 


4 






32203-1 


4514-63* 


5b 






22143-6 


4502-72 


5 






22202-2 


4515-03 


3 






22141-6 


4502-98 


3 






22200-9 


4515-18 


3 






22140-9 


450313 


5 






22200-2 


4515-27 


3 






22140-5 


4503-23 


5 






22199-6 


4515-42 


4 






22139-7 


4503-51 


3 






22198-3 


4515-59 


3 






22138-9 


4503-69 


4 






22197-2 


4515-95 


3 






22137-1 


4503-84 


3 






22196-7 


4516-17 


4 






22136-1 


4504-14 \ 
4504-43/ 


6b 






22195-2 


4516-37 


4 






22135-1 






22193-8 


4516-54 


10 






22134-2 


4504-74 


4 






22192-2 


4517-04 


3 






22131-8 


4504-89 


4 






22191-5 


4517-27 


4 






22130-7 


■ 4505-02 


4 






22190-9 


4517-39 


3 






22130-1 


4505-36 


5 






22189-2 


4517-64 


3 






22129-8 


4505-54 


3 






22188-3 


4517-82 


3 






22128-0 


4505-68 


5 






22187-6 


4517-98 


4 






22127-2 


4506-01 


4\ 






22186-0 


4518-16 


4s 






22126-3 


4506-17 


4 








22185-2 


4518-27 


2 






22125-8 


4506-31 


3 


K 






22184-5 


4518-44 


2 






22124-9 


4506-67 


4(" 






22182-7 


4519-00 


3 






221222 


4506-86 


2 






22181-8 


4519-14 


4 






22121-5 


4506-99 


4'' 






22181-2 


4519-28 


3 






22120-8 


4507-35 


4 






22179-4 


4519-67* 


4 






22118-9 


4507-53 


6 






22178-5 


4519-94 


4 


1-34 




22117-6 


4507-65 


3n 






22177-9 


4520-10 


5 


1-35 




22116-8 


4508-08 


3 






22175-8 


4520-36 


4 






22115-5 


4508-26 


3 






22174-9 


4520-47 


4 






22115-0 


4508-37 


5 


1 






22174-4 1 


4520-71 


3 






22113-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 239 





Aluminium Oxide (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 










Reduction 


d X 






Reduction 


a >.. 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 
a ^ 
S a* 


A + 


1_ 

A. 


\ + 


1_ 


4520-84 


4 


1-35 


6-6 


22113-2 


4534-49 


4b 


1-35 


6-6 


22046-6 


4521-08 


6 






22112-0 


4535-13 


5 \h 

3s r 






22043-5 


4521-19 


5 






22111-5 


4535-48 






22041-8 


4521-65 


5 






22109-2 


4535-67* 


3 






22040-9 


4521-90 


5 






22108-0 


4535-92 


4 






22039-6 


4522-08 


6 






22107-1 


4536-05 


2 






22039-0 


4522-40 


4 






22105-5 


4536-16 


2 






22038-5 


4522-53 


5 






22104-9 


4536-52 


3 






22036-7 


4522-86 \ 


7b 






22103-3 


4536-75* 


6 






22035-6 


4523-45J 






22100-4 


4537-00 


4 






22034-4 


4523-85 


4] 






22098-5 


4537-69 


10 






22031-0 


4523-98 


'h 






22097-8 


4537-98 


\ 






22029-6 


.4524-20* 






22096-7 


4538-14 


b 






22028-9 


4524-47 


5J 






22095-4 


4538-33 






22027-9 


4524-66 


2 






22094-5 


4538-55 


s) 






22026-8 


4524-88 


4 • 






22093-4 


4538-80 


2 






22025-5 


4525-04 


5 






22092-5 


4539-28 


2 






22023-3 


4525-47 


3 






22091-5 


4539 46* 


6 






22022-4 


4525-58 


4 






22090-0 


4539-73 


2 




6-6 


22021-1 


4525-95 


4 






22088-2 


4540-36* 


6 




6-5 


22018-2 


4526-14 


5 






22087-3 


4540-65* 


6 






22017-8 


4526-33 


4 






22086-3 


4540-92 


3 






22016-5 


4526-62 


4 






22084-9 


4541-08 


2 






22015-7 


4526-75 


4 






22084-3 


4541-33 


6b 






22013-5 


4527-23 


5 






22082-0 


4541-57 


2 






22012-3 


4527 42 


6© 






22081-0 


4541-72 


2 






22011-6 


4527-87 


5 






22078-8 


4541-86 


2 






22010-9 


4528-01 


4 






22078-2 


4542-03 


4s 






22010-1 


4528-56 


«}bn 






22075-5 


4542-24* 


4 






22009-1 


4528-74 






22074-6 


4542-50* 


4 






22007-8 


4529-01 


2 






22073-3 


4542-84 


3 






22006-2 


4529-19 


4 






22072-4 


4543-04 


2 






22005-2 


4529-30 


4 






22071-9 


4543-23* 


7 






22004-3 


4529-48 


4 






22071-0 


4543-71 


4 






22001-9 


4529-69 


4 






22070-0 


4543-90 


3 






22001-0 


4529-87 


4 






22069-1 


4544-17\ 
4544-28/ 


6 






21999-7 


4530 00 


4 






22068-8 






21999-2 


4530-22 


2 






22067-4 


4544-53 


3 






21998-0 


453038 


2 






22066-6 


4544-71 


5 






21997-1 


4530-53 


4 






22065-9 


4545-15 


5 






21995-0 


4530-68 


5 






22065-1 


4545-29 


5 






21994-3 


4530-84 


40 






22064-4 


4545-52 


2 






21993-2 


4531-27 


50 






22062-3 


4545-70 


4 






21992-3 


4531-42 


4 






22061-5 


4545-91 


3 






21991-3 


4531-81 


5 






22059-6 


4546-10\ 
4546-39/ 


5b (4 






21990-4 


4532-00 


6s 






22058-7 


lines) 






21989-0 


4532-13 


4 






22058-1 


4546-57 


3 






21988-1 


4532-76 


5 






22055-0 


4546-79 


4 






21987-0 


4532-93 


3 






22054-2 


4546-94 


3 






21986-3 


4533-04 


4 






22053-6 


4547-18 


3 






21985-1 


4533-20 


5^ 






22052-9 


4547-33 


6 






21984-4 


4533-36 






22052-1 


4547-53 


5 






21983-5 


4533-54 






22051-2 


4547-91* 


4b 






21981-6 


4533-68 


4 






22050-5 


4548-15 


3 






21980-5 


4534-24 


Sb 






22047-8 


4548-27 


2 






21979-9 



240 



EEPORT — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec SPECT:nvM)^continued. 







Reduction 


a X 






Reduction ! c t>. 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


= 5* 
•r; a 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


O i/ 


A-1- 


1 


A.+ 


1 
A" 


4548-40 


4 


1-35 


6-5 


21979-2 


4560-38 


4^ 


1-36 


6-5 


21931-5 


4548-58 


2 






21978-4 


4560-56 


3 








21930-6 


4548-71 


4 






219775 


4560-69 


3 








21930-0 


4548-93 


2 






21976-7 


4560-88 


3 


^b 






21929-1 


4549 18 


4 






21975-5 


4561-02 


2 






21928-4 


4549-3G 


4 






21974-6 


4561-21 


4 








21927-5 


4549 51 


4 






21973-9 


4561-39 


4 








21926-6 


4549-77* 


5 






21972-6 


4561-48 


3' 








21926-2 


4550-02 


2 






21971-4 


4561-75 


4 






21924-9 


4550-16 


2 






21970-7 


4562-17 


4 






21922-9 


4550-40 


6\ 






21969-6 


4562-30 


5 






21922-3 


4550-65* 


5J 






21968-4 


4562-47 


5 






21921-4 


4550-90 


2 






21967-2 


4562-70 


4 






21920-3 


4551-10* 


4 






21966-2 


4563-12 


4 






21918-3 


4551-33 


2 






21965-1 


4563-34 


4 






21917-3 


4551-54 


2 






21964-1 


4563-57 


4 






21906-2 


4551-83 


5 






21962-7 


4563-77 


4 






21905-2 


455204 


4 






21961-7 


4564-01 


4 






21904-0 


4552-22 


3 






21960-8 


4564-26 


4 






21902-8 


4552-55 


5bn 






21959-2 


4564-47 


2 






21901-8 


4552-81 


3 






21958-0 


4564-71 


3] 






21900-7 


4552-91 


2 






21957-5 


4565-48 


3 lb 






21897-0 


4553-15"! 


4b 






21956-3 


4565 69 


4j 






21896-0 


4553-30/ 






21955-6 


4565-98 


3 






21895-6 


455348 


3 






21954-7 


4566-17* 


5 






21893-7 


4553-79 


3 






21953-2 


4566-40 


3 






21892-6 


4554-01* 


6 






21952-2 


4566-99 


4 






21889-8 


4554-29* 


4 






21950-8 


4567-10 


2 






21889-2 


4654-(i5 


4 






21959-1 


4567-32 


4 






21888-2 


4554-80 


3s 






21958-4 


4567-55 


4 






21887-1 


4554-98 


4 


1-35 




21957-5 


4567-74 


2 






21886-2 


455514 


2 


1-36 




21956-7 


4567-95 


4 






21885-2 


4555-24 


3 






21956-2 


4568-15 


3 






21884-2 


4555-44 


4 






21955-3 


4568-35 


3 






218H3-2 


4555-57 


5 






21954-6 


4568-56 


3 






21882-2 


4555-83 


3 






21953-4 


4568-79 


3 






21881-1 


455(i-14 


4 






21951-9 


4569-01 


5 






21880-1 


4556-4G 


2 






21950-4 


4569-13 


5 






21879-5 


4556-(56 


3 






21949-4 


4569-40 


5 






21878-2 


4556-78 


3 






21948-9 


4569-66 


4 






21877-0 


4557 06 


4 






21947-5 


4569-76 


5 






21876-5 


4557-20 


4 






21946-8 


4570-02 


4 






21875-2 


4557-37 


2 






219460 


4570-24 


5 






21874-2 


4557-52 


3 






21945-3 


4570-44 


6 






21873-2 


4557-84 


8 






21943-7 


4570-67 


4 






21871-5 


4558-27 


3 






21941-6 


4571-11 


5 






21870-0 


4558-55 


2 






21940-3 


4571-30 


4 






21869-1 


4558-71 


4 






21939-5 


4571-51 


3 






218ri8-l 


4558-85 


4 






21938-8 


4571-65 \ 


4t 






21867-4 


455900 


5 






21937-7 


4571-87 ) 






21866-4 


4559-33 


2 






21936-5 


4572-22* 


4 






21864-7 


4559-:,2 \ 
4559-75/ 


3t 






21935-6 


4572-42 


5 






21863-7 






21934-5 


4572-60 


3 






21862-9 


4559-93 


4 






21933-7 


4572-73 


2 






21862-3 


4560-14 


2 




1 


21932-6 


4572-95 


4 








21861-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTHA OF THE ELEMENTS 2-il 



Aluminium Oxide (Anc Spectuvm)— continued. 







Reduction 


fl >. 






Reduction 


C -i 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o C 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o g- 
o a- 


A + 


1_ 
A. 


\ + 


1_ 

A. 


4573-13 


4 


1-36 


6-5 


21860-4 


4585-47 


4 


1-36 


6-5 


21801-5 


4573-31 


4 






21859-5 


4585-76 


3 






2] 800-1 


4573-48 


3 






21858-7 


4585-96* 


4 






21799-2 


4573-71 


4 






21857-6 


4586-27 


4 






21797-7 


4573-87 


4 






21856-8 


458G-50 


4 






21796-6 


4574-05 


4 






21855-0 


4586-69 


4 






21795-7 


4574-19 


2 






21855-3 


4586-88 


4 






21794-8 


4574-48 


4b 






21853-9 


4587-12; 


3 






21793-7 


4574-67 


4b 






218530 


4587-22/ 






21792-2 


4574-91 


2n 






21851-8 


4587-48 


4 






21792-0 


4575-18 


3 






21850-6 


4587-69 


3 






21791-0 


4575-37 


2 






21849-6 


4587-84 


4 






21790-2 


4575-57 


3 






21848-7 


4588-08 


3 






21789-1 


4575-76 


2 






21847-8 


4588-26 


4 






217S8-2 


4575-98 


3 






21846-7 


4588-51 


4 






21787-1 


4576-18 


3 






21845-8 


4588-71 


2 






21786-1 


4576-47 


61 
5 b 






21844-4 


4588-89 


3 


1-36 




21785-3 


4576-76 






21843-0 


;4589-17 


2 


1-37 




21783-9 


4577-00 






21841-9 


4589-55 


3b' 






21782-1 


4577-22 


2 






21840-8 


4589-73 


2 






21781-3 


4577-37 


3 






21840-1 


4589-87 


3 






21780-6 


4577-56 


3 






21838-2 


4590-14 


3 






21779-3 


4577-71 


3 






21838-5 


4590-30 


3 






21778-6 


4577-88 


3 






21837-5 


4590-50 


3 






21777-6 


4578-11 


4 






21836-6 


4590-80 


4 






21776-2 


4578-40 


2 






21835-2 


4590-95 


4 






21775-5 


4578-58 


4 






21834-3 


4591-21 


3 






21774-2 


4578-93 


3 






21832-7 


4591-35 


2 








21773-6 


4579-18 


5n 






21831-5 


4591-57 


3 


■b 






21772-5 


4579-46* 


3 






218301 


4591-73 


3 








21771-8 


4579-84 


2 






21828-3 


4591-86 


3i 








21771-2 


458007 


3 






21827-2 


4592-07* 


4 






21770-2 


4580-25 


3 






21826-4 


4592-29 


3b 






21769-1 


4580-43* 


4 






21825-5 


4592-46 


3 






21768-3 


4580-70 


3 






21824-2 


4592-64 


3 






21767-5 


4580-94 


3 






21823-1 


4592-92 


3 






21766-1 


4581-18 


5 






21821-9 


459314 


4 






21765-1 


4581-52 


4 






21820-3 


4593-42 I 
4593-50 / 


4 






21763-8 


4581-68 


3 






21819-5 






21763-4 


4581-96 


3 






21818-2 


4593-72 


4 






21762-3 


4582-07 


3 






21817-5 


4593-97 


6 






21761-2 


4582-19 


2 






21817-1 


4594-25 


4 






21759-8 


4582-44 


4 






21815-9 


4594-51 


3 






21758-6 


4582-71 


5 






21814-7 


4594-68 


4 






21757-8 


4582-96 


5 






21813-5 


4594-87 


'h 






21756-9 


4583-46* 


2 






21811-1 


4595-13 






21755-7 


4583-71 


4 






21809-9 


4595-39 


4j 






21754-4 


4583-93 


4 






21808-8 


4595-63 


2 






21753-3 


4584-18 


3 






21807-6 


4595-86 


2 






21752-2 


4584-36 


3 






21806-8 


4596-05* 


5 






21751-3 


4584-58 


4 






21805-5 


4596-25 \ 
4596-35 / 


4 






21750-4 


4584-77 


3 






21804-6 






21749-9 


4584-89 


3 






21803 3 


4596-53* 


2 






21749-1 


4585-02 


2 






21803-6 


4596-82 


4 






21747-7 


4585-23 


4 






21802-6 


4596-93 


4 


1 






21747-1 



1892. 



242 



EEPORT — 1892. 





Aluminium Oxide (Aec Specteum) — continued. 










Reduction 


ca >-. 






Reduction 


9 >' 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o v 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


.2 " 


A + 


A 


A + 


1_ 

A 


4597-16 


2 


1-37 


6-5 


21746-1 


4611-94 


2 


1-37 6-t 


21676'4 


4597-40 


3 






21744-9 


4612-12 


3 




21675-6 


4597-60* 


4bn 






21744-0 


4612-32 


2 






21674-7 


4597-86* 


3 






21742-7 


4612-48 


2 






21673-9 


4598-55 


4 






21739-5 


4612-63 


3 






21673-2 


4598-82 


2 






21738-2 


4612-85 


4 






21672-2 


4598-99 


3 






21737-4 


4613-16 


3 






21670-7 


4599-281 


5 






21736-0 


4613-46 


4 






21669-3 


4599-41/ 






21735-4 


4613-85* 


3 






21667-5 


4599-79 


4n 






21733-6 


461409 


2 






21666-3 


4600-22 


4 






21731-6 


4614-27 


2 






21665-5 


4600-43 


3 






21730-6 


: 4614-49 


4 






21664-5 


4600-71 


4 






21729-3 


4614-78 


4 






21663-1 


4601-16 


8n 






21727-1 


4615-00 


3 






21662-1 


4601-36 


2n 






21726-2 


4615-22 


3 






21661-0 


4601-65 


4n 






21724-8 


4615-43 


2 






21660-0 


4601-94 


4n 






21723-5 


4616-14 


4n j 






21656-7 


4602-41 


2 






21721-2 


4616-68 






21654-2 


4602-58 


3 






21720-4 


4616-97 


3 






21653-8 


4602-88* 


4 






21719-0 


4617-20 \ 


3t 






21651-7 


4603-43* 


4 






21716-4 


4617-45J 






21650-6 


4603-72* 


4 






21715-1 


4617-66 


3 






21649-6 


4604-02* 


2 






21713-6 


461800 


3 






21648-0 


4604-17 


2 






21712-9 


4618-14 


2 






21647-3 


4604-39* 


2 






21711-9 


4618-39* 


3 






21646-2 


4604-73 


40 






21710-3 


4618-64 


2 






21645-0 


4604-95 


3 






21709-3 


4618-84 


3 






21644-1 


4605-25 


4 






21707-8 


4619-10 


3 






21642-8 


4605-601 


4 






21705-2 


4619-46 \ 


3© 






21641-1 


4605-69/ 






21706-8 


4619-78J 






21639-6 


4605-93 


4 






21704-6 


462001 


2 






21638-6 


4606-28 


2n 






217030 


4620-24 


2 






21637-5 


4606-48 


3 






21702-0 


4620-54 


4 






21636-1 


4606-65 


2 






21701-2 


4620-77 


3 






21635-0 


4606-85 


3 






21700-3 


4620-95-1 








21634-2 


460713* 


4 






21699-0 


4621-14 I 


3b 






21633-3 


4607-38 


2 






21698-8 


4621-32J 








21632-4 


4607-51 


2 






21697-2 


4621-52 


2 






21631-5 


4607-68* 


3 






21696-4' 


4621-73 


2 






21630-5 


4608-01 \ 
46aS-12 / 


5 






21694-8 
21694-3 


4621-95 
4622-20 


5 
2 






21629-5 
21628-3 


4608-40* 


5 






21693-0 


4622-39 


4 






21627-4 


4608-62 


2 




6-5 


216920 


4622-53 


2 






21626-8 


4608-91 


4 




6-4 


21690-6 


4622-84 


5 






21625-4 


4609-73 


4 






21686-8 


4623-20 


4 






21623-6 


4609-88 


2 






21686-1 


4623-45 


4 






21622-5 


4609-96 


2 






21685-8 


4623-85 


3 






21620-6 


461014 


4 






21684-9 


4624-17 


3 






21619-1 


4610-27 


3 






21684-3 


4624-40 


3 






21618-0 


4610-51 


2 






21683-2 


4624-58 


3 






21617-2 


4610-74 


5 






216821 


4624-76 


3 






21616-3 


4610-94 


2 






21681-1 


4624-96 


4 






21615-4 


4611-09 


4 






21680-4 


4625-30 


4n 


1-37 




21613-8 


4611-20 


3 






21679-9 


4625-67\ 
4625-77/ 


4b 


1-38 




21612-1 


4611-53 


3b' 






21678-4 




21610-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTn TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 243 





Alb 


MINIl 


m 


XIDE (AE 


C Spectrui 


i) — continued. 










Reduction 


a >> 






Reduction 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Charactei 


to Vacuum 


o o 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Charactei 


to Vacuum 


O -J 

S a 

C3 I* 




1_ 




1 


3 S 






A.+ 


A. 








A + 


A. 




462G-14) 




1-38 


6-4 


21609-9 


4640-83 \ 
4641-07 J 


3t 


1-38 


6-4 


21541-5 


4626-3(5 • 


4b 






21608-9 






21540-3 


4626-52 








21608-1 


4641-29 


3 






21539-3 


4626-74 


4 






21607-1 


4641-45 


2 






21538-6 


4626-89 


4 






216064 


4641-72 


3n 






21537-3 


4627-07 


2 






21605-7 


4641-96 


2 






21536-2 


4627-28 


2 






21604-6 


4642-15 


2 






21535-3 


4627-42 


2 






21603-9 


4642-36 


3b' 






21534-4 


4627-73 


4 






21602-5 


4642-82 


2 






21532-2 


4628-00 


3 






21601-2 


4643-01 


2 






21531-3 


4628-20 


3 






21600-3 


4643-21 


2 






21530-4 


4628-51 


4 






21598-8 


4643-39 


2 






21529-6 


4628-83 


3 






21597-3 


4644-39 


2 






21524-9 


4629-18 


2 






21595-7 


4644-65 


5n 






21523-7 


4629-33 


2 






21595-0 


4644-95 


4 






21522-4 


4629-81 


2 






21592-8 


4645-09 


3 






21521-7 


4629-96 


4 






21592-1 


4645-37 


3 






21520-4 


4630-30 


4© 






21590-5 


4645-61 


2 






21519-3 


4630-62 


2 






21589-0 


4645-94 


2 






21517-8 


463107 


3 






21586-9 


4646-09 


2 






21517-1 


4631-34 


2 






21585-6 


4646-43 


4n 






21515-5 


4631-56 


2 






21584-6 


4646-79 


3 






21513-8 


4631-76 


2 






21583-7 


4647-28 


2 






21511-6 


4631-98 


2 






21582-6 


4647-47 


2 






21510-7 


4632-13 


3 






21581-9 


4647-79 


2 






21509-2 


4632-28 


3 






21581-2 


4648-07 


2 






21507-9 


4632-64 


4 






21579-6 












4633-02 


2 






21577-8 












4633-18 


3 






21577-0 


Group 4648 


-4842 








4633-44 


2 






21575-8 












4633-56 


3 






21575-3 


4648-14 


12 






21507-6 


4633-98 


^b 






21573-3 


4648-99 


3 






21503-6 


4634-43 


2j^ 






215712 


4649-11 


4 






215031 


4634-61 


2 






21570-4 


4649-31 


4 






21502-2 


4634-77 


3 






21569-6 


4649-47 


4 






21501-4 


4634-94 


2 






21568-8 


4649-69 


4 






21500-4 


4635-10 


2 






21568-1 


4649-89 


4 






21499-6 


4635-21 


2 






21567-6 


4650-12 


4 






21498-4 


4635-41 


3 






21566-7 


4650-39 


4*-l 






21497-2 


4635-72 


2 






21565-2 


4650-67 


4*L 






21495-9 


4635-87 


3 






21564-5 


4650-97 


4* p 






21494-5 


4636-04 


2 






21563-7 


4651-27 


5*J 






21493-1 


4636-18 


2 






21563-1 


4651-58-1 
4651-67/ 


5 






21491-7 


4636-35 


3 






21562-3 






21491-2 


4636-48 


2 






21561-7 


4651-94 \ 
4652-04 / 








21490-0 


4636-84 


4 






215fiO-0 


5 






21489-5 


4637-29 


3 






21557-9 


4652-30 i 
4652-37/ 








21488-3 


4637-56 


3 






21556-7 


5 






21488-0 


4638-55* 


2 






21552-1 


4652-68 


4 






21486-6 


4638-91 


^b 






21550-4 


4652-78 


3 






21486-1 


4639-23* 


3|^ 






21548-9 


465306 


4 






21484-8 


463954 


4n 






21548-5 


4653-18 


3 






21484-3 


4640-08 


2 






21544-9 


4653-51 


4 






21482-7 


4640-33 


2 






21543-8 


4653-61 


3 






21482-3 


4640-62* 


3 






21542-4 


4653-94 


4 






21480-8 



B 2 



244 



EEPORT 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 



* 


Keduction 


CI X 




Wave- 


Intenfity 


to Vacuum 


g 2 




length 


and 
Character 




1 








\-l- 


A. 


Ofe 




4654-04 


4 


1-38 


6-4 


21480-3 




4654-40 


5 






21478-6 




4654-52 


4 






21478-1 




4654-86 


5 






21476-5 




4655-02 


4 






21475-8 




4655-34 


6 






21474-3 




4655-50 


4 






21473-6 




4655-86 


5 






21471-9 




465602 


4 






21471-2 




4656-42 


6 






21469-3 




4656-57 


4 






21468-6 




4656-91 


6 






21467-1 




4657-10 


4 






21466-2 




4657-51 


6 






21464-3 




4657-70 


4 






21463-4 




4658-07 


6 






21461-7 




4658-27 


4 






21460-8 




4658-68* 


6 






21458-9 




4658-91 


4 






21458-8 




4659-25 \ 


4/ 






21456-3 




4659-35/ 






21455-8 




4659-55 






21454-9 




4659-88 \ 
4659-98/ 


1 






21453-4 








21462-9 




4660-18 


4/ 






21452-0 




4660-54 


4> 






21450-3 




4660-67 






21449-7 




4660-81 


4| 


1-38 




21449-1 




4661-20 


^1 
4S 


1-39 




21447-3 




4661-34 






21446-7 




4661-54 


4j 






21445-7 




4661-91 


5 1 






21444-0 




4602-08 


4 






21443-2 




4662-22 


4j 






21442-6 




4662-01 


51 






214408 




4662-78 


4 






21440-0 




4662-90 


5j 






21439-2 




4663-33 


51 






21437-5 




4603-51 


n 






21436-7 




4663-66 


5/ 






21436-0 




4664-07 


4j 






21434-1 




4661-30 






21433-0 




4064-45 






21432-3 




4664-81 


51 






21430-7 




4665-05 


4 






21429-6 




4665-24 


4/ 






21428-7 




4665-62 


51 






21427-0 




4665-85 


4 






21425-9 




4666-03 


4j 






21425-1 




4666-38 


5] 






21423-5 




4666-67 


4 






21422-1 




4666-85 


4/ 






21421-3 




4067-22 


4 

4j 






21419-6 




4667-50 






21418-3 




4667-67 






21417-6 





Wave- 
lenKth 



4668-04 

4668-30 

4668-54 

4668-86* 

4669 22 

4669-40 

4609-72'! 

4669-79/ 

4670-12 

4670-29 

4670-62) 

4670-72/ 

4671-02 

4671-21 

4071-531 

4071-61 J' 

4071-97 

4672-15 

4672-48 

4672-62 

4672-97 

4673-14 

4673-43 

4673-58 

4673-80 

4073-91 

4674-09 

4674-38 

4674-53 

4674-71 

4674-90 

4675-15* 

4075-37 

4675-51 

4675-05 

4075-91 

4676-37 

4676-52 

4670-66 

4076-81 

4676-96 

4077-10 

4077-20 

4677-38 

4677-50 

4677-01 

4077-84 

4677-95 "J 

4678-03/ 

4678-24 

4678-41 

4678-55 

4678-74 

4678-91 

4079-23 





Reduction 


b-. 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


c 5» 
c Si 


and 




^ ^ 


Charactei- 


\ + 


1_ 
\ 




51 




1-39 


6-4 


21415-9 


4 








21414-4 


4J 








21413-6 


l^ 








21412-1 








21410-4 


4j 








21409-5 


5 








21408-2 








21407-8 


4 








21400-3 


4 J 








21405-5 


5] 








21404-0 


r* 






21403-6 


4j 






21402-2 


4 






21401-3 


5 






21399-9 






21399-5 


2 






21397-8 


12 






21397-0 
21395-5 
21394-9 


4 






21393-3 


4 






21392-5 


3s 






21391-2 


4 






21390-5 


2 






21389-5 


3 






22389-0 


4 






21388-1 


5 






21380-8 


4 






21380-1 


3 






21385-3 


4 




6-4 


21384-4 


3 




63 


21383-4 


3 






21382-4 


4 






21?81-7 


3 






21381-1 


\Y 






21379-9 






21377-8 


2 






21377-1 


2 






21370-5 


2 






21375-8 


41 






21375-1 


4 \h 






21374-5 


4/ 






21374-0 


4] 






21373-2 


5U 






21372-6 


3J 






21372-1 


2 






21371-1 


5 






21370-6 






21370-2 


3 






21309-3 


5 






21308-5 


5 






21367-8 


2 






213S57-0 


2 






213156-2 


3 








21364-7 



\ 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 245 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec SPECTB,vii)—continved. 





Reduction 


a >> 






Reduction 


C3 >• 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Characte 


, to V acuuni 


^§ 

S cy 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Characte 


to Vacuum 


-J" 


■■ A + 


1_ 


' A + 


1_ 


4679-51 


4s 


1-39 


6-3 


21363-5 


4691-18 


3 


1-39 


63 


21310-3 


4679-89 


2 






21361-7 


4691-40 


3 






21309-3 


468004 


2 






213610 


4691-71 


8 






21307-9 


4680-21 


2 






21360-3 


4691-84 


3 






21307-3 


4680-38 


3 






21359-5 


. 4692-06 


3 






21306-3 


4680-56 


4s 






21358-7 


4692-27 


5^ 






21305-3 


4680-71 


3 






21358-0 


4692-45 


5 


b 






21304-5 


4680-68 


3 






21356-7 


4692-58 


4 






21303-9 


4681-13 


3 U 
4j 






21356-1 


4692-67 


4 








21303-5 


4681-30 






21355-3 


4693-11 


4 






21301-5 


4681-66* 






21353-6 


4693-33 


t}- 






21300-5 


4681-90 


2 






21352-5 


4693-55 






21299-5 


4682-31* 


3 






21350-7 


4693-67 


3 






21299-0 


4682-52* 


3 






21349-7 


469398 


4 






21297-6 


4682-73 


5s 






21348-7 


4694-20 


3 






21296-6 


4682-85 


5s 






21348-2 


4694-29 


3 






21296-2 


4683-08 


3 






21347-1 


4694'40 


3 






21295-7 


4683-37 


4 






21345-8 


4694-781 
4695-30/ 








21293-9 


4683-52 


4s 






21345-2 


12n 






21291-6 


4683-69 


2"b 
4j 






21344-4 


4695-59 


2 






21290-3 


4683-86 






21343-3 


4695-80 








21289-3 


4684-00 






21343-0 


4696-01 "1 


6b 


1-39 




21288-4 


4684-17 


3 






21342-2 


4696-30 f 


1-40 




21287-1 


4684-37 


4 






21341-3 


4696-43 


2 






21286-5 


4684-66 


4 J 






213400 


4696-56 


2 






21285-9 


4684-85 






21339-1 


4696-73 


5 






21285-1 


468501 






21338-4 


4696-97 


I}' 






21284-0 


4685- il 






21337-9 


4697-37 






21282-2 


4685-32 


3 






21337-0 


4697-52 


3 






21281-5 


4685-51 


3 






21336-1 


4697-65 


6 






21280-9 


4685-69* 


8 






21335-3 


4697-90 


6 






21279-8 


4685-84 


9 






21334-6 


4698-07 


2 






21279-0 


4686 03 


tl}- 






21333-7 


4698-20 


2 






21278-4 


4686-18 






21333-0 


4698-34 


3 






21277-8 


4686-72 


3 






21330-6 


4698-57 


2 






21276-8 


4686-91 


2 






21329-7 


4698-70 


6 ' b 
7j 






21276-2 


4687-07 


* 1 






21329-0 


4698-90 






21275-3 


4687-33 


3 }h 






21327-7 


4699-00 






21274-8 


4687-48 


4s J 






21327-1 


4699-30 


2 






21273-5 


4687-66 


2 






21326-3 


4699-45 


2 






21272-8 


4687-83 


4 






21325-5 


4699-69 


3 






21271-7 


4688-23 


5 






21323-7 


4699-87 


5 






21270-9 


4688-56 


5 






21322-2 


4700-01 


2 






21270-2 


4688-69 


4 






21321-6 


4700-17 


4 






21269-5 


4688-97 


4 






21320-3 


4700-35 


4 






21268-7 


4689-19 


3 






21319-3 


4700-44 


2 






21268-3 


4689-321 
4689-49/ 


4 






21318-7 


4700-68 


3 






21267-2 






21318-0 


4700-89 


5 






21268-3 


4689-77 


6 






21316-7 


470104 


5 






21265-6 


4689-95 


5 






21315-9 


4701-18 


3 






21265-0 


4690111 
4690-19 / 


4 






21315-2 


4701-30 


3 






21264-4 








21314-8 


4701-56 


4) 






21263-2 


4690-58 


3 






213130 


4701-74 


r- 






21262-4 


4690-80 


4 






21312-0 


470191 






21261-7 


469100 


5 






213111 


4702-01 


4J 


1 






21261-2 



246 



REPORT 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 







Reduction 


C >~t 






Reduction 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Chaiacfer 


to Vacuum 


o o 
■-3 c 

ll 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 






1 




1_ 




1 


A + 


A. 


Ota 






A + 


A 


Ota 


4702-1 7 \ 


2 


1-40 


6-3 


21260-5 


4713-55 


4 


1-40 


6-3 


21209-1 


4702-27J 






21260-0 


4713-84 


4 






21207-8 


4702-53 


3 






21258-8 


471406 


4 






21206-9 


4702-70 


4b 






21258-1 


4714-19 


5 






21206-2 


4702-97 


6b 






21256-9 


4714-37 \ 
4714-44/ 


3 






21205-4 


4703-64 


3 






21253-8 






21205-1 


4703-80 


4 






21253-1 


4714-69 


2 






21204-0 


4704-02 


4 






21252-1 


4714-88 


6 






21203-1 


4704-14 


4 






21251-6 


4715-07 


4 






21202-3 


4704-39 


5b 






21250-4 


4715-45 


6 






21200-6 


4704-60 


3 






21249-5 


4715-74 


4 






21199-3 


4704-75 


3 






21248-8 


4716-02 


^1 






21198-0 


4704-91 


3 






21248-1 


4716-40 


4U] 






21196-8 


4705-07 \ 
4705-16/ 


4 






21247-4 


4716-68 


5j 






21195-1 






21247-0 


4716-87 


4 






21194-2 


4705-35 


2 






21246-1 


4717-04 


3 






21193-4 


4705-51 


3 






21245-4 


4717-31 


3 






21192-2 


4705-62 


3 






21244-9 


4717-49 


5 






21191-4 


4705-89 1 


7 






21243-7 


4718-00 


G 






21189-1 


4706-01 r 






21243-1 


4718-11 


6 






21188-6 


470617\ 
4706-26/ 


7 






21242-4 


4718-33 


6 






21187-6 






212420 


4718-47 


6 






21187-0 


4706-57 


3 






21240-6 


4718-80 


3 






21185-5 


4706-77 


4 






21239-7 


4719-00 


2 






21184-6 


4706-88 


3 






21239-2 


4719-12 


2 






21184-1 


4707-10 


2 






21238-2 


4719-29\ 
4719-41/ 


7 






21183-3 


4707-26 1 


7tb 






21237-5 






21182-8 


4707-53 J 






21236-3 


4719-68 


4 






21181-6 


4707-88 


3 






21234-7 


4719-89 


3 






21180-6 


4708-10 


3 






21233-7 


472005 


3 






21179-9 


4708-25 


3 






21233-0 


4720-21 


2 






21179-2 


4708-38 


3 






21232-4 


4720-32 


4 






21178-7 


4708-51 


4 






21231-8 


4720-61 


3 






21177-4 


4708-77 


6 






21230-7 


4720-76 


4 






21176-7 


4708-94 


6 






21229-9 


4721-02 


3 






21175-6 


4709-23 


4 






21228-6 


4721-17 


201 






21174-9 


4709-45 


6 






21227-3 


4721-27 


4 U 






21174-4 


4709-62 


6 






21226-8 


4721-38 


2 J 






21173-9 


4709-99 


2 






21225-2 


4721-59 


4 






21173-0 


4710-21* 


6b 






21224-2 


4721-89 


4 






21171-7 


4710-44 


^1 
4j 






21223-1 


4722-08 


SI 






21170-8 


4710-61 






212221 


4722-26 


4 lb 






211700 


4710-80 






21221-5 


472236 


4] 






21169-5 


4710-97 


3 






21220-7 


4722-56* 


3 






21168-7 


4711-08 


2 






21220-3 


4722-80 


2 






21167-3 


4711-47 


3 






21218-5 


472301 


5 






21166-6 


4711-69 


5 






21217-5 


4723-26 


5 






21165-5 


4711-81 


8 






21217-0 


4723-47 


4 






21164-3 


4711-98 


8 






21216-2 


4723-59 


2 






21164-0 


4712-27 


3 






21214-9 


4723-78* 


2 






21163-2 


4712-47 


4 






21214-0 


4723-99 


3 






21162-2 


4712-57 


3 






21213-6 


4724-09 


3 






21161-8 


4712-97 ' 


6 






21211-7 


4724-27 


4 






21161-0 


4713-16 \ 


5 






21210-9 


4724-52 


l}^ 


1 


21159-9 


4713-35J 






21210-0 


4724-63 




1 


21159-4 



ON WAYE-LBNGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 247 
Aluminium Oxide (Aec fiFECTnvM)—contimted. 







Reduction 


>-, 






Reduction 


a X 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

£uad 
Character 


to Vacuum 


O O 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 

'Z. a 




1 




1_ 






\ + 


A 


OPi^ 






A.+ 


A 




4724-86 


^1 


1-40 


6-3 


21158-3 


4736-80 


2 


1-41 


6-3 


21105-0 


4725-13 


4 U 






21157-1 


4736-94 


5 






21104-4 


4725-30 


4j 






21156-4 


4737-20 


4 






21103-2 


4725-61 


4 






211550 


4737-38 


4 






21102-4 


4725-72 


2 






21154-5 


4737-61 


5 






21101-4 


4726-03 


5 






21153-1 


4737-86 


4 






21100-3 


4726-24* 


6b 






21152-2 


4738-17 


4 






21098-9 


4726-59 


4 






21150-6 


4738-50 


5 






21097-4 


4726-83 


3 






21149-5 


4738-75 


5 






21096-3 


4727-20 


4 






21148-9 


473900 


4 






21095-2 


4727-40 


6 






21147-0 


4739-17 


4 






21094-4 


4727-81 


2 






21145-1 


4739-42 


5 






21093-3 


4728-01 


4 






21144-2 


4739-78 


5 






21091-7 


4728-17 






21143-5 


4739-99 


i> 






21090-8 


4728-41 






21142-5 


4740-35 






21088-2 


4728-67 


3 






21141-3 


4740-67 


4 






21087-8 


4728-81 


5 






21140-7 


4740-75 


4 






21087-4 


4728-97 


4 






21139-9 


4740-93 


t> 






21086-6 


4729-10 


4 






21139-4 


4741-26 






21085-1 


4729-29 


5 






21138-5 


4741-57 


3 






21083-8 


4729-43 


5n 






21137-9 


4741-73 


3 






21083-0 


4729-81* 


3 






21136-2 


4742-06 


3 






21081-6 


473003* 


3 






21135-2 


4742-22 


3 






21080-9 


4730-22 


3 






211344 


4742-37 


4 






21080-2 


4730-41 


5 






21133-5 


4742-56 


6s 






21079-4 


4730-58 


4 






21132-8 


4442-79 


4 






21078-3 


4730-68 


4 






21132-3 


4742-99 


4 






21077-4 


4730-88 


3 


1-40 




21131-4 


4743-16 


4 






21076-7 


4731-15 


2 


1-41 




21130-2 


4743-37 


3 






21075-8 


4731-37 


3 






21129-2 


4743-65 


4 






21074-5 


4731-52 


5 






21128-6 


4743-851 


5 






21073-5 


4731-69 


5 






21127-8 


4743-94/ 






21073-2 


4731-82 


5 






21127-2 


4744-14 


5 






21072-3 


4732-08 


3 






21126-0 


4744-45 


4 






21071-0 


4732-37 


2 






21124-8 


4744-70 


4 






21069-8 


4732-62 


4 






21123-6 


4744-95 \ 
4745-17/ 


6 






21068-7 


4732-81 


4 






21122-8 






21068-0 


4732-96 


2 






21122-1 


4745-57 


4 






21066-0 


473311 


3 






21121-5 


4745-83 


4 






21064-8 


4733-35 


5 






21120-4 


4446-11 


4 






21063-6 


4733-46 


5 






21119-9 


4746-30 


4 






21062-7 


4733-77 


4 






21118-5 


4746-63 


4 






21061-7 


4733-97 


2 






21117-6 


4746-64 


4 






21061-2 


4734-14 


3 






21116-9 


4746-95 


4 






21059-9 


4734-35 


3 






21115-9 


4747-12 


3 






21059-1 


4734-62 


3 






21114-7 


4747-23 


4 






21058-6 


4734-83 


4\ 






21113-8 


4747-47 


4 






21057-5 


4734-96 


t\- 






21113-2 


4747-64 


4 






21056-8 


4735-13 






21112-4 


4747-85 \ 
4747-96/ 


5 






21055-9 


4735-35 


5J 






21111-5 






21055-4 


4735-71 


2 






21109-8 1 


4748-18 


3 




6-3 


21054-4 


4735-941 


7 






21108-8 


4748-33 


4 




6-2 


21053-8 


4736-08/ 






21108-2 


4748-57 


3 






21052-8 


4736-32 


5 






21107-1 


4748-88 


4 






21051-4 


4736-53 


3 






21106-2 


4749-02 


2 






21050-8 



248 



REPOET — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Spectrum)— c(?n<i«we«?. 







Reduction 


C >» 






Reduction 


>, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


O O 


Wave- 
length 


Intensitj' 

and 
Character 


to Vacuu m 


^ a 


A + 


1 


4749-19 


G 


1-41 


6-2 


21050-0 ! 


4761-02 


3 


1-41 


6-2 


20997-7 


4749-51 


2 






21048-6 


4761-28 


3 






20996-5 


4749-74 


4 






21047-6 


4761-52 


4^}b 






20999-5 


4750-01 


4 






21046-4 


4761-80 






20994-3 


4750-2G 


3 






21045-3 


4762-07 


5bn 






20993-1 


4750-42 


2 






210446 


4762-34 


3 






20991-9 


4750-56 


5 






21043-9 


4762-51 


5© 






20991-1 


4750-84 


4 






21042-7 


4762-691 


r 






20990-3 


4751-13 


4 






21041-4 


4762-81 /■ 


i) 






20989-8 


4751-33 


3 






21040-5 


4763-02* 


5 






20988-9 


4751-81 


4 






21038-4 


4763-60 


4b' 






20986-3 


4752-09 


3 






21037-2 


4763-85 


3 






20985-2 


4752-27 


7 






21036-4 


4764-02 


4 






20984-5 


4752-53 


7 






21035-2 


4764-25 


3 






20983-5 


4752-75 


2 






21034-2 


4764-46 


4«> 






20982-5 


4753-00 


2 






21033-1 


4764-64 






20981-7 


4753-23 1 


5 






21032-1 


4764-78 


2 






20981-1 


4753-36 ] 






21031-5 


4764-93 


3 






20980-5 


4753-54 


5 






21030-7 1 


4765-14 


^1 






20979-5 


4753-75 


2 






21029-8 


4765-40 


3 lb 






20978-4 


4753-99 


4 






21028-8 


4765-54 


3j 






20977-8 


4754-10 


2 






21028-3 


4765-78 


3 






20976-7 


4754-52 


51 






2102G-4 


4765-95 


3 


1-41 




20976-0 


4754-68 


5 1 






21025-7 


476G-30 


4 


1-42 




20974-4 


4754-90 


M 






21024-7 


4766-53 


6© 






20973-4 


475509 


sj 






21023-9 


4766-75 


6 






20972-4 


4755-31 


3 






21022-9 


4766-95 


4n 






20971-6 


4755-48 


2 






21022-2 


4767-29 


2 






20970-1 


4755-58 


2 






21021-7 


4767-40 


2 






20969-6 


4755-73 


3 






21021-1 


4767-54 


2 






209690 


4755-85 


2 






2102i)-5 


4767-73 


3 






20968-1 


475G-00 


3 






2101 9-9 


4767-99 


2 






20967-0 


4756-12 


3 






21019-3 


4768-18 


2 






20960-2 


4756-30 


4 






21018-5 


4768-33 


4 






20965-5 


4756-52 


4 






21017-G 


4768-59 


4 






20964-4 


475G-82 


4 






21016-2 


4768-71 


2 






20963-0 


4756-97 


3 






21015-6 


476903 


3 






20962-4 


475711 


3 






21015-0 


4769-16 


2 






20961-9 


4757-30 


3 






21014-1 


4769-35 


2 






20961-0 


4757-47 \ 
4757-54/ 


4 






21013-4 


4769-48 


3 






20960-4 






21013-1 


4769-90 


2 






20958-6 


4757-75 


40 






21012-1 


4770-19 


4 






20957-3 


4757-89 


4 






21011-5 


4770-53 


3 






20955-8 


4758-12 


4 






21010-5 


4770-66 1 
4770-93 1 


3 






20955-3 


4758-33 


5© 






21009-6 






20954-1 


4758-56 


5 






21008-6 


4771-14 


4 






20953-1 


4758-95 


5 






21008-6 


4771-39 


2 






20952-0 


4759-05 


5 






21006-4 


4771-56 


4 






20951-3 


4759-37 


5 






21005-0 


4771-67 


4 






20950-8 


4759-50 


5 






21004-4 


4771-85 


4 






20950-0 ■ 


4759-83 


3 






21002-9 


4772-10 


4 






20949-9 


4759-99 


3 






21002-2 


4772-37 


3 






20947-7 


4760-32 


fi 






21000-8 


4772-76 


2 






20946-0 


4760-57 


5 






20999-7 


4773-08 


l> 






20944-6 


4760-78 


5 






20998-8 


4773-23 






20944-0 L 



ON ■WATE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 249 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 







Reduction 


c t^ 






Reduction 


>, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o C" 
^ a 

Of=H 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


2 ^ 


K + 


1 

A. 

6-2 


A + 


1_ 


4773-39 


J}» 


1-42 


20943-3 


4788-36 


4 


1-42 


6-2 


20877-8 


4773o7* 






20942-5 


4788-56 


2 






20876-9 


4773-86 


3 






20941-2 


4788-90 


4 






20875-4 


4774-08 


5 






20940-2 


4789-23 


5 






20874-0 


4774-35 


4 






20939-1 


4789-60 


4 






20872-4 


4771-68 


4 






20937-6 


4789-89 


2 






20871-1 


4774-93* 


5 






20936-5 


4790-16 


3 






20869-9 


4775-18\ 
4775-27/ 


■i 






20935-4 


4790-45 \ 
4790-73 / 


bt 






20868-7 


4 






20935-0 






20867-4 


4775-60 


4 






20933-6 


4790-94 \ 
479113 J 


2b 






20866-5 


4776-03 


5 






20931-7 






20865-7 


4776-3] 


5 






20930-5 


4791-27 


2 






20865-1 


4776-55 


3 






20929-4 


4791-49 


2 






20864-1 


4776-84 


3 






20928-1 


4791-61 


3 






20863-6 


4Vrra5 


2 






20927-2 


4791-93 


2 






20862-2 


4777-26 


2 






20926-3 


4792-24 


4 






20860-9 


4777-51 


5 






20925-2 


4792-66 


4r 






20859-5 


4777-79 


4 






20924-0 


4792-71 


3 






20858-8 


4777-95 


4 






20923-3 


4792-91 


2 






20857-9 


4778-25 


5 






20922-0 


4793-08 


2 






20857-2 


4778-56 


3 






20920-6 


4793-26 


2 






20856-4 


4778-75 


2 






20919-8 


4793-65 


3 






20854-7 


4778-95 


3 






20918-9 


4793-83 


2 






20863-9 


4779-25 


5 






20917-6 


4793-98 


2 






20853-3 


4779-61 


4 






209160 


4794-39 


l> 






20851-5 


4779-73 


4 






20915-5 


4794-77 






20849-9 


4779-95 


4 






20914-5 


4795-01 


3 






20848-8 


4780-04 


3 






20914-1 


4795-48 


2 






20846-8 


4780-24 


4 






20913-2 


4795-63 


2 






20846-0 


4780-61 


3 






20911-6 


4795-78 


2 






20845-6 


4780-85 


4 






20910-6 


4796-03 


4 






20844-4 


4781-68 


4 






20906-9 


4796-33 


r. 






20843- ] 


4781-96 


5b 






20905-7 


4796-63 


3 






20842-2 


4782-26 


5b 






20904-4 


4796-68 


2 






20841-5 


4782-76 


2 






20902-2 


4796-88 


2 






20840-7 


4783-25 


3 






20900-1 


4797-17 


2 






20839-4 


4783-76» 


3 






20897-9 


4797-41 


2 






20838-4 


4783-96 


3 






20897-0 


4797-62 


2 






20837-5 


4784-14 


2 






20896-2 


4798-02 


2 






20836-7 


4784-28 


4 






20895-6 


4798-26 


3 






20834-7 


4784-47 


3 






20895-8 


4798-45 


2 






20833-9 


4784-61 


3 






20894-1 


4798-601 


2t 






20833-2 


4784-88 


3 






20893-0 


4798-83J 






20832-2 


4785-25 


4 






20891-6 


4799-05 


3 






20831-2 


4785-56 


2 






20890-0 


4799-31 


3 






20828-4 


4785-78 


2 






20889-0 


4799-71 


3 






20830-1 


4786-04 


2 






20887-9 


4800-181 
4800-27/ 


3 






20826-3 


4786-35 


3 






20886-5 






20826-0 


4786-63 


3 






20885-3 


4800-56 


3 






20814-7 


4786-74 


2 






20884-8 


4800-74 


2 






20813-9 


4786-92 


3 






20884-1 


4800-90 


3 






20813-2 


4787-07 


3 






20883-4 


480100 


2 






20813-8 


4787-44 


3 






20881-8 


4801-24 


3 






20811-8 


4787-94 


3 






20879-6 


4801-44 


3 






20810-9 


4788-OT 


3 






20879-0 


4801-67 


2 






20809-9 



250 



REPORT 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Specteum) — continued. 







Reduction 


C X 






Reduction 


c: t.. 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 

Character 


to Vacuum 


Ota 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 
Ota 


A.+ 


1 


A.+ 


1 

A." 


4801-77 


2 


1-42 


6-2 


20809-5 


4817-49 


3 


1-43 


6-2 


20751-5 


4802-02 


2 


1-43 




20808-4 


4817-67 


2 






20750-7 


4802-16 


3 






20807-8 


4818-40* 


3 






20747-6 


4802-50 


3 






20806-3 


4818-59 


2 






20746-8 


4802-72 


3 






20805-3 


4818-78 


3 






20745-9 


4803-16* 


4 






20803-4 


4818-93 


3 






20745-3 


4803-42* 


3 






20802-3 


4819-10 


2 






20744-6 


4803-G8* 


3 






20801-2 


4819-33 


3 






20743-2 


4804-09 


3 






20799-4 


4819-50 


3 






20742-8 


4804-47 


4 






20797-7 


4819-72 


2 






20741-9 


4804-68 


2 






20797-8 


4820-48 


3 




6-2 


20738-6 


4804-88 


2 






20796-0 


4820-79 


2 




6-1 


20737-3 


4805-15 


2 






20794-8 


4820-96 


3 






20736-6 


4805-36 


3 






20793-9 


4821-24 


2 






20735-4 


4805-71 


4 






20792-4 


4821-46 


2 






20734-5 


4805-89 


2 






20791-6 


4821-59 


2 






20733-9 


4806-U 


2 






20790-6 


4821-87 


2 






20732-7 


4806-26 


2 






20790-0 


4822-09 


2 






20731-8 


4806-48 


3 






20789-0 


4822-42 


3 






20730-4 


4806-66 


4 






20798-3 


4822-26 


4 






20729-3 


4806-99 


2 






20796-8 


4823-13* 


3 






20727-2 


4807-61 


3 






20794-2 


4824-23 


3 






20722-6 


4807-70 


3 






20793-8 


4824-60 


2 






20721-0 


4807-95 


4 






20792-7 


4824-79 


2 






20720-2 


4808-401 


4 






20790-7 


4825-06 


2 






20719-0 


4808-49 J 






20790-3 


4825-25 


2 






20718-2 


4808-73 


3 






20789-3 


4825-49 


2 






20717-2 


4808-97 


3 






20788-3 


4826-02 


2 






20714-9 


4809-26 


2 






20787-0 


4826-22 


2 






20714-0 


4809-80* 


5s 






20784-7 


4826-48 


2 






20712-9 


4810-16* 


5s 






20783-1 


4826-65 


2 






20712-2 


4810-53 


3 






20781-5 


4826-85 


2 






20711-3 


4810-92 


3 






20779-8 


4826-98 


2 






20710-8 


4811-27 


4 






20778-3 


4827-38 


3 






20709-1 


4811-56 


4 






20777-1 


4827-75 


2 






20707-5 


4811-77 


2 






20776-2 


4828-09 


2 






20706-0 


4812-02 


2 






20775-1 


4828-23 


2 






20705-4 


4812-30 


4 






20773-9 


4828-44 


2 






20704-5 


4812-39 


2 






20773-5 


4828-64 


2 






20703-7 


4812-55 


4 






20772-8 


4829-10 


4n 






20701-7 


4812-85 


3 






20771-5 


4830-40 


2 






20696-1 


4812-99 


2 






20770-9 


4830-60 


2 






20695-3 


4813-47 


3n 






20768-8 


4831-33 


2 






20692-1 


4813-79 


3 






20767-4 


4831-47 


2 






20691-5 


4813-94 


2 






20766-8 


4831-77 


3 






20690-2 


4814-21 


3 






20765-6 


4832-16 


2 






20688-6 


4814-45 


4 






20764-6 


4832-36 


3 






20687-7 


4814-66 


2 






20763-7 


4832-94 


2 






20685-2 


4814-84 


4 






20762-9 


4833-51 


3 






20682-8 


4815-17 


3 






20761-5 


4833-99 


2 






20680-7 


4815-61* 


3 






20759-6 


4834-43* 


2 






20678-9 


4816-01 


4 






20757-9 


4834-90 


3 






20676-8 


4816-30 


3n 






20756-6 


4835-75 


3 






20673-2 


4816-74 


4 






20754-7 


4835-94 


3 






20672-4 


4817-15 


4 






20753-0 


4836-22 


2 


1-43 




20671-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 251 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Sfectrvm)— continued. 





Reduction ; -i ;.. 






Reduction 


n i-. 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Va( 
A-l- 


:uum 

1 


-Be 

.•3 o" 
« a> 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 

- i- 


O w 


4836-44 


3 


1-44 


6-1 


20670-3 


4848-65 


3 


1-44 


6-1 


20618-2 


4836-72 


2 






20669-1 


4848-81 


4 






20617-5 


4836-91 


2 






20668-2 


4848-91 


4 






20617-1 


4837-25 


2n 






20666-8 


4849-14 


3 






20616-1 


4837-64 


2n 






20665-1 


4849-32 


4 






20615-4 


4838-00 


3n 






20663-6 


4849-41 


4 






20615-0 


4838-45 


3a 






20661-7 


4849-62 


3 






20614-1 


4838-96 


3 






20659-5 


4849-79 


4 






20613-3 


4839-94 


2 






20655-3 


4849-91 


4 






20612-8 


4840-24 


3bii 






20654-0 


4850-12 


3 






20611-9 


4840-44 


3© 






20653-2 


4850-33 


4 






20611-1 


4840-76 


2 






20651-8 


4850-49 


4 






20610-4 


4841-04 


20 






20650-6 


4850-66 


3 






20609-6 


4841-44 


2 






20649-9 


4850-88 


4 






20608-7 


4841-80 


2 






20647-4 


4851-00 
4851-19 
4851-43 


4 
3 
4 






20608-2 
20607-4 
20606-4 


Group C 


\ 4842-5,041 






4851-57 


4 






20605-8 


4842-44 


12 






20644-6 


4851-79 


4 






20604-8 


484285 








20642-9 


4852-01 


4 






20603-9 


4842-98 








20642-2 


4852-17 


4 






20603-2 


4843-13 








20641-7 


4852-34 


4 






20602-5 


4843-31 








20640-9 


4852-58 


4 






20601-5 


4843-49 








20640-2 


4852-76 


4 






20600-7 


4843-73 


5 






20639-1 


4852-93 


4 






20600-0 


4843-92 


5 






20638-3 


4853-22 


4 






20598-8 


4844-17 


5 






20637-3 


4853-39 


4 






20598-1 


4844-37 


4 






20736-4 


4853-56 


5 






20597-3 


4844-45 


4 






20636-1 


4853-83 


4 






20596-2 


4844-65 


4 






20635-2 


4854-01 


4 






20595-4 


4844-72 


4 






20634-9 


4854-17 


5 






20594-7 


4844-94 


4 






206340 


4854-49 


4 






20593 4 


484504 


4 






20633-6 


4854-68 


4 






20592-6 


4845-26 


4 






20632-6 


4854-86 


5 






20591-8 


4845-34 


4 






20632-3 


4855-14 


4 






20590-6 


4845-57 


4 






20631-3 


4855-30 


4 






20590-9 


4845-64 


4 






20631-0 


4855-50 


5 






20589-1 


4845-89 


4 






20629-9 


4855-90 


5 






20587-4 


4846-00 


4 






20629-5 


485605 


4 






20586-8 


4846-26 


4 






20628-4 


4856-22 


5 






20586-0 


4846-37 


4 






20627-9 


4856-55 


5 






20584-6 


4846-65 


4 






20626-7 


4856-73 


4 






20583-9 


4846-77 


4 






20626-2 


4856-89 


5 






20683-2 


4846-94 


2 






20625-5 


4857-28 


5 






20581-5 


4847-07 


4 






20624-9 


4857-45 


4 






20580-8 


4847-17 


4 






20624-5 


4857-57 


5 






20580-3 


4847-34 


2 






20623-8 


4857-97 


5 


1-44 


6-1 


20578-6 


4847-48 


4 






20623-2 


4858-18 


4 






20577-7 


4847-57 


4 






20622-8 


4858-30 


5 






20577-2 


4847-80 


3 






20621-8 


4858-76 


5 






20575-3 


4847-92 


4 






20621-3 


4858-94 


4 






20574-5 


484801 


4 






20620-9 


4859-04 


5 






20574-1 


4848-22 


3 






20620-0 


4859-52 


5 






20572-1 


4848-35 


4 






20619-5 


4859-70 


6 






20571-3 


4848-44 


4 






20619-1 


4859-82 


6 






20570-8 



252 



EEPORT — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Spectrum) — eontinned. 







Reduction 


C !>. 






Reduction 


c >> 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o S" 

|§ 
-o to ■ 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o ? 
-^ a 

ON 


A + 


1_ 


\ + 
1-44 


1 


4860-29 


5 


1-44 


6-1 


20568-8 


4872-93 


3 


6-1 


20515-4 


4860-50 


5 






20567-9 


4873-11 


3 


1-45 




20514-7 


4860-59 


5 






20567-5 


4873-35 


6 






20513-7 


4861-12 


5 






20565-3 


4873-50* 


6 






20513-0 


4861-33 


4 






20564-4 


4873-72 


2 






20512-1 


4861-41 


5 






20564-1 


4873-90 


3 






20511-3 


4861-92 


4 






20561-9 


4874-03 


3 






20510-8 


4862-14 


6 






20561-0 


4874-20 


2 






20510-1 


4862-24 


4 






20560-5 


4874-41 


6s 1 

4 U 
4 J 






20509-2 


4862-77 


6 






205583 


4874-54 






20508-7 


4862-97 


4 






20557-5 


4874-63 






20508-3 


4863-09 


6 






20557-0 


4874-93 


3 






20507-0 


4863-64 


4 






20554-6 


4875-11 


3 






20506-3 


4863-82 


5 






20553-9 


4875-27 


2 






20505-6 


4863-94 


4 






20553-4 


4875-46 


6 






20504-8 


4864-50 


4 






20551-0 


4875-58 


4 






20504-3 


4864-70 


5 






20550- 1 ' 


4875-71 


4 






20503-7 


4864-79 


4 






20549-8 


4875-80 


2 






20503-3 


4865-43 


4 






205471 


487605 


3 






20502-3 


4866-61 


5 






20546-3 


4876-25 


3 






20501-5 


4865-67 


4 






20546-0 


4876-39 


2 






20501-5 


4866-33 


4 






20543-3 


4876-56 


6 






20500-1 


4866-54 


8 






20542-4 


4876-64 


6 






20499-8 


4866-80 


2 






20541-3 


4876-84 


5 






204990 


4866-93 


2 






20540-7 


4876-96 


3 






20498-5 


4867-06 


2 






20540-2 


4877-26 


3 






20497-2 


4867-26 


4 






20539-3 


4877-45 


2 






20496-4 


4867-48 


7 






20538-4 


4877-64 


5 






20495-6 


4867-78 \ 
4868-03/ 


2t 






20537-1 


4877-75 


C 






20495-2 






20536-1 


4877-98 


4 






20494-2 


4868-05 


4 






20536-0 


4878-20 


3 






20493-3 


4868-42 


7 






20534-4 


4878-54 


3 






20491-8 


4868-63 


2 






20533-6 


4878-79 


6 






20490-6 


4868-77 


2 






20533-0 


4878-90 


6 






20490-1 


4868-88 


2 






20532-5 


4879-15 


5 






20489-3 


4869-08 


2 






20531-7 


4879-35\ 
4879-54/ 


3 






20488-4 


4869-26 


4 






20530-9 






20487-6 


4869-37 


4 






20530-4 


4879-91 


6 






20486-1 


4869-45 


6 






20530-1 


4880-07 


7 






20485-4 


4869-69 


3 






205291 


4880-32 


4 






20484-4 


4869-82 


3 






20528-5 


4880-56 


3 






20483-3 


4870-06 


2 






20527-5 


4880-72 1 
4880-90/ 


3b 






20482-7 


4870-25 


5 






20526-7 






20481-9 


4870-46 


6 






20525-8 


4881-10 


5 






20481-1 


4870-77 


3 






20524-5 


4881-25 


7 






20480-5 


4870-91 


3 






20523-9 


4881-51 


6 






20479-4 


4871-24 


6 






20522-6 


4881-96 


3n 






20477-5 


4871-48 


6© 






20521-5 


4882-24 


8 






20476-3 


4871-60 


2 






20521-0 


4882-43 


8 






20475-5 


4871-74 


2 






20520-4 


4882-71 


5 






20474-3 


4872-02 


2 






20519-3 


4882-96 


3bn 






20473-3 


4872-29 


6© 






20518-1 


4883-45 


6 






20471-2 


4872-46 


6 






20517-4 


4883-60 


5 






20470-6 


4872-61 


2 






20516-8 


4883-70 


5 






20470-2 


4872-77 


2 






20516-1 


4883-98 


4 






20469-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 253 





Aluj 


dlNIU] 


a Oxide (Arc 


Spectrum 


) — continued. 










Reduction 


° X 






Reduction 


c >, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 




Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 




1_ 




1_ 






A.+ 
1-45 


A 


ED 1_| 






A + 


\ 




4884-25 


3 


61 


20467-9 


4897-95 


5 


1-45 


60 


20410-7 


4884-48 


3 






20466-9 


4898-17 


3 






20409-8 


4884-66 


5s 






20466-1 


4898-52 


3 






20408-3 


4884-84 


4s 






20465-4 


4898-79 


3 






20407-2 


4884-96 


3 






20464-9 


4899-16 


6 






20405-7 


4885-03 


2 






20464-6 


4899-37 


6 






20404-8 


4885-26 


5© 






20463-6 


4899-94 


3 






20402-4 


4885-87 


6 






20461-1 


4900-24 


5 






20101-2 


4886-08 


6 






20460-2 


4900-34 


2 






20400-7 


4886-22 


5 






20459-6 


4900-59 


5 






20399-7 


4886-51 


4© 






20458-4 


4900-79 


5 






20398-9 


4886-73 


2 






20457-5 


4901-82 


3 






20396-7 


4886-95 


3 






20456-6 


4901-45 


4 






20396-1 


4887-11 


4 






20455-9 


4901-74 


3 






20394-9 


4887-31 


4 






20455-0 


4902-03 


4 






20393-7 


4887-52 


4 






20454-2 


4902-25 


4 






20392-8 


4887-79 


6 






20453-1 


4902-40 


3 






20392-2 


4887-85 


2 






20452-8 


4902-53 


3 






20391-6 


4888-41 


6 






20450-4 


4902-76 


2 






20390-7 


4888-57 


e^b 






20449-8 


4903-03 


3 






20389-5 


4888-85 






20448-6 


4903 24 


2 






20388-7 


4889-11 


4^)b 






20447-5 


4903-54 


6 






20387-4 


4889-32 






20446-6 


4903-72 


6 






20386-7 


4889-47 


5s} b 






20446-0 


4904-49 


3 






20383-5 


4889-68 






20445-1 


4904-67 


2 






20382-7 


4889-85 


5 






20444-4 


4904-84 


6 






20382-0 


4890-14 


4 






20443-2 


4905-04 


6 






20381-2 


4890-44 


6 






20442-0 


4905-22 


6 






20380 4 


4891-00 


5 






20439-6 


4905-81 


2 






20378-0 


4891-18 


5 






20438-9 


4906-07 


6 






283769 


4891-301 


4 






20438-4 


4906-31 


3 






20375-9 


4891-53/ 






20437-4 


4906-52 


6s 






20375^0 


4891-77 


4 






20436-4 


4906-71 


6s 






20374-2 


4892-32 


6 






20434-1 


4906-95 


3 


1-45 




20373-3 


4892-50 


4 






20433-3 


4907-15 


4 


1-46 




20372-4 


4892-87 


3 






20431-8 


4907-55* 


3 






20370-8 


4«93-14 


4 






20430-7 


4907-89 


2© 






20369-4 


4893-32 


3 






20429-9 


4908-03 


4s 






20368-8 


4893-64 


5 






20428-6 


4908-21 


6b^ 






20368-0 


4893-83 


4 






20427-8 


4908-67 


Sn 






20366 1 


4894-10 


3 






20426-7 


4909-18 


3 






20364-0 


4894-29 


4 






20425-9 


4909-34 


3 






20363-3 


4894-56 


3 




61 


20424-7 


4909-55 


6© 






20362-5 


4895-00 


7 




6-0 


20423-0 


4909-80 


4 






20361-4 


4895-20 


7 






20422-2 


4909-93 


2 






20360-9 


4895-65 


4 






20420-3 


4910-55 


3 






20358-3 


4895-93 


3 






20419-1 


4910-72 


4© 






20357-6 


4896-08 


3 






20418-5 


4911-11 


5 






203560 


4896-24 


2 






20417-8 


4911-36 


4© 






20355-0 


4896-37 


5 






20417-3 


4911-82 


3 






20353-0 


4896-58 


5 






20416-4 


4912-00 


8 






20352-3 


4897-07 


5 






20414-4 


4912-41 


3 






20350-6 


4897-27 


3 






20413-5 


4912-74 


5 






20349-2 


4897-36 


4 






20413-2 


4912-94 


4 






20348-4 


4897-75 


5 






20411-6 


4913-06 


3 






20347-9 



254 



REPORT — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Spectrum) — continued. 







Reduction 


13 >-, 






Reduction 


CJ X 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 

• f-t en 
o a? 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


-5 O) 




1_ 




1 _ 






A + 


A. 


oeS 






A + 


A 


o£ 


4913-24 


3 


1-46 


6-0 


20347-2 


4930-18 


2 


1-46 


6-0 


20277-2 


4913-45 


3 






20346-3 


4930-44 


2 






20276-2 


4913-76 


3 






20345-0 


4931-03 


2 






20273-7 


4914-09 


3 






20343-6 


4931-27 


2 






20272-7 


4914-35 


6 






20342-6 


4931-41 


4 






20272-2 


4914-55 


5 






20341-7 


4931-63 


4 






20271-3 


4914-79 


2 






20340-7 


4932-02 


3 






20269-7 


4915-08 


2 






20339-5 


4932-37 


2 






20268-2 


4915-93 


4 






20336-0 


4932-56 


3 






20267-5 


4916-14 


4 






20335-2 


4932-79 


3 






20266-5 


4916-44 


2 






20333-9 


4933-18 


4 






20264-9 


4916-65 


2 






20333-0 


4933-44 


4 






20263-8 


4916-94 


3 






20331-8 


4933-89 


2 






20262-0 


4917-15 


3 






20331-0 


4;)34-07 


2 






20261-2 


4917-39 


2 






20330-0 


4935-02 


4 






20257-3 


4917-58 


4 






20329-2 


4935-28 


4 






20256-3 


4917-81 


5 






20328-2 


4935-42 


2 






20255-7 


4918-28 


3 






20326-3 


4935-57 


2 






20255-1 


4918-47 


3 






20325-5 


4935-80 


4 






20254-1 


4918-83 


2 






20324-0 


4936-23 


2 






20252-4 


4919-25 


5 






20322-3 


4936-48 


2 






20251-3 


4919-47 


5 






20321-4 


4936-85 


4 






20249-8 


4919-62 


3 






20320-8 


4937-10 


5 






20248-8 


4919-83 


3 






20319-9 


4937-34 


3 






20247-8 


4920-23 


2 






20318-2 


4937-72 


3 






20246-3 


4920-58 


2 






20316-8 


4938-71 


5 






20242-2 


4920-92 


5 






20315-4 


4938-97 


5 






20241-1 


4921-15 


6 






20314-4 


4939-26 


2 






20239-9 


4921-62 


3 






20312-5 


4939'62 


2 






20238-5 


4921-98 


2 






20311-0 


4940-31 


3 






20235-6 


4922-37 


3 






20309-4 


4940-58 


4 






20234-5 


4922-61 


6 






20308-4 


4940-85 


4 






20233-4 


4922-86 


4 






20307-4 


4941-18 


3 






20232-1 


4923-41 


2 






20305-1 


4941-61 


3 






20230-3 


4923-74 


3 






20303-8 


4941-93 


3 


1-46 




20229-0 


4923-98 


3 






20302-8 


4942-17 


3 


1-47 




20228-0 


4924-33 


4 






20301-3 


4942-48 


4 






20226-8 


4924-57 


4 






20300-3 


4942-76 


4 






20225-6 


4924-71 


3 






20299-8 


4943-18 


2 






20223-9 


4924-84 


3 






20299-2 


4943-53 


3 






20222-5 


4925-15 


3 






20297-9 


4943-79 


2 






20221-4 


4925-39 


3 






20297-0 


4944-43 


4 






20218-8 


4925-67 


2 






20295-8 


4944-69 


4 






20217-7 


4926-07 


4 






20294-2 


4945-16 


3 






20215-8 


4926-31 


4 






20293-2 


4945-47 


3 






20214-5 


4926-47 


2 






20292-5 


4946-33 


4 






20211-0 


4926-59 


2 






20292-0 


4946-64 


4 






20209-7 


4926-83 


3 






20291-0 


4946-83 


2 






20209-9 


4927-46 


2 






20288-4 


4947-08 


4n 






20207-9 


4927-81 


4 






20287-0 


4947-55 


3 






20206-0 


4928-05 


5 






20286-0 


4948-34 


4 






20202-8 


4928-30 


4 






20285-0 


4948-56 


4 






20201-9 


4929-26 


2 






20282-0 


4948-80 


3 






20200-9 


4929-57 


5 






20280-7 


4949-19 


3 






20199-3 


4929-83 


5 






202797 


4949-60 


3 






20197-7 



ON "WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 255 
Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — co7itinued. 







Reduction 


>, 






Reduction 


G >-j 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o a 
II 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


O -J, 




1 




1 






A + 

1-47 


A 

60 


OP^ 






A + 


5-9 




4950-32 


5 


20194-7 


4978-03 


4 


1-48 


20082-4 


4950-56 


5 






20193-7 


4978-38 


4 






20081-0 


4951-24 


3 






20191-0 


4980-09 


2 






20074-1 


4951-63 


2 






20189-4 


4980-30 


3 






20073-2 


4951-94 


3 






20188-1 


4980-47 


2 






20072-5 


4952-29 


4 






20186-7 


4980-66 


3 






20071-8 


4952-59 


4 






20185-4 


4982-17 


2 






20065-7 


4953-71 


3 






20180-9 


4982-53 


3 






20064-2 


4953-94 


2 






20179-9 


4982-89 


3 






20062-8 


4954-33 


4 






20178-4 


4984-16 


2 






20057-7 


4954-64 


4 






20177-1 


4984-54 


2 






20056-1 


4955-42 


i 






20173-9 


4984-86 


3 






20054-8 


4955-77 


2 






20172-5 


4985-19 


3 






20053-5 


4956-39 


4 






20170-0 


4986-22 


2 






20049-4 


4956-67 


4 






20168-8 


4986-55 


2 






20048-0 


4957-24 


2 






20166-5 


4987-18 


3 






20045-5 


4958-47 


4 






20161-5 


4987-55 


3 






20044-0 


4958-77 


4 






20160-3 


4988-30 


2 






20041-0 


495903 


2 






20159-2 


4988-67 


2 






20039-5 


4959-37 


2 






20157-8 


4989-62 


3 






20035-7 


4959-72 


2 






20156-4 


4989-90 


3 






20034-6 


4960-55 


4 






20153-1 


4990-35 


2 






20032-8 


4960-86 


4 






20151-8 


4990-75 


2 






20031-2 


4961-23 


2 






20150-3 


4991-90 


3 






20026-5 


4961-55 


2 






20149-0 


4992-27 


3 






20025-1 


4961-86 


2 






20147-7 


4992-50 


2 






20024-1 


4962-82 


2 






20145-9 


4992-85 


2 






20022-7 


4962-69 


6 






20144-4 


4994-15 


3 






20017-5 


4963-00 


5 






20143-1 


4994-62 


3 






20015-6 


4963-38 


2 






20141-6 


4996-68 


3 






20007-4 


4964-11 


2 






20138-6 


4997-07 


3 






20005-8 


4964-57 


2 






20136-7 


4999-12 


2 






19997-6 


4964-81 


3 






20135-8 


4999-45 


2 






19996-3 


4965-13 


30 






20134-5 


5001-17 


2 






19989-4 


4966-48 


2 






20129-0 


6001-57 


3 






19987-8 


4966-80 


3 






20127-7 


5001-94 


3 






19986-3 


4966-97 


3 






20127-0 


5003-34 


2 






19980-7 


4967-27 


3 






20125-8 


5003-77 


2 






19979-0 


4968-32 


2 






20121-5 


5004-06 


3 






19977-9 


4968-73 


2 






20119-9 


5004-41 


3 






19976-5 


4969-17 


3 






20118-1 


5005-56 


2 






19971-9 


4969-49 


3 






20116-8 


5006-00 


2 






19970-1 


4970-30 


2 




6-0 


20113-5 


5006-54 


3 






19968-0 


4970-62 


2 




5-9 


20112-3 


5006-91 


3 






19966-5 


4971-20 


2 






20110-0 


5007-87 


2 






19962-7 


4971-38 


3 






20109-2 


5008-27 


2 






19961-1 


4971-71 


3 






20107-9 


5009-06 


3 






19957-9 


4972-^4 


2 






20105-8 


5009-43 


3 






19956-4 


4972-57 


2 






20104-4 


5010-10 


2 






19953-8 


4973-58 


4 






20100-3 


5010-49 


2 






19952-2 


4973-92 


4 






20098-9 


5011-59 


3 






19947-8 


4974-24 


2 






20097-7 


5011-94 


3 






19946-4 


4974-58 


2 






20096-3 


5012-38 


2 






19944-7 


4975-82 


4 






20091-3 


5012-80 


2 


1-49 


5-9 


19943-0 


4976-13 


4 


1-47 




20090-0 


5014-12 


2 






19937-8 



256 



REPOKT — 1892. 





Aluminium Oxide (Aec SF'ECT'RTjM)—oontmued. 










Eeduction 


n >^ 






Reduction 


= >. 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


Si 

g a: 


Wave- 
length 


[ntensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


'■Z a 

CJ (U 




1_ 




1 






A + 


A. 
5-9 


OP^ 






A.-t- 


A" 

5-8 


CfM 


5014-50 


2 


1-48 


19936-3 


5085-38 


2 


1-51 


19658-4 


5014-67 


2 






19935-6 


5085-56 


2 






19657-7 


501512 


O 






19933-8 


5085-83 


2 






19656-7 


5016-73 


2 






19927-4 


5086-01 


2 






19656-0 


5017-00 


2 






19926-3 


5086-31 


2 






19654-8 


501708 


2 






199260 


5086-47 


2 






19654-2 


5017-45 


2 






19924-5 


5086-78 


2 






19653-0 


5019-29 


2 






19917-2 


5086-97 


2 






19652-3 


5019-41 


2 






19916-8 


5087-29 


2 






19651-0 


5019-67 


2 






19915-7 


5087-46 


2 






19650-4 


5019-79 


2 






19915-2 


5087-81 


2 






19649-0 


5021-941 
5022-34 / 


3 






19906-7 


5087-98 


2 






19648-4 






19905-1 


5088-33 


2 






196470 


5024-54 ~l 


O 






19896-4 


5088-53 


2 






19646-2 


5024-96/ 


.3 






19884-8 


5088-88 


2 






19644-9 


5027-21 \ 


o 






19885-8 


5089-08 


2 






19644-1 


5027-62 / 








19884-2 


5089-27 


2 






19643-4 


5029-86 \ 
5030-32/ 


2 






19875-4 


5089-45 


2 






19642-7 






19873-5 


5089-63 


2 






196420 


5032-551 
5033-05 / 


O 






19864-7 


5089-81 


2 






19641-3 








19862-7 


509001 


2 






19640-5 


5035-30 \ 


9 






19863-9 


5090-24 


2 






19639-6 


5035-76 J 


^ 






19862-1 


5090-43 


2 






19638-9 


5038-07 \ 


3 






19843-0 


5090-63 


2 






19638-1 


5038-50/ 






19841-3 


5090-84 


2 






19637-3 


5040-88 1 
5041-26/ 


3 






19831-9 


5091-01 


2 






19636-7 






19830-4 


5091-22 


2 






19635-9 












5091-47 


2 






19634-9 


Group A. 


5079-52 


10 






5091-64 
5091-89 


2 
3 






196:U-2 
19633-3 


5079-52 


8 


1-50 


5-8 


19681-1 


509209 


3 






19632-5 


5079-95 


2 






19679-4 


5092-25 


3 






19631-9 


5080-11 


2 


1-50 




19678-8 


5092-52 


3 






19630-8 


508020 


2 


1-51 




19678-5 


5092-76 


3 






19629-9 


5080-44 


2 






19677-5 


5092-92 


3 






19629-3 


5080-65 


2 






19676-7 


5093-20 


3 






19628-2 


5080-84 


2 






19676-0 


5093-43 


3 






19627-3 


5081-05 


2 






19675-2 


5093-58 


3 






19626-8 


5082-11 








19671-1 


5093-90 


3 






19625-5 


5082-23 








19670-6 


5094-12 


3 






19624-7 


5082-41 








19669-9 


5094-23 


3 






19624-2 


5082-54 








19669-4 


5094-59 


3 






19622-9 


5082-71 


2 






19668-7 


5094-82 


3 






196220 


5082-87 


2 






19668-1 


5094-94 


3 






19621-5 


5083-06 


2 






19667-4 


5095-29 


2 






19620-2 


5083-21 


2 






19666-8 


5095-54 


4 






19619-2 


5083-40 


2 






196661 


5095-66 


3 






19618-7 


5083-75 


2 






19664-7 


509602 


2 






19617-3 


5083-91 


2 






196641 


5096-30 


4 






19616-3 


5084-14 


2 






196632 


5096-41 


2 






19615-8 


5084-30 


2 






19662-6 


5096-79 


2 






196U-4 


5084-54 


2 






19661-7 


5097-05 


40 






1961 :;-4 


5084-70 


2 






19661-0 


5097-16 


2© 






196i:i0 


5084-93 


2 






196601 


5097-58 


3 






19611-3 


5085-11 


2 






19659-4 


5097-84 


5 






19610-3 



ON WAVE-LENQTir TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 257 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum)— ro«W«j/«/. 







Reduction 


c >. 






It eduction 


a >^ 


VVavp- 
leiigta 


Intensity 

aiul 
Character 


to Vacuum 





Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

anl 
Character 


to Vacuuui 


1 ^ 

11 




1 




1 






\ + 


A. 


Of^ 






A.+ 


A. 


a^s 


509S-35 


2 


1-51 


6-8 


19608-4 


5111-27 


2 


1-51 


58 


19558-8 


509802 


5 






19607-5 


5111-52 


4 






19557-8 


5099-15 


2 






19605 3 


5111-69 


2 






19557-2 


5099-38 


5 






19604-4 


5112-051 
5112-17 \ 
5112-28 J 








19555-8 


5100-00 


2 






19602-0 


5 






19555-4 


5100-25 


5 






19601-1 








19554-9 


6100-79 


2 






19599-0 


5112-59 


4 






19553-8 


5101-07 


5 






19597-9 


5112-81 


2 






19552-9 


6101-67 


2 






19595-6 


5113-21 


5 






19551-4 


5101-92 


4 






19594-7 


5113-37 


5 






19550-8 


5102-32 


12 






195921 


5113-79 


3 






19549-2 


5102-84 


6 






19591-1 


511400 


2 






19548-4 


5103-06 


2 






19590-3 


5114-25 


2 






19547-4 


5103-23 


2 






19589-6 


5114-42 


5 






19546-8 


5103-41 


3 






19588-9 


5114-65 


2 


1-51 




19545-9 


5103-61 


4 






19588-2 


5115-02 


4 


1-62 




19344-5 


5103-77 


4 






19587-6 


5115-29 


3 






19543-4 


510i-03 


2 






19586-6 i 


5115-50 


2 






19542-6 


5104-24 








19585-8 j 


5115-68 


3 






19541-9 


5104-36 








195853 


5115-91 


2 






195411 


5104-49 








19584-8 


5116-34 


5 






19539-4 


5104-64 


3 






19584-2 


511G-60 


5 






19538-4 


5104-91 


2 






19583-2 


5116-98 


5 






195370 


5105-05 


2\ 






19582-6 


5117-26 


2 






19535-9 


5105-18 


2 






19J82-1 


5117-50 


2 






195350 


5105-35 


3( 






19581-5 


5117-69 


5 






19535-3 


5105-53 


Sf 






19580-8 


5117-98 


2 






19533-2 


5105-80 


2 






19579 8 


5118-11 


2 






19532-7 


5105-99 


%' 






195790 


5118-38 


4 






19531-6 


5106-18 


2^ 






19578-3 


5118-62 


4 






19530-7 


5106-32 


M 






19577-8 


5118-79 


2 






19530-1 


5106-50 


4( 






195771 


5119-15 


4b' 






19528-7 


5106-68 








19576-4 


5119-42 


2 






19527-7 


5106-88 






19575-8 


5119-77 


4 






19326-3 


5107-08 


2 






19574 9 


5119-90 


5 






10525-8 


6107-25 


4 






19574-2 


5120-15 


3 






19524-9 


6107-44 


4h 






19573-5 


5120-5n 


i 






19523-5 


6107-68 


2 






19572-6 


5120-64/ 






19623-0 


6107-85 


3^ 






19571-9 


5120-90 


4 






19522-0 


6108-10 


^\ 






19570-9 


5121-09 


3 






19521-3 


5108-22 


4' 






19570-5 


5121-28 


4 






19520-6 


5108-32 


2'- 






19570-1 


5121-41 


4 






195-20-1 


5108-52 






19569-3 


5121-69 


3 






19519-0 


6108-70 






19568-6 


5122-06 


5 






19517-6 


5108-97 


2, 






19567-6 


5122-21 


5 






19517-0 


5109-17 


A 






19566-8 


6122-50 


3 






19515-9 


5109-32 


2L 






19566-3 


5122-86 


4 






19514-5 


6109-47 


3, 






19565-7 


5122-98 


4 






19514-1 


5109-64 


2) 






19565-0 


5123-26 


3 






19513-0 


5109-91 


^) 






195640 


6123-471 


9 






19512-2 


5110-15 






19563-1 


5123-57/ 






19511-8 


5110-28 


l\ 






19562-6 


5123-79* 


6 






19511-0 


5110-46 






19561-9 


5124-15 


3 






19309-6 


5110-95 


2 






195600 


6124-44 


49 






19508-5 


5111-16 


4 






19559-3 


5124-64 


5s 






19507-8 



1892. 



258 



REPORT — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec Spect'rvm)— continued. 







Reduction 


a >-, 






Reduction 


C3 X 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


o o 

d g 


Wave- 
leDgth 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


-2§ 












Character 


A.+ 


1_ 
X 






Character 


A.+ 


1 
\ 




512503 


4s 


1-52 


5-8 


19506-3 


5137-78 


2 


1-52 


5-8 


19457-9 


5125'28 


3 






19505-3 


5138-00 


2 






19457-0 


5125-47 


3 






19504-6 


5138-32 


3 






19455-8 


6125-68 


3 






19503-8 


5138-67 


4 






19454-5 


5125-89 


3 






19503-0 


5138-85 


4 






19453-8 


5126-20 


3 






19501-8 


513906 


3 






19453-0 


5126-30 


3 






19501-4 


5139-40 


3 






19451-7 


5126-47 


2 






19500-8 


5139-74 


4 






19450-4 


5126-60 


2 






19500-3 


5139-92 


3 






19449-7 


5126-77 


2 






19499-7 


514019 


3 






19448-7 


5126-92 


3 






19499-1 


5140-46 


4 






19447-7 


5127-14 


4 






19498-2 


5140-83 


5 






19446-3 


5127-62* 


2 






19496-4 


5141-02 


3 






19445-6 


5127-91 ■ 


3 






19495-3 


5141-18 


2 






19444-0 


5128-17 


3 






19494-3 


5141-60 


5 






19443-4 


5128-34 


3 






19493-7 


5141-84 


2 






19442-5 


5128-54 


2 






19492-9 


5142-12 


2 






19441-4 


5128-71 


2 






19492-3 


5142-33 


2 






19440-6 


5128-83 


2 






19491-8 


5142-53 


2 






19439-9 


5128-95 


2 






19491-4 


5142-74 


2 






19439-1 


5129-15 


3 






19490-6 


5143-08 


6 






19437-8 


5129-46 


3 






19489-4 


5143-27 


8 






19437-1 


5129-71 


3 






19488-5 


5143-48 


3 






19436-3 


5129-95 


3 






19487-6 


5143-89 


4 






19434-7 


513017 


3 






19486-7 


5144-20 


4 






19433-6 


5130-43 


3 






19485-7 


5144-38 


4 






19432-9 


5130-69 


4 






19484-8 


5144-62 


2 






19432-4 


5130-89 


4 






19484-0 


5144-77 


4 






19431-4 


5131-12 


2 






19483-1 


5145-04* 


2 






19430-4 


5131-38 


3 






19482-1 


5145-26* 


2 






19429-6 


5131-61 


3 






19481-3 


5145-48 


> 






19428-7 


5131-82* 


3 






19480-5 


5145-74 






19427-7 


5132-04 


3 






19479-6 


5145-95* 


4 






19427-0 


5132-40 


3 






19478-3 


5146-25 


6 






19426-8 


5132-57 


2 






19477-6 


5146-48 


3 






19425-0 


5132-71 


2 






19477-1 


5146-73 


4 






19424-0 


5132-90 


3 






19476-4 


5146-92 


2 






19423-3 


5133-42* 


4 






19474-4 


5147-10 


2 






19422-6 


5133-57 


3 






19473-8 


5147-28 


2 






19421-9 


5133-73 


3 






19473-2 


5147-45 


^> 






19421-3 


5133-99 


4 






19472-2 


5147-71 






19420-3 


5134-27 


2 






19471-2 


514793 


6 






19419-5 


5134-53 


4 






19470-2 


5148-07 


2 






194190 


5134-67 


4 






19469-6 


5148-43 


3 






19417-6 


5134-91 


3 






19468-7 


5148-82 


5 


1-52 




19416-1 


513513 


4 






19467-9 


5148-97 


4 


1-53 




19415-6 


5135-49 


4 






19466-C 


5149-14 


4 






19414-9 


5135-74 


4 






19465-6 


5149-26 


4 






19414-5 


5136-06 


3 






19464-4 


5149-70 


3 






19412-8 


5136-28 


2 






19463-5 


5150-12 


3 






19411-2 


5136-55 


2 






19462-5 


5150-60 


3 






19409-4 


5136-75 


3 






19461-8 


5150-77 


2 






10408-8 


513707 


3 






19460-5 


5151-34 


2 






19406-6 


5137-39 


3 






19459-3 


5151-56 


4 






19405-8 


5137-60 


6 






19458-5 


5151-68 


2 






19405-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 259 



Aluminium Oxide (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave- 
' length 



5152-38* 

5152-58 

5152-85 

5153-04 

5153-60 

5153-85 

5153-99 

5154-11 

6154-30 

5154-50 

5154-80 

5155-lf) 

5155-42* 

5155-98 

5156-25 

5156-45 

5156-77 

5157-02* 

5157-25 

5157-47 

5157-71 

5157-84 

5157-99 

5158-251 

5158-53 J 

5158-71 

515906 

6159-32 

5159-53 

5159-71 

5159-90 

5160-07* 

5160-35 

5160-60 

5160-70 

516100 "1 

5161-18 

5161-4lJ 

5161-67 

5161-80 

5162-05 

5162-77 

5163-19 

5163-36 "I 

5163-56/ 

5163-66 

6163-80 

5163-94 

6164-09 

5164-33* 

5164-60* 

5164-88 

5165-07 

5165-35 

5165-67 



Intensity 

antt 
Character 



3 

5 
3 

4 

4b'- 

4 

O 

2 
3 
3 
2 

4 
2 

''I 

4j 

4 

3 

3 

3 

3 

4b 

2 

4 

4 

2 

2 

2 

2 

5b 

5 

3 

4b 

5 
5 
6 
5b 



5b 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

4 

4s 

3 

2 

3b 



Reduction 
to Vacuum 



A + 



1-53 



5-8 



5-8 

5-7 



o o 
-J3 C 



Ofe 



19402-7 

19401-9 

19400-9 

19400-2 

19498-1 

19397-2 

1939G-6 

19396-2 

19395-5 

19394-7 

19393-6 

19392-2 

19391-3 

19388-1 

19388-1 

19387-4 

19386-2 

19385-2 

19384-4 

19383-5 

1938--J-6 

19382-2 

19381-6 

19380-6 

19379-6 

19378-9 

19377-7 

19376-7 

19375-9 

19375-2 

19374-5 

19373-9 

19372-8 

19371-9 

19371-5 

19370-4 

19369-7 

19368-8 

19367-9 

19367-5 

19366-4 

19363-7 

19362-2 

19361-5 I 

19360-8 I 

19360-4 > 

19359-9 

19359-4 

19358-8 

19357-9 

19356-9 

19355-8 I 

19355-1 

19354-1 

19352-9 







Reduction i =^ ^ t 


Wave- 


Intensity 
anj 


to Vacuum 


O O 


leiiirth 






—1 3 


o 


Character 


A.+ 
1-53 


1 




5165-97 


4b 


5-7 


19351-7 


5166-26 


3 






19350-7 


5166-72 


4 






19348-9 


5166-89 


2 






19348-3 


5167-10* 


2 






19347-5 


5168-32 


4 






19342-9 


5168-79 


4 






19341-2 


5169-19 


5 






19339-7 


5169-49 


2 






19338-6 


5169-78 


4 






19337-5 


5170-221 


4 






19335-8 


5170-37/ 






19335-3 


5170-67 


5n 






193341 


5170-93 


2 






19333-2 


5171-30 


2 






19331-8 


5171-57 


4 






19330-8 


5172 09 


2 






19328-8 


5172-28 


2 






19327-1 


5173-05 


2 






19325-2 


5173-26 


2 






19324-7 


5173-41 


2 






19323-9 


5173-57 


2 






19323-3 


5173-71 


2 






19322-8 


5174-03 


4 






19321-6 


5174-32 


3 






19320-5 


5174-63 


3 






19319-3 


6174-79 


2 






19318-7 


5175-13 


3 






19317-5 


5175-27 


4 






19317-0 


5175-53 


4b 






19316-0 


5175-80 


4 






19316-0 


6175-94 


2 






19314-5 


5176-29 


4 






19313-2 


5176-50 


4b 






19312-4 


6176-62 


2 






19311-9 


5176-80 


2 






19311-3 


5177-23 


5b 






19309-6 


5177-51 


5b 






19318-6 


5177-78 


5b 






19317-6 


5178-06 


3 






19316-6 


5178-18 


4 






19316-1 


5178-44* 


4 






19315-1 


5179-04 


5 






19312-9 


5179-17 


2 






19312-4 


5179-40 


5b 






19311-6 


5179-72 


5 






19310-4 


5179-94 


2 






19309-5 


5180-24 


4bn 






19308-4 


5180-50 


3 






19297-6 


5180-97 


4 






19295-7 


5181-27 


6 






19294-6 


5181-59 


3 






19293-4 


5181-71 


3 






19292-9 


5181-99 


33 






19291-9 


5182-31 


3 


1 




19290-7 



8 1 



260 



REPORT — 1892. 



Aluminium Oxide (Aec SPKCTUVJi)— continued. 



r 




Reduction 


a >-> 






Rertnction 


c >> 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o o 

11 

S a* 

g £: 


Wave- 

leagth 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


o a 
•r- a 


A + 


1 
\~ 

6-7 


A + 


1 


5182-51 


3 lb 

3J 


1-53 


19290-0 


5196-32 


3 


1-54 


5-7 


19238-7 


5182-92 






19288-4 


5196-74 


3 






192361 


5183-36 


1-53 




19286-8 


5197-14 


2 






19235-6 


5184-14 


3 


1-54 




19283-9 


6197-30 


3 






19235-1 


5184-31 


3 






19283-3 


5197-67* 


4 b 






19233-7 


5184-50 


3 






19282-6 


5198-04 


2 






19232-3 


5184-65 


3 






19282-0 


5198-49 


2 






19230-7 


5184-77 


3 






19281-6 


5198-75 


2 






19229-7 


5185-03 


3 






19280-6 


5198-96* 


2 






19228-9 


51 85 -30 


2 






19279-6 


5199-37 


2 






19227-4 


6185-54 


3 U 






19278-7 


5199-77 


3 






19225-9 


5185-88 






19277-4 


5200-14 


3 






19224-5 


5186-17 


j 






19276-4 


5200-31 


3n 






19223-9 


5186-46 


3 






19275-3 


5200-65 


2 






19223-0 


5186-63 


4 






19274-6 


5200-79 


2 






19222-1 


5186-99- 


4 






19273-3 


520101 


2 






19221-3 


5187-38 


5 






19271-9 


5201-15 


2 






19220-8 


5187-76 


3 






19270-4 


6201-43 


3n 






19219-8 


6188-Of^ 


4 






19269-2 


5201-61* 


n 






19219-1 


5188-42 








19268-0 


520.-82 


2 






19218-3 


5189-07 


3 






19261-6 


5202-12 


2 






19217-2 


5189-28 


3 






19264-8 


5202-34 


2 






19216-4 


6189-47 


3 






192641 


5202-80 'I 


•J 






19214-7 


6189-81 


3 






19262-8 


5202-91 J 








19214-3 


5190-01 


2 






19262-1 


5203-20 


2 






19213-2 


5190-22 


3 






19261-3 


5203-40 


3 






19212-5 


5190-43 


3 






19260-5 


5303-61 


3 






19211-7 


5190-73 


5 






192594 


5203-79 


2 






19211-1 


5191-101 


4 






19258-0 


5203-92 


2 






19210-6 


5191-21/ 






19257-6 


520409 


2 






19210-0 


5191-51 


>}" 






19256-5 


5204-22 


2 






19209-5 


5192-03 






19254-6 


5204-48 


3 






19208-5 


6192-40 


5 






19253-2 


5205-19 


3 






19205-9 


5192-52 


50 






19252-8 


5205-40 


2 






19205-1 


5192-79 


5b 






19251-8 


5205-61 


2 






19204-3 


619S-0S 


4 






192507 


5206-55 


3 






19200-9 


6193-62 


2 






19248-7 


6206-75 


3 






19200-1 


5193-98* 


2 






19247-3 


5206-97 


3 






19199-3 


5194-16 


3 






19246-7 


5207-62* 


3 






19196-9 


5191-33 


3 






19246-1 


5207-92 


2 






19195-8 


5194-56 


3 






19245-2 


520809 


2 






19194-2 


5194-83 


3 






19244-2 


5208-39 


2 






19194-1 


5195-21 


2n 






19242-8 


5208-83 


3 






19192-5 


5195-40 


2 






19242-1 


5209-46 


4bu 






19190-1 


5195-62 


2 






19241-3 


5209-98 


3 






19198-2 


6196-06 


3 






19239-6 


5210-28 


3 






19197-1 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOLUTION. 261 



Sixth Report of the Comiinittee, consisting of Professor W. A. 
TiLDEN, Professor H. McLeod, Mr. S. U. Pickering, Professor 
W. Eamsay and S. Young, and Dr. A. E. Leeds, and Dr. W. W. 
J. NicoL {Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting 
on the Bibliography of Solution. 

The Committee report that considerable progress has been made during 
the past year. One new journal has been completely searched, and the 
others have been brought up to date. The work has so far advanced 
that the question of publication will soon have to be considered. The 
titles already collected now number over 1,200, including cross references, 
and are dr