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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S/ A 



28 SEP. 95 

EEPORT 



OF THE 



SIXTY-FOUETH MEETING 



OP THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



OXFOED IN AUGUST 1894. 




LONDON '. 
JOHN MUERAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1894. 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W 



PMSTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODK AND CO., NEW-STREET SQTJARHI 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rales of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxix 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement xlix 

List of Evening Lectures Ixvii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixx 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Oxford Meeting Ixxi 

Officers and Council, 1894-95 Ixxiii 

Treasurer's Account Ixxiv 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxvi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxyiii 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Oxfovd Meet- 
ing in August 1894 Ixxxi 

Papers ordered to be printed in extenso Ixxxix 

Resolutions relating to the Constitution and Titles of Sections xc 

Resolutions, referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

I desirable xc 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xci 

Places of Meeting in 1895 and 1896 xcii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes xciii 

General Meetings oiii 

Address by the President, the Most Hon. the Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 

D.C.L., F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Oxford 3 

A 2 



IV CONTENTS. 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



\_An asterisk * indicates that tJie title only is given. The mark f indicates the same, 
but a reference is given to the journal or nercspaper where it is published in estenao.] 



Page 

Corresponding Societies. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor R. 
Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary), Mr. Francis Galton, 
Sir DoTTGLAS Oalton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. 
W. Whitakee, Mr. W. Toplet, Professor E. B, Poulton, Mr. Cuthbeet 
Peek, and Rev. Canon H. B. Teisteam 19 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of Thermodynamics. By 
G. H. Betan. Part II. — The Laws of Distribution of Energy and their 
LimitatioDs 64 

Appendix A. — The Possible Laws of Partition of Rotatory Energy in 
Non-colliding Rigid Bodies 98 

Appendix B. — Gn -the Law of Molecular Distribution in the Atmo- 
sphere of a Rotating Planet .. 100 

Appendix 0. — On the Application of the Determinantal Relation to 
the Kinetic Theory of Polyatomic Gases. By Professor Ltjdwig 

BOLTZMAKN 102 

The Best Methods of recording the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. — Tenth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes (Chairman), 
Professor A. Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone Stonet, Sir II. E. RoscoE, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. C. Cheeb, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Mr. W. E. 
"Wilson, and Professor H. McLeod. (Drawn up by Professor McLeod) ... 106 

Underground Temperature. — Twentieth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. D. Eveeett, Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaishee, Professor Edward Hxtll, Profes.«or J. 
Peesiwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
G. A. Lebotje, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph 
Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wetheeed, Mr. A. Strahan, and 
Professor MiCHiE Smith. (Drawn up by Professor Everett, Secretary.) 107 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaeen (Chairman), Professur A. Cf.um Brown (Secretary), 
Dr. John Mueeay, Dr. Alexandee Buchan, Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 
and Professor R. Copeland. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan) 108 

Experiments for Improving the Cons*^ruction of Practical Standards for Elec- 
trical Measurements — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Carey Foster (Cliaiiniiin), Lord Kelvin, Professors Ayeton, J. Peret, 
W. G. Adams, and Lord Rayleigh, Drs. 0. J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, 
and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. Preece and Heebeet Taylor, Professor 
J. D. Eveeett, Professor A. Schustee, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
G. F. FitzGerald, G. Oheystal, and J. J. Thomson, Messrs. R. T. Glaze- 
brook (Secretary) and W. N. Shaw, Rev. T. 0. Fitzpateick, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
TOMLET, Professor J. Vieiamtj Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stonet, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, and Mr. G. Forbes 117 

Appendix I. — Report of the American Delegates at the Chicago Con- 
ference to the Secretary of State at Washington 119 

Appendix II. — Experiments on the Value of the Ohm. By J. 
ViRiAMF Jones 123 

Appendix III. — Comparison of the Standards employed by Professor 
Jones with the Standards of the Association. By R. T. Glazebrook 123 

Appendix IV. — Comparison of some of the Standards of the Board of 
Trade with those of the Association. By J. Rennie 130 

Appendix V. — Values of Certain Coils belonging to the Indian Govern- 
ment. ByE. O.Walker 131 

Appendix VI. — On the Specific Resistance of Copper and of Silver. 
By Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick 131 

Appendix VII. — Final Report of the Electrical Standards Committee 
of the Board of Trade, and Order in Council regarding Standards for 
Electrical Measurements 136 

The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Pheno- 
mena. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Stmons 
(Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, a<nd Mr.. A. W. 
Clayden (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary) 143 

Earth Tremors. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Mr. C. Davison (Secretary), Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor J. A. Ewing, Dr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. Thomas Gray, Sir John 
Evans, Professors J. Prestwich, E. Hull, G. A. Lebour, R. Meldola, 
and J. W. Jtjdd, Mr. M. Walton Brown, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor C. 
G. Knott, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Horace Darwin, and Dr. R. 
Oopeland (Drawn up by the Secretary) 145 

Appendix I. — Account of Observations made with the Horizontal 
Pendulum at Nicolaiew. By Professor S. Kortazzi 155 

Appendix II. — The Bifilar Pendulum at the Royal Observatory, Edin- 
burgh. By Professor R. CoPELAND 158 

The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolds (Chairman), Dr. C. A. Kohn 
(Secretary), Professor P. Feankland, Professor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh 
Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Mr. D. H. Nagel, Mr. T. Tijrnek, and 
Mr. J. B. Coleman 160 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod (Chairman), Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, Mr. H. G. 
Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel 161 

An International Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. — Sixth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Robeets-Austen (Chairman), 
Sir F. Abel, Mr. E. Riley, Mr. J. Spiller, Professor J. W. Langley, Mr. 
G. J. Snelus, Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Tuenbr (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 237 

The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor T. E. Thorpe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), 
Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. Russell, Captain W. de W. Abnet, 
Professor W. Stroud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 238 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page 
The Bibllograpliy of Solution. — Interim Report of tlie Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman), Dr. W. W. J. NicoL (Secretary), 
Professor H. McLeod, Mr. S. U. Pickering, Professor W. Ramsay, and 
Professor Sydney Younq 246 

Proximate Chemical Constituents of Coal. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir I. Lowthian Bell (Chairman), Profes.sor P. Phillips 
Bbdson (Secretary), Mr. Ludwig Mond, Professor Vivian B. Lewes. 
Profe.ssor E. Hull, Mr. J. W. Thomas, and Mr. II. Bauerman 246 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consistiug of Sir H. E. RoscoE, Dr. Marshall AVatts, 
Mr. J. N. LocKYER, Professors J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. Schuster, 
W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain Abnet. (Drawn up 
hy Dr. Marshall Watts) 248 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Eighth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
(Drawn up by Professor Armstrong) 268 

The Investigation of the Cave at Elbolton in order to ascertain whether the 
Remains of Palseolithic Man occur in the Lower Cave Earth. — Report of 
the Committee, consistiug of Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Rev. 
Edward Jones (Secretary), Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. W. 
Pengelly, and Mr. J. J. Wilkinson 270 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palreozoic Rocks. — Eleventh Report of the Com- 
mittee, consi.stiug of Professor T. Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary). (Drawn up by Pro- 
fessor T. Rupert Jones) 271 

Exploration of the Calf Hole Cave at the Heights, Skyrethorns, near Skipton. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), 
Rev. E. Jones (Secretary), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor L. C. 
MiALL, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. A. Birtwhistle, and Mr. J. J. Wilkinson 272 

The Collection, Preiservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Fifth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor Jambs Geikie (Chairman), Professor 
T. G. Bonney, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Dr. Valentine Ball, Mr. James 
E. Bedford, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Edmund J. Garwood, 
Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Robert Kidston, Mr. 
Arthur S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Mr. W. W. 
Watts, Mr. Horace B.Woodward, and Mr.OsMUND W.Jeffs (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 274 

The Circulation of Underground Waters. — Twentieth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. E. Hull (Chairman), Sir Douglas Galton, Mr. 
J. Glaisher, Mr. Percy Kendall, Professor G. A. Lebour, Messrs. 
E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, Professor Peestwich, and Messrs. I. 
Roberts, Thos. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley,C.Tylden- Wright, 
E. Wethered, W. Whitaker, and C. E. De R.ince (Secretarv). (Drawn 
up by C. E. De Range) ' 283 

The Eurypterid-bearlng Deposits of the Pentland Hills. — Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. II. Traquair (Chairman^ Professor T. 
Rupert Jones, and Mr. Malcolm Laurie (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
the Secretary) .'. 302 



CONTENTS. VH 

Page 
Stonesfield Slate. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. B. Wood- 
AVARD (Chairman), Mr. E. A. Walford (Secretary), Professor A. H. Green, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and Mr. J. Windoes, appointed to open further sections 
in the neighbourhood of Stonesfield in order to show the relationship of the 
Stonesfield Slate to the underljdng and overlying strata. (Drawn up by 
Mr. Edwin A. Walford, Secretary.) 304 

The Character of the High-level Shell-bearing Deposits at Clava, Chapelhall, 
and other Localities (Chapelhall Section). — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. J. HoRNE (Chairman), Mr. David Robertson, Mr. T. F. 
Jamieson, Mr. Jambs Fbaser, Mr. Percy F. Kendall, and Mr. Dfgald 

Bell (Secretary) 307 

Appendix — On the Chapelhall Clay, by D. Robertson 313 

The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its Neighbourhood. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Mr. 
J. J. H. Tball, and Professor H. J. Johnston-Lavis. (Drawn up by 
Professor H. J. Johnston-Lavis) 315 

The Marine Zoology of the Irish Sea. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor G. B. Howes, Mr. W. E. 
HoTLE, Mr. I. C. Thompson, Mr. A. 0. W^alker, and Professor W. A. 
Herdman (Chairman and Reporter) 318 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor J. Cossar Ewart, Professor M. Foster, Mr. A. Sedgwick, the late 

Professor A. M. Marshall, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary) 336 

Appendix I — On the Reduction Division in the Cartilaginous Fishes. 

By J. E. S. Moore 338 

Appendix II. — A List of Naturalists who have worked at tbe Zoo- 
logical Station from the end of June 1893 to the end of June 1894... 340 
Appendix III. — A List of Papers which have been published in the 
year 1893 by the Naturalists who have occupied Tables at the Zoo- 
logical Station 341 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Lslands. — Fourth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blanpord, Dr. S. J. 
HiCKSON, Professor C. V. Riley, Mr. 0. Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. 
E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 343 

The Present State of our Knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of the West 
India Islands, and on taking Steps to investigate ascertained Deficiencies in 
the Fauna and Flora.— Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
P L. Sclater (Chairman), Mr. George Murray (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Carrothers, Dr. A. C. L. G. Gunther, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. Dtr Cane 
Godman, and Professor A. Newton 344 

Investigations made at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at 
Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Ray 
Lankester (Chairman), Professor M. Foster, Professor S. H. Vines, and 

Mr. G. C. Bourne (Secretary) 

On the Development of Alcyonium. By Dr. S. J. Hickson 345 

On the Later Stages in the Development of Decapod Crustacea. By 
Edgar J. Allen 345 

The Influence of Previous Fertilisation of the Female on her Subsequent 
Offspring, and the Effect of Maternal Impressions during Pregnancy on the 
Offspring. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. Russel 
Wallace (Chairman), Dr. James Clark (Secretary), Dr. G. J. Romanes, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Professor E. A. Schaper, and Dr. J. N. Langlby. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 346 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of a Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. II. Wood- 
ward, and Mr. W. L. Sclater (Secretary) 347 

The Legislative Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs. — "Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Lubbock (Chairman), Professor Alfred Newton, 
Rev. Canon Trtstram, Mr. John Coedeatjx, Mr. W. H. Hudson, Mr. 
Howard Saunders, Mr. Thomas H. Thomas, Dr. C. T. Vachell, and Mr. 
H. E- E. Dresser (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary) 347 

Migration of Birds. — Interim Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor 
A. Newton (Chairman), Mr. John Cokdeaux (Secretary), Messrs. R. M. 
Baerington, J. A. Harvie-Brown, W. Eagle Clarke, and the Rev. E. P. 
Knublet, appointed for the purpose of making a Digest of the Observations 
on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Light-vessels 348 

The Climatological and Hydrographical Conditions of Tropical Africa — Third 
Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), 
Mr. Baldwin Latham, Mr. G. J. Stmons, and Dr. H. R. Mill (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein) 348 

The Exploration of Hadramout, in Southern Arabia. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. H. Seebohm (Chairman), Mr. J. Theodore Bent 
CSecrettiry), Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, and Mr. G. W. 
Bloxam. (Drawn up by Mr. Bent) 354 

Geographical, Meteorological, and Natural History Observations in South 
Georgia or other Antarctic Island. — Report of the" Committee, consisting of 
Mr. Clements R. Markham (Chairman), Dr. H. R. Mill (Secretary), Mr. 
J. Y. Buchanan, and Mr. H. O. Forbes 358 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor H. E. Armstrong 
(Secretary), Mr. S. Bourne, Mr. G. Gladstone, Mr. J. Heywood, Sir John 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Professor N. Story Maskeltne, Sir H. E. 
Roscoe, Sir R. Temple, and Professor S. P. Thompson. (Drawn up by 
Dr. Gladstone) .". 3.59 

Appendix. — Addition to Alternative Courses in Elementary Science 364 
Methods^ of Economic Training in this and other Countries. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. Cunningham (Chairman), Professor 
E. C. K. GoNNER (Secretary). Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, Professor H. S. 
Foxwell, Mr. H. Higgs, Mr. L. L. Price, and Professor J. Shield 
Nicholson 365 

Appendix I.— On the Methods of Economic Training adopted in 
Foreign Countries. By Professor E. C. K. Conner 366 

Appendix It,— On Economic Studies in France. By Henry Higgs... 384 

Appendix III.— On the Condition of Economic Studies in the United 
Kingdom. By Professor E. C. K. Conner 387 

Methods of Determining the Dryness of Steam.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir F. J. Bramwell (Chairman), Professor T. H. Beare, Mr. 
Jeremiah Head, Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, Professor Osborne Rey- 
nolds, Mr. Mair Rumley, Mr. C. I. Wilson, and Professor W. C. Unwin 
(Secretary) 392 

Prehistoric and Ancient Remains of Glamorganshire.— Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. 0. T. Vachell (Chairman), Lord Bute, Mr. 
G. T. Clark, Mr. R. W. Atkinson, Mr. Franklen G. Evans, Mr. James 
Bell, Mr. T. H. Thomas, Dr. G. J. Garson, and Mr. E. Seward (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 418 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Etbnographical Surrey of the United Kingdom. — Second Eeport of the Com- 
mittee, cousisting or Mr. E. W. Brabeook (Chairman), Mr. Francis Galton, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Professor A. 0. Haddon, Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
lloMiXLT Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Arthur Evans, Mr. E. Sidney Haetland, Sir II. 
IIowoRTH, Professor R. Meldola, General PiTT-RavERs, Mr. E. G. Rayen- 
STEIN, and Mr. W. Blox AM (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chairman) ... 419 

Appendix I. — Form of Schedule 426 

Appendix II. — Directions for Measurement 428 

Appendix III. — The Ethnological Survey of Ireland — Report of the 
Committee for Ireland 429 

The Lake Village of Glastonbury. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. R. MuNRO (Chairman), Mr. A. Bulleid (Secretary), Professor W. 
Boyd Daavkins, General Pitt-Riters, and Sir John Evans. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 431 

Physical and Mental Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
Douglas Galton (Chairman), Dr. Francis Warner (Secretary), Mr. E. 
W. Beabrook, Dr. Garson, Mr. G. AV. Bloxam, and Dr. Wilbeefoece 
Smith, (Report drawn up by the Secretary) 434 

- Appendix I. — Certificate as to a Child requiring Special Educational 
Training 437 

Appendix II. — Statistical Report concerning 50,000 Children examined, 
1892-94 437 

Appendix III. — Distribution of the Oases seen as to Standards 438 

Anthropometric Work in Schools. — Report of a Committee, consisting of 
Professor John Cleland (Chairman), Mr. G. W^ Bloxam, Mr. E."W. 
Brabeook, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Professor A. Maca lister, and Professor B. 
Windle (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary) 439 

Appendix I. — Circular sent to Schools 440 

Appendix II. — Suggestions for Anthropometric Observations in Schools 441 

Anthropometric Laboratory (at Nottingham). — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Dr. J. G. Garson (Secretary), 
Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Dr. Wilberforce Smith, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
and Professor Bertram Windle 444 

On the North- Western Tribes of Canada. Ninth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. 
R. G. Haliburton, and Mr. H. Hale 453 

The Indian Tribes of the Lower Fraser River. By Dr. Feanz Boas . . . 454 

The Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor E. A. Schafee (Chairman), Mr. A. F. 
Stanley Kent (Secretary), and Professor C. S. Sheeeington. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 464 

On Recent Researches in the Infra-red Spectrum. By S. P. Langlet, D.C.L., 
LL.D 465 

On the Formation of Soap-bubbles by the Contact of Alkaline Oleates with 
Water. By Professor G. Quincke 475 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
On tlie Displacements of the Rotational Axis of the Earth. By Professor W, 
FoRSTEE 476 

A Lecture-room Experiment to illustrate Fresnel's Diffraction Theory and 
Babinet's Principle. By Professor A. Coent;, F.R.S 480 

The Connection between Chemical Combination and the Discharge of Elec- 
tricity through Gases. By J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 482 

On the Electrification of Molecules and Chemical Change. By H. Beeeeton 
Bakee 493 

Report on Planimeters. By Professor 0. Henrici, F.R. S 496 

On Methods that have been adopted for Measuring Pressures in the Bores of 
Guns. By Captain Sir A. Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E 523 



CONTENTS. XI 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSBAY, AUG D ST 9. 

Page 
Address by Professor A. W. Rucker, MA., F.R.S., President of the Section 643 

1. Preliminary Experiments to find if Subtraction of Water from Air Elec- 
trities it. By Lord Kelvin, P.R.S., Magnus Maclean, M.A., F.R.S.E., 
and Alexander Galt, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 554 

2. Preliminary Experiments for comparing the Discharge of a Leyden-jar 
through different Branches of a Divided Channel. By Lord Kelvin, 
P.R.S., and Alex. Galt, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 555 

3. *0n Photo-Electric Leakage. By Professor Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 556 

4. Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of Thermodynamics, Part 

II., 'On the Laws of Distribution of Energy and their Limitations.' 
By G. H. Bryan, M.A 556 

5. On the Possible Laws of Partition of Rotatory Energy in Non-colliding 

Rigid Bodies. By G. H. Bryan, M.A 556 

6. On the Law of Molecular Distribution in the Atmosphere of a Rotating 

Planet. By G. H. Bryan, M.A 556 

7. On the Application of the Determinantal Relation to the Kinetic Theory 

of Polyatomic Gases. By Professor Ludwig Boltzmann 557 



FRIBA Y, A UG UST 1 0. 

1. On Planimeters. By Professor 0. Hen rici, F.R.S 557 

2. *Note on the Behaviour of a Rotating Cylinder in a Steady Current. By 

Arnulph Mallock 557 

3. *0n the Resistance experienced by Solids moving through Fluids. By 
Lord Kelvin, P.R.S 557 

4. * Discussion on Flight, opened by Hiram S. Maxim 557 



SATURBAY, AUGUST 11. 
Department I. 

1. A Method of Determining all the Rational and Integral Algebraic Integrals 

of the Abelian System of Differential Equations. By W. R. Westropp 
Roberts, M.A 557 

2. On a Graphical Transformer (for Replotting Curves). By A. P. Trotter 558 

3. On a Linkage for the Automatic Description of Regular Polygons. By 
Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S 659 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On the Addition Theorem. By Professor Mittag-Lefplee 661 

5. Note on a General Theorem iu Dynamics. By Sir Robert Ball, F.ll.S 561 

6. The Asymmetric Probability Curve. By Professor F. Y. Edgewoeth, M A. 662 

7. On the Order of the Groups related to the Anallag-matic Diplacements of 

the Regular Bodies in w-Dimensional Space. By Professor P. H. Schoute 662 

8. On Mersenne's Numbers. By Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunningham, R.E. 563 

9. End Games at Chess. By Lieut.-Oolonel Allan Cunningham, R.E. ... 564 

Department II. 

10. 'Experiments showing the Boiling of Water in an Open Tube. By Pro- 
fessor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S 664 

11. Report of the Committee on Earth Tremors 564 

12. Report of the Committee on Meteorological Photography 564 

13. Report of the Committee on Solar Radiation 564 

14. Report of the Committee on Underground Temperature 565 

15. Report of the Ben Nevis Committee 565 

16. On Recent Researches in the Infra-red Spectrum. By Dr. S. P. Langlet 565 

17. A New Determination of the Ratio of the Specific Heats of certain Gases. 

By O. LuMMEK and E. Peingsheim 565 

Department III. 

18. A Method for accurately Determining the Freezingrpoint of Aqueous 
Solutions which Freeze at Temperatures just below 0° C. By the late 

P. B. Lewis. Communicated by Dr. Mejer Wildeemann 567 

19. The Influence of Temperature upon the Specific Heat of Aniline. By 

E. H. Griffiths, M.A 568 

20. On some Photometric Measures of the Corona of April 1893. By Pro- 

fessor H. H. Turner, M.A 568 

21. On Photographs of Spiral and Elliptic Nebulae. By Isaac Roberts, 
D.Sc, F.R.S 569 

22. On the Formation of Soap Bubbles by the Contact of Alkaline Oleates 

with Water. By Professor G. Quincke 569 

23. On the Effect of Gases on the Surface Tension and Electrical Conductivity 

of Soap-films. By H. Stansfield 669 

24. On the Velocity of the Hydrogen Ion through Solutions of Acetates. By 

W. C. Dampier Whetham, M.A 569 



MONDAY, AUGUST 13. 

1. On the Results of a New Analytical Representation of the Distribution of 
Magnetic Force on the Surface of the Earth. By Ad. Schmidt 570 

2. A Suggested Explanation of the Secular Variation of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism. By Arthur Schuster, F.R.S 571 

3. On the Construction of Delicate Galvanometers. By Arthur Schuster, 
F.R.S 572 

4. tOn the Minimum Current audible in the Telephone. By Lord Rayleigh, 

Sec. R.S 572 



CONTENTS. xiii 

Page 

5. tAn Attempt at a Quantitative Theory of the Telephone. By Lord 
Rayleigh, Sec. R.S 573 

6. tOn the Amplitude of Sonorous Waves -which are but just audible. By 
Lord Eayleigh, Sec. R.S 573 

7. On the Production of Beat-tones from two Vibrating Bodies "whose 
Frequencies are so high as to be separately inaudible. By Alfred M. 
Mayek 573 

8. On the Variation of the Modulus of Elasticity with Change of Tempera- 
ture as determined by the Transverse Vibration of Bars at Various 
Temperatures. By Alfeed M. Mayer 573 

9. *0n an Apparatus for Measuring small Strains. By Professor J. A. 
EwiNG, F.R.S 574 

10. On Mirrors of Magnetism. By Professor Silvantts P. Thompson, D.Sc, 
F.R.S 574 

11. The Volume Changes which accompany Magnetisation in Nickel Tubes. 

By Professor C. G. Knotx, D.Sc. 576 

12. On Hysteresis in Iron and Steel in a Rotating Magnetic Field. By 

Francis G. Batly, M.A 576 

13. On the Vibrations of a Ijoaded Spiral Spring. By L. R. Wilber- 

FORCE, M.A 577 

TUESDA Y, A VG UST 14. 
Department I. 

1. On Fuchsian Functions. By Professor Mittag-Lefflee 577 

2. On Ronayne's Cubes. By Professor H. Hennesst, F.R.S 578 

3. On a Property of the Catenary. By Professor H. Hennesst, F.R.S 578 

4. A Complete Solution of the Problem, ' To find a Conic with respect to 
which two given Conies shall be Reciprocal Polars.' By J. W. Rus- 
sell, M.A 578 

5. The Impossibility of Trigraphic Fields of Spaces. By J. W. Russell, M.A. 578 

6. On Maxwell's Method of deriving the Equations of Hydrodynamics from 

the Kinetic Theory of Gases. By Professor Ludwig Boltzmann 579 

7. *0n the Invariant Ground-forms of the Binary Quantic of Unlimited 
Order. By Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., F.R.S 579 

8. Princlpes fondamentaux de la Geom^trie non-euclidienne de Riemann. 

Par P. Mansion, professeur a 1' University de Gand 579 

9. Formulae for Linear Substitution. By Professor E. B. Elliott, 
M.A., F.R.S 581 

Departments II., HI. 

Joint meeting with Section I to discuss the two following Papers : — 

10. *0n Experiments illustrating Clerk Maxwell's Theory of Light. By Pro- 
fessor Oliver Lodge, F.R.S 582 

11. *0n an Electrical Theory of Vision. By Professor Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 582 

Department II. 

12. *0n the Velocity of the Cathode Rays. By Professor J. J. Thomson, 
F.R.S 682 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

13. On a Ten-candle Lamp for use in Photometry. By A. Veenon^ Hae- 

couRT, M.A., F.R.S 682 

14. On the Cause of the Spurious Double Lines sometimes seen with Spectro- 
scopes, and of the Slender Appendages which accompany them. By 

G. Johnstone Sionet, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 583 

15. On the Luminosity observed when a Vacuum Bulb is broken. By John 
BXTEKE 585 

16. On the Correction of Optical Instruments for Individual Eyes. By Tempest 
Andeeson, M.D., B.Sc : 586 

17. How the Misuse of the Word ' Force,' in Attractions, Electricity, and 

Magnetism, may be avoided without much departure from existing practice. 
By Dr. G. Johnstone Stonet, F.R.S 586 

18. On a Nomenclature for very much Facilitating the Use of Systematic 

Measures. By G. Johnstone Sionet, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 587 

Depaetment III. 

1. Report of the Electrical Standards Committee 592 

2. Determination of the International Ohm in Absolute Measure. By Pro- 
fessor ViEiAMU Jones, F.R.S 592 

3. Comparison with the B.A. Units of some Coils of Low Resistance. By 

R. T. Glazebeook, F.R.S 592 

4. Comparison of the Standards of the Board of Trade with the B.A. Unit. 

By J. Rennie 592 

5. Comparison of some Standards belonging to the Indian Government. By 

E. 0. Walkee 592 

6. On the Specific Resistances of Copper and Silver. By Rev. T. C. FiTZ- 

PATEICK 592 

7. *0n Standards of Low Electrical Resistance. By Professor Vieiamt: 
Jones, F.R.S 592 

8. *0n the Specific Conductivity of Copper. By J. TEiCHMiJLLER 592 



WEDNESDA T, A UQ VST 15. 

1. On the Displacements of the Rotational Axis of the Earth. By Professor 
W, Foestee 593 

2. A Lecture-room Experiment to illustrate Babinet's Principle. By Pro- 
fessor A. CoENU, F.R.S 593 

3. A New Explanation of the Wave-movements of a Stretched String. By 
Wm. Barlow 593 

4. On Lunar Curves of Mean Temperature at Greenwich and the Heat of 

the Moon. By J. Paek Haeeison 593 



Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Address by Professor Haeold B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 594 

1. Report of the Committee on an International Standard for the Analysis of 
Iron and Steel 605 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

2. Report of the Committee on Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis 605 

3. On the Proportions of Oarhonic Acid in Air which are Extinctive to 

Flame, and which are Irrespirable. By Professor Feank Clowes, D.Sc. 605 

4. On Some Experiments with Free Hydroxylamine. By Dr. C A. Lobet 

DE Beutn, Amsterdam 606 

6. The Chemical Action of a New Bacterium in Milk. By Alexai^dee 
Beenstein 608 



FRIBA T, A UG UST 10. 

Discussion on the behaviour of gases with regard to their electrification and 
the influence of moisture on their comhination : — 

1. On the Connexion between Chemical Change and Electric Discharge 

through Gases. By Professor J. J. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 609 

2. On the Influence of Moisture on the Combination of Chemical Sub- 

stances. By H. Beeeeton Bakee 609 

3. On the Rate of Oxidation of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Aldehyde. 

By Thomas Ewan, B.Sc, Ph.D 609 

4. New Methods of Spectrum Analysis, and on Bessemer Flame Spectra. By 

Professor W. N. Haetley, F.R.S 610 

5. On the Chemistry of Coal Formation, By J. W. Thomas, F.I.C, F.C.S. 611 

6. On the Iodine Value of Sunlight in the High Alps. By Dr. S. Rideal 612 

7. 'Interim Report of the Committee on the Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 614 

8. Interim Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Solution 614 

MONDAY, AUGUST 13. 

1. *A New Gaseous Constituent of Air. By Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S., and 
Professor W. Ramsay, F.R.S 614 

2. tOn SchuUer's Yellow Modification of Arsenic. Bv Professor H. McLeod. 
F.R.S :. .'615 

3. *0n the Electrolysis of Glass. By Professor "W. C. Robeets-Austen. 
F-RS .'615 

4. On the Relations between the Viscosity of Liquids and their Chemical 
Nature. By Dr. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S., and J. W. Rodgee 615 

5. Some Experiments on the Rate of Progress of Chemical Change. By Dr. 

J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 616 

6. The Determining of the Freezing-point of Water, van't Hoff's Constant, 
Arrhenius' Law of Dissociation, Ostwald's Law of Dilution. By Dr. 
Mejer Wildeemann 616 

7. On the Effect of Dilution upon the Colours of Salt Solutions and the 

Measurement of this Effect. By Wyatt W. Randall, Ph.D 618 

8. On the Distinction between Mixtures and Compounds. By P. J. Haetog, 
BSc ' gi8 

0. The Atomic Weight of Carbon. By Professor J. A. Wanklyn 619 

10. Popular Method for the Estimation of Carbon Dioxide in the Air. By 

J. B. Cohen, Ph.D., and G. Appleyaed 619 

11. *0n the Diffusion of very Dilute Solutions of Chlorine and Iodine. By 

A. P. Laueie 620 



XVI CONTENTS. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 14. 

Page 

1. *Investigation3 on Tautomerism. By Professor AV. J. Beuhl 620 

2. On Ortho-dinitroso Derivatives of the Aromatic Series. By Professor 

E. NOELTING 620 

3. Ou the formation of Indazol Derivatives from Aromatic Diazo-compounds. 

By Professor E. Noelting 622 

4. *0n Some New Colouring Matters. By Dr. H. Oako 62.3 

5. On the Tartrarsenites. By G. G. Henderson, D.Sc, M.A., and A. R. 

EwiNG, Ph.D 624 

6. On the Constitution of the Acid Amides. By J. B. Cohen, Ph.D 625 

7. Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 628 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15. 

1. Report of the Committee on the Action of Light on Dyed Colours 628 

2. Report of the Committee on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 628 

3. *Discussion on Dr. J. B. Cohen's Paper on the Constitution of Acid 
Amides 628 

4. On Certain Phenomena occurring during the Evaporation of Salt Solutions. 

By Dr. W. Meyerhofpee 628 

6. *0n Some Derivatives of Camphene. By J. E. Marsh and J. A. 
Gardner 629 

6. On Fluorene Diacetate. By Professor W. R. Hodgkinson and A. H. 

CooTE 629 

7. Interim Report of the Committee to inquire into the proximate Chemical 

Constituents of the various liinds of Coal 630 

8. 'Interim Report of the Committee ou the Properties of Solutions 630 

9. Report of the Committes for Preparing a New Series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 630 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Address by L, Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 631 

1. Some Points of Special Interest in the Geology of the Neighbourhood of 
Oxford. By Professor A. H. Green, M.A., F.R.S 644 

2. Report of the Committee for making New Sections in the Stonesfield 
Slate 645 

3. On the Terraced Hill Slopes of North Oxfordshire. By Edwin A. 

Walford, F.G.S 645 

4. The Probable Range of the Coal-Measures under the Newer Rocks of 

Oxfordshire and the adjoining Counties. By Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
F.RS .^ : 646 

5. On the Deposit of Iron Ore in the Boring at Shakespeare Cliff, Dover. 

By Professor Boyd Dawkins,F.K.S 648 

6. On the (kuse of Earthquakes. By Professor J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S.... 649 

7. On Certain Volcanic Subsidences in the North of Iceland. By Tempest 

Anderson, M.D., B.Sc, F.G.S 650 



CONTENTS. xvil 

Fill DAY, AUGUST 10. 

Page 

1. *Discussion with Section H on the Plateau Gravels, &c., North Kent 651 

(o) On the Geology of the Plateau Implements in Kent. By Professor 
T. EuPEKT JojfES, F.R S., F.G.S ♦ 651 

(b) On the Age of the Plateau Beds. By W. Whitakee, F.R.S., 
F.G.S 652 

2. On the Traces of Two Rivers helong-lng to Tertiary Time in the Inner 
Hebrides. By Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S " 652 

3. On a New Method of Measuring Crystals, and its Application to the 
Measurement of the Octahedron Angle of Potash Alum and Ammonia 
Alum. By 11. A. Miers, M.A., F.G:S 654 

4. A Comparison of the Pebhles in the Trias of Budleigh Salterton and of 

Cannock Chase. By Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. ... 655 

5. On a Soda-felspar Rock at Dinas Head, North Coast of Cornwall. 

By Howard Fox 655 

6. Report of the Committee on Geological Photographs 656 



5^ TUB DA Y, A UG UST 1 1 . 

1. Report of the Committee on Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 65G 

2. Report of the Committee on the Eurypterid-bearing Deposits of the 
Pentland Hills 650 

o. Preliminary Note on a New Fossil Fish from the Upper Old Red Sandstone 
of Elginshire. By R. H. Traquair, M.D., F.R.S 656 

4. On the Homes and Migrations of the Earliest Forms of Animal Life as 
indicated by Recent Researches. By Henry Hicks, M.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 657 

5. On some Vertebrate Remains from the Rhsetic Strata of Britain. (Third 
Contribution.) By Montagit Broavne, F.G.S., F.Z.S 657 

<5. On some Forms of Saurian Footprints from the Cheshire Trias. By 
Osmund W. Jeefs 658 



MONDAY, AUGUST, 13. 

1. *Report of the Committee on Erratic Blocks 659 

2. Report of tlie Committee on the High-level Shell-bearing Deposits of 

Clava, &c 659 

3. On some Lacustrine Deposits of the Glacial Period in Middlesex. By 
Henry Hicks, M.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 659 

4. On Sporadic Glaciation in the Harlech Mountains. By the Rev. J. F. 
Blake, M.A., F.G.S 659 

■5. On the Probable Tempei-ature of the Glacial Epoch. By Professor T. G. 
BoNXEY, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S 660 

C. On the Inadequacy of the Astronomical Theory of Ice Ages and Genial 
Ages. By Edw.ird P. OuLVER^\ELL, M.A., F.T.C.D 660 

7. Ou the Mechanics of an Ice-sheet. By Rev. J. F. Blake, M.A., F.G.S. 661 

8. Report of the Committee on the Elbolton Cave 662 

9. Report of the Committee on the Calf-hole Cave 662 

1894. a 



XVlll CONTENTS. 



TUESDAY, AUGUST U. 

Page 
1. On the Permian Strata of the North of the Isle of Man, By Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S GG3 



2, The Carboniferous- Limestone, Triassic Sandstone, and Salt-bearing- Mark 



s 



of the North of the Isle of Man. By Professor Botb Dawkins, F.R.S. GOii 

3. •Strictures on the Current Method of Geological Classification and Nomen- 
clature, with Proposals for its Revision. By Sir Henry Hoavorth, 
F.R.S G63 

4. On the Pleistocene Gravel at Wolvercote, near Oxford. By A, Mont- 
GOMERiE Bell, M.A UG:) 

6. On Prehistoric Man in the Old Alluvium of the Sabarmati River in Gu- 
jarat, Western India. By R. Bruce FooTE, F.G.S GGl 

6. On the Shape of the Banks of Small Channels in Tidal Estuaries. By 

Professor II. IIexnessy, F.R.S (;G4 

7. Report of the Committee on Earth Tremors GGo 

8. *Interim Report of the Committee on the Investigation of a Coral Reef... Q")^> 

9. Report of the Committee on Underground Waters GGr> 

10, Report of the Committee on the Marine Zoology of the Irish Sea GG.j 

11, On a Keuper Sandstone cemented by Barium Sulphate from the Peak- 
stones Rock, Alton, Staffordshire, By W. ^\\ Watts, M.A., F.G.S. ... GG."> 

12, Report of the Committee on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius GGG 



Section D.— BIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

1, Report on Investigations made at the Zoological Station, Naples CG7 

2, Rejjort on Investigations made at the Laboratory of the Marine Bio- 
logical Association, Plymouth GG7 

?>. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands GG7 

4. Report on the Fauna and Flora of the West India Islands G67 

5. Report on the Index Generum et Specierum GG7 

Address by Professor I. Bayley BALroiTR, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., President 

of the Section (;C7 



Department op Zoology. 

1, On the Didermic Blastocyst of the Mammalia. By Professor A. ^V, W. 

Hubrecht, LL.D 681 

2, *0n the Ancestry of the Chordata. By W. Garstang G8;i 

3, *0n the Structure of the Integument of Pohjodon. By W. E. Collixge 6S;i 

4, *0n the Vertebrffi of Amphisile. By W, E. Collinge 683 

Department of Botany. 

1, Two Irish Brown Alg£e, By Professor T. Johnson 683 

2, Some Chalk-forming and Chalk-destroying Algae. By Professor T. John- 
son 683 



CO>'TENTS. xix 

Page 

3. *0n the Development of the Cystocarp in Tolisiphonia nigresccns,' By H. 
Phillips G84 

4. *An Exhibition of Algoe. By A. Church 684 

FR IDA Y, A UG UST 1 0. 

1. *0n the Eelatious of Protoplasm. By Professor E. van Benedek 684 

2. *0n the Periodic Variation in the Number of Chromosomes. By Professor 

E. Strasburger 684 

3. *0n Chlorophyll in Animals. By Professor E. Eat Lankester, F.R.S. 684 

Department op Zoology. 

1. *0n the Origin and Morphological Signification of the Notochord. By 
Professor E. TAN Beneden 684 

2. On the Carpus of the Greenland Right-whale compared vrith those of Fin- 
whales. By Professor J. Strttthers, M.D., LL.D 684 

3. On the Species of Amphioxus. By J. W. Kirkaldy 685 

Department op Botany. 

1. On the Phylogenetic Position of the Chalazogamic Amentiferce. By Miss 

M. Benson 687 

2. *0n the Hygroscopic Dispersal of Fruits in certain Labiates. By Miss D. 
Pertz 687 

3. *0n the Hybridisation of Orchids. By Dr. James Clark 687 



SA TURD A Y, A XI Q UST 11. 

Depaktment op Zoology. 

1. Interim Report on a Digest of the Observations on the Migration of Birds 

at Lighthouses 687 

2. Eeport on the Legislative Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs 687 

3. 'Report on a Deep-sea Tow Net 687 

4. On Temperature as a Factor in the Distribution of Marine Animals. By 

Dr. Otto Maas 687 

5. Second Eeport on the Zoology of the Irish Sea 688 

6. On Marine Fish-hatching and the Dunbar Establishment of the Fisherv 
Board for Scotland. By Professor W. C. McIntosh '.. 688 

DepartjSient of Botany. 

1. *0n the Correlation between Eoot and Shoot. By Professor L. Knt ... 638 

2. *0n the Sensitiveness of the Eoot-tip. By Professor W. Peefeer 689 

3. 'Exhibition of Diagrams. By Professor L. Kny G89 

MONDAY, AUGUST 13. 
Department of Zoology. 

1. Interim Eeport on Telegony 689 

2. *0n Some Difficulties of Darwinism. By Professor D'Arct Thompson ... 680 

£1 mj 



XX CONi'ENTS. 

Pasre 

3. On Social Insects and Evolution. By Professor C. V. PaLEr 6tf9 

4. On the Role of Sex in Evolution. Bv Professor John Beert Hatceaft, 

M.D '. 691 

5. On the Relation of Mimetic Characters to the Original Form. Bv F. A. 
DixEr,M.A., M.D ." G92 

6. *0n certain Principles of Proo:ressively Adaptive Variation ohserved in 
Fossil Series. By Professor H. F. Osbokn (393 

7. On the AViug of Archseopteryx viewed in the Light of that of some 
Modern Birds. By AV. P. Pycraft 693 

8. On the Nephridial Duct of Oicejiia. By Professor G. Gilsox^ 693 

Departmext of Botany. 

1. On the Origin of the Sexual Organs of the Pteridophytes. By Professor 
Douglas 11. Campbell '. .". 095 

2. Notes upon the Germination of the Spores of the Ophioglosseae. By 
Professor Douglas II. Campbell ". 695 

3. On Sterilisation and a Theory of the Strobilus. By Professor F. O. 
BowEE, F.R.S \ 695 

4. *0n a Method of taking Casts of the Interiors of Flowers. By Miss N, F. 
Latard 696 

6. *0n the Function of the Nucleus. By Professor E. Zaciiarias 696 

6. *Exhibition of Diagrams. Bv Professor Leo Erreea 696 



TUESDA Y, A UG UST 14. 
Department of Zoology. 
i. On the Blood of ilfaf^e^onre. By W. B. Benham, D.Sc 696 

2. Suggestions for a New Classification of the Polychata. By "\V. B. Bex- 
ham, D.Sc 696 

3. *0n Museum Preparations. By E. S. Goodrich 697 

4. On liandom Publishing and Rules of Priority. By Thomas R. R. Sxeb- 
BiNG, M.A 097 

5. "On the Relations of the Cranial Nerves to the Sensory Canal System of 
Fishes. By AV. E. CoLLiNGE 698 

6. *0n Some Models of the Crania of Siluroids. By H. B. Pollard 698 

7. On the Epidermis of the Plantar Surface and the Question of Use-inheri- 

tance. By F. A. DiXEY, M.A., M.D 698 

Department of Botany'. 

1. *0n Pachytheca. By G, Murray 698 

2. *The Structure of Fossil Plants in its bearing on Modern Botanical 
Questions. By Dr. D. H. Scoir, F.R.S 698 

3. *0n a Thames Bacillus. By Professor II. Marshall AA'ard, F.R.S 698 

4. *Influence of Light on Diastase. By Professor J. R. Green QdS 

5. *A Contribution to the Geological History of Cycads. By A. C. Seward 693 



CONTENTS. XXi 

Skction E.— geography. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Pago 
Address by Captain W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., F.R.S., President of the Sec- 
tion 699 

1. tOn Current Polar Exploration. By Colonel H. AV. Feilden 711 

ii. On a Recent Journey in the Valley of the Euphrates. By D. G. Hogarth 711 

3. tOn Russian Armenia. By Dr. A. Markoff 711 

4. Montenegro. By W. H. Cozens-Hardt 711 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1. On the Bathymetrical Survey of the French Lakes. By E, DELEBEcauE 712 

2. On a Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes. By Hugh Robert 
Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 713 

3. On the Currents of the Faeroe-Shetland Channel and the North Sea. By 

H. N. DiCESON, F.R.S.E 713 

4. On Geographical Photography. By John Thomson 714 

T). A New Light on the Discovery of America. By II. Ytjle Oldham, M..\., 
r.R.G.S 715 

G. Explorations in the Sierra Madre of Mexico. By Osbert II. Howarth... 715 



MONDA Y, A UG UST 13. 

1 . On a Visit to British New Guinea. By Miss Feance8 Baildon 716 

2. Report of the Committee on the Climatology of Africa 716 

3. tOn a Journey in the Libyan Desert. By H. Welb Blundell 71G 

4. *0n Bhutan and the Himalayas East of Darjiling. By Colonel II. Godwin- 
Atjsten, F.R.S 717 

5. On the Best Method of Aiming at Uniformity in the Spelling of Place- 
names. By G. G. Chisholm, M.A , B.Sc 717 



TUESDAY, AUGUST U. 

1. fOn Researches by the Prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic and Mediter- 

ranean during the Summer of 1894. By J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S 717 

2. Report of the Committee on Observations in South Georgia or other Ant- 

arctic Island 717 

3. *0n the Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic E.'cpedition, By A. Montefiore... 717 

4. *0n the Geographical and Bathymetrical Distribution of Marine Organ- 
isms. By John Murray, LL.D 717 

5. Report of the Committee on the Exploration of Hadramout 717 

6. On the Geography of Lower Nubia. By Somers Clarke, F.S.A 718 

7. *0n a New Representation of the Vertical Relief of the British Isles. By 

B. V. Darbishiee 718 



xxii CONTENTS. 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THUBSBAY, AUGUST 9, 

Page 
Address by Professor C. F. Bastable, M.A., F.S.S., President of the Section 719 

1. *0n tlie Mathematical Theory of International Trade. By Professor F. Y. 
Edgeworth, M.A 729 

2. ^Mechanics of Bimetallism. By Professor Irving Fisher 729 

3. ♦On Factors of Production. By II. Higgs, LL.B 729 

4. On Stock Exchange Taxation. By J. Mandello, Ph.D 729 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1. The Church Army and the Unemployed. By the Rev. W. II. Hunt 729 

2. *0n the Unemployed. By Bolton Smart 730 

3. *0n Prices, Wages, and the Standard of Value. By Edward 
Atkinson 730 

4. On the Report of the Labour Commission. By L. L. Price, JM.A 730 

5. *0n Women's Industries. By Miss Maitland 731 

6. On Girl Life iu an Industrial Centre. By Miss Kenavard 731 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 11. 

1. Statistics of Comparative General and Old-age Pauperism in England and 

Wales, 1831 to 1891. By C. S. Loch 732 

2. Proposals for an Agreement on the terms ' Rent ' and ' Interes By 

C. S. DEVA8 733 

3. On the Economic Results of the Black Death in Italy. By M. 
KovALEVsKr 733 



MONDAY, AUGUST 13. 

1. On the Inequality of Local Rates; its Extent, Causes, and Consequences. 

By Edwin Cannan, M.A 734 

2. A Few Remarks on Fifty Years' Accounts of the Bank of England. By 

A. W. Flux, M.A 734 

3. On the ' Economic Heresies ' of the London County Council. By Sidney 

Webb, LL.B., L.C.C 735 

4. On Co-operation in Agriculture. By Harold Moore 736 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 14. 

1. Report of the Committee on Methods of Economic Training in this and 

other Countries 737 

2. Report of the Committee on Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 737 

3. On the Relation between Wages and the Numbers employed in the 

Coal-mining Industry. By R. H. Hooker, M.A 737 

4. Popular Attitude towards Economics. By Rev. L. R. Phelps, M.A. ... 738 

5. On the Relation between Wages, Hours, and Productivity of Labour. 

By J. A. HoBSON, M.A 738 



CONTENTS. xxiii 

Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Address by Professor A. B, W. Kennedy, LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

President of the Section 7.39 

1. fSome Keminiscences of Steam Locomotion on Common Koads. By Sir 

F. J. Beamavell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S 748 

2. On Bore-hole Wells for Town Water-supply. By Henry Datey, 
M.Inst.C.E 748 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1. Joint meeting witli Section A: — • 

(a) On Planimetera. By Professor O. Henrici, F.R.S 760 

{b) *Note on the Behaviour of a Rotating Cylinder in a Steady Current. 

By Arnulph Malloce 760 

(e) *0n the Resistance experienced by Solids moving through Fluids. 

By Lord Kelvin, P.R.S 750 

(d) *Discussion on Flight. Opened by Hiram S. Maxim 750 

2. On the Strength and Plastic Extensibility of Iron and Steel. By Professor 

T. Claxton Fidler, M.Inst.C.E 750 

3. On Tunnel Construction by means of Shield and Compressed Air, with 
special reference to the Tunnel under the Thames at Blackwall. By 
Maurice Fitzmaueice 751 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 11. 

1 . On Methods that Lave been adopted for Measuring Pressures in the Bores 

of Guns. By Sir A. Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S 754 

2. On the Most Economical Temperature for Steam-engine Cylinders ; or, 

Hot V. Cold Walls. By Bbtan Donkin, M.Inst.C.E 755 

3I0NDAY, AUGUST 13. 

1. *0n Signalling through Space. By W. H. Preece, C.B., F.R.S 756 

2. *0n Some Advantages of Alternate Currents. By Professor S. P. 
Thompson, F.R.S 756 

3. Continuous-current Distribution of Electricity at High Voltage at Oxford. 

By Thomas Parker, F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., M.Inst.E.E. 766 

4. On a Special Chronograph. By Henry Lea, M.Inst.C.E., and Robert 
Braqqe 757 

5. On a Direct Reading Form of Platinum Thermometer. By G. M. 
Clark, B.A 7.58 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 14. 

1. The Report of the Committee on Dryness of Steam 758 

2. On the Temperature Entropy Diagrams. By H. F. W. Buestall, M.A., 
A.M.Inst.C.E 758 

3. On the Hunting of Governed Engines. By James Swinburne, 

M.Inst.C.E , 758 



XXIV CONTENTS, 

rage- 
4. On Euprineerino- Laboratory Instruments and their Calibration. By Pro- 
fessor David S. Cappee, M.A 750 

6, On Lighthouse Apparatus and Lighthouse Administration in 1894, Bv 
J. Kenwaed, F.S.A .'. 76^ 

6. On Spring Spokes for Bicycles. By Professor J. D. Eveeett, F.R.S. ... 7G0 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

Address by Sir W. H. Flowee, K.C.B., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., President 
of the Section 7<32' 

1. The Report of the Anthropometric Laboratory Committee 774 

2. The Report of the Ethnographical Survey Committee 774- 

3. The Report of the (■ommittee on Anthropometry in Schools 774 

4. On the Diffusion of Mythical Beliefs as Evidence in the History of Culture. 

By Edwaed B. Ttloe, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 774 

6. On Complexional Differences between Natives of Ireland -with Indigenous 
and Exotic Surnames respectively. By John Beddoe, M.D., LL.D., 
r.R.S 775. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10. 

1. The Report of the Committee on Prehistoric and Ancient Remains in 

Glamorganshire 775 

2. The Report of the Committee on the Exploration of Elbolton Cave 775' 

3. *The Report of tlie Committee on the Explorations at Oldbury Hill 775 

4. On the Evolution of Stone Implements. By H. Stopes 776' 

6. Joint Discussion with Section C on the Plateau Flint Implements of 
North Kent 776. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 11. 

1. The Report of the Committee on the Mental and Physical Condition of 

Children 776^ 

2. On a New System of Hieroglyphics and a Pi le-Phoenician Script from 

Crete and the Peloponnese. By Aethue J. Evans, M.A 776- 

3. 'Exhibition of Prehistoric Objects collected during a Journey and Explora- 
tions in Central and Eastern Crete. By Aethce J. Evans, M.A 777 

4. *The Heredity of Acquired Characters. By Professor A. Macalistek, 
M.D., F.R.S 778 

5. *Notes on Skin, Hair, and Pigment. By Professor Aethtje Thomson, 

M.A 778- 

G. On the Anthropological Significance of Ticklishness. By Louis 
KoBiNsoN, M.D 778 

7. On the Bow as a Musical Instrument. By H. Balfotib, M.A 778 

8. The Relations between Body and Mind, as expressed in Early Languages, 

Customs, and Myths. By Rev. G. Haetwell Jones, M.A 77f> 

9. On the Alleged Pi-esence of Negritoes in Borneo. By H. Ling Roth ... "SO 



o 



CONTEXTS. XXV 

Page 

10. On tlie Possibility of a Common Language between Man and other 
Animals. By Miss Agnes G. AVeld 780 

11. On Mythical Pygmy Races. By Professor Berteam Windle, D.Sc, 

M.D '81 

MONDAT, AUGUST 13. 

1. Pygmies in Europe. By Professor J. Kollmanx, M.D 781 

2. On some Stone Implements of Australian Type from Tasmania. By E. B. 
Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S 782 

3. 'On Tasmanian Stone Implements. By H. Ling Roth 782 

4. The Troglodytes of the Bruuiquel, a Grotto of Ironworks on the Borders 
ofAveyron. By Dr. Emile Caexailhac 782 

5. A New Statuette of the Reindeer Age, representing a Woman, sculptured ^ 
in Ivory. By Dr. Emile Gartailiiac 783 

G. The End of the Stone Age on the Borders of the Mediterranean Basin. 
By Dr. Emile Oartailhac 7 

7. On the Present State of Prehistoric Studies in Belgium. By Count ^ 

Goblet d'Alviella 78.!> 

8. 'Observations on the Antiquity of Man in Belgium. By Professor Max 
LOHEST 78i 

9. 'Exploration of British Camps and a Long Barrow near Rushmore. By 

General Pitt-Rivees, F.R.S 784 

10. 'On a New Craniometer. By General Pitt-Rivees, F.R.S 784 

11. *0n the Long Barrow Skeletons from Rushmore. By J. G. Gaeson, M.D. 784 

12. Report of the Committee on the Glastonbury E.xploration 784 

13. On Ancient Bone Skates. By Robeet Mxjnro, M.D 784 

14. *0n the People of Western Ireland and their Mode of Life. By Professor 

A. 0. Haddon 785 

TUESDA Y, A UG UST 1 4 . 

1. On Three Neolithic Settlements in North Kent. By Mrs. Stopes 785- 

2. On the Native Tribes between the Zambezi and Uganda. By Lionel 

Decle 785 

3. On the Lex Barbarorum of the Daghestan. By Professor Maxime Kova- 
LEVSKT 785- 

4. On the Natives of the Hadramout. By J. Theodore Bent 780 

5. On the Shells used in the Domestic Economy of the Indonesians. By Dr. 

J. D. C. SCHMELTZ 78& 

G. On the Pantheon of the Fij ians. By Basil H. Thomson 786 

7. The Distribution of the Picts in Britain, as indicated by Place-Names. 

By J. Geay 78r 

8. *0n the Ceremonies observed by the Kandyans in Paddy Cultivation. By 

B. P. Keulpannala 787 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15. 

1. On the Brain of a Young Fuegian. By Professor L. Manouveiee 78? 

2. *0n the Valuation of Proportional Dimensions in the Description of the 
Brain. By Professor L. Manouveier 788 



XXVI CONTENTS 

Page 

3. On tlie Ckssificatory System of Relationship. By Rev. Lorimee Fison 788 

4. On Some of the Natives of British New Guinea. By H. Bellyse Bail- 
don, M.A., F.R.S.E 788 

5. On the Tohas of Gran Chaco, South America. By J. Graham Kerr ... 789 

C. On the Maya Indians of Chich^n Itza, Yucatan. By Alfred P. 
Maudslay 789 

7. On the Loochooan Language. By Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain 789 

8. Report of the Committee on the North- Western Tribes of Canada 799 

9. On the Significance of Objects with Holes. By Miss A. W. Buceland... 790 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. 

1. The Response of Animals to Changes of Temperature. By M. S. Pem- 

BREY, M.A., M.B 791 

2. On Some Experiments to determine the Time-relations of the Voluntary 

Tetanus in Man. By David Fraser Harris, B.Sc, M.B 792 

3. *0n Mirror Writing. By Professor F. J. Allen 793 

4. On a Model of the Cochlea. By Professor John G. McKendkick, M.D., 
F.R.S 793 

5. On Some Physiological Applications of the Phonograph. By Professor 

John G. McKendeick, M.I)., F.R.S 794 

6. On Trophic Changes in the Nervous System. By Professor Justus Gaule 794 

7. On the Development of Kidney. By Professor John Bebex Hatcbaft, 
M.D 795 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 10. 
Address by Professor E. A. Sch.aper, F.R.S., President of the Section 795 

1. *0n the Absorption of Poisons. By Professor P. Hegee 804 

2. "On a New Theory of Hearing. By C. H. Hurst, Ph.D 804 

3. On the Fats of the Liver. By D. Noel Baton 804 

4. On the Measurement of Simple Reaction Time for Sight, Hearing, and 
Touch. By Professor W. Rutherford, M.D., F.R.S 805 

5. *0n the Microscopic Appearance of Striped Muscle in Rest and in Con- 
traction. By Professor W. Rutherford, M.D., F.R.S 806 

6. *0n Efl'ects of Suprarenal Extract. By Professor E. A. Sch.\fer 80G 

7. On Epithelial Changes produced by Irritation. By D'Aecy Power, 
M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S 806 

SATURDAY, AUGUST IL 

1. *0n Vowel and Consonant Sounds. By Professor D. L. Hermann 806 

2. On an Aerotonometer and a Gas-burette. By Professor Leon FREDERica 807 

3. On Local Immunity. By Louis Cobbett, M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S., and 

W. S. Melsome, M.A., M.D 807 

4. A Form of Experimentally-produced Immunity. By J. Loreain Smith, 
M.A., M.D., and E. Trevethick, M.B 808 



CONTENTS. XXVU 

Page 
5. *0n tlie Changes in Nerve Cells due to Functional Activity. By Gustav 
Mann, M.D " 809 

C. *0n the Effect of Gravity on the Circulation. By Dr. L. Hill 809 

7. Experimental Inquiry upon the Different Tracts of the Central Nervous 
System. ByF. W.Nuit, M.D 809 

MONDAY, AUGUST i:5. 

1. *0n the Mechanical Theory of Lymph Formation. By Dr. Starling ... 810 

2. On Lymph Formation. By Walter S. Lazaeus-Baeloav, M.D 810 

3. *0n the Innervation of the Portal Vein. By AV. M. Batliss and Dr. 
Starling 811 

4. *0n Some Vaso-dilator Reflexes. By AV. M. Bayliss 811 

5. On the Production of Heat in Hibernating Animals. By Professor 
Raphael Dubois 812 

6. On ' Pigeons' Milk.' By Professor E. Watmouiu Reid 812 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 11. 

1. *Joint Meeting with Section A to discuss Papers by Professor Oliver 

Lodge — 

(a) *Experiments illustrating Clerk Maxwell's Theory of Light 814 

(S) *An Electrical Theory of Vision 814 

2. On a Modification of Golgi's Methods. By Oliver S. Strong 815 

3. On an Attempt to supply Motor Power to the Muscles of the Larynx from 

I a New Source. By Veterinary-Captain F. Smith, F.R.C.V.S 815 

4. On the Causes and Prevention of Suffocation in Mines. By J. S. 

Haldane, M.A., M.D 81G 

I 6. Observations on the Effects of After-damp. By J. Shaw-Lttile, M.D. 817 

6. Experiments on Memory. By W. G. Smith, M.A., Ph.D 817 

, 7, *0n Typhoid BacUIi in Water. By Dr. L. Ollivier 818 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15. 

I 1. *0n Some Physiological Effects of the Passing of Rapidly-alternating 
Currents of Great Intensity through Nerve. By Professor Oliver 
Lodge, F.R.S. and Professor F. Gotcu, F.R.S 818 

12. *0n a New Spring Kymograph and Polyrheotome. By Professor 
T. W. W. Engelmann 

3. *0n the Production with the Capillary Electrometer of Photographic 

Records of Currents produced bv Speaking into a Telephone. By G. J. 
BuRCH ' 818 

4. Report of the Committee on the Structure and Function of the Mam- 
malian Heart 818 



818 



I 



XXVIU 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE T. 
Illustrating the Second Report on the Marine Zoology of the Irish Sea. 

TLATES II., III., IV. 

Illustrating Dr. S, P. Laugley's paper ' On Recent Researches in the Infra-red 
Spectrum.' 



ERRATA. 

In 1893 {Nottingham) Eeport. 
Page 571, line 31, Omit ' Dr. J. N. Keynes.' 

In 1894 (Oxford) Report . 

Page 651, line 18. For West read North. 

Page 681. For Professor A. W. W. Hubrecht read Professor A. A. W. Hubrecht. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference witli tlie ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Emfjire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribei's, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

I Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
hall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
lublished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

A^"'xuAL Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay witlwut {■iiterim,<sicn their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who liave paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 184G, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1830, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sura of Two Pounds as a Book Subscrijjtion, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members ivlio have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members^ Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

• — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of tvhich more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. . 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



I 



EULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 



Ileetings. 

The Association sball meet animally, for one week, oi' longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Comimittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Mejileks. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents o£ the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Ti*ansactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month hefore the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Gouncil on the claims of any Meniber 
of the Association to he placed on the list of the General Committee to he final. 

Class B. Tempokary Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to he sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary hefore the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims binder this Rule to he appo-oved hy the Local Secretaries 
hefore the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Yice- Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Eevised by the General Committee, 1884. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, arc now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 



ZXxii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

tbereon, and on the order in wliicli it is desirable that tliey sliould be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex ojjicio members 
©f the Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. - 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Ofiicers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selectino" individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,* Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
■objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee, except for Thursday and Saturday.'' 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessarj', in order to give an opportunity to tlie Committees of doing justice to tlie 
several Communications, tliat each autlior sliould prepare an Abstract of liis Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
•and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors wlio send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with ]Drinted copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
yccretary before the conclusion of the Mectinq. 

' Sheffield, 1879. ^ Swansea, 1880. ' Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. '" Notthigham, 1893. 



KULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Kecominendatious adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Cojnes or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnisliecl by Authors, are to be forwa.rded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined;, 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the ■ 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by. 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application tO' 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
'^ This and the following sentecce were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 

189-i. b 



XXliv RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

07ie of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing Ms vnllingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and dishursivg the grant (if any hasleen made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, fiirtlLer, it is 
expedient that one of the members should he appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient ivorking. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shoidd be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement ivhether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be thoi, fixed, hut that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have powei- to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The i-ecommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for pi'esentation to the Committee of Becommendations. Unless this he 
dono. the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may oi'iginate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 
been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting to whom 
a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the Committee of 
Recommendations in every case where no such Report has been received.^ 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals to whom grants of money have been 
entrusted by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches 
in science are required to present to each following Meeting of the 
Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; and the 
Chairman of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
forward to the General Officers, before July 1, a statement of the sums 
which have been expended, with vouchers, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one Meeting of the Association 
expire on June 3U following ; nor is the Treasurer authorised, after that 
date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, unless they be 
renewed in the original or a modified form by the General Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices 
of the British Association without special permission from the General 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Sheffield, 1879. 



EULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Chairman is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., Burlington 
House, London, W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the con- 
tinuation of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named ia 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain 
unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Associa- 
tion are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, when not 
employed in carrying on scientific inquiries for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. T/ie Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he tisecl for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,* and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of 
meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee, except for Thursday and Saturday. 

b2 



XXXvi RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Committee of Recomm,endations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which, 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.' 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles oi 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be. 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

Corresponding Societies.* 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Secretary on or before the 1st of June pi-eceding the Annual Meeting at 
which it is intended they should be considered, and must be accompanied 
by specimens of the publications of the results of the local scientific 
investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for tho 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to tho 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Societ}' shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 

' Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 1863. 
"^ Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
•' Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 
* Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXvii 

a list, in an abbreviated form, of tlie papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
! "being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Gonference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 
the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
• Recommendations bearing upon matters in which the co-operation of 

Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conffrence 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
cai-ried into efiTect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendationsbroughtbefore the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may bo 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opei'a- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing i-esults. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee, 



XXXVlll RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 



Meeting. 
7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

A ccounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee, 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



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xlix 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1833. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. WLewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof . Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1 83i). Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1 849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1894. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

"Cl T> O 

Rev! Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 



Prof. Forbes, F.R.S. 



Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F R S 
Prof. M'buUoch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 



AND PHYSICS. 

Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch,Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.MacquornRankine.Prof.Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Ha worth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 



EEPOKT — 1894. 



Date and Place 

1S51. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1804. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

18G0. Nottingham 
18G7. Dundee ... 
1868. Norwich ... 
1369. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

K.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. "W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airj', M.A., D.C.L., 

TGI T> O 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster. B.A., F.R.S. 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 
I M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. South wood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof . Stevelly, H. J.S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
FleemingJenkin,Prof.H.J. S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. CliflEord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rod well. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L.Glaisher,Prof. A. S.Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



' 18S0. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 
1884. 

1885. 
1886. 
18S7. 

1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
i 1892. 
!893. 
1894. 



Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 



Aberdeen. . . 
Binningham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
E. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Rucker, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher^ 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, Prof. A. 

Johnson, Prof. O. J. Lodge, Dr. D. 

MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Baynes, R.T. Glazebrook, Prof . 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

A. Lodge, W. N. Shaw, Prof. H. 

Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage. J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTET, MINERALOOT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 
1831. Edinburgh 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



i83.->. 
183G. 

1837. 

1838. 

1830. 
1840 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming ... 



1841. Plymouth.. 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair; 

J. Prideaiix, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J, Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

C 2 



Hi 



KEPOET — 1894. 



Date and Place 

1846. Southamp 

ton. 

1847. Oxford.... 

1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birmingham 
18.50. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

18G3. Newcastle 

18G4. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
1 86C. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin,.'.... 



Presidents 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.B. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M,D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S, 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B.,F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, -M.B., F.R.S., 

Ti^ O S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S., 

Dr. il. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof, W. J, Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F.A.Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.C.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams, 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worslej', Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A, Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V, Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Alherton, Prof. Liveing, AV. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr, W, J, Rus- 
sell, F, Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W, J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkin.son. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. AVills. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1879. 
188C. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1881. 
188.5. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



Presidents 



York. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Soutbport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford... 



Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof . A. W. ■Williamson, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D.. F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 

F.R.S.. V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S.. F.C.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
C.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. H.McLeod,F.R.S..F,C.S. 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M. A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 

M. Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 

W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. F. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, \V. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. 

J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, Dr. H. Forster 

Morley, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol, Dr. 

G. S. Turpin. 
Dr. J. Gibson, Dr. H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III.— GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge, 
1831. Edinburgh, 



1S35. Dnblirt. 
1836. Bristol . 



R. I. Murchisou, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



j John Ta5'lor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
I Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
I Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 



R.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geograplnj, R. I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<y«»^/'»^/<y,G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

Geography, G.B.Greenough, 

F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



liv 



BEl'OET 1894. 



Date and Place 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork ,.. 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Soiithamp- 

tOE. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
] 849.Birminghain 
1850. Edinburgh' 



Presidents 



Charles Lyell, F.H.S.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.E.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.K.S 

Eichard E. Griffith, F.E.S., 

M.E.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Sec. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Leonard Horner ,F.E.S. — Geo- 

graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.E.S. 
Very Eev.Dr.Buckland,F.E.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, 

F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 

E. Button. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

Lloyd, H. B. Strickland. 
Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick* 

land. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Eev. J. C. Camming, A. C. Ramsav, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Eobert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. 0. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Euskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham', 

Prof. Eamsay. 
J. Beetc Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



185L 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1856. 

1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 



SECTION C {continued) 

■WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.E.S. 

Lieut.- Col. Portlock, E.E., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. Warington "W. Smyth, 
F.E.S., F.G.S. 



— GEOLOGY. 

C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Eobert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. AV. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, t. 

Eupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 



» At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850. it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the "Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section," for Presideats and Secretaries of which see page Ix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 

1864. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1870. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen ... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwiu-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S , Sec. 

c* ^ 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof.W Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 



W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E, 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins. G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henrv Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Top- 
ley. 

J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

VV. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whit.iker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Toplev. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Toplev, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A, Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Wootlward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. AVatts. 
VV. Gallowav, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. VV. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 



\vi 



REPOux — 1894. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

183H. Cambridge' 
1834. Edinburo;li. 



Ptev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...lEev. Prof. J, S. Henslow. 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham [W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION P. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



183.5. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 

184.5. 
1846. 

1847. 



Dublin. 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Rev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 
Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen. F.R.S |E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D jProf. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
Jolm Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. ' J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her-, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ... I G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. Y. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

I Wollaston. 



Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir ,L Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



SECTION D (contimied). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
seciions and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. lix.] 



1848. Swansea ...iL. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

1840. Birmingham William Spence, F.R.S 

1850. Edinburgh Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L.&E. 

1851. Ipswich ... Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

' F.R.S. 

1852. Belfast W. Ogilby 



185.3. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgfow .. 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E 



1856. Cheltenham; Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

1857. Dublin jProf. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

i F.R.S. 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
f jr Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lix. 



TRESIDKNTS AND SECKETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place I 

1S58. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1361. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. .Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1365. Birmingham 



Presidents 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.Pv.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D.. F.R.S... . 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvj'. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H, 

P.. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology.' 



1866. Nottingham 

1367. Dundee ... 

1368. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Dcp., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Avthrofioloqi-cal Dep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bvp. of Zuol. and Hot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bej). of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.'L.H. — Bip. of 
Atiat. and Physiol.,Fi:of.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.H.—Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i>(?/A of Bot. and 
^tf<)Z.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Antkropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— i>f^. of 
Anat.and Phyiiiol.,'Piot. Ru- 
therford, M..T).— Bep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, \V. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. C'obbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth. Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lavvson, H. T . 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B, Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer.H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. "W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved 'That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection," 
in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department" 
be substituted.' 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1894. 




1874; Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. 



Soxithamp- 
ton.' 



1883. Southport = 



1884. 
1885. 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 



Prof. Eedfern, M.B.—Dcp. of 
Zool. and Hot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.E.S.— i)^/;. ofAn- 
t/iroj).,Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.Ji.S.— Bep.of 
Anat.andPJnisiol.,Vxot.C\e- 
land, M.D., F.R.S.— J5e;;. of 
Anihropol., Prof. Rolleston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A, Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Dep. of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, M. A., 
F.R.S. — I>(p. of Auat. and 
Physiol., Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.Gwyn Jeffreys, LL. D.,F.R.S. , 
F.Ij.S.—Bcp. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. Macalister, 
M.b. — Dep. of Anthropul., 
Francis Galton,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dip. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. n.S.—Dip. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
¥.B,.^.—Dep. of Anthropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
• — Dej). of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
• — Dip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol, F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.E.S.— i)f/7. of Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

Y.'R.S.—Dep.ifAuthrojjoL, 
Prof. W. PI. Flower, LL.D., 
F.'R.S.—Dcp. of Anat. and 
Ph]/si<>l.,'Proi.J. S. Burden 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.Jj.^.—Dep. of A nthropol.. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.^.—Dep. of Aiithripol; 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunninsj- 

ham. Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 

Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 

Rudler. 
E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 

W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Jlartyn, F. AV. 

Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smitli, Dr. 

W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison AVat- 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Eowc, 
F. W. Rudler. 

Dr. R. J. Harvev, Dr. T. Harden, 
Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Purser, J. B.Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. JI'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hej', Prof. W. R. JI'Nah, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heaps, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 



' "> The Departments of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were 
amalgamated. 

2 Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixvi. 



PBESIDENT3 AND SECRETAlllES OF THE fiECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



Presidents 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 



1894. Oxford, 



W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.K.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C'.M.G., 
F.K.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes JIarshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. I. Bavley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof: 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof, 
H. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, Prof. F. W. 
Oliver, H. Wager, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, Prof. W. Stirling, H. 
Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Dr. S. J. 

Hickson, Dr. W, B. Ransom, W. 

L. Sclater. 
W. W. ]?enham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, Y. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge iDr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh IDr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William. Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1 839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. B. Headlam, M.D 

John Yellolj% M.D., F.R.S.... 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1846. Cambridge 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pit cairn, M.D. ... 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster, 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixvi. 



Ix 



KEPOUT — 1894. 



Date and Place 



IS'16. Southamp- 
ton. 
1817. Oxford' .., 



Presidents 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr, Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
I gent. 

■Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
I Ormorod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859, 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1365. 



Edinbiirgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham .'- 



Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S! 
Prof. Sharper, M.D.. Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol)eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davr, F.R.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. "Wlieelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. P,edfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. liii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Dr. J. C. Prit chard |Dr. King. 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh i Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast... 

1E.53. Hull 

1354. Liverpool 
f855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



SECTION E. — GEOCfRAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. L Miirchison, F.R.S., I R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Pres. R.G.S. j Norton Shaw. 

Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L.,'r. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 



F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.I.A. 



Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Dine, Dr. Norton Shaw, 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Havt.land, W. H, 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



. 'By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
iiicorporated under the name of ' Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. Ivi.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

- Vide note on page Ivii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



hi 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1 865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



Presidents 



Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.K.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. L Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P.jK.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, \V. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. H\int„ 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (cordinued). — geography, 
K.C.B., 



Sir Bartle Frere, 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I.Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

SirRutherfordAlcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm.SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., R.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bate.s, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomat:, 
H. AV. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. II. 

Thomas. 
H. AV. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. R3 c. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1894. 



Date and Place 


ISSl. 


Montreal ... 


1883. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1880. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


CardifE 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1891. 


Oxford 



Presidents 



Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G.. F.R.S.,r.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., Pv.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goklsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, E.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.E.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

"FT ^ ^ 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm.Sec. E.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S, O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 
F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 

E. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailev, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, YI. — STATISTICS. 

18.33. Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S [J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh I Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 



Et. Hon. Lord Sandon .. 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. 



1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham I Henry Hallam, F.R.S 



1840. 

1841. 

1812. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 



Glasgow ...iRJ:. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P. 

j F.R.S. 
Pl3Tnoulh...Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

Manchester 'G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Hej'wood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Hey wood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, E. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Hey wood, Dr. Lay- 

cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. AV. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 
I P. Neison. 
J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede, 

Birmingham jEt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton. ;Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

j Neison. 
Edinburgh IVery Eev. Dr. Joim Lee, i Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
1 V.P.R.S.E. : Stark. 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea 



Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SBCRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1851. Ipswich ... Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
Iljj2. Belfast His Grace the Archbishop of 

! Dublin. 

185:?. Hull James Heywood, M.P.,r.R.S. 

1851. Liverpool... Thomas Tooke, F.K.S 

i 

1S55. Glasgow ... R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



Secretaries. 



J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, jun. 

Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 



1356. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 

ISGO. 

ISGl. 

18G2. 
18G3. 

!86i. 

1SG5. 

18GC. 

1807. 

18G8. 
18G0. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and STATISTICS 
Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Dublin., 

Leeds .,, 

Aberdeen... Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. 

Oxford ; Nassau W. Senior, M.A. ... 

I 
Manchester William Newmarch, F.R.S. 

Cambridge i Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

Newcastle .' William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 

Bath William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

I F.R.S 
Birmingham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanle3',LL.D., 
M.P. 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich .... 
Exeter 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. 
1872. 
187:5. 
1871. 

1875. 

1876, 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1330. 
1881. 

1882. 



Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



M. E. Grant- Duflf, M.P 

Samiiel Brown 

Rt.Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. .. 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P.! J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof . R.C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Roger.-. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleda}', Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdj', James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T., Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrorj'. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
E. Macrorj^ F. Purdy, C. T. D. 

Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E, Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 



Lord O'Hagan 



Bristol James Heywood, M.A. , F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Glasgow ... SirGeorge Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Plymouth... Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 
S S 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 
M.A., F.R.S. 
Southamp- Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 
ton. J M.P., F.R.S. 



Dublin 
Sheffield 



Swansea 
York 



Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 
MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J, T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 



Ixiv 



EEPORT — 1894. 



Date and Place 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

189.3. 

1804. 



Soutliport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



R. H. Inglis Palgrave, BMl.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Qiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Piof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F S S 
Prof. A.'Marshal], M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. \V. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 
F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 
F.S.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloj'. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

Prof. J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sar- 

gant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

Prof. H. S. "Foxwell, L. L. F. R. 

Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, I'rof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbios, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hcwins, H. Higgs. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE, 



18.36. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S- 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson , 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S , 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, AVilliam Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, .J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 



PBESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1850. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plj-mouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton 
1894. 



Presidents 



John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., 

F R S 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 



Secretaries 



John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 

Sykes Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. 

Thomson. 
L. Hill, jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Do3Tie, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 

P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T, 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, 

J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 

A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 



~r 



Ixvi 



REPORT — 1894. 



Date and Place 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmineham 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



James Brunlees, F.R.S.E., 

Pres.Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Iust.C.E 



Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 
I C.E. 

1887. Manchester Iprof. Osborne EejTiolds, M.A., 

I LL.D., F.R.S. 

1888. Bath W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 

W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 
1891. Oxford 



Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.Pv.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E., 

Prof. "W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. i 



A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 

A. f. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Eis:g. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. JIarshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marsliall, W. ('. 

Popplewell, E. Risfg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Riffg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. 'W. Cooko. 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. V. J. t>iuiih. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTIOIT H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1894. Oxford.... 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 'G 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. G 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L,'g 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. I 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 'g 

Lieut. -General Pi tt- Rivers, G 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B.,'g 

LL.D., F.R.S. I 

Dr. J, Evans, Treas. R.S.,'g 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. | 

Prof. F. Max MuUer, M.A. ... G 

Prof. A. IMacaliBter, M.A., G 

M.D., F.R.S. I 

Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.E.S.E. G 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., H 
F.R.S. 



. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. G arson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 

W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 

W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
A. M. Paterson. 

. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 
Harris Stone. 

, W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
R. Morison, Dr. R. Howdcn. 
. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 

, W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 
Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 
R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
, W. Bloxam, Rev. T. AV. Davies, 
Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jcvons, 
J. L. Myres. 

. Balfour, Dr. J. G.Garson, H. Linsr 
Roth. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 
M.R.C.S, 



Prof F. Gotch, Dr. J. 
^L S, Pembrey. 



Hr.ldane, 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUKES. 



Ixvii 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York, 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848, 
1849. 
1850. 

1851. 
1852, 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich . . . 
Belfast 



1863. Hull. 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



» 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. L Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Air}^F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S, 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. K. Grove, F.K.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the ^gean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive Substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein; also 
some Researches of his own on tli e 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through tlie 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Eock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the result.^ of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1894. 



Date and Place 


1857 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


18G0. 


Oxford 


1801. 


Manchester 


1862 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murcliison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. P.. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 
I Royal. 
iProf. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



1861. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich .., 

Exeter 

Liverpool.., 



1871. Edinburgh 



Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S... 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odlin?. F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.A.Abel, F.R.S 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

1872. Brighton ...' Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 



I F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford . 



1873. 

1871. 

1S75. 
1876. 



Bradford 

Belfast... 



Bristol 

Glasgow ,. 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S, 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 



The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistrj-of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dj'namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archreology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Jludern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Liglit. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The C1tallen{jcr Expedition. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 



Lecturer 



Subject of Discourse 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1884. Montreal... 



1885. Aberdeen.. 



1886, 
1887 



Birmingham 
Manchester 



W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.a.s. 

Prof . Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof.W.P.oyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. SirWm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. . 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 



1888. Bath. 



1889. 

1890. 
1801. 
1892. 

1893. 
1894. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardia 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 
Oxford 



The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palieon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 



Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... The Sense of Hearing. 



Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 

E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. A. Ewing, M. A., F.R.S., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 



The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of 
Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

Tlie Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applica- 
tions. 

Some Difficulties in tlie Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 



IXK 



REPORT 1894. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourae 


1867. Dundee 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Matter and Force. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.K.S. 


A Piece of Chalk. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tionof the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 


1870. Liverpool.... 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 
F.R.S. 


Savages. 


1872. Brierhton ... 


W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 


Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 


1873. Bradford ... 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Fuel. 


1871 Belfast .. 


Prof Odlino-. F RS 


The Discovery of Ojrygen. 
A Piece of Limestone. 


1875. Bristol 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 


1S7G. Glasgow ... 


Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 
W. H. Preece 


A Journey through Africa. 


1877. Plymouth... 


Telegraphy and the Telephone. 


1879. Sheffield ... 


W. E. Ayrton 


Electricity as a Motive Power. 


1880. Swansea ... 


H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 


The North-East Pasisage. 


1881. York 


Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 
F.R.S. 


Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 


J^ \y \^ M. t ^ V.*^ *-^ «■*«■•*** 


1882. Southamp- 


John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas. R.S. 


Unwritten History, and how to 


ton. 




read it. 


188.S. Southp )rt 


Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 


Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 


1884. Montreal ... 


Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S 


Comets. 


188.5. Aberdeen... 


H. B. Dixon, M.A 


The Nature of Explosions. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. ^V. C. Roberts-Austen, 


The Colours of Metals and their 




F.R.S. 


Alloys. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 


Electric Lighting. 


1888. Bath 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 


The Customs of Savage Races. 


1889. Newcastle- 


F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Tnst.C.E 


The Forth Bridge. 


upon-Tyne 






1890. Leeds 


Prof. J. PeiTy, D.Sc, F.R.S. 


Spinning Tops. 


1891. Cardiff 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 


Electricity in Mining. 


1S92. Edinburgh 


Prof. C. Vernon Boys. F.R.S. 


Electric Spark Photographs. 


1893. Nottingham 


Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 


Spontaneous Combustion. 


1894. Oxford 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 


Geologies and Deluges. 



Ixxi 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE OXFORD MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Vice-Presidents. — R. E. Baynes, M.A. ; Professor R. B, Clifton, M.A., 
F.R.S. ; Professor E. B. Elliott, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor W. Esson, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. ; Lord Kelvin, 
Pres.R.S.; Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor W. H. Heaton, M.A. ; Professor A. Lodge, M.A. 
(Recorder) ; J. Walker, M.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

/Vesi(fen<.— Professor H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice Presidents.~S>ir F. A. Abel, Bart., K.C.B., F R.S. ; Professor E. 
Frankland, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor R. Meldola, F.R.S., For.Sec.C.S. ; Professor W. Odling, Ph.D., 
F.R.S., V.P.C.S.; Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.; 
Sir Henry E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— B.. A. Colefax, M.A., Ph.D. ; W. W. Fisher, M.A. ; Arthur 
Harden, M.Sc, Ph.D. ; H. Forster Morley, D.Sc. {Recorder). 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; Sir Archibald 
Geikie, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor A. H. Green, F.R.S.; 
Dr. H. Hicks, F.R.S. ; Di-. E. Mojsisovics von Mojsvar ; Professor 
A. F. Renard; Dr.. A. R. C. Selwyn, F.R.S.; H. Woodward, 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — F. A. Bather, M.A. ; Alfred Harker, M.A. ; Clement Reid ; 
W. W. Watts, M.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Right Hon. T. H. Huxley, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor E. Ray Lankester, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor Alfred Newton, 
M.A., F.R.S.; Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S.; P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., 
F.R.S.; W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, M.A., F.R.S.; Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
M. A., LL.D., D.D., F.R.S. ; Professor S. H. Vines, M.A., F.R.S. 



Ixxii REPORT — 1894. 

Secretaries. — W. B. Benham, D.Sc, M.A. ; Professor J. B. Farmer, M.A., 
F.L.S. ; Professor W= A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.RS., F.R.S.E. ; Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, MA., D.Sc. {Recorder) ; G. Murray, F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S. ; W. L. Solater, M.A., F.Z.S. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPUy. 

President.— Civ^iaAU W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Guido Cora ; J. Scott Keltie ; H. J. Mac- 
kinder, M.A. ; The Warden of Merton College ; Admiral Sir Erasmus 
Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S.; E. G. Ravenstein; Henry Seebohm, F.L.S.; 
Lieut.^General R. Strachey, R.E., C.S.I., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— 3 . Coles, F.R.G.S. ; W. Scott Dalgleish, LL.D. ; H. N. Dick- 
son, F.R.S.E. ; Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. {Recorder). 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Presic^eni.— Professor C. F. Bastable, M.A., F.S.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. Cunningham, D.D. ; Professor F, Y. 
Edgeworth, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.S. ; The Hon. Sir Charles Freipantle, 
K.C.B. ; Professor J. S. Nicholson, M.A., D.Sc, F.S.S. ; R. H. Inglis 
Palgrave, ]F.R.S. ; L. L. Price, M.A., F.S.S. ; Professor H. Sidgwick, 
Litt.D. 

Secretaries.— 'E. Cannan, M.A., F.S.S. ; Professor E. C. K. Conner, M.A., 
F.S.S. {Recorder); W. A. S. Hewins, M.A., F.S.S.; H. Higgs, LL.B. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Preside-M.—'PvoiQssov A. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., M.Inst. C.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunningham ; G. F. Deacon, 
. M.Inst.C.E. ; Professor L. F. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. ; 
Jeremiah Head, M.InstC.E., F.C.S. ; Sir A. Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. {Recorder) ; Conrad 
W. Cooke ; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. ; Rev. F. J. Smith, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. -^iv W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Professor Max 
Miiller, D.C.L. ; Professor A. H. Sayce, M.A. ; E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — H. Balfour, M.A. ; J. G. Gai-son, M.D. (Recorder) ; H. Ling 
Roth. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. 

■ Vice-Presidents. — Professor M. Foster, M.D., F.R.S.; Professor J. G. 
McKendrick, M.D., F.R.S.; Professor W. Rutherford, M.D., F.R.S. ; 
Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— 'Professor F. Gotch, F.R.S. ; J. S. Haldane, M.A., M.D. 
(Recorder) ; M. S. Pembrey, M.A., M B. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCI L, 1894-95. 

PRESIDENT. 
The Most Uos. thb MARQUIS OF SALISBURY, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S., Chancello)- of the 

University of Oxford. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the E*Rt, of Jersey, G.C.M.G., 
Lord-Lieutenant of the Coantv of Oxford. 

The Right Hon. Lohd Wantagk,K.C.B.,V.O., Lord- 
Lientenant of Berkshire. 

The Right Hon. the Earl op Roskbery, K.G., 
D.C.L., F.R..S. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Oxford, D.D. 

Tlie Right Hon. Lord Rothschild, Lord-Lieu- 
tenaut of Backs. 

Tlie Right Hon. Lord Kelviv, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 

The Rev. the Vice-Chaxcelluu op the Univer- 
sity OF Oxford. 

PRESIDEN 
Captain SIR DOUGLAS GALTOX, K.C, 



Tlie Mayor of OxFOnn. 

Sir W. R. Ansox, U.C.L., Warden of All Souls' 

College. 
Sir Bfuxiiard Samuelsox, Bart., M.P., F.E.i5. 
Sir Henry Dykr Act.and, Bart., K.C.B., M.D.. 

F.R.S., Regius Professor of Medicine. 
The Rev. tlie Master op Pembroke College, 

Sedleian Professor of Natural Pliilosophy. 
Dr. J. J. Syl\-ester, F.R.S., Savilian Professor of 

Geometry. 



T ELECT. 

B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.Il.G.S., F.G.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. Lord Henniker. F.S.A. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rendlesham. 
The Mayor of Ipswich. 
Sir G. G. .Stokes, Bart., D.C.L.. F.R.S. 
Dr. E. Fraxklaxd, D.C.L.. F.R S. 
Professor G. H. Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. 
Felix T. Cobbold, Esq., M.A. 



The Most Hon. the M-^rqitis of Bristol, M.A., 

Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Suffolk. 
The Right Hon. Lord WalS'XGHam, LL.D., F.R.S., 
High Steward of the University of Cambringe. 
The Right Hon. Lord Raylekjh, D.C.L., Sec.R.S., 

Lord-Lieutenant ot the Tounty of Essex. 
The Right Hon. Lord Gwydyr, M.A., High 
Steward of the Borough of Ipswich. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Sir Douglas G.*.lton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.d.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street. London. S.W> 

A. G. Vernon Haroourt, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Cowley Grange, O.xford. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., College Road, Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT IPSWICH. 
G. H. HbwetsON, Esq. | S. A. Notcutt, Esq., B.A., LL.M., B.Sc. 1 E. P. Ridi.b;y. Esq.- 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT IPSWICH. 
H. J. W. Jervis, Esq. | JtouER KERiu.-iQN, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
ASDERSOX, Dr. W.. F.R.S. 
AYRTON. Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Boys, Professor C. VtRXox, F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 
EVAXS, Sir J.. K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Foxwell, Professor H. S., M.A. 
Hehdman, Professor W. A., F.K.«. 
HoRSLEY, Professor Victor, F.R.S. 
Lankestek, Professor E. Ray. FJR.S. 
LiVEiNG, Professor G. D., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 
Majbkha.m, Cle.ments R., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Meloola, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Preece, W. H., Esq.. C.B., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor W., F.U.S. 
Rki.xoiJ), Professor A. W., F.R.S. 
Reyxolds, Professor J. Emersox, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Symoxs, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq.. F.R..S. 
Thomson, Professor J. .1., F.R.S. 
Unwix, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
ViN-ES, Professor S. H., F.R.S. 
Ward, Professor Maii.~hall, F.R.S. 

WUITAKER, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Tmetees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and) 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the jiresentaud former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former yeai-s, and the Local Treasurers anfl 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L. , LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Playfair, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, E.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 
Sir O. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
The Rt. Hon. Prof . Huxley, F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, LL.D., Pres.lt.S. 



Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart.. F.R.S. 
Prof. Cavley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Sec.R.S. 
Lord Playfair. K.C.B.. F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



Sir H. E. Rosooe, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir K. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Ahel, Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Dr. Wm. Hugeins!, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
SirArihibaldGeikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. J.S.Burdon Sanderson,F.R.S> 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEABS. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. I G. Griffltli, Esq.. M.A. I Prof. Bonner, D.Sr.. F.R.S. 

Prof. Michael Foster, Sec.R.S. | V. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. | Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R. a 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.Sc. 



AUDITORS. 
Dr. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S. 



Ludwig Mond, Esq., F.R.S. 



THE BEITISH ASSOCIATION FOE 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1893-94. RECEIPTS. 

£ (. d. 

Balance brought forward 391 1 9 

Life Compositions 280 

New Annual Members" Subscriptions 134 

Annual Subscriptions 558 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 762 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 268 

Sale of Index, 1861-90 ±'85 1 3 

Sale of other Publications 145 5 4 

230 6 7 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 12 14 11 

Dividends on Consols 226 18 8 

Dividends on India 3 per Cents 104 17 

Unexpended Balance of Grant for investigating the Physio- 
logical Action of Oxygen in Asphyxia 1 11 

Unexpended balance of Grant to Wave-lengths Committee 136 4 

Income Tax retl^rned 25 11 8 

Sale of Consols— £962 16 7 at 100| = i'971 5 1 

Less Stamp and Commission 15 1 

. 970 

Exchequer Bills transferred from Investments Account 500 



£4600 15 6 

Investments 

£ s. d. 

June 30, 1893 : Consols 8500 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

la hands of General Treasurer ; 

Exchequer Bills 500 

£12,600 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



I 



irom July ], 1893, to June 30, 1894. Cr. 

IS1);J-91. PAYMENTS. 

£ t. d. 
Expenses of Nottingham Meeting, including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &;c 133 16 8 

Eent and Office Expenses 52 12 6 

Salaries 503 15 

Printing, Binding, &c. :— 1892-98 £1019 5 7 

„ 1893-94 942 7 9 

Index, 1861-90 221 

2182 13 4 



Payment of Grants made at Nottingham : — 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Functions 15 

Recording the Direct Intensity o£ Solar Eadiatiou 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 10 

Action of Light upon Djed Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at Clava, Chapelhall, Ac 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tremors 60 

Exploration of Calf-Hole Cave 5 

Table at the Naples Zoological Station 100 

Table at the Plymouth Biological Laboratory 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich Islands ". 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function ot the Mammalian Heart 10 

Observations in South Georgia 60 

Exploration in Arabia 30 

Methods of Economic Training y 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory Statistics 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom 10 

The Lake Village at Cilastonbury 40 

An thropometrical Measurements in tchools; 5 

Mental and Physical Condition of Children ' 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 



In hands of General Treasurer : — 

At Bank of England, Western Branch £682 9 8 

Less Cheques not presented 89 6 9 

503 

Exchequer Bills , 500 

Cash 



633 15 6 



2 


11 








9 


7 



1094 



£4600 15 6 



Account. 

£ 
Consols sold <)(;2 

Exchequer Bills transferred to General Account 500 

Investments June 30, 1894 : — Consols £7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



s. 


d. 


6 


7 









11137 3 5 
£12,600 



Arthur W. Rucker, General Treasurer. 

\Vm. Cunningham,"! , ,.. 
T. E. Thorpe, ) ^'«^'^'"-«- 

July 13, 1894. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipw 



Date of Meeting 


"Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Member! 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, Jiuie 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 
18.38, Aug. 10... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 .. 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 ... 

1862, Oct. 1 ... 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept. 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 ... 

1881, Aug. 31 ... 

1882, Aug. 2.< ... 

1883, Sept. 19... 

1884, Aug. 2/ ... 

1885, Sept. 9 ... 

1886, Sept. 1 .. 

1887, Aug. 31 ... 

1888, Sept. 5 .. 

1889, Sept. 11.. 

1890, Sept. 3 .. 

1891, Aug. 19 .. 

1892, Aug. 3 .. 

1893, Sept. 13 .. 

1894, Aug. 8 .. 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne ... 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Northumberland 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 
The Marquis of Breadalbane... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison,Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 
Lieut .-General Sabine, F.R.S. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 
The Rev.Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L.... 
H R.H. the Prince Consort ... 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. ... 
WilliamFairbairn,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. 
Sir William G.Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch,K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

SirJohn Hawkshaw,C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.... 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F R.S. ... 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B.,F.R.S 

Sir J.W. Dawson, C.M.G.,F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe. D.C.L.,F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof.W.H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S. .. 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson.. 

The Marquis of Salisbury,F.R.S 


169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 

225 

314 

428 

266 

277 

259 

189 

280 

201 

327 


. ■ • 

• •■ 

65 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 

8 

10 

13 

23 

33 

14 

15 

42 

27 

21 

113 


Oxford 


Damhrido'C 


Kdinbu.r*^h 


Dublin 


Bristol 


LiverDOol 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Rirmint^barQ 




Plvmoiith 


Manchester 


Cork 


York 


rJarQbride'e 


Southampton 

Oxford 


Swansea 




Edinburgh 


Tnswich 


Belfast 


Hull 


Liverpool 


Glasgow 


Cheltenham 


Dublin 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 


Manchester 


Cambrid'T'e 


15 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bath 


36 

40 

44 i 

31 1 

25 1 

18 1 

21 ■ 

39 

28 

36 

27 

13 

36 

35 

19 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dundee 


Norwich 


Exeter 


Liverpool 


Edinburgh 


Brighton 


Bradford 


Belfast 


Bristol 


Glasgow 


Plymouth 


Dublin 


18 


Sheffield 


16 


Swansea 

York 


11 

28 


Southampton 

Southport 


17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 


Montreal 


Aberdeen 


Birmingham 


Manchester 


Bath 


Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Leeds 


Cardiff 


Edinburgh 


Nottingham 


. Oxford 



• Ladies were aiot admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Adm 



t Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Atteniieil by 



New Annual 


Asso- 


Ladies 


Members 


ciates 


• •• 


... 


* 
::::::: o : 
:::::.. o : 


sT? 


... 


60* 


376 


33t 


331* 


185 




160 


190 


9t 


2G0 


22 


407 


172 


39 


270 


196 


40 


495 


203 


25 


376 


197 


33 


447 


237 


42 


510 


273 


47 


244 


141 


60 


510 


292 


57 


367 


236 


121 


765 


524 


101 


1094 


543 


48 


412 


346 


120 


900 


569 


91 


710 


509 


179 


1206 


821 


59 


636 


463 


125 


1589 


791 


57 


433 


242 


209 


1704 


1004 


103 


1119 


1058 


149 


766 


508 


105 


960 


771 


118 


1163 


771 


117 


720 


682 


107 


678 


600 


195 


1103 


910 


127 


976 


754 


80 


937 


912 


99 


796 


601 


85 


817 


630 


93 


884 


672 


185 


1265 


712 


59 


446 


283 


93 


1285 


674 


74 


529 


349 


41 


389 


147 


176 


1230 


514 


79 


516 


189 


323 


952 


841 


219 


826 


74 


122 


1053 


447 


179 


1067 


429 


244 


1985 


493 


100 


639 


509 


113 


1024 


579 


92 


680 


334 


152 


672 


107 


141 


733 


439 


57 


773 


2(>8 


CO 


941 


451 







Foreigners 


Total 


... 


353 


■ • > 


900 




1298 


..'. 


1350 


• • • 


1840 


.• . 


2400 


34 


1438 


40 


1353 


• • * 


891 


28 


1315 


.35 


1079 


36 


857 


53 


1320 


15 


819 


22 


1071 


44 


1241 


37 


710 


9 


1108 


6 


876 


10 


1802 


26 


2133 


9 


1115 


26 


2022 


13 


1698 


22 


2564 


47 


1689 


15 


3138 


25 


1161 


25 


3335 


13 


2802 


23 


1997 


11 


2303 


7 


2444 


45 J 


2004 


17 


18.56 


14 


2878 


21 


2463 


43 


2533 


11 


1983 


12 


1951 


17 


2248 


25 


2774 


11 


1229 


17 


2578 


13 


1404 


12 


915 


24 


2557 


21 


1253 


5 


2714 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


6 


2203 


11 


2453 


92 


3838 


12 


1984 


21 


2137 


12 


1775 


35 


1497 


50 


2070 


17 


1061 


77 


2321 



Amount 1 


reoei 


Ted 


during 


the 


Meet 


inpT 


£ 707 


o"o 


963 





1085 





620 1 


1085 





903 1 


1882 





2311 





1098 





2015 





1931 





2782 





1604 


3944 


1089 


3640 





2965 





2227 





2469 





2613 





2042 





1931 





3096 





2575 





2649 





2120 1 


1979 





2397 





3023 





1268 





2615 





1425 





899 





26S9 1 


1286 





.?369 





1538 





2256 





2532 





4336 





2107 





2441 





1776 





1604 





2007 





1G53 





2175 






bunts 


)ai(l 


liU 




Account ( 


)f 


Tear 


Grants for Scien- 


tific Purposes 











1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 










£20 





167 








1835 


435 








1836 


922 


12 


6 


1837 


932 


2 


2 


1838 


1595 


11 





1839 


1546 


16 


4 


1840 


1235 


10 


11 


1841 


1449 


17 


8 


1842 


1565 


10 


2 


1843 


981 


12 


8 


1844 


831 


9 


9 


1845 


685 


16 





1846 


208 


5 


4 


1847 


275 


1 


8 


1848 


159 


19 


6 


1849 


345 


18 





1850 


391 


9 


7 


1851 


304 


6 


7 


1852 


205 








1853 


380 


19 


7 


1854 


480 


16 


4 


1855 


734 


13 


9 


1856 


507 


15 


4 


1857 


618 


18 


2 


1858 


684 


11 


1 


1859 


766 


19 


6 


1860 


1111 


5 


10 


1861 


1293 


16 


6 


1862 


1608 


3 


10 


1863 


1289 


15 


8 


1864 


1591 


7 


10 


1865 


1750 


13 


4 


1866 


1739 


4 





1867 


1940 








1868 


1622 








1869 


1572 








1870 


1472 


2 


6 


1871 


1285 








1872 


1685 








1873 


1151 


16 





1874 


960 








1875 


1092 


4 


2 


1876 


1128 


9 


7 


1877 


725 


16 


6 


1878 


1080 


11 


11 


1879 


733 


7 


7 


1880 


476 


8 


1 


1881 


1126 


1 


11 


1882 


1083 


3 


3 


]?83 


1173 


4 





1884 


1385 








1885 


995 





6 


1886 


1186 


18 





1887 


1511 





5 


1888 


1417 





11 


18S9 


789 


16 


8 


1890 


1029 


10 





1891 


864 


10 





1892 


907 


15 


6 


1893 


583 


15 


r> 


1 S94 



acluding IjiKlics. 



5 Fellows of the Amenuau Assi elation were admitted as Hon. Members for this Me.ting. 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1894. 



REPORT OF THE COUXCIL. 

Report of the Council for the Year 1893-94, p?*esa2^?:t to the General 
Committee at Oxford on Wednesday, August 8, 1894. 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer duriiiir 
the past year, and his account from July 1, 1893 to June 30, 1894, wliieh 
lias been audited, will be presented to the General Connnittee. 

As the amount of money voted for grants has been subject to con- 
siderable fluctuations, and as the expenditure on printing is apt to 
increase unless carefully watched, the Council appointed a Committee to 
report on the desirability of equalising the grants made for scientific- 
purposes in diflerent years, and of making, if possible, still further 
reductions in the expenditure on printing. 

The Council received and adopted the following Report from their 
Committee. 

(1) That it is not desirable that the Invested Fund<! of the Association be 
increased, and that the floating balance in the bands of the Treasurer 
might be diminished if the bill for printing, which is now due, were paid 
out of Capital. The Committee therefore recommend that a sufficient .sum 
be taken out of Capital to allow this to be done. 

(2) That the Treasurer be requested to continue the practice, which he bc^raii 
at Nottingham, of presenting to the Committee of Recommendations, at 
their second meeting, an estimate of the receipts and expenses of the 
Association for the current financial year. 

(3) That it is not advisable to lay down any definite rules as to the amount to 
be expended in grants, but that as far as circumstances permit the following 
regulations should be adhered to : — 

(a) That 1,000Z. be at present regarded as the normal annual grant in aid 
of research. 

()3) That this sum be annually granted, unless the estimated floating 
balance in the hands of the Treasurer at the end of the current 
financial year is less than 500Z. or greater than 1,000/. 

(7) If the estimated balance falls short of '>QQl , it is desirable that the 
grant should be reduced. If it exceeds 1,000Z., the excess ma}' lie 
regarded as available for increasing the grant above 1,000/. 

(8) In the case of a sudden increase of the floating balance above 1,000/.. 
due to an exceptionally large meeting, it is not desirable that the 
whole of the surplus should be spent at one meeting. 

(•4) That in view of the large annual expenditure on printing, the Committee 
recommend that the attention of Committees to whom grants of money 
are made be drawn to the importance of economy. Good service would bo 
rendered to the Association if members of Committees would remember 
j that they are severally responsible for the reports, and would do their best 

to make them as short and inexpensive as is consistent with their utility. 

In accordance with the recommendation that tlie printer's bill then 
due should be paid out of Capital, the Council authorised the Trustees to 
sell an amount of stock sufficient for this purpose. 



KEPORT OF THE COU^'CIL. 



Ixxix 



An invitation to hold the ATinual Meeting of the Association at 
Liverpool in 1896 has been received, and will be brought before the 
General Committee on Monday ; communications in reference to tlie 
Meeting of the Association in 1S97 have been received from Toronto. 

The Council recommend that the Mayor of Oxford, Sir W. R. Anson, 
Warden of All Souls' College, and Pnjfessor Sylvester be elected Vice- 
Presidents of the Association. 

The Council having been informed that Mr. L. A. Selby-Bigge, one 
of the Local Secretaries, was obliged to resign his office, owing to his 
having accepted the appointment of Assistant Charity Commissioner, 
Mr. D. H. Nagel was nominated Secretary in his place. 

The Council have elected the following Foreign Men of Science 
Corresponding Members : — 



Prof. Christian Bohr, Copenhagen. 
Prof. W. C. Brogger, Christiania. 
Prof. W Einthoven, Leiden. 
Prof. Heger, Brussels. 



Dr. K. Hcrtwig, Munich. 
Dr. Hildebrand, Stockholm. 
M. Henri Moissan, Paris. 



Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if 
desirable : — ■ 

(1) That the recommendations regarding the times at which the Sections and 
Sectional Committees shall meet, which have been received from tlie 
Sectional Committees, be referred to the Council. 

The Council, having regard to the fact that the enforcement of th« 
same hour of meeting for all Sections would be contrary to the expressed 
wish of some of the Sections, resolved that the times of meeting of the 
Sections and Committees be arranged by the several Organising Com- 
mittees, and be communicated to the General Officers at least one month 
before the Annual Meeting ; and that the times so fixed be regularly 
adhered to throughout the Meeting on every day except Thursday and 
Saturday, in respect of which days the hours may be settled, as at present, 
by the Sectional Committees. If no such resolution ])e received from an 
Organising Committee, the times of meeting will be arranged as follows : — 
Section at 11 a.m.. Committee at 10 a.m. 

(2) That the resolution received from the Committees of Sections C and G, 
proposing a change in the rule relating to the appointment of Committee.? 
for special objects of science, be referred to the Council. 

The Council, having considered the question, do not recommend any 
change in this rule. 

In consequence of the establishment of a separate Section of 
Physiology, Animal and Vegetable, it seemed likely that papers on 
botanical subjects might be divided between this Section and that of 
Biology. The Council received a communicatio]i from a meeting of 
Botanists, held last November, pointing out the inconvenience that was 
likely to arise from such a division ; and they were asked to appoint a 
Committee to confer with a Committee of Botanists, who would represent 
the views of the meeting. The Council, after receiving their Committee's 
Report, resolved to recommend to the General Committee that, instead 
of Section D and Section I as at present constituted, there be three 
Sections, namely Section D, Zoology ; Section I, Physiology ; and 
Section K, Botany 

The Council also propose that the word 'Mineralogy' be omitted 
from the title of Section B, as papers on Mineralogy are read not oily 



IXXX REPORT — 1894. 

in this Section but also in the Physical Section and in the Geological 
Section. 

By a rule of the Association, proposals for a change in the titles of 
Sections must be referred to the Committee of Recommendations for a 
report. This Committee will be able to consider any representations 
■which may be made to them by the Committees of the Sections which 
would be affected by the proposed changes. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year has been received and will be presented to the General Committee. 

It is proposed in future to print the account of the Conference of 
Delegates in the Annual Report of the same year instead of in that 
of the following year. The Report of the Oxford Meeting will therefore 
contain an account of the proceedings of the Conference both at Nottingham 
and at Oxford. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Oalton, Professor R. Meldola, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Topley, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. 
Holmes, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and the Rev. 
Canon Tristram, is hereby nominated for reappointment by the General 
Committee. 

The Council nominate Professor Meldola, F.R.S., Chairman, Mr. 
Cuthbert E. Peek, Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary, to 
the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be held during 
the Meeting at Oxford. 

In accordance with the regulations, the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 



Sir R. S. Ball. 

R. T. Glazebrook, Esq. 

Prof. A. H. Green. 



Prof. H. Sidgwick. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other Ordinary 
Members of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose 
names are distinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Meldola, Prof. R., F.R.S. 

Preece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Prof. W., F.R.S. 

Reinold, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Prof. J. Emerson, M.D., F.R.S, 

Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 

*Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Thomson, Prof. J. J., F.R.S. 

Unwin, Prof. W. C, F.R.S. 

♦Vines, Prof. S. H., F.R.S. 

Ward, Prof. Marshall. F.R.S. 

Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



Anderson, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Ayrton, Prof. W. E., F.R.S. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Boys, Prof. C. Vernon, F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Prof. F. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
*Foxwell, Prof. H. S., M.A. 
*Herdman, Prof. W. A., F.R.S. 
Horsley, Prof. Victor, F.R.S. 
*Lankester, Prof. E. Rav, F.R.S. 
LiveiDg, Prof. G. D., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Prof. Oliver J., F.R.S. 
Markham, Clements R., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 



COMMITTEES AITOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxXXl 



Committees ArroiNTED by the General Committee at the 
Oxford Meeting in August 1891-. 



1. Beceiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



The Application of Photography 
to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 

[Unexpended balance in hands of 
Committee.] 

Considering the advisability and 
possibility of establishing in 
other parts of the country Ob- 
servations upon the Prevalence 
of Earth Tremors similar to 
those now being made in Dur- 
ham in connection with coal- 
mine explosions. 



Members of the Committee 




1894. 



Chairman. — Professor G. Carey 
Foster. 

Secretary. — JMr. E. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Oliver J. Lodge, Lord Kay- 
leigh, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muiihead, Messrs. W. H. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, 
Professors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, 
Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Kev. T. C. Fitz- 
patrick, Professor J. Viriamu 
Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. 
G. Forbes, and Mr. J. Kennie. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor K. Meldola and Mr. John 
Hopkinson. 

Chairmaii. — Lord Rayleigh. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor A. Cayley, 

Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. 

L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. 

Greenhill, and Professor W. M. 

Hicks. 



Chairman. — Sir. G. J. Symons. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Davison. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H 
Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Mr. Isaac Roberts, Mr. T. Gray, 
Sir J. Evans, Professor J. Prest- 
wich. Professor E. Hull, Pro- 
fessor G. A. Lebour, Professor 
R. Meldola, Professor J. W. 
Judd, Mr. M. Walton Brown, 
Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor C. 
G. Knott, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, and Mr. Horace 
Darwin, 



e s. d. 

5 



10 



75 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 1894. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Co-operating with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in making 
Meteorological Observations on 
Ben Nevis. 



To assist the Phj'sical Society in 
bringing out Abstracts of Phy- 
sical Papers. 

To co-operate with the Pioyal Corn- 
wall Polytechnic Society for the 
purpose of comparing and re- 
ducing the Magnetic Observa- 
tions of Falmouth Observatory. 

To confer with the Astronomer 
Royal and the Superintendents 
of other Observatories with refer- 
ence to the Comparison of Mag- 
netic Standards with a view of 
carrying out such comparison. 

To co-operate with Professor Karl 
Pearson in the Calculation of 
certain Integrals. 



To confer with British and Foreign 
Societies publishing Mathema- 
tical and Physical Papers as to 
the desirability of securing uni- 
formity in the size of the pages 
of their Transactions and Pro- 
ceedings. 



Preparing a new Series of AVave- 
length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements. 



The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours. 



The Investigation of the direct 
Formation of Haloids from pure 
Materials. 



Members of the Committee 



Ckairmati.—'Lord ]\IcLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Mr. John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, 

Professor Pi. Copeland, and Hon. 

R. Abercromby. 



Cliairman.- 
Secretary. 
Riicker. 



-Dr. E. Atkinson. 

- Professor A. "vV. 



Chairman. — Mr. Howard Fox. 
Secretary. — Professor W. G. Adams. 
Professor A. W. Riicker. 



Chairman. — Professor A. W. 
Riicker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Watson. 

Professor A. Schuster and Pro- 
fessor H. H. Turner. 



Chairman.— "Rev. Robert Harley. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Forsyth. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Professor Karl Pear- 
son. 

Chairman. — Professor S. P. Thomp- 
son. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Mr. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. Burton, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
A. W. Riicker, and Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney. 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretary/. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 

Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain 

Abney. 

Chairman. — Dr. T. E. Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hum- 
mel. 

Dr. W. H. Perkin, Prof. W. J. 
Russell, Captain Abney, Prof. W. 
Stroud, and Prof. R. Meldola. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary.— Islr. W. A. Shenstone. 

Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. 
C. H. Bothamley. 




100 



50 







15 







10 



5 



20 



COMMITTEES APrOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxiii 
1. JRecehniUff Grants of Money — continued. 



I 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 


Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 


£ s. d. 
30 


The Electrolytic Methods of Quan- 


Cliairman. — Professor J. Emerson 


40 


titative Analysis. 


Reynolds. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 

Professor Frankland, Professor F. 
Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. 
A. E. Fletcher, Mr. D. H Nagel, 
Mr. T. Turner, and Mr. J. B. Cole- 
man. 




Eecording the Position, Height 


Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 


10 


above the Sea, Lithological Cha- 


Secretary. — Mr. P. F. Kendall. 




racters, Size, and Origin of 


Professors W. Boyd Dawkins, T. 




the Erratic Blocks of England, 


McK. Hughes, T. G. Bonney, and 




Wales, and Ireland, reporting 


J. Prestwich, Messrs. C. E. De 




other matters of interest con- 


Ranee, R. H. Tiddeman, J. W. 




nected with the same, and tak- 


Woodall, and Prof. L. C. Miall. 




ing measui'es for their jareserva- 






tion. 






The Description and Illustration 


Chairman.— Rev. Prof. T. Wilt- 


5 


of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 


shire. 




Palseozoic Rocks. 


Sccretarif^ — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 




The Collection, Preservation, and 


Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 


10 


Systematic Registration of 


Secretary. — Mr. 0. W. Jeffs. 




Photographs of Geological In- 


Prof. T. G. Bonney, Prof. Boyd 




terest. 


Dawkins, Professor T. McKenny 




[Last year's grant renewed.] 


Hughes, Dr. V. Ball, Dr. T. 
Anderson, and Messrs. A. S. 
Reid, E. J. Garwood, W. Gray, 
H. B. Woodward, J. E. Bedford, 
R. Kidston, VV. W. Watts, R. H. 
Tiddeman, J. J. H. Teall, and 
J. G. Goodohild. 




To investigate the Character of 


Chairman. — Mr. J. Home. 


10 


the High-level Shell-bearing de- 


Secretary. — Mr. Dugald Bell. 




posits at Clava, Chapelhall, and 


Messrs. J. Eraser, P. F. Kendall, 




other localities. 


T. F. Jamieson, and David 
Robertson. 




The Investigation of the Eurv- 


Chairman. — Dr. R. H. Traquair. 


3 


pterid-bearing Deposits of the 


Secretary. — Mr. M. Laurie. 




Pentland Hills. 


Professor T. Rupert Jones. 




To open further Sections in the 


Chairman. — Mr. H. B. Woodward. 


oO 


neighbourhood of Stonesfield in 


Secretary.— Mr. E. A. Walford. 




order to show the Relationship 


Professor A. H. Green, Dr. H. 




of the ' Stonesfield Slate ' to 


Woodward, and Mr. J. Windoes. 




the underlying and Overlying 






Strata. 




e2 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT — 1894. 



1. Iteceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To explore the Calf-Hole Cave, at 
the Heights, iSkyrethorne, near 
Skipton. 



To consider a project for investi- 
gating the Structure of a, Coral 
Keef by Boring and Sounding. 



To investigate the nature and pro- 
bable age of tlie High-level 
Flint-drift in the Face of the 
Chalk Escarpment near Igh- 
tham, which appears to be pro- 
ductive of Flakes and other 
Forms of Flint, probably 
wrought by the hand of Man. " 

To examine the ground from which 
the remains of Cetiosaurus in 
the Oxford Museum were ob- 
tained, with a view to deter- 
mining whether other parts of 
the same animal remain in the 
rock. 

To appoint IMr. JI. D. Hill to inves- 
tigate the Fertilisation of the 
Eggs of Echinoderms, Molluscs, 
and Annelids, or, failing this, to 
appoint some other competent 
investigator to carry on a defi- 
nite piece of work at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples. 

To enable Mr. Edgar Allen or 
other zoologist to investigate 
the Decapod Crustacea, and Mr. 
J. J. Lister to work at Fora- 
minifera, at the Laboratory of 
the I\Iarine Biological Associa- 
tion, Plymouth. 

[10/. renewed.] 



Members of the Committee 




Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 

Secretary. — Rev. E. Jones. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Pro- 
fessor L. C. Miall, Mr. P. F. 
Kendall, Mr. A. Birtwhistle, 
and Mr. J. J. Wilkinson. 

Chairman. — Professor T. G. Bon- 
ney. 

Secretary .—Vvoie^sox'SX . J. Sollas. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors 
A. H. Green, J. W. Judd, C. 
Lapworth, A. C. Haddon, Boj'd 
Dawkins, G. H. Darwin, S. J. 
Hickson, and A. Stewart, Cap- 
tain W. J. L. Wharton, Drs. H. 
Hicks, J. Murray, W. T. Blan- 
ford, Le Neve Foster, and H. B. 
Guppy, Messrs. F. Darwin, H. 
O. Forbes, G. C. Bourne, A. R. 
Binnie, J. W. Gregory, and 
J. C. Hawkshaw, and Hon. P. 
Fawcett. 

Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 
Seeretai-y. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professor J. Prestwich and Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley. 



Chairman. — Professor A. H. Green. 
Secretary. — Sir. James Parker. 
Earl of Ducie, Professor E. Ray 

Lankcster, and Professor H. G. 

Seeley. 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor J. Cossar Ewart, Pro- 
fessor JI. Foster, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, and Mr. A. Sedgwick. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Professor M. Foster and Professor 

S. H. Vines. 



£ 
10 



s. d. 




10 



10 



20 a 



100 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENEUAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxv 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Slembers of the Committee 


Gr.ants 


The Zoology, Botany, and Geology 


Chu'irman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 


£ 

40 


s. d. 



of the Irish Sea. 


man. 






[4Z. 10s. 9,d. renewed.] 


Secrctari/. — Mr. I. C. Thompson. 

Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
G. B. Howes, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Mr. A. 0. Walker, Mr. Clement 
lleid, and Professor F. E. Weiss. 






To report on the present state of 


Chairinati. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 


50 





our Knowledge of the Zoology 


Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 






and Botany of the 'West India 


Mr. W. Carruthcrs, Dr. A. C. Giin- 






Islands, and to take steps to in- 


ther, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du 






vestigate ascertained deficien- 


Cane Godman, and Professor A. 




I 


cies in the Fauna and Flora. 


Newton. 






Compilation of an Index Generum 


Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 


50 





et tjpecierum Animahum. 


Secretary.— Mt. AV. L. Sclater. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater and Dr. H. Wood- 
ward. 






Climatology of Tropical Africa. 


Chairman. — Mr. E. G. Kavenstein. 
Secretary.— X)v. H. K. Mill. 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. Baldwin 
Latham, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. 


5 





Exploration of Hadramout, 


Chairman. — Mr. H. Seebohm. 


50 





Arabia. 


Secretary. — Mr. J. Theodore Bent. 

Mr. E. G. Kavenstein, Dr. J. G. 

Garson, and Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 






To report on methods of Calibrat- 


Chairman. — Professor A, B. W. 


50 





ing the measuring instruments 


Kennedy. 






used in Engineering Laborato- 


Secretary. — Prof essor W. C. Unwin. 






ries, and to take steps for Com- 








paring the Measuring Instru- 








ments at present in use in dif- 








ferent laboratories. 








To organise an Ethnographical 


Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 


.30 





Survey of the United Kingdom. 


Secretary.— ^iv. E. Sidney Hart- 
land. 

Mr. Francis Galtcn, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
llomilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Jlr. Arthur J. Evans, Sir H. 
Howorth, Professor R. Meldola, 
General Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 






The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 


Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Professor W. Bo3-d Dawkins, Gen- 
eral Pitt-Rivers, and Sir John 
Evans. 


30 






Ixxxvi 



REPORT — 1894'. 
1. Receiving Granig of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Anthropometric Measurements in 
Schools. 



An ancient Kitchen-midden at 
Hastings already partially ex- 
amined, and a Settlement called 
the Wildernesse. 



To carry out an investigation on 
the Physiological Applications 
of the Phonograph, and on the 
true form of the voice curves 
made by the instrument. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman. — Professor A. Macalis- 

ter. 
Secretan/. — Professor B. Windle. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. 

Cleland, and Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Chairman. — Sir .Tolm Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. J. Lewis Ab- 
bott. 

Professor Prestwich, Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. 

Chairman. — Professor J. G. Mc- 
Kendrick. 

Secretary. — Professor G. G. Mur- 
ray. 

Mr. David S. Wingate and Mr. John 
S. McKendrick. 

Chairman. — Professor Pi. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. 
G. J. SjTnons, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkin- 
son, Professor T. G. Bonney, Jlr. 
W. Whitaker, ]\Ir. W. Topley, 
Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. 
Cuthbert Peek, and Rev. Canon 
H. B. Tristram. 



Grants 



£ 
5 



s. d. 




10 



25 



30 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Considering the best Methods of Record- 
ing the Direct Intensity of Solar Ra- 
diation. 



The Volcanic and Seismological Phe- 
nomena of Japan. 



Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 
Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Professor A. Schuster. Mr. G. Johnstone 

Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. 

de W. Abney, Mr. C. Chree, Mr. G. J. 

Symons, and Mr. W. B. AVilson. 

Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottom- 
ley, Professor A. H. Green, and Profes- 
sor C. G. Knott. 

Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chr3'stal, Mr. C. H. Carp- 
mael, Professor A. Schuster, Captain 
E. W. Creak, the Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. William Ellis, and Professor A. 
W. Rucker. 



COMMITTEES APrOlNTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxXXvii 
2. Not receiving Grants of Moncij — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Eate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



That Mr. W. N. Shaw and the Eev. T. 
C. Fitzpatrick be requested to con- 
tinue their Report on the present state 
of our Knowledge in Electrolysis and 
Electro-chemistry. 

That Sir. John Brill be requested to 
draw up a Report on Non-commuta- 
tive Algebras. 

The Properties of Solutions . • . 



Reporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



The Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



To inquire into the Proximate Chemical 
Constituents of the various kinds of 
Coal. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. John Murray. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Murray. 
Professor A. Schuster, Lord Kelvin, the 

Abbe Renard, Dr. A. Buchan, the Hon. 

R. Abercromby, Dr. M. Grabham, and 

Mr. John Aitken. 

Chairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Professor J. Prestwich, 
Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. 
Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, 
Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Strahan, and 
Professor Michie Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— Bt. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 

Professor H. McLeod, Mr. S. U. Picker- 
ing, Professor W. Ramsay, and Profes- 
sor S. Young. 

CJiairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

Chairman.— Dr. W. J. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney, Professor W. Noel Hart- 
ley and Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Sir I. Lowthian Bell. 
Secretary.— FroiessoT P. Phillips Bedson. 
Professor F. Clowes, Mr. Ludwig Mond, 

Professors Vivian B. Lewes and E. 

Hull, and Messrs. J. W. Thomas and 

H. Bauerman. 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1894. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To report on recent Inquiries into the 
History of Chemistry. 

The Teaciiino: of Natural Science in 
EJementarj- Schools. 



The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of 
England and Wales, and tlie Influence 
of the Artificial Abstraction of 
Shingle or other material in that 
action. 



The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 
and its neighbourhood. 



To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on tlie same. 

The Circulation of the Underground 
Waters in the Permeable Formations 
of England, and the Quality and 
Quantity of the Waters supplied to 
various Towns and Districts from 
these Formations. And that a Digest 
of the eighteen Reports should be 
prepared by the Committee, and sold 
in a separate form. 

To report on the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Zoology of the 
Sandwich Islands, and to take steps 
to investigate ascertained deficiencies 
in the Fauna, with power to co-operate 
with the Committee appointed for the 
purpose by the Royal Societj-, and to 
avail themselves of such assistance in 
their investigations as may be offered 
by the Hawaiian Government. 

To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Professor John Ferguson. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Professor W. R. 
Dunstan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magniis, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thomjoson. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. AVhitaker. 

Secretariat. — Messrs. C. E. De Ranee and 
W. Topley. 

Messrs. J. B. Redman and J. W. Woodall, 
Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Clarke, Admiral Sir IJ. 
Ommanney, Capt. Sir G. Nares, Capt. 
J. Parsons, Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. Edward 
Easton, Mr. J. S. Valentine, and Pro- 
fessor L. F. Vernon Harcourt. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. Bauerman. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. J. Johnston- Lavis. 
Messrs. F. W. Rudler and J. J. H. Teall. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F. Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, 
and Mr. J. E. Marr. 

CItairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. E. De Ranee. 

Sir D. Galton, Professor J. Prestwich, 
and Messrs. J. Glaisher, P. F. Kendall, 
E. B. Marten, G. H. Morton, I. Roberts, 
T. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, W. Topley, 
C. Tylden- Wright, E. Wethered, and 
W. Whitaker. 



CJiairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary.— Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Professor Riley, Mr. 0. Sal- 
vin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and Mr. Edgar A. 
Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secrctai-y. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 

Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. 

Barrington, Mr. W. E. Clarke, and Rev. 

E. P. Knubley. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Collection of Facts and Statistics 
bearing on the following Questions : — 

1. The influence of previous ferti- 

lisation of the female on her 
subsequent offspring. 

2. Tlie effect of maternal impres- 

sions during pregnancy on the 

offspring. 
The Committee are authorised to 
communicate with the Covmcils of the 
British Medical Societ\-, the Eoyal 
Agricultural Society, the Highland 
Agricultural Society, and the Koyal 
Dublin Society, with the view to joint 
work. 

For carrying on the Work of the An- 
thropometric Laboratory. 



The Prehistoric and Ancient Kemains 
of Glamorganshire. 



The Physical Characters, Languages, 
and Industrial and Social Condition 
of the North-Western Tribes of the 
Dominion of Canada. 

To co-operate witli the Committee ap- 
pointed by the International Congress 
of Hygiene and Demography in the 
investigation of the Mental and Phy- 
sical Condition of Children. 



Members of the Committee 



CJiairman. — Dr. A. Kussel Wallace. 
Secretary. — Dr. James Clark. 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Professor F. 
Jeffrey Bell, and Dr. J. N. Langley. 



Chairman.— ^ix W. H. Flower. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 
Dr. Wilberforce Smith, Professor A. C. 
Haddon, and Professor B. C. A. Windle. 

CJiairman.~V>r. C. T. Vachell. 

Secretary. — IMr. E. Seward. 

Lord Bute, Messrs. G. T. Clark, E. W. 
Atkinson, Franklen G. Evans, James 
Bell, and T. H. Thomas, and Dr. J. 
G. Garson. 

Chairman.— Dr. E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary.— Kv. Cuthbert E. Peek. 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. E. G. Haliburton, 
and Mr. H. Hale. 

Chairman. — Sir Douglas Galton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 
Mr. E. VV. Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
and Dr. W. Wilberforce Smith. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Dr. S. P. Langlej^'s paper on ' Eecent Eesearches in the Infra-red Spectrum.' 

Professor G. Quincke's paper on the ' Formation of Soap-bubbles by the Contact 
of Alkaline Oleates with Water.' 

Professor W. Forster's paper on the ' Displacements of the Eotational Axis of the 
Earth.' 

Professor A. Cornu's paper on a ' Lecture-room Experiment to illustrate Fresnel's 
Diffraction Theory, Babinet's Principle.' 

Professor J. J. Thomson's paper on the * Connection between Chemical Combi- 
nation and the Discharge of Electricity through Gases.' 



XC REPORT — 1894, 

Mr. H. Brereton Baker's paper on the ' Electrification of Molecules and Chemical 
Change.' 

Professor O. Henri ci's report on Planimeters. 

Sir Andrew Noble's paper on ' Jlethods that have been adopted for Measuring- 
Pressures in the Bores of Guns.' 



Resolutions relating to the Constitution and Titles of Sections. 

That the title of Section B in future be ' Chemistry.' 

That the title of Section D be ' Zoology.' 

That a separate Section of Botany be established. 

That the title of Section I be ' Physiology, including Experimental Pathology and 
E.xperimental Psychology.' 

That Section I be next constituted independently for the Liverpool Meeting in 
189G. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to give their full support to the 
efforts being made to induce the Government to send out a fully- equipped expedition 
for the exploration of the Antarctic and Southern Seas. 

That the Council be requested to call the attention of the Civil Service Commis- 
sioners to the report of a Committee of Section F on the Methods of Economic Train- 
ing, and especially to the recommendations (contained on page 2) with regard to 
the position of Economics in the Civil Service Examinations. 



XCl 



Si/nopsis of Grants of Money approiyncded io Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Oxford Meeting, August 1894. The Names 
of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the 
respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ 

*Foster , Professor Carey — Electrical Standards 25 

■*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Photograplis of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena 10 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Mathematical Tables (unexpended balance) 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Earth Tremors 75 

•McLaren, Lord — Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 50 

Atkinson, Dr. E. — Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Fox, Mr. Howard — Reduction of Magnetic Observations made 

at Fahnouth Observatory 50 

Riicker, Professor A. W. — Comparison of Magnetic Standards 25 

Harley, Rev. R. — Calculation of Cei'tain Litegrals 15 

Thompson, Professor S. P. — Unifonnity of Size of Pages of 

Transactions, etc 5 

Chemist7'y. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E. — Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 

the Elements 10 

*Thorpe, Dr. T. E. — Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 5 

"^Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Formation of Haloids from 

Pure Materials 20 

*Tilden, Professor W. A. — Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 30 

*Reynolds, Professor J. E. — Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 40 



* 



* 



s. 


d. 


















































































Geology. 

-*Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks 10 

'^Wiltshire, Professor T. — Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest 

(renewed) 10 

*Horne, Mr. J. — Shell-bearing Deposits at Clava, ttc 10 

*Traquair, Dr. R. H.— Eurypterids of the Pentland Hills ... 3 

*Woodward, Mr. H. B.— New Sections of Stonesfield Slate ... 50 

*Tiddeman, Mr. R. H.— Exploration of Calf-Hole Cave 10 

*Bonney, Professor T. G. — Investigation of a Coral Reef by 

Boring and Sounding 10 

Evans, Sir John — Nature and Probable Age of High-level 

Flint-drifts 10 

Green, Professor A. H. — Examination of Locality where the 

Cetiosaurus in the Oxford Museum was found 20 

Carried forward £598 

* Reappointed. 



scii REPonr — 1894. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward '. 598 

Biology. 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L. — Investigations at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

*Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Investigations at the Biological Labora- 
tory, Plymouth (10^. renewed) 20 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea (partly renewed) 40 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L. — -Zoology and Botany of the West India 

Islands .50 

*Flower, Sir AV. H. — Index of Genera and Species of Animals 50 

Geography. 

*Ravenstein, Mr. E. G. — Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

*Seebohm, Mr. H. — Exploration of Hadramout 50 

Mechanical Science. 

Kennedy, Professor A. B. W. — Calibration and Comparison 

of Measuring Instruments 50 

Anthropology. 

*Brabroolc, Mr. E. W.— Ethnographical Survey ."0 

*Munro, Dr. B. — Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

*Macalister, Professor A. — Anthropometric Measurements in 

Schools 5 

Evans, Sir J. — Exploration of a Kitchen-midden at Hastings 10 

Pliysiology. 

McKendrick, Professor J. G. — Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

*Meldola, Professor R. — Corresponding Societies 30 

£1,093 

* Eeappointerl. 



TJie Annual Ileeting in 1895. 
The Meeting at Ipswich will commence on Wednesday, September 11. 

The Anmial Ifeefing in 1896. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 189G will be held at 
Xiverpool. 



XCIU 



General Statement of Sums luMch have been 'paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20^0 

1835. 

Tide Discussions G2 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£1(57 U 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 

£922 12 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 103 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Kain-gauges 9 l-^ 

Eefracti on Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



18.38. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) GO 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 4112 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Eivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 2G7 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 

£932 2 2 



1839. 

£ s. d. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 a 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 T 

Railway Constants 28 7 0' 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaille 11 6- 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6- 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 0' 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8- 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9k 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 0' 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 O 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Caeste) 242 10 O 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 0' 

Water on Iron 10 O 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6' 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics .50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 0- 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth SO 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 !• 



£1540 16 4 



XCIV 



REPORT — 189-i. 



1811. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves liO 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water onlron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections ?)8 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. . 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannias 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gaseson Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 60 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 2 

12 



8 
14 
17 

5 













10 







8 6 







Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



«. 


d. 




















1 


11 


9 






£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 65 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 1 00 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 





















12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 



1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 









5 




8 



GEXEKAL STATEMENT. 



XCV 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Pl3Tnouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

^Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

In II uence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 6 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Foi-ms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 184 2 10 

£'.)81 12 8 



1845. 

£ t. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plj-mouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrogxaph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

Tlie Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall .10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 



£831 9 9 



184C. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplui-a 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 



£685 16 



XCVl 



REPORT — 1894. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 1 07 8 6 

£'208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 1] 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 S 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Blaintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Infliience 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 0~~0 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 C* 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Etlmological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480T6~4 



1856. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 

1854 £ 75 01 .„. ^ ^ 

,..£500 o) 27^ ^ ^ 



1855. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCVll 



£, s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

S3monyms 100 

Dredging- and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 1.S 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

liesearclies on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

im.ported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperattire of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 

Life-boats 



1858. 
Maintaining- the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land '^^_P_ 

£618 18 



5 


7 



4 


5 









£507 


15 


4 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Ke-sv Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

1894. 



£ K. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British MedusidiB 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£fi84 11 



d. 










1 





1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Ke-5v Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 121 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766^19~6 



23 



72 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Sokibility of Salt.s 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloj's 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of AVater 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 10 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£rTll~5 10 



f 



XCVIU 



REPORT — 1894. 



1862. 

£ g. d. 
Maintaininp;- the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredsring North-east Coast 

of Sco'tland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 311 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 60 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon un d er pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 

































































3 10 


























































£ >. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 1!) 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 

















































































5 


8 



























15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida..... 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 60 

Zoological Nomenclature 6 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


10 








7 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 



1866. 

& 
Maintaining: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 61 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flag's Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration .30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredo-ing Aberdeenshire Coast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water ;• 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands ^0 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100^ 

£1750 



t. d. 



13 4 

















































13 4 



































































































4 






























1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c.. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture . 25 

Patent Laws ^0 

£173^ 4 



1868. 

£ ». d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical C immittee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 0' 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 0' 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 n 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 i) o 

Meth3'l Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 

stoneRocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 (i 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiitorcan Fossils 20 

f 2 



REPORT — 1894. 



£ 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

•Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 
































1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

•Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

.Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

'Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 60 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 n 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Cummittce 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Obiects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal' Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, ifcc 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 1 50 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths LoO 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 



£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 



£1151 16 



1875. 

Elliptic Functions 103 

Magnetisation of Iron 23 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors SO 

ChemLstry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crosols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 



1876. 

£ 
Printing Mathematical Tables 159 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 
Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound" 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Sieam-vessels .... 



t. d. 

4 2 



15 















































10 



































15 












5 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 

Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpefe, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

"and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acefate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 















11 


7 






































.0 




































cu 



REPORT — 1894. 



£ s. d. 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 

Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



1878. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siplion 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 
Chemical Composition and 

Structure of less -known 

Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 15 
Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 
Borneo 60 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 



£ ». d. 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon ." 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 60 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 60 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paratfines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record TOO 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



£ s. d. 
Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 2o 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 
Serum 10 



1881. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£47(5 3 1 





1 11 







































































£ i. d. 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 1 11 









1) 






























1883. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 60 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 60 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palajo- 

zoic Rocks 15 















4 






























CIV 



REPORT — 1894. 



£ s. d. 

Circulation of Underground 

Wat e rs 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural Historv of Timor-laut 50 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

nia-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 
Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£\in 4 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 



1885. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 

tiarj' and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Poly zoa 10 

Marine Biological Station at 

Granton 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

:£1385 



£ s. d. 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 0" 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... £0 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 80 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Biological Station, Granton... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrataat St. Andrews 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .lapan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plj-mouth Biological Station 50 



10 











2 
































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



£ ». d. 

Gran ton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathj'-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 IS 



1888. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

PalcBontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- * 

vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 



£ s. d 
North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

;£r51]~0"5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 80 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

Inn 



























4 


8 




































































6 


3 





















11 



1890. 

Electrical standards 12 17 

Electrolysis ,t 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 



CVl 



REPORT — 1894, 



£ s. d. 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Pal fee zoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Pho'totjraphs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton- 
shire 25 

Botanical Station at Perade- 

niya 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£709 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 6 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 
Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 

Geological Uecord 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photogrraphs of Geological 

Interest 9 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 
Registration of Tvpe-Speci- 

mcns of British Fossils 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 
Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 





































































10 























5 











5 


n 





















£ s. 
12 10 



Marine Biological Association 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 



£1,029 10 



1892. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters ]0 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 1.5 

Intensify of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 6 

Shell-bearino^ Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelliall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 

Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

E-xploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 60 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 



£ i. d. 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Kadiation 5 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurvpterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonestield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological A.ssociation 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 6 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 




5 




6 






















































































4 

I 



cviii REPOi.T— 1894. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesda)', August 8, at 8 P.M., in the Sheldonian Theatre, 
Professor J. S. Burden Sanderson, M.A., M.D., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.R.S.E., resigned the office of President to the Most Hon. the Marquis 
of SaUsbury, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for •which see 
page 3. 

On Thursday, August 9, at 8.30 p.m., a Soire'e took place at the 
Museum. 

On Friday, August 10, at 8.30 P.M., in the Sheldonian Theatre, 
Dr. J. W. Gregory, F.G.S., delivered a discourse on 'Experiences and 
Prospects of African Exploration.' 

On Monday, August 13, at 8.30 P.M., in the Sheldonian Theatre, 
Professor J. Shield Nicholson, M.A., delivered a discourse on 'Historical 
Progress and Ideal Socialiera.' 

On Tuesday, August 14, at 8.30 P.M., a Soiree took place at the New 
Examination Schools. 

On Wednesday, August IH, at 2.30 P.M., in the New Examination 
Schools, the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings 
of the General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Ipswich. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September 11, 1895.] 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS- 



189i. 



ADDEESS 



BT 



THE MOST HON. THE MAEQUIS OF SALISBUEY, 

K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S., Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 

PRESIDENT. 



My -functions are of a more comjDlicated character than usually is 
assigned to the occupants of this Chair. As Chancellor of the University 
it is my duty to tender to the British Association a hearty welcome, which 
it is my duty as President of the Association to accept. As President of 
the Association I convey, most unworthily, the voice of English science, 
as many worthy and illustrious Presidents have done before me ; but in 
representing the University I represent far more fittingly the learners 
who are longing to hear the lessons which the fii-st teachers of English 
science have come as visitors to teach. I am bound to express on behalf 
of the University our sense of the good feeling towards that body which 
is the motive of this unusual arrangement. But as far as I am personally 
concerned, it is attended with some embarrassing results. In presence of 
the high priests of science I am only a layman, and all the skill of all the 
chemists the Association contains will not transmute a layman into any 
more precious kind of metal. Yet it is my hard destiny to have to address 
on scientific matters probably the most competent scientific audience in 
the world. If a country gentleman, who was also a colonel of Volun- 
teers, were by any mental aberration on the part of the Commander-in- 
Chief to be appointed to review an army corps at Aldershot, all military 
men would doubtless feel a deep compassion for his inevitable fate. I 
bespeak some spark of that divine emotion when I am attempting to 
discharge under similar conditions a scarcely less hopeless duty. At least, 
however, I have the consolation of feeling that I am free from some of the 
anxieties which have fallen to those who have preceded me as Presidents 
in this city. The relations of the Association and the University are 
those of entire sympathy and good will, as becomes common workers in 
the sacred cause of difi"using enlightenment and knowledge. But we must 
admit that it was not always so. A curious record of a very different 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1894. 

state of feeling came to light last year in the interesting biography of Dr. 
Pusey, which is the posthumous work of Canon Liddon. In it is related 
the first visit of the Association to Oxford in 1832. Mr. Keble, at that 
time a leader of University thought, writes indignantly to his friend to 
complain that the honorary degree of D.C.L. had been bestowed upon 
some of the most distinguished members of the Association : ' The Oxford 
Doctors,' he says, ' have truckled sadly to the spirit of the times in 
receiving the hodge-podge of philosophers as they did.' It is amusing, at 
this distance of time, to note the names of the hodge-podge of philosophers 
whose academical distinctions so sorely vexed Mr. Keble's gentle spirit. 
They were Brown, Brewster, Faraday, and Dalton. When we recollect 
the lovable and serene character of Keble's nature, and that he was at 
that particular date probably the man in the University who had the 
greatest power over other men's minds, we can measure the distance we 
have traversed since that time ; and the rapidity with which the con- 
verging paths of these two intellectual luminaries, the University and the 
Association, have approximated to each other. This sally of Mr. Keble's 
was no passing or accidental caprice. It represented a deep-seated senti- 
ment in this place of learning, which had its origin in historic causes, 
and which has only died out in our time. One potent cause of it was 
that both bodies were teachers of science, but did not then in any 
degree attach the same meaning to that word. Science with the Univer- 
sity for many generations bore a signification different from that which 
belongs to it in this assembly. It represented the knowledge which alone 
in the Middle Ages was thought worthy of the name of science. It was 
the knowledge gained not by external observation, but by mere reflection. 
The student's microscope was turned inward upon the recesses of his 
own brain ; and when the supply of facts and realities failed, as it very 
speedily did, the scientific imagination was not wanting to furnish to 
successive generations an interminable series of conflicting speculations. 
That science — science in our academical sense — had its day of rapid 
growth, of boundless aspiration, of enthusiastic votaries. It fascinated 
the rising intellect of the time, and it is said — people were not particular 
about figures in those days — that its attractions were at one time potent 
enough to gather round the University thirty thousand students, who for 
the sake of learning its teaching were willing to endure a life of the 
severest hardship. Such a state of feeling is now an archaeological 
curiosity. The revolt against Aristotle is now some three centuries old. 
But the mental sciences which were supposed to rest upon his writings 
have retained some of their ascendency even till this day, and have only 
slowly and jealously admitted the rivalry of the growing sciences of 
observation. The subject is interesting to us, as this undecided state 
of feeling coloured the experiences of this Association at its last Oxford 
visit, nearly a generation later, in 1860. The warmth of the encounters 
which then took place have left a vivid impression on the minds of those 
who are old enough to have witnessed them. That much energy was on 



ADDKESS. 5 

that occasion converted into heat may, I think, be inferred from the 
mutual distance which the two bodies have since maintained. Whereas 
the visit of 1832 was succeeded by another visit in fifteen years, and the 
visit of 1847 was succeeded by another visit in tliirteen years, the year 
1860 was followed by a long and dreary interval of separation, which has 
only now, after four-and-thirty years, been terminated. It has required 
the lapse of a generation to draw the curtain of oblivion over those 
animated scenes. It was popularly supposed that deep divergences upon 
questions of religion were the motive force of those high controversies. 
To some extent that impression was correct. But men do not always 
discern the motives which are really urging them, and I suspect that in 
many cases religious apprehensions only masked the resentment of the 
older learning at the appearance and claims of its younger rival. In any 
case there is something worthy of note, and something that conveys 
encouragement, in the difference of the feeling which prevails now and 
the feeling that was indicated then. Few men are now influenced by the 
strange idea that questions of religious belief depend on the issues of 
physical research. Few men, whatever their creed, would now seek their 
geology in the books of their religion, or, on the other hand, would fancy 
that the laboratory or the microscope could help them to penetrate the 
mysteries which hang over the nature and the destiny of the soul of man. 
And the old learning no longer contests the share in education which is 
claimed by the new, or is blind to the supreme influence which natural 
knowledge is exercising in moulding the human mind. 

A study of the addresses of my learned predecessors in this office 
shows me that the main duty which it falls to a President to perform in 
his introductory address, is to remind you of the salient points in the 
annals of science since last the Association visited the town in which he 
is speaking. Most of them have been able to lay before you in all its 
interesting detail the history of the particular science of which each one 
of them was the eminent representative. If I were to make any such 
attempt I should only be telling you with very inadequate knowledge a 
story which is from time to time told you, as well as it can be told, by 
men who are competent to deal with it. It will be more suitable to my 
capacity if I devote the few observations I have to make to a survey not 
of our science but of our ignorance. We live in a small bright oasis of 
knowledge surrounded on all sides by a vast unexplored region of im- 
penetrable mystery. From age to age the strenuous labour of successive 
generations wins a small strip from the desert and pushes forward the 
boundary of knowledge. Of such triumphs we are justly proud. It is a 
less attractive task — but yet it has its fascination as well as its uses — to 
turn our eyes to the undiscovered country which still remains to be won, 
to some of the stupendous problems of natural study which still defy our 
investigation. Instead, therefore, of recounting to you what has been 
done, or trying to forecast the discoveries of the future, I would rather 
draw your attention to the condition in which we stand towards three or 



6 REPOKT — 1894. 

four of the most important physical questions which it has been the effort 
of the last century to solve. 

Of the scientific enigmas which still, at the end of the nineteenth 
century, defy solution, the nature and origin of what are called the 
elements is the most notable. It is not, perhaps, easy to give a precise 
logical reason for the feeling that the existence of our sixty-five elements 
is a strange anomaly and conceals some much simpler state of facts. But 
the conviction is irresistible. We cannot conceive, on any possible 
doctrine of cosmogony, how these sixty-five elements came into existence. 
A tliird of them form the substance of this planet. Another third are 
useful, but somewhat rare. The remaining third are curiosities scattered 
haphazard, but very scantily, over the globe, with no other apparent function 
but to provide occupation for the collector and the chemist. Some of them 
are so like each other that only a chemist can tell them apart : others differ 
immeasurably from each other in every conceivable particular. In co- 
hesion, in weight, in conductivity, in melting-point, in chemical proclivities 
they vary in every degree. They seem to have as much relation to each 
other as the pebbles on a sea beach, or the contents of an ancient lumber 
room. Whether you believe that Creation was the work of design or of 
inconscient law, it is equally difficult to imagine how this random collection 
of dissimilar materials came together. Many have been the attempts to 
solve this enigma ; but up till now they have left it more impenetrable 
than before. A conviction that here was something to discover lay beneath 
the persistent belief in the possibility of the transmutation of other metals 
into gold, which brought the alchemy of the Middle Ages into being. 
When the immortal discovery of Dalton established that the atoms of 
each of these elements have a special weight of their own, and that con- 
sequently they combine in fixed ponderable proportions from which they 
never depart, it renewed the hope that some common origin of the elements 
was in sight. The theory was advanced that all these weights were 
multiples of the weight of hydrogen — in other words, that each elementary 
atom was only a greater or a smaller number of hydrogen atoms compacted 
by some strange machinery into one. The most elaborate analyses, con- 
ducted by chemists of the highest eminence — conspicuously by the 
illustrious Stas — were directed to the question whether there was any 
trace in fact of the theoretic idea that the atoms of each element consist 
of so many atoms or even of so many half-atoms of hydrogen. But the 
reply of the laboratories has always been clear and certain — that there is 
not in the facts the faintest foundation for such a theory. 

Then came the discovery of the spectral analysis, and men thought 
that with 8.n instrument of such inconceivable delicacy we should at last 
find out something as to the nature of the atom. The result has been 
wholly disappointing. Spectral analysis in the hands of Dr. Huggins and 
Mr. Lockyer and others has taught us things of which the woi'ld little 
expected to be told. We have been enabled to measure the speed with 
which clouds of blazing hydrogen course across the surface of the sun : 



ADDRESS. 7 

we have learnt the pace — the fabulous pace — at which the most familiar 
stars have been for ages approaching to or receding from our planet, 
without apparently affecting the proportions of the patterns which as far 
as historical record goes back they have always delineated on the even- 
ing sky. We have received some information about the elementary atoms 
themselves. We have learnt that each sort of atom when heated strikes 
upon the ether a vibration, or set of vibrations, whose rate is all its own ; 
and that no one atom or combination of atoms in producing its own spec- 
trum encroaches even to the extent of a single line upon the spectrum 
that is peculiar to its neighbour. We have learnt that the elements 
which exist in the stars and specially in the sun are mainly those with 
which we are familiar upon earth. There are a few lines in excess to 
which we can give no terrestrial name ; and there are some still more 
puzzling gaps in our list. It is a great aggravation of the mystery 
which besets the question of the elements, that among the lines which 
are absent from the spectrum of the sun, those of nitrogen and oxygen 
stand first. Oxygen constitutes the largest portion of the solid and liquid 
substance of our planet, so far as we know it ; and nitrogen is very far the 
predominant constituent of our atmosphere. If the earth is a detached 
bit whirled off the mass of the sun, as cosmogonists loAe to tell us, how 
comes it that in leaving the sun we cleaned him out so completely of his 
nitrogen and oxygen that not a trace of these gases remains behind to 
be discovered even by the sensitive vision of the spectroscope ? 

All these things the discovery of spectrum analysis has added to our 
knowledge ; but it has left us as ignorant as ever as to the nature of 
the capricious differences which separate the atoms from each other, or 
the cause to which those differences are due. 

In the last few years the same enigma has been approached from another 
point of view by Mr. Newlands and Professor Mendeleeff. The periodic 
law which they have discovered reflects on them all the honour that can be 
earned by ingenious, laborious, and successful research. The Professor has 
shown that this perplexing list of elements can be divided into families of 
about seven, speaking very roughly : that those families all resemble each 
other in this, that as to weight, volume, heat, and laws of combination 
the members of each family are ranked among themselves in obedience to 
the same rule. Each family differs from the others ; but each internally 
is constructed upon the same plan. It was a strange discovery — strangest 
of all in its manifest defects. For in the plan of his families there were 
blanks left ; places not filled up because the properly constituted elements 
required according to his theory had not been foujid to fill them. For the 
moment their absence seemed a weakness in the Professor's idea, and 
gave an arbitrary aspect to his scheme. But the weakness was turned 
into strength when, to the astonishment of the scientific world, three of 
the elements which were missing made their appearance in answer to his 
call. He had described beforehand the qualities they ought to have ; 
and gallium, germanium, and scandium, when they were discovered 



8 EEPORT — 1894. 

shortly after the publication of his theory, were found to be duly clothed 
with the qualities he required in each. This remarkable confirmation has left 
MendeleefF's periodic law in an unassailable position. But it has rather 
thickened than dissipated the mystery which hangs over the elements. 
The discovery of these co-ordinate families dimly points to some identical 
origin, without suggesting the method of their genesis or the nature of 
their common parentage. If they were organic beings all our difficulties 
would be solved by muttering the comfortable word ' evolution ' — one 
of those indefinite words from time to time vouchsafed to humanity, 
which have the gift of alleviating so many perplexities and masking so 
many gups in our knowledge. But the families of elementary atoms do 
not breed ; and we cannot therefore ascribe their ordered difference to 
accidental variations perpetuated by heredity under the influence of 
natural selection. The -rarity of iodine, and the abundance of its sister 
chlorine, cannot be attributed to the survival of the fittest in the struggle 
for existence. We cannot account for the minute difference which per- 
sistently distinguishes nickel from cobalt, by asci'ibing it to the recent 
inheritance l)y one of them of an advantageous variation from the parent 
stock. 

The upshot is that all these successive triumphs of research, Dalton's, 
Kirchhoff 's, Mendele'eff 's, greatly as they have added to our store of know- 
ledge, have gone but little way to solve the problem which the elemen- 
tary atoms have for centuries presented to mankind. What the atom of 
each element is, whether it is a movement, or a thing, or a vortex, or a 
point having inertia, whether there is any limit to its divisibility, and, if 
so, how that limit is imposed, whether the long list of elements is final, or 
whether any of them have any common origin, all these questions remain 
surrounded by a darkness as profound as ever. The dream which lured 
the alchemists to their tedious labours, and which may be said to hav& 
called chemistry into being, has assuredly not been realised, but it has not 
yet been refuted. The boundary of our knowledge in this direction re- 
mains where it was many centuries ago. 

The next discussion to which I should look in order to find unsolved 
riddles which have hitherto defied the scrutiny of science, would be the 
question of what is called the ether. The ether occupies a highly anoma- 
lous position in the world of science. It may be described as a half- 
discovered entity. I dare not use any less pedantic word than entity tO' 
designate it, for it would be a great exaggeration of our knowledge if I 
were to speak of it as a body or even as a substance. When nearly a 
century ago Young and Fresnel discovered that the motions of an incan- 
descent particle were conveyed to our eyes by undulation, it followed that 
between our eyes and the particle there must be something to undulate. 
In order to furnish that something, the notion of the ether was conceived, 
and for more than two generations the main, if not the only, function of 
the word ether has been to furnish a nominative case to the verb ' to un- 
dulate.' Lately, our conception of this entity has received a notable 



ADDRESS. 9 

extension. One of the most brilliant of the services which Professor 
Maxwell has lendered to science has been the discovery that the figure 
which expressed the velocity of light also expressed the multiplier 
required to change the measure of static or passive electricity into that of 
dynamic or active electricity. The interpretation reasonably affixed to 
this discoveiy is that, as light and the electric impulse move approximately 
at the same rate through space, it is probable that the undulations which 
convey them are undulations of the same medium. And as induced 
electricity penetrates through everything, or nearly everything, it follows 
that the ether through which its undulations are propagated must pervade 
all space, whether empty or full, whether occupied by opaque matter or 
transparent matter, or by no matter at all. The attractive experiments 
by which the late Professor Herz illustrated the electric vibrations of the 
ether will only be alluded to by me in order that I may express the 
regret deeply and generally felt that death should have terminated pre- 
maturely the scientific career which had begun with such brilliant promise 
and such fruitful achievements. But the mystery of the ether, though it 
has been made more fascinating by these discoveries, remains even more 
inscrutable than before. Of this all-pervading entity we know absolutely 
nothing except this one fact, that it can be made to undulate. Whether,, 
outside the influence of matter on the motion of its Avaves, ether has any 
effect on matter or matter upon it, is absolutely unknown. And even its 
solitary function of undulating, ether performs in an abnormal fashion 
which has caused infinite perplexity. All fluids that we know transmit 
any blow they have received by waves which undulate backwards and 
forwards in the path of their own advance. The ether undulates athwart 
the path of the wave's advance. The genius of Lord Kelvin has recently 
discovered what he terms a labile state of equilibrium, in which a fluid that 
is infinite in its extent may exist, and may undulate in this eccentric 
fashion without outraging the laws of mathematics. I am no mathema- 
tician, and I cannot judge whether this reconciliation of the action of the 
ether with mechanical law is to be looked upon as a permanent solution 
of the question, or is only what diplomatists call a modus vivendi. In any 
case it leaves our knowledge of the ether in a very rudimentary condition. 
It has no known qualities except one, and that quality is in the highest 
degree anomalous and inscrutable. The extended conception which 
enables us to recognise ethereal waves in the vibrations of electricity has 
added infinite attraction to the study of those waves, but it carries its own 
difficulties with it. It is not easy to fit in the theory of electrical ether 
waves with the phenomena of positive and negative electricity, and as to 
the true significance and cause of those counteracting and complementary 
forces, to which we give the provisional names of negative and positive, 
we know about as much now as Franklin knew a century and a half ago. 
I have selected the elementary atoms and the ether as two instances. 
of the obscurity that still hangs over problems which the highest scientific 
intellects have been investigating for several generations. A more 



10 EEPOET — 1894. 

striking but more obvious instance still is Life — animal and vegetable 
Life — the action of an unknown force on ordinary matter. What is the 
mysterious impulse which is able to strike across the ordinary laws of 
matter, and twist them for a moment from their path ? Some people 
demur to the use of the term ' vital force ' to designate this impulse. In 
their view the existence of such a force is negatived by the fact that 
chemists have been able by cunning substitutions to produce artificially 
the peculiar compounds which in nature are only found in organisms that 
are or have been living. These compounds are produced by some living 
organism in the performance of the ordered series of functions proper to 
its brief career. To counterfeit them — as has been done in numerous 
cases — does not enable us to do what the vital force alone can effect — to 
bring the organism itself into existence, and to cause it to run its appointed 
course of change. This is the unknown force which continues to defy not only 
our imitation but our scrutiny. Biology has been exceptionally active and 
successful during the last half-century. Its triumphs have been brilliant, 
and they have been rich enough not only in immediate result but in the 
promise of future advance. Yet they give at present no hope of penetrat- 
ing the great central mystery. The progress which has been made in the 
study of microscopic life has been very striking, whether or not the results 
which are at present inferred from it can be taken as conclusive. Infini- 
tesimal bodies found upon the roots of plants have the proud office of 
capturing and taming for us the free nitrogen of the air, which, if we are 
to live at all, we must consume and assimilate, and yet which, without 
the help of our microscopic ally, we could not draw for any useful purpose 
from the ocean of nitrogen in which we live. Microscopic bodies are 
convicted of causing many of the worst diseases to which flesh is heir, 
and the guilt of many more will probably be brought home to them in due 
time ; and they exercise a scarcely less sinister or less potent influence on 
our race by the plagues with which they destroy some of the most valuable 
fruits of husbandry, such as the potato, the mulberry, and the vine. 
Almost all their power resides in the capacity of propagating their kind 
with infinite rapidity, and up to this time science has been moi'e skilful in 
describing their ravages than in devising means to hiiider them. It would 
be ungrateful not to mention two brilliant exceptions to this criticism. 
The antiseptic surgery which we owe chiefly to Lister ; and the inocula- 
tion against anthrax, hydrophobia, and perhaps some other diseases, 
which we owe to Pasteur, must be recorded as splendid victories over the 
countless legions of our infinitesimal foes. Results like these are the great 
glory of the scientific workers of the past century. Men may, perhaps, 
have overrated the jarogress of nineteenth-century research in opening 
the secrets of nature ; but it is difficult to overrate the brilliant service it 
has rendered in ministering to the comforts and diminishing the sufferings 
of mankind. 

If we are not able to see far into the causes and origin of life in our 
own day, it is not probable that we shall deal more successfully with the 



ADDRESS, 1 1 

problem as it arose many million years ago. Yet certainly the most 
conspicuous event in the scientific annals of the last half- century has been 
the publication of Mr. Darwin's work on the ' Origin of Species,' which 
appeared in 1859. In some respects, in the depth of the impression which 
it made on scientific thought, and even on the general opinion of the 
world, its momentous effect can hardly be overstated. But at this dis- 
tance of time it is possible to see that some of its success has been due to 
adventitious circumstances. It has had the chance of enlisting among its 
champions some of the most powerful intellects of our time, and perhaps 
the still happier fortune of appearing at a moment when it furnished an 
armoury of weapons to men, who were not scientific, for use in the bitter 
but transitory polemics of the day. But far the largest part of its 
accidental advantages was to be found in the remarkable character and 
qualifications of its author. The equity of judgment, the simple-minded 
love of truth and the patient devotion to the pursuit of it through years 
of toil and of other conditions the most unpropitious — these things en- 
deared to numbers of men everything that came from Charles Darwin 
apart from its scientific merit or literary charm. And whatever final 
value may be assigned to his doctrine, nothing can ever detract from the 
lustre shed upon it by the wealth of his knowledge and the infinite in- 
genuity of his resource. The intrinsic power of his theory is shown at 
least in this one respect, that in the department of knowledge with which 
it is concerned it has effected an entire revolution in the methods of 
research. Before his time the study of living nature had a tendency to 
be merely statistical ; since his time it has become predominantly historical. 
The consideration how an organic body came to be what it is occupies a 
far larger area in any inquiry now than the mere description of its actual 
condition ; but this question was not predominant — it may almost be said 
to have been ignored— in the Botanical and Zoological study of sixty 
years ago. 

Another lasting and unquestioned effect has resulted from Darwin's 
work. He has, as a matter of fact, disposed of the doctrine of the im- 
mutability of species. It has been mainly associated in recent days with 
the honoured name of Agassiz, but with him has disappeared the last 
defender of it who could claim the attention of the world. Few now are 
found to doubt that animals separated by differences far exceeding those 
that distinguish what we know as species have yet descended from common 
ancestors. But there is much less agreement as to the extent to which 
this common descent can be assumed, or the process by which it has come 
about. Darwin himself believed that all animals were descended from 'at 
most four or five progenitors ' — adding that ' there was grandeur in the 
view that life had been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms 
or one.' Some of his more devoted followers, like Professor Haeckel, were 
prepared to go a step farther and to contemplate primeval mud as the 
probable ancestor of the whole fauna and flora of this planet. 

To this extent the Darwinian theory has not effected the conquest of 



12 REPORT— 1891. 

scientific opinion ; and still less is there any unanimity in the acceptance 
of natural selection as the sole or even the main agent of whatever 
modifications may have led up to the existing forms of life. The deepest 
obscurity still hangs over the origin of the infinite variety of life. Two 
of the strongest objections to the Darwinian explanation appear still to 
retain all their force. 

I think Lord Kelvin was the first to point out that the amount of time 
required by the advocates of the theory for working out the process they 
had imagined could not be conceded without assuming the existence of a 
totally different set of natural laws from those with which we are 
acquainted. His view was not only based on profound mechanical reason- 
ing, but it was so plain that any layman could comprehend it. Setting aside 
arguments deduced from the resistance of the tides, which may be taken to 
transcend the lay understanding, his argument from the refrigeration of the 
earth requires little science to apprehend it. Everybody knows that hot 
things cool, and that according to their substance they take more or less 
time in cooling. It is evident from the increase of heat as we descend into 
the earth, that the earth is cooling, and we know by experiment, within cer- 
tain wide limits, the rate at which its substances, the matters of which it 
is constituted, are found to cool. It follows that we can approximately 
calculate how hot it was so many million years ago. But if at any time 
it was hotter at the surface by -50° F. than it is now, life would then have 
been impossible upon the planet, and therefore we can without much diffi- 
culty fix a date before which organic life on earth cannot have existed. 
Basing himself on these considerations Lord Kelvin limited the period of 
organic life upon the earth to a hundred million years, and Professor Tait 
in a still more penurious spirit cut that hundi-ed down to ten. But on the 
other side of the account stand the claims of the geologists and biologists. 
They have revelled in the prodigality of the ciphers which they put at the 
end of the earth's hypothetical life. Long cribbed and cabined within the 
narrow bounds of the popular chronology, they have exulted wantonly in 
their new freedom. They have lavished their millions of years with the 
open hand of a prodigal heir indemnifying liimself by present extravagance 
for the enforced self-denial of his youth. But it cannot be gainsaid that 
their theories require at least all this elbowroom. If we think of that 
vast distance over which Darwin conducts us from the jelly-fish lying on 
the primeval beach to man as we know him now ; if we reflect that the 
prodigious change requisite to transform one into the other is made up of 
a chain of generations, each advancing by a minute variation from the 
form of its predecessor, and if we further reflect that these successive 
changes are so minute that in the course of our historical period — say 
three thousand years — this progressive variation has not advanced by a 
single step perceptible to our eyes, in respect to man or the animals and 
plants with which man is familiar, we shall admit that for a chain of 
change so vast, of which the smallest link is longer than our recorded 
history, the biologists are making no extravagant claim when they demand 



ADDRESS. 13 

at least many hundred million years for the accomplishment of the stu- 
pendous process. Of course, if the mathematicians are right, the biologists 
cannot have what they demand. If, for the purposes of their theory, organic 
life must have existed on the globe more than a hundred million years 
ago, it must, under the temperature then prevailing, have existed in a state 
of vapour. The jelly-fish would have been dissipated in steam long before 
he had had a chance of displaying the advantageous variation which was 
to make him the ancestor of the human race. I see, in the eloquent dis- 
course of one of my most recent and most distinguished predecessors in this 
chair. Sir Archibald Geikie, that the controversy is still alive. The mathe- 
maticians sturdily adhere to their figures, and the biologists are quite sure 
the mathematicians must have made a mistake. I will not get myself into 
the line of fire by intervening in such a controversy. But until it is 
adjusted the laity may be excused for returning a verdict of ' not proven ' 
upon the wider issues the Darwinian school has raised. 

The other objection is best stated in the words of an illustrious disciple 
pf Darwin, Avho has recently honoured this city by his presence — I refer 
to Professor Weismann. But in referring to him, I cannot but give, in 
passing, a feeble expression to the universal sorrow with which in this 
place the news was received that Weismann's distinguished antagonist, 
Professor Romanes, had been taken from us in the outset and full promise 
of a splendid scientific career. 

The gravest objection to the doctrine of natural selection was expressed 
by Weismann in a paper published a few months ago, not as agreeing to 
the objection, but as resisting it ; and therefore his language may be taken 
.as an impartial statement of the difficulty. ' We accept natural selection,' 
he says, ' not because we are able to demonstrate the process in detail, not 
even because we can with more or less ease imagine it, but simply because 
we must— because it is the only possible explanation that we can conceive. 
We must assume natural selection to be the principle of the explana- 
tion of the metamorphoses, because all other apparent principles of 
explanation fail us, and it is inconceivable that there could yet be another 
capable of explaining the adaptation of organisms without assuming the 
help of a principle of design.' 

There is the difficulty. We cannot demonstrate the process of natural 
selection in detail ; we cannot even, with more or less ease, imagine it. It 
is purely hypothetical. No man, so far as we know, has ever seen it at 
work. An accidental variation may have been perpetuated by inhei'itance, 
and in the struggle for existence the bearer of it may have replaced, bv 
virtue of the survival of the fittest., his less improved competitors ; but as 
far as we know no man or succession of men have ever observed the whole 
process in any single case, and certainly no man has recorded the obser- 
vation. Variation by artificial selection, of course, we know very well ; 
but the intei'vention of the cattle breeder and the pigeon fancier is the 
essence of artificial selection. It is effected by their action in crossing, 
by their skill in bringing the right mates together to produce the progeni- 



14 REPORT — 1894. 

ture they want. But in natural selection who is to supply the breeder's 
place 1 Unless the crossing is properly arranged, the new breed will never 
come into being. What is to secure that the two individuals of opposite 
sexes in the primeval forest, who have been both accidentally blessed with 
the same advantageous variation, shall meet, and transmit by inheritance 
that variation to their successors 1 Unless this step is made good, the 
modification will never get a start ; and yet there is nothing to insure that 
step, except pure chance. The law of chances takes the place of the cattle 
breeder and the pigeon fancier. The biologists do well to ask for an im- 
measurable expanse of time, if the occasional meetings of advantageously 
varied couples from age to age are to provide the pedigree of modifications 
which unite us to our ancestor the jelly-fish. Of course the struggle for 
existence, and the survival of the fittest, would in the long run secure the 
predominance of the stronger breed over the weaker. But it would be of 
no use in setting the improved breed going. There would not be time. 
No possible variation which is known to our experience, in tlie short time 
that elapses in a single life between the moment of maturity and the age 
of reproduction, could enable the varied individual to clear the field of all 
competitors, either by slaughtering or starving them out. But unless the 
struggle for existence took this summary and internecine character, there 
would be nothing but mere chance to secure that the advantageously 
varied bridegroom at one end of the wood should meet the bride, who by 
a happy contingency had been advantageously varied in the same direction 
at the same time at the other end of the wood. It would be a mere chance 
if they ever knew of each other's existence — a still more unlikely chance 
that they should resist on both sides all temptations to a less advantageous 
alliance. But unless they did so, the new breed would never even begin, 
let alone the question of its perpetuation after it had begun. I think 
Professor Weismann is justified in saying that we cannot, either with 
more or less ease, imagine the process of natural selection. 

It seems strange that a philosopher of Professor Weismann's penetra- 
tion should accept as established a hypothetical process the truth of which 
he admits that he cannot demonstrate in detail, and the operation of which 
he cannot even imagine. The reason that he gives seems to me instructive 
of the great danger scientific research is running at the present time — the 
acceptance of mere conjecture in the name and place of knowledge, in pre- 
ference to making frankly the admission that no certain knowledge can 
be attained. ' We accept natural selection,' he says, 'because we must — - 
because it is the only possible explanation that we can conceive.' As a 
politician, I know that argument very well. In political controversy it is 
sometimes said of a disputed proposal that it ' holds the field,' that it must 
be accepted because no possible alternative has been suggested. In politics 
there is occasionally a certain validity in the argument, for it sometimes 
happens that some definite course must be taken, even though no course 
is free from objection. But such a line of reasoning is utterly out of place 
in science. We are under no obligation to find a theory, if the facts will 



ADDRESS. 15 

not provide a sound one. To the riddles which nature propounds to us the 
profession of ignorance must constantly be our only reasonable answer. 
The cloud of impenetrable mystery hangs over the development and still 
more over the origin of life. If we strain our eyes to pierce it, with the fore- 
gone conclusion that some solution is and must be attainable, we shall 
only mistake for discoveries the figments of our own imagination. Pro- 
fessor AYeismann adds another reason for his belief in natural selection 
which is certainly characteristic of the time in which we live. ' It is in- 
conceivable,' he says, ' that there should be another principle capable of 
explaining the adaptation of organisms without assuming the help of a 
principle of design.' The whirligig of time assuredly brings its revenges. 
Time was, not very long ago, when the belief in creative design was 
supreme. Even those who were sapping its authority were wont to pay 
it a formal homage, fearing to shock the public conscience by denying it. 
Now the revolution is so complete that a great philosopher uses it as a 
reductio ad absurdum, and prefers to believe that which can neither be 
demonstrated in detail, nor imagined, rather than run the slightest risk of 
such a heresy. 

I quite accept the Professor's dictum that if natural selection is rejected 
we have no resource but to fall back on the mediate or immediate agency 
of a principle of design. In Oxford, at least, he will not find that argument 
is conclusive, nor, I believe, among scientific men in this country generally, 
however imposing the names of some whom he may claim for that belief. 
I would rather lean to the conviction that the multiplying difficulties of 
the mechanical theory are weakening the influence it once had acquired. 
I prefer to shelter myself in this matter behind the judgment of the 
greatest living master of natural science among us. Lord Kelvin, and to 
quote as my own concluding Avords the striking language with which he 
closed his address from this chair more than twenty years ago : ' I have 
always felt,' he said, ' that the hypothesis of natural selection does not 
contain the true theory of evolution, if evolution there has been in biology. 
... I feel profoundly convinced that the argument of design has been greatly 
too much lost sight of in recent zoological speculations. Overpoweringly 
strong proofs of intelligent and benevolent design lie around us, and if ever 
perplexities, whether metaphysical or scientific, turn us away from them 
for a time, they come back upon us with irresistible force, showing to us 
through nature the influence of a free will, and teaching us that all living 
things depend on one everlasting Creator and Ruler.' 



EEPOETS 

ON THR 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



1894. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Corresponding Societies. — Report of the Covimittee, consisting of 
Professor E. Meldola {Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secre- 
tary), Mr, Francis Galton, Sir Douglas G-alton, Sir Rawsox 
Rawson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. J. G-. Gaeson, Sir John Evans, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. W. ToPLEY, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, 
and Eev. Canon H. B. Tristram. 

The CoiTesponding Societies Commifctee of the British Association beo- 
leave to submit to the General Committee the following report of the 
proceedings of the Conferences held at Nottingham and at Oxford. 

The CouQcil nominated Dr. J. G. Garson, Chairman, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary to the Nottingham 
Conference. These nominations were confirmed by the General Com- 
mittee at the meeting held at Nottingham on Wednesday, September 13. 
The meetings of the Conference were held on Thursday, September 14, and 
on Tuesday, September 19, in University College, Nottingham, at 3. .SO p.m. 
The following Corresponding Societies nominated delegates to represent 
them at the Nottingham meeting : — 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Kev. H. H. "Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. 

Field Club. 
Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- Alexander Tate. 

cal Society. 
Birmingham Natural History and Micro- C. J. Watson. 

scopical Society. 
Birmingham Philosophical Society . . J. Kenward, F.S.A. 
Bristol Naturalists' Society . . . Dr. A. Richardson. 
Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Horace T. Brown, F.R.S. 

Archseological Society. 
Cardiff Naturalists" Society . . . Prof. J. Viriamu Jones. 
Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- M. H. Mills, F.G.S. 

tution of Engineers. 

c2 



20 



REPORT — 1894. 



Cro3-don Microscopical and Katural His- 
tory Club. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club. 

East Kent Natural Historj' Society ."1 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' I 
Societies. J 

Essex Field Club 

Federated Institution of Mining En- 
gineers. 

Hampshire Field Club .... 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society 
and Field Club. 

Leeds Geological Association . 

Leeds Naturalists' Club .... 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical So- 
ciety. 

Liverpool Geological Society . 

Liverpool Engineering Society 

Malton Nat uralists' Society 

Manchester Geographical Society 

Manchester Geological Society 

North of England Institute of Mining 
Engineers. 

North Statiordshire Naturalists' Field 
Club. 

Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety and Field Club. 



Nottingham Naturalists' Society 



■{ 



Nottingham Technical Schools 
.Paisley Philosophical Institution 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science 
Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society 
Somersetshire Archoeological and Natu- 
ral History Society. 
.South London Microscopical and Natural 

History Society. 
Tyneside Geographical Society 
"Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archseolo- 

gists' Field Club. 
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . 



W. Topley, F.R.S. 
C. Hansford. 

A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. 

T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 
M. H. Mills, M.Inst.C.E. 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. A. T. Brett. 

P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Harold Wager. 

F. T. Mott, F.R.G.S. 

E. Dickson, F.G.S. 

H. P. Boulnois, M.Inst.C.E. 
M. B. Slater. 
Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. 
Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 
Prof. J. H. Merivale, M.A. 

Dr. J. T. Arlidge. 

C. A. Markham, F.R.Met.Soc. 

J. W. Carr, M.A. 

W. Stafford, M.B. 

C. Hawley Torr. 

Prof. W. Robinson, M.E. 

James Clark. 

A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. 

H. C. March, M.D., F.S.A. 

F. T. Elworthy. 

F. W. Hembry. 

G. E. T. Smithson, F.R.G.S. 
W. Andrews, F.G.S. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
M. B. Slater. 



Nottingham, First Conference, September 14, 1893. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Dr. 
Garson (in the chair), Mr. Topley, Mr. Symons, and Mr. T. V. Holmes 
(Secretary). 

Dr. Garson, the Chairman, gave a hearty welcome to the delegates 
present. He stated that these Conferences were began at Aberdeen in 
188-5. At that time only twenty-four delegates were appointed, while 
last year there were forty-two. The number of Corresponding Societies 
had also increased. This was evidence that the attempt to brincr to a 
focus, as it were, the efforts of the various Corresponding Societies had met 
with considerable success. But there was also evidence that the Societies 
did not always sufficiently value fheir privileges. When the annual 
vcturua were sent out from the office of the British Association the 



COKRESFONDLNG SOCIETIES. 21 

majority of the Secretaries of the Corresponding Societies did not fill up 
and return them until they were written to a second time. Again, oat 
of more than sixty Societies, only forty-two thought it worth while to 
nominate delegates, though it could hardly be a difficult matter to find 
members able and willing to serve. It was a very great advantage to 
the workers in the various local Societies to have the titles of their papers 
printed and published in the Annual Reports of the British Association. 
The Transactions of the various Corresponding Societies were bound and 
kept available for reference at present in the Office of the Association at 
Burlington House, whereas papers read before other local Societies 
were not unlikely to remain unknown or unconsalted. It was most 
desirable that the British Association should be brought into closer 
communication with the Societies. It had been usual hitherto fur repre- 
sentatives from the different Sections to attend the Conferences and to 
mention anything that had been done, such as the appointment of a 
committee for some special purpose, in which the co-operation of the 
Corresponding Societies would be advantageous. It would be a good 
thing that there should be better means of communication between the 
Corresponding Societies and the Secretaries of the various committees 
appointed by the British Association. A good example of a committee 
especially needing the assistance of the Corresponding Societies was that 
nominated by Section H to make an Ethnographical Survey of the United 
Kingdom. The first Report of this committee had just been presented to 
the delegates, and Mr. Brabrook, the Secretary, would shortly call their 
attention to it. At their last meeting at Edinburgh some delegates had 
asked whether the Council of the Association might not be able to obtain 
greater facilities from the railway companies for members travelling to 
and from these meetings. The Council consequently appointed a com- 
mittee, of which Sir Frederick Bramwell was an active member, to see 
what could be done, The result, however, could not be deemed satis- 
factoiy. The Clearing House authorities considered that the ordinary 
tourists' tickets met the requirements of the case, and reminded them 
that return tickets were issued to members at a single fare for distances 
not exceeding fifty miles from the place of meeting. The local authorities 
had placed the room in which they then were at the disposal of the 
delegates, and in it they might meet to discuss matters at any time. 

The Secretary read a letter from Sir Douglas Galton, expressing his 
regret at being unable to attend the Conference. 

The Chairman proposed to take the Report which was in their hands 
as read. He would be glad to hear any remarks from delegates on the 
work done during the past year. 



Section A. 

Meteorological PhotograpJiy . — Mr. Symons was much indebted to the 
delegates for the number of photographs of clouds sent in to the Com- 
mittee up to the pi'esent time. He did not press for more, as the 
Committee appointed by the British Association for the ' Elucidation of 
Meteorological Phenomena by the Application of Photography ' had the 
very considerable collection of 467 to deal with. They proposed to 
select the typical ones, reduce them to a uniform scale, and print perhaps 
a hundred copies of them. They hoped to publish the atlas during the 



22 REPORT— 1894. 

year, and would be glad if the meteorologists would take copies. They 
would be pleased to have additional photographs of lightning. 

Mr. Kenward remarked that through the agency of the standing 
Meteorological Committee of the Birmingham Philosophical Society com- 
plete weather statistics for Birmingham had been obtained from the 
observatory in Monument Road. It was believed that the periodical pub- 
lication of these records would supply a great want. 

Section C. 

Mr. A. S. Reid said that the Geological Photographs Committee of 
the British Association were publishing their fourth Report tliis year. 
During the year they had received more than forty new photographs, 
making the total collection 846 : they were all British. Their appeal 
to the Corresponding Societies had been more successful than in any 
previous year, but there was still much to be done, and he hoped the 
delegates would stir up their Societies on this point. As to the best 
camera, the most portable was to be preferred. He had also to report 
that many prints had been sent in without the name of the Societies 
sending them, that of the photographer, or that of the place photographed. 
They had decided not to lend any more photographs to the Societies, 
unless such photographs were sent in duplicate. Mr. Jeffs, the Secretary 
of the Geological Photographs Committee, had unfortunately been ill 
during nearly the whole of the year, and this had seriously hampered 
their work. 

Mr. Tate said that, with refei'ence to geological photographs, many of 
those sent in were probably of little value. He trusted that some day 
the Geological Photographs Committee would be able to select typical 
examples and place them where they would be of use to the Corresponding 
Societies. Some had been sent from Belfast, the district he represented. 

Mr. P. F. Kendall remarked that few of the Corresponding Societies 
during the past year had given any information to the British Associa- 
tion Committee appointed to record the Character and Position of Erratic 
Blocks, though appeals for help had been made. 

The Chairman hoped that the delegates present would note this 
omission. 

In reply to a question from Mr. Eli Sowerbutts Mr. Kendall said tliat 
though the Erratic Blocks Committee had been in existence twenty-one 
years, there were whole counties abounding in erratic blocks from which 
not a single report had ever been sent. There were thus great gaps in 
their information which could only be filled by photographs and reports 
from the quarters which had hitherto not responded to the appeal. Most 
admirable work had been done in Warwickshire. 

Mr. Topley inquired whether any Society had made researches, like 
those brought before the Conference last year by Mr. Watts, as to the 
quantity of material brought down streams in flood in the neighbourhood 
of Rochdale. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup thought the work, so far as it had gone, had been 
brought before the Manchester Geographical Society. 

Mr. Symons said that the work had been confined to the Rochdale 
district. It was desirable that results in other districts should be noted, 
and ail persons wishing to do similar work should consult Mr. Watts at 
Strines Dale, Oldham. 



COKRESrONDlXG SOCIETIES. " 23 



Section D, 



Mr. Slater recorded the interesting fact that a member of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union recently found the wild maidenhair fern on 
the northern portion of Morecambe Bay. It would not be desirable that 
the exact spot should be given. He would also remark that it was better 
to obtain seeds from these rare plants than to take the plant itself. 



Section E. 

Mr. Sowerbutts remarked that their member, Mr. Crook, went before 
the departmental committee appointed to consider the state of the 
Ordnance Survey in order to give evidence. He had suggested to Mr. 
Crook that he should write a report on what had been done by the 
departmental committee, which miglit be presented at the next year's 
meeting of delegates. The examination on Yorkshire mentioned in the 
report of the Conference of Delegates at Edinburgh did not take place. 
They would, however, conduct some examinations next year, and he 
would be glad if the delegates would make their intentions widely 
known. It was his opinion that there was no cheap book in existence 
giving a fairly good account of Yorkshire. The examinations were open 
to all public and private schools. There would be one on Canada for 
secondary school children. They had been found to know nothing about 
geography last year, and he looked for some improvement next time. 

Mr. Hembry had learned that in a certain county children attending 
schools were not taught geography in any way. He would like to know 
if this was the case anywhere else. 

Mw Andrews remarked that, acting on the advice of Mr. Whitaker, 
he had forwarded a list of thirteen ancient earthworks in Warwickshire 
to the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, ten of which had since 
been inserted in the map. 

Mr. Hembry thought that geography should certainly be a class 
subject. In secondary schools they absolutely ignored it ; but he had 
been astonished to find that an immense advance had been made in the 
teaching of geography in primary schools. In many of the latter museums 
of commercial products were now being formed. 



Section G. 
Professor Merivale had nothing to report about Flameless Explosives. 

Section H. 

Mr. Brabrook made some remarks on the progress made by the 
Committee appointed to make an Ethnographical Survey of the 
United Kingdom, whose first report was in the hands of the delegates. 
The Committee had, he said, obtained, by communication with the 
Corresponding Societies, a list of nearly SOO villages, with some account 



24 i;epout — 189i. 

of their leading ftaturcs and peculiarities, all of wLicli were wortli'j of 
special examination by the Committee. For this result, which was much 
bejond their anticipations, the Ethnographical Committee gave their most 
hearty thanks to the members of the Corresponding Societies who had 
he]23ed them so efficiently. The next step taken by the Committee had 
been to draw up a brief code of directions for the guidance of those who 
had been kind enough to offer assistance. This code would be found 
at the end of their Report. 

Mr. Kenward said that almost all traces of the past had been destroyed 
in the Birmingham district. They had, however, established a Folklore 
Sub-committee. 

Mr. Brabrook thought that delegation to sub-committees greatly 
facilitated the work. 

Mr. Kenward remarked that in Birmingham they were carefully 
noting the physical condition of individual children in Board schools, 
also that of factory hands. Next year they hoped to present a Report on 
the subject to the Association. 

The Chairman said that the Sectional discussions being now ended, 
he would be glad to hear remarks of any kind that might be of general 
interest to the delegates. 

Dr. Arlidge suggested that a tabular list should be prepared of tlio 
Committees of the Association with which it was desired that the- 
Corresponding Societies should co-operate. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup said that each year a list of the whole of tlie 
British Association Committees was printed and distributed, the name.'j- 
of the membei*s and the objects of the committees being given. Ho- 
always brought this list before his Society, and asked members to note 
anything in which they might like to assist. 

Mr. T. V. Holmes stated that, when writing in the 'Essex Naturalist *' 
an account of the Edinburgh Conference for the Essex Field Club last 
autumn, he added to his remarks a list of the ten or eleven Committees- 
in which the Corresponding Societies were specially interested. 



Nottingham, Second Conference, September 19, 1893. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Dr. 
Garson (in the chair), Mr. F. Galton, Mr. Syraons, and Mr. T. V.Holmes 
(Secretary). 

The Chairman thought it would be best to take first any discussions 
upon the committees appointed in the various Sections. 



Section A. 

Mr. Symons said that the work of the Earth-tremors Committee 
was going on under the care of Mr. Davison, and he did not think 
that there were other committees connected with Section A that bore 
upon the work of the delegates. With regard to the Report of the Earth- 
tremors Committee, he should like to hold it in suspense for a while, 
in the hope of future co-operation with some of the Corresponding 
Societies. 



COKRESrO^DlNU SOCIKTIKS. 25 

Mr. M. H. Mills thought that earth -tremors was one of the subjects 
in which members of the Federated Institute of Mining Engineers could 
assist. 

Mr. Symons inquired if it would be possible to place instruments- 
underground at a depth of 100 feet. 

Mr. Mills did not think there would be any difiGculty. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup said that some mining engineers thought that ft 
would be useless to place apparatus in mines because of the vibration 
caused by the workings. 

Mr. Symons said that fortunately no difficulty would arise from that 
cause, as the instruments, though extremely delicate, were not sensitive 
to vibrations of short period. 

Mr. Kenward thought that he knew of a colliery in which instruments 
could be placed. 

Section C. 

Mr. A. S. Reid said he had been asked by the Sectional Committee 
to make some remarks. The Underground Waters Committee would 
present their final Report next year, and would be glad to receive further 
information up to the date of publication. The Geological Photographs 
Committee thought that the size of photographs should be left to the 
donors. As to the best camera further comments from practical 
photographers were invited ; also remarks as to the best methods of 
printing. With regard to publication, negotiations respecting the pro- 
posed album of i-epresentative photographs were then in progress. 
The Erratic Blocks Committee had presented a Report, and they were 
going to publish as much as they could as soon as possible. The Coast 
Erosion Committee had not sent in a Report, though they had plenty of 
material in hand. The Committee on Type Specimens in Museums were 
making arrangements for the i-egistration of those specimens, and in- 
formation was required as to where they were housed. 

Mr. Tate inquired, with regard to geological photographs, if smali 
photographs taken with a good lens were not preferred. 

Mr. Reid replied that the Committee were i-eady to receive any good 
photographs. 

Section D. 

Protection of Wild Birds' Eggs. — Mr. Slater thought it was high time 
something was done to protect the eggs of wild birds. Influence might 
be brought to bear upon boys. Ho also deprecated the wanton shooting 
of gulls. 

The Chairman stated that the Committee had been reappointed, and 
that the delegates would in due time receive a final communication on 
the question. 

Mr. C. H. Torr (Nottingham) said that a valuable suggestion had 
been made that County Councils, and through them Board schools, 
should put up notices during the season asking boys not to take eggs. It 
was of little use to talk of legislation, as the eggs would be gone before 
it could be obtained. 

The Chairman remarked that at Edinburgh much had been said 
about the number of rare eggs in the possession of collectors. 



26 BEPORT— 1894. 

Mr. Andrews recently visited a small village inn in North War- 
wickshire, where he saw cases of birds' eggs arranged in the form of 
crowns. These crowns were sold for £b each. 

Mr. Kenward thought it would be better to appeal to the common- 
sense and humanity of the collector than to pat up notices in Board 
schools. 

Mr. Symons thought an appeal to the common-sense of the people 
would have a good efiiect, and that it was useless to trust to legislation. 
People who made crowns of eggs were irreclaimable. 

Mr. Torr said, on behalf of Nottingham, tliat he -would undertake 
that the matter should be brought before the School Board. 

Museums. — Mr. Holmes read a letter from Mr. W. Cole, Hon. Sec. 
Essex Field Club, on the maintenance of local museums. Mr. Cole 
thousrht that if an annual sum for the maintenance of local museums 
could be obtained from the Technical Education Grants in each county 
there would be no great difficulty in obtaining substantial sums towards 
buildings and fittings. The fear that a museum might not be permanent 
often kept back subscriptions. Donations, both of money and of specimens, 
would rapidly come in when once the public felt that the museum would 
be permanent ; and in no way could a portion of the Technical Educa- 
tion Grant be better expended than in placing on a satisfactory footing 
the local museum of the county, 

Mr. Symons thought the idea of getting a grant from the source 
suggested a very good one. 

The Chairman hoped that members of the Corresponding Societies 
would occasionally read papers on the specimens in their local museums, 
each writer keeping to a certain department. These papers, if published, 
would be catalogued in the Association's list, and brought before the 
notice of many workers in the same stibject elsewhere. They would also 
be available for reference at headquarters in London. 

Mr. Stirrup believed that something had been done in that way. A 
Museums Association had been started, and had met that year in London. 
In the report from the Owens College Museum there was a paper dealing 
with the subject of type specimens. 

The Chairman thought that the object of the Museums Association 
was rather to discuss the best kinds of general arrangement than to 
describe the contents of museums. 

Mr. Stirrup and Mr. Tate both expressed an opinion that descriptions 
of type specimens would be very valuable. 

Section H. 

The Chairman said that, as representative of Section H, he had 
to draw the attention of the delegates and the Corresponding Societies 
to the — 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom. — The first Report of 
the Committee had been placed in the hands of the delegates at their 
first conference, and he hoped they would bring it before their respective 
Societies, as the kind of work required is essentially local and such as 
would give great scope for investigation to the members of their Societies. 
It includes observations on (1) the physical types of the inhabitants, to be 
ascertained by photographing and recording the characters and measure- 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 27 

ments of the people ; (2) folklore ; (3) peculiarities of dialect ; (4) monu- 
ments and other remains of ancient culture; (5) historical evidence as to 
continuity of race. The Report contains minute directions as to how the 
investigations are to be made. 

Exploration of Ancient Remains. — The Committee of Section H had 
passed the following resolution, to whicli they desired the attention of 
the Corresponding Societies to be drawn : — ' That in the opinion of this 
Section it is desirable that the attention of archasologists and others be 
particularly called to the great importance of preserving with the utmost 
care all human remains found in ancient dwellings, graves, tumuli, and 
other burial places. It is equally as important to preserve the limb- 
bones and pelvis as the skull. The information yielded by human and 
animal remains is equally as important as that derived from pottery, 
implements, coins, &c. When any difficulty occurs in obtaining com- 
petent aid in examining such remains, explorers are requested to com- 
municate with the Secretary, Anthropological Institute, 3 Hanover 
Square, London, W.' He said that it was much better not to attempt to 
excavate barrows, &c., unless it was done thoroughly. 

After some remarks on a proposed excursion of the delegates a vote 
of thanks to the Chairman closed the proceedings. 



The Corresponding Societies Committee, in accordance with the an- 
nouncement made to the General Committee, present the following Report 
of the Oxford Conference : — 

The Council nominated Professor R. Meldola Chairman, Mr. Cuth- 
bert E. Peek Vice-Chaii-man, and Mr. T. V. Holmes Secretary to the 
Conference. These nominations were confirmed at the meeting of the 
General Committee held at Oxford on Wednesday, August 8. 

The meetings of the Conference of Delegates of the Corresponding 
Societies were held on Thursday, August 9, and on Tuesday, August 14, 
in the New Examination Schools, at 3.30 p.m. The following Correspond- 
ing Societies nominated delegates to represent them at the Oxford 
meeting : — 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Kev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., 

Field Club. F.G.S. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . W. Gray, M.R.I.A. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . G. P. Hughes. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philo- J. Kenward, F.S.A. 

sophical Society. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society . . . Dr. A. Richardson. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and James G. Wells. 

Archseological Society. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society . . . E. Seward, F.R.I.B.A. 

Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- M. H. Mills, F.G.S. 

tution of Engineers. 

Cornwall, Royal Geological Society of . Howard Fox, F.G.S. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- Thos. Cushing, F.R.A.S. 

tory Club. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S. 

Field Club. 

East Kent Natural History Society . . A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Robert Brown, R.N. 

Societies. 

Essex Field Club T. V. Hohnes, F.G.S. 



28 



ItEPORT — 1894. 



Federated Institution of Mining Engi- M. H. Mills, M.Inst.C.E. 

neers. 
Glasgow Archaeological Society . ."1 t t. in- i i. 
Glasiow Geological Society . . .} J- B. Murdoch. 

Glasgow Philosophical Society . . Prof. J. G. McKendrick, M.D., 

Hampshire Field Club . . . . T. W. Shore, F.G.S. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

and Field Club. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- His Honour Deemster Gill. 

quarian Society. 

Leeds Geological Association . . . B. Holgate, F.G.S. 

Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Harold Wager, F.L.S. 

Association. 
Liverpool Geological Society . . .0. W. Jeffs. 

Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific R. T. G. Abbott. 

Society. 

Manchester Geographical Society . ^ . Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. 

Manchester Geological Society . . Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 

Midland Union of Natural History Socie- W. E. CoUinge. 

ties. 

Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society Clement Reid, F.G.S. 

North of England Institute of Mining Prof. J. H. Merivale, JI.A. 

Engineers. 

Northamptonshire Natural History So- C. A. Markham, F.R.Met.Soc. 

ciety and Field Club. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Dr. J. T. Arlidge, M.A. 

Club. 

Nottingham Naturalists' Society . . W. Bradshaw. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science . H. Coates, F.R.S.E. 

Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society J. Reginald Ashworth, B.Sc. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural F. T. Elworthy. 

History Society. 

South London Microscopical and Natural F. W. Hembry, F.R.M.S. 

History Society. 

Tyneside Geographical Society . . G. E. T. Smithson. 

Warwick.shire Naturalists' and Archseo- W. Andrews, F.G.S. 

legists' Field Club. 

Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . . Rev. J. 0. Bevan, M.A. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Thos. Tate, F.G.S. 

Society. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . . M. B. Slater, F.L.S. 



Oxford, First Cojjference, August 9, 1894. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Professor 
R. Meldola (Chairman), Pi-ofessor T. G. Bonney, Sir John Evans, Sir 
Douglas Galton, Dr. Garson, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, Sir 
Rawson Rawson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
and Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary). 

The Chairman remarked that as this was their tenth Conference it 
had been suggested to him that it would afford a good opportunity for a 
review of the work done during that period. On the whole, however, he 
thought that a review of that kind might form a dangerous precedent, as 
tending to the delivery of an annual address which would occupy time 
more profitably spent in discussing topics in which the delegates were 
specially interested. Hitherto, owing to a bye-law enacting that the 
Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee should be presented to the 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 29 

General Committee of the British Association, the Reports of these Confer- 
ences had always been a year behind ; that held at Edinburgh in 1892, for 
example, appearing in the British Association volume giving an account of 
the proceedings at Nottingham in 1893, Steps had been taken, however, 
to prevent this delay in future, and in the Oxford Report of the British 
Association the account of the Nottingham Conference and that of the 
Oxford Conference would appear together. In order that there should be 
no want of material for discussion at these Conferences, their Secretary 
and he had written to the Recorder of each Section asking him to bring the 
existence of the Conference of Delegates under the notice of investigators 
in those departments of science of which the work might be aided by the 
co-operation of local observers. They had also taken a new departure in 
announcing beforehand that some special subject would be discussed at 
the Conference. On this occasion they had been fortunate enough to 
secure the attendance of Mr. Cuthbert Peek to open a discussion on Local 
Museums. 

Mr. Cuthbert Peek, after stating that he was under great obligations 
to that admirable organisation, the Museums Association, said that he 
proposed to deal with the subject under the following headings : — 

1. Methods of registration and cataloguing. 

2. The protection of specimens from injury and dust. 

3. The circulation of specimens and type-collections for educational 

purposes. 

4. Central referees for nomenclature and classification. 

5. The most satisfactory methods of making museums attractive. 

6. Museum lectures and demonstrations. 

7. The relations between museums and County Councils. 

I 1. Methods of Registration and Cataloguing. — Having examined several 
systems before arranging a small general museum of his own, he had come 
to the conclusion that for small museums the card catalogue was the most 
convenient on account of the ease with which changes and additions 
could be made. Sectional letters distinguished the various classes of 
objects. Each specimen when received had a number allotted to it under 
the letter assigned to the Section. In order that the number might remain 
attached to the specimen, he painted the letter and number on the speci- 
men with red or white paint, and gave them when dry a coat of oil 
varnish. When practicable it was a good thing to paste a photograph 
showing the locality at which the object was found at the back of the 
card. Labels were often displaced by the careless cleaner, but if the exact 
dimensions of a specimen, with a rough outline of it, were entered on the 
back of a card, identification would always be possible. 

2. The Protection of Specimens from Injury and Dust. — On this subject 
it was necessary to remind them that every closed case was practically 
acted upon by changes in the pressure of the atmosphere (in the same 
way as the cistern of a mercurial barometer), and that it drew in or gave 
out air and dust with every change of pressure. Professor Miall, at the 
Yorkshire College, had a rectangular hole cut in the top of each case and 
covered with damiette. This filters the air passing in. He (Mr. Peek) 
felt inclined to use a tube filled with cotton-wool for this purpose. It 
must be remembered that enough air should be admitted at the authorised 
entrance to prevent supplies from being sucked in through the inevitable 
joints and cracks elsewhere. 



30 REPORT— 1894. 

3. The Circulation of Specimens and Tyj)e-collections for EducationaZ 
Purjyoses. — The importance of educating the eye was now generally recog- 
nised and the London scientific societies are more and more introducing the 
optical lantern at their evening meetings. The advantage of the circula- 
tion of loan collections illustrating the subjects taught in elementary 
schools was therefore obvious. At Liverpool a system had been elaborated 
by which loan collections were prepared and circulated among a large 
number of schools. Experience had shown that the collections should be 
arranged in cabinets, each containing some special class of objects, such as 
food products, woods, &c. Those wishing to organise a plan for the circu- 
lation of collections of this kind should consult a Paper by Mr. J. Chard 
in the Report of the Museums Association for 1890. 

The educational advantages of a museum were much increased by a 
liberal use of pictorial illustrations placed as near as possible to the objects 
illustrated. In the case of minute objects drawings on a larger scale were 
of the highest value, while models and casts were often of the utmost 
service. Labels should be clear, and should indicate the most important 
points in plain language. When specimens could be replaced without 
difficulty a certain amount of handling might be permitted. It was most 
desirable that overcrowding should be avoided, and that the utmost care 
should be taken in the selection of type-specimens. Much economy of 
space would result from the adoption of an American invention which he 
would briefly describe. The side of the cabinet, instead of having one 
slide for each drawer, has a series of slides, one inch apart, all the way up 
the side, the bottom of each drawer having a tongue to fit into one of 
these slides. It was clear from this that the drawers might be made in 
multiples of an inch and arranged in any order desired. 

4. Central Referees for Nomenclature and Classification. — One of the 
greatest difficulties which the average curator of a small museum had 
to deal with was the nomenclature of the vai'ied specimens under his 
charge. An organisation of specialists who would for a small fee allow 
specimens to be forwarded to them for identification would be of t?ie 
greatest possible value. Certain abstruse questions might not even then 
be easy to answer ; but if nine-tenths of our museum specimens could be 
accurately catalogued a great step in the right dii-ection would be taken. 

5. The most satisfactory Method of making Musextms attractive. — To 
those who know the museums at South Kensington, or some of the equally 
well-arranged local museums, this heading might seem unnecessary. 
But many present might be able to call to mind some collection in a 
country town containing many most valuable local specimens, the very 
existence of which was unknown to the majority of the inhabitants. 
This state of things was yearly becoming rarer ; but many persons could 
point out some museum almost as much fossilised as the fossils it con- 
tained, with labels either illegible from age or invisible from displacement. 
Those who casually entered such museums seldom revisited them. It 
was most desirable that the English as well as the Latin name of a 
specimen should be given. Much might be done to allow of comparisons 
between creatures of different families or genera. Thus, at the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington, the skeletons of a man and of a 
horse in the attitude of running had recently been placed the one in front 
of the other, so that the relations of the two, bone for bone, could be dis- 
tinctly seen. The surgical, ordinary, and veterinary names of the bones 
were added throughout 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 31 

6. Museum Lectures and Demonstrations. — While the great value of 
case-to-case explanations was invariably admitted, the difficulty attending 
any attempt to make a museum demonstration useful to any large number 
of persons was equally obvious. One most experienced demonstrator had 
stated tliat the largest number that can receive real benefit from a case- 
to-case demonstration is about a dozen, and had recommended that the 
lecture, illustrated by specimens and lantern slides, should be given in an 
ordinary lecture-room, and a demonstration afterwards in the museum to 
the smaller number seeking further information. In any case it was most 
desirable that the demonstrator should be placed on a temporary stand, so 
that he might see and be seen by his audience. 

7. Tlie Relations between Museums and County Councils. — It having 
always appeared to him that demonstrations in museums should take a 
very prominent part in technical education, especially in rural districts, 
he had been surprised that so little assistance had been given in aid of 
local collections by County Councils. In order to ascertain what had been 
done in that direction he had sent out a circular to county council 
technical education committees, and found that local museums and free 
libraries had been assisted only in nine cases. The County Council of 
Cunilierland had been the most liberal, having made a grant of 600^. per 
annum during the last three years for the purpose of aiding the Corpora- 
tion of Carlisle to erect a museum, free library, and art school. A grant 
had also been made to a free library at Whitehaven for the purchase of 
text-books for the use of students at technical instruction classes, and a 
grant of 200Z. per annum had been given to the local board of Millom in 
aid of the free library and technical school at that town. In Westmor- 
land a grant of 100^. had been made to the Kendal Free Library, and a 
similar sum had been given for the purchase of books on scientific sub- 
jects at other centres in the county. In Northumberland 50 per cent, of 
the cost of technical books for village and other libraries had (under 
certain conditions) been defrayed. At Leeds grants had been made to 
the Free Public Libi-ary Committee of the Corporation for the purchase 
of pictures and books. In Hertfordshire money had been given to free 
libraries for the purchase of technical books, and in Montgomery grants 
had been made in two cases. In Surrey no aid had been given to free 
libraries, but it was proposed to found a museum in connection with 
buildings for technical education and a reference library. The London 
County Council had a proposal to aid a certain museum under con- 
sideration ; and in Dorsetshire the museums at Poole, Dorchester, and 
Sherborne had all received aid. From some counties no information had 
yet been received, but enough had been stated to show that there was no 
insuperable obstacle to the application of money intended for technical 
education to the development of museums. A leading object with the 
Government was the development of local activity, and he felt convinced 
that any grants made to local museums and free libraries would tend more 
than anything else to further that object. 

In conclusion Mr. Peek drew attention to the magnificent museum 
founded at Oxford by General Pitt-Rivers, the arrangement of which was 
unique. 

The Chairman thought they were much indebted to Mr. Peek for his 
paper, and invited remarks thereon. 

Sir John Evans said that Mr. Peek had left little for anyone to add. 
The card catalogue would commend itself to everyone on account of the 



32 REPORT— 1894. 

facility with which it could be consulted, but it was a question whether 
^he American system of having a perforated card through which a wire 
passed, so that the card could not be disturbed, was not preferable. The 
suggestion that a slight sketch of the object should be made on the back 
•of the card was a valuable one. In the British Museum the date at 
which an object was received was generally painted upon it. He would 
"be glad if anyone could suggest any means by which the ordinary cabinet 
could be kept free from dust. It exhaled air when the day was warm, 
and inhaled it in the cooler evening. He had tried a lining of cotton- 
wool, but did not think the result was perfectly satisfactory. He thought 
a cabinet constructed on the American principle, alluded to by Mr. Peek, 
would be liable to dust unless its door was extremely close-fitting, but he had 
applied the principle in a somewhat ditFerent manner. As regards referees 
for nomenclature and classification, an association like that suggested 
would, no doubt, be useful but at the present time any curator might 
•consult the keepers of the various departments of the British Museum, 
either at South Kensington or at Bloomsbury, with a certainty of prompt 
.■and valuable assistance. He doubted whether grants to museums would 
he permitted to pass by the Government auditors, though a grant of 
technical books to a local museum might be allowed. In thanking 
Mr. Peek for the manner in which he had brought this subject before 
them, he was sure that he gave utterance to the feeling of all present. 

The Rev. O. P. Cambridge believed that in some cases County Councils 
had made gi-ants which they were not altogether legally entitled to make, 
but which, from the good work done, were not likely to be called in ques- 
tion. As regards the obliteration of labels, he had a large collection of 
specimens in spirits of wine, and had been in the habit of gumming labels 
on the outside. In the course of years he had found that these labels soon 
became spotted and indistinct, and had consequently Avritten new labels 
on good paper with a pencil and placed them inside the glass jars with the 
most satisfactory results. 

Sir Rawson Rawson, whose experience had been partly tropical, had 
not always found pencil marks indelible. 

The Rev. O. P. Cambridge wished to add that some care was necessary 
in selecting a pencil, which should neither be very hard nor very soft. 

Dr. Garson could corroborate what had been said as to the advantages 
of using pencils in spirit preparations. No kind of ink would answer, but 
a pencil mark would remain a very long time after immersion in spirit. 
It was an advantage to use a rough paper. 

Mr. W. Gray thought they were all much indebted to Mr. Peek for 
the admirable way in which he had handled the subject. It was first 
necessary to stir up an interest in a locality in order to get a museum ; 
secondly, to have the specimens properly housed ; and thirdly, to make 
the museum attractive. To be attractive it must be educational, and 
arrangements should be made for the circulation of some of the cases 
through the couuti'y. Aid may then be fairly demanded from the County 
•or City Council. The circulation of specimens did away with the dull, 
dusty monotony so characteristic of some museums, and which usually 
prevented them from being visited more than once or twice. Variation in 
the aspect of a museum constituted a most important element of attraction. 
In Belfast, through the agency of the Society he represented, they had 
established the Belfast Central Museum, Art Gallery, and Library. Sir 
John Evans had given the museum three or four thousand valuable 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

specimens. But they were still wanting in a proper organisation of their 
local museum for educational purposes, and the sentiments expressed at 
that meeting would enable him to urge the matter with additional 
emphasis before the Town Council. 

Mr. T. W. Shore stated that three years ago he had moved a resolu- 
tion, at the Cambridge meeting of the Museums Association, pledging 
the Association to do what it could to obtain aid for museums from 
County Councils. He hoped that the gathering before him might be able 
to aid the movement in some way. Mr. Peek had mentioned that the 
clerks of many County Councils expressed doubts as to the legality of 
grants to museums, but Mr. Cambridge had shown how the difficulty 
might be overcome. It was clear that grants could be made by County 
Councils to defray the expense of lectures and demonstrations in museums. 
He would therefore suggest that circulars might be sent to County 
Councils pointing out that, in the opinion of that meeting, grants in aid 
of lectures and demonstrations in museums might be made with excellent 
educational results and without any risk of going beyond the law. 

Mr. Sowerbutts remarked that, though County Councils might be 
subject to the Government Auditor, County Borouglis were (he thought) 
not so controlled. In Lancashire they did not trouble the auditors, but 
when the councillors became extravagant they turned them out at the 
next election. 

Mr. Kenward said that in Birmingham the Corporation had established 
an excellent museum and an art gallery which were entirely supported by 
the rates. They had never sought aid from the County Council. 

Mr. T. V. Holmes had in his hands a letter from Mr. William Cole, 
Secretary to the Essex Field Club, who was intimately acquainted with 
the system of technical education as it was carried out in Essex. Mr. 
Cole lamented that nothing had been granted by the County Council to 
aid museums, but thought that to do so was probably beyond their legal 
powers, and hoped for an amendment of the Act. He would doubtless be 
cheered by Mr. Peek's observations on that point, which showed that 
grants to museums were by no means unquestionably illegal — to say the 
least. Mr. Cole's experience had given him a very low notion of the 
efficiency of mere lecturing, especially in rural districts. Of course a 
lecturer usually brought specimens with him, but with the departure of 
the lecturer the specimens also departed, and scarcely any real interest in 
the subject was aroused. What was really wanted was a permanent central 
museum which was continually sending forth loan collections to the remoter- 
districts, and which allowed them to remain there for a certain time 
after the lectures, illustrated by these collections, had been given. Mr. 
Cole, however, did not think that museums should be entirely worked by 
County Councils, as that would greatly weaken the interest taken in 
museums by the naturalists and field clubs who had usually originated 
them. But the funds of almost all societies of naturalists were so small 
that the greatest hindrance to the development of a museum was a want 
of money, which suggested a want of permanence. By a small grant 
towards the expense of a curator, or for some similar purpose, obtainable 
only while the museum remained efficient, a County Council might do 
very much to render a museum permanent and efficient without diminish- 
ing the interest of individual natui-alists in its development. 

Dr. Brett said that, in order to bring the matter to a practical 
conclusion, he would like to propose that their Secretary should write to 
lS9i. » 



34 REPORT— 1894. 

all the County Councils in Great Britain, urging upon them the importance 
of giving aid to their own local museums. 

After some discussion, in which Dr, Brett, Sir Douglas Galton, Mr. 
Gray, Sir John Evans, Mr. Gushing, and Mr. Whitaker took part, the 
following resolution was proposed by Sir Douglas Galton, who remarked 
that in his county it was held to be contrary to the law for a County 
Council to give directly to a museum : 

' That in the opinion of this Conference it is desirable that local 
natural history societies, and those in charge of local museums should 
place themselves in communication with the technical instruction com- 
mittee of the county or borough in which they are placed with the view 
of obtaining pecuniary grants towards extending technical knowledge by 
means of lectures or by demonstrations in museums.' 

Dr. Brett seconded the resolution. 

Mr. Coates stated that at Perth they were building a large addition 
to their museum, and had applied for aid both from the Town Council 
and the County Council. They had obtained a grant from the County 
Council on the condition that they should provide specimens suitable for 
agricultural teaching. These specimens would be used for lectures and 
demonstrations. They had been advised that they could not otherwise 
obtain the grant. 

Mr. Elworthy said that a difficulty under which many of them 
laboured had not yet been touched upon. They needed the services of an 
expert who would visit a museum, and, for a certain fee, pronounce with 
authority ' this is rubbish ' in the case of worthless specimens. A 
Secretary who would not venture to get rid of rubbish on his own re- 
sponsibility would do so at once if backed by the opinion of a dis- 
interested expert. 

Sir John Evans thought that the opinion of the Secretary ought to be 
deemed sufficient. In answer to a suggestion that the word ' specimens ' 
should be added to ' lectures and demonstrations ' in the i-esolution, he 
remarked that County Council money could not be spent in acquiring 
specimens. 

The Chairman then put the resolution to the meeting, and it was 
unanimously adopted. He then asked if any delegates had other points 
connected with museums to bring forward. 

Mr. Seward, as representing the County Borough Council of Cardiff, 
was most anxious to learn, if possible, what things bought for a museum 
with the view of making it more attractive and useful to the poorer 
classes could be legally purchased under the Act. 

Sir John Evans replied that it seemed to him that the last resource in 
these cases was the Science and Art Department at South Kensington. 
If the Borough Committee wished to purchase specimens to illustrate 
lectures for the advancement of technical education, the Clerk of the 
Council should write to South Kensington to inquire as to the legality of 
the proposed grant. If the specimens were required simply to increasn 
the efficiency of the lectures, they would probably be regarded as part of 
the lecture appai-atus, and the vote sanctioned. 

Mr. Gray remarked that at Belfast they always got assistance from 
South Kensington in acquiring proper specimens for the museum. 

The Chairman thought that the Conference could not possibly attempt 
to decide the point raised by Mr. Seward. He felt sure that they were 
all most grateful to Mr. Peek for having introduced this discussion on 
museums, which he believed would lead to most useful r^-sults. 



CORRESrONDING SOCIETIES. 



Secoxd Conference, August 14, 1894. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Professor 
R. Meldola (CLurman), Dr. Garson, Mr. Hopkinsou, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
Mr. Symons, Rev. Canon Tristram, Mr. Whitaker, and Mr. T. V. Holmes 
(Secretary). 

The Chairman said that with reference to the discussion at the Ligt 
Conference, he hoped that those delegates who were situated in places 
where there were local museums would do their best to further tlie 
resolution then passed, and report progress at the Conference next year. 
They had now to consider work done in connection with the various 
Sections, beginning with Section A. 



Section A. 

Meteorological Photography. — Mr. Clayden remarked that two years ago 
he had asked to be put into communication with gentlemen willing to 
photograph clouds and other meteorological phenomena. He had been put 
into communication with photographers, but the number of photographs 
sent had been very small. Nevertheless, an almost sufficient collection 
had been received. He would, however, be grateful for photographs of 
lightning showing anything abnormal. Now and then he read of the 
remarkable results of a whirlwind in some district, when it was too late 
for him to take steps to have the effects photographed. But if, in such 
cases, the secretary of a local society would get photographs taken at once, 
and send them to him, such records would be most valuable. 

Sir Rawson Rawson inquired if Mr. Clayden had the photographs of 
storms and lightning recently exhibited at the Royal Society, and Mr. 
Clayden replied that he thought he had a considerable number of them. 

Mr. Holgate thought that if Mr. Clayden wrote to the secretary of a 
local society, the latter would always be able to obtain information as to 
the existence of photographs showing the results of a whirlwind or other 
abnormal occurrence. Mr. Clayden replied that he had often tried that 
plan, but had usually found that the damage had been cleared away, and 
that he was too late. It was therefore desii'able that the secretaries of 
the local societies should arrange for photographs. 

Mr. Hembry inquired whether Mr. Clayden had received photographs 
showing the results of a thunderstorm a few weeks ago in which a church had 
teen struck and two men killed. Mr. Clayden replied that he had not. 

Mr. Symons remarked that much help could 1)e given by local ."societies 
if they would send in reports promptly. The difficulty was that individual 
members did not feel personally responsible in the matter. Everybody's 
business was nobody's business. 

Remarks on the advantages to be derived from, and the means of securing 
inci'eased co-operation between British Association committees and local 
societies were made by Mr. Kenward, Mr. Gray, and Mr. Symons. 

Earth Tremors. — Mr. Davison said that in the last Report of the 
Earth-tremors Committee there was a description of a bifilar pendulum 
invented by Mr. Horace Darwin. It had been tried for a year at 
Birmingham, and in consequence of experiments made there a new form of 
instrument now exhibited was being constructed. Its cost would be about 



36 BEPORT— 1894. 

60^. The local societies were so distributed over the country that most 
places where it was desirable that one of these instruments should be 
placed were within the area of one of them. Instruments placed on the 
course of great lines of fault (or dislocation of the strata) would yield 
results of much value. 

Mr. Horace Darwin exhibited and explained the construction and use 
of the bifilar pendulum. He said it was not affected by the rapid, com- 
plicated movements which took place during an earthquake, or by the 
slight tremors caused by passing carts or trains. The movements which 
it would measure were such as would make a factory chimney or a 
vertical post fixed in the ground lean over to one side. Extremely small 
movements of this kind could be measured and recorded on photo- 
graphically prepared paper. A full account of the instrument was given 
in ' Nature,' July 12. It is made by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument 
Company. 

Mr. Symons, as Chairman of the Earth-tremors Committee, explained 
how the work of the Committee had grown and in what direction they 
needed additional help. In the first place, the attention of the Committee 
had been directed to a solution of the question why certain vibrations 
were recorded by an instrument which had been placed at the bottom of 
one of the deep coal-mines of the district of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Instead 
of a straight line a series of pulsations had been obtained. They were 
traced to two causes — one the gradual settlement of the ground in conse- 
quence of the removal of the coal, the other the beating of the waves on 
the coast. They had since been looking for traces of earthquake tremors, 
Mr. Davison, on one occasion, watched his instrument for some time, as he 
found pulsations were taking place. These pulsations eventually turned) 
out to have been produced by the earthquake then going on in Greece, 
They wanted information as to the changes going on in connection with 
the faults in geological strata, and, if possible, to get records of the altera- 
tions in the earth's crust caused by tidal waves. When the ocean was 
piled up at one part of the earth's surface it was quite possible that the 
elastic surface of the earth bent slightly under it. Observations of that' 
kind should be made at more than one station. The work was now- 
going on at Birmingham under Mr. Davison, but they hoped that the 
Association would give them a grant for a second instrument. Thev 
wished to make sui-e that they were recording, not merely local phenomena, 
but the great general phenomena of the earth's crust. He was glad to be 
able to record that one instrument had been established at an observatory 
.south of Biarritz by M. Antoine d'Abbadie, who had kindly presentee? 
a duplicate instrument to the new observatory at Edinburgh. They were 
anxious to see two or three instruments of this kind established in different 
parts of the British Isles, and hoped that some of the wealthy friends of 
the societies represented at that Conference might co-operate in findin ti- 
the money for the instruments. 

Mr. Tiddeman asked whether the instrument could be placed in an 
ordinary house, or whether it required a special place in a separate- 
building. 

Mr, Symons replied that Mr. Davison had placed it on the cellar floor. 
A separate building might be preferable, but was more expensive. 

Mr. INIills did not think the instrument would be of mnch use to 
person .^1 without a special knowledge of it. 



I 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 37 

Mr. Symons i-emarked that Mr. Darwin had undertaken to gi\e all 
the necessary information, and so had Mr. Davison. 

In answer to a question from Mr. Mills, he added that it was not 
essential that an instrument should be placed in a mining district, but it 
was desirable that they should be scattered throughout the country. 

Mr. Seward said that he would try to get one placed in one of the 
deep mines of South Wales. 

The Chairman hoped that by next year some of the Corresponding 
Societies would have something to report on this question. Mr. Darwin 
had kindly offered to explain, after the termination of the Conference, 
the mechanical details to any persons interested. 

Section B. 

Pollution of Air in Totvns. — Dr. G. H. Bailey said that for three or 
four years they had been engaged in Manchester, in connection with the 
Manchester Field Naturalists, in examining the air of towns with the 
view of ascertaining the extent to which it was polluted. This was a 
question of much practical importance, for the amount of the pollution was 
a pretty good indication of the death rate. Those times of the year at 
which the air was most polluted were those at which the death-rate was 
highest. Hitherto there had been very little attempt to ascertain the 
nature and degree of the pollution, and it had been their endeavour to 
examine the methods by which the pollution of town air could be detected, 
and to determine its nature and amount. They had almost perfected a 
method for determining the amount of sulphur compounds in the air, and 
one for measuring the amount of sunlight in towns. They had found that, 
whilst in extreme cases of pollution carbonic acid gas varied between four 
and seven parts in 10,000, the sulphur compounds varied from less than 
one up to fifty per million parts. The pollution varied practically as did 
the amount of the sulphur compounds. The work was hardly yet in so 
complete a state that he could recommend its adoption at a large number 
of other towns, but it would interest the delegates to know what had been 
done. They wei'e at that time working at a method for determining the 
nature and amount of the pollution of different districts of large towns. 
The work already done had been chronicled in the ' Journal of the 
Manchester Field Naturalists' for 1893. They had come to the conclusion 
that about 50 per cent, of the daylight was cut off by the smoke of a town, 
speaking of that form of light which could be registered, viz., the actinic 
rays. They had found that the centres of large towns sometimes showed 
a diminution, as compared with the suburbs, of about 50 per cent., the 
diminution of light in the centres of large towns as compared with the- 
■open country amounting to about 75 per cent. When their methods 
were more fully perfected they hoped to have the co-operation of membei-s 
in more rural districts. They had been working at the indoor as well as 
the outdoor pollution of the air. 

Mr. Slater remarked that the plants of very smoky districts were 
either destroyed or injuriously affected by the smoke. 

The Chaii'man said that it was well known to London naturalists that 
lichens were once common on tree trunks in Epping Forest, but few 
if any were to be found there now. It is too near London for them to 
flourish, 

Mr. Symons remarked that Dr. Bailey had apparently employed the 



88 REPORT— 1894.. 

photographic process for measuring the amount of sunliglit, as he spoke of 
the actinic rays. He (Mr. Symons) would point out that the burning 
sunshine recorders showed exactly tlie same result for the other end of 
the spectrum. 

The Chairman thought the matter one of the greatest importance ta 
all dwellers in large towns, and Sir Rawson Rawson remarked on its 
special intei'est to medical men. 

Mr. Holgate inquired whether they were to understand that the pro- 
portion of sulphur in the air of a town was an indication of the amount of 
its deatli-rate. 

Dr. Bailey said that he had been driven to the conclusion, that the 
amount of the death-rate of a district was closely connected with the 
amount of pollution in its air. While they had in Manchester, in ordi- 
nary weather, a death-rate from respiratory diseases of four or five per 
thousand, in foggy weather, when the air was most polluted, there was a 
mortality of twenty or more per thousand from diseases of that class. 
Plants suffered even more than human beings from air pollution. That part 
of the work had been undertaken by Prof. Oliver, of University College, 
London, who had already published a long account of the work he had 
done in connection with the Royal Horticultural Society. Dr. Bailey 
added that the method he had used for recording sunlight was not photo- 
gi-aphic, but was that originally suggested by Mr. Angus Smith. It gave 
a relative not an absolute record, .and recorded the amount not only of 
sunlight but of daylight. Delegates would lind a full account of the 
methods employed in the 'Journal of the Manchester Field Naturalists'" 
for 189:3. 

Section C. 

Mr. Whitaker (representing Section C) said that the first subject to 
which he would refer was ' Coast Erosion.' The tinal report on this sub- 
ject was to have been made this year, but it would, he hoped, be made 
next year. After the publication of the Report the subject would be 
lianded over to the Corresponding Societies, and those which have coast 
borders could continue the work by recording changes on 6-inch maps, 
or, still better, on 2.5-inch maps. The other subject was the ' Circulation 
of Underground Waters.' The committee dealing with this matter should 
have ceased to exist this year, but the final report would not appear till 
next year. In this case also the local societies would be able to continue the 
investigation. He took the opportunity of telling the representatives of 
the Corresponding Societies that they wanted records of wells and borings, 
the nature of the beds passed through, and the exact site ; also the water- 
levels and the effects of pumping on them, the temperature, an analysis of 
the water, and any other useful information. It was suggested that the 
twenty reports of the Committee should be published, but in that case the 
information about any particular district would be scattered through several 
of these reports. But the Committee thought that if these reports were 
arranged topographically, and possibly condensed, many local societies, 
would be glad to possess the volume. He hoped the local societies would 
be able to encourage the Committee in the publication of the work by 
subscribing for a copy of it. It would probably foi-m a book of 250 to 30O 
pages, and the cost would not exceed 10s. 

Mr. Slater said that water had been obtained from a deep well at 
Malton but the Local Government Board had objected to its quality. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 39 

They were trying to adopt the remedies suggested, and when a report 
was issued he would hand it to Mr. Whitaker. 

Mr. Holgate remarked that in the neighbourhood of Leeds they had 
Coal- Measures, and had found a different kind of water at each level. 
Tliis was the case throughout the coal-basin. 

Erratic Blocks. — Mr. Murdoch said that it seemed a pity that the 
labours of the Ei-ratic Blocks Committee were confined to England and 
Ireland. The work in Scotland had been by no means so completely 
done as was commonly supposed. 

Mr. Gray said that in Ireland they had issued their fii-st report on 
erratic blocks. 

Professor Blake wished to inform the representatives of the local 
societies that, being engaged in examining the microzoa of clays, par- 
ticularly of Jurassic clays, he would be much obliged if they could send 
him samples of fossiliferous clays from various parts of the country. He 
would be glad to report to the sender on the general character of these 
clays and their microzoa. There was another matter he should like to 
take the opportunity of mentioning to them. For the past three years 
he had published a book ('Annals of British Geology') which contained 
abstracts of the geological papers read before the local as well as the 
London societies. It had not hitherto been self-supporting, though the 
loss was decreasing. He had failed to get a grant from the British 
Association, and could no longer afford to publish at a loss, so, though 
the manuscript for the fourth volume was ready, he could not publish it 
unless he received additional promises of support. As this state of things 
was, in all probability, unknown to most of the local societies and their 
representatives, he had taken this opportunity of mentioning it. 
Mr. Whitaker trusted Mr. Blake's remarks would cause an increased 
sale to that most useful work, the ' Annals of British Geology.' 

Geological Photographs. — Mr. Jeffs stated that they laad received 
1,055 photographs. Some districts were totally unrejDresented, possibly 
from want of photographers. The Geological Photographs Committee 
had passed a resolution recommending the Council of the Biitish Asso- 
ciation, whose property the collection was, to deposit it in the Museum 
of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, London. As to the question of 
publication, they had not yet found a publisher who would take the 
matter up. 

The Rev. H. H. Winwood had found great difl&culty in getting 
an amateur to photograph geological sections. Professional men Avere 
sometimes worse. 

Section E. 

Mr. Sowerbutts remarked that last year he had promised to give 
a report of the examination in geography at the primary schools of 
Cheshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire. Every delegate had received a 
copy of that report. They had come to the conclusion that geography 
would never be taught satisfactorily unless it was made a compulsory 
subject. It was disgraceful that geography was so badly taught, or 
utterly neglected, in the schools of a country which had territory in 
every part of the world. They had been pleased, however, to notice 
that much progress had been made in some of the primary schools by 
the institution of school museums. It was a singular fact that in 



40 REPORT— 1894. 

Yorkshire the girls won all the prizes, and in Lancashire the boys. The 
council of the Manchester Geographical Society thought that next time 
they would test the secondary schools. His society had, for the last two 
or three years, published an analysis of the chief geographical papers 
which had been published in English and foreign journals, a necessary 
though expensive work. He hoped that some day there would be an 
international committee to deal with that matter. The report on the 
Ordnance Survey was a very interesting and important one, and he hoped 
the delegates would read it. 

Mr. Whitaker said that the report referred to had not reached 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee, and Mr. Sowerbutts 
regretted having forgotten them. 

Section H. 

Ethnographical Survey. — Mr. Brabrook remarked that the delegates 
had shown so much interest in this question, and so many had given 
assistance, that he need only give some account of the progress made 
since their last Conference. During the past year they had their list of 
suitable villages considerably increased : there were now 367, a much 
larger number than they had expected would be suggested as places 
suitable for examination. It had taken much time to draw up the forms 
of schedule, of which each delegate had received a copy, but he thought 
the work well worth doing. He might mention that at Ipswich, where 
they would meet next year, a sub-committee had been formed to assist 
them, which had already been of much use ; while at Liverpool, where 
they would meet in 1896, the keeper of the museum, Dr. Forbes, had been 
kind enough to undertake that his assistant in the ethnographical 
department should set to work on the lines we projjose to adopt. Many 
gentlemen engaged in special observations at particular places might 
obtain much assistance from the additional facts which had been collected 
by Dr. Forbes. In Wales their sub-committee had met, and had formu- 
lated some proposed regulations for action which the Central Committee 
thought very wise, and they hoped that work would soon be begun in 
"Wales on the lines indicated by Mr. Allen. In Ireland Professor Haddon 
had drawn up a report of the work done there, which was of great im- 
portance. In combination with Dr. C. R. Brown he had prepared a great 
number of papers resembling the schedules of instructions issued by the 
Central Committee. He hoped that his Honour Deemster Gill would 
become interested in the matter, because they had two excellent corre- 
spondents in the Isle of Man already — Mr. Moore and Mr. Kermode — and 
it appeared to him that those three gentlemen would form an admirable 
sub-committee for that quarter. In Scotland they had a promise of 
assistance from gentlemen representing the Glasgow Archseological Society. 
He had lately presided at a congress of archaeological societies, and had 
made a statement on the subject of the Ethnographical Survey. The 
organisers of the congress were good enough to ask him as to the cost of 
an explanatory statement which could be circulated among their own 
members with their transactions. He had answered that he would be 
willing to pay for the setting-up of the statement, if the various societies 
would pay the cost of printing off the number of copies required. He 
would be pleased to make a similar arrangement with any of the corre- 
sponding societies, and would be glad to receive suggestions of any kind 
from any of the delegates present. He wished to make one additional 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 41 

remark. They had been told that their instructions with regard to photo- 
graphing were too minute. But those instructions had been drawn up by 
Mr. Francis Galton with reference to his system of composite photographs, 
and any departure from them would make the application of that system 
comparatively difficult. At the same time they did not wish to lose any 
photographs which might come in useful, even if, in their case, the instruc- 
tions had not been followed. 

Mr. Sowerbutts stated that with regard to photogi-aphs the old people 
in his district objected to be photographed and measured, apparently from 
a notion that to allow it would be to render themselves subject to witch- 
craft. They had found a difiBculty in providing the necessary apparatus 
for their ethnographical work. 

Dr. Garson wished to say that as regards the photographs it was not 
necessary to get all the appliances Mr. Galton had mentioned. A very 
simple arrangement could be made by means of three sticks set up so as 
to give the exact notion of a person's height, the top of his head coming 
across the transverse stick. The seat could be raised or lowered like that 
of a piano-stool, so that each person sitting on it would have his head in 
the same place, whatever his height might be. It was well also to have 
chalk lines on the floor at right angles to each other, the sitter being 
directed to look along one or the other of them. They did not want the 
measurements of very old people, or indeed of persons moie than fifty 
years old. 

Mr. Brabrook added that, as regards the supply of apparatus, the price 
of the cheaper kind of instrument for taking measurements was 11. 6s., 
but there was a better one at 3/. 3s. 

Dr. Garson remarked that the one at 1/. Qs. was quite good enough. 

The Chairman said chat in his opinion they had held a very useful 
Conference, and in concluding it he wished to express the hope that the 
delegates would bring its proceedings under the notice of their respective 
societies in as forcible and complete a way as possible. The custom of 
the Essex Field Club was to ask their delegate to send in a report of 
what had been done, and to publish it as soon as possible in the ' Essex 
Naturalist.' He hoped other Corresponding Societies would act in a 
similar manner- 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman was proposed by Mr. Symons, 
seconded by Dr. Garson, and carried unanimously. The proceedings then 
terminated. 

The Committee recommend the retention of all the Societies at present 
on the list, with the exception of the Eoyal Geological Society of Ireland, 
the Bedfordshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, and the 
Liverpool Geographical Society, which have not complied with the regu- 
lations. 

The Committee have pleasure in reporting that the Berwickshire 
Naturalists' Club, the Glasgow Archaeological Society, and the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society have been added to the list of Corresponding 
Societies. 



42 



REPORT — 1894. 



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COKRESPOXDING SOCIETIES. 



45 



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72 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



47 



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CO i-H ifl o -^ I ** "5 

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the S 
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and its 
eight of 
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REPORT — 1894. 



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o 

03 



Cm 



U 



. 


■ bo 




c 


o 


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o 


, 


M 


e 



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o 


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ta 



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ft, lz;c 



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CO C 

.s 1= a 

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■3 SO 

u-i •^ ti 
o -S o o 

o ,.> >-| 
<- o ^ s 

=5 S t« » 

IH O) S 

o^ fe -s :S 
■^ i° 



3 -^ .2 



5 



o 

ft 
p, 

3 
bo.S >,*^ 

Ph a bo-G 
'-'•2 5 „ 



o 



'CM ° 

a s-g 
a &§ 

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« ° « 



(P ■ 



o c 



g g C3 

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Sw 



!zi rt 



a 

o 

a'B. 
o ts 

%^ 

O 



q3 •.- 
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0.2 

HO 
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o 
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c3 



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ce o _ 

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>'^ 2 



o O o 

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^ -. 3 

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o o ^ 

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,£ -o O -S 
<B O — ' ^ 

=" .2 'bij^ 
° 53 ° g 

O G (P '^ 

H '-^ O <u 

r-< '-' r^ ■♦-' 



a 

o 
a 
o 
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c3 btW 



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c^ 








tn 








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rt 




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^ 


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o 


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o P ti 
b(j G 



V. 



gSO- 



■►^ ft 

ftH S S 
<i> ft ti 

K<;oft 



S a 
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-a !5 



S 



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ft 



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d 



a 



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a h 

(S a) 
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> 






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rt 


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c3 


ta 


a JS o 


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pq 


O 


O 


ooo 


OO 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



49 





m 


•^ 




CO 


•"f 




M -*. 


CO 


-* 




« 




-n 




m 
















^ 


C5 


.Oi 


. 


OJ 


o 


^ 


CJ cn 


o 


-O) 




o> 


^ 


.CJ 


^ 


cs 


^ 






^ 


^ 








CO 


-ao 




00 


CO 




00 00 

I-H r-t 


00 


-00 

f— t 




CO 

1— ( 




'CO 




CO 












" 


** 



<r\ 


1^ ■* 


•* 


CS 


«o 


00 


M 


«o CO 


00 •<*< U3 CO 


IM ■* 


-^ 


-H 


CO 


,_J 


CO 


o 


o 


■^ 


in 


M <^ 


on 


or 


n 


C5 


a> 


IN 


a> 


lO 


O CO 


•* 


eo 05 


CO 


t< 


!» 


O -h 


o 


to 


« 


la 


CJ 




^ 


i^ 


00 


<N 






<N 


<N 


CJ 


->*< ■* 


r^ lO 




•* 


CO 


i-H 


1—1 


CO 


•* 




f-< 


C-l 




CJ 




r< 







M 

ft • wl • 

I >— ^ '-I 






>X 



^ l^l-l 



>'>'1 

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CO 
C5 



o 



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cri 

00 



o 



CO 
l-l CO 



f^ 



>> 



5 ^ S 

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g-^ 




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o 

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r. 



-p 


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o 


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C 




o 




ID 




r. 


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'n 


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n 


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<V 


M 




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<) 


Jh^>H 



o 
o 

CO 

"o 
a> 
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.a 
a 

a 



> a 



o 
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o 
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o 
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bo 
□ 



.8| 



S -3 



o 

CO 



r a 



CO L^ 

o 



O ll 



CD 
rJil 



§1 


2 
Pi 






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wS 


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O 

'S 



. to 

CO C 

o . 



6 a 


o 


o o 


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to o 


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»— J ^ 


r— • -^ 


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rt-^ 






W C/J 




TS^ 


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a 



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5 5 ° a - 5 g 
5 o- o 

tr. X 1) J3 

.2 § a. b 



, . - O 
OC..O 



<U >-j 



c3 



J c; x; Sj jd iJ « 

^— ' :d +j rn ^^ J< hf 



|jco^_g£a o 

W H ■< H 






fa. "^ 
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■ X 



CS 



rO be 
O.S 

rT a 
"53-55 



ao 



=1 
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4) !- O CO "^ 
■S ° — -w ■« 
rt '*-' « C8 O 

H^3ga 
5 -2 W -2 .9 
- o -^ o-^ 

sm ^-^^ 

45 .a =^ ^ ^ 



C 
o 

tn 

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pR . 

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So f^ o !r. ° 
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a g'S g-^O S=«^ 
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C3 



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to 



> rt 

Si > 

S CO 

CO a 

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a 
o 



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a 

: CO 



o 



O 



o 



O 

Ph 




1-5 



2 !! a 



S-P 
a M 

:a o 

O bn 

>■ — 

1=^ O.S 

i; to-Q 
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^^ ID O 

S> o 



-a 
a 

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cS 

3 
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bo 
o 



H 



o 
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3 
O 
li 

lU 



o 
&. 

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Q 



Op a 
ago 
o o a 
fc^ 'T? a 
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a 
o 

CO o 
C ti 
0) ci. 

.§^ 

O 0) 
I— I Oi > -o. 

,^ =3 ~r o .2 

. a So ' iJ i 

K rH CS O M 

ID rH .-H 

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8 M^ S .2 
^ ^ > 'ra (a 
u <u 2 



73 %i -»^ ^ 



ce S^ 2 t) J3 S -^ .5 .fH o -2,^ 






ci O 



O 



° ^ ^ M <1 -K g ^ « o -2 o s ^ g a s ^ ef -- cf ^ c«- S rt o - r ° 

ill !i|ll|2|^|i l|i|il !l : m ^ 

a d" o a \a si S~ja li^a.ti-^ c« e— ° o-'-^ni*^ o s^ 

OO '^O HHP-iH HOHPP O wH S^i tZ5 OW ^O 



> • • • 

= -^aSi' 

o ■'- 3 3 ;3 

1894. 



a r^ 

s >-. 

> o 

> ca 

Q 



W 



o 

a 



Wei 
g^ 



-^-a 






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P 



§-« 3 g So 

01 .'t; o C "^ K 
■ c5 



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c3oooa>.'t!o£;'^ 
'^'^'^"^ 00C50 



o « 

CO ID 

be to 



ft 
d • 

CO 

O <D 

C3 (S 

tea 



: 'o 



5^ 



CS a 
bo 






50 



REPORT — 1894. 



"« 
^ 



o 

o 
u 

C3 



55 



xV. 


05 


■* CO 






■^ 




CO 
















C3 . 
00 - 


"CO 00 


: 


: 


C3 
00 


I ; 


.05 

'00 


: 




-CTS 
'00 


05 
00 


s :: t 


2 


0.4^ 




^H »-< 






i—t 




.— ( 




.-H 




•—4 






o 

to 


b- r-t 


1/5 05 CO 


CO 


t~ 


CO 


^ -H 


-H C5 


-H 


CO O 00 


C<l .^ 


>r3 


h- O 50 


o 


a 


C2 rt 


2 J::*" 


o 


f-H 


'il 


-S< -*l 


O 


^H 


i£3 1^ in 


— IM 


CO 






Ph 


W 


M <M 








rH 


fH 


CO 


C^ -*i 


O tX 




f-H I— I 


CO 






CO 




CO 


i—i 












«■) 






C hi 


^■« 

!^^ 


or 189 
XII. 
VIII. 




IM 

00 

1— ) 
M 


£ 
> 

v" 




> 


1-4 


VIII. 
XII. 
XXII. 


:«o 


35 

00 

05 


: s E 


s 




n 




o 














CO 














b 


>^ 












i-H 










;s ..s . 

J • : • : '^ • 

'^^ ^- 8 'o- § ^- g ,5 g g g 

«5g« ? « ti? :§- '§§-«« 



a 

o 



. o 

o o 

O CQ 

o "^ 

« a 

. o 

-^ S 

a 0< 






^ O 



o 
m 



'< ri 



ca o o 

CQ en OT 

bH tri (P 

O O OJ 



o 

01 

"o 
o 

Oi 

V 



Ed 

a 

o 

&• 
ki 

O 



o 

o 



!0 



O 






- o 



- o 

O 



. o . 

- o o 

m o 
MM 



o 
■ t» • 

03 O ° 



o 
O 



o 

a) 



■6 8 



O 

"J t; S 
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.WO 



5J 



• m c o 

C O 'm 

O en 

tiS bo 05 

O C3 
o'£,C-S 

pa 2Ph 



« 



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C in 

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'^'09^0 






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o ID O +3 Ph 

CC Ph 



• • >% • 

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13 

CO IH 

a a) 

■|^^ 

■§ G "d 

e .S 2 =« 
•- * J' 5n a 

03 « fl T^ -in 

.S ?a ^ a 

.,• §, O H &H 

•<i m 2 o 

•n ! a e 3 

— 5^ W fc- 

g 2 t^ o w 

a-fwo.^ 

,S c3 <" aj c4 

*^ 85 a 

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■^ O M W 



a 
o 



cj 

01 






C ci 



J3 O 

-.-3 

b m 

C -g 
o o 



3) 

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a n 



c« 






5 ".2 



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, c3 

a 
s 

o 
o 



C3 



. 0> 

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tn 



O ^^ '• 

t- " rt ?S 



bo 

c 

5 



■ « .s 



CO CO ^ 
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Sp5 ■" 

.§ s § 

■+^ 
o 



O r) 



- 2 

c' 
o 



12; 



S.2 

d ^ "^ 
OO 



^^ ^ ^ 

1-1 " o 
ajrt.2 
(SO'-' 

_ nH a5 

^ ~ -L^ 

C C CI 

> g OJ 

cs o .a 
QOH 



^ o 



w 



bo's 

^ >-. 
O) o 
U >H 
I-H "^ I 



a) . 



cfi 



u ci 



jj i/j Si d, 

11 ^1 

§05-3 s 

" a "~ 

03 C 4) 

^•^ <1> s 

43 ja c fl 



.2 C 

.Q.2 

« ^ Si's 



— o 



o • 



c 

bcj 



O en 

MO >-> a 0) 
bD bo o 0) 
^ t« o :s i; ■ 



bo 

o 



Ci 






' 2 S ^ 2 J 
I 2p^ C o b 



S o 




m 
H if 
.ia r bo 



f^ St.: 
i2 a 

oHo 



P^ 



S . '> EiJ 
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►,■ "^ '-^ f^' 



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-o 



b 5 W ^'' § 



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CO 
1-1 i-s 



« M « J 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



51 



M 


•* « 












-t< 01 




-♦1 








CO 


ti 




Oi 


.55 05 


•. K 


^ . 


^ 


^ 


■\ ■> K 


C5 C5 


.. 


05 


.. 


., 


.. 


.a» 


o> 




00 


- XI CO 


«. ♦. 


* * 




*■ 


*. » *> 


1» 30 


■■ 


OO 


. 


* 


* 


-00 


00 




f— < 


— ' '-' 












— -< 




*-H 








rH 


i-^ 




o 


X' 1^ .-H 


C. 'i* 


CO h- 


lf> 


o 


^ r- -** 


o m 


OJ 


IM 


■* 


CJ 


to 


to to 


■* 




oo 


»— 1 rc 


CO t-. 


O CO 


.—1 


o 


iO -t^ GO 


cc o 


o 


(N 


CO 


»o 


■* 


U5 CO 


la 






l-H T— * 


T-^ 


(M 


1— t 


I— I 


i-H 


<M M 


CO 


lO 


y-i 


CO 










*— 1 






I— < 


• 


: 




'->; 


: 




i 

CO 


: 


CO 

00 
o 




oo 

CO 
























t-« 




fe 












<3 

^ 

2 • ** to • °* b • 



o 
in 



C3 

o 
04 



c , • 

'a < 



03 O 



o 
o 



o 
o 
O 






bo 
c 



f-: f^ 



.0 
■*^ 

c fa 

0) '/) 

few 



O o 

X O o 
.Mo 

r2 .02 

^ ffi ■ 

O * D 

60=2 a 



bo • 
c 

H d 
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a CO 

§■3 

■Sc5 
s . 



OtC^^ few 



o 

o 



o 

0) 

O 
o 



o 

fe" 



<u 
a. 
o 

o 



o 
o 
CO 






o 



o 
o 

- (U 

O 



fe 



-:; :z: 






— o 
*- o 

o ^ 



o a 
.:2 



.2 
2SS 



t^2 

s p s 

13 o Ph 
tn 1^ •• 
2 -»^ ^ 

(«) 0) o 

""^^ 

fe 0-2 



o c ^ 
C § 2 

OOP-i 



i2^ 



13 C3 

0) 



OS! 



i-i s 



• o 
o 

u 

. ;3 

o 

bo 

i <D 



^ ;;j *^ 5 



I- 









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* a 
o 



•r; 0) 

o 



-a 

(8 

a> 
a 

CO 

bo 
C 

n . - 

lU o 

a -w 

M i2 S • 



us 



o 

o 

O 
en 

C 

0) 



<u 
13 

'be 

C 
W 

bo 

c 



til? 

o o 



c 
o 



o 

-a 
o 

c 

■ be 

a 



o 



CI, i-i c 
Q o rt 






o 



rt . C5 K? =^ ^ -^ .-t^ S 2 



-ego 



a 

■XI 

Ife^ 

. CI 
C3 O 

o s 

0) >-. 



HO 



o 

.s 

o 

<u 
-a 



2 O 



.4J 

« s 

Q) O 



be 
"o 

0) 

o 

OS 

o 



3 

o 

C5 



Is 

c» a S o 

■sl £.§ 

a ■* 

o S "1 a 

^ O OJ 
<" 53 -K <b 



o 

u .2 
'o a 



a 

o 



.a 



o 

as 



P 
1) 
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C4-* 

!». 

H 



Z3 13 1> 



a 



g J5 g 

13 on o 
<u =« n 



,^0 

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,— 1 


r1 


IS 





f" 


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.CI 


d 


CO 


•4^ 



5'<i6 



at 



be S. 



M 



01 -^ 
.a 0) 



CO ■ 

bfiOU. 

G « ce 

- a, -- 



o fi 



'^ a 

a ce Q <- 
ft— 0) tr 

<;ZH 



yi3 
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0) Vj 

K.S 
a-a 
o 



CI 

I-i =1 



■^ lid 



a "S .s 



O 

: o 
Ph 

cS 



^2 

a a 
"• o 



S ss 



o 



o 

o 



«a^. 

O M B 
000 



•13 

a 



.Z 



o 



gj=SI 
OC-i 





W 


^ 





oT 


i-T 




Q. 






B- 


ii 



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a 

a --S 

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&4 

CJ 

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u 2 



52 



REPORT — 1894. 



ft- .2 



to 



> o 



3 
ft- 



•55 



H 
O 



I 



H X 



:m 



«<1 



3 
-5! 



CO 


*^ 


05 


• OS 


00 


'00 



CO 



•<a< CO ^ CO 

O C5 C2 03 

00 00 OO 00 



C5 C<» CO t-O to •^ 
eo »i5 CD CO CO ^ 
•-I N <N C^ lO lO 



IS CO 



t- CO 

tl CO 
M CO 



o 

CO 



^ C3 "-O 

«o C^ CO 
S<1 ■*> 



CO 



> >-' 



ot* s ta 



M 



CO 



X > 






• •• »•. •••?* • ... w f^ 

........ ^^ : « : ' "5 

C3?S :52l 7. t "^ ^ <3 s <3 s g 

^e; g; g - 6 ^ ^ ^ 



o 

o 

CO 



"o 
o 



en , 
<U .£] 



o 
o 

a 

P5 

si 

:: □ 

o 
O 



o 

o 



.d 

o 

= c 



o 



o 
o 

CO 



^2 = 

cS 



o 



o 

a 



o 

. o . 

CO 

KM C> 

c ,^ u 

OSS 

12; 253 



n 



a 

o 

<U .is 

■^ a 

-w o 

bc« 

C to 
"C, 3 ■ 

3 PI 
'^ 5' 
bo— 
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.21: 

a) Q 
im [_, 
C a; 
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i^ 

g.i 

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'CO'* 

§* s 

(ft r*- c3 

*^ r/i C3 

S o -^ 

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O 



w 



(U C o 

■^ cS "J 

o « o 

§ 2 S 

o S g 

(i tH o3 

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S 2 § 

tJ3 



o 
o 

0) 

.a 



CI c« -i 

in ^u 
5 =* g 

, o 



O S 

=a .2 a 

w go 

o 

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B 

"o 



o O 

-fc^ ?> t4_, 

. g g bp 



•11 



3ai^ 



<1 CO H 



bo 2 

■c a 

^ oO o 



TS a 

W J 
|1- 

a 2 

g o, 

o; 



1^ T3 

M o 
o ^ 

^^ (11 



o ^ c> 



tf^ 



i!^>H 



S o o 



.d c 

C a> 

> o 
o 



O j> 

^ o 
OH 



.2 
'S 

o ■« .s 5 

^2.S.S| 

D eg ,9 *c 

- S « => S 



^ m ^ oT « 



^ O ct •" . 



■-^ '^ ,'"' ^ ?^ 

^e « 111 

CO ftn S 



O 



O. 



i2 f^' 



t: a 
ci o 

02 W 



.1-5 



o .S 

CO 03 



p 3 



CO 









C5h^ 

d"o\ 
o .- 



O 






^°5 


a 


a 







2 « ts 


;^ 


ru^ 


H^^ 


^ 


^ 



O 

>a 
o 



CJ 

J" 



ta QC ^ Cl CI 

CO CO CO ^^ T> 



o 
fa 






a 
o 

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P 



'A 

CO 




Woolhope J 
York's. Nat. 


M 


• m -a 
0:5 _a 



o 



3 
O 
03 

oT 

a 
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c3 
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o 
H • 



a 



a 

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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 5.^ 



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Note on the Genus Apion . 
The Flora of Northamptonshire 


In Memoriam : Rev. J. W. Chaloner 
InMemoriam: Charles Ashford 
A new Hampshire Fungus . 
Nithsdale Willows .... 
Notes on the Seasons of 1893, princi 


ibourhood of Felstead 
ies of Lumhricus 
Revision of the Lumbricid: 
pidoptera observed in Hcrtf 


ertfordshire Hepaticfe . 
s on the Emergence of th 
■la oleracea) 
ths of Insects . 
Naturalists in Mid-Ribblesda 
I in the Neighbourhood of Yc 
of XantMa aurago in Sout 


893 

y in Winter 

ays on the Yorkshire Coast 

m : George Brook, F.L.S. 

Entomology . 

ion of Wild Birds' Eggs . 

of Appleby and District . 

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Yorkshire I^ 
Lepidoptera 
Occurrence 


shire in 1 
Forge Valle 
Specimen D 
In Memoria 
New Forest 
The Protect 
The Botany 
Casuals and 

1893 




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vans, C. T. . 
yre, Rev. L. 
ingland, J. 
rench, J. . 




^ ./3 . . 


ey, Rev. W. 

obkirk, C. P 
ughcs, Rov. 
nubley, Rev. 
each, R. E. 
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a 




to 
a. 


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to Geog 
liat he 

eograph 


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very of 
old end 


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Meteorology in Relation 
Dr. Fridtjof Nansen : W 
what he proposes to do 
Geology in Relation to G 


2 S 

bo bo 
O ti 

o 

5| 
fl a 

en XI 


History to 1892 . 
The Waters of the Ard 
Springs, Wells, Rivers 


Marshes within the Ba 
The Toruba Country, Ab 
Wensleydale 
The Central Soudan . 
Polar Exploration 
Peru .... 
The Lower Loire 
Notes on Norway 
Hints on Reconnaissanc 

plorers in Unsurveyed 


Project for Meteorologica 

Atlantic 
Notes on the Early Disco 
The Extreme Heat and C 


en 
O 
m 

►> . 

S3 


A Tour round the World 
The Influence of Rainfall 
lopment : A Study of tli 




o 

■3 
-»! 
o 

a 


insworth, J. 
allantine. Major 
R. F. 

ore. Prof. T. H. . 
rouch, W. . 

awkins, Prof. W. 


6 


6 

a 
o 


Halligey.Rev.J.T.F. 
Hamer, W. . 
Hausa Association 
Jackson, F. C. 


arkham, C. R. . 
ellor, E. VV. 
ennell, H. T. . 
ilitary Intelli- 
gence Depart- 


ment 

onaco, Prince 
Albert of . 
organ, E. D. 
adaillac, Mar- 
quis de 

Idham, R. D. . 
irke. Surgeon 


T. H. 

edmayne, J. 
edway, J. W. 






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CORRESrONDING SOCIETIES, 



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62 



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64 REPORT — 1894 



Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of Thermodynamics. 

By G. H. Bryan. 

Part II. — The Laws op Distribution of Energy and their Limitations. 
( With an Aj)petulix by Prof. Ludwig Boltzjiann.) 

Introduction. 

L This Report deals primarily with the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law and 
Maxwell's Law of Partition of Kinetic Energy, which form the basis of 
the Kinetic Theory of Gases. One of the main points kept in view has 
been to show where to draw the line between dynamical systems which 
do and dynamical systems which do not satisfy the laws in question. 

Since the appearance of the first Report ' several papers have appeai-ed 
which have thrown a somewhat different light on certain aspects of the 
subject, and have thus materially assisted in crystallising our knowledge 
of this branch of Thermodynamics into a definite form. In order to pre- 
vent unnecessary controversy, I have, as far as possible, avoided drawing 
conclusions from arguments of a vague and theoretical nature. Where, 
however, results are based on purely mathematical calculations they must 
be understood to be liable to modification should further examination 
show the calculations to be faulty or inaccurate. It is necessary to 
mention this, as one of the investigations cited in Part I. has subse- 
quently been found to be incorrect, with the result of very materially 
altering our \'iews on the question at issue.^ 

A great advance in the present subject is due to tlie extension of the 
use of generalised co-ordinates, by which greater generality has been given 
to results and the analysis much simplified, as a comparison of Boltzmann's 
early papers with modern writings abundantly testifies. A further sim- 
plification has been effected by the use of the Jacobian notation. 

For convenience I have in places written exp — 7iEforexp( — AE) or e~''^. 

The present Report is divided into three sections. In Section I. 
Maxwell's Law of Partition of Energy is regarded in the aspect of a general 
dynamical theorem, without reference to any particular applications, and 
without taking into account the effect of collisions. Section II. treats of 
the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law for a system of bodies colliding with one 
another indiscriminately, and partaking of the nature of gas molecules. 
Section III. deals briefly with certain researches connecting the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law with the Theory of Probability, the Virial Equation, and the 
Second Law of Thermodynamics. 

Section I. — Non-coli-iding Systems. 
Clerk Maxwell's Investigations. 

2. Clerk Maxwell's investigations^ have played such a prominent part 
in the literature of the Kinetic Theory that I think it desirable to 
recapitulate his paper briefly, so as to show more clearly what assump- 
tions he made and how much he actually proved. 

' Cardiff Beport, 1891, pp. 85-122. 

'^ The results stated in the first tAvelve lines of Part I. Section III. § 44 are now 
known to be erroneous. See also §§ 36, 37 below. 

' ' On Boltzmann's Theorem of the Avernge Distribution of Energy in a System 
of Material Poin's,' Tran\ Canih. ritil. Soc, xii. 1879. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 65 

It may be safely asserted that a large portion of our progress in the 
present subject has been made, first, by showing that Maxwell's demon- 
strations are faulty and unsatisfactory, and subsequently by discover- 
ing fresh methods of proof, which, while leading to the same general 
conclusions, show more clearly the limitations a,nd conditions under which 
these conclusions hold good. In this process of destruction and recon- 
struction a large amount of literature has accumulated, and I shall 
endeavour in the present Pteport to unearth from the general mass the 
main results to which these papers tend. 

3. Maxwell claims that his theoi-em is applicable to any dynamical 
system whatever. 'The material points may act on each other at all 
distances and according to any law which is consistent with the equation 
of energy, and they may also be acted on by any forces external to the 
system, provided these also are consistent with that law. The only 
assumption which is necessary for the direct proof is that the system, if 
left to itself in its actual state of motion, will sooner or later pass through 
every phase which is consistent with the equation of energy.' * 

4. Instead, however, of a single system. Maxwell considers a large 
number of independent dynamical systems, similar in every respect, 
each defined by its n co-ordinates (g,, . . . q„) and the corresponding 
71 momenta (^^i, . . . ^J„). Each system is capable of passing through 
every phase which is consistent with the equation of energy, and it is 
thus assumed that all the systems have the same energy. In the case of a 
free system unacted on by external forces, the six components of linear 
and angular momentum remain constant, and Maxwell assumes that these 
are the same for all systems. 

5. Taking the ' action ' of the system during any period of the motion, 
he employs this function to establish the determinantal relation between 
the multiple differentials of the co-ordinates and momenta at the beginning 
and end of any interval, and thus establishes the relation 

S(y/, . . . f.l.qx',. . • An ) _.^ ,j. 

8(PU • • • Vn^ <1\, • • • In) ' ' ' ^ ^ 

from which he deduces that, if the energy E be kept constant, so that j;, 
can be expressed as a function of the n — 1 other ^'s, then 

dilh, • • • l^n, <1\, • • • (In) ?! • • K y 

6. Hence it follows that, if the systems are so distributed that the- 
number which initially have their co-ordinates and momenta within the 
limits of the multiple differential d!/;2 • • • dVndl\. • • • dq„he 

-^dp.y . . . dp„ dq^ . . . dq„ . . . (3) 

their total energies being all equal and C a constant, then the same 
expression gives the law of distribution at any subsequent time. Maxwell 
says : ' We have found one solution of the problem of finding a steady 
distribution ; whether there may be other solutions remains to be inves 
tigated.' 

' Zoe. cit., p. 518 
1894. F 



6Q REPORT — 1894. 

7. He next assumes that the momenta (now denoted by a,, ... a„) 
may be so chosen as to reduce the kinetic energy to a sum of squares, or 

T = i2Mrar^ (4) 

With this assumption, he integrates (3) with respect to the momenta, and 
finds by Dirichlet's method 



p 'c?a2 . . . da„_^ 2-iT(ln) (E- Y-l;n„a„2)i(u-3) 



where j,=/xia[. Hence he infers that if ^„=^/i,„«„2 is the part of the 
kinetic energy arising out of the momentum o„, then the number of systems 
in a given configuration, in which k,, lies within limits differing by dk„, is 



r(in) (E-v-^J^'^. _,^j. 



mnun-1)] (E-Y)'<" 



(5) 



and that since this expression only involves k,„ therefore the law of distri- 
bution of the kinetic energy is the same for all the momenta. Multiplying 
the above expression by k„, and integrating from A;„^0 to A;„^T=E — V, 
we find that the mean value of k„ is 

K=^(E-V) = 1t . . . (6) 

71 n 

the maximum value being of course equal to T, because the portions of 
the kinetic energy due to the other momenta cannot be negative. Hence 
Maxwell infers ' that the average kinetic energy corresponding to any one 
of the variables is the same for every one of the variables of the system.' 
This result is commonly called Clerk MnxiielVs Theorem. 

8. In Part II. of the paper Maxwell deals with a free system, con- 
sisting of n particles not acted on by external forces. For such a system 
not only tlie energy but also the velocity- components of the centre of mass 
and the components of angular momentum round this point in any three 
fixed directions will be constant throughout the motion. Maxwell therefore 
assumes them the same for every system. Under these circumstances the ^n 
momentum-components of the system are not all independent, but seven 
of them can be expressed in terms of the rest by means of the seven 
equations of condition, and the law of permanent distribution is expres- 
sible in terms of the multiple difierential of the Sw co-ordinates and 3w — 7 
of the velocity components of the particles. The algebra is very long 
and laborious, and need not be examined in detail here. The objections 
to Maxwell's investigations can be much more easily discussed and 
criticised with reference to the simpler case considered in Part I., and 
the law of distribution in a free system can be treated more simply by 
alternative methods {vide §§ 16-18, § 45, and appendices A, B below). 

The Assumption that the System passes through every Phase consistent 
iviih the Equation of Energy. 

9. This assumption probably presents greater difiiculties than any 
other part of the Kinetic Theory, and it is therefore advisable to com- 
mence by stating under what circumstances it requires to be made 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 67 

The whole of Maxwell's demonstration, and most of the investigations 
of Boltzmann/ Watson,^ and other writers on the same subject, are based 
on the consideration of an infinitely large number of independent systems, 
similar in every respect, whose co-ordinates and momenta at any instant 
are distributed according to a fixed law, and the object is to find what 
this distribution must be in order that it may be independent of the 
time and unafiected by the motions of the systems. I cannot see that 
these investigations anywhere assume that each individual system passes 
through every possible phase. At each instant there must be some 
systems in every possible phase ; but a distribution would obviously be 
permanent — and very much so indeed — in which each system always 
remained in the same phase, and never passed into any other phase. 

10. The assumption first confronts us when we attempt to pass from 
the consideration of a large number of systems to that of a single system, 
i.e., if, having investigated the result of averaging the distributions of 
energy at a' given instant over the different systems, we wish to infer 
similar properties for the corresponding time-averages for any one of the 
systems. 

It is easy enough to suggest systems to which the assumption is 
inapplicable. Most of the ' test cases ' which have been suggested as dis- 
proving the law, and which will be considered later on, are instances of 
such systems. Lord Eayleigh ^ has suggested as another instance an 
elastic ball moving on a table having a circular boundary, at which it is 
reflected. If, instead of taking a single particle. Lord Rayleigh had sup- 
posed the table covered with such particles initially distributed uniformly 
over its area, and projected in such a manner that at any point as many 
particles were moving in one direction as in another, he would find these 
same conditions satisfied at any subsequent time, and this is, to my mind, 
all that Maxwell proves. 

11. It is far less easy to suggest any simple system which does satisfy 
the assumption. The tracing point of a Lissajous' pendulum curve-tracer, 
considered by Boltzmann,^ or in other words a particle whose equations 
of motion are 

x + a^x=0, y-\-b"-y^Q, 

possesses when a, h are incommensurable the property of passing sooner 
or later through every point within a certain rectangle, but it does not 
possess the other necessary property of passing through any point in every 
possible direction in succession. This may be easily seen for the simplest 
case when a is nearly but not quite equal to b : here the path is nearly 
elliptical, and there are only two possible directions at any point. Hence, 
in order to satisfy the assumption, Boltzmann requires a thin elastic 
cylinder to be placed perpendicularly to the plane of motion, so that the 
particle may have its direction of motion changed each time it strikes and 
rebounds from the cylinder. And this introduces collisions into the 
problem. 

' ' TJeber die Eigenschaften monocyklischer unci anclerer damit verwandter 
Systeme,' Journal fur die relne nnd angewandtc Mat he m at U/, xcviii. p. 68. 
' Analogien des zweiten Hauptsatzes,' ihid., c. pp. 206, 207, and other papers. 

- Kinetic Theory of Gases, new edition, p. 23. 

" Phil. Mag., April 1892, p 357. 

■* ' Ueber die mechanischen Analogien des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermo- 
dynamik,' Journal fur die Mathematik, c. p. 203. 

p2 



68 REPORT— 1894. 

To discover, if possible, a general class of- dynamical systems satisfying 
the assumption would form an interesting subject for future investigation. 
It is, howevei', doubtful how far Maxwell's law would be applicable to 
the time-averages of the energies in any such system. We shall see, in 
what follows, that the law of permanent distribution of a very large 
number of systems is in many cases not unique. Where there is more 
than one possible distribution it would be difficult to draw any inferences 
with regard to the average distribution (taken with respect to the time) 
for one system. 

Thus the proof of Maxwell's Law of Partition of Energy furnishes no 
general conclusions with regard to the average distribution of energy in a 
xingle conservative dynamical system with a finite number of degrees of 
freedom, independently of initial circumstances, except by making as- 
sumptions which are nearly tantamount to assuming the law. It may 
reasonably be inferred that no such conclusions exist. We shall therefore 
assume in future, unless otherwise stated, that we are dealing with the 
distribution at any instant in a large number of systems. 

12. It is probable that the molecules of a gas in the ' special ' or equi- 
librium state, in consequence of their frequent collisions, satisfy the 
assumption, which Boltzmann ' has employed to give a simple proof of the- 
e~''^ law of distribution. But he was careful to point out that no proof 
had been given that the assumption either was satisfied or could be 
satisfied by gas-molecules, and he therefore referred for an alternative 
verification of his results to an independent but longer proof ^ based on a 
consideration of the collisions between molecules. Similar questions are 
raised by Boltzmann in his Appendix to this Report. 

The Evahiation of the Fimctional Determinant. 

13. Watson^ has raised an objection to Maxwell's evaluation of the 
functional determinant on the ground that the result takes the form 

d{pu . . . q,) A' 

where A and A' are separately zero ; and, therefore, the investigation 
leaves the value of the determinant undeterminate. This, he shows, 
follows from the fact that the condition E constant supplies no independent 
relation between the initial and final states. 

Both Watson'* and Lord Rayleigh* have therefore given an inde- 
pendent proof based on the substitution of Hamilton's ' principal function ' 
S, for the ' action ' A, where 



S 
and 



= ['{T-Y)dt 



^''■-~d^' ^'~~d^^ ■ ' ' ' ^'' 

' * Einige allgemeine Siltze iiber Wiirmegleichgewicht,' SitzungslerleJitfl der 
It. Wiener Altademie der Wissenschafte/i, Ixiii. (part ii.), pp. 707, 711. 

-'Ueber das Warmegleichgewicht zwiscben mehratomigen Gasmolekiilen,' Sitzher. 
der Ti. Wiener Akad., Ixiii. (ii.), p. 397. 

' Nature, May 12, 1892 ; Kinetic Theory of Gases, new ed., p. 22, footnote. 

* Kinetic Tlieorij of Gases, § 8. 

' Phil. Mag., April 1892. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 69 

Wlience they show tliat if the motions all occupy a fixed time, so 
that the initial and final states are connected by the assumed relation 
<' — <=:constant, then 

8( p/. • ' • K» g/. • • • <?«' )— 1 , , . (1) 

8(iOi, • • • Pn, 9\, ' ' • 9n) 

14. There is another Jacobian relation similar in form but entirely 
different in meaning, of which the importance seems to have been hardly 
fully appreciated, if we may judge from the absence of references to it in 
most wi-itings on the Kinetic Theory. In order that the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law may be definite, it must be independent of the choice of 
variables as co-ordinates of the systems considered, and for this it is 
necessary for the multiple differential 

dpidp^ . . . dp^dq^dq^ . . . dq^ 

to be independent of the particular co-ordinates q^, q^, . • ■ q,i chosen to 
specify the configuration of the system of each instant of time, provided 
that Pi, ^)o, . . . p„ are the corresponding momenta. 

The proposition may be stated and proved as follows : — 
Let<7i,(7o, . . . g-n be any generalised co-ordinates defining a dynamical 
system,with M degrees of freedom ; ;j 1,^2) • • . p„ the corresponding gene- 
ralised momenta. Let Qi, Q.2, • • • Q,i be any other set of co-ordinates, 
Pi, P2, . . . P„ the corresponding momenta. It is required to prove that 
the relation 

a( Qi,Q.2, • • • Q.„Pi • • • Pn )_i , , . (8) 
8(5-1,5',, . . . q,„pi . . . x>n) 

liolds good at any instant of the motion. 

Let the new co-ordinates be connected with the old by the relations 

Qi=/i ('Zi. 5'2, • • • ^...O. «^c- 
Then by differentiation 

.8Q,.. ^8Qo^ _u ^9/1 



whence 



=8i^'''s^"'^+ •••+a^ 



/8Q™\ =8Q^n 



aQ„ 



Again, ^^=0,''since'the equations of relation do not depend on the 
OPa 
velocities or momenta. 

From the last relations the terms in a quarter-square of the Jacobian 
vanish ; and, therefore, the Jacobian 

_3(Qi , • ■ ■ Q ,.) X 9(P. , • • • ^n ) 

8(^1, ... q^) d{pu • ■ ■ Pn) 



70 REPORT— 1894. 

Now, supposing that t,qy, . . . q„ are kept constant during differen- 
tiation, we have 

9Q, drji 9Q, 9j2 9Q2 

-^'90; "*" ^'dcr, '" 

^.^ 9(P|,P2, ■ ■ ■ P„ ) ^ 9(gl, g 2 • • • g») ^ 9(gl» ? 2 • • • ?») 

^{lh,P2, • • • ;j«) 9(Q„(52 • . .0,,) 9(Q„Q2 . . . Q„> 
.-. 9( Pi,P2, • ■ • P.,) X 9 (Qi,Q2, ■ . . Q„ )_^_ Q_j,j) 

9bl.P2, • • . Pn) 9(9i, ?2, • • . ?«) 

T/^e Most General Law of Permanent Distribution for 
Non-colliding Systems. 

15. The possible laws of permanent distribution of the co-ordinates 
and momenta among a large number of such systems may now be esta- 
blished thus : — 

We know that for any one system the total energy is independent of 
the time or 

E= constant, 

and the determinantal relation shows that the multiple differential 

dpi dp2 . . . dq„ 

is also independent of the time. 

Therefore, if the law of distribution be such that the number of 
systems included within the multiple differential at any instant of time 
(0 is 

f{^)dp, . . .dq,, . . . . (9) 

where /denotes any function whatever, the same law will hold good at 
any subsequent instant of time {t'). 

16. The above proof depends only on the fact tliat E=constant is an 
integral of the equations of motion of the system and not on any other 
property peculiar to E. But the equations of motion may have other 
integrals as well. In such cases (3) does not represent the most general 
law of permanent distribution. 

For if the integrals in question be 

7ij=const. /t.j — const., »tc. 

then any distribution expressed by the formula 

/(E, A,, 7^2, . . . .) djj^ . . . . dq„ . . . (10> 

will also be independent of the time, and therefore permanent. 

This is the most general form of the law of permanent distribution in 
a system of non-colliding bodies. It is applicable in particular to the free 
systems considered in Part II. of Maxwell's paper, where /»,, /tg • . • may 
denote the velocity components of the centre of gravity, and the component 
angular momenta about the centre of gravity. 

17. Again, take the case of a number of particles distributed unifornily 
throughout infinite space and moving uniformly in straight lines under no 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 71 

forces without ever colliding with one another. If u, v, tv be the velocity 
components of any particle, these are constant throughout all time, and 
therefore the theorem asserts that any law of distribution of the form 

f {u, V, lo) du dv dw dx dy dz 

is permanent ; a conclusion which is obviously correct. 

18. In Maxwell's paper / is to be taken constant for one particular 
value of E, and zero for all others. 

In the Kinetic Theory of Gases /is proportional to e~'"^. 

The question as to how far this law is unique has been raised by 
Messrs. Watson and Burbury,' who quote Boltzmann's demonstration of 
the proposition, but admit tliat there may be exceptions to its truth. 
That demonstration is, however, based on a consideration of the collisions 
between the molecules of a gas, and has no application to a problem like 
the present, where all the systems considere4 are independent conservative 
systems, and no transference of energy takes place between the bodies 
of one system and those of the other. It will be considered fully in 
Section II. § 42. 

19. Since for a conservative system E is always constant, there will 
always exist possible laws of permanent distribution, for which / is any 
function of E ; but the possibility of other distributions will depend on the 
nature of the system and the existence of other integrals of the equations 
of motion. 

The Reduction of the Kinetic Energy to a Sum of Squares. — Maxwell's 
Laiv of Partition of Energy. 

20. Objections have been raised to this step in Maxwell's work by 
myself ^ on the ground that the kinetic energy cannot in general be 
expressed as the sum of squares of generalised momenta corresponding to 
generalised co-ordinates of the system, and by Lord Kelvin ^ on the ground 
that the conclusion to which it leads has no intelligible meaning. Boltz- 
mann ■* has put the investigation into a slightly modified form which meets 
the first objection, and which imposes a certain restriction on the generality 
of the result. Under this limitation the result is perfectly intelligible, 
and the second objection is therefore also met. 

21. Boltzmann reduces the kinetic energy to the form 

but he does not assume the quantities a^ to be generalised momenta. He 
calls these quantities ' niomentoids.' They are linear functions of the 
generalised momenta of the system, and calling these latter ^^i, jSj, . . . , 
the momentoids are supposed chosen so that the determinant 

Q_S ("1, 02 • • • "«) _i . 

'^{PuP-l ■ ■ ■ Pn) 

' Nature, June 2, 1892, p. 101. 

* Eeport on Thermodynamics, Part I. § 44. 
» Nature, August 13, 1891. 

* ' On the Equilibrium of Vis Viva,' Part III. Phil. Mag., March 1893. The 
original is in the SitzungshericMe of the Academy of Munich (not Vienna), and forms 
the third part to the author's ' Studieu iiber das Gleichgewicht, &c.' (^Wiener Sitzh., 
Iviii. (ii.), Oct. 1868), and his ' Weitere Studien ' ( Wieww Sitzh., Ixvi. (ii.), Oct. 1872). 



72 REPORT— 1894. 

an assumption which is convenient but not essential, because ® can only 
be a function of the generalised co-ordinates, and the investigation applies 
only to systems in a gwen configuration for which these co-ordinates are 
therefore constant, Boltzmann supposes with Maxwell that the energy 
is the same for all the systems, and with these premises he proves that the 
mean value of each of the terms 

has the same value. He concludes : ' Instead of the law of Maxwell that 
the mean vis viva has the same value for every co-ordinate, we now obtain 
the law that the mean value of the vis viva belonging to all momentoids 
is the same.' 

From this Boltzmann concludes that ' the mean kinetic energies of 
two given parts of the system are in the ratio of their respective degrees 
of freedom,' j^fovided that the kinetic energy contains no j^Toducts of a 
generalised momentum of one of the given 2Mrts into a generalised momentum 
not belonging to that part. 

22. Now in Appendix A I have shown that for non-colliding rigid bodies 
laws of permanent distribution exist in which the mean kinetic energies 
due to the rotations about the three principal axes are unequal. This 
test case shows, therefore, that Maxwell's result is not always true for et'er?/ 
possible law of distribution. The following method is shorter than 
Boltzmann's and Maxwell's, and shows under what circumstances the mean 
kinetic energies belonging to the momentoids may be unequal. 

Let the law of distribution be given by the formula (9), 

f(E)dpi . . . dp„dq^ . . . dq„, 

and let ^'i, ^'2, . . . k,, be w linear functions of ^j,, 2^2, ■ ■ ■ 2^m such that the 
kinetic energy is of the form 

T=i(A,2.fA-,2+ . . . ^..2) . . . (11) 
Then, since these functions are linear, the determinant 



®: 



d (Ai, A'2 . . . k„ 
d{p^,2H . . . Pn) 



is a function of the co-ordinates g,, . . . q,^ alone, and since we are dealing 
only with those systems which happen to be in a given configuration at 
the instant considered, ® is constant, the potential energy V is constant, 
and so is the nmltiple differential dq^ . . . dq„. The mean value of ^k,.^ 
for these systems is therefore 

__ \f{h{^i' + h'+ • • ■ k„^) + Y\U,^d2}, . . . dp„ 
11. 2 J -<= 



2 A,. 



[7{K^,HV+ • . • kn^} + y}dp, t?;.„ 

J —CO 

7{1(^,2+ . . . +^.2) + Y|p_2^^._ . , , ^J,^^ 



J' '60 



/{h{k,'+ . .. +k,,-^) + Y}dk, dk. 



ox OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 73 

and this is obviously the same for all the co-ordinates /i,, thus 

Also by addition 

therefore each of the above mean values is one nth. of the mean value of T. 

If there exist other possible permanent distributions given by (10) for 
which the function/ involves other integrals of the equations of motion 
besides the energy, the argument will still hold good provided these 
integrals onlij involve the co-m'dinates of the system, and not its velocities or 
viomenta, because these co-ordinates are kept constant during integration. 
Such integrals may, for example, depend on the equations of the paths of 
the particles forming the system. 

But if y involves any function of the momenta or velocities other than 
the energy, the integral in the numerator will assume different forms for 
different A-'s, and the mean values of the difi'erent squares forming the 
kinetic energy will, in general, be unequal. 

I would propose that the name Maxwell's Law of Partition of 
Kinetic Energy be in future applied exclusively to the statement that 
if the kinetic energy of a given system be expressed as a sum of squares, 
the mean values of these several squares taken over a large number of 
systems distributed in a given manner are equal. 

Hence Maxwell's Law of Partition of Kinetic Energy is only true 
under the conditions stated above. 



Test Cases of the Law. — Motion of a Particle in a Plane. 

23. The test cases suggested by Lord Kelvin as apparently contra- 
dicting Maxwell's Law of partition will be found, on examination, to 
afford a valuable confirmation of all that has been said above regarding 
the restrictions to which the law is subject. 

It is rather remarkable that the motion of a particle in a plane has 
been employed by Boltzmann ' to furnish an illustration of the law, and 
by Lord Kelvin ^ to furnish an apparent contradiction of it, which has, 
however, since been met by Boltzmann.^ 

Lord Kelvin shows that it is impossible to give a general proof that for 
a single particle moving in a plane the time-averages of x^ and ■ij'^ are equal. 
This confirms what has been said in §§ 10-12 as to the impossibility of 
applying Maxwell's law of partition to a single conservative dynamical 
system. If, instead of a single particle. Lord Kelvin had covered the 
plane with particles, and had projected them so that their co-ordinates 
and velocities initially satisfied any law of distribution given by the 
formula 

/ (E) dx dy dio dv, 

he would have found the same law to be satisfied at any subsequent time, 
and the average values of it^ and v^ to be equal. 

' 'Eini^e allgemeine Satze iiber Warmegleichgewiclit,' Sitzb. dcr k. Wiener 
Akad.' Ixiii. (ii.) (1871), p. 700. 

' Losung eines mechanischen Problems,' ibid., Iviii. (ii ) 

2 Nature, August 13, 1891. 

' Phil. Mag., March 1893. See footnote to § 20 above. 



74 BEPORT — 1894. 

24. To prove this, Boltzmann has given (loc, cit.) a highly artificial 
and laborious verification of the Jacobian relation 

HA y', e' ) (13J 

where 6) is the angle the direction of motion makes with the axis of x, and 6' 
its value after a time t', which Boltzmann takes to be a small interval, M. 
As Boltzmann 's proof is not easy to follow, it may be interesting to obtain 
the same result much more simply and without imposing restrictions on 
the magnitude of the time-interval t' by considering the Jacobian 

^_ d{x',y',u',v' )_di x',y\x',y' )^ 
d{x, y, u, v)—d{x, y, i, ij)' 

We have, keeping the initial time constant, 

d^_ d{x',y',x',i/') ^ d{x',y',x',y' ) ^ d { x',y',x',y') ^ d {x' , y' , x' , \j') ^ 
dt' 9 {x, y, X, y) d {x, y, x, y) 8 {x, y, x, y) d {x, y, x, y)' 

The first two Jacobian s evidently vanish. And by the equations of 
motion 

Hence x', y' are functions of x', y', and the quantities in the numerators of 
the last two Jacobians are not all independent : therefore these vanish. 
Therefore integrating with respect to t' : 

A^ constant := 1, (its initial value) . . . (14) 
If 

q^^ic^-^-v-, tan d=:v/u 

we have by the transformation from Cartesian to polar co-ordinates 

.^d{ x',y',iq '\6') 
d{x, y, \q\ «)• 

In virtue of the equations of energy 

SJW=1 = ^S^t) 

8E dE 

._d{x',y',B',^)_d{x',y',e') 



'd{x, y, d, E) d{x, y, 6) 



whence (13) 



d{x, y, ti) 
as was to be proved. 

25. And assuming the law of distribution 

/(E) dx dy du dv (15) 

we have evidently 

("CO Too (ca Coo 

f{\u'^+^v'^ + Y)n?dudv=\ f{\u'^+\v'^ + Y)vHvdu, 

J— ooj— CO J— coj— c» 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 75 

and therefore 

average value of m'* = average value of ^;^ . . -(IS) 

in accordance with Maxwell's Law. The same thing would also be true 
if, the equations of the orbits of the particles being 

(j,(x, 2/)= constant, 

/ were a function of <l> as well as of E, or indeed of any integral of the 
equations of motion other than E, involving co-ordinates only and 7iot 
velocities. 

Lord Kelvin's ' Decisive Test Case .' 

26. The test case by which Lord Kelvin claims to have ' effectually 
disposed of ' Maxwell's law of partition ' really confirms all that has 
been said about the law in this Report. It shows the impossibility of 
drawing general conclusions as to the distribution of energy in a single 
system from the possible law of permanent distribution in a large number 
of systems. In other words, it tells us once more that the mean value of 
any portion of the energy obtained by integrating with respect to the 
multiple differential of the co-ordinates and momenta is not necessarily 
equal to the mean value obtained by integrating with respect to the time 
for a single system. 

This test case has been criticised in a general sort of way by Mr. E. P. 
Culverwell,^ and the following investigation will, I think, accord with his 

views : — 

27. The equal masses A and C are supposed to be separated by a 
' simple vibrator ' B with which they can collide, and Lord Kelvin assumes 
that in the course of a large number of collisions this vibrator will equalise 

K p A II B C L 

J y cs ^ ^3 & 1 

and keep equal the average kinetic energies with which A and C rebound 
from B. C is reflected by a fixed wall at L ; but A, in addition to being 
stopped by a fixed reflecting wall at K, is acted on by a repulsive force 
from K while it lies within a certain space, KH. Part of the energy with 
which A left B then becomes potential while the energy of C always 
remains kinetic, and Lord Kelvin infers that the average kinetic energy 
of A is less than that of C. 

Now it is not obvious that the vibrator at B will actually always 
equalise the average kinetic energies of rebound of A and C. If KB is 
much greater than BL, C will collide with B much more frequently than 
A, and I should be inclined to think that without investigation no definite 
relation could be assumed between the average energies of rebound of 
A and C. But this is quite irrelevant to the point. Accordingly, let us 
assume the vibrator to be possessed of the property in question, so that 
the average energies of A and C are equal. Let x, x' be the co-ordinates 
of A and C, u, u' their velocities, x the potential energy of A, so that x 
vanishes when A is outside the region KH. Take each particle of unit 
mass. 

Then the law of distribution as stated and proved in this Report asserts 

• Phil. Mag., May 1892, p. 466 ; Nature, May 5, 1892. p. 21. 
» Nature, May 26, 1892, p. 76. 



76 REPORT— 1894. 

that if there are a very large number of systems exactly like the one de- 
[icribecl, and if the proportion of these systems in any given phase is 
measured by an expression of the form 

f{x + iu'^ + b^'-)di('du' dxdx' . . . (17) 

the same law of distribution will hold good at any subsequent time. Also 
the mean kinetic energies with which the two particles pass simultaneously 
through two given configurations are 

\[/{x + W + lu'^) \'»^du du' [/(x + -2«' + ^^'") \^<''^du du' 
JJ and JJ 



I f/(x + \ '^' + * w'^) du du' f/(x + W + \u"^) du du' 

and are therefore equal. 

28. The test case derives an additional interest because it forms a sort 
of transition between those systems in which the form of f is indeter- 
minate and the systems of colliding bodies with which we have to deal in 
the Kinetic Theory of Gases where /=e~''^. 

For in general (17) will represent a law according to which the dis- 
tribution of the A particles depends on the energies of the coi-responding 
C particles in the systems to which they belong. If, however, the dis- 
tribution of the A particles is independent of that of the C particles, their 
separate laws of distribution being 

fi^du dx a,nd /edit,' dx', 
then we must have 

Axfo=fix + W+hu'^-h 

the most general solution of which assumes the well-known form 

f^=^nu.m /c=e-"-5«'^ . . _. . (18) 
h being any constant whatever. In that case the mean kinetic energy of 
all the A's in the neighbourhood of a given point irrespective of the corre- 
-sponding position of the C's is 

e-''-i-'{^tt^)du 

=i^ =^^^ . . . (19) 



f»oo 

e-'''-"'du 



as in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. This accoi-ds exactly with the re- 
marks of Mr. Culverwell already mentioned. The A's do not all reach K 
every time, those that are moving slowly only penetrating a small distance 
into the region KH, and the depth of penetration increasing with the 
velocity at H or B. Hence the density of distribution of the A's diminishes 
■as we approach K, but out of the whole number at any point the proj)or- 
tiofi having kinetic energies within certain limits will be the same every- 
where. 

Summary. 

29. The conclusions so far arrived at may be summed up as follows : — • 
(i) If there exist a very (infinitely) great number of independent conser- 
vative dynamical systems, the equations of motion of each system having 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 77 

in addition to the equation of energy, any number of integrals 7ti=const., 
7<,^=const., itc, and if at any given instant the systems are so distributed 
that the number of them whose co-ordinates and momenta lie within given 
small limits is proportional to any function whatever of E, h^, h^ . . ., 
then the distribution will be permanent, the systems being similarly distri- 
buted at every subsequent instant of time. 

(ii) If the kinetic energy be expressed as the sum of squares, and if 
the frequencj'-function involves no integrals of the equations of motion 
containing velocities or momenta with the exception of the energy, then 
the mean values of the different squares are all equal to one another. 
[3faxiceU's Law of Partition of Kinetic Energy.^ 

I 

SECTioJf II. — Systems of Colliding Molecules. 
Applicability of the Preceding Investigations to Gases, 

3.0. Before considering in detail those investigations in which col- 
lisions and encounters between the molecules of a gas are taken specially 
into account, it may be well to examine briefly how far the general results 
established in Section I. can be applied to the problem of the Kinetic 
Theory of Gases (see also Boltzmann's Appendix, infra). 

The ' independent systems ' considered above may be chosen in several 
different ways. 

(i) We may take each ' system ' to represent a single molecule of gas 
moving about freely or in a field of external force. The above investi- 
gations will apply so long as the molecules considered do not encounter 
or collide with other molecules, and we conclude that in the absence of 
such encounters any distribution determined by the expression (14) of 
§ 15 will be permanent if the 2n quantities 7? , , . . . q,^ represent the 
n momenta and n co-oi'dinates of a single molecule. 

This is most important. It is not sufficient in the Kinetic Theory 
to investigate a law of distribution which is unaffected by collisions or 
encounters any more than it is sufficient to investigate a law which is. 
permanent in their absence. It is necessary to satisfy conditions of 
permanence in both cases. 

(ii) We may take each ' system ' to represent a pair of molecules or a. 
group of several molecules in the course of a binary or multiple encounter, 
it being assumed that the intermolecular forces remain finite during 
encounter, and that at each instant there are sufficient encounters of the 
same kind to give rise to a law of permanent distribution among the 
encountering sets of molecules. Here the quantities g,, . . . q,^ will 
have to include all the co-ordinates of all the molecules in the group, 
considered. Then any distribution determined by (8) will be permanent 
so long as the molecules of any one group do not encounter any molecules 
not in that group. 

But in a gas each molecule will encounter various molecules in suc- 
cession, so that the same set of molecules cannot be considered perma- 
nently as a system apart from the rest. From this we find at once that 
if the frequency of distribution i is a function of the energy alone ^ it 

' This is not the case if the mass of gas has a perceptible motion of translation 
or rotation (see § 45 and Appendix B). 



78 REPORT — 1894. 

must be of the well-known form 



e-"=. 



For before two molecules encounter each other the frequency of 
distribution of the co-ordinates and momenta of one cannot depend on 
the co-ordinates and momenta of the other. Hence if f , f^ denote 
the frequencies of distribution of the two molecules just before the 
encounter 

/iX/2=/(E). 

Now the same law must hold just before the encounter as during it, 
and just before the encounter the mutual potential energy of the molecules 
is zero, so that 

E^Ei + Ej, 

where EiEj are the separate energies of the molecules ; and the resulting 
relation 

/iX/2=/(Ei+E.) .... (20) 

can only be satisfied by 

Hence before and after the encounter the molecules have their 
co-ordinates and momenta distributed with frequencies proportional to 
e~''^' and e~''^- i-espectively. But during an encounter the frequency of 
distribution of all the co-ordinates and momenta of the pair or group is 
proportional to e~''^. 

For a pair of molecules we may write the function 

_-g-'iT, ^g-;iT, y g-;i(x,+x^+x,=) • • • (21) 

where xi X2 are the potential energies of the molecules due to the field, 
X 1 2 their mutual potential energy. This shows that for any given con- 
iiguraiion the momenta of the molecules denoted by the suffixes 1, 2 are 
separately distributed with frequencies proportional to e"''^' and e''"'^' 
respectively. The distribution of the co-ordinates of one molecule is not, 
however, independent of the position of the other owing to the presence 
of the factor e"*"*'. When the encounter is over ^12 vanishes, so that this 
factor disappears, and the distributions of the co-ordinates of the two 
molecules become independent of each other. 

Similar reasoning holds good for encounters involving any number of 
molecules provided that these encounters are sufficiently frequent to have 
a law of distribution. 

(iii) If either the molecules act on each other at all distances, or they 
cannot be divided into independent isolated groups, a ' system ' must be 
taken to represent nothing short of the whole mass of gas — or other 
matter — under consideration. We therefore require the distribution in 
a single system, and this brings us face to face with the difficulties con- 
sidered in §§ 10-12. Maxwell certainly contemplated the applicability of 
his investigation to cases of this kind (see § 3) ; but the assumption required 
for this generalisation is at variance with the inferences drawn from the 
test cases of §§ 23-28, whatever may otherwise be said in its favour. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 79 



The Functional Determinants for Encounters and Collisions. 

31. The reasoning of Case II. of the last article cannot be regarded as 
conclusive without further investigation if the forces of encounter become 
impulsive as in the case of a collision. For Watson ' has pointed out that 
the determinantal relation (1) 

9 jPi', • • • gnO _i^ 

^{Pu • • ' 9,.) 
with the total time t constant is inapplicable, and, moreover, the S func- 
tion used in proving it becomes discontinuous in the case of impacts. 

The difficulty can be overcome by regarding impulsive forces as the 
limit of finite forces, and supposing the initial and final states separated 
by a small constant interval of time during which the impact occurs ; 
but it is certainly highly desirable to treat the problem separately. 

32. According to Watson, the objections will be avoided if, instead of 
supposing the time constant, we assume the initial and final states to be 
connected by a geometrical relation between the co-ordinates which can be 
expressed in the form 

and that in that case the functional Jacobian 

d(Pu . . . g n-l) q,/ ,^^. 

a(K.- • .?„-i'r~^ * • • ^^''^ 

This relation is verified by Watson for the case of a projectile in his 
letter in ' Nature.' But in his ' Kinetic Theory of Gases ' ^ he derives it 
from the relation (1) with t constant, so that his method applies only to 
finite forces. 

If, however, in the course of an encounter between molecules, impulsive 
action takes place owing to the energy-function changing discontinuously 
when the geometrical relation 

is satisfied, we will now show that the states before and after the impulse 
are connected by the relation 

S( P/. • • • Pn, q\ ' ■ • g n-l')_ j.g.. /OQX 

o{p\, . . . Pn, qi ■ . • qn-\) qn 

provided that the principle of Conservation of Energy is satisfied. 

For if \ be the instantaneous increase of potential energy when q^ passes 
through the value c, then the initial and final kinetic energies satisfy the 
relation 

T-T'=\ (24) 

where X may be a function of ^i . . . qn-v 

Now since no impulsive action takes place through the \arIation of 
the co-ordinates q^ . . , q^-x we have 

P\—P\, Pi=Pi, • • • Pn-\=P,^-\■> 
and therefore 

dpx'=dpx, dp2=dp.2, . . . dp„_^'=dp„.i. 

' Nature, May 12, 1892, p. 29. 
' Kinetic Them-y of Gases, p. 37. 



80 REPORT— 1894. 

Hence the remaining differentials are connected by the relation 

8T ; 8T' , ^ 

Gp,, dp,: 

i.e., 
or 

dPn gn ' 

Moreover, since the impulsive action takes place instantaneously, the 
co-ordinates do not vary, and therefore 

dqi'=dqi, dq^'^dq-i . . . dq„_^'=dq„_^ ; 

^.^ d p^' . . . dp,l dq^' . . . dq„_/ _q„ _ Q_E.D. 

" dpi ... dp^dq^ . . . dq„_i q,,' 

This form of the Jacobian is applicable to the hypothetic law of 
molecular force, often assumed in the Kinetic Theory, where, when two 
molecules (regai'ded as material points) reach a certain distance, c, their 
mutual attraction becomes infinite. Their directions of motion undergo 
refraction towards the line joining them at the beginning of the encounter 
and away from that line at the end of the encounter, and each refraction 
must be treated separately, Watson's relation (22) being used for the motion 
of the molecules between the two refractions. 

33. In the case of a collision unaccompanied by loss of kinetic energy, 
such as occui's between perfectly smooth elastic bodies, the Jacobian 
relation between the velocities or momenta just before and just after the 
collision is easily found. For Burbury has shown ' that in a system or 
pair of colliding systems with n degrees of freedom, n — 1 Linear functions 
of the velocities, which he calls S^S.,, . . . S„_„ are unaltered by the 
collision, and one linear function E, has its sign changed. Therefore, 

dS^'dS^' . . . dS'„_^dR'=-dS,dS. . . . dS,_,dR, 

and by the properties of Jacobians it follows at once that, since the 
co-ordinates of the system are unaltered, the initial and final momenta^ 
specified by any co-ordinates whatever, are connected by the relation 

^ (Pi',P2', • • • Pn' )_ 1 (.-yn^ 

<J{P\,P2, ■ • ■ 1\) 

In a collision between smooth bodies, R is the relative velocity of the 
points which come into contact resolved along the common normal, and 
Burbury has given examples of the functions S , , . . . S„_i, R in several 
simple cases, viz., a pair of unequal smooth spheres, a sphere colliding 
with a spheroid, and a system of two spheres loaded at one side of their 
centres. 

The same argument could probably be extended to multiple collisions, 
for if 01 — r linear functions of the velocities were unaltered and the remain- 
ing r had their signs changed, the functional determinant would be equal 
to ( — l)*". Again, for a collision between two ' perfectly rough bodies ' with 
a coefficient of ' f rictional restitution ' equal to unity the three components 
of the relative velocity of the points of contact would be reversed, so that 
r have the value 3. 

' ' On the Collision of Elastic Bodies,' Phil. Trans. R.S., 1892, A, p. 408. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE Ol-' THERMODYNAMICS. 81 

Statement of the Boltzmann- Maxwell Law. 

34. It is highly desirable that some definite understanding should be 
agreed on as to what precisely constitutes the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law. 
I would suggest therefore — 

(i) That the distribution of a large number of molecules or other 
dynamical systems of the same or different kinds in which the co-ordinates 
{q) and momenta (;;) of each system are so arranged that the number of 
systems in the neighboui-hood of any given state is proportional to 

e-^'^dpi . . . djjjcji . . . dq„ . . . (26) 

h being the same for all the kinds of molecules or systems, be called The 
Boltzmann-Maxwell Distribution. 

(ii) That the law which asserts the permanency of the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell distribution in any particular case be called The Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law. 

(iii) That in future these names be not applied to any corollaries such 
as that which asserts the equality of the average value of the squares 
into which the kinetic energy can be split up. That corollary I have 
called Maxioell's Law of Partition of Kinetic Energy. 

I trust that the adoption of these names will be of assistance in 
securing that uniformity of nomenclature which is always so desirable 
in all branches of science. 



Verification for Particular Cases. — Spheres and Circles. 

35. It is not necessary to consider in detail the law of distribution in 
smooth colliding spheres whose centres of mass are at their centres of figure 
or, what is the same thing, material particles which rebound when they 
approach within a certain distance of one another. The truth of 
Avogadro's law, according to which the mean translational kinetic energies 
of the molecules of two mixed gases are equal, is now universally admitted. 
Even Tait does not deny it, but contents himself with maintaining that 
the law cannot be established without making certain assumptions, and 
these assumptions are discussed at great length by Boltzmann,' who, 
however, places more implicit confidence in Maxwell than is warranted 
by Section T. of this Report. It seems to me that Tait's three assump- 
tions,^ which are quoted in my first Report,^ actually require little beyond 
the assumption that there is a law of permanent distribution. At any 
rate, this is all that is necessary for showing that Avogadro's law is a 
possible permanent law. The question as to how far the general law of 
distribution is unique can be much better discussed in connection with 
other applications (see § 45 below). 

36. The next cases are those of splieres in which the CM. is at a small 
distance from the centre of figure, i.e., having a ' bias ' as in the game of 

' ' Ueber die zum theoretischen Beweise des Avogadro'schen Gesetzes beforder- 
lichen Voraussetzungen,' Sitzbcr. der k. Wiener Aliad., xciv. (ii.), Oct. 1886. 

^ ' On the Foundations of the Kinetic Theory of Gases,' Trans. H.S.E., vol. xxxiil. 
Parti. (1886), p. 77. 

' Cardiff Beport, 1891, § 41, p. 113. 
1894. G 



82 REPORT— 1894. 

bowls, and the two-dimensional problem of circles in a plane having the 
same property. Both these cases have been fully investigated by means 
of long and complicated integrations by Boltzmann, ' who has also extended 
his treatment to bodies of any shape, provided they are convex outwards 
and have no sharp corners. 

The case of circular discs is also woi'ked out fully by Watson, ^ who, 
liowever, takes the trouble of evaluating the functional determinant step 
by step by expressing the final in terms of the initial velocities ; a process 
which is obviated by the method of § 33 above. The frequency of col- 
lisions of any kind is proportional to the relative velocity of the points of 
contact in that kind of collision. It is found that the condition of 
permanence will be satisfied if the number of discs whose three velocity 
components lie within the multiple differential du dv do) is proportional to 

Ne-'''^ du. dv dio or N exp -\1tM.{n''- + v'^ + k^uj"^) . du dv doi . (27) 

whether the discs in collision are similar or belong to two different sets. 
This is the Boltzmann- Maxwell Law. 

37. The case of lop-sided spheres formed the subject of a faulty 
demonstration by Burnside, the result of which — quoted in my first 
Report, § 44, third to twelfth line — was in contradiction to the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law, and is now known to be incorrect. This has been show^i 
by Watson,^ by Burbury,* and also in his aforementioned paper by Boltz- 
mann. The correct result is that if the velocities and anjrular velocities 
about the principal axes be arranged according to the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell distribution 

l^e'^'"^ dudvdiv dio^dw^db)^ . . , , (28) 
that is 
'Nexp — lh{M.(^t,■ + v'^ + w''-) + Alo^'^ + Bu^o^ + C(i);i'^} . du dv dw djLi^ dw^dui^ 

this distribution will be unaffected by collisions. From Appendix A we see 
that it will also be unaffected by the free motion of the spheres between 
collisions, and therefore it satisfies all the necessary conditions of perma- 
nence. The mean values of Mu"^, Mv-, Mw-, Aw,-, Bw2^, Cwj^, are 
equal. The other distribution of Appendix A, in which the mean kinetic 
energies due to the three principal rotations are unequal, is, in general, no 
longer permanent when collisions take place. In fact, Boltzmann starts 
by assuming a distribution of tlie form 



:i^i!J!uAiJ^exp-hy + v'^ + w'-\-kiw^^--k^u,^^-k:iW./-.du. . . dw^ 
and deduces that 

7 /C J ft n rCi 

^^=i=B=c- 

Now evidently this conclusion does not necessarily hold good if each 
molecule is symmetrical about the line joining its centres of inertia and of 
figure, because the angular velocity about this line will be unaffected both 

' ' Ueber das Gleichgewicht der lebendigen Kraft zwischen progressive! unci 
Rotations-Bewegung bei Gasmolekiilen,' Sitz. d. k. Akad. zu Berlin, Dec. 1888. 
'■* Kinetic Theory of Gases, p. 15. 
» Natnre, vol. xlv. March .31, 1892, p. 512. 
* Ibid., vol. xlv. April 7. 1892, p. 533. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODyNAMICS. 83 

by collisions and by the free motion of the molecules. This angular velocity 
might, therefore, follow any law of distribution wliatever, and that law 
would be permanent. Neither does the conclusion hold good if the 
centres of mass and of figure coincide. 

The arguments of Boltzmann might have been rather more conclusive 
if they had shown at lohat stage of the process these exceptional cases had 
to be excluded. Burnside did worse than this, for he said : ' Hence the 
three equations ' (now known to be wrong) ' are a solution ; and, there- 
fore, must be the solution of the problem of the special state.' 

The cases of perfectly rough spheres or circular discs having both their 
normal and tangential coefficients of restitution unity furnish interesting 
examples for solution. We may imagine the spheres and discs covered 
over with perfectly elastic fine teeth, or minute projections by whose 
action the tangential components of the relative velocity ai-e reversed at 
impact, and it is no longer necessary to suppose the molecules to have a 
' bias ' in order to have a transference of energy between the translational 
and rotational kinds. 



The Functional Equation for Colliding Bodies in General. 

38. The earliest investigation of the law of distribution for molecules 
other than point-atoms (or smooth hard spheres, whose centres of mass 
and figure coincide) seems to be that of Boltzmann in 1871.' 

At the present time the simplest and best treatment of the general 
problem for colliding bodies with any number of degrees of freedomis that 
given in Burbury's paper ' On the Collisions of Elastic Bodies.' ^ The 
methods there used are perfectly general, and include Watson's proofs for 
lop-sided circles and spheres as particular cases without the attendant 
complications in the formuliie, which arise from writing down in full the 
special forms of the various expressions assumed in those investigations. 

39. The assumptions involved in proving the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law 
for colliding bodies seem to me to resolve themselves into the following : — 

(i) That the law is not meaningless. The expression (26) or 

Ne-'"^-^'(7j;, . . . dp„dq, . . . dq,, . . (29) 

must represent a definite number of molecules. 

Hence in a volume element so small that x may be considered constant 
over it, there must be a very large number of molecules moving about 
with all possible momenta, and out of these a large number must have 
their remaining co-ordinates and momenta distributed within the corre- 
sponding small multiple differential. The law will obviously not hold 
at points where x, the potential of the field, becomes infinite or discon- 
tinuous. Moreover, the collisions must be sufficiently frequent to admit 
of a similar law being applicable to the colliding molecules. 

(ii) That any molecule has a chance of colliding with any other mole- 
cule. Hence the frequency of distribution of the molecules must depend 
on their actual st^e, and not on their past history or future prospects of 
colliding with any particular set of other molecules. As Burbury has just 

' ' Ueber das Wiirmepleichgewicht zwi.schen mehratoniigcn Gasmolekulen,' Sitzber. 
dvr k. Wiener Alcad., Ixiii. (ii.), p. .397. 
''■ Phil. Trans. R.S., 1 892, pp. 407-422. 

G 2 



84 REPORT — 1894. 

written in a letter to me : ' To take conventional elastic spheres as the 
simplest case we always assume as fundamental that if / (a) denotes the 
chance of sphere A having velocity a, and / (b) the chance of sphere B 
having velocity b, then the chances are always indejyendent, whether A 
and B collide or not.' 

(iii) The demonstration is based on the hypothesis that in the per- 
manent distribution tlie collisions of any one particular kind are balanced 
by an equal number of the opposite kind in which the initial and final 
states are simply reversed, so that the change in distribution produced 
by the former is exactly balanced by the latter. In other words, ' the 
numbers of direct and reverse collisions are equal.' This is obviously a 
sufficient if not a necessary condition of permanency. 

40. From this it follows that if /, F denote the frequency function of 
distribution for two bodies, p^, . . . p^ and P,, . . . P„ their velocities 
or momenta, and accented letters refer to the state after collision, then, 
remembering that the frequency of collisions is proportional to R, the 
relative velocity of the point of contact, we have 

Ff-Rdpi . . . dp„dF^ . . . dF„=F'fR'dpi' . • • dPn'dV,' . . . cfP,/ 

Remembering that R'= — R and applying (25) we have 

r/=F'/ (30) 

This is the functional equation that must be satisfied if the distribu- 
tions determined by the functions F, / are to be unaltered by collision be- 
tween the two sets of bodies to which they apply, and a similar condition 
must hold for collisions between bodies of the same kind. In this investi- 
gation, since the forces of collision are impulsive, the co-ordinates of the 
bodies are unaltered by collision, and do not enter into the multiple differen- 
tials, and for the same reason /),, . . . P„ may be either generalised 
momenta or generalised velocities or linear functions of them sufficient to 
specify the motions of the colliding bodies. 

I think that it could be similarly proved that for collisions each involving 
three bodies the functional equations would be of the form 

provided, of course, that such collisions were numerous enough to have a 
law of distribution. 

41. Natanson ' has deduced the functional equation (30), which in his 
notation becomes 

n^n^=n,n, (31) 

from the law of Gibbs relating to the chemical equilibrium in gas mixtures, 
assuming for the thermodynamical potential of the temperature and pressure 
the form 



*=2ft«;0> . . c . . (32) 



where 



Here m denotes the mass of any one of the gases, n^ the number of 

• Ii. Natanson, ' Thermodynamische Deutung des MaxweU'schen Gesetzes,' Zeit- 
scliriftfiir 2)hydhaHsche Chemie, xiv. 1, 1894. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 85 

molecules, Hj the mass of a molecule (so that vij-=fjjn^, ^j a function of T 
and P, but not of rij, and E, a constant. The investigation is instructive 
and suggestive ; unfortunately, however, the method of demonstration does 
not appear to be ' perfectly reversible,' but it is much to be hoped that 
Natanson will succeed in solving the converse problem of deducing (32), 
(33) from (31). 

BoUzmann's Minimum Theorem. 

42. The property that the functional equation (30) is a necessary as 
well as a sufficieiit condition of permanence was first proved byBoltzmann 
for a single monatomic gas in 1872,^ for a mixture of two gases in 1886,^ 
and both by Lorentz and by Boltzmann for a polyatomic gas in 1887.^ 

A similar investigation based on Boltzmann's was given by Bur- 
bury in 1890. ' In his paper ' On the Collisions of Elastic Bodies,' 
Burbury has adapted the proof to colliding systems in general, and a 
similar generalisation is given in a better form by Watson.* Burbury's 
specification of the states of the systems by generalised co-ordinates and 
velocities, instead of momenta, is, to say the least, unfortunate, for the 
complete investigation involves considerations not only of collisions, but 
also of the free motions between collisions. Now, as we have seen in § 13, 
the multiple difierential of the co-ordinates and m^omenta is an invariant in 
such motions. But , the same is not necessai'ily true of the multiple 
differential of the co-ordinates and velocities ; and even if the validity of 
the argument in § 13 of Burbury's paper be admitted, it only applies to 
rigid bodies under no forces. Watson obviates the difficulty by the use of 
generalised momenta, and arrives at the following result. 

43. Let one of the co-ordinates q^ of one of the bodies be so chosen that 
a collision occurs whenever q„ attains its maximum value zero. Let H 
denote the function 

fF(log F-l)cZP, . . . ^Q,„.|- f/(log/-l) dp, . . . dq„ . (34) 

Then it is shown that 

dR 1 
dt 



J-^(F'f-m log ^^^,dF, . . . dq„,dp, . . . dq„.,.q„ . (35) 



and the latter integral is essentially negative ; hence H diminishes with 
collisions until F'f' — Ff=0. Also H is constant in the absence of colli- 
sions, because the conditions of permanency then require F, y to be in- 
dependent of the time. Moreover, the midtiple differentials c?P, . . . c?Q„ 
and dp^ . . . dq„ are not affected by the choice of co-ordinates (§14 above), 
and therefore no restriction is imposed on the generality of the conclusions 
by choosing q„ to vanish for any particular collision under consideration, 
nor does this choice affect the value of H. 

' 'Weitere Studien iiber das Warmegleichgewiclit unter Gasmolekiilen,' (SiYiJer. 
der h. Wie7ier Akad., Ixvi. (ii.) (Oct. 1872), p. 275. 

- ' Ueber die zum theoretischen Beweise des Avogadro'schen Gesetzes erforder- 
lichen Voraussetzungen,' Sitzher. xciv. (ii.), Oct. 188G. 

' 'Ueber das Gleichgewicht der lebendigen kraft unter Gasmolekiilen,' 'Neuer 
Beweis zweier Siitze,' Sitzher. der k. Wiener Akad.,xcv. (iii.), ■fan. 1887, pp. 115, 153. 

* ' On some Problems in the Kinetic Theory of Gases,' Fhil. Mag., October 1890. 

' Kinetic Tlieory of Gases, p. 42. 



86 KEPORT— 1894, 

Also H cannot become minus infinity ; therefore H diminishes to a 
minimum, and in the ultimate state of the system when H attains this 
minimum we have (30) 

The quantity H has been called BoltzmanrHs minimiim /unction,^ and 
the above theorem may therefore be called Bollzmann's minimum theorem. 

Rate of Subsidence of Disturbances. 

44. Equations (25), (26) have been applied to calculate in certain cases 
the rate of subsidence of a disturbance in which Yf is initially unequal 
to F/. In the paper already referred to Burbury has employed them to 
investigate the rate of subsidence of disturbance in the case of a medium 
of two sets of elastic spheres, the masses and numbers of spheres per unit 
volume of the two sets being M, m and N, n respectively, and the disturb- 
ance consisting in an initial small difierence between the h constants in 
the two sets. He arrives at the result 

D oc e-^'-', d oci e-'", 

c=i^_(N + «) ^^Mm ,If! . . . (36) 

Here the h constants for the two sets are supposed to be h (1 +D) and 
h {\+d) : their arithmetic mean is /t, and s is the sum of the radii of two 
spheres. 

The same results had been previously found by quite independent 
methods by Tait - and Natanson,-* both working under different assump- 
tions. 

"Watson ^ has applied the same method to a number of lop-sided discs 
in one plane, supposing that in the disturbed state the average kinetic 
energy of rotation differs slightly from the two components of translational 
energy, so that the law of disti'ibution is 

tfi 2 du dv dnj 

where /li is different from unity. The result is given by 

where 

«=-,,- \^n 

and 

K=N log fc^^ 
3=/' 

=N < ^—^ '- -f higher powers of /:i — 1 > 
C being a known numerical quantity. 

1 Burbury, Nature, Dec. 14, 1893. 

- Trans. B.S.E., 1886, pp. 82, &c. Sec vay first Report, §49, for his numerical 
results. 

' L. Natanson, Wied. Ann., xxxiii. 1888, p. 683. 
* Kinetic Theory of Gases, p. 49. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 87 

Is the Boltzmann- Maxwell Distribution unique ? 

45. We have now found the necessary and sufficient conditions for a 
permanent or ' special ' state to be — 

{!.)/, F independent of time in the absence of collisions. 

(II.) F/=^¥'f' for all collisions between two molecules. 

Under these circumstances the principle of Conservation of Energy at 
once establishes the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law, which asserts that 



F=Aexp-7iEp /=Bexp-/iE 



'p 



always give a solution of the problem. 

Whether the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution is unique depends on 
the possibility of finding other functions satisfying the above conditions, 
and it becomes necessary to discuss particular cases separately. 

Case I. — When no forces act, the conservation of momentum parallel 
to any line chosen as the axis of x gives for masses M, vi 

MU + 7nu = MU' + mu' 

and therefore the conditions are satisfied by 

F oc exp ^MU / oc exp kmu. 
Combining this with the solution 

F oc exp — /iTji /oc exp —hT„^ 
and writing k=huQ where «o is any constant, we obtain the solution 

F=Aexp-Um{(U-t6o)2 + V2+W2} ) , . 

/=Bexp-|7iM;(M-Mo)'+^-' + ^«'} I * ' ■ ^^ 

This is the law of distribution in a gas having what Burbury calls a 
* motion of simple translation ' and Boltzmann a ' progressive motion ' of 
velocity iig along the axis of .r ; a result agreeing with tlaose found by 
Burbury,' Boltzmann,- and others. Here the average molecular kinetic 
energies of the relative motion, taken with respect to a point moving with 
velocity ?io) ^re equal, so that the quantity which represents tein2)erature 
is, as it should be, independent of tto, the velocity of translation. 

Case II. — When the field is symmetrical about a fixed axis, the 
constancy of angular momentum about this axis leads in a similar way 
to the distribution of co-ordinates and velocities among the molecules of a 
mass of rotating gas — such as that forming the atmosphere of a planet. 

This case I have worked out in detail in Appendix B, and in 
conformity with the nomenclature of Case I. the gas may be said to have 
a motion of simple rotation.' 

It is remarkable that in the paper last referred to Boltzmann,^ while 
w( rking out a number of problems on the motion of gases in a field 
of force, specially considers the case in which the gas has no initial 
motion of rotation. Maxwell, in the second part of the paper, discussed 

' Phil. Mag., October 1890, p. 305. 

- ' Ueber Aas Wiirmegleichgewicht von Gasen auf welche aussere Kriifte wirken,' 
Sitzber. der k. Wiener Akad., Ixxii. (ii.). Oct. 1875. 'Ueber die Aufstellung und 
Integration der Gleichungen welche die Molecularbewegung in Gasen bestimmen,' 
Ihid., Ixxiv. (ii.), Dec. 1876. 

» ' Ueber die Aufstellung,' &c., Wiener Sitzh., Dec. 1876. 



88 REPORT— 1894. 

above in Section I., gives a long and laborious investigation relating to a, 
free system of particles with constant linear and angular momenta ; ' bub 
the formulae, which are very long and complicated, do not appear to be 
applicable to the present problem, since they take no account of collisions 
between the various systems. 

Case III. — When each molecule has an axis of symmetry the angular 
velocity Cl^ or W3 about this axis is constant and unaltered by collisions, 
provided the molecules be regarded as perfectly smooth. Hence the law 
of distribution is independent of O3 and W3, and these angular velocities 
may be distributed according to any law. This is not inconsistent with 
general conditions, for the collision formuhe Vl^'=-Vl^ and w.^=zu)^ show 
that Yf-=Y'f' is satisfied by any functions whatever of W3, ^3. 

This case has already been alluded to in § 37 as furnisliing an exception 
to the law obtained for lop-sided spheres. But its chief interest lies in 
the fact, pointed out by Boltzmann,^ that since partition of energy only 
takes place among live of its six degrees of freedom, tlie ratio of the 
two specific heats 

l+-=l + -^ = l-4 .... (39) 
m b 

agreeing closely with the value found for air and most gases. 

46. Except in the above cases and the still simpler case of smooth 
elastic spheres whose cm. is at the centre, it will, I think, be found 
impossible to devise any form of riyld bodies in which the conditions 
of permanency are satisfied for all geometrically possible collisions other- 
wise than by the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution. For example, the 
alternative distributions for non-colliding rigid bodies worked out in 
Appendix A cannot remain permanent unless the surfaces of the bodies 
are spherical, so that the line of collision always passes through their 
CM. [This I have roughly verified by a process of ' exhaustion,' the 
details of which are uninteresting.] 

In his aforementioned paper on the nature of gas molecules, Boltz- 
mann considers the number of degrees of freedom of molecules generally 
in relation to the ratio of their specific heats, and arrives at the following: 
conclusion : tliat ' the entire aggregate which forms a single gas molecule, 
and which can consist, not only of ponderable atoms, but also of ether 
atoms bound with them, probably behaves in its progressive motion and 
its collisions with other molecules neai'ly like a rigid body.' 

The case of a polyatomic molecule, whose atoms are capable of vibrating 
relative to one another, affords an interesting field for investigation and 
speculation. Is the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution still unique, or do 
other permanent distributions exist in which tlie kinetic energy is unequally 
divided between the momentoids 1 

Steady States under Permanent Disturbing Influence. 

47. The important and highly interesting applications of the Kinetic 
Theory to disturbed states of a gas in which, by the action of external forces, 
a steady state differing from the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution is main- 
tained fall outside the scope of this Report. These include the problems 

' Camb. Phil. Trans., 1879. 

^ ' Deber die Natuv der Gasmolekiile,' Sitzh. der h. Wiener Akad., Ixxiv. (ii..), 
1876. He mentions this also in liis paper translated in the Phil. Mag., March 1893. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 89 

of steady flow of gases, viscosity, diffusion, heat conduction, chemical 
action, &:c. Such questions form the subjects of investigations by Boltz- 
mann,' Tait,'^ Burbury,^ Natanson,^ and other writers too numerous to 
mention. A complete list of papers would probably require a Report to 
itself, but the references in the accompanying footnotes may be of some 
assistance to those specially interested in the subject. 

48. An entirely different class of problems has been treated by Lord 
Rayleigh in illustration of the properties of colliding bodies in general, 
considered especially with reference to the Kinetic Theory.'^ He con- 
siders the law of distribution of energy in a number of large masses, each 
of which is bombarded by streams of projectiles of much smaller mass 
moving in both directions in a straight line. If the projectiles are all 
moving with the same speed v, Lord Rayleigh finds that the velocities u 
of the bombarded masses will assume the Boltzmann-Maxwell distri- 
bution 

/(zA)=Ae-^"' 

where the mean kinetic energy of the masses is one half that of each pro- 
jectile. 

If, however, the velocities of the projectiles themselves are distri- 
buted according to the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution, the same is true 
of the bombarded masses, and the mean kinetic energies of the masses 
and projectiles are equal. Hence the icltole system, consisting of the pro- 
jectiles and masses, satisfies the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution as 
defined in § 34. Lord Rayleigh goes on to consider the case when the 
free masses are replaced by pendulums under a one-sided or two-sided 
bombardment, and also gives an interesting investigation of the rate of 
progress towards the ' special ' state, the motion in every case being one- 
dimensional. 

Collisions replaced by Encounters. 

49. Boltzmann has pointed out " that the effect of a collision between 
material points or monatomic molecules may equally well be represented 
by an encounter in which only attractive forces act. When the particles 
are at a certain distance apait he supposes a very great impulsive attrac- 
tion to act on them, so that their directions of relative motion are refracted 
very nearly into the straight line joining them. "When, after passing close 
together, they again come to the same distance, they undergo a second re- 
fraction under an impulsive attraction equal and opposite to the first, and the 

' ' Zur Theorie der Gasreibung,' Sitzher. der It. Wiener Acad., Ixxxi. (ii.)> January 
1880; Ixxxiv. (ii.), June 1881, December 1881. 'Zur Theorie der Gasdiffusion,' ibid., 
Ixxxvi. (ii.), June 1882; Ixxxviii. (ii.), October 1883. 'Bemerkungen iiber die 
Wiirmeleitung der Gase,' ibid., Ixxii. (ii.), October 1875. Other papers are in the 
Sltzmigsberichte, Ivi. (ii.), November 1867, Ixxv. (ii.), January 1887, xcvi. (ii.), October 
1887; Annalen der Pbysik und Clicnde, vol. xxii. 1884, p. 39. 

''■ ' On the Foundations of the Kinetic Theory of Gases,' Trans. Soy. Soc. Edin~, 
1886. See also my first Report for fuller references. 

* Phil. Mag., October 1890, p. 306, &c. 

■* ' Sur rinterpretation cinetique de la Fonction de Dissipation,' Comptes Rendm, 
October 23, 1893, &c. ; Bulletin de VAead. des Sciences de Cracovie, December 1893, 
p. 348. 

^ ' DjTiamical Problems in Illustration of the Theory of Gases,' PJiil. Mag., 
November 1891. 

' ' Deber die Moglichkeit der Begriindung einer kinetischen Gastheorie auf 
anziehende Kriifte allein,' Annalen der Pliysik nnd Chende, xxiv. (1885"), p. 37. 



90 REPORT— 1891. 

effect of both refractions on the ultimate motion is the same as that of a 
collision in which the line of centres is perpendicular to the direction of 
relative motion between the two refractions. And by making the relative 
velocity between the refractions very great, the duration of the encounter 
may be made very small. Boltzmann points out that an encounter involving 
three or more particles will sometimes have the effect of leaving two (or 
more) particles permanently entangled together, and the number of such 
double molecules Avill increase as the temperature and volume are decreased, 
thus suggesting an explanation of the phenomena of dissociation and lique- 
faction. 

In the case of polyatomic molecules specified by generalised co-ordinates, 
the collision foi-mula of § 33 cannot be directly applied to an encounter of 
this kind, owing to the changes of position of the molecules between the 
two refractions. But there would be no difficulty in here proving the 
Boltzmann-lNIaxwell Law by taking separate account of the two refractions 
and the free motion between them as explained in § 32. 

50. The effect of double, treble, and multiple encounters in relation to 
the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law has been investigated by Natanson.' He 
arrives at conclusions entirely in accordance with what has been said 
above in § 30, and shows that the translational velocities of the c.m.'s of 
two or more molecules during an encounter follow the Boltzmann-Maxwell 
distribution. This may be readily verified as follows. 

If the frequencies of distribution among two sets of molecules of 
masses 7n^, m^ are proportional to 

e-MT,+x,) and 6-'"^^+''-' 

then, as in § 30, the fi'equency of distribution of pairs of such molecules in 
the course of an encounter is proportional to 

g-;.(T,+Tj+x,+x,+x,a) ..... (40) 

where x,, is the mutual potential energy due to the encountei", so that Xi2 
vanishes when the molecules are beyond the range of their mutual influence. 
Now let 7t,,v,,Tf,, U2,Vo,w.2 be the translational velocities of the mole- 
cules, u, V, w those of their cm., ■?6,., i',., tv,. the components of relative velocity. 
Then from 

we have total kinetic energy of translation of two molecules parallel to x 

* ' - ' -m,+TO2 

•whence it readily follows from (40) that the mean energy of translation of 
the whole mass m, -Fmg collected at the cm. is equal to 3/'2h, and is equal 
to the mean translational energy of either of the separate molecules. And 
by combining the translational energy of the pair with that of a third 
molecule the result can be extended to any number of molecules. 

In my first Report, § 43, I alluded to some difiiculties i-aised by Tait 
regarding the question of temperature, but the present conclusions show 
that no such difficulties arise in connection with the Boltzmann-Maxwell 

' ' Ueber die kinetische Theorie unvoUkommener Gase,' Annalen der Phi/sik und. 
Chemie, xxxiii. (1885), p. 685. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 91 

Law at any rate. For, taking 3/2A as the measure of the temperature, 
we see that it is — 

(i) The mean kinetic energy of translation per^Vee molecule, 
(ii) The mean kinetic energy of translation of the molecules in an 

encounter for any given configuration of the system, 
(iii) The mean kinetic energy of the cm. of two or more encountering 
molecules found by supposing their whole mass concentrated 
at this CM. 

If the volume of the gas be increased, the number of encountering mole- 
cules will be decreased, but their mean kinetic energy will still be equal 
to that of the free molecules. 

51. The proof of the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law thus presents little 
difficulty when collisions are replaced by encounters lasting only a limited 
time, so that the molecules are sometimes free and sometimes in the 
process of an encounter, even though these encounters be multiple. But 
it fails when the molecules act on one another at all distances, because we 
cannot then consider any group of molecules apart from the rest. More- 
over, unless collisions or encounters take place to a certain extent indis- 
criminately between molecules, the frequency of distribution for any 
particular molecule may depend on other circumstances besides its actual 
state, and the assumptions made in proving the equation F/=F'/' (§ 39) 
are no longer necessarily true. Hence, none of the above arguments now 
afford any evidence that in such cases the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribu- 
tion is the distribution which a gas naturally tends to assume, even though 
the possibility of such a distribution may not be capable of disproof. 

Thus, in the test case of molecules attracting one another according to 
the law of the direct distance, they will if initially arranged according 
to the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law remain so distributed ; but this law of 
permanent distribution is not unique, nor is there any tendency among 
the molecules to attain this law. 

In dealing with such forces as that due to gravitation, as in the case 
of a gaseous nebula held together by the attraction of its parts, it is clear 
that the attraction of the more distant portions of the gas can be repre- 
sented by a field of external force whose potential is the gravitation 
potential of the mass. Thus no difficulty will be introduced into the proof 
of the Boltzmami-Maxwell Law, except when we come to take account of 
the attractions of those molecules that are very near any given molecule. 
Theseare probably feeble, except in an encounter. The problem, however, 
requires fuller treatment than can be given in the space of this Report. 



Section III. — The Boltzmann-Maxwell Law consideked in 
Relation to other Theories. 

The Connection with the Theory of Probability. 

52. The application of the Theory of Probability to the determination 
of the law of distribution among gas-molecules forms the subject of several 
very interesting and suggestive papers in the hands of Boltzmann and 
Burbury. 

I have ventured, on my own responsibility, to introduce the well- 
known terms ' a priori ' a.nd ' a posteriori probability ' in the following 



92 REPORT— 1894. 

accounts, as, personally, I think they make the matter clearer. They are 
not Boltzmann's. 

In his first paper ' Boltzmann starts by taking a finite number n 
of molecules, and supposing that the kinetic energy of each molecule must 
have one or other of a discrete series of values «, 2f, 3f, . . . ^je. Taking 
the total energy T of the system as equal to \f, he investigates the 
probability that it should be divided between the molecules in a given 
manner, each value of the energy being a priori equally probable for a 
given molecule. If wq, w,, w^, . . . w^, be the numbers of molecules having 
energies 0, e, 2e, . . . j)e, the number of permutations of molecules satis- 
fying this distribution or ' complexion ' is 



V=-r-^r 1 • . • • (42) 

subject to the conditions 

WQ-f- W.J + . . . +ii)p ^n .... (43) 
wi + 2w2+ • • • +pi^p=^ .... (44) 

The cl jMsteriori most probable distribution is that for which the number 
of permutations is greatest. Taking M to be the logarithm of the denomi- 
nator of ^, or 

M=log(wo!) + log(<.»i 0-f- . . . . (45) 

we haA'e, therefore to make M a minimum subject to the conditions (43) 
(44). To simplifiy the calculation, when w is very great, w ! may be 
replaced by its approximate value 



v/ 



(2-)(")" (46) 



Passing to the case in which the energy is capable of continuous 
variation, if/(.x) dx denote the number of molecules with energy between 
X and x + dx, we have to put wq=i/ (0), w,=£/(f), . . . w^=itf {pt), and 
to make t=-dx in the limit, so that the problem reduces to finding the 
minimum of 

fco 

M'= /{x)\ogf(x)dx .... (47) 
Jo 
subject to the conditions 

n= f{x)dx (48) 

Jo 

T={'"xf(x)dx (49) 

Jo 

Avhere M' differs from M by a constant, and is what Boltzmann calls the 
' measure of permutability.' 
The solution is 

/ (x) dx^Ce-'"^ dx (50) 

This, therefore, is the a j^osteriori most probable distribution of the 
energy among the molecules on the hypothesis that the a p)riori pro- 

' ' Ueber die Beziehung zwischen dem zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen 
Wiirmetheorie und der Warscheinlichkeitsrechnung respective den Satzen iiber 
das Warmegleichgewicht,' Sitzlcr. der k. Wiener Akad., Ixsvi. (ii.), Oct. 1878. 



ox OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 93 

babilities of all energies are equal for any one molecule. If m is the 
mass of a molecule, the most probable number of molecules with speeds 
between u and u + du is 

Ce-''"""= mudu (.51) 

This is the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution of speed for a system of 
monatomic molecules moving in one plane. 

53. To obtain the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution for molecules 
moving in three dimensions, Boltzmann finds it necessary to make a 
different assumption with regard to the «;;riori probabilities. He assumes, 
in fact, that if u, v, to be the velocities along the axes of co-ordinates, all 
values of u, v, w are a priori equally probable. The problem of deter- 
mining the a ])osteriori most probable distribution therefore reduces to 
finding the minimum of 

\\\f^<^gf • du dv dio= —n SM^^o?,e . . . (.52) 

subject to the conditions 

T=l7n{ {{u'' + v'^ + iv'-)dudvdw . . . (54) 

For the general case of molecules with r degrees of freedom in a field 
of force, he assumes that all values of the co-ordinates and momenta p are 
« priori equally probable. 

This is the assumption that would be fulfilled if the values were 
selected by drawings from an urn containing tickets, each ticket having a 
set of values of ;j, . . . q,. inscribed on it, and the number of tickets in 
which these values lie between the limits dp^ . . . dq^ being measured by 
the product of the multiple differential dp^ . . . dq, into a constant. In 
the case of a mixture of gases there would have to be a number of urns 
equal to the number of gases, and the number of tickets drawn from each 
urn would have to equal the number of molecules of the gas in question in 
the mixture. 

The final result is that the a 2>osteriori most probable distribution is 
that for which the function 

-il=^[f\ogfdp, . . . dq,. . . (55) 

is a minimum, 2 referring to the different kinds of moleiules in a mixture 
of several gases. 

The expx-ession —H differs by a constant from JBoltzmann's Minimum 
Ftinction. 

We have seen in § 43 that, when there are collisions between the 
molecules, this function always tends to a minimum until the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell distribution is attained, and the present investigation therefore 
shows that the gas tends to pass from distributions of lesser probability 
to distributions of greater probability, until it attains the most probable 
distribution of all — namely, the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution. 

Finally, Boltzmann proves that the function ii is proportional to the 
entropy (plus a constant), thus affording a verification of the theorem that 
the entropy of a system tends to a minimum. The identification of Boltz- 



94 REPORT — 189-i. 

mann's minimum function with the entropy is estabHshed more briefly by 
Burbury in his recent paper, to be discussed shortly.' 

54. The particular assumption as to the law of a jjriori probability 
precludes the above investigations from furnishing a complete proof of 
the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law. In a subsequent paper ^ Boltzmann has 
removed this restriction, and has considered the a posteriori probabilities 
corresponding to any assumed law of a jmori probability. In other 
words, we start with a large number (N) of molecules having a given 
distribution of energy, and from them a smaller number {n) are selected, 
and their mean energy is found to have a certain value which may be 
either the same or diiferent from that of the original N. It is required to 
find the most probable law of distribution in the n selected molecules, or, 
generally, the probability of any given distribution. 

Boltzmann first considers the case where the original molecules follow 
the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law for two dimensional space, and points out the 
necessary modifications for space of three dimensions. In the general 
case, supposing /j, /a, • • . fp to denote the a priori probabilities of a 
molecule having energies f, 2f, . . . pe, the a j)osteriori probability of a 
combination in which the numbers of molecules having these energies are 
ojq, ojj, . . . Wp respectively is proportional to O, where 

"=/o- /."■■• • . f? ^ \ , . . . (56) 

iiIq! ta<| ! 0)2' 
where as before 

The approximate expression for w ! now gives 

log Q.■=■^^^o^ logy) — ^(ij, log w; + constant 

and Boltzmann finds the following results. 

If the mean energy of the selected n molecules is equal to the mean 
energy of the original N, the most probable distribution of energy in the 
latter is identical with the distribution in the former. 

If, however, the mean energy of the smaller number is unequal to that 
of the larger, the most probable distribution is that given by the form 

<..=^/,e-'"- (57) 

Boltzmann's investigation was probahly an attempt to arrive at the 
Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution as the ultimate result of a immber of 
successive processes such as the above, independently of the initial dis- 
tribution. This has recently been actually accomplished by Burbury by 
the application of a different method as follows : — 

55. Burbury ^ bases his investigation on a generalisation of the theory 
of Least Squares, which asserts that if we regard the variations of a series 
of n quantities a;,, ajj) • • • ^n ^s being each the result of an infinite number 
N of independent simultaneous increments divided each by a/N, then the 

' ' On the Law cf Distribution of Energy,' Plnl. Mag., January 1894. 

• ' Weitere Bemerkungen iiber einige Probleme der mechanischen Warmetheorie,' 
Sitz^). der It. Wietier Akad., Ixxviii. (ii.), June 1878. The second part of the paper 
deals with the equilibrium of a gas under gravity, and is less interesting. 

^ Pliil. Marj., January 1894. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 95 

chance that the values oi x^, X2 . . . shall lie between c, and Ci+dciy 
C2 and C2 + dc.2, &c., is proportional to an expression of the form 

_IIS 

e -T dci dc2 . . . dc„ .... (58) 

where S is a certain homogeneous quadratic function of the c's, and T a, 
constant. This result, which for a single variable leads to the well-known 
error-law, is independent of the original law of distribution of the inci-e- 
raents, provided that positive and negative values of these increments are 
equally probable. 

Taking S as proportional to the kinetic energy of a system, and sup- 
posing the number of such systems to be very gi-eat, Burbury next sliows 
that if a redisti'ibution of S among the systems is effected in a certain 
way, the ultimate result will be the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution, and 
this will remain unaffected by any further redistribution. The method of 
redistribution is such that energy is conserved in the final result, but not 
in the intermediate processes, and Burbury suggests that the process of 
redistribution of energy between the molecules may be effected by waves 
transmitted through the ether. The proof requires us to assume that these 
waves satisfy the principle of superposition, otherwise the law cannot be 
permanent. The author, however, claims that the method is applicable to 
systems in which no group of molecules is ever free from the action of 
other parts of the system, and for which those proofs of the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law treated in Sections I., II. of this Report fail. 

Burbury then finds the expression for Boltzmann's minimum function, 
and calling this B he verifies that the entropy of the system is equal 
to — 2B/tc (plus a constant). The whole ti'eatment is very powerful 
and suggestive, and the paper opens up a wide field for discussion and 
speculation. 

56. The assumption in the first place that each molecule is capable of 
assuming only a discrete instead of a continuous series of different states, 
the number of these states being made infinite in the limit, forms the basis 
of Boltzmann's proof of his Minimum Theorem for polyatomic gas-mole- 
cules.' Natanson,^ taking Boltzmann's starting-point of a number of 
systems whose energies can only have one of a series of discrete values 

f, 2f, . . . pe 

and employing equations (43) (44) above, has worked out the final dis- 
tribution of energy among the molecules on the supposition that inter- 
change of energy takes place by collisions, and he has also determined 
the rate at which the system approaches the Boltzmann-Maxwell 
distribution. He gives a complete solution of the problem for the 
particular case where ;J=3, and shows that only analytical difiiculties 
prevent the method from being applied to higher values of p. When, 
however, p is made infinite, the results agree with those found by Boltz- 
mann and by Tait (§ 44). 

' ' Neuer Peweis zweier Siitze,' Sitzher. tier Ic. Wiener Altad., scv. (ii.)," Jan. 1S87, 
p. 153. 

^ ' Ueber rlie Geschwindigkeit mit welcher Gase rlen Maxwell'schen Zustand 
erreichen,' Anvale7i der Phijnh und Chemic, xxxiv. (188S). 



9G REPORT — 1894. 



The Connection between the Virial Equation, the Second Law, and the 
Boltzmannr Maxwell Law. 

57. The virial equation cannot be used to jyrove the Second Law. 
When applied to a perfect gas it leads to the equation 

pv=nO (59) 

From this equation, combined with the Second Law, certain properties of 
pei'fect gases, with which we are all familiar, are deduced in treatises on 
thermodynamics. These are that the latent heat of expansion is equal to 
the pressure, that the difference of specific heats is equal to R, and so on. 
Hence corresponding conditions must hold good in molecular thermo- 
dynamics in order that the Second Law may be consistent with the virial 
equation. 

A general condition under which the Second Law is true was originally 
found by R. C. Nichols,^ and has recently been put into a somewhat 
different form by Burbury.- If ^ or U denote the potential energy, this 
condition may be written 



T\dv^-dv)-~dtdv 



(GO) 



where the bar denotes average values. 

Burbury •* has rightly pointed out that the methods of Clausius and 
Szily ■• require such a condition to be satisfied in order that they may give 
the Second Law. The condition comes in when we try to assign a mean- 
ing to the ' quasi-period i,' without which meaning the result is unin- 
telligible. Burbury shows that if we assume 

i=i;*T'- (i.e., a definite time), 
tlien x must be a function of v only, so that 

^X=^X (Gi) 

dv dv 

and this is a special case of Nichols' condition. 

It is also to be observed that in the Clausius-Szily method the 
averages are time-averages. This, if not an objection, is at least a 
disadvantage, since it does not show the relation between the Second 
Law and the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law, in which averages are taken over a 
large number of molecules in a ' special state ' of permanent distribution. 

58. That relation forms the subject of a very recent paper by Burbury,'' 
which is a development of his second letter to ' Nature.' ^ 

The proof of the Second Law on the assumption of the Boltzmann- 
Maxwell Law has long been known, and was given by Boltzmann as early 

' 'On the Proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics,' Pliil. Mag., 1876 (i.), 
p. .S69. 

^ Natiire, December 14, 1893; January 11, 1894. 
' Ibid., December 14, 1893. 

* ' Report on Thermodynamics,' Part I. Section 1, Cardiff Report, 1891, p. 88. 

* 'The Second Law of Thermodynamics,' Phil. Mag., June 1894, p. 574. 
« Nature, Jan. 11, 1894. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 97 

as 1871/ and by Burbury in 1876.^^ Burbury now treats the converse 
problem of determining the law of distribution from the Second Law. 
He finds that if the law of distribution of the co-ordinates x^yX^, . . . x-„ be 
given by the expression 

N/(x,,a;2, . . . x,^)dxi . . . dx,^ or Jif/du, 

and if the law of distribution of co-ordinates and velocities be given by 

Fda dff' where diy' :=dii . . . d'e^, 

then 8Q/T will be a complete diflferential if either 

(i) F=functionof (r-U)/T=^{(r-U)/T} say . (62) 

(which does not vanish for infinite values of the variables), or 

(ii) ^=K"T-)' -^^K^)- • • • ^^^^ 

where r is the kinetic energy, and XJ the potential energy of a molecule. 

Burbury says : ' And since F and f must vanish for all infinite values 
of the variables, we are led to 

F=C exp -X^ f=C' exp -X ^ 

whei'e X is some positive numerical quantity. . . . ' 

59. Now this is obviously a solution, but it is not the only solution, 
and I think the real inferences are slightly different from those he has 
drawn. They are sufficiently interesting to be treated in detail, and they 
are intimately connected with another point which at first suggests an 
objection to the proof, namely, that c^t drr' is the multiple differential 
of the co-ordinates and velocities, and is therefore not in general an 
invariant like the multiple differential of the co-ordinates and momenta. 

In § 1 5 of his paper Burbury states that this does not matter. ' If 
they' (i.e., da and da') 'do vary, that is, in effect, if the limits of integra- 
tion vary, the assumption F=i^ [(U-fr)/Tj will still make 3Q/T acomplete 
differential.' 

Now if 2/i, . . . 2/„ denote the generalised momenta con-esponding to 
the co-ordinates a;, . . . x,„ the Jacobian 

( ■^1, • ■ • ^n ) j(^^ X2 . . . x„) suppose 
8(2/1, . • • 2/«) 

will in general be a function of the co-ordinates cc,, . . . x,„ and its form, 
will depend on the choice of co-ordinates. 

Hence, if Burbury' s proof be correct, we have really shown that the- 
Second Law will be satisfied if the distribution be determined by any 
expression of the form 

^/-^jj(x-,, . . . x^)dxi . . . dx^dyi . . . dy^ , (64) 

where by suitable choice of co-ordinates the form of J may be varied 
quite arbitrarily. And by § 22 this expression represents, not necessarily 
the Boltzmann- Maxwell distribution, but a distribution satisfying the 

' • Analytische Beweise des zweiten Hauptsatzes,' &c., Sitzher. der k. Wiener Akad., 
Ixiii. (ii.), 1871, p. 712. 

2 Phil. Ma^., January 1876, p. 61. 

1894. H 



98 BEPURT— 1894. 

condition that if the kinetic energy be reduced to a sum of n squares, 
the mean values of these squares are equal. Hence the conclusion may 
be stated thus : — 

If the necessity for making 8Q 'T a complete differential can be 
established as a substantive law by independent evidence, the investiga- 
tion affords an independent proof of Maxwell's law of j)artition of kinetic 
energy between the momentoids for such a system. 

Conclusion. 

60. The conclusions arrived at in the present Report are to be regarded 
as superseding the statement of Clerk Maxwell's Theorem in §40 and the 
greater part of §§ 41, 42, 4 3 of Section III. of my first Report. The rest 
of that Report is not, so far as it goes, materially affected by any results 
now established, although several important questions connected with the 
Boltzmann-Maxwell Law have now received a definite answer. 

The proof of the law and the assumptions involved in it are fairly satis- 
factory for gases whose molecules collide with each other to a certain 
extent at random, but in a medium in which the molecules never escape 
from each other's influence the subject still presents very great difficulties. 

Even should it be shown that the law cannot be disproved for such a 
medium, there still remains the question as to whether the distribution is 
the unique one satisfying the conditions of permanence. The general 
question of uniqueness, even in souie of the cases where the law admits of 
more or less satisfactory proof, still suggests some questions for investiga- 
tion. Intimately connected with this is the difficult question of stability. 
For example, when a gas is condensed, its density at any point at first 
remains proportional to e~'"- in accordance with the Boltzmann-Maxwell 
Law ; but when a certain stage is reached, instability sets in, and part 
of the gas liquefies. If the Second Law be true, the new distribution 
satisfies Maxwell's law of partition of energy. Does it likewise satisfy 
the Boltzmann-Maxwell Law ? 

The connection with the Theory of Probability still suggests subjects 
for research. The relations of electrical and optical phenomena to the 
Kinetic Theory open up an almost unexplored field. 

61. It only remains for me to thank all those who have assisted me in 
collecting materials for this Report. I am particularly indebted to 
Dr. Ludwig Boltzmann for his kindness in sending me copies of nearly all 
his writings, and for several valuable suggestions that have helped to 
clear up difficulties in the work. My thanks are also due to Mr. Burbury, 
Dr. Ladislaus Natanson, Professor Sydney Young, and others for similar 
help, which has very materially lightened the work of consulting and 
examining the large mass of existing literature relating to this most 
interesting branch of Mathematical Physics. 



APPENDIX A. 



Th'i Possible Laics of Partition of Rotatory Energy in Non-colliding 

Rigid Bodies. 

The motion of a rigid body about a fixed point or about its centre of 
mass under no forces affords one of the best test cases bearing on Maxwell's 
law of partition of kinetic energy. 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 99 

The equations of motion rfefcvred to thd principal axes are of tlie form 
A'^'^'-(B-C) 0*2^3=0 .... (35) 

and the kinetic energy is 

T=l(A<o,2 + B.;.,' + Cw3') .... (66) 

Let 0|, fJj, fij be the initial angular velocities about the principal 
axes, and let 

8 (<-.,, Wo. '"s) /R7V 

Then 

d^ 9 ((i)|, (>i„ »•>■,) 9(w,, 0)2, Wa) I 9 (••'i, W>> ti>3) 

(fi!~"o(0,, 12,, fis) 9'(ni, fio) i^a) 9(n,, Oo, lis)" 
But by (i) 

^9j'^bJ'^<"3) _/g_Q\ / <^ C^ ('"3. '■^2) ^^3) I ^^ 9 (<■>;, <.)2, "'3) 1 

9 (ii„ n„ O3) ^ ^ \ - 9(fii, fij, fig) '9 (n,, n„ 123) J 
=0, 

since each of the two determinants has two rows or columns equal. 
Therefore 

dt 
and 

A=const. = l, (its initial value) . . . (68) 

Since T^constant for any body, it follows that if a very large 
numbey (N) of such rigid bodies have their angular velocities initially 
so distributed that the number with angular velocities between fl, and 
Oi + dili, Do and I22 + f'^^2> ^3 ai^d ^3 + dil3 is 

i:if(T)dnidn,dn3 

the distribution of any subsequent time will be given by 

'Nf(T)d>^id,02d,o^ (69) 

and therefore distribution will be permanent. 

With this distribution it is easy to see that at any instant the average 
values of 

AAo),'-, {,Bwo^ iCw3^ 

over the different bodies are equal to one another, so that Maxwell's law 
of partition of kinetic energy is satisfied. 

But the equations of motim have a second integral expressing the 
constancy of resultant angular momentum, namely, 

A2<u,HB'^a),,HC2u)32=G2=const. . . . (70) 

Hence any distribution given by 

N/{G)d<oydu,.,du>3 (71) 

will (in the absence of collisions bctAveen the bodies) be permanent. 

H 2 



100 REPORT — 1894. 

And it can now be shown precisely in the same way as before that 
the mean values of 

A2(.i,2, B^u-j^, CW 

are equal to one another. 

Therefore the mean values of 

^A«.,S iBa.2^ iCV 

are now inversely projiortional to A, B, C, a^id Maxwell's law of partition 
of energy does not hold good. 

It is only when the distribution of Tslocities or momenta is deter- 
mined by a function ,/ of the energy alone that we can assert that the 
mean values of the different squares forming the kinetic energy are 
equal. 



APPENDIX B. 



On the Laiv of Molecular Distribution in the Atmospliere of a 
Rotating Planet. 

Suppose a mass of gas-molecules to be situated in a field of force that 
is symmetrical about a fixed axis — for example, the field due to the 
attraction of a spheroidal planet. 

Let this axis be chosen as the axis of ;:;;, and, in the first place, let the 
molecules be monatomic, so that they may be regarded as smooth homo- 
geneous spheres or material points. 

Let m, M be the masses of two molecules, E„, Ejj their total energies, 
J), P their angular momenta about the axis of z, so that 

p=m{vx-uy) P=M(VX-UY) . . (72) 

Then, since the field is symmetrical, the angular momenta p, P are constant 
in the absence of collisions, and at a collision the total angular momentum 
is unaltered, so that 

p^-V=p' + V' 

Also similar relations are satisfied by the energies E„, Eji- 
Therefore, if the distributions of co-ordinates and velocities be given 
-by the expressions 

fdx dy dz du dv dw and F dX dY dZ dJJ dV dW, 

the conditions of permanence between collisions, and the functional equation 
for collisions 

are satisfied by 

f=n exp —(h'E„,-kp) F=N exp -(/iEu-itP) 

where h, k are any constants whatever. Putting k=^hQ, we have, if x he 
the potential energy of m, 

f=nexY> -h(T-Qp + x) 
==01 exp— A {im (?*^ -|- v"^-^ w^) — mQ (vx- uy) -f y] 

=nexp-A{im[(M-f-fi2/)' + (v-fia;)2+w2]-|-X-imn2(a;2 + y')} (73) 



ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS 101 

Take axes of ^, v, K rotating about the axis of ;:; with angular velocity I? 
and instantaneously coinciding with the axes of x, y, z. 

Then the relative velocities of a molecule referred to these moving 
axes are 

l=u + Qy, 17= V — fix, ^=tv 

and we at once find 

9 (u, V, w) 
Hence the distribution may be written 

neK^-h{km{i? + ii' + ^)-irX-h'^^\-- + ^'')] •'i-'^nd^didi^dt . (74) 

Therefore the velocities relative to the moving axes follow the Boltz- 
mann-Maxwell distribution, and in addition to this the molecules have a 
superposed motion of rigid-body-rotation with angular velocity fi. And 
the density at any point is the same as if the gas were acted on by ' centri- 
fugal force 'having a potential —\p'^{^^ + r)^), and the reversed angular 
velocity — fi were applied to every molecule. 

Hence the Kinetic Theory may he applied to the atmospheres of planets by 
reducing the jylanets to rest and applying centrifugal force to the atmospheres 
in the usual way. 

It is interesting to notice that the temperature 3/27i is the mean 
kinetic energy of the translational motion relative to the jilanet and not the 
total mean translational enei'gy. 

The results can evidently be generalised for the case when the mole- 
cules are rigid bodies of any kind. Let u„ o)„, w. be the angular velocities 
of such a molecule about axes through its cm. parallel to the axes of 
a-., y, z, and let wi, w,, i.'a be its angular velocities about its principal axes. 
By Appendix I., duji djj.^ djjs is independent of the time, and e^'idently 

O {ti>„ o)y, M.) I determinant of the direction cosines | -i 

577i 7. 77 \ 1 between the two sets of axes J 

Hence the permanent distribution is of the form 

n exp — h (T — fi;; -f- x) • dx dy dz da dv dw du>^ dio^ duj^ 

Now if A, B, C, D, E, F denote the moments and products of inertia, 
the kinetic energy of rotation of the molecule is 

T„=|(A, B, C.-D, -E,-F3[..,, a,,, c,)^ 

=^^^° p=m{vx-uy) + -^f- .... (75) 

ciut 

therefore 

T-np + x=hn [{u + nyY- + {v- nxy- + w']-hnn^- (x-^ + 2/^) 

-f-i (A, B, C,-D,-E,-F3[a,„ (.,, a,,-fi)2-iCfi2-Hx 

and since evidently 

tlierefore 

f=n exp -h {hn {k^ + f,' + 1") -F i ( A, B, C, - D, - E, -F ][ w„ o,„ a,,)^ 

-imn^^-W)-icn-'+x} .... (76) 



102 REPORT— 1894. 

Here the potential energy of centrifugal force is 

and therefore the law of distribution 

/=«exp-A{T, + x + Vo} .... (77) 

where T,. is the kinetic energy of the relative motion ; 

■X is the potential energy due to the field ; 
Vq is the potential energy due to centrifugal force. 

Hence, as before, the Boltzmann- Maxwell Law holds for the system 
obtained by applying the reversed angular velocity — fiand the centrifugal 
force whose potential is — ^fi- (aS^ + y^) at every point of the gas. 

It would not be difficult to extend the proof to the case of a rotating 
ellipsoidal planet with three unequal axes, where the field of force is not 
symmetrical about the axes of rotation, but the investigation would 
hardly be sufficiently interesting to be worth giving in detail. It will also 
be admitted, without difficulty, that similar conclusions must hold good 
when the planet and atmosphere besides rotating have a common motion 
of simple translation. 

In a communication read at the Nottingham meeting of the Associa- 
tion ' I worked out certain results of applying the Boltzmann- Maxwell 
Law to the atmospheres of planets ; but in these calculations no account 
was taken of axial rotation, as I did not at that time see how the effect of 
tliis rotation could be determined. The numerical results there obtained 
hold good, without modification, at points alone/ the polar axes of the 
various bodies considered. The effects of centrifugal force on the dis- 
tributions now furnish a promising subject for future investigation, about 
which I hope to say more shortly. 



APPENDIX C. 

On the Application of the Determinantal Relation to the Kinetic Theory of 
Polyatomic G'ases. By Professor Ludwig Boltzmann. 

We shall consider a gas whose molecules are compound (or poly- 
atomic), but are all similarly constituted. Let a, b, c, . . . be the co-or- 
dinates which determine the position and configuration of a molecule of 
such a gas ; and let p, q, r, . . . be the corresponding momenta. Let us 
suppose that the time during which any one molecule acts upon or is acted 
upon by other molecules is short in comparison with the whole time of its 
motion. Let the gas be contained in a vessel of invariable form. After 
a certain time the state of the gas will become stationary, aiid the ques- 
tion is, what is then the probability that the co-ordinates and momenta of 
any one molecule lie between certain limits 1 To express the probability 
by means of a number let us suppose the stationary state to last for a long 
time, ©. Divide this time into n infinitely small parts, 5. We shall call 

' ' The Moon's Atmosphere and the Kinetic Theory of Gases,' Nottingham Rejjorty 
p. G82. 



ox OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 103 

the beginning of the first of these parts the time zero ; the beginning of 
the second <,, the beginning of the third t^, &c. ; the end of the last of the 
n parts t„. After the whole time has elapsed, let another series of times 
of length 5 begin. Denote the end of the first part after t„ by <„+i ; the 
end of the next following part t„^.^, Ac. Assume for a moment that we 
liave n separate vessels, all exactly similar to the one containing the gas ; 
that each of these n vessels contains the same gas, and that the motion of 
the gas is the same in each. The beginning, however, is different. For 
example, let the gas in the second vessel at time zero be in the same con- 
dition in which the gas of the first vessel is at the time t^ ; in the third 
vessel let the gas at the time zero be in exactly the same condition as it is 
in the first vessel at the time <.,) a,nd so on. We have now in the dift'erent 
vessels all the different states of the gas existing simultaneously which in 
the first vessel exist successively during the whole time interval 0. 

The probability div that the co-ordinates and momenta of a molecule 
may lie between the limits 

a and a + da, b and b + db . . . j) a-nd p -\- dp, q and q + dq ... . (1) 

can be defined in two ways. If we consider a single vessel containing gas, 
we must observe it for a long time © ; if r be the fraction of the time 
during which the co-ordinates and momenta of a molecule lie between the 
limits (1) — which we shall call the condition (1) — then r/©is the probability 
required. The limits (1) differ only infinitesimally from one another. No 
two molecules of the same gas can be in the condition (1) at the same 
time. On the other hand, if we consider the above series of n vessels at 
any single instant of time, we can define the probability dw to be dz/71, where 
dz is the number of vessels in which a molecule is in the condition (1). 
Evidently dio will have different values for different values of the co-ordi- 
nates and momenta. It will also be proportional to the differentials 
da, db . . . We may therefore put 

■^=. — z=dw=/ (a, b, . . . p, q, . . .)dadb . . . dpdq ... . (2) 
n 

To find the condition for a stationary state we may consider one gas 
.at successive instants, or the series of vessels at one instant. In the 
first case the values of dw for the stationary state will be the same, 
whether we consider the gas from time to time t„, or from time ty to 
time <„_,_i, or in genei'al from t,; to <„+,.. Evidently the converse is true ; 
that is, if dw has the same values for all these cases, the state is 
stationary. By the second method we must remember that at the time 
we have in our n vessels all the states which appear in the first case from 
time to time <„ ; at the time <, we have in these vessels all the states 
which appear in the first case from /;, to <„+i. . . . The above statement, 
thatr/0 has the same values in all cases, whether we consider the time 
from zero to t,„ or from <, to <„+i, or from t,. to ^,,+j, becomes in this second 
case identical with the statement that dzjn has the same value, whether 
we consider the n vessels at time zero, or time <|, or time <2) *^c. That 
is, since the difference between <, and zero, t.2 and <, . . . can be made 
infinitely small, the above statement amounts to saying that for the 
stationary state dzjn has the same values at all times. We shall next prove 
that dzjn has this property under the following conditions : — 

We define a free molecule to be one which is not acted upon by any 
other molecule. For each free molecule let the values of _/' {a,b . . . 2^, q • . •) 



10 i REPORT — 1894. 

=He~''' at time 0, where g is the total energy of this molecule ; H and h 
are constants ; therefore at time the number of vessels in which a free 
molecule is in the state (1) is 

Tj,c?\V=mHe~'''c?a dh . . . dp dq . . , . . . (3) 

Similarly the number of vessels in which a free molecule appears with 
co-ordinates and momenta between 

a' and a' + da', b' and b' + db' . . . p' and jj' + dj/, q' and q' + dq' . . . (4) 

(condition 4) is 

ndW'=nB.e-"«'da'db' . . . dp'dq' . . . 

where g' is the total energy of this second free molecule. Finally, the 
number of vessels in which one free molecule is in condition (1) and a 
second one in condition (4) is 

n dW c?W'=«H2e-"<'+"'' dadb . . . dp dq . . . da'db' . . . dp'dq' ... (5) 

Let a", b", . . . a'", V", ... be values of the co-ordinates such that a 
molecule with the former co-ordinates acts on or encounters a molecule 
with the latter co-ordinates. And let us assume that at the time the 
number of vessels which contain a pair of molecules whose co-ordinates 
and momenta respectively lie between 

«"and a" + da". b" and J" +db" p" andp" + dp", Q"andq" + dq" . . . \ ^r\ 

a'" and a'" + da'", b'" and b'" + db'", . . .p'" andj/" + dp'", q"'&ndq"' + dq'". . . J \^) 

is 

'nB.h-''fda"db" . . . dp"dq" . . . da'"db"' . . . dp"'dq"' ... . (7) 

where/ is the total energy of the two molecules. We proceed to prove 
that a stationary state is defined by these formuUe. Consider a duration 
of time t long enough to permit of encounters between a finite number of 
molecules, but not so long as to permit of many molecules colliding more 
than once. We must demonstrate that after this time t, the number of 
vessels in which the state of a molecule lies between certain limits is 
exactly the same as before this time. We distinguish between four kinds 
of molecules : — 

(i) Molecules which are free at the beginning and at the end, and during 
the whole time t. For any of these molecules let the co-ordinates and 
momenta lie at the time between 

AandA + c?A, BandB + cm, . . . P and P + (ZP, Q and Q -f- dQ ... (8) 

and at the time t between 

aanda-j-c?a, 6andi-|-c?i, . . .^j and^? + (f^9, 5'and5' + (/5' . . . . (9) 

Let G and g represent the energy of such a molecule at the times 
and t respectively ; G, g being equal. According to equation (3) the number 
of vessels in which at the time the co-ordinates and momenta of a 
molecule lie between the limits (8) is «He~''^c?A o?B, . . . dP cZQ. . . . But, 
by hypothesis, the co-ordinates and momenta of these same molecules lie 
between the limits (9) at the time t ; hence the above expression gives 
also the number l^ of vessels in which, at the time t, co-ordinates and 
momenta of a molecule lie between the limits (9). But we have Gr^g, 



ON OUK KNOWLEDGE OF THERMODYNAMICS. 105 

and by a well-known theorem (cf. Watson, 'Kinetic Theory of Gases,' 
2nd edition, p. 22) 

da db . . . dp dq . . .= dAdB . . . dF dQ 

Therefore the number ^ is equal to 

nKe-'-sdadb . . .dpdq... 

But this last expression gives at the time the number of vessels for 
which the co-ordinates and momenta of a molecule lie between the limits 
(9) (according to formula 3). We see that this number remains con- 
stant during the time t ; and since the same is true for all values of a, 
b, . . . p, q, . . . the theorem holds good for all molecules of the first kind, 
(ii) We call all those molecules ' molecules of the second kind' which are 
free at the time 0, but which are in process of encounter at the time t. 
For a pair of such molecules let the co-ordinates and momenta lie at the 
time between the limits 

A, andA,-l-<^A„B, andBi-t-^B, . . . P, and P, +<^P|, Q, and Q, -l-^Q, . . . "I ,,p^, 
and Aj and A^ + dA„, B., and B, + dB., . . . P^ and P^ + dP„, Q, and Q, + f/Q^ . . . J \^ ^/ 

respectively, and at the time t between the limits 

a, and «, + da^, J, and b, + dl, . . . p, and jo, + dp^, q^ and q^ + dq^ . . .\ ,-,-,^ 

and a„ and a., + da„, b.^ and k, + db^ .. . p., and p„ + dp.,, q„ and q., + dq.,...\ ' v ^ ^ / 

respectively. Because these molecules were free at the time 0, the 
number of vessels in which at time a pair of molecules fulfils the 
condition (10) is, according to formula (5), 

nHV^'«'-«"'c^AirfB, . . . d^.dq, . . . dA^dBo . . . dP.,dQ., . . . 

Gi and G.2 are the energies of the molecules at the time 0. But the 
above-mentioned vessels are identical with the vessels for which at the 
time t a. pair of molecules fulfil the conditions (11). The number of the 
last kind of vessels is therefore also given by the above expression. It is 
easily seen that this expression is equal to 

nlPe~''^da^dbi . . . dp^dqi . . . da.^db^ . . . dp^dq.^ . . . 

where / is the whole energy of the two molecules at time t. Compari- 
son with formula (7) shows that the last formula gives also the number of 
vessels in which at time a pair of molecules fulfilled the condition 
(11). Therefore the theorem also holds good for the molecules of the 
second kind. 

(iii) Molecules which are in process of encounter at time 0, but are 
free at time t ; 

(iv) Molecules which are free at times and t, but which have been 
encountered by another molecule between these two instants of time. 

It is easily seen that our theorem can be proved in the same way as 
before for every pair of molecules of the third or fourth kind. 

To calculate the mean vis viva T of a molecule we put 

Xi=kiip+ki2q+ . . ., x.2=k2iP + ko2q • . ., &c. 

The coefficients k may be chosen to be functions of the co-ordinates such 
that T acquires the form h {)n^x^^ + 1n^x/+ . . . m^x/), where/ is the 
number of degrees of freedom of a molecule. The probability that for a 



106 REPORT — 1894. 

molecule the co-ordinates and the values of x may lie between a and 
a-\-da, b and b + db . . . x.^ and x^+dxi, x^ and x^-\-dx.i ... is, according 
to formula (3), 

Ug-/,(v+!zm.=) j)^^^j . . . dx^d.x.^ ... 



where D= 



"'21 J "'22 • 



It is evident that each momentum, and therefore, also, each of the 
variables af, can assume all values from — oo to -foo. We easily obtain 
the value 1/2A for the average value of each term of the form \infl^^. 
Therefore the average vis viva of a molecule is /"/ 2/t, the average vis viva of 
the centre of mass of a molecule is 3/2A, and the ratio of these two 
quantities is /' : 3. 



Tlie Best Methods of Becording the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. — 
Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. Stokes 
{Chairman), Professor A. Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Sir H. E. RoscoE, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. C. Chree, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E.Wilson, wk? Professor H. McLeod. 
(Braxni vp hy Professor McLeod.) 

Very little has been done with Balfour Stewart's actinometer during the 
past year. It will be remembered that in the last Report it was stated 
that an attempt had been made to replace the thermometer by a thermo- 
couple of copper and iron. From the preliminary experiments it appears 
that this arrangement is extremely sensitive, and using the instrument 
as a dynamical actinometer, in which the rate of change of temperature 
is recorded, a complete observation may be made in from two to three 
minutes. It was mentioned last year that a DArsonval galvanometer 
had been tried ; the Committee have now purchased an Ayrton-Mather 
galvanometer specially wound for thermo-electric currents : this instru- 
ment has been examined Ijy Professor Ayrton, and to him and his pupil, 
Mr. Arnold Philip, the Committee are indebted for much useful informa- 
cion. The instrument is not yet in a very satisfactory condition, for, in 
order to make it sufficiently sensitive, the suspending wire has to be 
unusually line, and it takes a pei-manent set, which causes an alteration of 
zero. Endeavours are being made to overcome this inconvenience. The 
thermocouple of copper and iron does not give currents quite proportional 
to the difference of temperature, and it might be preferable to replace the 
iron by some other metal or alloy. Copper is, of course, one of the 
essential metals, and it appears difficult to find any other material to 
replace the iron which will give proportional currents of sufficient strength 
to be useful. 

The Committee ask for reappointment and for the unexpended portion 
of the grant. 



UNDERGRDU>"D TEMPERATURE. 107 

Undergroimd Temperature. — Tiventieth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. D. Everett, Professor Lord Kelvin, 
Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Professor J. Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. 
Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, 'Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. P. 
Deacon, Mr. E. AVethered, Mr. A. Strahan, and Professor 
MiCHiE Smith. (Brawn np hij Professor Everett, Secretary.) 

The Committee were appointed for the purpose of investigating the rate 
of increase of underground temperature downwards in various localities of 
dry land and under water. 

The nineteenth Report contained the results of observations taken in. 
1891 by Mr. Hallock, of the Smithsonian Institution, at depths extend- 
ing to 4,402 feet in a nearly dry well at Wheeling, Virginia. 

Mr. Hallock, who now dates from Columbia College, New York, has 
recently furnished the Secretary with printed copies of a paper, contributed 
by him to the American Association for the Advancement of Science last 
year, containing further observations iu the well, made at the expense of 
the U.S. Geological Survey. 

When the observations of 1891 were finished, an oak plug was driven 
into the top of the casing to protect the hole. In July 1893 the plug was 
withdrawn, and the well, instead of being dry as before, was found to be 
full of fresh water to within 40 feet of the top. This water is believed to 
have leaked in at the lower end of the innermost casing — that is, at 
1,570 feet below the surface. 

By means of inverted Negretti maximum thermometers, protected 
against pressure by sealing them in stout glass tubes, careful observations 
were taken at various depths from 1,586 feet to 3,196 feet, two thermo- 
meters being employed to check one another at each depth. The results 
were practically identical with those obtained two years previously, when 
the well was full of air, the greatest certain difference being only one-fifth 
of a degree. An obstruction at 3,200 feet prevented observation at 
greater depths ; but this obstruction will probably be removed, the well 
pumped dry, and the drilling continued. 

In making the observations, four thermometers were lowered at a time, 
two of them being in an iroii bucket 3 feet long and 3 inches in diameter 
at the end of tlie wire, and the other two in an open wire frame 260 feet 
from the end of the wire, the diameter of the bore being just under 
5 inches. 

The temperatures at 103 feet, 206 feet, and 300 feet were also observed 
with suitable thermometers, the temperature at 103 feet being 52°'53, 
which is 1°'2 higher than the true temperature of the soil at that depth, 
as determined by other observations in the immediate neighbourhood. 

The smallness of the disturbance of temperature by convective circu- 
lation in this well, both when dry and when filled with water, is very 
remarkable, and renders the well specially suitable for determinations of 
the increase of temperature downwards. 

The Committee have to record with deep regret the loss of their 
valuable member, Mr. Pengelly. 



im 



REPORT — 1894. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consistinc/ of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Crum 
Brown (Secretary), Dr. John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, 
Hon. Ralph Abercrombie, ajid Professor Copeland. (Brawn up 
by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee were appointed as in former years for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making observations 
on Ben Nevis at the two observatories situated respectively at the top and 
bottom of the mountain. 

During the year the hourly eye observations by night and by day 
have been uninterruptedly made by Mr. Omond and his assistants ; and 
the continuous registrations and other observations have been carried on 
at the Low Level Observatory at fort William with a like fulness of 
detail as in previous years. 

Owing to frequent storms and heavy snowfalls, which lay long and 
deep, the climatic conditions at the top of the mountain were very severe ; 
hut the Directors have the greatest satisfaction in reporting that the 
health of the observers has notwithstanding been good. The Directors 
tender their best thanks to Messrs. Charles Stewart, B.Sc, Craig, Shand, 
Herbertson, and Rankin. 

Table I. — Showing Monthly Mean and Extreme Pressures, Temperatures, 
Rainfall, Sunshine, and Clouds. 



1893 



Jan. Feb. March April May | June July | Aug. Sept. Get. | Nov. Dec. Year 



Mean Pressure in Indies. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



25-336 



29-991 
4-655 



24-936] 25-3731 25-580 



29-503 
4-567 



29-972 30-151 
4-599 4-571 



25-493j 25-4911 25-377 

30-018 29-974 29-842 
4-526 4-4831 4-465 



25-4371 25-225 

29-902 29-71!' 
4-465| 4-493 



25-171 



29-699 
4-528 











Mean Temperatures. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 


23-2 


o 
23-8 


28-5 


o 
34-9 


o 
37-4 


4§-5 


42-0 


43-0 


o 
36-1 


o 
31-8 


o 
25-8 


2S-7 


servatory 


























Fort William 


37-6 


39-9 


43-5 


49-2 


53-6 


57-5 


69-0 


59-5 


02-6 


47-7 


39-1 


42-4 


Differences . 


14-4 


16-1 


15-0 


14-3 


16-2 


15-0 


17-0 


15-9 


16-5 


15-9 


13-3 


15-7 



25-3601 25-1011 25-3241 

30-004 29-682 29-871: 
4-644 4-581 4-547 



33-0 









Extremes of Temperature, 


Maxima. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


35-7 



34-9 



39-9 




52-5 



52-1 



62-G 


5?-2 




62-2 


67-3 



48-0 



39-2 



37-0 


servatory 


























Port William 


52-1 


55-0 


60-8 


71-3 


69-8 


74-1 


79-3 


83-2 


68-7 


58-4 


53-8 


53-5 


Differences . 


16-4 


20-1 


20-9 


18-8 


17-7 


11-5 


22-1 


21-0 


11-4 


10-4 


14-6 


15-9 



Extremes of Temperature, Minima. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 



6-4 


13-0 



10-3 


20-2 



22-7 




29-8 




33-1 




320 




18-4 




17-0 


10-2 


?-2 


servatory 


























Fort William 


13-9 


24-8 


25-0 


32-7 


36-0 


41-2 


42-0 


41-3 


32-0 


32-8 


26-5 


21-6 


Differences . 


7-5 


11-8 


14-7 


12-5 


13-3 


11-4 


8-9 


9-3 


13-6 


15-8 


16-3 


14-4 



48-5 
15-5 



62-6 



83-2 
20*6 



6-4 



13-9 
7-5 



Rainfall in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Port William 
Differences . 



12-23 


10-33 


12-57 


6-99 


5-48 


5-88 


12-32 


14-79 


19-25 22-84 18-43 


23-56 


5-40 
6-83 


8-47 
1-86 


4-14 

8-13 


3-12 
2-87 


2-73 
2-75 


1-89 
3-99 


3-95 
8-37 


6-55 
8-21 


9-35 12-75 8-03 
9-90 10-091 10'40 


16-86 
8-80 



165-77 

83-64 
82-33 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



109^ 











Table I 


— continued. 












1893 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March! April 


May 1 June 1 July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 








Nvmher of Bays of no Bain, 












BenNevisOb- 


6 


6 


11 


14 


11 


13 


10 


4 


4 





11 





89 


servatory 
Fort WilUam 


9 


10 


11 


16 


16 


18 


13 


9 


9 


3 


15 


2 


120 








Nuviber of Days 1 in. or more fell. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 


3 


4 


3 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


7 


7 


6 


12 


51 


eertatory 
Fort William 


1 


2 

















1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


12 








Hours of Sunshine. 












Ben Neyis Ob- 


29 


15 


83 


151 


73 


134 


57 


34 


39 


14 


50 


1 


680 


servatory 
Fort WiUiam 
Differences . 


25 
-4 


54 
39 


107 
24 


174 
23 


128 
65 


186 
52 


110 
53 


92 
68 


108 
69 


45 
31 


30 
-20 


6 
5 


1,065 
386 








Percentage of Cloud. 












Ben Nevis Ob- 


87 


92 


75 


61 


83 


74 


92 


92 


88 


95 


71 


98 


84 


servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


68 
19 


82 
10 


74 

1 


66 
5 


68 
20 


60 
14 


82 
10 


80 
12 


68 
20 


80 
15 


68 
3 


84 
14 


72 
12 



For the year 1893 Table I. gives the monthly mean and extreme 
pressures, temperatures, hours of sunshine, amounts of clouds and rainfall, 
and number of days of no rain on the one hand, and on the other of days 
when the rainfall was not less than one inch at the two observatories, the 
mean pressures at the top being reduced to 32° only, while those at Fort 
AVilliam are reduced to 32° and sea level. 

The mean temperature of the year at Fort William was 48°-5, being 
3°-2 greater than that of the previous year, and 1°'3 in excess of the mean 
annual temperature of the place. The mean at the top of the mountain 
was 33°"0, which is 3°"3 in excess of the previous year and 2°'2 greater 
than the mean annual temperature deduced from all the observations 
made since 1881. The following show the deviations of the monthly- 
results from their respective means : — 

Top of Ben Nevis Fort William 
o o 

January . 
February . 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December . 
Year 

Thus the outstanding feature of the meteorology of the year was the 
abnormally high temperature which prevailed during the six months from 
March to August. The mean temperature at the top for the six months 
was then 5° above the mean, whilst at Fort William it was only 2°'8, or 
but little more than half the excess at the top of the mountain. The 
reason for this extraordinary difference is the remarkable and prolonged 



-1-5 


-1-7 


-01 


+ 0-7 


-f 5-9 


-f3-5 


■I- 8-6 


H-3-8 


-f5-2 


-f-3-6 


-f4-0 


+ V1 


-fl-9 


-fl-7 


-f41 


-f2-5 


-1-6 


-06 


-fO-3 


-01 


-2-2 


-2-6 


+ 2-0 


-I-2-4 


+ 2-2 


-fl-3 



110 



RETORT — 1894. 



continuance of anti-cyclonic weather during the time when, as lias been 
often referred to in our Reports to the British Association, the tempe- 
rature at the top is frequently much higher, absolutely, than it is at 
Fort William. 

The lowest mean monthly temperature at Fort William was 37°"6, for 
January, and at the top 23^'2 in the same month, these being respectively 
1°*7 and 1°*5 under the average of the month. The warmest month was 
August at both stations, where the means were 59° -5 and 43° "6, or 2°'5 and 
4°'l in excess of their averages. 

The maximum temperature at the top was 62°-6 on June 18, and at 
Fort William 83°-2 on August 9. The minimum at tlie top was 6°-4 on 
January 2, and at Fort William 13° -9 on January 6 As compared with 
previous years the minima for the five months from April to August were 
relatively high reading at both .stations, showing that the temperature 
was during these months not only high as regards the means, but was 
marked by a singular absence of such low temperatures as usually occur. 

At the top the registrations of the sunshine recorder show 680 hours 
out of a possible 4,470 hours, being 122 hours fewer than during the 
previous year, and 228 fewer than during 1891. The following months 
exceeded "the averages : March by 20 hours, April by 60 hours, November 
by 23 hours, and January by 6 hours. The maximum was 151 hours in 
April, and this is also longer than any pre\ ious recorded April. All other 
months fell short of the averages, and during the whole of December only 
one hour's sunshine was recorded, and on the following month, viz., January 
1894, only three hours' sunshine occurred. At Fort William the number 
of hours of sunshine were 1,065, which is respectively 114 and 155 hours 
fewer than during the previous two years. The maximum was 186 hours 
in June, and the minimum 6 hours in December. At these stations, in 
common with a lai'ge sun-ounding district, 1894 was characterised by a 
singular deficiency of sunshine, which is remarkable in view of the high 
temperature of the year. At the top of the mountain the proportion of 
the actual to the possible sunshine was only 15 per cent., and at Fort 
William the percentage was 30, or double that at the top. 

At the top the percentage of cloud covering the sky was 84, being the 
average of previous years. It varied greatly in the different months, 
being above 90 per cent, in February, July, August, October, and December, 
which were characterised by a marked deficiency of sunshine, and reached 
98 per cent, in December, when, as already stated, only one hour of sun- 
shine was recorded. On the other hand, the minimum 61 per cent, 
occurred in April, the montli of the absolute maximum sunshine, being 
66 per cent, above the maximum of the month. 

The following table shows the lowest humidities of each month : — 



Tabli- 


II.- 


-Lowest Ifygronietric Readings each Month 






— 1 Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 










O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


„ 






Drv Bu'.h . 


24 -fl 


22-8 


14-8 


35-2 


32-8 


48-1 


52^3 


47-1 


BV6 


37-7 


27^8 


17^0 


Wet Bulb 


lill 


21.-G 


1-i-O 


25-4 


26-2 


35-!) 


42-6 


33-fi 


37-2 


2i*-n 


22-2 


14^6 


Dew-point 


-l-.'-2 


e-5 


— (1-8 


9'7 


12-3 


22-5 


32-8 


18^7 


22-8 


16-H 


-1-3 


-3^6 


Klastic Force . 


•ii2J 


■058 


•0-.J6 


•067 


•075 


•120 


•186 


•101 


•122 


•003 


•Oil 


•037 


Relative HuniiJity 


18 


47 


Kl 


33 


40 


36 


47 


31 


32 


41 


27 


39 



As compared with the similar table in last year's Report the following 



ox METEOKOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON liEN NEVIS. Ill 

results are interesting for 1892 and 1893 : Lowest dew-point, — 27'^"8 and 
-12°-2, highest dew-point 21°-2 and 32°-8 ; lowest elastic force 0-010 inch 
and 0'024 inch; highest elastic force 0114 inch and 0"122 inch; and 
lowest relative liumidity 7 and 18, and highest 47 and 47. These results 
point to a large excess of aqueous vapour in the air at the Ben Nevis 
Observatory during 1893. 

The rainfall for the year at the top was 16577 inches, being 18'00 
inches above the mean annual rainfall. At Fort William the amount was 
83*54 inches, which is 1037 inches above the mean. These amounts are re- 
spectively 1 2 and 1 4 per cent, above their averages. The maximum monthly 
rainfall at the Ben Nevis Observatory was 2566 inches, in December, and 
the minimum 5*48 inches, in May. The minimum monthly fall for 1892 
was 5"42 inches in March, and these two years show the largest minimum 
falls of any of the years since the Observatory was opened. Hence, at 
this high level situation the rainfall was not only considerably above the 
mean, but it continued to be relatively large through all the months of 
this year, which will be long remarkable for an unprecedented drought 
over a large portion of the British Islands. On the other hand, at the 
Low Level Observatory the amount of the rainfall was short of the average 
for each of the five months from March to July, the deficiency amounting 
to 5-12 inches. 

At Fort William the rain fell on 235 days, and at the top on 260 days, 
being respectively 3 days under and 26 days above their averages. The 
maximum number of days on which rain fell was 31 days at the top and 
29 at Fort William in December, and the minimum number 16 days in 
March and 12 days in June respectively. 

The maximum daily rainfall at the top was 4-29 inches on Novem- 
ber 28, and at Fort William 3*25 inches on October 24. At the former 
station instances of one inch a day or upwards occurred during each of 
the twelve months, whereas at Fort William, during the five months from 
March to July, the rainfall on none of the days reached an inch. During 
the year the rainfall amounted to an inch or upwards on 51 days, but at 
Fort William the number of days was only 12, being a lower proportion 
at Fort William, as compared with the top, than has previously been 
recorded. Thus, while during the spring and early summer of 1893 Fort 
William participated in some degree in the prevailing drought, the rainfall 
and moisture at the Ben Nevis Observatory were above their average, a 
result probably occasioned by the stronger ascending currents from the 
superheated surface of the earth carrying to higher levels than usual the 
moisture of lower levels. 

Auroras are reported to have been observed on the following dates : — 
January 5, 9, 10, and 11 ; February 15 ; March 26 and 29 ; April 3, 11, 
12, 26, and 27 ; May 9 ; August 12 ; September 11 ; October 4 and 17 ; 
and November 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on February 9 ; April 6 and 20 ; August 15 ; 
October 25 ; and December 8. 

Thunderstorms occurred on April 6 ; May 19 and 21 ; June 8, 12, 
and 13 ; July 7, 8, 10, and 11 ; August 15 ; September 8 ; and Decem- 
ber 11. On May 21 the thunderstorm passed below the level of the 
summit, being very severe, with much lightning and exceptionally heavy 
rain and hail at Fort William, while on the summit there was no lichtnino: 
and only a slight shower of rain. On June 13 the thundercloud enveloped 
the summit for some time, and the lightning, entering the Observatory, 
damaged the telegraph cable, and greatly interrupted communication 



112 REPORT — 1894. 

during the rest of the month, so that on several nights the usual daily weather 
report could not be wired to the newspapers. The thunderstorm of July 7-8, 
though very severe, was foi-tunately unaccompanied by any damage. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure at 32° and sea level 
was 29"871 inches, and at the top 25"324 inches, the difference being thus 
4'547 inches. The lowest pressure at the top for the year was 23-888 
inches in December and the highest 26 "003 inches in April, the difference 
being 2"115 inches, being considerably above the average difference. This 
large difference was due to the low reading in December, which was an 
altogether exceptional month as regards the almost continuous saturated 
state of the atmosphere, and to the high readings which accompanied the 
anticyclonic weather of the spring and early summer. In truth, the 
monthly means were uninterruptedly above the average for the six months 
from March to August, the mean excess for the half-year being so much 
as O'lOl inch above the average, an excess only exceeded in 1887, the 
Jubilee year, when the mean monthly pressure was uninterruptedly above 
the average from February to July, the mean excess being 0'14:4 inch. 
This period was also strongly anticyclonic. 

The important hygrometric research carried on at the High and Low 
Level Observatories and described in the Committee's last two Reports 
to the British Association has been continued. During the past year 
Mr. Herbertson has conducted the observations with the assistance of 
Mr. Angus Rankin, First Assistant at the Observatories, and of Mr. F. J. 
Hambly, F.C.S., F.I.C., Assistant Lecturer on Chemistry at University 
College, Dundee ; and of Mr. Marr, Demonstrator of Botany in the same 
College. 

An Assmann aspiration psychrometer was read for dry and wet bulb 
temperatures, in addition to the thermometers in the Stevenson screen. 
The dust particles in the air Avere counted, and the general weather con- 
ditions of each experiment were noted. Nearly 100 experiments were 
made at both observatories, of which 57 were synchronous. 

A comparison of the readings of the ventilated thermometers with 
those of the screen only shows that in calm, or virtually calm, weather 
the wet-bulb in the Stevenson box is much nearer the dry-bulb reading 
than in the Assmann aspiration psychrometer. When no measures are 
taken for causing an air current to pass the thermometer bulbs, all 
readings made in calm or light airs require to be neglected in hygro- 
metric work. Under ordinary conditions, the total amount of water 
vapour in the air does not vary much in a fine day. 

A discussion of the simultaneous observations at high- and low-levels 
brings out some very interesting results. On September 11, 1893, with a, 
normal temperature gradient between the two observatories, the water- 
vapour remained fairly constant at both places all day, there being an 
excess of about 1-5 gramme per cubic metre at the lower station. On 
September 4 the summit temperature was only from 2° to 7° lower than 
at Fort William, instead of 16°'0 the normal difference ; and on this 
occasion the difference between the quantities of water- vapour was as great 
as from 6-67 to 4"60 grammes per cubic metre. This great variation was 
almost entirely due to changes in the amount of water-vapour in the 
upper air, since there was a steady increase of vapour from 9*15 grammes 
per cubic metre at 9 a.m. to 10'56 at 2 p.m., and 11 '40 at 7 p.m. at the low- 
level station ; whereas the vapour at the summit was 2*72 at 9 a.m., 5-96 
at 2 p.m., 392 at 5 p.m., 5-55 at 7 p.m., and 5-89 at 9 p.m. ; the maximum 
at the summit at 2 p.m. being evidently caused by an uprush of moister 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIOKS ON EEN NEVIS. 113 

air from the valleys. Thin cirrus clouds floated above the hill all day, 
and detached masses of fog were in the valleys. The next day the hill- 
top was enveloped in mist, and thick cumulus clouds were observed over 
Fort William with a smaller hourly variation both of temperature and 
water-vapour, 

Mr. Marr continued the work at Fort William at Christmas, and 
Mr. Herbertson in May, the latter having carried on the experiments 
in the drier air of Montpellier during the early months of this year. 
These data have served to extend the curves drawn from the figures 
already obtained, the Montpellier results being found to agree well with 
those made at Fort William where they overlapped. 

It is Mr. Herbertson's intention to continue these investigations in the 
coming autumn and winter, more special attention being then given to 
secure an increased number of simultaneous high and low determinations 
of water-vapour. 

The inquiry into the hourly variation of pressure and temperature at 
the observatories during days of clear weather on the one hand, and days 
of fog or mist throughout on the other, has been prosecuted during the 
year. On completing the hourly variations of pressure during each of 
these two distinct types of weather at the Low Level Observatory at Fort 
William on the same days at the top of the mountain, it was seen that 
substantially the same sets of curves obtained in both situations. In 
particular at both places the same extraordinarily high pressure from 
about 6 P.M. to 2 a.m. occurs during days of fog or mist, or completely 
clouded days, thus demonstrating the important role played by the 
aqueous vapour of the atmosphere in the diurnal meteorological changes. 
The point was considered to be of such importance as to warrant the 
extension of the inquiry to another place where the climate, as regards 
moisture, resembles in some degree that of Fort William. Trieste, at the 
head of the Adriatic Sea, was selected for examination, particularly since 
the hourly values for pressure and sunshine are published for this place. 
The results for the three observatories are given in Tables III. to VIII. 
of this Report. The times over which the inquiry extends are three years, 
from August 1890 to July 1892 for the Ben Nevis Observatories, and the 
three years 1888 to 1890 for Trieste. The results have been ' bloxamed,' as- 
explained in our last Report (p. 284). 

The results of the investigation, so far as it has been carried, are, 
broadly stated, these : —During fine cloudless weather the hourly curves, 
of the three places are virtually congruent with their curves for the 
whole of the observations, clear and clouded alike, except that the diurnal 
phases of maxima and minima are more strongly pronounced, and the 
evening maximum is continued for a shorter period. During foggy and 
clouded weather each of the three places shows in the colder months 
of the year the ordinary double maxima and minima of pressure fairly 
well marked. It is quite otherwise in the warmer months, when at the 
Ben Nevis Observatories the morning maximum is virtually obliterated, 
and Trieste very greatly reduced. It is, however, the evening maximum 
which shows the most surprising results. This is at all seasons at the 
low-level stations, but in the warmer months it is the outstanding feature 
of the curves. For May, June, and July the mean at the top is 0-018 
inch, at Fort William 0023 inch, and at Trieste also 0023 inch. In 
these months the maximum of this phase of the barometric curve occurred 
either at midnight or shortly before it. 

The temperature curves for the Ben Nevis Observatory have also been 

189'1. 1 



114 



REPORT — 1894. 



calculated, with the result that on clear days the diurnal range of tempera- 
ture is only very slightly in excess of that of foggy days. But in summer 
the difference between the mean coldest and warmest hour is l°'l ; but 
on clear days the difference is 2°"9, or nearly three times greater. 

The further prosecution of this inquiry and examination of the 
cyclones and anti-cyclones of North-Western Europe will engage the 
attention of your Committee next year, when a large portion of the time 
of Dr. Buchan and Mr. Omond will be given to this work. 

Table III. — Showing at the Be)b Nevis Observatory the Mean Hourly 
Variation of Pressure, in tho^isandths of an inch, duritiy clear days. 
The minus sign means under the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


-13 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


- 7 


- 9 


-10 


-11 


-13 


-16 


-17 


-17 


-12 


2 „ 


-15 


-12 


-10 


-10 


-11 


-12 


-13 


-13 


-14 


—16 


-17 


-18 


-13 


3 „ 


-14 


-13 


-14 


-14 


-15 


- 6 


-18 


-16 


-16 


-17 


-18 


-17 


-16 


4 „ 


-16 


-15 


-IB 


-17 


-18 


-17 


-20 


-18 


-17 


-17 


-18 


-18 


-17 


s „ 


-16 


-14 


-15 


-17 


-18 


-17 


-19 


-17 


-16 


-15 


-IS 


-19 


-17 


6 .. 


-U 


- 9 


-10 


-13 


-13 


-13 


-16 


-14 


-12 


-12 


-15 


-16 


-12 


7 „ 


- 6 


- 6 


- 7 


- 9 


- 9 


- 9 


-11 


- 9 


- 7 


- 6 


- 8 


- 9 


- 8 


8 „ 


- 


- 1 


- 1 


- 3 


- 4 


- 5 


- 6 


- 3 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 1 


_ 1 


9 .. 


+ 10 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 1 


+ 


+ 


- 1 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 11 


+ 5 


10 „ 


+ 14 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 6 


+ 9 


+ 15 


+ 18 


+ 16 


+ 9 


11 „ 


+ 17 


+ 13 


+ 12 


+ 9 


+ 7 


+ « 


+ 7 


+ 9 


+ 12 


+ 18 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 13 


Noon 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 14 


+ 12 


+ 11 


+ 11 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 15 


+ 20 


+ 22 


+ 19 


+ !■'> 


1 P.M. 


+ 12 


+ 12 


+ 14 


+ 14 


+ 12 


+ 12 


+ 13 


+ 15 


+ 16 


+ 18 


+ 17 


+ 14 


+ 14 


2 „ 


+ 8 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 14 


+ 14 


+ 14 


+ 12 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 11 


+ 12 


3 „ 


+ 5 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 9 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 11 


+ 9 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 9 


4 „ 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 11 


+ 11 


+ 10 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 7 


+ 7 


6 „ 


+ 5 


+ 5 


+ 3 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 6 


6 >, 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 7 


+ 9 


+ 6 


7 „ 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ C 


+ 8 


+ ft 


8 „ 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 5 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ s 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 5 


9 » 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 7 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 2 


- 3 


- 


+ 3 


+ 4 i 


10 „ 


+ 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 7 


• - 4 


- 2 


+ 1 i 


11 „ 


- 5 


- 4 


- 2 


- 


- 


+ 1 


+ 1 


- 2 


- 8 


-13 


-11 


- 9 


— 4 1 


Midnight 


-11 


- D 


- 6 


- 4 


- 6 


- 5 


- 5 


- 7 


-12 


-16 


-15 


-14 


- 9 1 



Table TV. — Showing at the Ben Nevis Observatory the Mean Hourly 
Variation of Pressure, in thousandths of an inch, during days of fog or 
mist. The minus sign shows the means under the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


+ 4 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 10 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 7 


2 „ 


+ 


+ 1 


- 2 


- 2 


- 4 


- 1 


- 2 


- 


- 3 


- 


- 1 


+ 2 


- 1 


3 




- 3 


- 6 


-10 


-11 


-11 


- 9 


-10 


- 8 


-10 


- 5 


- 6 


- 1 


- 8 


4 




- 9 


-12 


-14 


-17 


-17 


-16 


-16 


-15 


-15 


- 9 


- 8 


- 7 


-15 


6 




-11 


-14 


-15 


-21 


-20 


-20 


-20 


-18 


-16 


-lu 


- 9 


-11 


-15 


6 




-15 


-18 


-16 


-20 


-20 


-20 


-19 


-17 


-16 


-11 


-10 


-13 


-16 


7 




-14 


-16 


-13 


-17 


-17 


-18 


-17 


-16 


-14 


- 8 


- 8 


-11 


-14 


8 




- 9 


-10 


- 7 


-11 


-12 


-15 


-14 


-13 


-10 


- 3 


- 2 


- 6 


- 9 


9 




- 5 


- 8 


— 4 


- 9 


-10 


-13 


-11 


-11 


- 8 


- 1 


+ 3 


- ] 


- 7 


10 




- 1 


- 4 


- 


- 5 


- 6 


-10 


- 8 


- 8 


- 6 


- 1 


+ 3 


+ 1 


- 4 


11 




+ 3 


+ 


+ 3 


- 2 


- 3 


- 7 


- 4 


- 4 


- 3 


- 1 


+ 3 


+ 3 


- 1 


Noon 


+ 4 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 


- 1 


- 4 


- 


- 1 


- 


- 2 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 1 


1 P.M. 


- 


- 1 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 1 


- 5 


- 4 


- 4 


+ 1 


2 „ 


- 3 


- 4 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 1 


- 7 


- 6 


- 7 


- 1 


3 „ 


- 4 


- 5 


- 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 3 


+ 5 


+ 3 


+ 


- 8 


- 8 


- 8 


- 1 


4 „ 


- 2 


- 4 


- 3 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 4 


+ 1 


- 8 


- 7 


- 6 


+ i 


s „ 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 3 


- 4 


- 5 


- 4 


+ 2 


6 ,> 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 2 


+ 4 


+ 7 


+ 9 


+ 7 


+ 5 


+ 4 


- 1 


- 2 


- 1 


+ 4 


7 „ 


+ 8 


+ 9 


+ 5 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 8 


8 „ 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 9 


+ 12 


+ 13 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 8 


+ 12 


9 „ 


+ 12 


+ 14 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 15 


+ 20 


+ 19 


+ 18 


+ 16 


+ 13 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 14 


10 „ 


+ 11 


+ 14 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 16 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 20 


+ 17 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 13 


+ 16 


11 ., 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 16 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 20 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 12 


+ 15 


Midnight 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 11 


+ 15 


+ 14 


+ 22 


+ 19 


+ 18 


+ 13 


+ 14 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 15 



ON METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



Hi 



Table V. — Sliowing at Fort William Observatory the Mean Hourly Varia- 
tion of Pressure, in thotisandths of an inch, during dear days. The 
minus sign shows means under the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


-U 


— 7 


- 


+ G 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 3 


- 3 


- 9 


-16 


-20 


-19 


- 6 


2 „ 


-13 


- 6 


- 


+ G 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ 3 


_ 2 


- 6 


-12 


-17 


-17 


- 4 


3 „ 


-11 


- 8 


- 3 


+ 3 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 8 


-14 


-18 


-18 


— 6 


4 „ 


-15 


- 7 


+ 1 


+ 5 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 3 


- 1 


- 6 


-11 


-1/ 


-18 


- 4 


5 „ 


-15 


- 6 


- 


+ 7 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 4 


- 1 


- 4 


- 8 


-16 


-18 


- 3 


6 „ 


- 9 


- 2 


+ 7 


+ 1S 


+ 17 


+ 16 


+ 11 


+ 8 


+ 4 


— 


- 9 


-12 


+ 4 


7 „ 


- 2 


+ 3 


+ 11 


+ 16 


+ 19 


+ 17 


+ 13 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 6 


- 1 


- 5 


+ 8 


8 „ 


+ 9 


+ 12 


+ 18 


+ 18 


+ 20 


+ 18 


+ 16 


+ 18 


+ 19 


+ 18 


+ 13 


+ 10 


+ 16 


9 „ 


+ 18 


+ 15 


+ 18 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 14 


+ 17 


+ 20 


+ 23 


+ 21 


+ 17 


+ 17 


10 „ 


+ 22 


+ 18 


+ 18 


+ 14 


+ 11 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 16 


+ 19 


+ 26 


+ 28 


+ 24 


+ 18 


11 „ 


+ 26 


+ 17 


+ 14 


+ 7 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 9 


+ 14 


+ 23 


+ 29 


+ 26 


+ 15 


Noon 


+ 21 


+ 12 


+ 9 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 11 


+ 19 


+ 24 


+ 2.5 


+ 11 


1 P.M. 


+ 10 


+ 4 


— 


- 6 


-10 


- 8 


- 5 


- 1 


+ 3 


+ 11 


+ 16 


+ 14 


+ 2 


2 „ 


+ 6 


- 2 


- 8 


-12 


-14 


-12 


- 9 


- 5 


- 2 


+ 4 


+ 7 


+ 7 


— 3 


3 ,. 


— 3 


- 7 


-15 


-19 


-20 


-16 


-14 


-12 


- 9 


- 4 


- 1 


+ 2 


-10 


4 .. 


- 2 


- 8 


-18 


-22 


-23 


-20 


-17 


-15 


-12 


- 6 


- 1 


+ 3 


-12 


5 „ 


- 1 


- 9 


-19 


-24 


-25 


-23 


-19 


-18 


-15 


- 9 


- 1 


+ 4 


-13 


6 ,. 


+ 5 


- 3 


-13 


-19 


-21 


-20 


-16 


-15 


-10 


- 5 


+ 3 


+ 7 


- 9 


7 „ 


+ 4 


- 1 


- 9 


-14 


-17 


-17 


-13 


-11 


- 7 


- 4 


+ 2 


+ 6 


- 6 


« .. 


+ 6 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 5 


- 7 


- 7 


- 5 


- 2 


— 


- 1 


+ 2 


+ 5 


- 1 


9 ,. 


+ 


- 1 


- 1 


+ I 


+ 1 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 


- 1 


- 4 


- 3 


- 1 


- 1 


10 „ 


- 2 


- 1 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 5 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 8 


- 8 


- 5 


— 


11 ., 


- 8 


— 4 


- 2 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 


- 6 


-15 


-15 


-11 


- 3 


Midnight 


-12 


- 6 


- 1 


+ 5 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 4 


- 3 


-10 


-19 


-21 


-18 


- 6 



Tablk VI. — Showing at Fort William Observatory the Mean Hourly 
Variation of Pressure, in thousandths of an inch, during days of fog or 
mist. The minus sign shows means under the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 
+ 14 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Deo. 
+ 11 


Year 


1 A.M. 


+ 9 


+ 13 


+ 11 


+ 15 


+ 16 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 11 


+ 9 


+ 12 


2 „ 


+ 6 


+ 9 


+ 5 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 8 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 8 


+ 6 


3 „ 


- 2 


- 2 


- 6 


- 5 


- 5 


- 4 


- 6 


- 6 


- 8 


- 4 


- 3 


+ 1 


- 4 


4 „ 


- 7 


- 7 


- 8 


-10 


- 9 


-10 


-12 


-12 


-12 


- 6 


- 6 


- 4 


- 9 


5 „ 


-10 


-10 


- 9 


-14 


-14 


-15 


-15 


-16 


-16 


-10 


- 9 


- 9 


-12 


6 „ 


-12 


-13 


- 9 


-11 


-11 


-13 


-13 


-14 


-13 


- 8 


- 6 


- 8 


-U 


7 „ 


-13 


-13 


- 8 


-11 


-11 


-13 


-12 


-12 


-U 


- 7 


- 7 


-10 


-11 


8 „ 


- 9 


-10 


- 3 


- 6 


- 7 


-10 


- 9 


- 9 


- 7 


- 2 


- 


- 5 


- 6 


9 „ 


- 6 


- 8 


_ o 


- 5 


- 8 


-12 


-10 


- 9 


- 8 


- 1 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 6 


10 „ 


+ 2 


- 1 


+ 4 


- 3 


- 7 


-12 


- 9 


- 6 


- 5 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 5 


- 2 


11 „ 


+ 4 


- 1 


+ 1 


- 6 


- 8 


-11 


- 8 


- 7 


- 7 


2 


+ 5 


+ 6 


- 3 


Noon 


+ 1 


- 2 


+ 1 


- 4 


- 6 


- 8 


- 5 


- 3 


- 5 


- 4 


+ 


+ 1 


- 3 


1 r.M. 


- 4 


- 8 


- 4 


- 7 


- 6 


— 7 


- 4 


- 4 


- 6 


- 8 


- 5 


- 6 


— « 


2 ., 


- 9 


-11 


- 7 


- 5 


- 4 


- 5 


- 2 


- 3 


- 4 


-10 


- 8 


-10 


- 7 


3 „ 


-11 


-12 


-13 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


- 5 


- 6 


- 6 


-12 


-12 


-12 


-10 


4 „ 


- 7 


-10 


-12 


- 9 


- 8 


- 7 


- 4 


- 4 


- 4 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


— 8 


6 „ 


- 3 


- 6 


- 8 


- 8 


- 6 


— 4 


- 4 


- 4 


- 3 


- 7 


- 6 


- 6 


- 6 


6 .. 


+ 3 


+ 2 


- 1 


- 1 


- 1 


+ 1 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+ 1 


+ 


- 1 


+ 1 


7 !■ 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 5 


+ 8 


+ 4 


+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 4 


8 ., 


+ 9 


+ 11 


+ 10 


+ 11 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 17 


+ 11 


+ 7 


+ 5 


+ 11 


9 .. 


+ 10 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 17 


+ 19 


+ 17 


+ 17 


+ 18 


+ 12 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 14 


10 „ 


+ 12 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 20 


+ 22 


+ 24 


+22 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 16 


+ 10 


+ 11 


+ 18 


11 „ 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 14 


+ 19 


+ 21 


+ 24 


+ 22 


+ 20 


+ 19 


+ 16 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 17 


Midnight 


+ 15 


+ 22 


+ 19 


+ 23 


+ 22 


+ 25 


+ 22 


+ 19 


+ 17 


+ 18 


+ 13 


+ 17 


+ 19 



1 2 



116 



REPORT — 189i. 



Table VII. — Shoiving at Trieste tlie Mean Hourly Variation of Pressure, 
in thousandths of an inch, during clear days. The minus sign shows 
ineans under the average. 



Hour 


Jan, 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 
+ 1 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Tear 


1 A.M. 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 2 


- 1 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 


+ 1 


+ 6 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 3 


2 „ 


+ B 


+ 6 


+ 2 


- 2 


- 2 


- 1 


- 2 


- U 


- 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 6 


+ 2 


3 „ 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 


- 3 


- 4 


- 4 


- h 


- 3 


- 4 


- 1 


- 


+ 4 


- 1 


4 „ 


+ 1 


+ 2 


- 3 


- 6 


- 6 


- 6 


- 6 


- 6 


- 6 


- 2 


- 2 


+ 1 


- 3 


5 .. 


- 2 


- 


- 4 


- 5 


- 6 


- 4 


— H 


- 4 


- 4 


- 8 


- 4 


- 2 


- 3 


fi 


- 2 


- 


- 1 


- 1 


- 1 


+ 1 


+ 


- 2 


- 1 


- 2 


- 3 


- 3 


- 1 


7 


+ 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 3 


+ 1 


- 1 


+ 4 


8 „ 


4- 4 


+ 9 


+ 13 


+ 12 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 11 


+ 10 


+ 8 


+ 5 


+ 10 


9 , 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 16 


+ 19 


+ 17 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 17 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 15 


10 


+ 11 


+ 14 


+ 15 


+ 18 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 14 


+ 13 


+ 1! 


+ 15 


11 „ 


+ 8 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 11 


+ 10 


+ 8 


+ 12 


NOOQ 


+ 2 


+ 7 


+ 10 


+ 12 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 12 


+ 9 


+ 8 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 


+ 8 




- 8 


- 6 


+ 1 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 3 


+ 1 


- 3 


- 6 


- 9 


- 


2 


-16 


-14 


- 7 


— 3 


- 


- 


+ 1 


- 2 


- 6 


-11 


-13 


- 6 


- 7 


3 


-]« 


-17 


-11 


- 9 


- 6 


- 5 


- 3 


- 6 


-11 


-16 


-16 


-17 


-11 


4 


-IS 


-IS 


-1.5 


-14 


-11 


-11 


-10 


-12 


-16 


-19 


-16 


-17 


-14 


5 


-13 


-18 


-16 


-17 


-16 


-17 


-15 


-1« 


-17 


-18 


-15 


-14 


-16 


6 


- 9 


-14 


-15 


-18 


-18 


-19 


-19 


-18 


-15 


-14 


-10 


-10 


-15 


7 .. 


- 3 


- 8 


- 9 


-12 


-13 


-16 


-17 


-l.'V 


-11 


- 7 


- 4 


- 4 


-10 


8 „ 


+ 1 


- 3 


- 4 


- « 


- 8 


-11 


-11 


- 7 


- 3 


- 1 


+ 1 


+ 2 


- 4 


9 ,, 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 


- 2 


- 2 


+ 2 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 7 


+ 3 


10 „ 


+ 8 


+ 6 


+ .s 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 5 


+ 6 


+ 8 


+ 8 


+ 9 


+ 5 


11 .. 


+ 9 


+ 7 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 5 


+ 4 


+ 7 


+ 8 


+ n 


+ s 


Midnight 


+ 7 


+ 4 


+ 


- 1 


+ 1 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+ 4 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 10 


+ 4 



Table VIII. — Showing at Trieste the Mean Hourly Variation of Pressure, 
in thousandths of an inch, during completely clouded days. The 
minus sign indicates means above the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


ilar. 
+ 14 


April 


May 
+ 21 


June 
+ 15 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


+ 9 


+ 11 


+ 18 


+ 5 


- 1 


+ 6 


+ 15 


+ 16 


+ 13 


+ 12 


2 ,, 


+ 7 


+ 8 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 1U 


+ 4 


- 2 


- 7 


+ 1 


+ 8 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 6 


:h 


+ 6 


+ 3 


- 1 


- 3 


- 2 


- 6 


-10 


-13 


- 7 


+ 1 


+ 6 


+ 8 


- 2 


4 


- 1 


- n 


- 8 


-10 


- 9 


-12 


-16 


-19 


-16 


- 8 


- 4 


- 


- 9 


h 


- 6 


- 7 


-15 


-17 


-14 


-13 


-13 


-18 


-U 


-13 


— 9 


- 5 


-12 


6 .. 


- 8 


-10 


-17 


-19 


-l.'i 


-14 


-11 


-15 


-13 


-15 


-13 


- 8 


-13 


7 „ 


- 6 


- 9 


-15 


-17 


-13 


- 9 


- 3 


- 6 


-10 


-14 


-12 


- 7 


-10 


8 ,. 


- 


- 1 


- 8 


-11 


- 8 


- 4 


- 2 


- 3 


- 5 


- 6 


- 6 


- 1 


- 5 


9 , 


+ 7 


+ 6 


- 1 


— 4 


- 1 


+ 4 


+ 12 


+ 10 


+ 7 


- 2 


- 2 


+ 4 


+ 3 


10 , 


+ 10 


+ 10 


+ 2 


— 1 


- 


+ 4 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 2 


+ 1 


+ 6 


+ 7 


11 . 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 4 


— 1 


- 3 


+ 1 


+ 16 


+ 20 


+ 18 


+ 2 


- 1 


+ 2 


+ 6 




+ 


+ 4 


+ 


— 3 


- 7 


+ 


+ 9 


+ 15 


+ 11 


- 3 


— 9 


- 7 


+ 1 




— H 


- 5 


- 4 


- 8 


-10 


- 4 


+ 3 


+ 8 


+ 2 


- 9 


-15 


-16 


- 6 


2 


-16 


-13 


- 8 


-10 


-11 


- 6 


- 6 


- 2 


-10 


-13 


-19 


-21 


-11 


3 , 


-17 


-16 


-11 


-12 


-13 


- 8 


-10 


- 6 


-13 


-11 


-15 


-18 


-12 


4 


— 17 


-16 


-11 


-12 


-14 


-11 


-14 


- 8 


-13 


- 7 


-U 


-15 


-12 


5 


-13 


-14 


- 8 


- 9 


-12 


-10 


-15 


- 8 


-12 


- 5 


- 8 


-11 


-10 


6 


- 9 


- 9 


- 5 


- 3 


- 6 


- 7 


-16 


-10 


-11 


- 2 


- 4 


- 7 


- 8 


? ;; 


- 2 


- 2 


+ 2 


+ 5 


+ 1 


- 2 


- 3 


+ 2 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 1 


8 ,. 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 9 


+ 12 


+ 8 


+ 3 


+ 2 


+ 6 


+ 9 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 6 


+ 6 


9 .. 


+ 10 


+ 8 


+ 14 


+ 18 


+ 18 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 15 


+ 14 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 14 


10 ! 


+ 13 


+ 13 


+ 17 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 17 


+ 12 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 20 


+ 17 


+ 16 


11 „ 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 21 


+ 27 


+ 27 


+ 21 


+ 14 


+ 9 


+ 13 


+ 18 


+ 23 


+ 19 


+ 18 


Miduiglit 


+ 16 


+ 16 


+ 21 


+ 28 


+ 31 


+ 22 


+ 17 


+ 11 


+ 18 


+ 21 


+ 24 


+20 


+ 21 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



117 



JExpeiiments for Improving the Condrnction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Carey Foster (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Professors 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and Lord Rayleigh, Drs. O. 
J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, Professor J. D. Everett, Professor 
A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, Messrs. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretary), and W. N. Shau', Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, and Mr. G. Forbes. 



Ari'Kxoix; 
I. 

n. 

III. 



Report of the American Delegates at the Chicago Conference to the 

Secretary of State at Washi/u/tun 11 i> 

Experiments on the Value of the Ohm. By J. ViEiAMU Jones . . 123 
Comparisnn of the Standards cmplo]ied hij Professor Jones Kith the 
Standards of the Association. By R. T. Glazebuook . . .128 
IV. Comparison of Some of the Standards of the Board of Trade with 

those of the Association. 5// J. Rennie ISO 

V. Values of Certain Coils heUmging to the Indian Government. By 

E. O. Walkek l-'il 

VI. On the Specific Besistance of Copper and of Silrer. By Rev. T. C. 

Fitzpatrick l-'-l 

VII. Final Bepnrt of the Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of 
Trade, and Order in Council regarding Standards for Electrical 
3Ieasurements ........... 136 

The work of testing resistance coils at the Cavendish Laboratory has 
been continued. A table of the coils tested is given. 

Table I. 
Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Value of Coil 


Temperature 


Nalder, 3876 . . . ^ No. 376 


•99916 


14''0 


Nalder, 4320 






;^ No. 381 


•99922 


14°^1 


Nalder, 4322 






l£ No. 382 


•99743 


15°-6 


White 






H^ No. 383 


r00095 


15°-15 


Nalder, 4087 






'^ No. 384 


100079 


17°-35 


Paul . 






I^ No. 385 


•99993 


13°-7 


Paul . 






"^ No. 386 


10-0041 


13°-7 


Paul . 






^ No. 387 


100(1 --00059) 


13°-7 


Paul . 






^ No. 388 


1000(1-00197) 


14°-2 


Nalder, 4274 






'^ No. 389 


•100050 


15°-2 


Nalder, 4275 






. ;^ No. 390 


•100053 


15''-2 



118 


EEPORT- 


-1894. 






Table I.— Oh 


ms — continued. 




No. of Coil 


Value of Coil 


Temperature 


Nalder, 4051 


■ ^ No. 391 


•99988 


13°^4 


Nalder, 4.S33 . 


. ^ No. 393 


■99902 


13°-6 


Nalder, 4339 . 


. 3jj;^ No. 394 


•99916 


13°-7 


Nalder, 4302 . 


. '^ No. 395 


•99925 


14°^8 


Nalder, 4303 . 


. ^ No. 396 


•99933 


14°6 


Nalder, 4304 . 


• ^ No. 397 


•99932 


14°6 


Nalder, 4273 


. ^, No. 398 


•99908 


13°-55 


Nalder, 4555 


. '^^ No. 399 


•99923 


13°9 


Nalder, 4562 


. J^^ No. 400 


•99938 


13°-9 


Nalder, 4550 


• ^ No- 401 


99929 


13°- 8 


Nalder, 4559 


• 3^ No. 402 


9^9924 


13°-8 


Nalder, 4563 . 


• ^ No. 403 


9-9935 


is-^-s 


Nalder, 4557 


• ^ No. 404 


100(l-^00097) 


14°^1 


Nalder, 45G0 


■ ^ No. 405 


100 (1- -001 1.3) 


14°-2 


Nalder, 45C4 


• ;^ No. 406 


100(1 --00093) 


14°^1 


Nalder, 45C5 . 


• J^ No 407 


100 (1- -00003) 


14°^2 


Nalder, 4558 . 


• %^ No. 408 


1000(1-^00]26) 


13°^9 


Nalder, 4561 


• J^ No. 409 


1000 (1 - -00092) 


14°-0 


Nalder, 456G 


• "^ No. 410 


1000 (1-^00007) 


13°-9 


Paul, 15 . 


. ;^ No. 411 


•99950 


14°-7 


Paul, 27 . 


■ ^, No. 412 


1^00016 


16°-4 


Paul, 13 . . . 


. "^ No. 413 


9-9973 


14°^8 


Paul, 19 . 


. ;^ No. 414 


10-0038 


14°-75 


Paul, 30 . . . 


• J^ No. 415 


100(1 --00091) 


14°^75 


Paul, 29 


. ^ No. 416 


1000(1 --00094) 


14°1 


Burstall 


. J^ No. 417 


1-00020 


13°4 


Elliott, 307 


. ^ No. 418 


•99971 


13°-4 


Nalder, 4;5iO 


. ^ No .419 


100009 


16°-85 


Paul, 20 . . . 


. ^ No. 420 


•99760 


]6°^4 


Paul, 32 . . . 


• '^ No. 421 


9-9997 


16°-5 




B.A. D 


'nits. 




Elliott, 87 . 


. !^, No. 81 


1 •00080 


16°^7 


Muirhead . 


. 3|S, No. 392 


•99996 


13°-7 



ON STAKDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 119 

The Committee regret that the insulation of some of the coils referred 
to in their last Report, which had been selected for the new standards of 
resistance, as defined by the resolutions adopted at Edinburgh, has proved 
defective. Traces of acid have been discovered in the paraffin with which 
the coils were filled. The two one-ohm standards of the Association,' 
as well as two of the one-ohm standards of the Board of Trade,^ were 
found in January last to have so low an insulation resistance between the 
coil and the case as to be useless. 

Thus the labour spent in the testing of these coils has been wasted ; 
much of it will need to be done again. The insulation of some of the 
other standard ohm coils is not satisfactory. The single ohm standards 
have therefore been remade, and the others are being refilled with carefully 
selected paraffin. The original B.A. units have not, so far as comparisons 
between them can show, changed their values during the year, and one 
set of new ohm standards also has shown no sign of change. 

The Committee print, as an appendix to the Report, the report of the 
proceedings at the International Congress at Chicago, presented to the 
Secretary of State at Washington by the American delegate to the 
Conference. 

During the j'ear Professor J. V. Jones has determined, by the aid of 
his Lorenz apparatus, the absolute resistance of certain wire coils of 
about -1 ohm. These have been compared with the standards of the 
Association by the Secretary. An account of these experiments is con- 
tained in Appendices II. and III. The resistance standards of the 
Association have been compared with those of the Board of Trade by 
Mr. Rennie and the Secretary. Details of this comparison will be found 
in Appendix IV., while in Appendix V. is given, by Mr. E. O. Walker, 
an account of a comparison between five coils belonging to the Indian 
Government, which have been for twenty-four years in India, and Dr. 
Muirhead's standards. Mr. Fitzpatrick has continued his work on the 
specific resistance of copper, and has drawn up a table (see Appendix 
VI.) reducing to the same units experimental results recently obtained 
by various observers. Appendix VII. contains the Final Report of the 
Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of Trade and the Order in 
Council relating to Standards for Electrical Measurement. 

In consequence of the difficulty met with in the insulation of some of 
the coils, it was thought well to defer the purchase of other coils for 
which the grant of 25^. was obtained last year. The Committee are of 
opinion that it is desirable to complete their set of standards by obtaining 
from Germany certified copies of the standards of the Reichsanstalt. 
They recommend, therefore, that they be reappointed, with the addition 
of the name of Mr. Rennie, and with a grant of 251. ; that Professor G. 
Carey Foster be Chairman and Mr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 

APPENDIX I. 

Report of the Action of the International Electrical Congress held in 
Chicago, August 1893, in the Matter of Units of Electrical Measxire. 

Washington, D.C. : Noremher 6, 1893. 
The Hon. W. Q. Gresham, Secretary of State, Washington, D.C. 

Sir, — The undersigned, having been designated by you on May 12, 
1893, as delegates to represent the United States in the International 
' lte])ort, 1893, p. 129. ^ /jj^^ 1392, p. 134. 



12D KEPORT— 1894. 

Electrical Congress to be held in August at Chicago, beg to submit 
herewith a brief report showing the definitive action of said Congress in 
the matter of defining and naming units of electrical measure. The 
consideration of this important subject was left to what -was known as 
the ' Chamber of Delegates ' of the Congress, consisting only of those 
who had been officially commissioned by their respective Governments to 
act as members of said Chamber. After conference and correspondence 
with the leading electricians of Europe, it had been agreed that the 
maximum number of such delegates to be allowed to one nation should be 
five, and this number was allotted to the United States, Great Britain, 
Germany, and France. Other nations were allowed three or two, and in 
some instances one. 

Delegates present and taking part in the discussions and action of the 
Chamber were as follows : — 

Representing the United States. 

Professor H. A. Rowland, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Dr. T. C. Mendenhall, Superintendent of U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, and of Standard Weights and Measures, Washington, D.C. 
Professor H. S. Carhart, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Professor Elihu Thomson, Lynn, Mass. 
Dr. E. L. Nichols, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Rejjresenting Great Britain. 

W. H. Preece, F.R.S., Engineer-in-Chief and Electrician, Post Office, 
England ; President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London. 

W. E. Ayrton, City and Guilds of London Central Institution, 
Exhibition Road, London. 

Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, D.Sc, F.R.S., Principal of the City 
and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury, London. 

Alex. Siemens, 12 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London, S.W. 

Representing France. 

E. Mascart, Membre de I'lnstitut, 176 Rue de I'Universite, Paris. 

T. VioUe, Professeur au Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, 89 Boule- 
vard St. Michel, Paris. 

De la Touanne, Telegraph Engineer of the French Government, 
13 Rue Soufflot, Paris. 

Edouard Hospitaller, Professeur a I'Ecole de Physique et de Chimie 
industrielle de la Ville de Paris ; Vice-President de la Societe Internationale 
des Electriciens, 6 Rue de Clichy, Paris. 

Dr. S. Leduc, 5 Quai Fosse, Nantes. 

Representing Italy. 

Comm. Galileo Ferraris, Professor of Technical Physics and Electro- 
technics in the R. Museo Industriale, Turin, Via Venti Settembre 46. 

Representing Germany. 

H.E. Hermann von Helmholtz, Prasident der physikalisch-technischen 
Reichsanstalt, Professor a. d. Universitat, Berlin, Charlottenburg bei 
Berlin. 

Dr. Emil Budde, Berlin N.W. Klopstockstrasse 53. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREiMENTS. 121 

A. Schrader, Regierungsrath, Mitglied des kaiserl. Patentamts, Berlin. 

Dr. Ernst Voit, Professor an der technischen Hochschule, Miinchen, 
Schwanthalerstrasse 73-3. 

Dr. Otto Lummer, Mitglied der physikalisch-technischen Reichsanstalt, 
Charlottenburg, Berlin. 

Rejyresentinri Mexico. 
Augustin W. Chavez, city of Mexico. 

Representing Austria. 

Dr. Joliann Sahulka, Technische Hochschule, Wien. 

Representing Siuitzerland. 

A. Palaz, Professeur, Lausanne. 

Rene Thury, Ingenieur, Florissant, Geneve. 

Representing Sweden. 
M. "Wennman, ByrSchef i Rougle Telegrafstyrelsen, Stockholm. 

Rej)resenting British North America. 

Ormond Higman, Electrician, Standards Branch, Inland Revenue 
Department, Ottawa. 

His Excellency Dr. H. von Helmholtz was made Honorary President 
of the Congress ; Dr. Elisha Gray, of Chicago, was Chairman of the 
General Congress ; and Professor H. A. Rowland, of Baltimore, was 
President of the Chamber of Delegates. 

Meetings of the Chamber continued during six days, at the end of 
which its members unanimously agreed in the adoption of the following 
resolution :^ 

Resolved, That the several Governments represented by the delegates 
of this International Congress of Electricians be, and they are hereby, 
recommended to formally adopt as legal units of electrical measure the 
following : As a unit of resistance, the international ohm, which is based 
upon the ohm equal to 10^ units of resistance of the C.G.S. system of 
electro-magnetic units, and is represented by the resistance offered to an 
unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of 
melting ice 14'-1521 grammes in mass, of a constant cross-sectional area 
and of the length of 106 '3 cm. 

As a unit of current, the international ampere, which is one-tenth of 
the unit of current of the C.G.S. system of electro-magnetic units, and 
which is represented sufficiently well for practical use by the unvarying 
current which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in 
water, and, in accordance with accompanying specifications,' deposits 
silver at the rate of O'OOlllS of a gramme per second. 

' In the following specification the term silver voltameter means the arrange- 
ment of apparatus by means of which an electric current is pa.ssed through a 
solution of nitrate of silver in water. The silver voltameter measures the total 
electrical quantity which has passed during the time of the experiment, and by 
noting this time the time average of the current, or, if the ctirrent has been, kept 
constant, the current itself, can be deduced. 

la employing the silver voltameter to measure cturrents of about one ampere the 
following arrangements should be adopted : — 

The kathode on which the silver is to be deposited should take the form of a 



122 REPORT— 1894. 

As a unit of electro-motive force, the international volt, which is the 
electro-motive force that, steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance 
is one international ohm, will produce a current of one international 
ampere, and which is represented sufficiently well for practical \ise by 
t5t5¥ °^ *^® electro-motive force between the poles or electrodes of the 
voltaic cell known as Clark's cell, at a temperature of 15° C, and 
prepared in the manner described in the accompanying specification.^ 

As a unit of quantity, the international coulomb, which is the quantity 
of electricity transferred by a current of one international ampere in one 
second. 

As a unit of capacity, the international farad, which is the capacity 
of a condenser charged to a potential of one international volt by one 
international coulomb of electricity. 

As a unit of work, the joule, which is equal to 10^ units of woi-k 
in the C.G.S. system, and which is represented sufficiently well for 
practical use by the energy expended in one second by an international 
ampere in an international ohm. 

As a unit of power, the ^catt, which is equal to 10" units of power in 
the C.G.S. system, and which is represented sufficiently well for practical 
use by the work done at the rate of one joule per second. 

As the unit of induction, the henry, which is the induction in a 
circuit when the electro-motive force induced in this circuit is one inter- 
national volt, while the inducing current varies at the rate of one ampere 
per second. 

The Chamber also voted that it was not wise to adopt or I'ecommend 
a standard of light at the present time. 

A more complete report of the operations of the Chamber will shortly 
be forwarded. This brief resum^ of its definite action in reference to the 
matter of units is now submitted to facilitate the prompt dissemination 
among representatives of foreign Governments of the important results of 
a congress of whose success and fruitfulness the United States may justly 
be proud. 

H. A. Rowland. Elihu Thomson. 

T. C. Mendenhall. E. L. Nichols. 

H. S. Cakhart. 

platinum bowl not less than 10 centinaetres in diameter and from 4 to 5 centimetres 
in depth. 

The anode should be a plate of pure silver some oO sq. cm. in area and 2 or 3 mm. 
in thickness. 

This is supported horizontally in the liquid near the top of the solution by a 
platinum wire passed through holes in the plate at opposite corners. To prevent 
the disintegrated silver which is formed on the anode from falling on to the 
kathode, the anode should be wrapped round with pure filter jiaper, secured at the 
back with sealing-wax. 

The liquid should consist of a neutral solution of pure silver nitrate, containing 
about 15 parts by weight of the nitrate to 85 parts of water. 

The resistance of the voltameter charges somewhat as the current passes. To 
prevent these changes having too great an effect on the current, some resistance 
besides that of the voltameter should be inserted in the circuit. The total metallic 
resistance of the circuit should not be less than 10 ohms. 

' A committee, consisting of Messrs. Helmholtz, Ayrton, and Carhart, was ap- 
pointed to prepare specifications for the Clark's cell. Their report has not yet been 
received. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 123 



APPENDIX II. 

On a Determination of the International Ohm in Absolute Measure. By 
Professor J. V. Jones, F.R.S., Principal of the University College of 
South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. 

The apparatus for tlie absolute measurement of electrical resistance 
in my laboratory at Cardiff" -was completed in 1890, and I first used it 
for the determination of tlie specific resistance of mercury in absolute 
measure.^ This determination -was made by direct measurement on a 
mercury column contained in a trough of paraffin wax. The I'esults of 
five complete sets of observations were as follows : — 

94103 
94074 
94093 
94045 
94021 

The mean of these is 94067 ; and the extreme variation from the 
mean is 46, or about four pai-ts in 10,000. 

I suspected that much of the variation was due to the paraffin trough, 
the temperature of which varied slightly (about half a degree) during 
the observations, and was not accurately measurable owing to the low 
conductivity of tlie material. With variation of temperature there was 
variation of breadth, and the breadth of the trough entered as a primary 
factor into the calculation of the specific resistance. 

When I proceeded to use the apparatus for the measurement of low- 
resistance standards of solid metal this was conclusively shown to be the 
case. I brought a set of measurements made on such a standard under 
the attention of the Section last year at Nottingham, in which the extreme 
variation from the mean was only about one part in 12,000. 

This may be taken to be the normal performance of the apparatus ; and 
seeing that it is an instrument of such precision, it seemed to me of 
interest to determine by the use of solid metal standards the relation 
between its indications and the results obtained by other observers for the 
value of the ohm. 

With this end in view I obtained four coils from Messrs. Nalder 
Brothers — two platinum-silver ten-ohm coils and two manganine tenth- 
ohm coils. Mr. Glazebrook has measured them in terms of the inter- 
national ohm ; and I am much indebted to him for the pains he has been 
kind enough to take in making the determination. The following table 
gives their resistances and temperature coefficients : — 



Coil Number 


Resistance in International Ohm 
(Glazebrook) 


Temperature Coefficients 
(Nalder) 


3873 
3874 
4274 
4275 


9-9919 at 14°-8 C. 
9-9926 at 14°-9 C. 

■100050 at lo°-2 C. 

•100053 at 15°-2 C. 


•000300 
•000276 
•000013 
•000013 



These coils were arranged in manner similar to that adopted by Lord 

' Phil. Trans., 1891, A. 



12i 



EEPOKT — 1894. 



Rayleigh in his determination of the ohm by the method of Lorenz (see 
tig. 1). . 

If there is no current through the galvanometer, there is equality 
between the E.M.F. due to the rotation of the disc in the field of the 
standard coil and the E.M.F. due to the current through R^ ; and we 




R„ Ro, 10-ohm coils. 
K3, R,, ■1-ohm coils. 

B, Battery. 

G, Galvanometer. 

D, Rotating disc. 
K K, Standard coil. ' 

liave, if Ri, Rj, R3, R4 are the values of the four resistance coils in 



international ohms, and if 
absolute measure, 



X is the value of the international ohm in 



RaR^"*^ 



-=Mn, 



Rl +R2 + I^3 + I^4 

where M=the coefficient of mutual induction of the standard coil and 
the circumference of the disc, and »i = the rate of rotation of the disc. 

The resistance coils are of B.A. pattern. They were immersed in 
water, and the temperatures of thermometers within the coil frames were 
read before and after each observation. A wooden box surrounded the 
four cans containing the coils. 

The method of making the observations was the same as that described 
in the paper I read before the Section last year (vide Electrical Standards 
Committee Report, 1893). 

The results are as follows, the figure in each case giving the value of 
the international ohm in true ohms. 

Jtily 7. — Standard coil carefully adjusted. Three-minute tapes. 

■999703 

•999761 

•9 99807 

Mean . -999757 

July 9. — No readjustment of standard coil. One-minute tapes. 

•999757 
•999711 
•999683 
•999782 



Mean 



•999733 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 125 

July 10, Morning. — Standard coil readjusted. One-minute tapes 

•999734 
•999818 
•999726 



Mean , •999759 

July 10, Afternoon. — No readjustment of standard coil. Three-minute 
tapes. 

■999708 
■999742 
•999764 

Mean . -999738 

July 11, Afternoon. — Standard coil readjusted. Three-minute tapes. 

•9996P3 
■999692 
•999679 



Mean . •999688 

July 12, Morning, — No readjustment of standard coil. Resistance 
coils reversed. 

■999713 
■999711 
■999692 



Mean . ^999705 

July 12, Afternoon. — Standard coil readjusted. Resistance coils re 
moved from the mercury cups and replaced. Three-minute tapes. 

■999774 
■999787 
•999759 



Mean . ^999773 



July 13. — Standard coil readjusted. Resistance coils removed from 
mercury cups and replaced. Three-minute tapes. 

•999847 
■999809 
•999782 
■999842 (morning of the 14th) 

Mean . ^999820 

July 14, Morning. — Standard coil readjusted. Resistance coils re- 
moved and replaced. Three-minute tapes. 

•99969.5 
•999692 
•999717 



Mean . ^999701 

Jiily 14, Afternoon. — Standard coil readjusted. Resistance coils re- 
moved and replaced. Three-minute tapes. 

•999853 
•999866 
•999875 

Mean . -999865 



126 KEPORT— 1894. 

It is clear that in the above series the chief variations are duo to 
changes consequent on readjustment of the standard coil, and the re- 
moval and replacement of the resistance coils in their mercury cups. 
Counting as independent only those of the observations before which 
there was readjustment of the standard coil or removal of the resistance 
coils from the mercury cups, the general mean is 

•9997G. 

The maximum variation from the mean is -000106, or about one part 
in 10,000. 

Assuming that the international ohm is the resistance of a column 
of mercury at 0^ of 1 sq. mm. sectional area, and 106"30 cm. long, we 
have as a result of the above measurement that the true ohm is the 
resistance of a column of mercury of the same sectional area and 
106-326 cm. long. 

The figure I arrived at in 1890, working direct on mercury, was 
106-307, with a probable eri'or of ^f^-Oll. The new i-esult is therefore 
a little larger than I was prepared for. The accuracy of the result 
depends primarily on — 

(i) The accuracy with which the resistance coils arc known in terms 
of the international ohm. 

(ii) The accuracy with which their temperatures are known at the 
times of observation. 

(iii) The accuracy with which the coefficient of mutual induction of 
the coil and disc has been determined. 

Upon the first point I can say little. Mr. Glazebrook knows better 
than anyone to what figure the values of the resistances may be 
relied on. 

The effect of error in estimation of the temperatures of the coils can 
be but slight. The observations have been made in two ways, viz., with 
one-minute tapes, the current being put on only during the time of ob- 
servation, and with three-minute tapes, the current being kept on con- 
tinuously, whether observations were being made or not. During the 
last few days of the observations the current was kept passing through 
the coils night and day. I ha\e calculated the eflect that would be 
produced on the result olitained with one-minute tapes if all the heat 
generated by tlie current were to remain in the coils — an extreme case, 
obviously less favourable than the actual conditions. It is something 
less than two parts in 100,000. The smallness of the eflfect is due to the 
fact that if y is the main current, a current equal to |I1',' y passes through 
the tenth-ohm manganine coil with its small temperature coefficient, and 
only -5-^1 y through the platinum-.silver coils ; while the effect of under- 
estimating the temperature of the manganine tenth-ohm coil is to produce 
an error in the result opposite in sign to that produced by underesti- 
mating the temperature of the platinum-silver coils. 

There cannot, then, in the case of the one-minute tape oljservations be 
an appreciable error due to underestimation of the temperature. But 
the first four sets of observations show that the results of the one-minute 
tape observations and the three-minute tape observations are practically 
the same. Hence it follows that to the degree of accuracy aimed at 
our results are unaffected by error due to underestimation of the 
temperature. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



127 



It remains to consider the accuracy with which the coefficient of 
mutual induction of tlie coil and disc is known. 

To calculate this coefficient we must know the radius of the disc and 
the mean radius of the coil. The circumference of the disc is a suf- 
ficiently true circle, the disc having been ground true in place. The 
measurement of its diameter presented no difficulty. It was determined 
on my Whitworth measui'ing machine to the ten-thousandth of an inch. 

The mean radius of the coil cannot be determined with the same 
accuracy ; but I believe that it is known to the thousandth of an inch. 
The coil consists of a single layer of silk -covered wire wound in a screw 
thread cut on a brass frame. It was measured along eighteen diameters 
in the Whitworth machine with the following results : — 



)ianicter 


Measurement 


0°-180° 


21-081W 


10-190 


210929 


20-200 


210951 


30-210 


21-0933 


40-220 


210960 


50-230 


21-0998 


60-240 


21-1017 


70-2,')0 


21-1026 


S0-2G0 


21-1014 


Max. 


21-1056 


Min. 


21-0898 



Diameter 


Meaauremcnt 


90°-270° 


21-1038 


100-280 


21-1056 


110-290 


21-1041 


120-300 


21-1014 


130-310 


21-0979 


140-320 


21-0945 


150-330 


210924 


160-340 


21-0900 


170-350 


21-0910 


Mean 


21-09757 




!; = 17°C. 



•0158 

These measures clearly show that the coil is elliptical in section, the 
difference between the major and minor axes being about -008 inch, or 
about one part in 1,300. 

In considering the possible effijct of this ellipticity on the result, it 
must be borne in mind that the formula Il=M?i implies that the coil is 
circular. The true formula is 






aUda 



-where a,, and a, are the distances from the centre of the disc at which 
the internal and external brushes are applied, and H is the magnetic force 
at a distance a from the centre when unit current is passing through the 
coil. 

This is an unpleasant integral for an elliptical coil, and it has not yet 
yielded to persuasion. It is, however, satisfactory to note that as in my 
iippai-atus the brush radius makes but a small angle with the minor axis 
(about 15°), I am, in so far as the ellipticity of the coil affects matters at 
all, underestimating the integral, and heiice undei-estimating the inter- 
national ohm. Any correction for ellipticity hereafter calculated will 
make the value of the international ohm deduced from my observations 
nearer to and not further from the true ohm. 

It is further to be noticed that the formula R = M}i applies only if 
there is exact coincidence of the axes of the disc and coil. It has been 
customary to consider the adjustment for centre as of secondary import- 
ance in Lorenz's method. It would be so if the formula R=M7i were 
applicable when the centres of coil and disc do not coincide, for a slight 
displacement only affects the coefficient of mutual induction to a secondary 



128 REPORT — 1894. 

degree. But we are not concerned with the coefficient of mutual induc- 
tion in this case. We are concerned with another integral, viz., 



J a. 



aUda 



and the adjustment for centre is in truth of primary importance. Special 
attention should therefore be paid to this in designing apparatus for the 
absolute measurement of resistance by this method. 

One other point remains to be noticed in this connection, viz., the pos- 
sible effect of the difference of the temperature of the coil and disc when 
measured and when in use. On calculating the correction to be applied 
for this cause I find it negligible. 

Again, I would say, as I said last year, that the chief value of these 
observations consists in the proof they afford of the precision with which 
the absolute measurement of resistance may be made by this method. A 
well-constructed apparatus of the kind in a national laboratory^say the 
Laboratory of the Board of Trade — will, I believe, prove to be the best 
ultimate standard of electrical resistance. 



APPENDIX III. 



Comparison of the Standard Coils used hy Professor Jones with 
the Standards of the Association. By R. T. Glazebrook. 

The tenth-ohm standards of manganin wire whose value in absolute 
measure was determined by Professor Jones by means of the experiments 
described in Appendix II. were compared with the standards of the 
Association in the following manner. A Wheatstone's bridge was formed 
in which the arms were the tenth-ohm to be tested, two single-ohm coils, 
and a ten-ohm coil ; if the coils had these values exactly, there would of 
course always have been a balance ; since, however, the coils were not 
accurately correct, there was usually a small current through the galva- 
nometer ; the balance, however, could be obtained by placing a large re- 
sistance as a shunt either to one of the one-ohm coils or to the ten-ohm 
coil : this resistance, which varied from 10,000 to 20,000 ohms, was taken 
from a good box of coils. The resistance of the ten-ohm and of the two one- 
ohm coils being known, that of the tenth-ohm coil could readily be found. 

The four coils dipped into four mercury cups cut in an ebonite block ; 
the bottoms of these cups were copper pieces some 3 to 4 mm. thick. 

Binding screws screwed into these copper pieces and rising above 
the mercury served to connect the bridge to the galvanometer and the 
battery. 

The mercury cups were somewhat large — about 2'5 cm. in diameter — 
and it was found on January 16 that distinct differences could be observed 
by moving the tenth-ohm coils slightly so as to bring their terminals 
either close to or as far as possible from the feet of the one-ohm coils 
which dipped into the same cups. After this date then two sets of 
measurements were made for each coil at each observation : in the one 
the terminals of the coils in any cup were put as close together as possible, 
in the other the terminals of the tenth-ohm coils were placed at some distance 
from those of the other coil in the same cup. 

Both sets of values are given in the table as a means of showing the 
delicacy of the observations and the error aiising from this cause. The 



ON STANDARDS FOR. USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



129 



tenth-ohm coils were weighted so as to press firmly on to the copper 
bottoms. No variation was produced by shifting the ten-ohm coil in 
its cup. 

One or two Leclanche cells wore used in the various experiments : the 
coils were in water-baths and the temperatures read by a standardised 
Kew thermometer. 

The standard coils used were^ 

Elliott 264= l-f-000.312(^-15-45). 
Nalder3715= 1 f -000260 (<- 14-9.^). 
Elliott 289 = 10 + -002600 {t - 15-40). 

The results of the experiments are given in the following table. 

In the results of the experiments made after January 15 the two 
values given correspond to the two positions of the coil in the mercury 
cup. They are included to show the magnitude of the error, which may 
be due to the resistance of the copper bottoms of the cup. 

Tables fjivin/j Values of Nalder No. 4274 ^ No. 389 in terms of the Ohm 

Standards of the Association. 



D.ite 


Temperature 


Value of resistance 


December 29, 1893 

January 13, 1894 

„ 13, ,. 

„ 16. „ 

,, 17. „ 

•^7, „ 

February 20, „ 

March 17, „ 






o 

14-4 
15-2 
14-8 
]55 
16-4 
16-9 
141 
14-1 

15-2 


•100052 

•100051 

-100056 
■100051 -100056 
-100049 -100058 
•100057 ^100066 
•100036 -100041 
•100045 -100046 


Mean 


-100050 -100054 


Values of Nalder 4275 


;^390. 


Date 


Temperature 


Value of i-ejistance 


December 29, 1893 

.January 13, 1894 

,. lij. .. 

,. 16, „ 

,. 17, „ 

.. 27. „ 

February 20, ,, 

March 17, „ 






o 

146 

15 

15 

15-8 

16-4 

166 

14-1 

13-8 

15-2 


-100059 

•100053 

•100058 
•100055 •I 0006 1 
•100051 ^100059 
•100058 ^100065 
•100043 ^100047 
■100051 -100051 


Mean 






-100053 :100057 



Thus, the values of the coils at 15° -2 are respectively for 

;^ 389 . . -100050 ohm, 
and for 

^ 390 . . -100053 ohm, 

while in each case the resistance introduced by placing the contact pieces 
of the tenth- ohm coils at some distance from those of the other coila is 
-000004 ohm 

1894. K- 



130 



REPORT 1894. 



APPENDIX IV. 

ComjMrison of certain Ohm-Standards of the Board of Trade. 

By J. Rennie. 

In the accompanying table are given the results of comparisons which 
were made on May 29 and 30, 1894, at the Cavendish Laboratory, between 
the three unit coils : — 

Elliott's No. 261, 

Elliott's No. 263, 

Nalder'sNo. 3876, 

belonging to the Electrical Department of the Board of Trade, and the 
B.A. standards, Flat, F, G, and H. 

The bridge was of the Carey Foster pattern, constructed for the 
Department by Nalder Bros, and Co., and the slide wire used was the 
one marked B, having a value of -000,050,9 ohm per division. 

A 100-ohm coil, Elliott's No. 291, was placed in parallel with the 
Board of Trade coil for each comparison, this being effected by a large 
mercury-in-paraffin bath. 

Temperatures were measured by a mercury-in-glass thermometer, which 
had been standardised at Kew, 



B.A. Coil 


Temp, of 
B.A. Coil 


Tenii) fif B. 

of T. Cuil 


Observed "Value 


Chart* al-aeV 


Difference, 
Chart observed 








No. 261 Coil. 






Flat 


12-.54 


12-58 


-990156 


•999142 


-•000014 


F . 


12-53 


12-45 


-999064 


•999106 


+ -000042 


G . 


12-90 


12-97 


-999217 
No. 263 Coil. 


•999262 


+ -000045 


Flat 


12-50 


12-53 


-999136 


•999140 


+ -000004 


F . 


12-60 


12-48 


-999074 


•999124 


+ -000050 


G . 


12-80 


12-98 


■999217 


•999271 


+ -000054 


H . 


12-85 


13-08 


•999299 
No. 387C Coil. 


•999304 


+ -000005 


Flat 


12-60 


12-45 


-998808 


•99879 


-•000018 


F . 


12-60 


12-36 


•998727 


■99876 


+ -000049 


G . 


12-70 


12-23 


•998697 


■99874 


+ -000048 


H . 


12-40 


12-30 


■998768 


•99876 


- -000008 



* The chart referred to, for No. 261 and No. 263 coils, is one supplied for these 
coils by Mr. Glazebrook, and is dated March 1892. The chart referred to la the case 
of No. 3876 was constructed from comparisons made by Nalder Brothers between it 
and their 'master coil,' No. 3717. The coils Nos. 263 and 261 were compared on 
May 29, 1894, before beginning the above-mentioned series of comparisons. Thej' 
were found exactly equal, when the temperatures were — No. 263, 12°-65 C. ; 
No. 261, 12°-62 C. The chart values at these temperatures are— No. 263, 0-999175 ; 
No. 261, 0-999156 ; showing a difference of 19x10"^ ohms. The corresponding dif- 
ferences deduced from the above table are — from Flat, ISxlO'i* ohms; from 
F, 8 X 10"^ ohms ; from G, 9 x 10"^ ohms. The comparison No. 261 — H is omitted, as 
the difference obtained was obviously much too large, and must have been caused 
by some undetected interference. It is evident from the eleven results given in the 
table that the difference between the coils Nos. 263 and 261 as deduced from 
comparison with H must be something like 10 x 10"^ ohms. [Note added October 5, 
1894.] 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



131 



APPENDIX V. 

Table shoiving Values of Jive Standard Coils B.A. Units belonging to the 
Indian Government as compared with Dr. 3fuirhead's Standard at his 
Laboratory. By E. O. Walker, C.I.E., M.I.E.E., Late Superin- 
tendent in the Government Telegraph Department in India. 

Standard used, No. 78, marked right at 15°-7 C, taken as correct. 
This standard, tested April 27, 1893, against a No. 68 Glazebrook, gave a 

ratio — ^°!-, of 1-00015 at 16° C, and I-QOOIS at 15°-4 C 
standard 

Temperature of water, 20° "2 C. 



Number 


Marked right at 


Dift'erence 


Correct at 


106 

108 
110 
111 
114 


15°-1 C. 
15°-3 C. 
15°-3 C. 
15°o C. 
15°-1 C. 


+ -023 per cent. 
+ ■120 „ 

-•028 
+ ■055 
+ -004 


14°-0 C. 
ll°-7 C. 
16°-G C. 
13°-9 C. 
15°-6 C. 



Apparatus used, one metre bi'idge of platinum-iridium wire with a sup- 
plementaiy coil at each end of 20,012 millimetres. Suspended coil galvano- 
meter, resistance 15 ohms (Muirhead and Co.'s). Trough, 45 x 7|- x 5 inches ; 
depth of water 2| inches ; quantity of water, 6^ gallons ; battery used, 
1 Hellesen's Dry Cell, No. 3 ; E.M.F., 1-4 volt. 

The interest attaching to these tests lies especially in the fact that the 
standard coils have been exposed to the climate of Calcutta for twenty- 
four years. They were made, I understand, by Dr. A. Muii-head when in 
Dr. Matthiessen's laboratory, under the supervision of the latter. 

In reducing the observations from 20°-2 to the temperatures given, it 
has been assumed that all the coils have the same temperature coefficient. 



APPENDIX VI. 

On the Specific Resistance of Copper and of Silver. 
By Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick. 

As lately several observers have published the results of measure- 
ments made on the specific resistance of copper, it may be worth while to 
collect these results together in tabular form. 

The resistances of metals may be expressed in terms of equal weight or 
of equal volume ; that is, as the resistance of a wire of the given material 
such that one metre of it weighs one gramme, or as the resistance between 
opposite faces of a cube of the material each face of which is one square 
centimetre. I have pointed out that Matthiessen ' considered the first as 
the most satisfactory mode of expressing resistances, and for these results 
alone did he make all the actual experiments ; the results for specific 
resistances were calculated from these with the help of specific gravity 
values obtained in many cases from tables, and not determined directly 
for the wires used. 



' B.A. Report, 1890, p. 129, 



K 2 



132 



REPORT — 1894. 



Only in cases where considerable masses of the material are used 
can the specitic gravity, and from this the cross-section of the wires, be 
accurately determined. There is, therefore, an evident advantage in 
expressing results in terms of weight, as then the determination of the 
cross-section of the wires becomes unnecessary, and there is no reason 
why an accuracy of one in two or three thousand should not be attained. 

Again, it is found that different samples of copper have different 
densities, according to the method by which they have been prepared ; in 
a table • which I published on a previous occasion the variation is from 
3-86 to 8-95. Mr. Swan - gives a value as high as 8-9587. 

From samples of copper of the same quality I have had wires drawn 
which differed in density ; it was always found that the denser the copper 
the less is its resistance, and the difference affects much more the results 
expressed as specific resistances than when expressed as the resistance for 
a gramme per metre. 

This is another reason for expressing the results in these terms, at least 
as well as specific resistances, and for actual practical purposes it is a 
question of weight rather than volume. 

In the following tables the results are given for a temperature of 
18° C. in CG.S. units :— 



Table A. — Hard-drawn Copper Wires. 



Resistance of wire such that the 
metre weighs one gramme 


Specific resistance per „, 

cubic centimetre Utjserver 


1550 X 10^ 

1550 
1527 


1743 
1720 
1726 

170» 


Matthiessen ' 
Swan and Rhodin * 
Fitzpatrick ^ 

„ (copper sup- 1 
plied by Messrs. Bolton) 



Table B. — Annealed Wires. 



Resistance of wire such that the 
metre weighs one gramme 


Specific resistance per 
cubic centimetre 


Observer 


1516 X 10» 

1488 
1488 


1704 
1681 
1680 
1665 


Matthiessen ' 
Fleming and Dewar * 
Swan and Rhodin * 
Fitzpatrick * (copper sup- 
plied by Messrs. Bolton) 
(Wire sent by Mr. Swan) 



From Table A it will be seen that Messrs. Swan and Rhodin obtained a 
value rather lower than that which I got for copper, prepared by myself, 
and which, expressed as the resistance of a wire one metre long weigh- 
ing one gramme, is identical with the value that Matthiessen obtained ; but 
the resistance of all these specimens is distinctly greater than that of the 
copper kindly sent me by Messrs. Bolton — which seems to bear out the 



' B.A. Jlejwrt, 1890, p. 125. 

' B.A. Report, 1864. 

' B.A. Rej)0Tt, 1890, p. 125 



* Nature, vol. 1. p. 165. 
■* J\ature, vol. 1. p. 165. 

* Ffiil. Mag , vol. xxxvi. p. 287. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



133 



statement, which I liave previously made, that it is impossible to prepare 
wires on the small scale which are of the same quality, i.e., probably due 
to density, as the best specimens specially prepared by large manufacturers. 

In Table B are given the results of measurements on three specimens 
of copper prepared by Mr. Swan : one was given to Profs. Dewar and 
Fleming ; a second was examined by Mr. Swan liimself, and a third 
specimen he kindly sent to me ; the quality of the copper in the three 
cases may therefore be expected to be the same. 

The results of Profs. Dewar and Fleming and Messrs. Swan and 
Rhodin are expressed only as specific resistances, whilst the result of my 
measurement is only given for a wire one metre long weighing one gramme. 
The weight of the copper wire, as measured, was only three grammes, and 
that does not allow the accurate determination of the specific gravity of the 
sample. The value I obtain for its resistance is identical with that for the 
sample of annealed copper wire sent me by Messrs. Bolton. 

If it be considered to have the same specific gravity as that sample 
(8-94) its specific resistance in C.G.S. units is 1665 ; a value distinctly 
smaller than that obtained by Messrs. Swan and Rhodin, whose result is 
practically identical with that of Profs. Dewar and Fleming. 

Not only may wires drawn from the same specimen of copper have 
different densities and different resistances, but the variation of that 
resistance with change of temperature may be also diflferent. 

In the following table are given the temperature coefficients of various 
specimens of copper : — 



Ro 


a 


Observer 





•00387 


Matthiessen.' 


1561 


•00428 


Dewar and Fleming.'' 


1603* 


•00408 


Swan and Rhodin.' 


156.3 


•00417 


— 


1592* 


•00405 


Fitzpatrick. 


— 


•00406 


Kennedy and Fessenden.* 


— 


•00364 


Benoit.5 



* Hard-drawn wires. 



Influence of Annealing. — As is well known, annealed wires have a 
less resistance than hard-drawn wires, but the variation of resistance 
according as the wires are annealed or hard-drawn differs considerably 
for different materials. For silver it is as much as 10 per cent., whereas 
for copper it is less than 3 per cent. 

I have made observations from time to time on the resistance value 
of specimens of hard-drawn copper wire, all pieces of the same coil, which 
were sent me in 1889 by Messrs. Bolton and Son. Fi'om the results of 
these measurements it will be seen that a hard-drawn wire seems to fall 
in resistance with lapse of time. The coil of wire has been left hanging 
in the laboratory, and has not been treated with any special care. 

' B.A. Report, 1864. - Phil Mag., vol. xxxvi. p. 287. 

' Nature, vol. 1. p. 165. ♦ Electricity , vol. v. p. 165. 

' Comptes Jiendus, Ixxvi. p. 345. 



134 



REPORT — 1894. 



Date 


Temperature 


Resistance of wire 1 metre long 
weighing 1 gramme 


July 1890 .... 

August 26, 1891 . 

March 7, 1892 

January 1894 

July 1894 .... 


18° 
18° 
18° 
18° 
18° 


1528 X 10* 

1525 

1522 

1520 

1519 



The fall in resistance is small, and for the period of nearly five years 
does not amount to more than ^ per cent. 

I have, for the sake of comparison, made a measurement of the resist- 
ance of a specimen of annealed copper wire sent me by the same firm, and 
for this the resistance value is identical with that obtained at a previous 
date : — 



Date 


™ . Resistance of wire 1 metre 
Temperature j^^g weighing 1 gramme 


October 1889 

July 1894 .... 


18° 
18° 


1488 X 10* 
1487-8 



This, on the whole, is what one would expect. In the case of wires of 
other material the change would probably be greater, as the difference in 
resistance between annealed and hard-drawn copper wires is less than that 
for wires of other materials. 

In my previous communication a method ' of annealing was described 
which gave satisfactory results. The wire was packed in asbestos and fine 
carbon in a copper vessel and heated for twenty-four hours. The follow- 
ing results amongst others were obtained : — • 



Hard-drawn 18° 


Annealed 18° 


Difference 


1527x10* 


1489 


39 


1526 


1488 


38 



Matthiessen's values are 
1550 



1516 



34 



Messrs. Swan and Rhodin give for the values of the specific resist- 
ance : — 

Hard-drawn 18° AnnpnleJ 18° Difference 

1720 16S0 40 

I have recently been annealing copper wires by heating them in 
boiling paraffin (220°) ; and after slow cooling the wires seem to be 
completely annealed : — 



Hard-drawn 18° 
1526 



Annealed 18° 
1486 



Difference 
40 



A wire sent me as annealed gave the result : — 

Annealed 18°, 1488 



This wire was then hardened, and, reannealed as above described. 

Annealed 18°, 1489 



gave the value: — 



> B.A. Report, 1890, p. 126. 



ON STANDARDS FOK USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



135 



Either of these two methods seems to give satisfactory results. For 
completely annealing silver wires the temperature of the paraffin bath 
is not sufficiently high, but from the results of my measurements for 
silver, for which the influence of annealing is very considerable, it can be 
seen that the first method is quite satisfactory. 



Silver. 

Many of the older measurements for resistances and conductivities are 
expressed in terms of the resistance of pure silver : this was the case with 
Matthiessen's earlier results. 

Some measurements therefore made on silver wires are given, together 
with the results obtained by Matthiessen and Profs. Dewar and Fleming 
for the sake of comparison. 

Several samples of silver wires were supplied by Messrs. Johnson and 
Matthey : one of tliese was stated to be absolutely pure. 

The results are expressed for wires weighing one gramme per metre. 



— 


Hard-drawn 


Annealed 


Silver I 


1816x10* 


1739 X 10* 










18U 


1741 










1816 


1721 


Silver II. . 








1799 


1722 


Silver III., pure 








1777 


1666 










1773 


1666 


1) 








1767 


— 



The difference between the values for the hard-drawn wires is probably 
due to the fact that they had to be further drawn down after I had 
received them to enable me to measure them on my bridge. 



Matthiessen's value 


For wire 1 metre long 
weighing 1 gramme 


Resistance per c.c. 


Hard-drawn 

Annealed .... 


1779 X 10* 
1639 


1694 « 
1561 



Profs. Dewar ^ and Fleming give as the value for an annealed pure 
silver wire 1468 C.G.S. at 0° C. with the temperature coefficient of 'OOJ: j 
the value at 18° is therefore for the specific resistance 1574. 

For most of the wires which I measured the specific gravities were 
determined ; for the wires Silver I. there is practically no difference between 
the values obtained for the annealed and hard-drawn wires, the values 
varying from 10'496 to lO'Sll. 

For the wires Silver III. the values varied from 10"49 to 1050 ; 
using the mean value 10"495 I get for the specific resistances the following 
values : — 



— 


Hard-drawn wire 


Annealed 


Specific resistance in C.G.S. 
units at 18° 


1689 


1587 



' Using the value 10"5 as the specific gravity of silver. 
- Phil. Mag., vol. xxxvi. 



136 REPORT— 1894. 

In the case of copper ' with increase of purity there is a decrease in 
the difference in resistance between annealed and hard-drawn wires. 
With silver the reverse is the case. 

Silver I. — Difference 75 

„ II. — Difference 77 

„ III.— Difference . . . - . . .107 

The value that I obtained for the hard-drawn wire is very nearly the 
same as that given by Matthiessen, but he obtained a greater decrease in 
resistance on annealing. He states ^ that for different pieces of the same 
wire there was a variation of from 6 to 10 per cent. ; so that the dif- 
ference between his value and that which T have obtained for a sample of 
pure silver is not greater than might be expected. 

The considerable variation in all the values given above makes it clear 
that the values of the specific resistance depend not simply on the purity 
of the material, but on a number of other factors, which will be different 
in the cases of different wires of the same material, and that therefore 
we cannot expect to attain to any great degree of accuracy in the 
determination of specific resistances as distinguished from the accurate 
measurement for some particular wire. 



APPENDIX VII. 

Final Report of the Electrical Standards Committee of the Board of Trade. 

To the Right Hon. James Bryce, M.P., 

President of the Board of Trade. 

Since the date of our last Report the Board of Trade have laid before 
us a resume of the action of the International Electrical Congress held 
in Chicago in August 1893 to determine the units of electrical measure- 
ment. We were also informed by the Boaixl of Trade that her Majesty's 
Govei-nment had been invited by the United States Ambassador in 
London to take steps to adopt the recommendations of the Congress. 

These recommendations, so far as they refer to the units of electrical 
resistance, electrical current, and electrical pressure, are substantially the 
same as those suggested for adoption in our previous Reports. 

We see no reason f(jr further delay in the legalisation of standards of 
the above-mentioned units, and we have prepared and attach a revised 
Draft Order in Council,^ which we advise may be submitted for her 
Majesty's gracious approval. 

The accompanying notes ■* to the specification for the Clark's cell have 
been communicated by Mr. Glazebrook, and will be found of great 
assistance in the preparation of this form of cell. 

(Signed) Courtenay Boyle. Kelvin. 

Francis J. S. Hopwood. P. Cardew. 

W. H. Preece. Rayleigh. 

G. Carey Foster. R. T. Glazebrook. 

J. HoPKiNsoN. W. E. Ayrton. 

T. W. P. Blomefield, Secretary. 
August 2, 1894. 

' B.A. Itep , 1800, p. 126. == Phil. Trans., 18C2, p. 7 

' The Order in Council is printed in the form in which it has since received her 
Majesty's approval. * For the notes see p. 141. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELEC'IRICAL MEASTREMENT8. 137 

Order in Council regarding Standards /or Electrical Measurements. 

At the Court at Onhorne Hovse, Isle of Wight, Auf/vst 23, 1894. 
Prwent : The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in dmncil. 

Whereas by 'The Weights and Measures Act, 1889,' it is among other 
things enacted that the Board of Trade shall from time to time cause such 
new denominations of standards for the measurement of electricity as 
appear to them to be required for use in trade to be made and duly 
verified. 

And whereas it has been made to appear to the Board of Trade that 
new denominations of standards are required for use in trade based upon 
the following units of electrical measurement, viz. — 

1. The ohm, which has the value 10^ in terms of the centimetre and 
the second of time, and is represented by the I'esistance offered to an 
unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of 
melting ice 14-4521 grammes in mass of a constant cross-sectional area 
and of a length of 106 '3 centimetres. 

2. The ampere, which has the value )'„ in terms of the centimetre, 
the gramme, and the second of time, and which is represented Ijy the 
unvarying electric current which when passed through a solution of 
nitrate of silver in water in accordance with the specification appended 
hei-eto, and marked A, deposits silver at the rate of O'OOlllS of a gramme 
per second. 

3. The volt, which has the value 10* in terms of the centimetre, the 
gramme, and the second of time, being the electrical pressure that if 
steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance is one ohm will produce 
a current of one ampere, and which is represented by -6974 (|yf}^) of the 
electrical pressure at a temperature of 15° C. between the poles of the 
voltaic cell known as Clark's cell set up in accordance with the specification 
appended hereto, and marked B. 

And whereas they have caused the said new denominations of stan- 
dards to be made and duly verified. 

Now, therefore, her Majesty, by virtue of the power vested in her 
by the said Act, by and with the advice of her Privy Council, is pleased 
to approve the several denominations of standards set forth in the 
schedule hereto as new denominations of standards for electrical measureT 
luent. C. L. Peel. 

Schedule. 

I. — Standard of Electrical Resistance. 

A standard of electrical resistance denominated one ohm being the 
resistance between the copper terminals of the instrument marked ' Board 
of Trade Ohm Standard Verified, 1894,' to the passage of an unvarying 
electrical current when the coil- of insulated wire forming part of the 
aforesaid instrument and connected to the aforesaid terminals is in all 
parts at a temperature of 15° '4 C. 

II. Standard of Electrical Current. 

A standard of electrical current denominated one ampere being the 
current which is passing in and through the coils of wire forming part of 
the instrument marked 'Board of Trade Ampere Standard Verified, 1894,' 
when on reversing the current in the fixed coils the change in the forces 



138 REPORT— 1894. 

acting upon the suspended coil in its sighted position is exactly balanced 
by the force exerted by gravity in Westminster upon the iridio-platinum 
weight marked A and forming part of the said instrument, 

III. — Standard of Electrical Pressure. 

A standard of electrical pressure denominated one volt, being one 
hundredth part of the pressure which when applied between the terminals 
forming part of the instrument marked ' Board of Trade Volt Standard 
Verified, 1894,' causes that rotation of the suspended portion of the 
instrument which is exactly measured by the coincidence of the sighting 
wire with the image of the fiducial mark A before and after application 
of the pressure and with that of the fiducial mark B during the applica- 
tion of the pressure, these images being produced by the suspended 
mirror and observed by means of the eyepiece. 

In the use of the above standards the limits of accuracy attainable 
are as follows : — 

For the ohm, within one hundredth part of one per cent. 
For the ampere, within one tenth part of one per cent. 
For the volt, within one tenth part of one per cent. 

The coils and instruments referred to in this schedule are deposited at 
the Board of Trade Standardising Laboratory, 8 Richmond Terrace, 
Whitehall, London. 

Specifications referred to in the foregoing Order in Council. 

SPECIFICATION A. 

In the following specification the term silver voltameter means the 
arrangement of apparatus by means of which an electric current is passed 
through a solution of nitrate of silver in water. The silver voltameter 
measures tlie total electrical quantity which has passed duidng the time of 
the experiment, and by noting this time the time-average of the current, or if 
the current has been kept constant the current itself, can be deduced. 

In employing the silver voltameter to measure currents of about 
1 ampere the following arrangements should be adopted. The kathode 
on which the silver is to be deposited should take the form of a platinum 
bowl not less than 10 centimetres in diameter, and from 4 to 5 centimetres 
in depth. 

The anode should be a plate of pure silver some 30 square centimetres 
in area and 2 or 3 millimetres in thickness. 

This is supported horizontally in the liquid near the top of the solution 
by a platinum wire passed through holes in the plate at opposite corners. 
To prevent the disintegrated silver which is formed on the anode from 
falling on to the kathode, the anode should be wrapped round with pure 
filter paper, secured at the back with sealing-wax. 

The liquid should consist of a neutral solution of pure silver nitrate, 
containing about 15 parts by weight of the nitrate to 85 parts of water. 

The resistance of the voltameter changes somewhat as the current 
passes. To prevent these changes having too great an eSect on the 
current, some resistance besides that of the voltameter should be inserted 
in the circuit. The total metallic resistance of the circuit should not be 
less than 10 ohms. 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 139 

Method of making a Measuremerit. 

The platinum bowl is washed with nitric acid and distilled water, dried 
by heat, and then left to cool in a desiccator. When thoroughly dry it is 
weighed carefully. 

It is nearly filled with the solution, and connected to the rest of the 
circuit by being placed on a clean copper support to which a binding 
screw is attached. This copper support must be insulated. 

The anode is then immersed in the solution so as to be well covered 
by it and supported in that position ; the connections to the rest of the 
circuit are made. 

Contact is made at the key, noting the time of contact. The current 
is allowed to pass for not less than half an hour, and the time at which 
contact is broken is observed. Care must be taken that the clock used is 
keeping correct time during this interval. 

The solution is now removed fi-om the bowl and the deposit is washed 
with distilled water and left to soak for at least six hours. It is then 
rinsed successively with distilled water and absolute alcohol and dried in 
a hot-air bath at a temperature of about 160° C. After cooling in a 
desiccator it is weighed again. The gain in weight gives the silver 
deposited. 

To find the current in amperes, this weight, expressed in grammes, 
must be divided by the number of seconds during which the cun-ent has 
been passed, and by 0-001118. 

The result will be the time-average of the current, if during the 
interval the current has varied. 

In determining by this method the constant of an instrument the 
current should be kept as nearly constant as possible, and the readings of 
the instrument observed at frequent intervals of time. These observa- 
tions give a curve from which the reading corresponding to the mean 
current (time- average of the current) can be found. The current, as 
calculated by the voltameter, corresponds to this reading. 



SPECIFICATION B. 

On the Preparatiox of the Clark Cell. 

Definition of the Cell. 

The cell consists of zinc or an amalgam of zinc with mercury and of 
mercury in a neutral saturated solution of zinc sulphate and mercurous 
sulphate in water, prepared with mercurous sulphate in excess. 

Preparation of the Materials. 

1. The Mercury. — To secure purity it should be first treated with acid 
in the usual manner, and subsequently distilled in vacuo. 

2. The Zinc. — Take a portion of a rod of pure redistilled zinc, solder 
to one end a piece of copper wire, clean the whole with glass paper or a 
steel burnisher, carefully removing any loose pieces of the zinc. Just 
before making up the cell dip the zinc into dilute sulphuric acid, wash 
with distilled water, and dry with a clean cloth or filter paper. 

3. The Mercurous Sulphate. — Take mercurous sulphate, purchased as 
pure, mix with it a small quantity of pure mercury, and wash the whole 



140 REPORT— 1894. 

thoroughly with cold distilled water by agitation in a bottle ; drain off the 
water, and repeat the process at least twice. After the last washing 
drain off as much of the water as possible. 

4. The Zinc Sulphate Solution. — Prepare a neutral saturated solution 
of pure (' pure recrystallised ') sine sulphate by mixing in a flask distilled 
water with nearly twice its weight of crystals of pure zinc sulphate, and 
adding zinc oxide in the proportion of about 2 per cent, by weight of the 
zinc sulphate crystals to neutralise any free acid. The crystals should 
be dissolved with the aid of gentle heat, but the temperature to which 
the solution is raised should not exceed 30° C. Mercurous sulphate 
treated as described in 3 should be added in the proportion of about 
12 per cent, by weight of the zinc sulphate crystals to neutralise any free 
zinc oxide remaining, and the solution filtered, while still warm, into a 
stock bottle. Crystals should form as it cools. 

5. The Mercurous Sulphate and Zinc Sulphate Paste. — Mix the 
washed mercurous sulphate with the zinc sulphate solution, adding 
sufficient crystals of zinc sulphate from the stock bottle to ensure satura- 
tion, and a small quantity of pure mercury. Shake these up well 
together to form a paste of the consistence of cream. Heat the paste, 
but not above a temperature of 30° C. Keep the paste for an hour at this 
temperature, agitating it from time to time, then allow it to cool ; con- 
tinue to shake it occasionally while it is cooling. Crystals of zinc sul- 
phate should then be distinctly visible, and should be distributed throughout 
the mass. If this is not the case add more crystals from the stock bottle, 
and repeat the whole process. 

This method ensures the formation of a saturated solution of zinc and 
mercurous sulphates in water. 

To set np the Cell. 

The cell may conveniently be set up in a small test-tube of about 
2 centimetres diameter and 4 or 5 centimetres deep. Place the mercury 
in the bottom of this tube, filling it to a depth of, say, "5 centimetre. 
Cut a cork about -5 centimetre thick to fit the tube ; at one side of the 
cork bore a hole through which the zinc rod can pass tightly ; at the other 
side bore another hole for the glass tube which covers the platinum wire ; 
at the edge of the cork cut a nick through which the air can pass when 
the cork is pushed into the tube. Wash the cork thoroughly with warm 
water, and leave it to soak in water for some hours before use. Pass the 
zinc rod about 1 centimetre through the cork. 

Contact is made with the mercury by means of a platinum wire about 
No. 22 gauge. This is protected from contact with the other materials 
of the cell by being sealed into a glass tube. The ends of the wire project 
from the ends of the tube ; one end forms the terminal, the other end and 
a portion of the glass tube dip into the mercury. 

Clean the glass tube and platinum wire carefully, then heat the 
exposed end of the platinum red-hot, and insert it in the mercury in the 
test-tube, taking care that the whole of the exposed platinum is covered. 

Shake up the paste and introduce it without contact with the upper 
part of the walls of the test-tube, filling the tube above the mercury to a 
depth of rather more than 1 centimetre. 

Then insert the cork and zinc rod, passing the glass tube through the 
hole prepared for it. Push the cork gently down until its lower surface 
is nearly in contact with the liquid. The air will thus be nearly all 



ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 141 

expelled, and the cell should be left in this condition for at least twenty- 
four hours before sealing, which should be done as follows. 

Melt some marine glue until it is fluid enough to pour by its own 
weight, and pour it into the test-tube above the cork, using sufficient 
to cover completely the zinc and soldering. The glass tube containing 
the platinum wire should project some way above the top of the marine 
glue. 

The cell may be sealed in a more permanent manner by coating the 
marine glue, when it is set, with a solution of sodium silicate, and leaving 
it to harden. 

The cell thus set up may be mounted in any desirable manner. It 
is convenient to arrange the mounting so that the cell may be immersed 
in a water-bath up to the level of, say, the upper surface of the cork. Its 
temperature can then be determined more accurately than is possible when 
the cell is in air. 

In using the cell sudden variations of temperature should as far as 
possible be avoided. 

The form of the vessel containing the cell may be varied. In the 
H form the zinc is replaced by an amalgam of ten parts by weight of zinc 
to ninety of mercury. The other materials should be prepared as already 
described. Contact is made with the amalgam in one leg of the cell and 
with the mercury in the other by means of platinum wires sealed through 
the glass. 

Notes to the Specification on the Preparation of the 

Clark Cell. 

The Mercurous Sulphate. — The treatment of the mercurous sulphate 
has for its object the removal of any mercuric sulphate which is often 
present as an impurity. 

Mercuric sulphate decomposes in the presence of water into an acid 
and a basic sulphate. The latter is a yellow substance — turpeth mineral 
— practically insoluble in water ; its presence at any rate in moderate 
quantities has no effect on the cell. If, however, it is formed, the acid 
sulphate is formed also. This is soluble in water, and the acid produced 
affects the electro-motive force. The object of the washings is to dissolve 
and remove this acid sulphate, and for this purpose the three washings 
described in the specification will in nearly all cases suffice. If, however, 
a. great deal of the turpeth mineral is formed, it shows that there is a 
great deal of the acid sulphate present, and it will then be wiser to obtain 
a fresh sample of mercurous sulphate rather than to try by repeated 
washings to get rid of all the acid. 

The free mercury helps in the process of removing the acid, for the 
acid mei'curic sulphate attacks it, forming mercurous sulphate and acid 
which is washed away. 

Pure mercurous sulphate when quite free from acid shows on repeated 
washing a faint primrose tinge, which is due to the formation of a basic 
mercurous salt, and is distinct from the turpeth mineral or basic mercuric 
sulphate. The appearance of this primrose tint may be taken as an 
indication of the fact that all the acid has been removed, and the washing 
may with advantage be continued until this primrose tint appears. Should 
large quantities of this basic mercurous salt be formed, the sulphate should 
be treated as described in the instructions for setting up Clark's cells 



142 



REPORT — 1894. 



issued from the Physical Technical Institute of Berlin, 'Zeitschrift fiir 
Instrumentenkunde,' 1893, Heft 5. 

The Zinc Sulphate Solution. — The object to be attained is the pre- 
paration of a neutral solution of pure zinc sulphate saturated with 
ZnSO^THaO. 

At temperatures above 30° C. the zinc sulphate may crystallise out in 
another form ; to avoid this, 30° C. should be the upper limit of tem- 
perature. At this temperature water will dissolve about 1"9 time its 
weight of the crystals. If any of the crystals put in remain undissolved 
they will be removed by the filtration. 

The zinc sulphate should be free from iron, and should be tested before 
use with sulphocyanide of potassium to ascertain that this condition is 
satisfied. If an appreciable amount of iron is present it should be re- 
moved by the method given in the directions already quoted, ' Zeitschrift 
fiir Instrumentenkunde,' 1893, Heft 5. 

The amount of zinc oxide required depends on the acidity of the 
solution, but 2 per cent, will, in all cases which will arise in practice with 
reasonably good zinc sulphate, be ample. Another rule would be to add 
the zinc oxide gradually until the solution became slightly milky. Tlie 
solution when put into the cell should not contain any free zinc oxide ; 
if it does, then, when mixed with the mercurous sulphate, zinc sulphate 
and mercurous oxide are formed ; the latter may be deposited on the 
zinc and affect the electro-motive force of the cell. The difiiculty is 
avoided by adding as described about 1 2 per cent, of mercurous sulphate 
before filtration : this is more than sufficient to combine with the whole 
of the zinc oxide originally put in, if it all remains free. The mercurous 
oxide formed, together with any undissolved mercurous sulphate, is 
removed by the filtration. 

The Mercurous Sulphate and Zinc Sulphate Paste. — Although, after 
the last washing of the mercurous sulphate, as much water as possible 

may have been drained off, sufficient water 
generally remains to necessitate tlie addition 
of a very considerable quantity of crystals of 
zinc sulphate from the stock bottle, in order 
to insure saturation, when tlie washed mer- 
curous sulphate is added to the zinc sulphate 
solution as described in No. 4 of Specification 
B appended to the Order in Council. 

If the sides of the test tube above the 
cork be soiled by the introduction of the 
paste, the marine glue doos not adhere to 
the glass ; the liquid in the cell rises by 
capillary action between the glue and the 
glass, and may damage the cell. 

The form of the vessel containing the cell 
may be varied. In the H form devised by 
Lord Rayleigh and modified by Dr. Kahle the 
zinc is replaced by an amalgam of zinc and 
mercury. The other materials should be prepared as already described. 
Contact is made with the amalgam in one leg of the cell and with the 
mercury in the other by means of platinum wires sealed through the glass. 
The amalgam consists of about ninety parts of pure mercury mixed 
with ten parts of pure redistilled zinc. These are heated in a porcelain 



Fig. 2. 




ON STANDARDS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 143 

crucible to about 100° C, and gently stirred until the zinc is completely 
dissolved in the mercury. The amalgam is liquid while warm, and must 
be poured into the cell before it becomes solid on cooling. 

The vessel containing the element consists of two vertical tubes. 
These, as shown in the figure, are closed below and open above into a 
common neck, which can be closed by a ground stopper of glass. The 
two tubes should be 2 cm. in diameter and 3 cm. in length. The neck 
should be at least 1-5 cm. in diameter and 2 cm. long. A short length 
of platinum wire is sealed through the bottom of each tube. 

The end of the wire in one tube is covered by a small quantity of 
pure mercury, that in the other tube by the zinc-mercury amalgam. 

Above the mercury a layer about 1 cm. thick of the mercurous 
sulphate paste is placed ; above this, and also above the amalgam, a layer, 
also about 1 cm. in thickness, of zinc-sulphate crystals, and the vessel is 
filled up with the saturated zinc sulphate solution. 

The zinc-sulphate crystals are obtained by evaporating at a tem- 
perature of less than 30° C. some of the zinc-sulphate solution prepared 
as in 4 of the specification. 

The stopper is then inserted, leaving a small air bul^ble above the 
liquid, and sealed on the outside with shellac dissolved in alcohol. 

The ends of the platinum wires outside the cell forua the two poles, 
and should be connected to suitable terminals. 



The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteoroloqienl 
Phenomena. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of' Mr. 
G. J. Symons (Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNSON, a7id Mr. A. W. Clayden (Secretary). (Braivn up hi/ 
the Secretary.) 

In presenting their report on the work of the last year your Committee 
have but little to say on the subject of the representation of clouds and 
lightning by photography. They consider that their collection is nearly 
complete so far as the different varieties of cloud form are concerned, and 
it is only likely to be increased slowly and at long intervals by photo- 
graphs of scarce forms of clouds or by particularly interesting series. 
During the year the Secretary has secured many new negatives ; but 
since the collection already includes satisfactory examples of the same 
types, it has not been thought desirable to add more duplicates, and the 
offers of co-operation from other photographers have not been fulfilled. 
With regard to photographs of lightning also the collection has not been 
increased, for your Committee have not been made aware of any such 
photographs which show any features not already familiar, and no 
opportunity has occurred for the Secretary to make any observations for 
the further elucidation of the known phenomena. 

Your Committee propose to invite the Royal Meteorological Society 
to take charge of such photographs from their collection as are not likely 
to be required for further investigation. 

The attention of the Committee has been drawn to another application 
of photography which seems to open up a possibility of very valuable 
work ; this is in the measurement of cloud altitudes. This is a question 
which has become more important since the acceptance by the Munich 



144 REPORT — 1894. 

Congress of the system of cloud nomenclature devised by Hildebrandsson 
and Abercromby, and it is remarkable that so few actual measurements 
have been carried out. 

So far as your Committee are aware, the only measurements of the 
kind which have been systematically organised, at least in this country, 
are those which were begun some years ago at Kew. 

Now it is not only important to have more observations, but it is 
especially desirable to have them from other places than the vicinity of 
London for comparison, and in the residence of the Secretary at Exeter 
.such an opportunity is presented. 

In the course of experiments on methods of cloud photography it has 
been found easy to secure well-defined images of clouds even when the 
sun is in the middle of the field of view. If, then, two such photographs 
are taken simultaneously by a pair of cameras at some distance apart, 
there will be a displacement of the image relatively to that of the sun. 
The amount of this displacement will depend upon a number of things, 
but it will be increased by adding to the focal length of the lens and by 
increasing the distance between the two cameras. By knowing these 
values and the altitude and azimuth of the sun, the distance of the cloud 
and its height above the ground may be calculated without diflBculty. 

The azimuth and altitude of the sun at the time of exposure may be 
ascertained by direct observation, or it may be found by calculation, from 
the known time at which exposure was made. There seems to be a 
manifest advantage in thus using the sun as a fixed point of reference, 
since it provides a means whereby any error in the observation of altitude 
and azimuth may be effectively checked. 

Your Committee have therefore prepared a pair of cameras so con- 
structed that they may be easily directed towards the sun. They are 
provided with lenses of 18 inches focus covering a plate of whole plate 
size, thereby giving a large displacement and allowing room for a displace- 
ment of several inches. The lenses are provided with adjustable shutters, 
which can be simultaneously freed by an electrical attachment. They are 
placed on stands, which serve as cupboards for them when not in use. 

At present for purely trial purposes they are placed in the Secretary's 
garden at a distance of 35 yards, yet even that short distance gives a 
displacement of half an inch with clouds 3,780 feet distant. This, of 
course, is too small for very accurate measurement, and would be far 
smaller with high-level clouds, the determination of the altitudes of which 
is most important. 

The intention of your Committee is to place them on a plot of level 
ground by the side of the London and South- Western Railway near 
Exeter. There is available a strip of waste ground, just over a quarter of 
a mile in length, commanding an uninterrupted view of the sun from 
sunrise until nearly sunset. The ground is level, and the cameras can be 
placed due east and west, thereby greatly simplifying the reduction of 
the observations. The directors of the London and South-Western Rail- 
way have kindly consented to allow the ground to be used under conditions 
which seem to your Committee quite satisfactory, but which involve the 
payment of a nominal rent of 11. per annum ; and the cameras would 
have been placed in position by the present time had it not been necessary 
to get another meeting of the Committee to sanction the agreement. The 
method is easy to apply, and promises to yield results at leas^ as accurate 
as any which have yet been tried ; so your Committee ask for reappoint- 
ment, with a grant of 10^. 



ON EARTH TREMORS. 145 

Earth Tremors. — Report of the Committee, consistinrj of Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. C. Davison (Secretary), Sir F. J. Bramwell, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, Dr. Isaac Roberts, 
Mr. Thomas Gray, Sir John Evans, Professors J. Prestwich, 
E. Hull, G. A. Lebour, R. Meldola, ami J. W. Judd, Mr. M. 
Walton Brown, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor C. G. Knott, Pro- 
fessor J. H. PoYNTiNG, Mr. Horace Darwin, and Dr. R. Copeland 
(drawn up by the Secretary), appointed for the Investigation of Earth 
Tremors in this Country. 

APPENDIX PAGK 

I. Account of Observaiwns made with the Horizontal Pendulum at Nicolaieiv. 

By Professor S. Kortazzi 155 

II. The Blfilar Pendulum at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. By Professor 

R. Copeland 158 

2Ir. H. Darwin^ Bifilar Pendulum. 

The preliminary trial of the bifilar pendulum last year led to the dis- 
covery of one or two possible sources of error, chiefly resulting from altera- 
tions in the distribution of temperature near the instrument. In order to 
eliminate these as far as possible, Mr. Darwin has made several changes in 
the latest form of the pendulum.' 

When the gas-jet was kept burning for some time, it was found 
that the expansion of the tube produced an apparent tilting to the east, 
i.e., away from the source of heat. As soon as the flow of heat through 
the instrument became nearly steady, a far more considerable movement 
of the mirror in the opposite direction became evident, which was perhaps 
due to the action of convection currents in the surrounding oil. 

The expansion of the tube is greatest on the side towai-ds the gas-jet. 
Its disturbing effect is therefore a maximum when the gas-jet is in a plane 
at right angles to that in which the silver wire lies. In the new instrument 
the mirror is held in a frame so that the plane of the mirror is perpendicu- 
lar to that of the silver wire, and the principal effect of the expansion is 
merely an inappreciable change in the sensitiveness of the pendulum. At 
the same time we should expect that this method of mounting the mirror 
would diminish the disturbing action of convection currents, as the surface 
exposed to them lies chiefly in a plane at right angles to that in which the 
movements of the ground are being measured. 

In order to avoid any straining of the tube the lever used in deter- 
mining the angular value of the scale divisions is prolonged above the 
tilting- screw. To this upper portion is attached a movable weight, which 
can be adjusted so that the centre of gravity of the lever coincides with 
the axis of the tilting-screw. The lever is moved by a rocking-arm worked 
from a distance by a pair of pneumatic bellows. 

The instrument rests on three foot-screws, two of which are in a line 
parallel to the plane of the silver wire. A tangent-screw is connected 
with these two, so that one can be raised and the other depressed by an 
equal amount, and so enable the sensitiveness to be varied. A second 
tangent-screw is attached to the third foot-screw, or ' back-leg,' by means 

' For the account of these improvements I am indebted to notes supplied by Mr. 
Darwin. See also a paper, « Bifilar Pendulum for Measuring Earth-tilts ,' Nature 
vol. 1. 1894, pp. 246-249. 

1894. r 



146- REPORT — 1894. 

of which the pendulum can be tilted in the plane perpendicular to that of 
the silver wire, and the spot of light readjusted to the centre of the scale 
or photographic paper. Both screws are worked from a distance by long 
wooden rods. 

A bifilar pendulum, with the changes above described, was erected 
early this year at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The instrument is 
also further pi'otected by a cover from heat effects. Dr. Copeland, As- 
tronomer Royal for Scotland, informs me that, with these arrangements, 
it is not at all affected by momentary changes of temperature. 

The Greek Earthquake Pulsations of April 1894. 

On April 20 a severe earthquake took place in north- east Greece, 
causing much damage in several towns and villages. Soon after the news 
of its occurrence was published I made frequent observations with the 
bifilar pendulum at Birmingham, and was fortunate enough to watch the 
o-reater part of the remarkable series of pulsations proceeding from the 
second great disturbance, that of April 27. An account of these move- 
ments is given in its proper place below. 

A few weeks later I received from Dr. von Rebeur-Paschwitz a list of 
the records of the same pulsations made by the horizontal pendulum at 
Nicolaiew. As these gave a somewhat greater velocity for the pulsations, 
it seemed possible that conclusions of some interest might result from an 
endeavour to trace the pulsations as they spread outwards from their 
origin. I accordingly wrote to the directors of the leading magnetic and 
geodynamic observatoi'ies on the Continent and in this country, and I am 
indebted to their courtesy for much information, a summary of which is 
given below. Additional details I'elating to the Italian observatories have 
been extracted from the valuable ' Bollettino Meteorico ' (Supplementi 104 
and 105) of the ' Ufficio Centrale di Meteorologia e Geodinamica ' of Rome. 

The total number of shocks belonging to this earthquake series must 
amount to several hundred. The strongest were those, already mentioned, 
on April 20 and 27. Both were felt over the whole of Greece. The 
epicentral areas seem to have been situated in the eparchy of Locris, and 
probably not far distant from its capital, Atalante. In the estimates of 
the velocity which follow I have supposed the earthquake pulsations to 
start from this town, the position of which is 38° 39' N. lat., 23° 0' E. long., 
and about 98 kilometres from Athens. For convenience the recorded 
times have all been reduced to Greenwich mean time. 

Athens (Dr D. Eginitis), 37° 58' 20" K, 23° 43' 48" E. The earth- 
quakes were registered by Brassart seismoscopes. These are well regulated, 
so that the times may be regarded as very exact. April 20, 5h. 17m. 5s. p.m., 
duration 4 seconds ; followed by a second shock at 5h. 17m. 35s. p.m., 
duration 7 seconds. April 27, 7h. 46m. lis. p.m., a very strong shock, 
'luration 12 seconds. 

Catania ' (Professor A. Ricco), 37° 28' N.. 15° 4' E. April 20, 
ah. 23m. 8s. P.M. April 27, 7h. 47m. 19s. p.m. The photographic record 
of the normal tromometer shows six series of decreasing oscillations, 
lasting for about 18 minutes. 

Benevento (' Boll. Meteor.'), 41° 8' N., 14° 45' E. April 20, 5h. 19m. p.m., 
a very distinct trace indicated by the Cecchi seismograph. April 27, 

' The observatory is situated at a short distance from Cutania, but I have been 
unable to find its exact position. In several cases, the positions of the Italian 
observatories are only approximate. 



ON EARTH TREMOKrf. 147 

7h. 45m. P.M. On both occasions the tromometer oscillated so much that 
it was not possible to determine the amplitude. 

Mineo ('Boll. Meteor.'), 37° 15' N., 14° 42' E. April 20, 5h. 26m. 
(± some seconds), p.m. April 27, 7h. 53m. p.m. 

Portici ('Boll. Meteor.'), 40° 50' K, 14° 19' E. April 27, 7h. 51m. 9s. 
p.m., movement indicated by a Brassart seismograph. 

Fe^feiri (' Boll. Meteor.'), 41° 41' N., 12° 47' E. April 20, 5h. 26m. p.m. 

Eocca di Papa (Dr. A. Cancani and 'Boll. Meteor.'), 41° 54' N., 
12° 29' E. April 20, 5h. 20m. p.m., the beginning of the pulsations indi- 
cated by the ' tromometro avvisatore.' The Brassart seismograph displaced 
at 5h. 22m. ± 20s. April 27, 7h. 45m. p.m., the arrival of the pulsa- 
tions announced by the ' tromometro avvisatore.' The great seismograph 
(7 metres in length and 100 kilogrammes in mass) shows the beginning of 
small earthquakes in the S.E.-N.AY. componeiit at 7h. 47m. 30s. At 
about 7h. 49m. 30s. the large oscillations in the S.E.-N,W. component 
began, and at 7h. 49m. 49s. in the N.E.-S.W. component. These large 
oscillations had a period of 7 '2 seconds, and present a principal maximum in 
the N.E.-S.W. component at 7h. 50in. 40s., that of the other component not 
being well defined. This great undulatory movement ceased at 7h. 57m. 20s. 
in the N.E.-S.W. component, and at about 8h. 2m. 20s. in the S.E.-N.W. 
component. 

Pome (Professor Tacchini and ' Boll. Meteor.'), 41° 54' N., 12° 29' E. 
April 20, beginning of the movement about 5h. 20m. 20s. p.m. in the 
N.W.-S.E. component, about 5h. 22m. Os. in the JST.E.-S.W. component. 
The movement gradually increased until the following maxima were pre- 
sented : 5h. 25m. 35s., 5h. 26m. Os., 5h. 26m. 55s. (principal maximum), 
5h. 28m. 20s., 5h. 29m. Os., after which the traces irregularly and slowly 
decreased, the end of the movement taking place at about 5h. 33m. 15s. 
in the N.W.-S.E. component, and about 5h. 35m. 10s. in the N.E.-S.W. 
component. April 27, the beginning of the movement in both components 
at about 7h. 47m. 50s. p.m. ; a series of maxima, first increasing and 
then decreasing, at 7h. 50m. 55s., 7h. 51m. 40s. (principal maximum), 
7h. 52m. 10s., 7h. 52m. 25s., 7h. 53m. Os., 7h. 53m. 45s , 7h. 55m. 55s., and 
7h. 57m. 10s. ; the end of the movement in both components may be taken 
at about 8h. 6m. 20s., but not improbably it was prolonged still further. 

Siena (' Boll. Meteor.'), 43° 19' N., 11° 20' E. April 20, 5h. 23m. 40s. 
(± about 10s.) P.M., -beginning of the movement in the N.N.E.-S.S.W. 
component, as registered by the Vicentini seismograph ; the oscillations 
gradually increased in amplitude until they attained the following 
maxima : between oh. 25m. 40s. and 5h. 26m. 40s. (two principal 
maxima), at 5h. 26m. 58s., 5h. 28m. 4s., and 5h. 28m. 40s. ; the 
oscillations then slowly disappeared, the total duration being about fifteen 
minutes. During the first seven minutes the average period of the oscil- 
lations in the E.iS.E.-W.N.W. component was about five seconds, and in 
the other, during the first ten minutes, about four seconds. At about 
5h. 49m. 40s. there was a group of fourteen small oscillations, lasting for 
one minute. April 27, about 7h. 47m. 40s. p.m., beginning of the oscil- 
lations, which increased suddenly in amplitude ; the first maximum at 
7h. 51m., after which there were four others, the principal maximum 
being at 7h. 53m. 6s. During an interval of 552 seconds sixty-five oscil- 
lations were counted in the N.N.E.-S.S.W. component, and sixty-one in 
the E.S.E.-W.N.W. component, giving an average period of eight and a 
half seconds for each complete oscillation. 

l2 



148 REPORT— 1894. 

Florence ('Boll. Meteor.'), 43° 46' N., 11° 15' E. April 20, from 
5h. 23m. 5s. (± 15s.) to 5h. 28m. 51s. p.m. April 27, 7h. 49m. 2s. 
to 7h. 50m. lis. p.m. ; movement indicated by the Cecchi seismograph. 

San Luca, near Bologna ('Boll. Meteor.'). April 20, 5h. 25m. p.m., a 
very slight movement indicated by the Bertelli tromometer. It was also 
indicated by the De Rossi microseismograph. 

Spinea, near Mestre-Venezia (' Boll. Meteor.'). April 20, 5h. 25m. 17s. 
p.m., a movement of about live seconds in duration. April 27, 7h. 49m. 7s., 
a movement of about four seconds in duration. 

PadiM (' Boll.Meteor.'),45° 24' N.,1 1° 52'E. April 20, 5h. 25m. 15s. p.m., 
a very slight movement, followed by others at5h. 26m. 15s., 5h. 27m. 55s., 
5h. 29m. 25s., and 5h. 30m. 50s. Microseismic movements were indicated 
by the more delicate apparatus until 5h. 40m. 30s. At 5h. 26m. 15s. the 
* Agamennone seismographic pendulum ' was started. April 27, shocks at 
7h. 50m. 30s., 7h. 51m. 5s., 7h. 51m. 45s., and 7h. 53m. 25s. p.m. The tro- 
mometer continued agitated until lOh. 40m. P.M. 

Piacenza (' Boll. Meteor.'), 45° 3' N., 9° 40' E. April 20, 5h. 28m. 
(±10-1 5s.) P.M. 

Pavia (' Boll. Meteor.'), 45° 1 1' N., 9° 9' E. April 20, about 5h. 28m. p.m., 
movement, lasting for 1 50 seconds, indicated by the Brassart seismograph. 

Nicolaiew (Professor Kortazzi, details communicated by Dr. E. von 
Rebeur-Paschwitz), 46° 58' 51" N., 31° 58' 28" E. From April 20 the hori- 
zontal pendulum was constantly disturbed by the Greek earthquakes. 
Strong disturbances occurred at the following times : — April 20, 
5h. 42m. P.M. ; April 21, 4h. 18m. a.m., 8h. 12m. p.m. ; April 22, lOh. 32m. 
A.M. ; April 24, 2h. 47m. a.m. ; April 25, Oh. 41m. a.m. ; April 27, 7h. 49m. 
P.M. (very strong) ; April 30, 4h. 24m. a.m. ; May 1, Oh. 55m. a.m. 

Charkoio (Professor G. Lewitzky), 50° 0' 10" N., 36° 13' 40" E. From 
April 20, 5h. 23m. p.m. to April 22, 3h. 5m. a.m., the horizontal pendulum 
was disturbed ; April 20, 5h. 25m. p.m., beginning of the strongest move- 
ments ; April 21, 4h. 21m. a.m., maximum of a shock ; 8h. 13m. p.m., be- 
ginning of a strong movement ; April 27, 7h. 48m. p.m., beginning of the 
movement. The disturbed state of the pendulum, with a few weak shocks, 
lasted until April 28, 8h. 23m. a.m. 

Potsdam (Dr. Eschenhagen), 52° 22'55" N., 13° 3' 59" E. The magnetic 
cui'ves on April 20 and 27 show distinct traces of the pulsations : — 

h. m. 8. h. ni. s. 
April 20, Declination from 5 30 53 to 5 31 41 P.M., Ampl. 1' 

Horizontal intensity „ 5 31 59 ,, 5 35 29 „ „ |' 

Vertical intensity 

First shock „ 5 80 29 „ 5 33 59 „ 

Second „ „ 5 34 59 „ 5 36 29 „ „ i' 

April 27, Declination — 

First slight shock, 7 53 50 P.M., „ 1' 

Second principal „ „ 7 55 50 to 8 18 50 „ „ 5-G' 

Swingings on the whole gradually diminishing, but from time to time again 
increasing. 

h. in. s. h. m. s. 
Horizontal intensity — 

First "shock 7 54 20 Ampl. 1-2' 

Second „ from 7 56 20 to 8 1 50 „ 3' 
Swingings until 8 6 20 „ 0'-8 

Vertical intensity- 
First shock from 7 54 50 to 7 58 50 
Second „ „ 8 20 „ 8 3 20 



ON EARTH TREMORS. 



149 



I am indebted to Dr. Eschenhagen for copies of the six curves. Two 
of these (those of the declination and horizontal intensity on April 27) are 
shown in fifrs. 1 and 2. 



Fig. 1.— Potsdam : Declination, April 27, 1894. 




Wilhelmshaven (Dr. C. Borgen), 53° 31' 52" N., 8" 8' 48" E. The traces 
on the magnetic curves consist of a slight broadening of the curves. The 
times read off are those of the beginning of the disturbance in each case. 

April 20, Declination 
Bifilar 
Lloyd's Balance 

April 27, Declination 
Bifilar 
Lloyd's Balance 

Pare St.Maur (M.Renou and M. Moureaux), 48° 48' 34" N., 2° 29' 38" E. 
No trace of any disturbance exists on the magnetic curves on April 20. 
On April 27 two pulsations are perceptible on the declination curve, the 
first very feeble at 7h. r)4m., the second more marked at 7h. 59m. p.m. 
The curves of the two components of magnetic force are apparently undis- 
turbed. Two bars of copper with bililar suspension, orientated N.S. and 



h 


m. 


5 


30 P.M. 


n< 


3 trace. 


5 


30 P.M. 


7 


55 „ 


7 


57 „ 


7 


57 „ 



loO • REPOKT — 1894. 

E.W., show not the least sign of any disturbance. 'The movement,' 
M. Renou remarks, ' is therefore magnetic and not mechanical.' 

Fig. 2.— Potsdam : Horizontal Intensity, April 27, 1894. 




Utrecht (M. M. Snellen), 52° 5' 9" N., 5° 7' 55" E. April 27, the 
nmgnetic diagrams show unmistakable traces. For copies of them I am 

Fig. 3.— Utrecht : DecUnation, April 27, 1894. 




indebted to M. Snellen. That of the flecliiiation is reproduced in fig. 3. 
The following are the times of the beginning of the oscillations :— 



ON EARTH TREMORS. 151 

h. m. s. 

April 27. Decimation 7 57 13 p.m. 

Horizontal intensity . . . . 7 56 3-t „ 
Vertical intensity . . . . 7 56 10 „ 

Kew (Mr. C. Chree), 51° 38' 6" N., 0° 18 47" W. ' There is a very 
small but unmistakable movement in the horizontal force curve, and a 
simultaneous extremely slight suggestion of a movement in the declina- 
tion curve. Careful measurements give 8h. Om. p.m. as the mean Green- 
wich time of the middle of the movement on the horizontal force curve, 
and 7h. 59m. p.m. as that for the declination curve. There is not the 
faintest trace of movement in the vertical force curve.' 

Birmingham, 52° 28' N., 1° 54' W. The pulsations were first seen on 
April 27 at 7h. 59m. p.m. Between 8h. Im. and 8h. 3m. 20s. the image passed 
the cross wire twenty times, giving an average duration of 14 seconds for 
each oscillation. Between 8h. 8m. and 8h. 10m. 2s. the same number of 
oscillations was completed, the average duration of each being 12-2 seconds. 
The amplitude was determined by adjusting the image of the disc of light 
so that at one limit of its movement its edge coincided with the cross- 
wire of the telescope. At 7h. 59m. the range was equal to three-quarters 
of the diameter of the disc. The whole diameter, it was afterwards found, 
is equivalent to 0-98 inch of the scale, so that the trace of the disturbance 
on a photographic recording apparatus in the same position as the scale 
would have been 18 mm. in breadth. As the angular value of the scale- 
divisions had not been ascertained since the beginning of August 1893 a 
new determination was made on the evenings of May 16-18. The mean 
of twenty-four pairs of tilts of 2" is 6-66 ±-08 inches of the scale. Thus, 
at 7h. 59m. the range was 0"-22. After this I believe it slightly increased 
until 8h. 2m. or 8h. 3m. At 8h. 5m. it was 0"-16. It then rapidly and 
almost continually diminished, being 0"-ll at 8h. S^m., 0"-08 at 8h. 7m., 
0"-05 at 8h. 8m., and 0"-03 at 8h. 12m. The movement then became so 
small that it could only be estimated. It was about 0"-01 at 8h. 14m., 
0"-005 at 8h. 16m. At 8h. 17m. there was a single oscillation of 0"-015. 
From 8h. 18m. to 8h. 19m. the image was steady, but at the latter time 
the range suddenly increased to 0"-03, but diminished after a few oscilla- 
tions, until at 8h. 28m. the image was steady again. After this time no 
movement so great as 0"-003 could with any certainty be detected.^ 

In addition to the above records it should be stated that the magnetic 
curves on April 27 have been examined at the following observatories 
with a negative result : Coimbra, Greenwich, Lisbon, Madrid, Nantes, 
Nice, and Stonyhurst. 

The difference between the distances of Athens and Wilhelmshaven 

from Atalante is 1,910 km., and the difference between the recorded times 

at the same places is about 12m. 55s. on April 20, and about 10m. 9s. on 

April 27. Assuming that these times correspond to the same phase of 

the disturbance, we obtain 2-46 and 3-14 km. per second respectively for 

the average velocities on these days. These give : - — 

Time at epicentrum on April 20 = 5h. IGm. 25s. p.m., G.M.T. 

„ 27 = 7h. 45m. 40s. P.M. „ 

Using these values of the initial time, we have the following table : — 

' Owing to the lag of the mirror through the oil these estimates are probably 
less than the actual amounts. When the frame of the pendulum is tilted suddenly 
through an angle of 2", the image at first moves quickly, but during the first 
15 seconds not more than half its total deflection is accomplished. 

^ Since the duration of the disturbance at Athens on April 27 was only 12 seconds, 



152 



REPORT — 1894. 



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154 EEPORT — 1894. 

The values of the velocity in this table have been obtained on the 
supposition that all phases of the disturbance left the origin simul- 
taneously at the initial times given above. This is of course in the 
highest degree improbable, but it was so taken in the absence of any 
certainty as to which phase corresponded to these times. It is evident 
that the discordances between many of the above results must in a great 
measure be due to tliis assumption. For instance, on April 27, the 
beginning of the pulsations was registered at Charkow one minute sooner 
than at Nicolaiew, though the former place is 460 km. further from the 
epicentrum. Both stations being observatories, the explanation appears 
to be that the pendulum at Charkow was affected by earlier pulsations of 
smaller amplitude.' 

The most probable estimate of the velocity is, I believe, that derived 
from the epochs of the beginning of the larger pulsations. Including 
those obtained from magnetographs, which are not disturbed by the small 
initial movements, we have the following results ^ for the mean velocity : — 

April 20. 2-08 ± -08 km. per sec. 
„ 27. 3-21 ± -07 km. 

Future Work of the Committee. 

The grant of 50Z. awarded last year to the Committee has been spent 
in providing for the foundation, &c., of the bifilar pendulum at Bir- 
mingham, and (in part) for one of the improved pendulums with photo- 
graphic recording apparatus, to be placed in that city under the charge of 
the Secretary. 

The Committee consider that it would be desirable to test the working 
of the pendulum by placing another of similar construction at a short 
distance from it. The comparison would probably be made for a year, 
and the second instrument would afterwards be available for use else- 
where. They accordingly request that they be reappointed, with a grant 
of 100^. 

it follows that either (1) the instrument there was only affected by the larger 
oscillations, or (2) that the rapid vibrations which constitute the earthquake shock 
were distinct from the pulsations, and that the former alone were registered. The 
initial times above given were obtained on the supposition that the former alterna- 
tive is correct. It seems possible, however, that the pulsations are not merely the 
distant equivalent of the shock, but that they may travel with a diflferent, and pro- 
bably greater, velocity. If this be the case, the estimates of the velocity may be 
a little too great. 

' If the velocity of the pulsations is independent of their amplitude, these 
small pulsations must have left the origin more than sis minutes before the larger 
ones (as if the earth's crust slowly quivered before giving way), and might possibly 
be utilised for giving earthquake warnings (see Professor Mikie's suggestion in 
Seismol. Journ., vol. i. 1893, pp. 10-15). 

^ The first of these is calculated from six observations (Nos. 11, 14, 25, 27, 
31, 33), the second from thirteen observations (Nos. 8, 11, 14, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32. 33, 
36,37,38.41). 



ON EARTH TREMORS. 155 



APPENDIX I. 

Account of Observations made with the Horizontal Pendulum at Nicolaiew.^ 

By Professor S. Kortazzi. 

More than a year has elapsed since I began to make observations 
with the pendulum of M. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz installed in the cellar 
of the observatory, but I have not as yet published any detailed reports on 
this subject, with the exception of a brief account given at one of the 
meetings of the Astronomical Society at St. Petersburg. . . . The more 
or less regular oscillations of the pendulum, as well as the abrupt per- 
turbations which it often experiences, depend on several physical agents, 
and I find it necessary to continue the series of observations for several 
months to be in a position to obtain from them more or less sound results. 

For the present I can only draw some general conclusions : — 

(1) The horizontal pendulum may be used as a very sensible and very 
trustworthy seismograph, which does not fail to record all the oscillations 
of the ground and tremors of the earth's crust, even in the case of very 
distant earthquakes. Comparing the results obtained here with those at 
Strassburg during the first three months of this year, we find more than 
a dozen disturbances registered at the same time by both instruments. 

(2) Different seismic disturbances produce extremely varied move- 
ments of the pendulum. On the enclosed copy of the photograph, which 
registers the positions from April 3, 8h., to April 9, 7h., are shown two 
feeble disturbances on April 4 at 22h. 40m. and April 6, 5-5h., and a 
very strong one on April 8 at 4-Oh. The latter corresponds to the earth- 
quake wliich took place at this time in Servia and Southern Hungary. 
For three-quarters of an hour the pendulum was very strongly disturbed ; 
it even changed abruptly its normal position ; and it was only at 6h. that 
it became steady, whilst no one in the whole country felt then the least 
movement of the ground. On August 17, however, at 4|h. mean time, 
a rather pronounced eartliquake occurred at Nicolaiew itself, and was 
observed by a great number of the inhabitants, whilst the pendulum only 
experienced a feeble disturbance similar to that shown on the curve on 
April 6 at 10-5h. (but much more feeble), when the pendulum was 
purposely disturbed by a feeble current of air under its cover. 

(3) The pendulum is subject to periodic diurnal and annual oscilla- 
tions. The amplitude of the former does not on an average exceed 0"-l, 
whilst that of the latter attains 3" or 4". These last changes may be 
explained by the inclination of the upper layers of the ground produced 
by the annual changes of temperature at the depth of the pillar ; whilst 
the diurnal oscillations, it seems to me, cannot be explained in the same 
way, because not only the ground at the depth of 15 feet, at which the 
pillar of the pendulum is founded, but even the air of the cellar, does not 

' Communicated in two letters (dated August 31, 1893, and July 10, 1894) to the 
Secretary, the second being an abstract of a report to be presented to the Societe 
AstroDomique Russe. 



156 



REPORT — 1894. 



experience any changes of temperature throughout the day. On the 
enclosed copy the diurnal oscillations are shown very distinctly. 

In my letter of August ^f, 1893, I pointed out the three principal 
kinds of movement which the horizontal pendulum experiences : (1) the 

annual or long-period deviations 



Fig. 4. — Earthquake Disturbances of 
March 21-22, 1894. 



which M. de Rebeur-Paschwitz 
calls ' Nullpunctbewegungen ; ' (2) 
the diurnal deviations ; and (3) 
seismic disturbances. To these must 
be added (4) disturbances during 
storms, probably arising from the 
movement of the building, produc- 
ing tremors in the ground ; and 
(5) periodic deviations of short 
period, in all probability of seismic 
origin. 

The deviations (1) are shown 
in the continual movement of the 
pendulum in the same direction,, 
with slight digressions, lasting 
several months, apparently during 
the transition from winter to sum- 
mer, and vice versd. In the present 
position of my instrument the pen- 
dulum inclines towards the south in 
spring and summer, and towards 
the north in winter. . . . Here I 
must remark that the amplitude of 
the annual changes of temperature 
in the cellar where the instrument 
is placed does not exceed 6° R. 
(13°-5 F.), whilst the changes of the 
diurnal period are quite insensible. 
In fig. 4 are seen two seismic 
disturbances on March 21-22, 1894. 
The second of these (beginning at 
Oh. 43m. Nicolaiew mean time)' 
coincides with the disturbance ob- 
served at all the Italian seismic 
stations, and also registered by the 
magnetographs of Pola, Potsdam, 
and Wilhelmshaven (see * Boll. 
Meteorico dell' XJfficio centrale . . . 
al CoUegio Romano,' No. 135, Sup- 
plement© 103),andwas probably pro- 
duced by the earthquake in Japan 
(7h. 27m. 49s. Tokio mean time). 
Four to five hours earlier another 
rather strong disturbance is seen 
on the photogram, which does not 
coincide with any observed earth- 
quake, but which was also registered by the horizontal pendulum at 
Charkow 




ON EARTH TREMORS. 



157 



The movements of the pendulum during a storm on May 4, 1893, are 
represented in fig. 5 (1 mm.s=0"-044). 

Fig. 5. — Movements during a Storm on May 4, 1893. 



-I .i[<lii^<iiM.iil>i*IIALitnli<>iniii-u 



lliKMIM'lII^'Q'Wtrt*^'**"^ 



Lastly ti«-. 6 (1 mm.=0"-025) serves to illustrate the deviations (5), 
when the' pendulum, without being agitated, is never at rest, but for 
several hours inclines sometimes in one direction, sometimes in the other. 
During the month of March, 1894, such disturbances frequently occurred. 

Fig. 6.— Disturbances of Short Period (probably seismic) on March 5, 1894 




On the whole, the observations of the horizontal pendulum may be of 
much service in studying the different movements of the earth's crust and 
of the ground. 

Amongst other things it seems to me difficult to explain the oscilla- 
tions of the diurnal period observed here, as well as at Potsdam, &c., by 
M. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, and at Charkow by Professor Lewitzky, since 
the temperature and relative humidity of the air in the neighbourhood of 
the instrument remain constant throughout the day. 

Havin«^ at my disposal an almost uninterrupted series of observations 
for fifteen months in the same position of the instrument (the axis of the 
pendulum in the prime vertical), I wished to investigate if the moon 
produced any influence on these oscillations. For this purpose I divided 
the whole series into sixty successive groups, corresponding to the different 
phases of the moon, from which I have drawn the conclusion that the 
influence of the moon is insensible, or, if it exists, that it is masked by 
the different accidental disturbances. After this, having divided the 
whole series into five consecutive parts (three lunar months in each), I 
have obtained the following table of the deviations of the pendulum from 
its mean position for every two hours (astronomical time) in thousandths 
of a second ' (0"-001) :— 



— 


Oh. 


2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 221i. 


< 


1893 
Mar. 14-June 9 . 
June 10-Sept. 5 . 
Sept. 6-Dec. 3 . 
Dec. 4-Mar. 2 . 

1894 
Mar. 3-May .'iO . 


-10-6 
-38-6 
-13-2 
- 1-6 

-11-5 


+ 15-7 

- 9-3 

- 2-0 
+ 19-8 

+ 10-7 


+ 32-0 

+ 17-8 
+ 10-2 
+ 25-8 

+ 28-7 


+ 39-5 

+ 38-2 
+ 16-1 
+ 26-4 

+ 35-1 


+ 29-2 
+ 42-3 

+ 18-7 
+ 20-7 

+ 30-3 


+ 25-8 
+39-3 
+ 18-0 
+ 11-9 

+ 25-6 


+ 11-5 
+ 26-6 
+ 12-9 
+ 4-6 

+ 12-7 


- 6-8 
+ 10-0 
+ 4-1 

- 6-0 

- 50 


-25-7 

- 8-3 

- 7-7 
-12-4 

-22-8 


-41-4 
-29-2 
-17-7 
-27-0 

-37-5 


-41-5 -28-5 
-50-1 i- 45-4 

-20-5 1-19-7 
-32-7 i -27-1 

j 

-39-7 -26-8 

i 


It 
0-081 
U-092 
0-039 
0-059 

0-075 



' A - sign denotes a deviation to the north, a + sign to the south. 



158 REPORT— 1894. 

We see, therefore, that the amplitude of the deviations is greatest 
during the summer months. It will be remarked that the first and last 
series, corresponding nearly to the same times of the year, give almost 
identical deviations. 



APPENDIX II. 



The Bifilar Pendulum at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. 
By Professor R. Copeland, F.R.S.E., Astronomer Royal for Scotland. 

This instrument was placed in position by Mr. H. Darwin on 
March 23, 1894. It is, with slight exceptions, similar to the instrument 
erected at Birmingham, in April 1893, for Mr. C. Davison, and which 
has been fully described in the British Association Report for 1893, 
pp. 291-303. The exceptions referred to are : (1) the arrangement of the 
mirror of the Edinburgh instrument at right angles to the plane of the 
suspending wires, and (2) the surrounding of the instrument by a heavy 
casing to prevent, as far as possible, any movement of the mirror due to 
change of temperature resulting from the lighting of the illuminating 
lamp or other cause. 

The whole apparatus, including the scale and lamp, is placed in a hut 
erected for the purpose over a trench running east and west, formed 
within the Observatory grounds by removing the soil and levelling the 
rock. A hole 2 feet deep is bored in the rock near the west end of the 
trench, and into this is leaded the heavy iron supporting bar. This bar 
is 1^ inch in diameter, and projects above the surface of the rock suf- 
ficiently far to allow the iron plate carrying the instrument to be fixed to 
it by screws. A slate slab 18 inches square and 1^ inch thick, in which 
a circular hole is cut 9^ inches in diameter, is placed round the iron 
plate, but not touching it, and is supported on a wooden frame at the 
level of the plate. On this slate is placed a square cast-iron casing, 
6^ inches deep, which surrounds the body of the instrument, including 
the mirror-box. On this, again, rests a second slate with a circular hole, 
6^ inches in diameter, through which passes the head of the instrument 
and the upper part of the brass tube containing the fi'ame. The head is 
covered by a stoneware jar resting on the upper slate. 

The cast-iron casing surrounding the body of the instrument is 
perforated by an aperture 4^: inches in diameter opposite the mirror- 
window. To prevent undue access of air, and consequent dewing of the 
window, a truncated cone of sheet copper is fastened inside this aperture, 
with its smaller end turned inwards towards the instrument. In spite of 
this precaution, liowever, much difi&culty has been experienced from the 
dewing of the glass, and a wooden shutter lined with green baize has 
been arranged to still further prevent the circulation of air. The shutter 
is raised when necessary by pulling a string from the east end of the hut. 
In addition vessels containing chloride of calcium have been placed in 
the hut and inside the cast-iron casing. Much benefit has been derived 
from these arrangements. The casing is also perforated with holes to 
admit the handles of the tangent screws and the pipes of the bellows 
used for ascertaining the number of divisions of the scale correspond- 
ing to a known tilt of the instrument. In both cases provision has been 



ON EARTH TREMORS. 159 

made for preventing tremor being conveyed to the instrument by the use 
of these parts of the apparatus, the whole of such tremor being taken up 
by the casing. 

The scale and small benzoline illuminating lamp are placed at the 
east end of the hut. A frame, supported in a horizontal position by two 
strong iron feet fixed by beds of cement laid on the rock, is traversed by 
the lamp-stand, which carries an index along the edge of the scale. The 
readings are taken when the image of a wire placed vertically in front of 
a circular hole in the lamp- screen coincides with the vertical wire in a 
fixed theodolite. The scale is divided into millimetres, and the effective 
length of it traversed by the index is 382 mm., and it is distant 10 feet 
( = 3,048 mm.) from the centi-e of the instrument. If I be the distance of 
the lamp from the point of the scale which is due east of the mirror, 
the azimuth, north or south of east, of the normal to the mirror is 

•i tan"' . "When ^=191 this becomes 1° 47' 3.5'', and represents 

304o 

the rotation of the miri'or to each side of the north and south position 

within the range of the scale. When the rotation exceeds this amount 

the mirror has to be brought back to its north and south position by 

turning the long handle attached to the southern levelling screw. 

The plane of the suspending wire is in the east and west direction 
with the longer section of the wire toward the east ; consequently, as the 
face of the mirror is towai'ds the east, a tilt of the upper support of the 
wire towards the north produces a corresponding deflection of the normal 
to the mirror also to the north ; hence tilts in the north and south 
direction only are measured by the instrument. 

From measures of the dimensions of the instrument which have been 
supplied by Mr. Horace Darwin, it is computed that the movement of 
the lever, attached to the micrometer screw against which the top of 
the frame is pressed, through the fixed amount of 13 mm. for which the 
apparatus is set, produces a tilt of 2-016 seconds of arc in the upper 
support of the suspending wire. As soon as the pendulum was mounted 
experiments were made to ascertain its sensitiveness, or the scale value of 
this fixed amount of tilt. The mean of nine measures taken on March 26 
gave 62'4 mm. of the scale ^= 2"'016. This was considered excessive, 
and steps were taken to reduce it gradually. The mean of four measures 
made between May 5 and 8 gave 21 '2 mm. — 2"'016. Since the last of 
these dates the two levelling screws, whose combined movement alters 
the sensitiveness, have not been interfered with. Observations of the 
sensitiveness have, however, been made occasionally, four measures 
between May 16 and June 9 giving 19*3 mm., 17'2 mm., 20'0 mm., and 
23'7 mm. respectively, or an average of 20*0 mm., equal to 2"-016. Since 
June 9 four measures have been made, but these give somewhat anomalous 
and as yet unexplained results. 

In the absence of any photographic arrangement for giving a con- 
tinuous record of the position of the mirror, it has been decided to take 
readings at each full minute from five minutes before to five minutes 
after Paris mean noon every day. This has been carried out from 
May 26 up to the present time, with the exception of a few days, when 
the readings were rendered impossible by a deposit of moisture on the 
mirror window or other cause. These observations were made by Mr. 
T. Heath and Mr. A. J. Ramsay. 

On no occasion has any unsteadiness or oscillation of the mirror been 



160 REPORT — 1894, 

observed, though a slight change of position appears to take place during 
the time of observation, owing possibly to the presence of the observer or 
the heat of the lamp. This change, however, is very slight, and the 
mean of the eleven observations of each set is taken as showing the 
position of the mirror for that day at Paris noon. These mean scale 
readings have been laid on a curve with the date as one argument and 
the divisions of the scale as the other. The result shows that the mirror 
has been constantly turning in azimuth from the east towards the north 
during the whole period over which the observations have extended 
(May 26 to July 31). The total amount of this movement has been 
517 mm. on the scale in sixty-six days, or an angular rotation of 9° 37' 23" 
for the ray falling on the mirror from the lamp ; which is, of course, 
equivalent to an angular rotation of 4° 48' 42" in the mirror itself. 

If, now, 20 mm. (^2"*016) be taken as the sensitiveness of the instru- 
ment over all this time — though about this number there is some uncer- 
tainty — the total tilt of the instrument towards the north appears to have 
been fifty-two seconds of arc in sixty-six days. The stability of the nadir- 
point of the mural circle in the adjoining observatory proves that this tilt 
must either be in the superficial layer of the rock to which the instrument 
is attached or, which is far more probable, in the pendulum itself. 

The experiments confirm the results obtained elsewhei'e, that the 
instrument, while unfitted to show the slower progressive tilts of the 
earth's surface, is pre-eminently suited, by its great sensitiveness and 
momentary stability, for the indication of earth tremors. However, to 
bring out the full powers of the apparatus it is obviously necessary to 
secure a continuous photographic record of the position of the mirror. 

M. Antoine d'Abbadie, at whose cost the pendulum was supplied, has 
caused simultaneous observations to be taken with his ' nadirane ' at 
Abbadia in north latitude 43° 22''8 and longitude 7m. Os. west of Green- 
wich. The readings at the two stations have, however, not yet been com- 
pared. 



The Electrolytic Methods of Qxiantitative Analysis. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting] of Professor J, Emerson Reynolds (Chair- 
man), Dr. C. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Frankland, 
Professor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
Mr, D. H. Nagel, Mr. T, Turner, and Mr, J. B. Coleman, 

The first work undertaken by the Committee has been the compilation 
of the bibliography of the subject, with which some progress has been 
made. 

In addition, the plan on which the experimental part of the work is 
to be carried out has been arranged. This is to include the investigation 
of the methods for the determination of the following metals : silver, 
lead, mercury, bismuth, cadmium, tin, antimony, iron, zinc, manganese ; 
and subsequently of the methods for the separation of these metals both 
from one another and from other metals. 

This is all the Committee undertook to do when they were appointed 
without a grant of money. 

They now ask to be reappointed and with a grant of 40^. 



ON THE JBIBLIOGRArnV OF SrECTROSCOPY. 



IGl 



Bihliorjraphii of Specfroscopi/. — Report of the Committee, considing of 
Professor H. McLeod, Professor W. C. Roberts Austen, Mr. H. 
G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

The work of searching for, and arranging chronologically under proper 
heads, the titles of papers on subjects relating to spectroscopy has been 
proceeded with by the Committee, and a list is appended which brings the 
catalogue of spectroscopic literature up to the beginnmg of 1894. 

It will be a subject for consideration whether the reappointment of 
the Committee would be advisable. Considerable difficulty arises in find- 
inf any one who can gratuitously devote sufficient time to the work of 
obtaining and verifying references to papers, and who possesses at the 
same time the requisite facilities for doing so. 

In the meantime, however, the Committee ask to be reappointed for 
one more year. 

PAPERS ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH SPECTROSCOPY. 

Continuation of the List puhlisJied i?i the Report for 1889. 

[[n cases where it has not been found possible to verify a reference, the latter in 
placed in brackets, in the same column as the title of the paper. A list of the 
chief abbreviations used will be found at the end of the catalogue.] 



\V. Wernicke . 
N. von Konkoly 



C. Eraun 



W. E. Wilson 



ll.vonKovesligethy 



1894. 



INSTRUMENTAL. 
1881. 

Neues Fliissigkeitsprisma fiir 
Spectralapparate. 

Ein kleines Universalspectroscop 
(' Centralzeitung f. Opt. u. Mech.' 

1881, No. 10). 

1882. 

Sternspectralapparat in A'erbin- 
dung mit einem Colorimeter 
(' Centr.-Zeit. f. Opt. u. Mech.' 

1882, No. 1). 

1883. 

Verbessertes Prisma ' it vision 
diiecte.' (Read April 23.) 



A Reflecting Spectroscope. (Roy. 
Soc. Dublin, Nov. 19.) 

Ueber ein neues Kolorimeter, zu- 
gleich Spectralphotometer. ('Cen- 
tralzeitung f. Opt. u. Mech.' vi. 
55.) 



' Zeitschr. f . Instrumenten- 
kunde,' i. 353-357. 

' Zeitschr. f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' i. 273. 



' Zeitschr. f. Instrumenten- 
kunde,'ii.lll-112(Abs.). 
148-149 (Abs.); Beibliit- 
ter, vi. 230-231 (Abs.) 



'Ber. Erzb. Haynald'schen 
Obs. zu Kalocsa in Un- 
garn,' 1883, 133-138 , 
'Zeitschr. f . ' Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' vii. 399-400 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 
335-336 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xxix. 1G7 (Ab?.) 



M 



162 



REPORT — 1894. 



A. Konig , 



Noack 



Instrumental, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888. 
1885. 



Ein neues Spectralphotometer. 
(Read May 22.) 



Ein einfacher Brenner fiir mono- 
chromatisches Liclit. (' Zeitschr. 
zur Forderung- des pliys. Unter- 
richts,' ii. 67-60.) 



'Verh. phys. Gcfjollscli . 
Berl.' III. Jahrg. .00-.-,;! ; 
'Nature,' xxxii. 1!)U1!12 
(Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,' i.x. 7'M 
(Abs.). 



L. Respiglii . 



C. Braun 



1886. 

Sullo spettroseopio obbiettivo. 
(Read Dec. 5.) 



Projectirter Halbprisma - Spectro- 
scop. Universal-Sternspectroscop. 



' Rend. R. Accad. dei Lin- 
cei' [4], ii. (2nd sera.), 
315-321; 'BeiblatteiVxi. 
701 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
XXXV. 405 (Abs.) 

' Bcr. Erzb. Haynald'schen 
Obs. zu Kalocsa in Un- 
garn,' ISSC, 149-150, 
151-159; ' Zeitschr. f. Jn- 
strumentenkundc,' viii. 
288-289 (Abs.) 



O. Tumlirz . 



C. C. Hutclnns 



N. von Konkoly 



1887. 

Ein einfacher Apparat znr Demon- 
stration der Umkehrung der Na- 
triumlinien. (Feb.) 



A New Photographic Spectroscope. 
(July). 

Ein einfacher Apparat zam Ablesen 
der Spectrallinien an photogra- 
phirten Spectren. (Nov.) 



' Repert. der Phys.' xxiii. 
404-405; ' Beibiiitter.'xi. 
707 (Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f. 
phys. u. chem. Untcr- 
richt,' 33-34 (Abs.) 

'Amei-. J. Sci.' xxxiv. 58- 
59; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxiv. 
221-234. 

' Centralzcitung f. Opt. u. 
Mech.' viii. 241-242 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xii. 45-4t> 
(Abs.) 



Th.W.Engelmann. 



H, W. Vogel 



18S8. 

Ueber ein Spectroscop ' a vision 
directe.' (Jan. 1.) 

Ein Siderospectrograph. (Feb.) . 



Das Microspectronieter. (June) 



Universal-Spectralapparat. (June) 



'Centralzcitung f. Opt. u. 
Mech.' ix. 1-3 ; ' lieibliit- 
ter,' xii. 657 (AVjs.) 

' Centralzcitung f. 0[it. ii. 
Mech.' ix. 25-27 ; • liei- 
bliitter,' xii. 335 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. wiss. Micro- 
skopic,' v. 289-296: 
'Archives Neerlandaises.' 
xxiii. 82-92 ; • Beibliit- 
ter,' xiii. 216 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' ii. 862 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. phys. u. chem. 
Unterrichl.'i. 231; • I'.ei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 506 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



1G3 



A. Bliimel 



Instrumental, 1888, 1889, 1890. 

Apparat zur Bestiitigung des Snel- 
lius'schen Brechungsgesetzes, unci 
zur Bestimraung des Brechiings- 
exponenten von Fliissigkeiten. 
(Dec.) 



' Zcitsclir. f . plu's. n. cliera. 
Unterricht,' ii. lC2-lli."); 
' Beibliittcr,' xiv. 7G2 
(Abs.) 



J. S. Ames 



Prazmowski 



Ph. Pellin 



G. Hufner 
IT. Ebevt 



N. PiltschikofE 
11. Demichel . 

A. Dupre . 



1889. 

The Concave Grating in Theory 
and Practice. (March 27.) 

Ein Spectroscop. (March) . 



Kefractomfetre de M. A. Dupr6. 
Appareil pour mesurer les indices 
de refraction des liquides ou des 
gaz, construit pour le laboratoire 
municipal de Paris. (Read April 
19.) 

Ueber ein neues Spectrophoto- 
meter. (June 28.) 

Optische Mittheilungen. 1. Ein 
Spectrograph mit einem Hohl- 
spiegel. 2. Ueber das Absorptions- 
spectrum des lods. 3. Ueber das 
Leuchten der Flammen. 4. Ueber 
die Anwendung des Doppler'schen 
Principes auf leuchtende Gas- 
moleciile. (Read July 7). 

E6fractom&tre -ci lentille pour 
liquides. (Sept.) 

Nouvel appareil pour la recomposi- 
tion de la lumiere. (Sept.) 

Un refractom&tre. (' J. de phys. 
616mentaire,' 1889, 177-182.) 



'Phil. Mag.' [.j], xxvii. 
3G9-384 ;'Beiblatter,'xiii. 
673 (Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. Instrnraon- 
tenkunde.' ix. lOG (Abs.) ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 495- 
496 (Abs.) 

' J. dePhys.' [2], viii.4n- 
415; 'Beibl;ltter,'xiv.;!5- 
36 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iii. 562-571. 

' Sitzungsb. phys. - mod. 
Gesellsch. Erlangen.'xxi. 
1-8; ' Beibliltter,' xiii. 
942-944 (Abs.); ' Zeitschr. 
f. physikal. Chem.' iv. r>79 
(Ab.s".) 



' J. dePhj's.' [2],viii. 41G- 
420. 

'La Nature,' xxxiii. 21)7- 
238 ; ' Zeitschr. f . phys. u. 
chem. Unterricht,' iii. 90. 



IT. KriLss 



M. d'Ar.sonval 



II. Kriiss . 



1890. 

Vorrichtung zur automatischen 
Einstellung der Prismen eines 
Spectralapparates auf das Mini- 
mum der Ablenkung. (March.) 

Sur un spectro-colorimetre. (Read 
April 18.) 

Spectralapparat mit automatischer 
Einstellung der Prismen. (April.) 



'Zeitschr. f. Instrnmen- 
tenkundc,' x. 97-100 ; 
' Beibliltter,' xiv. 505-506 
(Abs.) 

'J. Soc. franQ. de phys.' 
1890, 109-110; 'Chem. 
News,' Ixiv. 293 (Abs.) 

' Festschr. d. math. Ge- 
sellsch. in Hanibmg-,' 
1890, IL Theil, Iu3-1.-.V; 
'Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' v. 285 (Abs.) ; 
' Centralzeitung f. Optik 
u. Mech.' xi. '37-38 
(Abs.) 

m2 



Wl 



REPORT — 1894. 



Instrumental, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893. 



0. Lohse 



F. Scbeiner 



P. Glan 



S. r. Thompson 



Construction eines Sternspectro- 
graphen. (April.) 



Apparat zur Verbreitung von 
photographisclien Sternspectren. 
(May.) 

Ein spectro-saccharimeter. (Sept.) 



On the Use of Fluor spar in Optical 
Instruments. (Sept.) 



' Centralzeitunar f. Optik. 
u. Mech.' xi. 85-86 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 588 
(Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' Xo. 29(;9 
279-282; ' Kature,' xlii. 
303 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Zeit' xiv. 130G- 
1307; 'Zeitschr. f. anal. 
Chem.' XXX. 212-''ll 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [.-,], xxxi. 
120-123. 



L. MacL 



C. Fury 



Y. Schumann 



1891. 

Ueber ein Interf erenzref ractometer. 
(Head Nov. 5.) 



Sur un nouveau refractometre. 
(Read Dec. 28.) 



Vacuumspectrograpbie 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. 'W'ien.' 
ci. Ila. 5-10; 'Zeitschr. f. 
Instrumentenkunde,' xii. 
89-93. 

'C. R.' cxiii. 1028-1030; 
' Nature,' xiv. 239-240 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliltter,' xvi. 
273-274 (Abs.); 'Zeitschr. 
f . physikal. Chem.' ix. 757 
(Abs.) 

'Chem. News,' Ixiv. 27."; 
' Beibliltter,' xvi. 278 
(Abs.) 



E. I'ringsheim 



A. Crova 



il. E. .T. G.duBois. 



.J. Scbeiner 



1892 

Argandlampe Mr Spectralbeobach- 
tungen. (March.) 



Sur la mesure optique des hautes 
temperatures. (Read April 19.) 

Ein Intensivnatronbrenner. (May.) 



Ueber neuere Spectroscopconstruc- 
tionen. (Nov.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem,' 
[N.F.], xiv. 42(3-427 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 76G (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxiv. 941-943; 
' Beibliitter," xvii. 31G 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' xii. l()5-li)7 ; 
'Beiblatter,' xvii. 331- 
335 (Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' xii. 3()5-374 ; 
'Beibliltter,' xvii. 1051- 
1072 (Abs.) 



C. Fcrv 



II. \Y. Wiley 



1893. 
Un refractometre. (Read March 10.) 



Lamp for Constant Monocbromatic 
Flame. (April 13.) 



' Bull. soc. cbim. [3], ix. 
244-248 ; ' Keihljiiter,' 
xviii. 77-78 (Abs.) 

' J. Araer. Chem. Soc' xv. 
121-123; 'Chem. Cen- 
tralbl.' 1893, II. 514 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY, 



ig; 



F. Schmidt 
G. Hiiusch. 



A. Ki)nig 



Otto Voarel 



and 



E. H. Amagat and 
F. Jean. 



A. E. Tntton 



Neuer Helmholtz'scher 
niischapparat. (Maj'.) 



Farben- 



IxsTEUMEXTAL, 1893, 1894— EMISSION Spectea, 1879, 1884, 1885. 

'Zeitechr. f. Instru- 
mentenkunde,' .xiii. £00- 
204; ' Beibliltter,' xviii. 
112-11:5 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Clieni.' 
[N.F.], xlvi. 527 (Abs.) 

' Zeitsohr. f. anorg. Chcm.' 
V. 42-62 : ' Ber.' >:x\i. 
(Ref.), 1019-1020 ; 'Boi- 
bljitter,' xviii. 84-85 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Lxvi. II. 594-595 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. anal. Choni.' 
xxxii. 79 (Abs.) ; ' lioi- 
bliitter,' xv. 33 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixvii. S.'i 
(Abs.) 



Ein neues Spectralphotometer. 
(Read June 17.) 

Ueber die Anwendung der Leucht- 
gassauerstotlflamme zii spectral- 
analytischen Mineialuntersuchun- 
gen. (Sept.) 



Ein Refractometer. 



1894. 

On an Instrument of Precision for 
producing Monochromatic Light 
of any desired Wave-length, 
and its Use in the Investigation of 
the Optical Properties of Crystals. 
(Read Feb. 1.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' Iv. 111- 
113 (Abs.) 



W. W. Jacques 



II. 

EMISSION, SPECTEA. 

1879. 

Eistribution of Heat in the Spectra 
of various Sources of Radiation. 
(Presented April 9.) 



'Proc.Amer. Acad.' [X.S.], 
vi. 142-163. 



0. Schumann 



C. Piazzi Smyth 



C. Fievez 



1884. 

Ueber die Farbe und die Helligkeit 
des electrischen Gliihlichtes. 
(May.) 



Micrometrical Measures of Gaseous 
Spectra under High Pressure. 
(Read June 16.) 



RechercLes sur le spectre de car- 
bone dans Tare electrique, en 
rapport avec le spectre de comf'tes 
et le spectre solaire. (Read Dec. 6.) 



' Elect rotechnische Zei- 
tung,' V. 220-228 ; ' Zeit- 
schr. fiir Electrote.chnik,' 
iv. 402 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblut- 
ter,' viii. 532-533 (Abs.) 

'Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb.' 
xxxii. 415-460 ; ' Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Edinb.' xii. 
696-702 (Abs.); 'Bei- 
bliltter,' ix. 421 - 422 
(Abs.), X. 76G-767 (Abs.) 

' Mem. Couronn^s, Roy. 
Acad. Belg.' xlvii. 4 pp. ; 
'Beibliittcr,' ix. 631 (Abs.) 



P. T. Cleve 



Recherches 
(Feb.) 



1885. 
sur le Samarium. 



'Bull. Soc. Chim.' [2], 
xliii. 161-172 : ' Amer. J. 
Sci.'[3],xxix. 401(Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' li. 145 
(Abs.) 



166 



KEPOHT — 1894. 



Emission Spectra, 1885, 188G, 1887. 



C. Fiuvcz , 



A. F. Sundell 



Fcihr • t 



Recherches sur le spectre du car- 
bone dans Tare electrique, en rap- 
port avec le spectre des cometes 
et le spectre solaire. (Feb. 7.) 

Spectralversuche. (May 2G.) 



Ein Beitrag zur quant itativen Spec- 
tralanalyse. (July 15.) 



Bull. Acad. Belg.' [:i], \x. 
75-79 (Report of M. fcStas 
on the Pafier). 



'Acta Soc. Sclent. Fenn.' 
(Helsingfors), xv. 1!)7- 
207; 'Beibliitter,' l.x. 788- 
789 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Zeitung,' i.x. 1013- 
1011 ; 'Ber.' xviii. (Befc- 
rate). 511 (Abs.) 



B. Hassclberg 

E. Goldstein . 

V. Schumann 
H. Marwin . 



188G. 

Sur le spectre u bandes de I'azote 
et son origine. (Jan.) 

Emissionspectra erster Ordnung 
bci den Haloiden. (ReadMarchS.) 

Das zwcitc Spectrum des Wasser- 
stoffs. 

Methode zur Darstcllung der 
Spectrallinien. 



'Mem. Spettroscop. Ital.' 
XV. 1-3 ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 
349 (Abs.) 

' Verh. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.'v. 38-41 ; 'Beibliit- 
ter,' xiv. (jlG-617 (Abs.) 

'Beibliitter,' x. G98-G99 
(Abs.) 

' Laterna Magica.' iii. G- 
7 ; ' Beibliitter,' x. 707 
(Abs.) 



H. Dcslandres 



G. Mengarini . 



C. Fi6vez 



A. Griinwald . 



A. F. Sundell 



1887. 

Loi de repartition des raics et des 
bandes, commune -1 plusieurs spec- 
tres des bandes. Analogic avec 
la loi de succession des sons d'un 
cordis solide. (Read April 4.) 

II massimo d' intensity luminosa 
dello spettro solare. (Nota I., 
read June 12 ; Nota II., read June 
19.) 

Nouvelles recherches sur le spectre 
du carbone. (Read July 2.) 



Ueber die merkwiirdigen Bezie- 
liungen zvvischen dem Spektrum 
des Wasserdampfes und den Lini- 
enspektren des Wasserstoffs und 
SauerstofEs, sowie iiber die che- 
mische Struktur der beiden letz- 
tern, und ihre Dissociation in der 
Sonnenatmosphiire. (July 17.) 



Researches on Spectrum Analysis. 
(July.) 



'C. R.' civ. 972-97G; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' i. 519 (Abs.) 



'Rend.R.Accad.d.Liiicci ' 
[4], iii. 482-489, 56G-573; 
'Beibliitter,'xi.705(Abs.) 

'Bull. Acad. Belg.' [0], xiv. 
100-107 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xii. 102-103 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxvii. 199- 
214 ; ' Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxiv. 354-3G7; 'Chem. 
News.'lvi. 18G-188, 201- 
202, 223-224, 232; 'J. 
Chem. SoC hi. 1070-1071 
(Abs.); 'Nature,' xxxvi. 
501-502 (Abs.); 'Am. J. 
Sci.' [3], xxxix. 399 
(Abs.); 'Beibliitter,' xii. 
245-246 (Abs.) ; ' Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
ii. 38 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxiv. 98- 
lOG. 



ox THE lilULlOliKArilV Ul< yrECTKOSCOl'V. 



167 



E. ¥. J. Love. 



U. \V. Vogel 



W. H. Julius , 



Emission Spectea, 1887, 1888. 

On a Metliod of Discriminating 
Keal from Accidental Coinnidences 
between the Lines of Different 
Spectra : with some Applications. 
(Kead Nov. liO.) 



Photographischc Aufnahnic des 
Sauerstott'spectriims und Vurgriis- 
seruns; dcsselbens. (Kead Dec. 
23.) '^ 

Recherches bolomutriques dans le 
spectre infra-rouge. 



' Proc. rhv.-. Soc." ix. 91- 
100; 'Phil. Mag." [;-)], XXV. 
1-G ; ' J. Chem. iSoc' liv. 
542-543 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xii. 348-349 
(Abs.) ;'Zeitschr. f. phj'si- 
kal. Chem.' ii. 447 (Abs.) 

' Verh. phj's. Gesellscli. 
Berl.' vi. 142 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 311 (Abs.) 

' Archives Nuerlandaiscs,' 
xxii. 310-383. 



A. von Oettingen 



J. Trowbridge and 
W. E. Sabine. 



H. ^\^ Vogel . 



G. Govi 



E. Lommel 



C. Fievez 



H. W. Vogel 



H. De.->landres 



H. Kayser and C. 
Kunge. 



1888. 

Ueber WasserstofEknallgasexplo- 
sion. (Read Jan. O.) 

Wave-lengths of Metallic Spectra 
in the Ultra-violet. (Read Mar. 
14.) 



Ueber das Spectrum des Cyans und 
des Kohlenstoffs. (Read April 5.) 



Dei colori invisibili o latent i 
corpi. (Read May 20.) 



dei 



Subjective Intcrferenzstreifen im 
objectiven Spectrum. (Read June 
2.) 

Nouvelles recherches sur I'origine 
optique des raies spectacles, en 
rapport avec la tlieorie ondulatoirc 
de la lumiere. (Read June 8.) 

Spectro.'^copische Notizen. (Read 
June 25.) 



Spectres des bandes ultra-viol ettes 
des metallo'ides avec une faible 
dispersion. (July.) 



Ueber die Spectra der Elementen. 
(Read July 26.) 



' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vii. 1 (Notice) ; 
' Nature,' xxvii. 311 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Am. Acad.' [N.S.], 
XV. 288-299; 'Phil. Mag." 
[5], xxvi. 342-353; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1-2 
(Abs.) ; ' Chem. News.' 
Iviii. 237-239. 247-249 ; 
' Beibliittcr," xiii. 382-383 
(Abs.) 

'Sitzungsb. Akad. Perl.' 
1888, 523-528 ; ' Ver- 
handl. d. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vii. 53-5G ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xii. 787-788 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xxxviii. 
72 (Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei,* 
iv. 572-577 ; 'Beibliltter,' 
xiii. 502-503 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Miin- 
chen' (1888), 319-320. 

'Bull. Acad. Bclg.' [3], 
xvi. 81-8C; 'Beibliltter,' 
xii. 852-853 (Abs.) 



' Ber.' xxi. 2029 - 2032 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 655 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Chim. et Phys.' [6], 
XV. 1-86; ' Zeitschr. f . phy- 
sikal. Chem.' iii. 139 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliltter,' viii. 
809-810 (Abs.) 

' Abhandl. Akad. Berl.' 
1888, 93 pp. ; ' Beibliltter,' 
xiii. 78-79 (Abs.) 



1G8 



repo:;t — IS'JL 



E. L. Nichols and 
W. S. Franklin. 



J, Janssen 



E, Budde , 



V. A. Julius 



»> • 



C. Fievez 



EMissnx Spectra, 1888, 1889. 

A Spectrophotometric Comparison 
of Sources of Artificial Illumina- 
tion. (Read in August.) 

Sur I'application de I'analyse spec- 
trale a la mecanique moleculaire, 
et sur les spectres de roxvgene. 
(Sept.) 

Ueber eine neuc Entdeckung des 
Hrn. Janssen, welche sich auf 
das Sauerstoffspectrum bezieht. 
(Read Nov. 16.) 



Over de lineairo spectra der Ele- 
menten, en over de dubbellinien in 
de spectra van Natrium, Magne- 
sium en Aluminium. 



Sur les spectres de lignes des 61e- 
ments. 

Sur les raies doubles dans les 
spectres du natrium, du magne- 
sium et de I'aluminium. 

Analyse optique de la flamme d'une 
bougie. 



'Amer. J. Sci.'[3], xxxviii. 
100-114; 'Nature,' xl. 
401 (Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep." 1888, 
547-554; ' Beibliitter," xiv. 
617-618 (Abs.) 



'Verb. pliTS. Gesellscb, 
Berl.' vii. "89-96 ; ' l!ei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 501-502 
(Abs); 'Nature,' xxxix-. 
168 (Abs.) 

' Natuurv. Verb, der Ic. 
Akad. Amsterdam,' xx\ i. 
125 pp. and 11 pp. ; ' Ber- 
blatter,' xiii. 496-li)i) 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. de I'ecole polytccli.. 
Delft,' V. 1-80. 

'Ann. de I'ecole polj'tcch. 
Delft,' v. 118-128. 

'Annuaire de I'Obs. de 
Bruxelles,' 1888, 568-575. 



H. Kayser and C. 
Kunge . 



J. Trowbridge and 
W. C. Sabine. 



A. E. Bostwick 
C C. Hutchins 

Gouy 

G. Magnanini 



1889. 

Ueber die im galvanischen Licht- 
bogen auftretenden Bandenspec- 
trum der Kohle. (Read Feb. 28.) 

On the Use of Steam in Spectrum 
Analysis. (Feb.) 

AAl'ave-lengths of Metallic Spectra 
in the Ultra-violet. (March.) 

Preliminary Note on 1 he Absorption 
Spectra of Mixed Liquids. (June.) 

Notes on Metallic Spectra. (June.) 



Sur I'elargissement des raies spec- 
trales des metaux. (Read June 
17.) 



Sullo spettro di emissione della 
ammoniaca. (Read June 2.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem." 
[N.F.], xxxviii. 80-90;; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 492 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3],xxxvif. 
114-116. 

' Chem. News,' Ivi. 2;!7 ; 
'Zeitschr. f. phj'sikaL. 
Chem.' iii. 210 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxvii. 
471-473. 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxvii, 
474-476; 'Phil. Mag." [5], 
xxviii. 73-76; ' Beibliitter," 
xiii. 883 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cviii. 1236-1238; 
'Nature,' xl. 216 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ix. 8 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 677-678 
(Abs.) 

' Rend. d. R. Accad. d. Lin- 
cei ' [4], V. 1st sem. 900- 
908; ' Zeitschr. f. physikal 
Chem.' iv. 435-440; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 118-110 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 97 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOartAPIIY OF SrECTKOSCOPY. 



169 



H. Ebert 



A. Wullner . 



K. P.. Koch 



C. Piazzi Smyth 



T. Thomas and C. 
Tiepied. 



J. E. Rydberg 



K. Angstrom 



n. Moissan 



A. Wullner 



II. Kayser and C. 
llunge. 



It. Hitchcock 



Emission Spectra, 1889, 1800. 

Optische Mittheilungen. 1. Ein 
Spectrograph niit einem Hohl- 
spiegel. 2. Ueber das Absorptions- 
spectrum des lods. 3. Ueber das 
Leuchten der Flammen. 4. Ueber 
die AndwendungdesDoppler'schen 
Principes auf leuchtende Gas- 
moleciile. (Read July 7.) 

Ueber den allmilhlichen Uebergang 
der Ga.sspectra in ihren verschie- 
denen Formen. (Read July IS.) 

Ueber die Spectra der Gasc bei 
tiefen Temperaturen. (Aug) 



Ee-examination of the Spectra of 
Twenty-three Gas-vacuum End- 
on Tubes, after Six to Ten Years 
of Existence and Use. (Sept.) 

Sur I'application des hautes tem- 
peratures a. I'observationdu spectre 
de I'hydrogene. (Read Sept. 30.) 



Recherches sur la constitution des 
spectres d'emission des elements 
chimiques. (Read Nov. 1 2.) 



Etude des spectres infra-rouges de 
I'acide carbonique et de I'oxyde 
de carbone. (Reed. Nov. 13.) 



Sur la couleur et sur le spectre du 
fluor. (Read Dec. 16.) 

Die allmiihliche Entwickelung des 
Wasserstoffspectrums. (Read Dec. 
12.) 

Ueber die Spectre n der Elementen. 
11. Ueber die im galvanischen 
Lichtbogen auf tretenden Banden- 
spectren der Kohle. (Pub. at 
Berlin, 45 pp.) 

Spectrum Photography in the Ultra- 
violet (' Amer. Nat. Acad.' 1889). 



' Sitzungsb. phys. - med" 
Gesellsch. Erlangen.'xxi' 
1-8 ; ' Beibliltter,' xiii" 
942-944(Abs.);'Zeitschr 
f. physikal. Chem.' iv. 579 
(Abs.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
xxxviii. 793-812 ; ' Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' iv. 
587 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
xxxviii. 213-216; 'J. 
Chem. Soc.' Iviii. 313 
(Abs.) 

'Chem. News.'lx. 22.3-224; 
'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1889, 
490 (Abs.) ; ' Nature/ xl. 
584 (Abs.) 

'C. R.'cix. 524-525; 'Na- 
ture,' si. 588 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. News,' Ix. 20S 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibljitter,' xiv. 
89-40 (Abs.) 

' Handl. Svensk. Vet. 
Akad.' (Stockholm), xxiii. 
155 pp.; ' Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxix. 331-337 (Abs.) 

' Gefversigt af Kongl. 
Vet. Akad. Forhandl.' 
(Stockholm), xlvi. 549- 
557. 

' C. R.' cix. 937-940 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xli. 214 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1889, 1113-1119. 



Beibliitter,' xiii. 811-812 
(Abs.) 



' Nature,' xl. 44 (title). 



G. Salet 



A. S. Herschel 



1890. 

Sur la flamme bicue du sel marin, 
et sur la reaction spectroscopique 
du chlorure de cuivre. (Feb.) 

The Spectrum of Subchloride of 
Copper. (March.) 



' Bull. Soc. chim. franc.' 
[3], iii. 328-329 ; ' Cliem. 
News,' Ixi. 377 (Abs.) 

'Nature,' xli. 513-51.*; 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 782 
(Abs.) 



170 



KEPOKT — 1894. 



J. M. Eder 



II. Kaj'ser and C. 
Eunt'e. 



J. S. Ames . 

G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 

v. Schumann , 



W. H. Julius . 



Emission Spectra, 1890, 1891. 

Ueber das sichtbare und ultra- 
violette Emissionsspectrum 

schwachlenchtender verbrennen- 
derKohlenwasserstoffe(Swan'sche 
Spectrum), und der Oxyhydrogen- 
flamme (Wasserdampfspectrum). 
(April.) (Separate publication, 
30 pp.) 

Ueber die Linienspectren der Al- 
kalien. (Dritter Abschnitt.) 
(Read June 5.) 



On some Gaseous Spectra — Hydro- 
gen, Nitrogen. (July.) 

The Spectroscopic Properties of 
Dust. (Read Nov. 20.) 

Latest Researches on tlie Photo- 
graphy of Metallic Spectra. (Dec. 
19.) 

Die Licht- und Wiirmestrahlung 
verbrannter Case. 



' Monatsh. f. Chem.' xi. 
1.51-153 ; ' Beiblfitter,' 
xiv. 780-781 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vii. 430-431 
(Abs.) 



'Abhandl. Akad. Berlin,' 
1800, (5G pp. ; ' Sltzungsb. 
Akad. Berl.' 1890, 599- 
(500; 'Bcr.'.xxiv. [Ref.], 
253 (Abs.); 'Phil. Mag.' 
[5], XXX. 203-204 (Ab.s.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxx. 48- 
58. 

' Proc. Eoy. Soc' xlviii. 
437-440. 

' Chem. News,' Ixii. 299. 



' Gekronte Prcisarbeit 
des Vereins zur Befor- 
derung desGewerbfleisses 
in Deutschland,' 1890,26 
pp. ; ' Beiblilttcr,' xiv. 
(502-015 (Abs.) 



A. Bcttendorf 



H. Kayser . 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



H. Kayser and C. 
Runge. 



H. Deslandres 



IV. N. Hartley 



1891. 

Studien iiber die Erden desCerium- 
und Yttrium- Gruppe. (Jan.) 



Ueber den Ursprung des Banden- 
und Linienspectrums. (Jan.) 

On the Influence of Pressure on the 
Spectra of Flames. (Read Feb. 
19.) 



Ueber die Spectra der Elemente 
der zweiten Mendelejeff'schen 
Gruppe. (Read Feb. 19.) 



Methode nouvelle pour la recherche 
des bandes faibles dans les spectres 
de bandes. (Read Mar. 81.) 



On the Physical Character of the 
Lines in the Spark Spectra of the 
Elements. (Read April 16.) 



' Ann. Chem. u. Pliarni.* 
cclxiii. 164-174 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixiii. 150-lGO, 
172-173. 

' Ann. Phvs. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlii. 310-318. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 217- 
227 ; ' Chem. News," Ixiii. 
143-145, 155-15(; (Abs.); 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 332 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. v. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xliii. 385-409 ; 
' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl." 
1891, I. 177-178 (Abs.); 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 575 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxii. 661-6G3 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xliii. 552 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Ixiii. 179- 
180 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 448- 
451 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. 
II. 2-3 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SrECTKOSCOrY. 



171 



\V. Crookes . 



Ji. E. Brooks , 



C. Piazzi Smith 



B. Hasselberg 



V. Schumann 



Emission Spectra, 1891, 1892. 

On Electric Evaporation. (Reed. 
June 4. Read June 11.) 



On Terminal Spectra of Electrodes, 
observed in vacuo. (July.) 

Report of the Committee appointed 
to co-operate with Dr. C. Piazzi 
Smyth in his Researches on the 
Ultra-violet Rays of the Solar 
Spectrum. (Aug.) 

Zur Spectroscopic der Verbindun- 
gen. Spectrum der Thonerde. 
(Read Oct. 14.) 



Vacuum 
(Dec. 4.) 



Spectro - Photography. 



'Proc. Roy. Soc' 1. 88- 
105 ; ' Nature,' xliv. 212- 
21.5; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
287-2'JO. 

' Chem. News,' Ixiv. SC- 
SI ; ' Bcibliitter,' xvi. 426 
(Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1891, 
147-148. 



'Handl. K. Svensk. Vet. 
Akad.' (Stockholm), xxiv. 
(45 pp.); ' Beibliitter,' 
xvii. 738-739 (Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 275. 



H. Moissan 



J. Parry 

E. L. Nichols and 
B. W. Snow. 



11. Kayser 
C. Runge. 



A. Griinwald 



and 



Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. 

J. Violle 



E. Pringsheim 



Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. 



1892, 

Determination de quelques con- 
stantes physiques de fluor. 
(Jan.) 

The Spectrum of Iron and the 
Periodic Law. (Jan. 14.) 

The Character of the Light emitted 
by Glowing Zinc Oxide. (Jan.) 

Ueber die Spectren von Kupfer, 
Silber und Gold. (Read Jan. 21.) 



Ueber das sogenannte zweite oder 
zusammengesetzte "Wasserstofl:- 
spectrum von Dr. B. Hasselberg, 
und die Structur des WasserstofEs. 
I. Theil. Empirisch-Induction-Ab- 
theilung. (Read Feb. 4.) 



Recherches sur le samarium. (Read 
March 14.) 

Sur le rayonnement des corps in- 
candescents, et la mesure optique 
des hautes temp6ratures. (Read 
Mar. 28.) 

Das KirchhofE'sche Gesetz und die 
StrahluDg der Gase. 



Sur les spectres electriques du 
gallium. (Read April 4.) 



' Ann. de Chim. et Phys.' 
[6], XXV. 125-144 ; • Na- 
ture,' xlv. 260 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlv. 253-255. 

'Phil. Mag.' [5],xxxiii. 19- 
28 ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 427 
(Abs.) 

'Abhandl. Akad. Berlin,' 
1892 (39 pp.); 'Ann. 
Phys. u. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xlvi. 225-243 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixvii. 49 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
ci. II. Abth. 121-254 ; 
'Monatshefte f. Chem.' 
xiii. 111-244 ; ' Zeitschr. 
f . physikal. Chem.' x. 668 
(Abs.); ' Beibliitter,' xvii. 
203-204 (Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixii. 1351 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxiv. 572-577. 



'C. R.' cxiv. 734-736; 
'Beibliitter,' xvii. 315- 
316 (Abs.) 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlv. 428-459 ; 
'Nature,' xlv. 312 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxiv. 815-818; 
' Beibliitter,' xvi. 532- 
533 (Abs.); 'J. Chem, 
Soc' Ixii. 930 (Abs.) 



172 



REPORT — 1894. 



A. Bettendorff 



B. W. Snow . 



B. Kayser and C. 

Eunge. 

A. Smithells . 

J. M. Eder and E. 
Valenta. 



C. Piazzi Smyth 



G. D. Liveing 



L. Arons 



B. Brunhes 



W. N. Hartley 



G. Kriiss and H. 
Kriiss. 



Emission Spectra, 1892, 1893 

Studien iiber die Erden der 
Cerium- und Yttrium-Gruppe. I II. 
Kathodsluminescenz der Gado- 
linerde. (May.) 

Ueber das nltrarothe Emissions- 
spectrum der Alkalien. (June.) 

Ueber die Spectren von Aluminium, 
Indium und Thallium. (Read 
July 7.) 



Flame Spectra. 



Experiments on 
(Read Aug. 5.) 

Ueber einige neue Linien im brech- 
barsten ultravioletten Emission- 
spectrum des metallischen Cal- 
cium. (Aug.) 

Second Report of the Committee 
appointed to co-operate with Dr. 
C. Piazzi Smyth in his Researches 
on the Ultra-violet Rays of the 
Solar Spectrum. (Aug.) 

Note on Pliicker's Statement that 
he has discovered the Line Spec- 
trum of Oxygen in the Oxj-hydro- 
gen Flame. (Oct.) 

Ueber einen Quecksilberlichtbogen. 
(Read Oct. 21.) 



Experience sur les spectres can- 
neles. (Nov.) 



On a Method of Observing the 
Spectra of easily Volatile Metals 
and their Salts, and of Separating 
their Spectra from those of the 
Alkalies. (Read Dec. 1.) 

I Beitrage zur quantitativen Spec- 
] tralanalyse. 



' Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
cclxx. 370-383 ; • Bei- 
bltitter,' xvi. 714-715 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. Phvs. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], ilvii. 208-251 ; 
'Nature,' xlvii. 39 (Abs.) 

'Abhandl. Akad. Berlin,' 
1892 (28 pp.) 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1892, 
640-646. 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
1893, 252-253 ; ' Beibliil- 
ter,' xvii. 444 (Abs.) 

'Brit. As.soc. Rep.' 1S02, 
74-7G ; ' Beibliltter," xvii. 
829-830 (Abs.) 



'Phil. jMag.' [5], xxxiv. 
371-375 ; ' Beibliittcr,' 
xvii. 925-926 (Abs.) 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlvii. 762-771 ; 
' Nature,' xlvii. 21 (Abs.) 

'J. de Phys." [2], x. 508- 
512 ; ' Beibliitt-er,' xvi. 
435-436 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiii. 13,S- 
141 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixvi. 
313 (Abs.) 



'Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
i. 104-125; 'J. Chem. Soc.' 
Ixiv. II. 283-284 (Abs.) 



J. S. Ames 



J. M. Eder and E. 
Valenta. 



H. Wilde 



1893. 

On the Probable Spectrum of Sul- 
phur. (Jan.) 



Ueber das Emissionspectrum des 
KohlenstofEes und Siliciums. 
(Read Jan. 19.) 

On the Spectrum of Thallium and 
its Relation to the Homologous 
Spectra of Indium and Gallium. 
(Read April 20.) 



' Astron. and Astrophj's,' 
xii. 50, 51 ; ' Beibliltter,' 
xvii. 827 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ix. 241-263; 'Beibliltter,' 
xviii. 753-756 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' liii. 369- 
372; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Lxiv. II. 525 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliltter,' xvii. 1054 
(Abs.) 



ox THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY, 



173 



V. Schumann 



J. M. Eder and E. 
Valenta. 

D. Cochin 



E. Prin^sheim 



E. Carvallo . 



W. N. Hartley 



C. D. Liveiag and 
J. Dewar. 



H. Kayser and C. 
Piunge. 



J. M. Eder and E. 
Valenta. 



E3. W. Snow . 
E Carvallo • 

J- E. Rydberg 



Emission Spectra, 1893. 
Ueber die Photographie der Licht- 



strahlen 
(April.) 



kleinster Wellenliingen. 



Ueber das ultra violette Linien- 
ppectrum des elementaren Bor. 
(Read April 13). 

Snr les spectres de flammes de 
quelques metaux. (Read May 8.) 



Ueber die Strablung' von Lithium, 
Thallium und Kalium. (Read 
May 12.) 

Le spectre calorifique de la fluorine. 
(Read May 23.) 

Flame Spectra at High Tempera- 
tures. (Read June 1.) 



Spectra of the Flames of some 
Metallic Compounds. (Read June 
16.) 



Ueber die Spectren von Aluminium, 
Indium und Thallium. (Read 
July 7.) 



Ueberden Verlauf der Bunsen'schen 
Flammereactionen im ultravio- 
letten Spectrum von Kalium, 
Natrium, Lithium, Calcium, Stron- 
tium, Barium und das Verbin- 
dungsspectrum der Borsaiire. 
(Read July 6.) 

On the Infra-red Spectra of the 
Alkalies. (July.) 

Le spectre calorifique de la fluorine. 
(Read Aug. 7.) 



Contributions a la connaissance des 
spectres lineaires. (HI.) (Read 
Oct. 11.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien.' 
cii. IL 41.5-475, G25-694; 
' Cliem. News,' Isviii. 46- 
47,50-57,03. 81 -S2, 100- 
101, 133, 158-159. 104- 
105, 180-181, 194-195, 
201, 229, 239-240, 252, 
202-263, 289-290, 301, 
Ixix. 9, 34 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
sviii. 187-189 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. AVien,' 
Ix. 307-311; 'Beibliitter,' 
xviii. 752-753 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 1055-1057; 
' Chem. News,' Ixvii. 205 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. II. 402 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlviii. 144(Ab.s.) 



'C. R.' cxvi. 1189-1191 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xvii. 917- 
918 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' liv. 5-7 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xlviii. 
105-lGO (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixvii. 279 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 1055- 

1056 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Ro5^ Soc' lii. 117- 
123; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. 11. 401-402 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 1056- 

1057 (Abs ) 

' Abhandl. Akad. Berl. 
1892, 28 pp. ; ' Ann. 
Phvs. u. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xlviii. 126-149: 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. II. 313 (Abs.) 

'Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ix. 467-470. 



' Phvs. Review.' i. 28-50, 
95-97, 221-223. 

'C. R.' cxvii. .306-307; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 1046- 
1047 (Abs.) 

'Oefver-sist nf K. Vet. 
Akad.F6rh.'(Stockhohn), 
1. 505-520. 



174 



REPORT — 1894. 



Emission Spectra, 1893, 189-1— Absorptiox Spbctea, 1878, 1880, 1881, 1883, 1884 
J. N. Lockyer 



J. R. Rydberg 



H. Kayser and C. 
Runge. 



B. W. Snow . 
J. N, Lockyer 

A. de Gramont 

J. Janssen , 



The Photographic Spectrum of 
Electrolytic Iron. (Read Nov. 23.) 

Contributions :\ la connaissance des 
spectres lineaires. (IV.) (Read 
Dec. 11.) 

Ueber die ultrarothen Spectren 
der Alkalien. 

1894. 

On the Continuous Spectrum of 
Sodium. (Jan.) 

On the Photographic Arc-Spectrum 
of Iron Meteorites. (Read Feb. 
15.) 

Sur les spectres d'etincelle de 
quelques min6raux. (Read April 2.) 

Sur les spectres de I'oxygene porte 
aux temperatures elevees. Methode 
6Iectrique pour I'echauffement des 
gaz. (Read April 9.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' liv. 3."!)- 
3fil ; ' Beibliltter,' xviii. 
337-338 (Abs.) 

' Oefversigt ,if K. Vet. 
Akad.F6rh.'(Stockholm), 
(ISM), 1. 677-691. 

'Ann. Phys. u. C'liem.' 
[N.F.], xlviii. 150-ir)7. 



' Phys. Review,' i. 200- 
29S. 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' Iv. 13!)- 
140 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixix. 89 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxviii. 740-748; 
'Chem. News,' Ixviii. 
192-1'J3 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxviii. 757-700 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixix. 207- 
208 (Abs.) 



III. 

ABSORPTION SPECTRA. 

1878. 

R. Amory . . Theory of Absorption Bands in the 
Spectrum, and its bearing in Pho- 
tography and Chemistry. (Pre- 
sented Jan. 9.) 

S. P. Langiey . On certain Remarkable Groups in 

the Lower Spectrum. (Presented 
Oct. 7.) 

1880. 

W. C. Winlock . I On the Group ' B ' in the Solar 
I Spectrum. (Presented June 9.) 



• Proc. Amer. Acnd.' 
[N.S.] V. 21G-221. 



• Proc. Amer. ^cad.' 
[N.S.], vi. 92-105. ' 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' 
[N.S.], viii. 398-10."). 



F. Boas 



• • 



H. W. Vogel 



E. Schoene . 



1881. 

Beitrage zur Erkenntniss der Farbe 
des Wassers. (Inaug.-Dissert. 
Kiel.) 

1883. 

pectrographischer Vergleich von 
Sonnenlicht und Himmelslicht. 
(June.) 

1884. 

Spectrum of Ozone and the Pre- 
sence of Ozone in the Atmosphere. 
(In Russian.) (Read May 3.) 



' Beibliltter,' v. 797-799 
(Abs.) 



' Phot. Mittheil.' xx." 74 ; 
' Beibliitter,' vii. 000 
(Abs.) 



'J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc' 
xvi. No. 7, pt. ii. 250-252 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' xlviii. 
713 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



to 



Wl. Tioliomiroff . 
N. EgoroflE . 
A. Tschirch . 



W. de W. Abney 
and R. Festing. 



P. Sabatier 



W. Leube , 



A. Ilenocque . 



F. Stenger 



■ « 



W. Ramsay 



K. Olszewslii 



W. Crookes 



H. Becquerel . 



Absorption Spectra, 1885, 188C, 

1885. 

Zur Frage iiber die spectroscopi- 
schen Eigenschaften des Mutter- 
korns. (Read Jan. 21.) 

Das Absorptionspectrum der At- 
mosphjire. (In Russian). (Read 
Sept. 24, O.S.) 

Untersuchungen iiber das Chloro- 
phyll. 



Absorption-spectra 
(Read Jan. 15.) 



Thermograms. 



188C. 

Spectres d'absorption des chro- 
mates alcalins et de I'acidc chro- 
mique. (Read July 6.) 



Ueber einen neuen pathologischen 
Harnfarbstoff. (Nov.) 



L'hematoscopie, methode nouvelle 
d'analyse du sang, basee sur 
remploi du spectroscope. (Read 
Nov. 2.) 

Ueber die Bedeutung der Absorp- 
tionsstreifen. (Dec.) 



1887. 

Undersohning af pleokroismen ocli 
Ijusabsorptionen i epidote fron 
Sulzbachthal. (Read Jan. 12.) 



Ueber das Absorptionsspectrum 
des fliissigen SauerstofiFs und der 
verflussigten Luft. (Read Jan. 20.) 



Genesis of the Elements (Lect. 
Roy. Inst. Feb. 18). 

Sur les variations des siJectres 
d'absorption du didyme. (Read 
March 14.) 



1887. 

' Pharm. Zeitschr. fiir 
Russland, xxiv. 241-247. 

' J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc." 
svii. [Phys.],No. 7, p. 22!>. 

' Chem. Zeitung,' ix. 14.31 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem.' 
XXV. 279 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xxxviii. 
77-83; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
xlviii. 1175-1171! (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 512 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. de la Facult. des 
Sciences' (Toulouse), i. 
Dl-Dll; 'C. R; ciii. 
49-52; ' Beiblatter,' xii. 
194 (Abs.); 'J. dePhvs.' 
[2], vi. 312-320 (Abs.) 

' Archiv f. path. Anat. und 
Physiol.' cvi. 418-419; 
' Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem.' 
xxvi. 672 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ivii. 231 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' ciii. 817-820; 
'Ber.'xx. (Ref.),25(Abs.) 



' Botan. Zeitung,' 1887, 120- 
126; 'Annuaire Agron.' 
xiii. 175-17G (Abs.); 
'Beibliitter,' xi. 709-710 
(Abs.) ; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
lii. 693 (Abs.) 



' Bihang till K. Svensk.Vel . 
Akad. Handl.' (Stock- 
holm), xiii. 1-45; 'Zeit- 
schr. f. Kryst. u. Min.' 
xiii. 97-134; 'Beibliitter,' 
xii. 53-55 (Abs.) 

'Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcv. II. 257-261 ; ' Ann. 
Phys. u. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xxxiii. 570-575; 'Zeitschr. 
f. phv.sikal. Chem.'ii. 348 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xii. UT- 
60; 'Chem. News,' Iv. 
83-88, 95-99. 

•C. R.' civ. 777-780; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' i. 426 (Abs.) 



176 



REPORT — 1894. 



Absorption Spectba, 1887, 1888. 



A. Tschirch 



C A. Macmunn 



G. Kruss and L. F. 
Nilson. 

J. Reinke . 



L. Soret 



A. E. Nordenskiold 



G. H. Bailey 



J. Wollheim 



vSczelkow 



F. Stenafer 



J. Trowbridge and 
W. C. Sabine. 



<3I. Linossier . 



Untersuchungen iiber das Cliloro- 
phyll. (Read March 16.) 



On the Chromatology of some 
British Sponges. (Read March 12.) 

Studien iiber die Componenten der 
Absorptionspectra erzeugenden 
seltenenErden. (Read April 25.) 

Entsetzung beziiglicli der subjec- 
tiven Absorptionsbiinder. 

Absorption desraies ultra-violettes. 
(Read Aug. 10.) 

Om ett enkelt forhSllande mellan 
vSgliindderna i en del Jimnens 
spektra. (Read Sept. 14.) 

The Absorption Spectra of the 
Haloid Salts of Didyinium. (Read 
Sept. G.) 



Die Componenten der Absorption- 
spectra erzeugenden seltenen 
Erden. (Oct.) 



Untersuchungen iiber den Chloro- 
phyllfarbstofE. (Nov.) 



Ein Beitrag zur Spectropliotometrie 
des Blutes. (Dec.) 



1888. 

Ueber die Gesetzmiissigkeiten im 
Absorptionsspectrum eines Kor- 
pers. (Jan.) 

The Selective Absorption of Metals 
for Ultra-Violet Light. (Pre- 
sented Mar. 14.) 



Sur la recherche spectroscopique du 
sang. (Read March 24.) 



' Ber. d. bot. Gesellsch.' v. 
128-i:-55; 'Chem. Cen- 
tralbl.' 1887, 669 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chera. Soc' lii. 1116- 
1117 (Abs.) 

' J. Physiol.' ix. 1-25 ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' liv. 619- 
G20 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' XX. 2134-2171 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 108 (Abs.) 

' Bot. Zeitung,' 1887, 271- 
275 ; ' Beibliitter," xi. 709- 
710 (Abs.) 

'Arch, de Geneve,' xviii. 
.344-346 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xii. 246-247 (Abs.) 

' Oef versigt af K. Vet. 
Akad. Forhandl.' (Stock- 
holm), xliv. 471-478. 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 654- 
655 (Abs.); 'Nature,' 
xsxvi. 570 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 815 (Abs.) 

'Ber.'xx. 2769-2770, 3325- 
3327; 'Zeitschr. f. phy- 
sikal. Chem.' ii. 251, 348 
(Abs.) 

' Bot. Centralblatt,' xxxii. 
310-313; 'Annuaire 

Agron.'xiv. 141-143; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' liv. 723-724 
(Abs.) 

' Arcli. f . d. gesammte 
Physiol.' xli. 373-378 : 
'Ber.' xxi. (Ref.), 746 
(Abs.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xx.xiii. 677-586 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. phj'sikal. 
Cliem.' ii. 44 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
XV. 299-300; ' Phil. Mag.' 
[5], xxvi. 316-317; ' Chem. 
News,' Iviii. 216; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 18 (Abs.) 

'Bull. Soc. Chim.' xhx. 
691-694; 'J. Chem. Soc.' 
lix. 113:1-1140 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Iviii. 37 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY, 



177 



tJ. Kriiss , 

J. WoUheim . 

C. Liebermann 

G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 

K. Katayama 
B. Hasselberg 

F. n. Pitcher . 

W. P. Mason . 
C. A. Macmunn 
Ferry de la Bellone 
L. Hermann . 

P. Schottlander 

W. Grosse 
W. ZopC 



J. Trowbridge and 
W. C. Sabine. 
1894. 



Absorption Spectra, 1888, 1889. 

Beziehung zwischen die Zusam- 
mensetzung und Absorptions- 
spectrum organischerVerbindun- 
gen. (May.) 



Ueberdiephotographischen Eigen- 
schaftendes Chlorophyll. (July.) 

Ueber die Spectra der Aether der 
Oxyanthrachinone. (Aug.) 

The Absorption Spectrum, Lumi- 
nous and Ultra-Violet, of Large 
Masses of Oxygen. (Sept.) 

Ueber eine neue Blutprobe bei der 
Kohlenoxydvergiftung. (Oct. 2.) 

CTntersuchungen iiber das Absorp- 
tionspectrum des lodgases. 
(Read Nov. 1.) 



The Absorption Spectra of certain 
Blue Solutions. (Nov.) 



Fatal Poisoning by Carbon Mon- 
oxide. (Characteristic absorp- 
tion spectrum of blood.) (Dec.) 

On the Hasmatoporphyrin of Sole- 
curtus strigillatus. 

Nouveau precede pour decouvrir 
les taches de sang (' Rep. de 
Pharm.') 

Notiz betreffend das reducirte 
Hamoglobin. 



1889. 

Vorschlag zur Abiinderung des 
Spetroskops zur Bestimmung des 
Extinktionskoefficienten absor- 
birender Korper nach Vierordt's 
Methode. (Jan.) 

Ueber Messungen der Lichttrans- 
mission und Lichtabsorption. 
(Jan.) 

Ueber PilzfarbstofEe. (Feb.) 



On the Use of Steam in Spectrum 
Analysis. (Feb.) 



' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 310-337. 



'Phot. Mittheil.' XXV. 113, 
114; 'Beibliitter.'xii. 856 
(Abs.) 

'Bar.' xxi. 2527; 'Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal Chem.' 
ii. 967 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5],xxvi. 286- 
290 ; ' Zeitschr. f. phy- 
sikal. Chem.'ii.8G2(Abs.) 

' Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol.' 
cxiv. 53-64 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixi. 241. 

' M6m. de I'Acad. Imp. des 
Sciences de St.-Peters- 
bourg,' xxxvi. No. 17, 50 
pp. ; ' Nature,' xxxix. 518 
(Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxvi. 
332-336 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ivi. 325 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xxxix. 70 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 218 (Abs.) 

' J. Amer. Chem. Soc' x. 
176-178; 'Chem. News,' 
ILs. 260-261. 

'J. Physiol.' viii. 384-390; 
' J. Chem. Soc' liv. 304- 
305 (Abs.) 

'J. de Pharm.' [5], xvii. 
253-255 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
liv. 1140 (Ab.-.) 

' Arch. f. d. gesammte 
Physiol.' xliii. 435 ; ' Ber.' 
xxii. (Kef.), 595 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' ix. 98-101 ; 
' Beibliitter,'xiii. 672-673 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr.' f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' ix. 1-9 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 679 (Abs.) 

'Bot. ZeitunaV 1889, 53- 
61, 69-81, 85^-92; 'Chem. 
Gentr.' [4], i. 291-293 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ivi. 919 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxvii, 1 39- 
141. 

N 



178 



REPORT — 1894. 



H. Becquerel . 



W. J. Eussell and 
W. J. Orsman. 



C. Figvez and E. 
van Aubel. 



E. Bamberger and 
F. Bordt. 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



A. Babis 



G. Magnanini 



A. E. Bostwick 



H. Ebert 



G. Kriiss and H. 
Moraht. 



M. Althausse 
G. Kriiss. 



and 



Absokption Spectea, 1889. 

Sur les spectres d'absorption de 
I'epidote. (Read Feb. 11.) 



The Relation of Cobalt to Iron as 
indicated by their Absorption 
Spectra. (Read Feb. 7.) 

Note sur I'intensitS lumineuse des 
bandes d'absorption des liquides 
color6s. (Read Feb. 2.) 



Weitere Beitriige zur Kenntniss des 
o-Tetrahj'dronaphtylamins. (Reed. 
March 11.) 

Notes on the Absorption Spectra 
of Oxygen and some of its Com- 
pounds. (Reed. May 23. Read 
June 6.) 



Note sur quelques matiferes colo- 
rantes et aromatiques produites 
par le bacille pyocyanique. (Read 
June 22.) 

Sullo spettro di absorbimento del 
cloruro di nitrosile. (Read June 
2.) 



Preliminary Notice on the Absorp- 
tion Spectra of Mixed Liquids. 
(June.) 

Optische Mittheilungen. 1. Ein 
Spectrograph mit einem Hohl- 
spiegel. 2. Ueber das Absorptions- 
spectrum des lods. 3. Ueber das 
Leuchten derFlammen. 4. Ueber 
die Anwendung des Doppler'schen 
Principes auf leuchtende Gas- 
moleciile. (Read July 7.) 

Zur spectrocolorimetrischen Eisen- 
bezw. Rhodan-Bestimmung. (Read 
Aug. 6.) 

Beziehung zwischen Zusammen- 
setzung und Absorptionsspec- 
trum organischer Verbindungen. 
(Read Aug. 6.) 



'C. R.' cviii. 282-284; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 680-681 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Chem. Soc' No. 62, 
14-15 ; ' Nature,' xxsix. 
453-454 (Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' lix. 93-94 (Abs.) 

'Bull. Acad. Belg.' [3], 
xvii. 102-104 ; ' Arch, de 
Geneve,' [3], xxi. 231- 
234 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
601 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxii. 625-634; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 715-717 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvi. 222- 
230; 'Nature,' xl. 212- 
214; 'Beiblatter,' xiii. 
946-947 (Abs.); 'Ber.' 
xxiii. (Ref .), 4 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 675 
(Abs.) 

' C. R. de la Soc. biol.' [9], 
i. 438-440; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Iviii. 189-190 (Abs.) 

' Atti d. R. Ace. d. Lincei,' 
Rend. [4], v. (1st sem.), 
908-91 1 ; 'Zeitschr. f . phy- 
sikal. Chem.' iv. 427-428 ; 
'Ber.' xxiii. (Ref.), 171 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 97 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblat- 
ter,' xiv. 619 (Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxvii. 
471-473 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiii. 814-815 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. phys. - med, 
Gesellsch. Erlangen,'xxi. 
1-8 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
942-944(Abs.); 'Zeitschr. 
f . physikal. Chem.' iv. 579 
(Abs.) 



' Ber.' xxii. 2054-2060 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem." iv. 685 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 40 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxii. 2065-2070; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 585 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1093- 
1094 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,'lx. 240-241 (Abs.); 
Ixi. 209 (Abs.) ; Beiblat- 
ter,' xiii. 945-946 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SrECTROSCOPY. 



179 



Absorption Spectra, 1889, 1890. 



L. Macchiati . 



K. Heumann and 
H. Rey. 



J. L. Soret and A. 
Rilliet. 



F. Schiitt 



T. L. Patterson 



G. Hiifner . 



T. Araki 

C. Michie Smith . 

C. Liebermann and 
F. Haber. 

H. W. Vogel . 
B. Hasselberg 

W. N. Hartley 



Die Farbstoffe der Zapfen 
Abies excelsa. (Nov.) 



Ueber Farbstoffe aus der Gruppe 
der Benzeine. (Reed. Nov. 14.) 



1890. 

Recherches sur I'absorption des 
rayons ultra-violets par diverses 
substances. (Read Jan. 20.) 



Ueber PeridineenfarbstofEe. (Jan.) 



The Quantitative Estimation of 
Colouring Matters by means of 
their Absorption Spectra. (Jan.) 

Ueber das Gesetz der Dissociation 
des Oxyhamoglobins und iiber 
einige sich daran kniipfende 
wichtige Fragen aus der Biologie. 
— Ueber die Bedeutung der in der 
vorigen Abliandlung vorgetrage- 
nen Lehre fiir die Spektroskopie 
und Photometrie des Blutes. 
(Feb.) 

Ueber den Blutfarbstoff und seine 
niiheren Umwandlungsproducte. 
(March.) 



On the Absorption Spectra of 
certain Vegetable Colouring 
Matters. (Read March 17.) 

Ueber Bidioxymethylenindigo. 

(Reed. May 24.) 

Ueber farbige Glaser fiir Dunkel- 
kammerfenster. (May.) 

Untersuchungen iiber die Absorp- 
tionsspectrum des Broms. (Read 
Oct. 8.) 



The Spectra of Blue and Yellow 
Chlorophyll, with some Observa- 
tions on Leaf-Green. (Read Nov. 
20.) 



'Naturw. Rundschau,' iv. 
608 ; ' Chem. Centr.' [4], 
ii. Bd. i. 164 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. pt. i. 
641-642 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxii. 3001-3004 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 281 
(Abs.) 



• Archiv de Geneve,' xxiii. 
5-69 ; ' Rev. generale des 
Sciences,' i. 57 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. News,' Isii. 202 
(Abs.) 

' Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Ge- 
sellsch.' viii. 9-32; ' Chem. 
Centr.' [4], ii. 767-768 
(Abs.); «J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 1172-1173 (Abs.) 

' J. Soc. Chem. Industr.' 
Lx. 36-41 ; ' Zeitschr. f . 
anal. Chem.' sxxi. 192 
(Abs.) 

'Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol.' 
1890 (Phj'siol. Abth.), 1- 
30 ; ' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' V. 86 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. physiol. 
Chem.' xliv. 405-415; 
' Zeitschr. f . anal. Chem.' 
xxix. 737 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixiv. 113 (Abs.) 

•Proc. Roj'. Soc. Edinb. 
xvii. 121-137; 'Nature, 
sli. 573(Abs.); 'Beiblat- 
ter,' xiv. 619 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxiii. 1566-1567; 
'J. Chem. Soc.' Iviii. 1140 
(Abs.) 

'Phot. Mittheil.'xxvii. 51- 
52 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 704 
(Abs.) 

'Handl. K. Svensk. Vet. 
Akad.' (Stockholm), xxiv. 
(53 pp ) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xviii. 339 (Abs.) 

'J. Chem. Soc' lix. 106- 
124 ; ' Nature,' xliii. 262 
(Abs.) 



N2 



180 



REPORT — 1891. 



H. Bremer 



H. Rigollot 



K. Olszewski 



J. Conroy 



T. L. Phipson 

G. Hiifner and E. 
Albrecht. 

G. Kriiss 



W. M. Watts , 



J. G. Macgregor 



E. Schunck 



E. Vogel 



R. E. Schmidt and 
L. Gattermann. 

0. Knoblauch 



G. Magnanini 



Absorption Spectea, 1890, 1891 

Einfluss der Temperatur gefiirbter 
Losungen auf die Absorptions- 
spectrum desselben. (Inaugural- 
Dissertation, Erlangen, 1890.) 

1891. 

Sur les spectres d'absorption des 
solutions d'iode. (Read Jan. 6.) 



' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 430 (Abs.) 



Ueber das Absorptionsspectrum 
und liber die Farbe des fliissigen 
Sauerstoffes. (Read Jan. 20.) 



On the Change in the Absorption 
Spectrum of Cobalt-Glass pro- 
duced by Heat. (Read Feb. 13.) 

Palmelline andAspergilline. (March 
27.) 

Ueber die Durchlilssigkeit des 
Wassers fiir Licht von verschie- 
dener Wellenliinge. (March.) 

Beitriige zur Chemie des Erbiums 
und Didyms. (I.) April.) 



Index of Spectra .... 

On the Variation with Temperature 
and Concentration of the Absorjj- 
tion Spectra of Aqueous Solutions 
of Salts. (Read May 29.) 

Contributions to Ihe Chemistry of 
Chlorophyll. Part IV. (Read June 
18.) 

Ueber die Lage der Absorption- 
streifen und Lichtempfindlichkeit 
organiscber FarbenstofEe. 



Ueber Oxyderivative des Alizarin- 
Blau. 



Absorptionsspectralanalj-se 
verdiinnter Losungen. 



sehr 



Sul potere assorbente dei sali 
colorati in rapporto colla disso- 
ciazione elettrolitica. (Read Nov. 
22.) 



'C. R.' cxii. 38-40; 'Na- 
ture,' xliii. 264 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 50 
(Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f . phy- 
sikal. Chem.' vii. 335 
(Abs.) 

' Bull, internat. de I'Acad. 
des Sciences de Cracovie,' 
1891, No. 1,44-46; 'Ann. 
Phys. u. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xlii. 662-665; 'Phil. Mag.' 
[5], xxxi. 447 (Abs.); 
' Nature,' xliii. 498 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 317- 
320 ; ' Proc. Phys. Soc' xi. 
103-106; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixiii. 105 (Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 165. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem." 
[N.F.], xlii. 1-17 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xliii. 520 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
cclxv. 1 - 27 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixiv. 65-66, 76- 
76, 99-101, 120-121. 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 486 
(Review). 

' Proc. and Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Canada,' ix. Sect. III. 27- 
41 ; ' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' x. 430 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' 1. 302- 
317; ' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. 
I. 41-42 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phj's. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xliii. 449-492 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 569 (Abs.) 

' J. prakt. Chem.' xliv.l 03- 
109 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 
261 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xliii. 738, 783; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 120 
(Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei,' 
vii. II. 356-363; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xvi. 427-428 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



181 



H. Bremer 



Absorption Spectra, 1891, 1892. 

Ueber den Einfluss der Tempera- 
tur geftirbter Losungen auf die 
Absorptionsspectren desselben. 
(Inaug.-Dissert. Erlangen, 1891.) 



' Zeitschr. f.anorg. Chem.' 
i. 112-122 (Ab3.);'Chem. 
News,' Lsvi. 41-42 (Abs.) 



W. L. Dudley 



A. H. Church. 



E. L. Nichols and 
B. W. Snow. 

W. Merkelbacli 



A. Brun , 



T. Ewan 



A. B. Griffiths 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



J. Janecek . 



G. Bider 



O. Hammarsten 



J. Janecek 



1892. 

The Colours and Absorption Spectra 
of Thin Metallic Films, and of In- 
candescent Vapours of the Metals ; 
with some Observations on Elec- 
trical Volatility. (JIarch.) 



Researches on Turacin. 
(Read April 28.) 



Part II. 



On the Selective Absorption of Light 
by Optical Glass and Calc Spar. 
(April.) 

Zur Absorption des Lichtes durch 
Natriumdampf. (June.) 

Note sur le spectre d'absorption 
des grenats almandiues rouges de 
Ceylan. (Read July 7.) 

The Absorption Spectra of some 
Copper Salts in Aqueous Solution. 
(July.) 

Sur la matiere colorante du micro- 
coccus prodigiosus. (Read Aug. 8.) 

Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen, and 
Refractive Indices of Liquid 
Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide, and Ethy- 
lene. (Aug.) 

Die Grenzen der Beweiskraft des 
Hiimatinspectrums und der Ha- 
minkrystalle (Teichmann's Krys- 
talle) fiir die Anwesenheit von 
Blut. (Separate publication.) 

Ueber das spectroscopische Ver- 
halten des Blutes, nach Aufnahme 
von schiidlichen Gasen, und eine 
Methode diese Veranderung fiir 
gerichtliche Zwecke objectiv zur 
Darstellung zu bringen. 

Ueber den Nachweis von Hamato- 
porphyrin im Harn. 



Gerichtlich-chemischer Nachweis 
von Blut. 



' Amer. Chem. J.'xiv. 185- 
190; 'Chem. Centralbl. 
1892, IL 23-24 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 123 
(Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' li. 399- 
400 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. I. 184 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 379- 
382; 'Beibliitter,' xvi. 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . phys. u. chem. 
Unterr.' v. 253 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xvii. 564 (Abs.) 

'Arch, de Geneve' [3], 
xxviii. 410-412; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xvii. 335 (Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxiii. 
317-342; 'Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' ix. 750 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxv. 321 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixvi. 149-150 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxiv. 
205-209 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. IL 201-202 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xvii. 121- 
122 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Centralbl.' 1892, i. 
507-508 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixii. 1169- 
1170 (Abs.) 

'Arch, de Pharm.' ccxxx. 
609-640 ; ' Ber.' xxvi. 
(Ref.), 248-249 (Abs.) 



'Skand. Archiv f. Phy- 
siol.' iii. 319 ; ' Zeitschr. 
f.anal. Chem.' xxxi. 233- 
235 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixii. 1136 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . anal. Chem.' 
xxxi. 236-237 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. News,' Ixvi. 32 
(Abs.) 



182 



REPORT — 1894. 



Absorption Spectea, 1892, 1893. 



W. H. Julius , 
P. Dittrich . 

v. Svejcar , 
K. Ingstrom . 

0. Grebe 



Bolometrisch onderzoek van ab- 
sorptiespectra. 

Das Spectrum des Methamoglo- 
bins. 



Das umgekehrte Natriumspectrum 
('Zeitschr. math. phys. Bohm.' xxi. 
238.) 

Untersuchungen iiber die spectrale 
Vertheilung der Absorption im in- 
frarothen Spectrum (' Physikal. 
Revue,' i. 597-623). 

Ueber Azof arbenspectra . , 



• Verhandl. K. Vet. Akad. 
Amsterdam,' i. 1-49. 

' Arch, f . exper. Pathol, 
u. Pharmakol.' xxix. 247 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . anal. Chem.' 
xxxi. 593 (Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,' svi. [82] 
(title). 

' Beibliitter,' xvii. 332-884 
(Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' X. 673-698. 



F. Zecchini . 



W. Lapraik , 



K. Angstrom and 
W. Palmer, 



E. L. Nichols . 



G. Magnanini and 
T. Bentivoglio. 



E. Vogel 



C. Caraichel , 



G. P. Menegazzi 



G. Kriiss 



1893. 

Sul potere rifrangente del fosforo. 
II. Potere rifrangente degli acidi 
del fosforo e dei loro sali sodici. 
(Read Jan. 8.) 

Ueber die Absorptionsspectra eini- 
ger Chromverbindungen. (Mar.) 



Le spectre infra-rouge du chlor, et 
de I'acide hydrochlorique. (Read 
June 7.) 

A Study of the Transmission Spectra 
of certain Substances in the Infra- 
Red. (July.) 

Intorno alio spettro di absorbimento 
delle soluzioni di alcuni chromoos- 
salati della serie bleu. (Read 
July 2.) 

Ueber die Lage der Absorptions- 
streifen und Lichtempfindlichkeit 
organischer Farbstoffe. (July.) 



Sur I'absorption de la lumiere dans 
le brome liquide. (Read Aug. 7). 



Spectroscopic Researches on Blood 
which has been decomposed by 
the action of Poisonous Gases 
(' Instit. chim. pharm. d. R. Accad. 
di Padova, Lavori,' 1892-3). 

Ueber die Erbinerde 



' Rendic. R. Accad. Roma ' 
[5], ii. 1st sem. 31-38. 



'J. prakt. Chem.' [2], 
xlvii. 305-342 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xvii. 650-652 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. II. 313-314 (Abs.) 

'Gefversigt af K. Vet. 
Akad. F6rh.'(Stockholm), 
1893, 389-395; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xviii. 87 (Abs.) 

'Phys. Review,' i. 1-18; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 1062 
(Abs.) 

' Rendic. R. Accad. Roma ' 
[5], ii. 2nd sem. 17-28. 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xliii. 449-472; 
' Chem. News,' Isvii. 61 
(Abs.) 

'C.R.'cxvii. 307-309; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Lxiv. II. 561 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xlviii. 
384 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxvii. (Ref.), 272- 
273 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 353-369 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Isiv, II. 376. (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



183 



Absoeption Spectra, 1893, 1894— Physical Kblations, 1878, 1881, 188S, 1884. 



K. Hofmann and 
G. Kriiss. 



P. Dittrich and T. 
Araki. 



F. Struve . . 



G. B. Rizzo . 



G. S. HaU . 
S. P. Langley 

A. G. Bell . 

S. P. Langley 
G. Buzzolini , 
A. Abt . 



A. Konig and 
C. Dieterici. 



G. Sieben 



Ueber die Holminerde , 



Das Spectrum des Methiimoglo- 
bias. 



Zur gerichtlich-chemischen Unter- 
suchung verdiichtiger Flecken auf 
Blut. 

1894. 

SuUe proprieta delle linee e delle 
bande negli spettri d'assorbimento. 



IV. 

PHYSICAL EELATIONS. 
1878. 
Colour - Perception. (Presented 



Mar. 14.) 



1881. 



The Bolometer and Radiant Energy. 
(Read Jan. 12.) 



Upon the Production of Sound by 
Radiant Energy. (Read April 
21.) 

1883. 

Experimental Determination of 
Wave-Lengths in the Invisible 
Prismatic Spectrum. (April.) 

Sulla condicione di minima e mas- 
sima deviazione d' un raggio che 
attraversa un prisma. (Oct.) 

Beobachtung dunkler Interferenz- 
streifen im Spectrum des weissen 
Lichtes (' Naturwiss. Ver. zu 
Klausenberg,' 1883, 165). 

1884. 

Die Empfindlichkeit des Auges fiir 
Wellenliingenunterschiede des 
Lichtes. (Part. I. read Feb. 22 ; 
Part II. read March 7.) 

Ueber die Abhiingigkeit der 
Brechungsexponenten anomaldi- 
spergirender Medien von der 
Concentration der Losung und der 
Temperatur. (April.) 



' Zeitschr. f . anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 407-414 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc." Ixiv. II. 466-467 
(Abs.) 

' Arch. f. exper. Pathol, u. 
Pharmakol.' xxix. 247 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem.' 
xxxi. 593 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixvii. 61 (Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem.' 
xxxii. 174-178; 'Chem. 
News,' Lxvii. 308-309, 



• II nuovo cimento ' [3], 
XXXV. 132-136; 'Chem. 
News,' Ixix. 222-223 
(Abs.) 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
V. 402-413. 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' viii. 
342-358; 'Ann.Chim. et 
Phys.' [5], xxiv. 275- 
284; 'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], 
xxi. 187-198 (Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxi. 463- 
490; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], xi. 
510-528. 



' Mem. Nat. Amer. Acad.' 
(Washington), ii. 149- 
162. 

' Riv. Sc. Industr.' xv. 302- 
306. 

' Beibliitter,' vii. 899-901 
(Abs.) 



• Verh. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' iii. 7-10; 15-16; 
' Nature,' xxix. 496, 568 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxiii. 312-343. 



184 

H. W. Vogel . 
A, Konig 



REPORT — 1894. 
Physical Relations, 1884, 1885, 188G. 



Ueber die photographische Auf- 
nahme farbiger Korper in den 
richtigenHelligkeitsverhiiltnissen. 
(Read May 23.) 

Ueber die bisher gemachten 
Bestimmungen der Wellenlangen 
einfacher complementiirer Farben. 
(Read June 13.) 



'Verb. phys. Gesellscb. 
Berl.' iii. 28-32; 'Na- 
ture,' XXX. 188 (Abs.) 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' iii. 37-39; 'Na- 
ture,' XXX. 308 (Abs.) 



J. M. Eder 



H. Kayser 



J. H. Gladstone 



S. P. Langley 



A. Konig 



1885. 

Ueber den Gesichtsinn der Zulu- 
Kaffern. (Read Feb. 13.) 

Spectrograpbische Untersuchung 
von Normal- Lichtquellen und die 
Brauchbarkeit der letzteren zu 
photochemischen Messungen der 
Lichtempfindlichkeit. (Read April 
2:5.) 

Ueber verschiedene Arbeiten iiber 
Beziehungen zwischen den Spec- 
trallinien. (Read June 11.) 

On the Specific Refraction and Dis- 
pei-sion of the Alums. (Read 
June 27.) 

0'o.servations of Invisible Heat 
Spectra, and the Recognition of 
hitherto Unmeasured AVave- 
Lengths. (Aug.) 



Ueber einen Fall pathologisch ent- 
standener Violettblindheit. (Read 
Nov. 6.) 



' Verb. Gesellsch. phys. 
Berl.' iv. 15-17; 'Na- 
ture,' xxxi. 476 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xci. II. 1097-1102; 
' Monatsh. f. Chem.' vi. 
363-368 ; ' Wiener Anz.' 
1885, 93 (Abs.) 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' iii. 55 (notice) ; 
' Nature,' xxxii. 312 (Abs.) 

• Proc. Phys. Soc' vii. 194- 
200; 'Phil. Mag.' [5],xx. 
162-168. 

' Proc. Amer. Assoc' xxxi V. 
5.5-75; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxi. 394-409 ; ' Amer. 
J. Sci.' [3], .xxxi. 1-12; 
' Nature,'xxxiii.426 (Abs.) 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' iv. 65-69 ; 'Nature,' 
xxxiii. 288 (Abs.) 



A. E. Dolbear 



A. Konig 



W. Ramsay 



P. Garbe 



1886. 

On the Conditions that determine 
the Length of the Spectrum. 
(Presented Feb. 10.) 

Ueber weitere Beobachtungen an 
einen durch Alkoholismus ge- 
stoiten Farbensystem. (Read 
April 2.) 

Methode zur Bestimmung der 
Brechungsexponenten in Prismen 
rait grossen brechenden Winkeln. 
( Uead June 9.) 



Reclierches experimentales sur le 
rajonnement. (Thfese de docto- 
ral, 91 pp., Paris, 1886.) 



'Proc. Amer.Acad.'[N.S.l, 
xiii. 361-362. 



' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' V. 58 (notice). 



'Bihang till K. Svensk. 
Vet. Akad. Handl.' xii. 
Afd. II. No. 4 (18 pp.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. Kryst. u. 
Min.' xii. 209-221 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xi. 439-440 
(Abs.) 

' J. de Physique,' V. 245- 
268 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xii. 342-344 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



185 



0. Lumme'r 



B. Nasini 

C. E. af Klercker 
W. de W. Abney 

W. von Bezold 

H. W. Vogel 
H. A. Eowland 

L. Bell . 

A. Kiiuig 
H. Dufet 



J. W. Biuhl . 



A. E. Nordenskiold 



Physical Relations, 1887. 

1887. 

Ueber elne neue Methode Meter 
und Kilogranim zu vergleichen, 
die Wellenlange als Urnormale 
einzufiihren, und iiber hydro- 
statische Wagungen. (Read Jan. 
21.) 

Sulla refrazione molecolare delle 
sostanze organiche dotate di 
forte potere dispersivo. (Jan.) 

Sur la dispersion anormale de la 
lumiere. (Read Feb. 9.) 



Sunlight Colours. 
Inst., Feb. 25.) 



(Lect. Roy. 



Ueber eine neue Methode zur Zer- 
legungdes weissen Lichtes inCom- 
plementenfarben. (Read Mar. 4.) 

Ein Mischfarben-Experiment. 
(Read Mar. 4.) 

On the Relative Wave-Lengths of 
the Lines of the Solar Spectrum. 
(March.) 

The AbsoluteWave-Length of Light. 
Parts I. II. (April.) 



Ueber Newton's Gesetz der Farben- 
mischung. (Read May 6.) 

Sur les volumes moleculaires et 
I'energie refractive des phos- 
phates, arseniates et hypophos- 
pliates de soude. (Read May 20.) 



Etudes esperimentales sur la dis- 
persion des axes d'elasticite op- 
tique dans quelques cristaux clino- 
rhombiques. (Read July 21.) 

Ueber den Einfluss der einfachen 
und der sogenannten mehrfachen 
Bindung der Atome auf das Licht- 
brechungsvermogen der Korper. 
(July.) 

Sur un rapport simple entre les 
longueurs d'onde des spectres. 
(Read Nov. 21.) 



'Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vi. 5-11 ; ' Nature," 
XXXV. 432 (Abs.) 



' Rend. R. Accad. d. 
Lincei ' [4], iv. 128-133, 
164-172; ' Zeitschr. f.ph)'- 
sikal. Chem.' i. 422 (Abs.) 

' Ofversigt af Kongl. 
Svensk. Vet. Akad. For- 
handl. Stockholm,' 1887, 
No. 2, 39 (title only). 

' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xii. 61- 
71 ; ' Nature,' xxxv. 498- 
501 ; ' Beiblatter,' xii. 
350-351 (Abs.) 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vi. 28. 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vi. 28-29. 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xsiii. 
257-265. 



' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxv. 
265-282. 347-367 ; ' Phil. 
Mag.' [5], XXV. 245-263, 
350-372 ; 'Nature,' xxxvii. 
623 (Abs.) 

' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vi. 55 (notice). 

' J. Soc. frang. de Phys.' 
1887, 117-128 ; ' J. de 
Phys.' [2], vi. .301-312; 
' Ber.' XX. (Referate), 
530 (Abs.); ' Beibliitter,' 
xiii. 701-703 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Soc. Min. de France,' 
X. 214-230 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xii. 530 (Abs.) 



•Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' i. 307-361. 



* C. R.' cv. 988-995 ; ' Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
ii. 245 (Abs.) 



186 

Nanny Lagerborg 
H. Ebert 

M • 



E. Bertrand . 
T. Pelham Dale 

A. Kundt 

K. Feussner , 

P. Simon 
H. Deslandres 
E. Blasius . 
S. P. Langley 
J. Kanonnikoff 



REPORT — 1894. 

Physical Eelations, 1887, 1888 

Etudes sur la variation des indices 
de refraction et de la densite du 
sel gemme sous I'influence de la 
temperature. (Read Dec. 14.) 

Ueber den Einfluss der Schwellen- 
werte der Lichtempfindung auf 
dem Character der Spectra. (Dec.) 

Ueber den Einfluss der Dicke und 
HelUgkeit der strahlenden Schicht 
auf das Aussehen des Spectrums. 
(Dec.) 

Empfindlicheundbequeme Metliode 
zur Messung der Fortpflanzungs- 
gescliwindigkeit des Liclites. 



1888. 

Liquides d'indices superieures k 
1-8. (Read Jan 12.) 

On the Numerical Relation between 
the Index of Refraction and the 
Wave-Length within a Refractive 
Medium, and on the Limit of Re- 
fraction. (Read Feb. 11.) 

Ueber die Brechungsexponenten 
der Metalle. (Feb.)" 



Bestimmung der Winkel und Bre- 
chungsexponenten von Prismen 
mit Femrohr und Scala. (Feb.) 
('Sitzungsb.d. Gesellsch. zur Ford, 
d. Naturwiss. Marburg.' 65-76.) 

Experience de conrs. [Platinum 
wire heated by current before slit 
of spectroscope.] (Feb.) 

Determination, en longueurs d'ond e, 
de deux raies rouges du potassium. 
(Read Mar. 12.) 

Das Gesetz von Christiansen und 
die optischen Beobachtungen am 
Tabaschir. (March.) 

Energy and Vision. (Read April 19.) 



Relations between the Specific Ro- 
tatory and the Refractive Power 
of Chemical Compounds. Part I. 
(in Russian.) (April.) 



' Bihang till Kongl. 
Svensk. Vet. Akad. Hand- 
lingar,' xiii. Afd. I. No. 10 
(12 pp.); 'Beiblatter.'xiii. 
490-491 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxiii. 136-155; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 250 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxiii. 155-158. 



' Tageblatt d. 60 versammt. 
d. deutsche Naturf. und 
Aerzte zu Wiesbaden ' 
(1887), 42 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 328 (Abs.) 



■■ Bull. Soc. 
France,' xi. 31. 



Min. de 



' Proc. Phys. Soc' ix. 167- 
181; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], XXV. 
325-338 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiii. 805-806 (Abs.) 



Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1888, 255-272; ' PhiL 
Mag.' [6], xxvi. 1-18. 



' Beibliitter,' 
(Abs.) 



XI n. 



807 



' J. de Phys.' [2], vii. 79- 
80 ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 346 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cvi. 739 ; ' Zeitschr. 
f . physikal. Chem.' ii. 434 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Krvst. u. Min.' 
xiv. 258-259 ; 'Beiblatter,' 
xii.J82 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [.5], xxvii. 1- 
23 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
162-163 (Abs.) 

'J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc' 
XX. No. 6, 571-578 ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 326 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRArHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



187 



R. Weegmann 



A. Eonig . 
H. Vogel 
H. Ebert 

A. Haschek , 



W. Sutherland 



W. Uhthoff . 



E. L. Nichols and 
W. S. Franklin. 

W. H. Julius 



J. Kanonnikoff 



T. Pelham Dale 



B. Ketteler . 



Physical Relations, 1888. 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction 
einiger gebrannten Aethane und 
Aethylene, und iiber den gegen- 
wiirtigen Stand der Landolt- 
Bruhl'schen Theorie. (Inaugural- 
Dissertation.) (April.) 

Measurement of the Intensities of 
Light in the Spectrum ('Arch, 
f. Anat. u. Physiol,' May 11, 1888). 

Spectroscopische Notizen. (Read 
June 14.) 

Die Methode der hoher Interferen- 
zen, und ihre Verwendbarkeit fur 
die Zwecke der qualitativen Spec- 
tralanalyse. (Habilitationsschrift, 
Erlangen, 1888.) 

Ueber Brechungsexponenten triiber 
Medien. (Read July 19.) 



Molecular Refraction. (Australian 
Assoc.f or Advancement of Science.) 
(Aug.) 



Ueber die zur Erzeugung eben 
merklicher Farbendifierenzen er- 
forderlichen Aenderungen der 
Wellenlange spectralen Lichtes. 
(Read Aug. 3.) 

A Spectrophotometric Comparison 
of Sources of Artificial Illumina- 
tion. (Aug.) 

Recherches bolometriques dans le 
spectre infra-rouge. (Sept.) 

Relations between the Specific Ro- 
tatory and the Refractive Pov^er of 
Chemical Compounds. Part II. 
(in Russian.) (Oct.) 

On the Upper Limit of Refraction 
in Selenium and Bromine. (Read 
Nov. 10.) 



Experimentaluntersuchungen iiber 
das Refractionsvermogen der 
Fliissigkeiten zwischen sehr ent- 
fernten Temperaturgrenzen. 

(Nov.) 



' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem." ii. 218-240, 257- 
269. 



'Nature,' xxxviii. 119-120 
(Abs.) 

' Ber.' sxi. 2029-2032 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 655 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 434 (Abs.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
scvii. II. Abth. a. 958- 
960 ; ' Monatshefte f. 
Chem.' ix. 900-902; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 197 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 492-493 
(Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5],sxvii. 141- 

155 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' Ivi. 

454-455 (Abs.) ; ' Ber.' 
5xii.(Referate),129(Abs.); 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 

Chem.' iii. 364 (Abs.) 

'Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol.' 
(phys. Abth.), 1889, 171- 
172 ; ' Nature,' xxxviii. 
464 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxviii. 
100-114. 



' Arch, neerland.' xxii. 310- 
383; 'Zeitschr. f. phy- 
sikal. Chem.' ii. 763 (Abs.) 

' J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. 
Soc' XX. No. 9, part i. 
686-693; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ivi. 453-454 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Phys. Soc' x. 17- 
23; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxvii. 50-56 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Mii. 252-253 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
805-806 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxii. 662-699; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem." iii. 130 (Abs.) 



188 



REPORT — 1894. 



C. Soret , 

E. Lommel . 
J. Stossel 

P. Szymanski. 



Physical Eelations, 1888, 1889. 

Recherches sur la refraction et la 
dispersion dans les aluns crys- 
tallises. (Deuxieme memoire.) 
(Dec.) 

Phosphorophotographie des ultra- 
rothen Spectrums. (Read Dec. 1.) 

Ueber die Liclitemission des glii- 
henden Platins. 



Schulversuche iiber die Zuriickwer- 
funsr und Brechuna; des Lichtes. 



■ Arch, de Geneve ' [3], xx. 
517-536 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiii. 6G9-670 (Abs.) 

' Sitzunsb. d. Akad. Miin- 
chen ' (1888), 397-408. 

' Ziiricher Vierteljahres- 
schrift,' 1888, 308-322; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 945 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. pbys. u. 
cliem. Unterricht,' ii. 62- 
65 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 
763-70 1 (Abs.) 



A. Konig 



W. Grosse 



H. W. Vogel 



¥. L. Perrot . 



H. Rubens 



E. Conrady 



T. Pelham Dale 



H. A. Rowland 



1889. 

Ueber die Abhiingigkeit dor Seh- 
schiirfe von der Lichtintensitiit 
bei spectraler Beleuchtung. (Read 
Jan. 25.) 

Ueber Messungen der Lichttrans- 
mission und Lichtabsorption. 
(Jan.) 

Photographien vom Beugungspec- 
trum. (Read Feb, 8.) 



Verification experimentale de la 
methode de M. Charles Soret pour 
la mesure des indices de refraction 
des cristaux ^ deux axes. (Read 
Feb. 7.) 

Die selective Reflexion der Metalle. 
(Read Mar. 8.) 



Berechnung der Atomrefractionen 
fiir Natriumlicht. (Mar.) 



On a Relation existing between the 
Density and Refraction of the 
Gaseous Elements, and also some 
of their Compounds. (Read May 
25.) 



Table of Standard Wave-Lengths. 
(May.) 



' Verhandl. phys. Gesell- 

sch. Berlin,' viii. No. 2, 

9-12 ; ' Nature,' xxxix. 
408 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumen- 
tenkunde.' ix. 1-9 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xiii. 679 (Abs.) 

' Verhandl. phys. Gesell- 
sch. Berlin,' viii. No. 3, 
20 ; ' Nature,' xxxix. 480 
(Abs.) 

' Arch, de Genfeve,' xxi. 
113-115; 'C. R.' cviii. 
137-138 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiii. 317 (Abs.) 

' Verhandl. phys. Gesell- 
sch. Berlin,' viii. No. 5, 
23 (Abs.); 'Ann. Phys. 
u. Chem.' [N.F.], xxxviii. 
249-268 ; ' Nature,' xxxix. 
552 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschrift f. physikal. 
Chem.' iii. 210-227; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 661 
(Abs.) 

• Proc. Phys. Soc' x. 189- 
192; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxviii. 268-271 ; < Nature,' 
xl. 148 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' lix. 276 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 937 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 201 (Abs.) 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ'viii. 69, 78; 'Phil. 
Mag.' [5], xxvii. 479-484 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 677 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



189 



J. L. Soret and 
E. Sarasiu. 



P. Barbier and L. 
Koux. 

Lord Kayleigb 

H. Ebert 

B. Walter 



T. Costa 



C. V. Zenger . 



A. A. Michelson and 
E. W. Morley. 

K. Seubert 



J. H. Gladstone and 
W. H. Perkin. 



C. Pulfrich 



J. Kanonnikoffi 



M. Le Blanc . 



E. Fleischl von 
Marxow. 



Physical Kelations, 1889. 

Sur I'indice de rSfraction de I'eau 
de mer. (Read June 17.) 



Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques. (Read 
June 17.) 

On the Visibility of Faint Inter- 
ference Bands. (June.) 

Optische Mittheilungen. (Physikal- 
medizin. See. Erlangen. July.) 

Ueber die Brechungsexponenten 
von SalzIGsungen. (July.) 



Sulla correlazione tra il potere ri- 
f rangente ed il potere dispersivo 
dei derivati aromatici a catene 
laterali sature. (Aug.) 

La spectropbotographie des parties 
invisibles du spectre solaire. 
(Read Sept. 9.) 

The Feasibility of Establishing a 
Lightwave as the ultimate Stan- 
dard of Length. (Sept.) 

Einige physikalische Constanten 
von Halogensubstitutionsproduc- 
ten des Benzols und Toluols. 
(Read Oct. 14.) 

On the Correspondence between 
the Magnetic Rotation and the 
Refraction and Dispersion of 
Light by Compounds containing 
Nitrogen. (Read Nov. 7.) 

Ueber das Brechungsvermogen von 
Mischungen zweier Fliissigkeiten. 
(Nov. 29.) 



On the Relations between the Ke- 
fractive and the Rotatory Powers 
of Chemical Compounds. (Nov.) 

Optisch.-chemische Studien mit 
Beriicksichtigung der Dissocia- 
tiontheorie. (Nov.) 



Ueber die zweckmiissigste Herstel- 
lung monochromatischen Licbtes. 
(Nov.) 



' C. E.' cviii. 1248-1249 ; 
' Arch, de Genhve,' xxi. 
509-514 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiii. 6G9 (Abs.) 

'C. E.' cviii. 1249-1251; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 478 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], sxvii. 484- 
486. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 578 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxviii. 107-118; 
' Zeitschr. f. anal. 
Chem.' xxix. 4.30 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 201 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
liii. 202 (Abs.) 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xix. 
478-498; 'Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' v. 280 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc.' 
Iviii. 1201-1202 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cix. 434-436 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xiv. 37-38 (Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [31, xxxviii. 
181-186; 'Nature,' xl. 
562 (Abs.) 

• Ber.' xxii. 2519-2.524. 



'J. Chem. Soc' Iv. 750- 
759. 



< Zeitschr. f. physikal. 

Chem.' iv. 661-569 ; 

' Beibliitter,' xiv. 273 
(.lbs.) 

'J. Euss. Phys.-Chem. Soc.' 
xxii. 85-96 ; ' Ber.' xxiii. 
[Ref.], 317-319 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 553-560; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 213 
(Abs.); ' Beibliitter,' xiv. 
272 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phj's. n. Chem.' 
[NF.], xxxviii. 675-676; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Iviii. 549 
(Abs.) 



190 



REPORT — 1894. 



Physical Relations, 1889, 1890. 



C. Bender , 

J. SeyfEaxt 

K. Angstrom . 
W. KonrilofE . 



Brechungsexponenten 
Salzlosungen. (Dec.) 



normalen 



Ueber eine Methode zur Bestim- 
mung der Rotationsdispersion 
circularpolarisenden Substanzen. 
(Inaugural-Dissertation.) 

Nyere studien ofvn det ultrarode 
Spectrum (' Svensk Kemisk Tid- 
skrift," 1889, 98-108). 

Terpenes from the Oil of Pinus 
abies. 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxix. 89-96 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' V. 283 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xli. 113-134 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 590 (Abs.) 



• Beiblatter,' 
(title). 



XIV. 



[27] 



' J. Russ. Phys. -Chem. 
Soc' xxi. 357-367; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 789 
(Abs.) 



E. Abbe. 



H. W. Vogel . 



E. Doumer , 



J. L. Soret and 
A. A. Rilliet. 



P. Barbier and 
L. Roux. 



C. A. BischofE and 
P. Walden. 



P. Barbier and 
L. Roux. 



1890. 

Ueber die Verwendung des Fluorits 
fiir optische Zwecke. (Jan.) 



Ueber Farbenwahrnehmungen. 
(Read Jan. 10.) 

Sur les pouvoirs ref ringents mol6cu- 
laires des sels en dissolution. 
(Read Jan. 6, Jan. 20, May 5.) 



Sur I'absorption des rayons ultra- 
violets par quelques substances 
organiques faisant partie de la 
serie grasse. (Read Jan. 20.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes aromatiques. (Feb.) 



Ueber die physikalischen Con- 
stanten der substituirten Aethe- 
nyltricarbonsiiureester. (Reed. 
Feb. 27. Read March 10.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion des 
dissolutions aqueuses. (Read 
March 3, March 10, May 27.) 



' Zeitschr. f . Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' x. 1-6 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xiv. 274-275 
(Abs.) 

'Verb. phys. Ges. Berlin,' 
ix. 1 -8 ; ' Beibliitter,' xiv. 
629 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' ex. 40-42, 139-141, 
957-958; 'Nature,' xli. 
263, xlii. 72 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 767- 
768 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixi. 49 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Iviii. 
433-1033 (Abs); 'Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
vi. 374 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' ex. 137-139; 'Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
V. 275 (Abs.) 



• Bull. soc. chim.' [3], iii. 
255 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
11 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxiii. 660-664 ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 745- 
746 (Abs.) 



■■ C. R.' ex. 457-460, 627- 
532, 1071-1074; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 673- 
674 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xli. 455, 479 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 368, 
502 (Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f . 
physikal. Chem.' -nI. 84 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



191 



B. Walter 



R. Nasini 

J. F. Eykman 

F. W. Semmler 
F. Schiitt 



T. Costa 



C. Schall and 
C. Dralle. 

P, Barbier and 
L. Rons, 



A. Schrauf 



• • 



P. Barbier and 
L. Roux. 



R. Loewenherz 

H. E. J. G. du Bois 
and H. Rubens. 



S. P. Langley and 
F. W. Very. 



Physical Relations, 1890. 

Sur les indices de r6fraction des 
solutions salines. (Read March 
11.) 



Sulla dispersione del composti 
organici. (Read March 16.) 



TJeber die Umwandlung von Allyl 
in Propenylbenzolderivate, ihre 
Dispersion und Refraction. (Reed. 
March 17. Read March 24.) 

UeberindischesGeraniumol. (Reed. 
April 10. Read April 28.) 

Ueber die Bestimmung der Mole- 
cularrefraction fester chemische 
Verbindungen in Losungen der- 
selben. (Read April 29.) 



Sul peso moleculare e sul potere 
rifrangente del bicloruro di 
zolfo. (Read May 4.) 



Studien iiber das Brazilin. IV. 
(Read May 19.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (alcools 
de la serie grasse). (Read May 27.) 



Ueber die thermische Veranderung 
der Brechungsexponenten des 
prismatischen Schwefels. (Read 
May 8.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (ethers 
osydes). (Read July 21.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les compos6s organiques (acides 
gras). (Read July 28.) 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction der 
Nitrate. (Read July 14.) 

Brechung und Dispersion des 
Lichtes in einigen Metallen. 
(Read July 24.) 



On the Cheapest Form of Light; 
from Studies at the Alleghany 
Observatory. (Aug.) 



'C. R.' ex. 708-709; 
'Chem. News,' Lxi. 192 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xiv. 
505 (Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' vi. 86 
(Abs.) 

•Rend. d. R. Accad. 
Lincei,' vi. 1st sem. 211- 
215 ; ' Gazz. chim. ital.' 
xs. 356-361. 

' Ber,' .xsiii. 855-864; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 748- 
749 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiv. 502-505 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' x.xiii. 1098-1103. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' V. 349-373; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 1033- 
1034 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xiv. 772-774 
(Abs.) 

' Rend. d. R. Accad. d. 
Lincei ' [4], vi. 408-411 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 286 (Abs.); 
' Gazz. chim. ital.' xx. 
367-372. 

' Ber.' xxiii. 1428-1437. 



' C. R.' ex. 1071-1074 ; 
' Nature,' xlii. 143 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' l.xi. 289 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 1034-1035 (Abs.) 

' Anzeiger d. K. Akad. 
Wien,' xxvi. 105-106 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xv. 37-38. 



cxi. 180-183 ; 
News,' Ixii. 74 



' C. R.' 
' Chem, 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxi. 235, 236; 
' Nature,' xlii. 360 
(Abs.); 'Chem. News,' 
l.xii. 85 (Abs.) 

■■ Ber.' xxiii. 2180-2182. 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1890, 955-968; 'Phil. 
Mag.' [5], XXX. 365-378 
(Abe.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3],xl. 97- 
113; 'Nature,' xlii. 432 
(Abs.) 



192 



REPORT 1894. 



J. J. Kanonnikoff . 

W. Marshall Watts 

S. P. Thompson 
T. Pelham Dale . 

V. Schumann 

L. Buchkremer 

C. Pulfrich . 



Ph. Barbier and L. 

Koux. 



Physical Kelations, 1890, 1891. 

Ueber die Wechselbeziehungen 
zwischen den Drehungs- nnd 
Brechungsvermcigen chemischer 
Verbindungen. (Aug.) 

A New Series of Wave-length Tables 
of the Spectra of the Elements and 
Compounds. (Report of the Com- 
mittee.) (Sept.) 

On the Use of Fluor Spar in Optical 
Instruments. (.Sept.) 

On certain Relations exi.sting 
among the Refractive Indices of 
the Chemical Elements. (Nov.) 

Photographische Gesammtauf- 

nahme des Spectrums zwischen 
den Wellenlilngen IGO und 200 /xfi. 

Ueber die beim Mischen von zwei 
riiissigkeiten stattfindenden Vo- 
lumiinderuDg und deren Einfluss 
auf das Brechungsvermogen. 
(Inaug.-Diss. Bonn, 1890, 46 pp.) 

Das Totalrefiectometer und das 
Refractometer fiir Chemiker, ibre 
Anwendung in der Krystalloptik 
und zur Untersuchung der 
Lichtbrechung von Fliissigkeiten. 
(Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1890.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes aromatiques. 



'J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc' 
1890, 85-8('. ; ' Zeitschr. 
f. physikal. Chem.' vi. 87 
(Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1890, 
224-261. 



' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 
120-12.S. 

' Chem News,' Ixii. 259 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xliii. 
118 (Abs.) 

'Eder's Jahrb. d. Photog.' 
iv. 158-163 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiv. 615-G16 (Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,' xiv. 768-769 
(Abs.); 'Zeitschr. f. physi- 
kal. Chem.' vi. 161-186 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' xliv. 538 (notice) 



' Bull. soc. chim. fran(;.' 
[3], iii. 25.5-261 ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 500-502 
(Abs.) 



J. W. Bruhl 



<i. Lippmann , 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



G. Iliggs 



W. Cassie 



1891. 

Ueber die Messung der Brechungs- 
exponenten bei hoheren Tempera- 
turen mittelst des Totalrefiecto- 
meter. (Read Jan. 26.) 

Sur la photographic des couleurs 
(premiere note), (Read Feb. 2.) 



On the Influence of Pressure on the 
Spectra of Flames. (Read Feb. 
19.) 



On the Bisulpliite Compounds of 
Alizarin Blue and Cterulin as Sen- 
sitisers for Ravs of Low Refrangi- 
bilitv. (Reed. Feb. 19. Read 
March 12.) 

On the EfEect of Temperature upon 
the Refractive Index of certain 
Liquids. (Reed. Feb. 19. Read 
March 12.) 



' Ber.' xxiv. 286-299 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vii. 429 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxii. 274-275 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 87- 
88. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 217- 
227 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
143-145, 155-156 (Abs.); 
' Zeitschr.' f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 332 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 343- 
346 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
157. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 343- 
345. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



193 



W. de W. Abney 
H. A. Kowland 



Ph. Barbier and L. 
Roux. 

J. H. Gladstone 



A. Crova . 



F. L. Perrot . 



A. A. Michelson 



W. de W. Abney 



H G. ElUnger 



A. Johnson • 



G. Kiimmell . 



^\^. H. Parkin . 



Physical Relations, 1891. 

The Numerical Registration of 
Colour. Preliminarj- Notice. (Reed. 
Feb. 6. Read Feb. 19.) 

Report of Progress in Spectrum 
Work. (Feb.) 



Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (Others). 
(Read March 16.) 

Molecular Refraction and Dis- 
persion of various Substances. 
(Read March 19.) 



Sur la mesure optique des hautes 
temperatures. (Read April 19.) 

Recherches sur la refraction et la 
dispersion dans une serie iso- 
morphe de cristaus k deus axes. 
(Read April 27.) 

On the Application of Interference 
Methods to Spectroscopic Mea- 
sarements. (April.) 

On the Examination for Colour of 
Cases of Tobacco Scotoma, and 
of Abnormal Colour Blindness. 
(Reed. April 29. Read May 14.) 

On the Limit of Visibility of the 
Different Rays of the Spectrum. 
(Read May 14.) 

Der Concentrationsgrad von 
Losungen, bestimmt durch das 
Brechungsvermogen. (May.) 

Newton's Use of Slit and Lens in 
forming a Pure Spectrum. (Read 
May 27.) 



Rotaf ionsdispersion 
Salze. (June.) 



weinsaurer 



The Refractive Power of certain 
Organic Compounds at Different 
Temperatures. (Read June 18.) 



1894. 



' Proc. Koy. Soc' xlix. 227- 
233. 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ.' X. No. 25, 41-42 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 133- 
134. 

< C. R.' cxii. 582-584 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. IGG 
(Abs.) 

'J. Chem. Soc' lis. 290- 
301 ; 'Proc. Chem. Soc' 
1891, 35-30 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 173- 
174 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xliii. 549-550 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' viii. 335 (Abs.) 

' 0. R.' cxiv. 941-943 : 
' Beibliitter,'" xvii. 316 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxi. 967-9G9 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' vii. 3'35 (Abs.) 

'Phil.Mag.'[5],xxxi. 359- 
363. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 491- 
508. 



• Proc. Koy. Soc' xlix. 509- 
518; 'Beibliitter,' xvi. 
741 (Abs.) 

« J. prakt. Chem.' xliv. 1 52- 
157 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 
262 (Abs.) 

' Proc. and Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Canada,' ix. Sect. 
III. 45-54; 'Beibliitter,' 
xvii. 825 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 

[N.F.], xliii. 509-515; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' viii. 569 (Abs.) 

'J. Chem. Soc' Ixi. 287- 
310 ; ' Proc Chem. Soc." 
1891, 115-117 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Ixiv. 19-20 
(Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f. phv- 
sikal. Chem.' viii. 692 
(Abs.); 'Beibliitter,' xvii. 
559-561 (Abs ) 

O 



194 



REPORT — 1894. 



J. H. Gladstone 



M. Labatut , 



J. H. Gladstone and 
W. Hibbert. 

A. Jonas . . 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



F. Aymonnet . . 

H. Rubens . 
C. B. Thring . 
W, de W. Abney . 



E. L. Nicholls and 
B. W. Snow. 



T. P. Dale . 



A. Konig 



C. E. Guillanme 



A. Konig and R. 
Bitter. 



Physical Relations, 1891, 1892. 

The Molecular Refraction and Dis- 
persion of various Substances. 
(Read June 4.) 



Sur I'absorption et la photographie 
des couleurs. (Read July 20.) 

Experiments on the Molecular 
Refraction of Electrolytes in 
Solution. (Read Aug. 26.) 

OrthochromatischeBromsilber-Col- 
lodionemulsion. (Aug.) 

On the Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen, 
and on the Refractive Indices of 
Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide, 
and Ethylene. (Aug.) 

Relation entre I'indice de refraction 
d'un corps, sa densite, son poids 
mol6culaire et son pouvoir dia- 
thermane. (Read Sept. 21.) 

Ueber eine Methode zur Bestim- 
mung der Dispersion ultra-rothen 
Strahlen. (Oct.) 

Colour Photography by Lippmann's 
Process. (Nov.) 

Colour Photometry. (ReadNov. 19.) 



On the Influence of Temperature on 
the Colour of Pigments. (Nov.) 



On certain Relations existing 
amongst the Refractive Indices of 
the Chemical Elements. (Phys. 
Soc. Read Nov. 14.) 

Ueber den Helligkeitswerth der 
Spectralfarben bei verschiedener 
absoluter Intensitat. (Hamburg, 
1891, 84 pp.) 



1892. 
L'energie dans le spectre. (Jan.) 



Ueber den Helligkeitswerth der 
Spectralfarben bei verschiedener 
absoluter Intensitat. (Read Jan. 
29.) 



'J. Cham. Soc' lix. 589- 
598 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
304-305(Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. 
f. physikal. Chem.' ix. 
223-225 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxiii. 126-129; 
' Beiblatter,' xvi. 364-3G5 
(Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1891, 
609 ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
605 (Abs.) 

' Phot. Mittheil.' xxviii. 
155-157, 172-174; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xvi. 538 (Abs.) 

' Phil.Mag.'[5],xxxiv.205- 
209 ; ' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.'x. 430 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cxiii. 
' Beiblatter,' 
(Abs.) 



418- 
xvi. 



421 ; 
430 



'Verhandl. der phys. Ge- 
sellsch. Berl.' 1891, 83-84; 
'Nature,' xlv. 48 (Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xlii. 
388-390; 'BeibUitter,'xvi. 
364 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Chem. Soc' 1891, 
150-154 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixiv. 295-296 
(Abs.) 

• Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxii. 401- 
424; 'Zeitschr. f. phy- 
sikal. Chem.' ix. 380 
(Abs.); ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
361-363 (Abs.) 

'Chem. News,' Ixii. 259 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
274 (Abs.) 



'Zeitschr. f. Psychol, ti. 
Physiol, d. Sinnesorgane,' 
iv. 422-424 (Abs.); 'Bei- 
blatter,' xvii. 659-660 
(Abs.) 



■ Revue Gi'n^rale 
Sciences,' iii. 12-21. 



des 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlv. 604-607; 
' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxiii. 
541-542. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPy. 



195 



J. Chappuis . 

C. E. Guillaume . 
P. Bary . 

A. Weigle , 

E. Brodhun . 



J. Elster and H. 
Geitel. 



F. Aymonnet 

F. Maclean . 

G. Lippmann . . 
C. Pulfrich . 

F. J. Eogers . 
F. Dussaud . 

"W. Baily , 
F. Schiitt . 

K. Bach . . 
Committee . 



Physical Relations, 1892. 

Refraction des gaz liquefies. (Read 
Feb. 8.) 

Les constantes radiomfitriques. 
(Feb.) 

Sur les indices de refraction des 
solutions salines. (Read Feb. 8.) 



Spectrophotometrische TJntersuch- 
ungen der Salze aromatischer Ba- 
sen. (Feb.) 

Ueber die Empfindlichkeit des griin- 
blinden und des normalen Auges 
gegen Farbeniinderung im Spec- 
trum. (July.) 

Beobacbtungen des atmosphii- 
rischen Potentialgefiilles und der 
ultravioletten Sonnenstrahlung. 
(Read March 10.) 

Des maxima calorifiquesperiodiques 
observes dans les spectres du flint, 
du crown et du sel gemme. (Read 
March 14.) 

Photographies spectral es obtenues 
avec un r^seau de Rowland. (Read 
April 1.) 

Sur la photographie des oouleurs 
(deuxieme note). (Read April 25.) 

Ueber den Einfluss der Temperatur 
auf die Lichtbrechung des Glases. 
(April.) 

Magnesium as a Source of Light. 
(April.) 

Sur la refraction et la dispersion 
du chlorate de soude cristallise. 
(April.) 

On the Construction of a Colour 
Map. (Phys. Soc. Read April 8.) 

Ueber die Bestimmung der Molecu- 
larrefraction fester chemischer 
Verbindungen in Losungen der- 
selben. (April.) 

Thermochemie des Hydrazins, nebst 
einer Bemerkung iiber die Mole- 
cularrefraction einiger Stickstofl:- 
verbindungen. (April.) 



Report 
28.) 



on Colour-Vision. (April 



'C. R.' cxiv. 286-288; 
' Beibliitter,' xvi. 425 
(Abs.) 

' Rev. GenSrale des 
Sciences,' iii. 93-94. 

•C. R.' cxiv. 827-831; 
' Beibliitter,' xvi. 735 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc." 
Ixii. 929 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' xi. 227-247, 426- 
428: 'Beibliitter,' xvii. 
606 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. Psychol, 
u. Physiol, der Sinnes- 
organe,' iii. 97-107. 

'Sitzungsb. Akad.'Wien,'ci. 
ll.a, 703-856. 



' C. R.' cxiv. 582-585 ;'Ee:- 
blatter,' xvii. 336-337 
(Abs.) 

'J. Soc. Frani;. de Phys.' 
1892, 165-166. 

'C. R.' cxiv. 961-902; 
'Beibliitter,' xvi, 611 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], "xlv. 609-655 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 770 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xliii. 
301-314; 'Beibliitter,' 
xvi. 606-608 (Abs.) 

' Arch, de Geneve ' [3], 
xxvii. 380-381, 521-536 ; 
'Beibliitter,' xvi. 611 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxiii. 
496-503. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 349-377, 



' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 241-263; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xvi. 515-517 
(Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' li. 281- 
390. 

02 



19G 



REPORT — 1894. 



H. F. Newall . 



D. Shea , 



H. Landolt and H. 
Jalin. 



A. A. Michelson 



F. Zeccbini . 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



U. Rubens and 
B. W. Snow. 

J. M. Eder . 



■\V. Marshall Watts 



C. Piazzi Smith 



J. Kerr . , 



H. Landolt and 
Hans Jahn. 



M. Le Blanc 



Physical Relations, 1892. 

On a Diagram useful as a Guide in 
adjusting a Diflfraction- grating 
Spectroscope. (May.) 

Zur Brechung und Dispersion des 
Lichtes durch Metallprismen. 
(July.) 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction 
einiger einfachen organischen 
Verbindungen Mr Strahlen von 
unendlichgrosser Wellenlange. 
(July.) 

On the Application of Interference 
Methods to Spectroscopic Mea- 
surements. (Read Aug. 6.) 

Rifrazione atomiche degli element! 
rispetto della luce gialla del sodio. 
(Read Aug. 20.) 

On the Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen, 
and on the Refractive Indices of 
Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide, 
and Ethylene. (Aug.) 



Ueber die Brechung der Strahlen 
von grosser Wellenliinge in Stein- 
salz, Sylvin und Fluorite. (Aug.) 

Ueber die Verwendbarkeit der 
Farbenspectren verschiedener Me- 
talle zur Bestimmung der Wellen- 
liinge im Ultravioletten.mitBezug 
auf des Spectrums, des Sonnen- 
lichtes, Drummond'schen Mag- 
nesium- und electrischen Bogen- 
lichtes. (Aug.) 

On Wave-Length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements and 
Compounds. (Read Aug. 5.) 



Researches on 
Rays of the 
(Read Aug. 5.) 



the Ultra-Violet 
Solar Spectrum. 



On Dispersion in Double Refraction 
due to Electrical Stress. (Aug.) 



Ueber die Molecularrefraction eini- 
ger einfachen organischen Verbin- 
dungen fiir Wellen von unendlich 
grosser Wellenlange. (Sept.) 

Eine einfache Jlethode zur Bestim- 
mung von Brechungsexpcnenten 
optisch-isotroper Korper. (Oct.) 



• Monthly Not. R.A.S.' lii. 
510-512 ; ' Beibliitter, 
xvii. 129-130 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Plivs. u. Cham.' 
[N.F.], xivii. 178-202; 
' Nature,' xlvii. G8 - 69 
(Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. P.erl.' 
1892, 11.729-751; 'Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
ix. 289-320.* 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1892, 
170-185; 'Nature,' xlvi. 
385 (Abs.) ; ' Phil. Mag.' 
[5], xxxiv. 280-299. 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxii. 
IL 592-604; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. IL 253-254 
(Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [.")], xxxiv. 
205-209 ; ' Phvsikal. Re- 
vue,' il. 288-294 ; ' J. 
Chem. See' Ixiv. II. 201- 
202 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter," 
xvii. 121-122 (Abs.) 

' Ann. Phys.' u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlvi. 529-541; 
' Nature,' xlvi. 483 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien' 
(1892), Ix. 2()4-:.'f.5; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 331- 
332 (Abs.) . 



'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1892, 
193-260. 



'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1892, 
74-76. 



'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1892, 
157-158; 'Beibliitter,' 
xvii. 768-769" (.Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' X. 289-320 ;" ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xvij. 329-331 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. phj-sikal. 
Chem.' ix. 433 - 449 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 441- 
442 (Abs.) 



ox TflE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



197 



G. Lippmann , 



J. r. E3-kman 



B. Hasselberg 

G. Meslin . 
W. H. Perkin 
F. L. Perrot . 

F. Zecchini . 
W. B. Croft , 

C. Fery . 
A. Sella . 

W. Hallwachs 
A. Kurz . 

E. Mach 



Physical Relations, 1892. 

Photographies colorfies du spectre 
sur albumine et sur gelatine bi- 
chromatt'es. (Read Oct. 24.) 



Recherches refractometriques. 

(Read Oct. 5 and 10.) 



Projet d'une mfithode pour deter- 
miner avec grande exactitude I'in- 
dice de refraction et la dispersion 
de I'air. (Read Nov. 9.) 

Sur la photographic des couleurs 
(' Physikal. Revue,' ii. 681-701). 
(Nov.) 

On the Refractive Power of certain 
Organic Substances at Different 
Temperatures. (Nov.) 

Nouvelles recherches sur refraction 
et dispersion dans une s6rie iso- 
morphe des cristaux ii deux axes 
(sulfates doubles k 6H..0). 
(Read Dec. 1.) 

Sul potere rifrangente del fosforo. 
Potere rifrangente degli acidi del 
fosforo, et dei loro sali sodici. 
(Read Dec. G.) 

The Spectra of the Colours in vari- 
ous Orders of Colours of Newton's 
Scale. (Read Dec. 9.) 

Sur I'etude des reactions chimiques 
dans une masse liquide par I'in- 
dice de refraction. (Read Dec. 26.) 

Sulla variazione dell' indice di rifra- 
zione del diamante colla tempera- 
tura e su di una generalizzazione 
del metodo di mimina deviazione 
col prisma. 

Deber das Brechungsexponenten 
verdiinnter Losungen. 

Die kleinste Ablenkung im Prisma. 



Ueber eine elementare Darstellung 
der Fraunhofer'sohen Beugungser- 
scheinung, ins besondere der Git- 
terspectra. 



' C. R.' cxv. 575 ; ' Ber.' 
XXV. (Ret.), 850 (Abs.) ; 
' Beiblatter,' xvii. 933 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xlvii. 
23 (Abs.) 

• Recueil des trav. chim. 
des Pays-Bas,' xii. 157- 
197, 2(58-286; ' Beibliit- 
ter,'xvii. 1D4 8-I049,xviii. 
452-453 (Abs.) ; ' Ber. 
XXV. 3069-3079, xxTii. 
(Ref.), 11 (Abs.); 'J- 
Chem Soc' Ixiv. II. I- 2 
(Abs.) 

' Oefversigt af K. Vet. 
Akad. Forh. (Stockholm) 
(1892), xlix. 441-449; 
' Beiblatter,' xvii. 915 
(Abs.) 

' Ann. chim. et phys.' [6], 
xxvii. 369-392 ; ' Beiblat- 
ter,' xviii. 342 (Abs.) 

'J. Chem. Soc' Ixi. 287- 
310; ' Zeitschr. f . phy- 
sikal. Chem.' X. 667 (Abs.) 

' Arch, de Geneve ' [3], 
xxix. 28-50. 121-140 ; 
' Arch, n^erland.' xxix. 
121-141. 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxiii. I. 
109-120; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. II. 254 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Ne_ws,' Ixvi. 300- 
301 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xlvii. 190 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliltter,' xvii. 1072 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxv. 1309-1312 ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. II. 
201 (Abs.) 

'Rend. R. Acoad. d 
Lincei,' vii. (2nd sem.), 
300-308 ; ' Beiblatter ,' 
xvi. 423-424 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlvii. 380-388. 

' Zeitschr. , f. Math. u. 
Phys.' (Leipzig), xxxvii. 
317-318. 

' Zeitschr. .f . phys. u. 
chem. Unterrichc,' v. 
225-229. 



198 



REPORT — 1894. 



B. Krone . 

E. Carvallo . 

W. Grosse . 
W. Pole 

J. H. Gladstone 

W. H. Perkin 

R. Nasinl , 

A. Crova • 

J. R. Rydberg 

A. Ghira , 
S. Bloch 

G. Lippmann. 
A. A. Michelson 

T. Liebisch . 
H. Bouasse , 
E. Hering 



Physical Relations, 1892, 1893. 

Einige Erfahrungsnotizen uber ' Phot, 
farbige Photographie von Spec- 67-70. 
tren. 

1893. 

Perfectionnements a la methode de 
M. Mouton pour I'etude du spectre 
caloriflque. (Jan.) 

Ueber die Lange der Spectren und 
Spectralbezirke. (Jan.) 

On the Present State of Knowledge 
and Opinion with regard to Colour- 
Blindness. (Read Jan. 16.) 

Note on some Recent Determina- 
tions of Molecular Refraction and 
Dispersion. (Read Feb. 10.) 



Mittheil.' xxix. 



The Magnetic Rotation and Re- 
fractive Power of Ethylene Oxide. 
(Read March 2.) 

Sul potere rifrangente perun raggio 
di lunghezza d' onda infinita. 
(Read March 8.) 

Sur les bandes d'interf6rence des 
spectres des reseaux sur gelatine. 
(Read March 27.) 

On a certain Asymmetry in Pro- 
fessor Rowland's Concave Grat- 
ings. (March.) 

Snlla rifrazione atomica del Boro. 
(Read April 9.) 

Sur la dispersion anomale. (Read 
April 10.) 

Photographies en couleurs ex6- 
cutfies d'aprfes les m6thodes inter- 
ferentielles. (Read April 17.) 

Comparaisondu mitre international 
avec la longueur d'onde de la lu- 
miere du cadmium. (Read April 
17.) 



Ueber die Spectralanalyse 
Interferenzfarben optisch i 
axiger Krystalle. (April.) 



der 



Reflexiopi et refraction dans les 
milieux isotropes transparents et 
absorbents. (April.) 

Ueber den Einfluss der Macula 
lutea auf Spectralfarbengleichun- 
gen. (May.) 



'J. de phys.' [3], ii. 27-36; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 562- 
563 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' xiii. 6-13. 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb.' 
xxxvii. 441-479; 'Nature,' 
xlvii. 335 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxv. 
204-210 ; ' J. Chem. Soc.' 
Ixiv. II. 254 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xvii. 647-648 
(Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiii. 488- 
492;'Ber.'xxvi.(Ref.),497 
(Abs.) ; 'Beibliitter,' xvii. 
959 (Abs.) 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxiii. 
I. 347-354. 

'C. R.' cxvi. 672-674; 
•Beibliitter,' xviii. 193- 
194 (Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxv. 
190-199 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xvii. 840 (Abs.) 

' Bend. R. Accad. Roma ' 
[5], ii. 1st sem. 312-319. 

'C. R.' cxvi. 746-748; 
• Beiblatter,' xvii. 1046 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvi. 784. 



' C. R.' cxvi. 790-794. 



• Gottingen. Nachr.' 1893, 
265-266. 



•Ann. Chim. et Phys.' [6], 
xxviii. 433-498. 



'Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol.' 
liv. 277-312; ' Beiblat- 
ter,' xviii. 113-114 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGUAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



199 



Physical Kelations, 1893, 1894 — Fluorescence, 1880. 



W. de W. Abney 
F. Zecchini . 

A. Charpentier 
A. Cornu . 

H. A. Rowland 
K. Zim^nyi . 

C. Pulfrich , 
F. Aymonnet , 



G. D. Liveing and 
J. Dewar. 



S. Bloch 



H. M. Ward 



On the Colours of Sky-Light, Sun- 
light, Cloud-Light, and Candle- 
Light. (Read June 1.) 

Sopra un notevole case di accresci- 
mento anomalo nel potere rifran- 
gente delle basi feniJiche. (Read 
June 2.) 

Sur le retard dans la perception des 
divers rayons spectraux. (Read 
June 13.) 

Sur divers methodes relatives k 
I'observation des proprietes ap- 
pelees anomalies focales des re- 
seaux diflfringents. (Read June 
19.) 

A New Table of Standard Wave- 
Lengths. (July.) 

Die Hauptbrechungsexponenten 
der wichtigeren gesteinbildenden 
Mineralien bei Na-licht. (July.) 

Ueber Dispersionsbestimniung nach 
der Totalreflexionsmethode mit- 
telst micrometrischer Messung. 
(July.) 

Sur les maxima periodiques des 
spectres. (Read Aug. 2, Sept. 18.) 

On the Refractive Indices of Liquid 
Nitrogen and Air. (Oct.) 



Mesure du pouvoir absorbant pour 
la lumiere de lames minces posse- 
dant la reflexion metallique. (Read 
Nov. 13.) 

The Action of Light on Bacteria. 
Part III. (Read Dec. 14.) 



• Proc. Roy. Soc.' liv. 2-4 ; 
•Nature,' xlviii. 333-334 
(Abs.) 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxiii. 
II. 42-47; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixvi. III. 2 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvi. 1423-1426 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 657 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 1421-1428; 
'Beibliitter,' xviii. 196- 
198 (Abs.) 



' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxvi. 
49-73. 

' Zeitschr. f . Kryst. u. 
Min.' xxii. 321-359. 

' Zeitschr. f . Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' xiii. 267-273 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xviii. 77 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvii. 304-306, 402- 
405; 'Beibliitter,' xvii. 
1057-1058 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxvi. 
328-331 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xviii. 334 (Abs.) ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Ixvi. II. 37 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvii. 661-663; 
' Beibliitter,' xviii. 338- 
339 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' liv. 472- 
475 (Abs.) 



J. KanonnikofE 



J. W. Draper , 



1894. 

TJeber die Beziehungen zwischen 
dem Lightbrechungs- und Dre- 
hungsvermogen chemisclier Ver- 
bindungen, und iiber eine neue 
Bestimmungsmethode der spe- 
cifische Drehung optisch activer 
Btoffe. (Feb.) 

V. 

FLUORESCENCE. 

1880. 

On the Phosphorograph of a Solar 
Spectrum, and on the Lines in its 
Infra-red Region. (Dec.) 



' J. prakt. Chem, 
xlix. 137-184 ; 
xxvii. (Ref.), 
(Abs.) 



' [N.F.], 

'Ber.' 

247-248 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
viii. 223-234. 



200 



r.ErcRT— 1894. 



Fluoeescence, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1886, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891. 



F, S. Provenzali 



E. Dreher 



Sulla fosforescenza e fluorescenza. 
(Read Dec. 19.) 



1881. 



'Atti dell' Accad. PonKif. 
de' Nuovi Lincei,' sxxiv. 
1-8 ; ' Riv.Sci.Industriale,' 
xiii. 374-384. 



Die Ursache der Phosphorescenz | ' Beiblatter,' vi. 685 (Abs.> 
der sogenaiinten ' Leuchtenden Ma- 
terie ' nach vorangegangener In- 
solation. (' Die Natur,' xxx. 4 pp.) 



B. W. Vogel 



1882. 

Ueber die Benutzung der Phos- 
pliorescenzplatten fiir Empfind- 
lichkeitsbestimmungen. (May.) 



'Phot. Mitth.' six. 46-17 ; 
' Beiblatter,' vi. 87(1 
(Abs.) 



E. Lommel . 



M. Wolf and P. 
Lenard. 



J3. Walter , 



t> • 



V. Klatt and P. 
Lenard. 



L. de Boisbaudran . 
E. Lommel . 

E, E. Brooks . 
H. Becquerel . 



1886. 
rhosphorescenz. (Read Nov. 6.) 



1888. 

Phosphorescenz und Photographic. 
(Aug.) 



1889. 

Die Aenderung des Fluorescenz- 
vermogen rait der Concentration. 
(Jan.) 

Ueber den Nachweis des Zerfalles 
von Moleculargruppen in Losungen 
durch Fluorescenz- und Absorp- 
lionserscheinung. (Jan.) 

Ueber die Phosphorescenzen des 
Kupfers, Bismutlis und Mangans 
in denErdallcalisulphiden. (Jul}'.) 

1890. 

Surquelquesnouvelles fluorescences. 
(Read Jan. G.) 

Phosphorophotographie des ultra- 
rothen Gitterspectrums. (Read 
March 1.) 

On the Phosphorescence of Lithium 
Compounds i7i vacuo and the 
Spectra of Coated Terminals. 
(Nov.) 

1891. 

Sur les differentes manifestations 
de la phosphorescence des mine- 
raux sous I'influence de la lumiere 
et de la chaleur. (Read Mar. 16.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Ba)-er. 
xvi. 283-298 ; 'Ann. 
Phys. u. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xxx. 473-487 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' lii. 410-411 (Abs.) 



' Eder's Jahrb. f. Photog.' 
1889, 141-148; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 221 (Abs.) 



' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxvi. 502-518; 
'Zeitschr. f. physikaL 
Chem.' iii. 234 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chera.' 
[N.F.], .^.xvi. 518-532; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iii. 234 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxviii. 90-107 ;. 
' J. Chem. Soc' Iviii. 201 
(Abs.) 



* C. R.' ex. 24-28 ; ' Nature,' 
xh. 263 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. d. Akad. 
Munchen,' xx. 83-87. 

' Chem. News,' Ixii. 239. 



' C. R.' cxii. 557-563 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xliii. 504 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News.'lxiii. 165- 
166 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGKAPHY OF SPECTHOSCOrY. 



201 



Fluorescence, 1891, 1892— Astronomical Applications, 1880, 1882, 1833, 1884. 



W. Bohlendorf 



P. Drude and W. 
Nernst. 



Bemerkung zu der Abhandlung des 
Herrn B. Walter ' Ueber den Nach- 
weis des Zerfalles von Molecular- 
gruppen in Losungen durch Fluo- 
rescenz und Absorptionserschei- 
Dungen.' (July.) 

Ueber die Fluorescenzwirkung 
stehender Lichtwellen. (Dec.) 



'Ann. Phys. n. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xliii. 784-789. 



'Ann. Phys. u. ChemJ 
[N.F.], xlv. 460-474. 



G. Salet 



W. N. Hartley 



1892. 

Sur la loi de Stokes : sa v6rifica- 
tion et son interpretation. (Read 
Aug. 1.) 

Observations on the Origin of 
Colour and on Flurorescence. 
(Read Dec. 1.) 



'C. R.' cxv. 283-284; 
' Beibliitter,' xvi. 741 
(Abs.); 'Nature,' xlvi. 
364 (Abs.) 

'J. Chem..Soc.'lxiii. 25S- 
256 ; ' Proc. Chem. Soc/ 
No. 116, 188-189 (Abs.) 



C. S. Hastings 



VL 

ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS. 



1880. 

A Theory of the Constitution of the 
Sun, founded upon Spectroscopic 
Observations, original and other. 
(Presented Oct. 13.) 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.J, 
viii. 140-152. 



H. Draper . 

C. Fievez 

C. C. Krafft . 



1882. 

On Photographs of the Spectra of 
the Nebula in Orion. (April.) 



La Grande Com&te du Sud. 

Spectroscopic Researches at the 
Norwegian Polar Station at Bosse- 
kop. (Report, 1882, Part II.) 



' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxiii. 
339-341 ; 'Nature,' xxvi, 
33-34; ' J. de Phys.' [2], 
ii. 49-50 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Observ. Bruxelles,' 
1883, 201-208. 

' Nature,' xxxix. 615-516 ; 
(Abs.); ' Beibliitter,' xiii. 
884-885 (Abs.) 



C. Piazzi Smyth 
C. Fievez 

N. C. Duner . 



1883. 

Note on Sir David Brewster's Line 
Y in the Infra-Red of the Solar 
Spectrum. (Read Dec. 17.) 

Etude de la region rouge (A-C) du 
spectre solaire. 



1884. 

Sur les etoiles k spectres de la troi- 
sifemeclasse. (Presented June 11.) 



■ Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin/b.' 

xxxii. 233-238 ; 'Beiblat- 

ter,' ix. 335 (Abs.) 
' Ann. Observ. Bruxelles,' 

V. 3-5 ; < Beibliitter,' vii. 

849 (Abs.) 



' flandlingar K. Svensk. 
Vet. Akad.' xxi. No. 2, 1- 
92; 'Beibliitter,' x. 736- 
737 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xxxii. 610 (Abs.) ; xxxiii. 
583-585 (Abs.); xxxvii. 
234-236, 260-262. 



202 



REPORT — 1894. 



Astronomical Applications, 1884, 1885, 1886. 



S. P. Langley, P. 
W. Very, and J. 
E. Keeler. 



E. von Qothard 



On the Temperature of the Surface 
of the Moon. (Read Oct. 17.) 



Mittheilungen aus dem Astrophy- 
sikalischen Observatorium zu He- 
rfeny. (' Publicationen des Astro- 
phys. Observ. zu Herfenj' in Un- 
garn,' 1884, 35-63). (Read Dec. 15.) 



• Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci.' 
(Washington), iii. 13-42 ; 
'Nature,' xxxiii. 210 
(Abs.), 211-212 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. Instrumen- 
tenkunde,' vi. .S.58-361 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' x. 
304-306 (Abs.) 

• Math. u. naturwiss. Ber. 
aus Ungarn,' iii. 34-39 ; 
' Beibliitter,' s. 624 (Abs.) 



L. ThoUon , 



E. C. Pickering 



W. H. M. Christie 



1885. 

Nouveau dessin du spectre solaire. 
(Read Sept. 7.) 



A. A. Rambaut 



S. P. Langley 



S. P. Langley, C. A. 
Young, and E. C. 
Pickering. 

W. H. M. Christie . 



E. L. Trouvelot 



A. Huninger 



Photographic Spectra 
(Presented Dec. 3.) 



of Stars. 



Spectroscopic and Photographic 
Observations made at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich. 



1886. 

The Spectroscopic Method of De- 
termining the Distance of a 
Double Star. (Roy. Irish Acad. 
May 24, 1886.) 

On the Solar and Lunar Spectrum. 
(Read Nov. 9.) 



On Pritchard's Wedge Photometer. 
(Presented Nov. 10.) 



Spectroscopic and Photographic 
Results. 



Sur les changements temporaires 
de refrangibilite des raies du 
spectre de la chromosphere et des 
protuberances solaires (Jan.) 

Protuberantiae Solares (in Hun- 
garian). 



' C. R.' ci. 565-567 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xxxii. 519 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' ix. 790 
(Abs.); 'Bull. Astron.' 
iii. 330-343 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
X. 700-701 (Abs.) 

• Report of Harvard Coll. 
Observ.' 1885, 1-13; 'Na- 
ture,' xxxiii. 376-377 
(Abs.) 

' Greenwich Observ. Re- 
port,' 1885, xxxii. 104 
pp. ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 
194-195 (Abs.) 



•Nature,' xxxv. 20G-207 
(Abs.) 



' Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 
Washington,' iv, 159-179 ; 
' Nature,' xli. 450 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Harvard Coll. Ob- 
serv.' xviii. 301-324; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xii. 337 (Abs.) 

' Greenwich Observ. Re- 
ports,' 1886, pp. i-xiv 
and 1-97; ' Nature,' xxxvi, 
140 (Abs.) 

'Bull. Astron.' jii. 9-22; 
' Beiblatter,' x. 573-574 ; 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xxxiii. 
498 (Abs.), 504 (Abs.) 

' Ber. Erzb. Haynald'schen 
Observ. zu Kalocsa in 
Ungarn,' 1886, I. 1-17 ; 
' Nature,' xxxix. 352 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGKAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



203 



O. T. Sherman 



C. C. Hutchins and 
E. L. Holden. 



J. Trowbridge and 
C. C. Hutchins. 



S. J. Perry . 

H. Pellat 

T. E. Espin . 

E. C. Pickering 

t 
T. E. Espin . 

W. H. M. Christie . 



ASTBONOMICAI. APPLICATIONS, 
1887. 

Bright Lines in Stellar Spectra. 
(Jan.) 

On the Existence of certain Ele- 
ments, together with the Dis- 
covery of Platinum, in the Sun. 
(Presented March 9.) 



Oxygen in the Sun. 
March 9.) 



(Presented 



On the Existence of Carbon in the 
Sun. (Presented March 9.) 



Reports of the Observations of the 
Total Solar Eclipse of August 29, 
1886, made at the Island of Car- 
riacou. (Reed. April 5. Read 
May 5.) 

Renversement des raies spectrales. 
Methode pour d6terminer la tem- 
perature du soleil. (Read May 
28.) 

A Probable New Class of Variable 
Stars. (Nov.) 

Henry Draper Memorial First An- 
nual Report of the Photographic 
Study of Stellar Spectra Con- 
ducted at the Harvard Observa- 
tory. 

Spectroscopic Observations with 
the 17f-in. Equatorial. 



Spectroscopic and Photographic 
Results. 



' Gould's Astron. Journ.' 
No.xlix. 32-35; 'Nature,' 
XXXV. 378 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci." 
[N.S.], XV. 14-19 ;'Amer. 
J. Sci.' [3], xxxiv. 451- 
456;'Phil.Mag.'[5],xxiv. 
325-330 ; ' J. Chem. Soc.' 
lii. 1065-1066 (Abs.); 
' Nature,' xxxvii. 368 
(Abs.) ; • Ben' xxi. (Ref.). 
79 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter," 
xii. 473-475 (Abs.) 

•Proc. Am. Acad. Sci.' 
xxiii. 1-9; 'Amer. J. Sci.' 
[3], xxxiv. 263-270 ; 
'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxiv. 
302-310 ; ' Nature,' 

xxxvii. 47, 114 (Abs.) ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' lii. 1065 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 
352-355 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci.' 
xxiii. 10-13; 'Amer. J. 
Sci.' [3], xxxiv. 345-348 ; 
' Nature,' xxxvii. 162 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
lii. 1065 (Abs.) ; ' Ber.' 
xxi. (Ref.), 1-2 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xii. 355- 
356 (Abs.) 

'Phil. Trans.' clxxx. A. 
351-362 ; ' Proc. Roy. 
Soc' xlii. 316-318 (Abs.) 



'Bull. Soc. Philom.' [7], 
xi. 155-160 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xi. 705-706 (Abs.) 

' Wolsingham Observ. 
Circ' No. xviii ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 158 (Abs.) 

' Harvard Coll. Observ.' 
1887, 10 pp.; 'Beibliit- 
ter,' xi. 637-638 (Abs.) 



'Publications of the Liver- 
pool. Astron. Soc' No. I. 
(1887), 8-11 (continued 
in ' Astron. Nachr.' No. 
2788). 

' Greenwich Observ. Re- 
ports,' 1887, pp. i-xiv 
and 1-66 ; * Nature,' 
xxxviii. 153-154 (Abs.) 



204 



KEroRT — 1894. 



Astronomical Applications, 1887, 1888. 



H. C. Vogel 



P. Ubaghs 



J. Janssen . 
S. J. Perry . 
H. C. Vogel . 

H. Crew 

J. C. B. Burbank 

H. H. Turner. 

W. de W. Abney 

T. E. Espin . 
S. P. Langley 



E. von Gothard 



J. F&nyi 



H. W. Vogel and 
N. C. Dun&r. 



Ueber Sternspectra. (Eeview of 
N. C. Duner's Paper • Sur les 
6toiles 4 spectres de la troisi6me 
classe.' Stockholm, 1885.) 

Determination de la direction et 
de la Vitesse du transport du sys- 
teme solaire dans I'espace. (lime 
partie.) 

1888. 

Note sur I'eclipse totale de Lune 
du 28 Janvier dernier. (Read 
Jan. 30.) 

The Chromosphere in 1887. (Jan.) 



Ueber die Bestimmung der Bewe- 
gung von Sternen im Visions- 
radius durcla spectrographische 
Beobachtung. (Read Feb. 23.) 

On the Period of the Rotation of 
the Sun as determined by the 
Spectroscope. (Feb.) 

Photography of the least Refran- 
gible Portion of the Solar Spec- 
trum. (Read March 14.) 

Report of the Observations of the 
Total Solar Eclipse of August 29, 
1886, made at Grenville, in the 
Island of Grenada. (Reed. Feb. 
23. Read March 15.) 

Total Eclipse of the Sun observed 
on Caroline Island on May 6, 
1883. (Reed. May 25. Read June 
16, 1887. Revised June 4, 1888.) 

The Spectrum of R Cygni. (' Wol- 
singham Obs. Circ' No. sxi.) 
(Aug.) 

The Invisible Solar and Lunar Spec- 
trum. (Dec.) 



Erfahrungen auf dem Gebiete der 
Himmels- und Spectral-Photogra- 
phie. 

Sonnen-Protuberanzen vom Jahre 
1886. 



O'Gyalla Spectroscopic Catalogue. 



' Vierteljahresschrift d. 
Astron. Ges.' xsii. 50- 
59 ; ' Beiblatter,' xii. 104 
(Abs.) 

' Bull. Acad. Belg.' [13], 
xiii. 66-70 (Report of 
MM. Folic and Houzeau 
on the paper) ; ' Nature,' 
sxxvi. 45 (Abs.) 



' C. R.' cvi. 325-327. 



'The Observatory,' Feb. 
1888, 129-130 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 424 (Abs.) 

' Sitzunsfsb. Akad. Berlin,' 
1888, 397-401; 'Nature,' 
xxxvii. 616 (Abs.) ; ' As- 
tron. Nachr.' No. 2839, 
97-100. 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxv. 
151-159; 'Nature,' xl. 
550 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci.' 
[N.S.], XV. 301-304. 

' Phil. Trans.' clxxx. 385- 
398; 'Proc. Roy. Soc' 
sliii. 428-430 (Abs.) 



'Phil. Trans.' clxxx. A. 
119-135. 



' Nature,' 
(Abs.) 



XXXVlll. 



423 



' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxvi. 
397-410 ; 'Phil. iMag.' [5], 
sxvi. 505-520 ; ' Nature,' 
■xxxix. 189 (Abs.); ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 310-311 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ivi. 325 (Abs.) 

' Eder's Jahrb. f . Photog.' 
1888, 238-243. 

' Ber. Erzb. Haynald'schen 
Obs. zu Kalocsa in Un- 
garn,' IV. 1-60 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxix. 352 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xxxvii. 259 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



205 



E. C. Pickering 



ASTEOKOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1888, 1889. 



The Henry Draper Memorial Second 
Annual Report of the Photocrra- 
phic Study of Stellar Spectra, con- 
ducted at Harvard College Ob- 
servatory. (8 pp.) 



' Beibliitter,' ^ii. 795-796 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xxxviii. 
306-307 (extract). 



A. Schuster . 



L. Darwin, A. Schus- 
ter, and E. W. 
Maunder. 

H. A. Rowland 



H. C. Vogel . 



J. Waterhouse 



\V. Huggins . 

T. E. Espin . 
J. N. Lockyer 

W. Hue-gins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 

T. E. Espin . 

J. N. Lockyer 



\V. Huggins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 



1889. 

Observations of the Total Solar 
Eclipse of August 29, 1886. (Read 
Feb. 4.) 

On the Total Solar Eclipse of August 
29, 1886. (Reed. Jan. 28. Read 
Feb. 14.) 

Photographic Map of the Solar 
Spectrum (second series). (Pub- 
lication Agency of the Johns 
Hopkins University.) (Feb.) 

Ueber die auf den Potsdamen Ob- 
servatorium unternommen Unter- 
suchungen iiber die Bewegung der 
Sterne im Visionsradius vermit- 
telst der spectrographischen Me- 
thode. (March.) 

Photography of the Solar Spectrum. 
(March.) 

Photography of the Red End of the 
Spectrum. (Read April 3.) 



On the Limit of Solar and Stellar 
Light in the Ultra- Violet Part of 
the Spectrum. (Reed. March 28. 
Read April 4.) 

The Spectra of R Leonis and E 
Hydrse. (April.) 

On the Wave-Length of the Chief 
Fluting seen in the Spectrum 
of Manganese. (Reed. April 6. 
Read May 2.) 

On the Spectrum, Visible and 
Photographic, of the Great Nebula 
in Orion. (Reed. April 11. Read 
May 2.) 

The Spectrum of x Cygni. (May.) 



Note surle spectre d'Uranus. (Read 
June 3.) 



Note on the Photographic Spectra 
of Uraous and Saturn. (Reed. 
June 5. Read June G.) 



' Phil. Trans.' clxxx. 291- 
384; 'Nature,' xli. 327 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Trans.' clxxx. A. 
291-350. 

'Chem. News,' lix. 124- 
125 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
682 (Abs.) • 

'Astr. Nachr.' cxxi. 241- 
258; 'Beibliitter,' xlii. 
947-949 (Abs.) (com- 
pare ' Sitzungsb. Akad. 
Berl.' 1888, 397-401). 

' PhU. Mag.' [5],xxvii. 284. 

'Proceedings of the Asia- 
tic Soc. of Bengal,' 1889, 
No. 4, 154-1 58; 'Nature,' 
xli. 67 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvi. 133- 
135 ; ' Beiblatter,' xiii. 
884 (Abs.) 

' Wolsingham Observatory 
Circ' No. xxiii. ; ' Nature,' 
xxxix. 567 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvi. 35- 
40 ; ' Beibliitter,' xiii. 812 
(Abs.) 



' Proc. Rot. Soc' xlvi. 
40-60; "'Nature,' xl. 
405-407, 429-432. 



' Wolsingham Observ. 

Circ.'No.xxiv. ; 'Nature,' 
xl. 135 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cviii. 1149-1151; 
'Beibliitter,' xiii. 688 
(Abs.) 

'Proc Roy. Poc' xlvi. 
231-233 ; ' Beib'iitter,' 
xiii. 949 (Abs.) 



206 



KEPORT — 1894. 



Astronomical Applications, 1889. 



W. Huggins . 
J. N. Lockyer 



J. E. Keeler . 
J. Ffenyi 

J. Scheiner . 

G. Sporer 

C. V. Zengcr . 

E. C. Pickering 

T. E. Espin . 
A. Ricc6 

A. M. Gierke . 
H. C. Vogel . 

E. C. Pickering 

J. N. Lockyer 



H. C. Vogel and J. 
Scheiner. 



A. L. Cortie . 



' Sur le spectre photographique 
d'Uranus. (Read June 17.) 

On the Cause of Variability in con- 
densing Swarms of Meteorites. 
(Reed. June 27.) 

Further Discussion of the Sun-spot 
Observations made at South 
Kensington. (Reed. June 27.) 

On the Spectra of Saturn and 
Uranus. (July 18.) 

Deux eruptions sur le Soleil. 
(Reed. July 22.) 

Vorlaufige Mittheilung iiber Unter- 
suchungen an photographischen 
Aufnahmen von Sternspectren. 
(July.) 

Lett ere alProf. Ricc6 suUe macchie 
solari del Giugno 1889. (Aug.) 

La spectrophotographie des parties 
invisibles du spectre solaire. (Read 
Sept. 9.) 



Stars having Peculiar 
Spectrum of Pleione. 



Southern 
Spectra. 
(Sept.) 

The Spectrum of R Andromeda. 
(Oct. 31.) 

Le macchie solari di Giugno, 1889. 
(Oct.) 

The Spectra of the Orion Nebula 
and of the Aurora. (Oct.) 

Lettere al Prof. Ricc6 sulle macchie 
solari del Giugno 1889. 



On the Spectrum of ^Ursae Majoris. 
(Read Nov. 13.) 



Further Discussion of the Sun-spot 
Observations made at South 
Kensington. A Report of the 
Solar Physics Committee. (Reed. 
June 27. Read Nov. 21.) 

Resultate spectrographischer Beo- 
bachtungen des Sterns Algol. 
(Read Nov. 28.) 

Notes on the Spectrum of the Sun- 
Spot of June, 1889. (Dec.) 



'C. R.' cviii. 1228-1229; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 688 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xliv. 401- 
423; 'Beiblatter,' xiv. 
516-516 (Abs.) 

•Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvi. 
385-401 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiv. 513 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' cxxii. 401- 
404. 

'C. R.' cix. 1.32-1.33; 

'Beiblatter,' xiii. 885 
(Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' cxxii. 321- 
344; 'Nature,' xli. 163- 
164 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiii. 949-950 (Abs.) 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xviii. 185-188. 

' C. R.' cix. 434-436 ; 
'Nature,' xl. 539 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Ix. 184- 
185 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxxiii. 95- 
96; 'Nature,' xli. 115 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' xl. 656. 

'Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xviii. 180-184; 'Nature,' 
xli. 115 (Abs.) 

' Observatory,' 1889, 366- 
370. 

' Mem. spettroscop. it.al.' 
xviii. 198 ; ' Nature,' xli. 
233 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' xxxix. 46- 
47 ; ' Observatory,' xiii. 
80-81. 

' Proc. Rov. Soc' xlvi. 
385-401. ■ 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1889[Phys.-math.], 1045; 
' Nature,' xli. 164 (Abs.) 

'Month. Not. Roy. Ast. 
Soc' 1. 64-65, 331-3.32; 
' Nature,' xliii. 210 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



207 



A. Fowler 



J. N. Lockyer 



Astronomical Applications, 1889, 1890. 
Objects for the Spectroscope. 



A. Riccf) • 
P. Tacchini . 

E. C. Pickering 

W. H. M. Christie 
H. Crew , 

E. C. Pickering 
H. C. Vogel . 
J. N. Lockyer 



J. Scheiner 



(Nov.-Dec.) 

Comparison of the Spectra of 
Nebulas and Stars of Groups I. and 
II. with those of Comets and 
Auroroe. (Reed. Nov. 9. Read 
Dec. 19.) 

The Presence of Bright Carbon 
Flutings in the Spectra of Celes- 
tial Bodies. (Reed. Nov. 23. 
Read Dec. 19.) 

Osservazioni astrophysiche solari. 
Nova nella nebulosa di Andro- 
meda. Nova presso x Orionis. 

Macchie e facole solari osservate 
nel Regio Osservatorio del Colle- 
gio Romano, nel 3° trimestre del 
1889. 

The Henry Draper Memorial. Third 
Annual Report of the Photo- 
graphic Study of Stellar Spectra, 
conducted at Harvard College 
Observatory. (8 pp.) 

Spectroscopic Results , , 



On the Period of the Sun's Rota- 
tion. (Haverford College Studies, 
1889. 12 pp.) 

1890. 

On the Spectrum of ^ Ursse Majoris. 
(Jan.) 



Spectroscopische 
an Argol. (Jan.) 



Beobachtungen 



On the Chief Line in the Spectrum 
of the Nebulre. (Reed. Dec. 9, 
1889. Read Jan. 16, 1890, Re- 
vised May 1 890.) 

Preliminary Note on Photographs 
of the Spectrum of the Nebula in 
Orion. (Reed, and read Feb. 
13.) 

Note on the Spectrum of the 
Nebula of Orion. (Received 
and read Feb. 13.) 

Untersuchungen iiber die Stem- 
spectra vom I Typus auf Grund 
von photographischen Auf nahmen. 
(Feb. 13.) 



•Nature,' xli. 20, 44-4.5, 
68, 87-88, 114-115, 138- 
139, 163, 183. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvii. 28- 
39; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 51G 
(Abs.) 



'Proc. Eoy. Soc' xlvii. 
39-41 ; • Beiblatter,' xiv. 
616 (Abs.) 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xvii. 135-140. 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xviii. 191-197; 'Na- 
ture,' xli. 233-234 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xl. 17-18 (Abs.) 



• Greenwich Observ. Re- 
port,' 1888, Ixxxv., Ixxxvi. 
1-19; 'Nature,' xlii. 209 
(Abs.) 

' Beiblatter,' xiii. 884 
(Abs.) 



' Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxix. 
46-47 ; ' Nature,' xli. 285- 
286 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiv. 515 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2947. 
289-292; 'Nature,' xli. 
286 (Abs.); 'Beiblatter,' 
xiv. 283-284, 789 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Soc.' xlviii. 
167-198. 



'Proc. Roy. Soc' xlviii. 
199-201. 



'Proc Roy. Soc' xlviii. 
198-199. 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1890, 143-151; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 514 (Abs.) 



208 



REPORT — 1894. 



E. C. Pickering 
Maxwell Hall 

T. W. Backhouse . 
E. C. Pickering 

A. Fowler 

A. A. Eambant 



W. Hug-gins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 



H. C. Vogel . 



"C. Michie Smith . 



E. C. Pickering 



N. C. Duner . 



A. Fowler 



J. N. Lockyer 



A. Fowler 



W. Huggins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 



Astronomical Applications, 1890. 

'Astr.' Nachr.' No. 29.51, 
3G3; 'Nature,' sli. 374 
(Abs.) 

' Observator}',' xiii. 77-79 ; 
' Nature,' sli. 351 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 377 
(Abs.) 

' Observatory,' xiii. 90 ; 
'Nature,' xli. 374 (Abs.) 

' Sidereal Messenger,' ix. 
80-82 ; ' Nature,' xli. 403 
(Abs.) 

Note on the Zodiacal Light. (Feb.) 

On the Parallax of Double Stars. 
(March.) 



The Spectra of 5 and n Centauri. 
(Feb.) 

Spectrum of the Zodiacal Light. 
(Feb.) 



The Spectrum of Borelli's Comet {g 
1889). (Feb.) 

Observations of C UrsEe Majoris. 
(Feb.) 



On a Re-determination of the Prin- 
cipal Line in the Spectrum of the 
Nebula in Orion, and on the 
Character of the Line. (Reed. 
March 20. Read June 12.) 

Bahnbewegung des Sterns a Vir- 
ginis. (Read April 24.) 



Notes on 
(April.) 



the Zodiacal Light. 



On a New Variable Star in Ccelum. 
(April.) 

Sur la rotation du soleil. (May.) 



Objects for the Spectroscope. 



The Spectrum of Comet Brooks 
(a 1890). (May.) 

On the Spectra of Comet a 1890 
and the Nebula G. C. 4058. (Reed. 
June 12. Read June 12.) 

The Spectrum of Comet Brooks (a 
1890). (June.) 

Note on the Photographic Spec- 
trum of the Great Nebula in 
Orion. (Reed. April 16. Read 
June 12.) 



' Nature,' xli. 402-403. 

' Mont hly Not. Roy. Astron. 
Soc.' 1. 803-310; 'Na- 
ture,' xiii. 112-113 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' xlviii. 
202-213. 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
xxii. 401-402 ; ' Nature,' 
xiii. 90 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 622 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb.' 
xvii. 142-146; 'Nature,' 
xliii. 22 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2962, 
175; 'Nature,' xli. 571 
(Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2968, 
267-270; 'Nature,' xiii. 
138 (Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiv. 620 (Abs.) 

'Nature,' xiii. 20, 37, 67- 
68, 89-90, 111-112, 137- 
138, 161-162, 182, 208- 
209, 23.5-236, 281-282, 
303, 330, 354, 377, 404, 
428, 459-460, 489, 511, 
526, 555, 576, 600, 619. 

' Nature,' xiii. 112. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlviii. 
217-220. 



^Nature,' xiii. 162. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlviii. 
213-216. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRArHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



209 



Astronomical Applications, 1890. 



W. Huwgins and 
Jlrs. Huggins. 

W. Huggins . 



J. Janssen 

W. Huggins . 

E. A. B. Mouchez . 

H. C. Vogel . 

L. Becker 

A. de la Baume 
Pluvinel. 

E. C. Pickering 
C. Piazzi Smyth 
J. N. Lockyer 



J. Janssen 



E. C. Pickering 



On a New Group of Lines in the 
Photographic Spectrum of Sirius. 
(Uecd. April 25. Read June 12.) 

Sur le spectre visible et photo- 
graphique de la grande nebuleuse 
d'Orion. (Read June 23.) 

Sur r^clipse partielle du soleil du 
17 juin. (Read June 23.) 



Sur le spectre photographique de 
Sirius. (Read June 30.) 



Photographies spectrales d'etoiles 
de MM. Henry, de rObservatoire 
de Paris. (Read July 7.) 

Ueber die Bahnbewegung von o 
Virginis. (July.) 

The Solar Spectrum at Medium 
and Low Altitudes. (Read July 
21.) 

Sur I'observation de I'eclipse an- 
nulaire du soleil du 17 juin 1890. 
(Read July 28.) 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
(Aug.) 

Photographs of the Invisible in 
Solar Spectrography. (Read 
Sept. 8.) 

C!omparison of the Spectra of Ne- 
bulee and Stars of Groups I. and 
II. with those of Comets and 
Aurorse. (Aug.) 

On Stellar Variability. (Aug.) 

Compte rendu d'une ascension 
scientifique au Mont-Blanc. (Read 
Sept. 22.) 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
(Oct.) 



Stars having Peculiar Spectra, in- 
cluding New Variables in Tri- 
angulum and Hydra. (Oct.) 



Stars having 
(Oct.) 



Peculiar Spectra. 



' Proc. Roy. 
216-217. 



Soc' siviii. 



1891. 



'C. R.' ex. 1310-1311 ; 
' Nature,' xlii. 240 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 790 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' ex. 1290-1292; 
' Nature,' xlii. 25G (Abs.) ; 
'Uhem. News,' Lxii. 38 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xix. 
787 (Abs.) 

'C. R. ex. 1357-1358 
' Nature,' xlii. 263 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Mi. 38 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 
790 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxi. 5-6 ; ' Nature, 
xlii. 282 (Abs.); 'Bei- 
blatter,' xiv. 789 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2995, 
305-316; 'Nature,' xliii. 
235-237 (Abs.) 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb.' 
xxxvi. 99-210; 'Nature,' 
xliii. 399-400 (Abs.) 

«C.R.' cxi. 220-222; 'Na- 
ture,' xlii. 360 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2986, 
155-156; 'Nature,' xlii. 
429 (Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1890, 
750-751 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
svi. 279 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlii. 342-345, 
393-397. 



'Nature,' xlii. 415-419. 

' C. R.' cxi. 431-447 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xlii. 555 (Abs.) 



'Astr. Nachr.' No. 2997, 
363-364; 'Nature,' xlii. 
619 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3008, 
117-120; 'Nature,' xliii. 
184 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3011, 
166; 'Nature,' xliii. 280 
vAbs.) 



210 



EEPORT — 1894. 



ASTKOXOMICAL APPLICATIONS, 1890, 1891. 



G. E. Hale . 

A. Fowler 

A. L. Cortie . 
T. E. Espin . 

F. McClean 

G. Higgs 

"W. Huggins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 

A. L. Cortie . 

M. Fleming . 
L. Thollon . 

J. Janssen 

N. von Konkoly . 

E. C. Pickering 
W. H. M. Christie . 
H. Deslandres 

H. A. Kowland 
E. C. Pickering 



Note on Solar Prominence Photo- 
graphy. (Oct.) 

The Duplicity of a Lyra;. (Nov.) . 



Spectroscopic Notes and Queries. 
(Nov.) 

On the Variation of the Spectra of 
R CoroniE and K Scuti, and on 
the Spectra of R Auriga and K 
Andromedfe. (Nov.) 

Comparative Photographs of the 
High Sun and Low Sun Visible 
Spectra, with Notes on the Method 
of Photographing the Red End of 
the Spectrum. (Nov.) 

Photograph of the A Line in the 
Solar Spectrum. (Nov.) 

On Wolf and Rayet's Bright-Line 
Stars in Cygnus. (Eecd. Nov. 
25. Read Dec. 11.) 

Observations of the Spectra of Sun- 
Spots in the Region B-D, made at 
the Stonyhurst College Observa- 
tory in the Years 1882-1889. (Dec.) 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
(Dec.) 

Nouveau dessin du spectre solaire. 



Sur le spectre de I'oxyg&ne 



Spectroscopische Beobachtung des 
Kometen Sawerthal. 



The Draper Catalogue of Stellar 
Spectra. 



Greenwich Spectroscopic Observa- 
tions for 1889. 

1891. 

Sur le spectre de o Lyrje. (Read 
Feb. 23.) 



Report of Progress in Spectrum 
Work. (Feb.) 



A Fifth Type of Stellar Spectra. 
(Feb.) 



'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3006, 
81-82 ; ' Nature,' xliii. 
133 (Abs.) 

' Month. Not. Roy. Astron. 
Soc' li. 8-11; 'Nature,' 
xliii. 64-65 (Abs.) 

'Month. Not. Roy. Ast. 
Soc' li. 18-23. 

' Month. Not. Eov. Ast. 
Soc' li. 11-13 ; ' Nature,' 
xliii. 165 (Abs.) 

'Month. Not. Roy. Ast. 
Soc' li. 13-17. 



' Month. Not. Roy. Ast. 
Soc' li. 18. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 3.3- 
46 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 
27-30, 39-40. 

'Month. Not. Roy. Ast. 
Soc' li. 76-78 (Abs.); 
'Nature,' xliii. 256-257 
(Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' No. 3025 [6] ; 
' Nature,' xliii. 545 (Abs.) 

' Annales de I'Observ. de 
Nice,'iii. A7-A112; 'Na- 
ture,' xlii. 303 (Abs.) 

' Vierteljahrb. d. Astron. 
Gesellsch.' xxv. 2-5. 

' O'Gyalla Observations,' 
1888-9 ; ' Nature,' xlii. 
650 (Abs.) 

'Annals of Harvard Coll. 
Observ.' xxvii. 1-388 ; 
' Nature,' xliv. 89-90 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' xliii. 210 (Abs.) 



'C. R.'cxii. 41.3-414; 'Na- 
ture,' xliii. 432 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 131 
(Abs.) 

' Johns Hopkins Univ. 
Circ' No. 85, 41-42; 'Na- 
ture,' xliii. 452-453 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3025, 
1-2. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



211 



Astronomical Applications, 1891. 



J. E. Keeler 



J. N. Lockyer 



E. C. PickeriD^ 



J. Kleiber . 



T. E. Espin . 
E. C. Pickering 



G. E. Hale . 
T. E. Espin . 
H. Deslandres 
C. Piazzi Smyth 

G. E. Hale . 
H. Fizeau 

E. L. Trouvelot 

C. A. Young . 
E. W. Maunder 



On the Chief Line in the Spectrum 
of the Nebuhc. (Reed. March 13. 
Read March 19.) 

On the Causes which produce the 
Phenomena of New Stars. (Reed. 
Nov. 28, 1890. Read April 16, 
1891.) 

The Discovery of Double Stars by 
their Spectra. (May.) 

Ueber die mittlere Entfernung 
derjenigen Sterne deren eigene 
Bewegung im Visionsradius 
bekannt ist. (May.) 

Photo-Stellar Spectra. (June.) 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
(July.) 

The Spectrum of ;3 Lyroe. (Aug.) . 



On Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
(Aug.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 399- 
403. 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xlix. 413- 
446 (Abs.) 



'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3034, 
155-156 ; ' Nature,' xliv. 
138 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' csxvii. No. 
3037, 209-212 ; ' Beibliit- 
ter,' xvii. 753-754 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xliv. 133-134. 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3049, 
11-14; 'Nature,' xliv. 
S05 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3051, 
39-42 ; ' Nature,' xliv. 
355 (Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3054, 
121-122; 'Nature,' xliv. 
438 (Abs.) 



Photographic Investigation of Solar 'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xlii 



Prominences and their Spectra. 
(Aug.) 

On Nova Aurigse. (Aug.) 



Eecherches nouvelles sur 1' atmo- 
sphere solaire. (Read Aug. 17.) 

Report of the Committee on Re- 
searches upon the Ultra-Violet 
Rays of the Solar Spectrum. 
(Read Aug. 24.) 

The Ultra-Violet Spectrum of the 
Solar Prominences. (Aug.) 

Remarques sur I'influence que 
I'aberration de la lumiere peut 
exercer sur les observations des 
protuberances solaires par 
i'analyse spectrale. (Sept.) 

Chute d'une protuberance solaire 
dans I'ouverture d'une tache. 
(Read Oct. 5.) 

Note on the Chromospheric Spec- 
trum. (Oct. 20.) 

The Chief Nebular Line. (Oct.) . 



160-166; 'Nature,' xliv. 
439 (Abs.) 

' VVolsingham Observ. 

Circ' No. 33; 'Nature,' 
slvi. 400 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxiii. 307-310; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 125 
(Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1891, 
147-148; ' Beibliitter,' 
xvi. 610 (Abs.) 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1891. 
557-558 ; ' Amer. J. Sci.' 
[3], xlii. 459-467. 

'C. R.' cxiii. 353-356; 
'Nature,' xliv. 530 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cxiii. 437-438; 
' Nature,' xlvi. 258 (Abs.) 



' Nature,' xlv. 28. 



'J. Brit. Astron. Assoc' i. 
25-33 ; ' Nature, xliii. 
165 (Abs.) 

p2 



212 



REPORT — 1894. 



Astronomical Applications, 1891, 1892. 



E. C. Pickering 

A. L. Cortie . 
H. Deslandres 

M. Fleming . 

C. A. Young . 
H. C. Vogel . 

A. Cornu 

H. Deslandres 

J. Sclieiner . 

E. W. Maunder 
W. Huggins . 

W. Huggins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 

G. E. Hale . 

H. Deslandres 

H. Seeliger . 
C. Piazzi Smyth 



The Distribution of Energy in 
Stellar Spectra. (Oct.) 



The Chromospheric Line Angstrom 
6676-9. (Nov. 19.) 

Eecherches sur le mouvement 
radial des astres avec le side- 
rostat de TObservatoire de Paris. 
(Read Nov. 23.) 

Stars having Peculiar Spectra. 
Group of Stars of the Fifth Type 
in Cepheus. (Nov.) 

The Chromospheric Line A 6G76-9. 
(Dec. 16.) 

On the Spectrographic Method of 
Determining the Velocity of Stars 
in the Line of Sight. (Dec.) 

Sur la methode Doppler-Fizeau 



1892. 

Recherches nouvelles sur I'atmo- 
sphere solaire. (Read Feb. S.) 

Berichtigungen zu ' Die Spectral- 
analyse dor Gestirne.' (April.) 

Spectrum of Nova Auriga 

The New Star in Auriga. (Read 
May 13.) 

On the New Star in Auriga. (Read 
May 19.) 

Photographies de la chromosphere, 
des protuberances et des facules 
solaires, prises 'X I'Observatoire 
d'Astronomie Physique de Ken- 
wood, Chicago. (Read July 11.) 

Resultats nouveaux surl'hydrogene, 
obtenus par I'etude spectrale du 
soleil. Rapprochements avec 

r^toile nouvelle du Cocher. ( Read 
July 25.) 

Ueber den neuen Stern im Stem- 
bilde Auriga. (July.) 



Second Report of the Committee 
appointed to co-operate with Dr. 
C. Piazzi Smyth in his Researches 
on the Ultra-Violet Rays of the 
Solar Spectrum. (Aug.) 



' Astr. Nachr.' cxxviii. No. 
3069, 377-380 ; ' Nature,' 
xlv. 159 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' sviii. 97-98 ■ 
(Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlv. 103-101. 



'C. R.' cxiii. 737-739 r 
' Nature,' xlv. 1 17 (Abs.) 



'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3070V 
403-404; 'Nature,' xlv. 
210 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlv. 198. 

'Month. Nob. Roy. Asfr.,. 
Soc' lii. 87-96; 'Nature,' 
xlv. 280-281 (Abs.) 

'Annuaire du Bureau de 
Longitudes,' 1891, Dl- 
DIO. 



'C. R.' cxiv. 276-277;. 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 565- 
566 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxxix. No_ 
.3082,157-160; ' Beiblat- 
ter,' xvii. 129 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlv. 616-617. 

' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xiii. 615- 
624. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc' li. 486- 
495 ; ' Beiblatter,' xvii. 
449 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxv. 106-109. 



' C. R.' cxv. 222-225 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xlvi. 401 (Abs.); 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 556 
(Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' No. 3118, 
392-406 ; ' Nature,' xlvii. 
137-140. 

'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1892, 
74-76; 'Beibliitter,' xvii. 
829-830 (Abs.) 



OiST THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



213 



H. F. Newall . 
E. von Gothard 

A. Belopolsky 

H. F. Newall . 
H. Deslandres 



J. N. Lockj-er 



E. von Gothard 

G. E. Hale . 

C. E. Stromeyer , 
A. A. Eambaut 
W. H. BI. Christie , 

J. Janssen 

G. E. Hale . 
H. C. Vogel . 

W. Huggins . 
V. Schumann 



Astronomical Applicatioxs, 1892, 
The Nova AurigK. (Sept.) . 
Ueber die Nova Aurigre. (Sept.) 

Nova Aurigfo. (Oct.) . 



Nova Aurigne. (Oct.) . 

Transformation du grand telescope 
de rObservatoire de Paris pour 
Tetude des vitesses radiales des 
astres. Eesultats obtenus. (Read 
Nov. 14.) 

On the Photographic Spectra of 
some of the Brighter Stars. (Read 
Dec. 8.) 



Studien iiber den photographischen 
Spectrum der planetarischen 
Nebel und des neuen Stern. 
(Dec.) 

The Ultra-Violet Spectrum of the 
Solar Prominences. (Dec.) 

Measurementof Distancesof Binary 
Stars. (Dec.) 

Measurement of Distances of Binary 
Stars. (Dec.) 

Results of the Spectroscopic Ob- 
servations made at Greenwich in 
the Year 1890. 

1893. 

Remarques sur xme note de M. Duner 
intitulee ' Y a-t-il de I'oxygfene 
dans I'atmospliere du soleil ? ' 
(Read Jan. 8.) 



Les rales H et 
des facules 
Jan. 30.) 



K dans le spectre 
solaires. (Read 



Versuch einer Ableitung der 
Bewegung des Sonnensystems aus 
den Potsdamer spectrographischen 
Beobachtungen. (Feb.) 

Note on the Sftectrum of Nova 
Aurigse. (Feb.) 



The Hydrogen Line H^ in the 
Spectrum of Nova Auriga;, and in 
the Spectrum of Yacuum-tubes. 
(Feb.) 



1893. 

' Nature,' xlvi. 489. 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxxx. No. 
3122, 27-28; 'Nature,' 
xlvi. G20 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxxx. No. 
3120, 437-438; 'Nature,' 
xlvi. 552, 576 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlvii. 7. 

'C. R.' cxv. 783-786; 
' Beibliitter,' xviii. 340 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xlvii. 
88, 115 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Trans.' clxxxiv. G75- 
726; 'Proc. Roy. Soc' 
lii. 326-331 (Abs.) ; ' Na- 
ture,' xlvii. 261-263 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xvii. 
831 (Abs.) 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xxi. 169-171; 'Nature,' 
xlvii. 352 (Abs.) 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
xxi. lGO-161; 'Nature,' 
xlvii. 186 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xlvii. 199. 

' Nature,' xlvii. 226. 

' Greenwich Observ. Re- 
port,' 1890, 28 pp. 



'C. R.'cxviii. 54-56 ;'Ber. 
xxvii. (Ref.), 108 (Abs.) : 
' Chem. News,' Ixix. 49 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvi. 170-172. 



* Astr. Nachr.' cxxxli. 81- 
82 ; ' Beibliitter,' xvii. 
1055-1056 (Abs.) 



' Astr. Nachr.' cxxxii. No. 
3153, 143-144 ;' Nature,' 
xlvii. 425 (Abs.) 

' Astron. and Astrophys.' 
xii. 159-166 ; 'Beibliitter,' 
xvii. 826-827 (Abs.) 



214 



EEPORT — 1894. 



Astronomical ApPLicATiONa, 1893, 1894— Meteorological Applications, 1882. 



J. Janssen 

G. E. Hale . 
E. von Oppolzer 
T. E. Espin . 

W. Huggins and 
Mrs. Huggins. 



A. de la Baume 
Pluvinel. 



J. Janssen 



G. J. Stoney . 



J. Janssen 



E. Duner 



A. Schuster 



Sur la methode spectrophoto- 
graphique qui permet d'obtenir la 
photographie de la chromosphere, 
des facules, des protuberances, etc. 
(Read March G.) 

Metliode spectrographiquo pour 
I'etude de la couronne solaire. 
(Read April 24.) 

Zur Frage der Rotationsdauer der 
Venus. (June.) 



Sfars with 
(June.) 



Remarkable Spectra. 



On the Bright Bands in the Present 
Spectrum of Nova Aurigte. (Read 
June 8.) 

Sur I'observation de I'eclipse totale 
du soleil du IG avril, fait il Joal 
(Senegal). (Read July 3.) 

Note sur I'liistorique des faits qui 
ont demontre I'existence de I'at- 
mosph^re coronale du soleil. 
(Read July 10.) 

Note on Observing the Rotation of 
the Sun with the Spectroscope. 
(Aug.) 

Sur les observations spectro- 
scopiques faites -X I'Observatoire 
du Mont- Blanc les 14 et 15 Sep- 
tembre 1893. (Read Sept. 25.) 

Y a-t-il de I'oxygene dans I'atmo- 
sph6re du soleil ? ' (Read Dec. 26.) 



1894. 

Y a-t-il de I'oxygene dans I'atmo- 
sphere du soleil ? ' (Read Jan. 15.) 



' C. R.' cxvi. 456-457. 



'C. R.' cxvi. 865-866; 
' Beiblatter,' xvii. 931- 
932 (Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxxxiii. No. 

3170, 39-40; 'Nature,' 
xlviii. 233 (Abs.) 

• Astr. Nachr.' cxxxiii. No. 

3171, 43-48; 'Nature,' 
xlviii. 233 (Abs.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' 
36. 



liv. 30- 



' C. R.' cxvii. 24-27 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xviii. 93 
(Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvii. 77-80 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xviii. 94 
(Abs.) 



'Brit. Assoc. Eep.' 1891, 
573-574 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xvii. 931 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvii. 419-423; 
' Chem. News,' Ixviii. 185 
(Abs.) 



' C. R.' cxvii. 1056-1059 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixix. 25 
(Abs.) ; ' Ber.' xxvii. 
(Ref.), 43 (Abs.) 



■C. R.' cxviii. 137-138; 
'Chem. News,' Ixix. 61 
(Abs.) 



VII. 

METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. 



1882. 
C. C. KiafEt . . Spectroscopische Untersuchungen , 



' Eeobachtungsergebnisse 
der Norwegischen Polar- 
station Eossekop in 
Alten,' 1882-3, II. Theil, 
' Nordlicht,' 10-11 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xxxix. 515-516 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



215 



Meteokological Applications, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1888, 1889, 1890. 

1883. 



C. E. Cook 



The Use of the Spectroscope in 
Meteorology. (Oct.) 



' Science,' ii, 488-491 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . Instrumen- 
tenkunde, iv. 102-103 
(Abs.) 



S. P. Langley 



C. Michie Smith 



1884. 

On the Amount of the Atmospheric 
Absorption. (April.) 



Observations on a Green Sun and 
Associated Phenomena. (Read 
July 7.) 



' Amer. J. Sci.' [31, xxviii. 
163-180 ; ' PhiL Mag.' 
[5], xviii. 289-307 ; 'Na- 
ture,' xxxi. 46 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' xlviii. 
319 (Abs.) ; ' J. de Phys.' 
[2], iv. 95-97 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' ix. 335-336 
(Abs.) 

' Trans. Eoy. Soc. Edinb.' 
xxxii. 389-409; 'Nature,' 
XXX. 347-349. 



W, W. Lermantoff . 

E. L. Nichols . 
N. Egoroff . 



1885. 

Ueberdie Regenbande im Spectrum 
der Atmosphjire, (Read Jan. 29, 
O.S. (In Russian.) 

A Spectro-photometric Analysis of 
the Colour of the Sky. (Aug.) 

Das Absorptionspectrum der At- 
mosphiire. (In Russian.) (Read 
Sept. 24, O.S.) 



'J. Russ.Phys.-Chem.Soc.,' 
xvii. [Phys.], No. 2, pp. 
44-45. 

'Proc. Amer. Assoc' xxxiv. 
78-79. 

' J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. Soc' 
xvii. [Phys.], No. 7, p. 
229. 



C. Eovelli^J 



J. Janssen 



A. Crova' 



1888. 

Le tinte dei crepuscoli in relazione 
collo stato igrometrico dell' atmo- 
sfera. (Jan.) 

1889. 

Sur I'origine tellurique des raies de 
I'oxygene dans le spectre solaire. 
(Read May 20.) 



Sur I'analyse de la lumiere diffusee 
par le ciel. (Read Sept. 23.) 



■ Riv. scientifico-indus- 
triale,' xx. 1-5 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 404 (Abs.) 



'C. R.' cviii. 1035-1037; 
'Nature,' xl. 104; 'Chem. 
News,' lix. 281 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xiii. 682-683 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.'cix. 493-496; 'Na- 
ture,' xl. 563 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 37 
(Abs.) 



C. S. Cook 



W. E. Wood 



1890. 

A Mountain Study of the Spectrum 
of Aqueous Vapour. (April.) 



Lightning Spectra. (June.) 



« Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xxxix. 
258-268; 'Nature,' xli. 
598 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiv. 782-786 (Abs.) 

• Sidereal Messenger,' ix. 
285 ; ' Nature,' xlii. 236 
377-378 (Abs.) 



216 



REPORT — 1894. 



Meteoeological Applications, 1890, 1891, 1892— Chemical Relations, 

1875, 1876, 1877. 



G. Higgs 



J. Janssen 



A. Cornu 



Recent Photographs of the Less Re- 
frangible Portions of the Solar 
Spectrum under Different Atmo- 
spheric Conditions. (Read Sept. 
10.) 

Compte rendu d'une ascension 
scientifique au Mont-Blanc. 
(Read Sept. 23.) 



Le spectre de I'atmosphere ter- 
restre. (Sept.) 



Sur la limite ultraviolette du spec- 
tre solaire, d'aprfes des cliches 
obtenus par M. le Dr. 0. Simony 
au sommet du pic de Ten^riffe. 
(Read Dec. 22.) 



' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1890, 
760 ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
279 (Abs.) 



' Annuaire du Bureau des 
Longitudes,' 1891, A18- 
A24; 'C.R.'cxi. 431-447; 
' Chem. News,' Ixii. 202 
(Abs.) 

L' Astronomic,' ix. 337- 
338; 'Nature,' xlii. 526 
(Abs.) 

' C.R.'cxi. 941-947; 'Na- 
ture,' xliii. 216 (Abs.) ; 
• Chem. News,' Ixiii. 36 
(Abs.) 



A. Crova' 



W. E. Wood . 



G. B, Rizzo 



1891. 

Analyse de la lumiere diflus6e par 
le ciel. (Read June 1.) 



Lightning Spectra. (Aug.) 



Le linee tellurichc dello spettro 
solare. 



'C. R.' cxii. 1176-1179, 
1246-1247; 'Phil. Mag.' 
[5], xxxii. 141-144 (Abs.); 
'Ann. Chim.etPhys. [G], 
XXV. 534-567. 

' Sidereal Messenger,' x. 
378-380; 'Nature,' xliv. 
504 (Abs.) 

' Mem. spettroscop. ital.' 
XX. 77-86 ; ' Nature,' 
xliv. 186-187 (Abs.) 



N. Piltschikcf 



1892. 

Sur la polarisation spectrale du 
ciel. (Read Oct. 17.) 



'C. R.' cxv. 555-558; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 337 
(Abs.) 



R. Amory 



VIII. 

CHEMICAL RELATIONS. 
1875. 

On Photographs of the Solar 
Spectrum. (Read May 25.) 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
iii. 70. 



1876. 

On Photographs of the Solar 
Spectrum. (Read May 10.) 



'Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
iii. 279-280. 



1877. 

On the Photographic Action of 
Dry Silver Bromide Collodion, 
&c., to Rays of Solar Light of 
Different Refrangibility. (Pre- 
sented June 10.) 



' Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.] 
V. 171-174. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



217 



Chemical Relations, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884. 
1880. 



M. Coulier 



L. Palmieri . 

W. de W. Abney . 



Le spectroscope appliquS aux 
sciences chimiques et pharma- 
ceutiques. 



1881. 

Delia riga dell' Helium apparsa in 
una recente sublimazione vesu- 
viana. (Read Nov. 5.) 

On the Effect of the Spectrum on 
the Haloid Salts of Silver and on 
Mixtures of the same. (Reed. 
Dec. 6.) 



'J. de Pharm.' [4], xxx. 
541-544; [5], i. 24-30, 
118-128, 319-327, 393- 
400; ii. 18-31, 221-22.3, 
285-294, 376-388, 455- 
465; ill. 126-138, 220- 
228, 403-410, 545-548. 



' Rendic. 
XX. 233. 



Accad. Napoli,' 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' xxxiii. 
164-186 ; ' J. Phot. Soc' 
vi. 136-151 ; ' Phot. 
Mittheil.' 130-131 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' v. 872 
(Abs.) 



H. W. Voffel 



F. Osmond and G. 
Witz. 



H. W. Voffel 



1882. 

Ueber eine Substanz zur Erkennung 
der chemischen Wirkung des gel- 
ben Lichtes. (Feb.) 

Etudes sur I'industrie du vanadium 
(' Bull. Soc. Industr. de Rouen'). 
(March.) 

Ueber die verschiedenen Modifica- 
tionen des Brom- und Chlorsilbers, 
und die Empfindlichkeit derselben 
gegen das Sonnenspectrum. (Read 
May 25.) 

Lichtempfindlichkeit der Silber- 
haloidsalze gegen das Sonnen- 
spectrum. (June.) 



' Phot. Mittheil.' xviii.300- 
301 ; ' Beiblatter,' vi. 
490 (Abs.) 

' Rev. des Industr. chim. 
et agric' vi. 480-494, 
513-530; ' Chem. News,' 
xlvii. 12-13 (Abs.) 

' Phot. Mittheil.' xix. 32- 
34 ; ' Beiblatter,' vi. 489 
(Abs.) 



'Phot. Mittheil.' xix. 70-73, 
94-97, 108-112; 'Bei- 
blatter,' vii. 536-538 
(Abs.) 



H. Quincke . 



1883. 

Ueber das Verhalten des Hams 
nach Gebrauch von Copaiva- 
balsam. (Sept.) 



'Arch. f. exp. Path. u. 
Pharmakol.' xvii. 273- 
277 : ' Ber.' xvii. (Ref.), 
178-179 (Abs.) 



R. Nasini and 0. 
Bernheimer. 



W. H. Pickerins: 



1884. 

Sulle relazioni esistenti tra il potere 
rifrangente e la constituzione chi- 
mica dei composti organici. 
(March.) 



Photography of the Infra -Red 
Region of the Solar Spectrum. 
(Presented May 14.) 



'Gazz. chim. ital.' xv. 59- 
105; 'Atti R. Accad. 
Lincei, Mem.' [3], xviii. 
608-640 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
xlviii. 1097 (Abs.); 'Ber.' 
xviii. (Ref.), 474-475 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' ix. 
326-330 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Amer. Acad.' [N.S.], 
xii. 473-477. 



218 



REPORT — 1894. 



Chemical Relations, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887. 



J. UfEelmann . 



J. H. Gladstone 



S. V. Kostanecki 
and S. Niemen- 
towski. 



Spectroscopisch-hygienische Stu- 
dien, (Oct.) 



1885. 

On the Specific Refraction and Dis- 
persion of the Alums. (Read June 
27.) 

Ueber die isomeren Dioxydi- 
methylanthrachinone. (Reed. 

Aug. 5.) 



'Arch. f. Hygiene,' ii. 
196-222 ; ' Chemiker- 
Zeitung,' viii. 1232 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . anal, Chem.' 
xxiv. 626 (Abs.) 



'Proc. Phys. Soc' vii. 194- 
200 ; ' Phil. Mag.' [5], xx. 
162-168. 

'Ber.' xviii. 2138-2141; 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 513 
(Abs.) 



W. N. Hartley 



H. W. Vogel . 



E. Pringsheim 



W. Leube 



1886. 

Researches on the Relation between 
the Molecular Structure of Carbon 
Compounds and their Absorption 
Spectra. Part VIII. A Study of 
Coloured Substances and Dyes. 
(Read Nov. 18.) 

Ueber neue Fortschritte in dem 
farbenempfindlichen photo- 

graphischen Yerfahren. (Read 
Nov. 25.) 



Ueber neuere Versuche die Kohlen- 
siiure ausserhalb der Pflanze durch 
Chlorophyll zu zerlegen. (Oct.) 



Ueber einen neuen pathologischen 
Harnfarbstoff. (Nov.) 



'J. Chem. Soc' 11. 152- 

202; 'Zeitschr, f. phy- 

sikal. Chem.' ii, 855 
(Abs.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 

1886, 1205-1208; 'Verb, 
phys. Gesellsch. Berl.' 
VI. Jahrg. 11 (Abs.); 
' Nature,' xxxv, 432 
(Abs.) 

' Chemiker-Zeitung,' x. 
1241 ; ' Bied. Centralbl.' 

1887, 168-169 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' lii. 685 
(Abs.) 

' Archiv f . path. Anat. und 
Physiol.' cvi. 418-419; 
' Zeitschr. f . anal. Chem.' 
xxvi. 672 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ivii. 231 (Abs.) 



W. Crookes . 



R. Nasini . 



T. W. Best . 



A, B. Griffiths and 
Mrs, Grif&tbs. 



1887. 

Genesis of the Elements. 
Roy. Inst, Feb. 18.) 



(Lect. 



Sulla rifrazione moleculare delle 
sostanze organiche dotate di 
forte potere dispersivo. (Read 
Feb. 20.) 

On the Delicacy of Spectroscopic 
Reaction in Gases. (Manch. Lit. 
and Phil. Soc. Feb. 22.) 



Investigations on the Influence of 
Certain Rays of the Solar Spec- 
trum on Root-Absorption and on 
the Growth of Plants, (Read 
March 7.) 



' Proc. Roy. Inst.' xii. 37- 
60 ; ' Chem. News,' Iv, 
83-88, 95-99. 

' Rendic. R. Accad. Lincei ' 
[4], iii. 164-172; 'Zeit- 
schr. f. physikal. Chem.' 
i. 422 (Abs.) 

'Chem. News,' Iv. 209- 
211; ' Dingler's polyt. J.' 
cclxiv. 407-408 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xii. 102 
(Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy, Soc. Edinb.' 
xiv. 125-129 ; • J. Chem. 
Soc' liv, 623 (Abs,) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



219 



A. Tschirch . 



J. Dewar , 



H. Dufet 



E. Kock 



A. Henocque 



Th. W. Enorelmann 



Chemical Relations, 1887, 1888. 

Untersuchungen iiber das Chloro- 
phyll. (Read March 16.) 



F. Mangini . 



L. Hermann . 



C. A. Macmunn 



E. Lambling 



Light as an Analytic Agent. (Lect. 
Roy. Inst., April 1.) 

Sur les volumes moleculaires et 
I'energie refractive des phos- 
phates, arseniates et hypophos- 
phites de soude. (Read May 10.) 



Sur les volumes moleculaires et 
I'energie refractive des phosphates, 
arseniates et hypophosphates de 
soude. (Read May 20.) 



Zur Kenntniss der Beziehungen 
zwischen optischen Eigenschaf ten 
und Constitution der Verbindun- 
gen. (June.) 

De I'influence des medications ther- 
males sur I'activite de la reduc- 
tion de I'oxyhemoglobine, et sur 
la richesse du sang en oxyhemo- 
globine. (Read Nov. 19.) 

Die Farben bunter Laubbliitter 
und ihrer Bedeutung fiir die 
Zerlegung der Kohlensaiire im 
Lichte. 



1888. 

Probabile causa della valenza degli 
atomi. (Jan.) 

Notiz betrefEend das reducirte 
Hiimoglobin. 

On the Origin of Urohaematopor- 
phyrin and of Normal and Patho- 
logical Urobilin in the Organism. 
(Read Mar. 17.) 

Sur Taction rdductrice exercfie par 
I'indigo blanc sur roxyhemo- 
globine du sang. (Read April 
28.) 



' Ber. d. bot. Gesellsch.' v. 
128-135 ; ' Chem. Cen- 
tralbl.' 1887, 669 (Abs.) ; 
'J. Chem. Soc' lii. 1116- 
1117 (Abs.) 

' Proc. Roy. Inst.' sii. 83- 
93 ; ' Beibliitter,' xiii. 79- 
80 (Abs.) 

' Soc. fran?. de Phys.' 
1887, 117-128 ; 'J. de 
Phys.' [2], vi. 301-312; 
' Bull. Soc. fran^. de 
Min.' X. 77-120 ; ' Ber.' 
XX. (Ref.), 530 (Abs.); 
'Beibliitter,' xiii. 701- 
703 (Abs.) 

' Soc. fran?. de Phys.' 
1887, 117-128; 'J. de 
Phys.' [2], vi. 301-312; 
' Ber.' sx. (Referate), 
530 (Abs.) ; ' Beibljitter,' 
xiii. 701-703 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. n. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxii. 167-171; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' i. 669-670 (Abs.) 

' C. R. de la Soc. Biol, de 
France ' [8], iv. 678-683 ; 
'Ber.' xxi. (Ref.), 373 
(Abs.) 

' Bot. Zeitung,' 1887, 393- 
398, 409-419, 441-450, 
457-469 ; ' Onderzoekun- 
gen Physiol. Lab. Utrecht' 
[3], X. 107-168 ; ' Ar- 
chives n6erlandaises,' 
xxii. 1-57 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xi. 709 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ivi. 279 (Abs.); 
' J. Chem. Soc' liv. 381- 
382 (Abs.) 

' Riv. scientifico-industri- 
ale,' XX. 23-27 ; ' Nature,' 
xxxvii. 451 (Abs.) 

' Arch, f . d. gesammte 
Physiol.' xliii. 435 ; 'Ber.' 
xxii. [Ref.], 595 (Abs.) 

' J. Physiol.' X. 71-121. 



' C. R. de la Soc. Biol, de 
France ' [8], v. 394-396 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ivi. 530- 
531 (Abs.) 



220 



EEPORT — 1894. 



E. Weegmann 



W. N. Hartley 



H. Voffel 



E. Lambling . 



C. Liebermann 



Th. W. Engelraann 



L. von Udriinszky . 



K. Katayama 



A. Griinwald . 



J. C. B. Embank . 



Chemical Eklations, 1888. 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction 
einiger gebromter Aethaue nnd 
Aethj'lene, und iiber den gegen- 
wiirtigen Stand der Landolt- 
Briihl'schen Theorie ' (Inaugural- 
Dissertation, Bonn. 1888, 44 pp.). 
(April.) 

Researches on the Relation between 
the Molecular Structure of Car- 
bon Compounds and their Absorp- 
tion Spectra. Part ix. On 
Isomeric Cresols, Dihydroxyben- 
zones, and Hj'droxybenzoic Acids. 
(Read May IS.) 

Spectroscopische Notizen. (Read 
June 14.) 



Des applications de la spectro- 
photometrie ;\ la cliimie physio- 
logique. (July.) 



Ueber Spectra der 
Oxyanthrachinone. 
1) 



Aether dor 
(Reed. Aug. 



Ueber Bacteriopurpurin und seine 
physiologische Bedeutung. (Aug.) 



Ueber Blutfarbstoff als Mittel urn 
den Gaswechsel von Pflanzen im 
Licht und Dunkel zu unterschei- 
den. (Aug.) 

Ueber Furfurolreactionen. (Sept.) 



Ueber eine neue Blutprobe bei der 
Kohlenoxydvergiftung. (Oct. 2.) 



Spectralanalyse des Kadmiums. 
(Read Oct. 11.) 



Photography of the Least Refran- 
gible Portion of the Solar Spec- 
trum. (Oct.) 



' Zeitschr. 
Chem.' ii. 
269. 



f. physikal. 
218-240, 257- 



' J. Chem. Soc' liii. 641- 
663 ; ' Zeitschr. f . physi- 
kal. Ohem.' ii. 974 (Abs.) 



' Ber.' xxi. 2029-2032 ; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 655 (Abs.) 

' Arch.de Physiol, normale 
et pathologique' [4], ii. 
1-34, 384, 4l8 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' hi. 73 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxi. 2527 ; 'Zeitschr. 
f. physikal. Chem.' ii. 9G7 
(Abs.) 

' Archiv f. d. ges. Physiol.' 
xlii. 183-186 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ivi. 180-181 (Abs.) 

'Archiv f. d. ges. Physiol.' 
xlii. 186-188 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ivi. 182 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. Physiol. 
Chem.' xii. 355-376, 377- 
395, xiii. 248-263; 'Ber.' 
xxii. [Ref.], 600-602 
(Abs.) 

' Archiv f . path . Anat.' cxiv. 
63-64 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixi. 241 ; ' J. Chem. Soc. 
Ivi. 88 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcvii. [II.], 967-1044; 
' Monatshefte f. Chem.' 
ix. 956-1034 ; ' Wien. 
Anz.' 1888, 187 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' lix. 2-7, 
16-19, 29-31 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ivi. 455 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxvi. 391- 
393 ; ' Chem. News,' Iviii. 
311-312 ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiii. 219 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



221 



A. Kundt 



Grimbert 



A. Hansen 



H. Ebert 



Chemical Relations, 1888, 1889. 

Photoa;raphien, welche die Sensi- 
bilisirung photographiscber Troc- 
keiiplatten mittels absorbirender 
Farbstoffe zeigen. (Read Nov. 
2.) 



Snr nn nouveau mode de recherche 
de I'urobiline dans 1' urine. (Dec.) 

Ueber die Bedeutung des Chloro- 
phyllfarbstofEs (' Naturw. Rund- 
schau,' ii. 501-503.) 

Die Methode der hoher Interferen- 
zen, und ihre Verwendbarkeit fiir 
die Zwecke der qualitativen Spec- 
tralanalyse. (Habilitationsschrift, 
Erlangen, 1888.) 



' Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berl.' vii. 86 (notice) ; 
' Nature,' xxxix. 120 
(Abs.) 



' J. de Pharm.' [5], sviii. 
481-482 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ivi. 324 (Abs.) 

'Bied. Centr.' 1888, 357- 
388 (Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' liv. 867-868 (Abs.) 

' Zeit.schr. f . physikaL 
Chem.' ii. 434 (Abs.) 



H. W. Vogel . 



W. Crookes . 



O. Wallach 



T. Pelham Dale 



S. Handler . 



Ph. Barbier and L. 
Eoux. 



A. Babes 



A. Letellier 



G. Kriiss and H. 
Moraht. 



1889. 

Capt. Abney iiber farbenempfind- 
liche Verfahren. (Jan.) 

On the Use of the Spectroscope in 
tlie Detection and Discrimination 
of the so-called ' Rare Earths.' 
(Read Mar. 21.) 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction des 
Camphens. (March.) 



On a Relation existing between the 
Density and Refraction of Gaseous 
Elements, and also of some of 
their Compounds. (Read May 25.) 

Ueber die Reduction des Hamo- 
globins im Herzen. (May.) 



Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques. (Read 
June 17.) 



Note sur quelques matieres colo- 
rantes et aromatiques produites 
par le bacille i^yocyanique. (Read 
June 22.) 

Recherches sur la pourpre produite 
par le Purjjiwa lapiUus. (Read 
July 8.) 

Zur spectrocolorimetrischen Eisen- 
bezw. Ehodan-Bestimmung. (Read 
Aug. 6.) 



' Phot. Mittheil.' xxv. 254, 
255 ; ' Beibliitter,' xiii. 
383 (Abs.) 

'J. Chem. Soc' Iv. 25.5- 
285 ; ' Zeitschr. f. physi- 
kaL Chem.' vi. 88 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 173 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
cclii. 136-140 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ivi. 1069 (Abs) 
'Ber.' xxii. (Ref.), 585 
(Abs.) 

' Proc. Phys. Soc' x. 189- 
193. 



'Zeitschr. f. Biol.' xxvi. 
233-258 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ivi. 1225 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cviii. 1249-1251? 
' J. Chem. Soc' ivi. 805 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xiii. 
669 (Abs.) 

'C. R. de la Soc. biol.' 
(Paris) [9], i. 438-440; 
'J.Chem. Soc'lviii. 189- 
190 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cviii. 82-85; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1207- 
1208 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxii. 2054-2060; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1247- 
1218 (Abs.) 



222 



REPORT — 1894. 



M. Althausse and 
G. Kriiss. 



T. Cosla 



C. TimiriazefE 



A. Griinwald , 



E. II. Amagat and 
F. Jean. 



K. Scubert 



J. F. Eykman 

J. H. Gladstone and 
W. H. Perkin. 



K. Anjrstrom 



A. Lcttendorli 



K. Neumann and 
H. Hey. 

L. Macchiati . 



Chemical Eelations, 1889. 

Beziehungen zwischen Zusammen- 
setzung und Absorptionsspec- 
trum organischer Verbindungen. 
(Read Aug. 6.) 



Sulle correlazioni tra il potere ri- 
frangente ed il potere dispersive 
dei derivati aroraatici a catene 
laterali sature. (Aug.) 

La protophylline dans les plantes 
etiolees. (Read Sept. 2.) 

Spectralanalytischer Nacliweis von 
Spuren eines neuen, der eilften 
Relhe der INIendelejeff'schen 
Tafel angehorigen Elementes, 
welches besonders im Tellur und 
Antimon ausserdem aber aucli im 
Kupfer vorkommt. (Read Oct. 
10.) 

Sur I'analyse optique des liuiles 
et du beurre. (Read Oct. 14.) 



Einige pliysikaliscbe Constanten 
von Halogensubstitutionsproduc- 
ten des Benzols und Toluols. 
(Read Oct. U.) 

Ueber das iitherische Gel der Betel- 
bliltter. (Oct. 20. Read Oct. 28.) 

On the Correspondence between 
the Magnetic liotation and the 
Refraction and Dispersion of 
Liiiht by Compounds containing 
Nitrogen. (Read Nov. 7.) 

Etudes des spectres infra-rouges de 
I'acide carbonique et de I'oxyde 
de carbone. (Read Nov. 13.) 

Studien iiber die Erden der Cerium- 
und Yttrium-Gruppe. (Received 
Nov. 14.) 

Ueber Farbstoffe aus der Gruppe 
der Benzeine. (Reed. Nov. 14.) 



Die Farbstoffe der Zapfen 
Abies exceha. (Nov.) 



' Ber.' xxii. 2065-2070 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1093- 
1094 (Abs.) ; ' Chem. 
News,' Lx. 240-241 
(Abs.) ; Ixi. 209 (Abs.) ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiii. 94.5-946 
( Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f . physi- 
kal. Chem.' iv. 585 (Abs.) 

'Gazz. chim. ital.' xix. 
478-498; 'Ber.' xxii. 
(Ref .), 738 (Abs.) ; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiii. 937-939 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cix. 414-416; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Ivi. 1236- 
1237 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcviii. ll.h, 785-817 ; 
'Chem. News,' Ixi. 39 
(Abs.) ; ' Monatsh. f. 
Chem.' X. 829-861 ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 434-435 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibltitter,' xiv. 
278-279 Abs.) 

'C. R.' cix. 616-617; 
' Mon.Scientifique ' (Ques- 
neville) [4], iii. 1396- 
1397 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixi. 
25 (Abs.); 'Ber.' xxii. 
(Ref.), 777 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxii. 2519-2524. 



' Ber.' xxii. 2736-2754. 

'J. Chem. Soc' Iv. 750- 
759. 



' Ofvers. af K. Vet. Akad. 
Forhandl.' (Stockholm), 
1889, No. 9, 549-557. 

' Ann. Chem. u. Pharm ' 
cclvi. 159-170. 



' Ber.' xxii. 3001-3004 ; 
« Beibliitter,' xiv. 281 
(Abs.) 

' Naturw. Rundschau,' iv. 
608 ; ' Chem. Centr.' [4], 
ii. Bd. i. 164 (Abs.); 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. pt. i. 
641-642 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHV OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



223 



M. Le Blanc 



J. F. Eykman 

W. de W. Abney 
andG. S.Edwards. 



C. Bender . 



K. Heise 



F. Flavitsky . 



H. Kayser and C. 
Eunge. 

W. KourilofE , 



Chemical Relatioks, 1889, 1890. 

Optisch.-chemische Studien mit 
Beriicksichtigung der Dissocia- 
tiontheorie. (Nov.) 



Zur Constitution des Asarons. 
(Read Dec. 9.) 

On the Effect of the Spectrum on 
the Haloid Salts of Silver. (Reed. 
Nov. 26. Read Dec. 12.) 



Brechungsexponenten 
Salzlosungen. (Dec.) 



normaler 



Zur Kenntniss des Rothweinfarb- 
stoffes. (Arbeiten aus dem kaiser- 
iichen Reichsgesundheitsamte, 
Sonderabdruck.) 



D extro-rotatory 
Piaus ceinbra. 



Terpenes from 
(In Russian.) 



Ueber die Spectren der Elemente 
('Abhaudl. Akad. Berlin,' 1889, 
93 pp.) 

Terpenes from the Oil of Pinus 
abies. (In Russian.) 



' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' iv. 553-560; 'J. 
Chem. Sec' Iviii. 213 
(Abs.) ; ' Beibliitter,' xiv. 
272 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxii. 3172-3176. 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' xlvii. 
2-19-275; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 933 (Abs.); 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 791 (Abs.) 

'Ann. Phys. n. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xxxix. 89-96 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Iviii. 549 
(Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxii. (Eef.), 823 
(Abs.) 



' J. Euss. Phys. -Chem. 
Soc' xxi. 367-375; 'J. 

Chem. Soc' Iviii. 789-790 
(Abs.) 

' Beibliitter,' xii. 87 (title). 



' J. Euss. Phys.-Chem. 
Soc' xxi. 357-367; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 789 
(Abs.) 



E. Wegner 



A. P. Laurie . 

H. Gautier and G. 
Charpy. 



F. Schiitt 



H. Moissan . 



A. B. Griffiths 



G. S ilet 



1890. 

Ueber die Molekularrefraktion der 
Haloidsalze des Lithiums, Natriums 
und Kaliums. (Jan. 8.) 

Madder Lakes. (Jan. 24) 

Sur I'etat de I'iode en dissolution. 
(Read Jan. 27.) 



Ueber Peridineenfarbstoffe. (Jan.) 



Action du fluor sur les differentes 
varietfis de carbone. (Read Feb. 
10.) 

Sur une nouvelle ptomaine de 
putrefaction, obtenue par la cul- 
ture du Bacterium AUii. (Read 
Feb. 24.) 

Sur la flamme bleue du sel marin, 
et sur la reaction spectroscopique 
du chlorure de cuivre. (Feb.) 



'Chem. Centr.' 1890, 78- 
79 ; 'J. Chem. Soc' Iviii. 
549 (Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixi. 60-61. 

'C.E.' ex. 189-191; 'Chem. 
News,' Lxi. 97 (Abs.) ; 
'Ber.' xxiii. (Eef.), 135 
(Abs.) 

'Ber. deutsch. bot. Ge- 
sellsch.'viii.9-32; 'Chem. 
Centr.' [4], ii. 767-768 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 1172-1173 (Abs.) 

'C. E.' ex. 276-279; 
•Chem. News,' l.xi. 120 
(Abs.) 

'C.E.' ex. 416-418; 'Chem. 
News,' Isi. 145 (Abs.) 



'Bull. Soc. -chim. fran?.' 
[3], iii. 328-329; 'Chem. 
News,' Ixi. 377 (Abs.) 



224 



REPORT — 1894. 



C. A. Bischoff and 
P. Walden. 



J. F. Eykman 



T. Araki 



F. Kehrmann 



T. E. Thorpe and 
A. E. Tutton. 

C. Liebermann and 
F. Haber. 

Ph. Barbier and L. 
Rous. 



T. Costa 



A. Percy Smith 



E. Lowenherz 



Ph. Barbier and L. 
Eoux. 



C.Bohr 



E. Laurent . 



Chemical Relations, 1890. 

Ueber die physikalischen Con- 
stanten der substituirten Aethe- 
nyltricarbonsaui-eester. (Reed. 
Feb. 27. Read March 10.) 

Ueber die Umwandlung von Allyl 
in Propenylbenzolderivate, ihre 
Dispersion und Refraction. (Read 
March 24.) 



Ueber den BlutfarbstoflE und seine 
naheren Umwandlungsproducte. 
(March.) 

Einiges iiber Beziehungen zwischen 
FiirbuDg und chemischer Consti- 
tution. (April 16.) 

Phosphorous Oxide. Part I. (Read 
April 17.) 

Ueber Bidioxymethylenindigo. 
(Reed. May 24.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (alcools 
de la s6rie grasse). (Read May 
27.) 

Sul peso molecolare e sul potere 
rifrangente del cloruro di zolfo. 
(June 1.) 

The Violet Flame produced by 
Common Salt in a Coal Fire. 
(June.) 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction der 
Nitrate. (Read July 14.) 



Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (ethers- 
oxydes.) (Read July 21.) 



Recherches sur la dispersion dans 
les composes organiques (acides 
gras). (Read July 28.) 



Sur les combinaisons de I'hemo- 
L'lobine avec I'oxygfene. (Read 
July 21.) 

Reduction des nitrates par la lu- 
miere solaire (premiere note). 
(Aug.) 



'Ber.' xxiii. 660-664; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 745- 
746 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxiii. 855-864 ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Iviii. 748- 
749 (Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xiv. 502-505 (Abs.) ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 91 (Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f.physiol. Chem.' 
xiv. 405-415 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Iviii. 1012-1013 
(Abs.) 

'Chem. Zeit.' xiv. 508, 
527, 541-^42; ' Beibliit- 
ter,' xiv. 618 (Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ivii. 545- 
573. 

'Ber.' xxiii. 1566-1567; 
'J.Chem. Soc' Iviii. 1140 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' ex. 1071-1074; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' vi. 374 (Abs.) 



■ Gazz. chim. 
367-372. 



ital.' 



'Chem. News,' Ixi. 292- 
293; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 1202 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxiii. 2180-2182; 
'Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 382 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxi. 180-183; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 377 (Abs.); 
' Bull. Soc Chim.' [3], iv. 
9-16 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixii. 
249 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxi. 235-236; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vi. 378 (Abs.); 
' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], iv. 
614-622 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixii. 249 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxi. 195-197; 
' Chem. News,' Ixii. 74 
(Abs.) 

'Bull. Acad. Belg.' xx. 

303-308. 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



225 



Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. 



J. H. Gladstone and 
G. Gladstone. 

R. Nasini and T. 
Costa. 



J. H. Gladstone 
R. Lowenherz 



E. Demargay 



C. PulErich . 



S. Handler 



Chemical Rklations, 1890, 1891. 

Nouvelles recherches sur la gado- 
line de M. de Marignac. (Read 
Sept. 8.) 

The Refraction and Dispersion of 
Flnor-Benzene and Allied Com- 
pounds. (Sept.) 

Sopra un caso singolare nella ri- 
frazione dei composti organic!. 
(Read Oct. 19.) 



Molecular Dispersion. (Dec. 27, 
1890.) 

Ueber die Molecularrefraction 
stickstofEenthaltender Substan- 
zen. (Dec.) 

Les terres rares . . . . 



Das Totalreflectometer und das 
Refractometer fiir Chemiker, ihre 
Anwendung in der Krystalloptik 
wnd zur Untersuchung der Licht- 
brechung von Fliissigkeiten. 
(Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1890.) 

Ueber die Reduction des Hiimo- 
globin im Herzen. 



' C. R.' cxi. 393-395 ; 
' Nature," -xlii. 512 (Abs.); 
' Chem. News,' Ixii. 178 
(Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 1- 
9 ; ' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vii. 331 (Abs.) 

'Rend. R. Accad. d. Lin- 
cei' [4], vi. 259-263; 
' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 
418 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xliii. 198. 



Zeitschr. 
Chem.' vi 



f. physikal. 
532-5G3. 



' Rev. g^nerale des Sci- 
ences pures et appli- 
quees,' 1890, No. 13, 396- 
402 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixii. 
85 (Abs.) 

' Nature,' xliv. 538 (notice). 



'Zeitschr. f. Biol.' xxvi. 
233-258 ; ' J. Chem. See' 
Ivi. 1225 (Abs.) 



A. Bettendorff 



J. W. Briihl . 



V. Schumann. 



E. Becquerel . 



H. Kayser and C. . 
Runge. 



1894. 



1891. 

Studien iiber die Erden des Cerium- 
und Yttrium-Gruppe. (Jan.) 



Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen 
der Refraction der Gase und 
Diimpfe und deren chemischen 
Zusammensetzung. (Jan.) 

On Determining the Sensitiveness 
of Photographic Plates by means 
of the Spectrograph. (Jan.) 

Observations sur la communication 
de M. Lippmann au sujet de la 
reproduction photographique des 
couleurs. (Read Feb. 2.) 

Ueber die Spectra der Elemente 
der zweitea Mendelejefli'schen 
Gruppe. (Read Feb. 19.) 



'Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
cclxiii. 164-174 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixiii. 159-160, 
172-173. 

'Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' vii. 1-33. 



' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 33-34. 



' C. R.' cxii. 275-277 ; 
'Chem. News,' Ixiii. Ill 
(Abs.) 



'Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.] xliii. 385-409 ; 
' Sitzungsb. Akad. Berl.' 
1891, I.' 177-178 (Abs.); 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 575 (Abs.) 

Q 



226 



REPORT — 1894. 



B. Walter 



M. Schiitze 



V. Schumann 
J. W. Briihl . 



Ph. Barbier and L. 
Eoux. 

E. Laurent 



B. Brauner 



G. Kriiss 



H. 0. G. Ellinffer . 



W. H. Perkin 



E. Schunck . 



E. E. Brooks . 



W. BoMendorfiE 



C. M. Thompson 



F. A. Gooch and T. 
S. Hart. 



Chemical Relations, 1891. 

Ueber das o-Monobromnaphthalin. 
(Feb.) 



Ueber den Zusammenhang zwischen 
Farbe und Constitution der Ver- 
bindungen. (Feb.) 

Photochemical Researches. (Feb.) 

Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen 
die siDectrometrischen Constanten 
und der chemischen Constitution 
des Epichlorhydrin, des Acet- und 
Paraldehyds und des Benzols. 
(Feb.) 

Recherches sur la dispersion des 
composes organ iques (ethers). 
(Read Mar. 16.) 

Reduction des nitrates par la lu- 
miere solaire (deuxieme note). 
(March.) 

ITeber das Atomgewicht des Lan- 
thans. (Reed. April 25.) 

Beitrage zur Chemie des Erbiums 
und Didyms. (I.) (April.) 



Optische Bestimmunsrder Albumin- 
menge im Harn. (May.) 



The Refractive Power of certain 
Organic Compounds at Various 
Temperatures. (Read June 18.) 

Contributions to the Chemistry of 
Chlorophyll. No. IV. (Reed. June 
IG. Read June 18.) 

On Terminal Spectra observed in 
Vacuo. (July.) 

Bemerkung zu der Abhandlung des 
Herrn B. Walter ' Ueber den Nach- 
weis des Zerfalles von Molecular- 
gruppen in Losungen durch Fluo- 
rescenz und Absorptionserschei- 
nungen.' (July.) 



On Did^'mium from 
Sources. (Aug.) 



Different 



The Detection and Determination 
of Potassium Spectroscojiically. 
(Aug.) 



' Ann. Phys. u. Cliem.' 

[N.F.], xlii. 511-512 ; 

' Phil. Mag.' [51, xxxi. 
367. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 109-136 ; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xvi. 428-429 
(Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixiii. 97. 

• Ber.' xxiv. 656-658 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. phvsikal. 
Chem.' vii. 521 (Abs.) 



' C. R.' cxii. 582-584 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 144 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Acad. Belg.' [3], 
xxi. 337-345; 'Nature,' 
xliv. 24 (Abs.) 

'Ber.' xxiv. 1328-1 331 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 50 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. Chem. u. Pharm.* 
cclxv. 1-27 ; • Chem. 
News,' Ixiv. 65-G6, 75- 
76, 99-101, 120-121. 

' J. prakt. Chem.' xliv. 256 ; 
' Cliem. News,' Ixiv. 2G2 
(Abs.) 

' J. Chem. Soc' Ixi. 287- 
310; ' Beiblatter,' xvii. 
559-561 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc' 1. 302- 
317; 'J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. 
I. 41-42 (Abs.) 

' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 30-31. 



■ Ann. Ph}'s. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xHii. 784-789. 



' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1891 . 
511 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixiv. 
167. 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [3], xlii. 
448-459 ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixv. 22-24, 32-34 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xlv. 212 (Abs.) 



ox TU]:; liJBLlOGRAPHY OF SPECTKOSCOPY, 



227 



Chemical Relations, 1891, 1892. 



T. Costa 



O. Knoblauch 



R. E. Schmidt and 
L. Gattermann. 



F. Miiller 
A. Weigle 



Lecoq de 
daudran. 

R. Bach 



A. Bettendorff 



Sul potere rifrangente moleculare 
delle carbilamine et dei nitrili. 
(Read Nov. 15.) 

Absorptions-Spectralanalj'se sehr 
verdiinnter Losungen. 



Ucl)er Oxj'derivative des Alizarin- 
Blau. 



1892. 

Ueber das iitherische Gel der Lor- 
beer-Beeren. (Read Feb. 11.) 

Spectrophotometrische Untersucli- 
ungen der Salze aromatischer Ba- 
sen. (Feb.) 



Bois- Reclierchessurle samarium. (Read 
Blarch 14.) 

Thermochemiedes Hydrazins,nebst 
einer Bemerkung iiber die Mole- 
cularrefraction einiger StickstofE- 
verbiiiduugen. (April.) 

Studien iiber die Erden der Cerium- 
uiirt Yttrium-Gruppe. (June.) 



J. \V. Briihl 



G. Carrara 



G. Kruss and H. 

Moraht. 



Ucbcr das 
June 11.) 



Trimethylen. (Read 



H. Landolt 
Hans Jalm. 



and 



G. Kriiss and H. 
Kriiss. 



Sill peso molecolare e sul potere 
rifrangente dell' acqua ossigenata. 
(Read July 3.) 



Ueber die Reaction zwischen Ferri- 
salzen und loslichen Rliodaniden. 
(July.) 

I'cber die Molecularrefraction eini- 
ger einfachen organischen Verbin- 
dungen fiir Wellen von unendlicli 
grosser Wellenliinge. (Sept.) 

Beitriige zurquantitativen Spectral- 
analyse. (Sept.) 



'Rend. R. Accad. d. Lin- 
ed ' [4], \u. 308-313 ; 

' Rivista scient. industr.' 
xxiv. 104-109. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.]. xliii. 738-783; 
' Chem. News,' l.xiv. 120 
(Abs.) 

' J. prakt. Chem.'.xliv. 103- 
109 ; ' Chem. News,' l.xiv. 
261 (Abs.) 



' Ber.' XXV. 547-551 ; ' Bei- 
blatter,' xvi. 605 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' xi. 227-247, 426- 
428 ; ' Beibliitter,' xvii. 
506 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxiv. 572-577. 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ix. 241-263; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xvi. 515-517 
(Abs.) 

'Ann. der Chem.' cclxx. 
376-383 ; ' Ber.' xxv. 
(Ref.),765 (Abs.); -Chem. 
News,' ixvi. 307, 320-321 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixii. 1400-1401 (Abs.) ; 
' BeiblJitter,' xvi. 744- 
745 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxv. 1952-1956 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xvii. 823 
(Abs.) 

' Rend. R. Accad. Roma,' 
[5], i. II. sem. 19-24 ; 
' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxii. 
II. 341-349 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. II. 163 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
i. 399-404 ; ' B^er.' xxv. 
(Ref.),917(Ab.s.);'Chem. 
News,' Ixvi. 198 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' X. 289-320; 'Bei- 
bliitter,' xvii. 329-331 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
i. 104-125 ; ' Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' x. 432 
( Abs. ) ; ' Beiblatter,' 
xvi. 606 (Abs.); 'Zeitschr. 
f. anal. Chem.' xxxii. 574 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixiv. II. 283-284 (Abs.) 
Q2 



228 



EEPOET — 1894. 



J. M. Eder . 

V. MarkovnikofE 
and A. Reformat- 
sky. 

F. A. Gooch and 
J. J. Phinney. 

F. Zecchici . 



C. Fery 



C. Graebe 



C. A. Lobry de 
Bruijn. 



A. Gortz 



W. Ostwald 



J. Jane6ek 



Chemical Relations, 1892, 1893. 

Beitrage zur Spectralanalyse. 
(Read Nov. 3.) 

Bulgarian (Turkish) Oil of Roses. 
(Read Nov. 5, O.S.) (In Russian.) 



Quantitative Determination of 
Rubidium by the Spectroscope. 
(Nov.) 

Sul potere rifrangente del fosforo. 
I. Potere rifrangente del fosforo 
libro e delle sue combinazioni 
cogli elementi o gruppi mono- 
valenti. (Read Dec. 6.) 

Sur I'etude des reactions chimiques 
dans une masse liquide par I'in- 
dice de refraction. (Read Dec. 26.) 

Ueber Azofarbenspectra. (Dec.) . 



L'hydroxylamine 



Ueber spectrophotometrische 

AfRnitiitsbestimmungen. (Disser- 
tation, Tubingen, 1892, 57 pp.) 

Ueber die Farbe der lonen . 



Gerichtlich-chemischer 
von Blut. 



Nachweis 



Denkschr. Akad. WTen/ 
Ix. 1-24. 



' J. Russ.Phys. Chem. Soc* 
xxiv. 663-686 ; ' J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. I. 662-663 
(Abs.) 

' Amer. J. Sci.' xliv. 392- 
400; 'Nature,' xMi. 94 
(Abs.) 

' Gazz. chim. ital.' xxiii. 
I. 97-120; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. II. 353-354 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxv. 1.309-1312-,' 
'J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. II. 
201 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f, 
Chem.' X. 
' Beiblatter,' 
(Abs.) 

' Rec. trav. 
Pays - Bas,' 
'Ber.'xxv.(Ref.), 684-685 
(Abs.) 

' BeiblJitter,' xvii. 37S 
(Abs.) 

' Abhandl. math, phys.. 
Klasse Sachs. Gesellsch. 
d. Wiss.' xviii. No. II. 
281-307; 'Beiblatter,' 
xvi. 534-537 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . anal. Chem.' 
xxxi. 236-237 (Abs.) ; 
'Chem. News,' Lsvi. 32 
(Abs.) 



physikal. 

673-698; 

xvii. 33(i 

chim. de& 
xi. 18-50 ; 



P. Bary 



G. Kriiss and A. 
Loose. 



11. Bertin-Sansand 
J. Moitessier. 



1893. 

Sur la composition des solutions 
aqueuses des sels d'apres les 
indices de refraction. (Read 
Jan. 8.) 

Verhalten der Gadoliniterden 
gegen Kaliumchromat. (Jan.) 



Oxyhematin, hematin reduit, et 
hemochromogene. (Read Feb. 20.) 



'C. R.' cxviii. 71- 
Chem. Soc' Ixvi. 
(Abs.) 



73; 
II. 



'J. 
132 



' Zeitschr. f . anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 92-107 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Ixvii. 75-76, 87- 
89, 100. 

'C. R.' cxvi. 401-403; 
'Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], 
ix. 380-382 ; ' Ber.' xxvi. 
(Ref.),247(Abs.); 'Chem. 
News,' Ixviii. 26 (Abs.) ; 
'J Chem. Soc' Ixiv. I. 
447-448 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRArHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



229 



R, Braunschweig 



H. Bertin-Sans and 
J, Moitessier. 



Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. 



L. Mej'er 



G. Kniss 



K. Hofmann and 
G. Kriiss. 

H. Bertin-Sans and 
J. Moitessier. 



K. Hofmann and 
G. Kriiss. 



G. Trapesonzjanz . 



J. M. Eder and E. 
Valente. 



E. Demar5ay 



Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. 



Chemical Relations,' 1893. 

Ueber die Ester der Methj^lbern- 
steinsaiire ( Brenzweinsiiure ). 
(Feb.) 

Nouveau precede pour obtenir de 
I'oxyhemoglobine tl I'aide d'oxy- 
h6matine et d'une matiere albu- 
minoide. (Read Mar. 10.) 

Action de I'oxyde de cariione sur 
riiL'matine reduite et sur I'hemo- 
cliromogene. (Read Mar. 13.) 

Recherches sur le samarium. (Read 
Mar. 20.) 

Recherches sur le samarium. (Read 
Mar. 27.) 

Nachtrag zu der Abhandlung von 
A. Weigle, 'Spectrophotometrische 
Untersuchung der Salze aroma- 
tischer Basen.' (March.) 

Ueber die Erbinerde. (March) 



Ueber die Holminerde. (April) 



Action de I'oxyde de carbone sur 
I'hematine reduite et sur I'hemo- 
chromogene. (Read May 12.) 

Ueber die Terbinerde. (May) 



Ueber die Molecularrefraction 
stickstoffenthaltenden Substan- 
zen. (Read June 8.) 

Ueber den Verlauf der Bunsen'schen 
Flammereaction im ultravioletten 
Spectrum. (Read July G.) 

Sur la simplicity du samarium. 
(Read July 17.) 



Recherches sur le samarium. (Read 
July 24.) 



' J. prakt. Chem.' [N.F.], 
xlvii. 274-300. 

'Bull. Soc. Chim.' [.S], ix. 
243-244; 'Chem. News,' 
Ixvii. 301 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 591-592 ; 
'Ber.' xxvi. (Ref.), 292- 
293 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Mv. I. 448 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 011-613; 
' Chem. News,' Ixvii. 180 
(Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 674-G77 ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixvii. 258- 
259 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' xi. 426-428 ; ' J. 
Chem. Soc' Lxiv. II. 464 
(Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 353-369 ; ' Chem. 
News,' Lxviii. 148-149, 
158-159, 165-166, 176- 
178, 194, 209, 217-218; 
J. Chem. Soc. Ixiv. II. 376 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 407-414 ; ' Ber.' xxvi. 
(Ref.), 473-474 (Abs.) 

' Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], ix. 
382-384; 'Chem. News,' 
lxviii. 26 (Abs.) 

'Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem.' 
iv. 27-43 ; ' Ber.' xxvi, 
(Ref.), 474-475 (Abs.) 

' Ber.' xxvi. 1428-1433 ; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. II. 
401 (Abs.) 

' Denkschr. Akad. Wien,' 
Ix. 467-476. 



'C. R.' cxvii. 163-164; 
' J. Chem. Soc' Ixiv. II. 
526(Abs.); 'Chem. News,' 
lxviii. 73-74 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvii. 199-201 ; 
' Beibliltter,' sviii. 452- 
453 (Abs.); 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Ixiv. II. 526-527 
(Abs.) ; ' Chem. News,' 
Lxviii. 313 (Abs.) 



230 



REPORT — 1894. 



Chemical Relations, 1893— Theoretical Papers, 1882, 1885, 1886. 



H. Bertin-Sans and 
J. Moitessier. 



O. Wallach 



S. J. Ferreira da 

Silva. 



F. Smith 



■ • 



E. Demargay . 

K. Hofmann and 
G. Kriiss. 



Methode pour demontrer rapide- 
ment le deplacement par I'oxygene 
de I'oxyde de carbone de la car- 
boxyh^moglobine. (Read July 28.) 

Zur Kenntniss der Terpene und der 
atherischen Oele. (26"' Abhandl.) 
(Aug.) 



Zur Kenntniss der Terpene und der 
atherischen Oele. (27'"^ Abhandl.) 
(Aug.) 



Sur une nouvelle reaction de r^serine 
et une matiere colorante verte 
d6riv4e du meme alcaloide. (Read 
Aug. 14.) 



Note on the Nature of the Dandruff 
and its Pigment from the Skin of 
the Horse. (Sept.) 

L'analyse qualitative et la spectro- 
scopie. (Dec.) 

Ueber die Holminerde . . 



' Bull. See. Chim.' [3], ix. 
722 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixviii. 
221 (Abs.) 

' Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
ccl.xxvii. 105-154 ; ' Ber.' 
xxvi. (Ref.), 869-871 
(Abs.) ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixvi. I. 43-45 (Abs.) 

' Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm.' 
cclxxvii. 154-161 ; ' Ber.' 
xxvi. (Ref.), 871-872 
(Abs.); 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Ixvi. I. 46 (Abs.) 

' C. R.' cxvii. 330-331 ; 
• Bull. Soc. Chim.' [3], ix. 
753-754 ; ' J. Chem. Soc* 
Ixiv. I. 741 (Abs.) ; 
' Chem. News,' Ixviii. 221 
(Abs.) 

'J. Physiol.' XV. 162-166; 
'J. Chem. Soc' Lxiv. 11. 
585-586 (Abs.) 

' Rev. g§nerale des sci- 
ences,' iv. 725-729. 

• Zeitschr. f . anorg. Chem.' 
iii. 407-414; 'J. Chem. 
Soc' Lxiv. II. 466-467 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xvii. 
688 (Abs.) 



M. Weinberg . 



IX. 

THEORETICAL PAPERS. 

1882. 

Interferenzstreifen im prisma^- 
tischen und im Beugungsspec- 
trum (' Ber. d. naturwiss. Ver. d. 
techn. Hochsch. in Wien,' 1882, 
1-8). 



' Carl. Repert.' xviii. 600- 
608 ; ' Beiblatter,' vi. 746 
(Abs.) 



R. von Kovesligethy 



1885. 

Theorie der continuirlichen Spectra. 
(Read Oct. 19.) 



■ Math. u. naturw. Ber. 
aus Dngarn,' iv. 9-10 ; 
' Beiblatter,' xii. 346-348 
(Abs.) 



E. Lommel 



1886. 

Die Beugungserscheinungen gerad- 
linig begrenzter Schirme. (Read 
May 1.) 



' Abhandl. k. bayer. Akad.* 
[2], XV. 529-664; ' Sit- 
zungsb. Akad. Miinchen," 
xvi. 84-87 (Abs.) 'Bei- 
blatter,' xi. 42-46 (Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



231 



R. von Kovesligethy 



W. Michelson 



K. Klar 



E. von Kovesligethy 



A. Griinwald , 



R. von Kovesligethy 



A. E. Nordenskiold 



E. F. J. Love . 



A. Griinwald 



R. von Kovesligethy 



Theoretical Papers, 1887. 

1887. 

Theorie der discontinuirUchen 
Spectra. (Bead May 16.) 



Theoretical Essay on the Distribu- 
tion of Energy in the Spectra of 
Solids. (May.) (In Russian.) 



Die Theorie des Gliihens. (May.) 



Theorie der Lockyer'schen Spectral- 
methode undLinienverwandschaf- 
ten. (Read June 20.) 



Ueber die merkwiirdigen Bezie- 
hungen zwischen dem Spektrum 
des Wasserdampfes und den Lini- 
enspektrum des Wassertoffs und 
SauerstofFs, sowie iiber die che- 
mische Struktur der beiden letz- 
tern, und ihre Dissociation in der 
Sonnenatmosphare. (July 17.) 



Mathematische 
(Aug.) 



Spectralanalyse 



Sur un rapport simple entre les 
longueurs d'onde des spectres. 
(Read Nov. 21.) 

On a Method for Discriminating 
Real from Accidental Coincidences 
between the Lines of Different 
Spectra, with some Applications. 
(Read Nov. 26.) 

Mathematische Spectralanalyse des 
Magnesiums und der Kohle. (Read 
Dec. 1.) 



W. Michelson's 
(Read Dec. 12.) 



Spectraltheorie. 



'Math. u. .naturw. Ber. 
aus Ungarn,' v. 20-28 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xii. 346-348 
(Abs.) 

'J. Russ. Phys.-Chem.Soc' 
xbc. IV. 79-99; 'J. de 
Phys.' vi. 467-479 (Abs.) ; 
' Phil. Mag.' [5], XXV. 
425-435 (Abs.) 

' Centralzeit. f. Opt. u. 
Mech.' viii. 109-111 ; 
'Beiblatter,'xi.777(Abs.) 

' Math. u. naturw. Ber. 
aus Ungarn,' v. 29-81 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xii. 579-580 
(Abs.) 

'Astr. Nachr.' cxvii. 199- 
214; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxiv. 354-367; ' Chem. 
News,' Ivi. 186-188, 201- 
202, 223-224, 232; 'J. 
Chem. Soc' Hi. 1070-1071 
(Abs.) ; ' Nature,' xxxvi. 
501-502 (Abs.) ; 'Am. J." 
[.3], xxxLx. 399 (Abs.); 
' Beiblatter,' xii. 245- 
246 (Abs.); 'Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' ii. 38 
(Abs.) 

' Astr. Nachr.' cxvii. 328- 
338 ; ' Beibliitter,' xii. 
346-348 (Abs.) 

' C. E.' cv. 988-995 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 245 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], XXV. 1-6 ; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' ii. 447 (Abs.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcvi. II. 1154-1216 ; 
' Monatsh. f . Chem.' viii. 
650-712 ; ' Phil. Mag.' 
[5], xsv. 343-350 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xii. 661-662 
(Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' ii. 256 
(Abs.) 

' Math, naturwiss. Ber. 
aus Ungarn,' vii. 24-35 ; 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 116-11 7. 



232 



REPORT — 1894. 



C. Fievez 

J. Willard Gib'js 

C. Kunge 

A. Griinwald . 
E. Wilson 

T. P. Dale . 



Theoretical Papees, 1888, 1889. 
1888. 

De la constitution optique des raies 
spectrales, en rapport avec la 
theorie ondulatoire de la lumi^re 
(Presented May 8.) 

A Comparison of the Elastic and 
Electrical Theories of Light with 
respect to the Law of Double 
Refraction and the Dispersion of 
Colours. (June.) 

On the Harmonic Series of Lines 
in the Spectra of the Elements. 
(Sept.) 

Spectralanalyse des Kadmiums. 
(Read Oct. 11.) 

The Law of Dispersion. (Oct.) 



' Bull. Acad. Belg.' [3], xv. 
694 (title) ; ' Nature,' 
xxxviii. 511 (Abs.) 

'Amer. J. Sci.' [.S], xxxv. 
4G7-475. 



On the Upper Limit of Refraction 
in Selenium and Bromine. (Nov.) 



' Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1888, 
576-577 ; ' Beibliitter,' 
xiv. 509-510 (Abs.) 

' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcvii. II. 9G7. 

'.Phil. Mag.' [5],xxvi. 385- 
389 ; ' Zeitschr. f . physi- 
kal. Chem.' ii. 973 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Phys. Soc' x. 17- 
23; 'Phil. Mag.' [5], 
xxvii. 50-56. 



J. S. Ames 



E. Conrady . 
W. Michelson 

T. P. Dale . 
A. Griinwald . 



M. Koppe 



1889. 

Griinwald's Mathematical Spectrum 
Analj'sis. (Feb.) 



The Concave Grating in Theory 
and Practice. (March 27.) 



Berechnung der Atomrefraction 
fiir Natriumlicht. (March.) 

Modern Researches on the Theory 
of Continuous Spectra. (April.) 



On a Relation existing between 
the Density and Refraction of 
Gaseous Elements, and also of some 
of their Compounds. (Read May 
25.) 

Spectralanalytischer Nachweis von 
Spuren eines neuen, der eilften 
Reihe derMendelejeff'schen Tafel 
angehorigen Blementes, welches 
besonders im Tellur und Antimon, 
ausserdem aber auch im Kupfer 
vorkommt. (Oct.) 

Das Minimum der Ablenkung beim 
Prisma. (Dec.) 



' Amer. Chem. J.' xi. 1.^8- 
141 ; 'Nature,' xl. 18; 
' Beibliitter,' xiii. 941- 
942 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.* [5], xxvii. 
3G9-384;'Beiblatter,' xiii. 
673 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' iii. 210-227. 

' J. Russ. Phys. -Chem. 
Soc' xxi. 87-103; 'Bei- 
blatter,' xiv. 277-278 
(Abs.) 

'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxviii. 
268-272. 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
xcviii. n.b, 785-817 ; 
' Monatsh. f. Chem.' x. 
829-861 ; ' J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 434-435 (Abs.) ; 
' Beibliitter,' xiv. 278-279 
(Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f . phys. u. chem. 
Unterricht,' iii. 76-78. 



ON THE BIBLIOGBAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 



233 



H. Kayser 



TlIEOKETICAL PAPERS, 1889, 1890. 

Ueber Griinwald's mathematische 
Spectralanalyse. (Dec.) 



' Chem. Zeitung,'xiii.l655- 
1687, xiv. 510-511; ' Bei- 
bliitter,' xiv. 278 (Abs.) 



K. Nasini 



J. R. Rydberg 



A. Griinwald 



H. Deslandres 



A. Griinwald 



J. R. Rydberg 



C. Runge 



A. W. Gravelaar 



Fr. C. G. Miiller 



J. S. Ames 



1890. 

Snllo stato attuale delle teorie 
riguardanti il potere rifrangente 
dei composti organici. (Jan. 1.) 

Sur la constitution des spectres 
lineaires des elements chimiques. 
(Read Feb. 24.) 



Herr Dr. H. Kayser und meine 
matliematische Spectralanalyse. 
(March 8.) 

Propriete fondamentale commune 
aux deux classes de spectres. Ca- 
racteres distinctifs de chacune des 
classes. Variation p^riodique 
■k trois param^tres. (Read April 
8.) 

Ueber das sogenannte zweite oder 
zusammengesetzte WasserstofE- 
spectrum von Dr. B. Hasselberg, 
und die Structur des Wasserstoffs. 
(Read April 17 and Oct. 9.) 



Ueber den Ban der Linienspectren 
der chemischen Grundstoffe. 
(April.) 



On a Method of Discriminating 
Real from Accidental Coinci- 
dences between the Lines of Dif- 
ferent Spectra. (June.) 

Das Minimum der Ablenkung 
eines Lichtstrahls durch ein homo- 
genes Prisma. (June.) 

Der Satz vom Minimum der Ablen- 
kung beim Prisma. (June.) 



On the Relations between the Lines 
of Various Spectra, with special 
Reference to those of Cadmium 
and Zinc ; and a Re-determina- 
tion of theirWave-Lengths. (July.) 



' Gazz. chim. 
18. 



ital.' XX. 1- 



'C. R.' ex. 39i-397; 
' Zeitschr. f . physikal. 
Chem.' V. 222-232 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xli. 431 (Abs.); 
'Chem. News,' Ixi. 145 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 
507-509 (Abs.) 

' Chem. Zeitung,' xiv. 325- 
328 ; ' Chem. News,' Ixi. 
159. 

' C. R.' ex. 748-750 ; ' Na- 
ture,' xli. 756 (Abs.) ; 
' Beiblatter,' xiv. 616 
(Abs.) ; ' Zeitschr. f . 
physikal. Chem.' vi. 87 
(Abs.) 

' Anzeiger d. k. Akad. 
Wien,' xxvi. 70-71, 196- 
201 ; ' Monatshefte f. 
Chem.' xi. 129-130, xiii. 
111-145; 'Zeitschr. f. 
physikal. Chem.' vi. 593 
(Abs.) ; ' Chem. News,' 
Ixii. 288-289, Ixiii. 13 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xiv. 
779 (Abs.) 

' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' V. 227-232 ; 
'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxix. 
331-337; 'J. Chem. Soc' 
Iviii. 674-675 (Abs.) 

• Phil. Mag.' [5], xxix. 462- 
4G6. 



' Zeitschr. f.phys. u. chem. 
Unterricht,' iii. 24t;-247. 



' Zeitschr. f.phys. u. chem. 
Unterricht,' iii. 247- 
248 ; ' Beiblatter,' siv. 
979 (Abs.) 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxx. 33- 

48. 



231 



REPORT — 1 894. 



G. J, Stoney . 



H. Deslandres 

W. N. Hartley 
J. S. Ames 
A. B. Basset . 

G. J. Stoney . 
A. Breuer . 



A. Griinwald . 



D. Goldhammer 
R. Nasini . 

G. J. Stoney . 
C. Runge 

E. Ketteler . 



Theoretical Papers, 1891, 1892. 

1891. 

Analysis of the Spectrum of So- 
dium, including an Inquiry into 
the True Place of the Lines that 
have been regarded as Satellites. 
(Bead March 26 and May 22.) 



Methode nouvelle pour la re- 
cherche des bandes faibles dans 
les spectres de bandes. Applica- 
tion aux spectres des hydrocar- 
bons. (Read March 31.) 

On the Relations between the Lines 
of Various Spectra. (April.) 

On Homologous Spectra. (Sept.) 

On Selective and Metallic Reflexion. 
(Read Nov. 12.) 

Analysis of the Spectrum of So- 
dium, including an Inquiry into 
the True Place of the Lines that 
have been regarded as Satellites. 
(Read Nov. 18.) 

Uebersichtliche Darstellung der 
mathematischen Theorien iiber die 
Dispersion des Lichtes. I. Theil. 
(Hannover, Bacmeister, 1890. 50 
pp.) II. Theil. Anomale Dispersion. 
(Erfurt, Bacmeister. 1891.54 pp.) 

1892. 

Ueber das sogenannte zweite oder 
zusammengesetzte WasserstoflE- 
spectrum von Dr. B. Hasselberg, 
und die Structur des Wasserstoflfs. 
1. Theil. Empirisch-Induction-Ab- 
theilung. (Read Feb. 4.) 



Essay on the Theory of Dispersion 
andAbsorption.(InRussian.)(Feb.) 

Sul potere rifrangente per un 
raggio di lunghezza d' onda in- 
finita. (March.) 

On the Line Spectra of the Ele- 
ments. (May.) 

On the Line Spectra of the Ele- 
ments. (June.) 

Das Grenzbrechungsexponent fiir 
unendlich langen Wellen. 
Transformation der Dispersions- 
gleichungen. (Aug.) 



'Trans. Roy. Soc. Dubl.' 
[2], iv. 563-608 ; ' Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Dubl.' [N.S.], 
vii. 201-203 (Abs.) ; 
'Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxiii. 
503-516 (Abs.) ; ' Na- 
ture,' xliii. 551-552 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
531-582 (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxii. 661-663; 
' Zeitschr. f. physikal. 
Chem.' viii. 144 (Abs.) 



' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxi. 
359-363. 

' Phil. Mag.' [5], xxxii. 
319-320. 

' Proc. Math. Soc. London,' 
xxiii. 4-18 ; ' Nature,' xlv. 
119-121 (Abs.) 

'Proc. Roy. Soc. Dubl.' 
[N.S.], vii. 204-217 ; 
'Nature,' xlv. 166-167 
(Abs.) 

' Beibliitter,' xiv. 971 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xvi. 
273 (Abs.) 



' Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien,' 
ci. II. 121-254; 'Mo- 
natsh. f. Chem.' xiii. 111- 
244; 'Zeitschr. f. phy- 
sikal. Chem.' X. 668 
(Abs.) ; ' Beiblatter,' xvii. 
203-204(Abs.) ; ' J.Chem. 
Soc' Ixii. 1351 (Abs.) 

' J. Russ. Phys.-Chem. 
Soc' xxiv. II. 17-39. 



' Gazz. chim. 
I. 347-354. 



ital.' xxiii. 



'Nature,' xlvi. 29, 126, 
222, 268. 

'Nature,' xlvi. 100, 200, 
247. 

' Ann. Phys. u. Chem.' 
[N.F.], xlvi. 572-583 ; 
' Nature,' xM. 484 
(Abs.) 



ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPECTROSCOPY. 
Theoretical Papers, 1892, 1893. 



235 



G. J. Stoney . • I Recent Spectroscopic Determina- 
I tions. (Sept.) 



' Nature,' xlvi. 513. 



G. Higgs 



A. Cornu 



A. Kurz , 



E. Carvallo 



1893. 

On the Geometrical Construction 
of the Oxygen Absorption Lines 
A, B, and a of the Sohir Spec- 
trum. (Read March 9.) 

^fitudes sur les reseaux diffringents. 
Anomalies focales. (Read May 
29.) 

Sur divers methodes relatives il 
I'observation des proprietes ap- 
pelees anomalies focales des re- 
seaux difEringents. (Read June 
19.) 

Die kleinste Ablenkung im Prisma. 
(Aug.) 

Le spectre calorifique de la fluorine. 
(Read Dec. 11.) 



' Proc. Roy. Soc' liv. 200- 
208 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xlviii. 164-165 (Abs.) ; 
' Beiblatter,' xviii. 3i>8 
(Abs.) 

«C. R.' cxvi. 1215-1222; 
' Beiblatter,' xviii. 195- 
196 (Abs.) ; ' Nature,' 
xlviii. Hi (Abs.) 

'C. R.' cxvi. 1421-1428; 
' Beibliitter,' xviii. 196- 
198 (Abs.) 



' Zeitschr. f. Math. u. 
Phys.' xxxviii. (Phys. 
Abth.), 319-320. 

C. R.' cxvii. 845-847; 
' Beiblatter,' xviii. 333 
(Abs.) 



List of the Chief Abbreviations used in the above Catalogue. 



Abbreviated Title. 
Amer. J. Sci. 
Ann. Agrou. 
Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 
Ann. Chim. et Phys. . 
Ann. de Chim. . 
Ann. Obs. Bruxelles . 
Ann. Phys. u. Chem. [N.F.] 

Arch, de Geneve 

Arch, f . Anat. u. Physiol. . 

Arch. f. d. gesammte 

Physiol. 
Arch. f. exper. Pathol, u. 

Pharmakol. 
Arch, neerland . 

Astr. Nachr. 

Atti d. R. Accad. d. Lincei 

Beibliitter .... 

Ber 

Bled. Centr. 

Bot. Zeitung 

Bull. Astron. 

Bull. Soc. Chim. 

Bull. Soc. Min. de France 

Chem. Centr. . 

C. R 



Full Title. 
American Journal of Science (Silliman's). 
Annales Agronomiques. 

Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacia (Liebig). 
Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 
Annales de Chimie. 

Annuaire de I'Observatoire de Bruxelles. 
Annalen der Physik und Chemie [Neue Folge] 

(Wiedemann). 
Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (Geneve). 
Archiv fill- pathologische Anatomic und Physiologic und 

fiir klinische Medicin (Virchow). 
Archiv fiir die gesammte Physiologic (Pfliiger). 

Archiv fiir experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. 

Archives nSerlandaises des Sciences exactes et natu- 
relles (Haarlem). 

Astronomische Nachrichten. 

Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 

Beibliitter zu der Annalen der Physik und Chemie 
(Wiedemann). 

Berichtc der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 

Biedermanns Ccntralblatt fiir Agriculturchemie. 

Botanische Zeitung. 

Bulletin Astronomiquc (Obscrvatoire de Paris). 

Bulletin de la Society Chimique de Paris. 

Bulletin de la Soci6te Mineralogique de France. 

Chemisches Ccntralblatt. 

Comptes Rendus de I'Acad^mie des Sciences (Paris). 



236 



REPORT — 1894. 



Abbreviated Title. 
Dingl. J. . 
Gazz. chim. ital. 
Gottinoen. Nachr. . 



Handl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. 

Jahrb. f. Photog. 

J. Chem. Soc. . 

J. de Phys. 

J. Physiol. 

J. prakt Chem. 

J. Russ. Phys. -Chem. Soc. . 

J. Soc. fraiiQ. de Phys. 
Math. u. naturwiss. Ber. 

aus Ungarn. 
Mem. spettr. ital. 
Monatsb. Akad. Berl. 

Monatsh. f. Chem. 
Month. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc. 

Oefvers. af K. \^et. Akad. 

Forh. 
Phil. Mag. 
Phil. Trans. 

Phot. Mittheil. . 

Phys. Review . 

Phys. Revue 

Proc. Phys. Soc. 

Proc. Roy. Inst, 

Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Rec. des. trav. chim. des 

Pays-Bas. 
Rend. R. Accad. d. Lincei 
Riv. sci. industr . 
Sitzucgsb. Akad. Berl. 

Sitzungsb. Akad. Miinchen 

Bitzungsb. Akad. Wien 

Sitzungsb. phys.-med. Soc. 
Erlangen 

Skand. Arch. f. Physiol. . 

Verb. phys. Gesellsch. 
Berlin. 

Wien. Anz. 

Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem. 

Zeitschr. f. anorg. Chem. . 

Zeitschr. f. Kryst. u. Min. . 

Zeitschr. f. physikal. Chem. 

Zeitschr. f. phys. u. chem. 
Unterr. 

Zeitschr. f. physiol. Chem. 

Zeitschr. f. wiss. Micro- 
scopic. 



List of tlie Chief Abbreviations — continued. 

Full Title. 
Dingler's polytechnisches Journal. 
Gazzetta chimica italiana. 
Nachrichten von der Georg-August-Universitilt und der 

konigl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Gottingen). 
Handlingar K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien (Stock- 
holm). 
Jahrbruch fiir Photographic (Eder). 
Journal of the Chemical Society of London. 
Journal de Physique. 
Journal of Physiology. 
Journal fiir praktische Chemie. 
Journal of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society (iu 

Russian). 
Journal de la Societe fran^aise de Physique. 
Mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Berichte aus 

Ungarn. 
Memorie della Societtl degli spettroscopisti italiani. 
Monatsberichte der Akademic der Wissenschaften zu 

Berlin. 
Monatshefte fiir Chemie (Wien). 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical SocietJ' of 

London. 
Oefversigt af K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens 

Forhandlingar. 
London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. 
P'hilosophioal Transactions of the Royal Society of 

London. 
Photographische Mittheilungen (Vogel). 
Physical Review. 
Physikalische Revue. 

Procedings of the Physical Society of London. 
Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 
Recueil des travanx chimiques des Pays-Bas. 



Rendiconti della reale Accademia dei Lincei. 

Rivista scientifico-industriale. 

Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Berlin. 
Sitzungsberichte der koniglich baicrischen Akademie zu 

Miinchen. 
Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

Wien. 
Sitzungsberichte der x^bys.-medicinischen Societiit zu 

Erlangen. 
Skandinavisches Archiv fiir Physiologie (Leipzig). 
Verhandlungen der phy sikalischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin. 

Anzeiger der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien. 

Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie. 

Zeitschrift fiir anorganischc Chemie. 

Zeitschrift fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogie. 

Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie. 

Zeitschrift fiir physikalischenund chemischenUnterricht. 

Zeitschrift fiir physiologische Chemie. 
Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaitliche Microscopic. 



ON STANDARDS FOR THE ANALYSTS OF IRON AND STEEL. 



237 



An International Standard for the Analysis of Iron and Steel. — 
Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. 
Roberts- Austen (Chairman), Sir F. Abel, Mr. E. Riley,. 
Mr. J. Si'iLLER, Professor J. W. Langley, Mr. G. J. Snelus, 
Professor Tilden, and Mr. Thomas Turner (Secretary). (Draivn 
up hy the Secretary.) 

In the previous report of this Committee it was stated that the work of 
the British analysts was completed, so far as the four original standards 
were concerned, and that the results of the analyses conducted by the 
other Committees were in good agreement with those published by this 
Committee. 

The remaining standard. No. 5, has now been analysed by Messrs. 
G. S. Packer, J. Pattinson, E. Riley, and J. E. Stead, and the results of 
their investigations are as follows : — 



— 


G. S. Packer 


J. Pattinson 


E. Riley 


J. E. Stead 


Mean 


Combined Carbon 


(0055) 


0034 


0-036 


0-035 


0-035 


Silicon 


0-006 


0005 


trace 


0-008 


0006 


Sulphur 


0-030 


0-030 


0-023 


0-036 


0-030 


Phosphorus . 


0-040 


0-041 


0-041 


0-042 


0-041 


Manganese . 


0-275 


0-310 


0-258 


0-317 


0290 


Copper 


— 


— 


0-025 


— 


— 



Generally speaking, the agreement in these results is very good. The 
carbon determination by Mr. Packer is somewhat high, and this is ex- 
plained by the fact that Mr. Packer's determinations wei-e made in the 
laboratory of Messrs. J. Brown and Co., Sheffield ; and as the operations- 
-were conducted in the centre of a large works, with dust inevitably in 
constant circulation, it was not found possible, even by carefully covering^ 
the vessels in which the analyses were performed, to obtain strictly con- 
cordant results with the combustion of samples so low in carbon content. 
Por this reason, at Mr. Packer's suggestion, his numbers are not reckoned 
in calculating the mean carbon percentage. The quantity of material 
operated upon in estimating such small amounts of carbon is necessarily 
large, and during filtration and other processes in a dusty atmosphere- 
sufficient carbon is added to seriously affect the results. 

The manganese determinations vary from a minimum of 0'258 to a 
maximum of 0'317, and the figures have been carefully checked by the- 
analysts. This difference raises an important question as to the relative 
accuracy of the methods employed, though such inquiries are outside the 
present work of the Committee. 

Several applications have been received during the past year for samples 
of the standards from chemists engaged in investigations as to the relative 
accuracy of various methods of analysis, and it is hoped, now the stan- 
dards have been prepared and their composition determined with very 
considerable accuracy, that they may be frequently employed for such 
purposes of reference. 

As the work of the Committee is now completed it is proposed to 
shortly deposit the standards with the Board of Trade, as originally 
suggested, or with some other suitable authority, where they will be at 
the public service. 

The Committee do not ask for reappointment. 



238 REPORT— 1894. 



272,6 Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor T. E. Thorpe (Chairmcm), Professor J. J. 
Hummel {Secretary), Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. Russell, 
Captain W. DE W. Abney, Professor W. Stroud, and Professor 
R. Meldola. (Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

During the past year the work of this Committee has been continued, 
and a large number of wool and silk patterns, dyed with various natural 
and artificial orange and yellow colouring matters, have been examined 
with respect to their power of resisting the fading action of light. 

The general method of preparing the dyed patterns, and the manner 
of exposing them under glass, with free access of air and moisture, were 
the same as already adopted. 

The patterns were exposed at Adel, near Leeds, in the grounds of 
James A. Hirst, Esq., to whom the best thanks of the Committee are 
again due for his kind permission to do so. 

Each dyed pattern was divided into six pieces, one of which was 
protected from the action of light, while the others were exposed for 
different periods of time. These ' periods of exposure ' were made equivalent 
to those adopted last year, by exposing, along with the patterns, special 
series of ' standards,' dyed with the same colouring matters as were then 
selected for this purpose. The standards were allowed to fade to the 
same extent as those which marked off the ' fading period ' of last year, 
before being renewed or removing a set of dyed patterns from the action 
of light. The patterns exposed during the past year are therefoi-e 
comparable, in respect of the amount of fading which they have ex- 
perienced, with the red dyes already reported upon. 

The patterns were all put out for exposure on June S, 1893, certain 
sets being subsequently removed on the following dates : — July 1, July 31, 
August 26, 1893 ; February 19, June 12, 1894. Of the five 'periods of 
exposure' thus marked oflT, periods 1, 2, 3 were equivalent to each other 
in fading power, whereas periods 4 and 5 were each equivalent to four of 
the first period in this respect ; hence five patterns of each colour have 
been submitted respectively to an amount of fading equal to 1, 2, 3, 7, 
and 11 times that of the first 'fading period' selected — viz. June 8 to 
July 1, 1893. 

The dyed and faded patterns have again been entered in pattern-card 
books in such a manner that they can be readily comjiared with each other. 

The following tables give the general result of the exposure experi- 
ments made during the year 1893-94, the colours being divided, according 
to their behaviour towards light, into the following five classes : very 
fugitive, fugitive, modei-ately fast, fast, very fast. 

The initial numbers refer to the order of the patterns in the pattern- 
books. The S. and J. numbers refer to Schultz and Julius's 'Tabel- 
larische Uebersicht der kiinstlichen organischen FarbstoflTen.' 

The colours marked thus (*) appear to be somewhat faster than the 
rest of the class in which they are placed. 

In the case of colouring matters requii'ing mordants, the particular 
mordant employed is indicated in brackets after the name of the dye- 
stuff". 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT UPON DYED COLOURS. 239 

Class I. Very Fugitive Colours. (Wool.) 

The colours of this class have faded so rapidly that at the end of the 
first 'fading period' (June 8 to July 1, 1893) only a very faint colour 
remains, or it has become very materially altered in hue. At the end of 
the fifth period (one year) all traces of the original colour have disap- 
peared, the woollen cloth being either quite white or merely of a yellowish 
or brownish tint. 

Nitro Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Yellows, 9. Aurantia. Ammonium salt of hexa-nitro-diphenylamine. S. and 
J. 14. 
„ 32. *Brilliant Yellow. Sodium salt of dinitro-o-naphthol-a-sulphonic 

acid. S. and J. 12. 
„ .37. *Naphthol Yellow. Sodium salt of dinitro-o-naphthol. S. and 

J. 9. 
„ 38. *Naphthol Yellow S. Sodium salt of dinitro-o-naphthol-;3-sul- 

phonic acid. S. and J. 11. 
„ 43. Picric acid. Tri-nitro-f)henol. S. and J. 1. 

Azo Colours. 
Wool Book IV. 

Mordant Colours. 14. *Wool Y'ellow (Cr.). From azo derivative of aniline and 

maclurin. S. and J. 32. 
Wool Book III. 
Basic Yellows. 4. Chrysoidine. From aniline and ?;(-phenylene-diamine. S. and 

J. 31. 
Direct Cotton 1. Terra Cotta F. From primulin and «t-phenylene-diamine-azo- 
Colours. naphthionic acid. 

„ 9 Direct Orange KR. Constitution not published. 

„ 26. Tliiazol Yellow. From azo derivative of dehydro-thio-toluidine- 

sulphonic acid, and dehydro-thio-toluidine-sulphonic acid. 
S. and J. 98. 
„ 28. Mimosa Yellow. From azo derivative of primulin, and ammonia. 

„ 30. Direct Yellow TS. Constitution not published. 

„ 36. Direct Orange R. Constitution not published. 

„ 3'J. Direct Yellow ASC. Constitution not published. 

Dijyhenylmetlian Colours. 

Basic Colours. 7. Auramine. Imido-tetra-methyl-diamido-diphenyl-methan-hydro- 
chloride. S. and J. 260. 

Triplienylmethan Colours. 
Acid Colours. 48. Uranin A. Sodium salt of fluorescein. S. and J. 315. 

Quinoline Colours. 
Basic Colours. 42. Quinoline Yellow (sol. in spirit). Quino-phthalone. S. and J. 378. 

Acridine Colours. 

„ 1. Acridine Orange R. extra. Zinc salt of tetra-methyl-diamido- 

phenyl-acridine. 
„ 2. Acridine Orange NO. Zinc salt of tetra-methyl-diamido-acridine. 

S. and J. 381. 
,, 3. Phosphine. Diaraido-phenyl-acridine-nitrate. S. and .1. 382. 

„ 6. Benzoflavine. Diamido-phenyldi-methyl-acridine hydrochloride. 

S. and J. 383. 



240 REPORT — 1894. 

Thiobenzenyl Colours. 
Wool Rook III. 
Basic Colours. 9. Thioflavin T. Dimethyl-dehydro-thio-toluidine-methyl chloride. 

S. and J. 384. 
Acid Colour. 29. Thioflavin S. Sodium salt of dimethyl-dehydro-thio-toluidine- 

sulphonic acid. S. and J. 385. 
Direct Cotton 81. Primulin. Sulphonated product of the interaction of sulphur and 
Colour. ^-toluidine. S. and J. 386. 

Natural Colouring Matters. 

Non-mordant Colours. 1. Annatto. Pulp from fruit of Bixa orellana. 

„ 2. Saffron. Stigmata of the flower of Crocus sativus. 

„ 3. Turmeric. Rhizome of Curcuma tinctoria. 

Mordant Colours. 1. Young Fustic (AL). Wood of Rhus cotinus. 
,, 8. Tesu (Al.). Flowers of Butea frondosa. 

Notes. — Certain of the nitro colours show extreme sensitiveness to 
light by rapidly altering in hue. During the first 'period of exposure,' the 
rich red-orange colour of Aui'antia, for example, soon changes to brown, 
and the pure lemon-yellow of Picric Acid changes to orange-yellow ; in 
both cases these altered colours fade slowly without any further change 
in hue, and might almost be placed among the ' moderately fast colours.' 
Brilliant Yellow, Martius Yellow, and Naphthol Yellow S behave some- 
what like Picric Acid, but the alteration in hue is much less pronounced. 
Thiazol Yellow, Mimosa YeUow, Thioflavin T and S, and Primulin all fade 
rapidly during the iirst ' period of exposure ' to a yellow-buff, which then 
appears to be ' moderately fast.' 

Class II Fugitive Colours. (Wool.) 

The colours of this class show very marked fading at the end of the 
second 'fading period ' (July 1 to July 31, 1893), and after a year's 
exposure they have entirely faded, or only a tint remains. 

Azo Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 1. Orange R. From sylidine-sulphonic acid and 0-naphthol. S. 
and J. 81. 
„ 6. Orange I. From ^-sulphanilic acid and a-naphthol. S. and J. 72. 

„ 14. Narcein. Sodium bisulphite compound of Orange II. S. and J. 

103. 
„ 35. Phenoflavin. From wi-sulphanilic acid and diamido-phenol-sul- 

phoriic acid. 
Direct Cotton 4. Benzo Orange R. From benzidine, salicylic and naphthionic acids. 
Colours. S. and J. 173. 

„ 5. Salmon Red. Sodium salt of diamido-diphenyl-urea-disazo-naph- 

thionic acid. S. and J. 143. 
„ 6. Toluylene Orange R. From o-tolidine and m-toluylene-diamine- 

sulphonic acid. S. and J 197. 
„. 8. CI )th Orange. From benzidine, salicylic acid, and resorcinol. S. 

aud J. 170. 

Quinoline Colours. 

Acid Colours. 41 Quinoline Yellow S. Sodium salt of quino-thalone-disulphonic 
acid. S. and J. 379, 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT UPON DYED COLOURS. 241 

Natural Colouring Matters. 
Wool Book IV. 
Mordant Colours. 1. Tesu (Cr.). 

„ 3. Young Fustic (Cr.). 

„ 15. Anthracine (Cr.). Composition not published. 

„ 2. Quercitron Bark (Al.). Bark of Quercus nigra. 

„ 3. Old Fustic (Al.). Wood of Moras tinctoria. 

„ G. Flavin (Al.). Quercetin prepared from Quercitron Bark. 

„ 7. Persian Berries (Al.). Fruit of Rhamnus saxatilis. 

„ 2. Persian Berries (Sn.). 

„ 3. Young Fustic (Sn.). 

4. Flavin (Sn.). 

„ 5. Quercitron I3ark (Sn.). 

„ 6. Old Fustic (Sn.). 

„ 7. Tesu (Sn.). 

Notes. — The fugitive character of Narcein as compared with Orange 
II., of which it is merely the sodium bisulphite compound, is very pro- 
nounced. The bright orange of Flavin with tin mordant changes rapidly 
during the first exposing period to an olive-yellow, which may be regarded 
as ' moderately fast.' A similar change is noticed in the case of Quercitron. 
Bark and Old Fustic with the same mordant, the faded colour of the 
latter being, however, very dull. 

With aluminium and tin mordants Anthracine gives bright but very 
fugitive colours. 



Class III. Moderately Fast Colours. (Wool.) 

The colours of this class show distinct fading at the end of the second 
period (July 1 to July 31, 1893), which becomes more pronounced at the 
end of the third period (July 31 to August 26, 1893). A pale tint re- 
mains at the end of the fourth ' period of exposure ' (August 26, 1893, to 
February 19, 1894), and at the end of a year's exposure the colour has 
entirely faded, or, at most, mere traces of colour remain. 

Azo Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 2. Orange GT. From toluidine and )3-naphthol-mono-sulphonic acid S. 
S. and J. 41. 
„ 4. *Mandarin GR. extra. From «-toluidine-mono-sulphonic acid and 

0-naphthol. S. and J. 78. 
„ 5. *Orange II. From ^-sulphanilic acid and i3-naphthol. S. and 

J. 73. 
„ 7. *Orange III. From wt-nitraniline and j8-naphthol-disulphonic 

acid R. S. and J. 33. 
„ 10. Dimethylaniline Orange. From j;-sulphanilic acid and dimethyl- 

aniline. S. and J. 74. 
„ 11. *Diphenylamine Orange. From ^>sulphanilic acid and diphenyl- 

amine. S. and J. 75. 
„ 12. Tropscolin Y. From ^-sulphanilic acid and phenol. S. and J. 70. 

„ 15. *Metanil Yellow. From ?«-sulphanilic acid and diphenylamine. 

S. and J. 77. 
„ 16. Resorcinol Yellow. From ^-sulphanilic acid and resorcinol. S. 

and J. 71. 
„ 18. *Acid Yellow 00. Constitution not published. 

19. *Fast Yellow N. From jw-toluidine-o-sulphonic acid and 
diphenylamine. S. and J. 79. 
1894. R 



242 REPORT— 1894. 

Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 28. *Curcumein. Nitro derivative of Diphenylamine Orange. S. 
and J. 101. 
„ 29. *Azoflavin S. Same as Curcume'in, but more highly nitrated. 

S. and J. 102. 

„ 44. * Bromine derivative of Metanil Yellow. 

„ 45. Persian Yellow (G). Constitution not published. 

Direct Cotton 2. Salmon Ked. Constitution not published. 

Colours. 3. Congo Orange R. From tolidine, /S-naphthylamine-disulphonic 
acid R and phenol (ethylated). S. and J. 202. 
„ 7. Congo Orange G. From benzidine, ;3-naphthylamine-disulphonic 

acid R and phenol (ethylated). 
„ 10. To'uylene Orange G. From tolidine, o-cresotinic acid, and 

■w.-toluylene-diamine-sulphonic acid. S. and J. 196. 
,, 23. Carbazol Yellow. From diamido - carbazol and salicylic acid. 

S. and .J. 181. 
,, 24. *C'otton Yellow G. Sodium salt of diamido-diphenyl-urea-disazo- 

salicylic acid. S. and J. 144. 
Wool Book IV. 
Mordant Colour. 2i. Mordant Yellow (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

Triphenylmethan Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 33. Aurotin. Sodium salt of tetra-nitro-phenol-phthale'in. S. and 
J. 314. 

Natural Colourinc/ Matters. 
Wool Book IV. 
Mordant Colours. 5. Weld (Al.). Reseda luteola (whole plant). 

Notes. — The following colours become somewhat duller and apparently- 
darker during the first and second periods of exposure : — Diphenylamine 
Orange, Metanil Yellow, Fast Yellow N, Azo-flavin S, Acid Yellow 00, 
and Aurotin. This appearance is only observed when the patterns are 
examined ' underhand,' i.e. by looking down into the fabric ; when they 
are examined ' overhand,' i.e. by glancing along the surface, a normal 
fading of the colours is observed. This darkening is probably due to the 
presence of the diphenylamine group in the first four colours mentioned, 
and to the presence of the nitro group in the case of Aurotin, of which 
the alteration in hue reminds one of the change occurring in Picric Acid 
Yellow, though it is less pronounced. 

Mordant Yellow with aluminium and tin mordants gives colours which 
may well be classed with the fast colours. 

Class IV. Fast Colours. (Wool.) 

The colours of this class show comparatively little fading during the 
first, second, and third periods. At the end of the fourth ' period of ex- 
posure ' a pale shade remains, which at the end of the year's exposure still 
leaves a pale tint. 

Nitro Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 3. *Palatine Orange. Ammonium salt of tetra-nitro - y - diphenol. 
S. and J. 8. 

Hydrazone Colours. 

Acid Colours. 36. Tartrazin. Sodium salt of diphenyl-^-sulphonic-acid-osazone- 
dioxytartaric acid. S. and J. 19. 
39. Nitrazin Yellow. Sodium salt of dinitro-dixylyl-j;-sulphonic 
acid-osazone-dioxytartaric acid. 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT UPON DYED COLOURS. 243 

Azo Colours. 
Wool Book III. 

Acid Colours. 23. *Acid Yellow. Sodium salt of amido-azo-benzene-disulphonic 
acid. S. and J. 21. 
„ 24. *Fast Yellow. Sodium salt of amido-azo-toluene-disulphonic acid. 

S. and J. 22. 
„ 25. Brilliant Yellow S. Sulphonated Diphenylamine Orange. S. and 

J. 76. 
31. *Milling Yellow 00. Constitution not published. 
„ 34. *Milling Yellow. From /3-naphthylamine-a-sulphonic acid and 

salicylic acid. 
Direct Cotton 11. Titan Yellow R. From thio-^-toluidine-sulphonic acid. (Con- 
Colours, stitution not published.) 

„ 12. Chrysamin R. From o-tolidine and salicylic acid. S. and J. 195. 

„ 13. Cresotin Yellow E. From «-tolidine and «-cresol-carboxylic acid. 

„ 16. Chrysophenin. Ethjiated Brilliant Yellow from diamido-stilbene- 

disulphonic acid. S. and J. 156. 
,, 17. Cresotin Yellow G. From benzidine and o-cresol-carboxylic acid. 

„ 19. Diamine Yellow N. From ethoxy-benzidine, phenol, and salicylic 

acid (ethylated). S. and J. 204. 
„ 21. Chrysamin G. From benzidine and salicylic acid. S. and J. 166. 

„ 22. *Oriol Yellow. From dehydro-thio-/;-toluidine-snlphonic acid and 

salicylic acid. S. and J. 99. 
„ 38. Titan Yellow Y. From thio-7;-toluidine-sulphonic acid. (Con- 

stitution not published.) 
Wool Book IV. 
Mordant Colours. 12. Chrome Orange (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

„ 13. Yellow for wool A F (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

„ 20. Chrome Yellow (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

Oxyketone Colours. 

Mordant Colours. 25. Galioflavin (Cr.). Oxidation product of gallic acid. S. and J. 
242. 
„ 26. Alizarin Yellow A (Cr.). Tri-oxy-benzophenone. S. and J. 237. 

Natural Colouring Matters. 

Mordant Colours. 2. Persian Berries (Cr.). 
8. Weld (Sn.). 

Notes. — In Palatine Orange we meet with the fir.st example of a colour 
fast to light, the manufacture of which has already been abandoned ; 
possibly some difficulty or e.xpense connected with its manufacture may 
account for this circumstance. 

Yellow for wool AF, applied with aluminium mordant, is very fugi- 
tive, while Chrome Orange seems quite as fast as with chromium. Chrome 
Yellow with aluminium mordant may be classed as a ' moderately ^fast ' 
colour. 

Galioflavin with aluminium and tin mordants gives fugitive colours, 
more especially with aluminium. 



Class V. Very Fast Colours. 

The colours of this class show a very gradual fading during the dif- 
ferent periods, and even after a year's exposure a moderately good colour 
remains. 

B 2 



244 



REPORT — 1894. 



Wool Book III. 

Direct Cotton 

Colours. 



20. Curcumin S. 

S. and J. 16. 
33. Mikado Orange 3 RO 
35. Mikado Orange GO. 



Azoxy Colours. 
Sodium salt of azoxy-stilbene-disulphonic acid. 



Constitution not pubUslied. S. and J. 18. 
Constitution not jpublished. S. and J. 18. 



Azo Colours. 

Acid Colours. 13. Orange GG. From aniline and )3-naphthol-disulplionic acid G. 

S. and J. 28. 
Wool Book IV. 

Mordant Colours. 10. *Alizarin Yellow R (Cr.). From ^-nitraniline and salicylic acid. 
S. and J. 35. 
„ 17. *Anthracene Yellow C (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

„ 18. *Diamond Yellow R (Cr.). From o-amido-benzo'ic acid and 

salicylic acid. S. and J. 231. 
„ 19, *Alizarin Yellow GGW. (Cr.). From w-nitraniline and salicylic 

acid. S. and J. 34. 
„ 21. *Gambine Yellow (Cr.). Constitution not published. 

,, 22. * Diamond Yellow G (Cr.). From ?H-amido-benzoic acid and 

salicylic acid. S. and J. 230. 
„ 23. *Flavazol (Cr.). From /(-toluidine and salicylic acid. 

14. Brilliant Yellow. From diamido-stilbene-disulphonic acid and 
phenol. S. and J. 149. 

15. Hessian Yellow. From diamido-stilbene-disulphonic acid and 
salicylic acid. S. and J. 154. 

37. Chloramine Yellow. Oxyphenin. 



Direct Cotton 
Colours. 



Oxyketone Colours. 
Mordant Colours. 9. *Alizarin Orange W (Cr.) (AL). ;8-nitro-alizarin. S. and J. 251. 



Mordant Colours. 4. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

16. 



Natural Colouring Matters. 

♦Flavin (Or.). 

*Quercitron Bark (Cr.). 

*Weld (Cr.). 

*01d Fustic (Cr.). 

*Xanthaurin (Cr.). Composition not published. 



Notes. — The brownish-red given by Alizarin Orange W with chro- 
mium mordant becomes, during the first 'fading period,' distinctly bluer in 
shade, and hence apparently darker ; the altered colour then fades so 
slowly that even after a year's exposure the faded colour appears almost 
as dark as the original. 

The azo colours in this class which have been dyed on chromium mor- 
danted wool leave, at the end of a year's exposure, faded colours of greater 
body and fulness than those applied without mordant ; this is no doubt 
due to the inferior fastness of the latter, the faded colours of which are 
covered with a thin layer of perfectly bleached fibres. 

All the artificial azo-mordant-colours in this class were fixed with 
aluminium as well as chromium mordant, and found to be equally fast to 
light. They were also applied with a tin mordant, but only in a few cases 
were satisfactory level colours thus obtained, and these seemed to be inferior 
to those applied with an aluminium mordant, in point of brilliancy as well 
as of fastness to light. 



ON THE ACTION OF LIGHT UPON DYED COLOURS. 245 



Silk Patterns. 

Most of the foregoing colours were also dyed on silk, and the patterns 
were exposed to light along with those on wool. The relative fastness of the 
various colours was, for the most part, the same as on wool, the difference? 
observed being too unimportant to necessitate a special classification foj 
silk. In Class IV., Yellow for wool A F (Cr.) proved to be much more 
fugitive on silk, whereas Chrysamin E, and Gr, Titan Yellow E, and Y, 
Oriol, Cresotin Yellow R and G, and Chrysophenin appeared to be 
somewhat faster. In Class III. the same remark applies to Cotton 
Yellow G. 

The Indian dye-stuff Kamala was an additional one applied to silk, and 
found to belong to the fugitive class, being very little faster than Annatto. 

General Observations. 

The first thing which strikes one when examining these orange and 
yellow patterns is the comparatively large number of satisfactorily per- 
manent colours. 

In the more or less fugitive class are to be found all the basic colours; 
all the nitro-phenols, with the exception of Palatine Orange, and all the 
bright yellows derived from the natural colouring matters by means of 
aluminium and tin mordants, with the exception of those obtained from 
"Weld. Comparatively few azo colours are met with in this group. 

The marked alteration in colour from yellow to orange shown in the 
case of Picric Acid has long been known, and is ascribed to a reducing 
action of the light. The equally striking change from orange to brown, 
shown by Aurantia, does not, however, seem to have been previously 
recorded. 

By far the largest number of yellows, ranging from ' moderately fast ' 
to ' very fast,' ai'e to be found among the azo colours. Specially important 
are those in which salicylic acid is a constituent element, since not only does 
this impai't to the colour the power of foi-ming more or less stable lakes with 
chromium and aluminium mordants, but it appears frequently to give the 
colours the quality of fastness to light, even when no mordant is applied. 
It is a fact of some importance that the colours obtained with aluminium 
are practically as fast as those fixed with chromium, since the first-named 
mordant gives much brighter and purer yellows. The tin mordant, so useful 
in tlie production of the most brilliant orange and yellow colours obtainable 
from the natural colouring matters, seems, however, to be of httle or no 
advantage in connection with most of these azo-moixlant-colours, no doubt 
because they are susceptible to the reducing action of the mordant usually 
employed for wool — viz. stannous chloride. 

Very interesting in point of fastness to light are the azoxy colours, and 
although unfortunately apt to dye wool somewhat irregularly, giving 
speckled-looking colours, they are admirably adapted for silk and 
cotton. 

Another interesting little group is that which includes Tartrazin, a 
colour not only noteworthy for its fastness to light, but also because of its 
brilliancy and purity. 

The fastness of Alizarin Orange is worthy of special mention, for it is 
probably greater even than that exhibited by most other colours of the 



246 REPORT— 1894. 

Alizarin group, and it shows the peculiar darkening action exerted by the 
light, probably in consequence of the presence of the nitro group. 

It is remarkable how few really fast yellows aie derived from the 
natural colouring matters, and these are chiefly the olive-yellows obtained 
with chromium mordant. The only fast, and at the same time bright, 
natural yellows are those derived from Weld, and since this dye-stuff is 
now of little general importance to the dyer its cultivation has become 
extremely limited, and is gradually being given up ; it is fortunate, there- 
fore, that science has been able to replace it by efficient substitutes, so far, 
at least, as permanency towards light is concerned. 

Our experiments have already abundantly proved that the popular 
opinion that the coal tar dye-stuffs include only such as yield more or less 
fugitive colours is entirely false ; indeed, it is perfectly safe to assert that 
coal-tar is the source from which the greatest number of colours fast to 
light are derived at the present time, and this seems to be specially true of 
the red and yellow colours. 



Bihliociraphy of Solution. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman), Dr. W. W. J. NicoL 
(Secretary), Professor H. McLeod, Mr. S. U. PiCKERiNa, Professor 
W. Ramsay, and Professor Sydney Young. 

The Committee have collected the titles of all papers on solution published 
before 1874 in the journals catalogued by the Royal Society, the arrange- 
ment and classification of these are well advanced, and the Committee hope 
that this portion of the work will be completed and ready for publication 
at the next meeting of the Association. 



Proximate Chemical Constituents of Coal. — Interim Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir I. Lo^^■THIAN Bell (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor P. Phillips Bedson (Secretarf), Mr. Ludwig Mono, Professor 
Vivian B. Lewes, Professor E. Hull, Mr. J. W. Thomas, and 
Mr. H. Bauerman. 

Of the proximate constituents of the organic material forming coal our 
knowledge is limited to the demonstrated existence in it of certain gaseous 
hydrocarbons which have been extracted under conditions such as to lead to 
the belief that these gases exist occluded or enclosed in the coal itself. 
Further, certain mineral substances (containing carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen) of a more or less defined character have been met with from time 
to time in association with coal, and also some few solid hydrocarbons. 

The literature bearing upon this subject is extremely meagre, but it 
appears that the action of some solvents on coal has formed the subject of 
investigation by several chemists. Ether, alcohol, petroleum ether, benzene, 
and phenol have been used as solvents by different observers. The last 
named was found by Guignet to dissolve from 2 to 4 per cent, of a brown 
amorphous solid from a fat coal. Guignet has also observed that, by the 
action of nitric acid on coal, oxalic acid and trinitro-resorcinol are produced ; 
further, there are formed insoluble substances, apparently similar to ' nitro- 
cellulose,' which explode on heating. 



ON THE PROXIMATE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 247 

For the purposes of a preliminary study a coal representing the Hutton 
seam in the county of Durham was selected. This coal is a bituminous 
coal, and is used as a gas coal. When heated with ether it yields up to 
the solvent a small amount of a substance which imparts a light yellow 
colour to the ether, and a blue fluorescence is observed, similar to that 
noted by Dondorff in his experiments with a gas coal of the Westphalia 
Coalfield. Alcohol, benzene, and petroleum ether dissolve but little from 
the coal, the solutions being in each case similar to that obtained with 
ether. 

Acetic anhydride and glacial acetic acid were employed as solvents 
with but little eflfect. Somewhat more promising at first were the results 
obtained by using a solution of sulphur dioxide in glacial acetic acid. 
The coal was heated at 100° C. with this solution in tightly closed 
flasks. The liquid becomes dark in colour, and on adding water to the 
solution a light yellow precipitate is formed. The precipitate is dissolved 
by ether, and the ethereal solution on evaporation leaves an oily residue, 
which was found to be partially volatile in steam. 

Turpentine heated at 150° C. in a tightly closed flask with the 
powdered coal dissolves some constituent, becoming darker in colour and 
acquiring a greenish-blue fluorescence. 

When the coal is heated with aniline a brown amorphous solid is 
dissolved out, which is precipitated from the aniline on acidifying with 
Hydrochloric acid. This substance is not unlike that obtained by Guignet 
by treatment of coal with phenol. It was attempted to separate this 
solid into several fractions by treatment with alcohol and benzene. 
The alcoholic and benzene solutions, however, left merely resinous sub- 
stances on evaporation. Dilute solutions of potassium permanganate 
oxidise this solid, forming dark brown solutions containing potassium 
carbonate and the potassium salts of organic acids. The quantity of 
material being small, it was next decided to treat the coal itself with 
potassium jjermanganate. For this purpose finely powdered coal is sus- 
pended in water, to which, when boiling, potassium permanganate is added 
in small quantities at a time. The colour of the permanganate gradually 
disappears, and an odour resembling that of turpentine is observed ; at the 
same time a dark brown alkaline liquid is formed. 

The amount of permanganate which is thus reduced by the coal is 
considerable : in one case where 500 grams of coal were taken, some 1,600 
grams of permanganate were employed without exhausting the reducing 
power of the coal, of which some 25 to 30 per cent, had been oxidised in 
this manner. 

The aqueous solution decanted off from the manganese dioxide and 
coal is very dark in colour, becoming almost black when concentrated. 

Amongst the acids formed in this way, oxalic acid has been found, 
together with some deliquescent acids, which on the evaporation of their 
aqueous solutions are left as brown resinous masses. The separation of 
these products is still incomplete, and it would be futile to give the results 
of the analyses of the salts which have been prepared. The barium salts 
appear to afford a means of separating the acids, some of which salts have 
been already obtained in a fairly pure condition. The account of these 
acids and the study of the action of potassium permanganate on other 
coals it is proposed to deal with in a subsequent report. 



248 



KEPORT — 1894. 



Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compoimds. 
— Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE, Dr. 
Marshall Watts, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. Dewar, 
G. D. LivEiNG, A. Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott 
GiBBS, and Captain Abney. (Braivn up by Dr. Watts.) 

Chromium (Arc Spectrum). 

Hasselberg : ' Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.,' Bd. 26, No. 5, 1894. 

* Coincident with a solar line. f See Calcium. 





t See Iron. 








§ See Nickel. 




Rowland's Norma 


1 solar lines (on which these mea-surements of the Chromium 


lines rest) 


are given at the foot of page 255. 












Reductiot 


c >>- 






Reduction 


1= j?« 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuuir 


.2g§ 

«|s 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


o H o 
•■gg g 






3 §■> 


length 


and 






.•;; =>■ 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A + 


1_ 
A. 


« <y ^ 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 
A 


lo 1^ B 


*5797-02 


1 


1-58 


4-7 


17245-5 


5432-56 


1 


1-48 


5-0 


18402-5 


579200 


1 


»» 


)) 


17260-5 


♦5409-99 


10 


It 


»t 


18479-3 


*5791-20 


6 


» 


J» 


172G2-9 


♦5405-22 


2 


f> 


»l 


18495-6 


5788-63 


1-5 


>» 


}> 


17270-5 


6400-82 


4 


1-47 


5-1 


18510-6 


*5788-16 


5 


• » 


}9 


17272-0 


5391-57 


2 


f1 


)l 


18542-4 


5787-26 


1-5 


>» 


»» 


17274-6 


♦5390-GO 


2 


91 


J» 


18545-7 


5786-00 


3 


»> 


>» 


17278-4 


♦5387-76 


3 


tf 


)l 


18555-5 


*5785-21 


4 


I) 


tJ 


17280-7 


♦5387-17 


3 


ti 


ti 


18557-5 


♦5784-09 


4 


»» 


)> 


17284-1 


5377-82 


1 


II 


11 


18589-8 


*5783-32 


3 


»» 


») 


17286-4 


♦5373-92 


1-5 


If 


»I 


18603-3 


»5782-01 


2 


)» 


»» 


17290-3 


♦5370-57 


1-5 


tt 


tt 


18614-9 


»5781-43 


2 


t» 


»l 


17292-1 


♦5368-73 


1-5 


ft 


tt 


18621-3 


5781-20 


1-5 


it 


)» 


17292-7 


♦5348-50 


8 


1-46 


f) 


18691-7 


*5753-88 


1-5 


1-57 


f) 


17374-9 


♦5345-98 


8 


t7 


») 


18700-5 


6746-65 


1-5 


»» 


It 


17396-7 


5344-98 


1-5 


11 


»J 


18704-0 


6738-77 


1-5 


1-56 


>» 


17420-7 


♦5340-66 


2 


)) 


It 


18719-2 


5736-88 


1 


»» 


»J 


17426-4 


♦5329-91 


3n 


tt 


t1 


18757-0 


5729-42 


1-5 


M 


»t 


174491 


*5329-30 


4n 


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tt 


18759-1 


6720-06 


1-5 


>l 


4-8 


17477-5 


t^5328-50 


8n 


»» 


)» 


18761-9 


♦5713-03 


3 


>) 


if 


17499-0 


♦5318-97 


2 


1-45 


11 


18795-5 


*5712-87 


1-5 


»' 


>» 


17499-5 


♦531305 


2 


it 


tt 


18816-5 


♦5702-56 


3 


1-55 


i> 


17531-2 


♦5.304-37 


2 


It 


IT 


18847-3 


5700-75 


1-5 


)T 


)> 


17536-7 


♦5300-90 


6 


)> 


5-2 


18859-G- 


♦5698-55 


4 


)* 


f> 


17543-5 


♦5298-43 


8 


it 


M 


18868-3 


♦5G94-93 


3 


>» 


»» 


17554-7 


♦5298-14 


4n 


it 


1, 


18869-4 


5683-76 


In 


» 


»» 


17589-2 


♦5297-52 


5n 


tt 


1> 


18871-6 


6682-67 


2n 


IJ 


»» 


17592-6 


♦5296-86 


8 


1i 


J» 


18873-9 


5681-39 


l-5n 


>l 


>J 


17596-5 


529357 


1 


it 


it 


18885-6 


6674-42 


1 


t* 


I» 


17618-1 


♦5287-36 


1-5 


1-44 


yj 


18907-8 


♦5664-26 


3 


1-64 


>) 


17649-8 


♦5280-48 


1-5 


)» 


It 


18932-5 


♦5658-86 


1-5 


l» 


}) 


17666-5 


♦5276-20 


6 


)} 




18947-8 


5649-60 


2 


)» 


»» 


17696-5 


♦5275-85 


4 


11 


tf 


18949-1 


5642-60 


1-5 


>J 


)> 


17717-5 


♦5275-31 


6 


tt 


)j 


18951-0 


♦5638-35 


1 


)» 


>» 


17730-9 


t*5273-57 


2 


)} 


]) 


18957-3 


♦5628-87 


3 


t1 


»» 


17760-7 


♦5272-17 


2 


tt 


,( 


18962-3 


♦6480-71 


3 


1-50 


5-0 


18240-8 


♦5265-88 


6 


tt 




18985-0 


♦6464-16 


3 


1-49 


»» 


18296-1 


♦5265-31 


3 


tt 


}f 


18987-0 


5442-61 


2 


IJ 


>» 


18368-5 


♦5264-32 


8 


91 


f» 


18990-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 249 



Chromium (Aec Spectkum) — continued. 







Reduction 


= ■ 1 






Reduction 


c x -, 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


illatio 
quenc 
Vacuu 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
a-jd 


to Vac 


a urn 


lillatir 
quenc 
Vacu( 






(Rowland) 


Character 


\ + 


1 


O OJ _ 
X »- C3 


(Roivland) 


Character 


K + 


1 
A 




t*5261-91 


2 


1-44 


5-2 


18999-3 


♦4936-51 


4 


1-35 


5-6 


20251-6 


*5255-27 


4 




11 


19023-3 


4930-36 


1-5 


1) 


II 


20276-9 


*5255-08 


3 




|» 


19024-0 


♦4922-40 


5 


») 


11 


20309-7 


*5247-68 


6 


1-43 


11 


19050-8 


♦4921-11 


2 


II 


II 


20315-0 


*5243-53 


2 


)t 


11 


19065-9 


4903-40 


3 


1-34 


II 


20388-4 


5241-62 


1 




11 


19072-9 


4888-69 


2 


l» 


»» 


20449-8 


*5240-G2 


1 


If 


11 


19076-5 


4887-15 


4 


)» 


11 


20456-2 


*623913 


2 


)} 


11 


19081-9 


♦4886-11 


1-5 


I» 


II 


20460-6 


*5228-25 


1-5 


ly 


11 


19121-7 


♦4885-92 


3 


11 


II 


20461-4 


+*5227-04 


1-5 




11 


19126-1 


4885-12 


1-5 


1* 


II 


20464-7 


*5225-98 


1-5 




11 


19130-0 


4874-81 


1 


1-33 


II 


20508-0 


*5225-17 


1-5 




11 


191329 


♦4870-96 


5 


?» 


11 


20524-2 


*5225-08 


4 




11 


19133-3 


♦4862-00 


4 


II 


5-7 


20561 -9 


*5224-70 


1-5 




11 


19134-7 


4861-38 


2 


l> 


II 


20564-6 


*522422 


1 


)) 


n 


19136-4 


4857-50 


1 


If 


»J 


20581-0 


*5222S3 


1 


;) 


11 


19141-5 


4855-32 


1 


»1 


II 


20590-3 


*5221-90 


2 


)) 


1) 


19144-9 


♦4851-65 


1-5 


>» 


II 


20605-8 


*522l-06 


1-5 




11 


19148-0 


♦4848-39 


1 


11 


11 


20619-7 


*5214-30 


1-5 




IT 


19172-8 


♦4837-00 


1-5 


1-32 


II 


20668-2 


t*5208-58 


lOnr 


1-42 


5-3 


19193-8 


♦4831-79 


1-5 


n 


)» 


20690-6 


5206-20 


lOnr 


11 


11 


19202-6 


♦4829-50 


4 


j» 


11 


20700-4 


t5204-67 


lOnr 


11 


11 


19208-2 


•4824-31 


1 


»i 


M 


20722-7 


*5200-33 


1-5 




1) 


19224-2 


4824-10 


1 


u 


H 


20723-6 


♦5196-60 


4 


yj 


11 


19238-1 


4816-31 


1-5 


»i 


11 


20757-1 


*5193-6G 


1-5 


y^ 


If 


19248-9 


•4814-44 


1-5 


11 


II 


20765-1 


*5192-17 


3 


}1 


11 


19254-5 


♦4810-91 


1-5 


*f 


11 


20780-4 


§*5184-73 


2 


)> 


11 


19282-1 


♦4806-44 


1-5 


»» 


11 


20799-7 


*5177-58 


2 


jy 


11 


19308-7 


♦4801-17 


4 


1-31 


II 


20822-6 


♦5166-41 


3 


1-41 


11 


19350-5 


♦4796-29 


2 


»> 


II 


20843-7 


*5161-98 


1-5 


M 


11 


19367-1 


♦4792-61 


4 


>» 


11 


20859-8 


*5l44-87 


1-5 


11 


11 


19431-5 


♦4790-44 


2 


»» 


II 


20869-2 


*5142-46 


1 


11 


1> 


19440-6 


♦4789-45 


5 


»> 


11 


20873-5 


*5] 39-82 


3 


)1 


)9 


19450-6 


•4783-16 


l-5n 


)> 


5-8 


20900-9 


*5123-64 


2 


1-40 


11 


19512-1 


♦4775-25 


1-5 


»» 


ii 


20935-5 


5122-98 


1 


11 


)I 


19514-6 


4774-63 


1 


11 


>» 


20938-2 


*5122-30 


1-5 


11 


11 


19517-2 


♦4770-80 


1 


»» 


»» 


20955-0 


*5113-31 


1-5 




5-4 


19551-4 


•4767-98 


2 


i» 


11 


20967-4 


5112-70 


1 


11 


11 


19553-7 


♦4767-40 


1-5 


»i 


jf 


20970-0 


*5110-93 


2 




If 


19560-5 


♦4766-77 


2 


1-30 


i» 


20972-8 


*5092-08 


1 


1-39 


11 


19632-9 


4764-81 


1-5 


II 


»» 


20981-4 


5078-92 


1 


tl 


11 


19683-8 


♦4764-45 


3 


)» 


}» 


20983-0 


*5073-10 


2 


11 




19706-4 


♦4761-43 


1 


)» 


If 


20996-3 


*5068-50 


1 


1) 


)* 


19724-3 


t*4757-76 


1-5 


11 


II 


21012-5 


*5067-90 


2 




11 


19726-6 


4757-49 


1-5 


tl 


II 


21013-7 


*5066-10 


1-5 


11 


1* 


19733-6 


•4756-30 


4 


11 


11 


21018-9 


•5052-10 


2 


1-38 


II 


19788-3 


»4755-36 


1-5 


»l 


II 


21023-2 


5048-96 


1 


19 


II 


19800-7 


§♦4754-95 


1-5 


J» 


11 


21024-9 


♦5022-12 


1 


1-37 


5-5 


19906-4 


4754-10 


1 


II 


11 


21028-7 


*5013-48 


3 


11 


11 


19940-7 


§»4752-27 


3 


II 


11 


21036-8 


♦5004-60 


1 


1* 


11 


19976-1 


♦4745-48 


2 


II 


11 


21066-9 


♦4986-16 


1 


1-36 


tl 


20050-0 


4743-30 


1 


II 


11 


21076-6 


♦496502 


3 


11 


11 


20135-4 


4741-27 


1 


II 


11 


21085-6 


♦4954-92 


4 


1> 


II 


20176-5 


♦4737-50 


4 


II 


11 


21102-4 


4953-87 


1 


1-35 


II 


20180-7 


♦4730-88 


4 


»> 


11 


211319 


♦4942-63 


4 


i» 


5-6 


20226-5 


♦4729-89 


2 


1-29 


It 


21136-3 



250 



REPORT 1894. 



Cheomium (Aec Specteum) — continued. 







Reduction 


d X ^ 






Reduction 


C >>o 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


Jg § 

tils 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


.2 S § 


length 


and 






Pi ;tt> 


length 


and 






?= §■!> 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A.+ 


1__ 

A 


Osci 

Free 

in ' 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A.+ 


1 

A 


a£-s 


*4727-33 


3 


1-29 


5-8 


21148-1 


♦4626-07 


1-5 


]-27 


60 


21610-6 


*4724-(J0 


3 


»1 


»» 


21160-0 


4625-46 


1 


J» 


11 


21613-5 


»4723-28 


3 


It 


»' 


21165-9 


♦4622-89 


2 


)» 


11 


21625-5 


*4722-90 


1-5 


11 


t) 


21167-6 


♦4622-60 


4 


t> 


11 


21626-9 


*4718-57 


6 


11 


>i 


211871 


♦4622-07 


4 


t» 


It 


21629-3 


4717-87 


1-5 


It 


It 


21190-2 


♦4619-70 


3 


J5 




21640-4 


*4708-16 


6 


?| 


»t 


21233-9 


♦4616-28 


6 


1-26 




21656-5 


4706-25 


1-5 


11 


5-9 


21242-4 


4614-92 


1-5 


11 




21662-8 


»4700-77 


2 


s» 


t) 


21267-2 


§4614-70 


1-5 


»j 




21663-9 


4699-76 


1-5 1 


11 


)1 


21271-8 


♦4614-34 


1-5 


tl 


tl 


216656 


4699-12 


1-5 


11 


It 


21274-7 


♦4613-54 


5 


11 


1) 


21669-3 


4698-77 


4 


It 


It 


21276-3 


4612-15 


1-5 


It 




216759 


t4698-60 


4 


M 


ti 


21277-0 


♦4610-07 


1-5 


)t 




21685-6 


4697-57 


1-5 


If 


»1 


21281-7 


4606-55 


1-5 


It 


It 


21712-2 


*4697-20 


3 


1» 


11 


21283-4 


♦4601-18 


2 


11 


11 


21727-6 


*4695-32 


2 


It 


11 


21291-9 


♦4600-92 


6 


u 


11 


21728-8 


*4694-12 


3 


)1 


)1 


21297-4 


♦4600-25 


3 


11 




21731-9 


*4689-54 


4 


1-28 


1» 


21318-2 


♦4598-60 


1-5 


11 


11 


21739-7 


§»4686-38 


1-5 


>» 


11 


21332-5 


♦4595-78 


4 


9t 




21753-1 


*4684-77 


1-5 


1) 


>1 


21339-9 


4594-57 


1.5 


Jl 




21758-7 


*4681-01 


2 


» 


»t 


21357-0 


♦4591-56 


6 


It 




21773-1 


*4680-65 


2 


Jt 


It 


21358-7 


4590-88 


1-5 


11 


11 


21776-3 


♦4673-30 


1-5 


11 


11 


21392-3 


♦4588 38 


1-5 


11 


It 


21788-2 


*466986 


l-5s 


1) 


11 


21408-0 


4586-31 


2 


11 


11 


21798-0 


*4669-50 


3 


)» 


»J 


21409-7 


4585-23 


1-5 


11 


II 


21803-2 


4667-36 


2 


11 


tl 


21419-5 


4585-08 


1-5 


Jl 


11 


21803-9 


*4666-67 


4 


tl 


)» 


21422-7 


4584-25 


1-5 


t» 


11 


21807-8 


*4666-35 


3 


11 


1* 


21424-1 


4584-02 


1-5 


1> 


It 


21808-9 


*4666-07 


3 


11 


J> 


21425-4 


458122 


1-5 


11 


„ 


21822-2 


*4664-94 


4 


11 


1» 


21430-6 


♦4580-22 


5 


1-25 


11 


21827-0 


*4663-98 


4 


)1 


»t 


21435-0 


4578-55 


15 


)t 


ij 


21835-0 


*4663-47 


4 


J» 


)t 


21437-4 


4575-26 


2 


11 


11 


21850-7 


4657-00 


1-5 


11 


tt 


21467-1 


♦4574-63 


1 


11 


11 


21853-7 


*4656-61 


1-5 


It 


11 


21468-9 


♦4571-85 


4 


»i 


>i 


21867-0 


*4656-34 


2 


jl 


11 


21470-2 


♦4571-27 


1-5 


It 


11 


21869-8 


4654-90 


3 


11 


11 


21476-8 


♦4569-76 


5 


tl 


11 


21877-0 


*4654-24 


2ii 


1-27 


1) 


21479-9 


♦4565-71 


4 


It 




21896-4 


*4652-31 


7 


1> 


51 


21488-8 


♦4564-36 


2 


>) 


6-1 


21902-8 


*4651-44 


7 


11 


tl 


21492-8 


4563-82 


3 


1* 


11 


21905-4 


*4649-58 


3 


» 


t) 


21501-4 


♦4563-43 


1-5 


tl 


n 


21907-2 


*4649-04 


3 


tl 


)t 


21503-9 


♦4558-81 


2 


It 




21929-4 


4648-27 


2 


11 


»1 


21507-5 


♦4556-32 


3 


It 


11 


21941-4 


♦4648-00 


1-5 


It 


>) 


21508-7 


4555-45 


1-5 


tl 


11 


21945-6 


*4646-96 


1-5 


11 


t» 


21513-5 


4554-98 


2 


1} 




21947-9 


*4646-33 


7 


» 


11 


21516-5 


4554-10 


1-5 


11 




21952-1 


4642-21 


1-5 


11 


t) 


21535-6 


♦4546-15 


6 


n 


n 


21990-5 


*4639-85 


1-5 


11 


11 


21546-5 


, ♦4545-51 


3 


11 


11 


21993-6 


*4639-69 


2 


}t 


It 


21547-3 


♦4544-77 


5 


It 


11 


21997-2 


#4637-92 


3 


tt 




21555-5 


♦4543-99 


1-5 


11 


n 


22001-0 


*4637-35 


3 


)| 


It 


21558-1 


♦4542-83 


2 


1-24 




22006-6 


*4634-23 


1-5 


>t 


6-0 


21572-6 


♦4541-70 


2 


11 


11 


22012-1 


*4633-45 


2 


)l 


l> 


21576-2 


♦4541-25 


3 


11 


11 


22014-3 


*4632-32 


2 


11 


It 


21581-5 


♦4510-90 


6 


11 


11 


22016-0 


*4627-83 


1 


11 


11 


21602-4 


♦4540-70 


6 


1) 




22016-9 


*4626-31 


6 


» 


11 


21609-5 


♦4539-96 


1 4 


1* 


19 


22020-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 251 





Chromium 


(Arc Spectrum) — continved. 












Keiiuction 


a u, « 






Reduction 


r ^-s 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


illatioi 
quenc; 
Vacut 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


quenc 
Vacut 








1_ 

A. 


(Rowland) 


Charactcr 


\ + 


1_ 

A. 

G-1 


rJI U C 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A + 


11-2 


*4535-95 


6 


1-21 


22050-0 


14422-84 


1-5 


1-21 


6-3 


22603-6 


*4535-36 


3 






22052-9 


4421-12 


1 


11 


11 


22612-4 


*4530-92 


6 






22064-5 


♦4419-26 


1 


It 


U 


22621-9 


453004 


3 






22068-8 


♦4414-00 


2 


11 


11 


22648-9 


*4527-65 


3 


'* 


iy 


22080-4 


♦4412-42 


2 


It 


It 


226570 


*4527-53 


4 






220810 


♦4411-26 


2 


J» 


11 


22663-0 


*4526-65 


6 






22085-3 


4411-15 


1-5 


1» 


11 


22663-5 


*4526-26 


3 ;; 


1) 


22087-2 


♦4410-47 


2 


») 


11 


22667-0 


452501 


2 




11 


22093-3 


4406-45 


1 


)» 


11 


22687-7 


4522-18 


1-5 






22107-1 


♦4403-68 


2 


l» 


u 


22702-0 


4521-30 


3 




1) 


22111-4 


♦4403-55 


2 


It 


It 


22702-6 


4515-60 


3 




1) 


22139-4 


♦4399-97 


1-5 


>» 


11 


22721-1 


*451464 


3 






22144-1 


♦4397-40 


2 


»» 


It 


22734-4 


*4512-05 


4 




>) 


22156-8 


4395-58 


1-5 


>) 


11 


22743-8 


*450700 


3 




)1 


22181-6 


♦439500 


In 


11 


^t 


22746-8 


*4501-92 


2 


1-23 


J) 


22206-6 


♦4393-66 


1-5 


1-20 


11 


22753-8 


♦450I-24 


3 






222100 


♦4392-41 


1 


11 


i> 


22760-2 


*4500-42 


3 




1} 


22214-0 


♦4391-90 


3 


11 


11 


22762-9 


*4498-87 


3 




11 


22221-7 


4387-64 


3 


11 


11 


22785-0 


*4497-02 


5 




G-2 


22230-8 


4387-54 


1-5 


11 


»1 


22785-5 


4495-42 


1-5 






22238-7 


*4385-ll 


6 


1» 


It 


22798-2 


*4492-45 


3 




11 


22253-4 


4383-04 


1-5 


1» 


11 


22808-9 


*4491-99 


1-5 




11 


22255-6 


♦4381-25 


2 


>» 


11 


22818-2 


♦4491-81 


2n 




11 


22256-5 


♦438073 


1 


11 


11 


22820-9 


*4490-70 


l-5n 






222620 


♦4379-93 


1-5 


11 


11 


22825-1 


*4489-60 


2 




It 


22267-5 


♦4377-73 


1-5 


»» 


11 


22836-6 


4488-18 


2 




11 


22274-5 


t*4376-95 


2 


»» 


11 


22840-7 


*4483-01 


2 




11 


22300-2 


♦4375-52 


3 


11 


11 


22848-i 


4481-57 


1-5 




11 


22307-4 


♦4374-34 


4 


11 


11 


22854-3 


*4 480-40 


1-5 




11 


22313-2 


4373-83 


1-5 


11 


11 


22857-0 


t*4475-47 


2n 




11 


22337-8 


♦4373-41 


4 


11 


It 


22859-2 


4473-91 


1-5 




11 


22345-6 


♦4371-44 


6 


11 


11 


22869-5 


*4467-72 


1-5 


1-22 




22376-6 


§*4368-42 


1-5 


)1 


6-4 


22S85-2 


4466-33 


1-5 




11 


22383-5 


♦4363-25 


3 


11 


l» 


22912-3 


*4465-64 


2 






22387-5 


4360-17 


1-5 


1> 


11 


22928-5 


*4465-31 


1 




11 


22388-7 


♦4359-78 


6 


11 


11 


22930-5 


4465-08 


2 




11 


22389-8 


♦4358-86 


1 


>t 


iy 


22935-4 


t*4464-84 


1-5 




11 


22391-0 


♦4357-70 


1-5 


»1 


It 


22941-5 


4462-98 


1-5 






22400-3 


♦4356-91 


1-5 


1-19 


11 


22945-6 


*4460-95 


1-5 




11 


22410-6 


♦4351-91 


8 


11 


Tl 


229720 


*4459-95 


3 




11 


22415-6 


♦4351-20 


6 


It 


11 


22975-8 


*4459-56 


1-5 




If 


22417-5 


♦4347-00 


3 


11 


yj 


22998-0 


*4458-75 


3 




11 


22421-6 


♦4344-66 


7 


11 


11 


23010-4 


♦4443-90 


1-5 




11 


22496-6 


4343-31! 


1-5 


11 


yy 


23017-5 


4442-43 


1-5 




It 


22504-0 


♦4340-26 


3 


It 


11 


23033-7 


4432-93 


1 




11 


22552-2 


♦4339-85 


G 


11 


11 


23035-9 


♦4432-30 


3n 




tt 


22555-4 


♦4339-60 


6 


11 


11 


23037-2 


4430-59 


2 


l-i21 


G-3 


22564-1 


♦4338-95 


1-5 


11 


11 


23040-7 


443007 


1-5 




n 


22566-7 


♦4338-56 


1-5 


11 


11 


23042-7 


♦4428-71 


2 




It 


22573-6 


♦4337-70 


3 


1» 


11 


23047-3 


4427-85 


1 




11 


225780 


♦4337-38 


2 


t> 


11 


23049-0 


♦4425-27 


1 




)j 


22591-2 


♦4332-75 


1-5 


»» 


11 


23073-6 


♦4424-40 


3 




It 


225956 


4325-24 


1-5 


11 


11 


23113-7 


♦4424-20 


1-5 




11 


22596-7 


♦4323-70 


2 


11 


It 


231219 


4423-46 


1-5 




tt 


22600-4 


♦4321-80 


2 


11 


11 


23132-1 



252 



REPORT — 1894. 



Chromium (Ahc SvEcrRvyL)~continned. 







Reduction 


C >.o 






Reduction 


c >. 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


■sis 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


o o 2 

111 


length 


and 






S 2.> 


length 


and 






s g.j> 


(Kowlaud) 


Character 


A + 


1 
A 

6-4 


o c ^ 
vj v< n 


(Rowland) 


Character 


A+ 


1 

A 


■5 su _ 


4321-44 


1-5 


1-19 


23134-0 


*420705 


1-5 


1-16 


6-6 


23763-0 


*4320-75 


1-5 


)> 


n 


23137-7 


♦4204-61 


2 


1-15 


It 


23776-8 


*4319-82 


2 


»> 


»J 


23142-7 


♦4204-37 


1-5 


»> 


tl 


23778-2 


♦4312-65 


1-5 


1-18 


)J 


23181-2 


♦4203-71 


3 


11 




23781-9 


*4307-65 


1-5 


1» 


6-5 


23208-0 


♦4200-27 


2 


If 


6-7 


23801-3 


t*4305-61 


2 


fl 


I» 


23219-0 


4198-65 


3 


tl 


11 


23810-5 


*4302-95 


1-5 


)1 


ff 


23233-4 


♦4197-38 


2 


tt 


It 


23817-7 


*4301-33 


2 


»» 


JI 


23242-1 


4195-09 


2 


tt 


11 


23830-7 


*4300-68 


2 


}) 


1* 


23245-6 


4193-80 


2 


ft 


It 


23838-0 


4299-87 


2 


»> 


If 


23250-0 


4192-25 


2s 


tt 


If 


23846-8 


*4297-91 


3 


)* 


)) 


23260-6 


4191-90 


1-5 


tt 


»> 


23848-8 


4297-21 


2 


11 


ti 


23264-4 


♦4191-41 


2 


1» 


II 


23851-6 


♦4296-81 


1 


11 


ji 


23266-6 


♦4190-32 


2 


It 


fl 


23857-8 


*4296-47 


1 


»1 


)i 


23268-4 


♦4186-50 


1.5 


ft 


11 


23879-6 


*4295-92 


3 


)» 


»t 


23271-4 


♦4185-50 


1-5 


Jl 


)l 


23885-3 


*4293-73 


2 


)» 


J J 


23283-3 


♦4179-37 


3 


11 


tf 


23920-4 


*4292-14 


2 


M 


»* 


23291-9 


♦417609 


2 


If 


fl 


23939-1 


*4289-87 


lOnr 


ft 


}f 


23304-2 


4175-34 


1-5 


fl 


11 


23943-4 


*4284-99 


1-5 


)» 


}i 


23330-8 


♦4174-98 


3 


11 


II 


239455 


§*4284-84 


1-5 


t» 


}} 


23331-6 


t^4172-88 


2 


1> 


tl 


23957-6 


*4280-53 


3 


1-17 


It 


23355-1 


♦4171-81 


2 


11 


Jt 


23963-7 


*4274-91 


lOnr 


»> 


J* 


23385-8 


4170-31 


2 


tl 


It 


23972-3 


*4273-04 


2 


»> 


)i 


23396-0 


4169-94 


2 


It 


fl 


23974-6 


4271-18 


2 


»» 


>t 


23406-2 


4165-67 


3 


1-14 


fl 


23999-0 


*4270-08 


1-5 


»» 


» 


23412-3 


♦4163-76 


4 


tl 


fl 


24010-1 


*4268-90 


1-5 


>» 


It 


23418-7 


♦4161-55 


3 


If 


If 


24022-8 


*4266-96 


1 


»» 


t) 


23429-4 


4153-96 


4 


ff 


11 


24066-7 


*4263-28 


4 


• ) 


ti 


23449-6 


♦4153-20 


1-5 


fl 


II 


24071-1 


*4262-53 


1-5 


» 


)j 


23453-7 


♦4152-89 


1-5 


tl 


11 


24072-9 


4262-27 


1-5 


)? 


)t 


23455-2 


♦4146-81 


1-5 


ft 


6-8 


24108-1 


4261-77 


1-5 


>> 


tt 


23457-9 


§*4142-31 


1-5 


it 


ff 


24134-3 


*4261-49 


3 


n 


tt 


23459-5 


♦4131-50 


2 


tt 


ff 


24197-5 


*4255-65 


2 


)» 


ti 


23491-7 


4128-53 


1-5 


1-13 


It 


24214-9 


*4254-49 


lOnr 


)* 


n 


23498-1 


♦4127-77 


2 


»t 


If 


24219-4 


4252-37 


2 


)> 


6-6 


23509-7 


♦4127-44 


2 


ft 


ft 


24221-3 


*4248-84 


1-5 


)» 


Jf 


23529-2 


4127-05 


1-5 


71 


If 


24223-6 


*4248-47 


1-5 


»> 


11 


23531-3 


♦4126-67 


4 


1) 


fl 


24225-8 


*4240-82 


3 


1-16 


f » 


23573-7 


4126-25 


1-5 


If 


It 


24228-3 


*4239-08 


3 


1) 


J» 


23583-4 


♦4123-55 


2 


1) 


)f 


24244-1 


*4237-83 


1-5 


>J 


)t 


23590-4 


♦4122-34 


1-5 


1} 


11 


24251-3 


*4234-64 


1-5 


)» 


11 


23608-2 


♦14121-96 


2 


It 


It 


24253-5 


*4233-00 


1-5 


J» 


)1 


23617-3 


§4121-41 


1-5 


If 


tl 


24256-7 


*4232-35 


1-5 


» 


Jl 


23620-9 


♦4120-78 


2 


]f 


tj 


24260-4 


*4230-61 


2 


iJ 


tt 


23630-7 


♦4109-74 


1-5 


f f 


II 


243256 


t*4224-64 


2s 


it 


tt 


23664-1 


4108-54 


1-5 


If 


11 


24332-7 


*4222-89 


2 


»» 


tt 


23673-9 


4104-90 


2 


11 


11 


24354-3 


4221-71 


2 


J) 


J) 


23680-5 


♦4101-31 


1-5 


fl 


ft 


24375-7 


4217-75 


3 


» 


t* 


23702-7 


♦4099-16 


1-5 


It 


6-9 


24388-3 


*4216-50 


2 


1* 


1} 


23709-8 


♦4090-43 


1-5 


112 


IJ 


24440-4 


*4213-31 


1-5 


»i 


t) 


23727-7 


t^4085-15 


1 


t) 


II 


24472-0 


*4212-77 


2 


)) 


tt 


23730-8 


4081-88 


1 


ft 


» 


24491-6 


*4211-47 


2 


1) 


Jt 


237381 


t^4080-35 


1-5 


tl 


It 


24490-8 


*4209-90 


2 


fl 


t> 


23746-9 


4077-81 


2 


II 


If 


24516-7 


♦4209-50 


3 


»» 


11 


23749-2 


♦4077-21 


2 


ft 


ft 


24519-7 


♦4208-50 


2 


>» 


It 


23754-8 


1 4076-20 


2 


l> 


If 


24525-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 253 





Cheomium (Arc Specteum) — continued. 












Reduction 


C >-. -K 






Reduction 


O >>o 


Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


.2 |'§ 

<" K a 
0(i.- 


Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


to Vacuum 


S o*>- 


A.+ 


1 
\ 

6-9 


\ + 


1_ 


*407501 


1-5 


1-12 


24532-9 


*3951-93 


1 


1-09 


7-2 


25296-9 


4071-13 


1 




It 


24556-3 


3951-26 


1-5 




11 


25301-2 


*4067-94 


1 




}J 


24575-6 


*3946-15 


15 




)l 


25334-0 


406705 


4 




l» 


24581-0 


3945-68 


1 




t) 


25337-0 


*4065'84 


3 




»> 


24588-3 


*3941-66 


3 




If 


25362-8 


*4060-77 


1-5 




If 


24619-0 


•3928-79 


6 


1-08 


If 


25445-9 


*4058-89 


3 




If 


24630-4 


3926-80 


2 




11 


25458-8 


4056-93 


1 




t» 


24642-3 


3923-51 


1 




It 


25480-2 


*4056-17 


1-5 




»> 


24646-9 


*3921-20 


5 




If 


25495-2 


*4051-47 


1-5 


1-ii 


7-0 


24675-4 


3920-25 


1-5 




f> 


25501-4 


»4050-18 


1 




)» 


24683-3 


*3919-31 


7 




J» 


25506-5 


*4049-90 


1-5 




J> 


24685-0 


*3917-75 


1-5 




>1 


25517-7 


4048-94 


3 




f9 


24690-8 


»3917-15 


1 




J5 


25521-6 


§*4046-89 


1 




J» 


24703-3 


*3916-38 


4 




» 


25526-6 


*4044-24 


1-5 




»» 


24719-5 


♦3915-96 


4n 




If 


25529-3 


*4043-85 


1-5 




»» 


24721-9 


♦3915-65 


1-5 




1) 


25531-3 


*4042-40 


1-5 




tt 


24730-8 


♦3914-45 


1-5 




If 


25539-2 


*403921 


3 




}| 


24750-3 


♦3908-87 


5 




7-3 


25575-5 


*4037-43 


1-5 




>» 


24761-2 


♦3907-91 


2 




11 


25581-8 


4033-44 


1-5 




)l 


24785-7 


3907-40 


1 




If 


25585-2 


*4031-26 


1-5 




i9 


24799- 1 


3903-30 


3 




1» 


25612-0 


4030-82 


2 




15 


24801-8 


3903-02 


4 




If 


25613-9 


*4028-22 


1 




n 


24817-9 


3902-22 


2n 




If 


25619-1 


*4027-24 


2 




11 


24823-9 


3897-83 


3n 




if 


25648-0 


*4026-30 


2 




}i 


24829-7 


♦3894-20 


4 


1-07 


ff 


25671-9 


♦4025-60 


1 




ft 


24834-0 


»389207 


2n 




If 


25686-0 


*1025-14 


2 




II 


24836-9 


♦3886-94 


4 




» 


25719-9 


*4023-90 


1-5 




II 


24844-5 


♦3885-35 


4 


„ 


15 


25730-4 


*4022-3S 


2 




11 


248539 


♦3883-78 


2 


„ 


f> 


25740-8 


4018-36 


1 




If 


24878-8 


13883-41 


4 




If 


25743-3 


*4016-95 


1 




»f 


24887-5 


3881-37 


2a 




ff 


25756-8 


4014-85 


1 


1-10 


11 


24900-5 


♦3879-39 


3n 




19 


25770-1 


4012-63 


2 




11 


24914-3 


♦3868-41 


15 




i: 


25843-1 


4004-11 


1 




11 


24967-3 


3865-73 


1-5 




If 


25861-0 


*400l-58 


2 




7-1 


24983-0 


*3862-68 


1-5 




ff 


25881-5 


3999-85 


1 




»1 


24993-8 


3860-23 


1-5 




ti 


25897-9 


*3994-10 


1-5 




11 


25029-8 


3857-74 


4 




1) 


25914-6 


*3992-95 


3 




ff 


25037-0 


3856-40 


2 


l-()6 


It 


25923-6 


*3991-81 


3 




If 


25044-2 


♦3855-75 


3 




!f 


25928-0 


*3991-26 


4 




»> 


25047-6 


♦3855-41 


2 




11 


25930-3 


*3990-14 


2 




II 


25054-7 


♦3854-36 


4 




tf 


25937-3 


*3984-48 


3 




1) 


25090-3 


♦3853-33 


1-5 




l» 


25944-3 


*3984-02 


5 




If 


25093-2 


♦3852-33 


2 




If 


25951-0 


*3981-37 


2 




II 


25109-9 


3850-13 


5n 




It 


25965-9 


*3979-99 


1-5 




1* 


25118-6 


♦3849-66 


2a 




It 


25969-0 


*3978-81 


2 




If 


251260 


♦3849-48 


3n 




1? 


25970-2 


♦3976-81 


6 




If 


25138-7 


♦3849-15 


3n 




If 


25972-5 


3972-85 


1 


1-09 


It 


25163-7 


♦3841-42 


5 




J> 


26024-7 


3971-39 


6 




11 


25173-0 


♦3836-22 


2 




ff 


26060-0 


♦3969-89 


5 




If 


25182-5 


♦3834-88 


3 




11 


26069-1 


3969-20 


2 




If 


25186-9 


3833-62 


1 




ff 


26077-7 


*3963-82 


5 




It 


25221-1 


♦3831-15 


3 




It 


26094-5 


3960-95 


1 




11 


25239-4 


♦3830-17 


5il 




11 


26101-2 


*t3953-34 


1-5 




7-2 


25287-9 


♦3826-55 


4n 




11 


26125-8 


3952-56 


1-5 




II 


25292-9 


♦3825-54 


2ii 




11 


26132-9 



254 



REPORT — 1894. 



Cheomium (Arc Spectkum) — continned. 





j 


Reduction 


«=. II 






Reduction 


a ^^ 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


illatioi 
quenc; 
Vacuo 


Wave- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


lillatio 
queDC, 
Vacuc 








1 
\ 

7-6 


(Rowiand) 


Character 


\-t- 


1 


g £ a 


(Ro-wland) 


Charactei- 


A + 


W O) ^ 

CO t-l fl 


*3823-64 


2 


1-06 


7-3 


261458 


*3685-70 


2n 


1-02 


27124-3 


*3822'22 


1 


» 


tt 


26155-5 


3683-60 


l-5s 


»» 


7-7 


27139-7 


*3821-71 


1-5 


)> 


tt 


261590 


*3681-81 


l-5s 


t* 


tl 


27152-9 


*3821-00 


1-5 


»» 


)t 


26163-9 


*3681-12 


1 


tt 


tt 


27158-1 


3820-11 


1 


J» 


It 


261700 


3680-34 


1 


»> 


11 


27163-7 


3819-68 


8 


»> 


tt 


26172-9 1 


3679-93 


l-5s 


tt 


tt 


27166-7 


*3818-61 


2 


»» 


tt 


2618C-2 


*367y-20 


l-5s 


tt 


tl 


271721 


*3817-97 


1-5 


»J 


7-4 


26184-5 


*3678-00 


1-5 


11 


?t 


27181-0 


3816-30 


2 


1-05 


tt 


261960 


*t3668-17 


l-5s 


)> 


It 


272539 


*3815-53 


3 


») 


tt 


26201-3 


3666-78 


2 


n 


tl 


27264-2 


3814-74 


2 


»» 


)» 


26206-7 


3666-30 


Is 


t; 


)1 


27267-8 


*3812-37 


o 


ft 


tt 


26223-0 


3666-10 


l-5s 


t» 


1) 


27269-2 


*3808-06 


2 


It 


tt 


26252-7 


*3663-35 


3 


51 


tt 


27289-7 


*3806-97 


2 


Jl 


tl 


26260-2 


*3662-97 


1-5 


tt 


!1 


27292-6 


3806-68 


1-5 


f) 


tt 


26262-2 


*3656-36 


4 


1-01 


)1 


27341-9 


*3804-91 


4 


iy 


tt 


26274-4 


*365405 


3 


It 


tt 


27359-2 


*3797-85 


4 


n 


tt 


26323-3 


*3649-97 


1 


tt 


tl 


27389-)' 


*3797-28 


2 


»f 


tt 


26327-^ 


*3649-12 


4 


>> 


11 


27396-2 


*3794-7o 


2 


Jl 


St 


26344-8 


*3648-65 


1-5 


tt 


I) 


27399-7 


37940-i 


2 


11 


tt 


26349-9 


*3646-26 


1-5 


»» 


It 


27417-7 


*3793-46 


2 


)i 


t) 


26353-8 


*3641-95 


4 


t* 


tl 


27449-1 


*3793-30 


2 


V) 


tt 


26361-8 


*364r61 


2 


It 


It 


27452-7 


*3791-51 


2 


IT 


tt 


26367-3 


*3639-93 


5 


tt 


tl 


27465-4 


••*3790-61 


2 


f) 


t> 


26373-6 


*3636-72 


3 


tt 


7-8 


27489-5 


♦3790-30 


1-5 


)1 


t» 


26375-3 


3635-37 


1 


tl 


11 


27499-7 


3789-87 


1-5 


»9 


)t 


26378-7 


*3635-09 


1 


tt 


tl 


27501-8 


*3789-00 


2 


>t 


tt 


26384-8 


*3632-92 


2 


tl 


11 


27518-3 


3786-38 


1 




tt 


264031 


*3615-76 


1-5 


1-00 


tt 


27648-9 


*3769-13 


1 


l-()4 


7-5 


26523-8 


3613-78 


1-5 


Jl 


It 


27664-1 


*3768-85 


2s 


J» 


tt 


26525-8 


3612-70 


l-5s 


tl 


tt 


27672-3 


*3768-37 


3s 


»» 


»» 


26529-2 


361017 


1-5 


It 


It 


27691-7 


3768-23 


1-5 


i» 


tt 


26530-2 


*3609-62 


1-5 


tt 


tt 


27695-9 


3767-56 


1-5 


») 


tt 


26534-9 


3608-52 


1-5 


It 


Jt 


27704-4 


*3758-14 


2 


»> 


11 


26601-4 


*3605-46 


lOnr 


t* 


tt 


27727-9 


*3757-80 


3 


}* 


It 


26603-8 


3603-86 


2n 


tl 


11 


27740-2 


*3757-28 


1-5 


ft 


tt 


26607-5 


t3602-68 


1 


1) 


tl 


27749-3 


3755-97 


1 


}t 


tJ 


26616-8 


*3601-76 


3 


)» 


11 


27756-4 


*3749-13 


4 


t) 


tl 


26665-4 


*3599-5l 


1 


tt 


11 


27773-8 


*3748-73 


2 


tf 


fl 


26668-2 


*3593-57 


lOnr 


11 


7-9 


27819-7 


*3747-40 


1-5 


)t 


tt 


26677-7 


3584-45 


3b 


tt 


11 


27890-5 


*3744-63 


2 


It 


tt 


26697-4 


*3582-74 


1-5 


tl 


Jl 


27903-8 


*374401 


4 


It 


tt 


26701-8 


*3578-81 


lOnr 


,J 


)t 


27934-4 


*3743 67 


4 


t» 


t> 


26704-3 


*3575-10 


2 


0-99 


tl 


27963-3 


*374308 


2 


t9 


»> 


26708-6 


*3574-93 


3 


tt 


tl 


27964-7 


*373215 


2 


1-03 


tt 


26786-7 


*3574-19 


2 


tl 


tl 


27970-5 


*3730-91 


2 


t J 




26795-6 


3573-79 


3 


11 


11 


27973-6 


*3616-65 


l-5n 




7-6 


26898-4 


*3572-90 


2 


It 


11 


27980-6 


*369602 


1 


i-b2 


tt 


27048-5 


3569-28 


1 


tt 


11 


28009-0 


3689-76 


1-5 


>t 


t» 


27094-4 


*3566-23 


3n 


It 


It 


28032-9 


3689-41 


1-5 


tt 


t> 


27097-0 


3565-31 


1 


)1 


It 


28040-2 


*t3688-56 
*3688-24 


1-5 


}t 


tt 


27103-3 


*3564-87 


1-5 


It 


tt 


28043-6 


1 


tt 


tt 


27105-6 


3564-44 


1 


»t 


11 


28047-0 


*3687-65 


3n 


It 


Jt 


27109-9 


3562-57 


1 


It 


tt 


28061-7 


3687-41 


3n 


it 


tl 


27111-7 


*3562-40 


1 


11 


Jt 


28063-1 


*3686-95 


3n 


l> 


tt 


27115-1 


1 *3559-90 


1-5 


tl 


tt 


28082-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 255 



Chromium (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 







Reduction 


o ^ ^ 






Reduction 


>^a 


Wave- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


2 "'§ 


Wnve- 


Intensity 


to Vacuum 


.2 g^§ 

■52- 


length 


and 






5 c-> 


leni;th 


and 






3 S-> 


(Kowland) 


Character 


X + 


1_ 

A. 


K 2; a 


(Rowland) 


Character 


» i 


— 


C3 a- 
■n 1. a 


3558-74 


3n 


0-99 


7-9 


28091-9 


*3481-41 


1-5 


0-97 8-1 


28715-9 


*3556-27 


1 


» 




28111-4 


*3467-86 


1-5 


„ 8-2 


28828-0 


*3555-88 


1 


>i 




28114-5 


*3465-40 


1-6 


*l t 




28848-5 


3554-10 


1 






28128-6 


*3460-60 


1 


)• » 




28888-5 


3552-85 


2ii 






28138-5 


*3455-76 


1-5 


0-96 , 




28929-0 


♦3550-73 


3n 


}) 


8-0 


28155-2 


*3453-46 


1-5 


j» ? 




28948-3 


3548-95 


l-5n 


i» 


If 


28169-3 


*3447-90 


1 


n 1 




28995-0 


353304 


1 


0-98 




28296-2 


*3447-55 


1-5 


»» ) 




28997-9 


♦3527-22 


1 






28342-9 


*3447-lo 


] 


»» 1 




29001-3 


*3511'93 


1 


n 




28466-4 


*3445-71 


1-5 


f) 1 




29013-4 


3510-66 


1-5 


i» 


8-1 


28478-6 


*3441-56 


]-5 


)» J 




29048-4 


*349508 


1-5 


0-97 




28603-5 


*3436-31 


1-5 


)i » 




29092-8 


*3488-C.0 


1 






28656-2 


*3433-72 


1-5 


»» » 




29114-7 


*3483-92 


1 


» 




28695-7 


*343342 


1 


t> » 




29117-3 


*3481-66 


1-5 


1* 


»» 


28713-8 










i 



Kowland's Normal Lines : 579809, 5754-89, 5731-98, 5709-69, 



5634-16, 
523312, 
4994-31, 
4703-98, 
4508-45, 
4254-49, 
4029-79, 
3821-32, 
3583-48, 



5487-96, 
5202-49, 
4981-90, 
4690-32, 
4494-72, 
422237, 
4003-91, 
3794-02, 
3564-68, 



5447-12, 
517391, 
4934-24, 
4668-30, 
4447-90, 
4199-25, 
3977-89, 
3770-12, 
3540-27, 



5409-99, 
5146-67, 
4890-94, 
4643-64, 
4407-85, 
4185-05, 
3954-00, 
3754-65, 
3518-48, 



5379-77, 
512G-37, 
4859-93, 
4629-50, 
4376-10, 
4157-94, 
3926 13, 
3732-54, 
3401-47, 



5353-59, 
5090-96, 
4824-31, 
4611-44, 
4352-91, 
4121-96, 
3916-88, 
3695-19, 
3464-61, 



5324-37, 
5083-53, 
4805-25, 
4590-12, 
4318-83, 
410310, 
3897-60, 
3667-40, 
3455-38. 



5688-43, 

5296-88, 

5050-01, 

4754-22, 

4571-27, 

4293-25, 

4083-75, 

3875-24, 

3640-53, 



5662-75, 
5266-73, 
5020-20, 
4727-62, 
4563-94, 
4267-94, 
4055-69, 
3843-40, 
3612-21, 



562 chromium lines coincide with solar lines, and 199 lines have, apparent!)-, no 
corresponding solar lines. Their intensities are shown in the following Table : — 



Intensity 


Number of Lines 


C i!ncidcnt 


Not Coincident 


1 to 2 

2 to 4 
4 to 6 
6 to 8 
8 to 10 


213 

228 

74 

31 

16 


129 

62 

8 







256 KEPORT — 1894. 

Potassium. 
Eder and Valenta : • Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bd. Ix. 1893. 



Flame-spectrum 




Reduction 






Intensity 
and 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-lengths 








Character 


A.-1- 


1_ 


in Vacuo 






ILecoq de Boisbaudran 


Eder and Valenta 






\ 




7697 


7699 


10s 


2-08 


3-5 


12985 


7663 


7666 


10s 


H 


„ 


13041 


7248-6825 


7040 


lb 


1-91 


3-8 


14201 


5831 


5832 


5s 


1-59 


4-7 


17142 


5803 


5802 


8s 


1-58 


I» 


17231 


5783 


5783 


5s 


»» 


»> 


17287 


5342 


5344 


4n 


146 


5-1 


18607 


5104 


5103 


3n 


1-40 


5-4 


19591 


4948 


4950 


3n 


135 


5-5 


20196 


4045 


4045-8 


10 


1-11 


7-0 


24710 





3447-2 


4 


0-96 


8-2 


29001 


— 


3217-5 


1 


0-90 


8-8 


31071 



Note.— 'J'he continuous spectrum due to potassium extends from 6400 to 4000, 
being most intense between 5700 and 4700. According to Vogel (' Spectral Analyse ') 
it is due to potassium oxide, but it is present in the spark spectrum of metallic 
potassium in an atmosphere of hydrogen. The lines 4045-8, 3447-2 and 3217-5 occur 
• *i, . *!, /. ui V 4047-4 1 3447-5 \ „„, 3217-8 \ 

an the arc spectrum as the double lines 4944-3 1 3446-4 1 3^17-3 I ' 



Sodium. 

Eder and Valenta : ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bk. Ix. 1893. 



Flame Spectrum 


Inteniity 

and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 
(Eder and Valenta) 


\ + 


1_ 
A. 


(5896-16) 

(6890-19) 

3302-5 

2853-0 


10 

10 

8 

3 


1-61 
1-60 
0-93 
0-81 


4-6 

8-6 
10-1 


16955-6 
16972-8 
30271 
35041 



The line 3302-5 appears in the arc spectrum as the double line -j'-^oo-a- f > ^^^^ 
the line 28530 as 2852-91.— Kayser and Kunge. 

Lithium. 
Eder and Valenta : ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bk. Ix. 1893. 



Flame-spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 
(Eder and Valenta) 


\ + 


1_ 

A. 


(6708-2) 
(6103-77) 
*4602-4 
*3232-8 


10 
3 
3 
4 


1-82 
1-66 
1-26 
0-91 


4-0 
4-4 
6-0 
8-8 


14903-1 
16378-9 
21722 
30924 



* In the arc spectrum Kavser and Eunge obtain for these lines the numbers 
4602-37 (21721-8) and 3232-77 (30923-7). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 257 



Calcium Chloride and Oxide. 
Eder and Valenta : ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bk. Lx. 1893. 



FUme-spectrum 




Reduction 






Intensity 


to Vacuum 


Cscillalinn 




Wave-lengths 


and 










Ireqiii-ncv 




Character 


.+- 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 


Lecoq de Boisbaudrnn E'ier and Valenta 


ALA ¥ t4'^^iV\./ 


6»;441 t6+i2 


4 


175 


42 


15519 


(5348 *634!» 


2 


173 


4-3 


15746 


6320 *6H22 


2 


1 72 


»» 


15813 




C-Jtio t6265 


10 


170 


*t 


15957 


a 


6202 *6202 


1 10 


169 


4-4 


16119 




6181 *6183 


I 10 


1-68 


»» 


16169 




61H)8 


*60G9 


5 


1-65 


4^r. 


16473 


5 


6044 


*e044 


n 


It 


»» 


16541 




5982 


t5983 


5 


1-63 


*• 


16709 


7.5933 


*.5".t3t 


8 


1-62 


46 


16847 


C5817 


*o816 


S 


1-58 


4-7 


17189 


5728 


+5727 


2 


156 


,, 


17456 


5644 


15644 


2 


154 


4^8 


17713 


»f5543 
**[S517 


t5543-5 


8 


»« 


4-9 


18034 


•(•5517 


8 


1-51 


11 


18121 


5427 


t5428 


2 


1^48 


50 


18418 


5373 


t5374 


2 


1-47 


51 


18603 




•f4550 




1-25 


61 


21972 




14515 




124 


It 


22142 




t4465 




1-22 


6-2 


22S90 




+4435 




»» 


l» 


22542 




t4396 




121 


63 


22742 




t4362 




120 


64 


22919 




t4324 




119 


»» 


23120 




■f4294 




118 


65 


23282 




{4257 




117 


l» 


23484 


4226 


4227 


10s 


116 


66 


23651 




t4159 




114 


67 


24037 




t4122 




113 


68 


24253 




14084 




112 


6 9 


24479 




+4042 




ML 


70 


24733 


i 


+4002 




110 


7.1 


24980 




13972 




109 


It 


25169 




t3942 




»» 


7^2 


25361 




t3909 




1^08 


73 


25574 




+3880 




107 


>» 


25766 




13840 




106 


»» 


26034 




t3815 




105 


74 


26205 




t3771 




104 


75 


26511 




+3722 




103 


76 


26860 




t3687 




102 


»» 


27115 




t3644 




101 


7^7 


27435 




J3608 




100 


7^8 


27708 




{3569 




099 


7-9 


28011 




+3531 




0^98 


80 


28313 




t3494 




097 


81 


28012 




t3463 




1» 


8^2 


28868 




t3429 




096 


8^3 


29155 



In the arc spectrum Kavser and Runge obtaia for trie line 4227, due to metallic 
calciuna, the number 422691 (2.5650^4.) 
* Due to calcium chloride. 
f Due to calcium oxide. 
1894. 8 



208 



REPORT — 1894. 



Strontium Chloride and Oxide. 
Eder and Valenta : ' Sitzber. kais, Akad. Wien,' Bk. Ix. 1893. 



Flame-spectrum 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-lengths 


Intensity 




Oscillation 


and 




1 


Frequency 

in Vftplln 






Character 


\ + 


lu » <tt,uu 


Lecoqde Boisbaudran 


Eder and Valenta 






A. 




f f 6862 
^ \ 6827 


+6863 


4 


1-86 


3-9 


14567 


t6828 


4 


1-85 


40 


14642 


6729 


*6731 


1 


1-83 


» 


14853 


J 6694 
'>' 1 6664 


t6695 


8 


1-82 


>» 


14932 


t6665 


8 


1-81 


41 


15000 


( 6627 
1 6597 


t6628 


6 


1-80 


J> 


15083 


*6597 


6 


1-79 


99 


15154 


S 6464 


t6464 


6 


1-76 


4-2 


15466 


V 6350 


*6351 


5 


1-73 


4-3 


15741 


6276 


t6275 


1 


1-71 


» 


15932 


6233 


16233 


1 


1-70 


}f 


16039 


6191 


t6192 


1 


1-68 


4-4 


16145 


( 6059 
" 1 6031 


16060 


10 


1-65 


4-5 


16497 


{6032 


10 


1-64 


if 


16574 


5970 


(5968) 


2s 


1-63 


91 


16751 


5940 


+5940 


1 


1-62 


4-6 


16830 


15911 
' 1 5890 


+5910 


3 


1-61 


>» 


16916 


15891 


3 


1-60 


?» 


16970 


/3 4607 


(4608) 


10s 


1-26 


60 


21695 




t4505 


1 


1-23 


61 


22191 




+4470 


1 


)» 


6-2 


22365 




4430 


1 


1-21 


6-3 


22567 




4391 


1 


1-20 


»» 


22768 




■ 4357 


1 


Jl 


6-4 


22945 




■ 4328 


1 


119 


)» 


23099 




■ 4292 


1 


118 


6-5 


23293 




■ 4259 


1 


1-17 


l» 


23473 




(4032) 


2s 


111 


7-0 


24795 




3806 


2b 


105 


7-4 


26267 




3778 


2b 


19 


»» 


26462 




3738 


2b 


104 


7-5 


26745 




3692 


3b 


1-02 


7-6 


27078 




3647 


3b 


101 


7-7 


27412 




3612 


In 


1-00 


7-8 


27678 



In the arc spectrum Kayser and Runge obtain for the lines 5968, 4608, and 4032, 
due to metallic strontium, the numbers 5970-38 (16744-8) 460752 (21697-6) and 
4032-51 (24791-4). 

* Due to strontium chloride. 

t Due to strontium oxide. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 259 



Barium Oxide and Chloride. 

Eder and Valenta: 'Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bk. Ix. 1893. 



Flame-i 


pectrum 




Keduction to 








Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave- 


lengths 








Character 




1 


in Vacuo 


Lecoq de Boisbaudran 


Eder and Valenta 




A + 


A. 




6819 


t6820 


1 


1-85 


4-0 


14659 


6499 


6497 


2 


1-77 


4-2 


15387 


6448 


+6450 


1 


1-75 


?» 


15500 


6297 


t6297 


2 


1-71 


4-3 


15876 


6239 


t6240 


4 


1'70 


»» 


16021 


6178 


t6177 


4 


1-68 


4-4 


16185 


6108 


+6109 


4 


1-66 


?» 


16365 


6044 


t6044 


4 


1-65 


4-5 


16541 


5995 


t5997 


1 


1-63 


S» 


16670 


5938 


t5938 


8 


162 


4-6 


16836 


5881 


t5882 


8 


1-60 


>» 


16996 


5824 


t5827 


1 


1-59 


4-7 


17157 


5768 


t5768 


4 


1-57 


?» 


173.32 


5719 


|5720 


6 


1-56 


4-8 


17478 


5661 


|5660 


8 


1-54 


)» 


17663 


5613 


t56l2 


3 


1-53 


•» 


17814 


5536 


5536 


10 


1-51 


4-9 


18059 


5492 


t5493 


8 


1-50 


50 


18200 


5461 


t5460 


1 


1-49 


*» 


18310 


5346 


+5346 


9 


1-46 


51 


18700 




+5316 


1 


1-45 


1» 


18806 


5314 


*5314 


2 


It 


»» 


18813 




45280 


1 


1-44 


5-2 


18934 




t5255 


1 


»» 


Ji 


19024 


5242 


*5243 


2 


1-43 


H 


19068 


5215 


t5215 


8 


f» 


19 


19170 


5089 


foOStt 


9 


1-39 


5-4 


19645 


5019 


t5022 


2 


1-37 


5-5 


19907 


4974 


+4977 


2 


1-36 


7t 


20087 




t49o4 


1 


>» 


*9 


20180 


4873 


14873-5 


10 


1-33 


5-6 


20513 


4794 


t4796 


3 


1-31 


5-7 


20845 




+475G 


1 


1-30 


5-8 


21020 




t4736 


1 


*f 


»» 


21109 




.L J 4694 
^ [ 4681 


3 


1-29 


59 


5 21498 
i 21351 




2 


1-28 


J> 




, j 4644 
1 t 4630 


1 


1-27 




r 21 527 




1 


»l 


6'() 


\ 21592 




+ J 4589 
^ [ 4567 


1 


1-26 


»» 


r 21785 




1 


1-25 


»» 


121890 




14554 (?) 


1 


)» 


61 


21953 




t4535 


1 


1-24 


7» 


22045 




14488 


1 


1-23 


6-2 


22275 




t4443 


1 


1-22 


»» 


22501 




+4398 


1 


1-21 


6-3 


22731 




+4353 


1 


119 


6-4 


22966 




+4309 


1 


1-18 


6-5 


23201 




t4270 


1 


1-17 


»* 


23413 




t4235 


] 


116 


6-6 


23606 




+4200 


1 


115 


6-7 


23803 




+4165 


1 


114 


»f 


24003 




14128 


1 


113 


6-8 


24218 



260 



REPORT — 1894. 



Barium Oxide and Chloride — continued. 



Flame-spectrum 




Reduction to 






Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

ia Vacuo 


Wave-lengths 


and 












1 








\ + 






Lecoq de BoiBbaudran 


Eder and Valenta 






A, 






14088 




1-12 


6-9 


24455 




1-4047 




1-11 


70 


24703 




t4009 




1-10 




24937 




t3984 




l» 


71 


25093 




-t3951 




1-09 


72 


25303 




■f3918 




1-08 


- 


25516 















111 the arc spectrum Kayser and Runge have obtained for the lines 6497, 5536, 
and 4554, due to metallic barium, the numbers 649893 (153829), 5535-69 (18069.7), 
and 4,554-21 (21951-6). 

* Due to barium chloride. 

f Due to barium oxide. 



Boron (Spark Spectrum). 

Eder and Valenta : ' Denkschr. math. Wissensch. kais. Akad. Wien,' Bd. 1.x. 1893. 
Ciamician : ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' Bd. Lsxxix. 1890. 



Wave-lengths 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 








Intensity and 
Character 




Oscillation 
Frequency 








1_ 

A. 


Ciamician 


Eder and Valenta 




A + 


in Vacuo 


5103 




1 


1-40 


5-4 


19590-9 


4981 




1 


1-36 


5-5 


20070-8 


4966 




1 


»» 




20131-4 


4964 




1 


)l 




20139-5 




f 3957-9 
13941-7 


2 


1-09 


7-1 


f 25258-8 
1 25362-6 




2 




7-2 




f 3829-3 
3824-5 


1 


1-06 


7-3 


; 26107-3 
1 26140-0 




1 


»» 


It 




♦3451-3 


6 


0-96 


8-2 


28968-4 




3246-9 


1 


0-91 


8-8 


30789-8 




f 2689-0 
1 2686-2 


1 


0-77 


10-8 


f 37177-8 
137216-5 




1 


?» 


ft 




♦2497-7 


10 


0-73 


11-7 


40025-1 




♦2496-8 


10 


ft 


^^ 


40039-6 




2388-5 


1 


0-71 


12-4 


41854-9 




r 22670 
1 2266-4 


2 


0-68 


13-3 


r 44097-9 
1 44109-5 




2 


») 


J, 




J 2088-8 


2 


0-65 


14-9 


( 47859-5 




1. 2088-4 


2 


^j 


»I 


1 47868-6 




1 2066-2 


2 


0-64 


15-3 


r 48382-7 
148416-2 




\ 2064-6 


2 


11 


»» 



* Observed also by Hartley. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 261 



Tin (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser and Runge : ' Abhandl liiaigl. Akad. Wissenscli. zu Berlin,' 1893. 













Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previ 


oijs Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatiiin 


A + 


1_ 
A 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


563191 


0-03 


8 


5630-0 Thal^n 


1-54 


4-8 


17751-2 


4524-92 


0-03 


8 


4524-0 


If 


1-24 


6-1 


22093-7 


:5S01-16 


005 


6r 


3800-3 H. & A. 


1-05 


7-4 


26300-4 


ta65o-88 


003 


4 


3655-5 


n 


1-01 


7-7 


27345 5 


3330-71 


005 


6r 


3330-0 


„ 3326-0 L.&D. 


0-93 


8-5 


300151 


J3262-44 


0-03 


8r 


3261-6 


„ 3260-0 „ 


0-92 


8-7 


30643-2 


3218-78 


003 


4 


3218-0 


1» 


0-90 


8-8 


31058-9 


317512 


0-03 


8r 


3174-3 


„ 3175-0 „ 


0-89 


90 


31485-9 


3141-92 


0-03 


4 


3140-6 


„ 3141-7 „ 


0-88 


9-1 


31818C 


3034-21 


003 


lOr 


3033-1 


„ 3033-0 „ 


0-86 


9-4 


329481 


§3032-88 


0-03 


4r 






1» 


}} 


32962-6 


3009-24 


005 


lOr 


3007-9 


„ 3008-5 „ 


0-85 


9-5 


33221-6 


2922-48 


015 


2b' 






0-83 


9-8 


34207-7 


If 2913-67 


003 


6r 


2911-9 


„ 2913-1 „ 


»» 


9-9 


34311-1 


2863-41 


0-03 


lOr 


2862-1 


„ 2862-8 „ 


0-81 


10-1 


349133 


2850-72 


003 


6r 


2849-3 


)) 


If 




35068-8 


2840-06 


0-03 


lOr 


2838-9 


„ 2839-5 „ 


»» 


l6'2 


35200-3 


2813-66 


005 


4r 


2812-5 


„ 2813 5 „ 


0-80 


103 


35530-6 


2812-70 


005 


4 


2811-5 


„ 2812-5 „ 


»» 


jl 


35542-7 


2788-09 


0-10 


6br 


2787-3 


„ 2787-5 „ 


tt 


10-4 


35856 4 


**2785-14 


0-03 


4r 


2784-0 


„ 2784-7 „ 


}) 


}} 


35894-4 


tt2779-92 


003 


6r 


2778-8 


„ 2779-5 „ 


0-79 


ji 


35961-9 


2706-61 


003 


lOr 


2705-8 


)* 


0-78 


10-7 


36935-9 


2661-35 


0-03 


6r 


2660-2 


„ 2660-7 „ 


0-77 


10-9 


37564-0 


2637-05 


0-03 


4n 




2636-5 „ 


0-76 


11-0 


37910-2 


2594-49 


003 


6r 


2593-6 


„ 2593-5 „ 


0-75 


11-2 


38532-0 


2571-67 


003 


8r 


2570-5 


„ 2571-0 „ 


M 


11-3 


38873-9 


${2558-12 


0-20 


6b' 


2557-7 


„ 2557-5 „ 


0-74 


11-4 


39079-8 


2546-63 


0-03 


8r 


2545-6 


„ 2546-1 „ 


11 


11-5 


39256-1 


2531-35 


0-10 


6b' 


2530-8 


„ 2530-7 „ 


}) 


S) 


39493-1 


2526-13 


0-10 


lb' 






}T 


11-6 


39574-6 


§§252405 


005 


4r 


2523-4 


„ 2523-5 „ 


)I 




39607-3 


2499-30 


0-20 


lb' 


2499 3 




0-73 


11-7 


39999-5 


2495-80 


0-03 


8r 


2495-0 


,',' 2493-5 „ 


0-73 


11-7 


40055-6 


2491-91 


0-20 


2b' 


2488-0 


„ 2493-5 „ 


tt 


11-8 


401181 


2483-50 


003 


8r 


2482-9 


„ 2483-1 „ 


)1 


If 


402540 


2455-30 


0-03 


4 


2455-5 


») 


0-72 


120 


40716-2 


2433-53 


003 


2 


2433-3 


)» 


ji 


121 


410805 


2429-58 


003 


lOr 


2429-3 


„ 2439-5 „ 


)i 


f f 


41147-3 


2421 78 


0-03 


lOr 


2421 8 


„ 2421-5 „ 


0-71 


12-2 


41279-7 


2408-27 


0-03 


6r 


24080 


„ 2407-9 „ 


It 


12-3 


415113 


2386-96 


0-50 


2n 






)» 


12-4 


41881-5 


2380-82 


0-05 


4r 


2381-1 


»» 


)1 


12-5 


41989-8 


2364-89 


0-20 


2n 




2364-7 „ 


0-70 


12-6 


42272-7 


235805 


005 


4 




2357-7 ., 


1) 




42395-3 


2354-94 


0-03 


lOr 


2355 


„ 2354-5 „ 


n 




42451-3 


2334-89 


0-03 


8r 


2335-3 


„ 2334-3 „ 


)i 


12-8 


42815-8 


2317-32 


0-03 


lOr 


2317-9 


„ 2317-0 „ 


0-69 


12-9 


43140-4 


2286-79 


03 


6r 


2288-1 


„ 2286-9 „ 


1) 


132 


43716-2 


2282-40 


0-03 


4 




2282-5 „ 


11 


tf 


43800-3 


2269-03 


0-05 


lOr 


2270-0 


,, 2275-4? „ 


0-68 


13-3 


44058-4 


2267-30 


0-05 


6r 


2268-6 


)> 


1» 


11 


44092-0 



262 



REPORT — 1894. 



Tin (Abc Spectrum) — continued. 



Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 



2251-29 

224615 

2231-80 

2209-78 

2199-46 

2194-63 

2171-5 

2151-2 

2148-7 

2141-1 

2121-5 

2113-9 

2100-9 

2096-4 

2091-7 

2080-2 

20730 

2068-7 

2063-8 

2058-3 

2053-8 



Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


0-10 


6r 


0-10 


lOr 


0-10 


6r 


0-10 


lOr 


0-10 


lOr 


0-10 


8r 


0-20 


6r 


0-20 


6r? 


0-20 


8r? 


0-20 


lOr 


0-20 


6r 


0-30 


6r 


0-50 


6r 


30 


lOr 


0-50 


6r? 


0-50 


6 


0-50 


8r 


0-50 


6 


0-50 


6 


0-50 


6 


0-50 


6 



Previoijs Measurements 
(Angstrom) 



22510 „ 
2247-0H.&A. 2245-8 L.&D 

2283-2 „ 2231-3 „ 

2210-1 „ 2210-7 „ 

2199-2 „ 2198-7 „ 

2195-0 „ 2194-1 „ 

2151-2 



2119-2? 
2113-6 



2079-3 
2066-1 ? 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.+ 



Oseillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



0-68 


13-4 


»» 


13-5 


J» 


13-6 


0-67 


13-8 


11 


13-9 


• 1 


11 


0-66 


14-1 


11 


143 


1) 


»1 


J» 


14-4 


0-65 


14-6 




14-7 


1i 


14-8 


1» 


11 


0-65 


14-9 




15-3 


0-64 


11 


H 


11 


11 


11 


J» 


If 


11 


If 



44405-6 
44507-1 
44793-3 
45239-6 
45451-8 
45551-9 
460370 
46471-4 
46525-5 
46690-6 
47121-9 
47291-2 
47583-8 
476860 
47793-1 
48057-0 
482240 
48324-2 
48439-0 
48568-5 
486749 



* See Iron. f See Copper. % See Lead. § See Arsenic. 

% See Gold. ** See Barium. -ff See Magnesium. 



XX See Zinc. 



§§ See Silicon. 



Lead (Arc Spectrum). 

Kayser and Eunge : ' Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wissench. zu Berlin,' 1893. 











Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 


Limit of 


Intensity 
and 


Prcviou^s Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 




A.+ 


1 
k 


in Vacuo 


6002-08 


0-10 


2b' 


6001-5 Thalcn 


1-63 


4-5 


16656-4 


5201-65 


0-05 


4b' 


5201-0 „ 


1-42 


5.3 


19219-4 


5005-62 


0-05 


eb' 


[5005-634 Rowland] 


1-37 


5-5 


199721 


4340-65 


0-05 


2 




1-19 


6-4 


23031-6 


4168-21 


003 


4r 


4167-5 Thalen 


114 


6-7 


23984-4 


4062-30 


0-03 


4r 


4061-5H.&A. 


1-12 


6-9 


24609-7 


4057-97 


003 


lOr 


4057-6 „ 


11 


11 


24636-0 


4019 77 


0-05 


4r 


4020-5 „ 4019-0 L.&D. 


1-11 


70 


248700 


374010 


0-03 


8r 


3738-9 „ 3789-3 „ 


1-04 


7-5 


26729-7 


8683-60 


003 


lOr 


[3683-622 Rowland] 


1-02 


7-7 


271.39-7 


3671-65 


003 


4r 


3671-0H.& A. 3670-7 „ 






27228-0 


3689-71 


003 


lOr 


[3639-728 Rowland] 


1-01 


1« 


274670 


3572-88 


003 


8r 


3572-6 H.& A. 3572-0 „ 


0-99 


7-9 


27980-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLKS OK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 263 







Lead 


(Arc Hpectrvm)— continued. 
















Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Measurements 
CAncstrom'i 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 




Character 






X + 


1 
K 


in Vacuo 


*t3262-47 


0-05 


6 




3260-0 L.&D. 


0-92 


8-7 


306432 


:5240-31 


0-05 


6 




3238-6 „ 


0-91 


8-8 


308524 


3220-68 


0-05 


6 


3219-yH.& A. 3219-6 „ 


0-90 




31040-5 


3150-9 


2-00 


4n 






0-89 


9-0 


31728-0 


311909 


0-10 


2 




3118-5 „ 


0-88 


9-1 


32051-5 


2980-29 


0-10 


2 




2981-0 „ 


0-84 


9-6 


33544-2 


2926-84 


0-10 


2b' 






0-83 


9-8 


34156-7 


2873-40 


0-03 


6r 


2872-2 


„ 2872-0 „ 


0-82 


10-0 


347920 


2833-17 


0-03 


lOr 


2832-2 


„ 2832-9 „ 


0-81 


10-2 


35286-0 


2823-28 


0-03 


6r 


2822-1 


„ 2822-5 „ 


0-80 


10-3 


35409-5 


2802-09 


0-03 


8r 


2801-4 


» 2801-1 „ 


ft 


ff 


35677-4 


||§2712-62 


0-10 


25" 






0-78 


10-7 


36854-0 


2697-72 


0-10 


6rn 


2697-2 


„ 2697-0 „ 


0-77 


10-8 


37057-5 


2663 26 


0-03 


6r 


2662-5 


„ 2662-7 „ 


)t 


10-9 


37537-1 


265716 


0-03 


2 






»t 


ft 


37623-3 


2650-77 


1-00 


8n 


2650-0 


„ 2650-5 „ 


0-76 


11-0 


37713-9 


t2628-36 


0-03 


2r 


2627-4 


„ 2627-8 „ 


ij 


11-1 


38035-4 


2614-26 


0-03 


8r 


2613-4 


„ 2613-7 „ 


it 




38240-6 


2613-74 


003 


4r 






0-76 


ll-'l 


38248-3 


2577-35 


005 


6r 


2576-4 


„ 2575-7 ,. 


0-75 


11-3 


38788-2 


2476-48 


003 


6r 


2475-7 


„ 2476-5 „ 


0-73 


11-9 


40368-0 


2446-28 


0-03 


6r 


2445-7 


„ 2446-1 „ 


0-72 


12-0 


40866-3 


**2443-92 


0-03 


6r 


2443-fi 


„ 2443-7 „ 


O 


19 


40905-9 


2428-71 


0-05 


6r 


2427-8 


„ 2428-6 „ 


ti 


12-1 


41162-0 


2411-80 


0-03 


6r 


2411-2 


„ 2411-5 „ 


0-71 


12-3 


41450-5 


2402-04 


0-03 


6r 


2402-1 


„ 2401-8 „ 


>> 


it 


41619-0 


tt2399-69 


0-03 


4r 




2399-4 „ 


>) 


9} 


41659-7 


2393-89 


0-03 


8r 


2393-7 


„ 23937 „ 


)) 


12-4 


41760-6 


2388-89 


0-05 


4r 


2389-0 


„ 2388-8 „ 


»f 


)) 


41848-0 


2332-54 


0-03 


fir 


2333-3 


„ 2332-0 „ 


0-70 


12-8 


42858-9 


2257-53 


0-15 


1 






0-68 


13-4 


44282-8 


2254-02 


0-05 


4r 






it 


ti 


44351-8 


2247-00 


005 


lOr 


2247-9 


»» 


yi 


13-5 


44490-3 


2237-52 


0-05 


8r 


2238-2 


)) 


11 


13-6 


44678-7 


§§2203-57 


0-05 


4 


2204-3 


»» 


067 


13-9 


45367-0 


2187-99 


0-10 


2 






,, 


14-0 


45690-0 


***2175-88 


0-10 


fir 






0-66 


14-1 


45944-3 


2170-07 


0-10 


lOr 


21700 


»i 


1» 


14-2 


46067-3 


21151 


0-10 


8r 






0-65 


14-7 


47264-4 


2112-0 


0-10 


6 






»» 


11 


47333-8 


2088-5 


0-10 


8r 






If 


14-9 


47866-3 



See Tin. f See Lead. || See Zinc. § See Cadmium. 

^ See Iron. ** See Thallium. ff See Mercury. 

§§ Possibly not due to Lead. *♦* See Antimony. 



264 



HEPORT — 1894. 



Arsenic. 

Kayeer and Runge : ' Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin,' 1893. 











Reduction 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


]_ 

X 


3119-69 


003 


4 


3119-2 H. & A. 


0-88 


91 


32045-4 


3075 44 


0-03 


2 


3075-0 „ 


0-87 


9-3 


32506-4 


*3032-96 


0-03 


4 


3032-2 


0-8C 


9-4 


32961-7 


299111 


0-03 


2 


2990-2 


0-85 


9-6 


33422-8 


2898-83 


003 


4r 


2898-2 


0-82 


9-9 


34486-8 


2860-54 


0-03 


6r 


2859-7 


0-81 


10-1 


34948-3 


2780-30 


003 


8r 


2779 5 


0-79 


10-4 


35956-9 


274509 


0-03 


6r 


2744-1 


)♦ 


10-6 


36418-1 


2492-98 


003 


1 


2491-9 „ 


0-73 


11-8 


40100-8 


2456-61 


003 


4r 


24oG-2 


0-72 


12-0 


40694-5 


2437-30 


003 


1 


2436-9 


»» 


12-1 


41016-9 


2381-28 


0-03 


4r 


2381-0 


0-71 


12-5 


41981-7 


2370-85 


0-03 


4r 


2370-8 


0-70 


tt 


42166-5 


2369-75 


0-03 


4r 


2369-7 


») 


9i 


421860 


2363-12 


003 


2 


2362-8 


t» 


12-6 


42304-3 


2349-92 


003 


lOr 


2350 1 


9f 


12-7 


42541-9 


t2288-19 


0-03 


lOr 


2288-9 


0-69 


13-2 


43689-5 


2271-46 


005 


4 


2272-3 


0-68 


13-3 


44011-2 


2266-79 


0-05 


4 


2267-5 


»1 


ft 


44101-9 


2228-77 


0-05 


2 


2230-0 


0-67 


13-6 


44854-2 


220608 


010 


2 


2207-0 


J1 


13-8 


45316-5 


2205-28 


010 


2 




jy 


f J 


453319 


218307 


0-10 


1 


2182-5 




14-0 


45793-0 


217637 


0-10 


1 


2176-8 


0-66 


141 


45934-0 


2165-64 


0-10 


4 


2165-4 


J^ 


H-2 


46161-5 


2144-21 


0-10 


4 


2144-5 


f f 


14-4 


46622-8 


2133-92 


010 


2 


2135-2 




14-5 


46847-6 


211314 


0-10 


2 


2112-2 „ 


0-65 


14-7 


47308-2 


2089-71 


0-10 








14-9 


47838-6 


2089-02 


0-10 






jl 


tf 


47854-4 


2069-96 


010 






064 


15-3 


48294-8 


2067-26 


010 










48357-9 


2065-52 


010 






;t 




48398-7 


2010-23 


0-20 






0-63 


15-7 


49729-8 


12009-31 


0-20 






ij 


»» 


49752-6 



• See Tin. 

t The spectrum of arsenic shows no lines in the visible spectrum, but between 
3000-2000, the lines of arsenic, and in particular 228819 and 2009-31, constantly 
appear as impurities in other metals and in the carbon poles. The lines 228819 and 
2009-31, given as copper lines {Rc]wi-t, 1893, pp. 397, 398). appear to be due to 
arsenic. The ,«/?a?-^spectrum of arsenic, on the other hand, shows some fifty lines in 
the visible portion. 



ON 



WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 265 



Antimony (Arc Spectrum). 
Kayser aud Runge: ' Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wissensch. zu Uerlin,' 1893. 













1 


Reiluof 


ion to 




Wave- 

length 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 
and 


Previ 'i^is Measurements 
(Angstiom) 


Vai-iiuni 


Oscillation 
Fif qucm-y 


j 


1 
A." 


(Rowland) 




Character 








\+ ' 


iu Vacuo 


*5730-52 


0-20 


2b' 








1-56 


4-7 


17445-7 


*5"07-63 


0-20 


In 








»* 


4-8 


17515-6 


*6660-98 


0-20 


In 








154 


)i 


17660-0 


*5632-22 


0-20 


4b' 








It 


»» 


17750-2 


*5568-25 


020 


In 


5567-0 Thal6 


a 


1-52 


4-9 


] 79541 


*r)556-39 


020 


2n 








11 


•» 


17992-4 


*549060 


030 


2 








1-50 


5-0 


18207-9 


4033-70 


0-03 


4 






4032-0 L.&D. 


1-11 


7-0 


24784 1 


3722-92 


0-03 


4 


3722-4 H.&; A 




103 


7-6 


268530 


3637-94 


0-03 


4 


3637-5 


1» 


36370 ., 


1 01 1 


7-8 


27480-3 


3383-24 


0-03 


2 


33820 






95 { 


8-4 


29549-1 


3267-60 


003 


6r 


3267-6 


n 


3265-0 „ 


0-92 


8-7 


.-,0594-8 


3232-61 


003 


6r 


3231-6 


»» 


3230-8 „ 


0-91 


8-8 


30926-0 


3029-91 


003 


6r 


3029-0 


;t 


3028-0 „ 


0-86 


9-4 


32994-9 


2878-01 


003 


lOr 


2877-1 


»? 


2876-5 „ 


0-82 ■ 


100 


34736-2 


2851-20 


003 


2 


2849-9? 






0-81 


101 


35062-8 


277004 


0-03 


8r 


2768-9 


•J 




0-79 


105 


360901 


2727 32 


03 


4 


2726-1 


J' 




0-78 


10-6 


3fi6o5-4 


2719-00 


0-03 


4r 


2717-9 


»j 




11 


107 


36767-5 


2692-35 


0-03 


4r 


2691-3 


i» 




0-77 


10-8 


37131-5 


2682-86 


003 


4r 


2681-7 


n 




" 


,, 


37262-9 


-f2670-73 


0-03 


6r 


2668-9 


)> 




" 


10-9 


37432-0 


2652-70 


0-03 


4 


2651-7 


»f 




0-76 


11-0 


37686-4 


2614-74 


003 


2 


2613-7 


17 




it 


11-1 


38233-6 


2612-40 


0-03 


4r 


2611-3 


»» 




)• 


11 


38267-9 


2598-16 


0-03 


lOr 


2597-2 


1> 


25975 


0-75 


11-2 


38477-6 


2574-14 


0-03 


2 


2572-7 


1* 




J» 


11-3 


38836-6 


2554-72 


003 


2 


2553-3 


11 




0-74 


11-4 


39131-8 


J2528-60 


0-03 


lOr 


2527-6 


11 


2528-0 „ 


fl 


11-6 


395360 


2514-64 


003 


1 


2514-5 


)1 




0-73 


11 


39755-5 


§2510-60 
"2481-81 


0-03 


1 


2509-5 


11 




»l 


11-7 


39819-4 


0-03 


1 


2480-4 


11 




1* 


11-8 


40281-4 


2480-50 


0-03 


2 


2479-4 


n 




)» 


11 


403026 


2474-63 


003 


2 


2473-4 


11 




0-73 


11-9 


40398 3 


2445-59 


0-03 


4r 


2444-8 


»» 




0-72 


12-0 


40877-6 


2426-44 


0-03 


4r 


2425-7 


)1 


2426-0 „ 


11 


12-2 


41200-4 


2422-21 


0-03 


4 


2421-5 


J» 




»» 


l» 


41272-4 


2395-31 


0-03 


2 


2395-3 


'1 




0-71 


12-4 


41735-8 


2383-71 


0-03 


4 


2383-2 


11 


2383-3 „ 


11 


11 


41939-0 


112373-78 


005 


6 


2374-3 


11 




0-70 


12-5 


42114-4 


2360-60 


0-03 


2 


2361-3 


)i 




?J 


12-6 


42349-5 


2352-31 


0-03 


2 


2.353 






If 


12-7 


42498-7 


2329-19 


0-03 


2 


2329-7 


,, 




1» 


12-8 


42920-6 


2311-60 


0-03 


lOr 


2311-8 


M 


2313-0 „ 


0-69 


13-0 


43247-1 


2306-56 


003 


8r 


2306-8 


)> 


2310-0 „ 


11 


11 


43341-0 


2293-54 


0-10 


4 


2294-0 


»1 




11 


13-1 


4,3587-6 


2289-09 


0-10 


4 


2288-8 


11 




11 


11 


436724 


2262-55 


0-20 


6 


2263-5 


>) 




0-68 


13-4 


44184-5 


2225-06 


0-10 


4 


2226-3 


)1 




0-67 


13-7 


44928-9 


2222-10 


0-10 


4 


2223-5 


H 




»t 


11 


44988-8 


2220-85 


0-10 


i 2 


2221-5 


11 




If 


1' 


45014-1 


2212-54 


0-10 


I 1 


2211-3 


11 




»i 


13-8 


45183-1 


1 2208-65 


010 


4 


2209-0 


»» 




fi 


Jr 


452ti2-7 



266 



REPORT — 1894. 



Antimony (Arc Spectrum) — continued. 











Reduction 




Wave- 
length 


Limit 

of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


to Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1 
A. 


2207-86 


0-10 


2 




0-67 


13- 8 


45278-9 


2203-83 


0-10 


2 


2203-8 H. & A. 






45361-7 


2203-13 


0-10 


2 


2202-2 „ 


9) 


13-9 


45376-1 


2201-46 


0-10 


4 


2200-3 „ 






45410-5 


•T2179-33 


0-10 


6r 


2179-0 „ 


0-66 


14-1 


45871-e 


**2175-99 


0-10 


lOr 


2175-8 „ 


99 




45942-0 


2159-32 


0-20 


* \ 


2159-4 „ 




14-3 


46296-6 


215902 


0-20 


4 / 




46303-0 


214510 


0-20 


4 


2144-4 „ 


)t 


14-4 


46603-5 


2141-76 


0-20 


4 


2142-0 „ 






46676-2 


2139-89 


0-20 


4 


2139-3 „ 






46717-0 


2137-21 


0-20 


4 


2135-7 „ 


fi 


14-5 


46775-5 


2127-65 


0-20 


4 


2126-1 „ 


0-65 




46987-9 


2117-28 


0-30 


4 


2118-0 „ 


M 


14-6 


47215-8 


2098-47 


0-30 


6 


2096-4 „ 


»» 


14-8 


47639-0 


2079-55 


0-30 


4 


2075-3 „ 




15-3 


48072-0 


tt2068-54 


0-30 


lOr 


2064-8 „ 


0-64 


» 


48328-0 



* Possibly not due to Antimony. 

I See Silicon. § See Gold. 

^ See Copper. ** See Lead. 



t See Zinc. 
II See Iron, 
ft See Tin. 



Bismuth (Arc Spectrum). 













Reduction to 




Wave. 

length 

(Rowland) 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Prcvioiis Measurements 
(.Angstrom) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


X + 


1_ 

A. 


5742-74 


0-20 


4b' 






1-57 


4-7 


17408-6 


5552-44 


0-20 


8 b' 


5553-0 Thal6n 


1-51 


4-9 


18005-2 


5298-52 


0-20 


2b' 






1-45 


6-2 


18868-0 


4733-91 


0-20 


4b^ 






1-30 


5-8 


21118-4 


4722-72 


0-03 


lOr 


4722-0 „ 




1-29 


l» 


21168-4 


4692-45 


0-03 


1 


4691-5 „ 




1-28 


5-9 


21304-9 


4615-71 \ 
4615-27/ 


0-03 


1 






1-26 


6-0 


21669-1 


0-03 


1 






,, 


^^ 


21661-2 


4493-161 


0-03 


2 






1-23 


6-2 


22249-8 


4492-79/ 


0-03 


2 






»1 


^, 


22251-7 


4308-70 1 
*4308-34/ 


0-03 


4 






1-18 


6-5 


23202-4 


0-03 


4 






«; 




23204-3 


4254-33 


0-03 


In 






1-17 


t» 


23499-0 


412201 \ 
4121-69 


003 
0-03 


6 / 


1119-0? „ 


/ 

L 


1-13 


6-8 


24253-2 
242.55-1 


3888-34 


0-03 


1 






1-07 


7-3 


25710-6 


388805 


003 


1 






»» 


'I 


25712-5 


3596-26 


0-03 


4r 


3595-7 „ 


3595-3 


1-00 


7-8 


27798-9 


3511-00 


003 


4r 


3510-5 „ 


3510-4 


0-98 


8-0 


28473-9 


3405-39 


0-05 


2r 






0-95 


8-3 


29356-9 


3397-31 


0-03 


4r 


3396-7 „ 


3396-2 


1» 


iy 


29426-7 


3076-73 


0-03 


2 


3075-7 „ 




0-87 


9-3 


32492-7 


3067-81 


0-03 


lOr 


3067-1 ., 


3066-0 


»» 


») 


32587-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE 


SPECTRA OF 


THE 


ELEMENTS. Zb7 






Bismuth 


(Arc SvECTRVny—eontinued. 












i 


Reduction to 




Wave- 

lengtii 

(Rowland) 


Limit of 
Error 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


1 
1 
Previous Measurements 
(Angstrom) 


Vacu 

A.+ 


um 

1_ 
\ 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


t3034-09 


0-05 


4b' 


3034-5 Thalen 


0-86 


9-4 


32939 6 


113024-75 


0-03 


8r 


3023-8 „ 


3023-5 


yt 


9-5 


33051-1 


2993-46 


0-03 


8r 


2992-2 „ 




0-85 


9-6 


33396-6 


2989-15 


0-03 


8r 


2988-1 „ 




J» 


,, 


33444-7 


2944-38 


0-10 


In 


2942-4 „ 




0-84 


9-8 


33953-2 


§2938-41 


0-03 


lOr 


2937-5 „ 


2937-4 


0-83 


M 


34022-2 


2898-08 


0-03 


lOr 


2897-2 „ 


2897-0 


0-82 


9-9 


34495-7 


2892-98 


0-10 


In 






n 


10-0 


34656-4 


2883-88 


0-10 


In 






)» 


)» 


34665-5 


2863-86 


0-05 


4 


2862-5 „ 


2862 


0-81 


10-1 


34907-8 


2809-74 


0-03 


8r 


2808-4H.&A.2810-0L. & D. 


0-80 


10-3 


35580-2 


2798-75 


0-03 


4 


2798-0 „ 


2799-0 „ 


,, 


10-4 


35719-8 


2780-57 


0-03 


8r 


2779-3 „ 


2780-0 „ 


0-79 


»? 


35953-4 


2730-61 


0-03 


6r 


2729-3 „ 


2730-0 „ 


0-78