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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

^.I-A 



REPOET 



OF THE 



SIXTY-FIFTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



'■> 



""m: 

* "*-* 






IPSWICH IN SEPTEMBEK 1895. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1895. 

Office of the Association -. Burlington House, London, W. 



PRIXTED BV 

3P0TTISW00DE AND CO., XEW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDON- 



CONTENTS. 



■>■ 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xxxviii 

Trustees and General Officers, 1831-1895 ; 1 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... li 

List of Evening Lectures Ixi.x 

Lectures to the Operative Classes l.xxii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Ipswich Meeting Ixxiii 

Officers and Council, 1895-96 Ixxv 

Treasurer's Account Ixxv i 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxx 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Ipswich Meet- 
ing in September 1895 Ixxxiv 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso xciii 

Regulations regarding Grants of Money xciv 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable xciv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcv 

Places of Meeting in 1896 and 1897 xcvi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes xcvii 

General Meetings cxii 

Address by the President, Sir DoiGL.is Galtox, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.... 3 

A 2 



iv REPORT — 1895. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark f indicates the same, 
but a referejice is given to the jotirnal or newspaper where it is published in extenso.] 



Page 
Corresponding Societies. — -Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor R. 
Mbldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary), Mr. Francis Galton, 
Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson, Sir John Eyans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. 
VV. Whitaker, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and Rev. 
Canon H. B. Tristram 39 

Underground Temperature. — Tweuty-first Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. D. Everett (Chairman and Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Mr. 
G. J. SrMONS, Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaishee, Professor E. Hull, Pro- 
fessor J. Peestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Hbeschel, 
Professor G. A. Leboue, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. 
Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Professor MiCHiE Smith. (Drawn up by Professor Everett) 75 

The Uniformity of Size of Pages of Scientific Societies' Publications. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor S. P. Thompson (Chairman), 
Mr. G. H. Bryan, Dr C. V. Burton, Mr. R. T. Glazebeook, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stonet, and Mr. J. Swinburne (Secretary) 77 

Comparison of Magnetic Instruments. — Interim report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. W. Ruckee (Chairman), Mr. W. Watson (Secre- 
tary), Professor A. Schuster, and Professor H. H. Tuener, appointed to 
confer with the Astronomer Royal and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
with a view of carrying out such Comparison 79 

The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Pheno- 
mena. — Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons 
(Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, and Mr. A. W. 
Clatden (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary) 80 

Solar Radiation. — Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. C, 
Stokes (Chairman), Profes.sor A. Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Sir H. E. Roscoe. Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. C. Chree, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and Professor Heebeet McLeod, appointed 
to consider the best Methods of Recording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation 81 

Investigation of the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. Four- 
teenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord Kelvin, Professor 
W. 6. Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, Professor A. H. Greex, Professor 
C. G. Knott, and Professor John Milne (Secretary). (Drawn up by the 
Secretar v) ". 81 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
I. The Gray. Milne Seismograph 81 

II. Observations with Horizontal Pendulums 84 

(a) The Instruments 85 

(6) Observations at Kamakura 88 

(c) The Diagrams 90 

(d) The Movements of the Pendulums 90 

(e) Earthquakes 91 

(/) The Observations in Tokio 94 

{ff) Sensitiveness of the Instruments 94 

(A) DailyTilting 95 

{{) Extract from Journal of Records obtained in 1894 96 

(j) The Wandering of the Pendulums 99 

'k) Movements of Water in a Well 104 

(Z) An Experiment on Evaporation 106 

(ot) Effects produced by emptying a Well 107 

(w) Earthquakes 108 

(o) Tremors 109 

(p) Observations at Yokohama and Kanagawa 109 

(y) Conclusions 110 

III. The Tokio Earthquakes of June 20, 1894 Ill 

IV. Miscellaneous 112 

Investigation of the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan, Fif- 
teenth Eeport of the Committee, consisting of the Right Hon. Lord 
Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottomlet, Professor A. H. 
Gkeen, Professor C. G. Knott, and Professor John Milne (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 113 

I. The Gray-Milne Seismograph 113 

II. Observations with Horizontal Pendulums 115 

(a) The Instruments, Installation, Character of Movements 115 

(b) Daily Wave Records 122 

(c) Tremors, Microseismic Disturbauces, or Earth Pulsations 126 

(d) The Slow Displacement of Pendulums 128 

(e) Periodic movements of several days' duration, and wandering 

of the pendulums 129 

(/) The Daily Change in the Position of the Pendulums 1 30 

iff) The Diurnal Wave 131 

(A) Tremors 139 

(t) Meteorological Tables for Tokio 143 

(_/) Earthquakes recorded by Horizontal Pendulums in Tokio 147 

III. Description of a Catalogue of 8,33] Earthquakes recorded in Japan 

between January 1885 and December 1892 149 

(a) History of the Catalogues 149 

(b) Explanation of the Catalogues 151 



vi REPORT — 1895. 

Page 
(e) Object of tbe Catalogues 153 

(d) Results already obtained or shown by the Catalogue and Map 

of Centres 1 55 

IV. On the Velocities with which Waves and Vibrations are propa- 

gated on the surface of and through Rock and Earth. 
(Compilation) 158 

Introduction 158 

(«) Observations on Artificially Produced Disturbances. Experi- 
ments of Mallet, Abbot, FoiiQirE and Levy, Geay, and 
Milne 159 

{b) Observations on Earthquakes. Where the wave paths have 
been short : (Milne and Omori). Where the wave paths 
have been long : (Newcombe and Dutton, Agamennone, 
Ricco, Cancani, von Rebeue-Pascbtwitz, Milne) 163 

(c) The Probable Nature and Velocity of Propagation of Earth- 

quake Motion. The suggestions of Dr. C. G. Knott, Lord 
Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin 170 

(d) The Paths followed by Earthquake Motion. Hypotheses of 

Hopkins and Sbebach, Schmidt, and a suggestion by the 
writer 173 

(e) Conclusions 178 

V. Miscellaneous Notes relating to Large Earthquakes, &c 179 

Appendix. — On Causes producing Movements which may be Mistaken 
for Earth Tremors 182 

Earth Tremors. — Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. C. Davison (Secretary), Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. 
Daewin, Professor J. A. Ewing, Dr. Isaac Robeets, Mr. Thomas Gray, 
Sir John Evans, Professors J. Prestwich, E. Hull, G. A. Lebotjr, R. 
Meldola, and J. W. JtfDD, Mr. M. Walton Brown, Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
and Dr. R. Copeland, appointed for the Investigation of Earth Tremors in 
this country. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 184 

Appendix. — Note on the History of the Horizontal and Bifilar Pen- 
dulums. By C. Davison 184 

Metejrological Observations on Ben Nevis. -Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Crtsu Brown (Secretary), 
Dr. John Mueray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, Hon. Ralph Abeeceomby, 
and Professor R. Copeland. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan) 186 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for Elec- 
trical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Caeey Fostee (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Professors 
Ayrton, J. Peeey, and W. G. Adams, Drs. 0. J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, 
and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. Preece and Herbert Taylor, Professor 
J. D. Everett, Professor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors 
G. F. FitzGerald, G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, Messrs. R. T. Glaze- 
brook (Secretary) and W. N. Shaw, Rev. T. 0. Fitzpateick, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley. Professor J. Vieiamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, and Mr. E. H. Geipfiths 195 

Appendix.— On Magnetic Units. By Dr. 0. J. Lodge 197 

Remarks on the above. By Professor Everett 207 

Remarks on the above. By Professor G. Carey Foster 
and Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney 208 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Compai'ison and Reduction of Mag-iietic Observations. — Iteport ot the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor AV. G. Adams (Chairman), Mr. C. Cheee 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor G. Chrtstal, 
Professor A. Schuster, (Japtain E. W. Creak, The Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. William Ellis, and Professor A. W. Rijckee. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 209 

Analysis of the Results from the Kew Declination and Horizontal 
Force Magnetographs during the selected " Quiet " Days of the 
Five Years 1890-94, By C. Cheee, Sc.D 209 

Sections 1-3. — Introductory 209 

Sections 4-6. — Non-cyclic Nature of Results obtained from " Quiet " 
Days 210 

Sections 7-8. — Tables of Diurnal Inequalities for each Month of Year, 
for Quarters, Halves, and Whole Year 213 

Sections 9-10. — Harmonic Analysis of Diurnal Inequalities ; Times 
of Maxima, &c 216 

Sections 11-12. — Resultant of Horizontal Forces to which Diurnal 
Inequality is due , 218 

Sections 13-15. — Variation of Ranges and Sums of Departures from 
Mean for Day throughout the Year, with Harmonic A.nalysis of Ranges 221 

Sections 16-20. — Annual Inequalities (or Cyclic Part of Yearly 
Variations) 228 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor H. E. Armstrong 
(Secretary), Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. George Gladstone, Sir John 
Lttbjbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson 228 

Quantitative Analysis by means of Electrolysis. — Second Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolds (Chairman), Dr. C. A. 
KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Frankland, Professor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh 
Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Mr. D. H. Nagel, Mr. T. Turner, and 
Mr. J. B. Coleman 235 

The Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the -Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. McLeod, Professor W. C. Roberts Austen, Mr. H. G. Madan, 
and Mr. D. H. Nagel 263 

The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. T. E. Thorpe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), Dr. 
W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. Russell, Captain W. de W. Abney, 
Professor W. Stroud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 263 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Ninth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
(Drawn up by Professor Armstrong) 272 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors Dewar, G. D 
Liveing, a. Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and 
Captain Abney. (Drawn up by Dr. Watts) 273 

The Production of Haloids from Pure Materials. — Report of a Committee con- 
sisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
Mr. C. H. BoTHAMLET, and Mr. W. A. Shenstonb (Secretary) 341 



viii REPOET — 1895. 

Page 
How shall Agriculture best obtain the Help of Science ? By Professor R. 
Warington, M.A., F.R.S 341 

High-level Flint-drift of tbe Chalk. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. B. Haekison (Secretary), Professor J. 
Prestwich, and Professor H. G. Seejlet. Drawn up by Mr. B, Harrison o49 

The Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius — Final Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. H. Bauerman (Chairman), Dr. H. J. Johnston Lavis 
(Secretary), Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Mr. J. J. H. Teall, appointed for the 
purpose of Investigating the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius and its 
Neighbourhood 351 

The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and Wales, and the In- 
fluence of the Artificial Abstraction of Shingle or other Material in that 
Action. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. 
Whitaker (Chairman), Messrs. J. B. Redman and J. W. Woodall, 
Major-Qeneral Sir A. Clarke, Admiral Sir E. Ommannet, Admiral Sir 
George Nares, Captain J. Parsons, Admiral W. J. L. Wharton, 
Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. Edward Easton, Mr. J. S. Valentine, 
Professor L F. Veenon Harcouet, and the late Mr. W. Toplet, and 
Mr. C. E. De Range (Secretaries). (Drawn up by C. E. De Range) 352 

Appendix I. — Summary of Previous Reports 354 

Appendix II. — Information received and collected since 1888 359 

Appendix III. — Various Scheduled Returns : Replies to Printed 
Queries circulated by the Committee 372 

Appendix IV. — Second Chronological List of Works on the Coast- 
changes and Shore- deposits of England and Wales. By W. 
Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E -388 

Structure of a Coral Reef. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor T. G. Bonnet (Chairman), Professor W. J. Sollas (Secretary), 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors A. H. Green, J. W. Judd, C. Lap- 
worth, A. C. Haddon, BoydDawkins, G, H. Darwin, S. J. Hickson, and 
A. Stewart, Admiral W. J. L. Whakton, Drs. H. Higks, J. Mueeat, 
AV. T Blanford, Le Neve Foster, and H. B. Guppt, Messrs. F. Darwin, 
H. 0. Forbes, G. C. Bourne, A. R. Binnie, J. W. Gregory, and J. C. 
Hawkshaw, and Hon. P. Fawgett, appointed to consider a project for 
investigating the Structure of a Coral Reef by Boring and Sounding 392 

The Circulation of Undergromid Waters. — Twenty-first Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr E. Hull (Chairman), Sir Douglas Galton, Mr. 
J. Glaisher, Mr. Percy Kendall, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. E. B. 
Maeten, Mi. G. H. Moeton, Professor Prestwich, and Messrs. I. Roberts, 
Thos. S. Stooke, G. J. Symons, C. Ttlden- Weight, C. Wetheeed, 
W. Whitakee, and C. E De Range (Secretary). (Drawn up by C. E. De 
Range) ." 393 

Appendix. Second List of Works. By W. Whitaker 394 

Cetiosaurus Remains. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
A. H. Green (Chairman), Mr. James Parker (Secretary), the Earl of 
DuGiE, Professor E. Rat Lankester, and Professor H. G. Seelby, 
appointed to examine the Ground from which the Remains of the Cetiosaurus 
in the Oxford Museum were obtained, with a View to determining whether 
other parts of the same Animal remain in the Rock 403 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom.— Sixth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), Professor 
T. G. Bonnet, Dr. Tempest Anderson, the late Dr. Vaientine Ball, 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. James E. Bedford, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Edjiund J . 
Gakwood, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Robert 
Kidston, Professor T. McKenny Hughes, Mr. Arthur S. Reid, Mr. 
J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Mr. W. W. Watts, Mr. Horace B. 
Woodward, and Mr. Osmund W. Jeffs (Secretary). (Drawn up bv the 

Secretary) . •104 

Stonesfield Slate.— Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. B. 
Woodward (Chairman), Mr. E. A. Walfoed (Secretary), Professor A. H. 
Green, Dr. H. Woodavard, and Mr. J. Windoes, appointed to open further 
sections in the neighbourhood of Stonesfield in order to show the relation- 
ship of the Stonesfield Slate to the underlying and overlying strata. 
(Drawn up by Mr. Edwin A. Walford, Secretary ) 414 

The Fossil Phyllopoda of tlie Palteozoic Rocks. — Twelfth Report of the Qom- 
mittee, consisting of Professor T. Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
Professor T. Rupert Jones) 41G 

Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland. — Twenty-second Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professors E. Hull (Chairman), J. Prest- 
wicH, W. Boyd Dawkins, T. McK. Hughes, T. G. Bonnet, Messrs. C. E. 
De RiNCE, P. F. Kendall (Secretary), R. H. Tiddeman, and J. W. 
WooDALL, and Professor L. C. Miall. (Drawn up by the Secretary) ... 426 

Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland. — Twenty-third Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Professor J. 
Prestwich, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor T. McK. Hughes, 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. De Rance, Mr. P. F. Kendail (Secre- 
tary), Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Mr. J. W. Woodall, and Professor L. C. 
Miall. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 430 

Some Suff^olk Well-sections.— By W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Assoc.Inst.C.E 4.S0 

On the Dip of the Undergi-ound Palseozoic Rocks at Ware and Cheshunt. By 
Joseph Francis, M.Inst.C.E 441 

Physiological Applications of the Phonograph. — Report by the Committee, 
consisting of Professor John G. McKendrick (Chairman), Professor G. G. 
Murray, Mr. David S. Wingate, and Mr. John S. McKendrick, on the 
Physiological Applications of the Phonograph, and on the True Form of the 
Voice-curves made by the Instrument 4.54 

The Marine Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irish Sea. — Third Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor G. B. 
Howes, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. I. C. Thompson, 
Mr. A. O. Walker, Professor F. E. Weiss, and Professor W. A. 

Herdman (Chairman and Re^jorter) 4.55 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Fifth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blan- 
FORD, Dr. S. J. HiCKSON, Professor C. V. Riley, Mr. 0. Salvin, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 467 

Investigations made at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at 
Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bourne 
(Chairman), Professor E. Ray Lankester (Secretary), Professor M. 

Foster, and Professor S. H. Vines 469 

I. — On a Blood-forming Organ in the Larva of Magelona. By 

Florence Buchanan, B.Sc 469 

11. — On the Nervous System of the Embryonic Lobster. By Edgar J. 

Allen, B.Sc 470 

III. — On the Echinoderm Fauna of Plymouth, By J. C. Sumner 471 



X REPORT — 1895. 

Page 
The Present State of our Knowledge ot tlie Zoology and Botany of the West 
India Islands, and on taking Steps to investigate ascertained Deficiencies in 
the Fauna and Flora. — Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
P. L. ScLATEE (Chairman), Mr. CIeokge Murray (Secretary), Mr. W. 
Caretjthers, Dr. A. C. L. G. Gunther, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. DuCane 
GoDMAN, and Professor A. Newton 472 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of a Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. II. Wood- 
ward, and Mr. W. L. Sclater (Secretary), appointed for superintending 
the Compilation of an Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 473 

Migration of Birds. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. 
Newton (Chairman), Mr. John Cordeaux (Secretary), Mr. J. A. Harvie- 
Brown, Mr. Wm. Eagle Clarke, Mr. R. M. Barrington, and the Rev. 
E. PoNSONBY Kntjbley, appointed to make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Light-vessels 473 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater, Professor E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor J. Cossar Ewart, Professor M. Foster, Professor S. J. IIickson, 

Mr. A. Sedgwick, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary) 474 

Appendix I. — The Maturation and Fecundation of the Ova of certain 

Echinoderms and Tunicates. By M. D. Hill 475 

Appendix II. — List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1, 1894, to June 30, 1895 477 

Appendix III. — List of Papers which were published in 1894 by 
Naturalists who have occupied Tables in the Zoological Station 478 

The Climatology of Africa. — Fourth Report of a Committee, consisting of 
Mr. E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Mr. Baldwin Lathaji, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. H. N. Dickson, and Dr. II. R. Mill (Secretary). (Drawn up 
by the Chairman) 480 

The Exploration of Southern Arabia. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. H. Seebohm (Chairman), Mr. J. Theodore Bent (Secretary), 
Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, Dr. J. G. G arson, and Mr. G. W. Bloxam. 
(Drawn up by Mr. Bent) 491 

Calibration of Instruments used in Engineering Laboratories. — Report of a 
Committee, consisting of Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S. (Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Ewing, F.R.S. , Professor D. S. Capper, Professor T. H. 
Beare, and Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
the Secretary) 497 

An Ancient Kitchen Midden at Hastings, and a Barrow at the Wildernesse. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. 
W. J. Lewis Abbott (Secretary), Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 500 

Anthropometric Measurements in Schools.— Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Macalister (Chairman). Professor B. Windle 
(Secretary), Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. Cleland, and Dr. J. G. 
Garson 503 

Mental and Physical Defects of Children.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir Douglas Galton (Chairman), Dr. Francis Warner (Secretary), 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, and Dr. Wilberfoece Smith. 

(Report drawn up by the Secretary) 503 

Appendix I. — Defects enumerated individually and in groups as 

distributed amongst the Nationalities and Social Classes, &c 506 

Appendix II. — Groups of Children and their Percentage Distribution 
on the numbers seen and numbers noted 508 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Etbnograpliical Survey of the United Kingdom. — Third Eeport of the Com- 
mittee, consisting ofMr. E. \V. Brabeook (Chairman), Mr. Francis Galton, 
Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Professor A. C. Haddon, Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
KoMiLLT Allen, Dr. J. Bedboe, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, i\Ir. Arthur Evans, Sir H. Howorth, Professor R. 
Meldola, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, and Mr. E. Sidney 
Hartland (Secret ary) . (Drawn up by the Chairman ) 509 

Appendix I. — Circular to local Societies 511 

Appendix II. — Circular to Medical Men 512 

Appendix III.— Explanatory Nof.es, by Mr. E. Sidney Hartland ... 513 

The Lake Village of Glastonbury. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. R. MuNEO (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Sir 
John Evans, General Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. A. Bulleid (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Chairman and Secretary) '. 519 

I.— Report. By Dr. R. MuNRO 519 

II. — Report on the "Work carried on during the past year. By 
Arthur Bulleid 520 

On the North- Western Tribes of Canada. — Tenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. B, Tylor, Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Haliburton, 

andMr. H.Hale 522 

Fifth Report on the Indians of British Columbia. By Feanz Boas ... 523 



xii REPORT — 1895. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Page 
Address by Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S., President of the 
Section 595 

1. On the Reicbsanstalt, Chariot tenburg, Berlin. By Sir Douglas Galton, 
K.O.B G06 

2. On the Teaching of Geometrical Drawing in Schools. Bv 0. Henrtci, 
F.E.S " G08 

3. *Interim Report on Cosmic Dust GOO 

4. Report on Underground Temperature 609 

5. Report on the Sizes of the Pages of Periodicals 009 

6. Report on the Reduction of Magnetic Observation 609 

7. Report on the Comparison of Magnetic Instruments 600 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
A joint Meeting with Section B. 

1. The Refraction and Viscosity of Argon and Helium. By Lord Ratleigh, 

Sec. R.S ; 609 

2. On Specific Refraction and the Periodic Law, with reference to Argon and 
other Elements. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S GOO 

3. *A Discussion ' On the Evidence to be Gathered as to the Simple or Com- 
pound character of a Gas, from the Constitution of its Spectrum.' Opened 

by Professor A. Schtjstee and Lord Rayleigh GIO 

4. The Constituents of Cleveite Gas. By C. Runge and F. Paschen 610 

5. On Motions competent to produce Groups of Lines which have been 
observed in Actual Spectra. By G. Johnstone Signet, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S 610 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 
I. Mathematics. 

1. *0n the Translational and Vibrational Energies of Vibrators after Impacts 

on fixed Walls. By Lord Kelvin, Pres. R.S 612 

2. On Bicyclic Vortex Aggregates. By Professor W. M. Hicks, F.R.S 612 

3. On Hill's Spherical Vortex. .By Professor AV. M. Hicks, F.R.S 612 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

4. Oa a Dynamical Top. By G. T. Walkbk, M.A 613 

5. *Suggestions as to Matter and Gravitation in Professor Hicks's Cellular 

Vortex Theory. By C. V. Burton, D.Sc G13 

6. *0n the Graphical Representation of the Partition of Numbers. By 

Major P. A. Macmahon, F R.S 613 

7. On a New Canon Arithmeticus. By Lt.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E. 613 

8. On Mersenne's Numbers. By Lt.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E 614 

9. Recent Developments of the Lunar Theory. By P. H. Cowell, M.A ... G14 

10. The Relation between the Morphological Symmetry and the Optical 

Symmetry of Crystals. By William Baelow 617 

11. On a Species of Tetrahedron the Volume of any member of which can be 
determined without employing the proof of the proposition that Tetrahedra 
on equal bases and having equal altitudes are equal, which depends on 

the Method of Limits. By Professor M. J. M. Hill, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 619 

12. On Absolute and Relative Motion. By Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S. 620 

13. On the Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid. By W. 11. 

Everett, B.A 620 

14. On the Law of Error in the Case of Correlated Variations. By S. II. 
BuRBURY, F.R.S ." 621 

Department II. Meteorology. 

1. Probable Projection Lightning Flashes. By Eric Stuart Bruce, M.A. , 
Oxou., F.R.Met.Soc. 624 

2. Report on Solar Radiation 625 

3. Report on Earth Tremors 625 

4. Reportsou Earthquakes in Japan 625 

5. On some Experiments made with Lord Kelvin's Portable Electrometer. 

By Arthur Schuster, F.R S 625 

6. On Indian Thunderstorms. By C. Michie Smith 626 

7 *0n the Zodiacal Light considered as an Atmospheric Phenomenon. By 

W. H. Wood 626 

8. *0n the Local Origin of the Aurora Borealis. By W. H. Wood 626 

9. Report on the Application of Photography to Meteorology 626 

10. Report on the Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 626 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *A Discussion ' On the Objective Character of Combination Tones ' 626 

Notes on the Objective Existence of Combination Tones. By A. ^^^ 

RiJCKER, M.A., F.R.S 626 

2. *A Discussion ' On a New Practical Heat Standard.' Introduced by a 
Paper by E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S 628 

3 On the Thermal Conductivities of Mixtures of Liquids. By Charles 
H. Lees, D.Sc 628 

4. A Method of Comparing the Heats of Evaporation of Different Liquids 

at their Boiling Points By Professor W. Ramsay, Ph.D., F.R.S., and 
Miss Dorothy Marshall, B.Sc 628 

5. tOn a Harmonic Analyser. By G. U. Yule 630 



xiv REPORT 1895. 

TUESDAY, .SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 

1. On the Electrification and Diselectrification of Air and other Gases. By 
Lord Kelvin, Magnus Maclean, and Alexander Galt 630 

2. Do Vertical (Earth-Air) Electric Currents exist in the United King- 
dom ? By A. W. RiJCKER, F.R.S 633 

3. *0n the Equation connecting the Potential Difference, Current, and 
Length of the Electric Arc. By Mrs. Atrton 634 

4. *0n the hack E.M.F and True Eesistance of tlie Arc. By Professor 

W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and T. Mather 634 

5. Note on the Electrolysis of Iron Salts. By W. M. Hicks, F.R.S., and 

L. T. O'Shea '. 634 

6. *0n a Magnetic Field Tester. By Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., 
and T. Mather 635 

7. On the Velocity of Light in Rarefied Gases through which an Electrical 

Discharge is passing. By Edwin Edsee, A.H.C.S., and Stdnet G. 
Starling, A.R.C.S 635 

8. On the Hysteresis of Iron in an Alternating Magnetic Field. Bv 

Francis G. Bailt, M.A ".. 636 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. On the Change of Molecular Refraction in Salts or Acids dissolved in 
Water. By Dr. .T. II. Gladstone, F.R.S., and Walter Hibbert, F.I.C. 637 

2. Report on Electrical Standards 637 

3. On the Choice of Magnetic Units. By Professor Silvanus P. Thomp- 

son, F.R.S ■ 637 

4. *0n some New Methods and Apparatus for the Delineation of Alternate 
Current Wave Forms. By J. M. Bark, W. B. Bfrnie, and Charles 
RODGEES 638 

5. *0n Alternating Wave Tracers. By Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., 
andT. Mather 638 

6. *0n the Relation between Speed and Voltage in Electric Motors. By 
Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and T. Mather .". 638 

7. *0n some recent Improvements in Measurements of High Temperatures. 
Illustrated hy Apparatus recently acquired hy the Kew Observatory 
Committee. By E. H. Griffith.s, F.R.S 638 



Section B. -CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., For.Sec.C.S., President of the 
Section 639 

1. A New View of the Genesis of Dalton's Atomic Theory, derived from 

Original Manuscripts. By Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., and Arthur 
Harden '. 656 

2. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 656 

3. The Action of Nitric Oxide on some Metallic Salts. By H. A. Audbn, 

B.Sc, and G. J. Fowler, MSc 656 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

4. On the Eespirability of Air in which a Candle Flame has burnt until it 

is extinguished. By Frank Clowes, D.Sc C58 

5. The Action of Light upon the Soluble Metallic Iodides in presence of 

Cellulose. By Douglas J. P. Berridge, B.A 658 

6. Second Report on Quantitative Analysis by means of Electrolysis 6.59 

7 Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 6-59 

3I0NBAY, SEPTEMBER IG, 

t A Discussion in conjunction with Section K (Botany) on the Relation of 
Agriculture to Science 660 

How shall Agriculture best obtain Help from Science ? By Professor R. 
Wakington, F.R.S 660 

* Agriculture and Science. By T. Hexdeick 660 

* The Application of Science to Agriculture. By M. R. J. Dunstan 660 

1. Work at the Agricultural Experimental Stations in Suffolk and Norfolk. 

By T. B. Wood 660 

2. Report on the Preparation of Haloids from Pure M aterials 660 

o. Interim Report of the Committee on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy ... 660 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Some Remarks on Orthochromatic Photography. By Dr. H. W. Yogel 660 

2 On the Sensitising Action of Dyes on Gelatino-bromide Plates By 
C. H. Bothamley 661 

3. Report of the Committee on the Action of Light on Dyed Colours 662 

4. On .some Stilbene Derivatives, By J.J. Stjdboeough, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.I.C. 662 

5. Note on the Constitution of Camphoric Acid. By J. J. Sudborgugh, 
D.Sc, Ph.D., F.I.C 063 

6. *Experimental Proofs of van 't HofF's Constant, Dalton's Law, &c., for very 

Dilute Solutions. By Dr. M. Wildermann 663 

7. The Formation and Properties of a New Organic Acid. By Hexet J. 
HoRSTMAiT Fenxon, M.A 663 

8. On the Velocity of Reaction before Perfect Equilibrium takes place. By 

Meter Wildermann, PhD 663 

9. Chemical History of Barley Plants. By C. F. Cross and C. Smith 665 



Section C- GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER \2. 

Address by W. Whitakee, B.A, F.R.S., F.G S., President of the 
Section...' 666 

1. The Southern Character of the Molluscan Fauna of the Coralline Crag 
tested by au analvsis of its characteristic and abundant species. By 

F. W. Harmer, F.G S 675 

2. On the Derivative Shells of the Red Crag. By F. W. Harmer, F.G.S. 676 



xvi REPORT — 1895. 

Page 
o. On the Stratigraphy of the Crag-, with especial reference to the Distribution 
of the Foraminifera. By II. W. Burrows 677 

4. Note on a Section at the North Clift', Southwold. By Horace B. 
Woodward, F.G.S 678 

5. On Recent Coast Erosion at Southwold and Covehithe. By John 
Spiller, F.C.S 678 

6. Observations on East Anglian Boulder Clay. By Rev. E. Hill, M.A., 
F.G.S ." 679 

7. Indications of Ice-raft Action through Glacial Times. By Rev. E. Hill, 
M.A., F.G.S ' 679 

8. On Traces of an Ancient Watercourse. By Rev. E. Hill, M.A., F.G S. 679 

9 Further Notes on the Arctic and Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne. Bv 
' Clement Reid, F.L.S., F.G.S., and H. N. Ridlet, M.A., F.L.S .'. 679 

10. Some Suffolk Well-sections. By W. Whitakbr, F.R.S 680 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.3. 

1 . On Pitch Glaciers or Poissiers. By Professor W. J. Sollas, D.Sc, F.R.S. 680 

2. *Notes on the Cromer Excursion. By Clement Reid, F.G.S 681 

3. On the Tertiary Lacustrine Formations of North America. By Pro- 
fessor W. B. Scott ' 681 

4. The Glacial Age in Tropical America. By R. Blake White 682 

5. On Pre-Glacial Valleys in Northamptonshire. By Beeby Thompson, 
F.C.S., F.G.S .' 683 

6. Notes on some Tarns near Snowdon. By W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S. 683 

7. *Interim Report on the High-level Shell-bearing Deposits of Clava, &c. 684 

8. *Interim Report on the Calf Hole Cave Exploration 684 

9. Report on the High-level Flint Drift of the Chalk 684 

10. Report on the Rate of Erosion of Sea Coasts 684 

11. Final Report on Underground Waters 684 

12. On Modern Glacial Striae. Bv Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S., and 

J. Lomas, A.R.C.Sc ." 684 

1 3. Notes on the Ancient Physiography of South Essex. By T. V. Holmes 685 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Restorations of some European Dinosaurs, with Suggestions as to their 
Place among the Reptilia. By Professor O. C. Marsh 685 

2. Report on the Investigation of the Locality where the Cetiosaurus Remains 

in the Oxford Museum were found 688 

3. Preliminary Notice of an Exposure of Rhaetic Beds, near East Leake, 
Nottinghamshire. (Fourth Contribution to Rhaetic Geology.) By 
Montagu Browne, F.G.S., F.Z S 688 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. Probable Extension of the Seas during Upper Tertiary Times in Western 
Furope. By G. F, Dollfus 690 



CONTEXTS. XVH 

Page 
2. *0n the Present State of our Knowledge of the Upper Tertiary Strata of 
Belgium. By E. van dek Broek 691 

S. *0n the Discovery of Fossil Elephant Eemains at Tilloun (Charente). 

By Maecelltn Bottle 691 

4, *0n Earth Movements observed in Japan. By J. Milne, E.E.S 691 

■5. Reports on the Volcanic and Seismological Phenomena of Japan 691 

■6. Final Report on the Volcanic Phenomena of Vesuvius 691 

7. Report on Earth Tremors 691 

8. Interim Report on the Investigation of a Coral Reef 691 

■9. Report on Geological Photographs 691 

10. The Auriferous Conglomerates of the Witwatersrand, Transvaal. By 
Frederick H. Hatch, Ph.D., F.G.S 691 

11. Report on the ' Stonesfield Slate' 692 

12. On the Strata of the Shaft sunk at Stonesfield, Oxon, in 1895. By 
Edavin a. Walpord, F.G.S 692 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Trial-boring at Stutton. By AV. Whitaker, F.R.S 693 

2. The Dip of the Underground Palteozoic Rocks at Ware and at Cheshunt. 

By Joseph Francis, M.Inst.C.E 69?. 

3. On the Importance of extending the Work of the Geological Survey of 

Great Britain to the Deep-seated Rocks by means of Boring. By F. W. 
Harmer, F.G.S 693 

4. The Cladodonts of the Upper Devonian of Ohio. By Professor E. W. 

Claypole, D.Sc. (Lond.) 694 

5. The Great Devonian Placoderms of Ohio, with Specimens. By Professor 

E. AV. Claypole, D.Sc. (Lond.) 695 

•6. Notes on the Phylogeny of the Graptolites. By Professor H. A.. 
Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., and J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S., 
Sec. G.S 695 

7. Zonal Divisions of the Carboniferous System. By E. J. Garwood, 
M.A., F.G.S., and J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 696 

8. Twelfth Report on Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 696 

9. *Interim Report on the Eurypterid-bearing Deposits of the Pentland Hills 696 

10. On some Decapod Crustacea from the Cretaceous Formation of Van- 
couver's Island, &c. By Henry Woodward, F.R.S 696 

11. *Interim Report on the Registration of Type Specimens 697 

12. Twenty-third Report on Erratic Blocks 697 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY (INCLUDING ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY). 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor William A. Herdman,D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 

President of the Section 698 

1. Third Report on the Marine Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irish Sea 714 

2. Interim Report on the Migration of Birds 714 

1895. a 



xviii REPORT — 1895. 

Page 

3. Fifth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 714 

4. Eeport on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 714 

5. Eeport on Investigations made at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological 

Association at Plymouth 714 

6. Report on the Investigation of the Zoology and Botany of the West 

India Islands 714 

7. Report on the Compilation of an Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 714 

8. Report on Physiological Applications of the Phonograph 714 

9. Some Remarks on the Stereornithes, a Group of extinct Birds from South 
America. By C. W. Andeews 714 

10. Some Facts and Reflections drawn from a Study of Budding in Compound 
Ascidians. By Professor W. E. Ritter 716 

11. Outlines of a new Classification of the Tunicata. By Walter Gaestang, 
M.A., F.Z.S 718 

12. *0n the Presence of Skeletal Elements between the Mandibular and 

Hyoid Arches of ilexacanthus and Ltemargus. By Dr. Philip White. 719 

13. *0n the Presence of a Sternum in Hexanchus griseus. By Dr. Philip 
White 719 

14. On the Creodonta. By Professor W. B. Scott 719 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. On some Results of Scientific Investigation as applied to Fisheries. By 

Professor W. C. M'Iniosh, F.R.S 720 

2. *0n the Royal Dublin Society's Fishery Survey. By Professor A. C. 
Habdon 723 

3. *0n the Fishery School at Ringsend, near Dublin. By Professor A. C. 
Haddon 723 

4. Oyster Cultural Methods, Experiments and New Proposals. By 
Bashford Dean, Assistant U.S. Fishery Commission 723 

5. On Oysters and Typhoid: an experimental inquiry into the efiect upon 
the Oyster of various external conditions, including pathogenic organisms. 
By Professor Rttbert W. Boyce, M.B., M.R.C.S., and Professor W. A, 
Heedman, D.Sc, F.R.S 723 

6. *Onthe Oyster Culture in the Colne District. By Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. 726 

7. *0n Fish and Fishing Grounds in the North Sea. By J. T. CtrniONG- 
ham, B.A 726 

8. The Organisation of Zoological Bibliographv. By Herbert Haviland 
Fielb, Ph.D .'. 726 

9. The ' Date of Publication ' of Zoological Memoirs. By Herbert Haviland 
Field, Ph.D 727 

10. On Economy of Labour in Zoology. By Thoiias R. R. Stebbing, M.A. 728 

11. On the Septal Organs of Owenia fusiformis. By Professor G. Gilsgn... 728 

12. *0n a simple and efficient Collecting Reservoir for the Surface Tow-net. 

By W. Gaestang 729 

13. On the Statistics of Wasps. By Professor F. Y. Edgewoeth 729 



CONTENTS. xix 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

Page 

1. *0n Insect Transformations. By Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S 730 

2. On Mounting Marine Animals as Transparent Lantern Slides. By H. C. 
SoEBT, LL.D., F.R.S 730 

3. Description of Methods for Collecting and Estimating the number of Small 
Animals in Sea Water. By H. C . Sorbt, LL.D., F.R.S 730 

4. On the Conditions affecting Bacterial Life in River Water. By E. 
Feaitkland, D.C.L., F.R.S 731 

5. *0n the Exploration of the Islands of the Pacific. By Professor A. C. 
Haddon 731 

6. On the Coccidfe of Ceylon. By E. E. Green 731 

7. 'Criticisms on some points in the Summary of the Results of the 

' Challenger ' Expedition. By Dr. H. O. Foebes 732 

8. Observations on the Marine Fauna of Houtman's Abrolhos Islands, 
Western Australia. By W. Saville-Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S 732 

9. 'On the Hereditary Polydactylism. By Dr. Geegg WitsoN 733 

10. *0n the Reproduction of the Common Crab. By Dr. Geeqg WiLSOif ... 733 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Observations on Instinct in Young Birds. By Professor Llotd Morgan', 
F.G.S., Assoc.R.S.M 733 

2. Notes on the Early Development of the Ganoids, Lepidosteus, Acipenser, 
and Amia. By Bashfoed Dean 734 

3. On some questions relating to the Morphology and Distribution of 
Medusje. By Dr. O. Maas 734 

4. On the Spermatogenesis in Birds. By J. E. S. Mooee 735 

5. On the Development of the Teeth in Certain Insectivora. By M. F. 
WOODWAED 73G 

6. On the Mammalian Hyoid. By Professor G. B. Howes 736 

7. On the Poison Apparatus of Certain Snakes. By G. S. West, 
A.R.C.Sci. Lond 737 

8. On the Value of Myology as an Aid in the Classification of Animals, By 

F. G. Paesons, F.R.C.S 737 

9. *0n Ultimate Vital Units. By Miss Nina Layaed 737 



Section E.— GEOGEAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER \2. 

Address by H. J. Mackindee, M.A., F.R.G.S., President of the Section 738 

1. On a Journey in Tarhuna and Gharian in Tripoli. By H. Savainson 
CowpEE, F.S.A 740 

2. *OnRockall. By Millee Cheistt 749 

3. *0n Western Siberia and the Siberian Railway. By Dr. A. Maekoff . . . 749 

a2 



XX BEPORT 1895. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

Page 

1. A Voyage to the Antarctic Sea. By C. E. Borchgretink 750 

2. The Oceanography of the North Sea. By H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E 752 

3. *Oceanic Circulation. By Dr. John Mueeat, F.R.S.E 752 

4. The Maps used by Herodotus. By J. L. Mtres, M.A 752 

5. On the Sixth International Geographical Congress, London, 1895. By 
Major Leonard DaewiNjSbc. R.G.S 753 

6. On the Cosmosphere : an instrument combining the Terrestrial and 

Celestial Globes for the purpose of demonstrating Astronomical-Geogra- 
phical Phenomena and Navigational Problems. By W. B. Blaikie 756 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. An Expedition to Ruwenzori. By G. F. Scott Elliot, M.A 756 

2. Report on the Climate of Tropical Africa 758 

3. Three Years' Travelling and War in the Congo Free State. By Captain 

S. L. HiNDE 758 

4. The Progress of the Jackson-Harmsworth Polar E.xpedition. By Arthur 

MoNTEFiOEE, F.G.S., F.R.G.S 759 

5 *The Struggle for Existence under Arctic Conditions. By A. Trevor 
Battte 760 

6. The Port of the Upper Nile in relation to the Highways of Foreign Trade. 

By James Tubnuull Plaifair Hbatlbt , 760 

7. Exploration in the Japanese Alps, 1891-94. By the Rev. Walter 

Weston, M.A., F.R.G.S .*. 761 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. Report on Explorations in South Arabia 762 

2. Formosa. By John Dodd 762 

3. Russian Possessions in Central Asia. By Dr. A. Markoff 762 

4. The Tov?ns of Northern Mongolia. By Dr. A. Markoff 763 

5. Notes on the Topography of Caria. By W. R. Paton and J. L. Myees... 763 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by L, L. Price, M.A., F.S.S., President of the Section 764 

1. Comparison of the Rate of Increase of Wages in the United States and in 

Great Britain, 1860-1891. By A. L. Bowley, M.A 775 

2. *BimetalHsm vrith a Climbing Ratio. By Henry HiGGS, LL.B 776 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. The Normal Course of Prices. By William Smart, M.A., LL.D 776 

2. *A Proposal for a System of International Money. By W. A. Shaw. ... 777 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page 
3 *Tlie Gold Standard. By Hon. Geoege Peel 777 

4. The Menace to English Industry from the Competition of Silver-using 
Countries. By R. S. Gundey 777 

5.. On the Preservation of the National Parochial Registers. By H. Paton, ■ 
M.A 778 



MONBA Y, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *Agricullure in Suffolk. By Captain E. G. Pketyman, M.P 779 

2. Agriculture of Suffolk from a Tenant's Point of View. By Heeman 

Biddell 779 

3. Co-operative Rural Banks. By Haeold E. Mooee, E.S.1 779 

4. Go-operation in the Service of Agriculture. By 11. AV. Wolff 780 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Probability of a Cessation of the Growth of Population in England 

and Wales before 1951. By Edwin Oannan 780 

2. On the Correlation of the Rate of General Pauperism with the Proportion 

of Out-relief given. By G. U. Yule 781 

3. *The State and Workers on the Land. By Rev. J. Feome Wilkinson.... 781 

4. *The National Value of Organised I^abour and Co-operation among 
Women.' By Mrs. Bedford Fenwick 781 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

' THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor L. F. Veenon Haecourt, M.A.,M.Inst.C.E., President 

of the Section 782 

1. Light Railways as an [Assistance to Agriculture. By Major-General 
Wbbbee,C.B.,R.E., M.Inst. C.E 793 

2. The Gobert Freezing Process for Shaft-sinking and Tunnelling under 

Rivers. By A. Gobbet 794 

3. *East Anglian Coal Exploration, Description of Machinery employed. By 

J. Vivian 795 

4. The Effect of Wind and Atmospheric Pressure on the Tides. By W. H, 
Wheelee, M.Inst.C.E 795 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. *Notes on Autumn Floods of 1894. By G. J. Stmons, F.R.S 796 

2. *0n Weirs in Rivers. By R. C. Napier and F. G. M. Stoney 796 

3. An Experiment in Organ -blowing. By W. Anderson, C.B., D.C.L., ^ 

F.R.S ^^^ 

4. "The Growth of the Port of Harwich. By W, Birt 796 



xxii REPOKT — 1895. 

Page 
5. The new Outlet of the River Maas at the Hook of Holland, and the Im- 
provement of the Scheur Branch up to Rotterdam. By L. F. Vernon 
Habcouet, M.A, M.Inst.O.E 796 

0. The Snowdon Mountain Tramroad. By F, Oswell, Assoc.M.Inst.O.E. 798 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. First Report on Standardising 799 

2. Report on Coast Erosion 799 

3. Dredging Operations on the Mersey Bar. By Anthony Geokge Ltstee, 

M.Inst.O.E 799 

4. *0n Carbonic Anhydride Refrigerating Machinery. By E. Hesketh ... 799 

5. On the Deodorising of Sewage by the Hermite Process. By J. Napiee, 
F.C.S,, Public Analyst for County of Suffolk 800 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. The Modern Application of Electricity to Traction Purposes. By 
Philip Dawson 800 

2. An Improved Portable Photometer. By W. H. Preece, C.B., F.R.S., 
and A. P. Teottee, B.A., A.M.Inst.O.E 801 

3. On Storage Batteries. By H. A. Eaele 802 

4. The Development of the Telephone Service in Agricultural Districts. By 

Major-General Webbee, C.B., R.E., M.Inst.C.E 804 

5. Some Lessons in Telephony. By A. R. Bennett, M.Inst.E.E 806 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Field Telegraph in the Chitral Campaign. By P. V. Luke 809 

2. *A Movement designed to attain Astronomical Accuracy in the Motion 

of Siderostats. By G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S 810 

3. *0n Modern Flour Milling Machinery, By F. W. Tubnee 810 

4. On the Production of Letterpress Printing Surfaces without the use of 

Types. By John Southwaed 810 

5. Memorandum on the British Association Screw Gauge for Small Screws. 

By R. E. Ceompton, M.Inst.C.E., Pres.Inst.E.E 812 

6. Uniform Factor of Safety for Boilers and Machinery of Steamships. By 
John Key 813 

7. Experiments on the Transfer of Heat through Plates with variously 

arranged Surfaces. By William Geoege Walkee, M.Inst.M.E., 
A.M.Inst.C.E 814 

8. A New Principle of Aerial Navigation. By Lieutenant B. Baden- 

Powell 814 

9. *Receiver and Condenser Drop. By Professor A. E. Elliott 815 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by Professor W. M. Flindees Peteie, D.C.L., LL.D., President of 
the Section 816 

1. *0n a Recent Discovery of the Remains of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of 
Jamaica. By Sir W. H. Flowee, K.C.B., F.R.S 824 



CONTENTS. XXm 

Page 
2. On Skulls of Neolithic Invaders of Egypt. By Professor W. M. 

Flindeks Petbie, D.C.L., LL.D 824 

3 *0n Neolithic Invaders of Egypt. By Professor W. M. Flinders 

Pbteie, D.C.L., LL.D 824 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Stone Implements in Somaliland. By H. W. Seton-Kake 824 

2. *0n Flint and Metal Working in Egypt. By Professor W. M, Flindeks 
Petbie, D.CL., LL.D 825 

3. On Flint Implements with Glacial Markings from the North of Ireland. 

By W.J. Knowles, M.R.I.A 825 

4. Report on the Plateau Flints of North Kent 826 

6. On Graving Tools from the Terrace-gravels of the Thames Valley. By 

H. Stopes 826 

6. On Palaeolithic Projectiles. By H. Stopes 826 

7. The Senams, or Megalithic Temples of Tarhuna, Tripoli. By H. 

SWAINSON COWPEB, F.S.A 827 

8. Report on the Kitchen Midden at Hastings 827 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada 827 

2. The Samoyads of the Arctic Tundras. By Aethue Montefioee, F.G.S., 

F.R.G.S 828 

3. On Cannibalism. By Captain S. L. Hinde 829 

4. Report on the Mental and Physical Defects of Children 830 

5. Report on Anthropometric Measurements in Schools 830 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 16. 

1. *Horns of Honour and Dishonour and Safety. By F. T. Elwoetht 830 

2. On the Origin of the Dance. By Mrs. Lilly Gbove, F.R.G.S 830 

3. Report of the Ethnographical Survey Committee 831 

4. On Ethnographical Observations in East Aberdeenshire. By J. Geat, 
B.Sc 831 

6. *0n the Suffolk Dialect. By C. G. de Betham 831 

6. *General Conclusions on Folk Lore. By Edwaed Clodd 

7. 'Illustrations of Folk Lore. By Professor A. C. Haddon 831 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1, tDiscussion on Interference with the Civilisation of other Races 832 

Protest against the Unnecessary Uprooting of Ancient Civilisation m 
Asia and Africa. By Robert N. Cust, LL.D 83J 

2. The Light thrown on Primitive Warfare by the Languages and Usages of 
Historic Times. By Rev. G. Habtavell Jones, M.A 833 



Xxiv REPORT — 1895. 

Page 

3. *0n a Palaeolithic Skeleton from the Thames Valley. By Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson " 833 

4. *0n the Skulls of the New Eace in Egypt. By Dr. J. G. Gaeson 833 

5. *0n the Andamanese. By Maueice Poetjian 833 

6. *0n the Eskimo. By F. Likklatee and J. A. Fowlee 833 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. The NeoUthie Station of Butmir. By Dr. E. Mtjneo 883 

2. On Primitive European ' Idols ' in the Light of New Discoveries. By 
Aethue J. Evans, M.A., F.S.A 8-34 

3. *Interim Eeport on Prehistoric and Ancient Eemains in Glamorganshire 835 

4. Eeport on the Lake Village at Glastonbury 835 

5. The People of Southern Arabia. By J, Theodoee Bent 835 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

Address by W. T. TiiisELXoN-DrEE, M.A., F.E.S., C.M.G., CLE., President 

of the Section 836 

1. On a False Bacterium. By Professor Maeshall Ward, F.R.S 850 

2. On the Archesporium. By Professor F. 0. Bowee, F.R.S 851 

3. Note on the Occurrence in New Zealand of two forms of Peltoid Trente- 
pohliaceae, and their relation to the Lichen Strigula. By A. Vatjghan 
Jennings, F.L.S., F.G.S 851 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Experimental Studies in the Variation of Yeast Cells. By Dr. Emil Ch. 
Hansen 852 

2. On a New Form of Fructification in Sphenophyllum. By Graf Solms- 
Latjbach 852 

3. The Chief Results of Williamson's Work on the Carboniferous Plants. 

By Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 852 

4. The Localisation, the Transport and R61e of Hydrocyanic Acid in 
Pangium edule, Reinw. By Dr. I. M. Teeub ." 853 

6. Exhibition of Models illustrating Karyokinesis. By Professor J. Beet- 
land Faemee 853 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16. 

fJoint Discussion with Section B was held on the Relation of Agriculture 
to Science. 

1. On the Destruction of a Cedar Tree at Kew by Lightning. By W. T. 
Thiselion-Dyee, F.R.S 864 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 

2. Oil the Formation of Bacterial Colonies. By Professor Maeshall 
Waed, F.R.S 854 

3. On a Supposed Case of Symtiosis in Tetraplodon. By Professor F. E. 
Weiss 855 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. On Amber. By Dr. Conwentz, Danzig 855 

2. The Wealden Flora of England. By A. C. Sewakd 856 

3. On the Diurnal Variation in the Amount of Diastase in Foliage Leaves. 

By Professor J. Reynolds Geeen, F.R.S 856 

4. On the Structure of Bacterial Cells. By Haeold Wagee 856 

5. On the Prothallus and Embryo of Danaga. By G. Beebnee 857 

6. On Cross- and Self-fertilisation, with special reference to Pollen Prepotency. 

By J. C. Willis 857 

Index 859* 



XXVI 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Illustrating the Report on the Uniformity of Size of Pages of Scientific Societies' 
Publications. 

PLATES II.-IV. 

Illustrating the Fourteenth Report on the Investigation of the Earthquake and 
Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. 

PLATES v., XL 

Illustrating the Report on the Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observa- 
tions. 

PLATE VII. 

Illustrating the Report on the North- Western Tribes of Canada. 



i:eratum. 

In 1884 (Montreal) Report 
Page 288, Table, second column. For 44 read ^7. 



I 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association, 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



xxviii EEPORT — 1895. 

graitiitously the Reports of tlie Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted fi'om 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to pMjr/iase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members %uho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memlipvs^ Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



KULES OK THB ASSOCIATION. XXIX 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two 
years in advance ; and the arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the 
Officers of the Association. 

General Co'inmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant General Secretarij at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.' 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims ujider this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
■ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional CoTnmittees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,^ and of preparing Reports 

' Eevised by the General Committee, 1884. 

^ Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

' A^otice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from. 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 



TnCTT 



REPORT — 1895. 



thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex officio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M. in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selectino- individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday/ Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Sectior 
and the Sectional Committee except for Thursday and Saturday.^ 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1, The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. ^ Swansea, 1880. ^ Edinburgh, 1871. 

< The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. ' Nottingham, 1893. 



RDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly. 
3. Papers which have been reported on nnfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessaiy that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxix), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofiered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
' This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 



ixxxii REPORT — 1895. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, ivho shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his luillingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsihility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
■and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensurijig attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the mmiber of Members appointed to serve on a 
■Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient ivorJcing. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shoidd be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
iions, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sectio7is had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Metnbers to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms fui-nished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
•for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
'General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. "^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, andiftbe Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4, Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

- Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXxiii 

5. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Associ- 

ation next followiDg after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and al>o to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of Natural History are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Association. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. T/ie Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of tlie 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee, except for Thursday and 
Saturday. 

1895. b 



xxxiv REPORT — 1895. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they ai'e 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed c'l 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendatioois. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.^ 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.'^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary .^ 

» Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 1863. 
" Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
» Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



BULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 



Corresponding Societies} 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
"the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a. 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regai'd to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a, list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 

b2 



XXXvi KEPORT — 1895. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association' 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers- 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Oficeo'S. 

A Pi'esident, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries,, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall- 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ^ 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinai-y Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

( 3 ) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXvii 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — Ist, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OflBcers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty 
(reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



XXXVllI 



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REPORT — 1895. 



TKUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831— ] 895. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Mukchison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylok, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 



1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 
1872-95 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoodb, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883-95 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Lyon (now Lord) PlayfAIK, 

F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. WILLIAMSON, F.R.S. 
1891-95 Prof. A. W. Ruckek, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832-35 
1835-36 

1836-37 

1837-39 

1839-45 

1845-50 
1860-52 

1852-53 
1853-59 
1859-61 
1861-62 
1862-63 

1863-65 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Veenon Harcourt, 

Veenon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 

Veenon Haecouet, 
i. muechison, 



F.R.S., and R, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. MUECHISON, Esq., F R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. MuRCHisoN, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J.F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 



1865-66 F. Galton. Esq., F.R.S. 
1866-68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 
1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T. TH0MSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. Douglas Galton. F.R.S., 

and Dr. Michael Foster, 

F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Prof. F. M. BALFOUR, 

F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. DOUGLAS Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-96 A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAPEE, F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1802-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Aiiintant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. BoNNEY, F.R.S. 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-95 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 



li 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



iDate and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, P.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1133. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 



Dublin..., 

Bristol..., 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 



Cork 

York , 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. "William Whewell, F.R.S, 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S. ... 
Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof, 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly, 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G, 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof, Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smjrth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof . G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 



lii 



KEPOBT 1895. 



Date and Place 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Rev. W. 
V.P.R.S. 



Whewell, D.D. 



The Earl of Rosse,M.A.,K.P., 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 
G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 

TjTidall, LL.D., 



Secretaries 



Prof. J. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk 



Sylvester, LL.D., 
Maxwell, M.A., 



1875. Bristol.... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin.... 

1879. Sheffield . 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 

W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Phj'sical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbulL 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy,. 
Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 
Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessj', rrof. Maxwell, H.. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 
Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T". 
Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 
S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smithy 
J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.n. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. CliflEord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. ClifEord^ 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 
Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwellv 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 
W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 
Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 
Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher,"D'-. 
O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 
1883. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen. . . 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1S90. 


upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 



Presidents 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.B. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M.A., 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. "W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D, 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. IM. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. "\V. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



i832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



I Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
'Rev. Prof. Gumming .. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S . 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. G. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Goldina- Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M, 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 



liv 



REPOBX — 1896. 



Date and Place 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



Presidents 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.B.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M. A., 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof.W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F "R S 
W. ' Od'ling, M.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F T? S 
W. H.p'erkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Di". H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. "Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing-. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, II. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T, 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Ti'lden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 



PRESIDENTS ANB SECKETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 




1879. 
1880. 



1881. 
1882. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. Birmingham 



Montreal .. 
Aberdeen . . 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Secretaries 



Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.K.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 
F.K.S. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

■p T> C 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.K.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.K.S. 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.K.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schiinck, F.K.S. 

Prof. W, A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.K.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.K.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.K.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.K.S. 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 

M. Thomson. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, Dr. 

W. R. Eaton Hodgkinson, J. M. 

Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips B(^dson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morlev, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morlev, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



SECTION B (continued). — chemistry. 



1895. Ipswich 



Prof. R. Meldola, F.K.S. 



IE. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 
I Kolin, J. W. Rodger. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie. Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



I 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle.,. 

1839. Birmingham 



R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'eo/7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6'fO(7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geograjyhy, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.K.S.— 

G'<!<»»7.,G.B.Greenough,F.K.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham, R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Gcoqraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



Ivi 



RErORT ISQC'. 



Date and Place 
1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1843. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

iS48. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh* 



Presidents 



Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geo- 
graphy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.K.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.K.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P.,Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Homer ,F.R.S. — Geo- 

graphy, G. B. Greenough, 

F.K.S. 
Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.K.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1850. 


Aberdeen,.. 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



SECTION C (contimied). — GEOLOGY. 
"WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.; 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Tlai'kness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Brj^ce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sor'n', E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 



' At a meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved ' That 
the subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, 
to constitixte a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethno- 
logical Section," for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page Ixii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAMES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



186i. Bath Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol.... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin. 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 
1«81. York 

1882. Southamp- 
ton. 
188,3. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1395. Ipswich ... 



R. A. C. Godwin-Austen 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr.T.Wright,F.R.S.E.,F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.E.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
E. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S,, Sec. 

Prof. J. W. Judd, F.E.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L.. 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 



W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 

R. Etheridse, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 
Hughes,"L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drev/, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 

J,Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

E. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Toplev. 
W. J. Hari-ison, j. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. B. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clemen 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H 

A. Miers, Clement Reid. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh, 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...lEev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.! C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham |W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman ,J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof . Henslow |j. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. 
j Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. j Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... I Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. \V. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 



Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



1848. Swansea ...:L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S... 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixi.] 

Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E, 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lis 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Presidents 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Secretaries 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Kev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D.. F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (^continued'). — BIOLOGT. 



1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Nottingham 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh, 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

— Physiological Bep., Prof. 

Humphry, M.D., F.R.S.— 

Anthropological Bep., Alf. 

R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bej). of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. RoUeston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., V.lj.ii. — Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol.,'Pioi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.Jj.H.—Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
¥.^.Q.—Bep. of Bot. and 
.2boZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bejj. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. AUman, F.R.S.— J3ejw. of 
Anat. and PhysioLj^iof. Ru- 
therford, M.B.—Bep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans» 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H, T. Stamton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey; Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



> At a meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved 'That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; ' and ' That for the word " Subsection,|^ 
In the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word "Department" 
be substituted.' 



Ix 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.., 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea .., 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton.' 



1883. Southport = 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen ... 



Presidents 



Prof. Redfern, N.B.—Bej?. of 
Znol. and Hot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B^Fies.R.S.—Bi'jj.ofAn- 
throj?.,SiT VV.R. Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.Fx.fi.—Di-p.of^ 
Anat.and Physiol. ,Vicot.C\& 
land, M.D., F.E.S.— i>c/Ao/ 
Anthropol., Prof. EoUeston, 
M.D., F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., 
F.L.S. — Bej). of Zool. and 
Bot., Prof. A. Newton, BI.A., 
F.R.S. — Bvp. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Dr. J. G. McKen- 
drick, F.R.S.E. 

J.Gw3'nJeiireys,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. — Beji. of Anat. and 
Physiol. , Prof. Macalister, 
M.D. — Bej). of Anthrojfol., 
Francis Galton,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
B('2>. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. U.S. — Bcjj. 
of Anat. and Physiol., E. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.E.S.—Bep.ofAtithropol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bej}. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bip. of A not. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.lR.ii.—Bcj?. of Anthropol, 

F. W. Eudler,"F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., M.D., 

¥.T>.S.—Bep. of Anthropol, 
Prof. AV. H. Flower, LL.D., 
F.H.S.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol, Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
- Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, M.A., 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anthropol, 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
Y.R.S.—Bep. of Anthropol, 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



Secretaries 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W, 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. E. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 
Prof. W. R. BI'Nab, J. B. Eowe, 
F. W. Eudler. 

Dr. E. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 
Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 
Pui-ser, J. B . Eowe, F. W. Eudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Eowe, F. W. Eudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Eev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, "W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. E. E. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 



' The Departments of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were 
amalgamated. 

^ Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixviii. 



1 



PRES1DE]STS AND SECRETARIES OF THE BECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 



1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



ISei.'CardLEE. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford 2 ... 



Presidents 



W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.K.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.E.S. 



Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



SECTION D (continued) 
1895. Ipswich ... IProf. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 



Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof, 
H. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, Prof. F. W. 
Oliver, H. Wager, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof- 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

— ZOOLOGY. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 
Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



1833. Cambridge iDr. J. Haviland... 

1834. Edinburgh | Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 
Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Eoget, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. B. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S,. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. "Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Eeid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... iP. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec. E.S. 

1842. Manchester Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

1844. York \j. C. Pritchard, M.D 

1845. Cambridge ! Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixviii. 
■■i The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixii 



EEPOET — 1895. 



Date and Place 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' .. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 

gent. 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 

I Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham.- 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.K.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers, 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
0. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Iv.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis, 
Dr. R. G. Latham, 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY, 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 



Ipswicii . . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S,, 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R, Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R, R, 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' (see p. Iviii.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

'' Vide note on page lix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.E.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.E.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Eaw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D, 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Eichards, E.N., 
F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



E. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Eichard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Eev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. E. Markham, E. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. Markham, Capt. 
E. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. E. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Eev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 

E. Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements E. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 

1881. 
1882. 
1883. 



Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 
Brighton . . 
Bradford .. 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow .. 
Plymouth.. 

Dublin 

Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 

York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



SECTION E (continued). — geogeapht. 
K.C.B., 



Sir Bartle Frere, 

LL.D., F.E.G.S. 
SirE.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.E.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir Eutherf ord Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, E.E., F.E.S., 

F.E.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

E.E.,C.S.L,F.E.S.,F.E.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.E.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G., E. A., F.E.S., 
F.E.G.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.E.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.E.G.S. 

Lieut. -Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments E. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Eev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements E. Markham. 
E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, R, Oliphant 

Wood, 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. C. Eye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye 

John Coles, E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. 
Rye. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date and Place 


1&84. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888 


Bath 


1889. 
1890, 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


CardifE 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich . . . 



Presidents 



Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G.. F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.MG.,C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravensteiu, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Rev.Abb^Laflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 
F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 

B. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Blackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva ^V^nte. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva AVhite. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 
I Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
I John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 
i R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

Prof. Babbage, F.R.S ] J. E. Drinkwater. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 1 Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 
V.P.R.S.E. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P.,r.E.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

K. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 


1854. Liverpool... 
!855. Glasgow ... 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H, 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, B. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F {continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 

!857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 
1S60. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich.... 

1869. E.xeter 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S... . 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 
1895. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 
W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 
M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 
Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 

Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

F.R.S. I 

Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D.,'G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 
M.P. 1 E. Macrory. 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers !r. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 

Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 

Lord 0"Hagan Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

I MacMordie. 
JamosHeywood, M.A.,F.E.S.,;F. P. Fellows,!. G. P. Hallett, E. 

Pres. S.S. I Macrory. 

Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, I A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett , Dr. 

M.P. I W.Neilson Hancock, Dr. W.Jack. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D.,' W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

M.R.LA. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 
G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

d 



Samuel Brown 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 



G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M.^E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 



Ixvi 



KEPOBT 1895. 



Date and Place 


1883. 


Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds ...... 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 



Presidents 



R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramw ell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L.Price, M.A 



Secretaries 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro. G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigs', Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. HiggSy 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbios, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner. 

H. Higgs. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 



1841. 


Plymouth 


1842. 


Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844, 


York 


1845. 


Cambridge 


1846. 


South'mpt'n 


1847. 


Oxford 


1848. 


Swansea ... 


1849. 


Birmingh'm 


18.50. 


Edinburgh 


1851, 


IpKwich 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., I\R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir .Tohn Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.1..A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof . Willis, M.A., F.R.S, 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A., F.xi.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A., F.R.S, 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S, 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby 



PRESIDENTS AND SECBETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 

1853. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Mewcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. PljTnouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York , 



Presidents 



John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

F.R.S. 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



1882. Southamp- 

ton 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 



John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 

James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. 
Sykes Ward. 

J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thomson. 

L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 

C. Atherton, B, Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacotv, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C 

Manby, W. Smith. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S iP. Le Neve Foster, H. Baiierman. 

Chas.B.Vignoles,C.E., F.R.S. 'H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

\ King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. FleemingJenkin, F.R.S. H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, 

i J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman. 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 



F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 



J. Robinson, Pros. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 
James Abernethy, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 



A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 
I Wood. 
J. Brunlees, Pres. Inst.C.E. j A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S.,Ia. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J 
V.P.Inst.C.E. 1 Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 

d2 



Uxviii 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date and Place 



1885 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
J890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 



. Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Presidents 



B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 



Newcastle- 

npon-Tyne 

Leed.s 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 



Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Rej'nolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson. M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.E.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E., 



Secretaries 



A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Eigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, \Y. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. \V. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 
W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

M.Inst.C.E. I Popplewell, E. Rigg. 

Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

F.C.S. Rigg, H. Talbot. 

Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, I Prof. T. Hudson neare, C.W.Cooke, 
F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. I AV. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 

Prof. L. F. Vernon-HarcourtJProf. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 
M.A., M.Inst.C.E. i W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1881. 
1885. 

1880, 

1887. 

1888. 

1889, 

1890, 

1891, 

1892. 

1893. 

1894, 
1895, 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 



Oxford.. 
Ipswich 



E. B. Tylor. D.C.L., F.R.S.... 
Francis Gallon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L,, F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, \V. 

Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. j; G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
Dr. J. Evans, Trcas. R.S ,' G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

F.S.A., F.L.K., F.G.S. i Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A. ...'G. W. Blo.xam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

I Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 



M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E, 



Sir W. H. Flower. K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie. 

D.C.L. 



R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Ling Roth. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

1894. Oxford I Prof . E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S.,]Prof F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

I M.R.C.S. I JI. S. Pembrey. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

1895. Ipswich ... | W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. | Prof. F. E. Weiss, A. C. Seward. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixi] 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUKES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843, Cork , 



1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S 

Sir M. L Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.E.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,AstroD. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W.E. Grove, F.E.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction o£ 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life ia 
the ^gean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosses Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the MississippL 

Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptiis). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of tlie Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Eock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
pract ical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babj'lonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 



Ixx 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date and Place 



1857 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


ISGl. 


Manchester 


1862 


Cambridge 


1803. 


Newcastle 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.E.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.O.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.K.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 



Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller,M.A.,F.R.S. 
G. B. Air3', F.R.S., Astron. 

Roval. 
Prof."Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Newcastle Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Bath 

Birmingliam 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 



Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Bristol .. 
Glasgow 



Prof. Eoscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S.., 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. .L D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.E.A.S. 

J. Fcrgusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Oaiing, F.R.S 

Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof . W. J. Jlacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S. .,., 

Prof. P.Martin Dimcan, M.B., 

Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

F. J.'Bramwell, F.E.S 

Prof. Tait, F.E.S. E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.E.S. 



The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Eecent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Cliemical Action of Light. 

Eecent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Siaectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archfcology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Eeverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Phj'sical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulte. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Eelation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The H3fpothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The Challe7}ger Expedition. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 


The Physical Phenomena connected 






F.R.S. 


with the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 






Prof. Odling, F.R.S 


The New Element, Gallium. 


1878. 


Dublin 


G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 


Animal Intelligence. 






Prof. Dewar, F.R.S, .; 


Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


W. Crookes, F.R.S 


Radiant Matter. 






Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 


Degeneration. 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 


Primeval Man. 






Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Mental Imagery. 


i881. 


York 


Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 


The Rise and Progress of Palaon- 






tology. 






W. Spottiswoode,Pres. R.S.... 


The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 


1882. 


Southamp- 


Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 


Tides. 




ton. 


Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 


Pelagic Life. 


1883. 


Southport 


Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 


Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 






Prof. J. G. McKendrick, 


Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 






F.R.S.E. 




1884. 


Montreal... 


Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 


Dust. 






Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 


The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 


The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 






John Murray, F.R.S.E 


The Great Ocean Basins, 


1886. Birmingham 


A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 


Soap Bubbles. 






Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 


The Sense of Hearing. 


1887. 


Manchester 


Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 


The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 






Col. Sir F. de Winton, 


Explorations in Central Africa. 






K.C.M.G. 




1888. 


Bath 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 


The Electrical Transmission of 






Power. 






Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 


The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 






F.R.S. 


Crust. 


1889. 


!NewcastIe- 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 


The Hardening and Tempering of 




upon-Tyne 


F.R.S. 


Steel. 






Walter Gardiner, M.A 


How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 


1890. 


Leeds 


E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 


Mimicry. 






Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


Quartz Fibres and their Applications, 


1891. 


Cardia 


Prof.L.C.Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 


Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 






Prof. A.W. Riicker, M.A.,F.R.S. 


Electrical Stress. 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. 


Pedigrees. 






Prof. J. A. Ewing, M. A., F.R.S., 


Magnetic Induction. 






F.R.S.E. 




1893. 


Nottingham 


Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc 


Flame. 






Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 


The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 


1894. 


Oxford 


J. W. Gregorj', D.Sc, F.G.S. 


Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 






Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 


Historical Progress and Ideal So* 
cialism. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S., 


Magnetism in Rotation. 






Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 


The Work of Pasteur and its various 






F.R.S. 


Developments. 



Ixxii 



EEPORT — 1895. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool. 



1872. 
1873, 
1874, 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1879, 
1880. 
1881, 

1882 

1883, 
1884, 
188.5 
1886, 

1887, 
1888, 

1889, 

1890, 
1891, 
1892 
1893, 
1894 
1895 



Brighton 
Bradford 
Belfast .,, 
Bristol .., 
Glasgow 



Plymoiath 
Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 
Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.,F.K.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

SirJohn Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Teny, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. A. H. Fison 



Subject of Discourse 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Pas.sage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how U> 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races, 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 
Electricity in Mining. 
Electric Spark Photographs. 
Spontaneous Combustion. 
Geologies and Deluges. 
Colour. 



Ixxiii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE IPSWICH MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— 'Professor W. M. Hicks, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Troi. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Prof. O. Henrici, F.R.S. ; 
Lord Kelvin, Pres.R.S. ; Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S. ; Prof. A. W. 
Riicker, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor "VV. H. Heaton, M. A. ; Professor A. Lodge, M. A. 
{Recorder); G. T. Walker, M.A. ; W. Watson, B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Proiessor R. Meldola, F.R.S., For.Sec.C.S. 

Vice Presidents.— Frol P. P. Bedson, D.Sc. ; Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ; 
Professor E. Frankland, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. ; Professor Ira Remsen, Ph.D. ; Sir Henry E. Roscoe, D.C.L.^ 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — E. H. Fison ; C. A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc. ; Arthur Harden, 
M.Sc, Ph.D. (Recorder) ; J. W. Rodger. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Gnstave Dollfus ; L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ; F. W. 
Harmer ; Rev. E. Hill, M.A. ; J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S. ; E. van 
den Broek. 

Secretaries. — F. A. Bather, M.A. ; G. W. Lamplugh ; Alfred Harker^ 
M.A. ; Clement Reid, F.L.S. (Recorder). 

SECTION D. — BIOLOGY. 

President.— Vroiessor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— Proi. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. j 

Secretaries. — G. C. Bourne, M.A. {Recorder) ; Herbert Brown, M.D. j 
W. E. Hoyle, M.A. ; W. L. Sclater, M.A. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— B.. J. Mackinder, M.A., F.R.G.S. 



Ixxiv EEPORT — 1895. 

Vice-Presidents. — Major L. Darwin ; Col. H. H. Godwin Austen, F.R.S. ; 
Sir Joseph Hooker, F.R.S. ; J. Scott Keltie ; John Murray, D.Sc. ; 

E. G. Ravenstein ; Col. Sir C. Warren, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— -3 . Coles, F.R.A.S. ; H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E. ; Hugh Robert 
Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E, {Recorder); W. A. Taylor, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — L. L. Price, M.A., 

Vice-Presidents.— ?voiQfisor F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.S. ; The 
Hon. Sir Charles Fremantle, K.C.B. ; J. B. Martin ; J. E. C. Munro ; 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— 'El. Cannan, M.A., F.S.S. ; Professor E. C. K. Gonner, M.A., 
F.S.S. {Recorder); H. Higgs, LL.B. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.- — Professor L. F. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E.. 

Vice-Presidents.— VvoiesaoY A. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. ; E. 
Rigg, M.A. ; Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S. ; W. H. 
Wheeler, M.Inst.C.G. 

■Secretaries. — Professor T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. {Recorder) ; Conrad 
W. Cooke ; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. ; F. G. M. Stoney, 
M.Inst.C.E. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. —Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 

Vlcfi.Presidents.-^ir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir AV. H. Flower, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. ; R. Munro, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — J. L. Myres, M.A. ; Rev. J. J. Raven, D.D. ; H. Ling Roth 
{Recorder). 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— W . T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Bayley Balfour, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 

F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ; F. Darwin, F.R.S. ; Sir Joseph Hooker, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor F. E. Weiss {Recorder) ; A. C. Seward, M.A. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1895-9G. 



PRESIDENT. 
Cai'TAIX sir DOUGLAS GALTON, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The MoEt Hon. the Marquis of Biustol, M.A., 

Lord-Lieutenant of tlie County of Suffolk. 
Tlie Eight Hon. Lord Wai.singham.LL.D., F.R.S., 

High Steward of the University of Cambridge. 
The Right Hon. Lord Raylkioii, D.C.L., Sec.R.S., 

Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Essex. 
The Eight Hon. Loud Gwydyi!, M.A., High 

Steward of tlie Borough of Ipswicli. 



The Right Hon. Lord Henxiker, F.S.A. 
Tlie Right Hon. Lord Rf.xdle.sham. 
J. H. Bartlet, Esq., Mayor ok Ii'swk'H. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. E. Franklaxd, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Professor G. H. Darwix, M.A., LL.D., F.B.S. 
Felix T. Cobbold, Esq., M.A. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
SIR JOSEPH LISTER, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres.R.S. 



The PiiiNiii'AL of University College, Liverpool. 
W. RiTiiiiONE, Esq., LL D. 
W. Crookes, Esq., F.R.S. 
George Holt, Esq., J.P. 
T. H. Ismay, Esq., J.P., D.L. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Di;kby,G.C.B., Lord 
Mayor of Liverpool. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Skftox, K.G., Lord- 
Lieutenant of Lancashire. 

Sir W. B. FoKwooD. 

Sir Henry E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

A. G. Verxox Harcourt, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.C.S., Cowley Grange, Oxford. 
Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., University College, London, W.C. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., College Road, Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 
Professor \V. A. Herd.max, F.R.S. | Isaai; C. Thompsox, Esq., F.L.S. | \V. E. Willixk, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 
Reuixald Bushell, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

AxDEnsox, Dr. W. C. B., F.R.S. 
Ayutox, Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
Bakek, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Boys, Professor C. Verxox. F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
FoxwELL. Professor H. S., M.A. 
Harcourt, Professor L. F. Verxox, M.A. 
Herd.max, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
HoRSLEY, Professor Victor, F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 
Markham, Clejients E., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor E., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Poultox, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 

RA.MSAY, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. E.mrbson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Thiseltox-Dybk. W. T., Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S; 
Tho.mson, Professor J. M., P.R.S.E. 
Unwix, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
Vines, Professor S. H., F.R.S. 
Ward, Professor Marshall, F.E.S. 
Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., SecE.S., F.BA.S. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Playfair, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
The Rt.Hou. Sir W.R.Grove,F.E.S. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.l. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, LL.D., Pres.R.S. 
Prof. A. 'W. Wilhamson, F.R.S. 



Prof. AUman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Su- John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Seo.R.S. 
Lord Plavfair, K.G.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, U.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Irederiok Abel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Dr. Wm. Huggins, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Arcliibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof.J.S.Burdon Sanderson.F.E.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 
F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEAES. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. Michael Foster, Sec.R.S. 



Dr. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S. 



I G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
I P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Sir Douglas Galtou, K.C.B. F.E.S. 

AUDITORS. 

I Ludwig Mond, Esq., F.R.S. 



I Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



I Jeremiah Head, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1895. 



-Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1894-95. RECEIPTS. 

£ I. d. 

Balance brought forward 1094 2 6 

Life Compositions 310 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 190 

Annual Subscriptions 654 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 915 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 449 

Sale of Index, 1861-90 £38 9 3 

Sale of other Publications 174 3 1 

21.2 12 4 

Interest on Deposit at Oxford Bank 7 14 7 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 11 9 8 

Dividends on Consols 206 15 4 

Dividends on India 3 per Cents 104 8 

Unexpended Balance of Grant for exploring the Lake Village 

at Glastonbury £5 2 

Unexpended Balance of Grant from the Erratic 

Blocks Committee 3 18 

Unexpended Grant from the Committee for making 

Observations in South Georgia 50 

58 18 2 



£4214 7 



Investments 
£ s. d. 



June 30, 1894: Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

£11137 3 5 



T. E. Thorpe, "1 , ,.. 
LUDWIGMOND,/ ^«^^''"-«- 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. Ixxvu 



from July ], 1894, to June 29, 1895, Cr. 

1894-95. PAYMENTS. 

Expenses of Oxford Meeting, including Trinting, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, c&c 166 1 1 

Kent and Office Expenses 48 13 5 

Commission on Purchase of Exchequer Bills 2 15 (J 

Compilation of Index 1861-90 100 

Salaries \\\ 505 

Printing, Binding, &c 79115 3 

Payment of Grants made at Oxford : 

£ s. d. 

Electrical standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Observations made at Falmouth 

Obser\-atory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Standards 25 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 fl 

Photographs of Geological Interest 10 11 

SheU-bearing Deposits at Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of tlie Pentland Hills 3 (1 

New Sections of Stonesfield Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of High-level Flint-drifts .... 10 

Table at tlie Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plj-mouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut 50 

Calibration and Comparison of Measuring Instruments. ! 25 fi 

Anthropometric Measurements in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen-midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Sm-vey 10 

Physiological Applications of the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 



In hands of General Treasurer : 
At Bank of England, Western Branch £G83 12 5 

Less Cheques not presented 63 

. 620 

Exchequer Bills 1000 

Cash 1 



977 15 5 



12 


5 








7 


6 



1621 19 11 



£4214 7 



Account. 

June 29, 1895 : Consols 7537 3 



£ s. cl. 
5 



India 3 per Cents 3600 



£11,137 3 5 



Arthue W. Eucker, General Treasurer. 
July 9, 1895. 



Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1895. 







Table s/iowing the Attendance and 


Receipts 




Date of Meeting 


Where lieM 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members, 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 , ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 . 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 . ... 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 ... 

1877, Aug. 15... 

1878, Aug. 14 .... 

1879, Aug. 20 ... 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 ... 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 ... 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. 
The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. ... 
Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L. . . 
The Rev. Provost Llo.vd, LL.D. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne 


169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
236 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 


— 




O.xford 




Cambridge 




Edinburgh 




Dublin 




Bristol 




Liverpool 


The Earl of Burlington, V.R.S.. .'.'.....'. 
The Duke of Northumberland 




Newcastle-ou-Tyue. . . 
Birmingham ." 




The Rev. W. Vernun Harcourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbane 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 


The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton . . 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. 

The Rev. G. Peacock, DD. 


6.1 

169 

28 

150 

36 

10 

18 

3 

12 

9 

8 

10 

13 




Manchester 




Cork 




York 




Cambridge 


Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart.. 




Southamptou 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart. 




Oxford 




Swansea 

Birmingham 


The Marquis of Northampton ... 




The Rev. T. R. Robinson. D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal . ... 




Edinburgh 




IpsAvich 

Belfast 




Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 




Hull ... 




Liverpool 


23 


Glasgow 


33 

14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
80 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 




Cheltenham 




Dublin 


Tlie Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort ... .'..'.'. " 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A 

William F.-iirbalrn, LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. Professor WiUis, M.A 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. fi. Stokes, D.C.L. 
Prof. T. H. Huxley. LL.D. 




Leeds 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 




Manchester 




Cambridge .. 




Newcastle-on-Tyue... 
Bath 




Birmingham... 




Nottingham 




Dundee 




Norwich 




Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Cariwnter, F.R.S '.. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D.,F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D.. F.R.S. 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Ciiyley, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lvon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S.... 
Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. .. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., FJl.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. S. Bunion Sanderson 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 




Bristol 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




York 




Southampton 




Southport 




Montreal 




Aberdeen . , 




Birmingham 




Manchester . 




Bath 




Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Leeds 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 




Nottingham 




Oxford 


The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S 




Ipswich 









■ Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AXD KECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxix 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 







Attended by 
























Amount 
received 


Sums paid 
on Account 




















OH 


New 


Asso- 
ciates 








during the 


of Grants 


Year 




Annual 


Annual 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Meeting 


for Scientific 






ilembers 


Members 










Purposes 








— 


— 


— 


— 


353 


— 


— 


1831 
1832 
1833 









z 











900 










— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1298 


— 


£20 


1834 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


167 


1835 




— 





— 


— 


. — . 


1350 


— 


435 


1836 









— 


— 


— 


1840 


_ 


922 12 6 


1837 




— 





— 


1100« 


— 


2400 




932 2 2 


1838 




— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1596 11 


1839 




— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 


— 


60» 


— 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331» 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




n 


185 


— 


160 


_ 


— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 


208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1862 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1863 




121 


121 


765 


624 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1867 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1868 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


25B4 


2782 


684 11 1 


1869 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1760 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


461 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1866 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1672 


1870 




311 


127 


■ 976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2678 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


lOSO 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.§ 


1777 


1538 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


609 


12 


1984 


2107 


1611 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 16 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2176 


583 16 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1896 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1895. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



BeiJort of the Council for the Year 1894-95, presented to the General 
Committee at Tpsioich on Wednesday, September 11, 1895. 

The Report of the Council for 1894-5 was considered and ordered 
to be presented to the General Committee : — 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1894, to June 29, 
1895, which have been audited, will be presented to the General 
Committee. 

The Council have nominated the Mayor of Ipswich, J. H. Bartlet, 
Esq., M.D., Vice-President of the Association. 

The invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association at 
Toronto in 1897 has been renewed, and will be brought before the 
General Committee on Monday. 

The election by the General Committee of Sir Douglas Galton as 
President of the Association for the year which begins to-day, deprives 
us for the future of his services as General Secretary. The Council desire 
to record their grateful sense of the unfailing zeal and energy which Sir 
Douglas Galton has displayed in the affairs of the Association during a 
tenure of office which has extended over twenty-four years. The Council 
have consequently had to consider the appointment of a successor, and 
desire now to nominate Professor E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., for election to the 
office of General Secretary. Professor Schafer has been communicated 
with, and has expi-essed his willingness to serve. 

In accordance with a request received from the Lords of the Committee 
of Council on Education, who have been asked to send Delegates to the 
International Congress of Zoology at Leyden, the Council resolved to 
nominate Sir W. H. Flower to represent the Association. 

The Council have elected the following Foreign Men of Science Cor- 
responding Members : — 



Prof. F. Beilstein, St. Petersburg. 

Prof. Edouard van Beneden, Li^ge. 

Prof. J. S. Billings, Deputy Surgeon- 
General, Washington. 

Prof. D. H. Campbell, University Palo 
Alto, California. 

M. Cartailhac, Toulouse. 

Dr. A. Chauveau, Paris. 

Prof. T. W.W. Engelmann, Utrecht. 

Dr. Wilhelm Forster, Berlin. 

Prof. Leon Fredericq, Lilge. 

Prof. C. Friedel, Paris. 

Prof. Ludimar Hermann, Konigsberg. 

Prof. Dr. J. Kollmann, Basle. 

M. MaximeKovalevsky, Beaulieu-sur-Mer. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if 
desirable : — 



Prof. L. Kny, Berlin. 

Dr. Otto Maa.s, Munich. 

Prof. A. M. Mayer, Hoboken, New Jersey. 

Prof. Gosta Mittag-Leffler, Stockholm. 

Dr. Edmund von Mojsisovics, Vienna. 

Prof. E. Nasini, Padua. 

Prof. H. F. Osborn, Columbia College, 
New York. 

Baron C. R. Osten-sacken, Heidel- 
berg. 

Prof. Wilhelm Pfeffer, Leipzig. 

Prof. P. H. Schoute, Groningen. 

Prof. E. Strasbnrger, Bonn. 

General F. A. Walker, Boston. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixyxi 

(1) That the Council of the Association be requested to give their full support 
to the efforts being made to induce the Government to send out a fully- 
equipped expedition for the exploration of the Antarctic and Southern Seaa. 

In reference to this resolution, the Secretaries received the following 
communication from Mr. Clements R. Markham, President of the Royal 
Geographical Society : — 

' I have the honour to bring to the notice of the Council of the British 
Association the steps that have been taken, within the last year, with a 
view to the renewal of Antarctic research. 

'On November 27, 1893, a very important and interesting paper was 
read to a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society by Dr. John Murray, 
of the " Challenger " Expedition, a copy of which is enclosed. The argu- 
ments and the detailed information contained in Dr. Murray's paper 
appeared to my Council to place the importance of renewing Antarctic re- 
search in such a convincing light that they resolved to take action in the 
matter. I, therefore, appointed a Committee of experts to report upon 
the points bearing on the renewal of Antarctic research, and on the 
despatch of an expedition. 

' On the receipt of the Report of this Society's Antarctic Committee, a 
copy of which I enclose, the Secretary of the Royal Society was addressed 
with a view to the matter receiving the consideration of the Council 
of that influential body. It was referred to a very strong Committee, 
which made its report last May, a copy of which is enclosed. The 
Report of this Committee of the Royal Society dwells chiefly on the 
requirements of magnetism, and shows the necessity for despatching an 
Antarctic Expedition for the completion of magnetic observations, which 
are both of scientific and practical importance. The Committee also 
points out that many other branches of science besides magnetism will be 
largely advanced by such an expedition ; and, referring to the present 
condition of the ice in the southern circumpolar region, it considers that 
the despatch of an expedition may assume a character of urgency. 

' It is very encouraging to find that the President and Council of the 
Royal Society, as I am informed in a letter from the Secretary, a copy of 
which is enclosed, fully indorse the views of the Committee as regards the 
great scientific importance of the results of Antarctic research. 

' The Council of the Royal Society, however, considered it their duty 
to raise the subject of expense, and in a private interview at the Admiralty 
a Deputation was informed that the Chancellor of the Exchequer, as then 
advised, could only confirm a doubt that had been raised whether the 
Imperial finances could bear the expense of the proposed expedition. 

'At the present juncture the question of the cost of the expedition is 
irrelevant. An exaggerated estimate may have been made by those 
who are unacquainted with the arrangement of heads of account and 
other details, and who have not taken various collateral points into con- 
sideration. It will be for the members of the Deputation eventually 
selected by the united scientific and other bodies to ascertain the actual 
cost, and to place themselves in a position to answer all questions of 
expense, when the proper time comes for the subject of Antarctic research 
being brought before Her Majesty's Government for favourable considera- 
tion. They will, I believe, be able to show that the trifling expense bears 
no comparison with the gain to science; to the Navy, and to Imperial 
interests. 

1895. e 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1895. 

' Meanwhile tlie time has come for the leading scientific bodies of the 
Empire to declare, as regards their various departments, that they concur 
in the view already expressed by the Eoyal Society, the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and the British Association, that a renewal of Antarctic 
research is of great importance to science. 

' The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science was the body through whose influential representations the 
memorable expedition led by Sir James Ross was despatched to the 
Antarctic regions. True to its excellent traditions, your Council has 
invariably given its support to similar proposals, and I therefore feel 
confident that the British Association will retain its place in the front 
rank of those who seek to promote the advancement of science by 
Antarctic research. 

' The President and the Council of the Royal Geographical Society 
now request that you will once more bring the question of the results of 
Antarctic discovery to the notice of your Council for serious consideration, 
with a view to co-operation and to the undertaking being unanimously 
advocated by the scientific societies of Great Britain and Ireland.' 

The Council resolved to express their sympathy with, and approval 
of, the effort which is being made by the Royal Geographical Society to 
organise an expedition for the exploration of the Antarctic Sea, but did 
not consider that any further action could usefully be taken by them at 
present. 

(2) That the Council be requested to call the attention of the Civil Service 
Commissioners to the Report of a Committee of Section F on the Methods 
of Economic Training, and especially to tlie recommendations (contained on 
page 2) with regard to the position of Economics in the Civil Service 
Examinations. 

The following are the passages referred to in the Resolution : — 

' In most Continental countries Economics occupies a place more 
or less prominent in the courses of training and in the examinations 
through which candidates for the legal profession or the Civil Service 
have to pass. . . . 

' The two studies are cognate, and according to the view of your Com- 
mittee not only would the institution of an examination in Economics at 
some stage of legal degrees and qualifications be advantageous profession- 
ally, but the work of those who had enjoyed a legal training would react 
favourably on the advance of the science. In addition. Economics should 
receive a much more important place in the Civil Service Examinations, 
and should, if possible, be made compulsory on those entering the higher 
branches.' 

The Council, after considering this question, referred it to a Com- 
mittee, consisting of the President and Officers, with Professors H. Sidg- 
wick, Foxwell, and Edgeworth. The report of the Committee was as 
follows ; — 

' Legal studies and qualifications for the position of Barrister-at-Law 
depend entirely on the Inns of Court, and they believe that the Civil 
Service Commissioners have no influence over the legal examinations. 

' The recommendations proposed with regard to the Civil Service is 
that Economics should, if possible, be made compulsory on those who 
enter the higher branches of the Service. This proposal, if carried out, 
would produce an entire revolution in the mode of appointing to the Civil 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxiii 



Service ; for, as a rule, examinations are restricted to the first entry, and 
are not imposed on persons proceeding from a lower grade to a higher. 

' It is also worthy of mature consideration whether the present is a 
favourable juncture for pressing on the Government a more rigid demand 
for economic knowledge from its servants, when the science itself is the 
subject of keen contention, and two schools of thought, diametrically 
opposed to each other, have arisen, to some extent in this country, and to 
a much greater extent on the Continent. 

'The Committee, in view of these considerations, recommend that any 
further action on this matter be postponed.' 

This report was adopted by the Council. 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, consisting of the list of the Corresponding Societies, and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1895, has been received. 

The account of the Conference of Delegates at Oxford has, in accord- 
ance with a resolution of the Council, been published in the Rej^ort for 
1894. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor R. Meldola, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mi-. W. Wbitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V". Holmes, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, is 
hereby nominated for re- appointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Chairman, Dr. J. G. 
Garson Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary, to the Confer- 
ence of Delegates of Corresponding Societies to be held during the meeting 
at Ipswich. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring members of the 
Council will be : — ■ 



Professor E. Ray Lankester. 
Professor G. D. Liveing. 
Mr. W. H. Preece. 



Professor A. W. Reinold. 
Professor J. J. Thomson, 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Anderson, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
Ayrton, Professor W. E., F.R.S. 
Baker, Sir B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Boys, Professor C. Vernon, F.R.S. 
Kdgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Foxwell, Professor H. S., M.A. 
*Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, 
M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Herdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S 
Horsley, Professor Victor, F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 
Markham, Clements E., Esq., C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 



I 



♦Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
*Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 

Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
♦Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S.E. 

Tlnwin, Professor W. C, F.R S. 

Vines, Professor S. H., F.R.S. 

Ward, Professor Marshall, F.R.S. 

Whitaker, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



e2 



Izzxiv 



REPORT — 1895 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Ipswich Meeting in September 1895. 



1. Ii<eceivmg Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[And the unexpended balance of 
last year's grant in the hands of 
the Chairman, 18/. 14s. 6(i.] 



The Application of Photography 
to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 

[The unexpended balance of last 
year's grant in the hands of the 
Chairman, 15/.] 

Seismological Observations. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor G. Carey 
Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton. J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Oliver J. Lodge, Lord Ray- 
leigh. Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, 
Professors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, 
Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
patrick. Professor J. Viriamu 
Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. 
G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, and 
Mr. E. H. Griffiths. 

Chairman.— Mv. G. J. Symons. 
Secrfitanj. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldolaand Mr. John 
Hopkinson. 

Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Lodge. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor B. Price, 
Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor 
A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. 
Hicks, Major P. A. Macmahon, 
and Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cun- 
ningham. 



Cluiirman. — Mr. G. J. S3'mons. 
Secretaries. — Mr. C. Davison and 

Professor J. Milne. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. 

Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, Sir 

F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Professor J. A. 
Ewij?, Professor A. H. Green, 
Prolw-isor C. G. Knott, Professor 

G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Mel- 
dola. Professor J. Perry, Pro- 
fessor J. H. Poynting, and Mr. 
Isaac Roberts. 




15 



80 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY TEE GENERAL COMMITTEE, IXXXV 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To assist the Physical Society in 
bringing out Abstracts of Phy- 
sical Papers. 

To co-operate with Professor Karl 
Pearson in the Calculation of 
certain Integrals. 

[Last year's grant renewed.] 

To confer with British and Foieign 
Societies publishing Mathema- 
tical and Physical Papers as to 
the desirability of securing uni- 
formity in the size of the pages 
of their Transactions and Pro 
ceedings. 

[Last year's grant renewed.] 

Considering the best Methods of 
Recording the Direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements. 



The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quan- 
titative Analysis. 

[Balance of last year's grant 
renewed.] 



The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw. 



Publishing in pamphlet form the 
Papers on the Relation of Agri- 
culture to Science, together 
with the discussion whicli fol- 
lowed. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. E. Atkinson. 
Secretary. — Professor A. W. 
Riicker. 

Chairman. — Rev. Robert Harley. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Forsyth. 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Professor Karl Pear- 
son. 

Chairman. — Professor S.P.Thomp- 
son. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Mr. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. Burton, 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
A. W. Riicker, and Dr. G.John- 
stone Stoney. 

Chairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Professor A. Schuster, Mr. G. John- 
stone Stone3% Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. C. 
Chree, Mr. G. J. Symons, and 
Mr. W. E. Wilson. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secreta7'y. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 

Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain 

Abney. 

Chairman.— Vir. T. E. Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hum- 
mel. 

Dr. W. H. Perkin, Prof. W. J. 
Russell, Captain Abney, Prof. W. 
Stroud, and Prof. R. Meldola. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Emerson 

Reynolds. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 
Professor Fraukland, Professor F. 

Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. 

A. E. Fletcher, Mr. D. H Nagel, 

and Professor W. Carleton 

Williams. 

Chairman.— ?roiessoi R. War- 

ington. 
Secretary. — Mr. Manning Prentice. 
Mr. C. ¥. Cross. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 
Secretary. — Professor R. Waring- 
ton. 



Grants 



£ 
100 



«. d. 




15 



5 



30 



10 



5 



10 



50 



5 



Ixxxvi 



REPORT — 1895. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



The Description and Illustration 
of the Fossil Phyllopoda of the 
PalEeozoic Rocks. 



To investigate the Character of 
the High-level Shell-bearing de- 
posits at Clava, Chapelhall, and 
other localities. 



The Investigation of the Eury- 
pterid-bearing Deposits of the 
Pentland Hills. 

\Zl. renewed.] 

To consider a project for investi- 
gating the Structure of a Coral 
Eeef by Boring and Sounding. 

[Last year's grant renewed.] 



To examine the ground from which 
the remains of Cetiosaurus in 
the Oxford Museum were ob- 
tained, with a view to deter- 
mining whether other parts of 
the same animal remain in the 
rock. 

[20Z. renewed.] 

To ascertain by excavation at 
Hoxne the relations of the 
Palseolithic Deposits to the 
Boulder Clay, and to the de- 
posits with Arctic and Tem- 
perate plants. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary!, — Mr. P. P. Kendall. 

Professors T. G. Bonney, and J. 
Prestwich, Mr. C. E. De Ranee, 
Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, 
Mr. J. Home, and Mr. Dugald 
Bell. 

Chairman.— Raw. Prof. T. Wilt- 
shire. 
Secretary — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. Home. 
Secretary. — Mr. Dugald Bell. 
Messrs. J. Eraser, P. F. Kendall, 

T. F. Jamieson, and David 

Robertson. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. H. Traquair. 
Secretary. — Mr. M. Laurie. 
Professor T. Rupert Jones. 



CJiairman. — Professor T. G. Bon- 
ney. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. Sollas. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors 
A. H. Green, J. W. Judd, C. 
Lapworth, A. C. Haddon, Boyd 
Dawkins, G. H. Darwin, S. J. 
Hickson, and A. Stewart, Ad- 
miral W. J. L. Wharton, Drs. H. 
Hicks, J. Murray, W. T. Blan- 
ford, Le Neve Foster, and H. B. 
Guppy, Messrs. F. Darwin, H. 
O. Forbes, G. C. Bourne, A. R. 
Binnie, J. W. Gregory, and 
J. C. Hawkshaw, and Hon. P. 
Fawcett. 

Chairman. — Professor A. H. Green. 
Secretary. — Mr. James Parker. 
Earl of Ducie, Professor E. Ray 

Lankester, Professor H. G. 

Seeley, and Lord Valentia. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. Clement Reid. 
Miss E. Morse, Mr. E. P. Ridley, 
and Mr. H. N. Ridley. 



Grants 

£ 8. d. 
10 



5 



10 



5 



10 



25 



25 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxvii 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To explore certain Caves in the 
Neighbourhood of Singapore, 
and to collect their living and 
extinct Fauna. 



To ascertain the Age and Rela- 
tions of the Rocks in which 
Secondary Fossils have been 
found near Moreseat, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

To enable Mr. H. C. Williamson 
to investigate the Fertilisation 
of the Eel, and the Development 
of the testis in Teleostean 
Fishes, or, failing this, to ap- 
point some other competent in- 
vestigator to carry on a defi- 
nite piece of work at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples. 

To enable Mr. Darnell Smith or 
other naturalist to investigate 
the relations between physical 
conditions and marine Fauna 
and Flora, at the Laboratory of 
the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion, Plymouth. 

[5Z. renewed.] 

The Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea. 



To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
of the Sandwich Islands, and to 
take steps to investigate ascer- 
tained deficiencies in the Fauna, 
with power to co-operate with 
the Committee appointed for the 
purpose by the Royal Society, 
and to avail themselves of such 
assistance in their investiga- 
tions as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government. The 
Committee to have power to 
dispose of specimens where ad- 
visable. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Ridley. 

Dr. R. Hanit.sch, Mr. Clement 
Reid, and Mr. A. Russel Wal- 
lace. 

Chairman. — Mr. T. F. Jamieson. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 
Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne. 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor J. Cossar Ewart, Pro- 
fessor M. Foster, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Mr. A. Sedgwick, and 
Professor W. C. M'Intosh. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Professor M. Foster and Professor 

S. H. Vines. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. I. C. Thompson. 

Professor A. C. Haddon, Professor 
G. B. Howes, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Mr. A. O. Walker, Mr. Clement 
Reid, Professor F. E. Weiss. Dr. 
H. 0. Forbes, and Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 
Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. 

Hickson, Mr. O. Salvin, Dr. P. L. 

Sclater, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 




10 



100 



15 



50 



100 



Ixx ^viii 



REPORT — 1895. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Investigation of the African 
Lake Fauna by Mr. J. E. Moore. 



The Elucidation of the Life Condi- 
tions of the Oj'sterunder Normal 
and Abnormal Environment, 
including in the latter the effect 
of sewage matter and patho- 
genic organisms. 

Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



To report on methods of Calibrat- 
ing the measuring instruments 
used in Engineering Laborato- 
ries, and to take steps for Com- 
paring the Measuring Instru- 
ments at present in use in dif- 
ferent laboratories. 

[25Z. renewed.] 

To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screw 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion in 1884. 



The Physical Characters, Lan- 
guages, and Industrial and So- 
cial Condition of the North- 
western Tribes of the Dominion 
of Canada. 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 



An ancient Kitchen-midden at 
Hastings already partially ex- 
amined, and a Settlement called 
the Wildernesse. 

[Unexpended balance in the hands 
of the Chairman 21. 6.s. 6rf.] 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 
Secretary. — ProfessorG. B. Howes. 
Dr. John Murray, Professor E. 

Ray Lankester, and Professor 

W. A. Herdman. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor R. Boyce. 

Mr. G-. C. Bourne and Professor 
C. S. Sherrington. 



Cliairman. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
and Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Chmrman. — Professor A. B. W. 

Kennedy. 
Secretary. — Prof essor W. C. Un win. 




Chairman. — Mr. W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. Conrad W. Cooke. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. R. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. T. P. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, and 
Mr. T. Buckney. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Mr. Cuthbert E. Peek. 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Hali- 
burton, and Mr. H. Hale. 



Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Gen- 
eral Pitt-Rivers, Sir John Evans, 
and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. 

Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. J. Lewis Ab- 
bott. 

Professor Prestwich, Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, and Mr. Arthur J. Evans.' 



40 



10 



30 



10 



100 



30 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To organise un Ethnographical 
Survey of the United Kingdom. 
[20Z. renewed.] 



To co-operate with the Committee 
appointed by the International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demo- 
graphy in the investigation of 
the Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children. 

To carry out an investigation on 
the Pliysiological Applications 
of the Phonograph, and on the 
true form of the voice curves 
made by the instrument. 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Eeport. 



Anthropometric Measurements in 

Schools. 
[Unexpended balance in the hands 

of the Chairman 21. 145.] 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Secretarij. — Mr. E. Sidney Hart- 
land. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
Romilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Mr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Price, Sir H. Howorth, 
Professor R. Meldola, General 
Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. E. G. 
Eavenstein. 

CJiairman. — Sir Douglas Galton. 

Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 

Mr. E. VV. Brabrook, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Dr. W Wilberforce 
Smith, and Mr. White Wallis. 

Chairman. — Professor J. G. Mc- 
Kendrick. 

Secretary. — Professor G. G. Mur- 
ray. 

Mr. David S. Wingate and Mr. John 
S. McKendrick. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Sir Rawson Eawson, Mr. 
G. J. S3^mons, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkin- 
son, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
W. Whitaker, Professor E. B. 
Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Mac- 

alister. 
Secretary. — Professor B. Windle. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. 

Cleland, and Dr. J. G. Garson. 



Grants 



£ 

40 



s. d. 




10 



25 



30 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 


Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 

Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 

Mr. John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, Pro- 
fessor R. Copeland, and Hon. R. 
Abercromby. 



xc 



REPORT — 1895. 



2. Nnt receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To confer with tlie Astronomer Eoyal 
and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the 
Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
■with a view of carrying out such 
comparison. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



The present state of our Knowledge in 
Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 



That Mr. John Brill be requested to 
draw up a Report on Non-commuta- 
tive Algebras. 

That Professor S. P. Thompson and Pro- 
fessor A. W. Riicker be requested to 
draw up a Report on the State of oui 
Knowledge concerning Resultant 
Tones. 

The mode of Teaching Geometrical 
Drawing in Schools. 



Members of the Committee 



Ckaii-man. — Professor A. W. Riicker. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Watson. 
Professor A. Schuster and Professor H. 
H. Turner. 



Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, 
and Professor A. VV. Riicker. 

CJuiirman. — Mr. John Murraj'. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Murray. 
Professor A. Schuster, Lord Kelvin, the 

Abbe Renard, Dr. A. Buchan, the Hon. 

R. Abercromby, Dr. M. Grabham, Mr. 

John Aitken, Mr. L. Fletcher, and 

Mr. A. Ritchie Scott. 



Chairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Professor J. Prestwich, 
Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. 
A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. 
Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, 
Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Strahan, and 
Professor Michie Smith. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary.— Ur. W. C. D. Whetham. 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick. 



Chairman. — Professor 0. Henrici. 

Secretary. — Professor 0. Henrici. 

Captain Abney, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. 
R. B. Hayward, Professor Karl Pear- 
son, Professor W. Cawthorne Unwin. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCl 



2. Not. receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Establishment of a National Phy- 
sical Laboratory for the more accu- 
rate determination of Physical Con- 
stants, and for other Quantitative 
Eesearch, and to confer with the 
Council of the Association. 



The Investigation of the direct Forma- 
tion of Haloids from pure Materials. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 
The Properties of Solutions. 



Keporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 

The Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



To inquire into the Proximate Chemical 
Constituents of the various kinds of 
Coal. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Syste- 
matic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir Douglas Gal ton. 

Secretary. — Professor 0. J. Lodge. 

Lord Kayleigh, Lord Kelvin, Sir H. E. 
Eoscoe, Professor A. W. Riicker, Pro- 
fessor R. B. Clifton, Professor Carey 
Foster, Professor A. Schuster, Professor 
W. B. Ayrton, Dr. W. Anderson, Dr. 
T. E. Thorpe, Mr. Francis Galton, and 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. C. H. 
Bothamley. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.— VvoiessoT H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professors H. McLeod, S. U. Pickering, 
W. Ramsay, and S. Young. 

Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts- Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. J. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney, Professor W. Noel Hart- 
ley and Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Sir I. Lovvthian Bell 
Secretary. — Professor P.Phillips Bedson. 
Professor F. Clowes, Mr. Ludwig Mond, 

Professors Vivian B. Lewes and E. 

Hull, and Messrs. J. W. Thomas and 

H. Bauerman. 

Cliairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Professor W. R. 
Dunstan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thompson. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 
Secretaries. — Mr. O. W. Jeffs, and Mr. 

W W. Watts. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Prof. W. Boyd 

Dawkins, Prof. T. McKenny Hughes, 

Dr. T. Anderson, and Messrs. A. S. 

Reid, E. J. Garwood, W. Gray, H. B. 

Woodward, J. E. Bedford, R. Kidston, 

R. H. Tiddeman, J. J. H. Teall, and 

J. G. Goodchild. 



XCll 



REPORT — 1895. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Monerj — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To open further Sections in the 
neighbourhood of Stonesfield in order 
to show tlie relationship of the 
' Stonesfield Slate ' to the underlying 
and overlying strata. 

To explore the Calf-Hole Cave, at the 
Heights, Skyrethorne, near Skipton. 



To investigate the nature and probable 
age of the High-level Flint-drift in 
the Face of the Chalk Escarpment 
near Ightham. 

To cotisider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all T3'pe Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 

To study Life Zones in the British Car- 
boniferous Rocks. 



To report on the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Zoology and 
Botany of the West India Islands, 
and to take steps to investigate 
ascertained deficiencies in the Fauna 
and Flora. 

Compilation of an Index Generum et 
Specierum Animalium. 



To make a Digest of the Observations on 
the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses 
and Light-vessels. 



Investigation into the Life History and 
Economic Relai ions of the Coccidae of 
Ceylon by Mr. E. E. Green. 



Zoological Bibliography and Publica- 
tion. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. H. B. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. A. Walford. 
Professor A. H. Green, Dr. H. Woodward, 
and Mr. J. Windoes. 



Cliairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddemaa. 

Secretary. — Rev. E. Jones. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor 

L. C. Miall, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. A. 

Birtwhistle, and Mr. J. J. Wilkinson. 

Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Harrison. 
Professor J. Prestwich and Professor 
H. G. Seeley. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F. Whidborne, Mr. 11. Kidston, 
and Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Cliairman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary.— Mr. E. J. Garwood. 
Mr. A. H. Foord. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 

Mr. W. Carruthers, Dr. A. C. Giinther, 

Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, 

and Professor A. Newton. 



Chairman. — SirW. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Sclater. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater and Dr. H. Woodward, 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 

Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. 

Barrington, Mr. W. E. Clarke, and Rev. 

E. P. Knubley. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. McLachlan. 

Secretary. — Professor G. B. Howes. 

Lord Walsingham, Professor R. Meldola, 
Professor L. C. Miall, Mr. R. Newstead, 
Dr. D. Sharp, and Colonel C. Swinhoe. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flowef. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. W. E. 

Hoyle, Dr. P. Lutley Sclater, Mr. 

Adam Sedgwick, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. 

C. D. Sherborn, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 

and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 



COMMITTEES APrOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XClll 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Regulations of the Post Office regarding 
the carriage of Natural History speci- 
mens to Foreign Countries. 



The Necessity for the immediate inves- 
tigation of the Biology of Oceanic 
Islands. 



The position of Geography in the Edu- 
cational System of the Country. 



The effect of wind and atmospheric 
pressure on the Tides. 



For carrying on the Work of the An- 
thropometric Laboratory. 



The Prehistoric and Ancient Remains 
of Glamorganshire. 



Linguistic and Anthropological Charac- 
teristics of the North Dravidians — 
the Ura-ons. 



The best methods of preserving Vege- 
table Specimens for Exhibition in 
Museums. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Lord Walsingham. 
Secretary. — Dr. H. 0. Forbes. 
Mr. R. McLachlan, Dr. C. W. Stiles, and 
Colonel C. Swinhoe. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 

Mr. G. C. Bourne, Dr. H. 0. Forbes, Pro- 
fessor W. A. Herdman, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Dr. John Murray, Professor 
A. Newton, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon 

Chairman. — Mr. H. J. Mackinder. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. Herbertson. 
Mr. J. S. Keltie, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. E. G. 
Ravenstein, and Mr. Eli Sowerbutts. 

Chairman. — Professor L. F. Vernon Har- 

court. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Wheeler. 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, and Professor W. C. 

Unwin. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 
Secretary.-'Dv. J. G. Garson. 
Dr. Wilberforce Smith, Professor A. C. 
Haddon, and Professor B. C. A. Windle. 

Chairman.— Dr. C. T. Vachell. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Seward. 

Lord Pute, Messrs. R. W. Atkinson, 
Fianklen G. Evans, James Bell, and 
T. H. Thomas, and Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. Sidney Hartlan'l. 
Secretary. — Mr. Hugh Raynbird, jun. 
Professor A. C. Haddon and Mr. J. L. 
Myres. 

C7iairma7i.- -Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor J. B. Farmer. 
Professor Baj'ley Balfour, Professor 

Errera, Mr. W. Gardiner, Professor J. 

R. Green, Professor J. W. H. Trail, 

and Professor F. E. Weiss. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Professor R. Warington's paper on 'How shall Agriculture best receive help 
from Science ? ' 

Mr. W. Whitaker's paper on ' Some Suffolk Wells.' 

Mr. Joseph Francis's paper on ' The Dip of the Underground PaliEOzoic Rocks at 
Ware and Cheshunt.' 



Xciv REPORT 1895. 

Regulations regarding Grants of Money. 

The regulations were revised, and are given on p, xxxii. 



Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider whether it be desirable to take steps 
in order to bring the following resolution under the notice of H.M. Government and 
the Trustees of the British Museum : — 

' That in view of the importance of preserving the remains of the various civilisa- 
tions of this Empire which are fast disappearing, and in order to prevent the loss 
and dispersion of collections of ancient and modern Anthropology which may be 
offered to the nation, it is highly desirable to acquire less costly and far more 
extended storehouse space than can be provided in London.' 

That the Council be requested to bring before the Government the importance of 
securing for the National Collections the type collection of preparations of Fossil 
Plants left by the late Professor W. C. WiUiamson. 

That it is desirable to reprint collections of the Addresses delivered by the 
Presidents of Sections in separate volumes for sale. 

That the Council be requested to provide the Geological Survey maps and 
sections of the district in which the Association meets each year, to be placed in 
a conspicuous position in the Meeting Room of Section C. 



xcv 



Synopsis of Grants of Money apiwoirriated to Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Ipswich Meeting, September 1895. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics, 

£ s. d. 
*Foster, Professor Carey — Electrical Standards (And unex- 
pended balance 18Z. 14s. 6c?.) 5 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Photographs of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena 15 

*Payleigh, Lord — Mathematical Tables (Unexpended balance 

151.) — 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Seismological Observations 80 

♦Atkinson, Dr. E. — Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

*Harley, Rev. P. — Calculation of Certain Integrals (Renewed) 15 
Thompson, Professor S. P. — Uniformity of Size of Pages of 

Transactions, &c. (Renewed) 5 

♦Stokes, Sir G. G.— Solar Radiation 30 

Chem,istri/. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E. — Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 

the Elements 10 

*Thorpe, Dr. T. E.— Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 5 

♦Reynolds, Professor J. E. — Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 

(Renewed) 10 

Warington, Professor R. — The Carbohydrates of Barley Straw 50 
Meldola, Professor R. — Reprinting Discussion on the Re- 
lation of Agriculture to Science 5 

Geology. 

♦Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks 10 

♦Wiltshire, Professor T. — Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

♦Home, Mr. J. — Shell-bearing Deposits at Clava, &c 10 

♦Traquair, Dr. R. H. — Eurypterids of the Pentland Hills 

(3Z. renewed) 5 

♦Bonney, Professor T. G. — Investigation of a Coral Reef by 

Boring and Sounding (Renewed) 10 

♦Green, Professor A. H. — Examination of Locality where the 
Cetiosaurus in the Oxford Museum was found. (201. re- 
newed) 25 

Evans, Sir John — Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Flower, Sir W. H. —Fauna of Singapore Caves 40 

Jamieson, Mr. T. F. — Age and Relation of Rocks near More- 
seat, Aberdeen 10 

Carried forward J470 

* Reappointed. 



xcvi BEPonr — 1895. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 470 

Zoology. 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L.— Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 
*Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Table at the Biological Laboratory, Ply- 
mouth (5^. renewed) 15 

*Herdman, Professor W, A. — Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L.— Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 100 

Sclater, Dr. P. L.— African Lake Fauna 100 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Oysters under normal and 

abnormal environment 40 

Geograi^hy. 
*Ravenstein, Mr. E. G. — Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Mechanical Science. 

Kennedy, Professor A. B. W. — Calibration and Comparison 

of Measuring Instruments (25Z. renewed) 30 

♦Preece, Mr. W. H.— Small Screw Gauge 10 

Anthropology. 

*Tylor, Professor E. B. — North-Western Tribes of Canada 

(76?. 15s. renewed) 100 

*Munro, Dr. P. — Lake Village at Glastonbury {bl. renewed) .30 
*Evans, Sir J. — Exploration of a Kitchen-midden at Hastings 

(Unexpended balance 2Z. 6s. 6rf.) ... — 

*Brabrook, Mr. E. W. — Ethnographical Survey (20?. renewed) 40 
*Galton, Sir Douglas— Mental and Physical Condition of 

Children 10 

*Flower, Sir W. H. — Anthropometric Measurements in Schools 

(Unexpended balance, 2?. 14s.) — 

Physiology. 

*,McKendrick, Professor J. G. — Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies, 

*Meldola, Professor R. — Preparation of Report 30 

il,160 

* Keappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1896. 

The Meeting at Liverpool will commence on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember 16. 

The Annual Meeting in 1897. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1897 will be held at 
Toronto, Canada. 



XCVll 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientiftc Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

±'167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossillchthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 10 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 

£932 2 2 

1895. — 



1839. 

£ s. d. 

Fossillchthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaille 11 6 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue ... 166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 16 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



XCVIU 



REPORT — 1895. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railwav Sections -JS 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments. . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannise 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

GasesonLight 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



d. 




II 




£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 

Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observ'ations 

at Plymouth 55 

WhewcU's IMeteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 66 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 6 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 















8 


4 














9 


6 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instr\inient and Con- 
stant Indicator C9 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Maierials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 
Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 
the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 

rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



7 


3 














17 


c 








11 


10 














10 























7 


3 







































1845. 

£ 8. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-oporation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Kdinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Earometrograpli 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structvrre of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Ano2Dlura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



f 2 



c 



REPORT — 1895. 



1847. 

& 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19~ 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) .309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ «. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence.,of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrouglitlron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480~16~4 



1856. 
JIaintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory :— 
1854... 
1855... 



£75 0\ „, „ ^ 
£500 Of ^^^ ^ ^ 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£134: 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

lleseaxches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 

Life-boats 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



5 


7 



4 


. 5 









£507 


15 


4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



£ ». 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£084 11 



d. 

(» 









1 
u 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations in the Tellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on t he Consti t uent s 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 

£766" 









6 




































13_ 
19" 



1861. 

Maintaining the Estahlish- 

ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 1 ,, 

1861 £22 0/'" 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... £0 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£iTrr 




























(J 
























































5 


It) 








5 


10 



I 



Cll 



REPORT — 1895. 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at ivcw Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

MolluscaofN.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine B 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photohelionieter at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Eocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and Nortli- 

umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland !• 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 10 6 



18G3. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal ]?ossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon und er pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 























































































































£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 




7 3 10 







1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Anal3'sis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Xitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Ra^'s 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1281) 

















































































15 


8 



























15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida... 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eiuypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1691" 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


10 








7 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1866. 

£ 
Maintainino: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Bainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 60 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration . , 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycj-anidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Eesearches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 



s. d. 









13 


4 



















































































































































13 4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

i'173'J 4 



































































































4 






























1868. 

£ t. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids GO 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 'M 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals .^0 

Bag shot Leaf -beds .50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperaturo ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Anininl Substances 5 

Secondar}- Reptiles, ^<:c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1800. 

Maintaining the Establish :- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture J 00 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 








































































































































CIV 



BEPORT — 1895. 



£ ». d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Committee on Marine Faima 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Kainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 160 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 D 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 o 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry lOO 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 
Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Lixminous Meteors 30 


























































































































£1285 
















































































































£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 103 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminoias Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£9 60 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Undergroimd Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpese, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature .. . 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£ri28" 















1 


7 



























































































18 






















9 7 



CVl 



REPORT — 1895. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Kecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Kecorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples ■ 75 

Investigation of Underground 
Wateis 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses tlirough Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Kocks ' 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 



ill-la 10 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth ....." 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 

Geology lOO 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Comijound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey...., 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmosjiheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

:£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 
Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 

Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



I 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specilic Kefractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Antlu'opological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Phot ographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Kecord 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Lreland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Kaygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50' 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 

























































. 30 












£476 


3 


1 









1 


11 










































































1883. 

& ». d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 

ratives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Hocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges ■. 5 

£1083 3 3 



















































1 


11 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 60 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 10 

£1173 4 















4 
































































































CVlll 



REPORT — 1895. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating- Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palfeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

"Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... £0 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 

■vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds .30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 



s. 


d. 






























6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae G^-yn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesej^ 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX 



1888. 

£ 8. d. 

Ben Nevis Observator.y 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palaeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Pateozoic Phylloporta 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biolosrical Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 13 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



ex 



REPORT — 1895. 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 IG 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphtlialone Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 6 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10"~0 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan". 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Snkitions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea To vi--net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis .. . 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensitj' of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatorj'' 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Cliapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



£ s. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy "of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 




1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Jleteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandvrich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Phvsical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 e 



I 



1895. 

£ g. d. 

Electrical Standards 2r, 

Photographs of Jleteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 () 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 

alvsis 30 

Erratic Elocks 10 

Pala30zoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Fhnt-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CXll 



REPORT — 1895. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 11, at 8 p.m., in the Public Hall, Ipswich, 
the Most Hon. the Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S. (repre- 
sented by the Right Hon. Lord Kelvin, D.C.L., Pres.R.S.) resigned 
the office of President to Captain Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an 
Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place at 
the Museum. 

On Friday, September 13, at 8.30 p.m., in the Public Hall, Professor 
Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on 'Magnetism in 
Rotation.' 

On Monday, September 16, at 8.30 p.m., in the Public Hall, Pro- 
fessor Percy F. Frankland, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on 'The Work 
of Pasteur and its Various Developments.' 

On Tuesday, September 17, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 
Museum. 

On Wednesday, September 18, at 2.30 p.m., in the Lecture Hall, 
the concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were 
explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Liverpool. [The Meeting is 
appointed to commence on Wednesday, September IG, 1896.] 




PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 




1895. 



k 



B 



I 



ADDEESS 



BY 



SIE DOUGLAS GALTON, KC.B., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



My first duty is to convey to you, JMr. Mayor, and to the inhabitants of 
Ipswich, the thanks of the British Association for your hospitable invita- 
tion to hold our sixty-fifth meeting in your ancient town, and thus to recall 
the agreeable memories of the similar favour Avhich your predecessors con- 
ferred on the Association forty-four years ago. 

In the next place I feel it my duty to say a few words on the 
great loss which science has recently sustained — the death of the Hight 
Hon. Thomas Henry Huxley. It is unnecessary for me to enlarge, 
in the presence of so many to whom his personality was known, upon 
his charm in social and domestic life ; but upon the debt which the 
Association owes to him for the assistance which he rendered in the 
promotion of science I cannot well be silent. Huxley was preeminently 
qualified to assist in sweeping away the obstruction by dogmatic au- 
thority, which in the early days of the Association fettered progress in 
certain branches of science. For, whilst he was an eminent leader in 
biological research, his intellectual power, his original and intrepid mind, 
his vigorous and masculine English, made him a writer who explained the 
deepest subject with transparent clearness. And as a speaker his lucid 
and forcible style was adorned with ample and effective illustration in the 
lecture-room ; and his energy and wealth of argument in a more public 
arena largely helped to win the battle of evolution, and to secure for us 
the right to discuss questions of religion and science without fear and 
without favour. 

It may, I think, interest you to learn that Huxley first made the 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1895. 

acquaintance of Tyndall at the meeting of the Association held in this 
town in 1851. 

About forty-six years ago I first began to attend the meetings of the 
British Association ; and I was elected one of your general secretaries 
about twenty-five years ago. 

It is not unfitting, therefore, that I should recall to your minds the 
conditions under which science was pursued at the formation of the Asso- 
ciation, as well as the very remarkable position which the Association 
has occupied in relation to science in this country. 

Between the end of the sixteenth century and the early part of the 
present century several societies had been created to develop various 
branches of science. Some of these societies were established in London, 
and others in important provincial centres. 

In 1831, in the absence of I'ailways, communication between difl'erent 
parts of the country was slow and difficult. Science was therefore local- 
ised ; and in addition to the universities in England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land, the towns of Birmingham, Manchester, Plymouth and York each 
maintained an important nucleus of scientific research. 

Origin of the British Association. 

Under these social conditions the British Association was founded in 
September 1831. 

The general idea of its formation was derived from a migratory 
society which had been previously formed in Germany ; but whilst the 
German society met for the special occasion on which it was summoned, 
and then dissolved, the basis of the British Association was continuity. 

The objects of the founders of the British Association were enunciated 
in their earliest rules to be : — 

' To give a stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to scien- 
tific inquiry ; to promote the intercourse of those who cultivated science 
in diSerent parts of the British Empire with one another, and with 
foreign philosophers ; to obtain a more general attention to the objects of 
science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind which im- 
pede its progress.' 

Thus the British Association for the Advancement of Science based 
its utility upon the opportunity it afibrded for combination. 

The first meeting of the Association was held at York with 353 
members. 

As an evidence of the want which the Association supplied, it may be 
mentioned that at the second meeting, which was held at Oxford, the 
number of members was 435. The third meeting, at Cambridge, numbered 
over 900 members, and at the meeting at Edinburgh in 1831 there were 
present 1,298 members. 

At its third meeting, which was held at Cambridge in 1833, the 
Association, through the influence it had already acquired, induced the 



ADDRESS. 5 

Government to grant a sum of 500?. for the reduction of the astronomical 
observations of Baily. And at the same meeting the General Committee 
commenced to appropriate to scientific research the surplus from the sub- 
scriptions of its members. The committees on each branch of science 
were desired ' to select definite and important objects of science, which 
they may think most fit to be advanced by an application of the funds of 
the society, either in compensation for labour, or in defraying the expense 
of apparatus, or otherwise, stating their reasons for their selection, and, 
when they may think proper, designating individuals to undertake the 
desired investigations.' 

The several proposals were submitted to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations, whose approval was necessary before they could be passed by the 
General Committee. The regulations then laid down still guide the 
Association in the distribution of its grants. At that early meeting the 
Association was enabled to apply 600?. to these objects. 

I have always wondered at the foresight of the framers of the 
constitution of the British Association, the most remarkable feature of 
which is the lightness of the tie which holds it together. It is not bound 
by any complex central organisation. It consists of a federation of 
Sections, whose youth and energy are yearly renewed by a succession of 
presidents and vice-presidents, whilst in each Section some continuity 
of action is secured by the less movable secretaries. 

The governing body is the General Committee, the members of which are 
selected for their scientific work ; but their controlling power is tempered 
by the law that all changes of rules, or of constitution, should be submitted 
to, and receive the approval of, the Committee of Recommendations. This 
committee may be described as an ideal Second Chamber. It consists of 
the most experienced members of the Association. 

The administration of the Association in the interval between annual 
meetings is carried on by the Council, an executive body, whose duty it 
is to complete the work of the annual meeting (a) by the publication of 
its proceedings ; (b) by giving effect to resolutions passed by the General 
Committee ; (c) it also appoints the Local Committee and organises the 
2}ersonnel of each Section for the next meeting. 

I believe that one of the secrets of the long-continued success and 
vitality of the British Association lies in this purely democratic constitu- 
tion, combined with the compulsory careful consideration which must be 
given to suggested organic changes. 

The Association is now in the sixty-fifth year of its existence. In 
its origin it invited the philosophical societies dispersed throughout Great 
Britain to unite in a co-operative union. 

Within recent years it has endeavoured to consolidate that union. 

At the present time almost all important local scientific societies 
scattered throughout the country, some sixty-six in number, are in corre- 
spondence with the Association. Their delegates hold annual conferences 
at our meetings. The Association has thus extended the sphere of its action : 



6 REPORT — 1895. 

it places the members of the local societies engaged in scientific work 
in relation with each other, and brings them into co-operation -with 
members of the Association and with others engaged in oiiginal in^■esti- 
gations, and the papers whicli the individual societies publish annually 
are catalogued in our Report. Thus by degrees a national catalogue 
will be formed of the scientific work of these societies. 

The Association has, moreover, shown that its scope is coterminous 
with the British Empire by holding one of its annual meetings at Montreal, 
and we are likely soon to hold a meeting in Toronto. 

Condition of certain Sciences at the formation of the 
British Association. 

The Association, at its first meeting, began its work by initiating a 
series of reports upon the then condition of the several sciences. 

A rapid glance at some of these reports will not only show the enor- 
mous strides which have been made since 1831 in the investigation of 
facts to elucidate the laws of Nature, but it may afford a slight insight 
into the impediments ofiei'ed to the progress of investigation by the 
mental condition of the community, which had been for so long satisfied 
to accept assumptions without undergoing the labour of testing their 
truth by ascertaining the real facts. This habit of mind may be illustrated 
by two instances selected from the early reports made to the Associa- 
tion. The first is afforded by the report made in 1832, by Mr. Lubbock, 
on ' Tides.' 

This was a subject necessarily of importance to England as a dominant 
power at sea. But in England records of the tides had only recently been 
commenced at the dockyards of Woolwich, Sheerness, Portsmouth, and 
Plymouth, on the request of the Royal Society, and no information had 
been collected upon the tides on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. 

The British Association may feel pride in the fact that within three 
years of its inception, viz. by 1834, it had induced the Corporation of 
Liverpool to establish two tide gauges, and the Government to undertake 
tidal observations at 500 stations on the coasts of Britain. 

Another cognate instance is exemplified by a paper read at the second 
meeting, in 1832, upon the State of Naval Architecture in Great Britain. 
The author contrasts the extreme perfection of the carpentry of the internal 
fittings of the vessels with the I'emarkable deficiency of mathematical 
theory in the adjustment of the external form of vessels, and suggests 
the benefit of the application of refined analysis to the various practical 
problems which ought to interest shipbuilders— problems of capacity, of 
displacement, of stowage, of velocity, of pitching and rolling, of masting, 
of the effects of sails and of the resistance of fluids ; and, moreover, sug- 
gests that large-scale experiments should be made by Government, to 
afford the necessary data for calculation. 

Indeed, when we consider how completely the whole habit of mind of 
the populations of the Western world has been changed, since the beginning 



ADDHESS. 7 

of the century, from willing acceptance of authority as a rule of life to a 
universal spirit of inquiry and experimental investigation, is it not pro- 
bable that this rapid change has arisen from society having been stirred 
to its foundations by the causes and consequences of the French Revolu- 
tion 1 

One of the earliest practical i-esults of this awakening in France was 
the conviction that the basis of scientific research lay in the accuracy of 
the standards by which observations could be compared ; and the follow- 
ing principles were laid down as a basis for their measurements of length, 
weight, and capacity : viz. (1) that the unit of linear measure applied 
to matter in its three forms of extension, viz., length, breadth, and 
thickness, should be the standard of measures of length, surface, and 
solidity ; (2) that the cubic contents of the linear measure in decimetres 
of pure water at the temperature of its greatest density should furnish at 
once the standard weight and the measure of capacity. • The metric sys- 
tem did not come into full operation in France till 1840 ; and it is now 
adopted by all countries on the continent of Europe except Russia. 

The standards of length which were accessible in Great Britain at the 
formation of the Association were the Parliamentary standard yard lodged 
in the Houses of Parliament (which was destroyed in 1834 in the fire 
which burned the Houses of Parliament) ; the Royal Astronomical 
Society's standard ; and the 10-foot bar of the Ordnance Survey. 

The first two were assumed to afford exact measurements at a given 
temperature. The Ordnance bar was formed of two bars on the principle 
of a compensating pendulum, and aflbrded measurements independent 
of temperature. Standard bars were also disseminated throughout the 
country, in possession of the corporations of various towns. 

The British Association early recognised the importance of uniformity 
in the record of scientific facts, as well as the necessity for an easy method 
of comparing standards and for verifying difTerences between instruments 
and apparatus required by various observers pursuing similar lines of 
investigation. At its meeting at Edinburgh in 1834 it caused a com- 
parison to be made between the standard bar at Aberdeen, constructed by 
Troughton, and the standard of the Royal Astronomical Society, and 
reported that the scale ' was exceedingly well finished ; it was about 
^^Jjgth of an inch shorter than the 5 -feet of the Royal Astronomical 
Society's scale, but it was evident that a great number of minute, yet 
important, circumstances have hitherto been neglected in the formation 
of such scales, without an attention to which they cannot be expected 
to accord with that degree of accuracy which the present state of science 
demands.' Subsequently, at the meeting at Newcastle in 1863, the 
Association appointed a committee to report on the best means of 
providing for a uniformity of weights and measures with reference to the 

' The litre is the volume of a kilogramme of pure water at its maximum density, 
and is slightly less than the litre was intended to be, viz., one cubic decimetre. The 
weight of a cubic decimetre of pure water is 1-000013 kilogrammes. 



8 KEPOKT — 1895. 

interests of science. This committee recommended the metric decimal 
system — a recommendation which has been endorsed by a committee 
of the House of Commons in the last session of Parliament. 

British instrument-makers had been long conspicuous for accuracy of 
workmanship. Indeed, in the eighteenth century practical astronomy had 
been mainly in the hands of British observers ; for although the mathe- 
maticians of France and other countries on the continent of Europe were 
occupying the foremost place in mathematical investigation, means of 
astronomical observation had been furnished almost exclusively by English 
artisans. 

The sectors, quadrants, and circles of Ramsden, Bird, and Gary were 
inimitable by Continental workmen. 

But the accuracy of the mathematical-instrument maker had not 
penetrated into the engineei''s workshop. And the foundation of the 
British Association was coincident with a rapid development of mechanical 
appliances. 

At that time a good workman had done well if the shaft he was turn- 
ing, or the cylinder he was boring, ' was right to the ^'sud of an inch.' 
This was, in fact, a degree of accuracy as fine as the eye could usually 
distinguish. 

Eew mechanics had any distinct knowledge of the method to be pur- 
sued for obtaining accuracy ; nor, indeed, had practical men sufficiently 
appreciated either the immense importance or the comparative facility of 
its acquisition. 

The accuracy of workmanship essential to this development of me- 
chanical progress required very precise measurements of length, to which 
reference could be easily made. No such standards were then available 
for the workshops. But a little before 1830 a young workman named 
Joseph Whitworth realised that the basis of accuracy in machinery was the 
making of a true plane. The idea occurred to him that this could only 
be secured by making three independent plane surfaces ; if each of these 
would lift the other, they must be planes, and they must be true. 

The true plane rendered possible a degree of accuracy beyond the 
wildest dreams of his contemporaries in the construction of the lathe and 
the planing machine, which are used in the manufacture of all tools. 

His next step was to introduce an exact system of measurement, 
generally applicable in the workshop. 

Whitworth felt that the eye was altogether inadequate to secure this, 
and appealed to the sense of touch for affording a means of comparison. 
If two plugs be made to fit into a round hole, they may differ in size by a 
quantity imperceptible to the eye, or to any ordinary process of measure- 
ment, but in fitting them into the hole the difference between the larger 
and the smaller is felt immediately by the greater ease with which the 
smaller one fits. In this way a child can tell which is the larger of two 
cylinders differing in thickness by no more than 3770-0*^^ of an inch. 

Standard gauges, consisting of hollow cylinders -with plugs to fit, but 



ADDRESS. 9 

differing in diameter by the y^^^j^th or the tttJ ooth of an inch, were given 
to his workmen, with the I'esult that a degree of accuracy inconceivable 
to the ordinary mind became the rule of the shop. 

To render the consti-uction of accurate gauges possible Whitworth 
devised his measuring machine, in which the movement was effected by a 
screw ; by this means the distance between two true planes might be 
measured to the one-millionth of an inch. 

These advances in precision of measurement have enabled the degree 
of accuracy which was formerly limited to the mathematical-instrument 
maker to become the common property of every machine shop. And not 
only is the latest form of steam-engine, in the accuracy of its workman- 
ship, little behind the chronometer of the early part of the century, but 
the accuracy in the construction of experimental apparatus which has 
thus been introduced lias rendered possible recent advances in many lines 
of research. 

Lord Kelvin said in his Presidential Address at Edinburgh, ' Nearly 
all the grandest discoveries of science have been but the rewards of accu- 
rate measurement and patient, long-continued labour in the sifting of 
numerical results.' The discovery of argon, for which Lord Rayleigh and 
Professor Ramsay have been awarded the Hodgkin prize by the Smithsonian 
Institution, affords a remarkable illustration of the truth of this remark. 
Indeed, the provision of accurate standards not only of length, but of 
weight, capacity, temperature, force, and energy, are amongst the founda- 
tions of scientific investigation. 

In 1842 the British Association obtained the opportunity of extending 
its usefulness in this direction. 

In that year the Government gave up the Royal Observatory at Kew, 
and offered it to the Royal Society, who declined it. But the British 
Association accepted the charge. Their first object was to continue 
Sabine's valuable observations upon the vibrations of a pendulum in 
various gases, and to promote pendulum observations in various parts of 
the world. They subsequently extended it into an observatory for com- 
paring and verifying the various instruments which recent discoveries in 
physical science had suggested for continuous meteorological and magnetic 
observations, for observations and experiments on atmospheric electricity, 
and for the study of solar physics. 

This new departure afforded a means for ascertaining the advantages 
and disadvantages of the several varieties of scientific instruments ; as well 
as for standardising and testing instruments, not only for instrument- 
makers, but especially for observers by whom simultaneous observations 
were then being carried on in different parts of tJie world; and also for 
training observers proceeding abroad on scientific expeditions. 

Its special object was to promote original research, and expenditure 
was not to be incurred on apparatus merely intended to exhibit the 
necessary consequences of known laws. 

The rapid strides in electrical science had attracted attention to the 



10 KEPORT— 1895. 

measurement of electrical resistances, and in 1859 the British Association 
appointed a special committee to devise a standard. The standard of 
resistance proposed by that committee became the generally accepted 
standard, until the requirements of that advancing science led to the 
adoption of an international standard. 

In 1866 the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade entered 
into close relations with the Kew Observatory. 

And in 1871 Mr. Gassiot transferred 10,000?. upon trust to the Royal 
Society for the maintenance of the Kew Observatory, for the purpose of 
assisting in carrying on magnetical, meteorological, and other physical 
observations. The British Association thereupon, after having maintained 
this Observatory for nearly thirty years, at a total expenditure of about 
12,000?., handed the Observatory over to the Royal Society. 

The ' Transactions ' of the British Association are a catalogue of its 
efforts in every branch of science, both to promote experimental research 
and to facilitate the application of the results to the practical uses of 
•life. 

But probably the marvellous development in science which has 
accompanied the life-history of the Association will be best appreciated 
by a brief allusion to the condition of some of the branches of science 
in 1831 as compared with their present state. 

Geological and Geographical Science. 

Geology. 

At the foundation of the Association geology Avas assuming a promi- 
nent position in science. The main features of English geology had been 
illustrated as far back as 1821, and, among the founders of the British 
Association, Murchison and Phillips, Buckland, Sedgwick and Cony- 
beare, Lyell and De la Beche, were occupied in investigating the data 
necessary for perfecting a geological chronology by the detailed observa- 
tions of the various British deposits, and by their co-relation with the 
Continental strata. They were thus preparing the way for those large 
generalisations which have raised geology to the rank of an inductive 
science. 

In 1831 the Ordnance maps published for the southern counties had 
enabled the Government to recognise the importance of a geological 
survey by the appointment of Mr. De la Beche to affix geological colours 
to the maps of Devonshire and portions of Somerset, Dorset and Cornwall ; 
and in 1835 Lyell, Buckland and Sedgwick induced the Government to 
establish the Geological Survey Department, not only for promoting 
geological science, but on account of its pi'actical bearing on agriculture, 
mining, the making of roads, railways and canals, and on other branches 
of national industry. 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

Geography. 

The Ordnance Survey appears to have had its origin in a proposal of 
the French Government to make a joint-measurement of an arc of the 
meridian. This proposal fell through at the outbreak of the Revolution ; 
but the measurement of the base for that object was taken as a founda- 
tion for a national survey. In 1831, however, the Ordnance Survey had 
only published the 1-inch map for the southern portion of England, and 
the great triangulation of the kingdom was still incomplete. 

In 1834 the British Association urged upon the Government that the 
advancement of various branches of science was greatly retarded by tlie 
want of an accurate map of the whole of the British Isles ; and that, 
consequently, the engineer and the meteorologist, the agriculturist and the 
geologist, were each fettered in their scientific investigations by the 
absence of those accurate data which now lie ready to his hand for the 
measurement of length, of surface, and of altitude. 

Yet the first decade of the British Association was coincident with a 
considerable development of geographical research. The Association was 
persistent in pressing on the Government the scientific importance of 
sending the expedition of Ross to the Antarctic and of Franklin to the 
Arctic regions. We may trust that we are approaching a solution of tlie 
geography of the North Pole ; but the Antarctic regions still present a 
field for the researches of the meteorologist, the geologist, the biologist, 
and the magnetic observer, which the recent voyage of M. Borchgrevink 
leads us to hope may not long remain unexplored. 

In the same decade the question of an alternative route to India by 
means of a communication between the Mediterranean and the Persian 
Gulf was also receiving attention, and in 1835 the Government employed 
Colonel Chesney to make a survey of the Euphrates valley in order to 
ascertain whether that river would enable a practicable route to be formed 
from Iskanderoon, or Tripoli, opposite Cyprus, to the Persian Gulf. 
His valuable surveys are not, however, on a sufiiciently extensive scale to 
enable an opinion to be formed as to whether a navigable waterway 
through Asia Minor is physically practicable, or whether the cost of 
establishing it might not be prohibitive. 

The advances of Russia in Central Asia have made it imperative to 
provide an easy, rapid, and alternative line of communication with our 
Eastern possessions, so as not to be dependent upon the Suez Canal in 
time of war. If a navigation cannot be established, a railway between 
the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf has been shown by the recent 
investigations of Messrs. Hawkshaw and Ilayter, following on those of 
others, to be perfectly practicable and easy of accomplishment ; such an 
undertaking would not only be of strategical value, but it is believed 
it would be commercially remunerative. 

Speke and Grant brought before the Association, at its meeting at 
Newcastle in 1863, their solution of the mystery of the Nile basin, which 



12 REPORT — 1895. 

had puzzled geographers from the days of Herodotus ; and the efforts 
of Livingstone and Stanley and others have opened out to us the interior 
of Africa. I cannot refrain here from expressing the deep regret which 
geologists and geographers, and indeed all who are interested in the pro- 
gress of discovery, feel at the recent death of Joseph Thomson. His 
extensive, accurate, and trustworthy observations added much to our 
knowledge of Africa, and by his premature death we have lost one of 
its most competent explorers. 

Chemical, Astkonomical and Physical Science. 
Chemistry. 

The report made to the Association on the state of the chemical 
sciences in 1832, says that the efforts of investigators were then being 
•directed to determining with accuracy the true nature of the substances 
which compose the various products of the organic and inorganic king- 
doms, and the exact ratios by weiglit which the different constituents of 
these substances bear to each other. 

But since that day the science of chemistry has far extended its 
boundaries. The barrier has vanished which was supposed to separate 
the products of living organisms from the substances of which minerals 
consist, or which could be formed in the laboratory. The number of dis- 
tinct carbon compounds obtainable from organisms has greatly increased ; 
but it is small when compared with the number of such compounds which 
have been artificially formed. The methods of analysis have been per- 
fected. The physical, and especially the optical, properties of the various 
forms of matter have been closeh' studied, and many fruitful generalisa- 
tions have been made. The form in which these generalisations would 
now be stated may probably change, some, perhaps, by the overthrow or 
disuse of an ingenious guess at Nature's workings, but more by that 
change which is the ordinary growth of science — namely, inclusion in 
some simpler and more general view. 

In these advances the chemist has called the spectroscope to his aid. 
Indeed, the existence of the British Association has been practically coter- 
minous with the comparatively newly developed science of spectrum 
analysis, for though Newton,' Wollaston, Fraunhofer, and Fox Talbot 
had worked at the subject long ago, it was not till Kirchhoff and 
Bunsen set a seal on the prior labours of Stokes, Angstrom, and Balfour 
Stewart that the spectra of terrestrial elements have been mapped out and 
grouped ; that by its help new elements have been discovered, and that 
the idea has been suggested that the various orders of spectra of the same 

' Joannes Marcus Marci, of Kroniand in Bohemia, was the only predecessor of 
Newton who had any knowledge of the formation of a spectrum by a prism. He not 
only observed that the coloured rays diverged as they left the prism, but that a 
coloured ray did not change in colour after transmission through a prism. Plis book, 
Thaumantias, liber do arcucailestl deque colornm apparentmrn natura, Prag, 16i8, was, 
however, not known to Newton, and had no influence upon future discoveries. 



r 



ADDRESS. 13 

element are due to the existence of the element in different molecular 
forms — allotropic or otherwise — at diffei-ent temperatures. 

But great as have been the advances of terrestrial chemistry through 
its assistance, the most stupendous advance which we owe to the spectro- 
scope lies in the celestial direction. 

Astronomy. 

At the third meeting of the Association, at Cambridge, in 1833, Dr. 
Whewell said that astronomy is not only the queen of science, but the 
only perfect science, which was ' in so elevated a state of flourishing 
maturity that all that remained was to determine with the extreme of 
accuracy the consequences of its rules by the profoundest combinations of 
mathematics ; the magnitude of its data by the minutest scrupulousness 
of observation.' But in the previous year, Airy, in his report to 
the Association on the progress of Astronomy, had pointed out that 
the observations of the planet Uranus could not be united in one 
elliptic orbit ; a remark which turned the attention of Adams to the 
discovery of Neptune. 

In his report on the recent progress of Optics, Brewster in 1832 
suggested that with the assistance of adequate instruments ' it would be 
possible to study the action of the elements of material bodies upon rays 
of artificial light, and thereby to discover the analogies between their 
affinities and those which produce the fixed lines in the spectra of the 
stars ; and thus to study the effects of the combustions which light up 
the suns of other systems.' 

This idea has now been realised. All the stars which shine brightly 
enough to impress an image of the spectrum upon a photographic plate 
have been classified on a chemical basis. The close connection between 
stars and nebulte has been demonstrated ; and while the modern science 
of thermodynamics has shown that the hypothesis of Kant and Laplace 
on stellar formation, so far as it assumed a fiery cloud for the beginning, 
is no longer tenable, but that in all probability it gives the true explana 
tion of stellar evolution, if for the fiery cloud we substitute cold meteoric 
particles, as suggested by Waterston ' and by Lord Kelvin ^ at the 
Liverpool meeting of the British Association in 1854. 

We now know that the spectra of many of the terrestrial elements in 
the chromosphere of the sun differ from those familiar to us in our labora- 
tories. We begin to glean the fact thai; the chromospheric spectra are 
similar to those indicated by the absorption going on in the hottest stars, and 
Lockyer has not hesitated to affirm that these facts would indicate that in 
those localities we are in the presence of the actions of temperatures suffi- 

' In Note L on a paper on ' The Physics of Media,' communicated to the Royal 
Society, December 11, 1815, read March 5, 184G, and published, in 1892, in the 
2'ransactiof)s, with an introduction by Lord Rayleigh. 

- Brit. Assoc. Report, 1854, Ft. II., pp. 59-GI5; Mathematical and Physical Papers, 
vol. ii., art. Ixix., p. 40. 



14 REPORT 1895. 

ciently high to break up our chemical elements into finer forms. Other 
students of these phenomena may not agree in this view, and pos- 
sibly the discrepancies may be due to default in our terrestrial 
chemistry. Still, I would recall to you that Dr. Carpenter, in his Presi- 
dential Address at Brighton in 1872, almost censured the speculations of 
Frankland and Lockyer in 1868 for attributing a certain bright line in 
the spectrum of solar prominences (which was not identifiable with that 
of any known terrestrial source of light) to a hypothetical new substance 
which they proposed to call ' helium,' because ' it had not received that 
verification which, in the case of Crookes' search for thallium, was afforded 
by the actual discovery of the new metal.' Ramsay has now shown that 
this gas is present in dense minerals on earth ; but we have now also 
learned from Lockyer that it and other associated gases are not only 
found with hydrogen in the solar chromosphere, but that these gases, 
with hydrogen, form a large percentage of the atmospheric constituents of 
some of the hottest stars in the heavens. 

The spectroscope has also made us acquainted with the motions and 
even the velocities of those distant orbs which make up the sidereal uni- 
verse. It has enabled us to determine that many stars, single to the eye, 
are really double, and many of the conditions of these strange systems 
have been revealed. The rate at which matter is moving in solar cyclones 
and winds is now familiar to us. And I may also add that quite recently 
this wonderful instrument has enabled Professor Keeler to verify Clerk- 
Maxwell's theory that the rings of Saturn consist of a marvellous com- 
pany of separate moons — as it were, a cohort of courtiers revolving round 
their queen — with velocities proportioned to their distances from the 
planet. 

Physics 

If we turn to the sciences which are included under physics, the pro- 
gress has been equally marked. 

In optical science, in 1831 the theory of emission as contrasted with 
the undulatory theory of light was still under discussion. 

Young, who was the first to explain the phenomena due to the inter- 
ference of the rays of light as a consequence of the theory of waves, and 
Fresnel, who showed the intensity of light for any relative position of the 
interference-waves, both had only recently passed away. 

The investigations into the laws which regulate the conduction and 
radiation of heat, together with the doctrine of latent and of specific heat, 
and the relations of vapour to air, had all tended to the conception of a 
material heat, or caloric, communicated by an actual flow and emission. 

It was not till 1834 that improved thermometrical appliances had 
enabled Forbes and Melloni to establish the polarisation of heat, and thus 
to lay the foundation of an undulatory theory for heat similar to that 
which was in progress of acceptation for light. 

Whewell's report, in 1832, on magnetism and electricity shows that 



ADDRESS. 1 



K 



these branches of science were looked upon as cognate, and that the theory 
of two opposite electric fluids was generally accepted. 

In magnetism, the investigations of Hansteen, Gauss, and Weber in 
Europe, and the observations made under the Imperial Academy of Russia 
over the vast extent of that empire, had established the existence of mag- 
netic poles, and had shown that magnetic disturbances were simultaneous 
at all the stations of observation. 

At their third meeting the Association urged the Government to 
establish magnetic and meteorological observatories in Great Britain and 
her colonies and dependencies in different parts of the earth, furnished 
with proper instruments, constructed on uniform principles, and with 
provisions for continued observations at those places. 

In 1839 the British Association had a large share in inducing the 
Government to initiate the valuable series of experiments for determining 
the intensity, the declination, the dip, and the periodical variations of the 
magnetic needle which were carried on for several years, at numerous 
selected stations over the surface of the globe, under the directions of 
Sabine and Lefroy. 

In England systematic and regular observations are still made at 
Greenwich, Kew, and Stonyhurst. For some years past similar observa- 
tions by both absolute and self-recording instruments have also been made 
at Falmouth — close to the home of Robert Were Fox, whose name is in- 
separably connected with the early history of terrestrial magnetism in 
this country — but under such great financial difficulties that the continu- 
ance of the work is seriously jeopardised. It is to be hoped that means 
may be forthcoming to carry it on. Cornishmen, indeed, could found no 
more fitting memorial of their distinguished countryman, John Couch 
Adams, than by suitably endowing the magnetic observatory in which he 
took so lively an interest. 

Far more extended observation will be needed before we can hope 
to have an established theory as to the magnetism of the earth. We 
are without magnetic observations over a large part of the Southern 
Hemisphere. And Professor Riicker's recent investigations tell us that 
the earth seems as it were alive with magnetic forces, be they due to elec- 
tric currents or to variations in the state of magnetised matter ; that the 
disturbances affect not only the diurnal movement of the magnet, but 
that even the small part of the secular change which has been observed, 
and which has taken centuries to accomplish, is interfered with by some 
slower agency. And, what is more important, he tells us that nime of 
these observations stand as yet upon a firm basis, because standard instru- 
ments have not been in accord ; and much labour, beyond the power of 
individual effort, has hitherto been required to ascertain whether the 
relations between them are constant or variable. 

In electricity, in 1831, just at the time when the British Association 
was founded, Faraday's splendid researches in electricity and magnetism 
at the Royal Institution had begun with his discovery of magneto- 



16 REPORT— 1895. 

electi'ic induction, his investigation of the laws of electro-chemical decom- 
position, and of the mode of electrolytical action. 

But, the practical application of our electrical knowledge was then 
limited to the use of lightning-conductors for buildings and ships. 
Indeed, it may be said that the applications of electricity to the use of 
man have grown up side by side with the British Association. 

One of the first practical applications of Faraday's discoveries was in 
the deposition of metals and electro-plating, v/hich has developed into a 
large branch of national industry ; and the dissociating effect of the 
electric arc, for the reduction of ores, and in other processes, is daily 
obtaining a wider extension. 

But probably the application of electricity which is tending to pro- 
duce the greatest change in our mental, and even material condition, is 
the electric telegraph and its sister, the telephone. By their agency not 
only do we learn, almost at the time of their occurrence, the events which 
are happening in distant parts of the world, but they are establishing a 
community of thought and feeling between all the nations of the world 
■which is influencing their attitude towards each other, and, we may hope, 
may tend to weld them mere and more into one family. 

The electric telegraph was introduced experimentally in Germany in 
1833, two years after tlie formation of the Association. It was made a 
commercial success by Cooke and Wheatstone in England, whose first 
attempts at telegi'aphy were made on the line from Euston to Camden 
Town in 1837, and on the line from Paddington to West Drayton in 1838. 

The submarine telegraph to America, conceived in ] 856, became a 
practical reality in 1861 through the commercial energy of Cyrus Field 
and Pender, aided by the mechanical skill of Latimer Clark, Gooch, and 
others, and the scienti6c genius of Lord Kelvin. The knowledge of 
electricity gained by means of its application to the telegraph largely 
assisted the extension of its utility in other directions. 

The electric light gives, in its incandescent form, a very perfect 
hygienic light. Where rivers are at hand the electrical transmission of 
power will drive railway trains and factories economically, and might 
enable each artisan to convert his room into a workshop, and thus assist 
in restoring to the labouring man some of the individuality which the 
factory has tended to destroy. 

In 1843 Joule described his experiments for determining the mechani- 
cal equivalent of heat. But it was not until the meeting at Oxford, in 
1817, that he fully developed the law of the conservation of energy, which, 
in conjunction with Newton's law of the conservation of momentum, and 
Dalton's law of the conservation of chemical elements, constitutes a 
complete mechanical foundation for physical science. 

Who, at the foundation of the Association, would have believed some 
far-seeing philosopher if he had foretold that the spectroscope would 
analyse the constituents of the sun and measure the motions of the stars ; 
that we should liquefy air and utilise temperatures approaching to the 



ADDRESS. 17 

absolute zero for experimental research ; that, like the magician in the 
'Arabian Nights,' we should annihilate distance by means of the electric 
telegraph and the telephone ; that we should illuminate our largest build- 
ings instantaneously, with the clearness of day, by means of the electric 
current ; that by the electric transmission of power we should be able to 
utilise the Falls of Niagara to work factories at distant places ; that we 
should extract metals from the crust of the earth by the same electrical 
agency to which, in some cases, their deposition has been attributed 1 

These discoveries and their applications have been brought to their 
present condition by the researches of a long line of scientific explorers, 
such as Dalton, Joule, Maxwell, Helmholtz, Herz, Kelvin, and Rayleigh, 
aided by vast strides made in mechanical skill. But what will our 
successors be discussing sixty years hence ? How little do we yet know of 
the vibrations which communicate light and heat ! Far as we have ad- 
vanced in the application of electricity to the uses of life, we know but 
little even yet of its real nature. We are only on the threshold of the 
knowledge of molecular action, or of the constitution of the all-pervading 
sether. Newton, at the end of the seventeenth century, in his preface to 
the ' Principia,' says : ' I have deduced the motions of the planets by 
mathematical reasoning from forces ; and I would that we could derive 
the other phenomena of Nature from mechanical principles by the same 
mode of reasoning. For many things move me, so that I somewhat sus- 
pect that all such may depend on certain forces by which the particles of 
bodies, through causes not yet known, are either urged towards each other 
according to regular figures, or ai'e repelled and recede from each other • 
and these forces being unknown, philosophers have hitherto made their 
attempts on Nature in vain.' 

In 184r8 Faraday remarked : ' How rapidly the knowledge of molecular 
forces grows upon us, and how strikingly every investigation tends to 
develop more and more their importance ! 

' A few years ago magnetism was an occult force, affecting only a few 
bodies ; now it is found to influence all bodies, and to possess the most 
intimate relation with electricity, heat, chemical action, light, crystallisa- 
tion ; and through it the forces concerned in cohesion. "We may feel 
encouraged to continuous labours, hoping to bring it into a bond of union 
with gravity itself.' 

But it is only within the last few years that we have begun to realise 
that electricity is closely connected with the vibrations which cause heat 
and light, and which seem to pei'vade all space — vibrations which may be 
termed the voice of the Creator calling to each atom and to each cell of 
protoplasm to fall into its ordained position, each, as it were, a musical 
note in the harmonious symphony which we call the universe. 



1895. 



18 REPORT — 1895. 

Jleteorology. 

At the first meeting, in 1831, Professor James D. Forbes was requested 
to draw up a report on the State of IMeteorological Science, on the ground 
that this science is more in want than any other of that systematic direc- 
tion which it is one great object of tlie Association to give. 

Professor Forbes made his first report in 1832, and a subsequent 
report in 1840. The systematic records now kept in various pai'ts of the 
world of barometric pressure, of solar heat, of the temperature and pliysi- 
cal conditions of the atmosphere at various altitudes, of the heat of the 
ground at various depths, of the rainfall, of the prevalence of winds, and 
the gradual elucidation not only of the laws which regulate the movements 
of cyclones and storms, but of the influences which are exercised by the 
sun and by electricity and magnetism, not only upon atmospheric condi- 
tions, but upon health and vitality, are gradually approximating meteor- 
ology to the position of an exact science. 

England took the lead in rainfall observations. Mr. G. J. Symons 
organised the British Rainfall System in 1860 with 178 observers, a 
system which until 1876 received the help of the British Association. 
Now Mr. Symons himself conducts it, assisted by more than 3,000 observers, 
and these volunteers not only make the oljservations, but defray the ex- 
pense of their reduction and publication. In foreign countries this work 
is done by Government officers at the public cost. 

At the present time a very large number of rain gauges are in daily 
use throughout the world. The British Islands have moi-e than 3,000, 
and India and the United States have nearly as many ; France and 
Germany are not far behind ; Australia probably has more — indeed, one 
colony alone, New South Wales, has more than 1,100. 

The storm warnings now issued under the excellent systematic organi- 
sation of the Meteorological Committee may be said to have had their 
origin in the terrible storm which broke over the Black Sea during the 
Crimean War, on November 27, 1855. Leverrier traced the progress of 
-that storm, and seeing how its path could have been reported in advance 
by the electric telegraph, he proposed to establish observing .stations which 
should report to the coasts the probability of the occurrence of a storm. 
Leverrier communicated with Airy, and the Government authorised Ad- 
miral FitzHoy to make tentative arrangements in this country. The idea 
was also adopted on the Continent, and now there are few civilised coun- 
ti'ies north or south of the equator without a system of storm warning.' 

' It has often been supposed that Leverrier was also the first to issue a daily 
weather map, but that was not the case, for in the Great Exhibition of 1851 the 
Electric Telegraph Company sold daily weather maps, copies of which are still in 
existence, and the data for them were, it is believed, obtained by Mr, James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., at that time Superintendent of the Meteorological Department at 
Greenwich. 



ADDRESS. 19 

Biological Science. 
BotanTj. 

The earliest Rej)orts of the Association which bear on the biological 
sciences were those I'elating to botany. 

In 1831 the controversy was yet unsettled between the advantages 
of the Linnean, or Artificial system, as contx-asted with the Natural 
system of classification. Histology, morphology, and physiological botany, 
even if born, were in their early infancy. 

Our records show that von Mohl noted cell division in 1835, the 
presence of chlorophyll corpuscles in 1837 ; and he first described 
pi'otoplasm in 1846. 

Vast as have been the advances of physiological botany since that 
time, much of its fundamental principles remain to be worked out, and I 
trust that the establishment, for the iirst time, of a permanent Section for 
botany at the present meeting will lead the Association to take a more 
prominent part than it has hitherto done in the further development of 
this branch of biological science. 

Animal Physiology. 

In 1831 Cuvier, who during the previous generation had, by the colla- 
tion of facts followed by careful inductive reasoning, established the 
plan on which each animal is constructed, was approaching the termina- 
tion of his long and useful life. He died in 1832 ; but in 1831 Richard 
Owen was just commencing his anatomical investigations and his brilliant 
contributions to paleontology. 

The impulse which their labours gave to biological science was 
reflected in numerous reports and communications, by Owen and others, 
throughout the early decades of the British Association, until Darwin 
propounded a theory of evolution which commanded the general assent of 
the scientific world. For this theory was not absolutely new. But just 
as Cuvier had shown that each bone in the fabric of an animal affords a 
clue to the shape and structure of the animal, so Darwin brought harmony 
into scattered facts, and led us to perceive that the moulding hand of the 
Creator may have evolved the complicated structures of the organic 
world from one or moi'e primeval cells. 

Richard Owen did not accept Darwin's theory of evolution, and a 
large section of the public contested it. I well remember the storm it 
produced — a storm of praise by my geological colleagues, who accepted 
the result of investigated facts ; a storm of indignation such as that which 
would have burned Galileo at the stake from those who were not yet 
prepared to question the old authorities ; but they diminish daily. 

We are, however, as yet only on the threshold of the doctrine of 
evolution. Does not each fresh investigation, even into the embryonic 
stage of the simpler forms of life, suggest fresh problems 1 

• < 9 



20 REPORT — 189o. 

Anthrojwlogy. 

The impulse given by Darwin has been fruitful in leading others to 
consider whether the same principle of evolution may not have governed 
the moral as well as tiie material progress of the human race. Mr. Kidd 
tells us that nature as interpreted by the struggle for life contains no 
sanction for the moral progress of the individual, and points out that if 
each of us were allowed by the conditions of life to follow his own inclina- 
tion, the average of each generation would distinctly deteriorate from that 
of the preceding one ; but because the law of life is ceaseless and inevit- 
able struggle and competition, ceaseless and inevitable selection and re- 
jection, the result is necessarily ceaseless and inevitable progress. Evolu- 
tion, as Sir William Flower said, is the message which biology has sent 
to help us on with some of the problems of human life, and Francis 
Galton urges that man, the foremost outcome of the awful mystery of 
evolution, should realise that he has the power of shaping the course of 
future humanity by using his intelligence to discover and expedite the 
changes which are necessary to adapt circumstances to man, and man to 
circumstances. 

In considering the evolution of the human race, the science of pre- 
ventive medicine may afford us some indication of the direction in which to 
seek for social improvement. One of the early steps towards establish- 
ing that science upon a secure basis was taken in 1835 by the British 
Association, who urged upon the Government the necessity of establishing 
legisters of mortality showing the causes of death ' on one uniform plan in 
all parts of the King's dominions, as the only means by which general laws 
touching the influence of causes of disease and death could be satisfactorily 
deduced.' The general registration of births and deaths was commenced 
in 1838. But a mere record of death and its proximate cause is insuffi- 
cient. Pi-eventive medicine requires a knowledge of the details of the 
]-revious conditions of life and of occupation. Moreover, death is not 
<;ur only or most dangerous enemy, and the main object of preventive 
medicine is to ward off disease. Disease of body lowers our useful energy. 
Disease of body or of mind may stamp its curse on succeeding generations. 
The anthropometric laboratory affords to the student of anthropo- 
logy a means of analysing the causes of weakness, not only in bodily, 
but also in mental life. 

Mental actions are indicated by movements and their results. Such 
signs are capable of record, and modern physiology has shown that bodily 
movements correspond to action in nerve-centres, as surely as the motions 
of the telegraph-indicator express the movements of the operator's hands 
in the distant ofiBce. 

Thus there is a relation between a defective status in brain power and 
defects in the proportioning of the body. Defects in physiognomical 
details, too finely graded to be measured with instruments, may be 
appreciated with accuracy by the senses of the observer j and the records 



ADDRESS. 21 

sliow that these defects are, in a large degree, associated with a brain 
status lower than the average in mental power. 

A report presented by one of your committees gives the results of 
observations made on 100,000 school-children examined individually in 
order to determine their mental and physical condition for the purpose of 
classification. This shows that about 16 per 1,000 of the elementary 
school population appear to be so far defective in their bodily or brain 
condition as to need special training to enable them to undertake the 
duties of life, and to keep them from pauperism or crime. 

Many of our feeble-minded children, and much disease and vice, are 
the outcome of inherited proclivities. Francis Galton has shown us that 
types of criminals which have been bred true to their kind are one of the 
saddest disfigurements of modern civilisation ; and he says that few deserve 
better of their country than those who determine to lead celibate lives 
through a reasonable conviction that their issue would probably be less 
fitted than the generality to play their part as citizens. 

These considerations point to the importance of preventing those 
suffering from transmissible disease, or the criminal, or the lunatic, from 
adding fresh sufferers to the teeming misery in our large towns. And in 
any case, knowing as we do the influence of environment on the develop- 
ment of individuals, they point to the necessity of removing those who are 
born with feeble minds, or under conditions of moral clanger, from sur- 
rounding deteriorating influences. 

These are problems which materially affect the progress of the human 
race, and we may feel sure that, as we gradually approach their solution, 
we shall more certainly realise that the theory of evolution, which the 
genius of Darwin impressed on this century, is but the first step on a 
biological ladder which may possibly eventually lead us to understand 
how in the drama of creation man has been evolved as the highest work 
of the Creator. 

Bacteriology. 

The sciences of medicine and surgery were largely represented in the 
earlier meetings of the Association, before the creation of the British 
JNIedical Association afforded a field for their more intimate discussion. 
The close connection between the different branches of science is causing 
a revival in our proceedings of discussions on some of the highest medical 
problems, especially those relating to the spread of infectious and epidemic 
disease. 

It is interesting to contrast the opinion prevalent at the foundation of 
the Association with the present position of the question. 

A report to the Association in 1834, by Professor Henry, on contagion, 
says : — 

' The notion that contagious emanations are at all connected with the 
diffusion of animalculte through the atmosphere is at variance with all 
that is known of the diffusion of volatile contagion.' 

Whilst it had long been known that filthy conditions in air, earth 



22 REPORT— 1895. 

and water fostei'ed fever, cholera, and many other forms of disease, 
and that the disease ceased to spread on the removal of these con- 
ditions, yet the reason for their propagation or diminution remained under 
a veil. 

Leeuwenhoek in 1680 described the yeast-cells, but Schwann in 1837 
first showed clearly that fermentation was due to the activity of the yeast- 
cells ; and, although vague ideas of fermentation had been current during 
the past century, he laid the foundation of our exact knowledge of the 
nature of tlie action of ferments, both organised and unorganised. It 
was not until 1860, after the prize of the Academy of Sciences had 
been awarded to Pasteur for his essay against the theory of spon- 
taneous generation, that his investigations into the action of ferments ' 
enabled him to show that tlie effects of the yeast-cell are indissolubly 
bound up with the activities of the cell as a living organism, and that 
certain diseases, at least, are due to the action of ferments in the 
living being. In 1865 he showed that the disease of silkworms, which 
was then undermining the silk industry in France, could be successfully 
combated. His further researches into anthrax, fowl cholera, swine fever, 
rabies, and other diseases proved the theory that those diseases are con- 
nected in some way with the introduction of a microbe into the body of 
an animal ; that the virulence of the poison can be diminished by culti- 
vating the microbes in an appropriate manner ; and that when the virulence 
has been thus diminished their inoculation will afford a protection against 
the disease. 

Meanwhile it had often been observed in hospital practice that a patient 
with a simple-fractured limb was easily cured, whilst a patient with a 
compound fracture often died from the wound. Lister was thence led, in 
1865, to adopt his antiseptic treatment, by which the wound is protected 
from hostile microbes. 

These investigations, followed by the discovery of the existence of a 
multitude of micro-organisms and the recognition of some of them — 
such as the bacillus of tubercle and the comma bacillus of cholera — as 
essential factors of disease ; and by the elaboration by Koch and others 
of methods by which the several organisms might be isolated, cultivated, 
and their histories studied, have gradually built up the science of bac- 
teriology. Amongst later developments ai'e the discovery of various 
so-called antitoxins, such as those of diphtheria and tetanus, and the 
utilisation of these for the cure of disease. Lister's treatment formed a 
landmark in the science of surgery, and enabled our surgeons to perform 
operations never before dreamed of ; whilst later discoveries are tending 
to place the practice of medicine on a firm scientific basis. And the 
science of bacteriology is leading us to recur to stringent rules for the 

' In speaking of ferments one must bear in mind that there are two classes of 
ferments : one, living beings, such as yeast — ' organised ' ferments, as tbey are 
sooietimes called — the other the products of livicg beings themselves, such as 
pejjsin, &c. — ' unorganised ' ferments. Pasteur vvorked with the former, very little 
with the latter 



ADDRESS. 23 

isolation of infectious disease, and to the disinfection (by superheated steam) 
of materials which have been in contact with the sufferer. 

These microbes, whether friendly or hostile, are all capable of multi- 
plying at an enormous rate under favourable conditions. They are found 
in the air, in water, in the soil ; but, fortunately, the presence of one species 
appears to be detrimental to other species, and sunshine, or even light 
from the sky, is prejudicial to most of them. Our bodies, when in health, 
appear to be furnished with special means of resisting attacks, and, so 
far as regards their influence in causing disease, the success of the attack 
of a pathogenic organism upon an individual depends, as a rule, in part 
at least, upon the power of resistance of the individual. 

But notwithstanding our knowledge of the danger arising from a 
state of low health in individuals, and of the universal prevalence of 
these micro-organisms, how careless we are in guarding the health 
conditions of everyday life ! We have ascertained that pathogenic 
organisms pervade the air. Why, therefore, do we allow our meat, 
our fish, our vegetables, our easily contaminated milk, to be exposed 
to their inroads, often in the foulest localities ? We have ascertained 
that they pervade the water we drink, yet we allow foul water from our 
dwellings, our pigsties, our farmyards, to pass into ditches without 
previous clarification, whence it flows into our streams and pollutes our 
rivers. We know the conditions of occupation which foster ill-health. 
Why, whilst we remove outside sources of impure air, do we permit the 
occupation of foul and unhealthy dwellings 1 

The study of bacteriology has shown us that although some of these 
organisms may be the accompaniments of disease, yet we owe it to the 
operation of others that the refuse caused by the cessation of aniinal and 
vegetable life is reconverted into food for fresh generations of plants and 
animals. 

These considerations have foi'med a point of meeting where the 
biologist, the chemist, the physicist, and the statistician unite with the 
sanitary engineer in the application of the science of preventive medicine. 

Engineering. 

Seicage Purification. 

The early reports to the Association show that the laws of hydro- 
statics, hydrodynamics, and hydraulics necessary to the supply and removal 
of water through pipes and conduits had long been investigated by the 
mathematician. But the modern sanitary engineer has been driven by 
the needs of an increasing population to call in the chemist and the 
biologist to help him to provide pure water and pure air. 

The purification and the utilisation of sewage occupied the attention of 
the British Association as early as 1864, and between 1869 and 187G a 
committee of the Association made a series of valuable reports on the 
subject. The direct application of sewage to land, though efiective as a 



24. REPORT— 1895. 

means of purification, entailed difficulties in thickly settled districts, owing 
to the extent of land required. 

The cliemical treatment of sewage produced an effluent harmless only 
after having been passed over land, or if turned into a large and rapid 
stream, or into a tidal estuary ; and it left behind a large amount of 
sludge to be dealt with. 

Hence it was long contended that the simplest plan in favourable 
localities was to turn the sewage into the sea, and that the consequent 
loss to the land of the manurial value in the sewage would be recouped by 
the increase in fish-life. 

It was not till the chemist called to his aid the biologist, and came to 
the help of the engineer, that a scientific system of sewage purification 
Avas evolved. 

Dr. Frankland many years ago suggested the intermittent filtration of 
sewage ; and Mr. Bailey Denton and Mr. Baldwin Latham were the first 
engineers to adopt it. But the valuable experiments made in recent 
years by the State Board of Health in Massachusetts have more clearly 
explained to us how by this system we may utilise micro-organisms to con- 
vert organic impurity in sewage into food fitted for higher forms of life. 

To effect this we require, in the first place, a filter about five feet thick 
of sand and gravel, or, indeed, of any material which affords numerous 
surfaces or open pores. Secondly, that after a volume of sewage has 
passed through the filter, an interval of time be allowed, in which the air 
necessary to support the life of the micro-organisms is enabled to enter 
the pores of the filter. Thus this system is dependent upon oxygen and 
time. Under such conditions the organisms necessary for purification are 
sure to establish themselves in the filter before it has been long in use. 
Temperature is a secondary consideration. 

Imperfect purification can invariably be traced either to a lack of 
oxygen in the pores of the filter, or to the sewage passing through so 
quickly that there is not sufficient time for the necessary processes to 
take place. And the power of any material to purify either sewage or 
water depends almost entirely upon its ability to hold a sufficient propor- 
tion of either sewage or water in contact with a proper amount of air. 

Smoke Abatement. 

Whilst the sanitary engineer has done much to improve the surface 
conditions of our towns, to furnish clean water, and to remove our 
sewage, he has as yet done little to purify town air. Fog is caused by the 
floating particles of matter in the air becoming weighted with aqueous 
vapour ; some particles, such as salts of ammonia or chloride of sodium, 
have a greater affinity for moisture than others. You will suffer from 
fog so long as you keep refuse stored in your towns to furnish ammonia, 
or so long as you allow your street surfaces to supply dust, of which much 
consists of powdered horse manure, or so long as you send the products of 



ADDRESS. 2 



r 



combustion into the atmosphere. Therefore, when you have adopted 
mechanical traction for your vehicles in towns you may largely reduce 
one cause of fog. And if you diminish your black smoke, you will 
diminish black fogs. 

In manufactories you may prevent smoke either by care in firing, 
by using smokeless coal, or by washing the soot out of the products of 
consumption in its passage along the flue leading to the main chimney- 
shaft. 

The black smoke from your kitchen may be avoided by the use of coke 
or of gas. But so long as we retain the hygienic arrangement of the 
open fire in our living-rooms I despair of finding a fireplace, however well 
constructed, which will not be used in such a manner as to cause smoke, 
unless, indeed, the chimneys were reversed and the fumes drawn into 
some central shaft, where they might be washed before being passed into 
the atmosphei'e. 

Electricity as a warming and cooking agent would be convenient, 
cleanly, and economical when generated by water power, or possibly wind 
power, but it is at present too dear when it has to be generated by means 
of coal. I can conceive, however, that our descendants may learn so to 
utilise electricity that they in some future century may be enabled by its 
means to avoid the smoke in their towns. 

Ileclianical Engineering. 

In other branches of civil and mechanical engineering, the reports in 
1831 and 1832 on the state of this science show that the theoretical and 
practical knowledge of the strength of timber had obtained considerable 
development. But in 1830, before the introduction of railways, cast iron 
had been sparingly used in arched bridges for spans of from 160 to 200 
feet, and wrought iron had only been applied to large-span iron bridges on 
the suspension principle, the most notable instance of which was the Menai 
Suspension Bridge, by Telford. Indeed, whilst the strength of timber had 
been patiently investigated by engineers, the best form for the use of iron 
girders and struts was only beginning to attract attention, and the earlier 
volumes of our Proceedings contained numerous records of the researches 
of Eaton Hodgkinson, Barlow, Rennie, and others. It was not until 
twenty years later that Robert Stephenson and William Fairbairn erected 
the tubular bridge at Menai, followed by the more scientific bridge erected 
by Brunei at Saltash. These have now been entirely eclipsed by the skill 
with which the estuary of the Forth has been bridged with a span of 
1,700 feet by Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker. 

The development of the iron industry is due to the association of the 
chemist with the engineer. The introduction of the hot blast by Neilson, 
in 1829, in the manufacture of cast iron had effected a large saving of fuel. 
But the chemical conditions which afiect the strength and other qualities 
of iron, and its combinations with carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and other 
substance?, had at that time scarcely been investigated. 



26 REPORT— 1895. 

In 1856 Bessemer brought before the British Association at Cheltenham 
his brilliant discovery for making steel direct from the blast furnace, 
by which he dispensed with the laborious process of first removing the 
carbon from pig-iron by puddling, and then adding by cementation the 
required proportion of carbon to make steel. This discovery, followed 
by Siemens's regenerative furnace, by Whitworth's compressed steel, and 
by the use of alloys and by other improvements too numerous to 
mention here, have revolutionised the conditions under which metals are 
applied to engineering purposes. 

Indeed, few questions are of greater interest, or possess more industrial 
impor'tance, than those connected with metallic alloys. This is especially 
true of those alloys which contain the rarer metals ; and the extraordinary 
effects of small quantities of chromium, nickel, tungsten and titanium on 
certain varieties of steel have exerted profound influence on the manu- 
facture of projectiles and on the construction of our armoured ships. 

Of lateyears, investigations on the properties and structure uf alloys have 
been numerous, and among the more noteworthy researches may be men- 
tioned those of Dewar and Fleming on the distinctive behaviour, as regards 
the thermo-electric powers and electrical resistance, of metals and alloys at 
the very low temperatures which may be obtained by the use of liquid air. 

Professor Roberts- Austen, on the other hand, has carefully studied 
the behaviour of alloys at very high temperatures, and by employing his 
delicate pyrometer has obtained photographic curves which afford addi- 
tional evidence as to the existence of allotropic modifications of metals, 
and which have materially strengthened the view that alloys are closely 
analogous to saline solutions. In this connection it may be stated that 
the very accurate work of Heycock and Neville on the lowering of the 
solidifying points of molten metals, which is caused by the presence of 
other metals, affords a valuable contribution to our knowledge. 

Professor Boberts-Austen has, moreover, shown that the effect of any 
one constituent of an alloy upon the properties of the principal metal has 
a direct relation to the atomic volumes, and that it is consequently possible 
to foretell, in a great measure, the effect of any given combination. 

A new branch of investigation, which deals with the micro-structure 
of metals and alloys, is rapidly assuming much importance. It was 
instituted by Sorby in a communication which he made to the Bi'itisli 
Association in 1864, and its development is due to many patient workers, 
among whom M. Osmond occupies a prominent place. 

Metallurgical science has brought aluminium into use by cheapening 
the process of its extraction ; and if by means of the wasted forces in our 
rivers, or possibly of the wind, the extraction be still further cheapened 
by the aid of electricity, we may not only utilise the metal or its alloys in 
increasing the spans of our bridges, and in affording strength and lightness 
in the construction of our ships, but we may hope to obtain a material 
which may render practicable the dreams of Icarus and of Maxim, and for 
purposes of rapid transit enable us to navigate the air. 



ADDRESS. 27 

Long before 1831 the steam-engine had been largely used on rivers and 
lakes, and for short sea passages, although the first Atlantic steam-service 
was not established till 1838. 

As early as 1820 the steam-engine had been applied by Gurney, Han- 
cock, and others to road traction. The absurd impediments placed in their 
way by road trustees, which, indeed, are still enforced, checked any progress. 
But the question of mechanical traction on ordinary roads was practically 
shelved in 1830, at the time of the formation of the British Association, 
when the locomotive engine was combined with a tubular boiler and an 
iron road on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 

Great, however, as was the advance made by the locomotive engine of 
Robert Stephenson, these earlier engines were only toys compared with 
the compound engines of to-day which are used for railways, for ships, or 
for the manufacture of electricity. Indeed, it may be said that the study 
of the laws of heat, which have led to the introduction of various forms of 
motive power, are gradually revolutionising all our habits of life. 

The improvements in the production of iron, combined with the de- 
veloped steam-engine, have completely altered the conditions of our com- 
mercial intercourse on land ; whilst the changes caused by the effects of 
these improvements in shipbuilding, and on the ocean carrying trade, 
have been, if anything, still more marked. 

At the foundation of the Association all ocean ships were built by 
hand, of wood, propelled by sails and manoeuvred by manual labour ; the 
material limited their length, which did not often exceed 100 feet, and 
the number of English ships of over 500 tons burden was comparatively 

small. 

In the modern ships steam power takes the place of manual labour. 
It rolls the plates of which the ship is constructed, bends them to the 
required shape, cuts, drills and rivets them in their place. It weighs the 
anchor ; it propels the ship in spite of winds or currents ; it steers, venti- 
lates, and lights the ship when on the ocean. It takes the cargo on board 
and discharges it on arrival. 

The use of iron favours the construction of ships of a large size, of forms 
which afford small resistance to the water, and with compartments which 
make the ships practically unsinkable in heavy seas, or by collision. Their 
size, the economy with which they are propelled, and the certainty of their 
arrival, cheapen the cost of transport. 

The steam-engine, by compressing air, gives us control over the tem- 
perature of cool chambers. In these not only fresh meat, but the delicate 
produce of the Antipodes, is brought across the ocean to our dooi's without 
deterioration. 

Whilst railways have done much to alter the social conditions of each 
individual nation, the application of iron and steam to our ships is revolu- 
tionising the international commercial conditions of the world ; and it is 
gradually changing the course of our agriculture, as well as of our do- 
mestic life. 



23 REPORT — 1895. 

But great as have been the developments of science in promoting the 
commerce of the world, science is asserting its supremacy even to a greater 
extent in every department of war. And perhaps this application of science 
affords at a glance, better than almost any other, a convenient illustration 
of the assistance which the chemical, physical, and electrical sciences are 
affording to the engineer. 

The reception of warlike stores is not now left to the uncertain 
judgment of ' practical men,' but is confided to officers who have receiv^ed 
a special training in chemical analysis, and in the application of physical 
and electrical science to the tests by which the qualities of explosives, of 
guns, and of projectiles can be ascertained. 

For instance, take explosives. Till quite recently black and brown 
powders alone were used, the former as old as civilisation, the latter but 
a small modern improvement adapted to the increased size of guns. But 
now the whole family of nitro-explosives are rapidly superseding the old 
powder. These are the direct outcome of chemical knowledge ; they are 
not mere chance inventions, for every improvement is based on chemical 
theories, and not on random experiment. 

The construction of guns is no longer a haphazard operation. In spite 
of the enormous forces to be controlled and the sudden violence of their 
action, the researches of the mathematician have enabled the just propor- 
tions to be determined with accuracy ; the labours of the physicist have 
revealed the internal conditions of the materials employed, and the best 
means of their favourable employment. Take, for example, Longridge's 
coiled-wire system, in which each successive layer of which tlie gun is 
formed receives the exact proportion of tension which enables all the layers 
to act in unison. The chemist has rendered it clear that even the smallest 
quantities of certain ingredients are of supreme importance in affecting 
the tenacity and trustworthiness of the materials. 

The treatment of steel to adapt it to the vast range of duties it has 
to pei'form is thus the outcome of patient research. And the use of 
the metals — manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum — as alloys with 
iron has resulted in the production of steels possessing varied and extra- 
ordinary properties. The steel required to resist the conjugate stresses 
developed, lightning fashion, in a gun necessitates qualities that would not 
be suitable in the projectile which that gun hurls with a velocity of some 
2,-500 feet per second against the armoured side of a ship. The armour, 
again, has to combine extreme superficial hardness with great toughness, 
and during the last few years these qualities are sought to be attained by 
the application of the cementation process for adding carbon to one face 
of the plate, and hardening that face alone by rapid refrigeration. 

The introduction of quick-firing guns from -303 (i.e. about one-third) 
of an inch to 6 -inch calibre has rendered necessary the production of metal 
cartridge-cases of complex forms di-awn cold out of solid blocks or plate 
of the material ; this again has taxed the ingenuity of the mechanic in the 
device of machinery, and of the metallurgist in producing a metal possessed 



ADDRESS. 29 

of the necessary ductility and toughness. The cases have to stand a 
pressure at the moment of firing of as much as twenty-five tons to the 
square inch — a pressure which exceeds the ordinary elastic limits of the 
steel of which the gun itself is composed. 

There is nothing more wonderful in practical mechanics than the 
closing of the breech openings of guns, for not only must they be gas- 
ti«^ht at these tremendous pressures, but the mechanism must be such 
that one man by a single continuous movement shall be able to open or 
close the breech of the largest gun in some ten or fifteen seconds. 

The perfect knowledge of the recoil of guns has enabled the reaction 
of the discharge to be utilised in compressing air or springs by which guns 
can be raised from concealed positions in order to deliver their fire, and 
then made to disappear again for loading ; or the same force has been used 
to run up the guns automatically immediately after firing, or, as in the 
case of the Maxim gun, to deliver in the same way a continuous stream 
of bullets at the rate of ten in one second. 

In the manufacture of shot and shell cast iron has been almost super- 
seded by cast and wrought steel, though the hardened Palliser projectiles 
still hold their place. The forged-steel projectiles are produced by methods 
very similar to those used in the manufacture of metal cartridge-cases, 
though the process is carried on at a red heat and by machines much more 
powerful. 

In every department concerned in the production of warlike stores 
electricity is playing a more and more important part. It has enabled 
the passage of a shot to be followed from its seat in the gun to its 
destination. 

In the gun, by means of electrical contacts arranged in the bore, a time- 
curve of the passage of the shot can be determined. 

From this the mathematician constructs the velocity-curve, and 
from this, again, the pressures producing the velocity are estimated, and 
used to check the same indications obtained by other means. The velocity 
of the shot after it has left the gun is easily ascertained by the Boulange 
apparatus. 

Electricity and photography have been laid under contribution for 
obtaining records of the flight of projectiles and the effects of explosions 
at the moment of their occurrence. Many of you will recollect Mr. Vernon 
Boys' marvellous photographs showing the progress of the shot driving 
before it waves of air in its course. 

Electricity and photography also record the properties of metals and 
their alloys as determined by curves of cooling. 

The readiness with which electrical energy can be converted into heat 
or light has been taken advantage of for the firing of guns, which in their 
turn can, by the same agency, be laid on the object by means of range- 
finders placed at a distance and in advantageous and safe positions ; while 
the electric light is utilised to illumine the sights at night, as well as to 
search out the objects of attack. 



30 EEPORT— 1895. 

The compact nature of the glow-lamp, the brightness of the light, the 
circumstance that the light is not due to combustion, and therefore inde- 
pendent of air, facilitates the examination of the bore of guns, the ii^sides 
of shells, and other similar uses — just as it is used by a doctor to 
examine the throat of a patient. 

Influence of Intercommunication afforded by British Association 

ON Science Progress. 

The advances in engineering which have produced the steam-engine, 
the railway, the telegraph, as well as our engines of war, may be said to 
be the result of commercial enterprise rendered possible only by the 
advances which have taken place in the several branches of science 
since 1831. Having regard to the intimate relations which the several 
sciences bear to each other, it is abundantly clear that much of this pro- 
gress could not have taken place in the past, nor could further progress 
take place in the future, without intercommunication between the 
students of different branches of science. 

The founders of the British Association based its claims to utility 
upon the power it afforded for this intercommunication. Mr. Vernon 
Harcourt (the uncle of your present General Secretary), in the address he 
delivered in 1832, said : 'How feeble is man for any purpose when he 
stands alone — how strong when united with other men ! 

' It may be true that the greatest philosophical works have been 
achieved in privacy, but it is no less true that these works would never 
have been accomplished had the authors not mingled with men of corre- 
sponding pursuits, and from the commerce of ideas often gathered germs 
of apparently insulated discoveries, and without such material aid would 
seldom have carried their investigations to a valuable conclusion.' 

I claim for the British Association that it has fulfilled the objects of 
its founders, that it has had a large share in promoting intercommunication 
and combination. 

Our meetings have been successful because they have maintained the 
true principles of scientific investigation. We have been able to secure 
the continued presence and concurrence of the master-spirits of science. 
They have been willing to sacrifice their leisure, and to promote the 
welfare of the Association, because the meetings have afibrded them the 
means of advancing the sciences to which they are attached. 

The Association has, moreover, justified the views of its founders in 
promoting intercourse between the pursuers of science, both at home and 
abroad, in a manner which is afforded by no other agency. 

The weekly and sessional reunions of the Royal Society, and the 
annual soirees of other scientific societies, promote this intercourse to 
some extent, but the British Association presents to the young student 
during its week of meetings easy and continuous social opportunities for 



ADDRESS. 31 

making the acquaintance of leaders in science, and thereby obtaining 
their directing influence. 

It thus encourages, in the first place, opportunities of combination, 
but, what is equally important, it gives at the same time material assist- 
ance to the investigators whom it thus brings together. 

The reports on the state of science at the present time, as they appear 
in the last volume of our Proceedings, occupy the same important position, 
as records of science progress, as that occupied by those Reports in our 
earlier years. "VVe exhibit no symptom of decay. 

Science in Germany fostered by the State and Municipalities. 

Our neighbours and rivals rely largely upon the guidance of the State 
for the promotion of both science teaching and of research. In Germany 
the foundations of technical and industrial training are laid in the Real- 
schulen, and supplemented by the Higher Technical Schools. In Berlin 
that splendid institution, the Royal Technical High School, casts into 
the shade the facilities for education in the various Polytechnics which we 
are now establishing in London. Moreover, it assists the practical work- 
man by a branch department, which is available to the public for testing 
building materials, metals, paper, oil, and other matters. The standards 
of all weights and measures used in trade can be purchased from or tested 
by the Government Department for Weights and Measures. 

For developing pure scientific research and for promoting new applica- 
tions of science to industrial purposes the German Government, at the 
instance of von Helmholtz, and aided by the munificence of Werner 
von Siemens, created the Physikalische Technische Reichsanstalt at 
Charlottenburg. 

This establishment consists of two divisions. The first is charged 
with pure research, and is at the present time engaged in various thermal, 
optical, and electrical and other physical investigations. The second 
branch is employed in operations of delicate standardising to assist the 
wants of research students — for instance, dilatation, electrical resistances, 
electric and other forms of light, pressure gauges, recording instruments, 
thermometers, pyrometers, tuning forks, glass, oil-testing apparatus, 
viscosity of glycerine, &c. 

Dr. Kohlrausch succeeded Helmholtz as president, and takes charge 
of the first division. Professor Hagen, the director under him, has 
charge of the second division. A professor is in charge of each of the 
several sub-departments. Under these are various subordinate posts, held 
by younger men, selected for previous valuable work, and usually for a 
limited time. 

The general supervision is under a Council consisting of a president, 
who is a Privy Councillor, and twenty-four members, including the 
president and director of the Reichsanstalt ; of the other members, about 
ten are professors or heads of physical and astronomical observatories 



32 REPORT— 1895. 

connected with the principal universities in Germany. Three are selected 
from leading firms in Germany representing mechanical, optical, and 
electric science, and the remainder are principal scientific officials con- 
nected with the Departments of War and Marine, the Eoyal Observatory 
at Potsdam, and the Royal Commission for Weights and Measures. 

This Council meets in the winter, for such time as may be necessary, 
for examining the research work done in the first division during the 
previous year, and for laying down the scheme for research for the ensuing 
year ; as well as for suggesting any requisite improvements in the second 
division. As a consequence of the position which science occupies in 
connection with the State in Continental countries, the services of those 
who have distinguished tliemselves either in tlie advancement or in the 
application of science are recognised by the award of honours ; and thus 
the feeling for science is encouraged throughout the nation. 

Assistance to Scientific Research in Great Britain. 

Great Britain maintained for a long time a leading position among 
the nations of the world by virtue of the excellence and accuracy of 
its workmanship, the result of individual energy ; but the progress of 
mechanical science has made accuracy of workmanship the common 
property of all nations of the world. Our records show that hitherto, in 
its efibrts to maintain its position by the application of science and the 
prosecution of research, England has made marvellous advances by means 
of voluntary efibrt, illustrated by the splendid munificence of such men 
as Gassiot, Joseph Whitworth, James Mason, and Ludwig Mond ; and, 
whilst the increasing field of scientific research compels us occasionally 
to seek for Government assistance, it would be unfortunate if by any 
change voluntary efibrt were fettered by State control. 

The following are the principal voluntary agencies which help forward 
scientific research in this country :— The Donation Fund of the Royal 
Society, derived from its surplus income. The British Association has contri- 
buted 60,000Z. to aid research since its formation. The Royal Institution^ 
founded in the last century, by Count Rumford, for the promotion of 
research, has assisted the investigations of Davy, of Young, of Faraday, 
of Frankland, of Tyndal), of Dewar, and of Rayleigh. The City Com- 
panies assist scientific research and foster scientific education both by direct 
contributions and through the City and Guilds Institute. The Commis- 
sioners of the Exhibition of 1851 devote 6,000?. annually to science 
research scholarships, to enable students who have passed through a 
college curriculum and have given evidence of capacity for original 
research to continue the prosecution of science, with a view to its advance 
or to its application to the industries of the country. Several scientific 
societies, as, for instance, the Geographical Society and the Mechanical 
Engineers, have promoted direct research, each in their own branch of 
science, out of their surplus income ; and every scientific society largely 
assists research by the publication, not only of its own proceedings, but 



ADDRESS. 33 

often of the work going on abroad in the brinch of science which it 
represents. 

The growing abundance of matter year by year increases the burden 
thus thrown on their finances, and the Treasury has recently granted to 
the Royal Society 1,000^. a year, to be spent in aid of the publication of 
scientific papers not necessarily limited to those of that Society. 

The Royal Society has long felt the importance to scientific research 
of a catalogue of all papers and publications relating to pure and applied 
science, arranged systematically both as to authors' names and as to sub- 
ject treated, and the Society has been engaged for some time upon a 
catalogue of that nature. But the daily increasing magnitude of these 
publications, coupled with the necessity of issuing the catalogue with 
adequate promptitude, and at appropriate intervals, renders it a task 
which could only be performed under International co-operation. The 
officers of the Royal Society have therefore appealed to the Govern- 
ment to urge Foreign Governments to send delegates to a Conference to 
be held next July to discuss the desirability and the scope of such a cata- 
logue, and the possibility of preparing it. 

The universities and colleges distributed over the country, besides their 
function of teaching, are large promoters of research, and their voluntary 
exertions are aided in some cases by contributions from Parliament in 
alleviation of their expenses. 

Certain executive departments of the Government carry on research 
for their own purposes, which in that respect may be classed as voluntary. 
The Admiralty maintains the Greenwich Observatory, the Hydrographical 
Department, and various experimental services ; and the War Office 
maintains its numerous scientific departments. The Treasury maintains 
a valuable chemical laboratory for Inland Revenue, Customs, and agri- 
cultural purposes. The Science and Art Department maintains the Royal 
College of Science, for the education of teachers and students from ele- 
mentary schools. It allows the scientific apparatus in the national 
museum to be used for research purposes by the professors. The Solar 
Physics Committee, which has carried on numerous researches in solar 
I^hysics, was appointed by and is responsible to this Department. The 
Department also administers the Sir Joseph Whitworth engineering re- 
search scholarships. Other scientific departments of the Government are 
aids to research, as, for instance, the Ordnance and the Geological Surveys, 
the Royal Mint, the Natural History Museum, Kew Gardens, and other 
lesser establishments in Scotland and Ireland ; to which may be added, 
to some extent, the Standards Department of the Board of Ti'ade, as well 
as municipal museums, which are gradually spreading over the country. 

Por direct assistance to voluntary effort the Treasury contributes 
4,000^. a year to the Royal Society for the promotion of research, which 
is administered under a board whose members represent all branches of 
Science. The Treasury, moreover, contributes to marine biological ob- 
servatories, and in recent years has defrayed the cost of various expedi- 
1895. ^ n 



34 REPORT — 1895. 

tions for biological and astronomical research, which in the case of the 
' Challenger ' expedition involved very large sums of money. 

In addition to these direct aids to science, Parliament, under tlie 
Local Taxation Act, handed over to the County Councils a sum, -'.vhich 
amounted in the year 1893 to 615,000/., to be expended on technical educa- 
tion. In many country districts, so far as the advancement of real scien- 
tific technical progress in the nation is concerned, much of this money 
has been wasted for want of knowledge. And whilst it cannot be said 
that the Government or Parliament have been indifferent to the promotion 
of scientific education and research, it is a source of regret that the Govern- 
ment did not devote some small portion of this magnificent gift to afford- 
ing an object-lesson to County Councils in tlie application of science to 
technical instruction, which woiUd have suggested the principles which 
would most usefully guide them in the expenditure of this public money. 

Government assistance to science has been based mainly on the principle 
of helping A'oluntary effort. The Kew Observatory was initiated as a 
scientific observatory by the British Association. It is now supported 
by the Gassiot trust fund, and managed by the Kew Observatory Com- 
mittee of the Royal Society. Observations on magnetism, on meteorology, 
and the record of sun-spots, as well as experiments upon new instruments 
for assisting meteorological, thermometrical, and photographic purposes, 
are being carried on there. The Committee has also arranged for the 
verification of scientific measuring instruments, the rating of chrono- 
meters, the testing of lenses and of other scientific apparatus. This 
institution carries on to a limited extent some small portion of the class 
of work done in Germany by that magnificent institution, the Reich sanstalt 
at Charlottenburg, but its development is fettered l)y want of funds. 
British students of science are compelled to resort to Bei'lin and Paris 
when they requii-e to compare their more delicate instruments and ap- 
paratus with recognised standards. There could scarcely be a more advan- 
tageous addition to the assistance which Government now gives to science 
than for it to allot a substantial annual sum to the extension of the Kew 
Observatory, in order to develop it on the model of the Reichsanstalt. 
It might advantageously retain its connection with the Royal Society, 
under a Committee of Management representative of the various branches 
of science concerned, and of all parts of Great Britain. 



Conclusion. 

The various agencies for scientific education have produced numerous 
students admirably qualified to pursue research ; and at the same time 
almost every field of industry presents openings for improvement through 
the development of scientific methods. For instance, agricultural opera- 
tions alone offer openings for research to the biologist, the chemist, the 
physicist, the geologist, the engineer, which have hitherto been largely 



ADDRESS. 35 

overlooked. If students do not easily find emploj'ment, it is chiefly at- 
tributable to a want of appreciation for science in the nation at large. 

This want of appreciation appears to arise from the fact that those wlio 
nearly half a century ago directed the movement of national education 
wei'e trained in early life in the universities, in which the value of scientific 
methods was not at that time fully recognised. Hence our elementary, 
and even our secondary and great public schools, neglected for a long time 
to encourage the spirit of investigation which develops originality. This 
defect is diminishing daily. 

There is, however, a more intangible cause which may have had influence 
on the want of appreciation of science by the nation. The Government, 
which largely profits by science, aids it with money, but it has done very 
little to develop the national appreciation for science by recognising that 
its leaders are worthy of honours conferred by the State. Science is not 
fashionable, and science students — upon whose efibrts our progress as a 
nation so largely depends — have not received the same measure of recog- 
nition which the State awards to services rendered by its own officials, by 
politicians, and by the Army and by the Navy, whose success in future 
wars will largely depend on the efi'ective applications of science. 

The Reports of the British Association aftord a complete chronicle of 
the gradual growth of scientific knowledge since 18.31. They show that 
the Association has fulfilled the objects of its founders in promoting and 
disseminating a knowledge of science throughout the nation. 

The growing connection between the sciences places our annual 
meeting in the position of an arena where representatives of the difierent 
sciences have the opportunity of criticising new discoveries and testing 
the value of fresh proposals, and the Presidential and Sectional Addresses 
operate as an annual stock-taking of progi*ess in the several branches of 
science represented in the Sections. Eveiy year the field of usefiilness of 
the Association is widening. For, whether with the geologist we seek 
to write the history of the crust of the earth, or with the biologist to trace 
out the evolution of its inhabitants, or whether with the astronomer, the 
chemist, and the physicist we endeavour to unravel the constitution of the 
sun and the planets or the genesis of the nebulffi and stars which make 
up the universe, on every side we find ourselves surrounded by mysteries 
which await solution. We are only at the beginning of work. 

I have, therefore, full confidence that the future records of the Britisli 
Association will chronicle a still greater progress than that already 
achieved, and that the British nation will maintain its leading position 
amongst the nations of the world, if it will energetically continue its 
voluntary eflforts to promote research, supplemented l)y that additional 
help from the Government which ought never to be withheld when a 
clear case of scientific utility has been established. 



d2 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE. 



CorresponcUng Societies. — Report of the Committee, cojisistinr/ of 
Professor K. Meldola {Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes {Secretary), 
Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas G-alton, Sir Rawsox Eawson, 
Mr. G-. J. Symons, Dr. J. G-. Garson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNSON, Professor T. G. Bonnev, Mr. W. Whitaker, Professor 
E. B. PouLTON, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and Eev. Canon H. B. 
Tristram. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the Britisli Association beg 
leave to submit to the General Committee the following Report of the 
proceedings of the Conference held at Ipswich. 

The Council nominated Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S., Chairman, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Vice-Chairman, and Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary to the 
Ipswich Conference. These nominations were confirmed by the General 
Committee at the meeting held at Ipswich on \yednesday, September 11. 
The meetings of the Conference were held at the Co-operative Hall, 
Ipswich, on Thursday, September 12, and Tuesday, September 17, at 
3.30 P.M. The following Corresponding Societies nominated as delegates 
to represent them at the Ipswich meeting : — 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophi- Alexander Tate, M.Inst.C.E. 

cal Society. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . G. P. Hughes. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philo- J. Kenward, F.S.A., Assoc. M.Inst. 

sophical Society. C.E. 

Buchan Field Club John Gray, B.Sc. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and James G. Wells. 

Archteological Society. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club . W. W. AVatts, F.G.S. 

Chester Society of Natural Science and Osmund W. Jeffs. 

Literature. 

Chesterfield and Midland Counties Insti- M. H. Mills, F.G.S. , M.Inst.C.E, 

tution of Engineers. 

Croydon Microscopical and Natural His- AV^ F. Stanley, F.U.A.S. 

tory Club. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Capt. G. K. Elwes. 

Field Club. 

East Kent Natural History Society . A. S. Roid, M.A., F.G.S. 

East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, M.A. 

Societies. 

Essex Field Club . . T. Y. Holmes, F.G.S. 



40 



BEroRT — 1895. 



Federated Institution o£ Mining Engi- 
neers. 

Glasgow Geological Society . 

Glasgow I'hilosophical Society 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society . 

Ireland, Statistical and Social Inquiry, 
Society of. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 

Liverpool Geological Society . 

Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society. 

Manchester Geographical Society . 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field 
Club. 

Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society 

North of England Institute of Mining 
Engineers. 

Northamptonshire Natural History So- 
ciety and Field Club. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science 

Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society 

Koyal Cornwall Geological Society . 

Somersetshire Archreological and Natu- 
ral History Society. 

Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archaeolo- 
gists' Field Club. 

Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . 



M. H. Mills, F.G.S., M.Inst.C.E. 

J. Barclay Murdoch. 
Robert Gow. 
John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 
R. M. Barrington, LL.B. 

His Honour Deemster GilL 

E. Dickson, F.G.S. 
Dr. E. Colby. 

Eli Sowerbutts, F.E.G.S. 
C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S. 

H. B. Woodward, F.G.S. 
Prof. J. H. Merivale, JLA. 

C. A. Markham, F.R.Met.Soc. 

A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. 

J. Reginald Ashworth, B.Sc. 

T. R. Polwhele. 

F. T. Elworthy. 

W. Andrews, F.G.S. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
M. B. Slater, F.L.S. 



Ipswich, First Coxference, September 12, 1895. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Professor 
E,. Meldola, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. Hopkinson, and Mr. T. V. Holmes 
(Secretary). The Chairman of the Conference opened the proceedings 
■with the following address : — 

Address of the Chairman, G. J. Symons, F.R.S. 

Just as with tlie great Association under whose auspices we meet, so 
■with the numerous and intellectual bodies which you represent — each 
has a double duty. The duty to humanity of doing its best to in- 
terpret truthfully the lessons of the world in which we live, so that by 
increasing knowledge future generations may learn to make better use of 
its marvellous stores, and perchance repair some of the waste which has. 
gone on in the past, and which is still going on. Our other duty is 
to advance the cause of the ^■arious bodies with which we are connected. 
Of course you know this as well as I do, but in these days when a universal 
genius has become an impossibility, and progress can be effected only by 
limiting one's work to some corner of the field of science, there is great 
danger of specialisation leading to forgetfulness of generalisation, and 
of what is the end of all research. You all know the necessity for inter- 
communication, which in the early years of this century rendered the 
formation of the British Association imperative, and you know how that 
need was met. I hold that this Conference and the work which it is doing 
are an equal necessity of the present time. How could workers in any 
branch of science know all that was being done by local effort without 
our index to your proceedings 1 The world is the better for the knowledge 
which you gain being rendered generally accessible, and both the British 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 41 

Association and the local societies gain the strength which arises from 
federation. 

The Council having nominated me to the honourable office of Chair- 
man, my first and most pleasant duty is to offer you a hearty welcome ;. 
and my second, which is a somewhat personal one, is to ask you to 
remember that it is not given to every chairman mentally to photograph 
every one present, and to remember not merely every face, but the name 
of its owner ; it is one thing to be Chairman whom every one can see and 
recognise, it is quite another thing for the Chairman to remember all the 
faces before him. It is therefore from no lack of courtesy, but from the 
physiological necessity, that I request that each delegate will preface his re- 
marks by mentioning his name, and that of the Society which he represents. 

I have already intimated my opinion that if a man wishes to do good 
work for science he must take some field, or corner of a field, and labour 
there. I have only a corner — rainfall, but I think that I know enough 
about some other parts of the field of meteorology to point out spots 
where good work could be done — and work precisely suitable for the 
members of your societies. Of course in the few minutes during which I 
may detain you I cannot enter into details, but there is such an organisa- 
tion as the Post Office. I do answer as many letters as I can, and an 
extra twenty or thirty will make no appreciable difference. 

NoAv, to take up the syllabus : — 

1. Meteorological observations in general. — Do not encourage tlie 
keeping of records from any but good instruments, properly placed. A 
hard frost occurs, and forthwith there is a crop of wonderful records, some 
from thermometers badly placed, some from thermometers which never 
were good, some from good thermometers allowed to go wrong. An 
incorrect statement is much worse than none at all ; see to it then that 
such records as you publish are worthy of your Society. I say no more 
on this head because the Royal Meteorological Society has published, 
almost at cost price (Is.), an amply illustrated pamphlet, 'Hints to 
Observers,' which will show any one what, and when, and how, observations 
ought to be made. It is by no means necessary to start with an elaborate 
and costly set of instruments ; but see to it that the instruments which 
you do have are good, and that no records except from good and tested 
instruments, properly placed, ever appear in your volumes. 

2, Sea and river femperatttre. — I have interpolated the words ' and 
river ' because I ouglit to have put them in the syllabus originally, and 
because my attention has been drawn to the subject by an excellent 
summary of Dr. Adolf Forster's work upon the temperatures of European 
rivers, by Mr. H. N. Dickson, given in the September number of ' The 
Geographical Journal.' You will remember that for a few years there was 
a Committee of the British Association studying river temperature ; and I 
am sure that if your societies took up the investigation, a fresh committee 
could be appointed, so that we should not need to go to a German book to 
learn the details of the temperature of the Thames. The work is easy, 
healthy, and inexpensive. Easy, because it merely involves a walk to a 
bridge, a jetty, or a pier- head, the lowering of the thermometer into the 
water, entering the reading, and carrying it home again ; healthy, from the 
regularity of the walk ; and inexpensive, because the verified K. O. 
thermometer and its copper case, cord, and everything, could be sent to 
any part of the country complete for a sovereign. 



42 EEPORT — 1895. 

3. Earth temperature at slialloio and at great depthx. — The second half of 
tliis subject has often been brought before you, because the Underground 
Temperature Committee is the oldest one of the British Association. It, 
as you know, deals chiefly with the temperature in mines and in deep 
shafts and wells. Any one who can obtain good records at depths of, or 
exceeding, 1,000 feet can do useful work, but I am doubtful whether much 
juore can be learned in this country by observations at depths between 
10 feet and 1,000 feet than we already know. I insert the words, 'in 
this country,' because I do not think that the law of decrease for tropical 
and for arctic localities is known. Unfortunately we have no representa- 
tives of such localities here, or we might sow a productive seed. Obser- 
vations at shallow depths — say 3 inches to 10 feet— are becoming less rare 
than they were, and the time is not distant when the law of temperature 
variation for shallow depths will be known with sufficient accuracy. That 
much has yet to be ascertained, many persons learned by burst water- 
pipes last winter. I mention this as an illustration of the application of 
scientific records to the welfare of mankind, not as an indication that I 
consider the mischief to have been wholly produced by soil temperature ; 
but I must not distress. 

4. Phenological loork. — I am afraid that this word 'phenological' has not 
proved very acceptable. I once heard an inquiry what meteorology had 
to do with prisons — and it turned out that the querist had overlooked the 
' h,' and reading it as ' penological ' thought that it must have something 
to do with punishment. However, I need not tell you that it means the 
laws of the life histoiy of plants and animals ; in fact, an endeavour to 
record the progress of the seasons not by thermometers or by rain-gauges, 
but by plants, trees, insects, and birds, and the study of the relations between 
the indications of the natural history phenomena and those of the instru- 
ments and eflbrts to separate cause and effect. It has always seemed to 
me a class of work peculiarly adapted for the local scientific societies, 
for their Botanical and Entomological Sections. The Royal Meteorological 
Society has spent a considerable sum in promoting this work, and in the 
hands of Mr. E. MaAvley it is progressing. Personally, I am not competent 
to pronounce any criticism upon the work beyond this, that Mr. Mawley 
has devoted liimself to it, and has produced tables and diagrams of great 
interest. But I do say this, that I think that the naturalists should either 
co-operate heartily with the meteorologists, or else should show that the 
meteorologists are attempting the impossible or the undesii-able. 

5. Early meteorological records. — It is a prevalent idea (especially with 
executors) that old manuscript books of observations are useless. I have 
every reason to believe that a long deceased relative of my own assisted 
in burning part of the oldest i-ecord of the rainfall in this country — that 
begun at Townley in Lancashire in 1677 ; and wliat she did at the 
beginning of this century has been done by scores of others, and will be 
until mankind are much more thoughtful and much better informed than 
they yet are. But I am not addressing you in the capacity of executors, 
but as representatives of large local bodies, many of them with museums 
and libraries ; and I invite you to see to it that any such records that 
you have are properly cared for. 

Another suggestion — the practice is fortunately rapidly spreading of 
publishing the early parochial registers. If each society represented here 
would make it a rule to go through all such publications as have been 
issued within its area, and print in chronological order all the notes on 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 43 

earthquakes, storms, frosts, floods, &c., whicli can be collected, much good 
■would be done. Of course this can be done for unpublished as well as 
for published records. 

6. Records of river and well levels. — The second half of this subject 
has so often been brought before you by Mr. De Ranee, the Secretary of 
the British Association Committee on Underground Water, that I need 
merely mention it. The first part refers to a subject involved in my next 
and last heading, and to which, therefore, I will at once proceed. 

7. Records of floods mid the placing of flood- marks. — It is very strange 
that Englishmen (Britons I had better say, for our Irish and Scotch 
friends are equally bad) are so nearly the worst nation in Europe for 
looking after their rivers. I do not refer to fouling by sewage and by 
manufactui-ing refuse, or to defective engineering — I do not know where 
we stand in those respects — but I refer to records of river levels, to scale 
marks on the bridges, to automatic recorders of their rise and fall, to 
arrangements for warning the owners of low-lying property when floods 
are probable, and to the classification, levelling, and publication in full, of 
particulars as to old flood-level marks, and the due marking of new ones 
when floods occur. I do not suggest that your societies should themselves 
do all this, but that they should bring it before their Parish and County 
Councils, and couple their request with the ofl'er of any assistance in their 
power. Of course the suggestion will be received politely, the great cost 
will be urged, and in many cases nothing will be done. Forgive my 
detaining you to hear a little true story. Years ago I suggested such 
arrangements to an influential ' man in York — nothing was done. In 
1892 York had a flood, not so bad as some on record, but one which cost 
the Corporation a very large sum ; they paid it, and that steed having 
been stolen they have figuratively locked the stable door by adopting all 
the arrangements suggested above. If the Councils do not take your 
advice, they must remember that your attendance will be on their 
minutes, to be referred to when their town or district sufl'ers as York did. 

The Chairman then read a letter which he had received from Mr. R. 
Ashworth, of the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society, who regretted 
his inability to attend and sent some notes showing what meteorological 
work was being done in his district. 

Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary) wished to make a few remarks with 
regard to the list of papers read before the Corresponding Societies and 
appended to the Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee. He 
hoped that the secretaries of the various local societies, in sending in their 
lists, would be very careful where the paper, from its title, might belong 
to either of two sections, to group it with that section to which it had 
most aflinity. Examination had in some cases caused a jiaper to be 
classed Avith another section than that originally given. It was very 
necessary also that the names of papers sent in .should not be those of 
mere popular lectures, but of investigations of a more or less original 
character. It had occasionally happened that when reference had to be 
made to some paper on the list in order to ascertain its true nature it had 
been found that the paper in question had not been sent to Burlington 
House. No paper would in future be placed on the list published by 
the British Association unless it could be consulted at the Office. 

The Chairman then invited discussion on the subjects mentioned in his 
address. 



44 REPORT — 1835. 

Captain G. R. Elwes (Dorset) laid upon the table a paper on the rain- 
fall in Dorset, ■which had been compiled by a member of the Dorset Natural 
History and Antiquarian Field Club, Mr. Eaton, from records kept in the 
county of Dorset during the last forty years. It was a most careful and 
exhaustive piece of work, and was illustrated by maps and diagrams. 
Mr. Eaton wished to have the paper submitted to that conference of 
delegates with the view of eliciting remarks upon it. 

The Chairman said that Mr. Eaton was an old friend of his, and 
he had much pleasure in testifying to the excellence of his work. One of 
the maps of Dorset was shaded so as to show the proportionate amount of 
the rainfall, the other the varying elevation of the land, and, as might have 
been expected, there was a fair amount of parallelism between the two. 
Mr. Eaton's work was an admirable example of the way in which the 
rainfall of a county should be worked out, a labour especially requiring 
much patience and perseverance. He wished they could have such 
memoirs for every county. 

Mr. Sowerbutts remarked upon the difficulty of discussing Mr. Eaton's 
paper in the absence of copies of it, and Professor Meldola said that 
there was not much to discuss, as the paper had been brought forward 
simply as an example of the way in which such work should be done. 
Professor Merivale asked whether it would be possible to obtain copies of 
Mr. Eaton's paper, and Captain Elwes said that he would do his best 
to get copies for any gentlemen who would give in their names. 

Mr. Hopkinson stated that twenty years ago he began to record the 
rainfall of Hertfordshire with about twenty observers, and he had since 
done his best to add to their number, with the result that there were now 
about forty. The report which he had published last year contained the 
monthly returns from forty observers in Hertfordshire. He had obtained 
about thirty daily records, which were worked up and analysed but not 
published. In the Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History 
Society much space was devoted to meteorological work and to phenology, 
and he hoped that the Societies in other counties would work similarly at 
these subjects. He trusted also that delegates would preserve any early 
meteorological records they might discover. 

Mr. De Ranee, in illustration of the increasing usefulness of local 
societies, mentioned the fact that two Committees of the British Asso- 
ciation, of which for many years he had been secretary — that on Coast 
Erosion, and that investigating the Circulation of Underground Waters — 
had just ceased to exist in consequence of the admirable way in which 
their work had been taken up by the Corresponding Societies. 

His Honour Deemster Gill mentioned that the subject of Coast Erosion 
had been taken up by a Committee of the Legislature of the Isle of Man, 
of which he was a member, but their in\'estigations were not yet complete. 
But they had found that for some twenty miles on the west, the north- 
west, and the north, erosion had been going on to a very large extent, the 
evidence showing a destruction of land of about twenty acres to the mile 
within the last fifty or sixty years. The whole of the information would 
be sent to the proper Department when the investigation was concluded. 
Deemster Gill added, in reply to a question, that the portion of the coast 
mentioned was not rocky but sandy. 

The Chairman remarked that the meteorology of the Isle of Man was 
being looked after by Mr. A. W. Moore, and Deemster Gill added that all 
that was necessary was being done thei-e in that department. 



COREE^PONDING SOCIETIES. 4-j 

Mr. Soweibutts asked whether it was desirable that the Manchester 
Society sliould collect the results of observations at the observatories, and 
forward them to the Meteorological Society, and the Chairman replied 
that it was just one of the things wanted. Mr. Sowerbutts added that, 
though there were several observatories whose observations were hardly 
worth having, there was a thoroughly efficient one in the Park, under the 
Whitworth Trustees, another at St. Bede's, and a third at the Manchester 
Waterworks. 

Captain Elwes hoped that it might be possible to induce local scientific 
societies to co-operate for the discovery of flint implements, and the for- 
mulation of results. He wished that they would make this branch of 
investigation a more special feature of their work than it was at present. 

Mr. Osmund W. Jeffs, Secretary to the British Association Committee 
for the Collection and Preservation of Geological Photographs, stated that 
it had been proposed by the Committee, and adopted by the Council of the 
British Association, that the photographs collected, should be placed in the 
Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street. The first part of the collec- 
tion, consisting of 800 photographs, had already been deposited there, and 
the rest would be handed over as soon as possible. As, however, a great 
many parts of the British Isles were still unrepi-esented, it was proposed that 
they should go on collecting. From some of the eastern counties no pho- 
tographs whatever had been sent, and on that very day he had been pro- 
mised some from that neighbourhood. He hoped, therefoi-e, that the 
delegates would remember that they were still collecting, and would men- 
tion the fact to their respective societies. 

Mr. De Ranee, after complimenting Mr. Jeffs on the results he had 
achieved, remarked that it would be a good thing if each society would 
issue a circular, and send it to other local societies, so that all might know 
what photographs had been taken in each locality, and were available, 
and, on the other hand, in what districts photographers were most needed. 

Mr. Sowerbutts dwelt on the very valuable results already attained by 
Mr. Jeffs, and proposed a hearty vote of thanks to him for his exertions. 
This vote was seconded by His Honour Deemster Gill. After a few words 
in support of it from the Chairman it was carried unanimously Mr. Jeffs, 
in acknowledgment of the vote of thanks, said that they were due rather to 
the Geological Photographs Committee than to himself personally, and 
that the work could not have been carried out as it had been but for the 
active co-operation of a great number of the local societies. 

Mr. J. B. Murdoch (Glasgow) thought that in too many of their 
investigations Scotland was excluded. He might mention as an example 
the British Association Committee for recording the position, &c., of the 
Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland. 

Mr. De Eance stated that the Erratic Blocks Committee was formed 
many years before the meetings of the delegates of the Corresponding 
Societies began to take place. Any Scottish member of the British 
Association might have brought the matter before the General Committee 
and proposed the extension of the work to Scotland. 

Some remarks were made by Mr. Sowerbutts and Mr. G. P. Hughes 
on Scotland as a nursery of boulders, and the Chairman said that his 
impression was that many years ago some one suggested the inclusion of 
Scotland in the labours of the Erratic Blocks Committee, and was 
answered by a speaker who stated that the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
was already at work on the subject, and that it would be unwise to 



46 REPORT — 1895, 

trespass upon its territory. For his own part he was always pleased 
to co-operate with his Scottish friends, and had done so on the question 
of rainfall, and it would appear that in this Erratic Blocks Committee the 
exclusion of Scotland was the result of deference to her susceptibilities. 

Mr. Murdoch replied that it was quite true that for many years a 
Boulder Committee had existed in vScotland, but the work had been 
entirely under the control and direction of Mr. Milne Home, who was 
now dead, and who, for some time before his death, had been unable to 
get about the country. Mr. Milne Home's Committee liad issued eight 
yearly reports, which were very valuable, as many of the boulders were 
not only tabulated, but figured. But for some time the work had been 
practically at a standstill. 

The Chairman remarked that in that case it was certainly desirable 
that steps should be taken to have Scotland included. 

Deemster Gill said that the boulders of the Isle of Man were being 
noted by the Society to which he belonged, but not, he thought, by any 
extraneous body. 

Professor Merivale remarked that for some time they had been dis- 
cussing matters connected with Section 0. He wished, befoi'e the meeting 
ended, to say a few words on Flameless Explosives (Section G). The 
North of England Institute of Mining Engineers had been continuing 
their experiments, and had published one report. They were still going 
on with their labours, and another report would be published shortly. 
He had nothing to say then as to the results of their experiments. 

The Chairman supposed that the Conference was, as usual, in favour 
of an application to the General Committee for a grant of 30/. to enable 
the Corresponding Societies Committee to carry on its work. 

Professor Meldola moved that an application for a grant of 30/. should 
be made, remarking that the amount named was only just sufficient to 
cover their expenses. The proposition was seconded by Mr. Hopkinson 
and carried unanimously. 

Second Conference, September 17, 1895. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee was represented by Dr. 
Garson (in the chair), Mr. Hopkinson, Mr. Symons, and Mr. T. V. 
Holmes (Secretary). 

Dr. Garson said that Mr. Symons could not take the chair, as he v/as 
then at the meeting of the Committee of Recommendations. It was 
usual at their Second Conference to consider the recommendations from 
the various Sections respecting work in which it was thought the Corre- 
sponding Societies might usefully co-operate. He would therefore, in the 
first place, call upon the representative of Section A. 

Section A. 

Mr. White Wallis stated that Mr. Symons, who had been chosen the 
representative of Section A, had asked him to attend the Conference in 
his stead. It had been resolved that the Committees for investigating 
Earth Tremors and Seismological Phenomena in Japan should be merged 
into one with the title of ' Committee for Seismological Observations.' Its 
members would be Mr. G. J. Symons, chairman; Mr. C. Davison and Mr. 
J. Milne, secretaries ; Lord Kelvin, Professor W. C. Adams, Mr. C. H. 
Bottomley, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor A. H. Green, 
Professor G. C. Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Meldola, 



a 



o 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 47 

Professor J. Perry, Professor J. H. Poynting, and Dr. I. Roberts. A 
frant of 80^. had been made to this Committee. The Committee for tlie 
application of Photography to Meteorology had been re-appointed with a 
"rant of 15/., and the Underground Temperature Committee had been 
re-appointed without a grant. They were aware that the observatory of 
Professor Milne in Japan had been destroyed by fire, and that he now had 
an observatory in the Isle of Wight, hence the merging of the Committee 
for Seismological Observations with that for the observation of Earth 
Tremors. It was hoped that Professor Milne, who was particularly clever 
in designing inexpensive apparatus, might be able to produce suitable 
apparatus at a small cost for taking seismological observations, which 
might be widely distributed over the country, and be largely used by 
members of local scientific societies. With regard to the Meteorological 
Photographs Committee, no special work for the Corresponding Societies 
had been suggested by the Committee, who were simply anxious to obtain 
photogi'aphs of lightning, rainbows, halos, tfec. The Committee was just 
then arranging for synchronous photographs of clouds. Near Exeter they 
had a straight base line about a quarter of a mile long. Photogra,phie 
observatories had been erected at each end, and there was a signalling 
apparatus between the two points, so that photographs of passing clouds 
might be obtained from both observatories simultaneously. Work of this 
kind, however, would hardly be taken up warmly by those societies which 
were mainly natural history societies, though he hoped it would commend 
itself to those more devoted to engineering, geology, and meteorology. 

The Chairman hoped that delegates would make special note of the work 
just described. 

The Pv,ev. J. O. Bevan asked if anything was known of the meteoro- 
logical work formerly done at Stonyhurst by Father Pei-ry. He believed 
similar work was still being done there, and would like to know if there 
had been any communication between the authorities at Stonyhurst and 
the Meteorological Photographs Committee. If meteorological work was 
still carried on at Stonyhurst, it was important that the Committee should 
know what was being done there, 

Mr. Sowerbutts knew that the work done by Father Perry was still 
being carried on at Stonyhurst, and that the Father in charge was a highly 
trained scientific man. He was afraid that town societies could never do 
anything in noting earth tremors on account of the tremors caused by 
passing trains, waggons, &c. He did not know any spot within seven 
miles of Manchester where a recording instrument might safely be placed, 
unless it were at the bottom of a coal mine. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan believed that these superficial tremors were of 
short duration and would not affect the observations made with any 
properly- constructed meteorological instrument. Had they any connection, 
he asked, with the Observatories at Greenwich and at Kew 1 

Mr. White Wallis said that the Committee were certainly in communi- 
cation with both Kew and Greenwich, and he would note the suggestion 
that they should communicate with Stonyhurst. As regards the supposed 
difficulty of making observations on earth tremors in towns he might say 
that modern instruments were practically unaffected by passing vibrations 
from railway trains, &.c. A tremor of such short duration was not repre- 
sented on these instruments. They had one in a cellar, but though the 
vibration of a passing train was felt in the house, it was not recorded by 
the instrument. Darwin's bifilar pendulum was somewhat expensive 
Professor Milne accomplished the .same result in a much simpler way. 



48 REPORT — 1895. 

The Chairman pointed out that the delegates might understand from 
what had been said that the whole cost of the needful apparatus would 
not necessarily exceed from 20/. to 251., including the erection of a suit- 
able column on which to place it. 

Section C. 

Mr. A. S. Reid, representing Section C, remarked that Mr. Osmund 
Jeffs, Secretaiy to the Geological Photographs Committee, had wished to 
resign, but had been persuaded to retain the post for another year, Mr. 
W. W. Watts having consented to act as co-secretary during that time, 
and afterwards to become sole secretary. Mr. Jefts, liowever, would 
always be glad to forward any photographs which may reach him. The 
Committee had at one time thought of bringing their work to a conclu- 
.sion, but had lately felt that it would not be judicious to do so. The 
Erratic Blocks Committee had altered their title so as to include Scotland, 
and had added some Scottish geologists to their list of members. In 
answer to the Chairman, who asked in what way the Corresponding 
Societies could assist the Geological Photographs Committee, Mr. Reid 
replied that the best plan was for persons interested to write to Mr. Jeffs 
for information. The Committee were sending out a new circular con- 
taining instructions as to the best methods of using the camera, and the 
best kind of camera to use, together with an abstract of the opinions 
collected on those subjects. 

Mr. Sowerbutts wished delegates to remember that platinotype photo- 
graphs were the best to send, as those printed by the bromide process often 
faded very rapidly, while platinotype prints would not. 

Mr. Murdoch had been glad to learn that Scotland was now included 
in the sphere of the Erratic Blocks Committee, and hoped that the 
Earth Tremors Committee, which was still a purely English Committee, 
would also be modified so as to comprise Scotland. 

The Chairman remarked that these and other Committees were com- 
posed of members of the British Association who were chosen on account 
of their special work and quite irrespective of their nationality or place of 
residence. In some cases there were observers only in England. But, 
whatever its title, every Committee was anxious to get information from 
whatever quarter it was obtainable. 

Mr. Hopkinson said that as regards the Erratic Blocks Committee, the 
reason for the exclusion of Scotland was the fact that a similar Committee 
for Scotland already existed in Edinburgh. In other cases it was simply 
an oversight. He was glad that the Geological Photographs Committee 
continued to exist, as there would always be a reason for its existence, 
one of its chief objects being to obtain photographs of temporary sections. 

Mr. Reid remarked that the Committee did not wish to cease to exist, 
but they hoped the work would be taken up and carried on at the Jermyn 
Street Museum. 

Mr. M. B. Slater thought that an exchange of local geological photo- 
graphs among the various Corresponding Societies would be a good thing. 

Mr. Sowerbutts approved of Mr. Slater's suggestion, and was sure that 
the Manchester Geographical Society would gladly exchange photographs 
with any other societies. They were then receiving some very handsome 
geological photographs from the Carpathian Society. 

The Chairman remarked that the Geological and Geographical Societies 
would be most likely to welcome an exchange of geological photographs. 



CORRESPONDIXG SOCIETIES. 49^ 

Mr. Hopkinson thought that most of the Corresponding Societies would 
wish to exchange geological photographs. 

A discussion here took place on some practical difficulties attending 
the interchange of photographs, such as the burden likely to be laid on 
the shoulders of the amateur photographer, &c., in which Mr. Gow, Mr. 
Reid, Mr. Sowerbutts, Mr. Slater, and the Chairman took part. Mr. 
Hopkinson thought that the work of printing and distributing copies of 
photographs might easily be done at the Jermyn Street Museum at a 
small fixed charge, and Mr. Reid inclined towards a plan brought under 
his notice by Mr. Gray of Belfast. At that town a photographer had 
been appointed who received the negatives taken by various members of 
the local society and furnished as many copies as were desired at a small 
fixed charge. Persecution of the amateur was thus avoided. 

Section E. 

Mr. Sowerbutts said that the Committee of Section E had passed a 
resolution referring to the difficulties at present thrown in the way of 
pupils who wish to become teachers of geography, marks gained in that 
subject not counting except in certain cases. They had requested the 
General Committee of the British Association to permit them to have a 
Committee for the purpose of examining and reporting to the Association 
on the condition of the teaching of geography in Great Britain. They 
wished to make a careful examination into the teaching of geography in 
all schools, especially secondary schools, and to report next year. They 
had not asked for a grant. It was probable that the Corresponding So- 
cieties might be asked to furnish certain information, and he hoped their 
Secretaries would reply as promptly as possible. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan did not know whether he was in order in refer- 
ring to the report of the Conference of Delegates at Nottingham. He 
should have liked to know in what county ' children attending schools 
were not taught geography in any way.' Having had a large experience 
of secondary schools, he also considered the statement made at Notting- 
ham that geography is absolutely ignored in secondary schools to be de- 
cidedly erroneous, though it was not taught in every primary school except 
in connection with reading. 

Mr. Reid asked if the Committee meant to inquire into the teaching 
of geography in such schools as Eton and Harrow. 

Mr. Sowerbutts replied that they hoped to extend tlieir inquiry from 
primary schools to the Universities. They wanted the Committee of the 
Royal Geographical and other societies to see whether some method can- 
not be devised by which geography may be placed on an equal footing 
with other subjects, and be made a paying subject to the teacher. 

Mr. Hopkinson (Hertfordshire) said that geography was taught in 
nearly all the schools with which he was acquainted, and was well taught 
in those of the Church Schools Company. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan remarked that the Geographical Society had 
instituted examinations in geography in secondary schools, and gave gold 
medals and other prizes. 

Mr. Sowerbutts rejoined that the Royal Geographical Society were so 
dissatisfied with the results of these examinations — the whole of the 
medals having been taken by two schools— that they had resolved to 
discontinue them. The Mancliester Geographical Society had had a 
similar experience in Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. 

1895. E 



50 REPORT— 1895. 



Section H. 



Mr. Hartland said that he was there owing to the very sad and sudden 
bereavement sustained a few weeks ago by Mr. Brabrook, the Chairman 
of the Ethnographical Survey Committee, who was consequently unable 
to attend. The Ethnographical Survey was a matter in which the Corre- 
sponding Societies were especially capable of rendering assistance. Indeed, 
without their aid, it was almost impossiljle that the work could be carried 
to a successful issue. The Committee drew up in the early part of the 
year a circular to the local societies offering them copies of the schedule. 
Hitherto, however, they had met with little response from the local socie- 
ties. Possibly the schedule was not sufficiently self-explanatory. The 
work of the Ethnographical Survey had so many branches that one of 
them could hardly fail to interest the more active members of the local 
societies. When the Committee had obtained its grant, as it hoped to do, 
it proposed to begin operations in Galway, having found a thoroughly 
qualified man to undertake the work, the expense having been estimated 
at 20^. He hoped to be able to report progress at the next meeting, and 
would be very glad, in the meantime, if the Corresponding Societies would 
circulate their schedules and bring the Survey under the notice of their 
members. 

Mr. Slater said that he wished to say a few words on behalf of Dr. 
Colby, who was unavoidably absent. Dr. Colby (Malton) was chairman 
of a sub-committee which was already going on with the work, though it 
was not sufficiently advanced to allow of a report this year. However, he 
hoped to be able to send one next year. The district in which Dr. Colby 
was working was a very primitive one. 

INIr. Hartland remarked that the Malton Naturalists' Society was one 
of those which had responded to their circular. 

The Chairman noted the great variety of the work proposed by the 
Ethnographical Survey Committee. Besides the physical measurements 
required, and the colour of the hair, eyes, &c., there was a wide field for the 
amateur photographer, for those interested in folklore, linguistic differ- 
ences, place-names, and local variations in tastes and habits. The Ethno- 
graphical Committee have a certain number of instruments which they are 
willing to place in the hands of those who would undertake measurements. 
The note drawn up by Mr. Hartland would still further exemplify the 
kind of work required. The Committee had met with great success during 
the past year, and the work done around Ipswich was very satisfactory. 
He trusted that the delegates would urge their societies to form local 
centres everywhere to carry on the work. 

Mr. Hartland wished to draw attention to a point which had not been 
mentioned, the preservation of ancient monuments of all kinds, which 
should be scheduled, described, and photographed. He had just received 
a letter from the secretary of a local committee in Pembrokeshire, who 
stated that some ancient stones and some pit dwellings had ah-eady been 
discovered there. 

The Chairman wished to say a word or two about another Committee — 
that concerned with the measurement of school-children. Many schools 
had been doing good work in their own way, but, unfortunately, there had 
been no uniform system, so t"hat the results at one school could not be 
compared with those at another. The Committee, after inquiring into the 
various systems practised, had drawn up one which he hoped would prove 
acceptable to the various schools. It was of the highest importance that 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 51 

some uniform system should be adopted. Professor Windle of Birmingham 
would be happy to send a schedule of the various measurements required, 
and of the way in which they should be made. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan spoke of the desirability of expediting the 
Archaeological Survey of the kingdom which had been begun a few years 
ago. He had been working at the map of Herefordshire for some years, 
and it was then almost ready for publication. It could not be too widely 
known that the Society of Antiquaries was willing to bear the expense of 
printing the maps if the work on them was done in accordance with the 
conditions laid down. He was surprised that this work liad not been 
taken up more energetically by properly qualified persons in the different 
districts, so that it might be executed with as little delay as possible. He 
hoped each delegate would take an early opportunity of reporting the 
proceedings at these Conferences to the society he represented. 

The Chairman believed that it was generally understood that it was 
the duty of each delegate to report their proceedings to his society. 

Mr. Hopkinson stated that he had brought the work of the Ethno- 
graphical Survey Committee before the Hertfordshire Natural History 
Society, but had failed to get the matter taken up. He found that the ques- 
tions asked were considered too inquisitorial. Possibly a simpler system 
might be found to answer better in practice, as more persons or societies 
would then be found willing to undertake the work. 

Mr. Hartland replied that, though they hoped in many cases to get 
the elaborate measurements asked for, they were glad to obtain such 
measurements and photographs as could be procured. He was afraid that 
the elaboration of their schedule must have acted to some extent as a 
deterrent, though it was drawn up as a standard to which they hoped to 
attain, not as necessarily obligatory in every case. Possibly, if this were 
understood, societies would respond more warmly to their appeals for help. 

Dr. Brett (Hertfordshire) said that since the York meeting of the 
British Association fifteen years ago it had been his custom as a medical 
man to record the weight, height, colour of hair and eyes, &c., of children. 
He had up to that time made about three thousand observations, but had 
not yet been able to put his records into shape. 

Mr. Hopkinson (referring to the Ethnographical Survey) remarked 
that his experience was that of others as to the difficulty of getting any 
one to make the very elaborate series of measurements asked for. He 
would suggest some simpler scheme as an alternative. 

Mr. Hartland hoped that members who objected to the elaborate 
measurements would take up the subjects of dialect, folklore, or 
historical or prehistoric monuments. They wanted information on all 
these points. 

The Chairman remarked that the work might usefully be divided 
among various sub-committees. If that were done all societies would 
do good work in one department or another, if not in all. 

The Conference then came to an end. 

The Committee recommend the retention of all the societies now on 
the list except the Cumberland and Westmoreland Association, which has 
ceased to exist. 

The Committee have pleasure in reporting that the Caradoc and 
Severn Valley Field Club and the Buchan Field Club have been added 
to the list of Corresponding Societies. 



52. 



REPORT — 1895. 









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y of Dumfries, 18 
ical Notes from 
Don in 1 892-93 


he Adjustment of Surveyin 
n Open-scale Barometer . 
eport of the Meteorologic 
for 1893 


10 November Floods 
lotography in Klines 
fty i'ears of Rainfall Reco 
ovember Gale at Rock Ha 
umberland, 1893 


'4. 

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during 1893 
infall and Tempe 
93 


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lenological Observations, 1 

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REPORT — 1895. 



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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



65 



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66 



REPORT — 1895. 




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COKKESPOXDING SOCIETIES. 



67 



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Ci 
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vn. 

XXV 

vin. 

XXV 


'A 




1894-9 
VII. 

1894-9 
XI. 


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tat. Soc. 
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. . . 


• • 


t-H 

o 

§ 


a 
.'bo 

O 


a 

c: 

I-:; 

o 


c-. oj 


ments . 
al Edu- 


• • • 4-S Q> 

• • • 2 a.| 


u 
o 

o 


ngland. 
ia 

ent and 


. . . 


otland 

;o the Sudan 


■ .a 

3 
fl 




m 

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a 

o 
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3 


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a -»-' 


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'roblcms . 

isgow and tl 
3t and a Pros 


CD 

3 

4J 

4J 

-4-J 


fl 
cj 

o 
w 

o 


le Bank of E 
of Nova Scot 

3r, ' Our Pres 


• a • 

o 

§fl 

w g 

^ o 


the Snow-line in Sc 

frica 

akin- Berber Route 


2 








bD_ 

(D fl 






o 


3 


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.-^ C3 
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0) - 




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fl 
CS 

fl 

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H 


o 

4^ 
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c 

<u 

4-) 

I. 

:3 O 


The Glasgow Building 
The Financial Crisis 
1893-94 


Corners . 
2ory of the Y'ea 
ecent Develop 

1 


of Mines, 
uportant Sanit 
ntial Address . 
al Education i 
otland : a Retr 


0) c3 

O 3 

a^ 

%\ 

o o 
to — 


O'o 

o o 


ears' Accounts 
neral Developn 
'axation . 
Jlr. Walker's 
re Water Suppl 


prentice Questi 
e Emigration a 
jher Education 


Above 
East A 
The Su 


Wo 




p 

H 


Cotton 
Tlic Th 
Some B 
catio 


Rating 
Some I 
Preside 
Technic 
of Sc 




2 S 
-" o 

a '-'^ 

O 


Fifty ^ 
The Mi 
Local 'I 
Reply t 
Futu 


The Ap 
Juvenil 
The Hi 


Tljomson, Gilbert . 
Wakefield, Kev. T. 
Watson, Lt.-Col. C. 
M. 


Wiggins, Capt. J. . 
Younghusband, 
Capt. F. E. 


'c3 

CO 




^ 4J 

f5« 


Biggs, Col. W. W. 
Binns, Henry 
Bowles, F. J. 


Castle, E. J. . 
Chalmers, James . 
Douglas, Thomas . 
Dyer, Henry . 


►H 
fl 

.a 
o 

oT 
bo 


p 

o 

w 

a 

bo 
1-. 
<u 


Flux, A. W. . 
Gilpin, E., jun. 
Guthrie. Edwin . 
Harty, Sj cr.cer 


■ ■ a 

a --^ p 

■jz .2 ^0 
bt.il 'a 
««t4 



^8 



REPORT — 1895. 



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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



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ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 75 



Underground Temperature. — Twenty-first Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professoi- J. D. Everett (Chairman and Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Professor E. Hull, Professor J. Prestwich, Dr. C. Le Neve- 
Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, Mr. A. Strahan, and 
Professor Michie Smith. (Draivn up hy Professor Everett.) 

Information as to underground temperature in the southern hemisphere 
has hitherto been very scanty. Importance therefore attaches to observa- 
tions which have recently been taken in a deep bore in New South Wales 
by T. W. Edgeworth David, Professor of Geology in Sydney University, 
and E. F. Pittman, Government Geologist. The following account is 
derived from a paper by these gentlemen to the Royal Society of N.S.W., 
read December 6, 1893, supplemented by letters from Professor David to 
the Secretary of the Committee. 

The bore is 2,929 ft. deep, and is the second of two which have been 
sunk at Cremorne on the shores of Port Jackson. 

A protected maximum thermometer had been furnished by the sec- 
retary to Professor David when he went out to Sydney in 1882 ; but it 
had passed through several hands, and was not forthcoming when the 
opportunity for observation occurred. Professor David had accordingly 
to avail himself of such instruments as were accessible, and he borrowed 
four maximum thermometers, including two inverted Negretti's belonging 
to Mr. H. C. Russell, the Government Astronomer, which had Kew certi- 
ficates. They were similar in pattern to those adopted by the Committee, 
except that there was no outer glass-case. In place of this, ' a strong 
piece of wrought iron water-pipe, about two feet three inches in length,' 
was employed. ' A cap-piece was sweated on to the lower end of this tube, 
the threads of the screw in the cap-piece and pipe being filled with molten 
solder, and the cap-piece being screwed on while the solder was still 
molten.' ' The lower end of the pipe was then filled to a depth of about 
two inches with Drass tui-nings. The thermometers were next carefully 
lowered into the tube.' They had their bulbs uppermost, as usual. ' Brass 
turnings were then packed around them in order that the heat might be 
conducted rapidly to their bulbs from the water in the bore. Strings 
were fastened to the bulbs to facilitate the withdrawal of the thermo- 
meters from the tube after the experiment of taking the temperature had 
been completed. The ends of these strings were carried close up to the 
top of the pipe, the brass turnings being packed aroiind them like tamping 
around a fuse in a shot-hole. A few cardboard wads and a layer of loose 
paper two inches in thickness were inserted in the upper portion of the 
tube, to prevent the conduction downwards of the artificial heat, which 
would otherwise travel down to the thermometers from the upper end of 
the tube when it was dipped in the molten solder, previous to the upper 
cap-piece being sweated on. A ring-bolt for attaching the lowering cord 
was screwed into the upper cap-piece, with molten solder sweated into it ; 
and the whole cap-piece was then screwed and sweated on to the upper 
end of the tube in the same manner as the lower cap-piece.' 



76 REPORT — 1895. 

The first experiment was a failure, the thermometers, though left for 
about an hour near the bottom of the bore, indicating about the same 
temperature that they had before lowering. This failure is attributed 
either to the non-conducting action of a few thicknesses of soft paper in 
which the bulbs were wrapped, or to the mercury which had left the bulbs 
having returned to them again while the tube was being conveyed from 
the bore to the plumber's shop, where the cap-piece was removed. 

In the second experiment ' no paper was wrapped round the bulbs, 
but the brass dust was continuous from the bulbs to the sides of the iron 
pipe.' At the depth of 2,733 ft. an obstruction was encountered which 
prevented the tube from going lower, and which also caused the suspend- 
ing wire to kink and break. After an immersion of about twenty-seven 
hours, the wire was successfully grappled, and the tube brought to the sur- 
face. ' The upper cap-piece was then rapidly heated in a chafing dish of 
charcoal made of an old nail-can, with a hole cut out of the bottom just 
sufficiently large to admit of the upper eixd of the tube being passed up 
it, and oxygen gas from a compressed cylinder was blown through a 
Fletcher's blowpipe on to the charcoal, so that in less than half a minute 
the solder in the threads of the cap-piece was melted ; the lower portion 
of the tube containing the thei'mometers being meanwhile wrapped in wet 
cloths to prevent the heat travelling downwards. The cap-piece having 
been unscrewed and the thermometers withdrawn, the highest temperature 
registered was found to be 97° F.' ' Not a drop of water had found its 
way into the tube.' 

On the following day the experiment was repeated, no wire being used 
for lowering, but only tarred rope ; and sheet lead was wrapped round 
the tube to increase the weight. The tube was left down for one hour, 
and the maximum temperature registered was 96° F. The difference of 
1° below the former observation is what might fairly be expected from 
the stirring of the water and the thermal capacity of the sheet lead 
which, with the tube, weighed 30 lb. The first result, 97° F., is therefore 
adopted as the true temperature at the depth of 2,733 ft. The mean sur- 
face temperature, as determined by Mr. H. C. Russell, is 63° F., giving 
an increase of 34° in 2,733 ft., which is at the rate of 1° F. for 80 ft. 

As regards the possibility of disturbance of temperature by convection, 
Professor David mentions in a letter to the Secretary that the bore was 
only four inches in diameter. He also says, ' You understand, of course, 
that we can do nothing in the way of taking temperatures in a diamond- 
drill bore until the bore is quite completed, owing to the chilling of the 
rock at the sides of the borehole by the cold water which is being con- 
stantly forced to circulate under pressure through the bore.' 

The temperatuie of the water of Port Jackson at the greatest depths 
near Cremorne, varying from 45 to 63 ft., was found (on December 6, 
1893) to be uniform at 68° F. As this temperature is higher than that of 
the ground at the same level, no cooling effect can be attributed to the 
water. The slow rate of 1° F. per 80 ft., deduced from the observations, 
would therefore appear to be a good approximation to the truth. 

It is expected that shafts will shortly be sunk at Ci-emorne, and will 
afford opportunity for the systematic observation of rock temperatures 
from the surface to a depth of nearly 3,000 ft. 'The first 1,000 ft. will 
be in horizontally bedded sandstone, and the remainder chiefly in clay 
shales, with interstratified sandstones and conglomerates.' The observa- 
tions will be taken by Professor David and Mr. Pittman, with the 



&J^ Biport Brit. JiKc.. IS93- 



I 




lUtulm&ng tJu Report on t]it Vni/ormUj/ of Site of Paga of Scianlifie SoeielUi' PuUitaHona. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEAIPERATURE. 77 

Committee's slow-action thermometers, in holes bored in the sides of the 
shafts. 

The Committee desii-e to express their regret at the loss of their 
valuable member, Mr. Pengelly. 



The Uniformity of Size of Pages of Scientific Societies' Puhlications. — 
Beport of the Committee, consistinq of Professor S. P. Thompson 
(Chairman), Mr. G. H. Bryan, 'Dr. C. V. Burton, Mr. R. T, 
Glazebrook, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, and Mr. J. Swinburne 
(Secretary). 

[PLATE I.] 

The importance of adopting one or two uniform standard sizes for the 
pages of scientific publications will be evident to all specialists who have 
collected reprints of papers on any branch of science, and who have en- 
deavoured to have them bound into volumes. Such collections are of 
more than passing interest, and they might, with advantage in many 
cases, be handed down to posterity as records of work in any particular 
subject, and it is, therefore, of importance that they should not be spoiled 
by the omission of one or two papers whose size precludes them from 
being bound up with the rest. 

The Committee have thought it advisable in their first year to confine 
their attention chiefly to reporting on the size of the pages of existing 
mathematical and physical publications, and to deciding on what sizes to 
recommend as standards. In the latter matter they have been largely 
guided by the consideration that uniformity has been already to some 
extent attained, and this report will show that the desired results can be 
accomplished without making any radical changes in the sizes of the 
principal journals, and, indeed, without altering most of them at all. 

In deciding whether two papers can or cannot be bound together, the 
size of the margin is quite as important a factor as the size of the paper. 
Thus the ' Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society ' is more than 
a centimetre wider and two centimetres higher than the ' Report of the 
British Association,' and yet if it were cut down to the same size it would 
still have exactly the same margin at the sides, and 6 mm. more margin 
at the top and bottom of the pages. Again, the ' Proceedings of the 
Pliy.sical Society ' are printed with the same type as the ' Philosophical 
Magazine,' although one is medium and the other demy octavo. Hence 
arises the necessity of taking an internal measurement of the space occu- 
pied by the letterpress, as well as an external measurement of the size of 
the paper page. 

This may be estimated as in fig. 1, which represents the opened pages 
of a book, a, b denote the width and depth of a paper page, c is the 
distance from the outside edge of the letterpress to the back, and d is the 
distance from the top of the running headline or number of the page to the 
bottom of the last line of letterpress, exclusive of the ' signature.' Hence 
a — c is the margin at the side of the page, and b — d is the sum of the 
margin at the top and bottom, so that if these are equal each is equal 
to ^(b-d). 

By adopting a minimum limit for the size of the pages (measured by 
a, b), and a somewhat smaller maximum limit for the internal measure- 



78 



KEPORT lS9r>. 



J^ 








1 


f . 

1 

i 

1 
1 






4 

i 












1 

1 .■';;.■ -, 






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. 





ments c, d, we shall secure that all papers can be bound together without 
cutting the margin down below a certain limit. In fixing the limits we 

must allow for a little of the 
margin being cut away in 
binding. 

Octavo Publications.— In 
the octavo sizes, the diagram, 
Plate I., shows an overwhelming 
preponderance of medium and 
demy octavo, the demy size 
being not only in the majority 
in point of number, but also in- 
cluding many of the'most impor- 
tant publications. The royal 
octavo size recently proposed by 
the Royal Society is only repre- 
sented by about two journals, of which the ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Artillery Institution ' is one. On the other hand, the space occupied by 
the letterpress, as shown by the measurements c, d, is no greater in several 
of the medium size than in the majority of demy octavo, and there would, 
therefore, be no difficulty in cutting these down in binding. The Com- 
mittee, therefore, recommend the following sizes : — 

Standard Octavo Size. — Paper c?evH7/, the pages measuring 14 cm. x 22cm., 
or when uncut, 5| in. X 8| in. The width c, raeasured from the stitching 
to'the edge of the printed matter to be 12 cm., or 4| in., and the height, d, 
of the printed portion including the running headline, to be 18 cm., or 7 in. 
Limit of Octavo Size. — The paper page not to be less than 14 cm. x 21 -5 
cm. or 5i in. X S\ in., and the letterpress not to exceed the measurements 
c^l2'5 cm., or 4^ in., d=:\8-5 cm., or 7^ in. Reprints and unbound 
numbers of iournals to be issued with their edges uncut, or cut not more 
than 0-25 cm., or ^in., all round. 

The use of standard as well as limiting sizes will easily be understood. 
Where publications fall within the limiting size there is little or no need 
for the size of the pages to be altered at present ; but when any alteration 
is made in the size, or in the case of new journals or papers printed l)y 
their authors for private circulation, it would be desirable to conform 
exactly to the standard size, which would ultimately become general. 

Taking, first, the limiting sizes, and allowing for 0-25 cm., or ^ in., 
being cut off the margins in binding into A^olumes, the pages of these 
would measure 13-5 cm. x 21 cm., or .5| in. X 8^ in., and this would alloM' of 
a margin of not less than 1 cm., or ^ in., all round, which is quite enough. 
If the standard sizes should become generally adopted the bound and 
cut volumes would measure the same, and the margin would be 2 cm., or 
3- in., at the sides, and 1"6 cm., or f in., at the top and bottom. 

In the diagram it will be seen that there are journals which do not 
fall within the limiting dimensions. Where a and b fall short of tlie 
limits this could be remedied in some cases by leaving the edges uncut. 
Where c is too large, the letterpress could be brought a little nearer the 
stitchinf in imposing for press ; where d is too great, the pages could be 
shortened by a line or two. 

Quarto Publications. — The corresponding dimensions for the prin- 
cipal quarto publications are given in the same diagram. Here, again, we 
find medium quarto (24 cm. X 30 cm., or 9| in. x 12 in.) and demy quarto 



UNIFORMITY OF SIZE OF PAGES OF SOCIETIES' PUBLICATIONS. 79 

(22 cm. X 28-5 cm., or 8| in. X llj in.) almost universal, but the pre- 
ponderating sizes approach most nearly to demy, and on account of the 
large margins of many journals this is the most convenient size of the 
two, besides making the volumes less unwieldy. The Committee, there- 
fore, recommefid, in cases where it is desired to retain the quarto size, the 
following measurements : — • 

Standard Quarto Size. — Paper demy, the pages measuring, when uncut, 
22 cm. x28'5 cm., or 8^ in. wide x 11 J in. high. Reprints and unbound 
numbers of this size to be uncut, or cut 0-25 cm., or ^ in. Measurements 
of letterpress to be c:=18*5 cm., or 7^ in., d=2l-5 cm., or 8| in. 

Limits of Quarto Size. — Paper pages not to measureless than 21 '5 cm., 
or 8| in., wide x 28 cm., or 11 in., high. Letterpress not to exceed the 
measurements 0=19 cm., or 7| in., d-=23 cm., or 9 in. 

The same remarks as to the advantage of standard and limiting sizes 
apply as in the case of the octavo. Allowing for 0'25 cm., or ^ in., being 
cut oflf in binding, the limiting sizes will allow of a margin of not less than 
2 cm., or | in., all round, while the standard size will give a margin of 3*25 
cm., or 1;^ in., at the sides, and 2-5 cm., or 1 in., at the top and bottom. 

Plates often get sadly mutilated when different papers are bound 
together, and sometimes this even happens when a volume of any periodi- 
cal is bound up. Where they are folded over they not infrequently get 
cut in two by the guillotine. To avoid this the Committee recommend 
that the dimensions of the illustrations should never exceed 13 cm. x 20 cm., 
or 5i in. x 7|- in., for octavo plates, and 21 cm. x 25 cm., or 8^ in. x 10 in., 
for quarto, the width being measured from the back of the book. Where 
plates have to be folded, the fold should be 12-5 cm., or 5 in., from the 
stitching in octavo, and 20"5 cm., or 8^ in., in quarto papers. Any folding 
plate should, when referred to elsewhere than in the opposite page of 
letterpress, have a blank s-psLce equal to the breadth of the paper page at 
the left hand, so that when open it can be referred to without closing the 
portion of the book being read that refers to it. This should be carried 
out even when the diagram or plate would not otherwise have to be folded, 
in order to reduce the trouble of reference. 

Each article should begin a page. If possible it should begin a right- 
hand page. It is then possible to bind up any article with others on the 
same subject without having also to bind up the last half page of another 
paper. This difficulty can be overcome to some extent by splitting the 
paper. The pages of some of the journals abstracted in the ' Proceedings 
of the Physical Society ' are split, one side being sent to each abstractor. 



Comparison of Marpieiic Standards. — Interim Report of the Commit- 
tee, consisting of Professor A. W. RtJCKER (Chairman) , Mr. W. 
Watson (Secretary), Professor A. Schuster, and Professor H. H. 
Turner, ajji^ointed to confer v:ith the Astronomer Royal and, the 
Sujjeriidendents of other Ohservatories with reference to the Com- 
parison of Magnetic Standards, tvith a view of carrying out such- 
Comparison. 

Professor Rucker and Mr. Watson have carefully compared three Kew- 
pattern magnetometers in order to investigate the causes of the discre- 
pancies between the measurements of declination made with them. They 



80 REPORT — 1895. 

find that if the greatest care be taken in the manufacture of the wooden 
box and the metalUc adjuncts which are close to the magnet the discre- 
pancies disappear. 

In other words, the cause of the difficulty, in these three instruments 
at all events, is, not the metal base, but the much smaller masses of metal 
which are nearer to the magnet. 

The three magnetometers are now in good accord. 

A week has been spent at each of four observatories for the purpose 
of comparing one of these magnetometers and a dip-circle with the obser- 
vatory instruments. Professor Riicker made the observations at Kew 
and Falmouth ; Mr. "Watson, those at Stonyhurst and Valentia. 

The greater part of the work which the Committee undertook has thus 
been accomplished. 

It is still necessary to compare the instruments again witli the instru- 
ments at Kew to ascertain that they are unaltered by transfer from one 
place to another ; and as a new magnet-house is about to be built at 
Greenwich, it has been thought better to postpone the comparisons at 
that observatory until the house is ready for use. 

The reductions of the observations which have been made are not yet 
finished. A full report will be made when the work is completed. 

The Committee therefore ask to be reappointed, but no further grant 
is required. 

The Amplication of PJiotography to the Elucidixtion of Meteorological 
Phenomena. — Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr, 
G. J. Symons (Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. 
HOPKIXSOX, and Mr. A. W. Clavden (Secretary). (Drawn xip by 
the Secretary.) 

In the report which the Committee presented last year, it was proposed 
that an agreement should be entered into with the London and South - 
"Western Railway Company for the use of a site on their land, in order to 
carry out some measurements of cloud altitudes by means of photography. 

This has been done. The cameras have been placed in position, and 
almost the whole time at the disposal of the secretary for such purposes 
has been spent in perfecting the electrical connection for releasing the 
two shutters simultaneously. Considerable trouble has been experienced 
in doing this. The appai'atus, which worked admirably over a short dis- 
tance, proved unreliable over the greater distance (200 yards) at present 
adopted. The agreement with the railway company provides that the 
connecting wire shall be removed when not in actual use, thereby 
necessitating as light a wire as can be made to suffice, which of coui'se 
implies a considerable resistance. The result is that a more sensitive 
electric detent is required for the shutters, especially as it seems not 
unlikely that the distance may have to be increased by another 100 yards 
when the measurement of the highest varieties of cloud is attempted. 
This is still engaging the attention of the secretary to the Committee. 

Some observations have been made, but although they confirm the 
belief that the method will prove valuable they have not yet been reduced 
to actual measurements. It .should be remembered that the method is 
only applicable to those varieties of cloud which are visible at the same 
time as the sun, and that the opportunities of making observations cannot 




i 



Sj* Beport Bril. Auoc, t 



Via. 1— LisF Irom two 61JU. Tha | 




Ga.m' ms"^ i£i 



Feb 6^ I*"^ Sp 






Dillf oniTu nudtrgnniDd (E) curreipDnd to (ig. S 




EXAMPLES OF REOORDfl FROM HOBIZONTAL PENDULUMS. 



lUatlmUng the FourUsnllt Report <if the Committe» ea Ika Earthquake and Folcanic Phenomena of Japati. 



ON THE ELUCIDATION OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 81 

coincide with the possibility of making them, very frequently in the 
course of a short time such as that which has elapsed since the cameras 
have been finished. 

Your Committee, therefore, ask to be reappointed for another year, so 
that they may carry out the work in hand, and with that object in view 
ask for a further grant of 151. 



Solar EacUation. — Eleventh Report of the Committee., considing of 
Sir G. C. Stokes (Chairman), Professor A. Schuster, Mr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. de W. Abney, 
Mr. C. Chree, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod, appointed to consider tlie best Methods of 
Recording the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. 

The Committee regret to have to report that for various reasons no 
experiments have been made with the Balfour Stewart actinometer since 
the last meeting of the Association. As Mr. Wilson has undertaken to 
continue the experiments, the Committee ask for reappointment and for 
the unexpended balance of the previous grant. 



Investigation of the UartJtquahe and Volcanic Plienomena of Japan. 
Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of tlie Rt. Hon. 
Lord Kelvin, Pres. R.S., Professor W. G. Adams, F.R.S., Mr. J. 
T. Bottomley, F.R.S., Professor A. H. Green, F.R.S., Professor 
C. G. Knott, F.R.S.E., and Professor John Milne, F.R.S. 
(Secretarij). (Dramn np by the Secretary.) 

[PLATES ir-IV.] 

CONTENTS. 



I. The Gray-j\filne Sei.^moffra2>h . 81 
II. Observations /vlili Hurizoutal 

Pendulums . . . .84 
(a') The Inf:tru)ueiit.i . . 8.5 
{h) Ohservatiuns at Kamahura 88 
(f) The Biaijrams . . .1)0 
(r7) The Movements of the Pen- 
dulums . . . . .90 
(e) Earthqualies . . . 91 
(/) The Ubservatimis in Tuluo . 94 
(.'/) Sensitireness of the Instru- 
ments . . . . .94 
(//) Paihi Tdtiiui ... 95 
(«') F.rtraet from Journal rf 
Pccord.'i obtained in \S[)i: . 96 



(j) T/ie Wandering of the Pen- 
dulums 99 

(Jt) Movements of Water in o 
Well 104 

{V) An, Experiment on Evapo- 
ration . . . . . lOIJ 

(?rt) Kffeefs produced by cmjjty- 
infa Well . . . .107 

(n.') 'Earthquakes . . .108 

(o) Tremors .... 109' 

{p) Observations at YoJtohama 
and Kanagatva . . . 109 

(rj) Conchisions . . .110 

III. The Toltio Earthquahes of June 

20, 1S94 . . . .111 

IV. Miscellaneous . . . .112 



I. The Grav-Milxe Seismograph. 

The first of this form of seismograph, constructed in 1883, partly at the 
expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the standard 
instrument at the Central Observatory in Tokio. 

I am indebted to Mi-. K. Kobayashi, the Director of the Observatory 
for the following table of its records : — 

1895. o 



82 



KEPOKT — ^1895. 



Catalogve of Earthquakes recorded at the Central Meteorolof/ical Observatory in ToMo 
letn-een Ajjril 19, 1893, and May 17, 1S94 



No. 



Mouth 



Day 



Time 



Duration 



Direction 



Maximum Maximum 

Perioil anil ' Period and | 

Amplitude of Aniplituilc of. 



Horizontal 
Motion 



Vertical 
Motion 



sees, mm. 



Nature 

of 
Shock 



1,322 


IV. 


19 


1,323 


,, 


21 


1,324 


,. 


26 


1,325 




30 


1,326 


V. 


1 


1,327 


„ 


11 


1,328 




i4 


1,329 


t. 


17 


1,330 


,. 


18 


1,331 


,, 


21 


1,332 




24 


1,333 




„ 


1,334 




28 


1,335 


,, 


30 


1,333 


VI. 


4 


1,337 


,, 


„ 


1,338 


., 


,, 


1,339 




9 


1,340 


,. 


„ 


1,341 


,, 


10 


1,342 




12 


1,343 


'• 


13 


1,344 




18 


1,345 


,, 


21 


1,346 


VII. 


5 


1,347 


" 


6 


1,318 




18 


1,349 


„ 


19 


1,350 


VUI. 


2 


1,351 


,. 


20 


1,352 




22 


1,353 


IX. 


4 


1,354 




10 


1,355 


,, 


15 


1,350 


,, 


»* 


1,357 


IX. 


17 


1,358 




„ 


1,359 


X. 


6 


1,:^60 


„ 


10 


1,361 


,, 


19 


1,362 


XI. 


13 


1,303 


,, 


15 


1,304 


„ 


28 


1,365 


xir. 


29 



H. 

11 

7 

10 

11 



r.M. 
r.M. 

.\.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
,i.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
AM. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P..M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
l'..M. 
.V.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 



1893. 



M. .=i. 

1 



1 30 

3 

1 



1 50 
3 50 



2 30 

4 
2 30 
2 30 



1 4 
1 8 



E.-W. 
E.-W. 



E.-W. 

E.-W. 
X.N.W.-S.S.E 



W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

N.-S. 



E.-W. 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. 
N.N.E.-S.S.W. 



E.-W. 

N.E.-S.W. 



sliglit 
2 2 



189ft. 



1,366 


I. 


4 


1 37 20 P.M. 


55 


E.-W 


1,367 


W 


10 


6 5 4 P.M. 


— 


— 


1,368 






6 46 23 P.M. 


3 15 


E.-W. 


1,369 


^ .. 


.12 


2 50 33 A.M. 


— 


— 



(>4 



0-5 
1-2 



0-9 

0-5 
1-1 
1-0 



0-9 
0-5 



0-8 



0-6 



0-8 
5-0 



30 

0-7 
0'7 



0-3 

0-9 



0-5 



0-3 



quick 



quick 



slow 



SlflW 

quick 



quick 
slow 



slow 

quick 
slow 



slight 



quick 
quick 

quick 

slow 



0\ THE EAirniQUAKI-: AND VOLCAXIC PIIENOMENA OE JAl'AX. 83 
Catalogue of Earthquakes — eonUnued. 



Xo. 


Mouth 


Day 


Tiuie 


Duration 


Direction 


Ma.ximum 

Period and 

Amplitude o£ 

Horizontal 

Motion 


Maximum 

Period and 

Vmplituile of 

Vertical 

Motion 


Nature 

of 
Slioclc 


sees. 


mm. 


SfCS. 


1 
mm. 


1,370 


I. 


IG 


H. M. s. 
6 29 40 A.M. 


M. s. 














1,371 


1J 


18 


3 45 21 r.M. 


48 


E.-W. 


1-0 


0-4 


— 


— 


slow 


1,372 


„ 


25 


10 48 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.373 


11. 


2 


7 1 14 P.M. 


— 


E.-W. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,374 


»> 


16 


2 63 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,375 


„ 


18 


11 36 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,376 


„ 


20 


8 29 3 A.M. 


4 20 


E.-W. 


IG 


5-1 


sliglit 1 


Blow 


1,377 


J» 


24 


9 33 54 r.M. 


55 


N.N.W.-S.S.E. 


0-7 


0-7 


— 


— 


— 


1,378 


H 


25 


4 17 42 A.M. 


3 40 


N.-S. i 


1-2 


C-8 


— 


— 


— 


1,379 


>J 


27 


53 P.M. 


2 21 


E.-W. 


1-4 


2-4 


slisht 


quiclc 


1,380 


»t 


1» 


10 51 39 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


1,381 


III. 


3 


10 20 9 P.M. 


1 19 


N.N.E.-P.P.W. 


1-1 


0-3 


— 


— 


slow 


1,382 


)1 


5 


11 38 a.m. 


1 


N.E.-S.W. 


0-7 


0'3 


Sliglit 


1) 


1,383 


)» 


6 


8 29 30 A.M. 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,384 


» 


10 


8 38 53 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,385 


)» 


12 


4 8 1 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,386 


1> 


13 


7 28 38 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,387 


)J 


14 


8 89 57 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,388 


1> 


)1 


6 18 11 I'.M. 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,380 


n 


16 


2 54 18 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,390 


91 


20 


11 33 53 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,391 


n 


21 


3 9 10 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


1,392 


11 


22 


2 29 9 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


1,393 


n 


M 


2 38 42 P.M. 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,394 


51 


>1 


7 7 19 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,395 


■n 


11 


7 27 49 I'.M. 


ft 10 


— 


3-6 


6-3 


slight 


slow 


1,396 


n 


11 


7 48 83 P.M. 


1 


N.-S. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,» 


1,397 


)» 


11 


10 6 16 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,398 


j» 


11 


11 58 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,399 


M 


23 


45 54 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,400 


)) 


i> 


3 49 39 A.M. 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,401 


11 


26 


2 36 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,402 


1) 


}« 


4 12 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,403 


11 


29 


C 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,404 


IV. 


1 


11 29 38 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,405 


» 


2 


5 31 3 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,406 


1' 


4 


8 57 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,407 


5) 


7 


7 7 10 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,408 


11 


12 


10 13 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,409 


51 


14 


2 39 30 A..M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


1,410 


» 


91 


3 34 32 A.M. 


2 40 


E.S.E.-W.N.W. 


0-6 


1-3 


0-4 


1-0 


quick 


1,411 


11 


15 


1 61 5 A.M, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,412 


„ 


17 


3 54 52 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,413 


11 


25 


9 21 57 a.m. 


2 IS 


E.-W. 


1-2 


0-5 


— 


— 


slow 


1,414 


1" 


28 


1 23 49 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,415 


V. 


2 


11 26 39 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.416 


1) 


4 


10 51 55 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,417 


11 


6 


6 3 22 P.M. 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,418 


i 

» 


10 


4 11 39 A.M. 


2 50 


N.N.E.-S.S.W. 


0-7 


0-5 


— 


— 


slow 


1,41S 


,. 


16 


5 52 45 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,420 


j» 


17 


6 1 29 A.M. 


— 


— 




— ■ 


— 


— 


-~ 



62 



84 REPORT — 1S95. 



Remarlis. 

Shock l,3ul. — Commenced ver}- gentlj' for about 36 seconds, when a violent shaking, 
lasting 16 second;-", took place. It then died out. 

Shock 1,352. — Tliis comraenced gently for 32 seconds, after which, for 9 seconds, the 
motion was strong. Then it died out. 

Shock 1,366. — Strong motion, lasting 15 seconds, commenced after 9 seconds of pre- 
liminary motion. 

Shock 1,368. — Was very slow and gentle. After one minute the horizontal motion 
was marked for about 13 seconds. During 26 seconds it showed 
nineteen large waves. 

Shock 1,37G. — At first this was slow, but became stronger after 3 minutes 12 seconds, 
when for the next 30 seconds it was pronounced. 

IT. Observations with Horizontal Pendulums. 

In the years 1883, 1884, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1892, and 1893 I embodied 
in Reports to the Association some account of work which had been 
carried out in Japan in the investigation of earth tremors or pulsations 
and earth tilting. The Twelfth Report (1892) describes a pair of exti'emely 
light horizontal pendulums the movements of which were recorded on 
photographic plates or films, and gives some account of the analysis of 
the resulting records. The observations were continued during the 
following year, and, as stated in the Thirteenth R,eport (1893), it was 
observed that the direction of earth-tilting movement and also of earth- 
quake movement in the majority of cases coincided with the direction in 
which strata have been folded to form mountain ranges bordering the 
Tokio plain. Anotlier observation was that certain earthquakes had been 
preceded by an abnormal amount of tilting. 

In consequence of the liberality of the Royal Society of London dur- 
ing the last year I have been enabled to extend these observations, usin^ 
six horizontal pendulums, each provided with photographic recording 
apparatus. 

The places of observation have been in Tokio, at my house, on a massive 
stone column, and at a place about 1,000 feet distant in an underground 
chamber on a concrete bed ; at Kanagawa, in an artificial cave driven in a 
soft tuff rock at a depth of 50 feet below its junction with 50 feet of over- 
lying alluvium ; at Yokohama, in a cave driven at the junction of the tuff 
and alluvium ; and at Kamakura, in a cave in the tuff which at this j^lace 
is hard and dips at an angle of 30" X.E. All these places lie from Tokio 
on a S.S.E. line, and are respectively 20, 23, and 38 miles distant from my 
house. At Kanagawa and at my house there is only one instrument, and 
the booms of these pendulums point N.W. At the other stations two 
instruments have been or are now being used, and these are placed at 
right angles to each other, one pointing N.W., or parallel to the strike of 
the rocks, and the other N.E., or parallel to the dip. At Kamakura 
observations were made for two and a half months, when the instruments 
were brought to Yokohama. At this latter place, owing to a series of 
accidents, one of which was the collapse of the roof of the cave, up to the 
present the observations have been extremely few. At Kanagawa, 
although the cave is wet, the observations have been fairly continuous. 
In Tokio, where I am able to see the instruments every day, but few inter- 
ruptions have occurred. The chief part of this report, therefore, refers te 
Kamakura and Tokio. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. So 



(a) 2'he Instruments. 

Although pendulums made of pieces of aluminium wire and held up 
■with quartz fibres with their mirrors and lenses have given excellent 
results, the apparatus required good installation and careful manipulation. 
As tliese requirements were not obtainable, excepting in Tukio, before 
commencing observations in the country my first task was to design an 
instrument of a simple character, not easily put out of order, and which 
would give continuous records for at least one week. This was done, and 
as the six instruments which have been made have worked satisfactorily 
I give the following desci'iption of one of them. 



Fig. 1. 




© 


© 1 




n 






1 


- 




Is 




c 


]] 




The pendulum stand A, fig. 1, with its upright, which is 50 cm. high, is 
of one piece of cast iron.^ The distancebetween the levelling screws work- 
ing in brass sockets is 23 cm. The back screw tilts the upright and gives 
the required degree of stability to the pendulum ; one of the lateral screws is 
used in adjusting and calibrating the pendulum. It carries a pointer 
moving over a graduated arc. By turning it, for example, one degree, which 
means raising this corner of the instrument 3];^ of a millimetre (the 

' The form of the bcd-pli.tc is that of a right-angled triangle with the right 
angle near A. 



86 EEroRT — 1895. 

screws having a millimetre pitch), the correspouding deflection of the pen- 
dulum may be noted. The turning is done by a lever projecting from the 
head of the screw. 

The boom of the pendulum is an aluminium tube 4 feet (120 cm.) in 
length, carrying a sliding weight, W, and a movable point to which the 
suppoi'ting tie can be attached. This tie, which is of thin brass wire, at 
its upper end terminates with about an inch of untwisted silk. On the 
inner end of the boom there is a quartz cup which bears on a steel needle 
projecting slightly upwards from the base of the cast-iron stand. The 
suggestion that the needle should project from the stand rather than from 
the boom is due to Dr. von Rebeur-Paschvvitz. It gets over the difficulty 
of having anything which may be markedly magnetic in motion ; and 
secondly, in case of violent disturbance, the relative verticality of the 
points of support is less liable to alteration. 

The instrument is adjusted so that the needle bears normally on the 
centre of the quartz cup, or so that the centre of gravity of the system 
falls about G. 

At the outer end of the boom a stiff wire rises vertically upwards. 
Clamped to this at the required height is a horizontal wire 15 cm. long, 
carrying a thin zinc plate ji^, measuring 6 cm. l)y 10 cm. In the centre of 
this, and parallel to the length of the boom, there is a slit about O'O mm. 
broad and 2 cm. long. As the boom moves to the right and left, this slit 
floats over a second slit about 5 cm. long in the lid of the box covering 
the drum which carries the recording paper. These two slits are at right 
angles to each other, so that the liglit from a lamp reflected downwards 
by a plane inirror only reaches the drum as a spot. 

A well-defined spot, which means a clear, shares line on the plioto- 
graphic film, can be obtained without fine adjustment. That is to say, 
the distance between the film and the slit, or between the stationary and 
moving slits, may be anything between 1 and 5 mm. Projecting an inch 
or so beyond the moving plate and attached to it is a pointer moving 
over a scale fixed on the cover of the box containing the clock of the 
recording drum. This can be inspected and the position of the boom at 
any time noted by looking through tiie glass plate at in. 

The recording drum, on which the photograph -paper is fixed with a 
spring clamp, as in a recording barometer, is of thin sheet brass 5 cm. 
wide and lOo cm. in circumference (some are much less). It is turned at 
the rate of lo cm. per 21 hours, and a film therefore lasts one week. 

The clocks, which are an American type intended to run 8 days, 
have fitted to the slowest moving arbour four wheels, the last of which 
turns a disc with slots round its edges once a week. The recording 
drum, which can be dropped into its bearings, carries a large crank. 
When in position the clock is slid in a groove until one of the slots catches 
the outer end of the crank arm ; after this the cover is put over the clock 
and drum, and the whole is pushed on grooves into the end of the case 
covering the pendulum. 

Hollow wooden drums, which are easily driven by the clock-work, 
have a tendency to warp, and this may result in a want of uniformity in 
the motion. 

Brass drums in the damp atmosphere of a cave in a month or so tend 
to rust, and this rust may act upon the photographic film to such an 
extent as to render it illegible. 

U]p to the present time ordinary kerosene lamps have been used, but 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN. 87 

as they require attention at intervals of from 8 to 1 2 hours they are being 
replaced by lamps such as are used in magnetic observations burning 
benzine. 

Every day from 12 noon to 1 p.m. the lamps are removed and a reading 
is taken, so that time intervals are marked on the photographs and scale 
values are obtained. 

It does not seem necessary that the boom should be made of alumi- 
nium, as I obtain what appear to be equally satisfactory records witli booms 
of brass or even wood. The most delicate pendulum I have has a booui made 
of varnished bamboo with brass fittings. It is about 5 feet in length, and 
when last rated had a period of 55 seconds. I say last rated because I 
find that this pendulum, like all others I work with, changes its period, and 
therefore its sensitiveness, from week to week. I notice tliat this source of 
error when computing results is also found in the infinitely better con- 
structed and Ijetter installed apparatus used by Dr. von Rebeur-Paschwitz. 

When the pendulum has its 55-second period one millimetre deflec- 
tion on the photographic plate is equivalent to a tilt of 0'08 second of arc. 
With this degree of sensitiveness a 141b. weight placed on the column, 
which is old and massive, at a distance of 2 feet from the instrument 
causes a deflection of 0'5 mm. My weight on the floor ut the outer end of 
the boom produces no visible eflfect. 

In this condition the pendulum is, however, often too sensitive, as it 
will, from time to time, wander an inch or so to the right or left of its 
mean position, and the spot of light fall outside the film. A sensitiveness 
of 1 mm. motion per 0"'5 arc is usually quite sufiicient, and I do not think 
that apparatus like those of Wolf, d'Abbadie, Darwin, or von Rebeur- 
Paschwitz capable of recording tilting of from -j^^ to ^^ of a second 
could be used on the alluvium of Tokio even when installed on a con- 
crete bed underground. 

Such apparatus might, however, be used on the solid rock which crops 
out round the Tokio j^lain. 

An attempt to test the accuracy of one of the horizontal pendulums 
was made by placing it on an ii'on plate resting on a plank 18 in. broad, 
1| in. thick, which in turn rested on supports near its end 6 feet apart. 
It was then adjusted, so that trials with the test screw indicated that turns 
of 10° gave an average deflection of 11' 5 mm. 

Side by side with the pendulum a transit instrument having a good 
telescope was placed, and this read on a scale fixed on a brick wall at a 
distance of 720 feet. The supporting plank was then loaded at its middle 
until the telescope showed a deflection of 14 in. on the scale and the 
pointer of the pendulum moved 93 mm. From this it seems that the 
pendulum indicated a tilt of 1 in 562, while the angular tilt of the 
telescope was 1 in 616. 

These are the means of a series of experiments, and assuming that the 
readings tlirough the telescope were correct, then the pendulum indications 
are about 10 per cent, below their true values. On the other hand, 
assuming that the readings through the telescope were one inch too small, 
and it was difficult to read within that quantity, then tlie pendulum 
indications are 2-3 per cent, short of their true value. A great source of 
error no doirbt resides in the test screw of the pendulum. 

The instrument described will be recognised by those engaged in 
similar in^'estigations as coarse in construction, roughly approximate in 
its records, and because it is large as being in all probability subject to 



88 REPORT— 1895. 

convection currents, unequal heating in its parts, and other interferences. 
In spite of these objections, I find it satisfactory. It is cheap, easily put 
up to read from 1'' to 0"'5, easily worked, while the light is near the film, 
and therefore in the best position to use with ordinary bi'omide paper. 

With more delicate apjsaratus, on the Tokio plain at least, no matter 
what the size of the foundations might be, the results of my experiments 
show that such insti'uments continually require i-eadjustment in order to 
keep the light on a film of manageable breadth, while if installed on the 
rocks in the mountains I fancy that, owing to earthquakes or the gradual 
yielding of the column, there would be a constant change in the mean- 
ing of the deflections. In two of my pendulums I notice that sometimes 
they gradually become more sensitive and sometimes less sensitive. 

The columns I am using underground are of brick, 2 ft. high and 2 ft. 
square, jiut together with pure cement. On the top of these, at first, I 
placed a slab of marble ; but because I noticed that in a damp atmo- 
sphere there was a marked chemical action taking place between the brass 
screws and the stone on which they rested, the marble has been replaced 
by slate. 

(h) Observations at Kamahura. 

Kamakura, one of the ancient capitals of Japan, lies on the western 
side of tlie Miura Peninsula, facing the Pacific Ocean. On account of its 
ancient temples and its enormous bronze Buddha it is visited by almost 
all travellers to Japan. The geologist has an interest in visiting this 
place, as it has been the site of a series of earthquakes, which, with their 
accompanying sea waves on more than one occasion, are said to have laid 
waste a city of a million jjeople. The place is prettily situated amongst 
Tertiaiy hills which rise to heights of from 100 to 600 feet around the 
plain on which the ancient capital stood. The cliff-like faces of these 
hills show a series of conformable beds dipping about 30° N.E. These 
beds, which are soft grey coloured clay stones or beds of consolidated 
ashes, are from a few inches to a few feet in thickness, and are traversed 
by numerous small faults the throw of which, so far as I have observed, 
does not exceed six feet. Near to the temples, caves have been excavated, 
which are used as shrines ; while similar but smaller caves have been 
made by farruers, and are used as storehouses. 

The general relationship of the strata at Kamakura to the alluvium 
and diluvium overlying tufi" at Yokohama and Tokio is shown in the ac- 
companying section. 

Fig. 2. 

J^ima/^ar^z. , YoAokama. 7.,. 



2 nvTTO ^ J A:^77^. 



At Kamakura tlie tuffs are crushed and faulted, but before reaching 
Yokohama they pass into gentle folds, and then become horizontal and are 
capped with some fifty feet of reddish earth and gravel. This condition, 
with the exception that the overburden is perhaps 100 feet in thickness, 
continues up to Tokio. 
t At Yokohama the tuffs, which almost entirely consist of a light grey 




ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 89 

coloured clay rock, are visible as cliffs from 50 to 80 feet in height. In 
Tokio, however, they only crop out at one or two places at the bottom 
of deep cuttings. The depressions in the section represent the flood 
plains of rivers which are tilled with soft alluvium. 

Rather than working on strata which had been so far crushed and 
crumpled that further yielding is hardly to be expected, I should have 
preferred a site yn the strata which are gently folded, and where a 
measurable amount of yielding may yet be in operation. 

Although I had the choice of several caves as Kamakura, all of them 
•were situated at some distance from the railway. To go and return from 
the one I selected took six hours, and it was therefore seldom that it was 
visited more than once a week. Very fortunately I received assistance 
from Mr. P. E. Heerman, a gentleman who happened to be staying in the 
neighbourhood, while one of tJie officials from the railway station kept the 
lamps burning, and three times a day took readings of the instruments. 
That the latter was attended to regularly was shown by a slight change in 
the intensity of the photographic trace at the times when the lamps were 
adjusted, a gap when they wei-e removed to be refilled and a slight notch 
in the diagram from a self-recording tliermometer at the times when the 
doors of the cave were opened, and the times at which these various marks 
were made coincided with the times at which the readings were noted as 
having been made. 

The cave seems to have been excavated on the line of a fault which, 
curiously enough, is with difficulty recognisable on the face of the cliff 
itself, but which is quite apparent in a photograph. The entrance to the 
cave, which faces S.E., was, with the exception of the door, blocked up 
with a wooden wall faced on the outside with a bank of earth and rubble 
■work 4 feet in thickness. The dimensions of the cave were 20 feet by 
20 feet, with a heiglit cf from 7 to 10 feet. One corner of this was 
partitioned off with wooden walls to form a room 10 feet square, and 
from this the debris was cleared out to reach the solid rock on which two 
brick platforms were built. 

These were one brick thick and laid with pure cement. On the end 
of each of these platforms, which were at right angles to each other — one 
running N.W. and the other N.E. — a small pillar three bricks high and 
one brick square was built and capped with a slab of mai'ble. These 
were finished on January 7, and the cave was left open for one week to 
facilitate the drying. At the end of that time, on January 14, as the 
cement appeared to have set, the instruments were placed on the slabs 
and the records commenced. From that date, with but few interruptions 
continuous photographic traces were obtained until March 18. These 
machines I have called C and D. Machine C recorded tilting parallel to 
the strike, while D recorded movements parallel to the dip. By a lifting 
on the S.E. side the readings of the index attached to C increased in value, 
while the readings of D increased with a lifting on the S,W. side. 

At the end of each week, when a photographic film was renewed, the 
sensitiveness of the instrument was determined, after which it was re- 
adjusted. These determinations are given in the following table. The 
ratio of unity to the numbers in the first two columns is the tangent of the 
angle through whicli tlie instrument would have to be tilted to 23roduce 
a deflection on the photographic trace of one millimetre ; the corresponding 
angles in seconds of arc are given in the third and fourth columns. At 
the commencement it will be obsei'ved that to produce a deflection of one 



90 



REPORT — 1895. 



millimetre in C a tilt of about 2" would be required. Between February 
IS and 25 the same deflection was obtained by a tilt of about 0"-27. 
Because D recorded more motion than C, it is important to notice that this 
occurred notwithstanding the fact that on all occasions, excepting between 
February 4 and February 11, C was very much more sensitive than D. 

Sensitiveness of C and B. 



Date 


C 


D 


C 


D 


Jau. 14-21 


115,776 


86,400 


l"-78 


2" -2 7 


„ 21-28 


313,560 


250,560 


0"66 


0"-82 


„ 28-4 


434,160 


280.800 


0"-4S 


0"-73 


Feb. 4-11 


313,560 


355,600 


0"66 


0"-5S 


„ 11-18 


578,S80 


280,800 


0'-35 


0"-73 


„ 18-25 


771,840 


280,800 


0'-27 


0"-73 


„ 25-4 


675,360 


302,400 


0"-30 


0"-68 


March 4-11 


627,120 


216 000 


0"-32 


0"-95 


„ 11-18 


482,400 


259,200 


0"-42 


0"-70 



The temperature variations in the cave during 24 hours never exceeded 
l°o C. 

((■) The Diagrams. 

At first sight, with the exception of places where earthquakes have 
been recorded, the photographic traces appear to be a series of long 
straight lines, and the fact that movements have taken place to the right 
and left of a normal position can in most cases only be seen by looking 
along their length (see fig. 2, Plate II.). The cui-ves which are thus 
seen are too long and flat to admit of accurate measurement, and although 
the films had only moved at a rate of about 6 mm. per hour there is great 
uncertainty in determining points of inflection. For these i-easons both 
the angular deflections and the periods occupied in describing them are 
only rough approximations. In the diagrams, Plate III., the observations 
extending over nine weeks are plotted as a series of curves. The vertical 
lines indicate noon and midnight of successive days, which are marked with 
their dates. The horizontal lines, which are 10 mm. apart, indicate seconds 
of arc. If the curve for C goes downwards from its starting point the 
movement is equivalent to a rising on the S.E. side, while if the D curve 
descends this means that the S.W. rises. The angular values for the 
various deflections are marked on the diagrams, while earthquakes recorded 
by seismographs but not by the pendulums are indicated by dots. Earth- 
quakes recorded by the pendulums but not by seismographs are shown by 
short straight lines. 

(d) The Movements of the Pendulums. 

From the diagrams it is clearly seen that during any week the pendulums 
have once or twice wandered away from and then returned to their 
starting point. Because the movements or j^eriods of comparative rest of 
the two instruments approximately coincide in time, as, for example, during 
the fifth week, I take it that the cause of these movements is something 
more genei'al than a warping of the supporting columns. The movement 
of D or that which is parallel to the dip has usually been greater than 
that indicated by C or parallel to the strike. For example, it may be 



65* Beport Brit. Assoc., lS95. 



Fl-.r- '[I 



Movement of horizontal pendulums at Kamakura. 



JTdrO/me^ 




Toarth'WeeK 



J^z/i^ Weeik, 



fe&±^ 



STLCcOoWee^ 



SefeTiMJVeeA 



£yJb^ WeeA. C 



i&i;^ Wee7<^ 




7-3Z 



7-9Z 



Earthquakes recorded on the photographic trace I 

Local earthquakes not recorded on the photographic trace • 



Illustrating the Fourteenth Report of the Committee on the 
Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 91 

imagined that between February 28 and March 3 the dip of the rocks 
increased and then decreased through an angle of 4"-0S. About the same 
time the movement at right angles to this was 2"-88. With the exception 
of a wave indicated by C between February 6 and 7, which had a period of 
I'i hours, all the other movements have had periods of from 48 to 70 
hours. In this respect the movements are strikingly different from those 
recorded in Tokio, where diurnal waves are very frequent. Another 
remarkable feature in the records is the entire absence of tremors, which 
in Tokio on the alluvium often result in producing a photographic trace from 
.5 to 10 millimetres, and sometimes even more than this, in breadth (Plate 
II., figs. 5 and 6). Although it is premature to offer an explanation for the 
Kamakura movements the following statement may be made. As the 
changes in temperature in the cave were usually too small to be measur- 
able it is not likely that the wandering of the pendulums can be attributed 
to such a cause. Any effect that the heat of the sun may have had upon 
the face of the cliff in which the cave is situated, in raising its tempera- 
ture or by v/ithdrawing moisture from its surface, would probably be 
diurnal in its character. The only sunshine records which I have taken 
commence on February 25. From that day to February 28 there were 28 
hours of sunshine which was followed by dull weather until March 11. 
Although the end of the period of sunshine was followed by a great move- 
ment, considerable movements occurred during the comparatively cloudy 
weather. Because the records are few this observation, however, cai-ries but 
little weight. Rain, which only fell between February 8 and 9, and again 
between March 5 and 6, does not show any connection with the movements. 
Notwithstanding these observations, since the wandering of pendulums in 
Tokio, as will be shown later, is apparently connected with the movement 
of subterranean water, which in turn is related to percolation from the 
surface, it does not seem unlikely that the movements at Kamakura may 
also find a partial explanation in a somewhat similar cause. The only 
other explanation, which, however, has not yet been verified, is that they 
result from rock crumpling which is still in progress, and for this reason 
the greatest motion is parallel to the dip. 

Conclusions of practical importance which I arrive at are that although 
pendulums which will record a tilting of 0"-3 are sufficiently sensitive to 
be used on the Tokio plain, an instrument of much greater sensibility is 
required to study movements on the rock, and, further, that all who have 
to carry out physical investigations requiring a steady platform will gain 
great advantage by installations on the rock where tilting is small and 
diurnal movements and tremors are not appreciable to instruments such 
as I have employed. 

(e) Earthquakes. 

The earthquakes which have been recorded by the Kamakura instru- 
ments in 1893 are as follows : — 

The following 26 disturbances are clearly shown upon the photographic 
traces. In addition to these there are a number of slight irregularities with 
amplitudes of 1 mm., or under, which have been omitted, first, because 
they are very small, and secondly, because they might or might not be due 
to earth disturbances. While the observations were going on, that is, 
between January 14 and March 18, by means of seismographs in Tokio, 21 
shocks were recorded. These were disturbances that were felt in Tokio, and 
it is known that several of them were also felt in Kamakura. It is probable 



92 



EEFORT — 1895. 







1 


llansre of 


Maxhiium 

tilting 




1 


Instrutnent 




Month 


Day 


Time ' 


motion 


Duration 


on whicli 


llemarks 






1 


iu mm. 






recorded 








hr. iTiin. 1 




sees. 


hr. 


min. 




1 


I. 


18 


3 4G 1' 


15 


30" -00 ? 


2 


10 




Eeoorded in Tokio 




25 


8 41 A 


14 


11"-4S 





10 


D 


C not working J 




25 


9 21 A 


8 


G" 51) 





20 


D 


IT tl 




26 


7 loA? 


4 


3"-28 










11. 


1-2 


Six slight 


disturbances 












3 


8 30 A 


12 


5"'7G 





45 


C and D 


D gives S"--C> 






10 OOA 


6 


2"-88 





18 


C and n 


„ „ 4"-3K 






10 50 A 


13 


5"-7b 





36 


Cand D 


., „ 8"-7G 




4 


7 A 


Slight 














5 


7 18 A? 


2 


l"-32 














3 54 P 


3 


3"-30 





9 


C 








4 03? 


5 


3"-30 






C 






6 


4 54 A 


2 


]"-32 






c 






8 


2 50 A 


12 


G"-9G 





30 


D 








6 30 A 


3 


l"-74 





10 


D 








ti 50 A 


4 


2" 32 





10 


D 






19 


7 31 A 

8 OOA 
8 26 A 


6 

(J 
6 


4"-38 
4"-3S 
4"-38 






D 
D 
D 






20 


8 30 A 


5 


l"-35 






C 


On D 4"-38 Re- ; 
corded in Tokio 




27 


12 50 A 


7 


2"10 






C 


OnD4"-38. Re- 
corded in Tokio 



that had a seismograph been placed in Ivamakura all these shocks and 
possibly a few others would have been recorded. The horizontal pendulums, 
however, have only recorded three of the Tokio series, and to the remaining 
18 they have been insensible. On the other hand, they have recorded 23 
■disturbances which the Tokio seismographs have failed to record. Although 
I have not yet had time to fully analyse the records of earthquakes given by 
the Tokio pendulums, from what I have seen of them I know that the 
results will be similar. On many occasions I have watched a horizontal 
pendulum while a sharp disturbance lasting from 15 to 30 seconds has been 
taking place. All that happens is that there is a slight elastic switching 
in a vertical direction of the pointer at the end of the boom. The boom 
does not swing, and I have not observed a blurr in the photograpliic trace. 
(Plate II. fig. '!.) On the other hand, whenev^er an earthquake instead of 
simply produciiig elastic vibrations throws the surface of the ground into 
undulations, the pendulums behave most erratically. They do not swing, 
but they are forced first to one position and then to another. Now and then 
they may pause for two or three seconds, but only to start, perhaps, more 
vigorously than before. It is interesting to watch a seismograph writing 
an earthquake, but a horizontal pendulum actuated by earth waves is one 
of the most attractive sights that a seismologist can witness. When a seismo- 
graph is disturbed you feel the motion that causes it to move, and in two or 
three minutes all is ended ; but when a horizontal pendulum is disturbed 
nothing is felt, and its spasmodic movements may continue for one or two 
hours. Fig. 3, p. 109, shows what is almost continuous motion for 5 hours 24 
minutes. Already I have had the good fortune to see this phenomenon five 
times. On the last occasion, March 22, at 7.27 P.M., I sent a messenger to 
call my colleague, Mr. C. D. West, who arrived some 15 minutes later, when 
we watched the big boom stopping and starting from various positions for 1 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 93 



hour 47 minutes. These waves liad a submarine origin about 40 miles off 
the N.E. corner of Yezo, in about 43^ N. lat. and 140° E long., and to reach 
Tokio had travelled some 570 miles. I think that they have been recorded 
in Rome, and I have written to Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz to learn 
whether they were noted at Potsdam, Wilhelmshaven, and Strassburg. 
They ought to have reached the Birmingham iiastrurnent about midday on 
March 22. 

While I am writing in Sapporo (Yezo), on June 20, at 2.-32 p.m., a 
terrible earthquake has happened in Yokohama and Tokio. As we are 
9 hours E. of Greenwich this should be recorded at the above stations? 
and those in Russia at about 6.30 a.m. on the same day. 

From the manner a pendulum behaves I infer that its movements are- 
due to the fact that it is being tilted, and because the photographic records 
are always less than the distances through which I have seen it move, the- 
values given for the tilting are less than those which actually happened. 
If a pendulum is set swinging, for example, by standing near its column, 
thi'ough a distance of, say, 5 mm., it will come to rest in about 5 minutes. 
In calculating the duration of a disturbance allowance has been made for 
this factor. 

The point of greatest importance in connection with the foregoing 
remarks is the inference that the catalogue of Kamakura earthquakes 
represents a series of large disturbances which have travelled very great 
distances. Had there been any local disturbances sufficiently great to 
produce earth waves, then the pendulums must have recorded the same, 
but no such disturbances occurred. As it is not likely that earthquakes 
originating at a distance could in any way be connected Avith local tilting, 
if earthquakes and tilting have any connection those which might be 
compared with the curves already given are those of local origin which 
have been recorded by seismographs in the vicinity, and not those which 
are shown on the photographic films. Between January 24 and March 18 
lifteen shocks were noted in Tokio, which cannot be seen on the photo- 
graphic traces. Because nearly all these were of the nature of elastic 
vibrations it is probable that they were for the most part of local origin. 
This is a point which can only be definitely settled by analysing the reports 
accumulated at the Meteorological Bureau, which for various reasons 
cannot be done in time for the present report. These 1 5 shocks are indicated 
on the curves as black dots, and it is certainly woi'th observing that they 
chiefly occur during the seventh, eighth, and ninth weeks when tilting was- 
marked. Because the observations are few and because I am not yet in a 
po-sition to analyse all the materials which have been accumulated, too great 
stress should not be laid upon this last observation. It only indicates the 
nature of an inquiry that is being made. 

The last point to which attention must be called in connection with 
the Kamakura disturbances is that the greatest motion has nearly always 
been in the direction of the dip, that apparently being the direction of 
least resistance to yielding. By reference to the catalogue it will be seen 
that there are three instances where small disturbances have only been 
recorded by C, but in all other cases the records are given by both instru- 
ments, the dip record being much the larger, or the record has been given 
by D alone. For example on February 8 D was tilted for 30 minutes 
through an angle of nearly 7", while C did not show that any motion 
had taken place. 



94 REFOKT — 1895. 

(/) The Observations in Tokio. 

Although tlie observations made in Tokio were carried on at two 
stations, because these stations were only 1,000 feet apart, and because 
both were on the alluvium which here forms a layer perhaps 100 feet in 
thickness above the tuff rock, it was anticipated that the recoi'ds would to 
some extent be similar in character. For this reason they are described 
together. 

Machine A, which is similar to those used at Kamakura, is installed on 
a table-like stone column in my house. The column is 4 feet square and 
rises clear of the floor from a concrete bed. For a few hours in the 
morning and in the aftei'noon the sun produced a marked tilting as it 
shone upon the column through a window on the south side ; on closing 
this window by a shutter on the outside and by a curtain on the 
inside, this effect disappeared, while the diagram from a self-record- 
ing thermometer occasionally showed during 24 hours a steady rise or 
a steady fall of 1° or 2° C. More usually, however, the diagram showed 
that from 9 or 10 a.m. until 5 or G p.m. there had been a rise of 4° 
or 5° C, after which the temperature fell until next morning. This is 
a point to be noted, because it will be shown that the daily tilting and, 
in a less marked degree, the intensity of a tremor storm have a similar 
periodicity. 

The water level beneath my house oscillates above and below 3G 
feet. 

Machines E and F, which are underground, only differ from A in the 
fact that their booms are brass tubes. Machines A and F are parallel to 
each other, and point N.W. Machine E is at right angles to A and F. 
With an increase in the readings of A or F the u\ovement corresponds to 
a lifting of the ground on the N.E. side of these instruments. An 
increase in the scale readings of E corresponds to a tilting on the S.E. 
.side. 

The underground chamber is excavated on a flat piece of ground about 
20 feet below the site of my house. It is 13 feet deep and 20 feet square. 
The floor is covered with \ in. of asphalt, which rests on a bed of concrete 
6 in. thick, which in turn rests on a bed of well-rammed gravel. Tlie 
walls and ceiling ai'e brick with clay puddle on the outside. Above the 
chamber a wooden house has been built ; the entrance is by double doors, 
and it is fairly well ventilated by gratings for the admission of air and a 
short iron chimney for its exit. The daily fluctuations in temperature 
in this underground room are practically zero, the diagram from a self- 
recording thermometer showing a sti'aight line which at present indicates 
a steady rising of 1° C. per week. The water level in a well about 80 
yards distant, where I have established a tide gauge, is about 25 feet below 
the surface. The floor of the chamber is therefore about 1 2 feet above 
water level, but it must be remembered that this level may rise and fall 
through 2 or 3 feet. 

{g) Sensitiveness of tlie Instruments. 

From time to time the sensitiveness of the instruments was determined, 
and if necessary they were readjusted. 

The first column in the accompanying table indicates the number of 
millimetres through which the end of the boom travelled by a 1° turn of 



ox THE EAUTHUUAKE AND VOLCANIC I'lIENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



the sensitising screw in the bed plate, the pitch of the screw being 1 mm. 
One complete turn of the screw attached to A tilted the bed plate of this 
instrument through an angle of 1 in 228. For E and F one complete turn 
represented an angle of 1 in 222. 

The ratio of unity to the numbers in the second and fourth columns is 
the tangent of the angle corresponding to a deflection of the boom through 
a distance of 1 mm., the values of these angles expressed in seconds of arc 



being given in the third and fifth columns. 



E and F 



2-5 






199,800 


1"03 


5 






399,600 


0"-51 


6 






479,520 


0"-43 


6-5 






519,480 


0"-39 


10 


820,800 


0"-25 


799,200 


0"-2G 


105 


8G1,840 


o"-2:-5 




i 


11 


002,880 


0"'22 


879,120 


0"-23 


12 


984,960 . 


0"-20 






13 






1,038,9(50 


0"19 


14 






1,118,880 


0"-J8 



To bring the points of E or F to the centre of the scale, a rough 
adjustment is made with the sensitising screw, after which the boom may 
be slightly moved to the right or left by means of a stone about 40 lb. in 
weiglit which I shift on the floor of the chamber towards or away from 
the instrument. 

(/(.) DaiJij Tiltincj. 

The approximate times at which the diurnal wave reached its maxi- 
mum and minimum, and the amplitudes of these waves for dates between 
January 24 and March 1, 1894, are given in the table, p. 97. Should it be 
necessary the table may be completed from December 9, 1893, up to the 
middle of June 1894. With but few interruptions the records have been 
continuous. It will be observed that the records for F, which is parallel to 
A, are only one or two in number. The letter s means that the diurnal wave 
is too small to be measurable, while blank spaces indicate that it was not 
visible, the photographic trace being a straight line. Had greater sensi- 
bility been given to F it is quite possible that the daily wave would have been 
recorded ; but this could not be done because, even with the stability it 
had during three days, the end of the boom often wandei-ed through a dis- 
tance greater than 1 inch, and the spot of light left the fllm. This wander- 
ing of the pendulums has been already referred to. On two occasions when 
F gave measurable waves (January 31 and February 2) the times of their 
occurrence approximately coincided with the movements of Eand A — that 
is, the movement of the pendulums in one direction was reached in the 
evening, after which they gradually returned to reach their normal position 
in the morning. The pendulums E and A, although at right angles to 
each other, have shown a marked synchronism in their movements. It 
would seem that these two instruments have either been simultaneously 
acted upon by independent forces, or that tliey have recorded components 
of a common force, which has acted in ditt'erent directions at the two 
stations. 

The latter explanation appears to be the more satisfactory, because 



96 REPORT— 1895. 

periods o£ steadiness when the diagrams were practically straight lines 
happened at the same time, and because the large or small movements of 
A have agreed in time with the large or small movements recorded ):)y E. 
As illustrative of this synchronism, the movements of these instruments 
between February 15 and February 25 have been plotted as curves (see 
Plate IV.). 

Once or twice it will be observed that crests of waves have been 
reached after midnight or in the morning, which agrees with the results 
published in 1893 (Thirteenth Report). In the majority of instances, 
however, this has been reversed, and the movement of the pendulum in 
one direction has been completed at any time between 4 p.m. and 10 p.m., 
and it has returned to its original position between 5 a.m. and 10 a.m. 
Because the waves on the original diagrams are long and flat it is usually 
difficult to determine with any accuracy the exact time at which an 
excursion in any one direction has been completed. Sometimes the boom 
has remained at rest at one of its limits for five or six hours before the 
return journey has been commenced. The movement from 5 or 10 a.m. 
until 4 or 10 p.m. has nearly always been quicker than the return motion 
during the night. 

The amplitude of motion does not seem ever to have exceeded 3''-00. 
In 1893 I described movements of from 2"'00 to 10'''00 ; but these which 
I now discuss are the result of observations with several instruments, 
although I cannot answer for any great degree of accuracy, I am inclined 
to consider the new determinations as being nearer the truth. The move- 
ments of E, which is underground, have usually been greater than tliose 
]-ecorded by A in my house. In a few instances, however, the deflections 
of A have been the greater. 

As an appendix to the table on p. 97 short abstracts from my journal 
are added : — 

(i) Extract from Journal of Records obtained in 1894. 

In the following extracts the sensitiveness of the instruments means 
the angular tilting required to produce a deflection of one millimetre of 
the points at the end of the booms. These degrees of sensitiveness for 
the instruments E, A, and F are given in fractions of seconds of arc- 
immediately after the date. 

January 24-27 (0''-18, 0"-23, 0''-43).— From the 24th to the 25th E 
showed a rapid S.E. lifting of 3" when the light spot left the film. A small 
earthquake occurred at 10.48 a.m. on the 25th. From the 25th to the 27th 
there was a S.E. lifting of l"-62. Daily waves of l"-44 and l"-26 are 
well marked. All instruments showed tremors, but they are most marked 
underground on E, where they reach 12 mm. .On A and F the daily waves 
are hardly visible. 

January 27-30 (0"-19, 0"-23, 0"-18).— E moved 5"-32, and the light 
spot left the film. It shows tremors reaching 14 mm. A and F agree 
in showing a N.E. lifting, but the daily wave is only seen on A when 
the tremors reach 10 mm. The tremors are most pronounced under- 
ground. 

January SO-February 2 (0"-43, 0"-23, 0"-18).— E shows similar 
characters to A and F, that is, the trace is at first straight, and then two 
daily waves and three small earthquakes. For the first day A and F are 
straight, but for the other two days there are daily waves. F shows a 



65^ Report Brit. Assoc., -tSQS. 



Plnt^ IV. 





< 












/ 


<^ 






I 


\ 


1 






\ 

\ 

1 

1 


J 






) 


1 

1 
1 

I 








/ 


! 


.2- 




/ 


\ 






\ 


) 


1 






\ 








; 


I 


<2-. 




( 


/ 

\ 


\ 


t 
^ 






\ 


^^ 






\ 










/ 


1 


<§- 






/ 








Ul 



a 
o 

m 

e ^ 
<i> 

^ g 
o 5 

§ a 



2 3 

,a to 

en 

a- 

03 



SP 



«y 



s^'/Vv u •.'•.■ 






OX THE EARTHQUAKE 


AND \OLCANIC rilENOMEXA OF JAPAN. 97 


Date 


E 


1 


A 




' 


F 






1 . 






1 , 


~^ 


' 




"~^ 


1 


Time of Crest 
of Wave 




Time of 

Sinus of 

Wave 


Time of 

Crest of 

Wave 




Time of 

Sinus of 

Wave 


Time of 

Crest of 

Wave 


-5 <u 


Time of 

Sinus of 

Wave 


1 


189 1 




n 






n 






n 






Jan. 24-25 


3.30-9.30 P 


2-70 


— 


.? 


— 





s 











„ 25-26 


11.30 P-1.30 A 


1-44 


— 


1.0 A 


— 


— 


s 








16 


„ 26-27 


ll.OP-12.0 


1-26 


9.0 A 


.< 


— 


_ 


s 










„ 31- 1 


6.0P-8.0P 


0-86 


9.0 A 


GP 


0-69 


7.0 A 


0.0 P-10.0 P 


0-36 


4.0 A 





Fel). 1- 2 


7.0 P-9.0 P 


0-60 


5.0-9.0 A 


5P-6P 


0-92 


6.0 A 


8.0 P-9.0 P 


0-36 







„ 2- 3 


6.0 P 


0-80 


7.0 A 


— 


— 


— 













,, 3- 4 


6.0 P 


0-80 


7.0 A 


— 


— 


— 


. 











„ 4- 5 


1.0 P 


0-80 


7.0 A 


— 


— 


— 


. 











„ 5- 6 


— 


— 


6.0 A 


a p-9 p 


— 


— 


5 











„ 6- 7 


5.0P-10.0P 


1-29 


8.0 A 


5 P-6P 


1-Gl 


9.0 A 


S 











„ 7- S 


5.0 P-10.0 P 


0-85 


6.0 A 


5P-6P 


1-15 


8-30 A 


s 


0-4(i 








„ 8- 9 


— 


0-86 


7.0 A 


— 


— 


— 











27 


„ 9-10 


4.0 P-4.0 A 


.1 


10.0 A 


4 e 


n-78 


— 


.< 


_ 







„ 10-1 1 


7.0 P 


0-86 


3.0 A 


3P-5P 


0-78 


— 


s 











„ 11-12 


7.0 P 


0-86 


— 





— 


— 


.t 


. 








„ 12-13 


10.0 P 


0-86 


6.0 A 


— 


— 


— 


Large and irre 


guliir 





„ 12-14 


3.0 A. 


0-86 


7.30 A 


— 


— 


— 


s 










„ 14-15 


9.0 P 


1-29 


7.30 A 





— 


— 


s 











„ 15-16 


12.0 PM 


0-43 


lo.o.i 


— 


0-1 


6.0 A 












„ 16-17 


10.0P-12.0P 


1-29 


8.1] A 


6 P-S P 


0-5 


9.0 A 


. 





~ 





„ 17-lH 


10.0 P-1 2.0 P 


1-72 


9.0 A 


6P 


1-75 


7.0 A 













„ 18-19 


9.0 P 


2-58 


10.0 A 


10 P 


2-50 


ll.OA 


X 


— 








„ 19-20 


6.0 P 


1-29 


6.0 A 


6P 


1-25 


1A-6A 


s 


— 








„ 20-21 


6.0 P 


2-15 


6.0 A 


7.0 P 


2-25 


2A-6A 


— 


s 


— 


1 


„ 21-22 


— 








— 








— 


— 


. 


2 


„ 22-23 


6.0 P 


1-72 


6.0 A 


4.0 P 


0-75 


7.0 A 





s 






., 23-24 


4.0 P-6.0 P 


1-29 


6A-7A 


e.o p 


0-75 


6.0 A 





s 







„ 24-25 


6.0 P 


1-72 


6A 


6.30 P 


0-75 


— 





s 








„ 25-26 


6.0 P-7.0 P 


1-72 


6A 


4.0 P 





— 





s 





_ 


„ 26-27 


10.0 A 


2-58 


6A 


— 


.s 


— 





s 


_ 





Mar. 1- 2 


ll.OP 


3-01 


9.0 A 


— 


0-5 


— 









__ 


» 2- 3 


6.0 P-l.O A 


2-15 


5.0 A 


— 


0-5 


— 








. 


2 


„ 3- 4 


6.0 P-12.0 P 


0-86 


2.0 A 


— 


— 


— 











2 


„ 5- 6 


7.0 P 


1-29 


10.0 A 


— 


s 


— 


. 


s 







„ 6- 7 


8.0 P 


2-15 


10.0 A 





s 


— 





s 








„ 7- 8 


9.0 P 


1-72 


9.0 A 


— 


.s- 


— 


— 


5 








„ 8- 9 


— 


s 


— 


— 


.s 


— 


— 







12 


„ 9-10 


— 


s 


— 


— 


.« 


— 


— 








3 


„ KUl 


— 


s 


— 


— 


— 


— 











12 


„ 12-13 


— 


s 


— 


2.0 P 


1-0 


6A 













„ 13-14 


— 


s 


— 


Irr 


jgular 
















„ 15-16 


Clock repairing 


— 


— 


— 


— , 








8 


., 16-17 




8.0 P 


2-5 


12A 











36 


„ 17-18 


.! » 


7.0 P 


2-5 


12 A 













„ 23-24 


fi }i 


6.0 P 


1-60 


10 A 














„ 24-25 


11 It 


6.0 P 


P40 


10 A 











5 


„ 26-27 


n tt 


1.0 P 


1-60 


10 A 











4 


„ 30-31 


j» )) 


10.0 A 


-PO 


6A 


— 


— 


— 


20 



steady N.E. rising of 2"-70 until February 2, when at 7 p.m. there was an 
earthquake. Tremors are slight. 

Febrimry 2-5 (0"-43, 0"-23, 0"-23).— E shows the usual daily tilting 
with small tremors. After the earthquake of the 2nd F continued to rise 
until the 3rd, when at 8 p.m. the light left the film. 

Fehruary 5-7 (0"-43, 0"-23, 0"-23).— The daily waves in E and A 
are pronounced, and when one is large the other is large also, and vice versa. 
In E the waves are not so marked. Tremors are slight on A, but under- 
ground in E and F they reach 3 mm. 

February 8-12 (0"-43, 0"-26, 0'-23).— E daily deflection (9-10) slight, 
but from 10-11 like A. On A the daily deflections are well marked, 
but on F they are very slight. F, however, falls from S4-67 (3"-91). 
Tremors are greater on the surface, reaching 6 mm., than they are under- 



ground. 
1895. 



u 



98 EEPORT— 1895. 

February 12-15 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-39).— E shows well-marked daily 
curves. A out of order, and therefore no record. F found to have changed 
its sensitiveness ; therefore reset, so that 1°=0"'23. From 12-13 F 
wandered from 75-5 to 52 (8""97), and again from the 14-15 it crept from 
72 to 62 (2''"30). These movements, which so often occur with F, mean a 
change in sensibility. 

Both instruments show tremors of 3 mm. 

February 15-19 (0"-43, 0''-25, 0"-26).— On E and A the daily waves 
are seen as a succession of symmetrical waves, gradually increasing in 
height and in length. Close upon the crest of the last and largest of these 
waves an eai'thquake occurs. F only shows the last of these daily waves, 
the remainder of the trace being a straight line, indicating a slight N.E. 
sinking (1"'30). Tremors on all three instruments are slight. 

February 19-22 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-25).— E and A show a continuation 
of the daily waves. Between the 21st and 22nd both instruments gave a 
straight line. F only shows the wave of 20-21, but it shows a N.E. sinking 
from 76 to 40 (8"-00). 

On the 20th, at 9.30, there was a strong shock. A shows two series 
of strong tremors, Avhich are only faintly indicated by the underground 
instruments. 

February 22-26 (0"-43, 0"-25 0"-26).— E and A show well-defined 
daily waves. F is nearly a straight line, but wandered about 30 mm., as if 
N.E. had sunk. 

Tremors are seen from 6 a.m. until noon on the 23rd, and again from 
6 P.M. on the 24th to 4 p.m. on the 25th : on A and F they reach about 

5 ram. 

The earthquake of the 24th is not shown. 

February '2&-March 1 (0"-43, 0''-25, 0"'26). 

The daily curves on E are marked, but they are irregular. The shock 
of the 27th occurs just over the crown of the daily wave, which was at 
10 P.M. The ci-est of this tilting, both in time and amplitude, was unusual. 

On A and F the daily curves are slight ; on A, like E, they are 
irregular. 

Tremors of 2 or 3 mm. are shown on A and F on the 26th, 6 to 7 p.m.; 
27th, 6 A. to 4 p. ; and on the 28th, 6 a. to 1 p. The last are visible 
on E. 

F wanders by a N.E. sinking through 10 mm. On March 1 the 
direction of motion commenced to change, that is, there was a N.E. lifting. 

March 1-5 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-26).— On E the daily curves are large, 
but at unusual times. 

A shows slight daily curves, but a N.E. lifting of 10 mm. F shows a 
N.E. lifting of 22 mm. 

Tremors are seen on A on the 2nd, 2 A. to 11 A. ; and this agrees with 
E, but not with F, which shows slight tremors, March 1, from 9.30 a. to 
midnight. 

March 5-8 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-25).— E shows a well-marked series of 
daily curves, and wanders 8 mm., as if the S.E. was rising. The daily 
curves on A are slight, but the trace is faint. F wanders 40 mm. as if 
the N.E. was rising. 

On March 6 small tremors are recorded, but only on A. 

March 8-12 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-26).— E shows slight daily curves on 
the 8th, 1 p. to 10 p. A sinks on N.E. side 4 mm., showing tremors of 

6 nmi. It then ri.ses to the 10th, 8.30 p. 12 mm. At 8.40 an earth- 
quake. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA IN JAPAN. 90 

F rises on N.E. side 40 mm. 

Tremors on E and F are slight. 

2Iarch 12-15. (0"-43, 0"-2.5, 0"-26). 

The daily curve is barely visible on E, which shows small tremors. A 
show.s curves, but they are irregular, and the N.E. sinks 15 mm. F rises 
23 mm., that is, the direction of motion is contrary to A. Both A and F 
show small tremors. 

March 15-19 (0"-43, 0"-25, 0"-26).— E clock stopped, and therefore 
no records until end of month. From the 15th to 16th A was steady, 
but from this date onwards it gave large daily curves. 

On the 15th, and at 3 a.m. on the 18th, there were earthquakes. 
During the three days A rose 9 mm. F does not show daily curves, but 
it rose 39 mm. 

The conclusions I arriv^e at respecting this section of the i^eport is, 
that instruments on the sui-face and underground show diurnal move- 
ments, which closely agree in the times at which they occur. These move- 
ments are most pronounced underground by pendulum E, the excursions 
of which have in nearly all instances been greater than those shown by 
pendulum A in my house. The crest of a wave which corresponds to a 
N.E. lifting on A and a S.E. lifting on E has usually been reached 
between 4 p.m. and 10 p.m., the movement in the opposite direction being 
completed between 5 a.m. and 10 a.m. It does not seem that air temperature 
has had any measurable effect in the production of these movements, because 
they have been most marked beneath the surface, where the change in 
temperature during twenty-four hours has practically been zero. The 
opportunities for observing whether they hold any relationship with rain- 
fall have been few. It is possible that the rainfall of March 16 and 17 
may have been connected with the large motions of A between March 16 
and 18, but the largest motions of E on March 1 and 2 occurred during a 
dry period. After the rainfall of January 25 and 26, and again after 
that of Februaiy 8 and 9, it may be noticed that the time at which E 
completed its N.W. excursion was delayed, while after that of March 16 
and 17 pendulum A was delayed in its N.E. movement, and these are the 
only occasions on which rain fell in any quantity. 

{j) The Wandering of the Pendulums. 

The following table shows the daily change which has taken place in 
the position of the pointer of pendulum A, and for a few days that which 
has taken place with pendulums F and E. The numbers indicate so many 
millimetres of motion. The sign + prefixed indicates that the scale 
i-eadings were increasing, while the sign — indicates that they weie 
becoming smaller. When the signs for A and F are similar, then these 
two pendulums were moving in the same direction. The difference 
between the readings of an instrument when a new film was put on and 
when it was taken off gives the distance through which a boom has been 
displaced during periods of three or four days : this quantity is also ex- 
pressed in seconds of arc. The fifth column gives the rainfall in milli- 
metres, and the sixth the number of hours of sunsliine, but only between 
February 25 and AjDril 30. These latter records were taken for me 
by my colleague, Prof. W. K. Burton. 

h2 



100 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date 


A 


F 


E 


1 S 

.s a 


o a 
* 2 


Earthqualies 
recorded bj' 
seismographs 


Jan. 24-25 


+ 1 


-1 


— 2 






1 


„ 25-26 


-1 


+ 4 


-6 


16 






„ 26-27 


-1 


+ 1 


+ 15 








-1 


+ 4 


+ 7 


„ 27-28 


-0"-23 


+ l"-29 


+ 1-26 








+ 2 


+ 12 


+ 26 


„ 2S-29 


+ 3 












„ 29-30 


+ 3 


+ 5 










+ 8 


+ 13 


-3 


„ 30-31 


+ 1"-84 


+ 2"-34 


-0"-57 








-3 


+ 1 


+ 3 


„ 31-1 (Feb.) 


+ 2 


+ 6 










Feb. 1-2 

f 


— 


+ 4 








1 


-7 


+ 11 


+ 2 


„ 2-3 


-0"-4-3 


+ 2"-70 


+ 0"-86 






1 


-4 






„ 3-4 


+ 3 












,. 4-5 















-1 


-8 





„ .5-6 


-0"-23 


-l"-78 











+ 13 






„ (i-7 


+ 1 












,, 7-8 


+ 1 


-8 










+ 14 


-8 


+ 2 


1 
„ 8-0 


+ 3"-22 
-6 


-l"-74 


+ 0"-86 


27 






-6 




„ !'-10 


-1 












„ 30-11 















„ 11-12 


-1 






1 






J 


—8 


-17 


+ 2 








1 
„ 12-13 


-2"'08 
_2 


-3"-91 


+ 0"-86 








-23 


-3 


,. 13-14 


+ 4 


+ 22 











„ 14-15 

1 





-10 


+ 5 








+ 2 


-11 


+ 2 


„ 1.5-16 


j +0"'5 


-5"-07 


+ 0"-86 








-4 






„ 16-17 


+ 8 










1 


„ 17-18 


+ 5 












„ 18-19 


-8 










1 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA IN JAPAN. 101 











a 


° c 


2 >.S 
^ -3 Pi 


Date 


A 


F 


E 


.S g 

03 


i23 

o c 


Eartliqii 

recordt 

seismog 




+ 1 


-5 


+ 3 








Feb. 19-20 


+ 0"-25 


-l"-30 


+ l"-29 






1 


+ 10 






„ 20-21 


-12 






1 






„ 21-22 

1 


-1 






2 






-3 


-24 


-3 


„ 22-23 


-0"-75 


-6"0 


-l"-29 










+ 3 





„ 23-24 


_2 












„ 24-25 


+ 3 








8 


2 


„ 25-26 


+ 1 








5 




+ 5 


+ 3 





„ 26-27 


+ l"-25 


0"-78 







7 


1 


-2 






„ 27-28 


+ 2 








9 


1 


„ 28-1 (Mar.) 




-10 










+ 1 


-4 





March 1-2 


+ 0"-25 


-1"04 











+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 2 


„ 2-3 


+ 4 






2 


2 




„ 3-4 


+ 1 


+ 30 


-3 


2 




1 


„ 4-5 












1 


+ 9 


+ 32 


-1 


„ 5-6 


+ 2"-25 


+ 8"-32 


-0"-43 


G 




1 


+ 1 


+ 27 


+ 6 


6-7 


+ 2 


+ 15 










„ 7-8 

1 


-4 


+ 15 


+ 4 








-1 


+ 15 


+ 8 


„ 8-9 


-0"-25 


+ 3"-75 


+ 3"-44 


12 






+ 1 






„ 9-10 


+ 6 






3 






„ 10-11 









12 




1 


„ 11-12 

1 
I 

„ 12-13 


-6 






2 


9 




+ 1 


+ 34 


-1 


+ 0"-25 


+ 8"-84 


-0"-43 




9 


1 


-6 






„ 13-14 


-6 








4 


2 


„ 14-15 


-3 






6 


5 


1 


-15 


+ 23 


-2 


1 


-3"-25 


+ 5" 98 


-0"-86 









]02 



REPORT — 1895. 



Date 


A 


F 


E 


.E S 


3 CO 

o ;:: 
1— M 


Earthquakes 
lecordecl by 
seismographs 


March 15-16 
„ 16-17 
„ 17-18 
„ 18-1'J 

f 

„ ]!)-20 
„ 20-L'l 

99 9T 
„ _ > 

„ 2:{-24 
„ 21-25 

„ 25-26 

„ 20-27 
„ 27-28 
„ 28-29 

i 

„ 20-no 

„ W-Sl 

„ 31-1 (Apr.) 


+ 8 
+ 6 
— :! 

-2 

+ fl 
+ 2"-25 






8 
35 

5 

4 

20 

1 

7 
6 
5 


6 
6 
9 
3 

1 

4 
9 

9 

2 

8 

6 
5 

8 

10 
8 
8 

1 


1 

1 
1 

9 

2 

1 

I 

1 

1 
1 


{ + 39 

1 +1U"-14 

1 


+ 8 
+ 3"44 


' -4 

1 -^ 
— 2 

-10 
-2"-oO 








-7 

-6 
+ 18 






+ 5 

+ l"-2o 


+ 4 

+ l"-04 




+ 9 

-4 



-6 


-3 

-7 




-1 
0"-20 


-10 
-2"-60 




-1 

+ 1 
+ 1 






\ 


+ 1 

+ 0"-20 


-IS 
-4"G8 




April 1-2 
„ 2-3 

„ O-i 


-6 

+ 2 
+ 6 






\ 
\ 


+ 2 I 
0"-40 1 


-4 
-l"-04 




„ 4-5 
„ 5-6 
„ 6-7 

„ 7-8 




+ 5 



-1 




[ 


+ 4 

+ 0"-80 


+ 2 
-:-0"-52 





ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCAXIC PHENOiMENA IN JAPAX. 103 



Date 


A 


F 


E 


Rainfall in 
mm. 


o a 


Earthquakes 
rpoorded by 
seismographs 


April 8-9 
„ 9-10 
., 10-11 
„ 11-12 

„ 12-13 
„ 13-14 
„ 14-15 
„ 15-16 

[ 

„ 22-23 
„ 23-24 
„ 24-25 

f 

„ 25-26 
„ 26-27 
„ 27-28 
„ 28-29 

„ 29-30 

„ 30-1 (May) 
May 1-2 

[ 
„ 2-6 1 

„ (^9 r 

„ 9-13 ^ 

„ 13-16 j- 


+ 1 
-2 
+ 1 
-5 






8 
14 

23 

8 

8 
23 

19 
56 

3 

26 

17 


4 

10 
8 

8 

8 
9 

5 


I 

2 
1 

1 

1 


-1"'00 


+ 2 

+ 0"-52 


+ 8 
+ 4"-08 


+ 6 
+ 30 
-6 
-6 






+ 24 
4"-80 


+ 5 
+ 1"30 


-8 
-4" -OS 


_ 2 

+ 2 
-1 






-1 
-•22 


+ 2 
+ 2"-0G 


-1 

-l"-5 


+ 4 

O 

+ 10 
_2 






+ 10 
+ 2"-30 










+ 6 
-10 






+ 3 
-1 


-11 

-10 


-4 
-0"-92 


+ 1 
+ 0"-3 


-21 
+ 2"-32 


+ 1 
+ 0"-23 


-8 
-0"-96 




+ 1 
+ 0"-23 


-1 
-0"-12 


-11 
-l"-32 


-4 

-0"-92 


+ 19 

+ 2"-0 


-16 

-1"-G0 


+ 7 
+ 1"-51 







-4 
+ l"-72 



An examination of the above table leads to several important results. 
In twenty-four cases the motion underground has been greater than that 



lOi RETORT— 1895. 

on the surface, while in six cases it has been less than that on the surface. 
These instances are taken from the three or four clay periods. If the 
analysis was made for daily periods, the difference between the amount 
of motion recorded underground and that recorded on the surface would 
be yet more marked. Whenever the movements of the surface instrument 
A have been great, exceeding 1" in seven instances, its direction of 
motion has corresponded with the direction of movement of the instru- 
ment which is placed in a parallel direction F. In two cases the directions, 
of movement between A and F have been opposite to each other. When, 
however, the movements of A have been small or less than 1" the cases of 
agreement and of disagreement in direction of motion are practically 
equal, there being 6 of one and 11 of the other. For January, February,, 
and March rainfall seems to have been followed by considerable dis- 
turbances underground, the movements during dry periods being compara- 
tively small. The instrument on the surface has, however, shown several 
marked exceptions to the latter rule, its pointer having moved from 8 to 
12 mm. (2" to 3") at least five times when the displacement could not be 
attributed to the saturation of the soil. 

During April and May, although a considerable amount of rain fell, 
the movements of the underground instruments were small, but it must be 
remembered that during these months percolation was in all probability 
very small as compared with that of January, February, and March. 
Instrument A, on the contrary, showed on several occasions very large 
movements between April 13 and 14, moving as much as 30 mm. or 6", and 
from what has gone before it is not necessary to assume that these dis- 
turbances were directly connected with rainfall. 

Up to the date of writing this report I have not been able to obtain, 
from the Meteorological DejDartment factors which enable me to make 
any accurate estimate of the ratio of percolation to evaporation, but it 
may be taken, as a general rule, that percolation and the fluctuations in 
height of subterranean water are greater during the winter montlis than 
they are during the summer, and if the instruments partly owe their move- 
ments to movements of underground water, these movements ought to be 
most pronounced in winter, and this seems to have been the case. Since the 
commencement of May, up to June 6, E and F have wandered but little, the 
diagrams being fine straight lines like fig. 1, Plate II., and without tremors. 
It must also be observed that it has been the instruments in the under- 
ground chambers within 1 2 feet of water level which have moved the most.. 

To throw additional light upon the part that subterranean water may 
have played in influencing the motion of the pendulums the following 
experiments were made : — 

1. The movements of water in an unused well were recorded. 

2. A rough measurement of the rate at which moisture was evaporated! 
from ground near to one of the instruments was made. 

3. A well near to one of the instruments was twice emptied of its 
water. 

(k) Moveiiients of Water in a Well. 

From April 18 until June 8, I established a tide gauge in an unused 
■well 80 yai'ds to the east of the underground chamber. It consisted of 
a large M'ooden float carrying a bamboo mast 30 feet in length, the top of 
which projected through a hole in a lid which covered the top of the well. 
As the mast rose and fell a pencil in contact with a sheet of paper on a drum 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. lO-S 

recorded the motion. The diagrams obtained indicate the following facts. 
Very shortly after heavy rain the well commences to rise, and the rising 
continues for three or four days after the rain has ceased. The upward 
motion, which at times has been as much as 7 or 8 inches in 2-i hours, even- 
tually becomes slower for about two days, after which the water falls slowly. 
A more important observation, however, is that during any 24 hours 
there are fluctuations in the rate of rising or falling which when the well 
is nearly steady are distinct, but when the coming up or going down of 
the water is rapid they are barely visible, A number of these daily 
fluctuations are shown on Plate IV. About midnight and for some hours 
afterwards the water is at its highest, and it is again high during the 
middle of the day. It is lowest in the evening and the early morning, 
which is the time when the greatest quantity of water is being drawn 
from wells throughout the city. The nearest well from Avhich water is 
drawn to the one in which the gauge is established is on tlie east side, 
about 60 yai'ds distant. 

In the following table the dates refer to the interval between noon of 
one day to noon of the succeeding day. The figures in the columns 
indicate the hours at which the well commenced to sink and then to rise 
in the afternoon and evening, and when it again commenced to sink and 
to rise in the morning. The time midway betM^een the rising in the 
evening and the sinking in the morning may be taken as the crest of the 
night wave, the crest of the midday wave being halfway between the 
A.M. rising and the p.m. sinking of the next day. The omission of dates 
or hours indicates that the inflections on the diagram were indistinct or 
absent. The letters R, F, or S in the sixth column indicate whether the 
well was rising, falling, or steady. 

The time at which the well commences to rise in the evening is 
fairly constant, about 8 p.m. This precludes the idea that the diurnal 
motion may be dependent upon the tides in the neighbouring bay, 
which is some two miles distant. The most irregular figures are those 
indicating the time at which the well commences to sink in the morning, 
which as summer approaches, when the city rises at an earlier hour, also 
tends to become earlier, and therefore assist in confirming the suggestion, 
that the rising and falling of the water are due to the facts that larger 
quantities of water are being used in the morning and evening than are 
being used during the middle of the day and the middle of the niglit. 

The amount of these fluctuations has seldom exceeded 5 mm., and 
the day and night waves have about the same amplitudes. Professor 
Franklin H. King found that a heavily loaded train moving slowly 
past a well at a distance of 140 feet caused the water in the well 
to slightly rise, from which it might be inferred that the rising and falling^ 
of water in a well might be accompanied by a rising and sinking of the 
surrounding sui'face. If this were the case then during a day and night 
the horizontal pendulums in Tokio ought to show a double curve. In 
some few instances there is a tendency to show such a double motion, as, 
for example, in fig. 5, Plate II. But because one of the curves is faint 
and because it is of rare occurrence, the 12-hour movement in the well is 
by no means sufficient to explain the daily wave indicated by the pendulums. 
It must, however, be reiuarked that the period of well observations coin- 
cides with a period when daily curves were not well marked, and what 
happened in the well when they were distinctly marked I have at present 
no means of ascertaining. 



106 



REPORT — 1895. 





r.M. 1 


A.M. 


(leneral 


Date 






^ 


behaviour 


Sinking | 


Rising 


Sinking 


Rising 


of well 


April 18-19 


— 


6 


5 


— 


R 


„ 20-21 


— 


— 


— 


11 


„ 21-22 


— 


8 


9 


— 


u 


„ 22-23 


6 


8 


— 


— 


i) 


„ 23-24 


— 


— 


6 


— 


f, 


„ 24-25 


— 


10 


— 


— 


»> 


„ 30-1 (March) 


G 


8 


3 


6 


)» 


March 2-3 


2 


8 


4 


7 


T» 


„ 3-4 


— 


8 


1 


— 


»1 


fi-7 


5 


8 


6 


— 


»1 


7-8 


6 


9 


3 


9 


It 


„ 9-10 


— 


^ 


4 


— 


11 


„ 10-11 


3 


i) 


— 


— 


„ 


„ 11-12 


3 


8^ 


6 


m 


11 


„ 12-13 


3 


7 


3 


7 


»1 


„ 14-15 


6 


10 


5 


7 


S 


„ 15-16 


— 


— 


5 


— 


,, 


„ 18-19 


3 


7 


1 


6 


. V 


„ 19-20 


2 


G 


— 


— 


It 


„ 20-21 


5 


10 


2 


G 


»» 


„ 21-22 


4 


9 


4 


8 


») 


„ 25-26 


4 


8 


— 


— 


»» 


„ 26-27 


4 


9 


1 


6 


(1 


„ 27-28 


3 


7 


o 


6 


11 


„ 28-29 


5 


8 


1 


6 


t» 


„ 29-30 


4 


9 


3 


6 


1) 


„ 30-31 


1 


7 


3 


6 


)t 


June 1-2 


3 


9 


— 


— 


»» 


3-4 


. — . 


7 


1 


5 


8 


„ 4-5 


2 


7 


1 


5 


F 


„ 5-6 


— 


9 


2 


8 


S 


„ 6-7 


6 


9 


6 


7 


)» 


„ 7-8 


5 


9 


5 


8 


»? 



(/) An Experiment on Evaporation. 

Because it was found that a load of about 1,000 lb., made up of men and 
boys standing outside my observatory wall at a distance of 15 feet from 
pendulum A, would deflect it 2 mm., the following experiment was made. 

In my garden a strong beam was rested on knife edges on the top of 
a stake driven into the ground. On one end of this a box 1 foot 6 inches 
square, and 6 inches deep, was hung, so that it could swing freely in a hole 
cut in the ground. The box was tilled with earth which came from the 
hole, and was covered with turf like the surrounding lawn. This load was 
balanced by weights suspended at the other end of the beam attached to 
which there was a pointer moving over a scale. During three fine days it 
was found that the box lost weight at the rate of about ^ lb. per day per 
square foot of surface, and as the surface of the material in the box was 
similar to that of the surrounding ground with which it was level, it was 
concluded that similar ground in the neighbourhood lost weight at about 
the same rate. 

During a night the gain by precipitation of dew was sometimes as 
much as 1'2 oz. per square foot. No doubt many accurate observations 
have been made on the variation in the rate of evaporation and condensa- 



ox TflK EAKTHQUAKE AXD VOLCANIC PHENOMEXA OF JAPAX. 107 

tion of moisture from and upon various natural surfaces, but I have not 
been able to consult them. 

In open ground 30 per cent, of the rainfall may percolate, but in a 
forest as much as 80 per cent, may find its way downwards, the difierence 
being due to evaporation ; but as evaporation may cease or even be re- 
presented by condensation during the night, it would seem that the volume 
of water in surface wells especially on hot days following rainy weather 
might have a daily fluctuation. Such a fluctuation would, however, only 
account for the rising of water during the night and for an additional rise 
about midday. 

Another point to be noted is the fact that the alternations of evapora- 
tion and condensation mean that neighbouring areas, some of which are open 
and others covered with forest every 12 hours, are unequally relieved of 
considerable loads. For example, from an area of about 140 feet square in 
front of my house, which faces south, every day during fine weather about 
5 tons of moisture are removed. JTrom the back of the house, which is 
sheltered from the sun, and where the ground is always damp, compara- 
tively but little is evaporated. The underground chamber is sheltered by 
a grove of trees on its south and west sides, and on the east side it is open, 
and pendulum E behaves as if a load were removed from the east side 
during the morning and afternoon, and that side of the ground had con- 
sequently risen. Pendulum A in my house, where there is an evaporation 
area on the east, south, and partly on the west side, usually behaves 
like E, to which, however, it is at riglit angles. 

By comparing the table of daily waves with the rainy days when there 
was no sunshine, when it may be assumed that evaporation was small, as, 
for example, between March 8 and 11, it will be observed that the daily 
curves for A and E were not measurable. On sunny days, even if it 
rained, the curves were pronounced, but they were also large on other days, 
when, however, evaporation may possibly have been great. 

To settle this question future diagrams must be compared with the 
records obtained from a hygrometer exposed to the open or by two pen- 
dulums in parallel positions, but on the opposite sides of a piece of forest 
land. Two pendulums thvis placed ought at the same time to move in 
opposite directions, that is, during the day each boom ought to move 
towards the forest. 

An observation entirely opposed to what is here suggested is that made 
by Professor Kortazzi at Nicolaiew, who placed a hydrograph in the 
cellar where a horizontal pendulum was established, and found that the 
diagrams given by the two instruments were very similar. This he 
attributed to the stone column carrying the pendulum behaving like a 
sponge and absorbing moisture. When the openings to the cellar were 
closed and the pillar covered with a waterproof material the effect of 
moisture almost entirely disapjjeared. 

(t)i) Effects produced by emptying a Well. 

To determine what eflfect a slight disturbance of subterranean water 
would produce on a horizontal pendulum, on May 21 I employed men to 
rapidly empty a well which is 104 feet distant in an E.IST.E. direction from 
pendulum A. The well is 42 feet 7 inches deep, 2 feet Tinches in diameter, 
and on this particular day it contained 13 feet 1 inch, or about 2 tons of 
water. 



lOS 



REPORT — 1895. 



For several days the pointer of the pendulum had been fairly steady, 
pointing at division 70 on the scale of millimetres. What happened when 
the well was emptied is given in the table below. 

The photographic trace with interruptions in it Avhen the light was 
removed is shown in fig. 7, Plate II. The movement of the pointer from 
70 to 79 indicates a tilt of l"-36 and the direction of motion was as if a. 
load had been taken away on the well side, and the ground on that side 
had therefore risen. This may be explained by the fact that as the water 
came to the surface it was run into a gutter to flow away quickly down a 
hill. The pendulum remained between 77 and 82 until May 27, when the 
experiment was repeated. It started at 80, and in 6 hours and 40 minutes 
it reached 86, and here it has remained with a tendency to get higher but 
not to return. 



Day 


Time 


Position of 
pendulum 


Distance 
to water 


Remarks 








ft. in. 




21st 


8.30 A.M. 
8.40 ., 
8.50 „ 
9.5 „ 
9.30 „ 


70 

72 

72 
73 


36 6 


Taking out water for house 
Commence to empty well 




9.45 „ 


73 


48 11 


Well empty excepting 8 inches. 
Water bubbling in 




11.00 „ 


75 


40 7 


Water rising 




12.00 „ 


76 








12.30 P.M. 




37 8 


1) '5 




4.00 „ 


79 




Maximum deflection reached 




5.25 „ 


79 


36 


Water higher than at the commence- 




7.10 


77 




ment 


22nd 


7.30 A.M. 


77 


35 10 


V i> ») 



Not only was tilting produced by these operations, but as seen in the 
photograph tremors were induced. 

It might have been anticipated that by emptying the well and the 
subsequent inflow of water to refill the same — if in consequence of this 
operation a superficial movement took place — this would have assumed 
the form of a quaquaversal dip towards the well. What happened was 
exactly the reverse, from which it may be inferred that the motion 
of the pendulum was due to the removal of a weight rather than to the 
movement of the subterranean water. 



(n) Earthquakes. 

In the last column of the table showing the wandering of pendulums, 
the number of earthquakes which occurred on various days is given. 
These are the earthquakes which were recorded by seismographs in Tokio, 
and it is only one or two of these like the disturbances of March 22, 
when earth waves were produced, that are recorded by the pendulums. As 
already stated when speaking of the Kamakura records, although it is 
probable that most of these shocks were of local origin, this fact cannot 
be ascertained until the records accumulated at the Meteorological 
Department have been analysed. Two things, however, are very remark- 
able, the first being that at about the time of nearly all the shocks, 
pendulum A has shown abnormally large movements, and secondly there 
are only three occasions when the movements of A have been moderately 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 109 

large that earthquakes have not occurred. The tremor storms which were 
numei'ous in tlie early j^art of the year have no doubt obliterated many of 
the unfelt earthquakes to which tlie pendulums were sensitive. Notwith- 
standing this, there are a considerable number of disturbances on the 
traces, the record of which must be left for a future report. The most 
remarkable of these was recorded by pendulum F, which at the time was 
steady and producing a clear sharp straight line (see fig. 3). This was 
on June 3, when at 4.36 p.m. the pendulum commenced to move from side 
to side, and, with the exception of two or three intervals of about five 
minutes, it continued to move until 10 P.M. Although 14 points of 
maximum may be counted, the photograph represents what is practically 
a continuous earthquake of 5 hours 24 minutes' duration. The picture is 
that of a series of small flat cones, each inverted, with their axes in one 
straight line. No displacement of the pendulum took place, and after the 

Fig. 3. 




About half actual size. 
The gap at or near noon represents an interval of one hour. 

disturbance it continued to draw the same thin line. I do not know 
where this or the other unfelt earthquakes originated. The rate at which 
the decided movements are propagated is from 2'5 to 4 kilometres per 
second, and there are reasons for believing that many of them, like that 
of March 22, originated beneath the bed of the ocean. 

(o) Tremors. 

In the extracts from the Journal (pp. 96 to 99) it will be seen that 
tremors or earth pulsations have often been recorded, and that some- 
times these were greater underground than on the surface. During the 
last two months they have been greater on the surface. Previous analyses 
have shown that they nearly always accompany a steep barometric gradient. 
They are sometimes marked when the daily curve is barely visible, but 
small tremors at least usually accompany these waves, and' they are more 
pronounced during the night and early morning, when the rate at which 
a pendulum is being displaced is relatively slow. The fact that small 
tremors were produced at the time the well was emptied is a fact not to 
be overlooked when considering their origin. 

I regret to say that a more careful examination of the tremor records 
must be left for a future report. 

{p) Observations at Yokohama and Kanagawa. 

As already stated, the instruments at Kanagawa (i) and (g and h) at 
Yokohama are underground, and stand on short brick columns rising from 
soft tuff rock. The softness of this rock may be judged of from the fact that 
when a person stands near one of the columns, the boom of the pendulum is 
deflected from 5 to 17 mm., from which it appears that, as a foundation to 
resist loading eflfects, the tuff rock is no better than a slab of conci-ete on 
the alluvium in Tokio. Owing to the collapse of the roof of the Yoko- 
hama cave, which caused a delay of two weeks, and owing to the fact that 
the clocks have been continually stopping, and good clocks cannot be found 



110 KEPORT — 1895. 

in Tokio or Yokohama, the records from this place are extremely few. 
Those which have been obtained, extending over two or three days, show 
straight lines like fig. 1, Plate II. There are neither daily curves nor tremors. 
From Kanagawa, although the cave is very wet and the conditions for 
observing very unfavourable, for about two months everything has worked 
satisfactorily. Like the Kamakura records they do not show tremors or 
daily waves, but they do show unfelt earthquakes and wandering. For 
example, on May 5 the boom moved as if by a N.E. tilting as much as 
14". This it reached on May 7. From this date it slowly returned to its 
starting point, which it reached on May 12. Small shocks occurred on 
the 2nd, 4th, and 6th. 

(q) Conclusions. 

Inasmuch as the analysis of materials already accumulated is not yet 
completed, and as certain experiments require to be repeated or amplified, 
it is premature to formulate definite conclusions. All that can therefore 
be done is to outline the form which conclusions may possibly assume. 

Although I understand that Italian observers have found that tremors 
are as marked underground, even on the rock, as they are on the surface 
in Japan, this seems to be only true for the alluvium. Underground on 
the rock at three stations, with such instruments as I have employed, 
there has not been even an indication of tremors. Neither have 
daily waves been observed. All the pendulums, whether on the rock 
or on the alluvium, from time to time leave their normal position, 
moving for two or three days in one direction and then slowly returning. 
These movements, which have been called wanderings, sometimes indicate 
a tilting of as much as 14''. Because these movements have often been 
accompanied by local earthquakes, it seems possible that they may 
actually represent rock bending, the earthquakes announcing the fact 
that resistances to the process are being overcome. 

Some of the wanderings noted on the alluvium may possibly be 
attributed to disturbances in the subterranean circulation of water after 

rainfall. 

Although the daily movement of the pendulums has been most marked 
by those which are nearest to water level, because they only show a single 
wave during the day, while the water in a neighbouring well rises and 
falls twice during the 24 hours, the daily wave cannot altogether be 
attributed to the movement of subterranean water. Because certain 
diao-rams have shown a superimposed wave, it is possible that the cha- 
racter of the daily wave may now and then be influenced by subterranean 
water. Because a wave may be produced by relieving an area in the 
vicinity of a pendulum of a load, as, for example, by taking 2 tons of water 
out of a well which is 104 feet distant from pendulum A, and pouring the 
water away down a slope, it seems likely that the daily wave is produced 
by an action of this description. The action suggested is that which 
takes place every day when the sun shines or the wind blows across 
<n-ound which is open and that which is covered, for example, by forests or 
buildino-s. By evaporation one area is rapidly relieved of a load, while 
the adjacent area loses but little. For example, experiment shows that 
on fine days an open grass-covered area 140 feet square in front of my 
house, which is 120 feet long and runs E. and W., loses in 12 hours about 
5 tons of moisture. At the back of the house, where the ground is 
sheltered from the sun, evaporation is small. As confirming this view it 



& 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. Ill 



is observed that pendulum A is steady on dull wet days, but on warm 
days the daily curves are well defined. Farther, although A and E move 
at the same time, they move in opposite directions, but each usually moves 
towards the side from which the greatest load is being removed by 
evaporation. 

III. The Tokio Earthquake of June 20, 1894. 

On June 20, at a few minutes past two in the afternoon, Tokio, 
Yokohama, and the surrounding districts were shaken by an earthquake 
which was more violent than any which has been recorded since 1855. 
On June 25 it was reported that in Tokio alone 33,940 buildings had 
suffered damage, some being entirely ruined, 140 pei'sons had been 
wounded, and that 26 had been killed. In Yokohama, where many 
chimneys fell and houses were unroofed, 6 people were killed. When 
statistics are completed and it is known what has happened in other 
places these numbers will be increased. Small fissures were formed in 
the ground at Tokio in 96 places, many walls were shattered, while stone 
lanterns and tombstones were overthrown, twisted, or deranged. 

The following facts are taken or deduced from the records obtained at 
the Central Observatory and the University Laboratory, both of which are 
in Tokio, at a distance of about 1^ mile from each other. To these are 
added observations from the Hitotsubashi Observatory, which is situated 
on soft ground lying between the Central Observatory and the University, 
at which places the ground is comparatively hard. 









Hitotsu- 


__ 


Central Observatory 


University Laboratory 


bashi Ob- 
servatory 


Time 


2 b. 4 m. 10 s. P.M. 


2 h. 2 m. 30 s. p.m. 




Duration .... 


4 h. 4 m. 48 s. 


4 mins. 30 sees. 


5 mins. 


Direction .... 


N.E-S.AV. 


N.E.-S.W. 




Maximum horizontal motion 


76 mm. or !>9 mm. 


80 mm. 


130 mm. 


Period of „ „ 


1-3 sec. 


2 sees. 


1-5 sec. 


Maximum vertical motion 


18 mm. 


10 mm. 


45 mm. 


Period of „ „ 


1-0 sec. 







At the University for the first 10 seconds the horizontal motion was 
slight, when it suddenly became severe, reaching 80 millimetres. The 
severe motion continued for about a minute, during which time there 
were more than 10 pronounced movements. As the range of motion was 
outside the limits of seismographs with multiplying indices these were 
deranged or broken, and complete diagrams were only obtained at the 
University and Hitotsubashi, where there are seismographs without such 
indices, the recording surfaces for which are only set in motion at the 
time of violent disturbances. Until the diagrams have been carefully 
analysed I am inclined to think that the recorded horizontal motions may 
represent the angles through which the seismographs have been tilted, 
rather than the range through which a given point suffered horizontal 
displacement. 

Assuming for the present that these quantities are what they are 
represented as being, then at the University and at Hitotsubashi the 
maximum accelerations were respectively 400 and 1,000 millimetres per 
sec. per sec. In the Nagoya-Gifu earthquake of 1891, when nearly 10,000 



112 



REPORT — 1S95, 



lives were lost, the maximum accelerationSj calculated on more certain 
data, varied between 3,000 and 8,000 millimetres ^5er sec. ^je?' sec. At the 
University there is a seismometer, consisting of a number of iron shot, 
arranged on a ledge round the top of a strong post, beneath which there 
is a bed of sand. These shot were not projected, but all of them, excepting 
one on the N.E. side, simply fell. The duration of the disturbance is of 
course that given by seismographs. Horizontal pendulums may have been 
tilted backwards and forwards for one or two hours. For some time after 
the shock it was observed that the Sunida River, which runs through 
Tokio, rose and fell as if its bed continued to be agitated. The direction 
of motion, as with nearly all earthquakes, was varied, and the direction 
given is that which was most pronounced. 

The times at which the commencement of the disturbance was recorded 
at places some distance from Tokio are as follows : — 



District 




Time. 


P.M. 


Intensity 




H. M. 


S. 




Yokosuka ..... 


2 4 


20 


Strong 


Nnmazu 








2 3 


25 


»» 


Utsunomiya 








2 4 


J6 


jj 


Mayebashi 








2 5 





„ clocks stopped 


Kofu . 








2 3 





11 ij 11 


Choslii 








2 4 





Weak 


NagoA'a 








2 4 


44 


>1 


Gifu ■. 








2 4 


28 


,, 


Osaka 








2 4 





11 11 M 


Hikone 








2 1 


27 


11 


Fukushima 








2 4 


27 


,^ 


Aomori 








2 6 





Feeble 


Sakaye 








2 7 





11 



From these times and the distribution of destruction it may be 
a,ssumed that Tokio was well within the epicentral area. 

A remarkable feature distinguishing this earthquake from most others 
is that during the next three days instead of a long series of after shocks 
only three disturbances were recorded. The primary shock does not 
appear to have been accompanied by any sound, while one of the secondary 
shocks, at 4.25 p.m., on the SOth was preceded by a roaring sound. 

At many places telegraph and telephone wires were broken. Under- 
ground the pipes of the Yokohama Waterworks were caused to leak, 
drains were deranged, and there was a falling in of material in a railway 
tunnel. A curious fact communicated to me by my colleague Professor 
W. K. Burton is that in his house, where he was barely able to keep his 
feet while the shaking was going on, several decanters were not upset, 
but their stoppers were shot out. This is similar to what has occurred on 
more than one occasion with the lamp glasses at the Kannonsaki light- 
house in Tokio Bay. 

IV. Miscellaneous. 

In addition to the foregoing work two numbers of the ' Seismological 
Journal ' have been issued and the manuscript of a catalogue of Japanese 
earthquakes between 1885 and 1892 has been completed. This catalogue 
gives the date, the time, the area shaken, and the position of the oi'igin 
for 8,337 shocks. Appended to each shock are a series of numbers, and 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. llo 

a line traced through these, as shown on a key map, is an outline of the 
hind area which was disturbed. The object of this catalogue, which is 
different from previous publications of the same description, was stated in 
the last report. 

Investigation of the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of Japan. — 
Fifteenth li.eport of the Comviittee, consisting of the Right Hon. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Professor A. H. Gkeen, Professor C. G. Knott, ctncl Professor John 
Milne (Secretanj). (Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

Contents. 

PAGE 

I. T?io Grai/-Mil/ie Seism o/jrajjJi . . .113 

IL Ohiii-rrations n-ith Horizontal Pendulmns ,. . . . . .115 

(a) The Listrumeiits, Installation, Character of Movements . . .115 

(i) Dail;/ Ware Records 122 

(^) Tremors, Microseismic Bistiirhances, or Earth Pulsations . . .12^ 

(d) The Slow Displacement of Pendulums . ...... 128 

(e) Periodic morements of several days' diiration, and n-anderiiifj of 129 

the pendulums, 

(^f) The dailij change in the position of the pendulums . . . , ]f!0 

C.//) The Biiirnal Wave 131 

(h) Tremors 139 

(iS Meteor oloflieal Tallies for ToMo 143 

(7) Earthquakes recorded h>j Horizontal Pendulums in Tohio . . . 147 

III. Description of a Catalogue of 8,331 Earthquakes recorded in Japan 149 

hetn-een January 1885 and Decemher 1892. 

(rt) History of the Catalogues 149 

(J) E-f.planation of the Catalogues 151 

(c) Ohjeet of the Catalogues 153 

(Ji) Besults already obtained or shon-n hy the Catalogue and Map of 155 

Centres. 

IV. On the Velocities rvith which Waves and Vibrations are 2^'>'opagated on 158 
the Surface of and through Poch and Earth. {Compilation^. 

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . ] 53 

(a) Observations on Artificially Produced Disturbances. Experiments 159 

of Mallet, Abbot, Fouque and Levy, Gray and Milne. 
(i) Observations on Earthquakes. Where the nave j^aths have been 163 

short: (Milne and Omoei). WJiere the n-ave paths have been 

long : (Newcomb and DuTTON, Agamennone, Eicco, Cancani, 

VON Rebkue-Paschwitz. Milne). 
(<■) The Probable Nature and Vdocity of Propagation of Earthquake 170 

Motion. The suggestions of Dr. C. G. Knott, Loed Rayleiuh, 

Loed Kelvin. 
(d) The Paths I'oUo)ved by Earthquake Motion. Hypotheses of KoPKi^s 173 

and Seebach, Scujiidt, and a suggcstio>i by the writer, 
{e) Conclusions 178 

V. Miscellaneous Notes relating to Large Earthquakes, i^x 179 

Appendix. — On Causes producing Movements which may be Mistaken for 182 
Earth Tremors. 

I. The Gray-Milne Seismograph. 

The first of the above seismographs, constructed in 1883, partly at the 
expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the 
standard instrument at the Central Observatory in Tokio. 

I am indebted to Mr. K. Kobayashi, the Director of the Observatoiy 
for the following table of its records : — 

1895. . I 



I 



114 



REroRT — 1895. 



Catalogue of Eartliqualiex recorded at the Central Meteorological Ohservatory in ToMo 
letween May 1893 and February 1894. 



No. 



Mouth 



Day 



Time 



Duration 



Direc- 
tion 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude ol 

Horizontal 

Motion 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude ol 

Vertical 

Motion 



Nature of 
Sliock 



1,421 


T. 


22 


1,422 


)> 


28 


1,423 




29 


1,424 


VI. 


■5 


1,425 


51 


14 


1,426 


1» 


20 


1,427 


J» 


»» 


1,428 


1) 


)» 


1,429 






1,430 


5' 


25 


1,431 




27 


1,432 


,. 


30 


1,433 


Yir. 


a 


1,434 


„ 


10 


1,435 


„ 


!• 


1,456 


„ 


12 


1,437 


„ 


17 


1,438 


„ 


25 


1,439 


Tin. 


1 


1,440 


„ 


„ 


1,441 


,, 


29 


1,442 


IX. 


12 


1,443 


,, 


13 


1,444 


» 


17 


1,445 




21 


1,446 


„ 


)) 


1,447 


,, 


„ 


1,448 


„ 


24 


1.449 


,, 


29 


1,4.50 


X. 


7 


1,451 




8 


1,452 




22 


1,453 


XI. 


11 


1,454 


„ 


15 


1,465 


»» 


18 


1,456 




21 


1,457 


» 


22 


1,458 


»» 


28 


1,459 


») 


„ 


1,460 




30 


1,461 


XII. 


1 


1,462 


„ 


IC 


l,46:i 


„ 


23 


1,464 


„ 


28 


1,465 


» 


31 



n. ^r. 
11 51 

8 13 

6 45 
28 

4 69 

5 16 

2 4 

4 22 

9 34 

5 15 
4 23 

10 5G 
9 41 
4 33 
8 13 

54 

11 1 
10 24 

8 44 
4 

7 55 

9 

3 40 

8 53 
8 2 
7 58 

10 25 

4 32 

7 24 

8 30 

9 48 

5 36 

8 54 

9 42 

1 8 
10 42 

8 13 
1 5 



s. 




48 


r.ir. 


02 


A.M. 


66 


.\M. 


05 


P.M. 


52 


r.M. 


62 


A.M. 


10 


P.M. 


44 


P.M. 


51 


P.M. 


36 


P.M. 


59 


A.M. 


28 


P.M. 


19 


P.M. 





A.M. 


28 


A..M. 


28 


A.M. 


21 


P.M. 


2 


A.M. 


35 


A.M. 


13 


P.M. 


18 


I'.jr. 


15 


P.M. 


3 


P.M. 


56 


P.M. 


36 


A.M. 


16 


A.M. 


41 


P.M. 


28 


P.M. 


43 


A.M. 


3 


I'.M. 


28 


A.M. 


31 


P.M. 


4 


P.M. 


39 


P.M. 


13 


P.M. 


14 


J'..M. 


53 


A.M. 


22 


A.M. 


51 


A.M. 


57 


P.M. 


59 


P..\f. 





P.M. 


1 


P.M. 


30 


A.M. 


42 


A.M. 



1,466 


I. 


6 


1,467 


,j 


10 


1,468 


J, 


„ 


1,469 




11 


1,470 




14 


1,471 




18 


1,472 


J) 


H 


1,473 






1,474 






1,475 




19 


1,476 






1,477 






1,478 




21 


1,479 






1,480 






1,481 




,, 


1,482 


>» 


23 



7 1 
3 43 

6 17 
5 53 

1 9 
9 14 

2 64 

10 48 

11 17 
20 

3 27 
9 43 

4 52 

8 29 

7 31 

9 19 

8 56 



1 P.M. 
5 A.M. 
5 A.M. 
30 P.M. 
9 A.M. 

3 A.M. 
35 A.M. 
24 P.M. 

4 P.M. 
44 A.M. 

7 A.M. 
55 P.M. 
47 A.M. 
22 A.M. 
22 P.M. 
28 P.M. 
10 A.M. 



1895. 



X 

y\. s. 

30 

1 4 
4 48 
1 45 

43 

1 45 

45 

1 34 

3 27 
56 

G 1 

57 

1 25 

8 

1 38 

3 66 

1 27 
49 

3 5 


394. 

E.-W. 

S.W. 
W.N.W. 
W.N.W. 

w.s.w. 

E.-W. 
E.-W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 
E.-W. 

N.N.E. 
N.W. 

S.S.W. 

x.w. 

E.-W. 

N.-S. 

E.-W. 

W.N.W. 
N.W. 

W.N.W. 


sli 

0-3 
1-3 
1-2 

0-7 
U'8 

0-5 
0-6 

0-7 
0-G 
sli 

1-8 
0-6 

1-2 

2-3 

1-3 

3-0 

0-G 
0-8 

1-G 


ilit 

0-35 
76 
0-6 
0-6 
4-8 

0-6 
0-6 

1-7 
0-8 

sut 

1-8 
0-7 

0-5 

43-7 

0-2 

1-5 

5-n 
0-7 

P8 


sli 

1-0 

slij 
6-4 

0-5 
0-5 

sli 
1-7 

0-2 


Jilt 

18 

dit 
0-7 

0-6 
0-2 

rht 

2-4 

1-7 
- 



3 15 

4 4 

10 


W.N.W. 

N .N.W. 

N.-s' 


0-9 
0-9 

0-7 


1-4 
4-1 

0-2 


0-3 

0-7 

"slii 


0-2 

11-0 

jht 



slow, weak 
slight 



slow 

quick, strong 

slow, weak 

quick, weak 
slight 



slow 

slight 

quick, weak 

slow, weak 

weak 

slight 

slow, weak 

slight 

slow, weak 

slight 



quick, strong 

slight 

slow, quick 

slight 

slow, weak 
slight 

slow, weak 

.slight 
quick, strong 
quick, weak 

slight 



slow, weak 



slight 



qiiiok, weak 

slight 

quick, strong 

slight 



quick, weak 
slight 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN. 
Catalogue of Earthquakes— coniinued. 



115 



No. 



Moiitb I Day 



Time 



Duration 



Direc- 
tion 



Maximum 

Perioil and 

Amplitude ot 

Horizdiital 

Jlotion 



Maximum 

Period and 

Am)ilitude of 

Vertical 

Motion 



Nature nf ( 
Shock 



1,483 


I. 


23 


1,484 


1» 


24 


1,485 




25 


1,48G 


II. 


3 


1,487 


3) 


4 


1,488 




5 


1,489 


» 


17 


l,4Sll 




18 


1,491 


ii 


„ 


1,492 


» 


23 


1,493 




„ 


1,494 




28 


1,495 


III. 


1 


l,49li 


„ 


3 


1,497 


„ 


9 


1,498 




15 


1,499 


„ 


16 


1,500 


„ 


20 


1,501 


,, 


27 


1,502 


„ 


30 


1,503 


>» 


31 


1,504 


IV. 


2 


1,505 




3 


1,506 




3 


1,507 


„ 


4 


1,508 




5 


1,509 




5 


1,510 


„ 


5 


1,511 


„ 


6 


1,512 




9 


1,513 




12 


1,514 




12 


1,515 




13 


1,51B 




17 


1,517 




22 


1,518 




23 


1,519 




25 


1,520 




27 


1,521 


V. 


1 


1,522 


« 


2 



n. H. 
2 12 
8 30 
11 44 
1 49 

6 30 
1 46 
5 37 
52 
8 37 

11 3 

11 14 

10 39 

5 33 

4 14 

28 

7 19 

4 

1 5 

2 8 

3 35 

8 53 



30 P.Jt. 

9 A.M. 

42 .^.iM. 

15 P.M. 

25 A.M. 

36 P.M. 

10 A..M. 

A.M. 

33 A.M. 

26 A.M. 
8 A.M. 

28 A.M. 
48 P.M. 
50 P.M. 
19 I'.M. 
52 P.M. 
23 P.M. 
26 P.M. 

P.M. 
39 A.M. 
41 A.M.? 



12 34 P.M. 
53 19 A.M. 
49 44 P.M. 
41 32 P.M. 
10 A.M. 

15 39 A.-M. 

24 3 A.M. 
32 36 P.M. 
12 7 A.M. 

7 28 A.M. 
21 29 P.M. 
41 46 A.M. 
53 38 P.M. 

9 3 A.M. 
21 59 A.M. 

16 19 A.M. 
58 5 P.M. 

25 1 A.M. 

15 7 A.M. 



1895. 



M. S. 
2 10 

12 

58 

42 

1 58 
1 
1 8 

1 8 
52 


N.-S. 

E.-W. 

E.-W. 
E.-W. 

N.W. 
N.N.W. 

N.-S. 

N.W. 

N.N.W. 


0-7 
0-9 

ii-a 

0-7 

0-7 
1-2 
0-7 

0-7 
0-3 


2-4 

0-2 

0-4 
0-5 

1-3 

0-5 
0-3 

1-2 
0-3 




0-6 
0-G 


0-6 
0-3 



quick, weak 
slight 



slow, we.ik 
slight 



pcrliaps due 
wiuil 



slight 



to 



II. Observations with Horizontal Pendulums. 
(«) The Instruments, Installation, Character of Movements. 

Since 1893 nineteen sets of records have been obtained from liorizontal 
pendulums installed either in Tokio or its vicinity. In the following 
description the different installations or sets of instruments are indicated 
by letters of the alphabet. The instrument at A, which was in my house, 
occupied the same position from the commencement of the observations 
until February 17, 1895, when it was destroyed by fire. The instruments 
at other stations were kept in position until they had given continuous 
records for a period of from one to four months, when they were moved 
to a new locahty. Although these periods may appear short, they seem 
to have been amply long to determine the general character of the move- 
ments to be expected at any given station. Instruments within a mile of 

I 2 



116 



REPORT — 1895. 



my house were visited every day, while those at a distance— as, for ex- 
ample, at Kamakura (C and D)— were visited at least once a week. Not- 
withstanding the time taken in making journeys to the more distant 
stations, one of which occupied from ten to twelve hours, because the 
clockwork kept going for a week and the lamps burned for two or three 
days, it was often possible to keep six instruments working simultaneously. 
The notes and photograms for 1893 and 1894 obtained from stations A, 

Fig. 1. — Map showing Positions of Pendulums. 







_J 






E, F, C, D, G, H, and I, which were destroyed by fire, are fortunately 
described in the fourteenth report to this Association. In order to show 
the relationship of these observations to those made during the past year 
at A, H, I, and the remaining eleven stations, they are briefly referred to 
in the following notes. 

The sensibilities of the different instruments which are described in 
the Keport for 1894 are indicated by the number of millimetres the end 
of the boom was deflected )»y turning one of the screws in the bed plate 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 117 

one degree. The pitch of a screw was one millimetre, and its distance 
from the axis on which the bed plate was tilted may be taken at 220 
millimetres. All the instruments excepting A had usually a sensibility 
of 1° for 3 mm., which is approximately equal to a tilting of 1" for each 
millimetre of deflection. Occasionally the sensibility was increased two- 
fold or threefold. The reason for this indefiniteness respecting sensibility 
is that the notes relating to the calibration of the instruments were burned. 
The chief value of these determinations is to give angular values for the 
diurnal wave, and because it will be shown that this is a quantity with 
large variations depending upon locality and weather, the necessity of 
accurate measurements becomes more apparent than real. 

The Pendulum at A. — Sensibility, September 26, 1894. 1°:=12 mm. 
or 1 mm.=:0""20. This instrument, which was adjusted to have a sensi- 
bility twice or six times greater than the other instruments, was installed 
in my private observatory on a massive well-built stone column resting 
upon a bed of concrete. Towards the east and west it was protected by 
60 feet of building, but to the north and south by only about lOfeet. The 
only window in the room, whicli was on the south side, was always closed 
by a curtain on the inside and a solid shutter upon the outside. The 
reason that it was oriented to record N.E. and S.W. motions was because, 
as was explained in the last Report, there were reasons for believing that 
in such a direction earthquake and other motion had a maximum. The 
daily movements were often eclipsed or made indefinite by the occurrence 
of tremors. When they were visible, although on one occasion they were 
represented by deviations of 8 mm., it was rarely that they exceeded 2 or 
3 mm. In many instances it seems that a second wave was superimposed 
upon the ordinary diurnal disturbance. Excursions towards the N.E. were 
usually completed between 5 and 15 hours, Avhile the S.W. motion ended 
between and 3 hours (tig. 6, p. 134). 

Pendulums at C and D. — These were installed upon rock in a ca\e at 
Kamakura, about 27 miles distant from the pendulums in Tokio. One of 
these recorded motion in the direction of the dip of the strata, and the 
other in a direction at right angles to this. Their records are described 
in the Report for 1893-94. 

Pendtdums at E and F. — These pendulums were in directions N.E. 
and N.AV. or parallel to C and D. The N.W. booms were parallel to A. 
The installation was iu an underground chamber, where as at Kamakura 
the daily change in temperature was practically unappreciable. These 
records are described in the Report for 1893-94. 

Pendidums at G and II. — The pendulums G and H were placed on the 
rock in a cave at the Yokohama Brewery. Their orientation corresponded 
to that of C and D or E and F, and their records are referred to in the 
above-mentioned Report. 

Pendidivm at I. — This pendulum was in an exceedingly damp cave 
at Kanagawa, about three miles distant from G and H. Its boom, like 
that of A, pointed towards the north-west. The few records obtained 
from this station are described with those of the above-mentioned three 
stations. 

The Pendulum at J. — Sensibility, August 18, 1894, 1° = 6"5 mm., 
or 1 mm. = 0"-39. January 5, 1895, 1°=3 mm., or 1 mm. = 0"-80. 

This was an aluminium boom which, with its plate and index, had a 
total length of about 4 feet 9 inches. Its cast-iron stand rested upon a 
slab of slate upon the top of a short brick column, which rose from a layer 



118 REPORT— 1895. 

of concrete covering a bed of gravel rammed into the natural earth. It 
was covered by a coarse wooden case. The whole arrangement was shel- 
tered by a small wooden hut, 9 feet long and 7 feet broad, and up to the 
eaves 6 feet in height. This hut, like all the other huts, admitted so much 
light that the photographic tilms had to be changed at night. Currents of 
air came in freely, and, as might be expected, there were considerable 
fluctuations in temperature. 

On the west side the ground was flat and open, and it was also fairly 
open towards the north and south. On the east side, however, it was 
sheltered by a small hill and trees, behind which came a pond, more trees, 
and then instrument K, which had a small tract of open ground upon its 
eastern side. 

The westerly motion, which varied from b to 40 mm., usually took 
place between 18 or 21 hours and 6 or 9 hours, that is to say, the pendulum 
commenced to move towards the west at about 6 or 9 a.m., and continued 
this motion until 6 or 9 p.m. (fig. 7). During the night the easterly or i^eturn 
motion was gentle, and usually less than the motion towards the west. 

On wet cloudy days no curves were visible. 

Tremors were not marked at this station. 

Comparing the jST.E. and S.W. motions of A with the E. and W. motions 
at J in li4 instances these movements were completed at about the same 
hour. In 21 instances, however, there is a difierence between them of 
from 5 to 10 hours. 

An experiment which was made at this station was to dig a trench 
round the hut on its south and west sides. This was 5 feet in depth, while 
its distance from the column was about 10 feet. The only effect that this 
produced upon the daily diagram seems to have been that the points of 
inflection in the curve became somewhat sharper, the range of motion of 
the pendulum remaining constant. 

Pendulum at K. — Sensibility, September 20, 1894, l°=4-5 mm., or 
1 mm.=0"-50. November 21, 1894, 1° = ;3 mm. The installation of 
this instrument, excepting the fact that it was exposed to open ground 
towards the east and north, and sheltered by a grove of trees upon the 
south and west, was similar to that at J. The instrument itself was like 
that at J. 

The diurnal movements had a range of from 4 to 40 mm. The westerly 
excursion usually commenced at 5 or 6 A.M., and continued until about 4 
or 6 P.M. (fig. 8). The motion was therefore about one hour in advance of 
that at J, which roughly corresponds to the difference in time at which 
the ground in their respective vicinities were exposed to the morning sun. 
Comparing the hours at which the easterly and westerly motions of J and 
K were completed in fifteen cases, they closely agree. When these 
hours do not agree, K has usually reached its western limit from one to 
four hours before J. In two instances it completed this movement seven 
hours after J, while in two other cases one pendulum has been near its 
western limit, while the other has practically completed its movement in 
an opposite direction. 

Tremors were not marked. The object in placing J and K, which 
were 275 yards distant from each other, on opposite sides of a small grove 
of trees, was with the expectation of finding that at the same time they 
moved in opposite direction. It is seen that the expectation was not 
realised. 

Fendulum at L. — This instrument, which in construction is very like 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMKNA OF JArAN. 119 

that at A, and is similarly oiiented, stands beneath a wooden case on the 
concrete floor of a cellar in the north-western corner of the Engineering 
College at the Imperial University. It is without recording apparatus. 
Its pointer floats over a scale, and its position is noted every day about 
noon. When first set up on September 19, 1894, it had a period of 
28 seconds. Its movements, which are indicated in millimetres, the sign 
+ meaning displacement towards the west and — towards the north and 
east, have been gradual. They were as follows : — 

1894. During September — 1 or 2 

October 1-October 21 - 2 

October 21-October 31 +2 
November 1-November 24—7 
November 21- December 3+7 
December 3-December 20—2 

Pendulum at M. — The object of this pendulum, which was installed 
upon the same column as A, was somewhat different from that of the others 
described in this series. It consisted of an aluminium boom loaded at its 
outer end with a weight of about 300 grms. In addition to this it 
carried a small vessel of ink from which a capillary tube projected, making 
the total length of the boom about 4 feet 6 inches. This tube was 
balanced, so that it barely touched the surface of a band of paper moving 
at the rate of about 8 inches per hour. The force required to deflect the 
boom one millimetre when applied at a distance of 4 feet fi'om the agate 
pivot was approximately one milligramme. Before it was destroyed by fire 
it recorded the occurrence of several local earthquakes, and, considering its 
sensibility to tilting, it is probable that it would have recorded the gravi- 
tational elastic waves of disturbances originating at great distances. A 
necessary adjunct to such an apparatus in order to obtain an open diagram 
is the addition of a quick speed feed for the paper, which must come into 
action directly the pendulum commences to be deflected to the right and 
left of its normal position. Such a device was designed for me by my 
colleague, Mr. C. D. West, and it apparently works more satisfactorily 
than the original form of this kind of apparatus which is found in the 
Gray-Milne seismograph. 

Pendulum at N. — Sensibility, January 5, 1895, 1°=.3 mm. January 25, 
1895, l°=2-5 mm., or 1 mm. = r'-03. The pendulum used at this 
station was origiiaally at K. The hut was situated on the western side of 
TJyeno Park, near to its southern extremity. It was sheltered by trees 
on its eastern and southern sides. On its western side, where it was open, 
there was a steep scarp leading down to the Shinobadzu Pond, which lies 
in the bottom of a flat open valley. A, J, and K were on the plateau on 
the opposite side of this valley, the heights of these stations being about 
50 feet above the flat plain on which the greater portion of Tokio is 
situated. The movements were usually small, seldom exceeding 7 mm. 

The westerly movement commenced from about 6 or 9 p.m., and con- 
tinued until about noon next day ; that is to say, that about the time ivhen 
the instruments u2)on the opposite hill or 2)lateau were goi^ig eastwards, the 
instrument at Uyeno went towards the ivest, and vice versa (fig. 10, p. 136). 

Pendulum at 0.— Sensibility, January 12, 1895, l°=l-5 mm. 
January 22, 1805, l°=:l-5 mm. Station O was situated at a place about 
20 yards to the south of J. It only differed from the instrument at this 
latter station in the fact that the boom of the pendulum pointed from 
west towards the east, and it therefore recorded north and south motion. 



120 REPORT— 1895. 

During the few weeks it was used, it showed a small but regular diurnal 
fluctuation, being farthest north about 3 or 5 P.M., and farthest south 
between 9 a.m. and noon (fig. 12, p. 137). 

Pendulum at P. — Sensibility about the same as N. The instrumeat 
used at this station was the same as that used at N and K. 

The hut faced an open space about 70 yards square on its northern 
side, but on all other sides it was shaded by high trees. For one or two 
hours about mid-day a few rays of sunshine reached the roof of the hut 
and the northern side of the open space. That the ground within 20 or 
30 yards of the hut had but little sunshine may be inferred from the fact 
that after a fall of snow this remained upon the ground for ten or fifteen 
days. On open ground the snow disappeared in two or three days. 
During the day this would slightly thaw upon its surface, and at night it 
would freeze. About 50 yards to the east, a bluff' sloped down to the 
Tokio plain. 

Observations were only made between January 14 and February 4. 
The movements were extremely irregular, the most peculiar happening 
between January 14 and January 26. On these days, excepting the 23rd 
and 25th, during the night the pendulum made a rapid excursion towards 
the east, returning to its normal position some time about noon on the 
following day. These abnormal movements took place upon nights when 



~1 



Fig. 2. 



i.Joprrv Joji 13 1Z]5^^ ~ — ^^j/>7t ^j 

s^ , \ XxLuit cfnwremtnJt 



z 2c a m- 




Jan. /3 m95 



EasbA'anU is imMjwn'n 



it was unusually cold, and therefore they may have been due to the freez- 
ing of moisture beneath or in the vicinity of the column (fig. 2). 

Pendulum at Q. — This instrument, which is in charge of the Meteoro- 
logical Department, is as well installed as the pendulum at A. It stands- 
on a stone column in a dark room in the same building with a self- 
recording electrometer. The boom, which at first was partly made of 
lacquered bamboo, but which has been replaced by one of aluminium,, 
points from north to south. Immediately outside the room there is one- 
of the castle walls sloping down to a deep moat, beyond which comes the 
plain of Tokio. 

The diurnal movements are slight, but decided, the westerly excur- 
sion being completed at from 3 to 6 p.m., and the easterly at about 6 a.m., 
wliich corresponds to the motions at J and K. Tremors are slight. 

Pendidnm at R. — This pendulum was set up in a hut in the garden at 
No. 17, Kaga Yashiki, Tokio. At a distance of about 5 yards on its 
western side a steep bank leads down to a road, which joins a second road 
at right angles on the north side of the hut, about 30 feet below the level 
of the garden. 

The instrument is intended to act as a seismograph, sensitive to slight 
vibratory motions, while from the length of its boom, which is about 
3 feet, it is also able to record slight changes in level. The first 2 inches 
of the boom is a small metal tube, at one end of which there is an agate 
cup. This boom is continued by a reed, at the end of which there is a 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN. 121 



black filament of straw. To balance the weight of the reed and straw a 
light arm, resting upon a pivot on the underside of the brass tube, carries, 
at its extremities two small weights. Assuming the pivoted mass, which 
has a considerable moment of ineitia and but little weight, to be the centre 
of oscillation of the system, which is held in a horizontal position by u 
thin wire tie, then the arrangement is that of a conical pendulum seismo- 
graph, having a multiplication of about tweiaty, and without the friction 
of a writing pointer. The black hair at the extremity of the boom floats 
above the slit in the box containing the drum, carrying the photographic 
film, which moves at a rate of 2 inches per houi-. The resulting diagram, 
is a white line showing the position of the shadow of the hair-like- 
filament. 

A modification of this instrument was to reduce the length of th& 
boom to 2 feet, and because the trace given by the shadow of the filament 
at the end of the boom was wanting in sharpness, the filament was re- 
placed by a thin plate of mica about half an inch square, with a small slit 
in its centre, similar to that used in the larger apparatus. Because the 
floating plate attached to the boom does not cover the whole of the slit in 
the box above the drum carrying the photographic film, the diagram is a 
black line given by the spot of light from the crossed slits, bounded on the- 
right and left by a black band, the irregularities on the inside edges of 
which correspond with the irregularities on the central line. Every houi' 
a separate clock depresses on one end of a balanced lever, at the other end 
of which there is a light vane which rises in front of the lamp, and cuts 
tlie light oS for one minute. The result is that the central line (whem. 
there are no tremors), and the two bands at all times, are transversely 
marked by a distinct white line. Not only do the bands indicate time, 
and repeat the sinuosities and other movements shown on the central line, 
but by the presence or absence of striations they immediately show whether 
the clock driving the drum has been working regularly. 

Instead of cutting otf the light from the lamp, the light is now cut oft" 
the edge of the fixed slit by the hour hand of a watch moving horizontally 
across the same (fig. 3). 



Fig. 3. 



I 




An experiment made at this station was to obtain diagrams on films, 
which only moved at the rate of 75 mm. in twenty-four hours, or 3 mm. 
per hour, whicli, from the results obtained, appears to be a suitable speed 
for recording diurnal waves and earth tremors (fig. 9). The western elonga- 
tion is completed rather suddenly between 7 and 8 a.m. (nineteen and twenty 
liours). The eastern movement, which is performed with extreme irregu- 
larity, is ended about 4 p.m. The amplitude of this wave is about 30 mm. 



122 REPORT— 1895. 

During the day, or from 7 A.M. until about 9 p.m., tremors are absent, but 
they occur in a very marked manner between 9 p.i\r. and 7 a.m., when they 
suddenly cease (tig. 9). 

The central part of fig. 3 shows a white band the width of a small plate 
of blackened mica at the end of a reed boom. In the mica there is a 
broad and a narrow slit, which correspond to the broad and thin lines in 
the diagram. The object of the broad line is to obtain a photogram, 
when the boom and its plate of mica are displaced rapidly, at which times 
sufficient light may not pass through the narrow slit to alFect the bromide 
paper. When the motion is slow the tine slit gives the best definition. The 
vertical white marks at distances of 41 mm. apai't are made by the pro- 
longation of the minute hand of a watch crossing one end of the fixed 
slit every hour. If the instrument be disturbed at knoton times, and the 
times at which these disturbances took place be determined by the 
irregularities produced on the broad and thin bands, the errors in these 
readings vary between three and twenty seconds. Should the paper 
move irregularly, this is shown by ditferences in the length of the spaces 
representing hours, while the times at which retardation or acceleration 
took place are shown by vertical striations in the broad black bands. 
This is the form of recording surface which I am using to obtain photo- 
grams of movements due to earthquakes. It is not suitable for tremors 
or daily waves. 

Pendulum at S. — This pendulum, originally at N, commenced its 
records on April 24, 1895, at the Agricultural School at Komaba, which 
is five and a half miles distant in a S.W. direction from the University. 
Komaba is .situated on a flat plateau, and the nearest irregularity in the 
contour of the ground from the instrument which stands in the middle of 
a field partly covered with corn is at a distance of about half a mile, where 
there is a small valley. The soil is so light and dusty that a walking- 
stick may be pushed into it for a depth of two or three feet. Beneath 
this comes a red earth. The records show tremors, but they are small. 

A westerly motion of about 5 mm. is completed at about eighteen 
hours, or 6 A.M., and an easterly movement of equal amount at about three 
hours, or 3 p.m. (fig. 11, p. 137). 

On the S.E. side of the instrument the ground is bare, and during the 
day the pendulum moves to this side. 



(6) Daily Wave Records. 

In the following tables the localities or instruments are indicated by 
capital letters. The times at which an instrument completed its N.E., 
S.W., E., or W. excursion are indicated by hours, or 24, corresponding 
to mid-day, and 12 to midnight. The figui'es in brackets give in milli- 
metres the amplitude of the displacements. When a dash takes the place 
of hours it means that the displacements were too small to be measured, 
or that the diagram was a straight line. When the space for hours is 
left blank, it signifies that for some reason or other, either that no diagram 
was taken or that it has been lost. A record like 9-15 on October 15 
means that the S.W. motion of A was completed between nine and fifteen 
hours. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 123 



Daily Waves. 







A 


J 


K 


Eemarks 




"" 












1 






N.E. 


S.W. 


E. 


w. i 


" 


W. 




1 










1894. 








October 13 . 


9 [:1] 


19 [3] 


12 [7] 


23 [7] 








,, 


14 . 


6 [3] 


19 [3] 


G[5] 


23 [5] 




5 




*» 


15 . 


3 


9-15 [3] 


irrej 


'ular 




6 




)t 


16 . 


15 [8] - 






» 








1} 


17 . 




21 [8] 












}i 


18 . 


3-6 [5] 


15-21 


18 [35] 










)> 


19 . 


very 


sliglit 


19 [15] 


5-12 [35] 


18 [25] 


3-6 




)» 


20 . 

21 . 


H 


)i 


19 [8] 
18 [18] 


6 [15] 
6 [8] 


! 9 
18 [12] 


3-6 
13 




i> 


22 . 


9 


13 




C[18] 




6 [12] 








18 


24 


23 [14] 





] 23 [18] 






" 


23 . 


5 

IG 


11 

24 



21 [5] 


6 [14] 


18 [12] 


4 [8] 




)) 


24 . 


15 [5] 


25 [5] 




6 [5] 


Irregular aud 
















bro 


keu 












21 [18] 










» 


25 . 


9 

18 


15 

24 


23 [C] 


6-15 [18] 








)» 


26 . 


6 




21 [6] 


6 [6] 


21 [4] 


« 




)) 


27 . 








6 [6] 


sli 


ght 




November 4 






18 [15] 




21 [40] 




The tleflcctioiis for A 


» 


5 


15 


4 


21 [18] 


4 [15] 


18 [40?] 


4 


are too small and ir- 
regular to be relied 


j» 


6 




18 


15-21 [14] 


6 






upon. 
J does not change much 


i» 


7 




18 


21 [14] 


G-9 






between 2 and 10, and 
again from 15 to 16 


>» 


8 






22 [14] 


6-12 






hours. 
The motion of K is more 




9 
10 
11 






21 [10] 

15-21 [18] 
small 


6-12 
G-9 






uniform without 
periods of rest. 


If 


12 






21 








J no wave, but tremors 


>» 


13 


10 


24 


21 [20] 


6-9 






at 21 and a westerly 
tendency. 


n 


14 

15 

16 

17 
18 


12 


21 


21 [19] 
21 [19] 
18 [15] 

IS [20] 


6-9 

6 

6-9 

6 
6 






Prom 20tli to 21st and 
24th to 25th were 


» 


19 


12 


4 


24 [15] 


9 


12 to 


5 [5] 


times of rain, and J 
does not show a daily 


)» 


20 


12 


7 








22 




wave. 
With K from the 19th 


)> 


21 


G,14 


3 and 7 


19 [28] 


6 


18 [40] 


6 


to the 20th at 22 hours 
where there was rain, 


Ji 


22 
23 


17 


3 


19 [23] 
21 


6 
9 


15 [40] 
15 [40] 


3 
2 


the daily curve ia 
absent or small. 


J» 


24 














no ill! 


gram 


Machine K was moved 


















toN. 



124 



REPORT — 1895. 



Daily Waves— oontinwd. 







A 


J 


M" 


Remarks 


' ' 




















N.E. 


S.W. 


E. 


W. 


E. 


\V. 












189ft 








November 25 
























22 










" 


26 


18 


5 


22 


9 [30] 


12-15 


24 




" 


27 






21 


9 [30] 


15 


24 




»> 


28 


18 


5 


9 [5], 21 


6, 12 [20] 








)» 


29 


12 


6 


24 


9 [20] 


15-18 


24 


The diagi-ams are fairly 


a 


30 






12 


4 [12] 






straight during a 
heavy tremor storm. 


December 2 




4 [4] 










With J no motion from 






24 




21 








10 to 21 hours or 


SJ 


3 


15 [5] 


4 


21 


9 [15] 


9 


24 


(luring the uight. The 
daily wave occurs 


)> 


4 


15 [2] 


6 


12-20 


6 [10] 


8 or 9 


24 


dmiug the time that 
the ground is un- 


s> 


5 


15 


19 


12-20 


5 [10] 


6 


24? 


equally lieated on the 
two sides of the hut. 


)) 


C 


14 


7 
19 


10-21 


6 [10] 


4-15 


24 




)) 


7 





1 


12-23 


5 [10] 


6 


12 




»> 


8 

















24 




n 


9 


24 


11 









18-24 






}t 


10 


21 


12 




21 






9-12 


For J no daily wave 


)} 


11 


18 


5 


19 


6 [20] 






from the 8tli to the 
10th at 21 hours when 


» 


12 






18 


6 [20] 






there was rain. Very 
little motion between 


>j 


13 






16 


5 [15] 






15 and 21 hours. 


» 


M 


. 






«[15] 








»» 


l(i 


24 


6-12 


stra 


gilt 








J) 


17 


24 


18 


21 


6 [12] 


6-9 


21-24 [3] , 




»> 


18 


9 


18-21 


21 


6 [10] 


5 


18-24 [5] 




}» 


19 




21 


21 


6 [10] 


6-9 


18-21 [4] 




» 


20 






off the film 


9 


21 [4] 




» 


21 


21 




11 


9 


23 [4] 




}} 


22 




6-9 


11 


6-9 




















23 [4] 




» 


23 






24 


6 [20] 


15 


23 [5] 




» 


24 






24 


6 [20] 


6 


23 [4] 




>» 


25 




7 


9-24 


5 [12] 


6 


15-24 [7] 




J) 


26 






9-23 


5 [12] 


7 


1 
18-24 [7] 




» 


27 






23 


12-16 [21] 


12-18 


24 [3] 




" 


28 


6 


24 


7 [3] 
24 [5] 


15-21 [5] 




18-21 




„ 


29 










6 






)> 


30 






small 












12 


24 








12-15 


For J from 15 to 21 
hours not much mo- 


j> 


31 






1 
15 


8 [12] 


C-9 


18-21 


tion. The daUy curves 
are sudden. 
N gives smooth flat 
waves; 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 125 
Daily Waves— continued. 



January 1 . 


23 


2 . 


24 


3 . 


18 


4 . 






12 


5 . 




6 . 
» 7 • 




8 . 
9. 

10 . 





N.E. I S.W. 



W. 



9-12 
5 



1 
15 



23 
15 



1895. 

7 [10] 

G[15] 



6 
5 
6 
5 

6? 
6 
9 



I 



W. 



18-21 

21 
18-21 
18-21 



21 
15-21 
18 
straight 



Remarks 



January 14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19 



20 



27 
28 
29 , 
30 
31 . 



N.E. 



S.W. 



15 


14 


14 


10 



6 
18 

5 
19 

6 



24 



Up to the 20th the 
trace is practically 
a straight line 



18 



18 





24 

12 

24 

18-21 



_ _E. I W. 

On iaili at 14hr20m. 
moved quickly east- 
wards' off the scale. 
It returned on the 
14th at 3h., but 
went off again at 
121i. lom. to return 
again next day at 
2h. 30m. It left the 
scale again at llh. 
30m., and move- 
ments seem to have 
continued during 
the week, the pen- 
dulum being steady 
and on the scale 
from about 3 to 12 
hours 

I 
On the 20th it went 
quickly eastward 
at 7h. and returned 
to go westwards at 
18h. 30m. Passed 
to the east on the 
21st at 12h. 30m., 
andretuniedonthe 
22nd at 2h. 18m., 
when it was steady 
until 15h. 34m"., 
when it went east- 
wards. It was 
steady from the 
23rd to the 25th, 
when at 15h. it went 
again eastwards. 
Returned at 31i. on 
the 26th and re- 
mained steady 
7 
23 

12 19 



18 24 



15 5 off film 
23 



15 

12-15 off film towards 

east 
returned at 23 hours 

I 

irregular and then 

no diagram 



N. 



S. 



?-6 
0-3 



18 



Remarks 



18-21 
18-24 



24 



19 



21 
12 
18 
21 



15-18 



diagram bad 



The curious movements 
of P which are large 
displacements, taking 
30 minutes or 1 hour 
for their completion, 
appear to have taken 
place on frosty nights. 
gives a smooth curve 
with an amplitude of 
4 or 5 mm. 



The waves on are de- 
cided and regular. It 
is difiBcult to determine 
the hour for the south- 
ern elongation. 



Rain. 



126 



BEPORT — 1895. 



(c) Tretnors, Microseismic Disturbances, or Earth Pulsations. 

In these tables the instruments or locahties are indicated according to 
the letters of the alphabet. The hours between which tremors were 
marked are, for example, given thus, Oct. 13, 3 to 24. The times at which 
they attained a maximum range are given thus, max. 15 to 18. or 24 
indicates mid-day. The small figures in brackets give in millimetres the 
range of motion of the pendulum, as shown upon the photograms. 



Date A 


J 


K 


Remarks 




1894. 






Oct. 










13 


3to24, max. 15tnl8(5) 


From the 13th to the 


Slight tremors be- 


With the ex- 


14 


OtoG (2), 15 to 24 (2) 


21st very slight tremors. 


tween tlie 18th and 


ception of the 


15 


to 6 ( 1), 12 to 24, luai. 19(3) 


but there are three 


19th only, and the 


IStliwlien there 


16 


0to3 (2), 18 to 24 (2) 


decided diurnal waves 


easterly sinus of 


was rain the 


17 


to 6 (2), 15 to 24, max. 19 (4) 


the easterly sinuses of 


this day agrees 


large tremors 


18 


to 6 (2 ), 12 to 24, max. 19 ( 6 ) 


which on the 17th, 18th 


with the records of 


and large waves 


19 


Otol(l), 12to24,max. 22(4) 


and 19th coincide with 


J and the large tre- 


occur on tlie 


20 


0to24, max. 18(4) 


the maxima of tremors. 
The largest wave co- 
incides witli the most 
pronounced tremors on 
the 18th 


mors of A on the 
18th 


fine days. ! 


21 


to 6 (0), 9 to 21, max. about 
18(5) 


15 to 21, max. 19 (3) 


14 to 17 (3) 


On the 26tb, 
27th, and 28th, 


22 


12 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (10) 


20 to 24 (2) 





when there 


23 


to 3 (5), 8 to 24, max. 18 to 21 
(10) 


15 to 18 (2) 





were no tre- 
mors, the daily 


24 


to 4 (5), 6 to 24, max. 15 to 21 
(15) 


6 to 21, max. 18 (3) 


Oft scale 


curves of J and 
K are feeble. 


25 


12 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (10) 


12 to 18 (2) 


)» 


— 


26 


to 6, trace of trems. about 18 








— 


27 


About 21 a trace 








— 


Nov. 










4 


7 to 10 (4) 


— 


— 


— 


5 


15 to 24, max. 15 to 21 (9") 


9 to 18 and 21 to 23, 
slight 


About 18 slight 


— 


6 


to 3 and 9 te 24, max. 18 to 21 
(12) 


• — 


Diagram ceases 
after 6th 


— 


7 


13 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (7) 


12 to 21 (2) 


— 


— 


8 


15 to 18, max. 18 (3) 


18 slight 


— 


— 


9 


18to23, max. 21 (3) 


— 


— 


— 


10 


12 to 21, max. 18 (10) 


— 


— 


— 


11 


12 to 24 small 


9 to 21, max. 13(2) 


Slight 


11th to noon 


12 


to 22, max. 18 (10) 


12 to 21, max. 18 (3) 


No diagram 


of the 13th 


13 


12to22, max. 18to21(8) 


9to21, max. 19(3) 


— 


clouds and rain. 


14 


12to21, max. 18to21(6) 


12tol9, max. 17(2) 


— 


Although there 


15 


13 to 22, max. 18 to 21 (5) 


6to21, max. 18(2) 


. — 


are no daily 


16 


15 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (6) 


6 to 16, also 21 to 24, 
max. 15 (2) 




curves, tremors 
occur with the 
morning fre- 
quency. Tre- 
mors are marked 
while the pen- 
dulum is mov- 
ing eastward 
and during its 
comparative rest 
of 15 to 21 hours. 


17 


0to6 


Oto6 


— 


Windy morning. 


18 


11 to 23, max. 16 to 21 (9) 


6 to 18. max. 12 (2) 


No record 


" — 


19 


17 to 22, max. 19 (4) 


12 to 16, max. 14 (2) 


12to]6,max.l4(2) 


.T and K for 


20 


8 to 11 (2), 18 to 21, max. 19 (3) 


9 to 11 and 13 to 18, 


6 to 9 and 16 to 17, 


19th to 20th no 






max. 17 (1) 


max. 15 (2) 


curve, but there 
are tremors. 


21 


18 to 21, max. 19 (2) 


15 to 19, max. 18 (2) 





For 20th to 


22 


15 to 23, max. 21 (2) 








21st on J no 
curve, but tre- 
mors. 


23 


18 to 23, max. 21 (4) 








• — 


24 


12 to 24, max. 18 and 24 (5) 








~" 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 127 



Tremors, Microseismic Disturbances, or Earth TvLSXriotus— continued. 



Date 



N" 



Remarks 



Nov. 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

Dec. 
1 

2 
3 

4 
5 



10 



to 21, max. 12 (4) 

IG to 22, max. m (5) 

No diagram 

16 to 22, max. 19 (4) 

18 to 24 

to 24, max. 15 to 21 (15) 

to 24, max. IC to 21 (10) 

to 22, max. to 18 (10) 
8 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (8) 

12 to 24, max. IS to 23 (8") 

to 4 and 7 to 24, max. 17 to 21 

(10) 
12 to 24, mar. 18 to 21 (8) 
12 to 24, max. 18 to 20 (8) 
13to24, max. 18 to21 (4) 
11 to 24, max. 22 (6) 

to 18 and 22 to 24, max. 12 (5) 



Oto6 (5) and 22 to 24 (5) 

to 5, 9 to 23, max. 18 to 21 (5) 

15 to 23, max. 21 (6) 

to 8 (3) and 18 to 24 (4) 



to 24, max. 9 to 18 (10) 

to 3 and 2 to 24, max. 18 (8) 

to 3 and 9 to 23, max. 15 to 21 

(8) 
12 to 22, max. 18 (7) 

15 to 22, max. 20 (G) 

16 to 22, max. 18 to 21 (5) 
15 to 21, max. 21 (4) 

18 to 21 (2) 

to 5 (4) and — to 23, max. 19 
(4) 

— to 23, max. 20 (10) 

12 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (10) 
to 5 (5), 7 to 12 (8), 15 to 24 (8) 
to 24, max. 12 to 18 (10) 
12 ? to 24, max. 20 (8) 
G to 24 (6) 

— to 24 (6) 



1894. 



max. 18 (3) 
OSfilm 

max. 18 (3) 
18 to 22, max. 21, (3) 
to 24, max. 18 to 23 (3) 



to 2 and 9 to 24, max. 

2(2) 
to 20, max. 20 (2) 
15 to 22, max. 19 (2) 

15 to 20, max. 19 (2) 
Slight 

15 to 20, max. 18 (3) 
7to21,max.l4 to 18(2) 

9 to 24 slight 

to 18 slight, max. 18 
(3) 

12 to 24 slight 

to 24 slight, max. 12 

(2) and 18(2) 
12 to 15 sUglit 
SUght 



Slight 
9 to 18 (2) 
to 21 sUght 

12 to 20. max. IC (2) 
Oa the film 



Slight up to 21 
Slight 12 to 23 



1895. 



max. 18 (5) 



18 to 22, max. 21(3) 

2 to 4 and U) to 24, 

max. 18(3), 22(4) 

0to3 (1) and 15 to 

21(1) 
6 to 18 slight 
8 to 24, max. 12 (5) 

and 18 (5) 
to 4 and 21 to 24 
to 6 (3) and 21 to 

24(3) 
15 to 24(1) 
Oto 3 

Slight at 23 (3) 
to 24 intermittent 

up to 4 
to 17 (5) and 

boom held by a 

spider's thread 



21 to 24 (4) 
to 4 (2) 

18 to 21 (1) 
23(1) 
to 4 (1) 
21 to 24 (3) 
to 4 (4) 



— to 7 

15 to 23, max. 21 ( 3) 



Midday tremors 
at N might be 
due to traffic, 
but not those on 
the 3rd. 



On the nth up 
to midnight 
rery many thou- 
sands of people 
were in the park 
and round the 
pond near N 
celebrating the 
capture of Port 
Arthur and the 
naval battle at 
Yaloo. 

Tremors of N 
about midday 
may be due to 
traffic. 



Jan. 










1 


12 to 24, max. 18 (5) 


Slight 9 to 23 


15 to 21 slight 





2 


to 4 (3), 12 to 22, max. 18 and 
21 (G) 


9 to 21 (2) 


12 to 18 „ 


— 


3 


15 to 24, max. 21 


Slight 12 to 21 


12 to 21 „ 





4 


B to 24 (G) 


— 


3 to 21 





5 


<l to 24. max. 19 (9) 


— 





__ 


6 


12 to 18(G) 


— 


7to24(l> 


The diagrams 


7 


— 18 (6) 


— 


10 to 24 (1) 


for N between 


8 


15 to 24 (5) 


— 


12 to 24 (1) 


the 6th and 13th 


9 


Oto 3 (2), 21 to 24(1) 


— 


18 to 24 (1) 


were destroyed. 


10 


Oto 3 (2). 10 to 24 (2) 


— 


Oto 24 (1) 


and these re- 


11 


Oto 12(1), in to 24(1) 


— 





cords are from 


12 


to 3 (1), 15 to 24, max. 21 (5) 


— 


— 


notes. 



128 REPORT— 1895, 

Tremors, Miceosbismic Disturbances, or Earth Pulsations — continued. 



Date 


A 


P 


o 


Remarks 




1895. 






Jan. 










14 


Oto 3, 7 to 24, max. 18(10) 


Trems. (hiring day of 


Very slight tre- 


— 


15 


10 tn 24, max. 18(8) 


(2), but (Iiirin<; ' the 


mors oil nearly all 


— 


IG 


13 to 23, max. 18 to 21 (5) 


niahtsoftlie 13tli, 14tli 


day.s 


— 


17 


9 to 21 (2) 


and IStli. the light spot 


— 


— 


18 


7 to 23, max. 19 (4> 


off the film 


— 


— 


19 


15 to 23, max. 20 (4) 


— 


— 


— 


20 


14 to 19, max. 18(3) 


Slight 


— 


— 


21 


12to24, max. 18(4) 


— 


— 


— 


22 


16 to 21, ma.x. 19 (3) 


— 


— 


— 


23 





— 


— 


— 


24 


18 to 24. max. 21 (3) 


— 


— 


— 


25 


to 4, 9 to 24, max. 18 (5) 


— 


— 


— 


27 


3 to 7(1) 


to 9 (5), 18 to 24 (5) 


15 to 18 slight 


— 


28 


3 to G (1), 15 to 23, max. 20 (2) 


3 to 21 (2) 


6 to 12 at 18 (2) 


— 


29 


15 to 21, max. 19 (2) 


12 to 21, max. 18 (2) 


9 to 18 (1) 


— 


30 


2 to C, 11 to 22, max. 16 (5) 


3 to 15 (2) tlien o£f the 
film 


— to 18(1) 


— 


SI 


No record, 18 to 22, max. 21 (2) 


15 to 18 (1) 


G to 10(1) 


_ 


]?eb. 










1 


3 to G, 18to 23, max. 18 (3) 


3 to 6 (2), 12 to 24 (2) 


— 


— 


2 


to 24 (3) 


6 to 12 (2), then off the 
film 


Slight tremors, but 
the diagram is bad 


— 


3 


0to4(2), 15to21,max. 18(5) 


Oto 24 (2) 


— 


— 


4 


15 to 21, max. 18(5) 


No diagram 


— 


— 


5 


14 to 20, max. 18(3) 


„ 


— 


— 


(! 


]8to20, max. 19(2) 


„ 


— 


— 


7 


18 to 24 (3) 


„ 


— 


— 


8 


to 4 (3), 15 to 21, max. 19 (3) 


5) 


— 


— 



(d) The Slow Displacement of Pendulums. 

All my horizontal pendulums, whether they were situated upon the 
Tock or upon the alluvium, have crept away from their normal position. 
While some of them have moved towards the east, others have moved 
towards the west. Irregularities like these have been noticeable upon 
newly built light foundations. Pendulums like those at A and L, where 
the foundations were massive and old, during the time that they were 
observed, had a general tendency to creep towards the west or south- 
west. These movements, which were often interfered with by permanent 
•displacements caused by earthquakes, closely resembled the gradual dis- 
placements observed at stations upon the rock, where, for earthquakes at 
least, the yielding parallel to the dip of the strata was greater than it was 
in a direction at right angles to the same. 

Although my intention when installing the instruments parallel and 
at right angles to the dip was to determine in which of these two direc- 
tions yielding was the most pronounced, the observations were not con- 
tinued sufficiently long to determine whether such changes as were 
observed had any connection with the secular movements which around 
Yokohama are apparently proceeding with unusual rapidity. To carry 
out this investigation, which would not be difficult for a resident at 
Karnakura, where caves are numerous, at least two installations would 
be required, and it is not unlikely that within a period of two or three 
years some measurement of geological changes would be obtained. I also 
regret to say that the duration of the observations was not sufficiently 
long to determine whether the wandering of the 25endulums had an 
annual periodicity such as might be expected from the results obtained by 
observers in Europe. 



ON THE EAUTHQUAKK AM) VOLCANIC PIIEXOMEXA 01'' JAPAX. 129 



(e) Periodic movements of tieveral dai/s' duration, and wandering 

vf the pendtdums. 

In order to determine the existence or non-existence of periodical 
movements greater than twenty-four hours, the mid-day position of 
instruments A and J were plotted on squared paper. This was done 
for dates between October 13 and December 4, 1894. Because the 
instrument at K during the period wandered so rapidly towards the east, 

Fig. 4. 




and had in consequence to be repeatedly re-adjusted, its records have not 
been considered. Whether the mid-day reading is the best one to 
represent the mean daily position of the instruments must for the present 
be left until a second examination of the diagrams has been made, when 
the analysis may be continued up to the end of the first week in 
February 1895 (fig. 4). 

FiG. o. 



fS6>4 



i7 2f ZJ ZSMkZ 



/4 JS 22 26 30 



/ 


\ 


















; 


^, 




/ 


\ 
















i 


/ 


^ 


s 


/ 


\ 


V 




^ 




^- 


--- 


-«_ 


•7 






\J 


't 


^ 


■n 


^ 






.^ 








/ 




^Jl 


1 


ll 












'^ 


^- 
















^ 


\ 






/ 


/ 






















[ ' 


\y 













JBer. 



By drawing a free curve through the diagrams of mid-day positions 
of A and J, and reducing this horizontally and vertically one-fourth, tlie 
two curves shown in the accompanying figure are obtained (fig. 5). 

During the complete period considered neither of the pendulums 
has changed much in its mean position 
1895. 



Whatever slight changes have 



130 



REPORT — 1895. 



taken place may be due to the direction in which the instruments or their 
foundations have wai'ped, or, what is equally probable, they may each 
have moved away from an exposed area which, in consequence of evapora- 
tion, may have been rising. About this general movement of the pendulums 
which might be included in the previous section of this report, because it 
only refers to observations extending over fifty-two days with pendulum*, 
one of which had a light foundation, no definite conclusions can be stated. 

One thing, however, which is clear, and which can hardly be 
attributed to" the warping of instruments or their foundations, is that 
the pendulums Avandered at the same time in the same directions. For 
the first four days the pendulums at A and J moved westwards, for the 
next twelve days they moved eastwards, after which there was a slight 
westerly and then an easterly motion up to the fortieth day, when they 
both turned quickly westwards. This synchronism in direction of motion 
is evidently due to some general cause, which may act on the surface of 
the earth or within its interior. A barometric curve determined in 
a manner similar to that in which the curves for A and J were deter- 
mined shows that atmospheric pressure was near its maximum when the 
pendulums were at their western limits, but the relationship between this 
curve and those of the pendulums is not sufficiently clear to conclude 
that the movements of the pendulums have been altogether due to 
fluctuation in atmospheric pressure. Possibly the movements may have 
been due to evaporation and precipitation lightening or loading some 
particular area in the vicinity of the pendulums. 

The earthijuakes of local origin indicated by circles on the curve for 
A, which occurred during the time that there was a rapid westerly 
motion, suggest the idea that the movements may have a hypogenic 



(/) On the daily change in the jwsition of the pendulums. 

The table below gives in millimetres the difference in the mid-day read- 
ings of the positions of the pendulums A and J. The sign -f- indicates- 
that during the past twenty-four hours the pendulum has moved so many 
millimetres towards the west, while the sign — indicates a displacement 
towards the east. The sign ? means that no reading had been taken or 
that no displacement was observed. 



1894 


A 


J 


1894 


A 


J 


October 14 . 


- 1 


- 5 


October 31 . 


- 2 


+ 3 


15 . 


+ 5 


-f20 


November 1 . 


- 3 


+ C 


ir. . 


- 1 


+ 8 


2 . . 


_ 2 


- 6 


17 . 


-1- 3 


+ 12 


3 . . 


+ 1 


+ 1 


18 . 


- 6 


+ 3 


4 . . 


? 


4- 8 


10 . 


- 4 


- 3 


5 . . 


+ 1 


+ 5 


20 . 


- 4 


1 


G . . 


- 8 


-10 


21 . 


- 3 


- 1 


„ 7 . 


+ 4 


- 1 


22 . 


- 3 


-17 


8 . . 


- 1 


-t- 6 ! 


23 . 


- 8 


- 7 


9 . . 


? 


-f 7 


24 . 


+ 5 


+ 7 


10 . 


7 


_ 2 


25 . 


- 8 


- 3 


11 . 


+ 3 


- 3 


„ 2R . 


- 6 


-1- 5 


12 . 


_ 2 


- 7 


27 . 


+ 7 


-1- 7 


13 . 


7 


- 1 


28 . 


-1- 4 


+ 3 


14 . 


- 4 


- 5 


20 . 


- 5 


-13 


15 . 


- 3 


+ 10 


30 . 


J 


- 4 


16 . 


+ 2 


+ 1 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AXD VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN, 131 



1804 


A 


J 


1894 


A 


J 


November 17 . 


+ 2 


- 1 


December 3 . 


+ 6 


+ 12 


18 . 


? 


- 4 


4 . . 


— 5 


+ 1 


19 . 


— 


-10 


5 . . 


+ 1 


_ 2 


?0 . 


1 


+ 1 


6 . . 


- 4 


- 5 


21 . 


+' 7 


+ 12 


n 
Ti 1 < 


+ 2 


1 


22 . 


- 2 


+ 34 


8 . . 


- 1 


- 3 


23 . 


+ 2 


7 


9 . . 


? 


-10 


24 . 


- 1 


+ '3 


10 . 


? 


1 


25 . 


+ 2 


- 1 ' 


11 . 


+ 11 


+' 9 


26 . 


+ 12 


+ 16 


12 . 


- 2 


- 4 


27 . 


- 2 


+ 8 


13 . 


- 4 


? 


28 . 


+ 2 


+ 9 


14 . 


+ 3 


- 6 


29 . 


? 


? 


15 . 


1 


+ 4 


30 . 


- 5 


-15 


16 . 


- 1 


+ 4 


December 1 . 


- 2 


-12 


17 . 


7 


- 7 


2 . . 


- 5 


+ 1 









An inspection of this table shows that, although the pendulums A and 
J were separated by a distance of about 270 yards, and were differently 
installed, there has been a general agreement in the direction of their 
displacements, and that this is particularly marked Avhen the movements 
of A were decided. When there has been disagreement in the direction 
of motion, the movements of A have usually been small, and it is not 
unlikely tliat such discrepancies would disappear if a time had been taken 
to represent the daily mean position farther removed from the hour at 
which the western movement of the diurnal wave commences. The 
changes indicated in the table are also shown diagrammatically in con- 
junction with a curve showing the fluctuations of the barometer (p. 129). 

What is true for A and J is generally true for J and K. Although 
between October 13 and November 20 there are six decided barometrical 
fluctuations, and during tlie same interval there are six decided westerly 
movements of J, the crests and depressions of these diagrams do not 
retain the same relative position. For example, on October 1 7 the 
barometrical crest corresponds to the westerly extension of J, while on 
November 5 a similar movement of J corresponds to a barometrical 
depression. Although at times it appears as if there were a close relation- 
ship between barometrical fluctuation and the movements of the pen- 
dulums, the diagram (fig. 4) indicates that, although both phenomena are 
nearly identical in having a periodicity of between two and seven days, it 
does not show that they are absolutely synchronous. It seems that the 
instruments at J and K, which were within six feet of exposed ground, 
M'ith or after rain moved westwards, but equally large westerly motions 
have occurred without i-ain. 

g. On the Diurnal Wave. 

In considering the results towards which the observations of tlie 
daily wave point, it is necessary to consider the observations made during 
the past year in conjunction with those described in the Beport for 
1893-94. 

When instruments were installed upon the rock in caves as at Kama- 
kura (C and D), at Kanagawa (I), and in Yokohama (G and H) the daily 
•wave was not perceptible. This by no means precludes the possibility of 

K 2 



132 REPORT— 1895. 

its existence in such places, and had instruments of greater sensibility been 
employed it is likely that it might have been detected. It was perceptible 
and often measurable, but by no means pronounced in the records from 
my house (A), where the instrument was well founded and in an east and 
a west direction, well protected from temperature effects upon the sur- 
rounding soil. It must not be forgotten that this instrument was the 
most sensitive, being capable of recording changes of 0"-l. Had the 
sen.sibility of this instrument not exceeded that of other instruments less 
favourably installed, it is doubtful whether it would have shown any 
marked trace of the daily wave. 

Two instruments in an underground chamber (E and F), where as in the 
caves the daily change in temperature did not exceed P C., often showed 
the daily wave in a marked manner, but it was not so great as it was at 
stations J and Iv upon the surface. The conclusion to which these 
observations lead is that the daily wave is not due to fluctuations in tem- 
perature immediately near to the instruments, but that it is a surface 
phenomenon which penetrates to a depth of at least 12 feet in the 
alluvium. 

An instrument upon the surface (J) the ground round which was 
exposed to the sun upon all sides excepting the east, and another (K) 
which was exposed on all sides excepting the west, showed large diurnal 
waves, and notwithstanding the fact that between these two stations there 
was a pond and a grove of tall trees, the pendulums usually moved in the 
.same direction at about the same time. The magnitude of the movements 
was different, but with this exception the only other difference was that 
J, the open ground round which was exposed to the afternoon .sun for one 
or two hours longer than the open ground round K, continued its westerly 
motion for one or two houi-s longer than K (figs. 7 and 8). 

An experiment made at J was to dig a trench 5 feet in depth round 
the south and west sides of the hut. This did not appear in any 
way to affect the amplitude of the daily wave, but it seemed to increase 
the suddenness with which the westerly displacement commenced, and at 
the same time the number of hours occupied in making a complete wave 
was reduced. With an instrument at O, a few yards from J, which 
recorded north and south motions, the wave was regular but of small 
amplitude, the northern movement coinciding with the western motion of 
J and K. The direction of maximum tilting may therefore have approxi- 
mately l)een W.N.W. and E.S.E. On the western side of a plateau 
facing the eastern slope of the plateau on which A, J, K, and O were 
situated, an instrument N showed a daily wave, but the xoesterly exciorsion 
of ihe pendulum loas completed only a feio hours later than the easterly 
excursion was completed by those iipon the opposite hill. It appeared as 
if the two bluffs, or at least the trees upon them, inclined towards each 
other, and then away from each other once in twenty-four hours. 
Between the two bluffs there is an open valley, in which there'is a lake or 
pond nearly half a mile in breadth. 

That the records at N were small may be attributed partly to the fact 
that the instrument never had given to it any great degree of sensitive- 
ness, and partly to the fact that on all sides excepting the west the ground 
immediately round the instrument was well shaded by tall trees. There 
is, however, a large open space about 100 yards to the east of this station. 
At another station P, on the eastern side of the plateau, on which N was 
situated, and at a distance fz-om it of about 200 yards, the movements, 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 133 

especiiilly upon frosty niglits, were extremely erratic, and they may 
probably have been produced by the freezing of the ground. When the 
cold was not great the movements were small, and here, again, the ground 
around the instrument was so well shaded by trees that after a snow- 
storm it would take from ten to fifteen days to melt away the snow, which 
at other places disappeared in one or two days. At Q, R, S, and O 
the movement during the day was towards the side on which the ground 
near to the instruments was most exposed to the sun. 

One very important observation especially marked at stations where 
large diurnal waves were recorded was that on rainy or doiidy daya these 
instruments ivere steady, and no dbirnal wave ivas recorded. 

The general conclusion to which these observations on the diurnal wave 
point is that on the alluvium on open ground, the daily wave is most 
pronounced on the surface, it is less in amplitude, but it may be decided at 
a depth of 12 feet ; while on a massive foundation the ground round which 
is well protected by a building or trees the wave is slight. Deep under- 
ground on a rock foundation with instruments such as I have had at my 
disposal it is not perceptible, but it is not improbable that a residual effect 
of the surface motion might be detected with more delicate apparatus. 
The cause of the motion is not any immediate effect of temperature upon 
the instruments, nor if we except the case where actual freezing of moisture 
in the ground round and possibly inside one of the huts took place does it 
appear to be due to expansion or contraction in or near the foundations 
accompanying the acquisition or withdrawal of heat. 

The most active cause producing the movement which takes place 
during the day may be the fact that the ground on different sides of an 
instrument is unequally exposed to effects producing evaporation. The 
retrograde motion during the night, which is smaller and more gentle than 
that which has happened during the day, may be due to tlie unequal 
condensation of moisture on two sides of a station. 

1. Effects accompanying Evaporation (Daylight Effect). — As the side 
of a station from which most moisture is withdrawn to be dissipated in 
the atmosphere has been relieved of a load, we should expect it to rise, 
and this effect ought, vcv alluvium, to be perceptible to some depth. The 
same area, because it is contracting like a drying sponge, may sink, but 
tliis would be a superficial action. 

On open ground, under favourable circumstances, the load taken away 
from a surface of earth by evaporation may amount to 4 or 5 lb. per 
square yard, or from an area 20 yards square, about 1 ton. Experiment 
has shown that 2 tons of wat^r taken out of a well and run off down a 
hill will cause a pendulum at a distance of 20 or 30 yards to behave as if 
the ground upon the well side had risen. If these premises are correct, 
then an instrument well surrounded by trees or buildings, because the 
evaporation is slight and is not likely to be much more marked upon one 
side than it is upon another, should show but little motion. A pendulum 
at a station freely and uniformly exposed upon all sides siiould also 
show but little change. During the morning a north-south pendulum 
would be expected to move slightly towards the west. For some hours 
after the sun's meridian passage there would be a pause in such displace- 
ment, after which a retrograde motion would set in. An instrument 
with open ground upon its eastern side would, during the morning, be 
expected to move westwards ; while at the same time another instrument, 
M'ith the western side as an evaporation area, would move eastwai-ds. It 



Fig. 6. 
A. — Moves west from 3 A.M or 6 a.m. to 3 p.m., or from noon to 9 p.m., or midnight. 
21 IS tS 12 9 6 3 Jfoon 21 18 IS iZ S 6 3 O 




15 IZ 



Fig. 7. 
J. — Moves west from 6 a.m. to 6 or 9 p.m. 

9 6 5 Noon 21 IS 15 n 9 




Diagrams of Liurnal Waves arc reduced ahoid one-half. 



0^' THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 135 

is not likely that pronounced movements would bo recorded upon rock, 
iieitlier sliould there be an appreciable trace of diurnal waves ou days 
when it was wet or cloudy. 

2. Contraction due to Desiccntion. —If the desiccation due to heating 
l^y the sun is followed by contraction, we should expect that during the 
<lay a pendulum would move towards the side losing the greatest amount 
of moisture ; that is to say, its movement would be in a direction opposite 
to that accompanying the removal of a load due to evaporation. On 
ground covered by trees or buildings, or on ground uniformly open all 
round, but littrle motion should be expected. Whatever effect was observed 
it is not likely that it would penetrate many inches beneath the surface. 

The following is a comparison of these considerations, with the 
observed movements of the various pendulums and the character of the 
surrounding ground. 

For 100 yards to the east and west of A the ground is equally open. 
The most open ground, however, lies to the east. It would therefore be 
■expected that movement during the day due to unloading would be west- 
wards. The observed movements, however, although generally westwards, 
showed too many irregularities, and were too feeble to justify a conclusion 
that they were due to such an influence (tig. 6). 

For 100 yards round station J the ground is more open upon the 
western side than upon the eastern side, and the westerly motion might 
therefore be attributed to desiccation and contraction upon this side. 
Beyond this limit, however, the ground is most open upon the eastern 
side, which might therefore, by evaporation, rise. This would give a 
westerly motion (tig. 7). 

Fig. 8. 



J8 



K.— Moves west from 6 A.M. to 3 or G r.M. 
12 fi 6 s Noon if IS IS 12 




For 100 yards round K the ground is most open upon the eastern side, 
and desiccation would result in an eastern displacement. The westerly 
motion recorded seems to find its only explanation in the fact that the 
eastern side of the instrument is more open than the western side, but 
the reason that these movements were greater than those at J is not 
clear (fig. 8). 

Immediately to the west of R there are tall trees and a deep cutting. 
So long as the sun shines over these trees upon an area 50 or 100 yards 
long to the east of the instrument, the pendulum mo^ es towards the area 



136 



REPORT — 1895. 



which is drying. Beyond this limit, however, there is far more open 
ground on the N.W., W., and S.W. sides of the station than there is in 
opposite directions, and the pronounced easterly motion may therefore 
be due to the unloading on the western side (fig. 9). 



Fie. 9. 
R. — Moves er.st from 8 A.M. to 3 or 4 p.m. 



21 18 15 IK a 



Noon 21 18 15 13 
Mora mo 




All round station N f(5r a distance of at least fifty yards there are 
either high trees or shrubs. Beyond this limit in a westerly direction but 
at a lower level thei^e are a pond and flat ground. In an opjiosite direction 

Fig. 10. 
N. — Moves east from 9 A.ii. to G or 9 P.M. 

■S/ fs 15 n s> 6 3 ^foo/v Z7 rs rs rz s> 6 3 o 




on the same level there is at a distance of about one hundred yards a 
smaller area of open ground facing the Exhibition buildings. The move- 
ment is therefore as if the ground on the side of the largest evaporation 
area had arisen. But the movement is small (fig. 10). 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 137 



Near to the instrument at S on the west side the ground is covered with 
green corn about one foot in height, while towards the S.E. there is a 
strip of bare ground perhaps fifty yards wide and one Imndred yards in 
length. The movement, which, however, is slight, is towards the area 
most open to the sun. 

Neglecting this strip, then, there is very much more open ground on 
the western than upon the eastern side of the station, and the movement 
may be explained on the assumption that this side, because it loses the 
most weight, rises relatively to the other (fig. 11). 

Fig. 11. 
S. — Moves east from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Eomaba S 



■ 6 



IS 



!.5 n 




Near to O the ground is somewhat more open on the north side, and 
it would appear that the motion was towards this side. Because the 
movements are slight, they might equally well be explained as a com- 
ponent of a south-eastern tilting due to greater relief of load upon the 
S.E. side, whicli is more exposed than that in the opposite direction. 

Although a diagram may be modified by contraction following desic- 
cation in the immediate vicinity of an instrument, this detailed examina- 
tion of the observations in relation to the localities at which they were 

Fig. 12. 
O. — Moves north from 9 A.M. to .5 P.M. 
Zf 18 15 iZ 9 6 5 21 IS IS 12 S> 6 S 

















M 
Dec. 


on 


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made tends to the conclusion that diurnal waves are in part distortional 
effects of the earth's surface due to unequal relief of load from various 
areas by evaporation. When the movements have been absent or small, 
the instruments have been, at stations on the solid rock, well protected by 
trees or on an open plain. Many anomalies occur which still require an 
explanation, the most remarkable perhaps being the smallness of the 
motions at A, where the hypothesis requires that they should have been 
pronounced. The intermittent character in the movement at R may pos- 
sibly be connected with the deep cutting on its western side, which breaks 



138 REPORT — 1895. 

the continuity of the ground upon that side, which it is assumed in order 
to produce the easterly deflection must rise. 

I put forward these conclusions simply as being, for the present at least, 
the best that I am able to arrive at as explanatory of my own observa- 
tions. The conclusions reached by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz only 
partly confirm my results. In the British Association Report for 189;j, 
on p. 316, he says that ' the range of motion is on an average very nearly 
p-oportional to either the quantity of sunshine or the maximum oscillation 
of temperature during the day.' This and the fact that the movements 
at TenerifFe, where the observatory appears to have been founded on and 
surrounded by soil and rock, were very much more pronounced than they 
were at Potsdam and Wilhelmshaven, where the soil was comparatively 
soft, apparently support the view that the diurnal wave may be a distor- 
tional efl'ect due to evaporation. On p. 320 of the same report, however, 
he says that ' at Potsdam as well as Orotava the average range of daily 
motion agrees most remarkably with those meteorological elements which 
we may consider as a measure of the intensity of solar radiation. But I 
must not omit to remark that the single days do not show this coincidence 
equally well. For cloudy days occur with a large range of oscillation, and 
clear days with a small range.' 

Although my observations in Japan have shown that when it was 
cloudy and wet the diurnal wave has been absent, it is not impossible that 
there may be cloudy days when, in consequence of wind, evaporation may 
occur, and in consequence the daylight distortion may be marked. 

3. Effects due to Condensatiun{Xiy]it Effect). — It has been shown that 
.at a favourably situated station the evaporation effect which has been 
marked during the morning may late in the afternoon be the means of 
starting a retrograde movement. It, however, remains to be explained 
why a motion possibly commenced in this manner continues slowly during 
the night until about 6 a.m. upon the following morning. Because this 
movement is comparatively small it may be produced by the addition or 
removal of a comparatively small load. 

The pi'ecipitation of dew, which on a uniform area like evaporation 
follows in the wake of the sun, represents a feeble load, but the retrograde 
motion continues when dew is not visible. But although dew may not be 
visible, if we look beneatli a board which has been lying on the ground 
.all night it is usually found to be very wet. This observation suggested 
the idea that just as moisture is condensed beneath a board, so it may 
be condensed in the ground within one or two inches of the actual 
surface. 

During a hot day moisture is evaporated from the soil, which is per- 
ceptibly heated to a depth of about one foot. Shortly after sunset the 
surface to a depth of one or two inches is chilled or in winter it is frozen. 
The result of this is, that moisture rising as vapour and by capillarity 
from water-bearing strata is condensed on the underside of the chilled sur- 
face. Like the dew we see on a uniformly covered surface the underground 
dew should be first precipitated on the eastern side of a station and sub- 
sequently ujDon the western side, and therefore during the night the surface 
on the former side gains weight at an earlier hour than the latter. 

To determine how far superficial soils gain in weight by an action of 
this description, independently of moisture precipitated from the atmo- 
sphere or condensed as it rises out of the ground, the following experi- 
ments were made. Two boxes each 1 ft. 6 in. square and 2 in. deeji were 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 139 

balanced on the extremities of beams carried upon knife edges. One box 
had a bottom made of tin and the other of fine wire netting, and each was 
filled with earth. Excepting when they were weighed, by placing weights 
at the other ends of the beams, they Avere allowed to rest on the soft 
earth of my garden. Sometimes it was found that during a night both 
boxes would lose weight, but at other times it was found that the weight 
of the box with the tin bottom had not changed, whilst the one with the 
wire netting had gained from 2 to 2-5 ounces, which apparently showed 
that there had been a condensation of moisture coming up frona beneath 
of 10 ounces per square yard, or about one-eighth of that which might 
have been removed during a day by evaporation. As my notes upon 
these experiments were destroyed by fire, what is here said can only be 
taken as indicating the character of a phenomenon which hitherto has not 
received attention. 

Whether the causes which have been described are sufficient to account 
for the diurnal movements of a horizontal pendulum remains for future 
investigators to decide. 

The gradual taking away of weight, followed by a gradual addition of 
weight unequally on the two sides of a pendulum during each period of 
24 hours, will account for the observed movements, and iii the evapora- 
tion of moisture during the day and the precipitation of moisture on 
the surface, together with its condensation beneath the surface during the 
night, we have phenomena which relieve or load surfaces in the required 
manner. 

(h) Tremors. 

In the third Report to the British Association, 1883, after observing 
tremors with the ordinary Italian form of tromometer, I attributed their 
origin either to the effects of high winds or to small but rapidly recurring 
variations in atmospheric pressure, such as may be observed during a 
typhoon. 

After analysing a long series of records of these movements, which 
were obtained from an automatic tremor recorder, and comparing the 
results with observations made in Italy, the conclusion arrived at was that 
tremors were at a maximum when the barometrical gradient was steep, 
no matter whether at the place where the tremors were observed the 
barometer was high or whether it was low. 

This relationship between tremors and the state of the barometric 
gradient, although it did not explain the origin of tremors, tended to 
destroy the distinction between tremors which occur with a low barometer, 
and are called haro-seismic motions, and those which appear during periods 
of high pressure, which are called volcano -seismic disturbances. 

An examination of the photograms obtained from the horizontal 
pendulums, which permit of more accurate analysis than those previously 
obtained, although it does not show that tremors only occur at the times 
when the bai-ometric gradient is steep, shows that at such times tremor 
storms are marked. These same diagrams, however, on account of the 
relationship they show between tremors, the changes in the position of a 
horizontal pendulum, barometrical pressure, and the diurnal wave, lead 
me to withdraw the suggestion that, because steep gradients are usually 
accompanied by wind, such winds, whether they are local or distant, may 
be the immediate cause of tremors. In their times of occurrence winds 



140 REPORT — 1895. 

and tremors undoubtedly show a close relationship, and therefore the former 
may, by its mechanical action upon buildings, trees, and the surface of a 
country, produce slight tremors, and influence the character of a record. 

The points which are marked in connection with the recent 
obsei'vations are as follows : — 

1. Belationship of Tremors to Localities and Instruments, 

Tremors have been pronounced at Station A, the instrument at which 
station, however, was the one most sensible to changes of level. At 
stations on the surface in Tokio they have been feeble, but have varied 
in their intensity. Underground upon the rock they have iiever been 
observed. This latter observation, which is based upon records obtained 
from five instruments, is in direct opposition to the observations made at 
Rocca di Papa in Italy, whei-e, I understand, tremors are as pronounced 
underground as they are upon the surface. 

At Station A, an instrument which showed ti'emors even in a more 
marked manner than the large horizontal pendulum, was a similar instru- 
ment made of a few millimetres of aluminium wire, a small mirror, and a 
needle point, weighing only a few grammes, a comparatively large form of 
which is described in the Report for 1892. On account of the manner in 
which the spots of light reflected from the mirrors of a pair of these 
instruments placed side by side would come to rest, and then start 
suddenly to move in the same direction, I was led to the conclusion that 
they were actuated by an intermittent tilting, and therefore that tremors, 
rather than being elastic vibrations, had the character of wave-like 
undulations.^ The fact that the instrument most sensitive to changes of 
level gave the most pronounced records appeared to strengthen this sup- 
position, and I was led to call these movements eaith pulsations. 

The only effect produced ))y heavy gusts of wind striking the building, 
or the beating of a steam hammer at a distance of fifty yards, is to pro- 
duce a temporary vibration in the pointers of an instrument ; but there is 
no angular displacement, and consequent swing, which characterises the 
movements during a tremor storm. 

An important observation made at Station A was that tremors were 
produced when two tons of water were taken out of a well distant about 
thirty yards. The operation caused the ground upon the well side to rise, 
and the horizontal pendulum was gradually displaced in an opposite 
direction. From this it may be inferred that either the pendulum took 
up its new position intermittently, or that the level of the ground changed 
intermittently. Whichevei- it may have been, it may be concluded that 
whenever a rapid change in the inclination of the ground takes place, 
horizontal and probably other pendulums may be caused to swing, and, as 
will be seen in the next section, at least a portion of the tremor records 
may be explained on the supposition that they are due to such causes. 

2. Relationship of Tremors to the Diurnal Wave. 

(1) Even when a horizontal pendulum is steadily following the diurnal 
wave and no tremors are visible, slight tremors nearly always appear 
about 6 or 9 a.m., just at the time when its easterly excursion has been 
completed and it turns to commence a relatively rapid motion towards the 
west (figs. 9 and 1.3). 

' The instruments were under the same cover. See Appendix. 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OK JAPAN. ] il 

(2) Should there be a tremor storm extending over one or two days 
tliere is a maximum motion at aljout 6 or 9 A.M. (figs. 9 and 13). 

(3) Large daily waves nearly always correspond -with pronounced 
tremors (47 cases). 

(4) When no daily wave appears, or when it is feeble, which usually 
happens when the weather is dull or wet, there have been eight cases of 
feeble tremors, and nine cases where tremors have loeen practically 
absent. 

(5) The greatest motion is experienced, or motion is most frequent, while 
the pendulum is moving eastwai-ds — an observation which is connected 
with the remarks in the next section. 



3. Relationship of Tremors to the Hours of Day and Night. 

(1) It has been shown that tremors are most frequent or at their 
maximum at about 6 or 9 a.m. (figs. 9 and 13). 

(2) The hours during which storms are the most frequent are from 
9 P.M. or midnight until mid day. During the afternoon and evening, 
therefore, tremors are not so frequent. 

(3) The tremors at 6 or 9 a.m. may be attributed to irregular move- 
ments accompanying the reversal in the inclination of the ground which 

Fig. 13. 




takes place at these hours, but if the tremors which occur at night are to 
be attributed to an intermittent change in level, it then becomes neces- 
sary to explain why the smallest changes in level are most intermittent in 
their character, which supposition is improbable. The accompanyino- 
figure shows how a tremor storm which may continue over several days 
has a maximum at 6 or 9 a.m., and also, as it dies out, that it terminates 
with slight tremoi's at these particular hours. It is taken from instru- 
mejit A. 



142 



REPORT — 1895. 



4. jRc'IationsMp of Tremors to Barometrical Conditions. 

(1) Tremors are apparently as mai'ked with a high barometer as with 
a low barometer. 

(2) Tremors chiefly occur with steep barometric gradients. 

(3) They are marked when barometric changes are rapid, whether the 
barometer is rising or whether it is falling. 

(4) Although it is not likely that the daily fluctuation of the barometer 
should have any marked effect upon the production of tremors, it may be 
noted that the maximum of tremors occurs when the barometer is at its 
greatest height and about to fall rapidly to its daily mimimum. Mr. T. 
Wada, of the Meteorological Observatory, has kindly given me the follow- 
ing table showing the daily barometrical maxima and minima deduced from 
eight years' observations : — 



— 


Fluctuat'on 


Maxima 


Minitna 


Winter .... 
Spring .... 
Summer 
Aixtumn 


mm. 
2-23 
1-91 
1-.3.5 
1-4 


Hour 
9 A.M. 
9 „ 

8 „ 

9 „ 


Hour 

2 P.M. 
4 „ 

4 „ 

3 „ 



For the year 760-00-758 30= 1-70 mm., at 9 a.m. 



5. Relationship of Tremors to Wind, Temperature and suh-Surface 

Condensation. 

Although tremors have occurred when a heavy wind was blowing in 
Tokio, as, for example, on October 26, tremors have been marked when 
wind was practically absent. Neither does there appear to have been 
any marked connection between the occurrence of tremors in Tokio and 
the wind at Choshi, which is situated on the coast about 50 miles west 
from Tokio. 

Although the morning breeze is apparently stronger than that in the 
evening, it does not seem to be connected with the morning frequency of 
tremors. 

Tremors are most frequent at the hours when the temperature is 
lowest, or during the time that sub-surface condensation is taking place. 
Tremors are at a mimimum during the time that the ground is becoming 
heated, and there is a free flow of moisture in the form of vapour from the 
earth to the atmosphere. 

Tremors and Waves on the Coast. — At the various lighthouses round 
the coast of Japan at 2, 6, and 10 A.M. and p.m., records are made of the 
force of the waves. In these records = calm and 6 = waves, which are 
unusually large. I have compared the records from Jogashima, 33 miles 
south of Tokio, and Inuboye, 53 miles west of Tokio, with the records 
of tremors, but I do not observe any connection between them (see 
Tables). 

Occurrence of Tremors in Manila. — A set of diagrams which clearly 
show the relationship between various atmospheric phenomena and the 
occurrence of tremors are the monthly sheets of the Meteorological Obser- 
vatory in Manila, where from some date prior to 1883 observations have 
been made with Bertelli's tromometer. Tremor storms are apparently 



ON THE KARTIIQUAKE AM) VOLCANIC I'lIEXOMEXA 01' JAI'AX. 113 

frequent from the end of June until the end of November, and accompany 
winds having a velocity of from 50 to 100 km. per hour, the barometer 
being low. During the remaining months of the year although slight 
tremors are frequent it is seldom that they are pronounced. When winds 
are fairly strong, reaching 30 or 40 km., unless these are continuous over 
several days the tremors are slight. Cases occur when tremors are fairly 
frequent with a low barometer (757 mm.) whilst there was but little wind. 
On the other hand, with a wind not exceeding 30 km., there have been 
decided tremors with a high barometer (763 mm.). The conclusion to be 
derived from these records, which, however, do not show the state of the 
bai-ometric gradient, is that tremors are frequent with high winds, with 
winds of moderate intensity if these are continuous over several days, and 
at times when the barometer is low. Because they are sometimes absent 
when a wind of moderate intensity is blowing, it would seem that their 
appearance may be more closely connected with changes in barometrical 
pressure than with the mechanical effects of wind upon surface irregulari- 
ties. They do not appear to be connected with daily changes in tempera- 
ture, the hygrometric state of the atmosphere, or with the occuri'ence of 
earthquakes. 

Since writing the above Father M. Saderra, S.J., Director of the Obser- 
vatory at Manila, writes me as follows : 'Evidently the results are influenced 
by atmospheric currents, but in an indirect manner, as is proved by the- 
fact that the hours of greatest wind force and* greatest movements of the 
tromometer do not always coincide. The influence is verified by means 
of the vibratory motion which the wind produces in the earth itself by 
impinging against mountains. It now remains to observe and study this 
influence and endeavour to ascertain which wind exerts most influence. 
Hitherto this has not been feasible, but now, God helping, I will set 
about doing it.' 

Although these observations throw a certain amount of new light upon 
the occurrence of tremors, and possibly explain their morning frequency, 
the causes producing tremor storms are yet obscure In Japan, at least, 
they appear to be a surface phenomenon which exhibits itself in different 
degrees in different localities. Although the longer period motions of hori- 
zontal pendulums show that changes in barometrical pressure may be suf- 
ficient to produce changes in level, it does not seem unlikely that rapid 
alterations in barometrical pressure over an area, the yielding of diflTerent 
portions of which are unequal, may be sufficient to create irregular 
mechanical distui'bances in such a district, and the motion once started as 
with t* severe earthquake may continue for several hours after the initiat- 
ing vo.use has ceased. Whatever may be the cause of these ubiquitous 
phenomena, because they interfere with so many delicate physical opera- 
tions, they certainly demand serious attention. For the assistance of 
those who desire to scrutinise the analyses of which I have only given 
the results or to make new investigations, the following list of meteoro- 
logical conditions during the period which has been considered is here 
appended. (See Appendix, p. 182.) 

(i) Meteorological Tables for Tokio, October 13, 1894, to January 1895. 

The following tables have been extracted or computed from informa- 
tion given in the weather maps which are issued three times per day by 
the Central Meteorological Office in Tokio : — 



144 



KEPOHT — 1895. 



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r~c^r--'*-*'t*ioO!r>oc-icrso~-ccor-.'MC;oto-"oc=i-.cc-occi^coao 
o i~ o «c CO 1- t- X tc! Cl r. Cl o ;o t- 1- 1- O O OD ^ in l- o x t- t- Cl -J l^ o 

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03 
CO 


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1 


o 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I-- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15; 1 1 1 1 


c^ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1- l"l 1 1 1 1 1- M 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 


CO 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 « 1 1 1 1 1 1 » 1 1 M 1 1 1 i 1 1 M 1 


3 
O 


■ & 


op CD --< t;;- -^Jl ■* W CO -.*< 00 -+< '^ CD «5 Cq O »n ^ O ^ (N t- =0 O O X X QO ! 
r-tr-.inxi'--6i(XOcV3»bmwXX01{VD6oiXO«.^4f<4j'X I 

CICSOICS OOCSOCICICSOS Ci ''i 




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0!ioir5iot-b-oic-it^MooMi'irtiboiO'^ibibxc:xrr('--r^ j 


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w 


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irsoooooo'^oiraoocriO'O-^ooooiftOOoi^cioi.'jmo 
c.'io-j*i.'5t-ira"*j<ccr-.fO'<3<iC)COcooiot*coococot*cjTj'C^cic^c^Lrs(N i 


ouiiauio.i'Ba 


.f3Ol^b-C0ir^ONC0iO-**XM.--IXM'*iOtNC0CDe0eCO-7lM^O-*-«l< , 

I+I+ + + + +I 1 1 I+ + +I 1 I+ + + +I 1++I++I ' 


1 

S 


o 


Ct^l»c^Ol«xc•lf^1OT<^|^>^'blra^oi^X!no'icl'^^xxx.^(^^•^ 
cou3*niacoco-^oo-JOif^co-:^:5-o»«.ooooo--ow5-ocoo-^ift 


p. 

<:o 


XXr-(00.3-l:TCOif3Cl-fHXC-1.0 0't*.-<l^01^0COOSCOCDt^O-*-^.OrH , 

1- X ot -t- — _H -J 1^ ■:f ^ o M ij ^ ^ 07 ci<h OS A w b, ^1 o c-i Ci -i 1^, ;- 6 

oicin-^oeocoocoi^DusicirscoocciftiO'COcocoo^ioo'-StOio-oto 


(pt;*--t"Xr*C0i0 0SXXCiiOM-^rHIMe»QPXXQ0(MCSEaOTiftt*O-t<O ■ 


CO 







0.\ THE E.^KTHQIAKE A\l) \OLCAyiC rilE.NOME.NA OF JAP.A.V. Ii7 

The barometer readings are given as tlie number <<i millimetres above 
700. 

The barometrical change is the difference in the readings on successive 
days taken at 2 p.m. 

The numbers representing barometric gradient are the number of 
millimetres on the weather map (where 1 mm. = G geo. miles), which cor- 
respond to a difference in jDressui-e of 5 mm. AVhere a number is omitted 
it means that the barometrical pressure has been fairly uniform over 
Central Japan. 

Temperature is indicated in the Centigrade scale and rain in milli- 
metres. 

To show the state of the weather the following signs have been used — • 
o?=cloudy, c=clear, ?'=rain,y'=fine,yy/ = fog, and s=snow. 

The relative humidity is in percentages, 100 being saturation. 

Tension is expres.sed in millimetres of mercury. 

The force of waves is recorded at 2, 6, and 10 a.m., and at 2, 6, and 10 
P.M. at the various lighthouses round the coast. The scale employed is as 
follows : — = calm, l=smooth, 2 = moderate, 3 = rough, 4: = high, S^very 
high, 6=tremendous. In the tables the mean value for the above hours 
is given for Jogashima, 33 miles south from Tokio, and for Inuboye, 53 
miles east of Tokio. 

(/) Earthquakes recorded hy ITorizonlal Feiididums in Tokio, October 31, 

1894, to February 7, 1895. 

To obtain Greenwich mean time, subtract nine hours. The instrument 
which recorded a given shock is indicated by its letter. The numbers 
in brackets indicate the width in millimetres of the displacement as 
shown upon the photographic trace. The times given are obtained by 
a rough measurement of the diagrams. For several of these disturb- 
ances it would have been desirable to have tnade the time observations 
more accurate, but owing to the loss of my notebooks by lire, this is now 
impossible. 



1894 




Oct. 13 


8. .59 (5), A. Sudden commencement. 




21.27. J. 


15 


7.0 (2), A. Sudden commencement. 




7.?0(2) „ ,. 




9.45(G) „ ., 


18 


1.20(G) „ Gradual 


19 


9.0 (2) .. 




4.3.3 (2), J. 




7.38 (1) „ 




10.7 (1) ,. 


26 


9.0, K. Three slight disturbances. 


27 


2.10(10) A. 




18.0 (10), A. Commenced gently ; duration 1 hr. 45 min. 




18.5. J. „ „ „ 3hrs. Omin. 




17.41' K. „ „ „ 2hrs. 25mii 


28 


4.20 (:!), A. 


29 


11.0(G), „ 


31 


8.0 „ Slight. 




9.30 




10.0 (5), „ 



Time evidentlv wron?. 

L 2 



118 REPORT — 1895. 

Nov. 2 ].30. J. Commenced gently, duration 30 min. 

1(>.80. J. ,, „ „ Ihr. SOmin. Three shocks. 

4 20.0 (10), A. Commenced gentl}-. 
21.0. J. Slight. 

5 5.30 to 6.30. A. Two shocks of (3) and (8.) 
7.00? A. Slight. 

10.0? „ 

8 4.0 „ 

7.30 „ 

9.0 ? „ 

13 4.30? (10), A. 

21 0.0 to 9. A. About seven disturbances. 

22 2.0. A. Slight. 
7.0. „ 

23 3.0 (10), K. 

27 12.0 (]()), N. 

28 4.0 (10), A. 

5.0 (.5), A. Commenced gently, duration 3hrs. 

29 2.0 to 2.30 (10), A. 
4.0 to 7.0 (5) „ 
10 (5) 

30 9.0, about J. Strong. Local orisin. 
12.0. J. 

Dec. 8 6.0. A. 

7.45 (4), „ 

n 20.0 

22.0 to 24.0. A. Several small disturbances. 

19 1.0, 3.0, 4.30 to 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0, each about (5). A. 

20 2.0, several ; 2.45, 4.0, 4.30 and 9,0, each (2) to (4). A. 

21 1.0. 2.0, 4.0 and 5.0. A. All doubtful. 

23 3.0 ( 1 5). local origin ; and up to 9.0, four shocks each (2). A. 
30 18.0(20). 
19.0 (5). 

1895 

Jan. 2 9.0 and 11.0 (3) or (4) ? A. 
3 2.0 to 3.0 (5) ? A. 

o 3.0 and 6.30 

G.15 and 7.15 (5). J. 

8 7.30 (2). A. 

i) 0.0 and 11.0(1). A. 

10 3.15 and 4.0 (1). „ (local origin). 

11 7.0 and 9 0, and 23.45 (1). A. 

14 3.0 to 5.0. A. Maj' be tremors. 

15 2.0 and 7.30 (5). A. 
3.0 and 7.0 (27). 

16 9.30 (2). A. 

17 5.0 (5). 

21.0(4). Earthquake. A. 
21.0 (2). 

18 3.0 and 6.0 (3), introduction to a tremor storm. (Local origir..) 
1 1 .0, large earthquake. A. (Local qrigin.) 

11.0. 

19 3.0 and 4.30 (2). A. Local origiu. 
21 9.0. A. Slight. Local origin. 

27 7.30, 10.0 and 11.0. Slight. A. 

23 7.0. A. 

27 6.0 to 8.0. 0. Perhaps tremors or three quakes. 

28 9 0(1). A. 

29 8.0 (1). A. 
Jeb. 4 10.0. A. 

5 10.0. A. 

6 1.30 and 8.30 A. 

7 8.0. A. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE A\D VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 110 



One of the most interesting of these disturbances is that which was 
recorded at three stations, at about 18 hours, on October 27. The origin 
of this was near to the Antipodes of Japan, in the Argentine E.epublic. 
In the shaken district Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz tells nie that the mean 
velocity of progagation was about 1-2 km. per sec. Mr. C. Davison tells 
nie that it reached Europe to be recorded at Rome with a mean velocity 
for the large motion, of 3-17 km. per sec, the preliminary vibrations 
having a velocity of 10-38 km. per. sec. These latter movements reached 
Charkow and Nicolaiew with velocities of 11-47 and 9'17 km. per .sec. 
If the record J for Japan can be assumed to be approximately correct, 
then the movements recorded in Japan, if they were propagated over the 
.surface of the earth, reached that country with a mean velocity of 19 km, 
per sec' The figure is reduced from the record of K. 

KiG. 14. 
















1 


18 


15 


13 


9 


6 


3 


W^OTlO 








Oct. 27tli 
1894 


J 


1 





III. — Description of a Catalooue of 8,331 Earthquakes recorded 
IN Japan between January 1885 and December 1892. 

(a) History of the Catalogues. 

In order to determine the number of shocks which ai'e felt per year in 
Japan, and to obtain some general idea as to their distribution, in 1880, 
with the assistance of Mr. Toshiwo Nakano, the present writer communi- 
cated with residents in all the principal towns of the Empire, asking them 
to furnish information about the seismic activity, both past and present, 
of the districts in which they resided. An examination of the replies 
which were received led to the conclusion that on the average there were 
three or four shocks per day, or for Japan alone there were as many shocks 
per year as Professor Heim had calculated, for the whole globe (' Trans. 
Sois. Society,' vol. iv. p. 30). In the following year, in order to determine 
the extent of country which was shaken by a given shock, bundles of post- 
cards were sent to very many towns and villages within a range of about 
100 miles of Tokio, with a request that every week one of these cards 
should be returned with a statement of the earthquakes which had been 
felt. The result of these communications showed that nearly all the 
shakings which disturbed Tokio came from the east and north, and seldom 
passed beyond the mountain ranges to the west and south. These facts 
having been established, the barricade of postcards was extended north- 
wards until it reached Sapporo, which is about 450 miles north from 
Tokio. With this system, between October 1881 and October 1883, 387 
earthquakes were recorded, for each of which a map was drawn showing 
' They may have passed through the earth with a velocity of 13 km. per second. 



Gen. Mile . 


I'l-om Tokio. 


. 550 


W.iS.AV. 


. 240 


W. by S. 


. 15 


S.W. bv S. 


. 17 


E. by S. 


. 15 


8.E. by S. 


. 120 


N.N.E. 


. :)75 


N. by E. 


. 150 


X. by E. 


ely shown 


that the greater 



150 REPORT — 1895. 

the area which had been shaken and the approximate centre from whicli 
each disturbance had originated. To render the observations more com- 
plete, one or two watches were given to telegraph operators (a few of the 
more enthusiastic observers provided themselves with good time-keepers), 
and seismographs were sent to the following stations : — 

Nagasaki ..... 

Kobe 

Yokokama ..... 

Chiba ...... 

Kisararlza ..... 

Kamaishi ..... 

Hakodate 

Sapporo ..... 

From these observations it was definitely shown 
number of earthquakes had their origin along the seaboard or beneath the 
ocean, that the volcanic and mountainous regions of Japan are singularly 
free from shakings, and that the country might be ilivided into seismic 
regions (' Trans. Seis. Soc.,' vol. vii. Part II.). The establishment of these 
and other important results in 1884 led the Imperial Meteorological 
Department, then under the direction t>f Mr. Arai Ikunosuke, to under- 
take the continuation and extension of investigations, the labour and 
expense attending which were altogether too great to be borne by an 
individual. On the retirement of Mr. Arai the work was continued by 
Mr. K. Kobayashi, the present Director of the Bureau, and it is to his 
kindness that I am indebted for access to the vast amount of anaterial 
that has been accumulated. The observing stations from which this mate- 
rial is being derived, and wliich for the last two years h.as been pouring in 
at a rate too fast for analysis, are as follows : — 

Giiiiyakusbo (district oflices). (As several of tlie smaller of 
tliese are controlled b}- their larger neighbours, postcards 

and letters are only forwarded from 527) .... 804 

Keiie.ho (oflices at the cajjitals of provinces) . . . .43 

Ell (I'lrge cities), Tokio, Kj-oto, and Osaka .... 3 

Ligln-liouses .......... Co 

Light -ships .......... 3 

Meteorological Observatories (of these 31) have instruments). 52 

Total number of reporting stations . . 908 

The information derived from these stations, which are distributed 
over the Empire, an area of 140,000 square miles, is from time to time 
supplemented by records obtained from stations under the control of the 
Imperial University and those of private observers. 

When an earthquake is felt, according to the area over which it has 
extended, the number of postcards, letters, and diagrams which may be 
received at the central station Aary between three or four and several 
hundreds. From the catalogue it will be seen that between 1885 and 
1892 more than 8,331 shocks have been recorded, and for each of 
these a separate map has been drawn. To draw these maps, which has 
been entirely the work of the Meteorological Department, it is possible 
that 80,000 to 100,000 documents were examined. For reducing this 
bulky mass of matter into the comparatively small and accessible form in 
which it has been jDublished, my thanks are due to Mr. M. Suzuki, a former 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 151 

assistant of the Meteorological Bureau, who has worked with me, pointing 
out doubtful information, translating paj^ers, calculating areas, determining 
centres, tilling in maps, and in carrying out other tedious operations for 
the last twelve months. 

The chief reason for terminating the catalogues at the end of 1892 is 
because the material subsequent to that date has not yet been reduced to 
the map form, and to examine all the documents necessary to accomplish 
tliis would have occupied at least another year ; also it may be added that 
what has been done is in all probability sufficient to determine whether 
work of this description is likely to lead to results of sufficient importance 
to guarantee its continuance. 



(6) Explanation of tlie Catalogues. 

In the first catalogue the shocks are placed in chronological order from 
1 to 8,331. When disturbances have apparently been simultaneous in 
two distant localities, they are included under a single number. 

In the second and third columns the date and time for each disturbance 
are given. When the latter is noted to seconds, the record refers to the 
commencement of motion at an observatory, like that in Tokio, which is 
provided with automatic chronogiaphs. Until the end of 1887, these 
recoi'ds, Mhich are practically correct, refer to Tokio mean time, or 
9 hr. 19 min. 1 sec. before Greenwich mean time. Subsequently to this date 
the times given are those of Long. 135° E.,or nine hours before Greenwich 
mean time. The other time records are only approximately correct, and. 
cannot be used in any investigation relating to the velocity Avith which 
earthquake motion is propagated. 

The fourth column gives in square ri (1 square ri=5-96 square miles) 
the land area which was shaken. For small shocks which were only felt 
at one or two stations the determination of this quantity has largely 
depended upon the judgment of the observer. The figures given are those 
obtained from the maps by means of a planimeter and entered in the 
records of the Meteorological Department. In the second catalogue, based 
upon a second inspection of the maps, it will be noticed that many mate- 
rial alterations have been made in these quantities. In many instances 
the land areas of the first catalogue are total areas, but in others they only 
represent an insignificant portion of a disturbed tract, the centre of which 
was beneath the bed of the ocean. The limits of the areas given are those 
places round an origin up to which the movement was perceptible to 
people or sufficiently strong to have been recorded by ordinai-y seismo- 
graphs. With instruments like delicately adjusted horizontal pendulums, 
there is no doubt that movements might have been detected far beyond these 
arbitrary limits. For example, shock number 4,145 has assigned to it a 
land area of 15,750 sq. ri, when we have good reasons for believing that 
with suitable instruments it might have been noted at any point upon the 
surface of our globe. 

The number in the fifth column approximately indicates, as shown 
upon the key map, the epicentre of a disturbance, or a number on the 
coast line nearest to a submarine origin. In the second catalogue, the 
position of a submarine origin, by means of a distance in tens of miles 
and the direction in which it is to be measui-ed from a central number, is 
defined more closely. On the key map the numbers referring to squares, 



t> 



152 REPORT — 1895. 

each 10 miles by 10 iniles, commence at the top and I'un from left to right 
down to the bottom of the same. 

A line drawn on the key map thi'ough the numbers in the sixth column 
gives the boundary of tlie land surface which was shaken. The area 
of this should be equal to the quantity in the second column. By com- 
pleting, when it may be necessary, this outline seawards, a toUd area is 
obtained, which is indicated by its major and minor axes in the second 
catalogue. ' 

In tlie small map, which is a photographic reproduction of a map the 
same size as the key map, the small dots indicate the position of all the 
epicentral numbers, and the large numerals ranging from 1 to 15, districts 
in which earthquakes are frequent. Distiicts 6 and 7 are bounded by 
straight lines because there was not sufficient space in which to place all 
the dots. For examjjle, in District 7 all the dots indicate earthquakes 
which originated about the centre of this district. Until October 28, 
1891, the disturbances in this district were not more numerous than they 
are in District 8. 

When an earthquake has been felt at the extremities of the Empire, 
and at the same time not along a great length of coast line, as in Districts 
1 and 10, it is often difficult to determine the direction or distance from 
the coast line of its origin. In these cases the assumption made lias been 
that the shocks just reaching the coast have originated from about the 
same locality as the larger shocks which have spread some distance along 
the .shore line, these stronger disturbances being severe at places just 
reached by their feebler successors. The signs + and — along the coast 
line indicate that near these places there are evidences of secular elevation 
or depression. This information was obtained by the help of Professor 
D. Kikuclii, who kindly assisted in the distribution of a circular to vfadous 
towns and villages round the coast of the Empire inquiring whether from 
maps, traditions, or observations there wei'e reasons to believe that 
changes had taken place in the relative position of the land and water. 
The large black dots on the map indicate the positions of more or less 
active volanic cones, in the neighbourhood of which there are huge bosses 
of volcanic rocks and many ancient craters. The dotted lines show the 
boundaries of provinces, which are usually the ridges of high mountains 
dividing one seismic region from another. 

If analyses of this catalogue show that it is of any value, it is clear 
that several advantageous changes may be made in a system for its con- 
tinuation. As it stands it is only a tentative effort to provide investi- 
gators with a new kind of data, which may lead to investigations not 
hitherto possible. None of the facts, excepting a few of the time obser- 
vations, claim any great degree of accuracy. The object of the list drawn 
up for me by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz is explained in the next 
section. 

The long list of corrections, additions, and suggestions at the end of 
the volume, inasmuch as they have, so far as possible, been inserted in the 
second catalogue, almost entirely refers to the first catalogue. Although 
they show that actual errors occur in work of this description, they also 
f.how that from given data different persons may arrive at differejit results. 

' The unit is 10 geographical miles. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC I'HENOMENA OF JAPAN. 153 



((') Object of the Catalogues. 

The principal object of the catalogues, as we have indicated, is to 
furnisli investigators with a certain quantity of material relating to the 
occurrence of eaithquakes, different from that which has hitherto been at 
their disposal, on account of the want of which it has been impossible to 
make many desirable inquiries. 

Many catalogues exist, like those of Perrey, Mallet, Kluge, de Bal- 
lore, and Fuchs, in which the actual number of records are equal to, or 
greater than, tlie number of earthquakes now noted, and which are 
equally good as foundations for a particular class of investigations. 
The incompleteness of these catalogues, however, is seen in the fact 
that they give for the whole world a frequency less than the present 
list gives for a small portion of it like Japan. If, for example, we take 
Dr. C. W. C. Fuchs' ' Statistik der Erdbeben,' 1865 to 1885, giving a list of 
some 8,000 disturbances, out of these Japan is credited with from three to 
thirty shocks per year, while a truer estimate would have been from 500 to 
1,000. Again, it is often difficult to distinguish between shocks which 
have shaken a few square miles and those which have disturbed an empire. 
Large shocks and small shocks, primary shocks and after shocks, are with 
difficulty separable, and no data have been available enabling an investi- 
gator to separate disturbances arising from the yielding of strata in one 
area from those dute to fracturing which might take place in a neighbour- 
ing region. Even when the lists of a particular observatory have been 
examined by themselves, inasmuch as its records are those of shocks of 
local orgin combined with those of shakings which originated at distances 
of several hundreds of miles, all that we can expect to lind is a relation- 
ship between earthquake occurrence and influences of a widespread 
character. Such investigations have been made for the records of obser- 
vatories, countries, and the world, with the result that a more or less 
pronounced annual and semi-annual periodicity and traces of what is 
apparently a lunar influence have been discovered. 

No doubt many and very just objections may be made as to the 
accuracy of much of tlie material in the present list ; but because it 
enables us to give approximate lueiglds to the different shocks, to dis- 
tinguish between primary and secondary disturbances, and to divide the 
country to which it refers into distinct seismic or natural districts, it is 
to be hoped that it will open the way for investigations along new lines. 

Although the catalogues suggest several investigations hitherto impos- 
sible, inasmuch as it so often hapj^ens that one inquiry becomes the 
parent of another, it is impossible to indicate all the paths which may be 
followed. A suggestion given by the list, which shows that shocks 
originating in Japan have travelled to Europe, is that a I'ing of twelve or 
twenty-four stations situated round our globe would in a veiy short time 
give us valuable information, not simply about its crust, but possibly also 
about its interior. 

One set of investigations which may possibly lead to interesting 
results will be those relating to the frequency and periodicity of earth- 
quake shocks which may be considered as having equal values, or receive 
values relative to the area they have disturbed. Each of these analyses 
may be made for Japan as a whole, or for special seismic disti'icts ; in the 
former case the object being to determine whether the occurrence of 



154 



EEPORT — 1895. 



earthquakes is dependent upon influences which simultaneously affect 
Japan as a whole, and in the latter case to determine how far their 
frequency may be related to phenomena of a more local character. 

As an example of an influence wliich affects Japan as a whole, the 
difference in the summer and winter barometrical gradients crossing the 
country may be taken, while tidal loads along the coast would be expected 
to produce effects in difterent districts at diti'erent times. 

Not only is it open for us to determine effects due to external 
influences, but these, so far as possible, must be distinguished from effects 
resulting from internal conditions. The great frequency in District 7 was 
entirely due to the shocks succeeding a terrible disturbance which took 
place on October 28, 1891 ; and if these after shocks, which at first 
occurred at the rate of 1,700 per month, and which ajjparently result 
from the settlement of disjointed strata, are included in any general list, 
it is clear that they might accentuate or destroy any law respecting a long 
period frequency. What is true for District 7 is also true for District 11. 
By themselves they yield information about the rate at which an enonnous 
quantity of broken-up strata settles to a state of equilibrium, and because 
the district around the ejiicentrum is for some time after the primary 
disturbance in an extreme state of seismic sensibility, it is quite possible 
that there may be fluctuations in the rate at which quiescence is ap- 
proached, due to external influences. Other problems which suggest 
themselves are the possible relationships between the seismic activity 
of the various districts, the times taken for different areas under the 
influence of secular movement to attain varying degrees of seismic sensi- 
bility, and the connection between earthquake occurrence and the 
geotectonic character of the country. If the object of an analysis is 
to discover a relationship between earthquake frequency and exogenous 
phenomena which recur at long intervals, it would .seem advisable to omit 
long lists of after shocks, and only to take into consideratifin disturbances 
which occur in districts whei'e seismic activity is in a normal state. On 
the contrary, should we seek a relationship between the occurrence of 
earthquakes and phenomena which recur at intervals of not more than 
a few days, as, for example, barometrical fluctuations or the rising and 
falling of the tide, this precaution is hardly necessary. 



Pla;e 


D'striet 


High Water, FuU 
1 nd Clianjre 






h. m. 


Nemuro ........ 


1 


4 '.» 


Tsngaru Strait . 








2 


5 


Hachinohe 








3 


4 40 


Yamiida 








4 


4 1.5 


Kinkasan 








5 


4 30 


Inuboyc-saki 








G 


5 45 


Yedo Uay . 








G 


.5 4,5 


Mia-ura 








7 


6 (0 


Kii Channel 








8 


6 00 


BiiDg'o Channel 








;i 


« 00 


Kagoshima Bay 








10 


6 .50 


Shimabara Gulf 








11 


9 22 


Idzumo Coast 






12 


1 20 


Echken Coast . 






]H 


2 00 


Toyama Bay 


. 




14 


.S OG 


Off Xiigata 








1.5 


2 55 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC THENOMENA OF JAPAN. 155 

For the latter investigation, the most desirable lists to use would be 
those referring to shocks originating beneath the ocean or r.long tlie sea- 
board, and as an assistance to this I give the preceding table, showing the 
times of high water at full and new moon on the coasts for the fifteen 
seismic districts shown in the small map. 

Nothing has been said about the possible i-elationship between earth- 
quakes and volcanic eruptions, first, because we have no reason to believe 
that, with the exception of a few feeble shocks which may precede or 
accompany an eruption, there is any marked direct connection Ijetween 
these two phenomena, and secondly, because the present catalogue does 
not extend over a sufficiently long period of years to lend itself to such 
an investigation. Although one or two new investigations have been 
here suggested, the principal work will be a repetition of old analyses, 
taking advantage of the fact that we are now able to deal with natural 
districts, to give earthquakes, where required, relative weigh f/i, and to 
distinguish between after shocks, the occurrence df which is but little 
influenced by epigenic actions of long periodicity, and those of a district 
where seismic strain is in a normal condition. 

As to whether seismology will be advanced by carrying out these and 
other inquiries which may present themselves is a question which 
cannot yet be answered. It may be or it may not be, but the catalogue, 
which could not have been compiled without the generous assistance of 
the Royal Society of London and the kindness of the director and 
officers of the Imperial Meteorological Department of Japan, by allowing 
access to their unequalled store of valuable facts, will, it is hoped, settle 
the question as to whether it is desirable to continue in its present 
form the largest and probably the most perfect seismic survey which has 
hitherto been attempted. 

I am glad to say that some of the features presented by the catalogues 
are now being analysed by Dr. C. G. Knott, of Edinburgh. 

(d) Fesulis alreachj obtained or shown hy the Catalogue and 
Map of Centres. 

After Shocks. — About the time that the catalogue was commenced, 
Mr. F. Omori undertook an examination of the shocks succeeding 
the great earthquake of October 28, 1891. which are now indicated 
upon the map in District No. 7. This he did, following up the in- 
vestigation by an analysis of the disturbances since 1889 in District 11, 
a series which recently occurred in District 10, and another series 
belonging to a region lying between 8 and 9, which, although now 
quiescent, about forty years ago was unusually active. As an outline of 
Mr. Omori's investigations is published in the ' Seismological Journal,' 
vol. iii. p. 71, and in greater detail in the 'Journal of the College of 
Science,' vol. vii. Pai-t II., it would be out of place to give any detailed 
reference to them here. Briefly, it seems that when a large disturbance 
is followed by a long series of after shocks the number of these is roughly 
proportional to the area first shaken, or what may provisionally be called 
the intensity of the initial impulse. The character of the curves which 
represent the freijuency of the after shocks in relation to time is 
remarkably similar, and having determined by observation the form of 
the eai'lier portions of a frequency curve, it seems possible to roughly 



156 REPORT— 1895. 

calculate, not only the numljer of .shocks which will be experienced before 
the district settles to its normal state of seismic activity, but also the 
interval of time that will be involved in such an operation. For the 
earthquakes considered by Mr. Omori it may be concluded that the 
earth's crust had been so far fractured that there was an approximate 
•similarity in the heterogeneity of the disjointed material, which tliere- 
fore, as it settled, gave rise to after shocks following a somewhat similar 
law. Another observation was that the larger of the after shocks 
travelled to greater distances than their smaller companions, and in con- 
sequence there was a marked difference in frequency at places situated 
■at different distances from the primitive origin. If there is any law in 
this decrease in frequency with distance, then the frequency of what are 
evidently after shocks observed upon a coast line, as in Districts 1 and 10, 
might enable an observer to make a rough estimate of the distance of 
an inaccessible submarine origin. That satisfactory results would be 
obtained from such an investigation is, however, doubtful. 

Distribution of Earthquakes. — An inspection of the map of earth- 
quake origins or centres shows that the central portions of Japan, which 
■fire the mountainous districts where active volcanoes are numerous, are 
singularly free from earthquakes. The greater number of disturbances 
originate along the eastern coast of the Empire, and many of these have 
.a submarine origin. That very few earthquakes are shown on the coast 
line between Districts 1 and 2 is in a great measure due to the fact that 
in this region there are but few observing stations, the island of Yezo 
in which these districts are situated being sparsely populated. A line 
drawn from N.N.VV. to S.S.E., or from numbers 7 to 5.57, is the chief 
■anticlinal axis of the northern island, and from the southerly prolonga- 
tion of this beneath the ocean, earthquakes from time to time originate, 
which shake, not only the eastern coast of Yezo, but also many of the 
districts on the main island. Although districts like 11, 9, 8, and then 
through 7, suddenly northwards up to 13 or 14, lie along the strike line 
of the southern portion of the Empire, a greater number of earthquakes 
seem to originate from the face of the steep monoclinal .slope which Japan 
presents towards the Pacitic Ocean. 

Lines, 120 geographical miles in length, running in an easterly or 
south-easterly clirection from the highlands of Japan into the Pacific 
Ocean, like similar lines drawn from the Andes westwards into the same 
•ocean, have a slope of 1 in 20 to 1 in 30, and in both of these districts 
earthquakes are frequent. On the contrary, along the face of flexures 
which are comparatively gentle, being less than half these amounts, which 
may be seen along the borders of most of the continents and islands of 
the world, earthquakes are comparatively rare. The inference from this 
is that, where there is the greatest bending, it is there that sudden 
yielding is the most frequent. In the case of many of the Japanese 
•earthquakes, this takes place along the face of a monoclinal feature of 
the world's surface, and the intimate relationship between monoclines and 
.faults is known to all geologists, the former being, in the words of Sir 
Archibald Geikie, an incipient stage of the latter. 

Earthquakes and Secular Movements. — Another feature indicated by 
*he map or known to the writer from personal observation is that earth- 
•quakes are frequent in those districts where there are evidences of secular 
•elevation or depression, that is to say, in those di.sti'icts where movement 
-of the earth's crust is yet slowly taking place. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. \o7 

In Districts 1, 2, 5, 6, and 7 the writer knows from repeated obser^■a- 
tion that there are evidences of very recent elevation, and certainly in 
these districts earthquakes are extremely frequent. The signs + and — 
in the neighbourhood of Districts 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13, and along the 
Inland Sea, lying to the north of 8 and 9, but to the south of 12, also 
show a like relationship. 

The only excejitions to the general rule appear to be the westerly 
portion of the district between 12 and 13, where there are evidences of 
secular movement, and earthquakes are of rare occurrence, and 1 in 5 
cases where these conditions are I'eversed. The district No. 14 presents 
a series of earthquakes originating along the line of a valley between 
high mountains running from N.N.E. to S.S.W. Another good example 
of earthquake fracturing following a line of weakness down a valley 
between high mountains until it reached the plain was the disturbance 
of October 28, 1891, which, as has been explained, resulted in the abnor- 
mal conditions shown in District 7. 

In Japan, therefore, earthquakes have been frequent along the steep 
monoelinal face of the countiy, in the synclinal trough of deep valleys, 
possibly along the continuation of the Yezo anticlinal, and in districts 
where secular movement is in progress. In Italy earthquakes originate 
along the anticlinal of the Apennines, and from what we know of the 
geological history of the country, which had its greatest growth in 
Tertiary times, and from the bradyseismic movements on the coast, it 
is not unliirely that the shakings it experiences announce the fact that 
secular yielding is yet in progress. The earthquakes of Switzerland and 
those which shake the Himalayan, and the younger mountains of the 
world, may also be taken as due to orogenic causes which seem to be so 
actively in operation in Japan. 

Earthquake Soiinds. — A map which has been prepared, but which has 
not been reproduced Avith the catalogue, .shows the distribution of earth- 
quakes accompanied by sound phenomena. To indicate that a sound was 
heard, a dot is used, for a sound with a shock the sign -f , for a sound 
before a shock the sign — , while for a sound after a shock the sign I . 
After a volcanic explosion it might be expected that a sound wave 
propagated through the atmosphere would succeed a trembling of the 
ground. 

As the latter sign occurs but seldom, although there are one or two cases 
of its occurrence in Districts 6, 7, 12, and 14, generally near active or old 
volcanoes, and about two cases in District 8, it may be assumed that 
earthquake sounds, rather than representing atmospheric waves radiating 
from an epifocal area, represent elastic vibrations trani^mitted through 
the ground, and therefoi-e arrive at a given station in advance of any 
quasi-elastic surface undulation. Inasmuch as earthquake sounds only 
travel a few miles from their origin, the intervals between them and an 
earth movement which can be felt are very small. The result of this is 
that it often appears that the two phenomena are simultaneous, and 
therefore on the map we find nearly as many signs indicating 'sound with 
■ihock ' as those which indicate ' sound before shock.' Sounds are often 
hsard which cause people to run from their houses, expecting a shock 
which does not come. The dots on the map represent sounds which have 
been to ordinary observers simultaneous with an actual shaking of thft 
frrounrl. Taking the districts in order, we find the sound phenomena 
distributed as follows :- 



158 KEPORT — 1895. 

1. Sounds fairly frequent on the coast at the most easterly and most 
southerly portions of the district. Inland and on the northern coast they 
are rare. This may indicate that the majority of earthquake origins lie 
to the S.E. and are suljmarine. 

2 and 3. Sounds are rare. Many of the origins of these shocks are 
submarine. The coast between 2 and 3 is composed of soft materials. 

-1 and most easterly part of 5. Here the coast is rocky, built up of 
Paheozoic strata. Sounds are fairly frequent. In the southern part of 5, 
where thei-e is much soft Tertiary material, sounds are rare. 

6. Sounds are frequent in the northern part of the district, which is 
mountainous, while in the plain of Musashi, constituting the southern 
part, they are rarely heard. 

7. Amongst the Palieozoic hills of the district, and extending down 
into the plain, sound phenomena accompany about 30 per cent, of the 
disturbances. 

8 and 9. Although the districts are mountainous, sounds are rarely 
heard. Possibly the shocks originate beneath the ocean. 
10, 11, and 12. Sounds are fairly frequent. 

13. Here, which is another mountainous region, sound phenomena 
. are common. 

14. Sound is occasionally heard. 

15. Along a sandy coast bordering a plain, sound phenomena seem 
never to be heard 

Generally sound is heard in rocky mountainous districts, while on the 
alluvial plains it is but very rarely observed. 

Earthquake.^ which have been projxir/ated to Europe. — The object in 
appending to the catalogue 'a list of earthquakes which was kindly drawn 
up for me by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz is to show that some of the 
Japanese disturbances have travelled as far as Europe, where for minutes 
or hours, although they were unfelt by persons, they caused movements 
in delicately adjusted horizontal pendulums. A similar series of unfelt 
disturbances originating in distant countries or beneath the oceans have 
been recorded in Japan. 



IV. On the Velocities with which Waves and Vibrations are 

PROPAGATED ON THE SURFACE OF AND THROUGH PtOCK AND 

Earth. (A Compilation.) 

Introduction. 

Because the observations which have been made upon the rate at 
which waves and vibrations are transmitted through rock and earth are 
so varied and often apparently contradictory, it has been thought advisable 
to select from the vast amount of material which is at our command a 
series of illustrations from experiments upon artificially produced disturb- 
ances, and from the records of actual earthquakes in which personal and 
instrumental errors have been small. 

Amongst the real or apparent difficulties are the following : — • 

1. Along the same path, earth waves, originating from a powerful 



ox THK KARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHEXOMEXA OF JAPAN. 159 

impulse, travel at a liisjlier rate than those resulting from an effort of 
lower intensity. 2. Near to an origin, the velocity of propagation is greater 
tlian it is between points at a distance. '■'>. After a disturbance has 
decreased in its speed of transmission it may be accelerated, and this 
acceleration cannot be with certainty attributed to its having entered a 
more elastic medium. 4. As an earthquake radiates, it is preceded by a 
series of minute tremors, the velocity of propagation of which is certainly 
A^ery much higher than that of the main disturbance. 

(a) Artificialli/ produceadisturhances. 1. Experiments o/'Mr. R. Mallet, 

In the experiments of the late Robert Mallet conducted at Killiney 
Bay, Dalkey, and Holyhead (' British Association Report,' 1861) the initial 
impulse was caused by the explosion of cliarges of gunpowder. The 
electrical contact which caused the explosion released a chronograph 
which was stopped by a^i observer directly he saw, by means of a 
microscope magnifying 11-39 times, an agitation caused by the resulting 
waves in a dish of mercury. After corrections for the intervals of time 
thus noted, in round numbers the results obtained were as follows : — 



In wet sand . . . . 
In discontimious pranitc . 
In more solid granite 
In granite at Holyhead (mean) . 



0'25I km. per. sec. 
0-:-598 „ „ „ 
0-507 „ „ „ 
0-371 ,. „ „ 



The charges of powder employed varied between 25 lb. and 12,000 lb., 
and with but one exception it was clearly shown that the velocity of wave 
propagation increased with the force of the initial impulse. For example, 
at Holyhead the relationship between the quantity of explosive and the 
resulting velocities was as follows : — 



Powder in lb. . 

Velocity in km. per. sec. 


2100 


2G00 


;>200 


4400 


G200 


12000 


0-335 


0-338 


0-310 


0-344 


0-40G 


0-418 



2. E.iperimcnts by General II. L. Abbot. 

In 1885 when Flood Rock was destroyed by the explosion of 240,397 lb. 
of rack-a-rock and 48,537 lb. of dynamite, the most distant observing 
station was 182-68 miles off". The instant of the explosion was noted at 
all the points of observation by means of electrical connections and 
chronographs, while the arrival of the fir.st tremors and their duration 
was recorded by observers who watched the disturbance of an image 
reflected from the surface of mercury. 

The Hallet's Point observations, where the initial impulse was due to 
the explosion of 50,000 lb. of dynamite, and others made in connection 
■with .subaqueous explosions at the school of submarine mining at Willet's 
Point, were conducted in a .somewhat similar manner. In the following 
table, which has been drawn up from the scattered writings of General 
Abbot, the A'elocities have been reduced to uniform units : — 



IGO 



REPORT — 1895. 



— 


Distance in 
miles 


Magnifyiag 

power of 

telescopes 


Mercury in 

agitation 

sec 


Velocity in metres 
per sec. 


1 Flood Rock ex. ) 
288,931 lb. of ' 
explosive. j 


8-33 


14 


80 


1,577 m.{^f^lly'^'°''S^ 


2 


16-78 


14 


104 


1,086 m. 


i> »» >» 


36-65 


18 


35 ? 


4,537 m. 


* j» )» 


48-52 


19 


54 


5,068 m. 


*^ )1 )* 


144-89 


15± 


74 


3,958 m. 


6 ,, „ 


182-68 


750 


95 + 


1,335 m. 


i )> ») 


4234 


f 31 
36 


76 
70 
92 


«'oj3 "'■ 1 Northerlvthrough 
6,243 m. [ ™'^'^- 


8 1* ,» 


174-37 


4li 


49 + 


6,210 m. 


Ballet's Pt. ex. ) 
9 50,500 lb. dy- I 


5-13 


6 


63 


1 1 sn m 1 Throuo-h clay and 
],180m. ^ drilt. 


namite. j 
















C Through water k 
2,530 m. •' shore of East 
[ river. 


10 


8-33 


12 


72 










11 


9-33 


6 


23 


, „_o [ Through clay and 
1,3.8 m. -^ drift. 


12 


12-76 


12 


19 


1,618 m. 


13 400 lb. dynamite. 


1-17 


6 


8 


1,045 m. 


i'i )» >» )> 


1-17 


12 


18 


2,686 m. 


15 200 „ 


1-.S4 


(! 


9 


2,051 m. 


16 „ „ „ 


1-34 


12 


17 


2,662 m. 


1* j» >» i» 


5± 


12 




1,609 m. 


18 70 lb. powder. 


1-40 


G 


inst. 


Q-Q ^ 1 Charge submer- 
'1 ged 5 feet. 


19 „ „ 

20 „ „ 


1-34 
1-34 


6 
12 


5 
15 


1694 m Charge on bottom 
i'.^- •■ in 30 feet of 
^'^^•^ "^^ water. 



From the above data it is clear, as Abbot sliows, that the rate at 
■which a shock is transmitted increases with the intensity of the initial 
explosion ; that when a high magnifying power has been used, tremors in 
advance of those revealed by a low power have been noticed, with the 
result that the apparent velocity in the former case is greater than in the 
latter ; and that the velocity of propagation has been higher through rock 
than through soft material like drift. 

A query put forward by Genei-al Abbot is whether still higher velocities 
would have been recorded had telescopes with a greater magnifying power 
been used. The answer is apparently in the affirmative, and therefore if 
we wish to compare the observations amongst themselves, not only must 
we choose those in which the initial impulse has been the same, but where 
the observers have employed similar instruments. Comparing observation.^ 
10 and 1 2, but not overlooking the fact that No. 10 was largely transmitted 
through water, and again 16 and 17, it might be concluded that as a 
wave advances its velocity is diminished ; but from the first five observa- 
tions it would seem that there is at the commencement an increase in the 
initial velocity until it reaches a maximum, after which there is a 
diminution. This increase in the rate of transmission at the outset of a 
wa\e from its origin is again seen in experiments 9 and 11. The difference 
in the velocities recorded for experiments 18 and 19 may be due to the 
fact that in the case of the shallow torpedo much of the initial energy was 



ON THE EAKTHQUAKE AXD VOLCANIC PHEXOMEXA OF JAPA.N. IGl 

expended in throwing up a jet of water 330 feet in height into the air. A 
point well worthy of notice is the fact that the gunpowder waves had 
a more gradual increase than those observed in shocks produced by 
dynamite ; in other words, the former had a closer relationship to what is 
so often observed in the records of actual earthquakes than the latter 
had. 

3. JExperiments q/"MM. Fotjque and Levy. 

In the experiments of MM. Fouque and Levy the velocity of vibrations 
on the surface and underground was determined by recording the intervals 
between the shock which was usually produced by the explosion of from 
4 to 8 kilos, of dynamite, and the displacement of an image produced by 
a I'ay of light on a photographic plate moving with uniform motion. The 
ray of light was reflected from a surface of mercury at the receiving 
station. The highest velocity was obtained between a point underground 
and the surface, along a line of 383 metres in length, which gave a velocity 
of 2,.526 meti-es. In this case the shock was due to an explosion of 8 kilos, 
of dynamite. 

The general results obtained were as follows : — 



Character of Ground 


Velocity of first 


Velocity of last 




ttemors 


tremors 




m. m. 


m. m. 


1. In granite on the surface .... 


2,450 to 3,141 


219 — lOS 


2. Underground to surface and underground 






to a greater depth ..... 


2,000 to 2,52G 


1,212 — 440 


.1. In grcs periiiicnit not so compact 


1,190 


— 


4. In limestone from surface to underground 


e:52 


. 


5. In sable de Fontainihleau .... 


300 


— 



The velocity evidently increased with an increase in the amount of 
explosive employed, and it was greatest in the more elastic rocks. 

The discrepancy which exists between the above and Mallet's deter- 
mination for granite (507 m.) only disappears if we compare it with the 
second maximum in the photographic record (32.5 m. to 543 m.). 

The second set of experiments, considering the nature of the material 
in which they were obtained and the smallness of the charges employed, 
give remarkably high results, the velocity for the first maximum exceeding 
that obtained by firing a larger charge of dynamite in granite on the 
surface. In a single experiment to determine the velocity between a 
lower and a higher level underground, the direction of the wave path is 
unfortunately not very diflFerent from that of the stratification, and there- 
fore is not comparable with those velocities along paths from the upper 
level nearly transverse to the stratification between it and the surface. 
If we are allowed to accept the results of Mallet's experiments, which 
show that the velocities in these two directions are in round numbers as 
1 "8 : 1 -0, then we may conclude that the velocity between the lower level 
and an upper level was markedly greater than it was from the latter 
upwards to the surface. 

These experiments show that the velocity between two points on the 
surface is less than it is between the surface and a point underground. 
They also indicate that the velocity with which vibrations are transmitted 
may vary with the depth of the wave path. 

1895. M 



162 EEroRT— 1895. 

4. Observations of Frof. J. Milne and Prof. T. Gray. 

In the author's experiments, which were commenced in conjunction 
with Professor Thomas Gray in 1881, and continued at various times 
during the next four years, the object was not simply to determine the 
rate of transmission of earth waves, but also to determine their general 
chai'acter. Usually the movements resulting from the fall of a heavy 
weight, or the explosion of dynamite or gunpowder, were recorded by 
seismographs. The weights employed varied from 1,7101b. to 2,000 1b., 
while the charges of dynamite, which were exploded in holes 8 or 10 feet 
in depth, seldom exceeded 2 lb. Although the ground in all cases 
excepting one was soft, tlie resultant vilirations up to distances of about 
600 feet were sufficiently large to be recorded as clear diagrams by 
bracket and other seismographs. 

At various stations usually in a straight line joining them with tlie 
focus of the explosion, seismographs were installed, which wrote their 
movements on the smoked surface of a long plate of glass, the motion of 
which was controlled by clockwork. One seismograph was placed so that 
it wrote the movements parallel to the line of installation. These are 
called normal vibrations. A second seismograph was an-anged to 
record the movements at right angles to such a direction. These 
are called transverse vibrations. A vertical lever seismograph was 
occasionally employed to give the vertical motion. A fourth pointer 
actuated by an electromagnet in connection with a short pendulum 
swinging across mercury gave a broken line marking small but equal 
intervals of time. 

By the depression of a contact key, the receiving plates at all the 
stations were set in motion, the pointers of the seismographs drew fine 
straight lines on the smoked surfaces, while the pendulum indicated 
intervals of time. A few seconds later a second contact was made and 
the charge exploded, and the seismographs gave open diagrams of the 
resulting vibrations. When the earth motion had ceased, all tlie plates 
were stopped and were ready to receive a second diagram without any 
readjustments. One observer controlled all the stations, and the only 
errors due to human interference may have arisen from slight differences 
in the sensibilities given to the recording instruments. Tliis, however, 
disappears when velocities were determined, not from the commencement 
of a disturbance, but from the sharp commencement of the violent vibra- 
tions or from the intervals of time between the appearance of particular 
waves at the different stations. 

Observations were also made with seismographs having single indices 
by observing the disturbance created in similar dishes of mercury, and 
with other arrangements. 

The results of observations made I'especting velocity of propagation 
were as follows : — 

1. The velocity of transit of vertical vibrations near to an origin 
decreases as a disturbance radiates. Normal vibrations, although they 
have shown a decrease in velocitj' between the second and third stations, 
have also shown a decided increase. This latter observation has been 
marked with the transverse motions. 

2. Near to an origin the velocity of transit varies with the intensity 
of the initial disturbance. 

3. In different kinds of grounds, with different intensities of initial 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC rHENOMEXA OF JAPAN. 103 

disturbance, and with different systems of observation, I determined 
velocities lying Ijetween 630 (192 m.) and about 200 (61 m.) feet per 
second. 

4. In my experiments the vertical free surface wave had tJie quickest 
rate of transit, the normal being next, and the transverse motion being 
the slowest. 

T). The rate at which the normal motion outraces the transverse 
motion is not constant. 

6. As the amplitude and period of the normal motion approach in 
value to those of the transverse motion, so do the velocities of transit of 
these motions approach each other. 

(6) Observations on Earthquakes. 

The observations quoted in this section commence with those where 
the wave paths have not been more than a few hundred feet from station 
to station. These arc followed by the results obtained from instruments 
separated from each other by distances of from three to six miles, a few 
hundred miles and so on up to velocities determined over paths equal to 
a quarter of the earth's circumference. 

1. Observations in Japan. 

For several years the author took diagrams of earthquakes at seven 
stations, each about 900 feet apart. These stations were in electrical 
connection, so that one pendulum marked time intervals upon each of the 
moving sui'faces upon which diagrams were being drawn. From tifty sets 
of diagrams, representing fifty different earthquakes, it was only in five 
instances that the same wave could be identified at the different stations. 
The result of these identifications led to calculation of velocities of 1,787, 
1,302. 1,825, 869, and 501 metres per second. 

Even these determinations cannot be accepted without reserve, 
because it is found that waves may spread out as they pass from station 
to station, a given wave splitting up into two waves, &c. Hence a 
velocity calculated from a ivave (a) may be different from a velocity of a 
leave (b), and yet both are -part of the same disturbance. In the diagram 
from one station a large wave may have a slight notch upon its crest, at 
another station this notch is seen to have increased in size, while at a 
third station it is so large that the single wave appears as two waves. 
As in the artificially produced disturbances, although an earthquake 
becomes feebler as it radiates, it apparently increases in its duration. 

The same system of observation has recently been elaborated in 
Japan, but the distances between stations have been increased to several 
miles. Because the commencement of a disturbance at a given station 
varies with the sensibility given to the seismograph, the determinations 
of velocity depend upon the identification of particular waves upon the 
diagrams obtained from at least three stations. Up to the present this 
has only been possible on one or two occasions. On November 30, 1894, 
at 8.30 p.m., a velocity of 5 km. per second was obtained, other dis- 
turbances giving from 2'4 to 3"6 km. per second. 

The following are examples of velocity determinations made in Japan 
between stations which have access to the telegraphic system of the 
country, and which are provided with seismographs and clocks which 

M 2 ' 



164 REPORT— 1895. 

automatically record the time at which a particular vibration was drawn. 
At each of the observatories it is therefore possible to calculate the 
instant at which a given instrument commenced to write its record. 

In 1891, on December 9 and 11, strong shocks originated in the 
province of Noto on the west coast, which were observed in Gifu, Nagoya, 
and Tokio. The mean velocity determined from these records was 
2"31 km. per second. 

The destructive disturbance of October 28, 1891, which was recorded 
in Europe, was followed by many after shocks, the times of arrival of 
seventeen of which were accurately noted at Osaka, Nagoya, Gifu, and 
Tokio. The origin of the main shock was about five miles to the west of 
Gifu. To reach Tokio, a distance of 151 miles, took 120 seconds. The 
average time taken for all eighteen shocks was 118 seconds, and the 
average velocity was 2-40 Lm. per second, the rate of transmission to 
Osaka being the same as it was over the much longer path to Tokio. 

The primary disturbance seems to have reached Shanghai at a rate of 
about 1'61 km. per second, and Berlin at about 2-98 km. per second. 
For the Shonai shock on October 22, 1894, as a mean obtained by the 
method of least squares from observations at ten stations from 60 to 300 
miles distant from the origin, a velocity of about 1*95 km. per second was 
obtained. 

Giving these last determinations, all of which were computed by 
Mr. F. Omori, weights proportional to the number of observations each 
represents, the average rate at which disturbances are propagated over 
long distances in Japan is 7,560 feet, or 2 3 km. per second, a rate which 
fairly well agrees with that at which the large waves of similar dis- 
turbances travel from Japan to Europe. 

?. Observations along Wave Paths of Great Leiigth. 

Next we will turn to earthquakes which have been noted at distances 
from their origins greater than those at which it has been possible to 
obser\e in Japan — a notable example of which are the observations made 
at the time of the Charleston Earthquake on August 31, 1886. Over 
400 ol)servations were made. A number of these were obtained from 
clocks which had been stopped, and as many of these were regulators 
which had daily been compared with a time signal, there is no reason to 
doubt their accuracy. All these observations, which were made on wave 
paths between 300 and 924 miles in length, were subjected to a rigorous 
analysis by Professor Simon Newcomb and Captain Charles Dutton, with 
the result that an average velocity of 5,184 m. was determined, and there 
was no indication of any sensible variation in speed. Considering the 
phase of motion which in the majority of instances was in all probability 
observed, this result is remarkably high. 

A valuable study of the rate at which vibrations may be propagated 
through the earth's crust is one made by Dr. G. Agamennone of a series 
of shocks which in 1893 had their origin near to the island of Zante. 
These were recorded at the various stations mentioned along the foot of 
the diagram Fig. 15, the one farthest from the origin being Potsdam. The 
lengths of the various wave paths are indicated in kilometres. The time 
intervals naeasured vertically are on a scale of 20 seconds per millimetre. 
For five shocks straight lines connect a series of points indicating the 
differences in time between the occurrence of the shock near to its origin 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AXD VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAX. 



1G5 



and the time at which maximinn motion was experienced at the various 
stations. 

The dotted lines connect similar points for the commeiiceiiifiti of the 
disturbance. The time of these commencements undoubtedly varied with 
the sensibilities of the recording instruments, and therefore it will be 
noticed that they have only been taken into account for Rome, Xicolaiew, 



Fig. 15. 




Km 



and Strassburg, where records were obtained from the great pendulum of 
the Collegio Romano, or from the horizontal pendulums of Dr. E. von 
Rebeur-Paschwitz. 

The principal object in reproducing this series of observations is to see 
if there is any reason for believing that there is any variation in the 
velocity with which a given disturbance is propagated. 



166 REPORT— 1895. 



In examining this diagram it must be remembered that near to an 
origin tlie difference in time between the maximum phases of an earth- 
quake and its actual commencement may be only a few seconds, while at 
a great distance the I'ecords of sensitive instruments show that the same 
interval may be many minutes. When instruments of such sensibility 
are near to an origin, my own observations seem to show tliat they are 
not set into any sensible amount of motion before the ordinary seismo- 
scopes or seismographs, and thei'efore for places comparatively near to 
the origin of a disturbance, when observations were made with the latter 
type of instrument, I should be inclined to think that the phases of 
maximum motion might be approximately coincident with the times of 
commencement of movement. 

An inspection of the diagram points towards the following results : — ■ 

No. 1. The velocity for the first 5")0 km. is greater than it is to a 
point which is more remote. 

No. 2. This is the only disturbance for whicli observations are made 
at points comparatively near to the epicentre, for which they show a 
very high velocity. Between stations distant 300 aiid 1,100 km. from 
the origin the velocity decreases, but beyond this limit it apparently 
increases. 

No. 3. The chief difference between this and No. 2 is that the point of 
inflexion of a free curve drawn between the points of observation, instead 
of being at a distance of 1,100 km. from the epicentre, is at about 
1,300 km. from tliat point. 

No. -t. The velocity is apparently greater at a distance from the epi- 
centre than near to it. 

No. 5. This resembles No. 4. 

If we omit the one case which shows a high velocity in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the ^irigin — which, however, is in perfect accordance 
with results obtained with artificially produced disturbances — there 
remains the clearly marked observation that to Catania and Mineo the 
velocities are, as compared Avith the rate of propagation to more distant 
stations, relatively low. Professor A. Ricco, who discusses these observa- 
tions, gives us every reason to believe that tlie time observations at 
Catania are correct, while those at Mineo may bs in error, owing to the 
manner in which it receives the time signals from Eome, which finally 
reach the observatory by circolare. 

Professor Ricco concludes that the low velocity between Zante and 
Catania may Ije accounted for by the fact that the motion was entirely 
transmitted tln'ough watei-, because the velocity recorded of 1,439 km. per 
second practically coincides with that of a sound wave in water. Professor 
Ricco adds that Bertelli lias shown that the shocks of eartliquakes felt on 
shipboard and the sound waves have been simultaneous. From one of 
Abbot's experiments, howe^'er, we have seen that a wave velocity obtained 
from a water path was greatly increased. 

The following is Agamennone's table of velocities, which, although 
they represent averages, show that the lowest is the one on August i, 
which had the shortest range : — 



O.V THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCAMC I'HENOMENA 01'' JAIWX. 



167 







A'clocitv of 
Max. ^lotion 

based on all 

Observations. 

Km. 




Velocity of 




Vel(jcity of 




No. of 


Xo. of 


Max. Motion 


No. of 


Comuience- 


Date 


Stations 


StafoDs 


based on cer- 


Stations 


meotof Motion 


con- 
sidered 


con- 
sidered 


tain Obser- 
vations. 


con- 
sidtred 


at Certain 

Stations. 








Km. 




Km. 


Jan. 31 


7 


4-04 


4 


2-86 


4 


3-08 


Feb. 1 


6 


;V2.s 


4 


2-42 


4 


3-92 


March 20 . 


5 


2-33 


3 


2-82 


3 


7-79 


April 17 . 


10 


2-55 


5 


2-o'J 


5 


316 


August 4 . 


3 


2-12 


2 


2-3G 


2 


2-83 


Mean 


— 


2-40 


— 


2-45 




2'34 



The averages of velocities to the Italian stations and the actual veloci- 
ties to Mineo and Catania, which may be comjjared with the first deter- 
mination in the preceding table, clearly show that the apparent velocity 
to the nearer stations was lower than it was to stations which were more 
distant : — 





Italian Stations. 


Mineo. 


CaUnia. 




Km. 


Km. 


Km. 


January 31 .... . 


.1-7fi 


1-83 


1-14 


February 1 


4-2(; 


2 ■04 


1-4:! 


March 20 


l-8(i 


1-77 


1-9S 


April 17 . 


2-Oi) 


r9u 


1-20 


August 4 . 


2-12 


3-05 


— 


■' 









Dr. A. Cancani, who has devoted much attention to the velocities with 
which earth disturbances are transmitted, is appai-ently inclined to attri- 
bute the high velocities sometimes observed near to an epicentre — which, 
however, is not the case with those just quoted — to the more rapid transit 
of a longitudinal wave. He, however, adds that at such places, and even 
at distant j^laces, the normal and transversal waves may occur together, 
and the velocities determined on such occasions will have intermediate 
values. In fairly homogeneous earth it has been shown that, within 
100 feet or so from the origin of an artilicial disturbance, a normal move- 
ment outraces the transversal disturbance, but such a separation is not 
observed, nor should we expect it to be observed, at distant stations 
(see pages 162 and 163). 

When Dr. Cancani quotes my opinions that ' velocities of 2 or 3 km. 
per second refer to the propagation of a motion not unlike the swell upon 
an' ocean' as not being contrary to his ideas, it must be clearly under- 
stood that I do not refer such movements to the purely distortional elastic 
waves of an isotropic solid. ' 

Amongst other observations quoted by Dr. Cancani to show that the 
velocity with which earthquake waves are propagated is higher nearer to 
an epicentre than at a distance, I select the four following, which have 
reference to the Andalusian disturbance of December 25, 1894 : — 



To Lisbon, 
„ Pare St. Maus, 
„ Greenwich, 
„ Wilhelmshavcn, 



distance C30 km. velocity in km. per sec. 



1.350 
1,020 
2,000 



4-2 
3-2 
3-6 

2-8 



' R. Accad. del Lined, vol. iii. 1894, p. 410 



168 



KEPORT — 1895. 



Dr. Agamennone, after examining the data on which these tables are 
founded, shows that the conclusion to which they point disappears if the 
time taken at Cadiz by the stopping of two clocks was a minute too late, 
while the times at Greenwich and other observatories correspond to the 
beginning of the motion. From the calculations of Offret relating to the 
Ligurian earthquake of February 23, 1887, it would appear that the 
velocity of propagation increased as a disturbance radiated, but such 
anomalies may also be explained by the assumption that there were errors 
in the time observations near to the epicentre. 

As another indication of what is apparently the reverse of the results 
adduced by Dr. Cancani, we may take either the earthquakes of Zante or 
the following Japanese earthquakes, observed in Europe by Dr. E. von 
Rebeur-Paschwitz : — 







Sphe'icl 


Ve'ocity 


Date 


Locality 


Distance. 






Km. 


io km. per eec. 


1889, April 17 . 


Potsdam, I. 


8,950 


.3-23 




1— t 


n 


2-79 




Wilhelmshaven 


9,070 


3 -50 


1889, July 28 . 


Potsdam . 


8,810 


2-98 




Wilhelmshaven 


8,940 


3-31 


" 1892, May 11 . 


Strassburg 


9 520 


307 




Nicolaiew, T. . 


7,910 


2-75 




II. . 




2-41 


1892, October 18 . . . 


Strassburg 


9,520 


3-83 




Nicolaiew. I. . 


7,910 


2-55 




II. . 


1« 


2-24 


1892, November 4 . . . 


Strassburg, I. . 


9,520 


3- 15 




II. 


*» 


2r)4 




Nicolaiew 


7,910 


2-71 


1893, March 23 . . . 


Strassburg, I. . 


9,520 


41.^ 




II. 


,^ 


3-62 




Nicolaiew 


7,910 


3-72 


Average .... 


. 




. 310 



The centre of the second disturbance is taken near to Kumamoto, 
while that of the others as being near to Tokio. 

Arranging the above according to distance, we find : — 
(5 observations for 7.910 km. give a velocity of 2-73 



S,900 
9,520 



3- It; 
3-41 



The numeral I. refers to the greatest increase in motion, while II. 
refers to the maximum itself, and it will be observed that the value for 
JI. is always less than it is for I. 

A good series, showing the -wddely different results which may be 
obtained as to the velocities with which given disturbances are propagated, 
may be found in the British Association Report of the Committee on 
Earth Tremors for 1894. The earthquakes to which these refer are those 
of April 20 and 24 of 1894, which originated in North-east Greece, and 
which were recorded by different types of instruments at 41 different 
stations in Europe, the length of the wave paths being from 701 to 
2,4.55 km. The velocities obtained vary between 1-29 and 11-71 km. per 
second. The high velocities are those obtained from records of the com- 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AxVD VOLCANIC THEXOMENA OF JAPAN. 169 

mencement of movement by the more sensitive classes of instrument, the 
records from which also give the lower values, if the arrival of the dis- 
turbances is taken as being the time when they recorded jnaximum phases 
of motion. 

As a last example of the different results which may be obtained from 
the same record, I take that observed at Rocca di Papa on March 23, 
1894. The shock originated beneath the ocean about 70 miles S.E. of 
Nemuro, on the north-east coast of Yezo (Lat. 42° N., Long. 146° E.). 
It was observed at Nemuro in Greenwich mean time at 10.20.45 a.m. 

The times at Rocca di Papa and the resulting velocities were as 
follows : — 

First tremors, JO.36.0 G.M.T. 11-35 km. per .sec. 

Decided motion, 11.12.0 ,, .S06 
Ma.ximum motion, 11.19.0 ,, 2-fi9 „ 

In Tokio it was observed at 10.27.40 G.M.T., after which four after- 
shocks were noted, The average time difference between the oUservations 
at Tokio and Nemuro was fi min. 43 sec, and the difference in their 
distances from tlie origin is about GOO miles, from which an average 
velocity of about 2-3 km. per second is calculated. If it is assumed that 
the first tremors reached Rocca di Papa by direct radiation along a chord 
or through the earth, then their velocity may be reduced to 8 or 10 km. 
per second (see example on p. 149). 

3. Conclusions. 

Very many records might be added to those which have been given, 
but it does not seem likely that, until we are in possession of a series of 
records taken at long distances apart on the surface of our globe by means 
of instruments ivMch are similar, which have sufficient sensibility to record 
preliminary tremors, and which record upon surfaces moving sifficienthj 
quickly to alloxv of accurate time determinations, that our present know- 
ledge \yill be greatly increased. Because the waves of a disturbance change 
in period as they travel, while one wave breaks up to form two or more 
waves, and this even in ground which is apparently homogeneous, a given 
earthquake may show as many velocities as there are waves between which 
we choose to make measurements. What we know from experiments, and 
what we should expect from a priori reasoning, is that the rate at which a 
disturbance is propagated varies with the nature of the medium through 
which it is ti-ansmitted. Experiments have shown that the vibrations fol- 
lowing an artificial disturbance, where the initial impulse has been strong, 
travel more quickly than those where the originating cause has been feeble; 
also that there is apparently a higher velocity very near to an origin than 
at a distance. The latter phenomenon seems to find confirmation in the 
records of certain earthquakes. Although it may be difficult to interpret 
the meaning of these latter observations, when we endeavour to find an 
explanation for the existence of the long series of preliminaiy tremors 
which are recorded at places nearly a quarter of the earth's circumference 
from an origin, and which have apparently reached these places by travel- 
ling at rates of 9 to 12 km. per second, the difficulties which confront 
us are still greater. The next section is an attempt to explain these 
phenomena. 



170 JiEPORT — IfcOC). 

(c) On the Prohahle JVature and Vdocitij of Propaijation of the 
Movements resulting from an Earthquake Disturhance. 

If it is assumed that the crust of the eartli has the character of an 
isotropic elastic solid, then from an earthquake centrum two types of 
Avaves may emanate. In one of these the direction of vibration of a 
particle is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave or normal 
to its fi'ont, as in a sound wave, whilst in the other it is transverse to such 
a direction, or, so far as this character is concerned, it is like the move- 
ments in a ray of light. 

These two types of movements, which are respectively known as 
condensational and distoi'tional waves, are j^ropagated with different 
velocities, which depend upon certain elastic moduli and the density of the 
material. 

These velocities may he respectively expressed by the quantities 
\/' mjp and s/ njp, where i> is the density of the material, n the modulus 
of rigidity or resistance to distortion, and ni a modulus depending upon 
the modulus of rigidity and the bulk modulus or resistance to compression 
k, which is equal to k + \n. 

The first conclusion to which the theory leads is that the condensa- 
tional wave has a higher velocity than the distortional wave, and therefore 
the first ought to outrace the latter. With artificially produced disturb- 
ances at jwints near to origins in fairly homogeneous earth, a phenomenon 
similar to this has been observed, but whether the preliminary tremors 
preceding more decided movements observed at great distances represent 
condensational waves propagated from an origin is yet uncertain. I'rom 
experiments made in conjunction with Professor T. Gray to determine the 
elastic moduli of granite, marble, tufl', clay rock, and slate, and the veloci- 
ties with \\hich normal and transverse movements have been projDagated 
in alluvium. Dr. C. G. Knott drew iip the following table as representing 
aAerage constants involved when determining the velocities with which 
di.sturbances may be propagated through fairly solid rocks : — 

Density . , . . , . . p = 3 

Eigidity ?i= 1-5 x 10" C.G.S. units 

Eatio of t lie wave moduli . . . mjn = o 

With the above numbers the velocity of a distortional wave would 
be 2-235 km. per second, while the condensational wave would have a 
value about double this quantity. Should we accept the i-ecords made of 
decided movements which had their origin in Japan, but which have been 
recorded in Europe as representing distortional waves, then our expecta- 
tions based upon theory closely accord with what has been observed. 

On the other hand, because it has been shown that small vibrations 
have been noted which have travelled at rates of from 9 to 12 km. per 
second, the fact must not be overlooked that we are not yet in possession 
of sufficient constants to apply the theory to all the cases which have been 
observed. Even if we had the constants referring to the elasticity and 
density of material in the interior of our earth, when we consider the 
heterogeneity of the materials through which a disturbance probably 
passes, as Dr. C. G. Knott and other writers point out, there are serious 
objections to the assumption that waves with a high velocity are due 
to the transmission of normal motions, while those with a lower velo- 
city represent the less rapid transversal vibrations. At every boundary 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 171 

between two media different in tlieir elasticity, either a condensational or 
a.distortional wave is broken up into reflected and refracted distortional 
waves as well as reflected and refracted condensational waves, and thei'e- 
fore as a disturbance travels through the heterogeneous mass of materials 
constituting the earth's crust there is, in every probability, a continual 
change in the cliaracter of the motion. 

Not only does tliis consideration make it appear unlikely that the 
tremors which have been observed at stations far removed from an origin 
if they were propagated on or near to the surface of the earth are due to 
condensational waves, while the more pronounced movements which 
succeed them represent the distortional waves, but it also indicates that 
at a given station there should be no definite relationship between the 
motion of an earth particle and the direction of propagation of an earth- 
quake. For feeble earthquakes, and for those recorded at points outside a 
megistoseismic area, this latter conclusion is remarkably concordant with 
observation. 

On the other hand, however, if preliminary tremors are movements 
which have been transmitted at great depths through a medium where 
"^ e/p is constant or changes gradually, it is likely that they have a con- 
densational character. 

Next we may consider the probable nature of surface waves. Lord 
Rayleigh, in a paper on waves propagated along the plane surface of an 
Elastic Solid, ^ investigates 'the behaviour of waves upon the plane free 
surface of an infinite homogeneous isotropic elastic solid, their character 
being such that a disturbance is confined to a superficial region of thick- 
ness comparable with the wave-length. The case is thus analogous to 
that of deep water waves, only that the potential energy here depends 
upon elastic resilience instead of upon gra'S'ity.' 

Two cases are discussed, but the results are very similar. A particle 
at the surface moves in an elliptic orbit with its major axis perpendicular. 
The displacement parallel to the plane surface penetrates into the solid 
for an incompi-essible solid about the eighth of a wave-length, and to 
about the fifth into the solid when the Poisson ratio has a value of one- 
fourth. The surface waves aie propagated at a slightly slower rate than 
a purely distortional wave is propagated. 

From observations made upon earthquakes near to their origin, it 
seems that when vertical motion appears it is accompanied by horizontal 
displacements greater than that required by the formula given by Lord 
Rayleigh, but the question arises whether the accepted horizontal move- 
ments are not more apparent than real, being displacements due to tilting 
of the recoi'ding instruments. That at the time of a strong earthquake 
surface waves have an existence, because they have been seen, been felt, 
and been recorded by instruments, is a fact not to be disputed. As they 
spread the distance between crest and crest apparently increases, and 
calculations have been made to detei^mine their height and length. About 
the path described by a constituent particle nothing has yet been experi- 
mentally determined. The decided movements which have been recorded 
at great distances from their origin, which have been referred to as possibly 
being distortional waves, because tlaey slowly tilt pendulums from side to 
side, are not unlikely to be long flat undulations ivJiich near to the origin 
were decided surface waves. If this is the case, the phenomenon to be 

' Froc. Lond. Math. Soc, vol. xvii. 1883-G. 



172 REPORT — 1895. 

investigated is not the transversal vibrations of a truly elastic solid, but it 
is a quasi-elastic surface disturbance, the propagation of which is accele- 
rated by the influence of gravity. 

The preliminary tremors have, however, yet to be explained. At 
stations within 100 miles of an origin, as recorded by seismographs, these 
outrace the main disturbance — with which, however, they are invariably 
connected — and often overlap it, by perhaps ten seconds. At a distance 
of 6,000 miles they seem to outrace it by half an hour. 

Dr. C. G. Knott suggests that they are due to the quasi-elastic dis- 
turbances which accompany earthquakes. When the earth movement is 
violent, and possibly accompanied by destruction, the material of the 
earth's surface is either strained beyond its limit of elasticity, or at least 
so far strained that the resulting movements are governed by coefficients 
other than those due to rigidity and compressibility. As these quasi- 
elastic waves pass through a region of discontinuity, or as they lose 
energy, they may be suddenly or gradually transformed into a purely 
elastic disturbance. 

Although changes of this description may take place as a disturbance 
passes from medium to medium, inasmuch as it implies the creation of 
tremors as the surface waves progress, much in the same way that a 
trotting pony or a railway train creates the sound waves which run before 
them, we are led to the conclusion that the preliminary tremors have a 
velocity very much higher than those already calculated. Because this 
cannot be accepted, the only explanation remaining is the assumption 
that the preliminary tremors are movements originating at an earthquake 
centrum and propagated possibly as condensational waves along paths yet 
to be discussed through our earth. If this is made, then apparent velocities 
of 11 or \'l km. per second, as observed for example on March 22, 1894, 
may be reduced to actual velocities of about 9 km. per second. 

Should a more extended and systematic observation confirm this pro- 
visional assumption, we shall then be in a position to discuss from a new 
point of view the physical nature of the materials constituting the interior 
of our globe which apparently transmits motion at a greater rate than 
glass or steel. 

Points not yet touched upon are the increase of velocity with an 
increase in the intensity of the initial disturbance, and a decrease in 
velocity as a disturbance radiates, both of which phenomena are marked 
near to the origin of artificial disturbances. The only explanation which 
suggests itself for both these phenomena is that around the epicentrum 
there is a region to which motion is communicated partly by elastic yield- 
ing and partly as a push. The volume of ground which may be thus 
disturbed is called by my late colleague, Professor T. Alexander, an earth- 
quake core. In the case of an artificial disturbance originating near to 
the surface, the distance to which this effect extends will depend upon the 
suddenness and magnitude of the initial disturbance. With an earth- 
quake originating underground, the distance to which a high epifocal 
velocity may be noticeable will not only dei^end upon the above two con- 
ditions, but also upon the depth of the focal origin. The greater this 
latter quantity becomes, the greater will be the radius of the epicentral 
area in which there may be not only a real increase in velocity but also a 
high ajjparent velocity. 

The conclusion to which these considerations and the observations 
which have been made lead is that an earthquake gives rise to at least 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 173 

three kinds of movements, each of which has a different velocity of 
propagation. On the surface of the earth there is an undulatory motion 
which from the researches of Lord Rayleigh we might expect to travel at a 
rate slightly slower than a distortional wave, but as pointed out by 
Lord Kelvin it is probable that this rate is accelerated by the influence of 
gravity. What we should expect and what we find are therefore fairly in 
accordance. From a centrum to various points upon the surface of the 
earth we should expect truly elastic waves to be propagated, the velocities 
of which would vary along paths of varying depths. At great depths, as 
for example along a straight or curvilinear path between Japan and 
Europe, the velocity of propagation might be higher than that of a con- 
densational rarefactional wave in glass, and exceedingly high velocities 
have apparently been observed. Lastly, in an epifocal area there may be 
instantaneous disturbance or an apparent high velocity due to bodily 
displacement within an earthquake core and the transmission of elastic 
and quasi- elastic vibrations, or to the combination of such phenomena. 



{d) The Faths followed hy Earthquake Motion. 

What has next to be considered are the paths by which an earthquake 
originating at a centrum reaches various points upon the sui-face of the 
globe. 

Three hypotheses present themselves. Motion may reach various 
points on the earth's surface along the rectilinear wave paths of Hopkins 
or Seebach, by curvilinear paths as suggested by Dr. A. Schmidt, or lastly 
by either of these paths, after which from an epifocal area the radius of 
which is not likely to exceed the focal depth, there is a transmission on the 
surface of elastic gravitational waves. 

Before discussing the merits of these hypotheses, it may be well first to 
consider the case or cases to which they are applicable. 

Because we have no evidence of a disturbance being simultaneously 
felt at a number of places on the surface of our globe and at their anti- 
podes, and for other reasons, we may exclude the idea of a disturbance 
having originated near to the centre of our sphere. Nor can it be admitted 
that a disturbance originated at half or quarter such a depth, for if it did 
so, then in an epicentral area, possibly 400 miles in diameter, apparent 
velocities should have been observed which not only would be enormously 
high, but would be at least five times greater than those observed between 
more distant stations. 

From what we know respecting the causes of earthquakes, it is a 
reasonable supposition to imagine that their origins are confined to the 
crumpling of a superficial layer of the material constituting the crust 
of our globe, which according to the Rev. O. Fisher and other investi- 
gators, in all probability does not exceed thirty miles in thickness. The 
enormous faulting which has accompanied certain disturbances shows that 
at least a portion of the initial impulse was delivered actually at the 
surface. About the depth to which such faults have descended or the 
mean depth from which an earthquake has originated, we have no certain 
information. Confining our considerations to disturbances which have 
originated at depths which are extremely small relatively to the radius of 
our earth, we may now turn to the hypotheses respecting earthquake 
radiation. 



174 



REPORT — 1895. 



Fig. ]G. 



1. Hypotheses of Hupldns and Seebach. 

In 1847 Hopkins drew attention to the fact that the velocity with 
which a wave passes from one point of the surface of the earth to another 
point is only an apparent horizontal velocity which may be denoted as v. 
For example, if in fig. 16 the origin of a disturbance be O, C be its 
epicentre on the surface of the earth H' H, and Op, Opj be the direction of 
two earthquake rays, then the apparent velocity is the distance p, p., 
divided by the time interval between the observations at the two points 
p, andp,,. During this interval the distance travelled by the wave within 
the earth has been sp.2. 

The true velocity which may be called V is that with which it travels 

within the earth, as, for example, 
between the centrum and the epi- 
centre. To show the relationship 
between these two velocities it is 
assumed that the true velocity is 
constant. On this assumption if C) 
is a centrum, wave fronts may be 
represented by circles of coseismals, 
the distances apart of alternate 
members of which are equal and 
represent the distance travelled 
in unit time, which for conveni- 
ence may be taken at one second. 
The true velocity Y is therefore 
equal to spj, while the apparent 
velocity recorded on the surface 
is Pi p.,. Erom the construction 
sp2=pi p2 sin W, or V=^v sin B. 
points near to the epicentre C, the 
greater than the true velocity, while 
between points at some distance from C tlie two velocities tend to become 
equal to each other. The law of this decrease in the apparent velocity is 
shown geometrically by drawing Seebach 's hyperbola, which runs from C 
through a series of ordinates the lengths of which are equal to the 
differences between the time at which C was shaken and p, p^, etc, were 
disturbed. The asymptote to this curve intersects the seismic vertical ac 
the origin, and therefore if we are satisfied with the hypothesis, having 
given a number of time observations and knowing the position of the 
epicentre, the method may be used for determining tlie depth of a seismic 
focus. 

This hypothesis indicates why a disturbance should apparently be pro- 
pagated with a high velocity near to its epicentre, but that this rapidly 
approaches a constant value. 




From this it follows that for 
apparent velocity is very much 



2. Hypothesis of Schmidt. 

As pointed out by Dr. A. Schmidt, directly we deal with an earthquake 
which has been propagated over a great distance it is necessary when 
constructing the velocity curve to take into consideration the curvature 
of the earth. 

This curve (fig. 17), which has lost its hyperbolic character, shows by 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OF JAPAN. 



1 



/ ■} 



the convexity of its upjiei- part that after a decrease in velocity in the 
epicentral regions at great distances the veh)city again increases to 
become infinite. Dr. Schmidt has Ukewise shown that actual observations 
which have been made upon earthquakes are best satisfied by a velocity 
curve drawn on the supposition that the actual velocity within the earth 



Fig. 17. 




is not a constant, but varies with a change in elasticity and density of the 
rocks through which the waves are propagated. 

As we descend in depth on account of an increasing temperature it is 
probable that with other changes there is a change in the elastic moduli of 
rocks. This being admitted, it then follows that a series of waves start- 
ing from a centrum would be propagated at a greater rate downwards than 
upwards towards the surface, while the normals to such a series of waves 
would by refraction gradually be bent upwards. 

As illustrative of what would occur under the supposed conditions, 
Dr. Schmidt gives a diagram like fig. 18, 

in which coseismals have been drawn, on ^ '^^- ^^■ 

the assumption that the velocity has in- __+ > 
creased proportionately with the depth. In :::.1.t.] 
this case the earthquake rays which are -'-f j-'c . ^ . _ 
perpendicular to successive coseismals are -'''''-'-—■-■'■- ■'^'' 

by refraction turned upwards, and no 
longer radiate in straight lines. The co- 
seismals meet the surface at intervals, 
which first decrease from the epicentre 
and then increase, indicating a decrease 
and then an increase in the apparent ve- 
locity. The value for v is never less than 
the velocity at the centre, but after rapidly 
decreasing until it equals this value, it again 
increases. The velocity curve or earthquake hodograph which shows these 
changes is drawn through points determined as they were determined for 
Seebach's hyperbola. If there is an increase in the velocity of propaga- 
tion of earth waves or in the quantity t/p as we descend beneath the 
surface, whether we take the centrum near to the surface or at a great 




176 REPOKT— 1895. 

depth, the resulting hodograph retains its character. Although the evi- 
dence that there is an increase in the velocity of propagation of waves as 
we trace thera beneath the sui'face is by no means so complete as might 
be desii-ed (see p. 161), Dr. Schmidt compares the advantages whicli the 
curvilinear propagation presents over that of the rectilinear transmission 
employed by Seebach. 

It will be observed that in fig. 18 there is a great concentration of 
earthquake rays in the epifocal region which would correspond to the 
destruction which is so noticeable in such districts, while with rectilinear 
radiation the absence of such concentration is not in accord with the 
results of experience. Although both hypotheses agree iji showing a 
higher apparent velocity near to the epicentre, in Seebach's hyperbola an 
identical limit is reached for the apparent horizontal velocity for all 
earthquakes, while Schmidt's modification of the laws shows that the 
apparent velocity on the surface cannot be less than that between the 
focus and the first coseismal, with which it varies. From this it follows 
that for limited areas the latter method admits the possibility of very high 
A-elocities resulting from earthquakes originating at reasonable depths. 
With rectilinear propagation on the contrary, to obtain such high veloci- 
ties as have been observed, it is necessary that origins should be situated 
at enormous depths. 

Should a disturbance originate near the surface, Schmidt's hodograj^h 
consists of two symmetrical concave branches which meet in an angle at 
the centre, indicating that the velocity increases from the epicentre 
outwards. 

After indicating the above and other advantages presented by the 
hodograph over the hyperbola as representing the velocity with which 
earth waves are apparently propagated. Dr. Schmidt takes a number of 
earthquakes for which good time observations have been obtained and 
plots the resulting curves. These which refer to earthquakes felt over 
moderate areas show the characteristic inflexion point denoting an 
increased velocity in the outer portion of the disturbed tract. 

The following are examples of his results :— 

Middle Germany, March 6, 1872. — Longest wave path 400 km. 
Here the hodograph is distinct in character with a point of inflexion at 
about 11 miles from its vertex, having a slope indicating a velocity of 
2-5 miles per minute. At a distance of 36-7 miles the velocity is 15 miles 
per minute. The curve passes much more closely through the points 
representing time and distance than the hyperbola of Seebach. Possible 
depth, 5 to 10 miles. Mallet's method, dependent upon a single observation, 
gives 1-9 to 2-9 miles. 

Herzogenrath, October 22, 1873. — Longest wave path 150 km. In 
this case the hodograph is practically concave, throughout its length 
indicating an origin near the surface. It is indicated over a radius of 
17 miles. Possible depth is less than 3 km. By Seebach's method it may 
be from to 14 km. 

Swiss Earthquake, January 7, 1887. — Longest wave path, 150 km. 
The f'eneral character of this hodograph is like the last. At the point 
of inflexion the velocity is 170 m. per second, and at 150 km. it is 
1,300 m. The depth of the centrum is from 1 to 6 km. 

Charleston Earthquake, August 31, 1886. — Longest wave path, 
1,500 km. Here the hodograph is nearly a straight line. The depth 
of the centrum may exceed 120 km. 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCAMC rHEJsOMEXA OF JAPAA'. 177 

In the case of tlie first three of these examples, their hodograpliic 
character may be due to the fact that observations were made in epifocal 
areas, within which disturbances radiating from a centrum were recorded ; 
but in the last example this character has been lost, because most of the 
times which were noted probably refer to the arrival of a surface disturb- 
ance capable of being felt, and which might have been recorded by ordinary 
seismograplis. 

These latter records are therefore such that we could not expect them 
to conform with the hypothesis under consideration, and until a number 
of stations separated by long distances are provided with instruments 
capable of recording minute tremors which may go through the earth. 
Until these have been established, it would seem that the confirmation of 
the attractive theory put forward by Dr. Schmidt must lemain in abeyance. 

3. A Suggestion that there are three Classes of Jfovement. 

The last hypothesis is one that takes into consideration three classes of 
movements wliich immediately round an epicentre are hopelessly confused. 
These are the truly elastic disturbances which from a focus reach the 
surface of the earth along rectilinear or curvilinear paths, forced displace- 
ments, and quasi-elastic waves, causing tumultuous movements in the 
centre of a megistoseismic area, and long undulatory elastic-gravity waves 
which are propagated over the surface of the earth. 

The escape of energy is most pronounced along the paths of least 
resistance, that is round the seismic vertical to an epifocal area, and then 
radially over the surface of the globe. The rate of propagation of the 
surface waves seems to be about "J or 3 km. per second, and it may be 
fairly constant. The minute tremors which have been observed at 
stations 6,000 miles distant from their originating cause, if they travelled 
through the superficial crust of the earth they did so at a rate of perhaps 
12 km. per second, while if they were created on the passage, their 
velocity, which is increased, becomes more abnormal. Assuming that they 
came as condensational waves tln'oiigh the earth, then their velocity 
is reduced to 8 or 10 km. per second, a quantity which, as suggested 
by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, may possibly throw new light upon the- 
nature of materials constituting the interior of our earth. At present 
the facts bearing upon this latter question are both few and imperfect. To 
confirm or dispel the important conclusions indicated by the few facts at 
our disposal, it would seem desirable that investigations should be extended 
in such a manner that the results obtained by different observers would be 
comparable. With a set of stations situated round the globe at intervals 
of 1.^)° or 30° apart, provided with instruments similar in character,, 
similarly installed and similarly worked, which are capable of recording 
not simply small changes in level but also minute vibrations, we might 
easily extend our present knowledge, not simply respecting the propaga- 
tion of surface undulations, but possibly of motion transmitted through 
the rigid globe. An indication of the latter phenomenon would be an 
enormous increase in the apparent velocity of a disturbance as it approached 
the antipodes of its origin, while the concentration of energy in such a 
region would suggest internal refraction. 

< )ther phenomena which might be recorded would be the diurnal and 
longer period wanderings of the instruments, local eai'thquakes and eartli 
tremors. The latter, although important in themselves, because they so 
1895. N 



178 REPOKT— 1895. 

often eclipse the effects of earthquakes, fslioukl, by pi'oper instalment of 
the instruments, Ije as far as possible minimised. 

(e) Conclusions. 

If we except the curious results respecting the velocity of propagation 
of motion which we might expect to find, and which apparently exists in 
an epifocal area, the phenomenon of greatest interest, the study of which 
may lead us to important conclusions respecting the physical constitution 
of the interior of our globe, are the so-called preliminary tremors of earth- 
quakes which are often continued as superimposed serrations on the quasi- 
elastic motions. In Japan these have been recorded and studied for the 
last 15 years, but it has only been within the last year or two that their 
appearance has been recognised in Europe. 

All that I know about these latter records is what I learn by letters 
from Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, and what I have seen in the publica- 
tions of Dr. Agamennone and other Italian observers, and the conclusion 
is that these tremors are the reappearance of a phenomenon which has for 
so many years puzzled seismologists in Japan. If this is so, and if they 
really possess the abnormally high velocities attributed to them, seismo- 
logists may be on the verge of probing our earth to depths greater than 
it was thought probable that the study of earthquakes could possibly lead. 
Although something farther may yet be learned by studying the elastic 
gravitational surface disturbances, we know that whether they are recorded 
on paths of about 600 miles in length in Japan, or on paths of 6,000 miles 
in length between Japan and Europe, they travel at a rate of about 
?> km. per second. All that is now required is to increase the accuracy of 
the observations by adopting such methods of noting the arrival of these 
disturbances that the records at each station i-efer to the same phase of 
motion. 

Before the short list below was completed, I unfortunately lost my 
library and everything else by tire. It is therefore possible that some of 
my quotations may be incomplete and perhaps inaccurate. Such writings 
as have been referred to, so far as I am able to give them, are as 
follows : — 

Heferences. 

Dr. A. Schmidt (Stutt- Wellenbcweguno: nnrl Erdhehen. ' .Talireshefte cles YereinH 
gart). fiir vaterl. Naturkunde in Wiirtt.,' 1888. 

„ „ . . Untonsucliungeu iiber zwci neuero Erdbeben, das Schwei- 

zerische vom 7. Januar 1S89 iinddas Nord-Amerikanische 
vom HI. August 188G. Ibid., 18'iO. 
P. Tacchini . . . Terremoto calabro-messinese del IG Novembre 1894. 

' Reale Accademia dei Lincei,' vol. ,3, p. 27.5. 
„ ... Sulla reyi.strazionc a Rmua del terremoto calabro-messinese 

del 16 Novembre 18!»4. Ibid., p. 3G5. 
Dott. A. Cancani . . Sulla velocita di propagazione del terremoto di Constanti- 

nopoli del 10 Luglio 1894. Ibid., p. 409. 
„ . . . Sugli strumenti pin adatti alio studio delle grandi ondula- 
zione provenienti da centri sismici lontani. Ibid., 
p. 551. 
,, . . . Sulle ondulazioni provenienti da centri sismici lontani. 
' Annali dell Officio Centrale di Meteorologiae Geodina- 
mica,' vol. 15. part 1, 189.3. 
Dott. G. Agamennone . Velocitil di propagazione delle principali scosse di terre- 
moto di Zantc ncl recente periodo sismico del 1893. 
' Reale Accademia dei Lincei,' vol. 2, p. 392. 



ox THE EAKTHUCAKK AM) VOIXAMC PIIENOMEXA OF JArAX. 



179 



Dott. G. AgamcnnoiK 



Robert Mallet 



^Villiam Hopkins . 

Prof. Simon Newconib 
and Capt. Button, C. K. 

F.Fouque et Michel Lerj" 



General H. L. Abbot 
J. Milne . . . . 

Dr. C. G. Knott 

Dr. E. von riebcur-Pa-scli- 
witz. 



Alcnne considernzioiii sulla velociti'i <li propagazionc dclle 

principali .^co.s.se di terrenioto di Zante ncl 1S!):>. Ibid., 

vol. :i, p. :58H. 
Al'june considerazioni sui differenti metodi (ino .ad oggi 

adoperati nel calcolare la velocita di propagazione del 

tcrremoto andaluso del S.j Diccmbre 1884. IhUl., p. 

HO)!. 
Velocita superficiale di propagazioni dellc onde sismiclie, 

in occasione della grande scossa di terremoto dell' 

Andalusia del 25 IMcembre 1884. Ibid., p. ^17. 
&'ulla variazione della velocita di propagazione dei terre- 

nioti, attribuita alio onde transversal! e longitudinali. 

Ibid., Tp. 401. 
Report on the Facts of Earthquake rhenomeria. ' British 

Association Picports,' 1851. 
Report of the Experiments made at Iloh'head, &c. Ibid., 

18rtl. 
Report on the Geological Theories of Elevation and Earth- 
quakes. J bid., lai'i. 
The Speed of Piopagation of the Charleston Earthquake. 

'Am.Journ. of Science,' vol. oo, Jauuary, 1888. Also 

other publications lost by tire. 
Experiences sur lavite,-se dn propagation dos secousses 

dans les sol'^ divers. ' L'Acadeniie des Sciences de 

ITnstitur de France." Tome 30. 
On the A'^elocity of Transmission of Earth AVaves. ' Am. 

Journ. of Science and Arts,' vol. 15, March, 1878. Also 

other publications lost b.y tire. 
Seismic Experiments. • Trans. Seis. Soc.,' vol. 8. 
dn a Seismic Survey made in Tokio 1884-5. Ibid., 

vol. 10. 
Earthquakes and Earthquake Sounds as illustrating the 

General Theory of Vibrations. Ibid., vol. 12. 
]Many papers lost by fire. 



V. Miscellaneous Notes eelatixg to Large Earthquakes, itc. 



1. Large Earthqiialcps. — During the past twelve months Japan has 
been visited by several destructive earthquakes, seismographic records of 
which are given in the list of shocks recorded by the Gray-Milne seismo- 
graph in Tokio. The velocities with which certain of these disturbances 
were propagated in Japan will be found in the fourth section of this 
report. At least three of the shocks were recorded in Europe, and to 
determine the velocities with which they were propagated diagrams and 
notes relating to observations made in Japan have been forwarded to Dr. 
E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz and Dr. P. Tacchini. The most notable dis- 
turbances were as follows. 

June 20, 1894. Preference was made to this shock in the report for 
1894. In Tokio it was felt very severely, destruction being equally great 
amongst foreign-built brick buildings on the high ground, and amongst 
similar structures in the foreign concession on the low ground. An ex- 
cellent diagram, obtained from a seismograph without multiplication, has 
been published in the 'Journal of the College of Science ' (Imperial Uni- 
versity of Japan). The after shocks were extremely few in number. 

N 2 



180 Kf:roRT— 1895. 

October 22, 1894, .1.20 p.m. Tliis shock, which created great destruc- 
tion within an area not more than thirty miles in diameter round Shonai 
on the N.W. coast of the main island, does not appear to have been recorded 
by the Oray-Mihie seismograph in Tokio. 

The destruction it occasioned in the vicinity of its origin was enormous. 
More than 300 people lost their lives, while in some respects the country 
was more fissured and broken up than it was around Gifu in 1891, at which 
time nearly the whole of Japan was sensibly shaken. Sand hills or dunes, 
which have a breadth of 3,000 to 4,000 feet at their base, were fissured and 
sunk along their crests for a breadth of between 200 and 300 feet, and these 
openings extended for several miles. Fissures of great length were formed 
in the plains, whilst water and sand were shot upwards, and ring-like 
craterlets produced. One of the most curious phenomena was the till- 
ing up of wells with sand, and the shooting upwards for a height of 
several feet of their wooden linings. The after shocks were few in 
number. 

Januaiy 18, 1895. At 10.48 p.m. on this date Tokio was again 
severely disturbed, and from the feelings of the inhabitants it was difficult 
to say whether the movement was more or less severe than that of June. 
The fact that many buildings which escaped the latter shock were on this 
occasion more or less shattered suggests the idea that the distribution of 
movement throughout the city was somewhat different. 

The origin of the disturbance was apparently from 60 to 100 miles to the 
north or north-east of Tokio, and from this centre the preliminary tremors 
recorded by a seismograph outraced the main shock by 6 or 8 seconds. 
Had the writing pointer of tlie seismograph recorded its movements pho- 
tographically, it is likely that this interval would have lieen increasec?. 
It will be of great importance to determine the interval between the 
preliminary tremors and the elastic surface gravitational waves for this 
shock as recorded in Europe. 

Owing to the number of destructive earthquakes which occurred prior 
to the three here mentioned, so many observations have been accumulated 
that up to the present no time has been available for their analysis. The 
observations and notes collected by the writer relating to disturbances 
which have taken place during the last few years, which in themselves 
would have formed a voluminous report, were unfortunately destroyed by 
a tire referred to in the next paragraph. 

2. Tlie Destruction of Books and Pamphlets rdathig to Seismology. — It 
is with regret that I have to announce that on February 17 my house 
and observatory were entirely destroyed by fire. The losses consisted of 
collections of books, instruments, and other things accumulated during the 
last twenty years, the stock of the Transactions of the Seismological 
.Society, which at the time were packed ready for shipment to Europe, and 
about 1,500 books and pamphlets relating to Earthquake and Volcanic 
Phenomena. All that I saved was the clockwork of a new seismograph 
and a bundle of photograms. The analysis of the latter forms the chief 
portion of this report. 

3. Alterations in tlie Construction of Chimneys. — One effect of the 
recent earthquakes in Tokio has been to cause householders to rebuild the 
upper part of their chimneys with thin iron plate, while factory chimney.s 
from 50 to 100 feet in height have for a length of 20 or 30 feet at about 
two-thirds up from their base been strengthened with a series of strong 
iron bands connected vertically by iron straps, it being observed that it 



ON THE EARTHQUAKE A>D VOLCANIC PHEXOMENA OF JAPAN. 



ISl 



was usually near to this point that 
fracturing ocouri'ed. 

4. Experiments on the Vibration 
of Chirntieys and BuHd'uujs. — Short- 
ly after my fire Professors Tanaka- 
Jate, Mano, and other Members of 
the Earthquake Committee to which 
I am attached took diagrams of the 
natural vibrations of the brick chim- 
ney stack which was left standing 
after my fire. The chimney is 18 
feet in height, and has a rectangular 
section of 3 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 
1 inch and two flues. With a rope 
and a windlass, a deflection of the 
top of the stack of one inch and a 
half was obtained, when the rope 
was suddenly released The result 
was that the chimney vibrated for 
about 20 seconds, and a record of 
these vibrations was obtained upon 
a band of paper. One of the dia- 
grams is reproduced, tig. 19. The 
period of motion has apparently 
varied with thfe range of swing ; for 
example — 

Kange of Motion 1-25 in Period 17 second. 
i> >i I) ''^o „ ,, '85 ,, 
M „ „ -10,, „ -43 „ 

When we i-emember that the greatest 
portion of the destruction occasioned 
by earthquakes is due to the fact 
that various portions of a building, 
in consequence of not synchronising 
in their movements, are mutually 
destructive, while solitary structures 
may be destroyed in consequence 
of the agreement between their 
natural period and that of an earth- 
quake, it seems likely that observa- 
tions like the one now described may 
lead to important rules being for- 
mulated for builders. 

The next experiments will be on 
the vibration of wooden buildings. 

5. The Earth Waves of Earth- 
quakes. — On several occasions the ap- 
paratus described in the Report for 
1893 has given diagrams showing the 
amount of tilting which accompanies 
certain earthquakes. The period of 
these angular displacements closely 
coincides with the periodicity of hori- 



1H2 REPORT— 1895. 

zontal displacement, and its amount has varied l^etween one and three 
minutes of arc. The original instrument has unfortunately been destroyed 
by fire. 

6. Work at the Central Observatory under the Directorship of K. 
Kohai/ashi, Esq. — Athough records from the 9G8 outside oljserving sta- 
tions have accumulated at a quicker rate than that at which they can be 
tabulated for analysis, many important imiJrovements have been made in 
the working of the central station. In one room all instruments intended 
for country stations are tested. These instruments are simplified types 
of the Gray-Milne seismograph. One test is for the time-recording 
clocks, another for the clock driving the recording surface, and a third for 
the multiplication of the horizontal and vertical seismographs. Although 
several types of spring clocks have been tested, their rates are far from 
being satisfactory. Cheap pendulum clocks give good rates, but they are 
generally disturbed at the time of an earthquake. In another room an 
exceedingly large seismograph, without multiplication, is arranged to 
record severe motions. In a third room, which is alive with the ticking 
of clocks and chronometers whicli ai'e at stated intervals compared with 
time signals fi-om the Astronomical Observatory, there are four seismo- 
graphs and various types of contact makers. A glass disc recording sur- 
face, on which the pointers for vertical and horizontal motion rest, is 
continuously in motion. The recording surfaces of the other instruments 
are set in motion by the contact makers, after which time intervals are 
marked upon them from a break circuit chronometer. Mr. N. Outska, 
who is in charge of this department, finds that for horizontal and vertical 
contact makers having equal multiplication the former almost invariably 
closes its circuit before the latter. 



J5 



APPENDIX. 

On Causes prodncinf/ Movements whicli, may be mistaken for Earth 

Tremors. 

The following note refers to observations and experiments made at a 
small observing .station which has recently been established at Shide, in 
the Isle of Wight. I reached Shide on July 30, aiid on the following 
day a pit was e.vcavated in a dry stable, about 3 ft. G in. in depth, down 
to the upper surface of the disintegrated chalk. 

On August 6 and 7 a brick pier, 6 feet in height and 1 ft. G in. 
square, was built on a concrete bed to rise freely in the pit. The necessary 
wooden covering for this was completed at noon on the 16th, and that 
evening an extremely light horizontal pendulum like R was installed and 
set to work. This instrument, which I call T, gave a beautifully defined 
two-line diagram until the 21st, when the clock ceased to drive the film, 
which had become damp and sticky. This was clearly due to moisture 
from the drying column being confined in the casing which covered its 
upper part and the instrument. To overcome the difficulty I placed 
inside the case two trays, each aliout 6 in. by 3 in., of calcium chloride. 
Immediately after this tlie pendulum commenced to swing, its range 



ox THE EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC PHENOMENA OK JAPAN. 183 

sometimes reaching ^ incli. This continued until the 25th, when, sus- 
pecting that the cause might be due to air currents resulting from rapid 
desiccation, I removed the calcium chloride, and the movements ceased. 

1 have repeated the experiment several times, with the result tliat when 
the calcium chloride is introduced, movements are produced, which in 
the developed tilm have the appeai-ance of a violent tremor storm, and 
when it is taken away the diagram is a clear straight line. We have 
here a cause of air currents which has not yet received serious atten- 
tion. Another cause of movement, whicli is easily verified by experi- 
ments on a very light pendulum beneath a glass covering, may be due 
to the unequal heating of the surrounding walls. If portions of the tremors 
which have been recorded are due to causes, such as these which act 
within the casings, then it is understood why extremely small and light 
pendulums have shown more movement than those which are compara- 
tively large and heavy. After my last twenty installations, and those 
which preceded them, the horizontal pendulums might be arranged 
according to their sensibilities as follows. The most sensitive are those 
with booms from one quarter to 3 or 4 inches in length, the next are those 
like R, and the one at Shide T, where the boom is of reed or straw about 

2 ft. 6 in. in length, following which are booms about 5 feet in length of 
bamboo like A, and lastly, as the least sensitive, are the somewhat shorter 
and comparatively heavier booms of brass or aluminium used at the 
remaining stations. The only exceptions in the last group were the 
instruments E and F in the undergi'ound chamber, whicli recorded 
ti-emors almost equally as large as A. In this chamber, although there 
was but little appreciable daily change in temperature, the ventilation 
was good, and therefore there may have been considerable changes in the 
hygrometric state of the atmosphere entering the covering cases, which 
were of wood resting upon a floor of asphalt. A ditference in the rate 
at which moisture was absorbed or evaporated from the walls of this 
casing might possibly give rise to air currents. The live instruments in 
badly ventilated caves may have failed to show tremors, partly on 
account of their inertia, and partly perhaps because there was neither 
any sensible change in temperature nor in the dryness or wetness of the 
atmosphere. That tremors were practically absent from all the instru- 
ments on the surface, can only be attributed to their inertia, or to the fact 
that they were so well ventilated that no difference in temperature within 
their coverings was possible ; but as the huts and casings were similar to 
that of R, the most probable explanation is the former. 

The most difficult things which require explanation respecting earth 
tremors, assuming them to result from air currents due to differences in 
temperature or desiccation within the walls that inclose the instruments, 
are the facts that tremors have in all cases but one been most pro- 
nounced between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m., and during the night, and that they 
accompany certain meteorological conditions already formulated. 

Before attempting tliese explanations it would be advisaT)le to com- 
pare the movements of two light pendulums standing on the same column, 
one having walls varying in character, and the other, if possible, in 
vacuum. 



184 REPORT — 1895. 



UarHt. Tremors. — Fifth Report of ih.e Committee, consistin/i of Mr G. 
J. Symons, Mr. C. Davison {Secretary), Sir F J. Bramwell, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwix, Professor J. A. Ewixg, Dr. Isaac Roberts, 
Mr. Thomas Gray, Sir Johx Evans, Professors J. Prestwich, 
E. Hull, G. A. Lebour, R. Meldola, and J. W. Jcdd, Mr. M. 
Walton Brown, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor C. G. Knott, Pro- 
fessor J. H. PoYNTiNG, Mr. Horace Darwin, ruiri Dr. R. Copeland, 
appointed for the Investi(jatioii of Earth Tremors in this Country. 
(Droiun up by the Secretary.) 

ArrEXDIX. — Kbfe on the liUtory of the Horizontal and Bijilar Pcndidinnn. 

/yy C. Davison'. ' pa,/c 184 

Since tlieir last Report was presented, the Committee have purchased 
two bifilar pendulums from the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Com- 
pany. Tiiese instruments are similar in most respects to tlie pendulum 
with which experiments were made in 1893 (Report, 1893, pp. 291-303), 
but several improvements have been introduced in order to correct one or 
two defects which those experiments brought to light. The changes made 
are described in the Report of 1894 (pp. 145-146, 158-160), and a 
'detailed account of the new instrument is given in ' Nature,' vol. 1., 
1894, pp. 246-249. Each pendulum is provided with a photographic 
recording apparatus. One of them has been erected on the old foundation 
in the cellar of the Secretary's house at Birmingham, l)ut at too recent a 
date to allow atiy results to be included in this Report. It was intended 
that the second instrument should be placed in a building about three- 
quarters of a mile to the east of the fii'st, but it was afterwards found 
that the construction of the foundation might endanger the stability of 
the walls. Arrangements are accordingly being made for the erection of 
this instrument on another site in the neighbourhood of the former, and 
it is hoped that a comparison of the records of both may lie completed 
before the next meeting of the Association. The second pendulum will 
then be available for use elsewhere. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, with the addi- 
tion of ]\Ir. G. F. Deacon. 



APPENDIX. 



JVote on fho History of the Horizontal and Jiifilar Pendulums. 

By C. Davison. 

In previous Reports of this Committee, as well as in those of the 
Committee on the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity (1881-82), reference is 
made to the history of the horizontal and bifilar pendulums. A recent 
work by Mr. Claudius Kennedy ' contains an interesting chapter on this 
subject, and gives some additional facts which it seems desirable to 
eiubodv in this note. 

' A Fen- Chapters in Astronomy (London, 1894), pp. 93-103. 



EARTH TREMORS. 185 

In the following bibliography, the first date is that of the year iu 
which, so far as known, the instrument was originally constructed. 

1. 1832. L. Hengeller : ' Phil. Mag.,' vol. xlvi., 1873, pp. 412-416. 

2. 18.51. A. Gerard : ' Edinburgh, New Phil. Journ.,' vol. Iv., 1853, 

pp. 14-16 ; Kennedy, pp. 94-95. 

3. 1862. Perrot : 'Paris, Acad. Sci. Compt. Eend.,' vol. liv., 18G2, 

pp. 728-729, 851-852. 

4. 1869. Rev. M. H. Close : Barrett and Brown's 'Practical Physics,' 

1892, p. 241 ; Kennedy, p. 96. 

5. 1869. F. ZoUner : ' Phil. Mag.,' vol. xliii., 1872, pp. 491-496. 

6. 1871. C. Delaunay : 'Paris, Acad. Sci. Compt. Rend.,' vol. xcvii., 

1883, p. 230. 

7. 1879. Lord Kelvin : 1880-81, G. H. and H. Darwin : ' Brit. Assoc. 

Rep.,' 1881, pp. 93-112. 

8. 1887-88. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz : 'Nova Acta der ksl. Leop. 

Carol. Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher,' Bd. Ix., 1892, 
pp. 1-216 ; 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.,' 1893, pp. 303-309. 

9. 1892. J. Milne: 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.,' 1892, pp. 107-109; 'Fed. 

Inst. Mining Eng. Trans.,' 1893, pp. 6-7; 'Seismol. Journ.,' 
vol. i. 1893, pp. 88-90. 
10. 189.3. H. Darwin : 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.,' 1893, pp. 291-299 ; 1894, 
pp. 145-146, 158-160 ; 'Nature,' vol. 1., 1894, pp. 246-249 ; 
'Seismol. Journ.,' vol. iii., 1894, pp. 61-63. 

In every case, I believe, except those numbered 8 and 10, the principle 
of the instrument was discovered independently. The horizontal pendu- 
lum has also been designed as a time-recorder for small disturbances by 
Professor J. Milne (Japan, 'Seismol. Soc. Trans.,' vol. iii., 1881, pp. 61- 
62; 'Nature,' vol. xlii., 1890, p. 347); Professor T. C. Mendenhall 
(' Amer. Journ. Sci.,' vol. xxxv., 1888, p. 105) ; and Professor G. Grablo- 
vitz ('Boll, della Soc. Seismol. Ital.,' vol. i., 1895, pp. 12-17). 

All the different forms of horizontal and bifilar pendulums agree in 
one respect : the vertical distance between their points of support is very 
great compared with the horizontal distance between them. In principle 
they merely differ in the method of suspension ; and, according to this 
method, they may be grouped in the following three classes : — 

1. The pendulum in which the rod or mirror is suspended by two 
wires. These may be again subdivided : (a) The pendulums of Close and 
H. Darwin, and practically also of Delaunay, and Lord Kelvin and the 
Darwins, in which the centre of gravity of the rod or mirror lies between 
the two points of attachment of the suspending wires, {b) The pendulums 
of Hengeller, Perrot, and Zollner, in which it lies outside them. 

2. The pendulums of Gerard and Milne, on which the rod is supported 
l)y one wire and on one steel point. 

3. The pendulum of von Rebeur-Paschwitz, which is supported on two 
.steel points.' 

' In tliis clas-s should be included Professcr Ewing's horizontal pendulum seis- 
mogri-nph, which, though designed for a different purpose, also records slow tilts of the 
ground (Enri/cl. Brit. vol. x.^i. p. 628). 



18G 



REPORT — 1S9.J. 



Meteorolor/ical Olmrvatlons on Ben NevtK. — Bei«jrt of the Committee, 
considiv;/ of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Crum 
Brown (SecTetartj), Dr. John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, 
Hon. Ealph Abercromkie, and Professor R. Copeland. {Brawn 
uji hij Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee was appointed, as in foi-mer years, for the purpose of 
co-operating -with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben jSTevis. 

The hourly eye observations by night as well as by day have been made 
uninterruptedly by Mr. Oraond and his assistants during the year at the 
Ben Nevis Observatory ; and the continuous registrations and other 
observations have been carried on at the Low Level Observatory at Fort 
William with the same fulness of detail as during the previous four years. 

The Directors of the Observatories tender their cordial thanks to 
Messrs. C. M. Stewart, B.Sc, A. D. Russell, and C. T. R. Wilson for 
valuable assistance rendered as volunteer observers during the summer 
months for about six weeks each, thus giving gi-eater relief to the members 
of the regular observing staft". 

For tJie year 1S94, Table I. shows the monthly mean and extreme 
pressures and temperatures, hours of sunshine, amounts of rainfall, number 
of fair days and of days when the amount exceeded one inch, the number 
of hours of bright sunshine ; and this year for tlie first time the mean 
rainband (scale 0-8) at both Observatories, and the mean hourly velocity 
of the wind in miles at tlie top of the mountain. The mean barometric 
pressures at the Low Level Observatory are reduced to 32° and sea level, 
while those at the top of the Ben are reduced to 32" only. 



Table I. 



1894 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April ! Slay | June 


July Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 










Mean Pressure in Inches. 












Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort \\'ii;iain 
Differences . 


24-980 

29-595 
4-615 


25-086 

29-697 
4-611 


25-192 

29-764 
4-572 


25-286| 25-357' 25-450 25-369' 25-339 

1 
29-844 29-951 29-960 29-820 29-823 
4-558i 4-594; 4-5101 4-451; 4-4S-t 

Mean 7'eiiq)eratures. 


25-665 

30-232 
4-567 


25-357 

29-91.'i 
4-558 


25-181 

39-716 
4-535 


25-232 

29-828 
4-596 


25-291 

29-845 
4-554 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


2!.7 

39-3 
17-U 


o 
24-0 

40-3 
16-3 


o 
28-2 

42-J 
14-7 


c ! o o o o 
31-1 1 29-1 38-2 43-3 39-2 

48-4 i 46-9 54-S 58-9 5-'i-2 
17-3 1 17-8 1 lU-B 1 15-6 16-0 

reriies of Teviperature, Maxi 


o 
37-3 

5T0 
13-7 

ma. 


32-7 

45-6 
12-9 


n 
31-.1 

46-7 

15-4 


o 
27-6 

41-1 
13-5 


D 

32-0 

47-G 
15-6 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


o 
35-4 

53-5 

18-1 


o 
36-2 

520 

15-8 


o 
41-2 

6.">-l 
21-9 

Exi 


o o o o o 
40-8 46-1 1 63-5 62-9 , 53-9 

' ' i ! 

62-6 61-1 78-2 ' 81-5 65-5 
21-8 16-0 14-7 ' 18 6 , 11-6 

remes of TemperaUire, Mhiii 


o 
65-1 

63-6 
8-5 

na. 


o 
55-5 

59-9 
4-4 


o 
42-6 

60-0 
17-4 


o 

41-0 

56-2 
15-2 


63-5 

81-5 
18-0 


Ben Nevis Ob- 

servaton- 
Fort William 
Differences . 


O 

0-7 

20'8 
20-1 


o 

12-3 

21-5 
9-2 


o 

17-6 

28-7 
ll-l 


22-8 

33-9 
11-1 




Iti-l 28-3 

31-7 38-0 
15-6 9-7 


1 o 

32-6 1 31-0 

47-3 42-6 
11-7 11-6 




26-4 

37-3 
10-9 


o 
17-1 

24-5 
7-4 




2u-3 

31-7 
11-4 


o 
11-2 

24-4 
13-2 


o 

0-7 

20-8 
20-1 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OX BEN NEVIS. 



187 



Table I. — continued. 



;8!ii 



Jan. 



Feb. March April May June | July 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. Nuv. ' Dec. 



Tear 



Mainfall in Inches. 



Ben .N'cvisOb- 


16-90 


s.s-ss 


14-58 


3-50 1 


sorvatiirj 
Fort Willilim 
Diflfcieiicc.'i . 


11-70 
4-17 


13-G2 

ia-84 


9-36 
5-22 


1-37 
213 



8-33 



3-78 1 3-13 
2-88 5-2U 



ll-a-")! :7-70' 1-32; 4-68 17-40 14-n.1 149-9$ 



5-70 
5-G5i 



7-72 I 
9-98 



0-24 
1-08 1 



2-OC 11-62 8-78 79-17 
2-G2 , 5-78 , 6-15 , 70-79 



NiimJ/er of Days 1 in. or mere fell. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


4 


11 


6 


1 





3 


4 


G 





1 


servatory 






















Fort William 


3 


3 


3 








1 


1 


1 








Differences . 


1 


8 


3 


1 





2 


3 


a 





1 



J\'iimlicr (f Bays (f no I'ain. 



BenNevisOb- 

servattirv 
Fort William 
Differences , 



4 


2 


6 


^ 


2 


1 



u 



18 



U I 20 
1 2 



; 10 


12 


9 


7 


21 


13 


' 


6 ' 


1 12 


10 


12 


13 


25 


21 


5 


7 


2 


7 


3 


6 


4 


8 


2 


i 1 



Mean Rainliand {srale- 0-8). 



Ben Nevis Ob- 1 


2-0 


2-7 


servatory 






Fort William 


3-0 


4-4 


Differences . 


1-0 


1-7 



1-9 

3-3 
1-4 



1-9 


1-8 


2-4 


2-5 


2-3 


3-B 


3-8 


4-8 


5-3 


5-2 


17 


2 


2-4 


28 


2-a 



l-.J 

3G 



1-9 

3-6 
1-7 



2-1 


1-4 ' 


4-4 


30 ! 


23 


1-6 1 



46 



16 

30 



119 



157 
3S 



20 

40 
2-0 



Kumhcr of Hours of Er'iyht Siinshiiii 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


3 


9 


101 . 


servatcirv- 








Forr, William 


in 


2li 


132 


Diffeiences . 


13 


11 


31 



82 



165 
So 



78 


117 


115 


45 


12G 


91 


15 


28 


810 


171 


170 


143 


76 


147 


91 


13 


16 


1,160 


93 


53 


28 


31 


21 





-2 


-12 


350 



Ben Nevi? Ob- 
servatory 



26 



Mean, Hourly Velocity if Wind in Miles. 

19 1 IS 1 19 , 11 1 10 I 12 1 11 j 11 , 15 



18 



18 



Percentage of Cloud. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


95 


96 


69 


SO 


85 


77 


SO 


89 


58 


on 


91 


84 


servatory 


























Fort William 


75 


80 


54 


60 


76 


73 


73 


72 


56 


06 


84 


79 


Differences . 


20 


16 


15 


20 


9 


4 


7 


17 


2 


3 


7 


5 



15-7 



81 



71 
10 



At Fort William the mean temperature of the whole year was 47°"6, 
or 0°"8 greater than the mean of previous years, being the excess above 
the mean at western stations in Scotland from Ayrshire to Eoss-shire. 
The mean temperature at the top of Ben Nevis was 32°-0, or 0°'9 above 
the mean for the same years, being thus nearly the same excess as at the 
lower Obsei'vatoiy. 

Tlie lowest mean monthly temperature at Fort William was 39°"3 in 
January, being 0°-7 above the mean ; and at the top of the Ben 21°-7 in 
January, which is 2°-l under the mean. This gives an unwonted large 
difference of temperature Ijetw^een the Observatories for January, which 
was occasioned by a comparative absence of anticyclonic weather and the 
relatively low temperature accompanying at the upper station, and the 
singular want of sunshine, there being registered for the whole month 



188 



KEPORT — 1895. 



only three hours of sunsliine. On the other hand, anticyclonic weather 
was of frequent occurrence in September, October, and December ; and 
accordingly in these months sunshine was large, being absolutely the highest 
hitherto recorded in September and October, and having been only 
exceeded in December. It will be also observed that during these months 
the difTerence of temperature between the two Observatories was much less 
than usual, owing to the higher temperature of the anticyclones at the 
top of the Ben. The highest monthly mean temperature at Fort William 
v/as 58°-9 in July, or 2°-2 above the mean ; and at the top 43°-3 in the 
same month, or 3°"0 above the mean. The month of greatest excess 
above the average was November, whose mean temperature at Fort 
William was 46°-7, or 4°-l above the mean, while at the top it was 31°-3 
or 3°'2 above the mean. This great excess of temperature was about the 
same in all parts of Scotland, and was occasioned by an extraordinary 
predominance of south-westerly wind, which exceeded any observed in 
November dui-ing the past forty years. The sunshine was markedly 
deficient, and hence temperature at the top was relatively lower than 
at Fort William. The following show the deviations of the monthly 
results from their respective )neans : — 

Table II. 

Top of Fort 

Ben Nevis Willinm 

o o ■ 

.Tanuary —2-0 0-7 

February 0-ii IS 

March 45 3-i 

April ... 3-4 3-4 

May -•]•- -2-6 

June -0-7 -0-5 

July 30 2-2 

August. -O-G -M 

September —0-2 —Tit 

October 1-1 -1-4 

November 3-2 4-1 

December 2';j 1'7 

Year 09 O'S 

The maximum temperatui-e at the top was G3°-5 on June 30, and 
81°-5 at Fort William on July 1. The minimum temperature at the top 
was 0°-7 on January G, and at Fort William •20°-S on January 6. 

The above minimum temperature 0°-7 is absolutely the lowest yet 
observed on the top of Ben Nevis. The conditions under which it 
occurred are seen in the following extract from the day's observations : — 

Table III. — Weather accomjMnying Loiv Temperature of 
January 6, 1894. 



Hoxir of Observation. 
Barometer, at 

3-2°, 21iu.+ 
Drv Bnlb 
Wet Bulb 
Wind Direction 
Do. miles per liour 
Melted Suow iu inch . 
Cloud . 



3 A.M. '4 A.M. 15.4. M. 



•877 i -863 



130 
12-8 

E. 

25 

•(JUS 

fog 



13-3 

13-1 

K. 

25 

fog 



•827 
11-2 
U-l) 
E.byS. 

38 

•0U5 
fog 



6 A.M. 

•804 
9^0 
8-8 

E. 

38 

•003 
fog 



7A.M.I 

1 


8 A.M. 


9 a.m. 


•784 


•782 


•785 


5-2 


0-7 


1^0 


5-0 


0^4 


0-9 


B.S.E. 1 E.S.E.1 


E.S.E. 


43 


38 


38 


•U07 


— 


•002 


fog 1 


fog 


fog 



10 A.M. 

•807 
2-U 
1-8 

5.E.byE. 

3U 

•004 

fog 



11 A.M. 

•829 
3^4 
3-1 

S.E. 

29 

•004 
fog 



Noon 


1 P.M. 


•834 


•840 


3-9 


4-2 


3^8 


4^0 


S.E. 


S.E.bTE. 


29 


29 


•009 


•006 


fog 


fog 



METKOROLOGIC.VL OB,-^EH\AT10N.S ON 1!EN NK\"IS. 



189 



This low minimum temperature occurred at the same time as the lowest 
barometric reading of a small satellite cyclone passing over the British 
Islands (see Daily Weather Reports). As the centre of the disturbance 
advanced, temperature very rapidly fell, and thereafter rose steadily, but 
more slowly than it had fallen, and the easterly winds acquired a little 
southing. The wind was high throughout, attaining at 7 A.M. a velocity at 
the rate of 43 miles an hour, accompanied by constant fog and showers 
of snow. It is this type of weather, a temperature approaching zei'o, 
near the point of saturation, and fog drifted onward with very high 
wind, which is the most disagreeable and prejudicial to health of all 
weather encountered at this high elevation. It may also be noted that 
the dip in the temperature was coincident with the dip in the barometric 
pressure. 

The registrations of the sunshine recorder on the top show 810 hours 
out of a possible 4,470 hours, being 130 hours more than in 1893. This 
equals 18 per cent, of the possible sunshine. The maximum was 126 
liours in September, which is higher than any previously recorded Sep- 
tember ; and the minimum 3 hours in January, being the lowest yet 
recorded in this month. At Fort William the number for the year was 
1,160 hours, being 95 hours in excess of the previous year. As the 
number of hours of possible sunshine at Fort William is, owing to the 
surrounding hills, only 3,497 hours, the sunshine of 1894 here was 33 per 
cent, of the possible number. 



Table IY. — Lowest Ilygrometric Observations dimng each Month o/'1894. 



— 


Jiin. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Got. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




o 


o 


O 








„ 












Dry Bulb . 


26-8 


20-4 


24 3 


29^4 


30-6 


400 


(!2-9 


52 


49-6 


5..-0 ! 42-0 


22^0 


Wet Bulb 


•i%-f, 


14^4 


188 


24 2 


23-9 


29-2 


48-1 


3i;-8 


ZVi, 


34^.) ' 30^3 


16^9 


Dew poiut 


135 


-27-6 


-13 1 


6-5 


45 


15-3 


36^H 


2r6 


1-2-2 


!6^4 15-9 


-lfi^& 


Elastic Foi-ce . 


•080 


•010 


•023 


•058 


•053 


•087 


•214 


•116 


•075 


•O'Jl •089 


•019 


Relative Humidity 1 
SaMiration=IOn f 


67 


9 


18 


36 


31 


35 


37 


39 


21 


2.5 31 


16 



Of these lowest monthly humidities the lowest (9) occurred at 1 p.m. ou 
February 1 4, at which hour the dew-point was — 27-6° and the elastic force 
0-010 inch. The previous month (January) presents a striking contrast to 
this, the lowest humidity being no lower than 57. It is also to be noted 
that during the eight months from April to November the dew-point on 
no occasion fell to zero. 

At the top the percentage of cloud covering the sky was 81, being 3. 
less than the average of previous years. The variation during the months^ 
was great, being above 90 per cent, in January, February, and November ; 
while, on the other hand, the minimum was 58 per cent, in September and 
69 per cent, in October. At Fort William (he annual mean was 72 per 
cent., the maximum being 84 per cent, in November, and the minimum 
54 per cent, in March. 

The mean rainband (scale 0-8) observations at the top was 2-0 for the 
year, the maximum being 2^7 in February and the minimum 1-5 in Sep- 
tember, when the weather was eminently anticyclonic. At Fort William 
the means were for the year 4-0, the maximum 5^3 in July, and the mini- 
mum 3'0 in January and December. 



190 REroKT— 1805. 

The mean hourly velocity of the wind at the top was 16 miles, the 
monthly mean maximum being 26 miles in January, and the minimum 
10 miles in June. For the five months from May to September the mean 
was 11 miles per hour, but for the six months from November to April 
the mean was 20 miles per hour. The relations here indicated among the 
.seasons .substantially hold good year by year. 

The rainfall for the year at the top was 149-96 inches, being 3'63 inches 
above the average. At Fort William the amount was 79'17 inches, which 
is 4'07 inches above the average. The maximum monthly rainfall at 
the top was 33"5.5 inches in February, and the minimum 1-32 inch in 
September. At Fort William the maximum monthly fall was 13-02 
inches in February, and the minimum fall 0-24 inch in September. 
The above are the smallest monthly amounts yet recorded at either of 
the Observatories, and the maxima are higher than any hitherto recorded 
for February. 

These two months were a strong contrast to each other. In February, 
cyclone succeeded cyclone in swift succession to each other accompanied 
with heavy and destructive gales, deluges of rain, and heavy snowfalls ; 
whereas September was for much the greater part of the month under 
the influence of anticyclones, accompanied with clear sky, dry and well- 
nigh rainless weather. At the top of the Ben 6-67 inches of rain fell on 
February 6, being, except on October 3, 1890, the greatest daily fall on 
the records of the Observatory. 

At the top the rain fell on 246 days, and at Fort William on 208 days, 
being respectively 14 and 30 days under their averages. The maximum 
number of days on which rain fell at the top and at Fort William was 27 
days in January, and the minimum number 9 days at the top and 5 at 
Fort William in September. 

During the year the number of days on which an inch of rain was 
exceeded was 46 days on Ben Nevis and at Fort William 16 days. In 
February the numbers were 11 days and 3 days respectively. 

Auroras are reported to have been observed on the following dates : — 
February 13, 25 ; March 24, 25, 30, 31 ; April 28 ; August 23, 31 ; Sep- 
tember 1, 2, 27, 30; October 2, 4, 5, 26, 27, 30, 31; November 23,24, 26; 
December 1. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on January 25 ; February 4, 9 ; March, 3, 5, 
6, 9, 12 ; May 29, 30; June 18; July 7, 21; November 8, 15. 

The Zodiacal Light was observed on March 24, 25, 26. 

Thunder and lightning reported on February 3, 8 ; July 6, 7, 21 ; 
August 15; September 17; lightning only on January 29, February 4, 25. 

Almost daily during the last week of February there were strong 
earth- currents in the telegraph cable between the base and summit of the 
hill. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure at 32° and sea-level 
was 29-845 inches, and at the top 25-291 inches, the difference being thus 
4-554 inches, being only very slightly above their averages. At the top 
the highest pressure during the year was 25-992 inches in June, and the 
lowest 23-742 inches in December, the difference being 2*250 inches, a 
rather large difference. 

Mr. A. J. Herbertson has made further progress in carrying on, at 
the two Observatories and in the south of France, the research on the 
hygrometry of the atmosphere referred to in last report. The work is 
now in an advanced stage of preparation, and the results will shortly b<» 



METKOKOLOCilCAL OlisEltVATIUNS O.N lil-.S NKVIS. 191 

published in the Transnclions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and in 
the Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society. 

Much work has been done in the offices in Edinburgh and Fort 
William in recopying, on separate daily sheets, the hourly observations 
of the two Observatories, in connection with a strictly scientific examina- 
tion of the two sets of observations in their bearings on the meteorology 
of north-western Europe. 

This important research was begun by Dr. Buchan in spring last, and 
it has since occupied any time that has been available after the discharge 
of his official duties. The subject has been divided into several parts, 
and each is treated separately by itself, in its relations with the other 
observations more or less closely connected with it. The following are 
the selected divisions of the research : Cyc^lones ; anticyclones ; differ- 
ences of temperature between the top and bottom of the mountain, much 
smaller than the normal difference, including inversions of temperature, 
when the temperature at the top is higher than that at Fort William ; 
large differences of temperatui-e, much exceeding the normal difference, 
particularly in their close connections with coming storms ; great dryness 
of air at top, which occurs with anticyclones, and their intimate bearing 
on the movements of these important weather factors ; marked differences 
of wind at top and bottom, both as regards direction and force, especially 
in their close relationship to the extent of the ' droop ' of the barometric 
pressure likely to occur with the coming cyclone ; relations of the obser- 
vations above and below to the storms repoi'ted by the keepers of the 
Scottish Northern Lighthouses ; conditions under which very diverse 
readings of the two barometers occur, as regards time of phases, and 
chai'acter of the fluctuations ; and an examination of the whole observa- 
tions with the reported rainfall at about a hundred stations selected from 
all parts of Scotland. 

In these inquiries the weather maps of this and other European 
countries at the time are examined. The general method of treatment 
may be best shown by an example. Thus in dealing with cyclones, the 
following data are collected and entered in the respective columns of the 
sheet for cyclones, viz., position in Europe of the cyclone ; position of the 
nearest anticyclone at the time, with its highest recorded barometer and 
place ; the direction in which Ben Nevis is situated from the cyclone, 
whether N., N.E., E., kc. ; distance of Ben Nevis from the centre of the 
cyclone in miles ; temperatures at the Observatories ; humidities at ditto, 
sunshine and cloud at ditto ; barometer at Fort William, at sea level ; 
lowest recorded barometer at centre of cyclone, and its position ; wind at 
sea level from daily weather maps, and at top of mountain ; and the light- 
houses at which storms occurred. 

It will be recognised that several of these points have been to some 
extent already adverted to in our previous reports ; but what is now 
attempted to be done is an inquiry into their relations to each other. The 
unique character of the inquiry results from the fact that the High Level 
Observatory on Ben Nevis is situated right in the general path of the 
cyclones of north-western Europe, whereas the other high level observatories 
and stations of Europe that have been used in similar investigations are 
altogether outside that path. So far as it has gone, the inquiry already 
points to the result that there can be no doubt most important modifica- 
tions will require to be made as to the theories of the cyclone more gener- 
ally held by meteorologists at the present time. 



192 REPORT— 1895. 

It being felt that more assistance was required to expedite this 
work of discussion than it is in the power of the directors to give, 
application was made to the President and Council of the Royal Society 
for a grant of 100^. from the fund placed at their disposal by the Goveni- 
ment Grant Committee. The application was granted, and the money 
will be applied in paying assistants for doing portions of the routine 
work of the offices in Edinburgh and Fort William, in order to give 
Dr. Buchan and Mr. Omond time for cai-rying on the inquiries sketched 
out above. 

The examination of the Hourly Barometric Curves during fine, clear 
days and during cloudy days respectively, have been continued, on 
account of their very high value in connection with the work of the two 
Observatoi'ies. To our last report six tables were appended, giving the 
hourly values for each month for the top of the mountain for Fort 
William, and for Trieste, near the head of the Adriatic, for clear and 
cloudy days respectively. 

During the year Mr.Omond has continued these most laborious calcula- 
tions, so that your Committee are in a position to add four Tables to the 
above. The two new stations are Magdeburg, in Germany, selected because 
its comparatively dry climate forms an admirable contrast to the rather 
wet climates of Fort William and Trieste, and San Jose, situated in lat. 
9°-56' N., long. 84°-0 W., and at a height of 3,756 feet above the sea. A.s 
its height approximates to that of Ben Nevis, the observations made at 
this Observatory, which is situated only ten degrees from the equator, 
form an excellent comparison with those made at the top of Ben 
Nevis. 

Tables V.-VIII. give the departures in thousandths of an inch from the 
daily means of the barometer at each hour of the day at Ben Nevis, Fort 
William, Trieste, Magdeburg, and San Jose, on fine or sunny days, and 
on cloudy or overcast days. In each case, three years have been taken, 
though not the same years at each station, the figures being 'bloxamed,' 
as in last report. San Jose is chiefly interesting as showing how a tropical 
station in a steady climate, where every reading of the barometer during 
the three years lay between 26'000 and 26"400 inches, with rain falling 
only at certain seasons, and then almost wholly confined to the afternoon 
hours, differs from the recoixls of a temperature zone-station with a vari- 
able climate. 

This is not the place to enter on any adequate discussion of the results, 
but it is of importance to point out that the characteristically low morn- 
ing maximum, and very high evening maximum during cloudy days at 
Ben Nevis, Fort William, Trieste, and Magdeburg, in all seasons, do 
not occur at San Jose in similar weather. It is, however, diflferent as 
regards the two daily minima at San Jose, the morning minimum being 
distinctly larger on cloudy than on sunny days, and the afternoon minimum 
less. There are also marked characteristics, in cloudy weather, of the 
barometric pressure at Fort William and Trieste, suggesting that in such 
weather the temperature of the atmosphere, taken as a whole, falls to n 
greater extent than when the sky is clear, and tension is consequently 
more reduced ; but that the temperature of the lower strata of the 
atmosphere rises to a less extent than it does in sunny weather, when the 
surface of the earth is screened by clouds, resulting in a reduced ascending 
current from the heated ground. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 0.\ BEX NEVIS. 



193 



Table Y. — Shoiving at Magdeburg the Mean Ilourl >j Variation of Pressure, 
in thousandths of' an inch, during fine or siinny days. The minus 
sign shows means under the average. 



Latitude 
Longitude 
Height . 



52-9 N. 

11-37 E. 

177 ft. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


- 7 


-11 


-10 


- 4 


3 


2 





- 3 


- 7 


- 9 


-9 


— 5 




2 


- 7 


-11 


-10 


- 5 


1 


1 


- 


- 3 


- 8 


-11 


-10 


— 6 




3 


, 


- 8 


-10 


- 9 


- 4 


1 


2 


- 1 


- 3 


- 8 


-12 


-12 


— 9 


— 6 


4 


, 


-10 


-11 


- 9 


- 3 


2 


5 


2 


- 2 


— 7 


-10 


-12 


-10 


- 5 


5 


, 


-10 


- 8 


- 5 


1 


6 


9 


5 


1 


- 4 


- G 


- 9 


-10 


— 2 


6 


) 


- 6 


- 1 


3 


8 


13 


15 


12 


8 


2 


- 1 


- 6 


— 7 


3 


7 




- 2 


5 


10 


15 


18 


20 


18 


15 


10 


7 


- 1 


— 3 


9 


8 


, 


9 


15 


20 


22 


22 


23 


21 


20 


16 


15 


10 


8 


17 


(t 


) 


14 


20 


24 


24 


23 


22 


21 


20 


19 


18 


14 


12 


19 


10 


, 


21 


23 


26 


24 




21 


21 


20 


20 


20 


211 


18 


21 


11 


, 


17 


2:< 


25 


■2\ 


17 


16 


17 


17 


18 


19 


17 


15 


18 


Noon 


9 


16 


15 


14 


9 


9 


11 


10 


11 


11 


6 


6 


11 


1 P.M. 


- 


7 


11 


6 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


3 


1 


- 4 


3 


2 „ 


- 7 


— 


1 


- 3 


- 7 


- 6 


- 4 


- 6 


— 4 


- 4 


- S 


— 10 


— 4 ( 


3 „ 


- 8 


- 5 


- 8 


-12 


-16 


-14 


-U 


-13 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


- 8 


-10 ! 


4 „ 


- 7 


- 8 


-14 


-19 


-23 


-20 


-17 


-17 


-14 


-11 


- 8 




— 14 1 


5 „ 


- 5 


- 8 


-15 


-22 


-27 


-28 


-24 


-21 


-14 


- 9 


- 4 


- 3 


-15 i 


« „ 


- 1 


- 6 


-13 


-21 


-31 


-29 


-26 


-21 


-11 


- 4 


2 


1 


-13 1 


7 „ 


2 


- 2 


- 8 


-15 


-22 


-26 


-23 


-IG 


- 6 


— 


5 


4 


— 9 1 


« „ 


fi 


- 1 


- 3 


- 8 


-13 


-18 


-15 


- 8 


— 


3 


6 


6 


-4 


9 „ 


« 


- 1 


- 3 


- 4 


- 5 


- 7 


- 7 


- 3 


— n 


3 


6 


7 


— 1 


10 „ 


■^ 


- 5 


- 6 


- 4 


- 


- 2 


- 1 


1 


- 





2 


4 


— 1 


11 „ 


- 1 


- 8 


- 8 


- 3 


3 


2 


1 


1 


- 3 


- 5 




o 


2 


Midnight 


- 5 


-11 


-11 


- 3 


2 


2 





- 2 


- 8 


-10 


- 7 


- 1 


- 5 



Table VI. — Shomng at Magdeb^irg the Meayi Hourly Variation of Pres- 
sure, in thousandths of an inch, during cloudy days. The minus sign 
shows means under the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


6 


9 


9 


3 


6 


10 


16 


14 


10 


9 


5 


6 


9 


2 „ 


6 


7 


6 


- 1 


1 




9 


7 


4 


4 


4 


5 


6 


3 „ 


3 


2 


- 


— 7 


- 3 


— 1 


5 


- 


- 4 


- 4 


- 1 


3 


_ 1 


■* ,1 


- 1 


- 3 


- 5 


- 8 


- 3 


— ] 


2 


- 6 


-10 


-11 


- 6 


- 2 


— 4 


5 „ 


- 4 


- 6 


- 7 


- 7 


- 1 




i 


- 8 


-13 


-14 


-10 


- 6 


- 6 


6 » 


- 5 


— 7 


- 7 


- 5 


- 




- 1 


- 8 


-14 


-17 


-13 


- 7 


- 7' 


7 .» 


- 4 


- 6 


- 4 


- 


5 




1 


- G 


- 9 


-12 


- 9 


- 6 


— 4 


8 „ 


1 


- 


1 


5 


7 




1 


- 3 


- 3 


- 4 




— 


— 


9 „ 


2 


- 


2 


6 


6 


3 


- 1 


_ 


- 1 


- 2 


1 


1 


1 


10 „ 


4 


1 


5 


7 


8 


3 


- 1 


1 


3 


1 


5 


4 


4 


11 ,, 


3 


2 


4 


10 


6 


3 


- 2 





3 


2 


4 


2 


3 


Xoon 


- 


1 


2 


7 


2 


- 2 


- 7 


- 3 


1 


- 2 


- 1 


- 3 


- 


1 P.M. 


- 9 


- 6 


- 3 


3 


- 2 


— 5 


-10 


- 5 


- 2 


- 4 


- 5 


— 10 


— 5 


2 „ 


-14 


-11 


- 8 


- 1 


- 5 


— 7 


-11 


- 6 


- 4 


- 6 


-10 


-14 


— 8 


3 „ 


-14 


-14 


-13 


- 7 


-11 


-11 


-14 


- 9 


- 6 


- 8 


— 9 


-13 


— 11 


4 „ 


-11 


-13 


-14 


-11 


-15 


-13 


-15 


- 9 


- 7 


- 7 


- 6 


- 9 


-11 


6 „ 


- 8 


-11 


-14 


-13 


-16 


-16 


-16 


-11 


- 7 


- 4 


o 


— 5 


— 10 


I " 


- 3 


- 4 


- 8 


-10 


-14 


-13 


-13 


-10 


- 4 


1 


2 


- 1 


— 6 


7 „ 


1 


1 


- 1 


- 4 


- 6 


- 8 


- 8 


- 5 


1 


6 


5 


3 


_ 1 


« " 


6 


6 


5 


2 





- 2 


- 1 


4 


8 


n 


8 


8 


S 


,' •• 


8 


9 


9 


6 


7 


8 


9 


12 


12 


15 


10 


9 


10 


10 „ 


11 


12 


12 


8 


10 


12 


15 


15 


13 


15 


11 


11 


12 


11 „ 


12 


14 


14 


8 


19 


14 


18 


18 


14 


15 


11 


12 


13 


Midnight 


" 


14 


14 


7 


10 


14 


21 


2J 


16 


1« 


11 


12 


14 



1895. 



194 



REPORT 1895. 



Table VII. — Showing at San Jose the Mean Hourly Variation of Pres- 
sure, in thousandths of an inch, during fue or sunny days. Tlie minus 
sign shores means under the average. 



I.atitude 

Longitude 

Height 



n° 5G' N. 

84° 0' W. 

3,75G ft. 



Haur 


Jau. 
13 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


Jxily 


Aug. 
11 


Sept. 
12 


Oct. 
12 


Nov. 
12 


Dec. 


Year 
12 


1 A.M. 


15 


15 


14 


13 


9 


in 


14 


2 „ 





- 1 


- 1 


- 1 


- 1 








1 


1 


1 


1 


3 





'■'• ,. 


- 9 


-111 


-10 


-11 


— 9 


-11 


- 9 


-10 


- 9 


- 9 


- 8 


- 7 


- 9 


4 .. 


-13 


-13 


-l.i 


-15 


-13 


-14 


-12 


-13 


-12 


-12 


-12 


-11 


-13 


fl .. 


- 5 


- 6 


- 8 


— '.) 


- 8 


-11 


- 9 


-10 


- 8 


- 7 


- G 


— 3 


- 8 


'' ,. 


7 


H 


3 


3 


2 


_ 2 


- 4 


- 4 


- 1 


3 


3 


8 


2 


7 ,, 


21 


22 


1!) 


18 


14 


11 


i 


7 


10 


15 


17 


21 


15 


8 >. 


38 


38 


32 


28 


24 


19 


15 


18 


23 


27 


29 


34 


27 


'J ■, 


41 


42 


39 


33 


29 


25 


23 


25 


30 


33 


3i 


37 


33 


10 , 


38 


3n 


34 


29 


25 


24 


24 


•/7 


31 


32 


33 


34 


31 


11 :; 


•2n 


2« 


2:) 


IS 


15 


14 


15 


17 


19 


20 


20 


21 


20 


Noon 


3 


a 


5 


1 


- 1 





2 


4 


2 


- 1 


- 3 


- 2 


1 


1 V M. 


-23 


-20 


-20 


—21 


-21 


-Ifi 


-14 


-1ft 


-20 


-25 


-27 


-27 


-21 


V ,, 


-42 


-40 


-39 


-39 


— 37 


-30 


-27 


-29 


-3fl 


-40 


-42 


-43 


-37 


3 ., 


-SB 


-/)5 


-54 


-62 


-47 


-39 


-38 


-42 


-49 


-51 


-fii 


-56 


-49 


* •, 


~b6 


-57 


-57 


-55 


-56 


-.^3 


-42 


-44 


-49 


-51 


-64 


-66 


-51 


s „ 


-48 


-52 


-50 


-47 


-40 


-32 


-32 


-33 


-37 


-38 


-41 


-46 


-41 


fi ., 


-31 


-3ii 


-34 


-28 


-21 


-15 


-15 


-17 


-19 


-211 


-21 


-25 


-24 


^ ., 


- 8 


-13 


-11 


— K 


- 2 


- 


- 


- 2 


- 3 


- 3 


- I 


— 4 


- 4 


** ,1 


6 


3 


6 


10 


jl 


12 


10 


9 


11 


11 


14 


9 


9 


9 „ 


Itl 


17 


20 


25 


24 


23 


21 


21 


23 


24 


2i 


21 


22 


I'l ., 


28 


27 


3-2 


.■;4 


32 


29 


28 


29 


3' 


Ml 


32 


2« 


30 


1 1 


31 


33 


39 


40 


35 


32 


27 


28 


29 


27 


28 


28 


31 


Miduiglit 


23 


30 


30 


31 


26 


22 


20 


22 


22 


20 


19 


20 


23 



Table VIII. — Shoioing at San Jose the Mean Hourly Variation of Pres- 
sure, in thousandths of an inch, during cloudy days. The minus sign 
shows ineans below the average. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 
9 


April 
10 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 
11 


Dec. 


Tear 


1 A.M. 


10 


9 


10 


9 


10 


10 


13 


11 


9 


10 


2 ,, 


- 3 


- 5 


- 4 


- 7 


- 6 


- 5 


- 2 


__ 2 





- 1 





- 3 


- 3 


3 „ 


-14 


-18 


-17 


-19 


-16 


-15 


-11 


-11 


-10 


-13 


-11 


-11 


-14 


4 ., 


-18 


-21 


-22 


-24 


-22 


-20 


-15 


-16 


-14 


-16 


-15 


-18 


-19 


5 ,, 


-U 


-13 


-15 


-19 


-20 


-18 


-14 


-14 


-12 


-12 


-10 


-12 


-14 


c. ., 


- 1 


- 1 


- 4 


- 6 


-10 


- 9 


-10 


- 8 


- G 


- 4 


- 2 


- 1 


- 5 


7 „ 


14 


13 


12 


8 


4 


2 


2 


6 


9 


11 


13 


13 


9 


8 „ 


25 


27 


24 


21 


13 


13 


12 


16 


19 


23 


24 


25 


20 


9 .. 


3G 


38 


35 


31 


24 


23 


21 


24 


27 


31 


33 


35 


30 


10 „ 


38 


38 


35 


31 


27 


26 


25 


26 


29 


33 


37 


38 


32 


n ., 


23 


25 


21 


23 


21 


19 


19 


17 


18 


20 


22 


22 


21 


Noon 


4 


6 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


3 





2 


- 1 


1 


4 


1 r.M. 


-19 


-13 


-11 


-12 


-11 


- 9 


- 7 


-11 


-14 


-22 


-25 


-22 


-15 


2 -, 


-36 


-32 


-28 


-27 


-25 


-21 


-19 


-21 


-29 


-34 


-35 


— 37 


-29 


s „ 


-47 


-45 


-41 


-40 


-36 


— oo 


-32 


-33 


-37 


-40 


-45 


-48 


-4D 


4 ,. 


-48 


-47 


-44 


-44 


-41 


-39 


-39 


-38 


-41 


-43 


-47 


-50 


-43 


S „ 


-35 


-36 


-38 


-38 


-34 


-31 


-31 


-31 


-30 


-31 


-3G 


-35 


-34 


6 ,, 


-22 


-24 


-25 


-20 


-15 


-13 


-15 


-15 


-17 


-18 


-21 


-20 


— 19 


7 ., 


- 5 


.- 7 


— 6 


3 


6 


4 


- 4 


- 4 


- 4 


— 1 


— 2 


- 3 


- 2 


8 ., 


* 


G 


6 


10 


12 


11 


7 


8 


9 


12 


11 


11 


9 


S -, 


20 


18 


18 


25 


26 


23 


19 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


22 


10 !, 


29 


28 


29 


34 


33 


29 


27 


27 


29 


30 


32 


33 


30 


11 ,, 


27 


28 


31 


34 


35 


30 


28 


26 


29 


28 


29 


28 


29 


Miduight 


21 


22 


24 


25 


25 


22 


21 


18 


21 


20 


21 


19 


22 



TO THE COMMITTEE OX ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 



195 



'Experiments fur improvimj the Constnidloii of Practical Standards fur 
Electrical Measurements. — Beport of the Committee, consistinij of 
Professor Carey Foster (Cludrman), Lord Kelvix, Lord Ray- 
LEiGH, Professors Ayrton, J. Perry, and W. G. Adams, Drs. 
O. J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. II. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, Professor J. D. Everett, Professor 
X. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Chrystal, and J. J. THOMSON, Messrs. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretarij) and W. N. Shaw, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professors. P. Thompson, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, 
and Mr. E. H. Griffiths. 

AvrESD-iX.— Oii 3/at/netic Units. Dy Dr. O. J. Lodge 197 

Rvmarks on the above. l\y Professor Everett .... 207 
„ „ By Professor G. Carey Foster, and Dr. 

G. Johnstone Stoney . . . 203 



The work of testing resistance coils at the Cavendish Laboratory has 
been continued. A taljle of the coils tested is given. 

Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance of Coil in Ohms 


Temperature 


Naldor, 4341 . . . ^ No. 422 


•99849 


11^-8 


Naldcr, 4650 






^ No. 423 


1000(1 --00041) 


15° 


Elliott, 309 






1^, No. 424 


•99902 


13°1 


Elliott, 310 






^ No. 425 


•99915 


13°2 


Elliott, 311 






;^, No. 426 


•99956 


13° 


Elliott, 312 






;^, No. 427 


•99911 


13°-2 


Elliott, 313 






^^ No. 428 


•99903 


13° 


Elliott, 314 






%^ No. 429 


•99912 


13°1 


Elliott, 31 






^ No. 430 


9-9901 


ll°-7 


Elliott, 31 G 






'^ No. 431 


9-9873 


ll°-6 


Elliott. 317 






^, No. 432 


9-9914 


12'' 


Elliott, 318 






% No. 433 


100 (1- -00014) 


14°^1 


Elliott, 319 






. ^^ No. 434 
■ %^ ^0. 435 


100 (1- -00027) 


14° 


Elliott, 320 






100(1 --00023) 


13°-9 


Naldcr, 4651 






%^ No. 436 


■99599 


13°^8 


Xaldcr, 4GJ3 






• % ^''^- -t:-' 


9-9846 


12° 

I 



19G 



REPORT — 1895. 
Ohms — continued. 



N 


'o. of Coil 


Re-is'anceof Ciiil in Ohms 


Temperature 


Nalder. 46.-,4 


^ No. 438 


9-9833 


12°-1 


Nalder, 4G55 


If^ No. 4 3!) 


100 (1- -00068) 


14°-3 


King Mendham 


^ No. 440 


1 -0007b 


15°-2 


Nalder, r.\?A 


. ^ No. 441 


■9992G 


14°-1 


Paul, .16 . 


^ No. 442 


9-9969 


13°- 7 


Wigston, 419 


. ^ No. 443 


9-9988 


14°-3 


Wigston, -HO 


. ^ No. 444 


•99888 


17°-3 


AVigston, 4."0 


. ^^ No. 44.5 


100 (1--0C030) 


17°-3 


Wigston, 453 


. ^ No. 446 


1000 (1- -00067) 


17°-3 


Nalder,' 4561 


. ^^ No. 409 


1000(1 + -00039) 


15°-2 



The resistance coils referred to in tlie last report as defective in 
insulation have been refilled, and up to the present their insulation has 
proved satisfactory. 

The puljlication of a paper handed in by Dr. Muirhead, giving; further 
results of tests made by Mr. E. O. Walker on the coils made by Dr. Mat- 
thiessen twenty-five years ago, and since exposed to an Indian climate, is 
deferred until the Cambridge coil, against "vvhich they were tested, can be 
re- examined by the Secretary. 

The .set of standards ordered from Germany lias only just arrived. 
In the coui'sc of the next year a careful comparison will be made between 
their values and those of the standards of the Association. 

During the year the Committee have had under discussion a paper on 
magnetic units prepared by Dr. Lodge and printed as an appendix to this 
report, together with a communication received from Dr. Everett. 

Taking into account the fact that the question of magnetic units is still 
under di.scussion by various bodies, the Committee wish to come to no hasty 
decisions, but they recommend for tentative adoption the following ter- 
minology : — 

1. That, as a unit for magnetic field, a hundred million 'c.g.s. lines' 
be called a u-eher. 

Xotf. — A weber added per second at a steady rate to the field girdled 
by a wire circuit induces one volt in every turn of that circuit. 

Hence thewebers ' cut 'by a closed wire circuit of n turns are equal to 
the quantity of electricity in coulombs thereby impelled round that circuit 
multiplied by Hh its resistance in ohms. 

2. Tliat the c.g.s. unit of magnetic potential or of magneto-motive force 
be called a gauss. 

Note. — An ampere-turn corresponds to - (or 1-2560) gauss. 

Hencr the number Df gausses round any closed curve linked on an 
' Retested (see Report for 1894). 



TO THE COMMITTEE OX ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 197 

electric circuit is eijual to 1'2566 times the number of ampere- turns in 
this circuit. 

3. That the termination -mice be used in general for words expressing 
the pi'operties of a definite body or piece of matter ; e.g., resistance, con- 
ductance, inductance, permeance, reluctance, &c. ; and that the termina- 
tion -iriUj or -ility or the like be used for words expressing the specific 
properties of a material ; e.c/., conductivity, resistivity, inductivity, refrac- 
tivity, permeability, kc. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed ; that Professor 
G. Carey Foster be Chairman and Mr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 

Magnetic Units. 

To the British Association Committee on Electrical Standards. 

Believing that the Committee is impressed with the convenience of 
affixing names to some of the more important units connected with the 
magnetic circuit, I beg to suggest the following considerations and 
recommendations, which I will write out as briefly as possible. The state- 
ments are intended to be precise in their terms ; but in several cases 
alternative forms of definition are given. 

(1) That the unit coetEcient of self-induction, though frequently 
useful, is by no means one of the most fundamental units, but should 
be defined in a suitably subordinate manner, with reference to other and 
more important quantities. 

(2) That it would be a mistake so to define it as to discourage the 
employment of the same term for as many other quantities of the same 
' dimensions ' as possible ; especially for the unit coefficient of mutual 
induction, and for unit 'permeance.' 

(3) That the essentially different quantities commonly called H and B 
should be carefully kept distinct, although their measures in air have 
been conventionally so arranged as to be numerically equal. 

[Summary of known facts and definitions.) — H being the intensity of 
magnetic force at a point, or the slope of magnetic potential (w), 
, i> 
(J3 — oj,j := Hc^.y, along any length ab ; 



and in a closed magnetic circuit the circuitation of H is equal to 4:r times 
the total electric current through the area bounded by the magnetic 
circuit ; or, 

cycle \llds = circuitation of H = 4.TC<iS = -iTrC, 

or, at any point of space, 

curl H = VvH = i-c; 
where c is current density. 

If the electiic circuit consists of n turns of wire threading the magnetic 
circuit, and each conveying the current Cj, then C— «C,. 



198 KEPOKT~1805. 

First quantity to he named. 

(4) The iirst thing requiring a name is this quantity magnetic 
potential, sometimes called magneto-motive force ; a quantity spoken of and 
measured, not inconveniently but with insufficient generality, by electrical 
engineers as ampfere-turns. It has been proposed (by Mr. Heaviside, for 
instance) that it be called gaussage, and that its c.g.s. unit be one gauss. 

(5) The circuital gaussage round a closed curve is 4- times the total 
electric current through the area bounded by that curve. 

In the case of a magnetic circuit wound with wire the gaussage is 

1 j- times I ' or 1-2.jGG) the ampere-turns threading that circuit. 

A'ote. — It may be best to retain the word ' gaussage ' for the whole of 
a closed circuit only, and to speak of the ditf'erence of magnetic potential 
between two points as the fall of gausses or the ' gauss-fall ' from a to b. 

(6) The gaussage, or gauss-fall, in any portion a b oi a magnetic 
cii'cuit, is measured by the change in the potential energy of a unit pole as 
it moves from a to h by any path which involves neither the cutting of 
magnetic layers nor the encircling of currents (a long channel being 
imagined for its motion through solid material if necessary). Or, more 
practically, it is measui'ed hy the induction througli a long narrow tube 
whose ends are at a, and b respectively, divided by the permeance of that 
tube. {Cf. Chattock on a magnetic potentiometer, Fliil. Mag., July 1887.) 

In practice, however, gaussage is frequently calculable from the 
ampere-turns to which it is due. 

(7) Intensity of magnetic force, or H, will be naturally expi'essed as 
gauss-fall per centimetre, or the gauss-gradient. For instance, the earth's 
horizontal intensity at some place is •18 gauss per linear centimetre, or 
5'4 gausses per foot. 

Hole. — H sliould not (strictly speaking) be expressed as so many lines 
per square centimetre ; that mode of expression should be reserved for 
induction-density B. H is the cause, and should be thought of as the slope 
of magnetic potential, B is the effect. In a medium of so-called unit 
permeability the two quantities are numerically equal, but they should 
not be confounded ; any more than the slope of cleccric potential, or 
electric-intensity (e), should be thought of as identical with current- 
density, even in a medium of unit conductivity. 

(8) The gauss-gradient inside a long or closed magnetic solenoid of 
length /, wound uniformly with n tarns of wire each conveying the current 
C|, is 4 7rnC| ;7=:47r;i,C| ; where w, is the total number of turns of 
wire (in all the layers) to the linear centimetre. 

This is the measure of H in the interior of such a solenoid, quite irre- 
specti\e of the material with which it may happen to be filled. 

{8a) That the rotation of the plane of polarisation caused by any 
transparent body is equal to the number of gausses between the points 
where the ray enters and leaves the body, multiplied by the appropriate 
specific constant of its material (sometimes called Verdet's constant) ; in 
other words, that Verdet's constant may be expressed in degrees or radians 
per gauss. 

Second quantity to be named. 

(9) The second quantity requiring a name is the total inductio7i in a 
magnetic circuit, also called 'total flux,' 'total lines,' ' electro-magnetic 
momentum,' and ' electrotonic state.' It is the quantity whose time-rate 



TO THE COMMITTEK ON KLKCTIUCAL STANDAItDS. 199 

of variation gives the voltage induced in an electric circuit surrounding it 
once. It is proposed that its practical unit be called a ' weber/ and be 
defined as equal to 10"^ c.g.s. lines (or unit tubes) of induction. 

(Denote the quantity for the present by N, and its density by B.) 

Summary of known facts.— e being the intensity of electric force, or 
the slope of electric potential, or the volt-gradient at a point ; the cir- 
cuitation of e=the induced EMF in a closed circuit=the rate of chan^^e 
of induction through it ; 
or, cycle | eds='E= - X= - J J i5(?S ; 

or, at any point of space, 

B=r— cur] (,'=— Yve. 

Through a simple closed electric circuit of constant resistance, 

N= - |Ef7<= \'RCdt=nq,. 

(10) The total induction through any area may be practically measured 
by suddenly surrounding it with a closed wire circuit of ii turns connect- 
ing the terminals of a ballistic galvanometei-, and measuring the quantity 
of electricity thereby impelled through the galvanometer. The induction 
is equal to the quantity so impelled, multiplied by Hh the resistance of 
the circuit. If the quantity is one coulomb, and the resistance one ohm, 
the induction is l/';(th of a weber. 

Or, otherwise, if the induction through any boundary changes at 
the rate of one weber per second, the EMF excited in that boundary is 
1 volt. 

In the case of a spiral wire circuit through wliich induction is varying at 
the rate of a weber per second, one volt is excited in each turn of the wire. 

(11) Another tx\oAq of measuring the total induction through an area 
is to surround that area with a movable electric circuit of n turns of wire 
conveying a known curi'ent, and to measure the potential (or mechanical) 
energy of the circuit under those conditions. The induction is equal to 
the potential energy of the circuit divided by ')i times the current circu- 
lating in each turn of wire. 

Or, if the induction through a simple circuit carrying one ampere is 
one weber, the potential energy of the circuit is one joule. 

Derived quantities. 

(12) Induction- density, or B, may be expressed as so many webersper 
unit area ; say per square centimetre or per square inch, or whatever is 
preferred for practical purjioses. 

For instance, the earth's horizontal induction-density at some place is 
•18 c.g.s. unit, = -18 x 10~** weber per square centimetre. =18 micro webers 
per square metre. 

(13) The inductivity (fi), or absolute permeability of a medium at any 
point under specified circumstances, is the ratio of B to H at that point, 
and under those circumstances. In many substances this ratio is far from 
constant. [It may be expressed in terms of henry s or other units of per- 
meance per unit length (see below), instead of in c.g.s. units, if convenient. 
For example, the inductivity of air is T-ffu^h of a microhenry per centimetre 



200 iiKPORT— 1895. 

or one millihenry per kilometre.] More explicitly it is measured by the 
webers per unit area divided by the gauss-fall per unit length ; in other 
words, by the ratio of the weber-density to the gauss-gradient. 

(14) The relative inductivity of a substance as compared with that of 
empty space (/'//Uo) ™^y be called simply its 'permeability' as at present, 
and is a mere number. 

(Its electrical analogue is specific inductive capacity (k/k„), as contrasted 
with absolute electric inductivity (k) ; which latter could be defined in 
practical units as the ratio of the coulombs displaced per unit area to the 
volt-gradient. ) 

Third quantity to he nained. 

The third quantity for whose unit a name is required is some form of 
ratio between the two fundamental quantities whose units are here named 
after Weber and Gauss respectively. It has been practically decided in 
America that this unit shall be named after Prof. Henry, of Washington, 
and that it shall equal 10^ c.g.s. units, being equivalent to the earth- 
quadrant or secohm ; but the precise mode of definition has not yet been 
finally agreed upon. 

There are two quantities of the same physical dimensions to which the 
name is applicable, viz., the coefficient of self or mutual induction of a 
coil or coils of wire, and the permeance or inverse reluctance of a magnetic 
circuit. 

The most logical order is to define permeance first, as the ratio of the 
webers of induction to the exciting gaussage, and then to say that the 
inductance of a coil of n turns of wii-e is 7i^ or 'Ittw^ or 'AiTxri^ times the 
permeance of the magnetic circuit wliich it embraces, according to the 
units of gaussage and current which have been decided on. 

If the units of gaussage and current are both the c.g.s. units, then 47?^^^ 
is the numerical factor connecting inductance with permeance. 

If the c.g.s. unit of gaussage is adopted along with the ampere-current, 
then •4?r??.2 is the factor. 

But if the circulation of H due to one ampere-turn is adopted as the 
practical unit of gaussage, then n'^ is the factor ; and the permeance of a 

cylinder, instead of being simply ^.-, is '^^ ,-• 

The apparent simplicity of this last system has much to recommend it 
for commercial use, though it will complicate the specification not only of 
permeance but also of magnetic fields and potentials ; but some incon- 
venience due to the unfortunate definition of the unit pole, and the only 
less unfortunate definition of the practical unit of current, cannot be 
avoided ; and our aim must be to place the inconvenience where least 
likely to be felt in every-day work. 

First system. 

We will begin with the more logical system, and with general statements 
which apply to both. 

(15) In a complete magnetic circuit the ratio of the total induction 
to the corresponding gaussage under specified conditions is called the 
'permeance' of that circuit under those conditions. It is not in general 

constant. 

Or, the permeance of any solenoidal portion of a magnetic circuit, if 



TO THE COMMITTEE ON ELECTRICAL STAiNDARDS. 2(ll 

free from intrinsic magneto-motive force or magnetic boundary layers, is 
the webers through it divided by the gausses between its ends. 

(16) The practical unit of permeance is that of a circuit in whicli a 
weber is excited by a gauss. Its reciprocal is the unit of reluctance. The 
practical unit so defined is 10** c.g.s. units. 

Examples. — Tlie permeance of a cubic metre of air to parallel induction 
from one face to the opposite is 1 microweber per gauss. 

Under circumstances sucli that the permeability of iron is 400 times 
that of air, the permeance of an iron ring of one decimetre cross section 

and one metre in mean diameter is -^-I- =20r = 100 c.g.s. = again one 

microweber per gauss. 

It is, perhaps, a question whether this amount of permeance could be 
called ' a microhenry ' without confusion. 

ExpJmiation. — The inductance (or self-induction-coeilicient) of an 
electric circuit consisting of n turns of wire, so far as it is constant, is 
defined to be equal to n times the induction produced through it by a 
current of one ampere in each turn. But the gaussage due to n ampere- 
turns is ^^''^ or -47^1 ; hence the inductance of a wire coil is •4^r?^- times 

the webers caused by each gauss in the magnetic circuit surrounded by it ; 
i.e., is •inn''- times the permeance of that circuit considered as constant. 

(17) A coil of wire threading n times a complete magnetic circuit of 
unit permeance under any given circumstances is said to have --iTTn- units 
of inductance under those circumstances ; and in general the inductance 
of a coil of n turns is ■■^izn^- times the permeance (as above defined) of the 
magnetic solenoid enclosed by it. (The permeance may here be considered 
variable. ) 

["With the ampere-turn as unit gaussage the ^tt is prefixed similarly to 
both inductance and permeance, so that only the factor n- is needed to 
convert one into the other. See below.] 

(18) The c.g.s. unit of inductance is equal to « times the induction excited 
through a coil per c.g.s. unit of current in every turn of wire ; whereas the 
practical unit of inductance is n times the webers excited per ampere ; 
hence the practical unit of inductance is 10^ times the c.g.s. unit. 

The practical unit is called a 'henry.' (It has also been called 
secohm and quadrant.) 

Exatnjjle.—lf the above iron ring were wound closely with 1000 turns 

of wire, the coil would have a coefficient of self-induction equal to - or 

1^ henry s whenever the permeability of the iron was 400. 

A coil of 20,000 turns of wire, wound closely on the same core, would 
have an inductance of 1[ Iienrys if it contained air or other non-magnetic 
substance. 

Alternative mode of definition of inductance on first system. 

In view of one of the above practical methods of measuring induction 
experimentally, the inductance of coils of wire, both self and mutual, may 
be defined more directly thus : — 

(19) When of two simple circuits one conveys a current, the other 
in general has induction caused through it ; and the ratio of the induction 



2U2 JiEl'OKT — 18U-J. 

through eitliei' to the inducing current in the other is called the mutual 
inductance of the circuits. 

(20) Of two coils, with ii and ?t' turns respectively, the total mutual 
inductance is to be reckoned for every turn of wire on each coil, and is 
therefore nn times the inductance of the mean turn of one coil on the 
inean turn of the other. 

(21) The mutual inductance of two coils is i:nn7i' times the permeance 
of the largest magnetic solenoid which threads both. For if every turn 
of one conveys a current C, while every turn of the other surrounds an 
induction N' in consequence, the permeance of the magnetic solenoid 
threading the second coil is P = N'/-i7i'?iC ; but the total effective mutual 
induction, MO, through all the turns is w'N' ; hence M=47r7i?i'P. 

(22) When two coils each conveying one ampere are constantly con- 
nected by one henry of mutual inductance, the kinetic energy of the field 
due to their mutual action is one joule. 

(23) If the st'//'-induction coefficient of a coil is being considered, its 
total inductance may be taken as 7i- times the inductance of the mean 
turn ; that is n times the total induction through it divided by the in- 
ducing current. Or the weber-turns per ampere give the self-inductance 
in henrys. 

(23a) The expression weber-turns, to signify the i^roduct of the total 
field into the number of spires surrounding it, though at first sight not in 
precise correspondence with the phrase ampfere-turns where the current 
cii'culates in the spiral instead of forming its core, is really accordant 
with it, because a spiral and its core are geometrically interchangeable. 

(24) The practical unit of inductance, whether self or mutual, is called 
a henry ; and a coil of n turns has a henry of inductance, on itself or on 
another of w' turns, when an ampere in one maintains 1/w' weber of 
induction (through itself or) through the other. 

(25) When the induction through a coil varies for any reason at the 
rate of one weber per second, the E.M.F generated in each turn is one volt. 

(26) When the inductance of a soil is one henry, on itself or on another, 
a small variation of current in it at the rate of one ampere per second 
induces an EMF of one volt in itself or in the other. 

(27) When the inductance of a coil conveying one ampere varies at 
the rate of a heiiry j^er second, the induced E.M.F is one volt. 

(28) When the self-inductance of a coil is constantly, or on the 
average, one henry, while an ampere current is genei'ated in it, the 
kinetic energy of the field due to that ampere is half a joule. 

Second si/stem. 

(29) If instead of taking a gauss as equal to a c.g.s. unit of magnetic 
potential, we take the circulation of H caused by one ampere-turn as 
the practical unit of magneto-motive force, we shall have 1 ampere-turn 

= — cg.s. units of gaussage. 

(30) The practical unit of permeance will then be that in which a 
weber of total induction is excited by each amp)ere-turn ; in other words, 
it will be Att x 10^ c.g.s. units of permeance. 

(31) And the practical unit of inductance will be that of a coil in 

"which an ampere in every turn excites -th of a weber through every 

11 






TO Tin: COMMITTKE ON JXKCTlilCAL STANDARDS. 203 

turn ; that is to say, tlie inductance of a coil will be n- times the permeance 
of the magnetic circuit surrounded by it. 

(32) The difference between inductance and permeance is only one 
of reckoning. Permeance is webers per ainp^re-turn. Inductance is 
weber-turns per ampere. 



Summary of the Advantages of this Mode of defining 
Unit Inductance. 

The special feature of this mode of defining the ' henry ' is that it makes 
inductance depend on the simple ratio N/C, or weber-turns per ampere, 
instead of on something more complicated. 

It might possibly be defined as the ratio clN /dC, that is, as pro- 
portional to the tangent of the slope of the B : H curve ; and such a defini- 
tion would emphasise its variability ; but certain practical advantages 
would be lacking, because it would be detached from any connexion with 
the 2iernieance of the circuit. The N/C ratio on the other hand instantly 
connects itself with permeance, and represents the slope of the secant 
drawn from the origin to any point of the B : H curve. It exhibits the 
variability sufficiently ; making the inductance reach a maximum at the 
shoulder of the curve, and then slowly decrease as saturation sets in. 

It is sometimes said — but the mode of expression is, to say the least, 
very inconvenient — that there are three different principles on which to 
define L, all leading to a different result : viz., numbering them inversely, 
but giving them in their usual order : — 

(3) Energy . . . W=l LC^ 
(2) E.M.F . . . E = L dC/dt 
(1) Total induction ]Sr=LC 

But the real facts to be expressed are not here exhibited. The real 
facts are ^^^ ]Sr=LC 

(2) E=^dN/dt 
{?>) dW^Cdi^ 

The essential thing to name is therefore N ; and if 10^ c.g.s. lines or 
unit tubes be called a ' weber,' or a ' weber-turn,' then a volt is a weber 
or a weber-turn per second, and a joule is a weber-ampere-turn. 
Nothiiig can be handier than that ; and a henry can be defined as a 
weber-turn per ampere. 

Instead of saying as above that there are three ways of defining L, the 
simplest thing is to say that two of the thi'ee equations as first given above 
are incorrect, except for the special and in j^ractice comparatively rare case 
when L is constant. Written out correctly they stand as follows : — 

(1) N=LC 

(2) E=L'^^ -hC'^^ 
^ ' dt dt 



(3) W=^ LC^-fiC'c^c/L 



It is then obvious that (2) and (3) are too complicated to base a 
definition upon, and that the first alone gives a feasible system. 

The fact that L is decidedly not in general constant deprives the 



204 REroRT— 1895. 

henry of any such importance as the ohm possesses ; moi-eover, it refers 
expHcitly to rather a special thing, viz., a coil of wire, and that under 
specified conditions, if it contain iron ; hence it would be rather absurd to 
name this alone of all magnetic units. In the above communication, in 
addition to a certain mode of defining the henry, it is u)-ged that unit 
total induction be named too \ for this is the quantity which is of real 
engineering importance — this is the quantity to attain which field-magnets 
are built, and in the midst of which armatures are spun. 

It is also urged that it would be convenient if unit magnetic potential 
could likewise be named, since electrical engineers have shown that they 
have need of some such unit for the exciting cause of induction, by their 
practical employment of the phrase ' ampere-turns.' The introduction of 
a gauss unit, in some form not too obviously limited to the case of a wire- 
wound coil, would assist teaching and would clarify magnetic ideas. 

The present writer does not presume to decide between the two 
alternative systems of defining 'the gauss' as given above : viz., the 
c.g.s. unit on the one hand, and the ampere-turn on the other. 

Oliver J. Lodge. 
Liverpool: Dccemher 9, 1891. ' 

Postscript. — Another subject for discussion is whetlier L had better not 
be defined as dN /dC ; with permeability as ^/=f^B/f?H to correspond. 
This would make the three equations of page 203 stand thus : — 

(1) N= iLiC 

(2) E=LC 

(3) W=CN 

A letter just received from Mr. Heaviside indicates that lie would pro- 
bably favour this course, and there is evidently much to be said for it. 
I need hardly add that he contemns my temporising method of dealing 
with the 4- nuisance. 

It need hardly be said that in the last resort it rests with practical 
men to employ or decline any suggested system of units. Those who daily 
deal with the quantities under consideration are the best judges of the 
utility or otherwise of a suggested unit, provided always that they take 
the trouble to give it a fair trial, and see how it works in practice. It 
may be hoped that the above or similar suggestions will meet with criti- 
cism at the hands of such men, and in order to make a beginning of 
criticism I asked the Departmental Lecturer on Electrotechnics at Uni- 
versity College, Liverpool (Mr. F. G. Baily), to consider them with special 
reference to 

(1) The large size of the weber and henry units ; 

(2) the handiest definition of the gauss ; and 

(3) the least troublesome mode of bringing in the 47r. 

His reply, which is annexed, covers these points, and also incidentally 
refers to the quantity called I or intensity of magnetisation. 

Now, as must often have been pointed out, the equation B:=H-F47rI is 
a barbarous one, involving as it does quantities of diflTerent dimensions in 
one equation. Its true meaning is of course B:=/xoH+ (^t — jko)H ; which, 
although algebraically only a roundabout method of writing B=:^/H, is yet 



TO THE COMMITTEE OX ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 205 

convenient, as exhibiting separately the part of the induction due to the 
ether and the part due to a material medium. 

The customary convention of further denoting (//. — /'n)//"o by the 
symbol 4t,,-, and then christening kH as the magnetisation I, is likewise 
convenient. With this definition k is a pure number, and I is a gauss- 
gradient or field-intensity. Another, but on the whole less satisfactory, 
definition, viz., the omission of /(„ from the denominator, would make k of the 
same dimension as ^/, and I an induction-density. 

The pull between two parallel magnetised surfaces of area A is ^ABH 
-?-4n-, that is to say, NH/8-, and is therefore measured in webers multiplied 
by the gauss-gradient, or in joules per centimetre. But to maintain an 
induction density B in air requires a gauss-gradient B//in, hence we might 
write the pull across an air-gap as N--^-S-//oA. If the induction-density 
across an air-gap is expressed in microwebers per square centimetre the 
tension there comes out in units of which 2,500 would make an atmo- 
sphere ; or, roughl}', in pounds per square foot. 

As for the strength of a magnetic pole— a quantity which, though 
fundamental in one sense, is seldom really dealt with — it will naturally be 
expressed in ergs per gauss, or in joules per gauss if it is very strong. 

Mr. Baily's chief practical suggestions are first that a special unit of 
permeance, other than the henry, is desirable; and next that the 47r/'10 
had best be thrown on to the /<, so as to keep the gauss equal to one 
ampere-turn. The fact that the inductivity of air will then cease to appear 
in its artificial garb of unity may even be regarded as a positive advantage, 
because its existence will then be less likely to be ignored. But I 
much^ fear that the ampere-turn as unit of gaussage, so near the c.g.s. 
unit in size and yet not equal to it, will be awkward and may lead to 
mistakes. O. J. L. 

University College, Liverpool: Janvarij L5, 1895. 

Dear Professor Lodge,— In reference to the sizes of the magnetic units 
proposed by you, I find that the weber 10« c.g.s. would only be used in 
fractions. The largest dynamo that I know of has a magnetic flux, or, as 
you propose to call it, an induction, of -5 weber. From this the value will 
go down to about -01 in small motors. These figures are, however, by no 
means inconvenient. 

Transformers will be rather smaller. In these the weber-turn is a con- 
venient size and an interesting quantity, as it is given by \ of the mean volts 
per cycle, or, more accurately expressed, mean volts per unit frequency -^'^. 
Its numerical value will lie between, say, \ and 50, according to the volts 
and the frequency ; but it gives no indication of the size of the transformer. 

The henry, 10^ c.g.s., is also large. The inductance of choking coils 
would m general be fractions of a henry. The inductance of the winding 
of a transformer has no very important meaning, but it has a conve*^ 
nient size._ Measuring it as mean volts per tmit frequency -four times 
the open circuit current in amperes, the inductance of the primary coil 
on a 2 IP closed magnetic circuit 1,000-volt transformer would be about 
40 henrys. 

The inductance of pairs of cables would run from 100 to 1,000 micro- 
henrys per kilometre, but the value would vary with the arrangement. 

The induction per unit area is good ; having a value in practical work 
from 1,000 to 20,000 c.g.s. units, it is given by 10 to 200 microwebers 
per sq. cm. 



206 REPORT— 1895. 

Gaussage would be about 50 in small transformers, up to 40,000 in 
large dynamos. The latter could be conveniently reckoned in kilogausses. 
To make the gauss = 1 ampere-turn appears to have great advantages in 
practice, and connects it directly with its usual source. 

The idea of permeance is very useful, and the identification of its 
dimensions with those of inductance is neat. But I think it is liable to 
cause confusion, for the permeance of the core of a coil will be a different 
number of henrys from the inductance of its wire. Moreover, the argu- 
ment as to identical dimensions might equally be applied to the case of 
amperes and gausses. I would therefore have a new unit strictly connected 
with the henry, so that inductance =:;'»'- x permeance in a coil of n turns. 

As to the units of permeance : with the above meanings of gauss and 
weber the permeance of a circuit Avould be 47r^A/10/', as you point out, 
instead of fiA/l. But I wish to suggest a change in the method of 

reckoning, namely, still to retain the value of the permeance as J^_®^^ 

gausses 

\VG OBI'S 1301" SO cm 
and permeability as ' ^ ' '' ', therein giving up the convention of 

gausses per cm. 

■ unit permeability of space, and giving it the value r2566 xlO"* unit of 
permeance for a unit cube. In this way both the troublesome lO"*^ and 
4-/10 are dealt with in an easily intelligible way. To avoid the high 
power of 10 it may be measured in micro-units of permeance, so that perme- 
ability of space and air:='012566 micro-unit of permeance for a unit cube, 
and permeability of soft iron=up to 25 mici-o-units for a imit cube. Thus we 
have permeance =A/(//, where /i is to be obtained from tables of its value, 
which can easily be altered to this method. Inductance then becomes 

weber-turns , webers , 

, or 01^ - z^n~ permeance. 

amperes gausses 

[Of course your phrase ' weber-turns per ampere ' means the .same as the 
above webers -^ amperes, and does not necessarily mean the weber-tui-ns 
caused by one ampere.] 

It may be objected that the c.g.s. units of strength of field, unit mag- 
netic pole and intensity of magnetisation do not bear any simple relation 
to these practical 'units. This is chiefly important in the use of the mag- 
neto-metric measurement of iron, and in the measurement of the mechanical 
form of attraction between two magnetic surfaces in contact. But the 
expressions are not in reality much complicated ; €.(/., present c.g.s. unit 
of intensity of magnetisation is given by 4-1=: (/it— /j^) H, where f.i^-=Tper- 
meability of space = 1, and H^c.g.s. unit of magnetic force. This becomes 
47rl = (a' — /^('s) H' 10^, where H' is the gauss-gradient in the magnetic 
substance, and //s:='012566 micro-unit of permeance for a cubic centimetre. 

As the single magnetic pole is unchanged, the force on it will be — strength 
of pole X gauss gradient x 1'2566 ; butas this is not a calculation of frequent 
occurrence, except in magnetic surveys, the complication will not be serious. 
Other magnetic relationships are almost entirely of academic interest only, 
and would be carried out in c.g.s. units. Also the transition would pre- 
sent no difficulties to people with a little scientific knowledge. 

I am of opinion also that as the legal volt has no direct connection with 
induction and velocity of motion, it is not necessary to define the practical 
units as they are defined absolutely. That is, ohm and ampere are the start- 
ing points, volt is obtained from them, weber from volt, gauss from ampere, 
permeance unit from weber and gauss, henry from weber and ampere or 



TO THE COMMITTEE ON ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 207 

from permeance, and so on. This is much more easily explained to practical 
and imscientitic men than the absolute derivations are, and it is the order 
in which they learn them. 

Yours very truly, 

Francis G. Baily. 



Remarks on the Above (especially on pages 203 and 204). 

According to the proposal of the Chicago Chamber of Delegates, the 
quantity which we call ' inductance,' and Avhich is to be expressed in 
' henrys,' is defined by the equation 

E=L , , for self-induction, 
at 

or 

dG 
E=M — , for mutual induction, 
dt 

both being comprehended in one definition, the inductance L or M being 

dG 
calculated by dividing E in volts by -3- in amperes per second. This 

Ctu 

implies that L or M is not to be defined as , but as . 

c ""'"'^ ^°^" 7rc 

that the former be called ' the total inductance,' and the latter ' the dif- 
ferential inductance.' The distinction would be somewliat analogous to 
the distinction between the ' mean specific heat from 0° to t° ' and the ' true 
specific heat at t°.' Both total and differential inductance should be ex- 
pressed in ' henrys,' for they are quantities of the same kind, and when 
there is no iron, &c., in the field they are equal. 

I think that the above mode of definition, involving as it does no 
magnitude except current and time, is more readily comprehended than 
Dr. Lodge's proposed definition, in which the magnitudes involved are 
current, ilux of induction, and the number of convolutions of the coil 
through which the flux passes. In the definition proposed by the Chicago 
delesfates the consideration of the number of convolutions does not 
enter. 

For a circuit or two circuits not having iron, &c., in the field we may 
define inductance (in henrys) as the E M.F. (in volts) due to variation of 
current at unit rate (one ampere per second). When the field is modified 
by the presence of magnetic material the above will be the definition of 
' differential inductance.' 

The ' total inductance ' for any specified strength of current will be 
the mean A'alue of differential inductance for equal increments of current 
from zero up to the specified strength. 

I would suggest similar nomenclature in the case of permeability : 

- ^ should be called differential permeability, and ^ total permeability. 



I think names are de.sirable both for ^ and for ^-^. I would suggest 



dR ^ ' ' H 

In some respects ' mean ' or ' average ' would be a more correct designa- 
tion than ' total ' ; but these words would be liable to be misunderstood as 
referring to an average taken over the different parts of the body or cir- 
cuit. ' Total ' is to be understood as standing for ' calculated on totals.' 



208 REPORT— 1895. 

As regards the magnitude of the unit of inductance. While I agree with 
Mr. Heaviside and Dr. Lodge that the unit pole ought to have been so 
defined that the mutual force between two poles is equal to their product 
divided by the surface of a sphere whose radius is their distance, a defini- 
tion which would have made the line-integral of H due to a current C 
equal to C itself instead of to 477C, I deprecate a mixing up of the two 
systems. So long as we employ our present unit of intensity of mag- 
netic field, which results from our present definition of the unit pole, we 
cannot consistently reckon the line integral as equal to the ampere-turns. 
It must be reckoned as iir times the ampere-turns, and the flux N must 
be reckoned as 4-/t times the ampere-turns. The practical inconvenience 
of retaining the factor in- cannot be considerable, for it is as easy to tabu- 
late the values of 47r/i as the values of fx. 

Next as regards ' permeance.' I do not think it can conveniently be 
I'eckoned in henrys. I would rather reckon it in ' webers per ampere- 
turn,' which would be written ' web. per amptu ' ; and there can be no 
possible doubt as to the meaning intended when once we have fixed the 
magnitude of the 'weber.' There seems to be no diflerence of opinion a 

to what this magnitude should be. It is fixed by the relation E =-~j-, 

E being in volts, N in webers, and t in seconds. This is in accordance 
with Dr. Lodge's proposal ; but Dr. Lodge has not explicitly recommended 
any name for the physical quantity which is measured in webers. Shall 
we call it ' weberage ' ? It greatly needs a name ; for ' induction ' may 
mean B instead of the surface integral of B, besides having many other 
meanings. 

When permeance varies according to the strength of current, I would dis- 
tinguish between 'total permeance' ^ and 'differential permeance' ^ ^,- 
° ^ nC ndC 

As regards ' gaussage ' and ' gauss f al I think the names will be 
convenient in the senses proposed by Dr. Lodge, but I cannot agree with 
his selection of a unit of measurement. The present definition of the 
unit pole (on which the present unit current is based) requires us to 
equate the line-integral in question to 47r7iC. 

To be consistent we must reckon gaussage as equal to iir times the 
number of amptus. Dr. Lodge's proposal is to reckon C, not in amperes 
but in c.g.s. units, thus introducing, as it appears to me, an awkward 
breach of continuity. j j^ Everett. 

Professor Carey Foster has written objecting to the term ' gauss- 
gradient,' instead of ' magnetic gradient ' ; he prefers the latter, just as he 
would prefer 'temperature-gradient' to 'degree-gradient.' 



Dr. Johnstone Stoney has also written, urging strongly that not the 
c.g.s. unit of magnetic potential, but one-tenth of this quantity, should 
receive a name, in order to make it harmonise with the ampere series ; 
and further recommending that the names ' weber ' and ' gauss,' as above 
suggested, should be interchanged. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 209 



Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observations. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Mr. 
C. Chree (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. ScilUSTER, Captain E. W. 
Creak, The Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and Pro- 
fessor A. W. RuCKER. (Draicn tip hij the Secretary.) 

[PLATES V. and VI. Thirteen Curves illtistratinff Results in §§ 7-8 and §§ 11-12.] 

Analysis of the Results from, the Kew Declination and Horizontal Force 
Maqnetographs during the selected ' Quiet ' Days of the Five Years 
1890-94. By C. Curee, Sc.D. 

Contents. 

SECTIONS r.VGK 

1-3 Introductory 209 

4-6 Non-cijcllo Nature of B^snlts oMained from ^ Quiet' Bays . . . . 210 
7-8 Tables of Diurnal Inequalities for each Month of Year, for Quarters, 

Halves, and Whole Year 213 

9-10 Harmonic Analysis of Biui-nal Inequalities ; Times of Maxima, ^w . . 216 

11-12 liesulta^it of Horizontal Forces to which Biitrnal Inequality is due . 218 

13-15 Variation if Ranges and Sums of Bepartures from Mean for Bay 

tliroiiyhout the Yea.r, with Harmonic Analysis of Ranges . . . 221 

16-20 Annual Ineqitalities (or Cyclic Fart of Yearly Variations') . . . 223 

Introduction. 

§ 1. The hourly measurement of the Kew magnetic curves on five 
quiet ' clays a month, selected annually by the Astronomer Royal, has 
•^een in operation since the beginning of 1890. Tables of the mean 
"curly values for each month of the declination, inclination, horizontal 
and vertical forces, based exclusively on these quiet days, have been 
published annually in the ' Report ' of the Kew Committee to the Royal 
Society. Tables have also been given of the mean diurnal variations of 
the several elements for the six winter months, the six summer months, 
and the whole year. 

With the consent of the Kew Committee I now propose to give a 
general resume of the results deducible fi'om the declination and hori- 
zontal force records on the selected quiet days of the five years 1890-94. 

For some reasons it would have been desirable to allow a larger 
number of years' records to accumulate before entering on a general 
discussion ; to have included, for instance, the complete cycle of ten or 
eleven years believed to occur in magnetic phenomena would have 
possessed obvious advantages. On the other hand twenty-five quiet 
days for each month of the year seem a sufficient number for a com- 
parison of the different months. Further, the frequent occurrence of 
certain phenomena, depending apparently on the limitation of the inquiry 
to ' quiet ' days, which cause an appreciable amount of indeterminateness 
in the results, has led me to think an early survey of the situation 
desirable. 

§ 2. The first thing to consider is the distribution of the selected 

' quiet ' days. The aim of the Astronomer Royal, he informs me, has been 

to ensure, first, that the five days selected each month are good specimens 

of ' quiet ' days ; and, secondly, that their mean comes near the middle of 

loJo. p 



210 



REPORT 1895. 



the month. That the second object has been very satisfactorily accom- 
plished, so far as a five years' survey is concerned, will be seen from the 
following table. The figures it contains are the intervals, in days, from 
the beginning of the month to noon of its mean 'quiet' day, the 300 
' quiet ' days being grouped under the months to which they belong. 



Table I. 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Marcli 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 
15-5 


17 


13-3 


15-7 


15-6 


16 


15-3 


15-3 


15-6 


133 


16-7 


13-7 



In one of the 300 ' quiet ' days the Ivew record was defective and has 
been omitted. Its omission reduces the entry in the table under August 
from 15-6 to 15-0. 

The departures from the theoretically exact figures, 15 "5 for months 
of thirty-»ne days and 15 for months of thirty days, are so small, con- 
sidering the uncertainties arising from other sources, that I have decided 
to neglect them in getting out annual variations. Equal weight has also 
been allowed to each month. 

§ 3. In 1890 the diurnal variation at Kew was got out from measure- 
ments at the hours ' 1 to 24, counting from midnight. What has been 
styled in the Kew • Report ' ' solar diurnal range ' meant in that year 
the departure of the hourly values from the mean for the day taken as 



{[l] + [2]4- 



+ [24]} /24; 



where by [w] is meant the value answering to the nth. hour after the first 
midnight. In the subsequent four years measurements were taken at 
the first as well as the second midnight, and the mean for the day was 
taken as 

{[0] + [l]+ .... +[23] + [24]}/25. 

This second method of fixing the daily mean is of course not mathe- 
matically correct, as it attributes double weight to the midnight value ; 
but the departure of the midnight value from the mean for the day — at 
all events when inequalities are got out only for summer, winter, and the 
whole year — is too small to cause appreciable error. The error in defi- 
nition, if error it can be called, was, I think, fortunate for several reasons. 
Tor instance it left no additional measurements to be made for the present 
inquiry other than those at the first midnights of the sixty ' quiet ' days 
of 1890. 

If on-cyclic Nature of Results obtained from Quiet Days. 

§ 4. During the five years considered, the westerly declination at 
Kew has been diminishing by about 6''9 annually, the horizontal force 
increasing by about 195 x 10"'^ C.G.S. units. Thus on an average there 
occurred in twenty-four hours a decrease of about 0'-019 in declination, 
an increase of about 53xl0~* C.G.S. units in H.F. (horizontal force). 
Now at Kew, declination is measured only to 0'"1, and H.F. to 1 x 10~^ 
C.G.S. units. It is thus obvious that if two sets, each of 150 days, and 

' As in tlie Kew Reports, Greenwich, not local, time is employed. Local time is, 
however, only 1 min. 15 sec. later than Greenwich time. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 211 

twelve sets, each of twenty-five days, had been selected at random, the 
mean diurnal variation got out from either set of 150 days would in all 
probability have appeared almost truly cyclic, and the mean diurnal 
vai'iations got out from the twelve sets of twenty-five days might have 
been expected, if not truly cyclic, to show about equally many increments 
and decrements of the element considered in the twenty-four hours. 
How far the actual result difiers from this ideal is shown by the 
following table. 

The ' total increment ' means the algebraic sum of excesses of the 
values of the element considered at the second midnights of the twenty- 
five quiet days in a month over the values at the first midnights ; in 
other woi'ds, it equals twenty- five times the mean increment during a 
'quiet ' day in the month specified. The five years supply of course five 
Januarys, ifcc, or sixty individual months in all. 

Table II. 




According to Table II. if every day behaved like a ' quiet ' day there 
would be an annual increase of 35' in westerly declination, instead of the 
actually existing decrease of 7', and an increase of 1205x10"'' C.G.S. 
units in H.F., instead of the actually observed 20 x 10"''. 

Taking the figures as they stand, the evidence in favour of a general 
tendency to a non-cyclic variation in the direction of increasing westerly 
declination during ' quiet ' days is perhaps not conclusi^'e. Of the indivi- 
dual months' records twenty-four show a decrease, and the balance the other 
way might be pure chance. The figures relating to the horizontal force, 
however, unless ascribable to error, prove conclusively that during the five 
years in question the force increased at a wholly abnormal rate on ' quiet ' 
days. It is difiicult to imagine any cause of error -.vorking so uniformly 
throughout the year. Supposing uncomj^ensated temperature effect to 
exist, for instance, the phenomenon should tend one way during one 
season, the opposite during another. The interval between succepsive 

r2 



212 REPORT— 1895. 

' quiet ' days varied arbitrarily, so that the positions of the two midnights 
of a ' quiet ' day on the photographic sheets were constantly being inter- 
changed. It may also be added that the phenomenon is not peculiar to 
Kew, but may be seen in the published Greenwich and Falmouth results 
for the same epoch. 

§ 5. The phenomena seem not unlikely to be only another phase of 
phenomena observed many years ago by General Sabine and Dr. Lloyd. 
The former from a careful study of what he termed ' disturbances ' con- 
cluded that the aggregates of easterly and westerly declination disturbances 
at Kew during 1858-62 nearly balanced, 'there being in some years a 
slight preponderance of westerly, and in other years of easterly deflection ; ' ' 
at the same time he found ^ ' a slight preponderance of easterly values on 
the average of the four years (1858-61).' As regards the horizontal force 
he deduced^ from 5,932 disturbed observations at Kew during 1858-64 
that ' the ratio of the value of the disturbances decreasing the (horizontal) 
force to those which increased it was nearly as 3'23 to 1.' In agreement 
with this last result Dr. Lloyd found ^ from an examination of the 335 (?) 
most disturbed days at Dublin during the ten years 1841-50 that 'the 
mean efiect of disturbances is to diminish that (the horizontal) force.' 

The significance of these results, when taken along with the tendency 
suggested by Table II. to a slight abnormal increase of westerly declina- 
tion on quiet days, and the clear evidence of an abnormal increase of 
horizontal force on these days, need not be dwelt on. Although the 
vertical foi'ce lies outside our present inquiry, it may not be amiss to 
mention that evidence of a connection of ths kind foreshadowed above is 
also supplied by it. The results, in fact, from the last five years at Kew 
show a distinct abnormal decrease of vertical force on ' quiet ' days, while 
General Sabine observed a very decided preponderance of disturbances to 
be associated with increasing vertical force. 

Whether the species of opposition in the phenomena exhibited by the 
horizontal and vertical forces is to be associated with the fact that at pre- 
sent the former element is increasing the latter decreasing seems an inter- 
esting speculation, but it lies outside our present inquiry. 

Method of Treating the Non-cyclic Diurnal Element. 

§ 6. General Sabine got out tables according to which ' disturbances ' 
at Kew were by no means uniformly distributed over the twenty-four hours ; 
further he found that disturbances associated with easterly deflections 
had diflferent hours for maxima and minima from disturbances associated 
with westerly deflections, and a like difference appeared between disturb- 
ances associated with increasing and those associated with decreasing 
horizontal force. If this be so, and if the non-cyclic phenomena observed 
on ' quiet ' days be in any way complementary to the disturbed phenomena, 
then there is certainly ground for suspecting that the abnormal increase, 
say, of H.F. observed in the mean ' quiet' day of a certain month is not 
uniformly distributed over the twenty- four hours. While fully recognising 
the uncertainty of the hypothesis of uniform distribution of the non-cyclic 
element, I have unhesitatingly adopted it provisionally. What General 

' Phil. Trans, for 1863, p. 282. 
" Prnc. Boy. Soc, vol. xi. p. .590. 
« Phil. Tf'ans. for 1871, p. 310. 
* -1 Treatise on Magnetism, p. 211. 



.y. !<,(.?■ 






Pl'^u 



Carve 



DIUENAL INEQUALITY. 



Decimation. 



4 

J- 

''V 








'%^ 



.Year 



WirUer 



Summer 



.Nixiynnjtir 



Mid^summer 



Ca/yc 



norizontal Force. 




10 







j:. 



■1010- 



■Kntg^ 



Abscissae time in hours from midnight 





J^- 



-^ 




-^ 



Illmtrating the Report on Comparison and Reduction of 
Magnetic Observations. 



ON COMPAHISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 213 

Sabine termed ' disturbed ' observations included only some 10 per cent. 
of the entire number ; so that, even supposing the years to which his 
results and the present results applied had been the same, it would hardly 
have been possible to utilise his results in framing a better hypothesis. 
Some light might have been thrown on the subject by taking measure- 
ments at each hour of every day immediately preceding or succeeding a 
'quiet' day, and examining the magnitude of the non-cyclic element for 
each combination of twenty-four consecutive hours. The fact that this 
would have entailed some 12,000 additional measurements put it out of 
court so far as the present inquiry was concerned. 

I have thus decided to regard the variation of an element throughout 
the typical ' quiet ' day of a given month as composed of first a non-cyclic 
part, consisting in a uniform increase or decrease throughout the twenty- 
four hours, second a truly cyclic part spoken of as the diurnal inequality. 

Thus suppose an increment 24 I to occur during the twenty -four hours ; 
then the diurnal inequality is what remains of the observed hourly departures 
from the mean for the day after the correction (12 — ^)1 has been applied, 
t denoting the number of hours elapsed .since midnight. This correction 
raises the values throughout one half of the day and depresses them 
throughout the other. It of course leaves unchanged the mean value 

{K[0] + [24]) + [l]+ .. . +[23j}/24, 

and after its application 

[0]=[24]. 

The size of the correction applied to each month's results for declination 
and horizontal force is obvious from Table II., so that the uncorrected 
values can easily be reproduced from the corrected ones recorded pre- 
sently. 

Tables of Diurnal Inequality and their Discussion. 

§ 7. The following tables. III. and IV., give the diurnal inequality 
in the several months and quarters of the year, as well as for winter, 
summer, and the entire year. The values given under each month are 
the arithmetic means from the data of the five years. The numerically 
largest maxima and minima ai-e distinguished by heavy type. The hours 
are numbered continuously from midnight, so that 13 and higher numbers 
refer to the afternoon. The results for hour 24, being the same as for 
hour 0, are omitted. 

A graphical illustration of the diurnal inequality for the year ; for 
winter, for summer, for midwinter (December and January), and for 
midsummer (June and July), is afforded in Plate V. by the curves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
for the declination, and by the curves 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the horizontal force. 
The curves will facilitate the comprehension of the principal phenomena. 
A comparison of the declination table and curves with the corresponding 
results at Kew during the epoch 1858-62, as given by General Sabine in 
the 'Phil. Trans.' for 1863, will be found of interest. 

§ 8. In both tables the results proceed one figure further than the 
actual measurements, the extra figure ai'ising in the process of taking the 
means. No smoothing process has been applied to the original data, and 
no correction other than the elimination of the non-cyclic element. That 
the results are trustworthy, as measurements of magnetic variation, to 



214 



REPORT — 1895. 



Table III. — Diurnal Inequality of Declination {after 



Hour . 



January . 
February . 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November . 
December . 

First Quarter 
Second Quarter 
Third Quarter 
Fourth Quarter 

Winter 
Summer . 

Year . 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


-1-36 


-1-17 


-O'SG 


-0-68 


-0-69 


-0-80 


-0-84 


-0-97 


-1-34 


-1-48 


-0-33 


-1-40 


-1-45 


-1-31 


-1-15 


-1-00 


-M4 


-M5 


-1-43 


-1-85 


-1-86 


-0-68 


-1-U7 


-U-92 


-0-89 


-1-08 


-1-39 


-1-32 


-1-77 


-2-G3 


-3-74 


-3-43 


-1-58 


-0-71 


-0-74 


-0-92 


-1-07 


-1-3G 


-1-73 


-2-51 


-3-84 


-4-91 


-4-48 


-2-18 


-0-8S 


-0-86 


-1-09 


-1-34 


-2-07 


-3-38 


-4-29 


-5-08 


-4-75 


-3'26 


-0-31 


-0-45 


-0-76 


-0-90 


-1-27 


-2-10 


-3-57 


-4-84 


-5-29 


-5-12 


-3-79 


-1-26 


-0-66 


-080 


-MO 


-1-24 


-1-99 


-3-53 


-4-49 


-4-73 


-4-77 


-3-G5 


-1-36 


-0-94 


-1-10 


-:-35 


-1-80 


-2-17 


-3-03 


-4-20 


-5-01 


-4-70 


-3-06 


-0-01 


-138 


-1-43 


-1-58 


-1-96 


-2-39 


-2-5G 


-3-16 


-3-85 


-3-96 


-2-40 


+ 0-49 


-1-48 


-1-13 


-1-03 


-0-96 


-MO 


-1-U7 


-1-50 


-2-04 


-3-05 


-3-23 


-1-62 


-1-15 


-0-82 


-0-79 


-0-74 


-0-75 


-0-95 


-M4 


-1-33 


-1-84 


-1-93 


-0-82 


-115 


-0-77 


-0-46 


-0-38 


-0-39 


-0-47 


-0-74 


-0-8G 


-1-03 


-M7 


-014 


-1-28 


-1-18 


-1-02 


-0-97 


-1-03 


-1-09 


-1-26 


-1-G7 


-2'31 


-2-26 


-0-86 


-0-6G 


-0-78 


-0-97 


-1-23 


-1-84 


-2-89 


-3-88 


-4-74 


-4-93 


-3-84 


-1-25 


-0'99 


-Ml 


-1-34 


-1-67 


-2-18 


-3-04 


-3-95 


-4-53 


-4-48 


-3-04 


-0-2 9 


-1-26 


-U-90 


-C-76 


-0-69 


-0-75 


-0-83 


-M2 


-1-41 


-1-97 


-2-11 


-0-86 


-1-27 


-1-04 


-0-8!) 


-0-83 


-0-8D 


-0-96 


-M9 


-1-54 


-2-14 


-2-18 


-0'8G 


-0-83 


-0-95 


-MC 


-1-45 


-2-01 


-2-97 


-3-92 


-4-G3 


-4-70 


-3-44 


-0-77 


-1-05 


-1-00 


-1-02 


-1-14 


-1-45 


-1-96 


-2-55 


-309 


-3-42 


-2-81 


-0-82 











Table IV.- 


—10'' X Diurnal In 


equality of Horizon 


Hour . 





1 


o 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


January . 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 19 


+ 43 


+ 60 


+ 58 


+ 64 


+ 32 


- 26 


- 76 


February . 


+ 37 


+ 23 


+ 24 


+ 18 


+ 24 


+ 44 


+ 47 


+ 63 


+ 35 


- 43 


-110 


March 


+ 57 


+ 50 


+ 45 


+ 42 


+ 41 


+ 64 


+ 71 


+ 38 


- 31 


-126 


-195 


April . 


+ 79 


+ 74 


+ G4 


+ 65 


+ 62 


+ 66 


+ 63 


+ 34 


- 56 


-163 


-256 


May . 


+79 


+ 75 


+ 51 


+ 49 


+ 31 


+ 19 


-24 


- 90 


-178 


-244 


-260 


June . 


+ 65 


+ 49 


+ 44 


+ 42 


+ 37 


+ 18 


-40 


-113 


-183 


-240 


-259 


July . 


+ 62 


+ 59 


+ 38 


H-46 


+ 31 


+ 16 


-33 


- 90 


-155 


-228 


-272 


August 


+ 75 


+ 81 


+ 69 


+ 69 


+ 62 


+ 34 


-10 


- 94 


-188 


-268 


-294 


September 


+ 88 


+ 82 


+ 71 


+ 55 


+ 54 


+ 40 


+ 1 


- 62 


-156 


-231 


-265 


October . 


+ 67 


+ 57 


+ 59 


+ 77 


+ 68 


+ 82 


+ 82 


+ 50 


- 20 


-130 


-213 


November . 


+ 36 


+ 36 


+ 38 


+ 42 


+ 63 


+ 79 


+ 85 


+ 65 


+ 15 


- 75 


-164 


December . 


-IG 


- 8 


— 7 


+ 3 


+ 2G 


+ 42 


+ 53 


+ 57 


+ 36 


- 4 


- 63 


First Quarter . 


+ 34 


+ 26 


+ 25 


+ 26 


+ 36 


+ 5G 


+59 


+ 55 


+ 12 


- 65 


-127 


Second Quarter . 


+ 74 


+ 66 


+ 53 


+ 52 


+ 43 


+ 34 


- 1 


- 56 


-139 


-216 


-258 


Third Quarter . 


+ 75 


+ 74 


+ 59 


+ 57 


+ 49 


+ 30 


-14 


- 82 


-166 


-242 


-277 


Fourth Quarter 


+ 29 


+ 28 


+ 30 


+ 40 


+ 53 


+ 68 


+74 


+ 57 


+ 10 


- 70 


-145 


Winter 


+ 31 


+ 27 


+ 28 


+ 33 


+ 44 


+ 62 


+66 


+ 56 


+ 11 


- 67 


-136 1 


Summer . 


+ 75 


+ 70 


+ 56 


+ 54 


+ 46 


+ 32 


- 7 


- 69 


-153 


-229 


-268 


Tear . 


+ 53 


+ 49 


+ 42 


+ 44 


+ 45 


+ 47 


+ 29 


- 6 


- 71 


-148 


-202 



units in the last place cannot, I think, be maintained for a moment ; but 
the omission of the last figure would render it impossible to give an 
adequate idea of the extreme smallness of the variation during many- 
hours of the night. 

The most conspicuous feature of the declination diurnal inequality, 
especially in summer, is the rapid change from a maximum easterly 
declination, occurring from 7 to 9 a.m., to a maximum westerly declination 
about 1 P.M. In winter, as is apparent on inspection of the winter and 
midwinter curves, there is a subsidiary westerly movement during the 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 215 



elimination of non-cyclic element), + being to west of mean. 



11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


+ 1-02 


+ 2-68 


+ 3-51 


+ 3-02 


+ 1-98 


+ 1-37 


+ 0-82 


+ 0-36 


-0-03 


-0-54 


-1-02 


-1-23 


-1-42 


+1-17 


+ 3'01 


+ 3-71J 


+3-78 


+ 3-02 


+ 1-53 


+ 0-83 


+ 0-62 


+ 0-26 


-0-36 


-0-77 


-1-07 


-1-36 


1 +1'69 


+ 4-6C 


+5-99 


+ 5-50 


+ 3-91 


+ 1-70 


+ 0-35 


-0-10 


— 0-48 


-0-55 


-0-88 


-1-01 


-U-96 


+ 1-27 


+ 4-58 


+6-35 


+ 5-87 


+ 4-12 


+ 2-39 


+ roo 


4 0-14 


-0-25 


-0-22 


-0-13 


-0-25 


— 0-44 


+ 2-96 


+ 5-88 


+ 6-85 


+ 6'16 


+ 4-49 


+ 2-42 


+ 0-89 


-0-U8 


-0-43 


-0-60 


-0-43 


-0-38 


— 0-47 


+ 1-61 


+ 4-50 


+5'95 


+ 5'79 


+ 4-GG 


+ 3'25 


+ 1-84 


+0-93 


+ 0-34 


+ 0-27 


+ 0-18 


+ 0-31 


-0-28 


+ 1-52 


+ 4-38 


+ 6-12 


+6-52 


+ 5-37 


+ 3-23 


+ 1-33 


+ 0-23 


-0-U9 


-0-09 


+ 0-02 


-0-02 


-0-20 


+ 3-36 


+ 6 27 


+ 7-23 


+ 6-28 


+ 4'49 


+ 2-14 


+ 0'30 


-U-45 


-U-30 


-0-33 


-0-31 


-0-60 


-U-71 


+ 3-62 


+ £•98 


+ 6-51 


+ 5-40 


+ 3-3G 


+ 1-65 


+ 0-50 


-0-00 


-0'17 


-0-50 


-0-56 


-0-61 


-1-02 


+ 1-40 


+ 4-13 


+5-28 


+ 4-84 


+ 3-59 


+ 1-93 


+ 1-12 


+ 0-45 


-0-03 


-U-44 


-1-14 


-1-41 


-1-51 


+ 1-43 


+ 3-18 


+3-95 


+ 3-26 


+ 2-21 


+ 1-40 


+ 0-62 


+ 0-25 


-0-04 


-0-59 


-1-0 J 


-1-23 


-1-18 


+ 1-06 


+ 1-99 


+ 2-65 


+ 2-44 


+ 1-90 


+ 1-15 


+ 0-51 


+ 0-30 


-0'12 


-U-65 


-rii 


-1-28 


-1-32 


+ 1-29 


+ 3-45 


+ 4-42 


+ 4-10 


+ 2-97 


+ 1-53 


+0-67 


+ 0-29 


-0'08 


-0-48 


-0-89 


-1-10 


-1-25 


+ 1-95 


+ 4-99 


+6-39 


+ 5-94 


+ 4-42 


+ 2-69 


+ 1-24 


+ 0-33 


-u-u 


-0-18 


-0-13 


-O'll 


-0-40 


+2-84 


+ 5-54 


+6-62 


+ 6-07 


+ 4-41 


+ 2-34 


+ 0-71 


-0-07 


-0-19 


-0-31 


-0-28 


-0-41 


— U-64 


+ 1-30 


+ 3-10 


+3-96 


+ 3-51 


+ 2-57 


+ 1-49 


+ 0-75 


+ 0-34 


—0-06 


-0-56 


-1-08 


-1-31 


-1-34 


+ 1-30 


+ 3-27 


+4-19 


+ 3-81 


+ 2-77 


+ 1-51 


+ 0-71 


+ 0-31 


-0-07 


-0-52 


-0-99 


-1-20 


-1-29 


+2-39 


+ 5-27 


+6-50 


+ 6 00 


+ 4-42 


+ 2-51 


+0-98 


+ 0-13 


-0-15 


-0-24 


-0-20 


-0-2G 


-0-52 


+ 1-84 


+ 4-27 


+5-35 


+ 4-90 


+ 3-59 


+ 2-01 


+ 0-84 


+ 0-22 


-0-11 


-0-38 


-0-60 


-0-73 


-0-91 



ial Force (after elimination of non-cyclic element). 



11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


-116 


- 94 


- 46 


-22 


-18 


- 12 


+ 3 


+ 29 


+ 35 


+ 23 


+ 15 


+ 3 


+ 5 


-142 


-126 


- 84 


-41 


-15 


— D 


+ 9 


+ 32 


+ 38 


+ 52 


+ 50 


+ 37 


+ 33 


-206 


-163 


- 92 


-31 


+ 20 


+ 23 


+ 14 


+ 43 


+ 76 


+ 73 


+ 62 


+ 59 


+ 68 


-274 


-223 


-144 


-68 


+ 1 


+ 38 


+ 70 


+ 83 


+ 106 


+ 105 


+ 97 


+ 92 


+ 88 


-226 


—155 


- 87 


-21 


+ 33 


+ 83 


+ 127 


+ 144 


+ 152 


+ 128 


+ 120 


+ 102 


+ 92 


-231 


-150 


- 82 


- 7 


+ 63 


+ 86 


+ 119 


+ 161 


+ 170 


+ 146 


+ 125 


+ 102 


+ 78 


-247 


-188 


-113 


-18 


+ 68 


+ 105 


+ 138 


+ 157 


+ 164 


+ 145 


+ 127 


+ 104 


+ 85 


-246 


-152 


- 64 


+ 2 


+ 42 


+ 77 


+ 95 


+ 129 


+ 139 


+ 129 


+ 129 


+ 87 


+ 97 


-216 


— 105 


- 21 


+ 24 


+ 18 


+ 11 


+ 35 


+ 70 


+ 99 


+ 105 


+ 108 


+ 92 


+ 103 


-234 


-186 


-lUG 


-52 


— 22 


- 13 


+ 31 


+ 59 


+ 67 


+ 67 


+ 75 


+ 67 


+ 73 


-160 


-146 


-112 


-GO 


-22 


- 5 


+ 29 


+ 43 


+ 57 


+ 47 


+ 37 


+ 34 


+ 28 


- 85 


- 78 


- 44 


-21 


- 7 


+ 4 


+ 22 


+ 25 


+ 33 


+ 20 


+ 4 


- 1 


+ 5 


-155 


-128 


- 74 


-31 


- 4 


+ 2 


+ 9 


+ 35 


+ 50 


+ 49 


+ 42 


+ 33 


+ 35 


-244 


-176 


-104 


-32 


+ 32 


+ 69 


+ 105 


+ 129 


+ 143 


+ 126 


+ 114 


+ 99 


+ 86 


-236 


-148 


- 66 


+ 3 


+ 43 


+ 64 


+ 89 


+ 119 


+ 134 


+ 126 


+ 121 


+ 94 


+ 95 


-160 


-137 


- 87 


-44 


-17 


- 4 


+ 28 


+ 43 


+ 52 


+ 45 


+ 39 


+ 34 


+ 35 


-157 


-132 


- 81 


-38 


-U 


- 1 


+ 18 


+ 39 


+ 51 


+ 47 


+ 40 


+ 33 


+ 35 


-240 


-1C2 


- 85 


-15 


+ 37 


+ G7 


+ 97 


+ 124 


+ 138 


+ 126 


+ 118 


+ 97 


+ 90 


-199 


-147 


- 83 


-26 


+ 13 


+ 33 


+ 58 


+ 81 


+ 95 


+ 87 


+ 79 


+ 65 


+ 63 



night, entailing two unmistakable maxima of westerly declination and two 
of easterly in the twenty-four hours. This accords generally with conclu- 
sions I., II., III. for Dublin on pp. 175, 176 of Dr. Lloyd's ' Treatise.' His 
further conclusion, IV., that ' in summer the westerly movement during the 
night disappears,' is in more doubtful accord with the present results. 
The variation during the night in summer is so very slow that a definite 
conclusion would require the warrant of more data than are here avail- 
able ; but according to Table III. there is, to say the least of it, the 
suspicion of a slight secondary westerly movement in most of the summer 



216 REPORT— 1895. 

months a few hours before niidnight. To attain certainty iu such a case 
one would require a very lai'ge number of observations for each month in 
the year. When the results of several months are grouped together, 
secondary maxima, unless occurring very nearly at the same hour in each 
month, are apt to disappear. The smoothness of the mean curve for a 
year or a half-year is doubtless in part due to the elimination of observa- 
tional errors by means of the large number of observations included ; but 
in some cases at least it arises from what may be termed the suicide of 
secondary phenomena. Mutual extermination of very delicate phenomena 
may even arise when so short a period as a month is dealt with as a 
unit. 

If, instead of the inequality of declination, the inequality of the 
disturbing force perpendicular to the magnetic mei'idian be desired, then 
the results of Table III. may be converted into C.G.S. measure of force- 
at the rate of V to 53 x 10-« C.G.S. units. 

In the horizontal force inequality the most conspicuous feature is 
the minimum occurring from 10 to 11 A.M. In every month there is 
an unmistakable maximum — especially conspicuous in summer — about 
.7 P.M. 

In winter there is distinct evidence of a second minimum and maximum 
during the night and early morning, the maximum being usually the largest 
in the twenty-four hours. In summer the evidence in favour of a second 
maximum and minimum appears somewhat uncertain. The i-esults are in 
general accord with the conclusions for Dublin on p. 184 of Dr. Lloyd's 
' Treatise.' 

Harmonic Analysis of Diurnal Inequality. 

§ 9. The diurnal inequality of one of the elements, say the declina- 
tion, D, can be analysed into a series such as 

s-n ^^t . I • 27r< , 2Trnt , , . 2wnt , ,, . 

^D=ai cos 24 +°i ^m 24 + ' "" ^°^ '947 + °'* ^^^ '2i ' ' ^ ^^ 



or 



9;r , . 9 



cD = Ci cos ;^^(<-r,)-f- . -fc, cos--:J^--(<-T„)-|- (16> 

Here t is the time in hours measured from the first midnight ; w is an 
integer ; a,„ b,„ c„, -„ are constants, connected by the equations 

c„=v^<MA^ (2> 

04 
Tn==, — tan-1 (6„/a„) (3) 

In what follows it is arranged that c„ shall always be positive, and so 
r„ is the time of the first maximum, in an algebraic sense, subsequent to 
midnight. 

Supposing hourly values of the element known, one has twenty-three- 
constants at one's disposal ; but here I have contented myself with deter- 
mining the coefficients of the terms whose periods are respectively 24, 12,, 
8, and 6 hours. The subsequent terms appear in reality to be very small, 
and any numerical results one might reach in connection with them 
would be of doubtful accuracy. 

The following table, V., gives the values of the a, b, c coefficients 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 217 



for the mean diurnal inequalities of winter, summer, and the whole 
year. 

The a, h coefficients for the 'year' are the arithmetic means of those 
for ' winter ' and ' summer ' ; but as a check on the accuracy of the work 
they were calculated independently. 

Variation to the west in the declination is regarded as positive. 

Table V. 





«i 


b. 


f, 


rtj 


62 


<^i 


rtj 


K 


«;i 


«« 


** 


c. 




(Winter. 


-1-55 


1 
-1-17 


l'94 


+ 0-72 


+ 1-21 


I'-Al 


-0-62 


-0-49 


0-79 


+ 0-30 


+ 0-25 


0-39 


«D . 


\ Summer 


-1-97 


-2-59 


3-26 


+ 2-(l5 


+ 1-64 


2-63 


-0-99 


-U-61 


1-16 


+ 0-16 


+ 0-095 


0-19 




i Year 


-1-76 


-1-88 


2-58 


+ 1-39 


+ 1-42 


1-99 


-0-81 


-0-55 


0-98 


+ 0-23 


+ 0-17 


0-29 




Winter . 


+ 68 


- 3 


68 


-52 


+ 11 


63 


+ 13 


-22 


26 


+ 2 


+ 15 


15 


lO'xSH 


Summer 


+ 12.5 


-89 


15a 


-52 


+ 50 


73 


— 3 


-27 


27 


+ 7 


+ 10 


13 




Year 


+ 96 


—46 


1U7 


-52 


+ 31 


61 


+ 5 


-25 


25 


+ 4 


+ 13 


13 



The only change required in Table V. if time were measured from 
noon, instead of as throughout the present paper from midnight, would 
be the alteration of the signs of the entries referring to «,, 6,, a^, and 63. 

It should be explained that the calculations on which Table V. is based 
proceeded in every case to at least one decimal place, usually two, beyond 
that shown. 

The table shows that in the case both of the declination and the 
horizontal force, the terms whose period is twenty-four hours are very 
much greater in summer than in winter, and the same phenomenon shows 
itself in the terms in the declination whose period is twelve hours. On 
the other hand the terms in the declination whose period is six hours 
appear relatively much larger in winter than in summer. It would hardly 
be prudent to attach too much weight to this last conclusion, in view of 
the extreme smallness of the quantities involved ; but it is in accordance 
with Tables XV. and XVI. of the ' Greenwich Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations' for the two years 1890 and 1891. A comparison of 
the other features common to these two Greenwich tables and to Table V. 
■will be found of interest. The Greenwich tables, it should be noticed, are 
not confined to ' quiet ' days, and in treating the horizontal force they 
take as unit the (1/100000) of this force at Greenwich, or, say, lO"* x 182 
C.G.S. unit. 

§ 10. The number of degrees in the angles 27r?ir„/24 is easily obtained 
from Table V. by means of the formula (3). Instead of giving these 
angles explicitly I have preferred to give the times t„, answering to the 
earliest maxima in the day of the Westerly declination and the hori- 
zontal force. These times are included in Table VI., along with the 
earliest times in the day when the several terms of the types appearing 
in (1^) vanish and have their minima. The interval between successive 
maxima or successive minima is double that between successive zero- 
points, and equals the periodic time, i.e., is 24, 12, 8, or 6 hours, as the case 
may be. 

With one impoi-tant exception — that of the harmonic term in the 
declination whose period is twenty-four hours — the first maximum of 
every term appears earlier in the day in summer than in winter. The 
difierence between the corresponding times in winter and summer is 



218 



REPORT — 1895. 



Table VI. 



Period of term 
in hours 


Winter 


Summer 


Year 


Max. 


Zero 


Min. 


Max. 


Zero 


Min. 


Max. 


Zero 


Min. 


-^^ISr : 


h. m. 
14 29 
23 52 


h. m. 

8 29 
5 52 


b. m. 

2 29 

11 52 


h. m. 
15 31 

21 38 


h. m. 
9 31 
3 38 


h . m. 
3 31 

9 38 


b. m. 
15 8 
22 18 


h. m. 
9 8 

4 18 


b. m. 

3 8 

10 18 


^^^Decln. . 


1 58 
5 36 


4 58 
2 36 


7 58 
11 36 


1 17 
4 32 


4 17 
1 32 


7 17 
10 32 


1 31 
4 59 


4 31 
1 59 


7 31 
10 59 


Q /Decln. 

" Ih.f. 


4 51 
6 41 


2 51 
41 


51 
2 41 


4 42 

5 52 


2 42 

3 52 


42 

1 52 


4 46 
6 16 


2 46 
16 


46 
2 16 


„ r Decln. 

^ (h.f. 


40 

1 24 


2 10 
2 54 


3 40 

4 24 


30 

55 


2 
2 25 


3 30 
3 55 


37 

1 11 


2 7 
2 41 


3 37 

4 11 



. conspicuously greater in the case of the horizontal force than in that of 
the declination. 

There is, it will be noticed, a close coincidence between the time, 
^ hr. 38 min., of the minimum in summer of the horizontal force term 
whose period is twenty-four hours and the time, 9 hr. 31 min., of the 
first zero in summer of the corresponding declination term. The fact, 
however, that no such coincidence presents itself between the correspond- 
ing times in winter would suggest the phenomenon was in part at least 
accidental. It can hardly be connected with the fact — shown conspicu- 
ously by Tables III. and IV., or still better by curves 1 to 10— that the 
time of the principal minimum of the total horizontal force inequality, 
from 10 to 11 A.M., is nearly coincident with a time at which the total 
declination inequality vanishes. Papers dealing with a theoretical con- 
nection of the sort, by Professor A. Schuster and Mr. C. Chambers, will 
be found in the ' Phil. Mag.' for April and May 1886, and in ' Proc. Lit. 
and Phil. Soc.,' Manchester, Session 1886-87, pp. 23-46. 



liesultant of Cyclic Horizontal Disturbing Forces producing the 
Diurnal Inequality. 

§ 11. The importance attaching to variations in declination suggests 
most naturally the resolution of the horizontal disturbing force, to which 
the diurnal inequalities just considered are due, into components ^X and 
?Y respectively in and perpendicular to the magnetic meridian. The 
preceding results show that, H denoting as usual the total horizontal 
force, cX/H and oY/H are at most small quantities of the order 1/500. 

Thus to a very close approximation we have 



aY=HtD ) 



(4) 



where ciH and cD are the inequalities of horizontal force and declina- 
tion, while H is the mean value of the horizontal force for the time 
under consideration. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 219 

For the mean of the years 1890-94 we have 
H=-18211 C.G.S. units; 
■whence 

cY = 530xlO-'x<;D (5) 

where iT) is supposed to be given in minutes of arc. 

Resolution in and perpendicular to the magnetic meridian is some- 
what inconvenient when the general features of terrestrial magnetism are 
being considered, owing to the complicated relationships between the 
magnetic meridians at different stations. Even in dealing with the 
phenomena extending over a long interval of time at a single .station, the 
reference to a set of axes whose position is continually altering has its 
disadvantages. When, however, the components of a force along two 
rectangular axes are known, the components along any other pair in the 
same plane are easily deduced when the inclination of the old to the new 
axes is given. It will thus suffice to state that for the epoch 1890-9-1 the 
mean magnetic meridian at Kew lay at 17° 36'-2 to the west of the 
astronomical meridian. 

§ 12. Instead of giving explicitly the components in and perpendicular 
to the astronomical meridian I propose to consider the magnitude and 
direction of the resultant horizontal disturbing force itself. Denoting its 
intensity by p, its inclination to the east of magnetic north by 4', we 
have to a sufficiently close degree of approximation 



,=v/((^X)2 + (aY)2=2Hsec ;A (6) 

j^=tan-'(-aY/^X)=tan-'(-<D.H/^H) ... (7) 

Remembering that the inclination of p to the astronomical north is 
\I/ — (17° 36''2), it would be found a simple matter to deduce the com- 
ponents of the disturbing force along and perpendicular to the astro- 
nomical meridian from the calculated values of /< and xp. 

The following table, VII., gives the values of n and 4j for the mean of 
December and January, or midwinter, the mean of June and July, or 
midsummer, and the mean for the year at each hour. The greatest and 
least values of p in each case are in heavy type. 

In comparing Tables IV. and VII. the reader will require to notice that 
the former refers to lO** cH, the latter to 10^^>. Table VII. was got out 
from arithmetical means proceeding to two places beyond those retained 
in Table IV., and an extra figure was retained in i>, so that the arith- 
metical accuracy of any resolution of p into orthogonal coordinates should 
Vie as trustworthy as its previous resolution into cX and fY, i.e., into cH. 
and HoD. 

The angle 360° is to be added to the values of d' under the hour 23 for 
'midsummer,' and for hours subsequent to 18 in 'midwinter ' and ' year,' 
when it is desired to make out the true increase of (// relative to a previous 
hour. 

In the case of the yearly mean the vector p has a continuously pro- 
gressive rotation from east to west through south, like the sun as seen 
from the earth. This is the general character of the rotation at any 
season ; but at midwinter there is an unmistakable retrograde motion in 
the early morning for several hours, and at midsummer there is at least 
a suspicion of a retrograde motion from 8 to 10 p.m. From 10 a.m. to 



220 



REPORT — 1895. 



CQ 

H 









N. 




CO rJH 


C-1=^ 


CO ^ 


1—1 


-f „ 


CO o 


s^..i 


^^ 


^^ 


m2 




« o 


(M O 




C-) 




IN 




.^ 


_ 


.^ 




00 


CO 


th 




O o ' 


CO CM 


IM lO 


r-i 


^.s,- 


o?: 




to 


N to 


(N o 




T-H 


f-H 


tH 






.. 


^ 








^^ 




1— < 


OO lO 


<N JO 


O 




^.2. 




CO m 


IM CO 






._ 


.^ 






Ci 


o 


00 


w2 


^^ o 






us 


CO N 


t— 1 


t^ 


lb 

»0 CO 

-°^ 

CO 


CO 
(N 1-5 


:o o 












^ 


»o o 


~H CO 


to 


S°o 


CO o 




-TOO 






CO 


-' a. 












o 


t- <» 


.-1 «> 


lO 


sg. 


oo "^ 
00 o 


f— < o 




-•* 


->o 




00 


'-' 00 


" to 












(M 


CO ^ 

— < o 


CO 




oo -^ 


'— ' CO 


>«< 




S&. 




CO 


»a 












._ 


CO 


., 




o o 


t^ lO 


O 00 


CO 


S°c. 


l^ CO 


-°^ 




o 


lO 


l-O 












CO 


05 




•* o 


CO rt 


lO — ( 


IN 


^°o 


£°o, 


s°., 






C5 


>o 


«o 






^ 






CO 


-»< 






(M -;,. 


Oi 0^1 


t~ —1 




s°^ 


5S?. 


^?^ 




05 


CO 


Tt< 












-*< 


CO 


1-~l 




00 tH 


•-I -^ 


f~ (M 


o 


So 


i^ o 


F o 




■^ CO 


'^rt- 


I- to 




a 


IM 


MH 




* 


' ' 


;; 




Q. 




CL 




x 


X 


X 






t" 






o • 


<=> -■ 


o • 


5 


rl -^ 


.-. -a- 


rt -3- 


o 


^ V ' 


•^ — . — ' 


^ — , — ' 


a 




^-« 






^ 


<D 






(P 


a 














c 


a 






^ 




to 






■73 


13 


c« 








Q) 




S 


s 


t>H 



CO 
(M 


to^J co^S -^2 
t- tr) 00 o l^ " 
00 O) S 


0>4 


-°» !■?? -o 

cc -Jg CO 


.— I 
0-J 


-o ::-s so^ 

CO "g =^ 


o 


«s, ^ ^h 

•O '"' CO 


cn 
cc 


P- oo CO Tj* m CO 
^<>4 J^o 5cO 
CO O ^_ l^ C5 O 

t= r-l O CO 

CO 


I— *\^ ^ 

^ CO 00 7 _ lO 
IM O J5 ^ C<) O 

CO 1- H 2 00 ^ 
CO " CO 


- 


54 c-i to 
to "* 2 "" o '^ 
(^ o ?!• o CO o 
CO en *"_ --o o c<i 

00 1-1 IM C-1 

IM CO CO 


15 16 


o^ -^<=^ to^ 

^g ^'§ n-ss 


to >b >, 

lO O to rH -" O 

q§. ?2,°„ g/- 
r-i ^ IM CO ^ t: 

IM (M <^ 




-^ 1— 1 ^ 
IM CO --1 lO to ^ 

^.z. ^.f- s°^ 

rt to CO to IM to 
(M C<1 (M 


CO 


CO X-. o 

«d- CO CO "=^1 rH ,)- 

'°% ".« oi^ 

^g ^S NO 


(N 

1-^ 


CO o T- 

Tt< _ CO (M C; o 

So S° g° 
^. CO '^.•^ H CO 

.-1 CO M CO (M CO 
(M IM IM 


a 
o 


es. a. o. 

XXX 

o • o • o • 
.-^ -^ — -&■ 1-1 -^ 

s a 
.s a 

■ ^ - 

S S >5 



Plate ^/I 



Carve 



North 




MUi-yn/Uer 




^/L-summer 



year 



Abscissas time in hours from midnight. 



Illustrating the Report on Comparison and Reduction of 
Magnetic Observations. 



ON COMPAKISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 221 

2 P.M., the time of the day when the diurnal inequality is most in 
evidence, the value of ^ seems to vary very little with the season. 

Curves whose radius vector is p, and vectorial angle 4', illustrate the 
variations of diurnal inequality in a conspicuous way. Numerous curves 
of this kind, illustrating the results obtained at Greenwich for the years 
1841-57, were given by Sir G. B. Airy in the 'Phil. Trans.' for 1863, 
and a smaller number, refeiTing apparently to the years 1873-7.5, were also 
given by Airy in the 'Phil. Trans.' for 1885. Several applications of 
these curves to Dublin results appear in Dr. Lloyd's ' Treatise.' Following 
these examples I have drawn curves 11, 12, and 1.3, Plate VI., based on 
the results in Table VII., for midwinter, midsummer, and the whole year. 
The hours are stated beside the points on the curves to which they refer. 

The prominent loop on the midwinter curve should be noticed. The 
existence of a loop on the mean winter curve and its absence in the mean 
summer curve for Dublin are referred to by Lloyd {loc. cit., p. 187). The 
tendency to loops in winter months is conspicuous in Airy's Greenwich 
curves. 

Relative Intensity of the Forces to ichich the Diurnal Inequality is due 

throughout the year. 

§ 13. Without knowing the true nature of the disturbing force or 
forces to which the diurnal inequality is due, it is difficult to suggest any 
wholly satisfactory measure of intensity. Assuming the inequality to be 
a composite phenomenon, the counteraction of opposing forces may produce 
the same effect at one hour as the absence of forces at another. All the 
phenomena seem, however, to point to greatly increased activity of dis- 
turbins: forces in summer. The data s;iven above as to the mean values 
of p throughout the day at midwinter and midsummer make the former 
mean only -374 of the latter. Evidence in the same direction is supplied 
by the following table VIII., which gives for each month, each quarter and 
half-year, and for the whole year, the sum of the hourly departures from 
the mean for the day, irrespective of sign, along with the range, or algebrai- 
cal difference between the extremes. To show how comparatively little 
depends on how the non-cyclic element is dealt with, the table, in addition 
to the results obtained after the non-cyclic element has been eliminated, 
gives likewise the range deduced from the uncorrected data for each 
month. The fractions, which the table records, refer exclusively to the 
corrected data. 

The range and the sum of the inequalities in both declination and 
horizontal force show a distinct minimum in December. In the declina- 
tion both the range and the sum of the inequalities present an absolute 
maximum in August, with apparently a second, only slightly smaller 
maximum, in May. The variation, however, especially of the range, is so 
small from April to August that it would hardly be safe to conclude this 
was the normal phenomenon in a year of ' quiet ' days. In the horizontal 
force there would appear to be a single maximum, whether for range or 
sum of inequalities, in July ; but the difference between the results and 
those for May, June, and August is extremely small. 

§ 14. These conclusions are only partly in accord with those got out by 
Dr. Balfour Stewart • for a long series of years, 1858-73, at Kew, and by 
Mr. W. EUis,^ for a still longer series of years, 1841-77, at Greenwich. 

' Prnc. Roy. Soc, vol. xxvi. 1877, p. 103. 
2 Phil. Trans, for 1880, p. 544. 



222 



REPORT — 1895. 



Table VIII. 









Decliuatiou 




Horizontal Force in C.G.S. measure 




Sum of 
Inequalities 




Range 




Sum of In- 
equalities X 10 = 


Range > 


10° 


Mouth 






















1- 

ll 

<! 


u 

<+-< as 
o a 

23 


■a 
o 

i 

o 
t5 


3 


Fraction of 
mean for year 


Absolute 
value 


ll 


■a 

i 

o 


1 

o 

o 

o 


Is 

-I 


January . 


29'-52 


0-635 


5'-22 


4'-99 


0-559 


823 


0-434 


172 


180 


0-567 


February 




35'-95 


0-773 


5'-72 


5'-64 


0-632 


1,132 


0-598 


214 


205 


0-642 


JIarcli . 




47'-58 


1-024 


9'-78 


9'-73 


1-089 


1,689 


0-892 


290 


282 


0-883 


April . 




5l'-45 


M07 


ll'-30 


ll'-26 


1-261 


2,371 


1-252 


386 


381 


1-192 


May . 




59'-32 


1-276 


12'-00 


ll'-93 


1-337 


2,571 


1-358 


428 


411 


1-288 


June . 




69'-26 


1-275 


ll'-18 


ll'-25 


1-259 


2,610 


1-378 


434 


429 


1-.S42 


July . 




57'-46 


1-236 


ll'-18 


ll'-29 


1-264 


2,686 


1-419 


444 


436 


1-366 


August 




60'-14 


1-294 


12'-16 


12'-23 


1-370 


2,632 


1-390 


450 


433 


1-355 


September 




55'-04 


1-184 


10'-50 


10'-47 


1-172 


2,113 


1-116 


386 


372 


1-166 


October 




45'-48 


0-978 


8'-54 


8'-52 


0-954 


1,964 


1-037 


332 


317 


0-991 


November 




32'-59 


0-701 


5'-92 


5'-88 


0-658 


1,468 


0-775 


234 


245 


0-765 


December 




24'-03 


0-517 


4'-02 


3'-97 


0-445 


664 


0-351 


140 


142 


445 


Means : 
























1st Quarter 




37'-68 


— 


— 


6'-79 


— 


1,515 


— 


— 


222 


— 


2na „ 




56'-68 


— 


— 


11 '-48 


. — 


2,517 


— 


— 


407 


— . 


3rd „ 




5:'-55 


— 


— 


ll'-33 


— 


2,477 


— 


— 


414 


— 


4th „ 




34'-03 


— 


— 


6'-12 


— 


1.365 


— 


— 


234 


— 


Winter 




35'-86 


— 


— 


6'-45 


— 


1.290 


— 


— 


228 


— 


Summer 




57'- 11 


— 


— 


ll'-41 


— 


2,497 


— 


— 


410 


— 


Year . 




46'-49 


- — ■ 


— 


8'-93 


— 


1,893 


— 


■- 


319 


- ■ 



The tables by Dr. Stewart and Mr. Ellis both give April as the month 
in which occurs the largest maximum in the declination range. Dr. 
Stewart's table gives slightly smaller, and nearly equal, maxima in June 
and August. In Mr. Ellis's table the mean range for August is decidedly 
higher than the mean for June, which latter, however, is a shade higher 
than the mean for May and decidedly higher than the mean for July. 
Again, the difference between the maximum and minimum ranges of 
declination in Table VIII. is much greater than in either of the other 
tables referred to. Thus, by Table VIII., the corrected range varies from 
12''23 to 3'"97, while in the general mean of the monthly results from the 
thirty-seven years included in Mr. Ellis's table the extremes are ir"96 
and 5'"78, and in Dr. Stewart's table the ratio of the maximum to the 
minimum monthly range is only 2:1. 

Dr. Stewart's table is confined to declination, but Mr. Ellis gives 
results for the range of horizontal force as well. The general means he 
gives for the four months, April to July, are very nearly equal ; the 
greatest value, that for April, being about 2 per cent, only in excess of 
the least of the four, that for May. The difference between the greatest 
and least of the mean monthly ranges of horizontal force in Mr. Ellis's 
table is again much less than the corresponding difference in Table VIII., 
the minimum, appearing in December, bearing to the April maximum 
the ratio 42 : 100. 

The most conspicuous difference between Table VIII. and the results 
of Dr. Stewart and Mr. Ellis is that it shows no trace of a maximum of 
activity in April, and indicates markedly increased activity in August. 
It would, however, be precipitate to assume that the time of maximum 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 223 

activity falls later in the year now than in the epochs dealt with by 
Dr. Stewart and Mr. Ellis. The different character of the materials 
employed in the several cases must be borne in mind. Dr. Stewart took 
into account all observations except the comparatively small percentage 
falling under General Sabine's definition of disturbed, and Mr. Ellis took 
all but days of considerable magnetic disturbance ; thus the material 
dealt with by both possessed presumably much greater heterogeneousness 
than that dealt with in Table VIII. Again, the mode in which the 
results were treated was difl'erent. Dr. Stewart, it is true, apparently 
took the means from groups of four successive years, but Mr. Ellis took 
the mean of the ranges deduced from each single year's records. The 
taking a group of years probably depresses the mean range most in those 
months in which the progress of the diurnal inequality is least regular. 

Harmonic Analysis of Monthly Ranges. 

§ 15. I have analysed into harmonic tei'ms the quantities measuring 

,, , , . -^ c ,1 >• .- mean range for month ^ , ,, 

the departures from unity oi the tractions ^ — ^ tor both 

mean range tor year 

declination and H.F. Putting for brevity 

x = 2ntl\2 (8) 

where t is time in months from the middle of January, I find for the 

declination 

mean range for month , ,,-, , i^ • n o 

*?- —1= —•-10 cos a; +"14 sin x — 'll cos 2x 

mean range for year 

+ •08 sin 2a;+'01 cos 3a; — ^04 sinSi^^ + ^Ol cos 4a; + *00 sin 4a; 

+ •04 cos 5a; — '03 sin 5a;+^03 cos 6a; . . . . . (9) 

for the Horizontal Force 

mean range for month , , ., , ao • at o 
° —1:= — •4.J cos x+-(jo sin a; — '07 cos 2a; 

mean range for year 

+ •03 sin 2a; + ^00 cos 3.r— •OO sin 3a; + ^03 cos 4a; + -03 sin 4a; 

+ •03 cos 5a; + ^01 sin .'5a;+-01 cos 6x- (10) 

In both cases the terms whose period is the full year are greatly pre- 
dominant. There appears also in both cases an appreciable semi-annual 
variation ; but the terms with shorter periods are very small, and little 
weight can be attached to their numerical measure. 

Annual Variation. 

§lfi. The variation of a magnetic element throughout the year, like 
its variation throughout a qidet day, is most simply regarded as composed 
of two parts, a uniform drift or secular variatio7i, and a cyclic portion, 
which may be called the anyiual inequality. This is a somewhat arbi- 
trary separation. The increase of the horizontal force, for instance, from 
year to year, got out from the observations of most observatories, is far 
from uniform ; and if this be a true phenomenon the hypothesis that the 
secular drift is uniform throughout the whole of one year can hardly 
claim a physical basis. It is, however, at any rate a convenient mathe- 
matical fiction whose adoption can do no harm when its true character 
is explicitly recognised. 



224 REPORT — 1895. 

The following data are extracted from tlie annual Kew ' Reports ; — • 



Table IX. 



Year 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


Mean Declination . . 
H.F. . . 


17° 50'-6 

•18173 


17° 41'^9 
•18193 


17° 36'-7 
•18202 


17° 28'^8 
•18238 


17° 23'^0 
•18251 



The mean values thence deduced for the secular variation are a 
decrease annually of 6'"9 in declination, and an increase annually of 
10"'^xl95 C.G.S. units in horizontal force. It will be assumed that 
these secular variations proceed uniformly throughout the mean year, got 
by combining the five years 1890-94. To eliminate the secular variation 
one adds to the observed values +0'-575t in the case of the declination, 
and — 10"^xl"625< in the case of the horizontal force, t being the time 
■elapsed in months from the middle of the mean year. Subtracting the 
mean value for the year from the monthly means thus corrected, one 
obtains the annual inequality. 

§ 17. To make the true position of affairs clear, a brief explanation is 
necessary of how the magnetic curves are standardised at Kew. Of late 
years the practice has been to determine the value of the zero line for 
each month's curves by reference solely to the absolute observations of 
that month. The same instruments are used for each observation of an 
element, and every observation is independent of the others, except that 
the constant usually called P in the formula for the horizontal force — 
i.e., the coefficient of the secondary term in the exjiression for the deflect- 
ing force — is determined from a whole year's observations. 

One of the most probable and subtle causes of error one has to provide 
against in getting out an annual variation of any physical phenomenon is 
<a possible secular or annual variation in the measuring instruments. 
This is especially the case with apparatus sensitive to changes of temper- 
ature. Now it is unquestionably true that the horizontal force magneto- 
graph is affected by changes of temperature, and though the underground 
chamber it is worked in at Kew has a very small diurnal variation of 
temperature, it has a considerable annual fluctuation. Thus, however 
carefully temjierature corrections might be determined and applied, the 
suspicion of an ' annual inequality ' being far other than it seemed might 
not unreasonably be entertained, if the ultimate reference were to the mag- 
netograph curves, either unstandardised, or standardised by reference to 
tbe mean of a year's absolute observations. It is partly to provide against 
this that each month's curves are referred to that one month's absolute 
observations. 

These observations are taken about once a week and scattered over 
the month, so that any secular or annual variation in the magnetographs 
themselves must be very nearly eliminated. 

As regards the absolute instruments there is, so to speak, no higher 
court of appeal. There is no obvious ground for suspicion. The hori- 
zontal force magnet has a temperature correction to apply, but this is only 
to allow for the difference in its temperatures at the times of the vibra- 
tion and deflection experiments in the same observation. This difference 
in temperature is very small and very irregular, and even if the tempera- 



ON COMPARISOX AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 225 

ture correction were considerably in error the consequence could hardly 
be a regular annual variation, bub merely an increased probable error in 
each individual observation. 

A second source of uncertainty is that the probable error in an abso- 
lute observation and its comparison with the correspondir.g curve value 
is somewhat lai'ge comj^ared to the annual inequality it is desired to 
measure. 

Tlie number of observations, some twenty, on which the mean for each 
month of the )nean year depends may seem sufficiently large to render 
any mere observational error insigniticant. It must be remembered, 
however, that on a considerable number of the days of absolute observa- 
tion there proves to have been a good deal of magnetic movement. Some- 
times the disturbance has been such as to render it necessary to discard 
the observation entirely, and in other cases there is appreciable uncer- 
tainty as to what is the true length of the curve ordinate to be taken as 
an.swering to the observed absolute value. This will be readily under- 
stood of the horizontal force, an absolute observation of which lasts 
usually over an hour. The result of the absolute observation is a species 
of mean value, to which some portions of the time occupied by the obser- 
vation contribute more than others. The determinations of the declination 
are less subject to uncertainties of this sort ; but on the other hand the 
range of its annual inequality seems to bear a much smaller ratio to the 
secular variation than in the case of the horizontal force. 

§ 18. The natural outcome of the second class of errors would obviously 
be a series of fictitious discontinuities in passing fi'om one month to 
another of a year. As a matter of fact there did appear an unnatural 
amount of fluctuation in the figures obtained for the annual inequalities 
from the mean values answering to the middle of the months. To get 
rid of this I have deduced the annual inequalities in the following table, 
X., from a series of values, each of which is the arithmetic mean of the 
actually observed means of two consecutive months. These arithmetic 
means are attributed to the first day of the second month of the two. 

The first two columns of the table give the departures from the mean 
for the year of the actually observed means for the individual months ; 
so that anyone who prefers to deduce the annual inequalities from these 
can easily do so. 

I ought to explain that in calculating Table X. some slight differences 
were introduced from the declination results for 1890 published in the Kew 
• Report.' The declination curves for that year had been standardised by 
treating as a whole the absolute observations and corresponding curve 
measurements throughout the year, instead of taking each month sepa- 
rately. I have thought it best to remove this peculiarity of treatment, 
referring for the purpose to the absolute observations for the year, of 
which, of course, the record remained. 

The numerically greatest and least values in the annual inequality 
columns are in heavy type. 

The ranges given by Table X. for the annual inequalities, viz., l'"22 
for the declination and 10"'' X 129 for the horizontal force, would be 
increased to l'-52 and 10"^ X 141 respectively if the monthly means, for 
the middle of each month, were taken and corrected for secular variation. 

§ 19. The results obtained for the annual inequalities arc much 
smoother and more consistent than might have been expected ; but taking 
into account the smallncss of the apparent ranges, and the fact that the 
1895. Q 



226 



REPORT 1895. 



Table X. — Differences from Mean for Year commencing on 


January 1. 




Monthly mean?, for middle 


Results answering to first 




of month, uncorrected for 


d y of month after secular 


Month 


secular variation 


coirection applied 


Dec'ination 


II.F.xlOS 


Declination 


HF.xlO 


January .... 


+ 3-32 


-117 


+ 0-48 


-13 


February . 




+ 3a5 


- 73 


+ 0-36 


-14 


March 




+ 1-68 


- 86 


+ 011 


-15 


April 




+ 0-83 


- 22 


-0-47 


- 5 


May . 




+ 0-31 


+ 48 


-0-58 


+ 46 


June 




-0-43 


+ 66 


-0-63 


+ 7a 


July . 




-0-70 1 + 27 


-057 


+ 47 


August 




-0-70 


+ 55 


-0-12 


+ 24 


September 




-0-88- 


- 26 


+ 0-36 


-18 


October . 




-2-01 


+ 13 


+ 0-28 


-55 


November 




-2-22 


+ 25 


+ 0-18 


-46 


D' cumber 




-2-35 + 90 

1 


+ 0-59 


-24 



measurement of the curves proceeds only to the nearest 0''1 in the case of 
the declination, and to the nearest 1 x 10"'' in the case of the horizontal 
force, I do not think too much confidence should be placed upon details. 

The results for the annual inequality of declination show unques- 
tionably a good general agreement with those deduced by General Sabine ' 
from the undisturbed readings of the Kew magnetograph during the five 
years 1858-62. General Sabine's own paper treated each week of the 
mean year separately ; but a summary giving mean results for the several 
months appears on p. 76 of Walker's ' Terrestrial and Cosmical Magnetism,' 
where there is an interesting discussion of the question. According to 
the summary, General Sabine's results made the annual inequality 
negative from May to August inclusive, and positive throughout the rest 
of the year, the range amounting to almost exactly 2'. From General 
Sabine's own table one would deduce a principal maximum of westerly 
declination in the latter half of October, with a second and only slightly 
smaller maximum early in December, whilst the easterly movement was 
conspicuously largest about the middle of July. The times at which 
General Sabine observed the inequality to change sign are substantially 
in accord with Table X. ; and if the range he observed was decidedly 
larger, this might be associated with the fact that the secidar variation 
during the epoch he dealt with was greater than during 1890-94. In case 
this agreement should be referred to identity of apparatus, it may be as 
well to mention that the declination magnet employed for the absolute 
observations at Kew of late years came into use only in the beginning 
of 1890. 

A comparison of the declination results with those at other British 
stations is unfortunately by no means so reassuring. For Dublin the 
annual inequality got out from the mean of the years 1842-50 by 
Dr. Lloyd "^ makes the westerly declination below the mean from December 
to June, and gives a range exceeding 4'. There are also conspicuous 
diflFerences between Table X. and the Greenwich results obtained by Sir 



• Phil. Trans, for 1863, p. 292. 
" Treatise on Magnetism, p. 162. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 227 

G. B. Airy > from the two periods 1841-47 and 1848-57. The results for 
these two periods, however, it must be said, differ widely between them- 
selves, the range deduced from the first being nearly thrice that deduced 
from the second period. 

Thinking more light desirable in the face of these discordances, I got 
out the annual inequality for the mean of the five years 1887-91 from the 
results published annually in Table XI. of the Greenwich ' Magnetical 
and Meteorological Observations.' Proceeding as in Table X., i.e. taking 
means for the first of each month, and applying the secular correction 6''4 
deduced from the Greenwich tables, I obtain an inequality whose 
resemblances to that shown in Table X. are not more conspicuous than 
the divergences. 

The largest easterly declination appears in April-May, the largest 
westerly declination in September -October, and the range, 0'"6, is even 
smaller than in Table X. Against these comparative agreements must, 
however, be set the fact that the first three months of the year show an 
easterly departure from the mean. 

The divergences in the results obtained for the annual inequality of 
declination do not, of course, necessarily imply that any of them are erro- 
neous. The phenomena at any one station might not unnaturally present 
considerable variations — at least in range — from year to year ; and it is 
conceivable that local influences may be more effective in this than in 
other phenomena. It has also to be borne in mind that the data em- 
ployed at the several stations were selected on different principles. Still, 
I am doubtful whether any more definite conclusion should be drawn 
than that the annual inequality of declination near London is at present 
a very small quantity. 

§ 20. The annual inequality of horizontal force shown in Table X. is, 
comparatively speaking, large and unmistakable ; its range is a large 
fraction of the secular variation. In this instance there is a very fair 
agreement with the results given on pp. 166, 167 of Lloyd's ' Treatise ' for 
Dublin on the mean of the years 1841-50, the most conspicuous differ- 
ence being that the Dublin range was some 50 per cent, in excess of that 
given by Table X. 

The only previous determinations, so far as I know, of the annual 
variation of the horizontal force at Kew are those of General Sabine '^ and 
Dr. Balfour Stewart,^ for the epochs 1857-62 and 1863-68 respectively. 
The former found the horizontal force, corrected for secular change, to be 
on an average about -00012 C.G.S. units higher in summer than in 
winter, while the latter found no difference. This divergence might be 
attributed to the epochs considered being different ; but I feel consider- 
able doubt as to the data employed having being adequate. They appear 
to have been in both cases simply the results of the absolute observations, 
uncorrected by reference either to the magnetograph curves or to the 
diurnal variation. 

In conclusion, I have much pleasure in acknowledging my indebted- 
ness to Mr. T. W. Baker, chief assistant, and Mr. R. S. Whipple, librarian 
at Kew Observatory, for explanations as to the methods of standardising 
the magnetic curves at Kew, and for other valuable information and 
assistance. 

' Phil. Trans, for 1863, p. .311. ^ Pldl. Trans, for 1863, pp. 298, 299. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. xviii. 1870, pp. 238, 239. 

Q2 



228 



REPOKT — 1895. 



The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. 
George Gladstone, Sir John Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir 
H. E. RoscoE, and Professor S. P. Thompson. 

At the meeting of the Britisli Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held at Sheffield in 1879, a Committee was appointed with 
reference to the examination in the scientific specific subjects of the Code 
in Elementary Schools. Mr. Mundellawas the first Chairman, but he was 
unable to continue such, as he shortly afterwards became Vice-President 
of the Committee of Council on Education. The Committee was re- 
appointed next year, with the object of reporting on the manner in which 
rudimentary science should be taught, as well as examined. In 1881 the 
Committee was again reappointed to watch and report on the working of 
the proposed Revised New Code, and of other legislation afiecting the 
teaching of science in Elementary Schools. In November of that year 
the Committee agreed upon certain recommendations, which were adopted 
by the Council of the Association and transmitted to the Education 
Department. The Government adopted some of these recommendations 
in whole or in part. Since that date the Committee has been continued 
annually, and has regularly reported on the progress of the teaching of 
natural science in Elementary Schools. It has also used its influence in 
respect of the great question of technical instruction, the formation of school 
museums. Evening Continuation Schools, and other matters that have 
come before the Legislature. When the Royal Commission on Elementary 
Education was sitting, the Council of the British Association adopted a 
Resolution of this Committee, authorising one of its members to give 
evidence before the Commission, which was done accordingly. The 
question of the method of teaching science to classes of young children 
has also been considered recently, and formed part of the Report of the 
Committee. As the object of this Committee more directly affects those 
sections which deal with natural science, it was reappointed last year under 
the auspices of Section B. 

With regard to the progress of scientific instruction in Elementary 
Schools, the number of departments of schools in which the following 
class subjects were examined by Her Majesty's Inspector during the eight 
years 1882 to 1890, when English was obligatory, were as follows : — 



Class Subjects. — Departments 


1882-83 


1883-84 


1884-85 , 1885-86 j 1886-87 


1887-88 1888-89 


18»S-'90 


English 

Geography .... 
Elementary Science 


18,363 


19,080 


19,431 19,608 


19,917 


20,041 


20,163 


20,304 


12,823 

48 


12,775 
51 


12,336 12,0.')5 12,035 12,058 
45 43 39 36 


12,171 
36 


12,367 
:i2 



The numbers during the last four years, when managers and teachers 
have had full liberty of choice, have been as follows : — 



ox THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 



229 



Class Subjects —Departments 


1890-91 


1891-92 1892-93 


1893-94 


English .... 
Geograpliy 
Elementary Science 


19,825 

12,806 

173 


18,175 

13,485 

788 


17,.394 

14,256 

1,073 


17,032 

15,250 

1,215 



It will be noticed that during the former period, while the study of 
English Grammar increased with the natural increase of schools, the study 
of scientific subjects positively decreased ; but since that time, while 
Grammar has steadily declined. Geography and Elementary Science have 
increased. 

The number of departments in ' schools for older scholars ' for the 
year 1893-94 was 22,779, of which 111 did not take any class subject, 
leaving 22,668 as the number of departments with which the foregoing 
table has to deal. But it must be borne in mind that History is taken in 
2,972, and Needlework (for girls) in 7,675 departments, making, with the 
■other three subjects in the table, 44,144 in all. This shows an average of 
nearly two class subjects to each department. As, however, there were no 
less than 5,975 departments in which only one class subject was taken, it 
is evident that the plan of teaching one subject in the lower division of a 
.school and another subject in the upper division, thus counting twice over 
in the statistical table, is largely adopted. This is further borne out by 
the fact that, while only two class subjects are allowed to be taken by any 
individual scholar, there are 4,.388 departments in which three, and 197 in 
which four or five, of these class subjects are taught. That Elementary 
Science is taught in 1,215 departments must, therefore, be accepted with 
the reservation that, in many cases perhaps, it is only a portion of the 
school that gets the benefit of this instruction. 

The number of scholars examined in the scientific specific subjects 
■during the eight years 1882-90 has been as follows : — 



Specific Subjects.— Children 


1882-83 1883-84 1884^85 


1885-86 


1886-87 


1887-88 


1888-89 


18S9-90 


Algebra . ... 
Euclid and Mensuration . 
Mechanics, A . 

B . . . . 
Animal Physiology. 

Botany 

Principles of Agriculture . 

Chemistry 

Sound, Light, and Heat . 

Magnetism and Electricity . 

Domestic Economy. 

Total .... 


26,547 
1,942 
2,042 

22,759 
3,280 
1,S57 
3,183 
630 
3,643 

19,582 


24,787 

2,010 

3,174 

206 

22,857 
2,604 
1,859 
1,047 
1,253 
3,244 

21,458 


25,347 

1,269 

3,527 

239 

20,869 
2,415 
1,481 
1,095 
1,231 
2,864 

19,437 


25,393 

1,247 

4,844 

128 

18,523 
1,992 
1,351 
1,158 
1,334 
2.951 

19,556 


25,103 

995 

6,315 

33 

17,338 
1,589 
1,137 
1,488 
1,158 
2,250 

20,716 


26,448 

1,006 

6,961 

331 

16,940 
1,598 
1,151 
1,808 
978 
1,977 

20,787 


27,465 

928 

9,524 

127 

15,893 
1,944 
1,199 
1,531 
1,076 
1,669 

22,064 


30,035 
977 

11,453 
209 

15,842 
1,830 
1,228 
2,007 
1,183 
2,293 

23,094 


82,965 


84,499 


79,774 


78,477 


78,122 


79,985 


83,420 


90,151 


Number of scholars in Stan- ) 
dards V., VI,, and VII. f 


286,355 


325,205 352,860 


393,289 


432,097 


472,770 


490,590 


495,164 



The numbers in the last column of table on p. 230 reveal a general advance ; 
but the most marked proportional increase is to be found in the number 
-of scholars taking Chemistry and Magnetism and Electricity. The num- 
bers during the last four years are : — 



230 



REPORT — 1895, 




With regard to the teaching of Mechanics, which has attained a 
development, within the last few years, far greater in j^roportion than any 
other of the scientific subjects, it is very satisfactory to note that of the 
21,532 scholars above enumerated, no less than 3,407 had reached the 
third stage of the syllabus, while 7,296 were examined in the second 
Stage. Considering how rapidly the elder children drop out of school 
after they have passed the legal Standard of exemption, these figures augur 
well for the value placed upon the instruction in this subject, which has 
become almost a speciality of the London, Liverpool, Birmingham, and 
some of the other large School Boards, and which is almost entirely carried 
on by special instructors on the peripatetic system. 

The sudden rise of more than 50 per cent, in the last two years in the 
number of students in Chemistry does not admit of any such proportion 
being found in the lai,er stages ; but considerably over one-fourth of the 
whole were examined in the second and third stages. The recognition of 
the importance of experimental teaching is leading to the establishment- 
of well-appointed laboratories by some of the School Boards, such as 
those of Hove and Handsworth, which can be made to serve also for the 
teaching of this science in the Evening Continuation Schools. 

Estimating the number of scholars in Standards V., VI., and VII. at 
570,000, the percentage of the number examined in these specific subjects 
as compared with the number of children qualified to take them is 20-9 ; 
but it should be remembered that many of the children take more than 
one subject for examination. The following table gives the percentage for 
each year since 1882 : — 

In 1882-83 
„ 1883-84 
„ 1884-85 
„ 1885-86 
„ 1886-87 
„ 1887-88 
„ 1888-89 
„ 1889-90 
„ 1890-91 
„ 1891-92 
„ 1892-93 
„ 1893-94 





. 29-0 
26-0 


per cent 




22-6 
19-9 


)> 




18-1 






16-9 


)j 




17-0 
18-4 


J) 




20-2 






19-7 






20-2 


)) 


« 


20-9 





ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 23 i 

The returns of the Education Department given above refer to the 
whole of England and Wales, and are for the school years ending with 
August 31. The statistics of the London School Board are brought up to 
the year ending with Lady Day, 1895. They also illustrate the great 
advance that has been made in the teaching of Elementary Science as a 
class subject, and they give the number of children as well as the number 
of departments. 



Years 


Departments 


Children 


1890-91 
1891-92 
1892-93 
1893-94 
1894-95 


11 
113 

156 
183 
208 


2,293 
26,674 
40,208 
49,367 
52,982 



The total number of departments for ' older scholars ' under the London 
School Board at the last-named date was 820, so that in just over one- 
fourth of the whole the teaching of Elementary Science has been 
introduced into the curriculum. 

The number of schools under the London School Board that are now 
working in accordance with the syllabus of Elementary Physics and 
Chemistry given in the day and evening schools Codes is steadily increasing, 
and the work as it becomes better understood by the teachers is naturally 
being better taught. About thirty schools under the Board will be 
engaged in this work after the summer vacation, all of which are supplied 
with the necessary apparatus. The old system of peripatetic experimental 
lectures by a demonstrator has been practically superseded in the divisions 
of Tower Hamlets and Hackney. The scholars are not now dependent on 
a brief inspection of apparatus once a fortnight or three weeks, but can 
use it at any opportunity given by the master of the class. 

The enormous size of the classes — often 120 — is, however, a serious 
obstacle to the success of a scheme designed to cultivate the reasoning 
faculties rather than the acquirement of knowledge of scientific facts and 
theories ; in this sense it cannot be said that the scheme has yet had a 
fair trial. Very much depends on the individual ability and enthusiasm 
of the teacher, much more so than under the old system ; so that in most 
cases the work is not satisfactorily carried on if the teacher himself has 
not been through the whole course practically before he begins to teach 
it ; in fact, the Science and Art system has left its mark so deeply engraved 
on many teachers' minds that it takes some time to instil more modern 
notions into them. 

The alteration in the system of inspection, though beneficial in all 
subjects of school curriculum, will have an especially useful effect in the 
teaching of science. Under the new conditions the work must be done 
more thoroughly, and the subjects of the syllabus evenly distributed over 
the year, thus preventing the rush and cram of revision in the period im- 
mediately preceding the annual examination. 

The training of teachers being, as above stated, the all-important 
factor in securing the success of this scheme, more facilities are required 
for bringing together the older teachers to form normal practical classes. 
In considering the establishment of such classes it must be remembered 
that teachers, already out of their training course, give their time volun- 



232 REPORT— i 895. 

tarily after a hard day's work in school ; the conditions under which such 
classes are held must therefore be made as easy as possible if they are 
to be successful, and the sympathy and enthusiasm of the teacher are to be 
aroused. 

During the last year some fifty or sixty teachers under the London 
Board went through practical courses at the demonstrator's laboratory in 
Whitechapel, where the accommodation will soon be quite insufficient to 
meet the requirements of the district. Full and comijlete notes and sug- 
gestions were issued to all teachers attending the courses, which were 
much appreciated. The development of the work is largely due to the 
establishment of this system of normal classes. 

In the meantime the question of science teaching in girls' schools' has 
not been left unattacked. Two schools have now adopted a course of 
domestic science in lieu of domestic economy. A syllabus has been 
devised to deal as far as possible with the natui-e of the processes and the 
materials employed in the household. A short course of measurement 
and weighing has been inti'oduced with the double object of familiarising 
the scholars with the decimal system and making them acquainted with 
the instruments they will have to use in accurate experimental work. 
The general effects of heat on matter, and their application to the work of 
the laundry and kitchen, are then studied ; the modes of cooking and some 
of the simpler changes involved, chemistry of air and water, combustion, 
fuel, soap, hardness of water, and finally a few lessons are given on the 
mechanics of the household, such as the structure of taps, locks, gas fit- 
tings, hot-water boilers, flushing tanks, &c. 

Classes have been held for the mistresses in this subject at the 
laboratory, and it is generally considered by those who have been through 
the course to combine mental training with the acquirement of valuable 
information. Except that the physiological part of the Domestic Economy 
is not touched, most of the important work in that syllabus which can be 
dealt with by scientific methods has been considered. 

During the coming winter classes will be held at Berner-street 
Laboratory, London, E., in all stages of Elementary Natural Philosophy 
and Domestic Science syllabuses, but it is only too clear that this course 
involves commencing at the wrong end. Before any great headway is 
made, work of this nature must be introduced into the teachers' course of 
training, and to this end it is essential that teaching on the lines of the 
new syllabuses must be started in the Pupil Teachers' and Training 
Colleges. 

In many parts of the country School Boards and County Councils are 
beginning to follow in the wake of the London Board ; the subject is 
becoming a popular one in Evening Continuation Schools, and is often 
adopted as part of the elementary course for organised science schools. 

The great obstacles to good science teaching at the present time in 
Elementary Schools are — 
L Large classes. 

2. Multitude of subjects. 

3. Insufficiency of the training course for teachers in science sub- 

jects. 

4. Effects of the old Science and Art system, which is clearly far 

too formal, and pays far too little attention to ordinary 
requirements. 
The return of the work of the Evening Continuation Schools under 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 233 



the Code of 1893 furnishes interesting data as to the instruction in 
scientific subjects in these schools. Your Committee drew attention in 
tlieir Report for 1893 to the development which was taking place at that 
time in this direction ; but pointed out that the Government return of 
that year did not furnish precise information on the point. A new table 
has been introduced this year, which gives the information desired. In the 
following table your Committee give the number of ' units for payment ' 
of the grant by the Education Department for the several scientific sub- 
jects taken throughout England and Wales during the session 1893-94, 
to which is appended a similar return for the schools under the London 
School Board, extracted from the Board's Annual Report upon their 
Evening Continuation Schools. It may be necessary to explain that the 
' unit ' means a complete twelve hours of instruction received by each 
scholar, fractions of twelve hours not counting. 



Science subjects 



Units for payment 



England and I London School 
Wales I Board 

I 



Euclid 

Algebra 

Mensuration ..... 
Elementary Physiography 
Elementary Phj'sics and Chemistry 
Science of Common Things . 
Chemistry ..... 

Mechanics 

Sound, Light, and Heat 
Magnetism and Electricity . 
Human Physiology 

Botany 

Agriculture ..... 
Horticulture ..... 
Navigation ..... 



595 
3,940 
14,521 
2,554 
6,500 
6,223 
3,484 

841 

500 
2,359 
5,695 

3.^56 
3,579 

438 
42 



10 
316 
279 
37 
79 
231 
212 
230 

662 

91 

5 



The total number of units is (for England and Wales) 51,607, whereas 
the number of scholars is 41,960, indicating that about one-fourth of them 
must have received at least twenty-four hours of instruction. It is evident 
that London is far behind the country in general in the teaching of these 
science subjects in their Evening Continuation Schools, excepting in the 
matter of Mechanics and Magnetism and Electricity. The stronghold of 
this instruction is in Manchester and the other manufacturing districts. 

It is especially intei'esting to note that 3,696 students took up Chemis- 
try, and that a much larger number took the comparatively new subjects 
of Elementary Physics and Chemistry, and the Science of Common Things. 
Your Committee has already on a former occasion (1893) expressed 
approval of the course on Elementary Physics and Chemistry in the 
Evening School Code, which is a practical course intended to be carried 
out experimentally by the scholars themselves, and deals, not with defini- 
tions or descriptions, but with actual facts. The course on the Science of 
Common Things is ' a brief survey of the physical properties of bodies, 
serving to determine their uses and relative value.' It may be looked 
upon as an introduction to physical and biological science in general, and 
to its application to ordinary and domestic life. 

In their last Report your Committee referred to the difficulties inter- 



234 REPORT — 1895. 

posed by the regulations of the Code in making visits for the purposes of 
education to such places as Kew Gardens, the South Kensington Museum, 
&c., although the Science and Art Department have recognised the educa- 
tional value of such attendances ; and stated that Mr. Acland had favour- 
ably received a deputation on the subject, and promised increased facilities. 
This promise has been fulfilled ; and the Code of this year provides that 
the time spent during school-hours in visiting museums, art galleries, and 
other institutions of educational value may count towards the time re- 
quired for an attendance at school. Her Majesty's Inspectors are more- 
over instructed to encourage these visits wherever such institutions exist. 
It is stipulated that the teacher in charge should not have, as a rule, 
more than fifteen scholars with him, and that no visits should be paid 
unless some person competent to give information of a kind interesting to 
young children is present. All these regulations appear wise and proper, 
so that the real object of visits to these institutions may be attained ; and 
the limitation of them to twenty in the course of the school year is not 
unreasonable, as, with all the other matters that demand attention, more 
time cei-tainly could not well be spared. 

The only other alteration of importance in the Code that concerns your 
Committee is the new stipulation that object lessons must be given in all 
schools to the children in Standards I., II., and III., and an excellent circu- 
lar to Her Majesty's Inspectors has recently been issued, pointing out the 
true aim and nature of object teaching. It commences by drawing attention 
to the two kinds of instruction which are often confused : (1) observation 
of the object itself, and (2) giving information about the object. It dwells 
upon the impoi'tance of the distinction, adding, ' Object teaching leads the 
scholar to acquire knowledge by observation and experiment ; and no 
instruction is properly so called unless an object is presented to the 
learner, so that the addition to his knowledge may be made through the 
senses.' It enforces the selection of subjects which can appeal to the 
hands and eyes of the scholars, stating that ' however well the lesson may 
be illustrated by diagrams, pictures, models, or lantern slides, if the chil- 
dren have no opportunity of handling or watching the actual object 
which is being dealt with, the teacher will be giving an information lesson 
rather than an object lesson.' . . . ' It is Elementary Science only in so far 
as it aids the child to observe some of the facts of nature upon which 
natural science is founded ; but as it deals with such topics without formal 
arrangement, it differs widely from the systematic study of a particular 
science.' The circular contains many suggestions on the choice of objects ; 
the avoidance of what is purely technical ; the making of drawings or 
models both by teacher and children ; the relation of the parts of the 
object to the whole ; and the leading the children to describe accurately 
what they have seen. Several complete schemes are given for guidance in 
the appendix to the circular. 

The Parliamentary Committee which has been considering the question 
of decimal weights and measures, under the chairmanship of one of your 
Committee, Sir Henry E. E,oscoe, has just reported in favour of the per- 
missive use of the metric system for all purposes for the next two yeai's, 
after which that system should become obligatory. It recommends that 
it should be taught in all public schools as a necessary and integral part 
of Arithmetic. The Elementary School Code has, for some years past, 
contained a note to the effect that 'the scholars in Standards V., VI., and 
VII. should know the principles of the metric system,' but it has not 



ON THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN ELEMENTAKY SCHOOLS. 235 

received much attention while so much time had to be spent upon the 
tables of weights and measures in ordinary use. When these cease to be 
lef'al, not only will the teaching of Arithmetic be rendered more rational, 
but ii large amount of time will be set free which can be applied to the 
promotion of science teaching. 

Looking back over the years that have elapsed since the passing of the 
first Elementary Education Act, it is evident that the constant tendency 
has been to add to the curriculum of the schools ; and some of the most 
recently recommended additions to the time-table include manual instruc- 
tion and physical exercises. The difficulty of finding time for these has 
led to the suggestion that the generally recognised hours of schooling 
might be extended in the case of the elder scholars. This course would 
involve some practical inconveniences ; and in view of the fact that the 
children pass their Standards now at an earlier and more immature age 
than they did some years ago, it is a question worth consideration whether 
the time has not arrived when the recognised school age should be raised 
from thirteen to fourteen, and the work of the Standards made to spread 
over this extended period. Such an arrangement would have the manifest 
advantage of affording a broader and more practical education, without 
over-pressure to either the teachers or the taught. 



Quantitative Analysis hy means of Electrolysis. — Second Report of the 
Committee^ consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolds {Chair- 
man)^ Dr. C. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Frankland, Pro- 
fessor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
Mr. D. H. Nagel, Mr. T. Turner, a7id Mr. J. B. Coleman. 

A PRELIMINARY report was furnished by the Committee last year in which 
the contemplated plan of work was outlined. 

The bibliography of the subject has been completed and is ap- 
pended. 

The experimental work has been carefully organised, and the results 
on the determination of bismuth and of tin are nearly complete. Other 
work is in progress, but the Committee prefer to hold over these results 
until next year in order that they may be added to and may include 
methods of separation of some of the metals. 

Considerable attention has been given to the choice and arrangement 
of the special apparatus required. A detailed description of the arrange- 
ments adopted will be given in the next report. 

As the bibliography is completed, the Committee propose to devote 
their attention during the coming year exclusively to experimental 
inquiries. 

Bibliography/ on Methods of Quantitative Analysis by means of 

Electrolysis. 

The bibliography has been compiled from the following journals, and is 
complete up to the end of 1894 : — 



23G 



REPORT — 1895. 



Journal 


Period 
abstracted 


Abbreviation 


1 


Journal of the Chemical Society 


1847-1891 


J. Chem. See. 


2 


Journal of the Society of Chemical 
Industry 


1882-189-1 


J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 


3 


Chemical News ... 


18G0-1894 


Chem. News. 


4 


American Chemical Journal 


1878-189-i 


Amer. Chem. J. 


5 


Journal of Analytical and Applied 
Chemistry 


1887-1894 


J. Analyt. & App. Chem. 


6 


Journal of the American Chemical 
Society 


1879-1894 


J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 


7 


Zeitschrift fur analvtische Chemie . 


1862-1894 


Zeits. anal. Chem. 


8 


Berichtc der deutschen chemischen 
Gesellschaft 


1868-1894 


Ber. 


9 


Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie . 


1892-1894 


Zeits. anore. Chem. 


10 


Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie 


1887-1894 


Zeits. phys. Chem. 


11 


Zeitschrift fiir Electrochemie . 
(Organ der deutschen electroche- 
mischen Gesellschaft) 


1894 


Zeits. Electrochem. 



Referencps to papers of importance published in journals other than 
the above are also included, viz, : — 



Journal 


Abbreviation 


American Chemist ........ 


Amer. Chem. 


Aunales de Chimie et Physique 








Annales Chim. et Phys. 


Berg- u. hiittenmiinnische Zeitung. 








Berg- u. hiitten. Zeit. 


Bulletin de la Societe Chimique 








Bull. Soc. Chim. 


Chemiker-Zeitung .... 








Chem. -Zeit. 


Comptes Rendus .... 








Compt. Rend. 


Dingler's Polvtechnisches Journal . 








Dingier Polyt. J. 


Jahresbericht der Chemie 








Jahresber. Chem. 


Journal of the Franklin Institute . 








J. Franklin Inst. 


Journal fiir praktische Chemie 








J. prakt. Chem. 


Monatshofte fiir Chemie 








Monatsh. Chem. 


Pharmaceutische Central-Halle 








Pharm. Central-Halle. 


Repertorium der aualytischen Chemie 








Rep. anal. Chem. 


Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Chemie 








Zeits. angew. Chem. 



Books of Reference. 

1. ' Quantitative Analyse durch Electrolyse.' A.Classen. 3rd edit., 
1892. Published by J. Springer, Berlin. 

Translation, by W. H. Herrick, of 2nd edition, 1887, 'Quantitative 
Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis.' Published by I. Wiley, New York. 

2. ' Electro-chemical Analysis.' Edgar F. Smith. 1890. Published 
by P. Blakiston, Philadelphia. 

Arrangement of Bibliogra^jJiy. 
The bibliography is divided into the following sections : — 

I. General conditions for electrolytic analysis. 

II. Special apparatus employed. 

III. Quantitative methods, for the determination of metals by means 
of electrolysis. 

IV. Quantitative methods, for the separation of metals by means of 
electrolysis. 

V. Special applications of electrolysis in quantitative analysis. 

VI. Applications of electrolysis to qualitative analysis (including 
sundry papers bearing on electrolytic analysis). 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTliOLYSIS. 



237 



50 

00 

s 



o 



00 

g 

o 



e 
s 





-4-' '■*-> 




■^ 




>% >^ 


C3 














hi o o 


^.-b 


t-< 




•*i -u -w 








'So o 


1 s 









-S^ 







g-° =§ 








S S a^ £; 


0) I, 

p 

" t. 


a 
1 


o 

"S 


S o S -»^ 

s g a § 


0° 1 

a3 a; t« 




a 

0> 


^ 


a S a5 ^ 
§ ?> a fe 


a 
s 


a 


Si -5 2 


330-^ 


t-4 
VI 


a 

a 
m 


i S £ o 


iill 




■Wo •=*-' 


. tf-l =M t-l 


'r( 1 




o O M o 


g a ta 

g d S S a> 







oj o o <i^ 













d rt g 3 


a 




o o a o 


ais^ S^ 


M 






"^|°g 


a. 

a 




M H k-l 


Ml-H 


HH 


to 


ON r^ 


07 MO 


-— ( 


to 0:1 C3 


1^ -^ C5 ^ 


OJ 


-f 


1— ( ^H 




CO c^ 




1— t 


s 








r- in 0-1 


t^ CO 'i= to 


GO 




i<) ^1 —1 


1— 1 1-H 1— t 


I— 1 








w 


^ N cv; 


CO ^H --tt -^ 




a 


05 05 C2 


C: 3^ C5 Ci 







c» 00 00 




00 


>* 


I— ( I— t r-* 


»— 1 1— 1 r-t I— 1 


i-H 






c5 . 


i 






03 






. . (3 


--0 3 




a 


a> 


a S3 

a (p 




b 






3 
O 
1-5 



to 


2 J= bi 
<i^ . fc." a 






F^ 


N U 0) rt 


tso 




. . A 


1 OJ q . 






. . tfl 










a 




«m N 


01^ -A— 







• • • 




» 











>* 


• 


• C 


, 


.a 
3 


be bo 


§ 
p 


a 






fa H W 


3 




R a; <o 


- " 


a 




^T3 'd 
m P =1 


^ C. "Z. 




^2, 2 


"So a 











o;i* &:< 


Om cc 


H 



o 
Si 



05 

s 

e 
J. 
e 

I 

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^ 









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a 
















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to -*^ 
































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tu a 
















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1 

2 


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a 




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CO 

1° 


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1 


to 
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to 

a 


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3 


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a 


a 




i 

a 

a 


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c3 CO 


9 a 

a 

•43 c« 
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^> 



> 



3 


% 


5 



tp 


thermopile 
thermojDile 
s. Arrang 




"to 


tp 

be !-' 


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7j 


S (U 


'c ^ -C 




QJ 


■H^ 


t4 to 


ax! 


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a 


'^ a 


0) 

a !D 


s 


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a a-8 






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-2 




a ti ^ i2 ii 














■— .— 







i^ 


TtH 


r^ 05 


en 


ro 





10 CO CO 


ho 


to 





tao 10 


05 


to 


to 


lO CO CO 


C3 


-H 


»—y 


t- crj 


CI) 


i-H 





r-l CO CO 


Ph 


OJ 


I— 1 


f— « 


CO 




CI 




s 
















t^ 


CO 


tX3 —1 


-H 


1^ 


r^ 


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»— 1 


f— t 


" M 


C>) 





C-l 


CO rt 


















'^ 


m 


10 00 


00 -H 


■* 


to to -« 


s 


t» 


00 


Oj X 


■r 


CO 


c 


t~ t~ x> 


>2 


r^ 


CO 


c/j X 


y.. 


CX) 


X 


tao 00 o) 


t« 




t— t 


''"' 


t— ( 


—^ 


f-H 


r— t I— 1 1— t 




• 


• 


■ • 




• 




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■3 


• 


• 


• • 




• 




^a 


c 














^ 0) . 


i: 














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, 


, 


. 




. 




i:ja 


1-5 
















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. 


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, 




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3 So 






. 










bc^ a> 




)H 


?-l 










<u '53 a 




fU 


<u 


QJ <0 













cq 


« 


cqp5pqa3 


« 


mN<) 




• 


• 




« 






• • • 
















a a 
















3 3 










0) 

n 









tri 


, 


, 


, 


73 


, 


^ 


cS g 




















5 














^^ 


3 








a 






ri tS 




< 


<5 


<!<5<3<! 


<J 


(D OJ . 




^ 


^ 


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^ 


^ 


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a aM 




c 


f^ 


a a 


a 


a 


a 










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0) 


zt 


(U 


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iX 
















to 


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ro 




to 






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c« 


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00 





tt^Wfa 



238 



REPORT 1 895. 



13 

.s 

s 
o 
o 






I 


























2 
S 

.2 








C 














.ft^ 






m 


•mopile. 
cro-burne 




m 

O 




s 


11 




d 

U 


en 

a> . 

3 o) 

c« C 




13 








•a 


-O-Q 




■a 


-Ql:^ 




m 

.4J 

es 

a. 

< 


Rheostat 
iilcher thei 
rodes. 
rodes. Mi 


1! 


nd for elec 
trolyto. 
E circuit, 
stand. 


eries. 
stand, 
rodes. 


-S 

bo 

a 


rodes. 
secondary 
secondary 
f circuit. 


Itameter. 

2ter. 

eries. 


.bo 

+-' 

Ol 
0) 


secondary 
eries. Elei 
vanometer. 
f circuit. 






. ?-K ^ -tj 


a o 


tat. Sta 
r for elec: 
gement o 
■odes and 


i^'S o 


^ 


-^^ .-^ (-- 
'C v 


aS 


CM 


-^^^ 






nomete 

■odes, 
for ele 
for ele 


^ a 

ct o 
-^ bf 


nger ba 
•odes ai 
for ele 
led Mei 
•odes. 


for ele 
nger an 
nger an 
gement 


meter. \ 
c galvanoi 
idi nger ba 
ct rodes. 


xtion 
lysis, 
nger ar 
dary ba 
tat. G 
gement 
neter. 






rt r; '^ '^ 
> o a a 


f Rheos 
[ Arran 
Rheos 
Stirre 
Arran 
Electi 


^ o a 




aS.^ § 


.2 ■= 


Meidi 
( Secon 

Rheos 
1 Arran 
" Voltai 






-3 "i" d d 
,5 r; -^ +^ 


■3 <" ci 


« 


d cj r; g a ij ^ ■:: c: 




i 


" 






•" 










^ 




f^ h- CO 


c: 


lO — ' ".3 CO 


CO '.D 


r~< 


,--. ^ 


c^co 


^_ 


^ '^ ZO 




C! :i 1- 


CO 


1- ■>> lo -.n 


<M lO 




C3 01 


h-'i 


Ji 


■M CC Ci 




-T" 


ic 


CO ^ (M 






C<> -r ■# 







— ' CJ 
























C-l (M CO 


-+| 


f- O CO GC 


00 


.—1 


1 01 


CO 1 





CO -H 1 




"3 


« CO 


CO 


00 Th rl 


•— < 


•— ( 


1 5-1 


.—1 ! 




1— 1 .— < 1 




> 






















h 


CO 00 «£> 


to 


00 C5 c: 35 


f- 


iM 


(M (M CO 


C-. <M 


(^1 


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es 


CI GO ao 


CO 


OO CO CO oo 


<:c 00 


1— 


C3 CT- C-- 


t^ cn 





crj C5 CO 




s 


Tj cm x> 


.00 


00 X OO 3C 


00 CO 


00 


00 CO CO 


00 00 


00 


CO 00 GO 




rH 


t-H f— 1 »-H 


^ 


^-.^^ 


f— ' ^H 


'^ 


.— 1 .— t y—i 


f— « t— ( 




!-H t— 1 I— ( 






• • 




■ • • ■ 




• 


a 


• 


a 


" • ' 






■ 3 • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 







• • ■ 






J3 










5 a 


. a 


S 


pi 




-. 


S d. • 




• • s" s 


a a 


g 


cl2 a 


a s 


(i 


• . 1 




£ 


ys. Che 

t. & Ap 
Chem. 


r^ 


a P".a 


Q 

^ .a 


3 


^^ 1 


2 




eit. 

. Chem 
gew. C 




§ 


O 


3 3 g o 








3^ "" 


S fe 


■ii 




i-s 


C 


S6^^ 


"rt 'rt 


-i. 


4j' be cS 


ct blD 








-a >i*j 


•iS 


^ ^-O a 


c a 


a 


>,a a 


a a 


>% 


N -== S 






a -pS 


^ 


.i<: .i=! . -"i 


ci c3 


c: 


•^ « « 


cS a 


-rf 


'. i2 ■=* 






ai 1= 2 




IS c« " • 

^ ;^ O to 


'/ tn 


'h 


a oj K 


en en 




Chem 

1 Mona 

Zeits. 






.■s < a 


a 


0. ax .ti 


+^ -w 


■^ 


<.t5 .t: 


." ."ti 


■5 






a? . . 




. . . 0) 


■3 '3 


'3 


. 0) 0) 









... ... 


•rj 


1-5 1-5 i-; N 


NJ tSl 


N 


I-5NI SJ 


S3 s; 


1-5 






■ 'l-j * 


• • 


• 


'd cj 


• • 


E-; 


. 










oT 






-t^r .t_r 




pj 








•' • 


• 


■ •%• 


• 


• 


Riis 
Riis 


• 


a" 


• 






!-> 


__. 


5 
a r-: o 







'2 '^ 




3 






c 

Si 


w :? 


1 


>^r 




> 





' S rt 






• ■ • 




3 


enberg, 

k, W. I 
kow, N 


o 


-1^ -is O .- 


w, C. 
ert, R. 


5 

"3 




lorff, F. 


1-5 

"3 


ilen, H, 

lann, G. 

C. H. 






-c .2 3 

3 C .fl 


.§ 


^,§=■3 


G) 
^ cj 




Meeke 
Niissei 

Niissei 


& 


a -S s 






2i S;i3 


o 

s 


o o -S ^ 


§ "3 


3 


2 


'■4J 


fn > ^ 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTROLYSIS. 



239 






o 



^ 
^ 



Si 









o 



^ 






g 



J S 2 o 

rH Ci ^* --IH 
(M I-l C-) 3^1 



S 2 g 

S3 • •- 

tj c 53 3 

o _5j > in 

r^ "o^ r7^ u 

r^ OD ~ o 

rl -^ — ?J 



E 


a 

0) 



a 



CO ■* in o 



tn 

a- 
C 

Is 

c4 U 



^ f—i I— t »— I 



c3 

03 

a; 

g 

a 

'$ ' 
o 



o o o □ 
»n to t-^ 00 



O 



<1> 



a 
o < 

a- 



J s 

s • 



^ § a y 

>-< c-i CIS -* 



3 



CD 

a 



C8 



CI 
O 



c 

c3 
O 

13 
13 
c3 

tn 

o 
o 

(3 



3 



^ 

d 



.a 



0) 



W 



o 



o 



o 



bo 






,£3 



O 
o 

a; 
o 

O 

3 



0) 



o 

a) 



S o5 
^3 'S a) 

aj u ., 

CS l_ 

H g H 

























i 






c3 


















-S» 






§ 
























^ 


















a 






(-4 


















13 






g 


















1 






a 




















s 




3 


















0} 
























w^ 


>* 




P 




, 
















£ 

a; 
o 




O 

a 

a 




-2 

2 














a 
.2 


CI 

.2 




cS 




ft 














13 




4) 




"3 
















u 






•M 




m 














a. 




CS 

J3 . 

Ph aj 
at .^ 
O cd 


6 

2 


a 








Tj" 


2 




•5 

5 


s 




3 


a; trt 


aj 


aj aj 


aj 


3 3 




aj 





c3 






0) "3 

is a 

IS .2 


la 

CO O 


n^ r^ fp 
CO w en 


D. 


It 


'3 


s 

'3 






s-i 




a a a a a 


a 




3 (« 


a a 






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"S a 


3 3 


.^ 


3 3 


3 


*-• T^ 


a's 


3 


_3 






'd -w 


=i a 


n3 nd 


ra -C T3 


r^ 


'R:^' 


3^ 


r^ 


-3 






o o 


o o 


o 


o o 


O 






m 






ccPm 


-V'<!! 


z/1 zji zn VI :h 


OD 


':a<<'< 


IK 




















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§> 


.— ( 


CI 


1^ 


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C3 


T— I 


t— 


cc 


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CO 


O-I 


o 


O to m 


t— * 




oo 




^9^ 






lO 


^0 


-t* 




O 'M 


Ol 




•o 




l^ 






*"• 


C-l 


1— ( 


e-) 


rH 








CJ 




!5 






















o> 






















s 

3 


O 






















g 


CO 


■*! 


t^ 


CO 


t^ 00 


00 


CS 


CO 


1 


-H 


^1 


T~t 


^^ 


1— 1 


<M 


T-H 




f— 1 


1 


C) 


> 


1 












































u 




05 


1— 1 


.M 


1.-5 -t< C5 


05 


o 


c; 


IM 


t— 1 


4^ 


(—1 


CO 


CO 


cc 


CO 


C5 00 


00 


CO 




Ci 


35 


r^ 






30 
1— 1 


00 


CO 


CO 00 


T— 1 


00 


00 

I— ( 


00 


00 
I—) 






• 


• 






• - 


• 


• 


• 


E 


• 


"a 




a 


• 






.'« 


• 


a 


a 


£ 


• 


a 




o 








M 




QJ 


a) 


5 




s 
o 




O 


V 






- a 




O 


CJ 


fe 




i-s 




re 








aj 

J3 


-4^ 

(1) 


cs 


'rt 


a; 
be 








c 








O 


N3 


3 


3 


C 








rt 


• 






• 




CS 


'^ 


C3 


^ 






u: 








o 
o 


a 


tn 


'/ 


(n 








.-^ 


J-^ 


;-^ 


:-J 


C cc 


aj 




*^ 




t4 






O 


OJ 


a; 


0) 


a) . 


J3 


'S 


o 


'a) 


0) 






N 


eq 


M 


pawhs 


o 


N 


N 


N W 




-«i 




M 


T3 


- 


• 


N 


• 


• 














o 






cS 










• 


1§ 




3 


■4 


■ • 


• 


CS 

h-H 


• 


• 


t-t 
o 




• 


K- 




►4 


. c 


- 


• 


3 


• 


• 


-e 






c 




s 


. 






c; 






a 




< 


c3 

<5 


<i 


1 •< 






C3 . 
-< 


fe 


d 

a" 
c 






^ 


cT 


n 


p 


a 


oT a 

■M O 

^ a) 




stT 


03 






1 

2 


C3 


S 
S 


a) 

Cft 


aj ^ 


o 


1-i 


:3 


a 






w 


6 


O 


QOM 


kJ 


^3 


p. 


^5> 



240 



REPORT — 1895. 









ft 


3 




'^ 










's 








1 














a 


.5= 




s 











xn 












s 

-5= 














"3 
a 



/3 






13 




a 








5 
00 


i 


g 

CO 










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QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTROLYSIS. 



241 







§2 



m n 

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cs a . 

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w * 2 3 

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la 




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CO 


f-H 


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EEFORT — 1395. 






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""33 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTROLYSIS. 



243 



'a 

3 
O 



o o 

re a rt . _ 
t^ c3 a o c^ 

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o !h .a o t^ 
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a a a s a'§.'3.-c -g- a-s -S ^ s a a s 
a'3sa'3-3'3.t^9a--.t^>^"aao 

-^ 02 <! <!j cc a: OQ !zi CO 02 Jz; ?q W <J -«J cl. 



ate. 

•ate. 
ate. 




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a O 3 3 o • 








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rt 



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a 

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S o .3 o o o ~ :: .a o — ' ,s o 



m .2 22-J3S2J«.HaH2.H.a;:g2o-go 



3^:5 



iz; iziiz;MJzii2;fL,izi-5J2i2izic2pH-<2£»H!^ 



o r^ — ' C5 M h^ 1^ « C5 (M 

O — io rc»r;.-icC(M 



n CO 




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CO O t— ( !■' aC 7-1 
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CO 

o 


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cc rs 00 t- 
c-i no h^ 
rt -*■ (M 



t^ in eo 

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C-1 CO C- IS t^ 00 

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50 -H m h- 00 CC 00 C^ 
r-4 »0 C^ 1— 1 O-I '-1 -^ 



C-. c; Ci C5 

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00 CO r^ CO GO cr; t^ t^ 
CO coxaOGCarOico 



IM 


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Xi 00 CO 



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244 



REPORT — 1895. 



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ri 


J^ 


m 71 

■4^ 4J 





4^ 


fa 


cn 


tn to 

4^ 4i 


<1 


0) 

a 


fe a 


4J 








<D 




(U 







CQ<] 


OJ 


N 


NN 


1-5 


S] 


t-5 


tsq 


tS3N 


t-5 


-t: 


N 


• 


- • 


1^ 


• 


• 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 



K 



S 
o 



•w 


B 


pR 


M 


hr 


vi 






£^ 


. 


n) 


H 


1-4 




i! 














ai 




a 


a 


60 


CD 


0) 

3 




CJ 




d 


0) 


P^ 


^ 


^ 


<^ 


fa 



fa fa [x, 

fa W H 



■ . s a a a 

fa |JI P5 CC CW tZ3 



O fa 



& sti 

3 :3 



O 

o 

tZ2 



03 

B 
O 



a 









a 




a 




rt 




•n 












a 













cf. 




.G 





ft 




r/1 






ft 






>~t 


a 


ft 


3 






a 


ri 


_3 


a 





a 

< 



o 



a a 

3 . 2 

2 « g 

a s i 

ca S =« 

-a «-« 

c 2 d 

ri 'S ca 

u5 S2 en 

o 3 o 

Ph O! PM 







iM 


CD 




rl-' 


OX 


■a 


(- 1.-5 







'JD 




IN 


lO <M 




OS 

— 1 


00 -i" r~ 


CO 00 


(N 




C^ 




Zi 


03 


-^ 


■^ 


^ Oi 




or, 


:r 


Ci 


C5 00 




c/^ 


CO 


00 


QO 00 




»-H 


""^ 


l-H 


I— t r-H 




a 


• 




• '2 




at 
Si 






)^-' 







• 




§- 




C 
rS 






^6 
0^ 




crj 






s^;o 




4J 


t4 



1- 


a^^ 




N 


mM<Jh5 












•^^ 



o 
o 

• > 



§ 



:<^'-<: 



< - 



cu a» (« c 

^ ^ r^ '^ 



mSoS W 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTROLYSIS. 



245 



5^ 



a 

C3 



i'2 Sis s 

•s^ a 
a St) 



° ° .. 
a a-s 

s e a 



o o 

alia a^il 

■<iJpH<!<;-<a3E-ioc 



is 

a o3 

a a> 

en 

ra a 

■ 0.5 

O <A ^Jl 
-^^ tn 

OS en 

•sa 



1 s; r— t^ -* O 00 to 
O 00 c^ o « 30 CO 
IN »0 i-l OT CO -*< >0 



C5 CO CC I 
T-I O i-H I 



^H O O -H 






e .- 



13 u 



t3 13 'i 

c c S 

cs cs 

en 

ID 0) CS 



CO m o3 g 



'8 



o 

a 

a 

-d 

^§ 

S S3 



•g-S 






'i'i.^S^^S*,^^^ 



s^ a 



■Si 



§ 



<D 






1 



s 



m tH 



^ 






§ « 






o o 

t-i U rj 

a a g ' " 

a 

a.t^ 






§ « « 






OiS 



o 



§p 






ID 



a O 



ft 
ft 
o 
o 



cS " 



C =! 



_ _ o rt o '3 

CS C^ CS r-^ r1 o3 
O 5^ « 






CIS g 
0) S 



rt 



^ o o o _ .. 

i: -2 oi cs c3 3 p 



o o 



o c 



o o 



2§- 



?3 rt 



« S fl g « « C 

t3 rrt 'd t'i'CJ T) T? 



t Tj O O 



_ 3 cS 

5 P -S '- 

P ;■; 3 ►-'i ;c k" '►C ."S « o — 



P c o 

rt cS o3 3 
_P P § , 

*^ "*- ^ ' 
-fcJ -tJ 'o 
■ O ; 



o P P 

Oj cd c^ 



occo-<2iZ;^;^a3aa2?^Z^2;o6-ia2 ;^;;z;;z;;z;t»;zi;z;^; 





-H 


IM 


CO 


CO 


1^ -M 


1—1 


I— 1 W C: t^ 





on 


t^ 00 — 1 CO ^ 




00 


<N 


._-5 .__ 


ira 


— ■* 




•-fl 3-. CC 33 


C-l 





03 as •* .-H 







to 


rl 


M 


CO 




CO -+< Tfl lO 


<N 


10 


.- IM -^ m 
I— 1 


Q 






















<i 


CC 


-tl 


t- t- 


C-l 


t^ DO 


— 


—1 -i' ic \C X) 


to 


00 


1 c-1 >n .-1 




IM 




■M M 


■^ 


»— t 


T— 1 


i-i i-i C<l .-1 --1 


00 


f— t 


1 r-i CI 



o;co5<M-*ooi-ico 
oooor^cnosooCiOs 

OOOOOOOOOOOOX'SO 

a 
p • 

s a ^ 
a -3^2 • a . 
_S p o -3 H^ »- a 

c8 P e« tj) P ja ^ . 

.■§■ 15.1^1-^1 
<a JS o ai a O . ^^ 



C5 —I ■* •* CO -f ^ o CI 10 (M i^ C3 r- c-l c-i r~ CO CO ■* 

yj 00 CS3i CO CSO aO t^t^CSI^I^ t^ 00 Cil^GOOOOi 

cx) oj X' 00 X x X X X' X oc X X oD 00 X X 00 00 CO 
m 

p ^ a 3 

a • • • '^. -^ a aa • a a • ^ ^ • a -^ 

^ . ..s .>^o<^^.oo 'd.a^-.OgS 

(33 ,-, ftcacSo3c3c3^0taOcS^P 

0) p pp p ci-r" o omPiDip o PJ (pPojOo) 



■<!j<0 



■ 3 



. . .13 • 

3 

6- f^ 
^-HO |«p.3 



I -►^ -tJ i3 



J|S3-;5^a as 



» 






-5j <lj<!J 



2 _rt _cs _re 



3 a 

<V P 

to tfl 

to tn 

o3 re 



QO W 



03 ., 

bjo ^ 

(U P 
fc. 3 
Ml-! 



a a 
• • • 'Ji 'S 

a p p 

O t/j to 

p ss 

O O HJ =1 1 

3 t'-.'a p 

cS C8 (U g ^ 

S S S ft ft 



<- <) 



p 









_ p 



K Ph Ph cc cc H H 



246 



REPORT — 1895. 



a 



a. 
B 

a 



C3 



3 
O 



r-i n 






o 

rt 

a 

03 



o 
Pi 






a If 

oT ~ 

i; o Q:* 

.§ S ^^ 






§ 

"o 

o 

'3 



.5^ 



CI 



a> 






o 



c4 "■ 



o -e 



GO 
CI 









CO 
00 





a 


• 


01 




.a 




O 


• 


bo 








o 




c 


• 


cj 




en 


L^ 


.-a t- 




a> « 


pq 


N p: 



o 




a5 


s 


o 


K 




a 


M 




03 






a 


fs 










o 

> 





13 
O 
03 




CO 



a: 



(M — I o cq — I 

G-I O ^ '^ 

O 0.t O 



o 



«o 00 05 o Tji in 

(MO 00 O OO 






o 

a 

a 



0) 
eS 

-a 



o O 

a1 

O P 



.-H CO 
OO O 
lO 1-1 



-H t^ t- X CI OT 
i-H rH (M I- r-( lO 






r-l =0 



CO 00 05 'j; X CO 

CO OC CO 00 30 00 



00 



C'l (M OT -f e-l 

CO C^ OO <Ji Ci 
CO 00 CO 00 00 



CO 
OO 



a 

(U 

o 

la 
c 

C3 



(U 



■ ■ ■^'^. 

Cli c3 

P3 McqPN 






-fo (D a a a 

CD J3 S a* I) 
. O 1* -^ — • 



a 

o 



« ^ 



■ fc^ 
o 
a 
cs 



g 
o 



C^ [/■' CO r/. tfi 

C .-^ _-^ ^ *^ 

C (U o dj i) 

<] tS3 N NI N 






S 

oT 
'S 
« 

5 . . . . .tEi-: . 

g ^ 42 iS S s o .2 .2 :a -S ^ ^ r: 



CO 00 
Oi r-( 



00 t- 

CO OO 



a 


a 


(U 


0) 


^^ 


OO 






Oj 


JTl 


^ 


i 


w 












O) 


<1J 


N !S3 



a 


-s 


S 


ce 


MO 



QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF ELECTROLYSIS 



247 





























a 

.2 




































1 






'a 
1 


















. 


















■6 






a 


























a5 

-a 










>;> 






C4 


















2 
















'-^ 






-a 






oj 












3 








a 






0) 




a 






. a 

O C8 




d 


:3 












"3 








a 






-u 












■^ 


'3 












n 








t-. 






ca 




'3 

o 






cS O 




a 


o 












a 








-^^ 






13 








'O c4 




-S 


"a 




■>: 








3 








•3 a 






k> 




a 






S'-S 




t-> 




'« 








"S 

O 








« 3 






a 




a 






-a ft 




J5 

ai 


3 












B 








!h oJ 






3 




13 






^ '5 




3 "! 


a 




'^ 2 








S 














"5 




13 






• r-t Qj 

a ° 




ai3 


-4^ 

o 












cS 


o 










O 










O i-1 




O P-,ft 




§ a 




, 




13 








'3 "^ 






a 




.4^ 






a g: 




a-« 


■o 




»».2 




3 




C! 


c 






,5S 






a 

CC 
T-l 




c3 






a 




ai3 


a 




e -3 




t« . 


M 
O 


'o 

C3 
o 


o 
.2 






v' 


d 
o 




13 
1 


a5 

• 1— « 


§ a 

CS O 
13 "= 


o 


a ^ 


OS 
*J-4 




.. a 

-i " 

-is 

-^ 2 




CO ca 


-6 a 

•3.2 

•Hi 

^ s 

7^< 


3 
o 


i- 

'2 
o 

a- 

S." 


pi 

S CO 

i^ ci 

- O 

Z,CU 


"3 >-^ 
W CO O 

t^ ;- ;-. 

o o o 

!-!>-.!-. 
<B <p (D 


So 
o.-S 


o c3 a s 

2 C Jo B 

^ ca CO 3 

3 c^ O o 
02 H Cl, CO 


1 1 
1 1 


3 S 3 ? 2" o^ 

CO O CJ " O -M 

- cs =3 u rt g 

1.2.2 S.S-P 


§1-3 
.2 '* S 

a. 2 3 

O i3 9 

,gi3.2 

«5j H K 


i3 

o 

03 




;2 (P 








' 




' 




' 








■ 











Cfi o 


-H Ci 


^H 


x>. 




CO 


f- * 




CO 






53 -# -H 


C-l lO 


-* 




C5 




-J o 


-- (N 


(M ^ 


t— ) -r-i 


-tH 


Gi 




iO 












O to lO 


O CO' 


o 




~t* 






-K CJ3 




CO CM 


cc o ■* <S< 








o 












C4 <N C-l (M rt 


CO 








a 


C-l 




la CO 

4—1 




































p 
« 




1-3 










































































pd 




H 




ca t^ lO CO 


.— 1 


IM 




cr 


Ci 




1 






00 — ' CO 


in t^ 


I— c 




■* 




« 
>- 

O 


(M CO 


a 


00 -^ 


.-l(N IM »0 O 

I— 1 


l-H 




C^l 


r-l 




1 














CM 




IN 

CO lo 


Q 

4—4 


<M 4-4 


O -^ 


CO CD 1—) 


CO 




CO 


O 




(M 






lO 05 C5 rH CO 


-H 




4— ( 




C5 -H 


00 O GO CO 


C5 


o; 




t- 


GO 




C2 






CO OO 00 (32 C2 


C5 




Oj 




, 


00 00 




CC' '00 


00 00 OO CC' 


00 


OO 




00 


CO 




CO 






CK' CO 00 


00 CO 


OO 




CO 




CO 


CO 00 




00 CO 


*— ' 1— ( 


t— 1 !— 1 


f-H 


1—* 




.—1 


t-H 




I— 1 






»-H 1— 1 r-l 


I— 1 (— ( 


1-1 




4—4 




I-H 


rH i-< 




4—4 4—4 


• • 


• ' 


• 


' 




" 


" 










a 


a a 


" 










* * 




' 




s * 




s 




-• 


g 




a 

a) 






o 

d 


0) (U 

OO 

1 d, d 


• 

a" 










• «c 

a • 




• « 

a ■ 






C 


o 

O 




d 

o 






O 










p 

.4^ 














o 




c3 0) 


vi 




03 


»— 4 




o 






O) r- -fci 




o 










-^ <u 




4-i 




c "Z 


^ 


r-> 






C3 




bD 






rO O t^ 

fl a1 

5 <! 1-:. 


,-4^ 4J 


CU 










2 J3 




ca 


^ ;^ 


■ A C 
M ri ca 


■ft 




a 

0) 

O 


CO 

■4-> 




a 

4^ 






p a 


<— 4 
CO 




^ 






go 
.^1 




a 

CO , 

.13 ^ 


m <i> 


N O 




'o 






'3 




'3 








'3 




O 






0) a 




0) <D 


am 




.1-5 


tS3 




1-5 


N 




tS3 






<J J,Z 


.^>-i 


tsl 




pq 






is: < 




N P5 


P5 




• 


• 




• 


■ 




• 






WiT 


■«■ 


• 








' a 


■<« 


to 


























» 










•^ 

en 
• O 




•4 






































w 




wT 


3 
1-3 . 










, 


. 




. 










» 










a 




.1 


-C 


<u 




tM 
















'3 =« 


'w 












ca 




■tJ 


a" G 

CO Xfl 

« CS 


1-4 
. « 

O 

o 


hi 
2 


S 

2 




05 

1-5 

a 
a 


d 

o 
o 




p4 

o 
13 
:3 






a a"^ 


'a a 


w 

a" 

O 




a" 

a 

o 






§:§§ 
-Sa" 




- a 

1 S 


OO 


W 


f-i 


:^ 




a 


J 




Ph 






W CO 


O! CZ2 


H 




t> 






CO 03 




wo 



248 



REPORT — 1895, 



-a 

a 



^ 



^ I 



•S 
s 






<5^ 





























1 . 






-a 




























-S i 






2 


>> 


























>> ea 






cd 


'o 
o 




1 








2 




a5 

1 






(0 

1 


0) 


.£3 >-I . 

a-^ >.ts 

3 g-c t: 






. 


Cm 




»© 
^ 












•s 








•a 


It; c-^^ 






^1 


O 

§ 








§ 

























o 

a. 
£ 

6 




X 3 






0) 


6 
'c 

c3 


C3 




1 


a 


q3 -2 d a5 
ri 5 cU c3 


3'S''^'3'*3<Df-» 




a .^ es 






O m 


^ O ^ 05 ^ 





en 


J^ 




,« 


>■ 


a a a a fs 


" 


^10 rci Oi'C.C 




c^ 


^ 






a a 


a a a * a a a 





a 





a £: 


-^ a "3 a ■§ a 




'C cc 


a.§ 






3 3 


3 3 


.2 <v.5 


.2 


.2 


a 




a 

3 


S 'S 3 3 3 


3 Ss 3 « 3 g^p 




3 **H 


.2 <^ 






s's 


'S 'c 


c "is G 

020 


'c 


'c 


^ 


'S 


c S e 'S 'S 'S 


§1 


a a.ii a a 

5 !-i ..H 




Q> r« 


§§ 






O O 











en 







'ai 


0-5^0 a 
a s s a a-S. 




-S ^ 






a a 


a a a-ftS a 


£ 


C3 


13 


a 




a. 2 


■^ a ii a IS a 




S s 


a -2 






a a 


a a 8-5 a 


£ 


a 


-4-J 


^ 







a^ a a a-P 


a'g 


'S a 15 a:^ a 




.-§ S 


a'g 






<< 


■<<<ix!<<<c:*<<p^<;^<<!i<!icZ 


<a2cc<jH-<-<<l 




5z;w 




















' 
















o 


o -^ 


t- 


-*< 




5D 






I— ( 




■-H ec CO to 00 


CO 


00 *** 00 -<t< ^ t-.- 


rH 


<N XI 


M 




CO rt 


05 


cc 1^ CO 




>o 










C2 N (TJ 




00 -t* 00 CO 02 




•+H 


— 


a 




o cu 




CO 10 CO 




o< 










C-l rt lO (N 10 




CO CO -*H CO IQ <M 




W 


tM IM 


Oh 




M 
























. 
































S 






a> 


























& 






s 


■Ki 
































s 


!£ 


t^ 05 


(M 


c<i CO 




00 






c^ 




•- CO 1-H 00 IC CO 


1 


1 to rH T*- 10 





e<i 


(M CO 


*© 


§ 


M --H 


f-H 


1—1 t-H 










rH 




i-H 10 rH 00 rl 


1 


1 rH rH rH 


«<! 


IM 


f-i r^ 


> 


1 


























h3 






u* 


"# o 


M 


CO rt 




a 











C<l ^0 -+< C2 t^ <M 


CI 


-)< t 1 -*< CO to 


P^ 


CO 


r^ 


tf 


o 


G5 00 


C5 


cr 02 t- 




00 






CO 




t~. cc l~ t- 00 





Cs t^ 05 Ci Ci t^ 




OO 


05 <3» 






C30 30 
I— I r-i 


00 


00 00 00 

1— t 1-H 1-H 




00 






00 

1— ( 




OC 00 OS 00 00 00 
r—t 1—1 T—1 F-4 rH rH 


00 
rH 


00 00 00 00 00 00 
1^ r~l r—{ 1—i r-t T-* 


I-H 


00 


00 00 

1-t 1-4 


, 




»• -• 


. 


... 




. 






, 




. . . . . "^ 
' ' ' >^ 




a' 
• • s • • • 






, 


•3 




• a 


a 

C3 


a ■• a 




d 






a 




. Ph 
1 '11 -^ 

o«26-ga 

wi a K m S< uS 


a 

J3 


a .^p