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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

SI ^ 



1 SEP. 9/ 
REPORT" 



OP THE 



SIXTY-SIXTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



LIVEEPOOL IN SEPTEMBER 1896. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MUKKAY, ALBEMARLE STEEET. 

1896. 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



PRDfTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NBW-STaEET SQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of the Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xxxviii 

Trustees and General Officers, 1831-1897 1 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 ... li 

List of Evening Lectures Ixix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxii 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Liverpool Meeting , Ixxiii 

Officers and Council, 1896-97 Ixxv 

Treasurer's Account Ixxvi 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxx 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Liverpool Meet- 
ing in September 1896 Ixxxv 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso xciii 

Resolutions referred to the Council for Consideration, and action if 

desirable xciv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcv 

Places of Meeting in 1897, 1898, and 1899 xcvi 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes xcvii 

General Meetings cxii 

Address by the President, Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., 

Pres.R.S 3 

A 2 



iv REPORT — 1896. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[All, asterisk * indicates that tlie title only is given. The viarli f indicates the same, 
hut a reference is given to the journal or newspaper where it i^ published in estenso.] 



Page 
Correspoudincr Societies. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E,. 
Melbola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holjies (Secretary), Mr. Francis GAtTOfr, 
Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. G- J. Stkons, Dr. J. G. 
Gaesox, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
W. Whitakee, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and Rev. 
Canon H. B. Teistbam 31 

Calculation of the G (r, i')-IntegTals. — ^Preliminary Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Rev. Robeet Haelet (Chairman), Professor A. R. Forsyth 
(Secretary), Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. Lodge, and Professor 
Kael Peakson. (Drawn up by Professor Kael Peaeson.) 70 

Appendix. — Table.s of x-functious, ^n X:i» X-.) *"d Xt '''* 

On the Establishment of a National Physical Laboratory. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir Douglas Galton (Chairman), Lord Ratleigh, 
Lord Kelvin, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Professors A. W. Ruckee, E. B. Clifton, 
Caeey Foster, A, Schtjstee. and W. E. Ateton, Dr. W. Anderson, Dr. 
T. E. Thorpe, Mr. Feancis Galton, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, and Professor 
O.J. Lodge (Secretary) 82 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of Scientific Societies' Publications. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Silvanus P. Thompson (Chairman), 
Dr. G. H. Bryan, Dr. C. V. Burton, Mr. R. T. Glazebeook, Professor 
A. W. RiJcKER, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, and Mr. James Savinburne 
(Secretary) 86 

Comparison of Magnetic Instruments. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor A. "VV. RiJcKER (Chairman), Mr. W. Watson (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor A. Schuster, and Professor H. H. Tuenee, appointed to confer with 
the Astronomer Royal and the Superintendents of other Observatories with 
reference to the Comparison of Magnetic Standards with a view of carry- 
ing out such Comparison 87 

Mathematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Rayleigh (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Professor B. Price, Mr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher, Professor A. G. Geeenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Professor 
P. A. Macmahon, Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunningham, and Professor A. 
Lodge (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of calculating Tables of cer- 
tain Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, of taking steps to carry out 
the Calculations, and to publish the results in an accessible form 98 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for Elec- 
trical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Carey Foster (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Professors 
Ayeton, J. Perry, and W. G. Adams, Drs. 0. J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, 
and A. Muiehead, Messrs. W. H. Peeece and Heebeet Taylor, Professor 



)> 



5> 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
J. D. Everett, Professor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. FLEkiNG, Professors 
A. W. RiJCKER, G. F. FitzGeralb, G. Ohrystal, and J. J. Thomson, 
Messrs. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary) and W. N. Shaw, Rev. T. 0. Fitz- 
PATRiCK, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Professor J. Viriamtj Jones, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, 
and Mr. E. H. Griffiths 150 

Appendix. — I. Extracts from Letters received, dealing with the Ques- 
tion of the Unit of Heat , 164 

II. The Capacity for Heat of Water from 10° to 20° C. re- 
ferred to its Capacity at 10° C. as Unity 162 

III. Recalculation of the Total Heat of Water from the 
Experiments of Regnault and Rowland. By W. N . 
Shaw 162 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. -Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor A. Critm Brown (Secretary), 
Dr. John Murray, Dr. Alexander Btjchan, and Professor R. Copeland. 
(Drawn up by Dr. Buchan.) 166 

The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Pheno- 
mena. — Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons 
(Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, and Mr. A. W. 
Clayden (Secretary) . (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 172 

Seismological Investigation.— First Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman), Dr. C. Davison and Professor J. Milne 
(Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. 
G. F. Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, the late Professor A. H. Green, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Meldola, 
Professor J. Perry, Professor J. H. Poynting, and Dr. Isaac Roberts. 

Report of Committee 1^0 

I. Notes on Instruments which will record Earthquakes of Feeble 
Intensity. Professor J. Milne, F.R.S. (Also see Section VII. 

and Appendix.) 181 

II. Observations with Milne's Pendulums T and U, 1895-1896. Pro- 
fessor J. Milne, F.R.S 184 

The Localities and their Geology 184 

The Instruments T and U and their Installation 187 

Artificially produced Disturbances 188 

Sudden Displacements and Earthquakes in the Isle of Wight 189 
Earthquakes recorded in Europe, and possibly noted in the 

Isleof Wight, August 19 to October 16, 1895 191 

Notes on Special Earthquakes. {See also Appendix, 229.) ... 199 
Tremors and Pulsations, their relationship to the hours of the 
day. Air-current effects. Effects of barometric pressure, 

temperature, frost, rain, &c 200 

Diurnal Waves 212 

III. Changes in the Vertical observed in Tokio, September 1894 to 

March 1896. Professor J. Milne, F.R.S 215 

IV. On Experiments at Oxford. By Professor H. H. Turner 216 

V. The Perry Tromometer. Professor John Perry, F.R.S 218 

VI. Earthquake Frequency (a note). Dr. C. G. Knott, F.R.S.E 220 

VII. Instruments used in Italy. Charles Davison, Sc.D 220 

Appendix. — Notes on Special Earthquakes. Prof. J. Milne, F.R.S. 229 



Vi REPORT — 1896. 

Page 
Electi'olysis and Electro-cliemistry. — Report of the Committee, consistiDg of 
Mr. W. N, Shaw (Oliairman), Rev. T. C. Fitzpatkick, and Mr. W. C. D. 
Whbtham (Secretary) 230 

Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observations. — Report ol the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Dr. C. Chkee 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Daewin, Professor G. Chetstal, 
Professor A. Schustbe, (Japtain E. W. Ceeak, The Asteonomee Royal, 
Mr. William Ellis, and Professor A. W. Rijckee. (Drawn up by the 

Secretary.) 231 

Non-cyclic Effects at Kew Observatoi-y during the selected Quiet Days of 

the Six Years, 1890-1895. By C. Chreb, Sc.D 231 

I. Introductory Remarks : ' Non-cyclic ' Effect 231 

XL Non-cyclic Effects during Six Years, 1890-1895 231 

III. Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Annual Changes 233 

IV.-Vl. Mean Annual Values from Quiet and Unrestricted Days ... 234 

VIT.-VIII. Relations of Non-cyclic Effects to Diurnal Ranges 235 

IX. Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Diurnal Inequalities 236 

X. Elimination of Non-cyclic Effect 236 

XI.-XII. Associated Phenomena 237 

Appendix.— Remarks by W. Ellis, F.R.S 238 

Solar Radiation. — Twelfth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir G. G. 
Stokes (Chairman), Professor H. McLeod (Secretary), Professor A. 
Schustee, Mr. G. Johnstone Stonet, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. de 
W. Abney, Mr. C. Cheeb, Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. W. E. Wilson, 
appointed to consider the best Methods of Recording the Direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. (Drawn up by Sir G. G. Stoees.) 241 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor Heebeet McLeod, Professor W. C. RoDEKTs-AtrsTEN, Mr. H. G. 
Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel 243 

The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis. — Third Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. Emeeson Reynolds (Chairman), Dr. C. A. 
KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Feankland, Professor F. Clowes, Dr. IIttgh 
Makbhall, Mr. A. E. Fletchee, Mr. D. H. Nagel, and Professor W. 
Gaeleton Williams 244 

The Determination of Bismuth. (Part 1.) By Professor J. Emeeson 

Reynolds, D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S., and G. Pbecy Bailey, B.A 244 

The Apparatus employed and the Arrangement of the Circuits for 

Electrolytic Analysis. By Chaeles A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc 247 

The Determination of Antimony. By Chaeles A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc, 

and C. K. Baenbs, B.Sc '. 251 

The Determination of Tin. By Charles A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc, and 

0. K. Barnes, B.Sc ." 255 

The Carbohydrates of Cereal Straws. — First Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor R. Waeington (Chairman), Mr. C. F. Ceoss, 
Mr. Manning Peentice (Secretary). (Drawn up by Mr. Cross.) 262 

[someric Naphthalene Derivatives.— Tenth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. A. Tilden and Professor H. E. Armsteong. 
(Drawn up by Professor Aemsteong.) 265 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor H. E. Aemsteong 
(Secretary), Professor W. R. Dtjnstan, Mr. Geoege Gladstone, Sir John 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscob, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson 268 



CONTENTS. • vii 

Page 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds.— Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mab- 
SHALL Watts (Secretary), Professors J, N. Locktek, J. Dewak, G. D. 
LivEiNG, A. ScHtrsTBK, W. N. Haetiet, and Wolcott Gibbs, and 
Captain Abnet. (Drawn up hy Dr. Watts.) 278 

Proximate Constituent.s of Coal. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
I. LowTHiAN Bell (Chairman), Professor P. Phillips Bedson (Secretary), 
Professor F. Clowes, Dr. Ltjdwig Mond, Professor Vivian B. Lewes, 
Professor E. Hull, Mr. J. W. Thomas, and Mr. H. Baueeman 340 

The Production of Haloids from Pure Materials. — Interim Report of a Com- 
mittee consisting of Professor H. E. Aemsteong, Professor W. R. Dunstan, 
Mr. C. H. BoTHAMLET, and Mr. W. A. Shenstone (Secretary) 347 

Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of Committee, consisting of 
Professor T. E. Thoepe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), 
Dr. W. H. Peekin, Professor W. J. Russell, Captain Abney, 
Professor W. Steoud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 347 

Stonesfield Slate. — Third and Final Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. H. B. WooDWAED (Chairman), Mr. E. A. Walfoed (Secretaiy), 
Professor A. H. Geeen, Dr. H. Woodwaed, and Mr. J. Windoes, appointed 
to open further sections in the neighbourhood of Stonesfield in order to 
show the relationship of the Stonesfield Slate to the underlying and 
overlying strata. (Drawn up by Mr. Edwin A. Walfoed, Secretary.) . . . 356 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Seventh Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Professor T. G. Bonnet, Dr. Tempest Andeeson, Mr. J. E. Bedfoed, 
Professor W. Botd Dawkins, Mr. E. J. Gaewood, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, 
Mr. William Geat, Professor T. McKenny Hughes, Mr. Robert 
KiDSTON, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, 
Mr. H. B. Woodwaed, with Mr. Osmond W. Jeffs and Mr. W. W. Watts 
(Secretaries). (Drawn up by Mr. W. W. Watts.) 357 

Appendix. — Reference List of Photographs illustrating Geological 
Papers and Memoirs 365 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — First Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Professor T. G. Bonnet, Mr. P. 
F. Kendall (Secretary), Mr. C. E. De Rjnce, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Haeeison, Mr. J Hoene, and Mr. Dugald 
Bell. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 366 

Structure of a Coral Reef. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor T. G. Bonnet (Chairman), Professor W. J. Sollas (Secretary), 
Sir Aechibald Geikie, Professors A. H. Geeen, J. W. Judd, C. Lap- 
woETH, A. C. Haddon, Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Dakwin, S. J. Hickson, and 
A. Stewaet, Admiral W. J. L. Whaeton, Drs. H. Hicks, J. Mueeat, 
W. T. Blanfoed, Le Neve Fostee, J. W. Geegoet, and H. B. Guppt, 
Messrs. F. Daewin, H. 0. Foebes, G. C. Bouene, A. R. Binnie, J. C. 
Hawkshaw, and Hon. P. Fawcett, appointed to consider a project 
for Investigating the Structure of a Coral Reef by Boring and Sounding,.. 377 

The Character of the High-level Shell-bearing Deposits in Kintyre. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Hoene (Chairman), Dr. David 
Robertson, Dr. T. E. Jamieson, Mr. James Eraser, Mr. P. F. Kendall, 
and Mr. Dugald Bell (Secretary). (Drawn up by Mr. Bell, Mr. Eraser, 
and Mr. Horne ; with Special Reports on the Organic Remains by Dr. 
Robertson.) 378 

I. Introduction 378 



viii REPORT — 1896. 

Page 
II. Geographical Position 378 

III. Previous Observations regarding the Shelly Clay, &c 378 

IV. Detailed Examination of the Shell-hearing Deposits by the 

Committee 380 

V. Direction of Ice-flow in Kintyre 387 

VI. Eej)ort by Dr. David Robertson 389 

VII. Conclusion 399 

Selangor Caves. — Preliminaiy Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. 
H. Flovtee (Chairman), Dr. R. Hanitsch, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. H. N. 
Ridley (Secretary), and INIr. A. Russel Wallace, appointed to explore 
certain Caves in the Neighbourhood of Singapore, and to collect their living 
and extinct Fauna 399 

The Relation of Palaeolithic Man to the Glacial Epoch. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Miss E. Moese, Mr. 
Clement Reid (Secretary), Mr. E. P. Ridley, and Mr. H. N. Ridley, 
appointed to ascertain by excavation at Hoxne the Relations of the 
Palaeolithic Deposits to the Boulder Clay, and to the deposits with Arctic 

and Temperate Plants. (Drawn up by the Secretary. ) 400 

Appendix — Details of Borings 412 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Maer (Chairman), Mr. E. J. Garwood (Secretary), 
and Mr. A. H. Fooed, appointed to study the Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. (Drawn up by Mr. Garwood.) 415 

The Marine Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irish Sea, — Fourth and 
Final Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Professor G. B. Howes, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. 
G. W. Lamplough, Mr. I. C. Thompson, Dr. H. 0. Forbes, Mr. A. 0. 
Walker, Professor F. E. Weiss, and Professor W. A. Heedman 
(Chairman and Reporter) 417 

The Life-history and Economic Relations of the Coccidae of Ceylon, by Mr. 
E. E. Green. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. McLachlan, 
(Chairman), Professor G. B. Howes (Secretary), Lord Walsingham, Pro- 
fessor R. Meldola, Professor L. C. Miall, Mr. R. Newstead, Dr. D. 
Sharp, and Colonel C. Savinhoe 450 

Bii'd Migration in Great Britain and Ireland. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. John Cordeatjx (Secre- 
tary), Mr. John A. Harvie-Beown, Mr. R. M. Baeeington, Mr. W. Eagle 
Claeke, and Rev. E. P. Knttblet, appointed for the purpose of making a 
Digest of the Observations on the Sligrations of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Light-vessels, 1880-1887 451 

Post OflSce Regulations regarding the Carriage of Natural History Speci- 
mens to Foreign Countries. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Walsingham (Chairman), Mr. R. McLachlan, Dr. C. W. Stiles, Colonel 
C. SwiNHOE, and Dr. H. 0. Foebes (Secretary) 477 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Professor E. Ray Lankestek, 
Professor J. Cossae Ewart, Professor M. Foster, Professor S. J. Hickson, 
Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Mr. Percy Sladen 
(Secretary) 478 

Appendix I.— Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Mr. H. 

Charles Williamson 479 

» II' — List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1 , 1895, to June 30, 1896 481 



CONTENTS. ix 

Page 
Appendix III. — List of Papers which were published in 1895 ty Natu- 
ralists who have occupied Tables in the Zoological 
Station 482 

African Lake Fauna. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. 
ScLATER (Chairman), Dr. John Murray, Professor E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor W. A. Herdmait, and Professor G. B. Howes (Secretary) 484 

Marine Biological Association, The Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Professor E. 
Ray Lankester (Secretary), Professor M. Foster, and Professor S. H. 
Vines, appointed to investigate the Relations between Physical Conditions 

and Marine Fauna and Flora 485 

Algological Notes for Plymouth District. By Mr. George Brebner . 485 

The Necessity for the Immediate Investigation of the Biology of Oceanic 
Islands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flower 
(Chairman), Professor A. C. Haddon (Secretary), Mr. G. C. Bourne, Dr. 
IL. 0. Forbes, Professor AV. A. Herdman, Dr. John Murray, Professor 
A. Newton, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) ■. 487 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of a Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Mr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), appointed for superintending 
the Compilation of an Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 489 

Zoological BibliogTaphy and Publication. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. 
W. E. Hoyle, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. 
C. D. Sherborn, Rev. T. R. R. Stebsing, Professor "W. F. R. Weldon, 
and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary) 490 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Sixth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blan- 
FORD, Professor S. J. Hickson, Professor C. V. Riley, Mr. 0. Salvin, 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 492 

Zoology and Botany of the AVest India Islands. — Ninth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclater (Chairman), Mr. George Murray 
(Secretary), Mr. W. Carruthers, Dr. A. C. L. Gunther, Dr. D. Sharp, 
Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, Professor A. Newton, and Sir George F. 
Hampson, Bart., on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India Islands, and on taking Steps to investigate 
ascertained Deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 493 

The Position of Geography in the Educational System of the Country. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. J. Mackinder 
(Chairman), Mr. A. J. Herbertson (Secretary), Mr. J. Scott Keltie, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, and Mr. Eli Sowerbutts 494 

The Climatology of Africa. — Fifth Report of a Committee consisting of Mr. 
E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Sir John Kirk, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. H. 
R. Mill, and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chair- 
man.) 495 

The Effect of Wind and Atmospheric Pressure on the Tides. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor L. F. Vernon Harcourt, Professor 
Unwin, Mr. G. F. Deacon, and Mr. W. H. Wheeler (Secretary). (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 503 

Screw Gauge. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Preece 
(Chairman), Mr. Conrad W. Cooke (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. 
Bramwell, Sir H. Trueman Wood, Major-Gen. Webbek, Mr. R. E. 
Ceompton, Ml-. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 



X REPORT — 1896. 

Page 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Mr. T. Buckney, Col. Watkin, Mr. E. Riaa, 
and Mr. W. A. Price, appointed to consider means by which Practical Eftect 
can be given to the Introduction of the Screw Gauge proposed by the Asso- 
ciation in 1884. (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 527 

I. The Past 527 

II. The Present 529 

III. The Future 531 

Appendix I. — Enlarged Shadow Photographs of Screws. By Col. 

Watkin, C.B., R.A., &c 532 

„ II. — Gauge.? for Verifying the Accuracy of Screws (for 

Workshop Use only). By A. Stroh 534 

„ III. — Working Dimensions in Millimetres and Thousandths 

of an Inch. By A. Le Neve Foster 536 

Tests of B.A. Screws by Herve Diameters. By W. A. 
Price .'. 537 

Calibration of Instruments used in Engineering Laboratories. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor A. B. W. Kennedy (Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor D. S. Capper, Professor T. H. Beare, 
and Professor W. C. Unwin (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 538 

On the Physical and Eogineeriug Features of the River Mersey and Port of 
Liverpool. By George Fosbery Lyster, M.Inst.C.E., Engineer-in-Chief 
to the Mersey Dock Estate 548 

The North- Western Tribes of Canada.— Eleventh Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor E. B. Tylor (Chairman), Mr. Cuthbert E. Peek 
(Secretary), Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Halibttrton, and Mr. Horatio 
Hale, appointed to investigate the Physical Characters, Languages, and 
Industrial and Social Conditions of the North-Westero Tribes of the Domi- 
nion of Canada 569 

Sixth Report on the Indians of British Columbia. By Franz Boas . . . 569 
Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir Douglas Galton (Chairman), Dr. Francis Warner (Secretary), Mr. 
E. W. Beabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. Wilberforce Smith, and Mr. 
E. White Wallis. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 592 

Appendix. — Twelve tables, showing for each division of schools the 
number of children seen, the number presenting one or more class 
of defect. The classes of defect are distributed first under school 
standards, secondly in age groups 595 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom.— Fourth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Beabrook (Chairman), Dr. Fr.\nois Galton, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, Dr. Jcseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
RoMiLLY Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, Sir 
H. Howoeth, Professor R. Meldola, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. E. G. 
Ravenstein, and Mr. E. Sidney Hartland (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
the Chairman.) 607 

Appendix I.— The Ethnographical Survey of Ireland. Report of the 

Committee 609 

„ II.— Report of the Ethnographical Survey of Pembrokeshire 610 
„ HI- — Preliminary Report on Folklore in Galloway, Scotland. 

By Rev. Dr. Walter Gregor 612 



CONTENTS. - XI 

Page 
Appendix IV. — On the Method of determining- the Value of Folklore 
as Ethnolofrical Data. By G. Laurence Gomme, 
F.S.A 626 



The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Third Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. R. MuNRO (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Daavkins, Sir 
John Evans, General Pitt-Ritees, Mr. A. J. Evans, and Mr. A. 
BiJLLEiD (Secretary) . (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 656 

Linguistic and Anthropological Characteristics of the North Dravidian and 
Kolarian Races. — the Ura?iz<;s. Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. E. Sidney Haetland (Chairman), Mr. Hugh Raynbied, jun. 
(Secretary), Professor A. C. Haddon, and Mr. J. L. Myees 659 

The possible Infectivity of the Oyster, and upon the Green Disease in 
Oysters. By Professor Rtjbeet W. Boyce, M.B., M.R.C.S., and Professor 
W. A. Heedman, D.Sc, F.R.S., University College, Liverpool ; being the 
First Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman 
(Chairman), Professor R. Boyce (Secretary), Mr. G. C. Botjene, and 
Professor C. S. Sheeeington, appointed to report on the Elucidation of the 
Life Conditions of the Oyster under Normal and Abnormal Environment, 
including in the latter the effect of sewage matter and pathogenic 
organisms 663 

Physiological Applications of the Phonograph. — Report by the Committee, 
consisting of Professor John G. McKendeick (Chairman), Professor G. G. 
Mtjeeay, Mr. David S. Wingate, and Mr. John S. McKendeick, on the 
Physiological Applications of the Phonograph, and on the Form of the 
Voice-curves made by the Instrument 669 

On the Ascent of Water in Trees. By Francis Daewin, F.E.S 674 

Preservation of Plants for Exhibition. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor I. Bayley BALFotrR, 
Professor L. Eeeera, Mr. W. Gaedinee, Professor J. R. Geeen, Professor 
J. W. H. Trail, Professor F. E. Weiss, and Professor J. B. Faemee (Sec- 
retary), appointed to Report on the best Methods of Preserving Vegetable 
Specimens for Exhibition in Museums 684 

Appendix I. — Report on Experiments made at the Institut Botanique 

de rUniversit6 de Bruxelles. By Professor Eeeera 686 

„ IL— Report by Professor J. AV. H. Trail, ALA., F.R.S. ... 692 



xii REPORT — 1896. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THUBSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 
Address by Professor J. J. Thomson, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S., President of the 

Section 699 

1. Heport on the Establishment of a National Physical Laboratory 707 

2. On the Evolution of Stellar Systems. By Isaac PiOBEexs, D.Sc, F.R.S. 707 

3. On Periodic Orbits. By G. H. Darwin, F.R.S 708 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. On Cathode Rays and their probable Connection with Riintgen Rays. 

By Professor P. Lenakd 709 

2. tOn the Laws of Conduction of Electricity through Gases exposed to the 
Rontgen Rays By Professor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., and E. Ruther- 
FOED 710 

3. On the Transparency of Glass and Porcelain to the Rontgen Rays. By A. 

W. RucKER, F.R.S., and W. Watson,B.Sc 710 

4. Measurement of Electric Currents through Air at different Densities down 
to one Five-millionth of the Density of Ordinary Air. By Lord Kelvin, 

J. T. BoTTOMLEY, -and Magnus Maclean 710 

6. The Duration of X-Radiation at each Spark. By Fred. T. TEOtriON, 
M.A., D.Sc 711 

6. On the Relations between Kathode Rays, Rontgen Ravs, and Becquerel 
Rays. By Professor SiLv ANUS P. Thompson, F.R.S. ." ... 712 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 
Department I. — Physics. 

1. Report on the Comparison of Magnetic Standards 713 

2. Report on the Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Observations 713 

3. *Adjourned discussion on Professor S. P. Thompson's Paper on the Rela- 
tion between Kathode Rays, Rontgen-Rays, and Becquerel Rays 713 

4. On Hyperphosphorescence. By Professor Silvanuh P. Thompson, 
D.Sc., F.R.S 713 

5. *Observations on the X-Rays. By H. H. F. Hyndman 713 

6. *0n the Component Fields of the Earth's Permanent Magnetism. By Dr. 

L. A. Bauer 713 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

7. On a One- Volt Standard Cell with Small Temperature Coefficient. By 

W. HiBBERT 713 

8. On Keostene, a new Resistance Alloy. By J. A. Harkek, D.Sc, and 

A. Davidson 714 

Department II. — Mathematics. 

1. Report on the G (r, i/)-Integrals 714 

2. Report on Bessel Functions and other Mathematical Tables 714 

3. Results connected with the Theory of Differential Resolvents. By the 

Rev.RoBERT Harley, M.A., F.R.S 714 

4 Connexion of Quadratic Forms. By Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cijnning- 
HAM, R.E 716 

5. On the Plotting out of Great Circle Routes on a Chart. By H. M. 
Taylor, M.A 716 

6. On the Stationary Motion of a System of Equal Elastic Spheres in a Field 

of no Forces when their Aggregate Volume is not Infinitely Small com- 
pared with the Space in which they Move. By S. H. Btjkbuey, F.R.S. 716 

7. On some Difficulties connected with the Kinetic Theory of Gases. By 

G. H. Bryan, Sc.D., F.R.S 721 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1 . *0n the Communication of Electricity from Electrified Steam to Air. 
By Lord Kelvin, F.R.S., Dr. Ma&nits Maclean, and Alexander 
Galt 721 

2. On the Molecular Dynamics of Hydrogen Gas, Oxygen Gas, Ozone, 
Peroxide of Hydrogen, Vapour of Water, Liquid Water, Ice, and Quartz 
Crystal. By the Right Hon. Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S 721 

3. A Magnetic Detector of Electrical Waves. By E. Rutherford, M.A. ... 724 

4. On a Complete Apparatus for the Study of the Properties of Electric 

Waves. By Professor Jagadis Chundbr Bose, M.A., D.Sc 725 

5. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevi.s 72-5 

6. Report on Solar Radiation 725 

7. Report on Seismological Observations 725 

8. Report on Meteorological Photographs 725 

9. The Elfect of Atmospheric Refraction on the Apparent Diurnal Move- 

ment of Stars, and a Method of allowing for it in Astronomical Pho- 
tography. By Professor A. A. Rambaitt, M.A. , Sc.D 726 

10. On the Sailing Flight of Birds. By G. H. Bryan, Sc.D., F.R.S 726 

11. *0n the Stanhope Arithmetical Machine of 1780. By the Rev. R. 
Harley, M.A., F.R.S 728 

12. The Exploration of the Upper Air by means of Kites. By A. Laurence 

Rotch 728 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER. 22. 

1. Interim Report on Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 728 

2. Report of the Electrical Standards Committee 728 

3. The Total Heat of Water. By W. N. Shaw, M.A., F.R.S 729 



xiv REPORT — 1896. 

Page 
4 *Note ou tlie Measurement of Electrical Resistance. Bv E. H. 

Geiffiths, M.A., F.R.S 729 

5. Researches in Absolute Mercurial Thermometry. By S. A. Sworn, 

M.A. (Oxon.), F.C.S., Assoc.R.C.Sc.T. 729 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 
Department I. 

1. Measurement by means of the Spectroscope of the Velocity of Rotation 

of the Planets. By Jambs E. Keelbr, Sc.D 729 

2. On the Photo-electric Sensitisation of Salts by Oathodic Rays. By Pro- 
fessor J. Elster and Professor H. Geitel 731 

3. *0n certain Photographic Effects. By Professor P. de Heen 731 

4. Some Experiments on Absorption and Fluorescence. By John 
Burke,B.A ^ 731 

5. On Homogeneous Structures and the Symmetrical Partitioning of them, 
with application to Crystals. By William Barlow 731 

Department II. 

1. Report on the Sizes of Pages of Periodicals 732 

2. +0n Disturbance in Submarine Cables. By W. H. Preece, C.B., F.R.S. 732 

3. *0n Carbon Megohms for High Voltages. By W. M. Moedey 732 

4. *0n an Instrument for measuring Magnetic Permeability. By W. M. 
Mordbt 732 

5. A Direct-reading Wheatstone Bridge. By A. P. Trotter, B. A 732 

6. The Division of an Alternating Current in Parallel Circuits with Mutual 

Induction. By Frederick; Bedell 733 

Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Address by Dr. Lttdwig Mono, F.R.S., President of the Section 734 

1. On Reflected Waves in the Explosion of Gases. By Professor H. B. 
Dixon, E. H. Strange, and E. Graham 746 

2. The Action of Metals and their Salts on the Ordinary and Rontgen 
Raj-s: a Contrast. By Dr. J. H. Gladstone and AV. Hibbert 746 

3. Limiting Explosive Proportions of Acetylene and Detection and Measure- 

ment of the Gas in the Air, By Professor Frank Clowes, D.Sc. (Lond.) 746 

4. The Accurate Determination of Oxygen by Absorption with Alkaline 
Pyrogallol Solution. By Professor Frank Cloaves, D.Sc. (Lond.) 747 

5. On the Amides of the Alkali Metals and some of their Derivatives. By 

A. W. Titherlet, M.Sc, Ph.D 748 

6. Interim Report on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 748 

7. Report on the Action of Light on Dyed Colours 748 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Report on the Carbohydrates of Barley Straw 748 

2. The Retardation of Chemical Reaction from Diminution of Space. By 
Professor Oscar Liebrexch 748 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

3. *Excrescent Resins. By Professor M. Bambeegee 750 

4. Report on the Proximate Chemical Constituents of the various kinds of 

Coal 750 

6. On the Velocity of Reaction before Perfect Equilibrium takes place. By 

METEE WiLDEEMANN 751 

6. The Behaviour of Litmus in Amphoteric Solutions. By Thomas R. 
Beadshaw, B.A., M.D 752 

7. Constitution of Sun Yellow or Curcumine, and Allied Colouring Matters. 

By Aethtje G. Geeen and Ande^e Wahl 753 

8. 'Abnormalities in the Behaviour of Ortho-derivatives of o-Amido- and 
Nitro-benzylamine. By Dr. F. E. Feancis 756 

9. Nitrates: Their Occurrence and Manufacture. By AVilliam Newton... 756 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. *0n Helium. By Professor W. Ramsay, F.R.S 757 

2. On the Discovery of Argon in the Water of an Austrian Well. By 
Professor Max Bambeegee 757 

3. *The Manufacture of Chlorine by means of Nitric Acid. By Dr. F. Huetee 758 

4. *Low Temperature Research. By Professor J. Dew ae, F.R.S 758 

5. Report on Electrolytic Analysis 758 

6. A Modified Form of Schrbtter's Apparatus for the Determination of 

Carbonic Anhydride. By Chaeles A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc 758 

7. A new Form of Aspirator. By Chaeles A. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc , and 

T. Lewis Bailey, Ph.D ".. 759 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. The Detection and Estimation of Carbon Monoxide in Air. By Dr. J. 

H ALDANE 759 

2. The Detection and Estimation of Carbon Monoxide in the Air bv the 

Flame-cap Test. By Professor Feank Clowes, D.Sc ." 760 

3. *Chemical Education in England and Germany. By Sir H. E. 
RoscoE, F.R.S 761 

4. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 761 

6. The Teaching of Science in Girls' Schools. Bv L. Edna Waltee, 
B.Sc, A.C.GJ ; 761 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Address by J. E. Make, M.A., F.R.S., Sec.G.S., President of the Section ... 762 

1. On the Geology of the Isle of Man. By Professor W. Boyd Dawkins 

M.A., F.R.S ; 776 

2. Observations on Some of the Footprints from the Trias in the Neighbour- 

hood of Liverpool. By H. C. Beaslet _ 779 

3. Recent Borings in the Red Marl, near Liverpool. By G. H. Morton, 
F.G.S : 780 

4. Erosion of the Sea Coast of Wirral. By G. II. IMoeton, F.G.S 781 



Xvi REPORT — 1896. 

Page 

5. Oscillations in the Level of the Land as shown by the Buried River 
Valleys and later Deposits in the Neighbourhood of Liverpool. By T. 
Mellaed Readb, F.G.S 782 

6. Tertiary Deposits in North Manxland. By Alfred Bell 783 

7. On the Occurrence of Sillimanite Gneisses in Central Anglesey. By 
Edwaed Geeenlt, F.G.S 783 

8. On Quartzite LeiT tides in the Schists of South-eastern Anglesey. By 

Edwaed Geeenly, F.G.S 783 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Pre-Cambrian Fossils. By Sir William Dawson, LL.D., F.E.S 784 

2. Some Features of the Early Cambrian Faunas. By G. F. Matthew, 
D.Sc.,F.R.S.C ■. 785 

3. Report on Life Zones in British'Carboniferous Rocks 787 

4. The Range of Species in the Carboniferous Limestone of North Wales. 

By G. H. MoETON, F.G.S 787 

6. On the Source of Lava. By Professor J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S 788 

6. On the Post-Cambrian Shrinkage of the Globe. By Professor J. Logan 
Loblet, F.G.S i 789 

7. On the Cause of the Bathymetric Limit of Pteropod Ooze. By Percy 

F. Kendall, F.G.S 789 

8. On the Conditions under which the Upper Challc was deposited. By 

Percy F. Kendall, F.G.S 791 

9. The Hig'hwood Mountains of Montana and Magmatic Differentiation. 

A Criticism. By H. J. Johnston-Lavis, M.D., F.G.S 792 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. The Depths of the Sea in Past Epochs. By E. B. Wetherbd, F.G.S.... 793 

2. The Rippling of Sand. By Vaughan Coenish 794 

3. Are there Fossil Deserts ? By Professor Dr. JoHAN:srES Walthee 795 

4. Notes on the Ancient Rocks of Charnwood Forest. By W. W. Watts, 

M.A., F.G.S 795 

5. The Geology of Skomer Island. By F. T. Howard, M.A., F.G.S., and 

E. W. Small, M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S 797 

6. Notes on Sections along the Loudon Extension of the Manchester, 

Sheffield, and Lincoln Railway between Rugbv and Aylesbury. By 
Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S " '. 798 

7. Report on the Stonesfield Slate 799 

8. Report on the Investigation of a Coral Reef 799 

9. Report on Geological Photographs 799 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Report on the Hoxne Excavation 799 

2. On the Discovery of Marine Shells in the Drift Series at High Levels in 

Ayrshire, N.B. " By John Smith 789 

3. Notes on the Superficial Deposits of North Shropshire By C. Callaway, 

D.Sc.,F.GiS 800 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

Page 

4. On the Glacial Phenomena of the Vale of Olwyd. By J. Lomas, 

A.RC.S., and P. F. Kendall, F.G.S 801 

5. On Some Post-Pliocene Changes of Physical Geography in Yorkshire. 
ByPEKCY F. Kendall, F.G.S 801 

6. Report on the Erratic Blocks 803 

7. Another Possible Cause of the Glacial Epoch. By Professor Edwaed 
Hull, LL.D., F.RS., F.G.S 803 

8. Final Report on the High-level Shell-hearing Deposits at Clava, Kintyre, 

&c 804 

9. Interim Report on the Singapore Caves 804 

10. *Interim Report on the Calf Hole Exploration 804 

11, 'Interim Report on the High-level Flint-drift at Ightham 804 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. *Interim Report on the Investigation of the Locality where the Cetiosaurus 
Remains in the Oxford Museum were found 804 

2. *Interim Report on the Eurypterid-tearing Deposits of the Pentland Hills 804 

3. *Interiin Report on the Palseozoic Phyllopoda 804 

4. 'Interim Report on the Registration of Type Specimens 804 

5. Fifth Contribution to Rhfetic Literature. By Montagij Beowkb, F.G.S., 

r.Z.S ; 804 

6. On the Skull of the South African Fossil Reptile Diademodon. By Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S 805 

7. Note on Examples of Current Bedding in Clays. By Professor H. G. 

Seelet, F.R.S 805 

8. On some Crush-Conglomerates in Anglesey. By Sir Archibald Geikie, 
F.R.S : .'806 

9. Report on Seismological Investigations 807 

10. Note on some Fossil Plants from South Africa. By A. C. Seward, M.A., 
F.G.S : :807 

11. On the Production of Corundum by Contact Metamorphism on Dartmoor. 

By Professor Karl Busz 807 

12. *Interim Report on the Age and Relation of Rocks near Moreseat, Aberdeen 807 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Address by E. B. Potjlton, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology in the 

University of Oxford, President of the Section 808 

1. *0n the Cultivation of Oysters as Practised by the Romans. By R. T. 
GiJNTHER, M.A 828 

2. On the Function of Certain Diagnostic Characters of Decapod Crustacea. 

By Walter Gaestang, M.A , 828 

3. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 830 

4. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Plymouth 830 

5. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples ... 830 

0. Report on the Fauna and Flora of the West Indies 830 

7. Report on the Biological Investigation of Oceanic Islands 830 

1896. a 



xviii REPORT — 1896. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

Page 

1. *Discussioii on Neo-Lamarckism, opened by Professor Lloyd-Mokgan ... 8o0 

2. Report on the Coccidae of Ceylon 830 

3. Report on the Transmission of Specimens by Post 830 

4. Report on Zoological Bibliography and Publication 830 

5. Report on the Index generum et specierum animalium 830 

6. *0n the Life-history of the Tiger Beetle {Cicindela campestris). By 

F. Enock 831 

7. The Hatchery for Marine Fishes at Flodevigen, Norway. By G. M. 
Dannevig .'. '. 831 

8. On the necessity for a British Fresh-water Biological Station, By D. J. 

SCOUKFIELD 831 

9. *0n Improvements in Trawling Apparatus. By J. H. Macluke 832 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 
Report on the Migration of Birds 832 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. *Discnssion in conjunction with Sections H and I on the Ancestry of the 
Vertebrata 832 

2. *0n Palaeospondylus Gunni. By Dr. R. 11. Teaqtjair, F.R.S 832 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. 'Discussion in conjunction with Section K on the Cell Theory 832 

2. The Theory of Panplasm. By Professor Charles S. Minot 832 

3. On Multiple Cell Division as compared with Bi-partition as Herbert 
Spencer's limit of growth. By Professor Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc. 
F.L.S : '. .'833 

4. The Present Position of Morphology in Zoological Science. By E. W. 
MacBride, M.A 833 

5. The Olfactory Lobes. By Professor Charles S. Minot 836 

6. On the relation of the Rotifera to the Trochophore. By Professor 
Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S 83(3 

7. Statistics of Wasps. By Professor F. Y. Edgeworth 836 

8. *Note on Genyornis, Stirlinr/, an extinct Ratite Bird supposed to belong 

to the Order Megistanes. By Professor A. Newton, F.R.S 836 

9. Report on the Fauna of African Lakes 836 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1 . Report on the Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irish Sea 836 

2. Phoronis, the Earliest Ancestor of the Vertebrata. By A. T. Masteeman 837 

3. The Eifects of Pelagic Spawning Habit on the Life Histories of Fishes. By 

A. T. Masterman 837 

4. *The Structure of the Male Apus. By Dr. Benham 837 

6. 'On the Life History of the Haddock. By Professor W. C. M'Intosh 

M.D., F.R.S .' 837 



CONTENTS. xix 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Page 
Address by Major L. Daewin, Sec.R.G.S., President 838 

1. On a Journey in Tripoli. By H. S. Cowper 849 

2. *The Land of the Hausa. By Rev. J. C. Hobinsox 850 

3. Photograpliie Surveying. By John' Coles 850 

4. 'Marine Researcli in the North Atlantic. By H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E. 850 

5. On a Proposed Geographical Description of the British Isliuds. By 
Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E .". 850 

FRTBAY, SEPTEMBER L«. 

1. The Weston Tapestry-Maps. By Rev. W. K. R. Bedford, M.A 850 

2. The Altels Avalanche. By Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc. 8ol 

0. On Uganda and the Upper Nile. By Lieutenant C. F. S. Vandeleur... 858 

4. Coast-forms of Rom ney Marsh. By Dr. F. G. Gulliver 851: 

/). *Last Year's Work of the Jackson-IIarmsworth Expedition. By A. 
MoNTEFiORE Brice . 855 

C. The Influence of Climate and Vegetation on African Civilis.xtions. By 
G. F. Scoti-Elliot, F.L.S., F.R.G.S 856 

7. Sand Dunes. By Vaughan Cornish, M.Sc 857 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

L "^Vorld Maps of ^lean Monthly Rainfall. By Andrew J. IIesbertson, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S 857 

-2. *The Climate of Xyasahmd. By J. W. Moir 858 

3. Report on African Climate 858 

4. Practical Geography in Manchester. By J. Hoavard Reed 858 

5. *Canada and its Gold Discoveries. By Sir James Grant 858 

3WXDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. A Journey towards Lhasa. By W. A. L. Fletcher 859 

2. The Northern Glaciers of the Vatna Jokull, Iceland. By Frederick 

W. W. IIowELL 859 

3. Notes on the less-known Interior of Iceland. By Karl Grossmann, 

M.D., F.R.C.S.E., F.G.S 859 

4. The Relativity of Geographical Advantages. By George G. Chisholm, 

M.A., B.Sc , 860 

5. The various Boundary Lines between British Guiana and Venezuela, 

attributed to Sir Robert H. Schomburgk. Bv Ralph Richardson, 
F.R.S.E., Hon. Sec, R.S.G.S., F.S.A.Scot ' 801 

fi. *A Journey in Spitzbergen in 189G. By Sir W. Martin Conwat, M.A. 802 

7. The Present Condition of the Ruined Cities of Ceylon. By Henry W. 

Cave, M.A 862 

8. 'Earthquakes and Sea-AVaves. By Professor John Milne, F.R.S 802 

a 2 



XX REPORT 1896. 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

Page 

1. The Soutlieni Alps of New Zealand ; and a proposed Ascent of Aconcagua. 

By A. E. Fitzgerald 862 

2. 'The Egyptian Sudan. By General Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 863 

3. The Teaching of Geography in relation to History. By A. W. Andrews 864 

4. The Border-land of British Columbia and Alaska. By E. Odlum 865 

5. *Some Remarks on Dr. Nansen and the Results of his Recent Arctic 
Expedition. By J. Scott Keltie 865 

6. An Apparatus to illustrate Map Projections. By Andrew J. Herbeetson, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S 865 

7. A New Population Map of the South Wales Coal District. By B. V. 

Darbishire, M.A 865 

8. Report on Geographical Teaching. 866 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBEB. 17. 

Address by the Right Hon. Leonard Courtney, M.A., M.P., President 867 

1. Some Economic Issues in regard to Charitable or Philanthropic Trading. 

By C. S.LocH 875 

2. Trade Combinations and Prices. By II. J. Falk, M.A 87G 

3. Les Crises Commerciales. By Monsieur Clement Juglar 876 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. That Ability is not the Proper Basis of Local Taxation. By Edwin 
Cannan, M.A 877 

2. Some Observations on the Distribution and Incidence of Rates and Taxes; 

with special reference to the transfer of charges from the former to the 
latter. By G. H. Blunden 878 

3. Proposed Modifications of the Rating System. By W. H. Smith 878 

4. Farm Labour Colonies and Poor Law Guardians. By Harold E.Mooee, 
F.S.I ■ 87D 

5. *RafFeisen Village Banks in Germany. By Professor W. B. Bottomley 879 

6. The Decay of British Agriculture : its Causes and Cure. By Charles 

RiNTOUL 879 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Metric Measures and our Old System. By F. Toms 880 

2. *Comparison of the Age-Distribution of Town and Country Popula- 
tionin Ditfereut Lands. By A. W. Flux, M.A ." 880 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Mercantile Markets for ' Futures.' By Elijah Helm 880 

2. Grain Futures, their Effects and Tendencies. By H. R. Rathbonb 881 

3. Cotton Futures, what they are, and how they Operate in Practice. By 
Charles Stewart 881 



CONTENTS, Xxi 

4. The Influence of Business in Futures on Trade and Agriculture. By J. 

SiLVERBEEG gg2 

5. *The Course of Average General Prices. By Hexet Binns 883 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. The Currency Question in the United States and its bearing on British 

Interests. ]3y Arthur Lee 883 

2. Standard of Value and Price. By William Fowler 884 

•3. The Monetary Standard. By Major L. Darwin 885 

Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Address by Sir Douglas Fox, Vice-President of the Institution of Civil 

Engineers, President , 886 

1. Physical and Engineering Features of the Pdver Mersey and the Port of 

Liverpool. By G. F. Lyster 896 

2. The Cause of Fracture of Railway Rails. By W. Worst Beaumont, 

M.Inst.C.E 896 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. Report on the Effect of Wind and Atmospheric Pressure on the Tides ... 897 

2. Report on the Calibration of Instruments in Engineering Laboratories ... 897 

3. Description of general features and dimensions of the Tower Bridge. By 

J. Wolfe Baret, C.B., F.R.S 897 

4. On the Liverpool Waterworks. By J. Parry 897 

5. *The present position of the British North Atlantic Mail Service. By 

A. J. Maginnis 897 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. Report on Small Screw Gauges 898 

2. 'Test of Glow Lamps. By W. H. Preece, C.B., F.R.S 898 

3. *The Liverpool Overhead Railway and the Southern Extension of it. 

By S. B. CoxTRELL 898 

4. Notes on Electric Cranes. By E. W. Anderson 898 

5. 'Experiments on the Hystere'iis of Iron in Revolving Magnetic Fields. 

By Professor J. A. Fleming, F.R.S., R. Beattie, and R. C. Clinker... 899 

6. Street Lighting by Electric Incandescent Lamps. By William George 
Walker, M.Inst.M.E., A.M.Inst.C.E 899 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. Armour and Heavy Ordnance — Recent Developments and Standards. 

By Captain W. H. Jaques 900 

2. A new Spherical Balanced Valve for all Pressures. By James Casey . . . 901 

3. Engineering Laboratorv Apparatus. By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, 
M.Inst.C.E '. : 903 

4. 'Development of the Art of Printing in Colours. By T. Cond • 905 

5. 'Expanded Metal. By H. B. Tarry 905 



Xxil REPORT — 1896. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

Page 
L *Wreck Raisiug. By J. Bell 905 

2. *Horseless Road Locomotion. By A. R. Sennett 905 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 11. 

Address by Arthur J. Evans, M.A., F.SA., President of the Section 90G 

1. Report on tlie Mental and Physical Condition of Children 922 

2. Stone Implements in Somaliland. By H. W. Seton-Kake 922 

3. The Older Flint Implements of Ireland. By W, J. Knowles, M.R.I.A. 923 

4. '^The Dolmens of Brittany. By Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., and 
Professor W. Botd Dawkixs, F.R.S 024 

5. The Sculptured Stones of Scotland. By Miss C. Maclagax 924 

6. The 'Brochs' of Scotland (with model). By Miss C. Maclagan 924 

7. Ancient Measures in Prehistoric Monuments. By A. L. Lewis, F.C.A. 924 

8. Palaeolithic 'Spear and Arrow-heads. By II. Stopes 925 

9. Palseoliths Derived and Re-worked. By H. Stopes 925 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. *The Centenary of the Birth of A. Retzitts was commemorated 925 

2. Physical Antliropolofjy of the Isle of Man. By A. W. Moore, MA., 

and John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S 925 

3. The Trinil Femur {Pi//iecanf/iropi(s crectus) contrasted with the Femora 
of various Savage and Civilised Races. By David Hepburn, M.D., 
F.R.S.E [ 926 

4. Proportions of the Human Body. By J. G. Gaeson, M.D 927 

5. *Some Pagan Survivals. By F. T. Elwoethy 927 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. Report on tlie Ethnographical Survey of Great Britain and Ireland 92« 

2. fKent in Relation to the Ethnographical Survey. By E. W. Beabeook, 
F-SA ; _ 928 

3. An Imperial Bureau of Ethnology. By C. H. Read, Sec.S.A 928 

4. Anthropological Opportunities in British New Guinea. By Sidney 

H.Ray " 92g 

6. Interim Report on the Immediate Investigation of Oceanic Islands 929 

6. On a Metliod of Determining the Value of Folklore as Ethnological 

Data, illustrated by Survivals of Fire-worship in the British Isles. By 

G. Laurence GoMME __ 909 

7. Report on the North- Western Tribes of Canada 929 

8. *The Coast Indians of British Columbia. By Professor E. Odlum 929 

^' *7<H ^^'^^^'^ of Agriculture in Greece and Italy, and its Influence on 

Early Civilisation. By Rev. G. Hartwell Jones, M.A 929 

10. Report on the North Dravidian and Kolarian Races of India 929 



CONTENTS. XXIU 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

Page 

1. Cvpnis and the Trade Eoutes of S.E. Europe. By John L. Mtees, 
M.A.,F.S.A 929 

2. The Transition from Pure Copper to Bronze made with Tin. By Dr. 

J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 930 

3. Hallstatt and the Starting-point of the Iron Age in Europe. By Professor 

W. RiDGEWAT, M.A 9.30 

4. The Tyrrhenians in Greece and Italy. By Dr. OsCAE Montelitjs 931 

5. Eeport on the Lake Village at Glastonhury 931 

6. 'Sergi's Theory of a Mediterranean Race. By J. L. Mtees, M.A 931 

7. 'Boat Graves in Sweden. By Dr. H. Stolpe 931 

8. Notes on a Prehistoric Settlement in Co. Kerry. By R. A. S. Mac- 

AlISTEK, M.A 931 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 
*Discussion on the Early Civilisation of the Mediterranean 932 

1. Who produced the Obiects called Mykenasan ? By Prof. AV. Ridgewat, 

M.A.. 932 

2. Preclassical Chronology in Italy and Greece. By Dr. Oscae Montelius 933 

3. Pillar and Tree AVorship in Mvcensean Greece. By Aethur J. Evans, 

M.A., F.S.A .■ 934 

4. *The Ornament of N.E. Europe. By G. Coffey 934 

5. Manx Crosses as Illustrations of Celtic and Scandinavian Art. By P. M.C. 
Keemode 934 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1. An Ethnological Storehouse. By Professor W. M. Flindees Peteie, 
D.C.L ". 935 

2. The Duk Duk and other Customs as Forms of Expression of the Intel- 

lectual Life of the Melanesians. By Geap VON Pfeil 939 

3. An Ancient British Interment. By F. T. Elwoetht 940 

4. On the Aboriginal Stick and Bone Writing of Australia. By Dr. 
Geoege Haeley, F.R.S 941 

6. *The Straw Goblin. By C. G. Leiand 941 

6. *Marks on Ancient Monuments. By 0. G. Leland 941 

Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental Pathology and 

Experimental Psychology). 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

1. The Genesis of Vowels. By R. J, Lloyd, D.Lit., M.A 972 

2. The Interpretation of the Phonograms of Vowels. By R. J. Lloyd, 
D.Lit., M.A 973 

3. Report on Physiological Applications of the Phonograph 973 

4. On a New Method of Distinguishing between Organic and Inorganic Com- 

pounds of Iron in the Tissues. Bv Professor A. B. Macallum, M.B., 
Ph.D .■. 973 

5. On the Different Forms of the Respiration in Man. By W. Maecet, 

M.D., F.R.S • 974 



XXW REPORT 1896. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

Page 

1. The Occurrence of Fever in Mice. By Professor J. Loeeain Smith, 

M.A., M.D., and F. F. Wesbeook, M.D 974 

2. The Physiological Effects of ' Peptone ' when Injected into the Circula- 

tion. "By Professor W. H. Thompson, M.D 975 

3. On the Nerves of the Intestine and the Effects of Small Doses of Nicotine 
upon them. By J. L. Bunch, M.D., B.Sc 976 

4. On the effect of Peritonitis on Peristalsis. By A. S. Geunbaum, M.A., 

M.B. (Cantab.), M.R.O.P 976 

5. The Glucoside Constitution of Proteid Matter. By F. W. Pavx, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S 976 

6. The Discharge of a Single Nerve Cell. By Professor F. Gotch, F.R.S. 978 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19. 

1. On the Principles of Microtome Construction. By Professor Chakles 

S. MiNOX 979 

2. Fragments from the Autobiography of a Nerve. By A. W. Waller, 
M.D., F.R.S 980 

3. Structure of Nerve Cells as shown by Wax Models. By Gustav Mann, 
M.D. (Edin.) 980 

4. Cell Granulations under Normal and Abnormal Conditions, with special 
references to the Leucocytes. By R. A. M. Buchanan, M.D 981 

5. Some Points of Interest in Dental Histology. By F. Paul, F.R.C.S. ... 982 

6. The Effect of the Destruction of the Semicircular Canals upon the Move- 
ment of the Eyes. By Edgar Stevenson, M.D 982 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 21. 

Address by W. H. Gaskell, M.D., LL.D., M.A., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 942 

*Discu8sion on the ' Ancestry of the Vertebrata ' at a joint meeting of 

Sections D, H, and 1 983 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1 ^Photometry and Purkinje's Phenomena. By Professor J. B. Hatceafi 983 

2. The Physical Basis of Life. By Professor F. J. Allen, M.D. (Cantab.) 983 

3 *The Role of Osmosis in Physiological Processes. By Dr. Lazarus 
Baelow 984 

4. The Organisation of Bacteriological Researcli in Connection with Public 
Health. By Sims Woodhead, M.D 984 

5. Bacteria and Food. By A. A. Kanthack, M.D 985 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1. The Minute Structure of the Cerebellum. By Alexanbee Hill, M.D.... 986 

2. The Basis of the Bacteriological Theory, founded upon Observations upon 

the Fermentation of Milk. By Professor A. P. Foekee 986 

3. Report on Oysters under Normal and Abnormal Environments 986 

4. The Presence of Iron and of Copper in Green and in White Oysters. By 
Chaeles a. Kohn, Ph.D., B.Sc 986 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 
6. Experiments on the Action of Glycerine upon the Growth of Bacteria. By 
S. MoNCKTON CoPEMAN, M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), M.R.C.P., and Feank R. 
Blaxall, M.D. (Lond.), D.P.H 986 

6. Some Points in the Mechanism of Eeaction to Peritoneal Infections. By 
HeEBEKT E. DtJEHAM 987 

7. On the Agglutinating Action of Human Serum on certain Pathogenic 

Micro-organisms (particularly on the Typhoid Bacillus). By Albeet S. 
Getjnbaum, M.A., M.B. (Cantab.), M.R.C.P 989 

8. The Detection of Lead in Organic Fluids By John Hill Abeam, M.D. 

(Lond.), M.R.C.P., and Peospee H. Maesden, F.C.S 990 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 

Address by D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Honorary Keeper of the Jodrell 

Laboratoiy, Royal Gardens, Kew, President of the Section 992 

1. Report on Methods of preparing Vegetable Specimens for Museums 1010 

2. On some Species of the Chytridiaceous Genus Urophlyctis. By Professor 
P.Magnus 1010 

3. A Parasitic Disease oi Pellia epiphylla. By W. G. P. Ellis, M.A 1010 

4. On Corallorliiza innata, R. Br., and its associated Fungi. By A. Vaughan 
Jennings, F.L.S., F.G.S 1011 

5. On a New Genus of Schizoviycetes, showing Longitudinal Fission. {Astro- 

bacter Jonesii.) By A. Vaughan Jennings, F.L.S., F.G.S 1012 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 18. 

1. On the Arrangement of the Vascular Bundles in certain Nymphceacete. 
ByD. T. Gwtnne-Vaughan, B.A. (Cantab.) 1012 

2. The Influence of Habitat upon Plant-Habit. By G. F. Scott Elliot, 

B.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.G.S 1013 

3. Discussion on the Movement of Water in Plants, opened by Feancis 
Daewin, F.R.S 1014 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Changes in the Tentacle of Drosera rotundifolia, produced by Feeding 
with Egg Albumen. By Lilt H. Huie 1014 

2. On the so-called Tubercle Bacillus. By A. Coppen Jones, F.L.S 1015 

3. Preliminary Notes on Floral Deviations in some Species of Polygonum. 

By Professor J. W. H. Teail, F.R.S 1016 

4. On the Singular Effect produced on certain Animals in the West Indies, 
by feeding on the Young Shoots, Leaves, Pods, and Seeds of the Wild 
Tamarind or Jumbai Plant {Leucana glauca, Benth.). By D. Moeeis, 
C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S 1017 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 

1. *0n the Number of Spores in Sporangia. By Professor F.O. Bower, F.R.S. 1019 

2. The Polymorphism of the Green Algse, and the Principles of their 
Evolution. By Professor R. Chodat 1019 



XXvi REPORT — 1896. 

Page 

3. On some Peculiar Cases of Apogamous Eeproduction in Ferns. By 

William II. Lang, M.B., B.Sc 1010 

4. *0n the Geographical Distribution of Plants. By W. T. Thiselton- 

Dtek, F.E.S., C.M.G., CLE 1020 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22. 

1. ^Discussion on the Cell. Some current Problems connected with Cell- 
division. By Professor J. Beetland Farmee 1020 

2. On the Heterotype Divisions of Lilium Martagon. By Ethel Saegant 1021 

3. On the Cells of the Cyanophycese. By Professor E. Zachaeias 1021 

4. *0n a New Hybrid Passion Flower. By Dr. J. Wilson 1022 

5. Observations on the Loranthacese of Ceylon. By F. W. Keeble, B.A. 

(Cantab.) 1022 

6. Specimens of Recent and Fossil Plants were demonstrated in the Zoologi- 
cal Laboratory by Dr. D. H. Scott, Professor Magnus, Professor 
Zachaeias, Miss E. Saegant, Mr. A. C. Sewaed, Mr. "W, H. Lang, and 
others 1023 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1. On Latent Life in Seeds. ByM. Casimie de Candolle 1023 

2. On some Carboniferous Fossils referred to Lepidostrobus. By D. H. 
Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.K.S 1024 

3. A New Cycad from the Isle of Portland. By A. C. Sewaed, M. A., F.G.S. 1024 

4. Note on a Large Specimen of Lyginodendron. By A. C. Sewaed, M.A., 
F.G.S 1024 

5. *A New Species of Albuca (A. proUfera, Wils.). By Dr. J. Wilson ...1025 

6. *Observations on Hybrid Albucas. By Dr. J, Wilsoit 1026 

Index 1027 



PLATE. 

Illustrating the Report on the Relation of Palaeolithic Man and the Glacial Epoch. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course Oi those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



xxviii REPORT — 1896. 

gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay loithout intermission their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to pureliase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a ccmpo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, oi-, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members luho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription . 

2. At reduced or Memhers" Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annnal Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. Qd. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

• A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXIX 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet auBually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It sball consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding yeai's, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Hide to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant Geveral Secretary at least one month hefore the Meetiiicf 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on tlie list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members.^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
hefore the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.'^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,'' and of preparing Repoi-ts 

' Eevised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1S9G. 

' Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

» Passed, Edinburg:h, 1871. 

■• Notice io Contributors of Mewoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
fot the several Sections before the beginning nf tlie Meeting. It has therefore become 



XXX 



REPORT — 189G. 



tbereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex offlcio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their fanctions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by tho 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printei-, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'* Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Thursday and Saturday.'' 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to tlie 
several Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Slemoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. 2 Swansea, 1880. ^ Edinburgh, 1871. 

♦ The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. ' Nottingham, 1893. 



RDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

Committee of the Section, and entered on tlie minutes accord- 
ingly- 
3. Papers wliich have been reported on nnfayourably by the Organ- 

isinof Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.' 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessaiy that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Ofi&ce and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be foriva.rded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxix), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
' This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 



xxxii REPORT — 1896. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his tcillingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should be appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Commillee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient ivorhing. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to iuable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
numher of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Cmnmittee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each IS \o be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must iirst be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of 3foney.^ 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be exjiended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 
plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

Committees to which gi-ants of money are entrusted by the Association 
for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
I. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. InterimReports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

' Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXUl 

-5. In each Committee tlie Chairman is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Rilcker, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received aud expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received . 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of Natural History are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Association. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Otfice of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Seclioii Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he tcsed for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,' and the reading cf 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange tl'P hours 
of meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee, except for Thursday anJ 
Ijaturday. 

1896. b 



XXxiv REPORT — 189G. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to tlie Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

Ko person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed c-i 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Covimittee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.' 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommen dations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

' Passed by the General Comaaittee at Newcastle, 1863. 
^ Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 
' Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



p 



BULKS OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXSV 



Corresponding Societies.^ 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Everj'^ Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, n 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

0. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 

b2 



SXXvi REPORT — 1896. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions beai-- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing i-esults. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OflBcers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officeo'S. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
und a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ^ 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
{ 3 ) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

' Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874:. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVU 

■whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those vrho, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

J ccounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xxxvni 



REPORT — 1896. 






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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. xlv 






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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. xlix 



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REPORT — 189G. 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICEES, 1831— 1897. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Muechison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
l'8:32-:5'.» C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. SABINE, F.R.S. 



1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 
1872-97 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
188.3-97 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-97 Sir Lyon (now Lord) Playfaie, 

F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-fi2 John Tayloe, Esq , F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. SPOTTibWOODE, Esq., F.R S. 



1874-91 Prof. 
1891-97 Prof. 



A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
A. W. RtJCKEB, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 

i83r 



-35 
-36 



1836-37 



] -137- 

1830- 

] 845- 
1850- 

1 852- 
1 8.-;!- 
■• 85!1- 
] K9f>. 

18^:^- 



39 

45 

.50 
52 

-53 
59 
-{)1 
-62 
63 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S , 

F.RS. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 



Veenon Haecouet, 

Veenon Haecouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1SG3-65 



Veenon Haecouet, 
and R. I. Muechison, 

Esq.. F.R.S. 
R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine. F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine. F.R.S. 
Genera] E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walkee, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prnf. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R S. 



186.5-66 F. Galton. Esq., F.R.S. 
1866-68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst. F.R.S. 
1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. Douglas Galton. F.R.S., 

and Dr. Michael Fosteb, 

F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Dr. P. L. Sclatee, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Prof. F. M. Balfoue, 

F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veexon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Veenon Hakcoubt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafee, F.R.S. 



1831 
i832 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
.ToHN Phillips. Esq.. ^ccretery. I 1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 



Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1 '-132- 62 Prof John Phillips. F.R.S. 
1K6::-7S G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
]:i78-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

As'ietant Sfcretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

NiCTctary. 



Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretarii. 
1890 G. Gbifkith, Esq., M.A., Aetiny 

Secretary. 
1890-97 G. Gbiffith, E.sq., M.A. 



li 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1833. 
1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert. D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Piof . Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1853. 

1853. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 

Rev. Dr. Robinson , 

Rev. William AHiewell, F.R.S 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... 



Prof. Forbes, F.R.S. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 



Rev. Prof. Llo5-d. F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Cullooh, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. ^V. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smitl). 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

■\V. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 



Lord Wrotteslev, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.K.S.E. 



Dr. St e veil}', G. G. Stokes. 

Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Ely, F.R.S. I Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

c 2 



lii 



REPOBT — 1896. 



Date and Place 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Presidents 



Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

K.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Rev. W. 
V.P.R.S. 



Whewell, D.D. 



Secretaries 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Bath. 



Birmingham 



Nottingham 
Dundee . . . 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 
1874, 

1876. 
1876, 

1877, 
1878, 
1879, 



Brighton ... 
Bradford . . . 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S... . 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

■pi "p C 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.AV. J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Caylej', M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndal). 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H, 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Cliflon, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smithy 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof .H. J. S. Smith , 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rod well. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casej', G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liii 



Date and Place 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1S90. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 



Presidents 



Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. O. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A.. 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Aberdeen... Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Birmingham Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Manchester Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Bath Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Newcastle- Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 
ixpon-Tyne R.E., F.R.S. 

Leeds J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 



CardiflE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 



Prof. A. AV. Riicker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 



W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D, 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baj'nes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
II. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, 

W. Watson. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEEALOGT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



.lohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837, 

1838, 

1839. 
1840, 

1841. 
1842. 
1843, 
1844. 
1845, 



Dublin . 

Bristol , 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



j Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
I path. 
jProf. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Reynolds. 
' Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
I Richardson. 
'Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt,W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. So lly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 



llV 



repout — 189G. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birminghfim 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow ... 
1-856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin.... 

1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 

1860. Oxford.... 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, Y.P.R.S.E. 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. A.Miller, M.D.,r.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof.W.A.Millcr, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.ll. Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 



1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.. 

1873. Bradford... Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.. 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 



1874. Belfast Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 

1875. Bristol I A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 

1876. Glasgow ... W. H. Pcrkin, F.R.S 



1877. Plymouth. 

1878, Dublin.... 



F. A. Abel, F.R.S. 



Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams, 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt , G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R, 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, K. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. ' 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Cliandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell. Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1879. 
1880, 

1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardifE 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A . W. Williamson , F. R. S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Emerson Rej'nolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



SECTION B (continued). 

1895. Ipswich ...| Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

1896. Liverpool...! Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 



H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J. 

M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Tliomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, 11. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson. H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Di.xon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

B. E. Moyle, W W. J. Nicol. 
H, Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 

—CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn. J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge, 

1834. Edinburgh, 



R. L Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

R. J, Griffith i Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— I William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 



6-'e(7i7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<?fOflr.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

1838. Newcastle. . C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

j Gcoffraj?hy, Lord Prudhoe. 

1839.Birmingham Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

I 6^fo^.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 



T. J. Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hanter. — Geo- 

graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham,R.N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 

Geography, Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickr 

land, Charles Darwin. 



Ivi 



EEPOET 189G. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1840. Glasgow ... 


Charles Lyell, F.'R.S.—Geo- 


W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 




gra2>hy, G. B. Greenough, 


Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 




F.R.S. 


Secular, M.D. 


1841. Plymouth... 


H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 


W.J.Hamilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 


1842. Manchester 


R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 


E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 


1843. Cork 


Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 


Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 




M.R.I.A. 


land. 


1844. York 


Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 


Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 


1845. Cambridge. 




F.R.S. 


Rev. W. Thorp. 


1846. Southamp- 


Leonard Horner,F.R.S. — Geo- 


Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 


ton. 


graphy, G. B. Greenough, 


Prof. Oldham. — Geography, Dr. C. 




F.R.S. 


T. Beke. 


1847. Oxford 


Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 


Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 


1848. Swansea ... 


Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 


Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Ramsay. 


1849.Birmingham 


Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 


J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 




F.G.S. 


A. C. Ramsay. 


1850. Edinburgh" 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 


A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 




F.R.S. 


Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c {continued). — geologt. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool . . 


1855. 
1856. 


Glasgow ... 
Cheltenliam 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen,.. 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 



William Hopkins,M.A., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

D. C. L. Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C, 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 



' The subject of Geography was separated from Geology and combined with 
Ethnology, to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical 
and Ethnological Section" in 1850; for Presidents and Secretaries of which see 
page Ixii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1865. 

1866. 

1867. 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 



Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 

Brighton... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardiflE 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 



Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. "W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S , Sec. 

G.S. ■ 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S., 
Sec. G.S. 



Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly, 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O, Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengell3% W. Boj'd Dawkins, 

Rev. n. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 
J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Toplej'. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

VV. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. B. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

;C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 

A. Miers, Clement Reid. 
J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, Clement 

Reid. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1896. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGT, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford ;Rev, P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...|Eev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge ' I Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh .! Prof . Graham |W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford , 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

j Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen. F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- : Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. | Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

j Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. i Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.R.S. 1 Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixi.] 

1848. Swansea ....L. W. Dillwj'n, F.R.S., 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S. E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
I Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
' Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 
1863. 


Cambridge 
Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 


B i r m i n g- 
ham ' 




Secretaries 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Kev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 
' Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 

Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 
Dr. Ogilvy. 

W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 
i L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 

Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester,"Dr. 
I P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
! Alfred Nevcton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 
I B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 
I Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke. Rev. 
I H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued). — BIOLOGT. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— iS^i^. 

of Physiol., Prof. Humphry, 

F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthrojpol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

■ — JDejJ. of Zool. and Hot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dcj). of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— DejJ. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — Z»(:^. ('/ 
Anat. and Physiol.,'Pxoi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Z^^i^. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— Z>c/A of Bot. -and 
ZyoZ.,Prof.Wyville Thomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.B.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, V.U.^.—Bep. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Vr:of. Ru- 
therford, U.D.—Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth. Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lampre}-. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology; and for the word 'Sub- 
section,' in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Depart- 
ment' was substituted. 



Ix 



REPORT — 189G. 



Date and Place 




1874. Belfast . 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glaso-ow 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton.' 



1883. Southport" 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 



Secretaries 



Prof. Redfern, U.Tt.—Dep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Vres.n.^.—Dc2).ofAn- 
throj}.,SiT W.K.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Bep.o/l 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof, i 
Cleland, F.R.S.— i>e/A of 
Anthropol., Prof. Kolleston, 
F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Be}}, of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Be}), of Anat. and Phijsiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick, 
F.R.S.E. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. — 
Bejj. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bej}. of 
^«i/(»-(ywZ.,F.Galton, F.R.S. ! 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bcj). of AntlirojwL, Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bc2f. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R.I 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. | 

Prof. St. George Mivart,| 
F.R.S. — Bejj. of Anthrojiol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bej). of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C. L. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bi-p. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z>f_/;. of AntJtrojwl., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Atiat. and Physiol., 
Prof. J. S. Burdon Sander- 
son, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boj'd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



W. T. Thiselton- Dyer, R.O.Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Xab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 
Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 



' The Departments of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology 
amalgamated. 

'' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixviii. 



were 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., Prof. T. W. Bridge, AV. Heape, Prof. 
F.K.S., F.G.S. W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. A. Newton, M.A.,F.R.S., C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 



F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 



Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
1893. Nottingham' Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram. 
M.A., LL.D,, F.R.S. 



1894. Oxford' . 

1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 



, Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
I F.R.S. 



mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hicksou, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. ]?enham, Prof. J. B. Fnrmer, 

Prof. W A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology. 

Prof, W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. !G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W, E, 

1 Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. IH. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

I Hoyle. 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 
1837. 

1838. 
1839. 
1840. 



1841. 

1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

Cambridge jDr.J. Haviland jDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

Edinburgh | Dr. Abercrombie jDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 
Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly. M.D.. F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W, Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



Plymouth... ;P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. |Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. Pi. S. 

Sargent. 



Manchester Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Cork I Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

York jj. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Cambridge ,Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



• Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixviii. 
!> The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixii 



REPOKT — 1896. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1846. Southamp- IProf. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

ton. I 

1847. Oxford > ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850, 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham.'- 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Iv.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard jDr. King. 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., |R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



Pres. R.G.S 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. R.LA. 



> By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology' (see p. Iviii.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

* Vide note on page lix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.K.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 



Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan, Dr, Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W.Bates, Cyril Graham, Clements 
R. Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. 
Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R, 
Markham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 



SECTION E (continued). — geogbapht 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.L, 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. Oliphant 

Wood, 
H. W, Bates, F, E. Fox, E. C, Rye, 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E, D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C, Rye, 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C, 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 



Ixiv 



REPORT 189G. 



Date and Place 



1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
u]:on-Tyne 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 



Presidents 



Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.G.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

1890. Leeds Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

I Playfair,K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

1891. CaidifE JE. G. Raven.stein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S.. 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
1896. Liverpool... Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 



Secretaries 



J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 
F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 

E. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S ] J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 1 Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

1837. Liverpool... Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

1838. Newcastle Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

1839. Birmingham 'Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

1840. Glasgow ...Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

I F.R.S. 

1841. Plymouth... Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. 



Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. I 

1847. Oxford |Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



1848. Swansea ...' J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 

1 849. Birmingham Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton.. 



1850. Edinburgh 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 
V.P.R.S.E. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. AV. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J, Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 


1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich.... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea .., 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 
1896. 



Rt, Hon, Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 

Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W, Senior, M. A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. I 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers ' 

M. E. Grant-Dufif, M.P ' 

Samuel Brown ' 

Rt.Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. | 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves I 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ...I 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P.' 
Lord O'Hagan I 

James Hey wood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. I 

Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duflf, 

M.A., F.R.S. I 

Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth,' 

M.P., F.R.S. J 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baine.s, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrorj', F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, B. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock,Dr. W.Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

d 



Ixvi 



REPORT 1896. 



Date and Place 



1883 
1881 
1885 
1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 



Presidents 



R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.K.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, C.T.E., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

Prof. A.MarshaU, M. A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, FS.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 
F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 



Secretaries 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. MoUoy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro. G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brougb, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorlev. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlav. Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. South'mpt'n 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingh'm 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir -Tohn Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 



T. G. Biint, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J.Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfiekl, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. GljTin, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Me=urier, W. P. Struvg. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1830. Aberdeen... 

1S60. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Mewcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 



Presidents 



John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macqiiorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. j 

Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. I 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, I 

LL.D., F.R.S. 1 

G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

i 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 



Secretaries 



1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1 sao. 

1S81. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 



Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. 



Southamp- 
ton 
Southport 
Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... i 

Birmingham 



Prof. .James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S ' 

Edward Woods, C.E ; 

Edward Easton, C.E [ 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. ] 

Eng. 

J. Ahernethy. F.R.S.E I 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B.,1 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. I 

John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

.1. Brunlees. Pres. Inst. C.E. ! 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., i 

V.P.Inst.C.E. I 

B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E ' 

Sir .L N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. ; 



John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J.Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton. B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Do3'ne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Di.xon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethj-, P. Le Neve Foster, H, 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manbj^ W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T, 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman. 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Slioolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrilicld, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atcliison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchi.'son, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
,\. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Slioolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B, 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 

d3 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 189G. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

189.S. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



1894. 
1896. 



1895. 

1896 



Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



CardiflE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 

lllontreal . . . 
Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



LL.D., F.K.S. 
W. H. Preece, 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E 



Prof. Osborne Keynolds, M.A., ! C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
F.R.S., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 
Rigg. P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. \V. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooko, Prof. A. C. Elliott. 
W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
Unwin, F.R.S.,'C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 



Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. W. C. 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 



E. 



Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Ceare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Mar.sliall. P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. CooKe, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton. M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell. K.C.S.L, 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir AV. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.E.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie. 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. K. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam. Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myies. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling: 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres. Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Ling Rotli. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Mjtcs, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

Oxford 

Liverpool,. 



Prof. E. A. SchLifer, F.R.S. 

M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Hr.ldane, 

M. S. Pembrey. 
Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



Ipswich . 
Liverpool. 



!W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward,. 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixix 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



!848. Swansea ... 

1 849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



Le 



cturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S..... 

Dr. Robinson 

Cliarles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,r.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

VV. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
CoL E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson ... 

Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

Tlie Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the .lEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus inejHus). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its Neiglibourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 



Ixx 



REPORT — 189G. 



Date and Place 



1857 Dublin.... 

1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862 Cambridge 
1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Kottingham 

1867. Dundee 



Lecturer 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S.., 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S 

J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockj'er, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.A.Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. W. C.Wil liamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S... 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWj-ville Thomson, F.R.S. 



The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun, 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archffiology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulce. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagina- 
tion. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The HjTDOthesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The CJtallctiger Expedition. 



LIST OS EVKNING LECTURES. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 



1877. Plymouth. 

1878. Dublin ... 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardifE 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 



Lecturer 



W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.S.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.K.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S, 
Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S, 

Francis Galton, F.Fi.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. SirWra. Thomscn, F.R.S, 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. "W. G. Adams, F.R.S. . 

John Murraj', F.R.S. E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. . 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. . 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. . 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof. A.W. Riicker, M. A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing.M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 



Subject of Discourse 



Physical Phenomena connected with 

the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Alodern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Paljeon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some DifFculties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 
Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 
Magnetism in Rotation. 
The Work of Pasteur and its various 

Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 
Man before Writing. 



XXll 



REPORT — 1896. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPEKATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of DiscouTEt 


1867. Dundee 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Matter and Force. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 


A Piece of Chalk. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 


1870. Liverpool.... 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 
F.R.S. 


Savages. 


1872. Briffliton ... 


W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 


Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 


1873. Bradford ... 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Fuel. 


1874. Belfast 


Prof. Odling, F.R.S 


The Discovery of Oxygen. 


1875. Bristol 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 


A Piece of Limestone. 


1876. Glasgow ... 


Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 
W. H. Preece 


A Journey through Africa. 


1877. Plymouth... 


Telegraphy and the Telephone. 


1879. Sheffield ... 


W. E. Ayrton 


Electricity as a Motive Power. 


1880. Swansea ... 


H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 


The North-East Pas.^age. 


1881. York 


Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 
F.R.S. 


Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 




1882. Southamp- 


John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas. R.S. 


Unwritten History, and how to 


ton. 




read it. 


1883. Southport 


Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 


Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 


1884. Montreal ... 


Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S 


Comets. 


1885. Aberdeen... 


H. B. Dixon, M.A 


The Nature of Explosions. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 


The Colours of Metals and their 




F.R.S. 


Alloys. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 


Electric Lighting. 


1888. Bath 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 
F.R.S. 


The Customs of Savage Races. 






1389. Newcastle- 


B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 


The Forth Bridge. 


upon-Tyne 






1890. Leeds 


Prof. J. Perry, D Sc, F.R.S. 


Spinning Tops. 


1891. Cardiff 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 


Electricity in Mining. 


1892. Edinburgh 


Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


Electric Spark Photographs. 


1893. Nottingham 


Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 


Spontaneous Combustion. 
Geologies and Deluges. 


1894. Oxford 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 


1895. Ipswich ... 


Dr. A. H. Fison 


Colour. 


1896. Liverpool... 


Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 


The Earth a Great Magnet. 



Ixxiii 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE LIVERPOOL MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

Preside7it.—'Proiessor J. J. Thomson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Troi. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. W. M. Hicks, 
F.R.S. ; Lord Kelvin, F.R.S. ; Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. W. H. Heaton, M.A. ; J. L. Howard, D.Sc. ; Prof. 
A. Lodge, M.A. {Recorder) ; G. T. Walker, M.A. ; W. Watson, 
B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Br. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir F. Abel, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Campbell Brown ; Prof 
J. Dewar, F.R.S. ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; A. G. Vernon 
Harcourt, F.R.S. ; E. K. Muspratt, Esq. ; Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S. ; 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Dr. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Arthur Harden, M.Sc, Ph.D. {Recorder) ; C. A. Kohn, 
Ph.D., B.Sc. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. ; Sir Wm. Dawson, 
C.M.G., F.R.S. ; G. H. Morton ; J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. ; W. W. 
Watts, M.A. 

Secretaries. — J. Lomas, F.G.S. ; Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A. ; Clement Reid, 
F.L.S, (Recorder). 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Troiessor E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. ; Rev. Canon Tristram, 
F.R.S.; Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Dr. H. O. Forbes ; Walter Garstang, M.A. ; W. E. Hoyle, 
M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Major L, Darwin, Sec.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Coles, F.R. A.S. ; Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, 
C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir Lambert Playfair, K.C.M.G. ; E. G. Ravenstein ; 
P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. ; Coutts Trotter ; Horace Waller. 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1896. 

Secretaries.— Col. F. Bailey, Sec.S.G.S. ; H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E. ; Hugh 
Robert Mil], D.Sc, F.R.S.E. {Recorder) ; E. C. Du Bois Phillips. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — The Rt. Hon. Leonard Courtney, M.P.^ 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D. ; Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, 
M.A., D.C.L. ; J. B. Martin, M.A. ; L. L. Price, M.A. ; W. 
Rathbone, LL.D. 

Secretaries.— Yj. Cannan, M.A. ; Professor E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 
{Recorder) ; W. A. S. Hewins, M.A. ; H. Higgs, LL.B. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir Douglas Fox, Vice-President Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— iiiv B. Baker, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. ; J. W. Barry, C.B., 
F.R.S. ; H. P. Boulnois ; G. F. Deacon ; Prof. L. F. Vernon Har- 
court, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. ; Prof. H. S. Hele-Shaw. 

Secretaries. — Professor T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. [Recorder) ; Conrad 
W. Cooke ; S. Dunkerley ; W. Bayley Marshall, M.Inst.C.E. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Arthvir J. Evans, F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— 'tiiv John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Macalister, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; R. Munro, M.D. ; Dr. O. Montelius ; Prof. \V. M. 
Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. ; C. H. Read, F.S.A. ; Sir Wm. Turner, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Prot A. C. Haddon, M.A. ; J. L. Myres, M.A. {Recorder) ; 
Prof. A. M. Paterson, M.D. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— W. H. Gaskell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— n. Caton, M.D. ; Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S. ; Sir Joseph 
Lister, Bart., D.C.L., Pres.R.S. ; Prof. Burdon Sanderson, M.D., 
F.R.S. ; Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Pvol Rubert Boyce, M.B. {Recorder) ; Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, F.R.S. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Tmiessor Bayley Balfour, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 
F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ; F. Darwin, F.R.S. ; W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 
C.M.G., CLE., F.R.S. ; Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Trot Harvey Gibson, M.A. ; A. C. Seward, M.A. ; Prof. 
F. E. Weiss {Recorder). 

' Mr. Courtney was unable to attend the Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1896-97. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR JOSEPH LISTER, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., Prea.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the E.inL of Deuby, G.C.B., Lord 
Mayor of Liverpool. 

The Right Hou. the Earl op Septox, K.G-., Lord- 
Lieutenant of Lancashire. 

Sir W. B. FoKWOOD, J.P. 

SirHKNRY E. RoscuE, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



The Principal of University College, Lirerpool. 
W. RatHBOXE, Esq., LL D. 
W, CrouKES, Esq., F.R.S. 
T. H. ISMAY, Ksq., J.P., D.L. 
Professor A. Liversidge, F.B.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Sir JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Treasurer of the Royal Society of London. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His ExceUeucy the Right Hon. the Earl op 

ABBBDEiN, Governor-General of the Dominion 

of Canada. 
The Right Hon. the Lobd Eaylbigh, M.A., 

D.O.L., F.R.S., F.K.A.S. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Kelvin, M.A., D.O.L., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
His Honour Wilfred LAtrRiEB, Prime Minister 

of the Dominion of Canada. 



The Hon. Lieutenan'T-Go\'ERNOR of the Province 

of Ontirio. 
The Hon. the Minister of Education for the- 

Province of Ontario. 
The Hon. Sir Charles TurpER, Bart., G.C.M.G. 
Sir William Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Professor J. Loudon, M.A., LL.D., President of 

the University of Toronto. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., M.A., D.C.L.,LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.C.S., Cowley Grange, O.-cford. 
Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., University College, London, W.C. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., College Road, Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor Arthur W. EtJCKEK, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT TORONTO. 



Professor A. B. Macallum, M.B., Ph.D. 
Alan Macdougall, Esq., M.Inst. C.E. 



B. E. Walker, Esq. 
J. S. WiLLisoN, Esq. 



LOCAL TREASURERS 

James Bain, Jun., Esq. 



FOR 



THE MEETING AT TORONTO. 

I Professor R. Ramsay Wright, M.A., B.Sc. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Anderson, Dr. W., C.B., F.R.S. 
Boys, Professor C. Vernon, F.R.S. 
Creak, Captain E. W., F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 
FoxwELL. Professor H. S., M.A. 
Harcourt, Professor L. P. Vernon, 
Hebdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Hopkinson, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
HoRSLEY, Victor, Esq., F.R.S. 
Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 
Marb, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Mbldola, Professor R.. F.R.S. 
POULTON, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



M.A. 



Pbeece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.I>.,. 

P R S 
Shaw', W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Tuiselton-Dykr. W. T., Esq., C.M.G., P.R.S.. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S.E. 
TvLOB, Professor E. B., F.B.S. 
Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
VINE.S, Professor S. H., F.R.S. 
Warp, Professor Marshall, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and tlie Local Treasurer and' 
Secretaries for the eusuuig Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Su- John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec.R.S., F.RA.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Playfair, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORilER YEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Ravleigh, D.C.L., Sec.R.S. 
Lord Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, U.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Frederick Abel, Bart., F.B.S. 
Dr. Wm. Huggins, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S.. 
Prof.J.S.Burdon Sanderson,F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 

F R S 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. Michael Foster, SecR.S. 



Xudwig Mond, Esq., F.R.S. 



I G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
I P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D'., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B. F.R.S. 

AUDITORS. 

I Jeremiah Head, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. | 



Prof. T. G. Bonnev, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



Professor H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1896. 



JDr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1895-06. RECEIPTS. 

£ I. d. 

Balance brought forward 1621 19 11 

Life Compositions 200 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 76 

Annual Subscriptions 541 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 487 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 261 

Sale of Index, 1861-90 18 13 9 

Sale of other Publications 136 18 8 

Interest on Deposit at Ipswich Bank 10 4 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 9 13 4 

Dividends on Consols 200 7 4 

Dividends on India 3 per Cents 104 8 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : — 

Committee on Nortli-Western Tribes of Canada £76 15 
Committee on New Sections of Stonesfield Slate 26 7 6 

Committee on Erratic Blocks 2 10 6 

Committee for Comparison of Magnetic Stand- 
ards 4 3 

105 17 3 



£3773 2 3 



Investments 
£ s. d. 



June 29, 1895 : Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 

£11,137 3 5 



LUDWIG MOND, 1 . ,., . 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxvii 



from July ], 1895, to June 30, 1896. Cr. 

1895-96. PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. 
Expenses or Ipswich Meeting, including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &:c 148 10 5 

Kent and Olfice Expenses 50 .5 2 

Salaries 505 

Printing, Binding, &:c 1007 5 4 

Payment of Grants made at Ipswich : 

& s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorological Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Integrals 10 

■Uniformity of Size of Pages of Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 10 

Action of Light upon Dj-ed Colours 2 6 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the Relation of Agriculture to 

Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Pala;ozoic Phyllopoda 5 

SheU-bearing Deposits at Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef by Boring and Sounding . . 10 
Examination of Locality wliere the Cetiosaurus in the 

Oxford Museum was f ouml 25 

Palfeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves 40 

Age and Relation of Rooks near Moreseat, Aberdeen 10 

Table at tlie Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plj-mouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology of the Irisli Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and Abnormal Environment .... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of Jleasuring Instniinents. . 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Ti-ibes of Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Ethnographical Sui-vey 40 

Mental and Physical Condition of Children 10 

Physiological AppUcations of the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Committee 30 

1104 C 1 



In hands of General Treasurer : 

At Bank of England. Western Branch £481 10 5 

Less Cheques not presented 25 

456 10 5 

Exchequer Bills 500 

Cash 1 4 10 



- 957 15 3 
£3773 2 3 



Account. 

£ ». d. 

June 30, 1896: Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



£11,137 3 5 



Arthur W. Eitcker, General Treasvrer. 
July 10, 1896. 



Ixsviii 



REPORT — 1896. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Jleeting 



1831, Sept. 27... 

1832, Juuel9... 
183H, June 25... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22... 

1837, Sept. 11... 

1838, Aug. 10... 

1839, Aug. 26... 

1840, Sept. 17... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 .. 

1843, Aug. 17.. 

1844, Sept. 26.. 

1845, June 19.. 

1846, Sept. 10 . 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9.. 

1849, Sept. 12.. 

1850, Jiilv21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 
1866, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18.. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19 . 

1875, Aug. 25., 

1876, Sept. 6 ., 

1877, Aug. 15. 

1878, Aug. 14. 

1879, Aug. 20. 

1880, Aug. 25 . 

1881, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19. 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13. 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 16. 



Where lielil 



York 

O.xford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Ni.'weastle-ou-Tyne. . 

Birmingham 

frlasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

CaTnbriJge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. , 

Bath , 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Diiblin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Kewcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 



Presidents 



The Earl PitzwiUiam,D.C.L 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

SirT. M.Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyil, LL.D. ... 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of \orthumberland 

The Rev. W. Vermm Harcourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbane 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

Tlie Earl-of Rosse, F.R.S 

'J'he Rev. G. Peacock, DD 

Sir .lohn F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Sir Roderick I. Murchlson, Bart 

Sir Robert H. luglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson. D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

(i. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

WiUiam Hopkins, F.R.S. 

The E.arl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 

The Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. .. 

Richard Owen, M.D.. D.C.L 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S..., 
The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. ... 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A 

Prnf. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxlev. LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson. LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson. F.R.S. 

Prof. .L T\nidall. LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews. M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M..^., F.R.S 

Prof. (4. J. Allman, M.D.. F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsav, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavlev. D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Ravleigh, F.R.S 

SirLvon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson. C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe. D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. .1. S. Burdon Sanderson 

The Marquis of SaIisburv,K.G.,F.R.S. 

Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


e.'i 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxix 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 



Old 


New 


Annual 


Annual 


Members 


Members 


— 


— 


46 


317 


75 


376 


71 


185 


45 


190 


94 


22 


65 


39 


197 


40 


54 


25 


93 


33 


123 


42 


61 


47 


63 


60 


56 


57 


121 


121 


142 


101 


lOi 


48 


156 


120 


111 


91 


125 


179 


177 


59 


184 


125 


150 


57 


154 


209 


182 


103 


215 


149 


218 


105 


193 


118 


226 


117 


229 


107 


303 


195 


311 


127 


280 


80 


237 


99 


232 


85 


3117 


93 


331 


185 


23S 


59 


290 


93 


239 


74 


171 


41 


313 


176 


253 


79 


330 


323 


317 


219 


332 


122 


428 


179 


510 


244 


399 


100 


412 


113 


368 


92 


341 


152 


413 


141 


328 


57 


435 


69 


290 


31 


383 


139 



Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


— 


— 


— 


353 


z 


. 


z 


900 


— 


— 


— 


1298 











1350 


— 


— 


— 


1840 


— 


1100« 


— 


2400 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


— 


40 


1353 


— 


60« 


— 


891 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 


160 


_ 


_ 


9t 


260 


_ 


— 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


270 


196 


36 


857 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


376 


197 


15 


819 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


244 


141 


37 


710 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


367 


236 


6 


876 


7G5 


524 


10 


1802 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


720 


682 


451 


2004 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


389 


147 


12 


915 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


952 


8*1 


5 


2714 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.§ 


1777 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 

























































































Sums paid 


on Account 


of Grants 


for Scientific 


Purposes 


£20 


167 


435 


922 12 6 


932 2 2 


1595 11 


1546 16 4 


1235 10 11 


1449 17 8 


1565 10 2 


981 12 8 


831 9 9 


685 16 


208 5 4 


275 1 8 


159 19 6 


345 18 


391 9 7 


304 6 7 


205 


380 19 7 


480 16 4 


734 13 9 


507 15 4 


618 18 2 


«84 11 1 


766 19 6 


nil 5 10 


1293 16 6 


1608 3 10 


1289 15 8 


1591 7 10 


1750 13 4 


1739 4 


1940 


1622 


1572 


1472 2 6 


1285 


1685 


1151 16 


960 


1092 4 2 


1128 9 7 


725 16 6 


1080 11 11 


731 7 7 


476 8 1 


1126 1 11 


1083 3 3 


1173 4 


1385 


995 6 


1186 18 


1511 5 


1417 11 


789 16 8 


1029 10 


864 10 


907 15 6 


583 15 6 


977 15 5 


1104 6 1 



Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



: Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Eon. Members for this Meeting. 



IXXX REPORT 1896. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the Year 1895-96, presented to the General 
Committee at Liverpool on Wednesday, September 16, 1896. 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer during 
the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1895, to June 30, 1896, 
which have been audited, will be presented to the General Committee. 

Of the Auditoi's appointed last year. Dr. Ludwig Mend alone was able 
to act. Dr. Thorpe was incapacitated by a severe accident, and Mr. J. 
Head was in America at the time of the audit. The President therefoi-e 
requested Dr. Frankland to act in conjunction with Dr. Mond, which he 
consented to do. 

The Council received an invitation from the Committee charged with 
the arrangements for celebrating the Jubilee of the appointment of the 
Right Hon. Lord Kelvin as Professor of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Glasgow, to appoint two representatives to take part in 
the celebration. 

They appointed Sir Douglas Galton, President, and Professor A. "VV. 
Riicker, General Treasurer, to be their representatives, and asked them to 
convey to Lord Kelvin the following letter of congratulation : — 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 
Burlington House, London, \V. 

To THE Right Honourable LORD KELVIN, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. &c. 

My Lord, — The Council of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science desire to offer to you their sincere congratulations on your attainment of 
the fiftieth year of your tenure of the Professorship of Natural Philosophy in the 
University of Glasgow. 

It is unnecessary to recount the triumphs you have won during the last lialf- 
century in mastering the difficulties which beset the advance of scientific theorj' and 
experiment, and in applying scientific principles to the practical service of man. 
The record of your achievements is fresh in the minds of those who address you, and 
can never be effaced from the history of the development of Mathematical and 
Experimental Physics, of Engineering, and of Navigation. 

We would rather, therefore, recall to your recollection the long and close connec- 
tion which has existed between the British Association and yourself. 

As a regular attendant at our meetings, you have not only enriched our Trans- 
actions with many important papers, but have encouraged the efforts of younger men 
by never-failing sympathy and interest in their work. 

You have been President of the Mathematical and Physical Section of the Asso- 
ciation no less than five times. You were President of the Association at Edinburgh 
in 1871, and are now a Life-Member of our Council. 

As colleagues, then, we wish to tell you of the pride with which we, in common 
with all your fellow-countrymen, regard your distinguished career, and of the feelings 
of personal attachment with which we express the hope that you may long be spared 
to enjoy, in health and strength, the honours you have so nobly won. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

Douglas Galton, President. 

June, 1806. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxi 



The Council have nominated Mr. T. H. Ismay, J. P., D.L., and Pro- 
fessor Archibald Liversidge, F.R.S., Vice-Presidents of the Association; 
and Mr. 0. Booth, jun., Assistant Local Treasurer. 

The Council had also nominated as a Vice-President of the Association 
Mr. George Holt. They deeply regret the loss which the Association has 
sustained by the death of Mr. Holt, one of the most munificent of the 
promoters of Science in the City of Liverpool. 

The Council have elected the following Foreign Men of Science Corre- 
sponding Members : — 



Professor Dr. Emil C. Hansen, 

Copenhagen. 
Professor F. Paschen, Hanover. 



Professor Ira Remsen, Baltimore. 
Professor C. Range, Hanover. 



An invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association in 1898 
at Bristol has been received. An invitation has also been received to 
hold the Annual Meeting of the Association at Glasgow in 1898. These 
invitations will be presented to the General Committee on Monday. 

The Council received a proposal from M. Gariel, Secretary of the 
Council of the Association Frangaise pour I'Avancement des Sciences, that 
in 1898 or 1899 the French Association should meet at Boulogne, and 
our Association at some town on the opposite coast, such as would allow 
an interchange of visits between the two Associations. This proposal was 
cordially welcomed by the Council, and inquiries were instituted as to the 
possibility of a meeting of our Association at Dover, which seemed to be 
the most suitable town on the English side of the Straits. A favourable 
report was received of the accommodation at Dover, and of the welcome 
which the Association might expect ; and a reply was sent to M. Gariel 
thanking him for his suggestion, and expressing a hope that we should be 
able to do our part towards its accomplishment. Since then an invitation 
lias been received from the Corporation of Dover to hold our meeting in 
1899 in that town. The Council of the French Association, which ordi- 
narily meets earlier than ours, wish to settle their place of meeting in 
1899 before the date of our meeting at Toronto. It thus becomes expe- 
dient for the General Committee to consider the invitation from Dover at 
their meeting on Monday next ; and, to enable them to do so, the Council 
propose that, in the rule for fixing the place of meeting, the words ' not 
less than two years in advance ' be substituted for the words ' two years 
in advance.' If this proposal be adopted, the invitation from Dover will 
come before the General Committee on Monday next. 

The President has received from the Mayor of San Francisco the 
following resolution, which had been passed by the Board of Supeiwisors 
of that city : — 

' Resolved that his honour the Mayor be, and is hereby empowered and 
requested to invite the American and Australasian Associations for the 
Advancement of Science to meet in this city in 1897 ; also, to invite the 
British Association of the same character to meet said Associations in 
this city as invited guests, and to that end to take such action as may 
be proper to arrange for their comfort and accommodation on that 
occasion. 

' And the clerk is hereby directed to advertise this resolution as 
required by law. 

' Board of Supervisors, San Francisco, October 28, 1895.' 

The President was requested by the Council to inform the Mavnr of 

1896. e 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1896, 



San Francisco that his communication would be laid before the General 
Committee at Liverpool. 

Since the above resolution was adopted the Council have been informed 
that it has been decided to hold the meeting of the American Association 
in 1897 at Detroit. It is not, therefore, possible, to make arrangements 
for a joint meeting in San Francisco, or for the Association to visit that 
city. It is proposed, therefore, to reply in this sense to the invitation of 
the Mayor of San Francisco, and to request him to convey to the Board 
of Supervisors the best thanks of the Association for their cordial in- 
vitation. 

The Council recommend that on the occasion of the Meeting of the 
Association at Toronto, the President, Vice-Presidents, and Officers of 
the American Association be invited to attend as Honorary Members for 
the year ; and further that all Fellows and Members of the American 
Association be admitted Members of the British Association on the same 
terms as old Annual Members, namely, on payment of IL, without the 
payment of an admission fee. 

The Council recommend that the arrangements made for the Meetings 
of the General Committee at Montreal, in 1884, be adopted for the 
Meeting next year — viz. : Thai, two Meetings be held at Toronto, and 
that an adjourned Meeting be held in London at the beginning of the 
month of November, for the election of the President and Officers for 
1898, and for fixing the date of the Meeting in that year. 

The Council have received the following communication from the" 
Secretary of the Corporation of the McGill University, Montreal : — 



To THE President and Members op the Council of the 
British Association. 

McGill Universit}', Montreal, 

Janiiari/ 11, 1896. 

Gentlemen, — I have been directed by tlie Corporation of the University to lay 
before the Council of the British Association a proposal giving the Faculty of 
Applied Science the liberty of substituting for the British Association Gold Medal 
one or more Bronze Medals, together with an exhibition or prizes in such cases as 
the Faculty might recommend. 

The British Association Gold Medal was generously founded by the members of 
the British Association in the year 1885, and, apart from its intrinsic value, the 
medal has always been regarded as the highest prize obtainable in the Faculty of 
Applied Science. 

The desire of the Faculty has been to require a very high standard from those 
,who are candidates for the medal. A difficulty has, however, often arisen, owing to 
the fact that there are five distinct departments in the Faculty, namely, the 
departments of Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering. Mechanical Engineering, 
Mining, and Chemistry. The practice has been to award the medal in the several 
departments in rotation ; but of course it often happens that in more than one 
department there are to be found students worthy of the medal. It has also happened 
that the best student is not in the department in which the medal falls in order of 
rotation. 

After long consideration, and after the experience of the ten years which have 
passed since the foundation of the medal, the Faculty is of the opinion that it would 
be advisable to ask the permission of the Council to substitute for the Gold Medal a 
B.A. Exhibition, or B.A. Prizes, together with one or more B.A. Bronze Medals. The 
Faculty is convinced that the change would rather add to than diminish the value of 
the foundation. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxiu 

The Council informed the Corporation of the McGill University that 
they were willing to advise the General Committee to accept the proposed 
changes, and they have asked for information as to the number of Prizes 
and Bronze Medals which would probably be awarded annually under the 
revised regulations. 

The following resolutions referred to the Council by the General 
Committee for consideration and action if desirable were dealt with as 
follows : — 

(1) That the Council be requested to consider whether it be desirable 
to take steps in order to bring the following resolution under the notice 
of H.M. Government and the Trustees of the British Museum :— 

'That in view of the importance of preserving the remains of the 
various civilisations of this Empire which are fast disappearing, and in 
order to prevent the loss and dispersion of collections of ancient and 
modern Anthropology which may be offered to the nation, it is highly 
desirable to acquire less costly and far more extended storehouse space 
than can be provided in London.' 

The Council appointed a Committee to report on this resolution, and 
were informed that, in accordance with the suggestion made by Mr. 
Charles Read, Keeper of Antiquities and Ethnography at the British 
Museum, and with the concurrence of Professor Flinders Petrie, the 
proposal to establish a Repository for preserving Anthropological or other 
objects will be again discussed at the Liverpool Meeting ; and that there- 
fore no further action need be taken by the Council at present. 

(2) That the Council be requested to bring before the Government the 
importance of securing for the National Collections the type collection of 
preparations of Fossil Plants left by the late Professor W. C. Williamson. 

This resolution was communicated by the President, Sir Douglas 
Galton, to the Trustees of the British Museum, and the Council ha-^e 
been informed that the Collection of Fossils has been purchased by them 
for the Museum. 

(3) That it is desirable to reprint collections of the Addresses delivered 
by the Presidents of Sections in separate volumes for sale. 

The Council, having considered this proposal, resolved that no action 
be taken. 

(i) That the Council be requested to provide the Geological Survey 
Maps and Sections of the district in which the Association meets each 
year, to be placed in a conspicuous position in the Meeting Room of 
Section C. 

The Officers have been empowered to carry out this proposal. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, consisting of the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1896, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor R. Meldola, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, is hereby 
nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Dr. J. G. Garson, Chairman, and Mr. T. Y. 



IxKsiv 



REPORT 1896. 



Holmes, Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies to be held during the Meeting at Liverpool. 

In accordance with the regulations the 
Council will be : — 



retiring 



Members of the 



Professor W. E. Ayrton. 
Sir Benjamin Baker. 
Sir John Evans. 



Sir Clements R. Markham. 
Mr. W. Whitaker. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Anderson, Dr. W., C.B., F.R.S. 

Boys, Professor C. Vernon, F.R.S. 
*Oreak, Captain E. W., F.R.S. 

Edgeworth, Professor F. Y., M.A. 

Foxwell, Professor H. S., M.A. 

Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M.A., 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Herdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
*Hopkinson, Dr. J., F.R.S. 

Hor.sley, Victor, Esq., F.R.S. 

Lodge, Professor Oliver J., F.R.S. 
*Marr, J. E., E.sq., F.R.S. 

Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



*Preece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 
F R S 

Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 

vSymons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., CMC, 
F.R.S. 

Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S.E. 
*Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 

Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 

Vines, Professor S. H., F.R.S. 

Ward, Professor Marshall, F.R.S 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. IxxXV 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Liverpool Meeting in September 1896. 

1. Beceiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[Last year's grant renewed, and 
the unexpended balance in the 
hands of the Chairman.] 



The Application of Photography 
to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, 
if necessary, for taking steps to 
carry out the Calculations, and 
to publish the results in an 
accessible form. 



Seismological Observations. 



Members of the Committee 




Chairman.— TioiessoT G. Carey 
Foster, 

Secretary.— Ml. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and Oliver J. Lodge, Lord Ray- 
leigh, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, 
Professors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, 
Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
patrick, Professor J. Viriamu 
Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. 
G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. 

E. H. Griffiths, and Professor 
A. W. Rucker. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. John 

Hopkinson, and Mr. H. N. 

Dickson. 

Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Lieut.-Colonel Allan 
Cunningham. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor B. Price, 
Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor 
A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. 
Hicks, Major P. A. Macmahon, 
and Professor A. Lodge. 

CJtairman. — Mr. G. J. S^'mons. 
Secretaries. — Mr. C. Davison and 

Professor J. Milne. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor \V. G. 

Adams, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Sir 

F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L. Darwin, Mr, G. F. 
Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 

G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Mel- 
dola, Professor J. Perrj', Pro- 
fessor J. H. Poynting, and Dr. 
Isaac Roberts. 



£ s. d. 
5 



10 



25 



100 



Ixxxvi 



REPORT — 1896. 



1. Receiring Grants of Money— continwed. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To assist the Physical Society in 
bringing out Abstracts of Phy- 
sical Papers. 

To co-operate with Professor Karl 
Pearson in the Calculation of 
certain Integrals. 

[51. renewed.] 

Considering the best Methods of 
Recording the Direct Intensity 
of Solar Radiation. 



The present state of our Know- 
ledge in Electrolysis and Elec- 
tro-chemistrj% 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements. 



To inquire into the Proximate 
Chemical Constituents of the 
various kinds of Coal. 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quan- 
titative Analysis. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles and to take 
measures for their preservation. 




Chairman. — Dr. E. Atkinson. 
Secretari/. — Professor A. W. 
Riicker. 

Chairman. — Rev. Robert Harley. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Forsyth. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Professor Karl Pear- 
son. 

Cltairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Professor A. Schuster. Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
Captain W. de W. Abney, Dr. C. 
Chree, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. 
W. E. Wilson, and Professor 
A. A. Rambaut. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary.— Mr. W. C. D. Whet- 
ham. 

Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick and Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths. 

Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretaiij. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 

Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain 

Abney. 

Chairman. — Sir I. Lovvthian Bell. 
Secretary.— Yxoiessor P. Philhps 

Bedson. 
Professor F. Clowes, Dr. Ludwig 

Mond, Professors Vivian B. 

Lewes and E. Hull, and Messrs. 

J. W. Thomas and H. Bauerraan. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Emerson 

Reynolds. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 
Professor Fraukland, Professor F. 

Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. 

A. E. Fletcher, and Professor W. 

Carleton Williams. 

Chairman. — Professor W.A.Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 
Secretary. — Mr. P. F. Kendall. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 

De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 

Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, 

and Mr. J. Lomas. 



£ s. d. 
100 



20 



10 



50 



10 



10 



10 



50 



10 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxvii 



1. Heeciclng Grants of Jfo/wy — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The Investigation of tlie Eury- 
pterid-bearing- Deposits of the 
Fentland Hills. 

[The unexpended balance in the 
hands of the Chairman renewed.] 

To consider a project for investi- 
gating the Structure of a Coral 
Keef by Boring and Sounding. 




To examine the ground from which 
the remains of Ceiiosaurus in 
the Oxford Museum were ob- 
tained, with a view to deter- 
mining whether other parts of 
the same animal remain in the 
rock. 

[Unexpended balance.] 

To explore certain Caves in the 
Neighbourhood of Singapore, 
and to collect their living and 
extinct Fauna. 

[Last year's grant of 40Z. unex- 
pended.] 

The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Kegistration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



Chairman. — Dr. R. H. Traquair. 
Secretary. — Mr. M. Laurie. 
Professor T. Rupert Jones. 



Chairman. — Professor T. G. Bon- 
ney. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. Sollas. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors 
J. W. Judd, C. Lapworth, A. C. 
Haddon, Boyd Dawkins, G. H. 
Darwin, S. J. Hickson, and A. 
Stewart, Admiral W. J. L. Whar- 
ton, Drs. H. Hicks, J. Murray, 
AV. T. Blanford, Le Neve Foster, 
and H. B. Guppy, Messrs. F. 
Darwin, H. O. Forbes, G. C. 
Bourne, A. R. Binnie, J. W. 
Gregory, and J. C. Hawkshaw, 
and Hon. P. Fawcett. 

Chairman. — Professor H.G.Seeley. 
Secretary. — Mr. James Parker. 
Earl of Ducie, Professor E. Ray 
Lankester, and Lord Valentia. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary.— Mr. H. N. Ridley. 

Dr. R. Hanitsch, Mr. Clement 
Reid, and Mr. A. Russel Wal- 
lace. 

Cliairvian. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. W. Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, 
E. J. Garwood, W. Gra}-, H. B. 
Woodward, J. E. Bedford, R. 
Kidston, R. H. Tiddeman, J. J. 
H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, and 
0. W. Jeffs. 

CJiairman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretarif. — Mr. E. J. Garwood. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
J. W. Kirkley, Mr. R. Kidston, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. G. H. Morton, 
Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. 
B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 



40 



15 



15 



Ixxiviii 



REPORT — 18%. 



1. Receiring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To examine tlie Conditions under 
which remains of the Irish Ellc 
are found in the Isle of Man. 



To enable Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon to investigate the phe- 
nomena of variation in Crus- 
tacea, or, failing this, to ap- 
point some other competent in- 
vestigator to carry on a defi- 
nite piece of vt^ork at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples. 

To enable Mr. Walter Garstang 
to occupy a Table at the Labo- 
ratory of the Marine Biological 
Association at Plymouth, for an 
experimental investigation as 
to the extent and character of 
selection occurring among cer- 
tain crabs and fishes, and to 
cover the cost of certain appa- 
ratus. 

Zoological Bibliography and Pub- 
lication. 



Compilation of an Index Genertim 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To report on the present state of 
our Knowledge of the Zoology 
and Botany of the West India 
Islands, and to take steps to 
investigate ascertained defi- 
ciencies in the Fauna and Flora. 

To work out the details of the 
Observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87. 



Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Mr. P. C. Kermode. 
His Honour Deemster Gill,. M^r. 

G. W. Lamplugh, and Mr. 

W. B. Savage. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A, 
Herdman. 

Secretary. — Mr. Percy Sladen. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor. S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
M'Intosh, and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, and Professor 

W. F. R. Weldon. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 

I'rofessor W. A. Herdman, Mr. 
W. E. Hoyle, Dr. P. Lutley 
Sclater, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, Dr. 
D. Sharp, Mr. C. D. Sherborn, 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
and Mr. R. McLachlan. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 

Mr. W. Carruthers, Dr. A.C. Giin- 
ther, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du 
Cane Godman, and Professor A. 
Newton. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. 

R. M. Barrington, Mr. W. E. 

Clarke, Rev. E. P. Knubley, and 

Dr. H. O. Forbes. 

Cliairman. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
and Mr. G. J. Symons. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
15 



100' 0' 



40 







100 



40 



40 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 



1. Recewing Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



State Monopolies in other 
Countries. 



Future Dealings in Eaw Produce. 



To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screvsr 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion in 1884. 



The Physical Characters, Lan- 
guages, and Industrial and So- 
cial Condition of the North- 
Western Tribes of the Dominion 
of Canada. 

[And unexpended balance in hands 
of Chairman.] 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 



To organise an Ethnographical 
Survey of the United Kingdom. 



Members of the Committee 




Chairman.— 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Higgs. 

Mr. W M. Acworth, the Et. Hon. 

L. H Courtney, Professor H. S. 

Foxwell, and Professor H. Sidg- 

wick. 
[The Chairman to be appointed 

by the Council.] 

Chairman. — Mr. L. L. Price. 

Secretaries. — Professor Gonner 
and Mr. E. Helm.. 

Mr. Hugh Bell, Major P. G. 
Craigie, Professor W. Cunning- 
ham, Professor Edgeworth, Mr. 
fi. H. Hooker, and Mr. H. E. 
Eathbone. 

Chairvian. — Mr. W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. Conrad W. Cooke. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. E. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Mr. 
T. Buckney, Col. Watkin, Mr. 
E. Itigg, and Mr. W. A. Price. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary.— Mt. Cuthbert E. Peek. 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. E. G. Hali- 
burton, and Mr. H. Hale. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Gene- 
ral Pitt-Eivers, Sir John Evans, 
and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. 



-Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 
Mr. E. Sidney Hart- 



Chairman 

Secretary. 
land. 

Mr. Francis Galtcn, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
Eomilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
Mr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr .F. G. 
Hilton Price, Sir H. Howorth, 
Professor E. Meldola, General 
Pitt-Eivers, and Mr. E. G. 
Eavenstein. 



^e s. d. 

15 



10 



10 



75 



30 



40 



xc 



REPORT — 189G, 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To co-operate with the Committee 
appointed by the International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demo- 
graphy in the investigation of 
the Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children. 

Linguistic and Anthropological 
Characteristics of the North 
Dravidians — the Ura-ons. 



To co-operate with the Silchester 
Excavation Fund Committee in 
their Explorations. 

Physiological Applications of the 
Phonograph. 



Oysters and Typhoid : the infec- 
tivity of the Oyster, and the 
diseases of the Oyster. 



To investigate the changes which 
are associated with the func- 
tional activity of Nerve Cells 
and their periplieral extensions. 



The physiological effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors. 



Fertilisation in Phasophyceae. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir Douglas Galton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 
Mr. E. W. Hrabrook, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, and Mr. White VVallis. 



Chairman. — Mr. E. Sidney Hart- 
land. 

Secretary. — Mr. Hugh Raynbird, 
jun. 

Professor A. C. Haddon and Mr. 
J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. John L. Myres. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Chairman. — Professor J. G. Mc- 

Kendrick. 
Secretary. — Professor J. G. Mc- 

Kendrick. 
Professor G. G. Murray and Mr. 

David S. Wingate. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor R. Boyce. 

Mr. G. C. Bourne and Professor 
C. S. Sherrington. 

Chairman.— Dt. W. H. Gaskell. 

Secretary.— Dr. W. H. Gaskell. 

Professor Burdon Sanderson, Pro- 
fessor E. A. Schiifer, Professor 
J. G. McKendrick, Professor 
W. D. Halliburton, Professor 
J. B. Haycraft, Professor F. 
Gotch, Dr. A. Waller, Dr. J. N. 
Langley, and Dr. Mann. 

CItairman. — Professor E. A. Schiifer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. 

Thompson. 
Professor R. Boj'ce and Professor 

C. S. Sherrington. 

Chairman. — Professor J.R. Farmer. 
Secretary. — ProfessorR.W. Phillips. 
ProfessorF. 0. Bowerand Professor 
Harvey Gibson. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Jlr. 
G. J. SjTnons, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkin- 
son, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
W. Whitaker, Professor E. B. 
Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
10 



5 



20 



15 



30 



190 



20 



20 



25 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCl 



2. Not receiving Orants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To confer with British and Foreign 
Societies publishing Mathematical 
and Physical Papers as to the desir- 
ability of securing Uniformity in the 
size of the pages of their Transactions 
and Proceedings. 

Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



To confer with the Astronomer Koyal 
and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the 
Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
with a view of carrying out such 
comparison. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of drj- Land and under 
Water. 



That Mr. John Brill be requested to 
draw up a Report on Non-commuta- 
tive Algebras. 

That Professor S. P. Thompson and Pro- 
fessor A. W. Riicker be requested to 
draw up a Report on the State of our 
Knowledge concerning Resultant 
Tones. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Mr. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. Burton, Mr. 

R. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. 

Riicker, and Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 

Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 

Mr. John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, Pro- 
fessor R. Copeland, and Hon. R. 
Abercromby. 

Chairman. — Professor A. \V. Riicker. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Watson. 
Professor A. Schuster and Professor H. 
H. Turner. 



Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, 
and Professor A. VV. Riicker. 

Cluiirman. — Mr. John Murray. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Murray. 
Professor A. Schuster, Lord Kelvin, the 

Abbe Renard, Dr. A. Buchan, the Hon. 

R. Abercromby, Dr. M. Grabham, Mr. 

John Aitken, Mr. L. Fletcher, and 

Mr. A. Ritchie Scott. 

ClMirman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
Mr. A. Strahan, and Professor Michie 
Smith. 



xcu 



REPORT — 1896. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The mode of Teaching Geometrical 
Drawing in Schools. 



The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. 



The Investigation of the direct Forma- 
tion of Haloids from pure Materials. 



The Properties of Solutions. 



Reporting on the Bibliography of Solu- 
tion. 



The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



The Action of Light on the Hydracids 
of the Halogens in presence of 
Oxygen. 



The Carbohydrates of Barley Straw. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



The Description and Illustration of the 
Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic 
Rocks. 

To ascertain the Age and Relations of 
the Rocks in which Secondary Fos- 
sils have been found near Moreseat, 
Aberdeenshire. 

To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor 0. Henrici. 

Secretary. — Professor O. Henrici. 

Captain Abney, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. 
R. B. Hayward, Professor Karl Pear- 
son, and Professor W. Cawthorne 
Unwin. 

Chairman. — Dr. T. E. Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hummel. 

Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. 
Russell, Captain Abney, Professor 
W. Stroud, and Professor R. Meldola. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Shenstone. 
Professor W. R. Dunstan and Mr. C. H. 
Bothamley. 

Cliairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary.- — Dr. W. W. J. Nicol. 
Professors H. McLeod, S. U. Pickering, 
W. Ramsay, and S. Young. 

Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts- Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. J. Russell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Richardson. 
Captain Abney, Professor W. Noel Hart- 
ley and Professor W. Ramsay. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Warington. 
Secretary. — Mr. C. F. Cross. 
Mr. Manning Prentice. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Mr. W. R, Dun- 
stan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thompson. 

Chairman. — Rev. Professor T. Wiltshire, 
Secretary. — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr. T. F. Jamieson. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 
Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. P.Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, and Mr. H. Woods. 



RESOLUTIONS REFERRED TO THE COUNCIL, 



XClll 



2. Not reccii-'mg Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Tlie Investigation of the African Lake 
Fauna by Mr. J. E. Moore. 



To continue the investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, vifith 
pov^er to co-operate with the Com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose by 
the Royal Society, and to avail them- 
selves of such assistance in their in- 
vestigations as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government or the Trus- 
tees of the Museum at Honolulu. The 
Committee to have power to dispose 
of specimens where advisable. 

The Necessity for the immediate inves- 
tigation of the Biology of Oceanic 
Islands. 



The position of Geography in the Edu- 
cational System of the Country. 



To organise an Ethnological Survey of 
Canada. 



Anthropometric Measurements 
Schools. 



The best methods of preserving Vege- 
table Specimens for Exhibition in 
Museums. 



Members of the Committee 



Clubirman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 
Secretary. — Professor G. B. Howes. 
Dr. John Murray, Professor E. Ray 
Lankester, and Professor VV. A. Herd- 



man. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. Hick- 
son, Mr. 0. Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and 
Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman.— Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 

Mr. G. C. Bourne, Dr. H. O. Forbes, Pro- 
fessor W. A. Herdman, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Dr. John Murray, Professor 
A. Newton, and Mr. A. E. Shipley. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. J. Mackinder. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. Herbertson. 
Mr. J. S. Keltic, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. E. G. 
Ravenstein, and Mr. Eli Sowerbutts. 

Chairma7i. — Dr. George Dawson. 
Secretary. — Dr. George Dawson. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor A. C. 

Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Mr. 

Horatio Hale, Dr. J. G. Bourinot, Abbe 

Cuoq, Mr. B. Sull6, Abb6 Tanquay, Mr. 

C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle, Rev. 

Dr. Scadding, Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, 

Dr. Meree Beauchemin, Rev. Dr. G. 

Patterson, Professor D. P. Penhallow, 

and Mr. C. M. Bell. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Macalister. 
Secretary. — Professor B. Windle. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. Cle- 
land, and Dr. J. Q. Garson. 

Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Secretary. — Professor J. B. Farmer. 

Professor Bayley Balfour, Professor 
Errera, Mr. W. Gardiner, Professor J. 
R. Green, Professor M. C. Potter, 
Professor J. W. H. Trail, and Pro- 
fessor F. E. Weiss. 



Communications ordered to he printed in extenso. 

Mr. G. F. Lyster's paper on ' The Physical and Engineering Features of the River 
Mersey and the Port of Liverpool.' 

Mr. Francis Darwin's paper on ' The Ascent of Sap.' 



xciv REPORT — 1896. 



Sesolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they think best to bring 
before the Government the question of the establishment of a National Physical 
Laboratory in general accordance with the recommendations contained in the Report 
appended hereto,* and to invite the co-operation of the Royal Society of London, 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Physical 
Society, and other kindred Societies, in securing its foundation. 

That it is of urgent importance to press upon the Government the necessity of 
establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for Greater Britain, which, by collecting informa- 
tion with regard to the native races within, and on the borders of, the Empire, will 
prove of immense value to science and to the Government itself. 

* See Report, p. 82. 



s. 


d. 













































xcv 



Synopsis of Grants of Money approirriated to Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Liverpool Meeting, September 1896. The 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

J/athematics and Physics. 

£ 
*Foster, Professor Carey — Electrical Standards (Last year's 

grant renewed) 5 

*Symons, Mr. G. J.— Photographs of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena 10 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Mathematical Tables 25 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Seismological Observations 1 00 

* Atkinson, Dr. E.— Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

*Harley, Rev. P.— Calculation of Certain Integrals (5^. re- 
newed) 20 

*Stokes, Sir G. G. — Solar Radiation 10 

*Shaw, Mr. W. N.— Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 50 

Chemistri/. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 

the Elements 10 

*Bell, Sir I. Lowthian. — Chemical Constituents of Coal 10 

*Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson.— Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 10 

*Tilden, Professor W. A.— Isometric Naphthalene Derivatives 50 

■ Geology. 

■ *Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks 10 

*Bonney, Professor T. G. —Investigation of a Coral Reef ....'.'."... 40 
•Seeley, Professor H. G.— Examination of Locality where the 

Cetiosaurus in the Oxford Museum was found (Unex- 
pended balance in hand) 

♦Flower, Sir W. H.— Fauna of Singapore Caves (ifnexpended 

balance in hand, 40^.) 

♦Geikie, Professor J.— Photographs of Geological Interest ... 15 

*Marr, Mr. J. E.— Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 15 
Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd.— Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 q q 

Zoology. 

*Herdman, Professor W. A.— Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

♦Bourne, Mr. G. C— Table at the Biological Laboratory, Ply- 

mouth 40 

♦flower. Sir W. H.— Zoological Bibliography and Publication 5 
Flower, Sir W. H.— Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 100 

Carried forward £740 

* Reappointed. 



XCvi REPORT — 1896. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 740 

*Sclater, Dr. P. L. — Zoology and Botany of the West India 

Islands 40 

*Newton, Professor. — To work out Details of Observations on 

the Migration of Birds 40 

Geograiiihy. 
*Bavenstein, Mr. E. G.— Climatology of Tropical Africa 20 

Eco7iomic Science and Statistics. 
. — State Monopolies in other Countries ... 15 
Price, Mr. L. L. — Futui-e Dealings in Raw Produce 10 

Mechanical Science. 
*Preece, Mr. W. H.— Small Screw Gauge 10 

Anthropology. 

*Tylor, Professor E. B.—North-Western Tribes of Canada ... 75 

*Munro, Dr. R.— Lake Village at Glastonbury .SO 

*Brabrook, Mr. E. W.— Ethnographical Survey 40 

*GaIton, Sir Douglas. — Mental and Physical Condition of 

Children 10 

*IIartland, Mr. E. S. — Linguistic and Anthropological Charac- 
teristics of the North Dravidians 5 

Evans, Mr. A. J. — Silchester Excavation 20 

Physiology. 
*McKendrick, Pi-ofessor J. G. — Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Conditions of Environment .30 

Gaskell, Dr. "W. H. — Investigation of Changes associated 

with the Functional Activity of Nerve Cells and their 

Peripheral Extensions 190 

Schafer, Professor. — Physiological Effects of Peptone and its 

Precursors 20 

Botany. 
Farmer, Professor J. B.— Fertilisation in Phseophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies. 

*Meldola, Professor R. — Preparation of Report 25 

£1,355 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1897. 
The Meeting at Toronto, Canada, will commence on ^Yednesday, 
August 18. 

The Annual Meeting in 1898. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1898 will be held at Bristol. 

The Annual Meeting in 1899. 
The Annual MeetinE: of the Association in 1899 will be held at Dover. 



XCVll 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on acocunt of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ 
. 20 


s. 



d. 




C2 
. 105 










il67 









1835. 

Tide Discussions C2 

British Fossil Ichthj'ology 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Kain-gauges 9 13 

Eefraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (coQstruc- 

tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Eailway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 

£932 2 2 

1896. 



1839. 

£ s. a. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Bleteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars in Lacaille 11 6 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 106 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining: Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 60 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire C61este) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . .■j2 17 H 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 

£1546 16 4 



XCVlll 



REPORT — 189G. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zooloa:y 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments. . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannise 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammaha 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



!. 


d. 




















1 


11 


9 






£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia ICO 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XCIX 



Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms ofVessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 li 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



100 



2 9 



1844. 
Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 
Completing Observations at 

Pl3Tiiouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 

Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory ... 56 

rnfluense of Light on Plants 10 
fjubterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 
Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 

^Structure of Fossil Shells ... 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

JSgean and Red Seas 1842 

CJeographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 



12 



117 17 3 



23 
20 



17 



11 




100 



10 







7 


3 







































3 





6 



10 







! 



i.VS\ 12 S 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of tlie British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 140 15 O 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

E.xotic Anoplura ... 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall .10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 



£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1820 5 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 H 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 .S 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
S'atistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 



£685 16 



f % 



REPORT — 1896. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines . 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 .S 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintainin? the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 1 07 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants _1 5_0_0 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 7fi 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19^6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£34.5 18" 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Polar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches or .\nnelida 10 

.£391~9"7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatorj' 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233' 17 8- 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1 853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on- the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 (> 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205~0^(> 



18.54. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax II 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 (> 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£3¥0 19 T 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 ©• 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 0' 

£480'lfi~4L 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 



1854 £ 75 OT ^.^ „ ^ 

1855 f500 OJ ^'^ ^ ^ 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



£ «. d. 
Stricklands Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



13 

















































1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 
lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Kesearclies on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15~ 











8 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£C18 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ ». 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidie 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on theConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 

£766 19 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. .500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 "\ „^ 

1861 £22 0/'-' 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 1 50 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in t he Mersev and 

Dee ." 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£riif~ 



d. 









1 






















































































5 


10 








5 


10 



cu 



REPORT 189G. 



1862. 

£ 
Maintaining- the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Patent Laws 21 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of tlie 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 

irmberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland fi 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Eaj' 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£■12!);! 


































































R 


11 









































10 


















Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... GOO 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments ]p, 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence ]0 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under j)ressiirc 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 1" 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph .....". 100 























































































































£ K. d. 

Thermo-electricitj' 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydfoida 10 

£1608 3 10 




3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 O 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging. Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 (» 

Carbon under pressiTre 10 <> 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 O 

Ilydroida 10 O 

Askham's Gift .50 

Kitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges ]1» 15 S 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 O 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Jleteors 20 

±'128'.t 15 8 







1865. 
jMaintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Iri.sii Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 60 (> 

Electrical Standards 100 O 

JIalta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 0- 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Jloon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 0' 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 O 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 O 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£159T~7"10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1866. 

& s. 
Maintaining: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . GOO 

Lunar Committee 64 13 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 60 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 60 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

TjTjical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£l750 13 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, kc. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 r^ 



1868. 

£ 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 60 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals '^0 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigatioii;; 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

£1940 



£ s. d. 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 60 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture lOO 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 































































































































































































































































































CIV 



REPORT 1896, 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 D 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c .' 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 60 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... .20 n 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea .'. 25 

Meth}'l Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ B. d. 

Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

TidalCommittee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature .. . 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 



£1685 



GENERAL STATEMENT, 



CV 



1874. 

& s. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Kocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.,. 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Jlarine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemeus's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliljtic Functions 103 

Magnetisation of Iron 23 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids.,. 23 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Pjxploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960_^ 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Pliosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close^Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Phj'sical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record '100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpese, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



CVl 



Report— 1896. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Wateis 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and tttructure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station,' Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Eecord of the Progress of 

Geology lOO 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra . . . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers. . . 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ i. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum lO 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instriiments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

;£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Cajiacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Eeport on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 60 

Geological Eecord TOO 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 60 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 6 

£731 7 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



1881. 

£ s. d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Undergi-ound Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological llecord 100 

AVeights and Heights of 

Human Beings 



. 30 












£476 


3 


1 




































































































1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms ,... 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 | 

Conversion of Sedimentary i 

Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 
Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 
of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 
Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 
Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Kecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture .. 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 1 11 



1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 6 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks oE England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 10 

£1173 4 















4 
































































































CVlll 



REPORT — 1896. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

•Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

^Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Eaygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseozoic 

Rocks 25 

"Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Phj-sical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

•Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Paleeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

-Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Crranton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

luvertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ s. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis .30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 60 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 60 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX 



1888. 

£ a. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palfeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botanj' of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes^St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phj'- 

sical Development 25 

Nortb-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Eace in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 




























•I 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 0' 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 0- 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 0: 

Pateozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 0' 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 0- 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 O 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural Historj' of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 0- 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 O 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 O 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Miuor 30 O 

Corresponding Societies 20 0- 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 0' 

£lil7 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis ,5 O 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 (> 

Properties of Solutions 10 CV 

International Staneiard forthe 

Analysis of Iran and Steel 10 0- 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 0- 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 C 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 i q, 

Oxidation of Hj-dracids in 

Sunlight " 15 0- 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 0' 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 0- 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 (> 

Cretaceous Polvzoa 10 f>< 

Geological Photoprapbs 7 14 H 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 0* 
Botanical Station at I'erade- 

niya 25 



ex 



REPORT — 1896. 



£ s. d. 

Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations o 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

i'799 16 










1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards.." 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 
Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 
Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 
Botanical Station at Pera- 

deni3'a 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 
Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 
New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 
North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10 



1S92. 

£ 
Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photograplis of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Sohitions 10 

Action of Liglit on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climat ology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 6 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 



s. 


,1. 

























































































































































10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills IC 

Naples Zoological Station ... IOC 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 





















8 


6 



































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



£ g. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 




1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Eadiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurj-pterlds of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoologv of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photograjahs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Eeduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 6 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis .SO 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Paleozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint-drifts ... 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration cf Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies .... 30 

£977 15 5 



cxu 



REPOBT — 1896. 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 

Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 2 (5 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 

Straw .". 30 0' 

Eeprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Paleozoic Phyllopoda .5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava,&c 10 

Eaiypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Eeef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosanrus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 



£ s. d. 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 O 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen .10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 0. 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1,104 6 1 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 16, at 8 p.m., in the Plnlharmonic Hall, 
Liverpool, Captain Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S., F.G.S., resigned the office of President to Sir Joseph Lister, 
Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., President of the Royal Society, who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 17, at 8.30 p.m., a Soire'e took place at 
the Town Hall. 

On Friday, September 18, at 8.30 P.M., in the Philharmonic Hall, Dr. 
Francis Elgar, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Safety in Ships.' 

On Monday, September 21, at 8.30 p.m., in the Philharmonic Hall, 
Professor Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., delivered a discourse on 'Man before 
Writing.' 

On Tuesday, September 22, at 8.30 P.M., a Soiree took place at the 
Museum and Art Gallery. 

On Wednesday, September 23, at 2.30 p.m., in the small Concert 
Room, St. George's Hall, the concluding General Meeting took place, when 
the Proceedings of the General Committee and the Grants of Money for 
Scientific Purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Toronto. [The Meeting is ap- 
pointed to commence on Wednesday, August 18, 1897.1 




PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1896. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



SIE JOSEPH LISTEE, Baet., D.C.L., LL.D., P.E.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



My Lord Mayor, my Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, I have first to 
express my deep sense of gratitude for the great honour conferred upon 
me by my election to the high office which I occupy to-day. It came 
upon me as a great surprise. The engrossing claims of surgery have 
prevented me for many years from attending the meetiflgs of the 
Association, which excludes from her sections medicine in all its 
branches. This severance of the art of healing from the work of the 
Association was right and indeed inevitable. Not that medicine has 
little in common with science. The surgeon never performs an operation 
without the aid of anatomy and physiology ; and in what is often the 
most difficult part of his duty, the selection of the right course to follow, 
he, like the physician, is guided by pathology, the science of the nature 
of disease, which, though very difficult from the complexity of its subject 
matter, has made during the last half-century astonishing progress ; so 
that the practice of medicine in every department is becoming more 
and more based on science as distinguished from empiricism. I propose 
on the present occasion to bring before you some illustrations of the 
interdependence of science and the healing art ; and the first that I will 
take is perhaps the most astonishing of all results of purely physical 
inquiry — the discovery of the Rontgen rays, so called after the man who 
first clearly revealed them to the world. Mysterious as they still are, 
there is one of their properties which we can all appreciate — their power 
of passing through substances opaque to ordinary liglit. There seems to 
be no lelation whatever between transparency in the common sense of 



B 2 



4 BEPORT — 1896. 

the term and penetrability to these emanations. The glasses of a pair of 
spectacles may arrest them while their wooden and leathern case allows 
them to pass almost unchecked. Yet they produce, whether directly or 
indirectly, the same eflects as light upon a photographic plate. As a 
general rule the denser any object is the greater obstacle does it oppose 
to the rays. Hence, as bone is denser than flesh, if the hand or other 
part of the body is placed above the sensitive film enclosed in a case of 
wood or other light material at a suitable distance from the source of the 
rays, while they pass with the utmost facility through the uncovered 
parts of the lid of the box and powerfully affect the plate beneath, they 
are arrested to a large extent by the bones, so that the plate is little 
acted upon in the parts opposite to them, while the portions correspond- 
ing to the muscles and other soft parts are influenced in an intermediate 
degree. Thus a picture is obtained in which the bones stand out in sharp 
relief among the flesh, and anything abnormal in their shape or position 
is clearly displayed. 

I need hardly point out what important aid this must give to the 
surgeon. As an instance, I may mention a case which occurred in the 
practice of Mr. Howard Marsh. He was called to see a severe injury of 
the elbow, in which the swelling was so great as to make it impossible for 
him by ordinary means of examination to decide whether he had to deal 
with a fracture or a dislocation. If it were the latter, a cure would be 
efiected by the exercise of violence which would be not only useless but 
most injurious if a bone was broken. By the aid of the Rontgen rays a 
photograph was taken in which the bone of the upper arm was clearly 
seen displaced forwards on those of the forearm. The diagnosis being thus 
established, Mr. Marsh proceeded to reduce the dislocation ; and his suc- 
cess was proved by another photograph which showed the bones in their 
natural relative position. 

The common metals, such as lead, iron, and copper, being still denser 
than the osseous structures, these rays can show a bullet embedded in a 
bone or a needle lodged about a joint. At the last conversazione of the 
Royal Society a picture produced by the new photography displayed 
with perfect distinctness through the bony framework of the chest a half- 
penny low down in a boy's gullet. It had been there for six months, 
causing uneasiness at the pit of the stomach during swallowing ; but 
whether the coin really remained impacted, and if so, what was its position, 
was entirely uncertain till the Rontgen rays revealed it. Dr. Macintyre 
of Glasgow, who was the photographer, informs me that when the presence 
of the halfpenny had been thus demonstrated, the surgeon in charge of the 
case made an attempt to extract it, and although this was not successful 
in its immediate object, it had the eflfect of dislodging the coin ; for a sub- 
sequent photograph by Dr. Macintyre not only showed that it had disap- 
peared from the gullet, but also, thanks to the wonderful penetrating 
power which the rays had acquired in his hands, proved that it had not 



ADDRESS, 5 

lodged further down in the alimentary passage. The boy has since com- 
pletely recovered. 

The Rontgen rays cause certain chemical compounds to fluoresce, and 
emit a faint light plainly visible in the dark ; and if they are made to fall 
upon a translucent screen impregnated with such a salt, it becomes 
beautifully illuminated. If a part of the human body is interposed 
between the screen and the source of the rays, the bones and other 
structures are thrown in shadow upon it, and thus a diagnosis can be 
made without the delay involved in taking a photograph. It was in fact 
in this way that Dr. Macintyre first detected the coin in the boy's gullet. 
Mr. Herbert Jackson, of King's College, London, early distinguished 
himself in this branch of the subject. There is no reason to suppose that 
the limits of the capabilities of the rays in this way have yet been reached. 
By virtue of the greater density of the heart than the adjacent lungs 
with their contained air, the form and dimensions of that organ in the 
living body may be displayed on the fluorescent screen, and even its move- 
ments have been lately seen by several diflierent observers. 

Such important applications of the new rays to medical practice have 
strongly attracted the interest of the public to them, and I venture to 
think that they have even served to stimulate the investigations of 
physicists. The eminent Professor of Physics in the University CoUege- 
of this city (Professor Lodge) was one of the first to make such practical 
applications, and I was able to show to the Royal Society at a very early 
period a photograph, which he had the kindness to send me, of a bullet 
embedded in the hand. His interest in the medical aspect of the subject 
remains unabated, and at the same time he has been one of the most dis- 
tinguished investigators of its purely physical side. 

There is another way in which the Rontgen rays connect themselves 
with physiology, and may possibly influence medicine. It is found that 
if the skin is long exposed to their action it becomes very much irritated, 
affected with a sort of aggravated sun-burning. This suggests the ideA 
that the transmission of the rays through the human body may be not 
altogether a matter of indifference to internal organs, but may, by long- 
continued action, produce, according to the condition of the part con- 
cerned, injurious irritation or salutary stimulation. 

This is the jubilee of Antesthesia in surgery. That priceless blessing 
to mankind came from America. It had, indeed, been foreshadowed in 
the first year of this century by Sir Humphry Davy, who, having found 
a toothache from which he was suffering relieved as he inhaled laughing 
gas (nitrous oxide), threw out the suggestion that it might perhaps be 
used for preventing pain in surgical operations. But it was not till, on 
September 30, 1846, Dr. W. T. G. Morton, of Boston, after a series of 
experiments upon himself and the lower animals, extracted a tooth pain- 
lessly from a patient whom he had caused to inhale the vapour of sul- 
phuric ether, that the idea was fully realised. He soon afterwards publicly 



G REPORT — 1896. 

exhibited his method at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and after 
that event the great discovery spread rapidly over the civilised world. I 
witnessed the first operation in England under ether. It was performed by 
Robert Liston in University College Hospital, and it was a complete success. 
Soon afterwards I saw the same great surgeon amputate the thigh as 
painlessly, with less complicated anaesthetic apparatus, by aid of another 
agent, chloroform, which was being powerfully advocated as a substitute 
for ether by Dr. (afterwards Sir James Y.) Simpson, who also had the 
great merit of showing that confinements could be conducted painlessly, 
yet safely, under its influence. These two agents still hold the field as 
general anesthetics for protracted operations, although the gas originally 
suggested by Davy, in consequence of its rapid action and other advan- 
tages, has taken their place in short operations, such as tooth extraction. 
In the birthplace of anaesthesia ether has always maintained its ground ; 
but in Europe it was to a large ' extent displaced by chloroform till 
recently, when many have returned to ether, under the idea that, though less 
convenient, it is safer. For my own part, I believe that chloroform, if 
carefully administered on right principles, is, on the average, the safer 
agent of the two. 

The discovery of anaesthesia inaugurated a new era in surgery. Not 
only was the pain of operations abolished, but the serious and sometimes 
mortal shock which they occasioned to the system was averted, while the 
patient was saved the terrible ordeal of preparing to endure them. At 
the same time the field of surgery became widely extended, since many 
procedures in themselves desirable, but before impossible from the pro- 
tracted agony they would occasion, became matters of routine practice. 
Nor have I by any means exhausted the list of the benefits conferred by 
this discovery. 

Anaesthesia in surgery has been from first to last a gift of science. 
Nitrous oxide, sulphuric ether, and chloroform are all artificial products 
of chemistry, their employment as anaesthetics was the result of scientific 
investigation, and their administration, far from being, like the giving of 
a dose of medicine, a matter of rule of thumb, imperatively demands the 
vigilant exercise of physiological and pathological knowledge. 

While rendering such signal service to surgery, anaesthetics have 
thrown light upon biology generally. It has been found that they exert 
their soporific influence not only upon vertebrata, but upon animals so 
remote in structure from man as bees and other insects. Even the func- 
tions of vegetables are suspended by their agency. They thus aflTord 
strong confirmation of the great generalisation that living matter is of 
the same essential nature wherever it is met with on this planet, whether 
in the animal or vegetable kingdom. Anaesthetics have also, in ways to 
which I need not here refer, powerfully promoted the progress of physio- 
logy and pathology. 

My next illustration may be taken from the work of Pasteur on fer- 



ADDRESS. 7 

mentation. The prevailing opinion regarding this class of phenomena 
when they first engaged his attention was that they were occasioned 
primarily by the oxygen of the air acting upon unstable animal or vege- 
table products, which, breaking up under its influence, communicated 
disturbance to other organic materials in their vicinity, and thus led to 
their decomposition. Cagniard-Latour had indeed shown several years 
before that yeast consists essentially of the cells of a microscopic fundus 
which grows as the sweetwort ferments ; and he had attributed the break- 
ing up of the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid to the growth of the 
micro-organism. In Germany Schwann, who independently discovered 
the yeast plant, had published very striking experiments in support of 
analogous ideas regarding the putrefaction of meat. Such views had 
also found other advocates, but they had become utterly discredited, 
largely tlirough the great authority of Liebig, who bitterly opposed 
them. 

Pasteur, Iiaving been appointed as a young man Dean of the Faculty 
of Sciences in the University of Lille, a town where the products of 
alcoholic fermentation were staple articles of manufacture, determined to 
study that process thoroughly ; and as a result he became firmly con- 
vinced of the correctness of Cagniard-Latour's views regarding it. In the 
case of other fermentations, however, nothing fairly comparable to the 
formation of yeast had till then been observed. This was now done by 
Pasteur for that fermentation in which sugar is resolved into lactic acid. 
This lactic fermentation was at that time brought about by adding some 
animal substance, such as fibrin, to a solution of sugar, together with 
chalk that should combine with the acid as it was formed. Pasteur saw, 
what had never before been noticed, that a fine grey deposit was formed, 
differing little in appearance from the decomposing fibrin, but steadily 
increasing as the fermentation proceeded. Struck by the analogy pre- 
sented by the increasing deposit to the growth of yeast in sweetwort, he 
examined it with the microscope, and found it to consist of minute 
particles of uniform size. Pasteur was not a biologist, but although these 
particles were of extreme minuteness in comparison with the constituents 
of the yeast plant, he felt convinced that they were of an analogous 
nature, the cells of a tiny microscopic fungus. This he regarded as the 
essential ferment, the fibrin or other so-called ferment serving, as he 
believed, merely the purpose of supplying to the growing plant certain 
chemical ingredients essential to its nutrition not contained in the 
sugar. And the correctness of this view he confirmed in a very striking 
manner, by doing away with the fibrin or other animal material altogether, 
and substituting for it mineral salts containing the requisite chemical 
elements. A trace of the grey deposit being applied to a solution of 
sugar containing these salts in addition to the chalk, a brisker lactic 
fermentation ensued than could be procured in the ordinary way. 

I have referred to this research in some detail because it illustrates 



8 REPORT 1896. 

Pasteur's acuteness as an observer and his ingenuity in experiment, as 
well as his almost intuitive perception of truth. 

A series of other beautiful investigations followed, clearly proving that 
all true fermentations, including putrefaction, are caused by the growth 
of micro-organisms. 

It was natural that Pasteur should desire to know how the microbes 
which he showed to be the essential causes of the various fermentations 
took their origin. It was at that period a prevalent notion, even among 
many eminent naturalists, that such humble and minute beings originated 
de novo in decomposing organic substances ; the doctrine of spontaneous 
generation, which had been chased successively from various positions 
which it once occupied among creatures visilile to the naked eye, having 
taken its last refuge where the objects of study were of such minuteness 
that their habits and history were correspondingly difficult to trace. 
Here again Pasteur at once saw, as if by instinct, on which side the truth 
lay ; and, perceiving its immense importance, he threw himself with ardour 
into its demonstration. I may describe briefly one class of experiments 
which he performed with this object. He charged a series of narrow- 
necked glass flasks with a decoction of yeast, a liquid peculiarly liable to 
alteration on exposure to the air. Having boiled the liquid in each flask, 
to kill any living germs it might contain, he sealed its neck with a blow- 
pipe during ebullition ; after which, the flask being allowed to cool, the 
steam within it condensed, leaving a vacuum above the liquid. If, then, 
the neck of the flask were broken in any locality, the air at that particular 
place would rush in to fill tlie vacuum, carrying with it any living microbes 
that might be floating in it. The neck of the flask having been again 
sealed, any germs so introduced would in due time manifest their presence 
by developing in the clear liquid. When any of such a series of flasks 
were opened and re-sealed in an inhabited room, or under the trees of a 
forest, multitudes of minute living forms made their apj^earance in them ; 
but if this was done in a cellar long unused, where the suspended 
organisms, like other dust, might be expected to have all fallen to the 
ground, the decoction remained perfectly clear and unaltered. The oxygen 
and other gaseous constituents of the atmosphere were thus shown to be of 
themselves incapable of inducing any organic development in yeast-water. 

Such is a sample of the many well-devised experiments by which he 
carried to most minds the conviction that, as he expressed it, ' la genera- 
tion spontanee est une cldmere,' and that the humblest and minutest living 
organisms can only originate by parentage from beings like themselves. 

Pasteur pointed out the enormous importance of these humble 
organisms in the economy of nature. It is by their agency that the dead 
bodies of plants and animals are resolved into simpler compounds fitted 
for assimilation by new living forms. Without their aid the world would 
be, as Pasteur said, encomhre de cadavres. They are essential not only 
to our well-being, but to our very existence. Similar microbes must 



ADDRESS. 



have discharged the same necessary function of removing refuse and 
providing food for successive generations of plants and animals during the 
past periods of the world's history ; and it is interesting to think that 
organisms as simple as can well be conceived to have existed when life first 
appeared upon our globe have, in all probability, propagated the same 
lowly but most useful offspring during the ages of geological time. 

Pasteur's labours on fermentation have had a very important influence 
upon surgery. I have been often asked to speak on my share in this 
matter before a public audience ; but I have hitherto refused to do so, 
partly because the details are so entirely technical, but chiefly because I 
have felt an invincible repugnance to what might seem to savour of self- 
advei-tisement. The latter objection now no longer exists, since advancing 
years have indicated that it is right for me to leave to younger men the 
practice of my dearly loved profession. And it will perhaps be expected 
that, if I can make myself intelligible, I should say something upon the 
subject on the present occasion. 

Nothing was formerly more striking in surgical experience than the 
difference in the behaviour of injuries according to whether the skin was 
implicated or not. Thus, if the bones of the leg were broken and the 
skin remained intact, the surgeon applied the necessary apparatus without 
any other anxiety than that of maintaining a good position of the fragments,, 
although the internal injury to bones and soft parts might be very severe. 
If, on the other hand, a wound of the skin was present communicating 
with the broken bones, although the damage might be in other respects 
comparatively slight, the compound fracture, as it was termed, was one of 
the most dangerous accidents that could happen. Mr. Syme, who was, I 
believe, the safest surgeon of his time, once told me that he was inclined to 
think that it would be, on the whole, better if all compound fractures of 
the leg were subjected to amputation, without any attempt to save the 
limb. What was the cause of this astonishing difference ? It was clearly 
in some way due to the exposure of the injured parts to the external 
world. One obvious effect of such exposure was indicated by the odour of 
the discharge, which showed that the blood in the wound had undergone 
putrefactive change by which the bland nutrient liquid had been converted 
into highly irritating and poisonous substances. I have seen a man with 
compound fracture of the leg die within two days of the accident, as 
plainly poisoned by the products of putrefaction as if he had taken a fatal 
dose of some potent toxic drug. 

An external wound of the soft parts might be healed in one of two 
ways. If its surfaces were clean cut and could be brought into accurate 
apposition, it might unite rapidly and painlessly ' by the first intention.' 
This, however, was exceptional. Too often the surgeon's efforts to obtain 
primary union were frustrated : the wound inflamed and the retentive 
stitches had to be removed, allowing it to gape ; and then, as if it had 
been left open from the first, healing had to be effected in the other way 



10 REPORT— 1896. 

which it is necessary for me briefly to describe. An exposed raw surface 
became covered in the first instance with a layer of clotted blood or 
certain of its constituents, which invariably putrefied ; and the irritation 
of the sensitive tissues by the putrid products appeared to me to account 
sufiiciently for the inflammation which always occurred in and around an 
open wound during the three or four days which elapsed before what were 
termed ' granulations ' had been produced. These constituted a coarsely 
granular coating of very imperfect or embryonic structure, destitute of 
sensory nerves and prone to throw off' matter or pus, rather than absorb, 
as freshly divided tissues do, the products of putrefaction. The granula- 
tions thus formed a beautiful living plaster, which protected the sensitive 
parts beneath from irritation, and the system generally from poisoning 
and consequent febrile disturbance. The granulations had other useful 
properties of which I may mention their tendency to shrink as they grew, 
thus gradually reducing the dimensions of the sore. Meanwhile, another 
cause of its diminution was in operation. The cells of the epidermis or 
scarf-skin of the cutaneous margins were perpetually producing a crop of 
young cells of similar nature, which gradually spread over the granulations 
till they covered them entirely, and a comjjlete cicatrix or scar was the 
result. Such was the other mode of healing, that by granulation and 
cicatrisation ; a process which, when it proceeded unchecked to its 
completion, commanded our profound admiration. It was, however, essen- 
tially tedious compared with primary union, while, as we have seen, it 
was always preceded by more or less inflammation and fever, sometimes 
very serious in their eff"ects. It was also liable to unforeseen interruptions. 
The sore might become larger instead of smaller, cicatrisation giving place 
to ulceration in one of its various forms, or even to the frightful destruction 
of tissue which, from the circumstance that it was most frequently met 
with in hospitals, was termed hospital gangrene. Other serious and often 
fatal complications might arise, which the surgeon could only regard as 
untoward accidents and over which he had no efiicient control. 

It will be readily understood from the above description that the 
inflammation which so often frustrated the surgeon's endeavours after 
primary union was in my opinion essentially due to decomposition of 
blood within the wound. 

These and many other considerations had long impressed me with the 
greatness of the evil of putrefaction in surgery. I had done my best to 
mitigate it by scrupulous ordinary cleanliness and the use of various 
deodorant lotions. But to prevent it altogether appeared hopeless while 
we believed with Liebig that its primary cause was the atmospheric 
oxygen which, in accordance with the researches of Graham, could not 
fail to be perpetually diffused through the porous dressings which 
were used to absorb the blood discharged from the wound. But when 
Pasteur had shown that putrefaction was a fermentation caused by the 
growth of microbes, and that these could not arise de novo in the 



ADDRESS. 11 

decomposable substance, the problem assumed a more hopeful aspect. If 
the wound could be treated with some substance which, without doing too 
serious mischief to the human tissues, would kill the microbes already con- 
tained in it and prevent the future access of others in the living state, 
putrefaction might he prevented, however freely the air with its oxygen 
might enter. I had heard of carbolic acid as having a remarkable 
deodorising effect upon sewage, and having obtained from my colleague 
Dr. Anderson, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Glasgow, a 
sample which he had of this product, then little more than a chemical 
curiosity in Scotland, I determined to try it in compound fractures. 
Applying it undiluted to the wound, with an arrangement for its 
occasional renewal, I had tlie joy of seeing these formidable injuries follow 
the same safe and tranquil course as simple fractures, in which the skin 
remains unbroken. 

At the same time we had the intense interest of observing in open 
wounds what had previously been hidden from human view, the manner 
in which subcutaneous injuries are repaired. Of special interest was the 
process by which portions of tissue killed by the violence of the accident 
were disposed of, as contrasted with what had till then been invariably 
witnessed. Dead parts had been always seen to be gradually separated 
from the living by an inflammatory process and thrown off as sloughs. 
But when protected by the antiseptic dressing from becoming putrid and 
therefore irritating, a structure deprived of its life caused no disturbance 
in its vicinity ; and, on the contrary, being of a nutritious nature, it served 
as pabulum for the growing elements of the neighbouring living structures, 
and these became in due time entirely substituted for it. Even dead bone 
was seen to be thus replaced by living osseous tissue. 

This suggested the idea of using threads of dead animal structures for 
tying blood-vessels ; and this was realised by means of catgut, which is 
made from the intestine of the sheep. If deprived of living microbes, and 
otherwise properly prepared, catgut answers its purpose completely ; the 
knot holding securely, while the ligature around the vessel becomes 
gradually absorbed and replaced by a ring of living tissue. The threads, 
instead of being left long as before, could now be cut short, and the 
tedious process of separation of the ligature, with its attendant serious 
danger of bleeding, was avoided. 

Undiluted carbolic acid is a powerful caustic ; and although it might 
be employed in compound fracture, where some loss of tissue was of little 
moment in comparison with the tremendous danger to be averted, it was 
altogether unsuitable for wounds made by the surgeon. It soon appeared, 
however, that the acid would answer the purpose aimed at, though used 
in diluted forms devoid of caustic action, and therefore applicable to 
operative surgery. According to our then existing knowledge, two essen- 
tial points had to be aimed at : to conduct the operation so that on its 
completion the wound should contain no living microbes, and to apply a 



12 REPORT— 1896. 

dressing capable of preventing the access of other living organisms till 
the time should have arrived for changing it. 

Carbolic acid lent itself well to both these objects. Our experience 
with this agent brought out what was, I believe, a new principle in 
phai-macology — namely, that the energy of action of any substance upon 
the human tissues depends not only upon the proportion in which it is 
contained in the material used as a vehicle for its administration, but also 
upon the degree of tenacity with which it is held by its solvent. "Water 
dissolves carbolic acid sparingly and holds it extremely lightly, leaving it 
free to act energetically on other things for which it has greater affinity, 
while various organic substances absorb it greedily and hold it tenaciously. 
Hence its watery solution seemed admirably suited for a detergent lotion 
to be used for destroying any microbes that might fall upon the wound 
during the operation, and for purifying the surrounding skin and also the 
surgeon's hands and instruments. For the last-named purpose it had the 
further advantage that it did not act on steel. 

For an external dressing the watery solution was not adapted, as it 
soon lost the acid it contained, and was irritating while it lasted. For 
this purpose some organic substances were found to answer well. Large 
proportions of the acid could be blended with them in so bland a form as 
to be unirritating ; and such mixtures, while pei'petually giving off 
enough of the volatile salt to prevent organic development in the dis- 
charges that flowed past them, served as a reliable store of the antiseptic 
for days together. 

The appliances which I first used for carrying out the antiseptic prin- 
ciple were both rude and needlessly complicated. The years that have 
since passed have witnessed great improvements in both respects. Of 
the vai-ious materials which have been employed by myself and others, 
and their modes of application, I need say nothing except to express my 
belief, as a matter of long experience, that carbolic acid, by virtue of its 
powerful affinity for the epidermis and oily matters associated with it, 
and also its great penetrating power, is still the best agent at our dis- 
posal for purifying the skin around the wound. But I must say a 
few words regarding a most important simplification of our procedure. 
Pasteur, as we have seen, had shown that the air of every inhabited 
room teems with microbes ; and for a long time I employed various more 
or less elaborate precautions against the living atmospheric dust, not 
doubting that, as all wounds except the few which healed completely by 
the first intention, underwent putrefactive fermentation, the blood must 
be a peculiarly favourable soil for the growth of putrefactive microbes. 
But I afterwards learnt that such was by no means the case. I had 
performed many experiments in confirmation of Pasteur's germ theory, 
not indeed in order to satisfy myself of its truth, but in the hope of 
convincing others. I had observed that uncontaminated milk, which 
would remain unaltered for an indefinite time if protected from dust, 



ADDRESS. 13 

was made to teem with microbes of different kinds by a very brief 
exposure to the atmosphere, and that the same effect was produced by 
the addition of a drop of ordinary water. But when I came to experi- 
ment with blood drawn with antiseptic precautions into sterilised vessels, 
I saw to my surprise that it might remain free from microbes in spite of 
similar access of air or treatment with water. I even found that if very 
putrid blood was largely diluted with sterilised water, so as to diffuse 
its microbes widely and wash them of their acrid products, a drop of 
such dilution added to pure blood might leave it unchanged for days at 
the temperature of the body, although a trace of the septic liquid undi- 
luted caused intense putrefaction within twenty-four hours. Hence I 
was led to conclude that it was the grosser forms of septic mischief, 
rather than microbes in the attenuated condition in which they existed 
in the atmosphere, that we had to dread in surgical practice. And at 
the London Medical Congress in 1881, I hinted, when describing the 
experiments I have alluded to, that it might turn out possible to disre- 
gard altogether the atmospheric dust. But greatly as I should have 
rejoiced at such a simplification of our procedure, if justifiable, I did not 
then venture to test it in practice. I knew that with the safeguards which 
we then employed I could ensure the safety of my patients, and I did not 
dare to imperil it by relaxing them. There is one golden rule for all 
experiments upon our fellow-men. Let the thing tried be that which, 
according to our best judgment, is the most likely to promote the welfare 
of the patient. In other words, Do as you would be done by. 

Nine years later, however, at the Berlin Congress in 1890, I was able 
to bring forward what was, I believe, absolute demonstration of the harm- 
lessness of the atmospheric dust in surgical operations. This conclusion 
has been justified by subsequent experience : the irritation of the wound 
by antiseptic irrigation and washing may therefore now be avoided, and 
nature left quite undisturbed to carry out her best methods of repair, 
while the surgeon may conduct his operations as simply as in former days, 
provided always that, deeply impressed with the tremendous importance 
of his object, and inspiring the same conviction in all his assistants, he 
vigilantly maintains from first to last, with a care that, once learnt, 
becomes instinctive, but for the want of which nothing else can compen- 
sate, the use of the simple means which will suffice to exclude from the 
wound the coarser forms of septic impurity. 

Even our earlier and ruder methods of carrying out the antiseptic 
principle soon produced a wonderful change in my surgical wards in the 
Glasgow Royal Infirmary, which, from being some of the most unhealthy 
in the kingdom, became, as I believe I may say without exaggeration, the 
healthiest in the world ; while other wards, separated from mine only by 
a passage a few feet broad, where former modes of treatment were for a while 
continued, retained their former insalubrity. This result, I need hardly 
remark, was not in any degree due to special skill on my part, but simply 



14 EEPOKT— 1896. 

to the strenuous endeavour to carry out strictly what seemed to me a prin- 
ciple of supreme importance. 

Equally striking changes were afterwards witnessed in other institu- 
tions. Of these I may give one example. In the great Allgemeines 
Krankenhaus of Munich, hospital gangrene had become more and more 
rife from year to year, till at length the frightful condition was reached 
that 80 per cent, of all wounds became affected by it. It is only just to 
the memory of Professor von Nussbaum, then the head of that establish- 
ment, to say that he had done his utmost to check this frightful scourge ; 
and that the evil was not caused by anything peculiar in his management 
was shown by the fact that in a private hospital under his care there was 
no unusual unhealthiness. The larger institution seemed to have become 
hopelessly infected, and the city authorities were contemplating its demo- 
lition and reconstruction. Under these circumstances. Professor von 
Nussbaum despatched his chief assistant, Dr. Lindpaintner, to Edinburgh, 
where I at that time occupied the chair of clinical surgery, to learn the 
details of the antiseptic system as we then practised it. He remained 
until he had entirely mastered them, and after his return all the cases 
were on a certain day dressed on our plan. From that day forward not 
a single case of hospital gangrene occurred in the Krankenhaus. The 
fearful disease pyaemia likewise disappeared, and erysipelas soon followed 
its example. 

But it was by no means only in removing the unhealthiness of hos- 
pitals that the antiseptic system showed its benefits. Inflammation being 
suppressed, with attendant pain, fever, and wasting discharge, the sufier- 
ings of the patient were, of course, immensely lessened ; rapid primary 
union being now the rule, convalescence was correspondingly curtailed ; 
while as regards safety and the essential nature of the mode of rejiair, it 
became a matter of indiflference whether the wound had clean-cut surfaces 
which could be closely approximated, or whether the injury inflicted had 
been such as to cause destruction of tissue. And operations which had 
been regarded from time immemorial as unjustifiable were adojsted with 
complete safety. 

It pleases me to think that there is an ever-increasing number of prac- 
titioners throughout the world to whom this will not appear the language 
of exaggeration. There are cases in which, from the situation of the part 
concerned or other unusual circumstances, it is impossible to carry out the 
antiseptic system completely. These, however, are quite exceptional; and 
even in them much has been done to mitigate the evil which cannot be 
altogether avoided. 

I ask your indulgence if I have seemed to dwell too long upon matters 
in which I have been personally concerned. I now gladly return to the 
laljours of others. 

The striking results of the application of the germ theory to Surgery 
acted as a powerful stimulus to the investigation of the nature of the 



ADDRESS. 15 

micro-organisms concerned ; and it soon appeared that putrefaction was 
by no means the only evil of microbic origin to which wounds were liable. 
I had myself very early noticed that hospital gangrene was not necessarily 
attended by any unpleasant odour ; and I afterwards made a similar 
observation regarding the matter formed in a remarkable epidemic of 
erysipelas in Edinburgh obviously of infective character. I had also seen 
a careless dressing followed by the occurrence of suppuration without 
putrefaction. And as these non-putrefactive disordei's had the same self- 
propagating property as ferments, and were suppressed by the same anti- 
septic agencies which were used for combating the putrefactive microbes, 
I did not doubt that they were of an analogous origin ; and I ventured 
to express the view that, just as tlie various fermentations had each its 
special microbe, so it might be with the various complications of wounds. 
This surmise was afterwards amply verified. Professor Ogston, of Aber- 
deen, was an eai-ly worker in this field, and showed that in acute abscesses, 
that is to say those which run a rapid course, the matter, although often 
quite free from unpleasant odour, invariably contains micro-organisms 
belonging to the group which, from the spherical form of their elements, 
are termed micrococci ; and these he classed as streptococci or staphylo- 
cocci, according as they were arranged in chains or disposed in irregular 
clusters like bunches of grapes. The German pathologist, Fehleisen, fol- 
lowed with a beautiful research, by which he clearly proved that erysipelas 
is caused by a streptococcus. A host of earnest workers in different 
countries have cultivated the new science of Bacteriology, and, while 
opening up a wide fresh domain of Biology, have demonstrated in so many 
cases the causal relation between special micro-organisms and special 
diseases, not only in wounds but in the system generally, as to afford 
ample confirmation of the induction which had been made by Pasteur 
that all infective disorders are of microbic orisin. 

Not that we can look forward with anything like confidence to being 
able ever to see the materies morbi of every disease of this nature. One of 
the latest of such discoveries has been that by Pfeiffer of Berlin of the 
bacillus of influenza, perhaps the most minute of all micro-organisms ever 
yet detected. The bacillus of anthrax, the cause of a plague common 
among cattle in some parts of Europe, and often communicated to sorters 
of foi-eign wool in this country, is a giant as compared with this tiny 
being ; and supposing the microbe of any infectious fever to be as much 
smaller than the influenza bacillus as this is less than that of anthrax, a 
by no means unlikely hypothesis, it is probable that it would never be 
visible to man. The improvements of the microscope, based on the 
principle established by my father in the earlier part of the century, 
ha^'e apparently nearly reached the limits of what is possible. But that 
such parasites are really the causes of all this great class of diseases can 
no longer be doubted. 

The first rational step towards the prevention or cure of disease is to 



16 REPORT— 1896. 

know its cause ; and it is impossible to over-estimate the practical value 
of researches such as those to which I am now referring. Among their 
many achievements is what may be fairly regarded as the most important 
discovery ever made in pathology, because it revealed the true nature of 
the disease which causes more sickness and death in the human race than 
any other. It was made by Robert Koch, who greatly distinguished 
himself, when a practitioner in an obscure town in Germany, by the 
remarkable combination of experimental acuteness and skill, chemical 
and optical knowledge and successful micro-photography which he brought 
to bear upon the elucidation of infective diseases of wounds in the lower 
animals ; in recognition of which service the enlightened Prussian 
Government at once appointed him to an official position of great impor- 
tance in Berlin. There he conducted various important researches ; and 
at the London Congress in 1881 he showed to us for the first time the 
bacillus of tubercle. Wonderful light was thrown by this discovery upon 
a great group of diseases which had before been rather guessed than known 
to be of allied nature ; a precision and efficacy never before possible 
was introduced into their surgical treatment, while the physician became 
guided by new and sure light as regards their diagnosis and prevention. 

At that same London Congress Koch demonstrated to us his * plate 
■culture ' of bacteria, which was so important that I must devote a few 
words to its description. With a view to the successful study of the 
liabits and effects of any particular microbe outside the living body, it is 
essential that it should be present unmixed in the medium in which it is 
cultivated. It can be readily understood how difficult it must have been 
to isolate any particular micro-organism when it existed mixed, as was 
often the case, with a multitude of other forms. In fact, the various in- 
genious attempts made to effect this object had often proved entire failures. 
Koch, however, by an ingenious procedure converted what had been before 
impossible into a matter of the utmost facility. In the broth or other 
nutrient liquid which was to serve as food for the growing microbe he 
dissolved, by aid of heat, just enough gelatine to ensure that, while it 
should become a solid mass when cold, it should remain fluid though re- 
duced in temperature so much as to be incapable of killing living germs. 
To the medium thus partially cooled was added some liquid containing, 
among others, the microbe to be investigated ; and the mixture was 
thoroughly shaken so as to diffuse the bacteria and separate them from 
each other. Some of the liquid was then poured out in a thin layer upon 
a glass plate and allowed to cool so as to assume the solid form. The 
various microbes, fixed in the gelatine and so prevented from inter- 
mingling, proceeded to develop each its special progeny, which in course 
of time showed itself as an opaque speck in the transparent film. Any 
one of such specks could now be removed and transferred to another vessel 
in which the microbe composing it grew in perfect isolation, 

Pasteur was present at this demonstration, and expressed his sense of 



ADDRESS. 17 

the great progress effected by the new method. It was soon introduced 
into his own institute and other laboratories throughout the world ; and 
it has immensely facilitated bacteriological study. 

One fruit of it in Koch's own hands was the discovery of the microbe 
of cholera in India, whither he went to study the disease. This organism 
was termed by Koch from its curved form the ' comma bacillus,' and by 
the French the cholera vibrio. Great doubts were for a long time felt 
regarding this discovery. Several other kinds of bacteria were found of 
the same shape, some of them producing very similar appearances in cul- 
ture media. But bacteriologists are now universally agreed that, although 
various other conditions are necessary to the production of an attack of 
cholera besides the mere presence of the vibrio, yet it is the essential 
materies morbi ; and it is by the aid of the. diagnosis which its presence in 
any case of true cholera enables the bacteriologist to make, that threatened 
invasions of this awful disease have of late years been so successfully 
repelled from our shores. If bacteriology had done nothing more for us 
than this, it might well have earned our gratitude. 

I have next to invite your attention to some earlier work of Pasteur. 
There is a disease known in France under the name of cholera des j)oules, 
which often produced great havoc among the poultry yards of Paris. It 
had been observed that the blood of birds that had died of this disease 
was peopled by a multitude of minute bacteria, not very dissimilar in form 
and size to the microbe of the lactic ferment to which I have before 
referred. And Pasteur found that, if this bacterium was cultivated out- 
side the body for a protracted period under certain conditions, it under- 
went a remarkable diminution of its virulence ; so that, if inoculated into 
a healthy fowl, it no longer caused the death of the bird , as it would have 
done in its original condition, but produced a milder form of the disease 
which was not fatal. And this altered character of the microbe, caused 
by certain conditions, was found to persist in successive generations culti- 
vated in the ordinary way. Thus was discovered the great fact of what 
Pasteur termed the attenuation des virus, which at once gave the clue to 
understanding what had before been quite mysterious, the difference in 
virulence of the same disease in different epidemics. 

But he made the further very important observation that a bird which 
had gone through the mild form of the complaint had acquired immunity 
against it in its most virulent condition. Pasteur afterwards succeeded 
in obtaining mitigated varieties of microbes for some other diseases ; and 
he applied with great success the principle which he had discovered in 
fowl-cholera for protecting the larger domestic animals against the plague 
of anthrax. The preparations used for such preventive inoculations he 
termed 'vaccins' in honour of our great countryman, Edward Jenner. 
For Pasteur at once saw the analogy between the immunity to fowl- 
cholera produced by its attenuated virus and the protection afforded 
against small-pox by vaccination. And while pathologists still hesitated, 

1896. c 



18 REPORT— 1896. 

he had no doubt of the correctness of Jenner's expression vm-iolce vaccince, 
or small-pox in the cow. 

It is just a hundred years since Jenner made the crucial experiment of 
inoculating with small-pox a boy whom he had previously vaccinated, the 
result being, as he anticipated, that the boy was quite vmaffected. It may 
be remarked that this was a perfectly legitimate experiment, involving no 
danger to the subject of it. Inoculation was at that time the established 
practice ; and if vaccination should prove nugatory, the inoculation would 
be only what would have been otherwise called for ; while it would be per- 
fectly harmless if the hoped-for effect of vaccination had been produced. 

"We are a practical people, not much addicted to personal commemora- 
tions : although our nation did indeed celebrate with fitting splendour the 
jubilee of the reign of our beloved Queen ; and at the invitation of 
Glasgow the scientific world has lately marked in a manner, though 
different, as imposing, the jubilee of the life-work of a sovereign in science 
(Lord Kelvin). But while we cannot be astonished that the centenary of 
Jenner's immortal discovery should have failed to receive general recogni- 
tion in this country, it is melancholy to think that this year should, in his 
native county, have been distinguished by a terrible illustration of the 
results which would sooner or later inevitably follow the general neglect 
of his prescriptions. 

I have no desire to speak severely of the Gloucester Guardians. They 
are not sanitary authorities, and had not the technical knowledge neces- 
sary to enable them to judge between the teachings of true science and 
the declamations of misguided, though well-meaning, enthusiasts. They 
did what they believed to be right ; and when roused to a sense of the 
greatness of their mistake, they did their very best to repair it, so that 
their city is said to be now the best vaccinated in Her Majesty's dominions. 
But though by their praiseworthy exertions they succeeded in promptly 
checking the raging epidemic, they cannot recall the dead to life, or 
restore beauty to marred features, or sight to blinded eyes. Would that 
the entire country and our Legislature might take duly to heart this 
object-lesson ! 

How completely the medical profession were convinced of the efficacy 
of vaccination in the early part of this century was strikingly illustrated 
by an account given by Professor Crookshank, in his interesting history of 
this subject, of several eminent medical men in Edinbui'gh meeting to see 
the to them unprecedented fact of a vaccinated person having taken small- 
pox. It has, of course, since become well known that the milder form 
of the disease, as modified by passing through the cow, confers a less 
permanent protection than the original human disorder. This it was, of 
course, impossible for Jenner to foresee. It is, indeed, a question of 
degree, since a second attack of ordinary small-pox is occasionally known 
to occur, and vaccination, long after it has ceased to give perfect immu- 
nity, greatly modifies the character of the disorder and diminishes its 



I 



ADDRESS. 19 

danger. And, happily, in re-vaccination after a certain number of years 
we have the means of making Jenner's work complete. I understand 
that the majority of the Commissioners, who have recently issued their 
report upon this subject, while recognising the value and importance of 
re- vaccination, are so impressed with the difficulties that would attend 
making it compulsory by legislation that they do not recommend that 
course ; although it is advocated by two of their number who are of 
peculiarly high authority on such a question. I was lately told by a 
Berlin professor that no serious difficulty is experienced in carrying out 
the compulsory law that prevails in Germany. The masters of the 
schools are directed to ascertain in the case of every child attaining the 
age of twelve whether re-vaccination has been practised. If not, and 
the parents refuse to have it done, they are fined one mark. If this does 
not prove effectual, the fine is doubled : and if even the double penalty 
should not prove efficacious, a second doubling of it would follow, but, as 
my informant remarked, it is very seldom that it is called for. The 
result is that small-pox is a matter of extreme rai'ity in that country ; 
while it is almost unknown in the huge German army, in consequence 
of the rule that every soldier is re- vaccinated on entering the service. 
Whatever view our Legislature may take on this question, one thing 
seems to me clear : that it will be the duty of Government to encourage 
by every available means the use of calf lymph, so as to exclude the 
possibility of the communication of any human disease to the child, and 
to institute such efficient inspection of vaccination institutes as shall 
ensure careful antiseptic arrangements, and so prevent contamination 
by extraneous microbes. If this were done, 'conscientious objections' 
would cease to have any rational basis. At the same time, the ad- 
ministration of the regulations on vaccination should be transferred (as 
advised by the Commissioners) to competent sanitary authorities. 

But to return to Pasteur. In IStfO he entered upon the study of 
that terrible but then most obscure disease, Hydrophobia or Rabies, which 
from its infective character he was sure must be of microbic origin, 
although no micro-organism could be detected in it. He early demon- 
strated the new pathological fact that the virus had its essential seat in 
the nervous system. This proved the key to his success in this subject. 
One result that flowed from it has been the cause of unspeakable consola- 
tion to many. The foolish practice is still too prevalent of killing the dog 
that has bitten any one, on the absurd notion that, if it were mad, its 
destruction would prevent the occurrence of Hydrophobia in the person 
bitten. The idea of the bare possibility of the animal having been so 
affected causes an agony of suspense during the long weeks or months of 
possible incubation of the disease. Very serious nervous symptoms aping 
true Hydrophobia have been known to result from the terror thus inspired. 
Pasteur showed that if a little of the brain or spinal cord of a dog that had 
been really mad was inoculated in an appropriate manner into a rabbit, it 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1896. 

infallibly caused rabies in that animal in a few days. If therefore such 
an experiment was made with a negative result, the conclusion might 
be drawn with certainty that the dog had been healthy. It is perhaps 
right that I should say that the inoculation is painlessly done under an 
anaesthetic, and that in the rabbit rabies does not assume the violent form 
that it does in the dog, but produces gradual loss of power with little if 
any suffering. 

This is the more satisfactory because rabbits in which the disease has 
been thus artificially induced are employed in carrying out what was 
Pasteur's greatest triumph, the preventive treatment of Hydrophobia in 
the human subject. We have seen that Pasteur discovered that microbes 
might under some circumstances undergo mitigation of their virulence. 
He afterwards found that under different conditions they might have it 
exalted, or, as he expressed it, there might be a renforcement du virus. 
Such proved to be the case with rabies in the rabbit ; so that the spinal 
cords of animals which had died of it contained the poison in a highly 
intensified condition. But he also found that if such a highly virulent 
cord was suspended under strict antiseptic precautions in a dry atmosphere 
at a certain temperature, it gradually from day to day lost in potency, till 
in course of time it became absolutely inert. If now an emulsion of such 
a harmless cord was introduced under the skin of an animal, as in the 
subcutaneous administration of morphia, it might be followed without harm 
another day by a similar dose of a cord still rather poisonous ; and so from 
day to day stronger and stronger injections might be used, the system 
becoming gradually accustomed to the poison, till a degree of virulence 
had been reached far exceeding that of the bite of a mad dog. When this 
had been attained, the animal proved incapable of taking the disease in 
the ordinary way ; and more than that, if such treatment was adopted 
after an animal had already received the poison, provided that too long a 
time had not elapsed, the outbreak of the disease was prevented. It was 
only after great searching of heart that Pasteur, after consultation with 
some trusted medical friends, ventured upon trying this practice upon 
man. It has since been extensively adopted in various parts of the world 
with increasing success as the details of the method wei-e improved. It is 
not of course the case that every one bitten by a really rabid animal takes 
the disease ; but the percentage of those who do so, which was formerly 
large, has been reduced almost to zero by this treatment, if not too long 
delayed. 

While the intensity of rabies in the rabbit is undoubtedly due to a 
peculiarly virulent form of the microbe concerned, we cannot suppose that 
the daily diminishing potency of the cord suspended in dry warm air is 
an instance of attenuation of virus, using the term ' virus ' as synonymous 
with the microbe concerned. In other words, we have no reason to 
believe that the special micro-organism of hydrophobia continues to 
develop in the dead cord and produce successively a milder and milder 



ADDRESS. 21 

progeny ; since rabies cannot be cultivated in the nervous system of a dead 
animal. We must rather conclude that there must be some chemical 
poison present which gradually loses its potency as time passes. And this 
leads me to refer to another most important branch of this large subject 
of bacteriology, that of the poisonous products of microbes. 

It was shown several years ago by Roux and Yersin, working in the 
Institut Pasteur, that the crust or false membrane which forms upon the 
throats of patients affected with diphtheria contains bacteria which can 
be cultivated outside the body in a nutrient liquid, with the result that it 
acquires poisonous qualities of astonishing intensity, comparable to that 
of the secretion of the poison-glands of the most venomous serpents. 
And they also ascertained that the liquid retained this property after the 
microbes had been removed from it by filtration, which proved that the 
poison must be a chemical substance in solution, as distinguished from the 
living element which had produced it. These poisonous products of 
bacteria, or toxins as they have been termed, explain the deadly effects of 
some microbes, which it would otherwise be impossible to understand. 
Thus, in diphtheria itself the special bacillus which was shown by Loffler 
to be its cause, does not become propagated in the blood, like the microbe 
of chicken cholera, but remains confined to the surface on which it first 
appeared : but the toxin which it secretes is absorbed from that surface 
into the blood, and so poisons the system. Similar observations have 
been made with regard to the microbes of some other diseases, as, for 
example, the bacillus of tetanus or lockjaw. This remains localised in 
the wound, but forms a special toxin of extreme potency, which becomes 
absorbed and diffused through the body. 

Wonderful as it seems, each poisonous microbe appears to form its 
own peculiar toxin. Koch's tuberculin was of this nature ; a product of 
the growth of the tubercle bacillus in culture media. Here, again, great 
effects were produced by extremely minute quantities of the substance ; 
but here a new peculiarity showed itself, viz. that patients affected with 
tubercular disease, in any of its varied forms, exhibited inflammation in 
the affected part and general fever after receiving under the skin an 
amount of the material which had no effect whatever upon healthy 
persons. I witnessed in Berlin some instances of these effects, which 
were simply astounding. Patients affected with a peculiar form of obsti- 
nate ulcer of the face showed, after a single injection of the tuberculin, 
violent inflammatory redness and swelling of the sore and surrounding 
skin ; and, what was equally surprising, when this disturbance subsided 
the disease was found to have undergone great improvement. By repeti- 
tions of such procedures, ulcers which had previously been steadily 
advancing, in spite of ordinary treatment, became greatly reduced in size, 
and in some instances apparently cured. Such results led Koch to believe 
that he had obtained an eflectual means of dealing with tubercular disease 
in all its forms. Unhappily, the apparent cure proved to be only of 



22 REroRT — 1896. 

transient duration, and the high hopes which had been inspired by Koch's 
great reputation were dashed. It is but fair to say that he was sti'ongly 
urf^ed to publish befoi'e he was himself disposed to do so, and we cannot 
but regret that he yielded to the pressure put upon him. 

But though Koch's sanguine anticipations Avere not realised, it would 
be a great mistake to suppiise that his labours with tuberculin have been 
fruitless. Cattle are liable to tubercle, and, when aifected with it, may 
become a very serious source of infection for human beings, more especially 
when the disease affects the udders of cows, and so contaminates the milk. 
By virtue of the close affinity that prevails between the lower animals and 
ourselves, in disease as well as in health, tuberculin produces fever in tuber- 
cular cows in doses which do not affect healthy beasts. Thus, by the 
subcutaneous use of a little of the fluid, tubercle latent in internal organs 
of an apparently healthy cow can be with certainty revealed, and the 
slaughter of the animal after this discovery protects man from infection. 

It has been ascertained that glanders presents a precise analogy with 
tubercle as regards the effects of its toxic products. If the microbe which 
has been found to be the cause of this disease is cultivated in appropriate 
media, it pi'oduces a poison which has received the name of mallein, and 
the subcutaneous injection of a suitable dose of this fluid into a glandcred 
horse causes striking febrile symptoms which do not occur in a healthy 
animal. Glanders, like tubercle, may exist in insidious latent forms 
which thei-e was formerly no possibility of detecting, but which are at 
once disclosed by this means. If a glandered horse has been accidentally 
introduced into a large stable, this method of diagnosis surely tells if it 
has infected others. All receive a little mallein. Those which become 
affected with fever are slaughtered, and thus not only is the disease pre- 
vented from spreading to other horses, but the grooms are protected from 
a mortal disorder. 

This valuable resource sprang from Koch's work on tuberculin, which 
has also indirectly done good in other ways. His distinguished pupil, 
Behring, has expressly attributed to those researches the inspiration of 
the work which led him and his since famous collaborateur, the Japanese 
Kitasato, to their sui'prising discovery of anti-toxic serum. They found 
that if an animal of a species liable to diphtheria or tetanus received a 
quantity of the respective toxin, so small as to be harmless, and after- 
wards, at suitable intervals, successively stronger and stronger doses, the 
creature, in course of time, acquired such a tolerance for the poison as to 
be able to receive with impunity a quantity very much greater than 
would at the outset have proved fatal. So far, we have nothing more 
than seems to correspond with the effects of the increasingly potent cords 
in Pasteur's treatment of rabies. But what was entirely new in their 
results was that, if blood was drawn from an animal which had acquired 
this high degree of artificial immunity, and some of the clear fluid or 
scrum which exuded from it after it had clotted was introduced under the 



ADDRESS. 28 

skin of another animal, this second animal acquired a sti'ong, though more 
transient, immunity against the particular toxin concerned. The serum 
in some way counteracted the toxin or was antitoxic. But, more than 
that, if some of the antitoxic serum was applied to an animal after it had 
already received a poisonous dose of the toxin, it preserved the life of the 
creature, provided that too long a time had not elapsed after the poison 
was introduced. In other words, the antitoxin proved to be not only 
preventive but curative. 

Similar results were afterwards obtained by Ehrlich, of Berlin, with 
some poisons not of bacterial origin, but derived from the vegetable 
kingdom ; and quite recently the independent labours of Calmette of 
Lille and Fraser of Edinburgh have shown that antidotes of wonderful 
efficacy against the venom of serpents may be procured on the same prin- 
ciple. Calmette has obtained antitoxin so powerful that a quantity of it 
only a 200,000th part of the weight of an animal will protect it perfectly 
against a dose of the secretion of the poison-glands of the most venomous 
serpents known to exist, which without such protection would have proved 
fatal in four hours. For curative purposes larger quantities of the remedy are 
required, but cases have been already published by Calmette in which death 
appears to have been averted in the human subject by this treatment. 

Behring's darling object was to discover means of curing tetanus and 
diphtheria in man. In tetanus the conditions are not favourable ; because 
the specific bacilli lurk in the depths of the wound, and only declare their 
presence by symptoms caused by their toxin having been already in a 
greater or less amount diffused through the system ; and in every case of 
this disease there must be a fear that the antidote may be applied too late 
to be useful. But in diphtheria the bacilli very early manifest their pre- 
sence by the false membrane which they cause upon the throat, so that 
the antitoxin has a fair chance ; and here we are justified in saying that 
Behring's object has been attained. 

The problem, however, was by no means so simple as in the case of 
some mere chemical poison. However effectual the antitoxin might be 
against the toxin, if it left the bacilli intact, not only would repeated 
injections be required to maintain the transient immunity to the j^oison 
perpetually secreted by the microbes, but the bacilli might by their growth 
and extension cause obstruction of the respiratory passages. 

Roux, however, whose name must always be mentioned with honour 
in relation to this subject, effectually disposed of this difficulty. He 
showed by experiments on animals that a diphtheritic false membrane, 
rapidly extending and accompanied by surrounding inflammation, was 
brought to a stand by the use of the antitoxin, and soon dropped off, 
leaving a healthy surface. Whatever be the explanation, the fact was 
thus established that the antitoxic serum, while it renders the toxin 
harmless, causes the microbe to languish and disappear. 

No theoretical objection could now be urged against the treatment ; 



24 REPORT — 1896. 

and it has during the last two years been extensively tested in practice in 
various parts of the world, and it has gradually made its way more and 
more into the confidence of the profession. One important piece of evi- 
dence in its favour in this country is derived from the report of the six 
large hospitals under the management of the London Asylums Board. 
The medical officers of these hospitals at first naturally regarded the prac- 
tice with scepticism : but as it appeared to be at least harmless, they 
gave it a trial ; and during the year 1895 it was very generally employed 
upon the 2,182 cases admitted ; and they have all become convinced of 
its great value. In the nature of things, if the theory of the treatment 
is correct, the best results must be obtained when the patients are 
admitted at an early stage of the attack, before there has been time 
for much poisoning of the system : and accordingly we learn from the 
report that, comparing 1895 with 1894, during which latter year the 
ordinary treatment had been used, the percentage of mortality, in all 
the six hospitals combined, among the patients admitted on the first day 
of the disease, which in 1894 was 22*5, was only 4"6 in 1895 ; and for 
those admitted on the second day the numbers are 27 for 1894 and 14*8 
for 1895. Thus for cases admitted on the first day the mortality was 
only one-fifth of what it was in the previous year, and for those enter- 
ing on the second it was halved. Unfortunately in the low parts of 
London which furnish most of these patients the parents too often delay 
sending in the children till much later : so that on the average no less 
than 67 "5 per cent, were admitted on the fourth day of the disease or later. 
Hence the aggregate statistics of all cases are not nearly so striking. 
Nevertheless, taking it altogether, the mortality in 1895 was less than had 
ever before been experienced in those hospitals. I should add that there 
was no reason to think that the disease was of a milder type than usual 
in 1895 ; and no change whatever was made in the treatment except as 
regards the antitoxic injections. 

There is one piece of evidence recorded in the report which, though it 
is not concerned with high numbers, is well worthy of notice. It relates 
to a special institution to which convalescents from scarlet fever are sent 
from all the six hospitals. Such patients occasionally contract diphtheria, 
and when they do so the added disease has generally proved extremely fatal. 
In the five years preceding the introduction of the treatment with anti- 
toxin the mortality from this cause had never been less than 50 per cent,, 
and averaged on the whole 61-9 per cent. During 1895, under antitoxin, 
the deaths among the 119 patients of this class were only 7-5 per cent., 
or one- eighth of what had been previously experienced. This very strik- 
ing result seems to be naturally explained by the fact that these patients 
being already in hospital when the diphtheria appeared, an unusually 
early opportunity was afforded for dealing with it. 

There are certain cases of so malignant a character from the first that 
no treatment will probably ever be able to cope with them. But taking 



ADDRES3. 25 

all cases together it seems probable that Behring's hope that the mortality 
may be reduced to 5 per cent, will be fully realised when the public 
become ali\e to the paramount importance of having the treatment com- 
menced at the outset of the disease. 

There are many able workers in the field of Bacteriology whose names 
time does not permit me to mention, and to whose important labours I 
cannot refer ; and even those researches of which I have spoken have 
been, of course, most inadequately dealt with. I feel this especially with 
regard to Pasteur, whose work shines out more brightly the more his 
writings are perused. 

I have lastly to bring before you a subject which, though not bacterio- 
logical, has intimate relations with bacteria. If a drop of blood is drawn 
from the finger by a prick with a needle and examined microscopically 
between two plates of glass, there are seen in it minute solid elements of 
two kinds, the one pale orange bi-concave discs, which, seen in mass, give 
the red colour to the vital fluid, the other more or less granular spherical 
masses of the soft material called protoplasm, destitute of colour, and 
therefore called the colourless or white corpuscles. It has been long 
known that if the microscope was placed at such a distance from a fire as 
to have the temperature of the human body, the white corpuscles might 
be seen to put out and retract little processes or pseudopodia, and by their 
means crawl over the surface of the glass, just like the extremely low 
forms of animal life termed, from this faculty of changing their form, 
amoebae. It was a somewhat weird spectacle, that of seeing what had 
just before been coursing through our veins moving about like inde- 
pendent creatures. Yet there was nothing in this inconsistent with what 
we knew of the fixed components of the animal frame. For example, the 
surface of a frog's tongue is covered with a layer of cells, each of which is 
provided with two or mdre lashing filaments or cilia, and those of all the 
cells acting in concert cause a constant flow of fluid in a definite direction 
over the organ. If we gently scrape the surface of the animal's tongue, 
we can detach some of these ciliated cells ; and on examining them with 
the microscope in a drop of water, we find that they will continue for an 
indefinite time their lashing movements, which are just as much living or 
vital in their character as the writhings of a worm. And, as I observed 
many years ago, these detached cells behave under the influence of a 
stimulus just like parts connected with the body, the movements of the 
cilia being excited to greater activity by gentle stimulation, and thrown 
into a state of temporary inactivity when the irritation was more severe. 
Thus each constituent element of our bodies may be regarded as in one 
sense an independent living being, though all work together in marvellous 
harmony for the good of the body politic. The independent movements 
of the white corpuscles outside the body were therefore not astonishing : but 
they long remained matters of mere curiosity. Much interest was called to 
them by the observation of the German pathologist Cohnheim that in some 



26 REPORT— 1896. 

inflammatory conditions they passed through the pores in the walls of the 
finest blood-vessels, and thus escaped into the interstices of the surrounding 
tissues. Cohnheim attributed their transit to the pressure of the blood. 
But why it was that, though larger than the red corpuscles, and contain- 
ing a nucleus which the red ones have not, they alone passed through 
the pores of the vessels, or why it was that this emigration of the white 
corpuscles occurred abundantly in some inflammations and was absent 
in others, was quite unexplained. 

These white corpuscles, however, have been invested with extraordi- 
nary new interest by the researches of the Russian naturalist and patholo- 
gist, Metchnikoff. He observed that, after passing through the walls of 
the vessels, they not only crawl about like amceb?e, but, like them, receive 
nutritious materials into their soft bodies and digest them. It is thus that 
the effete materials of a tadpole's tail are got rid of ; so that they play a 
most important part in the function of absorption. 

But still more interesting observations followed. He found that a 
microscopic crustacean, a kind of water-flea, was liable to be infested 
by a fungus which had exceedingly sharp-pointed spores. These were 
apt to penetrate the coats of the creature's intestine, and project into 
its body-cavity. No sooner did this occur with any spore than it became 
surrounded by a group of the cells which are contained in the cavity of 
the body and correspond to the white corpuscles of our blood. These 
proceeded to attempt to devour the spore ; and if they succeeded, in 
every such case, the animal was saved from the invasion of the parasite. 
But if the spores were more than could be disposed of by the devouring 
cells (phagocytes, as Metchnikofl" termed them), the water-flea succumbed. 

Starting from this fundamental observation, he ascertained that the 
microbes of infective diseases are subject to this same process of devouring 
and digestion, carried on both by the white corpuscles and by cells that line 
the blood-vessels. And by a long series of most beautiful researches he has, 
as it appears to me, firmly established the great truth that phagocytosis 
is the main defensive means possessed by the living body against the inva- 
sions of its microscopic foes. The power of the system to produce anti- 
toxic substances to counteract the poisons of microbes is undoubtedly in 
its own place of great importance. But in the large class of cases in 
which animals are naturally refractory to particular infective diseases the 
blood is not found to yield any antitoxic element by which the natural 
immunity can be accounted for. Here phagocytosis seems to be the sole 
defensive agency. And even in cases in which the serum does possess 
antitoxic, or, as it would seem in some cases, germicidal properties, the 
bodies of the dead microbes must at last be got rid of by phagocytosis, 
and some recent observations would seem to indicate that the useful 
elements of the serum may be, in part at least, derived from the digestive 
juices of the phagocytes. If ever there was a romantic chapter in 
pathology, it has surely been that of the story of phagocytosis. 



ADDRESS. 27 

I was myself peculiarly interested by these observations of Metchni- 
koff's, because they seemed to me to aflFord clear explanation of the healing 
of wounds by first intention under circumstances before incomprehensible. 
Complete primary union was sometimes seen to take place in wounds treated 
with water-dressing, that is to say, a piece of wet lint covered with au 
layer of oiled-silk to keep it moist. This, though cleanly when applied, was 
invariably putrid within twenty-four hours. The layer of blood between the 
cut surfaces was thus exposed at the outlet of the wound to a most potent 
septic focus. How was it prevented from putrefying, as it would have 
done under such influence if, instead of being between divided living 
tissues, it had been between plates of glass or other indifferent material ?' 
Pasteur's observations pushed the question a step further. It now was, 
How were the bacteria of putrefaction kept from propagating in the 
decomposable film ? Metchnikoff's phagocytosis supplied the answer. 
The blood between the lips of the wound became rapidly peopled with 
phagocytes, which kept guard against the putrefactive microbes and 
seized them as they endeavoured to enter. 

If phagocytosis was ever able to cope with septic microbes in so con- 
centrated and intense a form, it could hardly fail to deal effectually with 
them in the very mitigated condition in which they are present in the 
air. We are thus strongly confirmed in our conclusion that the atmo- 
spheric dust may safely be disregarded in our operations : and Metchni- 
koff's researches, while they have illumined the whole pathology of 
infective diseases, have beautifully completed the theory of antiseptic 
treatment in surgery. 

I might have taken equally striking illustrations of my theme from other 
departments in which microbes play no part. In fact any attempt to 
speak of all that the art of healing has borrowed from science and con- 
tributed to it during the past half-century would involve a very extensive 
dissertation on pathology and therapeutics. I have culled specimens 
from a wide field ; and I only hope that in bringing them before you I 
have not overstepped the bounds of what is fitting before a mixed 
company. For many of you my remarks can have had little if any 
novelty : for others they may perhaps possess some interest as showing 
that Medicine is no unworthy ally of the British Association — that, while 
her practice is ever more and more based on science, the ceaseless efforts 
of her votaries to improve what have been fittingly designated Quce 
prosunt omnibus artes, are ever adding largely to the sum of abstract 
knowledge. 



EEPOETS 



ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



> 



EEPOETS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE. 



I 



Corresponding Societies. — Report of the Gommittee, consisting of 
Professor E. Meldola [Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes {Secretary), 
Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas G-alton, Sir Eawson Kawson, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNSON, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and Kev. Canon H. B. 
Tristram. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association beg 
leave to submit the following Report of the Conference held at 
Liverpool. 

The Council intended to nominate Mr. "W. Whitaker, F.R.S., Chairman 
of the Liverpool Conference, but, owing to serious illness, Mr. Whitaker 
was unable to be present, and Dr. Garson was nominated in his place. 
Mr. T. V. Holmes was nominated Secretary to the Conference. 

The meetings of the Conference were held in St. George's Hall, in the 
Small Concert Room, on Thursday, September 17, and in the Crown 
Court on Tuesday, September 22, at S.30 p.m. The following Corre- 
sponding Societies nominated as delegates to represent them at the Liverpool 



meeting : 



Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . . William Gray, M.R.T.A. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Alexander Tate, M.Inst.C.E. 

Society 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . . Wm. T. Hindmarsh, F.L.S. 

Birming-ham Natural History and Philo- Charles Pumphrey. 

sophical Society 

Bristol Naturalists' Society . . . Professor S. Young, F.E.S. 

Buchan Field Club John Gray, B.Sc. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Philip B. Mason, F.L.S. 

Arcb-wolog-ical Society 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club . W. W. Watts, M.A., F.G.S. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society . . . E. W. Small. 

Chester Society of Natural Science and Osmund W. Jeffs. 

Literature 

Chesterfield and Alidland Counties Institu- M. H. Mills, F.G.S. 

tion of Engineers 



32 



REPORT — 1896. 



Cornwall, Royal Geological Society of 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 

Field Club 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . 
East Kent Natural History Society . 
East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' 

Societies 

Essex Field Club 

Federated Institution of Mining Engineers 
Glasgow Geological Society 
Glasgow Natural History Society 
Glasgow Philosophical Society . 
Hampshire Field Club .... 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society 
Holmesdale Natural History Club . 
Ireland, Statistical and Social Inqu'ry 

Society of 
Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society 
Leeds Geological Association . 
Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific 

Association 
Leicester Literary and Philosophical 

Society 
Liverpool Engineering Society . , 
Liverpool Geographical Society 
Liverpool Geological Society . 
Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 

Society 
Manchester Geographical Society 
Manchester Geological Society . 
Manchester Microscopical Society . 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society . 
North StafEordshire Naturalists' Field 

Club 
North of England Institute of Mining 

Engineers 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science 
Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society . 
Scotland, Mining Institute of . 
Somersetshire Archieological and Natural 

History Society 
Tyneside Geographical Society, 
"Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archjeolo- 

gists' Field Club 
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 
Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 

Society 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . 



T. R. Polwhele. F.G.S. 
N. M. Richardson. 

Professor T. Johnson, D.Sc. 
Henry Coates, F.R.S.E. 
A. M. Rodger, M.A. 

T. V. Holmes. F.G.S. 
M. H. Mills, M.Inst.C.E. 
J. Barcla}' Murdoch. 
Professor F. O. Bower, F.R.S. 
W. W. Blackie, B.Sc. 
Rev. A. G. Joyce. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B. 
Miss M. C. Crosfield. 
Professor Bastable, M.A. 

A. W. Moore, M.A. 

Professor P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 
Harold Wager, F.L.S. 

Montagu Browne, F.L.S. 

Arthur J. Maginnis, M.Inst.N.A. 
Horace Walker. 

E. Dickson, F.G.S. 
Dr. E. Colby, M.A. 

Eli Sowerbutts, F.R.G.S. 
Mark Stirrup, F.G.S. 

F. W. Hembry. 
Clement Reid, F.G.S. 
C. E. De Ranee, F.G.S. 

J. H. Merivale, M.A. 

Professor J. W. Carr, 31. A. 
Sir Robert Pullar. 
J. R. Heape. 
James Barrowman. 

F. T. Elworthy. 

G. E. T. Smithson. 
Wm. Andrews, F.G.S. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
Wm. Cash, F.G.S. 

Rev. E. P. Knubley, M.A. 



First Conference, Septeaiber 17, 1896. 

The first meeting of the Conference took place in the Crown Court, 
adjoining the Reception Room, St. George's Hall. 

The Chairman, Dr. Garson, opened the proceedings by expressing his 
re<yret that serious illness prevented Mr. Whitaker from being present, 
though he was glad to be able to add that the latest accounts of him were 
that he was progressing satisfactorily. He was pleased to see a larger 
number of delegates than usual, as a sign that the connection of the 
Corresponding Societies with the British Association was becoming more 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

and more appreciated. He hoped the delegates would attend regularly, 
so that they might the better explain to their respective Societies on their 
I'eturn home the nature of the work in which they were asked to 
co-operate. 

Mr. George Abbott, M.Il.C.8., General Secretary of the Soutli Eastern 
Union of Scientific Societies, then read a short paper entitled ' District 
Unions of Natural History Societies.' Mr. Abbott remarked that while local 
Natural History Societies had done much good work, yet that in many 
cases their eflfbrts had been weak, irregular, and desultory. He thought 
the chief cause of failure had been want of organisation. A step in the 
right direction had been taken by the Unions of Scientific Societies already 
existing, such as those of Yorkshire and the East of Scotland, but he 
considered that the British Association did not sufficiently foster such 

^ unions. He therefore felt that a plan was necessary which would organise 
the local societies under the guidance of the British Association, which 
should help to bring these unions into being through the agency of an 
organising secretary. He submitted the following plan for the consideration 
of the Conference : — 

Districts. — The United Kingdom should be divided into fifteen or 
twenty districts, in each of which all Natural History Societies should 
be affiliated for mutual aid, counsel, and work. Existing unions should 
perhaps be imitated, at any rate not disturbed. 

Geographical lines should decide their size, which might vary in extent 
and be dependent, in some measure, on railway facilities. From time 
to time these areas might be subject to review, and necessary changes 
made. 

Congress. — Each of such unions would have its annual congress 
attended by delegates and members from its affiliated societies. This 

^ would be held in a fresh town every year, with a new president, somewhat 
after the manner of the British Association itself. The congresses would 
probably take place in spring, but two should never be held on the same 
day. 
These unions Avould render important help to local societies, would 
bring isolated workers together, assist schools, colleges, and technical 
institutes and museums, start new societies, and revive waning ones. 
Through these annual meetings local and petty jealousies would lessen or 
turn to friendly rivalries — each society trying to excel in real work, 
activity, and good science teaching. 

Further, economy of labour would be accomplished by a precise 
demarcation of area for each local society. This would be understood as 
its sphere of work and influence ; in this portion of country it would 
have a certain amount of responsibility in such matters as observation, 
research, and vigilance against encroachments on footpaths, commons, 
and wayside wastes. 

These unions might also, through their Central Committees, bring 
about desirable improvements in publication, but it would perhaps not 
be desirable, in all cases, to go in for joint publication. In this, as in 
other matters connected with the unions, co-operation and not imiformity 
must be our aim. 

Utiion Committees. — Each union would need a general secretary and a 
committee, all of whom should be intimately acquainted with methods of 
work and the best ambitions of local societies. 

1896. D 



34 REPORT — 1896. 

Corresjwndincf Members. — This is another necessary development. 
Each local society should appoint in every village in its district a corre- 
sponding member with some distinctive title, and certain privileges and 
advantages. 

The work asked of him would be to^ 

1. Forward surplus Natural History specimens to their Society's 
Museum. 

2. Supply prompt information on the following subjects : — 

(a) New geological sections. 

(6) Details of wells, borings, springs, tl-c. 

(c) Find.s of geological and antiquai-ian interest. 

3. Answer such questions as the British Association or the local 
society may require. 

4. Keep an eye on historic buildings. 

5. Assist the Selborne Society in carrying out its objects. 

No mean occupation — certainly a useful, attractive, and honourable 
post — worthy of any man's acceptance. 

In return he should be offered — 

1. Assistance in naming specimens, and with the formation of school 
museums. 

2. Free admission to lectures and excursions. 

3. Copies of transactions. 

4. Free use of the Society's library. 

Every village would soon, under this scheme, possess an agent, 
registrar, or whatever you like to call him, who would be more and more 
able, as he gained experience, to further the aims of this association. 

Expenses or Ways and Means. — This cannot be ignored, but would 
not form a sufficient barrier to prevent the adoption of the scheme. 

The unions would be self-supporting, by means of small contributions 
from the affiliated societies. Money is only wanting for the expenses of 
an organising secretary. I do not attempt to estimate the cost of this, but 
with objects so desirable and far-reaching in view, the price cannot be 
considered excessive, and the British Association would soon be repaid by 
obtaining prompt and direct communication with all the towns and 
villages in Great Britain, by greater assistance in its research work and 
in all other branches which the British Association was established sixty- 
iive years ago to promote. 

Tiio Chairman was sure that they all felt much obliged to Mr. Abbott 
for his paper on this important subject. He invited discussion. 

The Rev. E. P. Knubley remarked that he would give briefly the 
results of the experience of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union during the 
twenty years of its existence. It was, he believed, the largest union of 
scientific societies in England, having thirty-six affiliated associations. 
There were 500 members and 2,-500 associates, making a total of 3,000 
workers. He thought they owed much to their geographical position and 
to the great variety of rocks, scenery, soil, and climate in Yorkshire. As 
to the organisation of the Union, it was based to a considerable extent on 
that of the British Association. Their president, a distinguished York- 
shireman, was elected annually. There wei'e general secretaries, an 
executive of twelve members, and a general committee. Their work 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 35 

came under five sections — ^those of geology, botany, zoology, conchology, 
and entomology. In addition, much work was carried on by means of 
research committees, which were in direct communication with the British 
Association. Eight such committees were then in existence : a Boulder 
Committee ; a Sea Coast Erosion Committee ; a Fossil Flora Committee ; 
a Geological Photographs Committee ; a Marine Biology Committee ; a 
Micro -zoological and Micro-botanical Committee ; a Wild Birds and 
Eggs Protection Committee ; and a Mycological Committee. All these 
Committees reported annually, and their Reports were presented to the 
British Association. An annual meeting of the Union was held in one 
of the Yorkshire towns. For excursion purposes Yorkshire was divided 
into five parts, and a meeting was held in each of them. One meeting 
every year took place on the sea coast. Great care was taken by the 
secretaries before each excursion to get all the geological, botanical, and 
other information obtainable about the place to be visited, and, when 
there, every endeavour was made to get each member to do some special 
work. In short, every eSbrt was made to train workers in the various 
departments of natural science. It has been found necessary to discourage 
the ofii&ring of hospitality, on account of the loss of time involved. He 
would only add that the success of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was 
largely due to the energy and perseverance of their general secretary, 
Mr. W. D. Roebuck. 

The Chairman asked Mr. Knubley how many of the Yorkshire 
Scientific Associations which were on the list of the Corresponding 
Societies of the British Association were also on that of the Yorkshire 
Union. Mr. Knubley replied that the Leeds Naturalists' Club, Leeds 
Geological Association, and Malton Naturalists' Society were affiliated to 
the Union, but not the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society, nor 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 

Mr. M. H. Mills then gave some account of the organisation of the 
Federated Institution of Mining Engineers. He said that the rules of the 
Federation had been carefully considered by the secretaries and councils 
of the various societies composing it, and it had been found that the best 
kind of federation was that which touched only the publication of their 
papers. Each society did its work independently, as before the existence 
of the Federation, but now they had one publication instead of many. 
In answer to questions from Sir Douglas Galton, Mr. Mills added that he 
thought it would be a good thing that societies doing the same kind of 
work should be federated together ; he also stated that members of the 
societies composing the Federation paid but one subscription, a portion of 
it only being given to the Federation for printing the publication. 

Mr. Montagu Browne gave some details as tf> the present c )nstitutiou 
of the Leicester Litei-aiy and Philosophical Society. With regard to 
payments for printing, he said that usually each section was self- 
supporting, liut that in the case of papers of exceptional interest and 
expense, the parent society made a special grant, if necessary. 

Mr. C. E. De Ranee was glad to learn that the Yorkshire Union had 
established a Coast Erosion Committee to carry on the work in Yorkshire, 
which had been done for so many yeai-s by a British Association Com- 
mittee for the country generally. As regards Mr. Abbott's plan, he 
fully concurred with him as to the need for an organising secretary, 
without whose aid he felt sure that scarcely any federation would be 
accomplished. 

d2 



36 REPORT— 1896. 

Mr. W. T. Hindmarsh said that while the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club had a large area for its Held of work, extending not only over 
Berwickshire, but over Northumberland, outside Newcastle there was no 
large town or University within its boundaries. The district was sparsely 
populated, and there was no other Naturalists' Club in it with which they 
could unite. 

Mr. J. H. Merivale thought, from some remarks of the last speaker, 
that he did not quite realise that federation did not imply the slightest 
loss of independence on the part of any local society joining a union. 
The great advantage was that the transactions of all the local societies 
were to be found in one publication. .He was certain that if the Natural 
History Societies throughout the kingdom would unite as the societies 
composing the Federated Mining Engineers had done, the result would 
be excellent. 

Professor T. Johnson mentioned that in Ireland they had a good 
example of a Union. It comprised four clubs, one in Dublin, another in 
Belfast, a third in Cork, and a fourth in Limerick, which combined to 
form the Irish Field Club Union. A yearly meeting was held in various 
parts of the country, and they had a publication which was common 
property — the ' Irish Naturalist.' There was a poll-tax of twopence irom 
each member to defray the expenses of the Union, and there was a com- 
mittee formed of the president and secretaries of the four societies. They 
had an arrangement hy which a specialist belonging to one club could 
have his expenses paid if he lectured to another club. They were also 
forming a directory, so that students coming to Ireland would shortly bo 
able to learn who was working at any given subject and where he might 
be found. They made a point of sending their specimens to museums. 
In addition, they had short courses of lectures to arouse the intei-est of 
amateurs, with occasional excursions. The Union had been originated by 
Mr. Praeger, secretary of the Dublin Club. 

In answer to a question from the Chairman, Professor Johnson added 
that the fees received from persons attending the lectures were put into a 
common fund and used for excursion purposes, the lecturer himself re- 
ceiving nothing from the course. 

Mr. Eli Sowerbutts thought that while in some respects federation 
must commend itself to all, there were some questions of great delicacy 
involved in it which made him hesitate to come to any decision at that 
meeting. He felt sure that a society would not submit to' be controlled 
by another society as regards the publication of its papers. There were 
also many other matters needing careful discussion before any decision 
could be safely arrived at. 

Much discussion then arose as to the possibility of arranging for a 
meeting for the further consideration of Mr. Abbott's paper before the 
second meeting of the Conference. In this the Chairman, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Professor Johnson, Mr. Abbott, Mr. Watts, Mr. Tate, and others 
took part. At length the following motion was proposed by Mr. Abbott, 
seconded by the Rev. E. P. Knubley, and carried unanimously : — 

' That Mr. Montagu Browne, Professor Johnson, the Rev. E. 'P. 
Knubley, Mr. Hindmarsh, Mr. W. W. Watts, and Mr. Abbott be nomi- 
nated to form a sub-committee (with power to add to their number) to 
consider this question, and report to the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies.' 

Mr. W. Watts inquired whether anything was being done to preserve 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 37 

the publications of the local societies. The Chairman replied that many 
pounds had been spent in binding those sent to the British Association 
Office, and that it was proposed to index them if funds could be obtained 
for that purpose. 

The meeting; then terminated. 



•o 



Meeting of the Sub-committee. 

A meeting of the sub-committee was held in the Crown Court on 
Monday, September 21. The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing and Mr. O. W. 
Jeffs were added to the sub-committee. 

Report of Sub-comviittee appointed at Meeting of Delegates of Corre- 
sponding Societies, September 17, 1896 {Chairman, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, F.R.S.). 

The following resolutions have been unanimously agreed to : — 

(1) That Mr. G. Abbott's paper on 'District Unions of Natural 
History Societies ' be distributed by the Commit</ee of the Corresponding 
Societies amongst all the Natural History Societies in the United King- 
dom, with the request that their opinion on the feasibility of the plan 
advocated in the paper be communicated as early as jiossible to the 
Corresponding Societies Committee for their report to the next Conference 
of Delegates. 

(2) That the formation of District Unions of Natural History 
Societies is highly desirable, and would be of general advantage. 

(3) That the Committee of the Corresponding Societies be requested 
to take steps to encourage the formation of District Unions of Natural 
History Societies. 

(4) That it should be distinctly understood that the formation of 
Unions would not in any way prevent the affiliation of individual 
Societies of such Unions to the British Association as at present. 

Liverpool, Second Conference, September 22, 1896. 

The Second Conference was held in the Small Concert Room, St. 
George's Hall, Dr. Garson in the chair. 

The Chairman called upon Mr. Abbott to read the Report of the sub- 
committee appointed at the last Conference. [Mr. Abbott then read the 
resolutions given above.] 

Mr. De Ranee expressed his satisfaction with the outcome of the Sub- 
committee's deliberation. The more our local societies could combine for 
pui-poses of publication the better. He moved that the Report be 
received. 

Mr, Hembry seconded the motion. 

After some discussion, in which the Chairman, Mr. Sowerbutts, the 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, and others took part, the Report was received. Some 
further discussion took place as to the adoption of the Report, which was 
moved by Mr. Abbott and seconded by Mr. Hembry. Tlie Report was at 
length adopted, and a resolution was also passed referring the Report to 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 



38 REPORT— 1896. 

A delegate having inquired when the next Conference would take 
place, the Chairman replied that it would be next year at Toronto. 

The following Paper by Professor Flinders Petrie was then read : — 

On a Federal Staff for Local Museums. 

The present suggestions only affect a distribution of laboui', and will 
rather economise than require extra expenditure. 

In all local museums the main difficulty of the management is that 
there is neither money nor work enough for a highly trained and competent 
man. It is in any case impossible to get a universal genius who can deal 
with every class of object equally well, and hardly any local museum can 
afford to pay for a first-class curator on any one subject. These difficulties 
are entirely the result of a want of co-operation. 

According to the i-eport of the Committee in 1887, there are fifty-six 
1st class, fifty-five 2nd class, sixty-three 3rd class, and thirty 4th class 
museums in the kingdom. Setting aside the last two classes as mostly too 
poor to pay except for mere caretaking, there are 111 in the other classes; 
and deducting a few of the 1st class museums as being fully provided, 
there are 100 museums, all of which endeavour to keep up to the mark by 
.spending perhaps 30Z. to 200^. a year on a curator. 

The practical course would seem to be their union, in providing a 
federal staff, to circulate for all purposes requiring .skilled knowledge ; 
leaving the permanent attention to each place to devolve on a mere 
caretaker. If half of these 1st and 2nd class museums combined in 
paying 30^. a year each, there would be enough to pay three first-rate 
men 500/. a year apiece, and each museum would have a week of atten- 
tion in the year from a geologist, and the same from a zoologist and an 
archaeologist. 

The duties of such a stafl' would be to arrange and label the new 
.specimens acquired in tlie past yeai", taking sometimes a day, or perhaps a 
fortnight, at one place ; to advise on alterations and improvements ; to 
recommend purchases required to fill up gaps ; to note duplicates and 
promote exchanges between museums ; and to deliver a lecture on the 
principal novelties of their own subject in the past year. Such visitants, 
if well selected, would probably be welcome guests at the liouses of some 
of those interested in the museum in each place. 

The effect at the country museums would be that three times in the 
year a visitant would arrive for one of the three sections, would work 
everytliing up to date, stir the local interests by advice and a lecture, 
stimulate the caretaker, and- arrange routine work that could be carried 
out before the next year's visit, and yet would not cost more than having 
down three lecturers for the local institution or society, apart from this 
work. 

To many, perhaps most, museums 30/. for skilled work, and 30/. or 
40/. for a caretaker, would be an economy on their present expenditure, 
while they would get far better attention. Such a system could not be 
suddenly started ; but if there were an official base for it, curators could 
interchange work according to their specialities, and as each museum post 
fell vacant it might be placed in commission among the best curators in 
that district, until by gradual selection the most competent men were 
attached to forty or fifty museums to be served in rotation. It is not im- 
possible that the highest class of the local museums might be glad to 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 39 

subscribe, so as to get special attention on subjects outside of the studies 
of their present curators. 

The Chairman was sure that the meeting felt much obliged to Professor 
Petrie for this very suggestive paper. He hoped that gentlemen 
wishing to discuss it would be as brief as possible in their comments, as 
they had much business before them. 

Mr. W. E. Hoyle said that he had no legal locus standi there, but had 
come on the suggestion of the Assistant General Secretary, who had sent 
him a copy of Professor Petrie's paper, and asked him to take part in the 
discussion. He hoped no action would be taken in this matter in such a 
way as to prevent co-operation with the Museums Association. Professor 
Petrie's scheme seemed to him a most simple and practical one, and he 
thought it would be a good thing for those specially interested in it to 
confer with the officials of the Museums Association with regard to it. 
The chief difficulty which he foresaw in carrying it out was the almost 
incredible inertia of museum committees. The Museums Association met 
once a year, and everyone who had attended its meetings had admitted 
their value in enabling curators to exchange ideas upon all museum 
questions. It had been in existence about six years, but hitherto very 
few societies had cared to go to the expense of sending their curators to 
its meetings. In the museum over which he had the honour to preside 
there were four assistant curators who were doing good work. It was 
probably not in Professor Petrie's mind when he drew up his scheme for a 
Fedei-al staff. Yet he was quite prepared to urge upon his Committee the 
adoption of Professor Petrie's plan. 

Mr. M. H. Mills could testify to the thoroughness with which museum 
questions were discussed at meetings of the Museums Association. If his 
proposition were in order, he would move that this question be referred to 
the Museums Association. 

The Chairman thought Mr. Mills' proposition inadmissible. 

Mr. G. Abbott cordially supported Professor Petrie's suggestions, and 
thought that an increase in the number of Unions of Naturalists' Societies 
would greatly tend towards their general adoption. 

Mr. N. M. Richardson did not think there could be any doubt as to 
the advantages of Professor Petrie's scheme, though he was afraid that the 
Committee of the Dorset County Museum were hardly in a position to 
incur the expense. 

Professor Johnson thought it would be a good thing if the Museums 
Association could become a Corresponding Society of the British Associa- 
tion, so that one or more of its chief officials might be present at discus- 
sions of this kind. He had listened with considerable interest to Professor 
Petrie's paper, but he would protest strongly against the suggestion that 
the curators of our local museums should be converted into mere care- 
takers, as he thought the tendency should be in the opposite direction. 
It would be well to urge our local societies to employ as their curator a 
specialist of some kind, and to give him a chance of rising above the 
position he held at first, rather than to make him feel that he would 
always be a mere caretaker dependent wholly on some one who came 
down occasionally from some centre of enlightenment. He knew an 
admirable curator in the north of Ireland, seventy years of age, and a 
specialist in three or four branches, who was then living on a salary of 
70?. per annum, and had to dust the tables, open the door, and act in 



40 REPORT— 1896, 

general as a mere caretaker. This was a disgrace to the great town in 
which the museum was situated. Local museums should have a grant of 
.50/. to 1001., or even 150/. for the payment of specialists. 

Professor J. W. Carr was inclined to regret that Professoj' Petrie's 
paper had not been read before the Museums Association. Mr. Hoyle 
(who, like the speaker, was a member of the Council of the Museums 
Association) had not mentioned that some years ago a sub-committee was 
appointed by that Association to report upon a suggestion much resem- 
bling that of Professor Petrie. No definite result had, however, been 
arrived at. He thought that if Professor Petrie were now to bring this 
paper before the notice of the Museums Association the weight of his 
authority might produce more important effects. He regretted the 
absence of delegates from the Museums Association to discuss this ques- 
tion. 

The Chairman remarked that any society might apply to be placed on 
the list of Corresponding Societies. He hoped the delegates would give a 
full account of this discussion to the societies they represented. He 
called upon Profe.ssor Petrie to reply. 

Profe.ssor Petrie said that this was to a great extent a money question. 
He did not think that his suggestions necessarily involved additional 
expense. He thought it would be better that the money should be divided 
between the mere caretaker and the specialists, rather than that an 
attempt should be made to combine them by employing one man who 
could not possibly be a specialist on all points. Indeed, those curators 
who were more than mere caretakers would by his plan receive a larger 
amount of money than before by rendering their services in a number of 
places, instead of being confined to one. It would be better to have a 
dozen men of science and fifty caretakers than sixty curators, all receiving 
a very inadequate salary. 

A vote of thanks to Professor Petrie for his paper having been passed, 
the Chairman invited remarks from any representatives of the various 
sections of the British Association who wished for the co-operation of the 
Corresponding Societies in any work. 

Section C. 

Mr. W. "VV. Watts said that, though the labours of some of the 
Committees nominated by Section C had come to an end, the Geological 
Photographs Committee was still in existence. Though much assistance 
had been received from Leicestershire and some other places, a very large 
area was still unphotographed. The eastern counties had sent very 
few photographs. The Erratic Blocks Committee still existed, and their 
work was being largely done by the committees of local societies. Some 
societies in Yorkshire were doing most admirable work. Those were the 
two chief committees of Section C which needed the co-operation of the 
local societies. 

Mr. C. E. De Ranee made some remarks on the labours of the Under- 
ground Waters Committee of the British Association. Though the 
Committee had ceased to exist, he hoped the delegates of the Corresponding 
Societies assembled there would urge on their members to record carefully 
in their districts everything bearing on that matter, not only as regards 
the geological nature of the strata, but also as to the tempera- 
ture of water obtained from considerable depths. As to the Erratic 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 41 

Blocks Committee, he wished to point out how much work had been done 
in that department by members of the GlaciaHsts' Association. 

Section H. 

Mr. Sidney Hartland wished to ask for the co-operation of the local 
societies in the work of the Ethnographical Survey Committee. Consider- 
able progress had been made in the work of the Committee since he had 
asked their aid at Ipswich last year. Many measurements of the natives 
of Galloway had been taken by Dr. Macgregor. During the present 
century the movements of our population had been immensely greater 
than in previous centui'ies. Still there were places where there had been 
little change in that respect. As it was the object of the Committee to 
acquire a knowledge of the distinguishing characteristics of the various 
races of British Isles, it was important that the measurements, &c., of 
individuals in any district should be those of persons whose families had 
lived there during a considerable period. Dr. Macgregor had accordingly 
been careful to select persons whose pedigrees could be traced back a 
century or more. He had also collected much of the folklore of the 
district. There was no department in which it was more desirable to 
have speedy information than that of folklore. Much had been done 
with regard to the dialects of the different counties of England by the 
publication of the English Dialect Dictionary, but in Scotland and Ireland 
there was still much work to be done both in dialect and in folklore. 
Education, facilities for railway travelling, and industrial migrations were 
rapidly destroying local customs, dialects, and traditions, so that it was 
more important that speedy information about them should be obtained 
than that there should be an immediate supply of physical measurements. 
The historic and prehistoric monuments of a locality should also be noted. 
Mr. Hartland concluded by remarking that he would be glad to furnish 
any delegates interested in the subject with copies of the Ethnographical 
Committee's Schedules, or with any help in his power. 

Mr. John Gray, Buchan Field Club, said that in his district they had 
begun to note the physical characteristics of the inhabitants by placing 
themselves at the entrance to a field where some sports were being held, 
and observing the colour of the eyes and hair, the contour of the nose, 
and other characteristics of people entering the field. They also measured 
about 200 persons in the grounds, and obtained some very interesting 
results. In addition they had obtained measurements, itc, of almost all 
the school children of the district. 

The Chairman remarked that Mr. Gray's Society was obtaining 
excellent results, and giving an example of the work required. As the 
information asked for by the Ethnographic Survey Committee was of so 
many different kinds, it appeared to him that the formation of sub- 
committees by the local societies would greatly expedite the work. One 
sub-committee might confine itself to physical measurements, another to 
dialect and folklore, a third to ancient monuments, and so on. Then 
photographers were needed for illustrations of people and monuments. 
And persons with a turn for history might consider the historical evidence 
of continuity of race. Investigations of this kind would at once enrich 
the Transactions of a local society, and help the work of the British 
Association. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



42 



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^ ^^ 
a a* 

i & 

H 1 

rC -fH ^ 

CO a — 


gg 


^ 2^ 

o .9 

,0-1 a "■ 

•S 2 .H S 
■S _- ."5 o 

Cfi a ° ''I 

-^•3 Cfi ^ 

O^ a o 


e tiilcs of papers 
sent to the Kec: 


s 

o 


o 


Si 

'CO 

S " 


02 
O 

'So 

O 
"p 

o 
3 


Cfi 

- a 
I-; o 

o . > 

" 00 ^ 


O ^3 

':s o -u ~ 
c*-, ! -r; ° 

.« o -^ _ 

?= ,!- c^ a 
l«-/3 >.a 


O CD 
O u-l 

■^"^^ 

2 oS 

o ^ a 


M 






s+_, fi 




o a ^ 

Cfi 1- Cl 

o; Q O 
o J^ 


'" -c rt 


1 o^ 

^ Cfi 2 3 


r- "^ S O 


contains only t 






li 


O 

O C5 

00 

•o .— < 


8 2 2 •§ 2 

ShHP5 


.a a cS* 

<U O O 3 


.2 § .5 s 

bD a '^ -5 
o a s c«i 

2^^S 

■" ti a. oj 
" o aT^a 


a 

3 

bn 

o 

CI 

o 
w 

H 

4c 

* 
* 


1 

Cm 

O 
ID 

1 


>' — • 
'*1'2 

a' i 

^ _a 
a ^ 




"5 S3 ►_■ -i^ 

•2 ■ . cs 

1113 

13 ? ^* • 

.t: o o -' 


■ ■ 'l-j 

a ' 'r« 

■S a 2 

O f^ <u O 
^-^H bo 


0) z 

a 
a 

fe- 
es : 


to 

2 








<-«) 


pa 


C5«i= 


n w»ou 


O 


o 


UH H 



46 



REPORT — 1896. 



■ -a 
0^:2 



fcJO 
sS 

Oh 



9) ^ 



to 
00 



CO 

I 



00 OO 00 * 



CO 

OS 



00 



to 

OO 



"00 00 00 00 



CO .S CO cc 



I 
o 



00 
»— ( 

I 



o 



CC 00 
■* CO 



I I 

-H 1— I 

^ to 



o 
I o 

05 IN 



CO 
I 

00 

<o 



CO <M 
Ttl CO 
IM N 

I I 

CO t~ 
CO <M 
IM (M 



(M •* cq 

>-l 13 CO <N ■* 

I 00 O I . 

to (M t- ,_r 



>-l t> *-! ^ 



I 

OO 






CO rH 
l-H I 
■-H CC 



l-H -: l-H K^ P* t-l HH 



3 

Ph 






e 
^ 






« 
^ 









O 
^ 



e 
^ 



. * s S 






O 

OQ 

»^ 

■< 
« 

*-i 

n 
a 

a 
•< 

of 

w 

o 






s 


C> 










H>, 


1^ 


^ .2 


< 


e8 




•?M 


W 


« 




Xl 


iz; 


X 

< 


5 




crt 




m 



o 

o 

CC 

(H 

CS 



§:2 
02 _• 

Ch • 






o 

o 

S5 



w 



o 

CO 



fin 

w 






o 



o 
bo 

VI 

ca 

3 



o 

o 

td 



u 



o 

^ • -I 

> S " S 



§1 

1^ 



O.fc! 






00 



-4-3 






a 

a 

o 
a 

Ph 

<u 

^o 
a 

H 

fl 
C5 






H 



bJC 

C 



3 

is 



CS . 



w 



o 
o <u 



CO 



QJ 



■''5 a 






Ol 



„ CO en 
H Dh 



C/1 TS _ 

c: w a) 

•< CO 



i • r3 fe o 



pa s 



•^ 00 d 

> fc. 13 

tH cS CIS 



(S> 



■S 35 -T3 

"-I IH 



g 

0) 

H 
a 

CS 



n 



■13 



a 



H 



cS 



o 

CO 



1 
• o 

00 






a 

> 



a fci) - 



I (D CM 

1 ^ O 



, P 



MS cj 05^ 

^ — '-' o 






O ' 

o 






CS 

° P <u 

^ f3 » 



o 



H 



o 

^ a 

02 






O o 
> 



ft 
ft 

cd b 
o 

« o^ 

> g O 

•^ s ■■§ '5 ^ 

ja j3 a ,a ^^ 

+3 -fci o « g 



o 



o Sj2 

.9 '^ I 

*-^ 

o 

td 



o 




,03 ' 



a a 
00 



o 



O S 



n - ^ 

'^ Oj rj3 

■fa 2 -2 

=" — — rC 

=> a g ». 

•S 2 -3 '5° 
_ c8 =^ i-i ^ 

C S •- 2 OS 

0) ftH .^3 oC' 

hho 



O c; 

cs ■" 

°^ 
ai O 



s 
3 



^ a s 

« :s o J3 

. r»^ =* . - Ph 

a O „ iJ Ph d "^ 

O d m f-t , -3 f- 

a w CO K M 



cS 






fl d 



WW 



3 
- Q 

Ph - 
*^ bo 



o a ^ 
(^ S cd §i 

- -Ph 

13 o 2 d 
o 3>2 =« 



p 
I"' 

Ph(^ 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



47 





CO 








O CO lO 


CD 


«»••»• 


C3 




„ 




O^ »0) o 


-CJ - - . 




00 








00 '00 00 


-00 - - - 


-99 
-101 
-320 




ec 


C3 
O 

1-H 




(M Tj< ^^ if5 


»o t- 2: (M t^ 

1 o ^7 1 «^ 


W5 

50 


00 

1 




■>*< rH t^ OO 
1 1 1 1 


-§^ 


1—1 


Ci 


CO 
<3i 




t- Oi 0-. ■-! 


CO rt J) CO 




t~ 




— • ec CO 00 




)-J 






.M . 


So 


- -1^ 


K" 


> 


r 




HI 1^ 1— 1 


•^ fc. as 










^. 


O 00 


. . . 


• 


• 


• 




• • • • 














*? 


00 












1^ 


^. . . .■ 












- ? CO . 


















iC 








^1 


'^ '^ 












. ^•^ 


^^ . . . 


e 


'/-" 






«; 5. g w 


00 S «; _ 






^ 






S o s S 


~ 5 S «j 


' '^ 


6q g 


" 




III! 








o 


• 








o 

be 
o 


o 

02 


E 


= 




-» [V, 0) 


'3 d W 

■« 2h d D 


0) 


:2; 
in 




. 




bD C ^ 2 S 
ca c^ o 


S 


W 


Oi 






feZS« 


IziSSK 


■ • -W 


-H 




/3 a> 




• • • aj 




rt 


03 
CO 




3 -w 






£:> CO 

o en 

.So- ^ 




fc-* 


• 


•" 3 




• • -^ 


r-( v: 


3 






3 


hJ— 'S 


■ -^T" 


— 


, 


(U 'C 




.S . •'O 




!2^'c 






;^ s 




5 .-S 


"£ '-? <M "^ 


ostof 18!M- 
i!e of March 
rations in 




a;' 
^^ 

i^ 

00 
CO 

i4 

C4_t 

o 
o 


Si 






o 5J C5 en 
bc<! «« 


on the Great br 
on the Great G 
rological Obser 
ca for 1893 


I* 

o 

o 

_o 

'bo 

o 

R 


o o 
o o 


^ -^ a; o ^ ^ =5 ^ §> o o 
c ^53 § §2^ - a P P 


w "1 9 'C 

1) O 1^ <4-l 


o 


OS 


i=i: 






3 M 6 o o 

p5 -|J (L* 1> 


. Not 

G. Met 

A 


0) 




6 


H 


^ S.2 «^ 




" 


• 




^H • • 


J^ ■ ■ ■ 


H 




^ 


^ 






- Cd • - 


II > 

II 1 

Ravenstein 


-a 


< 
a) 

2 


- 




53 „- c 2 
J< o a) "3 


O 'S Ed '* 

a n3 ^-1:3 

a> E i: r- 
CO W H H 






U 

o 



p^ 



OQ 



00 - 



H ■* U3 

lO i-l t- 

S^ CO CO CO 

1-1 I I r 

I -<»< IM CO 

rH ■»*< rl r- 
CO CO CO 



CO 
I 

CD 



CO 


0^ -*> 

C CO 
<N CO 




IS o 

0-. CO 

— CO 









l = = 



- bo 

a 
d« 

03 . 
Sg C 



o 

o 

02 



o 
bo 



O 



• • • m 

3 

>^ 2 

.J .| 

of UJ 

. a . o 

<u 

U 91 



M O 

bo-t> 

a 



i5 "35 









u 
o 



ho 

a 






.-^■^ 



■wo 

a J2 



a 



a 



I— I "^^ 






■*i 



. a 






=5 S ' '*i '+J 



i 1) 9 0) o 



2^ •» 

C3 -^ « -^ O .S 
S rf sd " trt 
.2 £ S a 9^ Si 

a^-<S°^ 
a b. to a a 

— . ^ -*^ j~t 

^fe «»*-' a)a ^ 
^7*S aj^ S 
«^ a;^ a cP^ 

H P-i O 



o 

3 






c 
o 

|pac3 
■« °h2 

O >-Ph 

Cl,> O 

S 8 £; 

c3 aj ^ 

vj a -C 

;.' 2<2 

OH 



win- 2 
a" ^ c '^ 

<!ooo 



Ph 



3 






. o 
a" § 

S a 



48 



REPORT — 1896. 









05 



-00 '00 



X' 00 - 



so 



c-i CO ;o 00 re 00 o 
I I I I I I I I I 

a (Ml0-H«C0OQ0«0 

cc ro ^ ^H io CO — « 






00 

00 



«0 M 1-1 
I I I 

O CO 



I 
o 






*« 






R^ 






03 



O 
fa 



>:^><><p^K!^" 









o --I 

CO ^ 

I I 

CO to 

CO IM 



M 



a 
.2 

1 


to 


Inst. '. 
alist . 
Inst. . 






' 


J?iS^ . 


^ 


^ 




5^ 
















3 


'?: '«^'? 








'^ 






Pi 


■i 


.^ . .^^s: 








. .<< 






O 


<^ 


=c «0 eo *; . ^ 

S = S , S'* S s 


oo 




%> 


s !i 8 




CO 




s 


ee« -fig's 


IS 






« <a a 


•^ 


- e 


H 


!>i 


iSc^ES g;;^^ 


g; 




^ 


'^^^ 








• 




o 




• 


4J 




• • 


o 




















• 


bo • bo o • • • • 


m 




• 


tc *J 


• 


• be 


T3 o 


o 


w w 02 ^- ^ 






o 
o 


C d 
W O 3 




fa 


a 


d -c^H^c^-f^ 


in 




m 


. y; o 


• 


• c 






-i^ 
















s-ss^i^^'-s-s 












t« C 








^ 


f* ^ "-- 


«3 


«^ 






• C . c c ^ ° ° 


r2 

'3 




C-c 

& 

o 


5^'-' 

° m2 


a 

h- 1 


c 


J 


tn 


'-'c'-'iiajjcsn 


-a 




H 




<! 


-a 


nS'^'dol'S'oM'^ 


ii 


- 


-d s s 


M 


"t3 






o . o . ::3 o . . 


o 






0} ,S jg 




o 




>i 


fa ;2i fa 02 S « 33 !2J 


p:i 




o 


faOO 


:^ 


fa 




(U 


. . . .^ . . . . 


«4-( 




o 


- • tn 


. 


• 




^ 


4) "o 


o 




,c 


" s 
















o o 








o 


. . . "^ o . g 

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5^ 




o 


o > 


• 


• • 




hi 


• s • s rt • '^ >; 






jS 


r1 • O 
fa 1" 


• 








.3 c'o, =" .oj 
g "G " d 5 S 

^ m <-> ^ =<i 5. O 
>> S - t, . a>C) 

s o «+-( o ■*^ "^ 


fl 




o 










a 








O M 

^.2 2 


. 




hi 


.a 


QJ 




J3 


g w T) 3 




M 


03 
P-( 
Cm 

o 


2 


•*^ 






QJ 
> 

''fl 

O 


.fa 

o 
>-> 

• c; 
3 


O 


4^ 


71 




o 


•^ 3 ^ m 




H 


d 
o 

o 
o 


SSfa2-;2s£=^ 
"^3 "t: :; K c 




o.-S 
hx) 

^ 1— 1 
a 


fa 


'3 




O 






o 


a- 

3 o 




s 

a 






:3 o 


.SiSoH:c|g- 


o p^ 




p^ 


£ S2^ 








gK 


_c o a^ o o £ .2 p 


^ ^ 


< 


3 fa 


2 £P 2m 


Ph 




1^ 


SccHE-iHtHP-i«JJ 


O 




< 


Ch CC Pm 


fa 


K' H 


M 


a 


»■ -2 


td 




w 


. . . 


bo 




g 


o 

o 


>■ W . pi - ^ o =« 

^ e c ^ - fc § r-- 
„-rtciag2g 
g S o ° -^ j= o 2 

T S<I^IpH1?-(»pH1^1^ 

i--li-5i<^i^i^<;<ip^ 


1^; 
^ § 

|bC 
Ph 




4 


CD D O 

iZ ^ 03 


CJ 

g ^ 

.2S 


: S 



o 

o 

Ci3 



8 



OQ 



in 




05 


■- ^ * . 


00 


"" — •■ — 


1— t 




o 


-* o 


»— 1 


O rt ri 


(M 




1 


IQ 1 1 I 


in 


O CO o 


o 


OO- 


C-) 


—1 ^- 



"A ■ 





■ X 


'e 


'^ 



2^ 



d 
fa 

"A 

CO 

ta 

p; 






o 
o 
-Jj 

'.< ' 6 

^dg:8 

^.fa;2o- 

. ^ QJ O 



^3 



O 

"a 





o hi ::; 




S rS L- 


. 


.■3 >,-2 '-' 




S bo 5 




OJ o O d 


ri 


w o"-s 


0) 


+j o «-< ■t-' 


H 






ri'o cs > 


o 


':^ g^-S .2 a 


fe " •-« -n > 


a 


rt "3 C> C C' 


O 


^522^ 


^ 


■u =^ == 


o 


;? 


;z:cOO 



<I1 o — ^ 



'c txj t -if r 

C 3 C5 05 

<; «<;PPP5 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



49 



a-. a> ^ 

00 00 " 



'00 



lo to o 
^ OS oa OS 

* 00 00 00 



OS OS 

oo oo 



CS OS 

oo 00 






I 
00 



«3 O OC CO 

I CI o : 

to •»« 



o o 

00 C^l 
CI ■-! 

I I 

eo OS 
I— — < 

CI —I 



CS t- O 00 

>— I CO to 00 

■^ 1—1 .-I T^ 



I 

OS 
CO 

CO 



I I . 

lO (M CO 

CO to 00 



o CO 

CI r-, 

I I 

^ CO 
tN — ' 



CO 00 00 

to I-l >o T»< 

CO i-H 1— 1 CO 

I I I I 

CO lo CO t~ 

t- r-H lO (M 

-H — CO 



to to 

>-l c^ 

I I 

O -*l 



00 
IN 



07 O 
to t- 

r-1 C» 

^1 1 

t— CO 

CO -*^ 
I— -N 



C5 






X 



O 1^ 



t-; h-; >< >" S G ^ >-' ^ 






1—1 I— ( i-c 

X M^ 



•« 






'1 

. t3 . 
sc :e 00 

S *- S 
ts S S 















8 



I 

§^ 

15:? 






o 

o 






C5 

a 



fe = 



O 
too 



O 



o o 


o 


g" 


o 


C/J 


r—< 


.4^ 


^ o 


tn 


^ 'U 


a 


^O 


HH 




hn 


w .o 


a 



1-^ 



O 



•a .a 



s 



•45 • ■*= 

*^ B s 

opqo 



S fe 



TO -»-• 

MM 



o a; lJ 

^ ^ .0) 



« 



•■a^^ 



Corn\v 
Edinbi 
E. Ken 
Liv'poc 


• 


• 





o 
02 



o 

a 

C3 



be 

a 
1^ 






o 

CO 



d 



fa 



< I — I 

O n) 



<B t— 1 

c ■• 



-2 o 

a-C 



C 
o 



<a 



/:.3 



I- o 

< a 



o a 



.3 . a 
.a o 



a 
o 

'o 

a 

<! 



to 

c 






ci 






a-- 

= ^ g 3 ■■ 



o 



ci3 



- 5 o 



^ .-H o 



■^ a '*-' ! 

f-N *• ^ _ ( 



on g 



a; (D O a ^ 

a--^oS 
O ho: 



PS 

2§ 



o 

• a 

'o '" 

S ° 

I ^ s "u 11^ a 

o 



^ a ci 

O l< ^ 

i-. <u c4 

■a r3 o 



i,\4 



o " o 
go o g 



bo 
a 



O .-=! 



„ o 



-H-3N 



O 



HI o 

r-i -^ E- •-. 

a *^ <D n 

o >• rQ ^ 

g a g^^ 
h:!OM 



o 



a 

■ C3 

.a 



bD 

a 
'a 

a 
o 
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■g-g 

&a 

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a 



a 



I {1> 

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rt eij 
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WS 



a 

-f^ a 

a -a o 



•■5 o 
e-8 



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3 






o 


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■tJ 


is 


<) 




u 


(fl 


Ph> 



,a 



a 



a 



P-i 
c<j tn 

(D O 



ES 



o 

o 



-o 



i: o •— I "3 CL 



9 a 



a a 

OP 



"^ S 

o o 

to o 
o 



.i3 a 

0) 



-a 



Q « 



o > o 



-^^H 



c: ^ fc, 

I £2 a 

J a s i> 

5 53 



K 



o 

a 

1-5 



a 
a 



a> 


<D 


w 


K 


a 


0) 


O 












O 


tH 


pq 


» 






!- a eij 



I- '-^ 

;=: a 
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1-5 

O J^ 
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P-I a 

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c a 

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W 



a .2 2 2 S 

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w 


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TS96. 



50 



REPORT 1896. 



Pub- 
lished 


l-^ 








CO 


>o 




to lO 






o 


o 


^ 


»i .. 


w a. 


Ol - 


.o . - 


fc n 


.05 Oi 


. « 


a. *. 


cs 


CO 


•* 


" *■ 


•■ •* 


oo - 


•00 - - 


a. r- 


-CO 00 


K •» 


•■ " 


oo 


.-c 








^^ 


I— < 




^H 1—* 






—• 


o 


CO 


O 




-^ r^ 




c-.. 


"M 


,_l 


• ■5 




CO 


IM 


CC -H 


<M lO 


c e-5 


O 00 O , T 


<M 


05 t— »o 


a Ti 


O -JT 


-— < 


8) 


1 


CO 

1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


— 1 CO 
CM 1 


rt lO Oa 
1 1 1 


CO CO 

1 1 


(M -H 

1 1 


1 


P^ 


'O 


-H 


00 o 


— o 


Oi — ' 


2S8-2 


r- 


to CO o 


t-o 


CO O 


CI 


t- 


i-H 


r- cs 


CI 00 


CO t- 


(M 


.-1 Ttl C5 


rH (M 


C5 -H 




l1 


•M 


cc 


CO 


-^ 








CO 




— ' 


HI 


:: 


• i 

oo 


HH 


t— ( - 


XIII. 
XVI. 

VII. 

X. 


t-J ^ 


IX. 

XIII. 

XXVII. 




l-H __| 




^ 














-^ . 










c 














5s. 




2 












■kj 


■♦.J 




























00 


a 




« 






3 


• 


• 




1^ . 


• • 






• • • 






- 


cu 






K^ • 






. . . «. 


^ 




e . 


■M 

^ 




o 






c^ 


CO =c 




^ IB 


«3 




•10 
K 




o 


5i 






S S 




a s s 




'^J ^ 


Q -O 


s 




c 


f? 


" 


^4 




- " 




k5 " 




a; Si, 


J = 

N 


• 



*« 



C5 
O 
►J 
O 



o 




o 




x 


CI 




' CO c 


o 


. o 


o 


"S S 


o 


c:d 






o 
o 


. j.^^^ 




.:: o 


V 


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•MS'-' 

a ^.a a 
<J i-!0 



> a 
-' o 
-J o 

nj 

e - = &I 



3 f^ a 
^ ^ o 



Q a 
H 



p w t^ 
OH 



-71 '3 Q 



Qffi 
pi • .:i !- 

I - o ^ 

J T- S a 
o .a o o 

M ^ a fq 








rH 


tU 




r" 


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fc. 


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56 



REPORT — 1896. 



00 CO ' 



lo CO lo 

■"OO 00 oo 



50 

oc 



C5 .. 

CO - 



.C5 
'30 



CO 



Pi 



IS 



to 00 <M 

<M to CT5 

- I I 

t~ t- o 

ta to Oi 



to ■* (M ^ ^ lO OO 

to © .^ .„• <M t~ 

to IM .-.■-■* t- 



I 



■^ 1—1 

(M N 

I I 

(M .-H 



OS CO i-H 



c; CO 

O (M 

1— t f— ( 

^^ 
O IM 



O 



^ I 



. «5 i-J 



^4 
O 



00 






CO 
C5 



O 



k1 • " • 

a;:; ><x> v\^ x '^ x 



-o 
3 
Ph 



•ts 



o 
o 

o 

o 

N 



•3 



03 

■5.2 

TO O 






^^ 



- <3 

S 



f-J ^ V 









e 
^ 



^ 

U 

g 









'2 

Si 






= s 









Si t-i 



te! 



^ 

s 

^ 






o 

'a 

.P 

-^ 

o 



o . 

O ^ _j CO 
O wj ^ . 

. . > '^ •■ 

•^ !2; ■ 6 
•^ ^ ^ o 

f2 CM . *J 

^ ° '5 Q 



. O 



Ph 



a 
o 

P 

C3 

12; 



o 



CM CJ 



o 

CO 



« Em 



o 
occ 

ccjz; 

►5 o 



3 

o 



o 
o 
CO 



SH 



Clj o 

OP-i 



M .i! 



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a 



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03 


Ph 


^2! 


,C 


K 


_: 






tji 


.Id 

o 


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c 

OS 

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o 



••'CO 
1) o 



^. .2 

to _-»^ 

a •<! 






a 

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^ fccg 

.^ B a 



rr" 


(1) 




^ 


fe 


c3 


r 


d 


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o 


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o 




;zi 



p. 

o 

Ph t-) en CO 
_ be ID m 

° s ^O 

a©.- ra 

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a j3 a c 
E^ H O ^ 



^ o 

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2 a 
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fa 



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^ 
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a 



D 



e+H 



tn 



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a-a-s2 
o P a -75 

-*f 03 =+H a 
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2 3-2^ 
r=i o ,2 



a-gi 

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CS 






s 



10 +3 O 

OS t^ O 
oj o jj 
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O Ph to -2 

agoo 

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tsj a> 



JO fa • -3 



(5 



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a:0 



a o 

; g a 

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o .a .a 



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2? 



U3 
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ce 

fa 



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O.i: 



o 

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CO § "o 



' 'C > .1^ ■*:! « S 

;C3 SP^ x3p:i 



3 



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a' 03 H ,/• 
a.^ rr-2 



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^ a 

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00 



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1-3 

3 

c« 
03 
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1-3 ; 



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^- «'W -^^ 

03 •.-- ^ 

a -a .^ o 

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PP 3 



CO 
•-5 

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CORRi:SPONDING SOCIETIES. 57 



■to to 

"GO OO 



_ — ' =■ T^ "^ g^ '- m '-I at ^ rt 



03 05 . Ci OS C5 SX O 

oo"^ o o o2 o 

P^P4 lit f^ fcj '"' fi:, 












8 '^2 s2H<; IrSfe; 



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s " - .2 d j5 02 o •- .2 ^ -s -2 

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■^ ' ' « 2 "o w Si's § S "i . w .S 



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'o'S^^'3 ^'SS 2 a " ci.-:^ 6 §^2 --^ Ss feSfi-sgco-SSl. - _ 

^gSaS.a.iiagggHqcso^^gg-ai^^.S^-S^^gSsO'S^^ '^ 'H 

M^^°5 3ngS-S-3^'«a,-"cM.§|°^a,;i^^'3:.2rtir34^8=^ S S 

||'ssli^l|.|g-3§°|S-g^^ai:1^fJ|^|i^|| =i 2 



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f^ m p^em o o OOC5 o OO w tn a 



58 



REPORT — 1896. 






H3 
00 



CD »0 CO 
- C2 O^ O^ 
"OO 00 CO 



"OO CO 



in 

00 



to 

00 



in 
en 
CO 



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lO lO 

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t^ in o 




o ^ 
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lO 

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CO ^ 



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00 



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W =» 


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lb. Coll. 
lin N. F 
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ID _ 

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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



59 



CO lO CO iO 

C» OO CO oo 



to lO 

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03 CO OS CO 00 -^ GO 

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lO"— lOS I— t T— f rH OSf— ( i-H OOr— I 

III I I I — I t II 

t-OSCO -<tl 00 CO (MC5 CO 1— IIO 

COOCO CO O 00 O ■^ t-03 



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60 



REPORT — 189C. 



3 ^ 

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cr- C3 Ci 

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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



61 







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Manch. G 
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REPORT — 1896. 






to 

CD 



CO 

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CO 
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CI 
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CO O0t--T"(Mll^lO00,_H 

<M C»i-(OOOaOOtO(M 

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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



63 



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CO- 


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00 


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g; 



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5^ tx 



S3 



^02 . 









1^ CO fl 
03 SiOfl 

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a a 

m CO 

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h5i-h 

54-1 '^ 

c3 c5 

03 li 



a 



02 Ul f-i 

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bo 

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03 



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102 



cmJz; 



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g^a^"^ W 03 
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d) d) t^ ^ 



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a 
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bo 3 ^ 



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C4 



REPORT — 1896. 












IS 



s 

a 
o 

H 

h-l 

o 

T/2 
O 

IH 

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a 
o. 



s 

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tiS 



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CO 






CO 
t- 

1—1 

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00 



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CO C; «0 rH 

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CD lO ■* 00 
lO 05 to O 



t> I : ,1-1 1-1 
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o 
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02 



Pi 

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o 



a £ o 

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CO 'O 'T3 



a 

m 

o 



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bX) 
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■ 




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w 




n 


J2 


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M 


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be 

c 




be 

a 




F-i 


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2--' 

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£ .53 



SI . .<!!H 


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ty, Mill 
e, W. G 
F. R. 
n, Miss 
ington, 




m .ii! m :a a 


-. - ca 


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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



65 



a 


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70 KEPORT— 1896. 



Calculation of the G (r, v)-Tiitefjrah. — Preliminary JR-eport of the 
Committee, consifitinri of llev. Robert Harley (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor A. R. Forsyth (Secretary), Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. Lodge, and Professor Karl Peakson. (Dranm vj) by 
Professor Karl Pearson.) 

Appendix . . . Tables of x-fnnt-tions, X\< X^^ X:,^ nnd Xi • • i^aye 75 
Preliminary Bejwrt on the Integral G (r, >■)=: sin'd e^'^ d6. 

1. The integral G (r, r) occurs in the determination of frequency 
curves and of the probable errors of their constants under the form 
e-i^" G (r, )■), or, what is the same thing, the integral 

f t/2 



cos' d e-"^ dd 



- TT ■■: 



occurs. The calculation of this integral for the values of r, which most 
frequently arise in practice, is for special cases somewhat laborious, and 
this much impedes the use of the generalised frequency curves by statisti- 
cians and biologists.' It seems desirable, accordingly, to form tables of tlie 
values of the integral for the most usual values of rand r. If tan (/)=)'/r, 
then r=2 to r:=50, and <^=0° to <^=90° are the ranges of values which 
experience has shown to he most useful for statistical purposes. For the 
same purposes it is not necessary to calculate to a greater degree of 
exactitude than 1 in 1,000. Hence, if a table of double entry be formed 
proceeding by units from r=l to ?'=.50, and by degrees from (f>=0° to 
^=90°, intermediate values of r and <^ will be given with sufficient 
accuracy by interpolation ; such a table will contain 4,500 entries, and 
involves a large amount of labour in its calculation. 

The integral G (r, >) is, however, of considerable interest from the 
standpoint of pure mathematics,'- and is not unlikely to be required for a 
variety of investigations, as it is closely related to the Eulerian integrals. 
Hence the formuhe of this report and the scheme of the proposed tables 
are adapted to expansion, should it be found ultimately of service to form 
as complete a table for G (r, i) as exists for V (x). 

2. The value of the integral may be expressed in terms of Eulerian 
integrals with complex arguments {see Forsyth, Quarterly Journal of 
Matliematics, 1895). Thus : 



\' / Ti/l^il l„-\-n/l.. ,1. 



(i-) 



T(^r+l-hi)T(^r+l + h>i) 

•ei'^" 1 ,.. s 

. (u.) 



r+1 B(^r+l-^ri,^r+l+^ri) 

Since e i^" is the mid-value of sin'r^ e^^, it is very roughly proportional 
to the value of G (r, i), and accordingly e-^'^" G(?-, i)=F (r, r) will be 
found to change more uniformly and gradually than G (r, r), and as this 

' See a paper on ' Skew Variation in Homogeneous Material,' Phil. Trans., 
vol. 186 A, pp. 377-380. A further memoir on the probable errors of frequency 
constants also largely involves the values of G (r, v). 

' Professor Klein, I am told, has d^awn the attention of bis students to G (r, vy 
in unpublished lectures, and has suggested to them its fuller consideration. 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (r, i/)-INTEGRALS. 71 

is the quantity actually required in statistical problems, it is F (r, i), 
which will be tabulated. Interpolation between two values of F (r, i ) 
gives better results for G (r, r) than direct interpolation between two 
values of G (r, r). 

It has been shown by Lipschitz (Crelle : Bd. 56, S. 20) that the well- 
known expansion in terms of Bernoulli's numbers for log r (ii -(- 1) still 
holds when n is a complex quantity ; the remainder after ^^m-i is 

'" ■R, , 1 

■ / i\ -'-'2m + 1 -I / I 'V\ 

'^^ ' {2m + 1) (2»n + 2) ^^2,^1 ^' ^ ' '' 

where e and e' are both less than unity. 

We can accordingly use this expansion to obtain a semi-convergent 
series for F (r, v). 

log F (r, r)=log 27r-r+ 1 log 2 + log V (r+l)-logr {Ir+l—lri) 

-log T{\r + \+\vi). 

Let r=2 /3 cos ^, >'=2/3 sin ^, and let the F- function terms be calculated 
separately, 
log r (r + l)=log N/27+(r + l)logr-r 

1 g / 1 \m ■02»^-^l 1 

^ ' (2m + l)(2m + 2) r2'«+i' 
log r (|r+l-iii)=log T{fte-i<l> + \) 

=log n/ 2^-1- {Be-^^ + 1) (log ft— if) — /3e-'<^ 

4-g/_iy» Eom + l 1 g(2m-l-l) i,^ 

• ^ ' (2m+l)(2»?i + 2) /32"'+i 
and 
log r (ir + 1 + |.'i)=log r (/3e'* + 1) 

= log s/ 27-f (/3e''#> + ^) (log ft + if)— /3e'* 

I g /_l\m B2m-H 1 

'^ '' (2m-fl)(2m + 2) /32»'+i 

Hence : loa: , \ . ^=- 

T{^r+\-\ri)T{\r+\+\vi) 

—log \/27r — log -y r + log (cos (py+^ + rf tan ^ 

+ (l + r)log2 

+ S(-1)'» 



-a 



Bjm-l-l 1 



then : 



(2m+l)(2m+2) j-2"'+i 

(l-22'» + 2cos2'« + l ^cOS^'n + l*). 

Let X (^) *)=2 (^1^® Bernoulli number series in this expansion). 



log F (r, > )=log x/ — + log (cos ^)'-+i + r^ tan ^ + 2x (r, </>), 



or, 

F (r, r)=e-i'r'' G (r, r) 



V?' 



(cos ^)''+ie'"*+2x ('•.*) .... (iii.) 
r 
Here : 

X U w.)= Xii^) _ X3 {<!>) ^ v. (*) + (_! )m X2j" + i (^') + . (iv.) 



72 KEPORT— 1896. 

where X2™+i {<l>)= ^^^^^1—^^ {(^)2,«+2_eos2'«+i f cos (2m + 1)^} , 

and the series will be semi-convergent, if r>2, as it always is in statistical 
problems. Throughout m is to be summed for all integer values from to 
oo, and the logarithms are to Napier's base. 

The results (iii.) and (iv.) allow us to calculate F (;•, i ) and G (?•, r) to 
any degree of accuracy that may be i-equired. If we stop at the m"' term 
in X ('■} <^) then the error in the value of x (''j </>) will be less tlian 






(«>) 



Now, it is easy to show that although X2m + i(^) has several maxima 
given by 

,_ SIT 

^ 2(m + i)' 

where » is an integer, still its absolutely greatest numerical value is given 
by i^=:0, and it is then equal to 



B2m + 1 



(l_(|)2,«+2). 



(2m + l)(2m + 2) 

ilculation of ^ 
n its value so 

B2.+1 {i-CD^'^+n 



Thus, if we stop the calculation of x ('", ' ) at the j?i"' term, we shall not 
make an error -|- or — in its value so great as 



(2m+l)(2TO+2) (^r)2"'+i ' 

We accordingly obtain the following system of the maximum errors 
possible «vhen we stop at successive terms in x {r, >■) : 

Term stopped at : 1st 2nd 3rd 

Error less than : -!--0625000/(ir) ± "0026042 /(^jf H^-0007812/(ir)5. 
Term stopped at : 4th 5th 6th 

Error less than : ±-0005929/(!,r)7 -+--0008409/(^r)9 ±-0019171/(^r)n. 
Term stopped at : 7th 8th 9th 

Error less than : ±-0064099/(^r)'3 +-0295499/(|r)'5 ±-1796437/(ir)'7. 
Term stopped at : 10th 
Error less than : ±1 -3933926 /(ir)'». 

Now, if ?'=2, we ought to stop at x; to get the closest result from our 
semi-convergent series. AVe shall then make an error of less than 6 in 
the 10,000. Such a result is generally close enough for statistical 
practice, but is hardly sufficient for the purposes of pure mathematics. 
However, if we start with r = 4, and proceed only to the fourth term, 
X7, we should obtain results only showing error in the sixth place of 
decimals. If we calculate x (>', ') up to xa, we have an error less than 
•000002 for r=4, and less errors for larger values of r. Finally, if we 
limit ourselves to values of r— or < 6, we shall find that by proceeding to xt 
only we have errors of. less than -0000003 in our results. As the tables 
of logarithms and trigonometrical functions in general use do not go 
beyond seven figures, it does not seem necessary for practical purposes to 
go beyond xt in the calculation of the x-functions. If we, then, start 
our tables with r=6, we shall obtain results for x (?', ') certainly correct to 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (r, I')-INTEGKALS. 73 

the sixth figure. The earlier portion of the table may then be calculated 
from the formula of reduction : 

and the entire tables will then be correct to the sixth place. 

3. It may be observed that the formula (iv.) is of considerable signifi- 
cance. It is quite independent of the nature of r, whether fi-actional or 
integer, and thus shows that there is no abrupt change in the value of 
G (r,>) when we pass from integer to fractional values. Jt thus justifies 
interpolation between integer values of r, in order to find the value of 
the function for r fractional. It might be supposed, if for statistical 
purposes it is sufficiently accurate to interpolate between integer values 
of r, and as G (r, i) is directly integrable in a terminable series ' when r 
is integer, that to use this latter series would be the readiest means of 
calculating tables of G (?•, j). But this is far from being the case, and for 
the following reasons : 

(i.) We have always as many terms to calculate as in finding x (>', f), 
and often many more. 

(ii.) These terms are not the same for all values of <p, and must be 
calculated afresh for each pair of values of (p and rj i.e., they cannot be 
broken up into ^-factors and 7--factors, and the former and latter calculated 
independently and once for all. 

Hence, even when r is an integer the calculation of G (r, i ) proceeds 
best by aid of the x-functions. 

4. The process of calculation has accordingly been the following : — • 

(a) The calculation of a table of x-functions from xi to X: for values 
of <p from 0^ to 90°. This table will be found at the end of this paper, and, 
until the complete tables of F (r, r) are ready, will enable the value of 
F (?-, )■) for any value of r and r to be found with a fairly small amount 
of labour. 

(b) Very considerable progress has been made with the calculation of 
F (r, J') from the x-functions for selected values of r. It is proposed to 
fill in the gaps by means of the reduction formula (v.). A test of the 
accuracy of the calculations will thus be obtained by the agreement of the 
directly calculated values with those obtained by reduction from the last 
directly calculated value. 

The arithmetic has proved much more laborious than was at all 
anticipated at the start. It was originally undertaken by Mr. H. J. 
Harris, assistant to Professor M. J. M. Hill at University College, 
London, but the whole of the calculations have been again and indepen- 
dently worked out by members of the Department of Ai:)plied Mathematics 
in that College. 

5. It seems desirable to illustrate the method of calculation, and to 
show, in one case at any rate, the degree of accuracy obtainable by inter- 
polating between integer values of r and values of <j) proceeding by 
degrees. 

Let it be required to calculate F(r, r), when r=9-35 and r=3-51133. 
It will be found that 9= 20° 35', and hence, when the tables are com- 
pleted, it will be necessary to interpolate between ?-=9 and 10 and i/>=20° 

' By expressing sin '^6 in cosines or .sines of multiple angles. 



74 



REPORT 1896. 



and 21°. The values of x might be taken at once from our table, but the 
method of calculation is illustrated by calculating them ab initio. The 
following are the logarithmic values of the ^'s to base 10 : — 

log xi=2-9208188 + log (-250000-008 cos./)) 
log x3=3-44.36975 + log (-062500-005 •> cos 3|)) 
log x5=4-8996294-t-log (-015625— cos •'^^ cos 5^) 
log X7=l-7746907 + log (-003906,(25)-cos ^ cos 7^). 

These are obtained by inserting the values of the Bernoulli numbers.' In 
the case of the trigonometrical quantity in the argument of the last 
logarithm being greater than the numerical constant, care must be taken 
to make the corresponding x negative. 
We find 

<p = 21° 



Xi 

X3 

Xs 

X7 



- -052752 
- -000979 
+ -000113 
+ -000297 



X(9, 20°)=--0117119 
X(10, 20°)=--010.5425 

F (9, 20°) = 1-374821 
F(10, 20°) = l-394909 
F (9-35, 20° 35") 
35 



- -051798 
- -000852 
+ •000158 
+ •000311 

x(9, 21°) =--0115013 
xaO, 21°) =--0103527 

F(9, 21°) = 1-4.56858 
F(10, 21°) = 1-488643 

35 



.^ = 20° 35' 
iJy Inter- 
pol »' ion 

— •052196 

- -000905 
+ •000139 
+ •000305 



^ = 20° 35' 

Direct 
CaKmlation 
-•052200 
-•000905 
+ •000140 
+ •000306 



=F (9, 20°) + -(-082037) +^^^(-020088) 



x(9-35, 20° 3.5') 
==--011157 

F (9-3.5, 20° 35') 

= 1-429911 

by direct 

calculation. 



= 1-429707 by interpolation. 

Thus we see that if tables of F (?-, qi), proceeding by units and degrees, 
are calculated, the value of F (9-35, 20° 35'), as found by interpolation 
from the tables or direct calculation, would only difter by two units in the 
fifth place of figures. Such a degree of approximation is more than 
sufficient for practical purposes in statistics. Had we used values of the 
x's correct to the seventh place of figures and used second differences, our 
results would have agreed to the sixth place of figui-es. Should this not 
suffice for the nioi-e exact purposes of pure mathematics, our table would 
still serve as a skeleton to be filled in at smaller intervals of the 
variables, when necessity arises. 

So far as the value of F (r, (t>) we have selected is concerned, Xs and x? 
contribute no sensible portion up to the sixth place of decimals. They 
have been included above, however, to indicate how their values for 

' Higher values of x are given by 

log X9 = 4-9251836 + log (-000976(56) - cos > cos 9<f)) 
log x„ = '3-2827414 + log (•0002-14(14) -cos "(^ cos ll<p) 
log Xi3 = "3-8068754 + log (-000061(04) - cos ''<?> cos Vi^) 
log Xi5 = 2^-4705670 + log (000015(26) - cos '> cos 15.^) 
log Xi, = T-2544136 + log (-000003(82) - cos '"</> cos 17.J>) 
logXi9= -1440741 + log (-000000(96) -cos '> cos 19(f). 

Still higher values of x ™3-y ^ found almost exactly from 



Xaii+i— ~ 



(27r)2 



,C0S2n+l<f C0S(2«.+ ]>f>. 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (r, i;)-INTEGRALS, 



75 



^=20° 35' are sensibly identical with those obtained by interpola- 
tion from a table of \'s proceeding by degrees. The tables of the 
X-functions will thus, till the F (r, q,) tables are completed, save a great 
deal of calculation in the finding of any series of x-fui^ctions ; the inter- 
polated values must then be substituted in equation (iv.) to find x {'>'> 9)j 
and this value substituted in (iii.) will give F (r, >■). It will be found that 
this needs only a moderate amount of arithmetic, but if it has to be done 
for a considerable number of frequency curves, the statistician may still 
reasonably demand the completion of the F (r, r) tables themselves. 



APPENDIX. 

Tables of x-functions (xi, X3> Xo, «-nd X;)- 

These tables have been calculated by Miss A. Lee, Mr. G. U. Yule, 
Dr. C. E. CuUis, and Mr. Karl Pearson, and the independent values 
thus obtained used for the verification and correction of the tables 
originally pi-ovided by Mr. H. F. Harris. 

The figures in brackets will generally only be required to determine 
the accurate seventh figure in the value of the x-function or its differences. 
The differences in the higher values of x have been found by calculating 
X to eleven figures and then dropping the last two. On this account it 
will be found that the tabulated differences do not in the bracketed figures 
always agree in the last place with the results obtained by subtracting 
the tabulated x's- 

Two differences will always suffice to calculate xs) X5> ^^^ Xt ^^ seven 
places, and even with Xi two differences will very rarely give a unit error 
in the last place of figures, while the use of the third difference would 
aiiiply suffice for all seven places. 



Table of Values of 



Xi- 



<t> 


log(±Xi) 


Xi 


Ai 


A3 


o 




a-wocssoo 


--0625000(00) 






1 


2-7957037 


--0624746(30) 


+ 253(70) 


— 


2 


■2'-7951742 


-•0623985(00) 


+ 761(30) 


-h 507(60) 


3 


2--7942911 


--0622717(57) 


+ 1267(43) 


+ 506(13) 


4 


■2-7930532 


--0620945(14) 


+ 1772(43) 


-1-505(00) 


5 


2-7914590 


-•0618670(00) 


+ 2275(14) 


+ 502(71) 


6 


2-7895066 


-•0615894(84) 


+ 2775(16) 


-i- 500(02) 


7 


2-7871935 


--0612623(30) 


-f 3271(54) 


-h 496(38) 


8 


2-7845168 


-•0608859(00) 


+ 3764(30) 


+ 492(76) 


9 


2-7814731 


-•0604607(00) 


+ 4252(00) 


+ 487(70) 


10 


2-7780586 


-•0599872(00) 


+ 4735(00) 


+ 483(00) 


11 


2"-7742688 


-■0594660(14) 


+ 5211(86) 


+ 476(86) 


12 


2-7700986 


-•0588977(27) 


+ 5682(87) 


+ 471(01) 


13 


2-7655426 


-0582831(00) 


+ 6146(27) 


+ 463(40) 


14 


¥-7605945 


-0576228(13) 


+ 6602(87) 


+ 456(60) 


15 


2-7552476 


- -056917 r(40) 


+ 7050(73) 


+ 447(86) 


16 


2-7494942 


-0561686(64) 


+ 7490(76) 


+ 440(03) 


17 


2-7433260 


- -0553765(50) 


+ 7921(14) 


+ 4.30(38) 


18 


2-7367341 


- -0545423(75) 


+ 8341(75) 


+ 420(61) 


19 


2 -7297083 


-•0536671(25) 


+ 8752(50) 


+ 410(75) 


20 


2-7222378 


-•0527518(61) 


+ 9152(64) 


+ 400(14) 



76 



EEPORT — 1896. 
Table of Values of Xi — continued. 



<t> 


log(±Xi) 


Xi 


Ai 


A2 


o 
21 


1 

2--7143105 


-■0517977(00) 


+ 9541(61) 


+ 388(97) 


22 


2 -7059136 


- -0508058(35) 


+ 9918(65) 


+ 377(04) 


23 


2 6970325 


--0497774(35) 


+ 10284(00) 


+ 365(35) 


24 


2-6876518 


-0487137(80) 


+ 10636(55) 


+ 352(55) 


25 


2-6677543 


-■0476161(54) 


+ 10976(26) 


+ 339(71) 


26 


¥■6673213 


-■0464859(11) 


+ 11302(43) 


+ 326(17) 


27 


2^-6563320 


--0453244(00) 


+ 11615(11) 


+ 312(68) 


28 


2-6447639 


--0441330(40) 


+ 11913(60) 


+ 298(49) 


29 


2-6325919 


-•042'.»133(00) 


+ 12197(40) 


• + 283(80) 


30 


2-6197888 


-•0416666(77) 


+ 12466(23) 


+ 268(83) 


31 


2-6063238 


-•0403946(47) 


+ 12720(30) 


+ 254(07) 


32 


2 5921635 


-•0390988(09) 


+ 12958(38) 


+ 238(08) 


33 


2-5772700 


-•0377806(95) 


•1- 13181(14) 


+ 222(76) 


34 


2-5616016 


-•0364419(50) 


+ 13387(45) 


+ 206(31) 


35 


2-5451113 


-•0350841(81) 


+ 13577(69) 


+ 190(24) 


36 


2-5277464 


- ^0337090(39) 


+ 13751(42) 


+ 173(73) 


37 


2 5094475 


-•0323182(22) 


+ 13908(17) 


+ 156(75) 


38 


2-4901470 


-•0309134(14) 


+ 14048(08) 


+ 139(91) 


39 


2-4697679 


-•0294963(27) 


+ 14170(87) 


+ 122(79) 


40 


2-4482220 


-•0280686(85) 


+ 14276(42) 


+ 105(55) 


41 


"2-4254073 


-•0266322(12) 


+ 14364(73) 


+ 88(31) 


42 


2-4012056 


-•0251886(87) 


+ 14435(25) 


+ 70(52) 


43 


2-3754780 


- •0237398(54) 


+ 14488(33) 


+ 53(08) 


44 


^■3480610 


-•0222874(82) 


+ 14523(72) 


+ 35(39) 


45 


^•3187588 


-•0208333(40) 


+ 14541(42) 


+ 17(70) 


46 


^•2873356 


--0193791(90) 


+ 14541(50) 


+ (08) 


47 


^-2535031 


-•0179268(12) 


+ 14523(78) 


- 17(72) 


48 


2-2169040 


-•0164779(84) 


+ 14488(28) 


- 35(50) 


49 


2-1770877 


-■0150344(60) 


•r 14435(24) 


- 53(04) 


60 


2-1334748 


-■0135979(94) 


+ 14364(66) 


- 70(58) 


51 


2-0853029 


-0121703(45) 


+ 14276(49) 


- 88(17) 


52 


2-0315400 


-■0107532(57) 


+ 14170(88) 


-105(61) 


53 


3 9707394 


-■0093484(50) 


■<- 14048(07) 


-122(81) 


54 


3-9007836 


-■0079576(27) 


+ 13908(23) 


-139(84) 


55 


3-8183905 


- ■0065824(95) 


+ 13751(32) 


-156(91) 


56 


3"-7 180635 


-■0052247(25) 


+ 13577(70) 


- 173(62) 


57 


3 -5894999 


-0038859(74) 


+ 13387(51) 


-190(19) 


58 


3-4095729 


-•0025678(69) 


+ 13181(05) 


-206(46) 


59 


3-1044934 


-0012720(19) 


+ 12958(50) 


-222(55) 


60 


-oo 





+ 12720(19) 


-238(31) 


61 


3 -0957397 


+ 0012466(36) 


+ 12466(36) 


-253(83) 


62 


3-3920585 


+ ■0024663(72) 


+ 12197(36) 


-269(00) 


63 


"3 -5632104 


+ ■0036577(19) 


+ 11913(47) 


-283(89) 


64 


3-6829775 


+ ■0048192(28) 


+ 11615(09) 


-298(38) 


65 


'3-7744793 


+ -0059494(84) 


+ 11302(56) 


-312(53) 


66 


3-84801 10 


+ ■0070471(10) 


+ 10976(26) 


-326(30) 


67 


3-9090619 


+ -0081107(67) 


+ 10636(57) 


-339(69) 


68 


"3-9609062 


+ -0091391(60) 


+ 10283(93) 


-352(64) 


69 


"2-0056538 


+ ■0101310(38) 


+ 9918(78) 


-365(15) 


70 


■2-0147430 


+ ■0110851(87) 


+ 9541(49) 


-377(29) 


71 


2"0791975 


+ ■0120004(50) 


+ 9152(63) 


-388(86) 


72 


■2-1097712 


+ ■0128757(12) 


+ 8752(62) 


-400(01) 


73 


"2 1370343 


+ 0137099(00) 


+ 8341(88) 


-410(74) 


74 


2-1614281 


+ -0145020(07) 


+ 7921(07) 


-420(81) 


75 


■2-1833000 


+ •0152510(60) 


+ 7490(53) 


-430(54) 


76 


■2-2029282 


+ •0159561(55) 


+ 7050(95) 


-439(58) 


77 


■2-2205374 


+ •0166164(19) 


+ 6602(64) 


-448(31) 


78 


2-2363121 


+ •0172310(64) 


+ 6146(45) 


-456(19) 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (r, i/)-INrEGRALS. 
Tablk op Values of X\— continued. 



77 



o 
79 


log(±Xi> 


Xi 


Ai 


Ao 


2-2504036 


+ •0177993(30) 


+ 


5682(66) 


-403(79) 


80 


2-2629380 


+ •0183205(25) 


+ 


5211(95) 


-470(71) 


81 


2 2740198 


+ -0187940(26) 


+ 


4735(01) 


-476(94) 


83 


2-2837362 


+0192192(40) 


+ 


4252(14) 


-482(87) 


83 


■2-2921598 


+ -0195956(54) 


+ 


3764(14) 


-488(00) 


84 


2-2993508 


+ -0199228(23) 


+ 


3271(69) 


-492(45) 


85 


2-3053584 


+ -0202003(23) 


+ 


2775(00) 


-496(09) 


86 


2-3102225 


+ -0204278(42) 


+ 


2275(19) 


-499(81) 


87 


2-3139744 


+0206050(84) 


+ 


1772(42) 


-502(77) 


88 


2-3166378 


+ ■0207318(33) 


+ 


1267(49) 


-504(93) 


89 


2-3182293 


+ -0208079(48) 


■(- 


761(15) 


-506(34) 


90 


2-31875S8 


+ -0208333(33) 


+ 


253(85) 


-507(30) 



Table of Values op xa- 



</> 


l"g(±X5) 


X3 


Ai 


^2 


o 



Tr-41 56688 


--0020041(67) 






1 


7f-4l48216 


-•0025990(91) 


+ 50r76) 


— 


2 


"3-4122765 


-•0025839(05) 


+ 151(86) 


+ 101(10) 


3 


3'4080198 


-•0025587(02) 


+ 252(03) 


+ 100(17) 


4 


•3-4020305 


-•0025236(58) 


+ 350(44) 


+ 98(41) 


6 


"3-3942768 


- 0024790(02) i 


+ 446(50) 


+ 90(12) 


(> 


3-3847170 


-0024250(33) 


+ 539(69) 


+ 93(13) 


7 


3-3732999 


-•0023621(09) 


+ 029(24) 


+ 89(55) 


8 


"3-3599580 


- ^0022906(40) 


+ 714(63) 


+ 85(39) 


9 


"3-3440110 


-•0022111(13) 


+ 795(33) 


+ 80(70) 


10 


"3-3271611 


-•0021240(32) 


+ 870(81) 


+ 75(48) 


11 


"3-3074892 


-0020299(68) 


+ 940(64) 


+ 09(83) 


12 


3 2854513 


-•0019295(29) 


+ 1004(39) 


+ 03(7.-.) 


13 


3 -2608723 


--0018233(60) 


+ 1001(69) 


+ 57(30) 


14 


•^•2335381 


--0017121(35) 


+ 1112(25) i 


+ 50(56) 


15 


3^2031839 


- -0015965(55) 


+ 1155(80) 1 


+ 43(55) 


16 


"3--1694793 


- -0014773(30) 


+ 1192(19) 


+ 36(39) 


17 


"3 • 1320082 


--0013552(15) 


- +1221(21) 


+ 29(02) 


18 


■g"0902342 


--0012309(32) 


+ 1242(83) 


+ 21(62) 


19 


■3-0434528 


--0011052(30) 


+ 1257(02) 


+ 14(19) 


20 


4^9907I33 


-0009788(46) 


+ 1263(84) 


+ 6(82) 


21 


4-9307004 


--0008525(12) 


+ 1263(34) 


- (50) 


22 


4-8614987 


--0007269(40) 


+ 1255(72) 


- 7(62) 


23 


4-7801902 


-•0006028(23) 


+ 1241(17) 


- 14(55) 


24 


4-6819914 


-•0004808(30) 


+ 1219(93) 


- 21(23) 


25 


4-5582220 


-•0003615(95) 


+ 1192(35) 


- 27(58) 


26 


4-3904405 


-•0002457(20) 


+ 1158(75) 


- 33(60) 


27 


4-1263481 


-•0001337(07) 


] +1119(53) 


- 39(22) 


28 


■5-4191943 


-•0000202(54) 


1 +1075(14) 


- 44(39) 


29 


5"-8827886 


+0000763(46) 


' + 1026(00) 


I - 49(14) 


30 


T-2395775 


+ •0001736(11) 


+ 972(65) 


•■ - 53(35) 


31 


4-4235223 


4 0002651(69) 


1 + 915(58) 


t - 57(07) 


32 


4-544«-^69 


+ •0003507(01) 


+ 855(32) 


- 60(26) 


33 


4-6384118 


+ 0004299(44) 


+ 792^43) 


- 62(89) 


34 


4-7012995 


+ •0005026(89) 


; + 727(45) 


- 65(02) 


35 


4-7549475 


+ •0005687(84) 


+ 060(95) 


- 06(50) 


30 


4-7980501 


+ •0006281(31) 


+ 593(47) 


- 67(48) 


1 37 


T-8329471 


+ •0006806(80) 


+ 525(55) 


i - 07(91) 



78 



REPORT 1896. 

Table op Values of Xs — contimied. 



<p 


log (iXo) 


Xs 


Ai 


Ao 


o 

38 


4-8612122 


+ -0007264(61) 


+ 457(74) 




67(81) 


39 


4"-8839544 


+ -0007655(16) 


+ 390(55) 


— 


67(19) 


40 


4-9019828 


+ 0007979(63) 


+ 324(47) 


— 


66(08) 


41 


4-9159058 


+ -0008239(59) 


+ 259(96) 


— 


64(51) 


42 


4-9261915 


+ -0008437(07) 


+ 197(48) 


— 


62(49) 


43 


4-9332071 


+ -0008574(47) 


+ 137(40) 


— 


60(08) 


44 


4-937246G 


+ -0008654(59) 


+ 80(13) 


— 


57(27) 


45 


4-9385475 


+ -0008680(56) 


+ 25(96) 


— 


54(16) 


46 


4-9373057 


+ -0008655(77) 


- 24(79) 


— 


50(75) 


47 


4-9336844 


+ -0008583(89) 


- 71(88) 


— 


47(09) 


48 


4-9278214 


+ -0008468(79) 


- 115(10) 


— 


43(23) 


49 


4-9198345 


+ -0008314(47) 


- 154(32) 


— 


39(22) 


50 


4-9C98275 


+ -0008125(08) 


- 189(39) 


— 


35(07) 


51 


4-8978917 


+ -0007904(81) 


- 220(26) 


— 


30(87) 


52 


4-8841103 


+ ■0007657(91) 


- 246(90) 


— 


26(64) 


53 


4-8685611 


+ -0007388(58) 


- 269(33) 


— 


22(42) 


54 


4-8513188 


+ -0007100(99) 


- 287(59) 


— 


18(26) 


55 


4-8324575 


+ -0006799(20) 


- 301(79) 


— 


14(20) 


56 


4-8120529 


+ -0006487(13) 


- 312(06) 


— 


10(27) 


57 


4-7901839 


+ -0006168(56) 


- 318(57) 


— 


6(51) 


58 


4.766936G 


+ •0005847(05) 


- 321(51) 


— 


2(94) 


59 


4-7424064 


+ 0005525(94) 


- 321(10) 


+ 


(41) 


60 


4-7166988 


+ 0005208(33) 


- 317(61) 


+ 


3(50) 


61 


4-6899344 


+ -0004897(05) 


- 311(29) 


+ 


6(32) 


62 


4-6622497 


+ -0004594(62) 


- 302(43) 


+ 


8(87) 


63 


4-6338018 


+ -0004303(30) 


- 291(32) 


+ 


11(11) 


64 


4-6047677 


+ -0004025(02) 


- 278(29) 


+ 


13(03) 


65 


4-5753491 


+ -0003761(40) 


- 263(62) 


+ 


14(67) 


66 


4-5457711 


+ -0003513(75) 


- 247(64) 


+ 


15(98) 


67 


4-5162823 


+ -0003283(09) 


- 230(67) 


+ 


16(98) 


68 


4-4871534 


^ 0003070(11) 


- 212(98) 


+ 


17(69) 


69 


4-4586715 


+ -0002875(22) 


194(88) 


+ 


18(10) 


70 


4-4311341 


+0002698(57) 


- 176(65) 


+ 


18(23) 


71 


4-4048397 


+ -0002540(03) 


- 158(54) 


+ 


18(11) 


72 


4-3800749 


+ -0002399(25) 


- 140(79) 


+ 


17(75) 


73 


4-3571014 


+ -0002275(63) 


- 123(62) 


+ 


17(17) 


74 


4-33G1417 


+0002168(41) 


- 107(22) 


+ 


16(40) 


75 


4-3173648 


+ -0002076(65-) 


- 91(76) 


+ 


15(46) 


76 


4-3008735 


+ -0001999(28) 


- 77(37) 


+ 


14(38) 


77 


4-2867038 


+ -0001935(10) 


- 64(18) 


+ 


13(19) 


78 


4-2748163 


+ -0001882(85) 


- 52(25) 


+ 


11(93) 


79 


4-2651037 


+ -0001841(21) 


- 41(64) 


+ 


10(61) 


80 


4-2573990 


+ 0001808(83) 


- 32(38) 


+ 


9(26) 


81 


4-2514896 


+0001784(39) 


- 24(45) 


+ 


7(93) 


82 


4 2471302 


+ -0001766(57) 


- 17(82) 


+ 


6(63) 


83 


4-2440616 


+ -0001754(13) 


- 12(43) 


+ 


5(38) 


84 


4-2420230 


+ -0001745(91) 


8(22) 


+ 


4(21) 


85 


4-2407665 


+ -0001740(87) 


.- 5(04) 


+ 


3(17) 


86 


4-2400676 


+ •0001738(07) 


- 2(80) 


+ 


2(24) 


87 


4-2397333 


+ -0001736(73) 


- 1(34) 


+ 


1(46) 


88 


4-2396084 • 


+ -0001736(23) 


(50) 


+ 


(84) 


89 


4-2395795 


+ -0001736(12) 


(12) 


+ 


(38) 


90 


4-2395775 


+0001736(11) 


(1) 


+ 


(11) 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (?', i;)-INTEGRALS. 79 

Table of Values op x.v 



(*) 





1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 



Jog (±X5) 



Xs 



T 8927900 
■8907716 
•8846906 
•8744634 
■8599470 
■8409266 
•8171020 
•7880613 
■7532440 
•7118821 
■6629054 
■6047756 
■5351936 
•4505186 
■3444970 
■2049877 
■0030767 
■6326875 
■0934494 
•8107272 
■0545335 
■1988645 
•2975411 
•3693484 
■4230728 
•4635286 
•4936239 
■5152802 
■5297595 
•5379822 
■5405975 
■5381198 
•5308763 
■5191401 
•5030997 
■4828826 
■4585690 
•4301924 
•3977466 
■3611876 
■3204315 
■2753479 
■2257891 
■1715210 
•1122697 
■0476919 
•9773563 
•9007216 
•8171055 
■7256634 
■6251809 
■5142314 
•3907754 
2519153 
•0934494 
■9088385 
•6871147 
■4-)7S385 



•0007812(50) 
•0007776(28) 
■0007668(15) 
•0007489(68) 
•0007243(47) 
•0006933(09) 
•0006562(99) 
•0006138(49) 
•0005665(57) 
•0005150(89) 
•0004601(56) 
■0004025(09) 
■0003429(21) 
■0002821(75) 
•0002210(53) 
•0001603(20) 
•0001007(11) 
•0000429(23) 
•0000124(01) 
•0000646(74) 
•0001133(79) 
•0001580(75) 
•0001984(00) 
•0002340(71) 
•0002648(94) 
•0002907(56) 
•0003116(19) 
•0003275(52) 
•0003386(57) 
•0003451(30) 
•0003472(14) 
•0003452(39) 
•0003395(29) 
•0003304(76) 
•0003184(93) 
•0003040(06) 
•0002874(54) 
•0002692(73) 
•0002498(89) 
•0002297(14) 
•0002091(37) 
•0001885(16) 
•0001681(86) 
•0001484(30) 
•0001295(00) 
•0001116(07) 
•0000949(20) 
•0000795(65) 
■0000656(30) 
0000531(70) 
•0000421(87) 
•0000326(76) 
•0000245(91) 
■0000178(61) 
■0000124(01) 
■0000081(07) 
•0000048(65) 
•0000025(58) 



A: 


Ao 






+ 36(22) 


— 


+ 108(13) 


+ 71(90) 


+ 178(47) 


+ 70(34) 


+ 246(21) 


+ 67(74) 


+ 310(39) 


+ 64(18) 


+ 370(09) 


+ 59(70) 


+ 424(51) 


+ 54(42) 


+ 472(91) 


+ 58(40) 


. +514(69) 


+ 41(78) 


+ 549(32) 


+ 34(64) 


+ 576(47) 


+ 27(15) 


+ 395(88) 


+ 19(41) 


+ 607(46) 


+ 11(57) 


+ 611(22) 


+ 3(76) 


+ 607(33) 


- 3(88) 


+ 596(09) 


-11(24) 


+ 577(88) 


-18(21) 


+ 553(23) 


-24(64) 


+ 522(73) 


-30(51) 


+ 487(06) 


-35(67) 


+ 446(96) 


-40(09) 


+ 403(24) 


-43(72) 


+ 356(72) 


-46(53) 


+ 308(23) 


-48(49) 


+ 258(62) 


-49(61) 


+ 208(63) 


-49(99) 


+ 159(33) 


-49(30) 


+ 111(05) 


-48(28) 


+ 64(73) 


-46(31) 


+ 20(85) 


-43(88) 


- 19(75) 


-40(60) 


- 57(10) 


-37(35) 


- 90(53) 


-33(42) 


-119(83) 


-29(30) 


-144(87) 


-25(04) 


-165(52) 


-20(65) 


-181(82) 


-16(30) 


-193(84) 


-12(02) 


-201(75) 


~- 7(91) 


-205(77) 


- 4(02) 


-206(21) 


- (45) 


-203(30) 


+ 2(91) 


-197(56) 


+ 5(74) 


-189(30) 


+ 8(26) 


-178(93) 


+ 10(37) 


-166(87) 


+ 12(05) 


-153(55) 


+ 13(33) 


- 139(34) 


+ 14(20) 


-124(61) 


+ 14(74) 


-109(82) 


+ 14(78) 


- 95(11) 


+ 14(71) 


- 80(85) 


+ 14(26) 


- 67(30) 


+ 13(56) 


- 54(61) 


+ 12(69) 


- 42(94) 


+ 11(66) 


- 32(41) 


+ 10(53) 


1 - 23(08) 


+ 9(34) 1. 



80 



REPORT — 1896, 
Table of Values of x., — continued. 



<p 


l0g(±X5) 


X5 


A, 


As 


o 

58 


6"0243944 


+ -0000010(58) 




15(00) 


+ 8(08) 


69 


y3896300 


+ -0000002(45) 


— 


8(13) 


+ 6(87) 


60 


— CO 





— 


2(45) 


+ 5(67) 


61 


7-3196347 


+ -0000002(09) 


+ 


2(09) 


+ 4(54) 


62 


T-8844716 


+ -0000007(66) 


+ 


5(58) 


+ 3(49) 


63 


6-1980458 


+ •0000015(78) 


+ 


8(11) 


+ 2(54) 


64 


"6-4079975 


+ -0000025(59) 


+ 


9(81) 


+ 1(69) 


65 


6^-5606390 


+ -0000036(36) 


+ 


10(78) 


+ (97) 


66 


6-6766617 


■*- -0000047(50) 


+ 


11(14) 


+ (36) 


67 


■6-76715435 


-f -0000058(50) 


+ 


11(00) 


- (13) 


68 


6-8387G61 


+ -0000068(99) 


+ 


10(49) 


- (S2) 


69 


"6-8959488 


■*- -0000078(70) 


+ 


9(71) 


- (78) 


70 


6-9416395 


+ -0000087(43) 


+ 


8(73) 


- (98) 


71 


6-9731301 


+ -0000095(09) 


+ 


7(66) 


- 1(07) 


72 


■5-0070832 


+ •0000101(64) 


+ 


6(56) 


- 1(11) 


73 


■5-0298592 


+ -0000107(12) 


-fc 


5(47) 


- 1(08) 


74 


5" 0475559 


+ -0000111(57) 


+ 


4(46) 


- 1(03) 


75 


5-0610926 


+ •0000115(10) 


+ 


3(53) 


- (92) 


76 


3^-0712481 


+ -0000117(83) 


+ 


2(72) 


- (81) 


77 


5-0786911 


+ -0000119(86) 


+ 


1(04) 


- (69) 


78 


s'-osaggse 


+ -0000121(34) 


+ 


2(47) 


- (56) 


79 


5 -0876523 


+ -0000122(36) 


+ 


1(03) 


- (44) 


80 


5" 0900732 


+ -0000123(05) 


+ 


(68) 


- (34) 


81 


5 -0910043 


+ -0000123(48) 


+ 


(43) 


- (25) 


82 


o 0925156 


+ -0000123(74) 


+ 


(26) 


- (17) 


83 


5'-0930207 


+ -0000123(89) 


+ 


(14) 


- (12) 


84 


5'-0932759 


+ -0000123(96) 


+ 


(07) 


- (07) 


85 


5 0933903 


+ -0000123(99) 


+ 


(03) 


- (04) 


86 


5-0934338 


+0000124(00) 


+ 


(01) 


- (02) 


87 


r> -0934466 


+0000124(01) 


+ 


(00) 


- (01) 


88 


3-0934492 


+ •0000124(0)) 


+ 


(00) 


- (00) 


89 


5"-0934493 


+ -0000124(01) 


+ 


(00) 


- (00) 


90 


5 0934494 


+ •0000121(01) 


+ 


(00) 


- (00) 





Table of Values of xt 




<P 


l0g(±X7) 


X7 


Ai 


Aj 


o 



4-7729909 


--0005929(13) 






1 


4 7692636 


--0005878(46) 


+ 50(67) 


— 


2 


4-7579831 


- -0005727(74) 


+ 150(72) 


+ 100(06) 


3 


4-7388346 


--0005480(68) 


+ 247(05) 


+ 96(33) 


4 


4-7112524 


--0005143(42) 


+ 337(26) 


+ 90(20) 


6 


4 6743324 


- -0004724(24) 


+ 419(18) 


+ 81(92) 


6 


4-6266854 


--0004233(36) 


+ 490(88) 


+ 71(70) 


7 


4-5661551 


--0003682(60) 


+ 550(76) 


+ 59(87) 


8 


4-4892611 


-0003085(04) 


+ 697(56) 


+ 46(81) 


9 


4-3899824 


--0002454(61) 


+ 630(43) 


+ 32(87) 


10 


4-2566463 


--0001805(70) 


+ 648(91) 


+ 18(47) 


11 


4-0617321 


--0001152(74) 


+ 652(96) 


+ 4(05) 


12 


3" 7073862 


--0000509(78) 


+ 642(96) 


- 10(00) 


13 


3~-0408812 


+ -0000109(87) 


+ 619(65) 


- 23(30) 


14 


5-8113740 


+ -0000694(02) 


+ 584(15) 


- 35(50) 


15 


4-0905690 


+ -0001231(88) 


+ 537(86) 


- 46(29) 


16 


4-2340881 


+0001714(30) 


+ 482(42) 


- 55(44) 



ON CALCULATION OF THE G (r, j;)-INTEGRALS. 



81 





Table op Vaujes of Xi— 


oontlnned. 




«/> 


Jog (±X7) 


X7 


Al 


Ai 


o 

17 


4-3291940 


+ 0002134(00) 


+ 419(69) 


- 62(73) 


18 


4-3954352 


+ -0002485(62) 


+ 351(62) 


- 68(07) 


19 


4-4418311 


+ -0002765(87) 


+ 280(24) 


- 71(38) 


20 


4-4732548 


+0002973(41) 


+ 207(54) 


- 72(70) 


21 


4-4926043 


+ -0003108(88) 


+ 135(47) 


- 72(07) 


22 


4-5017047 


+ -0003174(71) 


+ 65(83) 


- 69(64) 


23 


4-5017357 


+ -0003174(94) 


+ (23) 


- 65(61) 


24 


4-4934603 


+0003115(02) 


- 59(92) 


- 60(15) 


25 


4-4773422 


+ -0003001(53) 


-113(49) 


- 53(56) 


26 


4-4536153 


+ -0002841(94) 


-159(58) 


- 46(10) 


27 


4-4223126 


+ -0002644(32) 


-197(62) 


- 38(04) 


28 


4-3832747 


+ -0002416(99) 


-227(33) 


- 29(71) 


29 


4-3361339 


+ -0002168(37) 


- 248(62) 


- 21(28) 


30 


4-2802643 


+--0001906(62) 


-261(75) 


- 13(14) 


31 


4-2147019 


+ -0001639(46) 


-267(16) 


- 5(40) 


32 


4-1379807 


+ 0001373(98) 


-265(48) 


+ 1(67) 


33 


4-0478425 


+0001116(46) 


-257(52) 


+ 7(96) 


34 


3--9406535 


+ -0000872(27) 


-214(18) 


•f 13(34) 


35 


5-8101146 


+ -0000645(82) 


-226(45) 


+ 17(73) 


36 


3-6439284 


+ -0000440(48) 


-205(34) 


+ 21(11) 


37 


5-4126451 


+ -0000258(61) 


-. 181(87) 


+ 23(47) 


38 


5-0068700 


+ -0000101(59) 


-157(02) 


+ 24(86) 


39 


¥•4783225 


-■0000030(08) 


-131(68) 


+ 25(34) 


40 


5-1339447 


--0000136(75) 


-106(67) 


+ 25(00) 


41 


5-3413499 


-0000219(46) 


- 82(70) 


+ 23(97) 


43 


"5-4468500 


-■0000279(80) 


- 60(34) 


+ 22(36) 


43 


5"-5049463 


--0000319(85) 


- 39(95) 


+ 20(40) 


44 


5 -5340041 


-0000341(98) 


- 22(13) 


+ 17(81) 


45 


3"-5425420 


-•0000348(77) 


- 6(79) 


+ 15(34) 


46 


5-5351259 


-■0000342(87) 


+ 5(90) 


+ 12(69) 


47 


5--5143971 


-•0000326(89) 


+ 15(98) 


+ 10(07) 


48 


5-4819215 


- 0000303(33) 


+ 23(55) 


+ 7(57) 


49 


5 -4385785 


--0000274(52) 


+ 28(81) 


+ 5(26) 


50 


5-3847545 


--0000242(52) 


+ 32(00) 


+ 3(19) 


51 


5-3204121 


--0000209(13) 


+ 33(40) 


+ 1(40) 


62 


5 -2450869 


- -0000175(83) 


+ 33(30) 


- (10) 


53 


5-1577914 


--0000143(81) 


+ 32(02) 


- 1(28) 


54 


5-0567973 


--0000113(97) 


+ 29(84) 


- 2(18) 


55 


6-9391658 


- -0000086(93) 


+ 27(04) 


- 2(80) 


56 


6-7997191 


- -0000063(05) 


+ 23(87) 


- 3(17) 


57 


6-6284650 


--0000012(51) 


+ 20(55) 


- 3(33) 


58 


6-4025971 


- -0000025(27) 


+ 17(24) 


- 3(31) 


59 


6-0486660 


-0000011(19) 


■f 14(08) 


- 3(15) 


60 


-GO 





+ 11(19) 


- 2(90) 


61 


7-9350331 


+ -0000008(61) 


+ 8(61) 


- 2(57) 


62 


6-1762223 


+ -0000015(00) 


+ 6(39) 


- 2(22) 


63 


«-2911520 


+ -0000019(55) 


+ 4(54) 


- 1(85) 


64 


"(;-3542091 


+ -0000022(60) 


+ 3(05) 


- 1(«) 


65 


6-3891777 


+ -0000024(50) 


+ 1(90) 


- 1(16) 


66 


6-4070G09 


+ -0000025(53) 


+ 1(03) 


- (87) 


67 


■6-4140706 


+ -0000025(95) 


+ (41) 


- (61) 


68 


6-4141831 


+ -0000025(95) 


+ (01) 


- (41) 


69 


fi -4101432 


+ -0000025(71) 


- (24) 


- (25) 


70 


6-4039127 


+ -0000025(35) ! 


- C^') 


- (12) 


71 1 


6-3968830 


+ -0000024(94) 1 


- (41) 


- (01) 


72 


¥-3900030 


+ -0000024(55) 


- (39) 


+ (01) 


73 1 


6-38385-19 


+ -(1000024(20) 


- (31) 


+ (05) 


74 1 


6-3787363 i 


+ -0000023(92) 


- (28) 


+ (06) 


l$i 


G 






G 



82 



REPORT — 189(3. 





Table of Values ok Xt— 


contliiiied. 






<!> 


lOI? (±X7) 


X7 


Ai 


! A, 


o 
75 


"0-3747265 


+ •0000023(70) 


- (22) 


+ 


(06) 


76 


6-3717581 


+ •0000023(54) 


- (16) 


+ 


(06) 


77 


6 -3096785 


+ ^0000023(42) 


- (11) 


+ 


(05) 


78 


-368.^035 


+ •0000023(35) 


- (07) 


+ 


(04) 


79 


f, -3674461) 


+ -0000023(3(,) 


- (05) 


+ 


(03) 


80 


6 -3669474 


+ ^0000:)23(2.'<) 


- (03) 


+ 


(02) 


81 


6-3666778 


+ -0000023(26) 


- (01) 


+ 


(01) 


82 


6-36G5439 


+ -0000023(26) 


- (01) 


+ 


(01) 


83 


'6 3664842 


+ -00iiO'ii;3(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


84 


7;-36(;460!) 


+ •000(1023(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


85 


(!-3K64532 


+ ^000(KI23(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


8f; 


6 3664512 


+ -0000023(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


87 


7t-3(;64508 


+ •0000023(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


88 


r, -3664.108 


+ •0000()-23(L'5) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


8;i 


TT 3()G4308 


+ •0000023(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 


'JO 


(i-36(;4.'")i).S 


+ -0000023(25) 


- (00) 


+ 


(00) 



On the Estahlisliment of a National Physical Lahor-a.tonj. — lieport of 
the Committee, consisting of Sir Douglas Galtox (Chairmav,), 
Lord EAYLEKiH, Lord Kelvin, Sir H. E. Eoscok, Professors 
A. W. RrcKER, R. B. Clifton, Carey Foster, A. Schuster, 
and W. E. Ayrton, Dr. W. Anderson, Dr. T. E. Thorpe, 
Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, and Professor 
0. J. Lodge (Secretary). 

Appendix. — On the PhysilmHsch-ieclinisrlte Reiclimnstalt .... j^ago 86 

At the Ips'wich Meeting of the British Association held in September 
1895 the Committee ■were reappointed for the purpose of reporting on 'the 
establishment of a National Physical Laboratory for the more accurate 
determination of physical constants, and for other quantitative research, 
and to confer -with the Council of the Association.' 

It will be convenient in the first place briefly to enumerate the present 
facilities afforded by the Government, by educational establishments, and 
by private societies for aiding research in Great Britain, independently of 
that direct aid which Government Departments are continually furnishing 
for their own purposes. 

Tlie most direct sources of aid given to research are the 4,000/. a year 
given by the Cioverniuent for research purposes and administered by the 
(Joverinnent Grant Committee of tlie Royal Society ; the Donation Fund 
of the Royal Society derived from its surplus income ; the contributions 
made to research by the British Association ; the investigations carried 
on at the Royal Institution which afford magnificent examples of private 
munifii-enco in aiding science ; the City and Guilds of London Institute ; 
the Royal Commission of the Exhibition of 1851, which devotes 6,000/. a 
year to research scholarships ; research comndttees of various scientific 
societies ; the Clarendon Laboratory at the University of Oxford and 
the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge ; the laboratories at Glasgow, 
Ediuljtirgh, and Aberdeen ; the Victoria University ; and the larger 
Colleges not yet incorporated into universities. 

The facilities which the laboratories of the Universities and of the 



ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY, 83 

University Colleges aftbrd for i-esearch are much reduced by the large 
demands usually made upon the time and energy of the Professor and the 
staff for elementary teaching. Nor is a thorough appreciation of the 
essential connection between reseai'ch and all higher scientific education 
so widely diffused in England as it is in Germany, in the United States, 
and elsewhere. 

It must be manifest that the cure for this latter evil is not to be 
found in the establishment of a National Laboratory, but in such a 
change of public opinion as will make it possible to reproduce in England 
the conditions which have long obtained elsewhere. It is to be hoped 
that the research work now conducted at educational establishments in 
this country will largely increase in the future. We should earnestly 
deprecate any divorce between higher teaching and investigation, and 
should regard anything tending in that direction as a retrograde step. 

There are, however, investigations of particular types which have 
been recognised both in this country and abroad as lying outside the 
range of effort possible either to an individual or to a great teaching 
institution. 

These may be divided into three principal classes, viz. — 

(1) The observations of natural phenomena, the study of which must be 
prolonged through periods of time longer than the average duration of life ; 

(2) The testing and verification of instruments for physical investi- 
gation, and the preservation of standards for reference ; and 

(3) The systematic accurate determination of physical constants and 
of numerical data which may be useful either for scientific or industrial 
purposes. 

A laboratory for such purposes would aid and would not compete with 
laboratories maintained by individuals or institutions for more general 
physical research, and the reasons for establishing it as a National Insti- 
tution are much of the same kind as those for maintaining a National 
Astronomical Observatory. 

If England is to keep pace with other countries in scientific progress, 
it is essential that such an institution should be provided ; and this can 
scarcely be maintained continuously on an adequate scale, except as a 
national laboratory supported mainly by Government. 

In a paper read at Ipswich on the Reichsanstalt, it was suggested 
that the Kew Observatory might be extended so as to afford a satisfac- 
tory nucleus for a national physical laboratory. 

The Kew Observatory, endowed by the late Mr. Gassiot with an 
income that is now somewhat less than 500/. a year, is under the control 
and management of an unpaid committee appointed by the Council of 
the Royal Society. It is the central observatory of the Meteorological 
Office, from which it i-eceives 400/. a year ; and it has gradually become 
an important standardising institution, as Avell as a recognised base station 
for observations in meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Its gross 
income from these various sources is now somewhat less than 3,000/. a year ; 
but the greater part of this is derived from testing fees, and is almost 
entirely absorbed in working expenses. The Observatory is, however, at 
the present time in a thoroughly sound financial position. 

The building of the Observatory ' stands in the Old Deer Park at 

' See the ' History of Kew Observatory,' by Jlr. R. H. Scott, in Prucecdingi of 
the Royal Society, 1885, vol. xxxix. pp .S7 8G 

62 



84 REPORT— 1896. 

Richmond, and is the property of the Government, from whom the Com- 
mittee hold it at a small rent. They have latterly been permitted to add 
about five acres to their holding. 

The work of the Observatory is very varied, but may be roughly 
divided into 

(1) Routine observation — magnetic, meteorological, and solar. 

(2) Experimental work connected with the routine observations and 
research work generally. 

(3) Standardising of between thirty and forty different kinds of 
instruments, whose number in the gross amounted to 23,000 last year. 

The general heads under which most of these instruments fall are 

(a) Thermometers of all kinds. 

(b) Barometers, anemometers, and all sorts of meteorological apparatus. 

(c) Theodolites, sextants, artificial horizons, compasses, and telescopes. 

(d) Watches and chronometers. 

(e) Photographic lenses. 

Particulars will be found in the annual reports, printed in the 
'Proceedings of the Royal Society.'. 

The present work of the Observatory is therefore of a character which 
is strictly consistent with a large portion of the work which would find 
a place in a national physical laboratory. 

Having thus briefly shown what the Kew Observatory now performs, 
it will be convenient to consider what would be — 

(a) The function which a national laboratory should fulfil. 

(b) The system which should be adopted for its control and management. 

(a) Functions. — In addition to the special research work, the scope of 
which we have already partially indicated, the work of the proposed 
institution would include an extension of certain branches of work now 
performed by the Kew Observatory. This work has now for its object 
the verification of standards for instruments of utility in scientific investi- 
gation, but it hardly attempts investigation into the properties of the 
materials of which they are, or should be, composed. An enlargement 
of this work to its proper extent would in the case of many delicate 
standards relieve British investigators from their present dependence 
upon foreign laboratories. Indeed, in the prosecution of research the 
necessity for accurate standards is being daily more and more felt. This 
class of work, as recognised in the Reichsanstalt, comprises, not only com- 
parisons of length, weight, capacity, gravity, sound, light, etc., but varia- 
tions of conditions due to temperature, vibrations, or other causes, as well 
as quality of materials in regard to their uses. It is a class of work 
which is not touched by the Standards Department of the Board of Trade, 
for this department is restricted by Act of Parliament to the work of 
making standards of length, weight, and capacity, and of such electrical 
quantities as may be of use for trade. 

(b) Afanagement. — The present form of government of the Kew 
Observatory affords a basis upon which the management of the extended 
laboratories might be safely founded. The present government is by a 
paid superintendent, who is controlled by an unpaid committee appointed 
under the Council of the Royal Society. The Committee consists of the 

eading authorities on the special subjects which form the present work 



0T< THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY 85 

of tlie laboratory, and they lay down the general lines on which investi- 
gations are to go on. It would appear to be desirable that the government 
of the enlarged Institution should be in the hands of a Committee 
appointed either as now by the Royal Society alone or in conjunction 
with one or more of the chief scientific bodies in the country. But it is 
to be hoped that in addition to this Council of Advice tJie immediate 
executive and initiative power would vest in a paid chief or Director of 
the utmost eminence attainable. Unless such an appointment were 
made, either an altogether unfair amount of work would be thrown upon 
some members of the governing committee, of the institution would fail 
to rise to the highest usefulness. 

The present accommodation at Kew Observatory is quite insufficient 
for the proposed extension of its work • and to carry out the idea suggested 
will require inci-eased space, increased buildings, and increased staff. 

There would probably be no difficulty in obtaining fi-om the Govei'n- 
ment an extension of space out of the park at Richmond ; but the pro- 
posal would entail an expenditure of money for new buildings. It would 
be unfortunate if such expenditure had to be taken from the small fund 
which Parliament allots to scientific research under the Royal Society, but 
there can be little doubt that when a satisfactory scheme has been 
elaborated it will not be unreasonable to ask the Government to assist 
in providing the necessary buildings. 

Additions to buildings require much consideration, and, therefore, as 
a preliminary to any action a small committee might be asked to draw up 
a detailed scheme, with the aid of an architect, for an extension of Kew 
Observatory, having regard to the site and to utilising the present 
erections upon it. 

Since it is difficult to foresee the direction in which a i-apidly growing 
subject like Physics may develop, it is probably wisest to begin with 
buildings of an adaptable and not too elaborate character, and to stock 
them with but a moderate supply of the best available apparatus. In 
such a subject as Physics a large annual maintenance grant is more 
useful than an extravagant initial equipment which might speedily 
become antiquated. We would suggest to those whose business it may 
be hereafter to approach the Government that some such sum as 20,000^. 
or 25,000^. would serve to erect a building sufficient for all immediate 
necessities, and that posterity may be left to increase it as need arises. 
A sum of 5,000^. would provide a fair amount of initial instrumental 
equipment of a permanent kind, and the rest should be met out of an 
annual grant. 

The commercial testing department may be considered self-supporting, 
but for secular research and the determination of constants considerable 
expense would be entailed. This would fall under the heads of salaries, 
new apparatus, maintenance, warming, lighting, and taxes. 

We propose that the head of this National Laboratory should receive 
1,200Z. a year, and we estimate that an annual grant, in addition to the 
sum at present expended, of 5,000(!. per annum, and an initial expenditure 
of 30,000^. for buildings and equipment, would do all that is essential to 
carry out the scheme in a wise and worthy manner. 



86 



REPORT — 1896. 



APPENDIX. 

Physikalisch-technische Reichsanstalt. 
/. Departinent {Physical). 



1. Value of land (originally presented by \V. S. Siemens) 

2. Buildings, &c.: (a) Laboratory building . 

(i) Engine house . 

(o) Administrat building 

{(I) President's house. 

(<?) Gardens, drainage, &c. 

(/) Paving adjacent streets 

((/) Accumulator house . 

3. Furniture, &c., for (a), (h), and (<■) 

4. Machines, engines, apparatus of all sorts 

//. Department {Technical). 



387,000 
50,000 

100,000 

99,254 

10,472 

30,274 

8,500 



1. Value of land 

2. Buildings : {a) Principal laboratory building 

{!)) Smaller ditto 

{c) Engine house ... 
{(1) House for officials . 
(e) Additional structures, &c. 



In budget 1895-96 reduced by 

3. Furniture, &c., for these buildings 

4. Engines, machines, instruments, &c. 



922,000 
218,000 
180,000 
140,000 
348,000 

1.808,000 
47,500 



In round numbers— £200,000 sterling capital expenditure. 

Yearly Expenses. 

1 ^. Personal : Salaries, remunerations, &c 

2°. Repairs to buildings, cost of administration, experimental work . 

In round numbers— £15,000 sterling a year. 



Marks. 
500,000 



685.000 
58,000 
82,310 



Marks. 
373,106 



1,760,500 

81,000 

363,690 

3,904,106 



172.357 
115,000 



287,000 



Uniformity/ of Size of Pages of Scientific Societies' Publications. — 
Peport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson {Chairman), Dr. G. H. Bryan, Dr. C. V. Burton, 
Mr. E. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. Rucker, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Mr. James Swinburne {Secretary). 

Your Committee has prepared a circular for distribution to the various 
learned societies and academies, pointing out the desirability of all pro- 
ceedings and transactions being issued in one or other of the standard 
sizes recommended in the British Association report of last year. 

Upon the printing and postage of this circular, which will be dis- 
tributed early in the winter session, the balance of the Association's 
grant will be expended. 

A proposal having been made by the Council of the Royal Society last 
year to change the sizes of its 'Proceedings' and 'Transactions' to royal 
8vo, thus not only spoiling the historic continuity of its publications, but 



UNIFORMITY OF SIZE OF PAGES OF SOCIETIES' PUBLICATIONS. 87 

departing from the already existing uniformity of the majority of British 
pubUcations, the Chairman of your Committee addressed a remonstrance 
against the taking of such a step. Happily any further action was 
rendered needless by the resohe of the Council not to persist in the 
suggested change. 

Of the publications which at the present time depart from the 
standard sizes proposed in the report of last year, the most important are 
the ' Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenscliafteii ' and the 
' Atti della Beale Accademia dei Lincei,' which cannot be bound witli 
either quarto or octavo publications of the ordinary size. 

Your Committee desires reappointment without further grant. 



Comparison of MarfneHc Insfriiments. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting 0/ Professor A. W. Rucker (Chairman), Mr. W. Watson 
(Secretari/), Professor A. Schuster, and Professor H. H. Turner, 
appointed to confer irith the Astronomer Royal and Hie Superin- 
tendents of other Observatories ivith reference to the Compariso7i 
of Magnetic Standard's with a view of carrying out such Com- 
parison. 

The work of comparing the magnetic instruments in the different mag- 
netic observatories of the United Kingdom was carried out by Professor 
Riicker and Mr. Watson during the summer of 189.5. 

Unfortunately, however, nothing could be done at Greenwich. The 
peculiar form of the declination needle in use there makes it impossible 
to place another instrument on the same site. A good deal of iron and 
a dynamo (carefully shielded by a triple iron case) have recently been 
introduced into the Observatory, and it is doubtful whether, if another 
position were choseii in the Observatory grounds, the differences measured 
might not include some erroi's due to the presence of these causes of 
magnetic disturbance. 

The authorities of the Observatory hope that it may be possible to 
arrange for the establishment of a new magnetic Observatory in the 
Park, and it is most desirable that when this is done the instruments in 
use at Greenwich and at Kew should be compared. 

The work of the Committee has therefore been limited to the com- 
parison of the Kew standards with the instruments in use at Falmouth, 
Stonyhurst, and Valentia. The Committee have learned with mych regret 
that the magnetic observations at Valentia have now been discontinued. 
The extreme westerly position of that station makes it one of the most 
important in Europe for determining the relation between the rate of 
secular change and geographical position. It is much to be desired that 
funds may be forthcoming by means of which the work may be resumed 
and placed on a more permanent footing. 

The work of the Falmouth Observatory is also hampered by want of 
funds. Other buildings ai-e now being erected near to it, and the 
purchase of a small plot of land, to maintain the isolation which is 
desirable, is an urgent need. The vertical force-recording instrument 
has never worked properly, and appears to want expensive alterations. 

The observations made by the superintendent, Mr. E. Kitto, are of a 
very high order of excellence, and it is to be hoped that the Royal 
Cornwall Polytechnic Society, by which the Observatory was founded, 



88 REPORT — 1896. 

will be able to ensure the maintenance of the magnetic observations 
under the best conditions. 

The instruments used in the comparisons which have been carried out 
are magnetometer No. 70, by Messrs. Elliott Brothers, and dip circle 
No. 94, by Dover. They had been used in the recent magnetic survey 
of the United Kingdom, and are indicated hereafter, as in the published 
account of that survey, by the letter S. 

They were in the first place compared again with the Kew standards 
at Kew by Professor Riicker. Some changes had been made in No. 70, 
so that the differences with Kew are not strictly comparable with those 
which have previously been published. In the case of the dip circle the 
results were in satisfactory accord with earlier measurements. 

The method of comparison of the instruments was altered, so as to 
diminish the risk of error from variation in the zeros of the self-recording^ 
instruments. To this end alternate sets of observations were made with 
the instruments to be compared at short intervals on the same day, so 
that the zero lines of the self-recording instruments, by which these 
observations were reduced to the same time, could not have appreciably 
altered (see ' Phil. Trans.,' 1896, 188, p. 11). 

After the instruments had been compared with those used in the 
other observatories they were brought back to Kew, and a similar set o£ 
comparisons to that above described were made, chiefly by Mr. Watson. 

The results of the two sets of experiments are entered in the following 
tables. 

As it was desirable to show that the Kew standard instruments 
gave normal results when used by Professor Riicker and Mr. Watson, 
observations were made with them by the Observatory officials on days 
near those on which the comparisons were carried out, and the readings 
for the zero lines of the self-registering instruments were determined so 
as to serve as a check on the corresponding v.ilues obtained when the 
survey instruments were compared with the standards. These observa- 
tions are indicated by an asterisk. 

The most convenient way of making the comparison is as follows : — 

Let Cq and C be the readings of the self-registering instruments at 
the time when the value of the element was determined by the Kew 
standard (K) and No. 70 (S') respectively. Then K — Cn=Zo and 
S' — C=Z are the values of the zero line of the self-registering instrument 
according to the two observations. But if the observation with No. 70 
had been made at the same instant as that with the Kew standard, and if 
the zero line remained unaltered in the interval which actually occurred 
between the two experiments, the simultaneous values of the element 
given by the two instruments would have been K and S=S'4-Co — C- 
.•.K-S=K-Co-(S'-C)=Zo-Z. 

On October 12 the self-registering instruments at Kew were disturbed, 
owing to some work which was being done in the room in which they are 
placed. 

The Astronomer Royal was therefore good enough to supply us with 
the values of the elements given by the Greenwich instruments at the 
time of our observations at Kew, and by using these instead of Cq and C 
the proper allowance for diurnal variation and disturbance could be 
made. 

In the following tables the number of whole degrees in the values of 
Zq and Z is omitted : — 



ON COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS 



89 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Kew Standard Instrument. 
Declination. Observer : Professor Rucker. 



Date 



July 6* 

„ 16 

„ 16 

„ 1(5 

„ 16 

„ 16 

„ IC 

,. 17* 

., 20 

„ 20 

„ 22 

„ 22 

„ 22 
22 

„ 27* 



Mean 



Time 


Instru- 
ment 


H. M. 




12 25 


K 


12 10 


K 


13 12 


S 


14 45 


K 


15 2 


S 


15 54 


K 


16 36 


S 


10 20 


K 


11 42 


K 


13 9 


S 


11 42 


K 


12 55 


S 


14 24 


S 


15 2 


K 


12 30 


K 


— 


— 



Declination 



17 



251 
21-3 
21-3 
20-3 
20'7 
18-5 
190 
18-4 
22-2 
22-8 
21-1 
24-0 
22-4 
21-8 
250 



Curve 

(C) 


K-Co 

= Zo 


S'-C = Z 


54-4 


(30-7) 


/ 


500 


31-3 


. — 


49-2 





321 


501 


30-2 


— 


49-5 


— 


31-2 


48-0 


305 


— 


47-5 


— . 


31-5 


470 


(31-4) 


— 


51-5 


307 


— 


51-7 


— 


311 


51-0 


30-1 


— 


52-3 


— 


31-7 


52-0 


— . 


30-4 


51-0 


30-8 


— 


531 


(31-9) 


— 


— 


30-6 


31-3 



Zo-Z = 
K-S = ;3 



-08 
-10 
-]0 

-0-4 
-1-6 

+ 0-4 



-0-7 



Gom]jarison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Kew Standard Instrument. 
Declination. Observers: Professor Rucker and Mr. Watson. 



Date 


Time 


Instru- 
ment 


Declioation 


Curve 


K-C 

= Zo 


S'-C = Z 


Zo-Z = 

K-S = /3 




H. M. 




O 1 


f 


t 


f 


1 


Oct. 5* 


12 32 


K 


17 20-1 


502 


(29-9) 


— 


— 


„ 8* 


16 9 


K 


18-9 


47'0 


(31-9) 


— 


— 


9 


11 15 


K 


21-9 


50-9 


31-0 


. — 


— 


,, 9 


11 40 


S 


21-8 


510 


— 


30 8 


+ 0-2 


„ 10 


10 41 


K 


15-6 


43-7 


31-9 


— 


— 


., 10 


11 27 


S 


18-2 


46-7 


— 


31-5 


+ 0-4 


„ 11 


15 44 


K 


18-3 


48-1 


30-2 


— 





» 11 


16 


S 


18-6 


480 


— . 


30-6 


-0-4 


„ 12 


10 54 


S 


18-6 


1-3 


— 


17-3 


. — . 


,. 12 


12 43 


K 


21-7 


5-2 


16-5 


— 


-0-8 


„ 25» 


12 29 


K 


18-7 


49-0 


(29') 


— 


— 


Mean 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-01 



In the case of the horizontal force the two necessary observations — 
the vibration and the deflection — are indicated by the letters V and D. 

If H' be the value of the horizontal force deduced from these observa- 
tions, and if © and ^ are the total increments of the horizontal force due 
to diurnal variation and disturbance at the time when the deflection and 
vibration experiments are made, 

H=H'-(</i-f-J,)/2. 

If C, and C2 are the curve readings of the self- registering instrument 
at these times, 



H-fd=Z-fC„ H-f 4-=Z-f C, 
,-. H -f *^-+i= H' = Z -^ Ci + C.,_ 



90 



REPORT — 1896. 



Hence the difference between the uncorrected value of the force, taken 
without reference to diurnal variation, &c., and the mean of the curve 
readings at the times of the two observations gives the reading corre- 
sponding to the zero line of the instrument. 

If, then, we write K and S' for H', and C,, and C for the correspond- 
ing means of the curve readings, we have as before : 

K=Zn-f-C,|, S' = Z + C ; 
.•.Zo-Z=K-Co-(S'-C). 

Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Keio Standard Instrument. 
Horizontal Force. Observer: Professor Rucker, 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 

and 
Observation 


H 


Curve 


Mean 
Curve 


K-C„=Z„ 
xlO^ 


S'-C=Z 
XlO= 


K-S= 
Z„-Z=^ 




H. M. 
















Julv 18 


12 4 


K Vl^ 


0-18280 


0-18180) 


0-18196 


-f84 


1 






14 8 


K D) 




0-18213 ) 






-0 00010 




12 37 


S V) 


0-18290 


0-18200 ) 


0-18196 




+ 94) 




,) 


15 


S D) 




0-18193 [ 












15 50 

16 32 


K D) 
K V )■ 


0-18292 


0-18206 1 
0-18211 f 


0-18208 


+84 




0-00000 




17 7 


S D) 


0-18295 


0-18207 1 
0-18216 f 


0-18211 




+ 84 






17 38 


S V)- 












July 20 


12 32 

15 39 


K V) 
K Df 


0-18289 


0-18200 1 
0-18208 )" 


0-18204 


+ 85 




+ 0-00007 




13 35 


S V) 


0-18282 


0-18209 1 


0-18204 




+ 78 - 






14 44 


S Df 




0-18200 )' 






) 


-0-00013 




16 46 


K Dl 


0-18286 


0-18220 ) 


0-18221 


+ 65 






17 29 


K V[ 




0-18222 / 










July 22 


16 


K Vl 
K Dl 


0-18301 


0-18230 1 


018228 


+ 73 








16 36 




0-18227) 










i» 


17 35 

18 7 


S D| 
S V)- 


0-18297 


0-18221 1 
018219 J 


0-18220 




+ 77 


-0-00004 


Mean . 


— 






— 


— 


— 


— 


-0-00004 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Kew Standard Instrument. 
Horizontal Force. Observers : Professor Rucker and Mr. Watson. 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 

and 
Observation 


H 


Curve 


Mean 
Curve 


K-C„=Z„ 
xlO= 


S'-C = Z 
xlO' 


K-S = 

z<,-z=p 




H. M. 
















Oct. 9 


14 14 


K Ti 
K D r 


0-18256 


0-18190) 


018195 


+ 61 






„ 


14 52 




0-182(1(1 f 










Oct. 10 


12 24 


K D) 




0-18178) 










J, 


15 30) 


K V) 


0-18263 


0-18200 ,- 


0-18189 


+ 74 








15 56 ) 






0-18200 ) 










„ 


14 18 


S D) 


0-18286 


0-18193 1 


0-18196 




+ 90 


-0-00016 


J, 


14 51 


S V 1" 




0-18199 i" 










^, 


16 18) 


S V) 


0-182S3 


0-18206 I 


0-18200 




+ 83 


-0-00022 


„ 


14 18)" 


s D r 




0-18193 )■ 










Oct. 12 


11 18 
11 51 


S Vl 
S D,- 


0-18290 


0-18200 1 
0-18206 )■ 


0-18203 




+ 87 


-0-00018 


" 


13 14 

14 52 


K VI 
K Dl' 


0-18296 


0-18223 ) 
0-18232 l" 


0-18227 


+ 59 






" 


14 10 
14 52 


K Vl 
K Dl 


0-18288 


0.18212 1 
0-18232 )■ 


0-18222 


+ G6 






J, 


11 51 


S D! 


0-18300 


0-18206 ) 


0-18216 




+ 84 


-0-00018 


" 


15 46 


S V)- 




0-18227 [ 










Mean . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


—0-00018 



As no observation was made with No. 70 on October 9, and a.<? the 
earlier observations on October 10 were arranged so that the experiments 



ON COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS. 



91 



with No. 70 were interpolated between those made with the Kew instru- 
ment, that with No. 70 on October 9 has been combined with tlie second 
result obtained on October 10 with the Kew instrument. 

These observations indicate that a small change took place in mag- 
netometer No. 70 during the journeys to the other observatories. The 
differences are not very great, and if we take the mean of the results 
obtained in July and October, viz. — 0'-4, for the difference in declination, 
and — 0"00011 for that in horizontal force, the linal results will only be 
affected with an uncertainty of rii0'-3 and ±0-00007 respectively. 

In the case of the dip observations, experiments were either made 
with each instrument alternately, or so that the mean time of two 
observations made with one instrument was nearly the same as the mean 
time of two corresponding observations made with the other. In this 
way the effects of diurnal variation, ifec, were nearly eliminated. We also, 
however, determined the dip at the time of each observation from the 
self-registering records of the horizontal and vertical foi^ce. 



Comjxirison of Dip Circle, Dover, No. 94 v-ith the Kew Standard. 
Observers : Professor Rucker and Mr. Watson. 



Date 



July 14 



Jul J' 25 





Instru- 


Time 


ment and 




Needle 


H. M. 




12 6 


S 3 


12 42 


K 1 


13 16 


S 4 


14 46 


K 2 


15 16 


S 3 


15 45 


K 1 


16 21 


S 4 


16 48 


K 2 i 


11 38 


K 1 


12 14 


S 3 


12 34 


S 4 


12 55 


K 2 



Mean 
(K-S=-0'-3) 



Mean 



(K-S=-0'-9) 



Dip 



67 



26-6 
23-8 
23-7 
23-2 
22-8 
24-9 
237 
211 
24-9 
22-6 
23-7 
23-8 





H. M. 




October 9 


15 29 


S 3 


» 


15 55 


K 1 


Octoberll 


10 39 


K 2 1 


»» 


11 24 


S 4 1 


j» 


11 51 


S 3 , 


»» 


12 22 


K 1 


» 


14 2 


K 1 


a 


14 33 


S 4 


!l 


14 51 


S 3 


»> 


15 20 


K 2 



67 



24-4 
22-3 
23-2 
240 
23-7 
20-9 
22-3 
22-0 
21-7 
21-5 



Curve (C) 



67 



25-9 
255 
24-7 
24-9 
24-3 
24-4 
24-7 
24-3 
25-2 
24-6 
24-7 
24-7 



G7 



25-2 

24-7 
25-4 
25-3 
250 
24-7 
23-8 
24-0 
23-5 
23-7 



K-C = Z„ 



Needle 



l'-7 — 



+ 0'-5 
-0'-3 



-l'-7 



-3'-2 



-0'-9 



0'-5 -l'-9 



■l'-2 



-2'-4 



■ 3'-8 
■l'-5 



-2'-6 



_2'-2 



— 2'-2 



-2'-2 



-2'-4 



S'-C=Z 



+ 0'-7 



-I'-5 



-2'0 



I'O 



■I'O 



■I'-O 



0'9 -I'-O 



-0'-9 



-0'-8 



l'-3 



-l'( 



l'-3 



-l'-3 



-2'-0 



-I'-6 



■l'-5 



92 



REPORT — 1896. 



The means of six experiments made in July by the first method with 
No. 94, and of a like number with the Kew instrument, wei'e 67° 23''8 and 
67° 23'-6, so that the average result with No. 94 was 0'-2 higher. 

The means of five experiments with each instrument in October were 
67° 23'-2 with No. 94 and 67° 22'-0 with the Kew standard, so that the 
difference had apparently increased by a minute. It will be seen from the 
above table that these results do not differ much from those obtained 
when the comparison was made with the recording instruments, and that 
therefore the method by which they were obtained, which was perforce 
adopted at Falmouth, Stonyhurst, and Valentia, is sufficiently good for 
the purpose in view. 

In the table each needle is treated separately. The mean of the 
two differences obtained in July and October, viz. : y8=— 0''6, is in 
close accord with the values obtained in February and October, 1892, 
when No. 94 was last compai'ed with Kew. They were — 0'*4 and — 0''5 
respectively. 

Summing up the results obtained at Kew we get the following table : — 



— 


K-S = /3 


Declination 
Horizontal Force . 
Dip 


-0'-4 

-0-00011 (C.G.S.) 
-0'-6 



Falmouth Observatory. 

The observations at Falmouth were made by Professor Riicker, using 
the survey instruments, and by the superintendent, Mr. E. Kitto, who used 
the Falmouth instruments. 

On the first day Professor Riicker also used the Falmouth magneto- 
meter to make sure that no personal equation of importance affected the 
results. 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 icitJi the Instrument used in the 
Falmouth Observatory. . Declination. 



Date 


Time 


Instru- 
ment and 
Observer 


Declination 


Curve 
CC) 


F-C = Zo 


S'-C = Z 


F-S = Zo-Z 


August 6 

j» 

»> 
August 7 

j» 
August 8 

>j 

August 9 

August 10 
August 12 


H. M. 

9 53 
10 33 
15 7 
10 5 
12 14 

9 52 
12 37 

9 52 
12 

9 58 
12 87 

9 53 
12 43 


F K 
F R 
S R 
F K 

S R 
F K 
S R 
F K 
S R 
F K 
S R 
F K 
S R 


■o , 

18 53-7 
56-4 
57-8 
530 

19 1-2 
18 49-6 

58-0 
52-5 
57-7 
52-2 
59-4 
60-7 
57-0 


O f 

18 49-9 
51-1 
53-7 
48-5 
56-9 
45-0 
536 
48-0 
52-1 
44-9 
540 
44-7 
52-0 


f 

3-8 1 4.5 
5-3 J * -^ 

4-5 

4-6 

4-5 

7-3 

60 


-] 

4^} 
4-4} 
5 6) 
5-4. 
5 0. 


1 

+ 0-4 

+ 0-2 
-hO-2 
-M 
H 1-9 
+ 1-0 

+ 0'-4 


Mean 




' 


— 


— 



ON COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS. 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 loith the Instrument used in the 
Falmouth Observatory. Horizontal Force. 







Instrument 








F-C-Z„ 


S'-C-Z 


F-S-Z„-Z 


Date 


Time 


and 
Observation 


H 


Curve 


Curve 


xlO' 


xlO' 


= ^ 




H. M. 
















Aug. 6 


Ill 68 


P V 


— 


0-18572 


— 


— 


— 


+ 0-00003 




12 43 


F D 


0-18545 


0-18569 


0-18571 


-26 








18 24 


F D 


0-18537 


0-18560 


0-1856G 


-29 








11 24 


P V) 
F Df 




C-18578 1 












12 


0-18534 


0-18378 ; 


0-18578 


[-44] 








15 22 


S V 1 
S Df 




0-18594 } 












IB 22 


0-18555 


0-18578 f 


0-18586 


— 


-31 




Aug. 7 


10 44 


F VI 
F D ■ 


0-18519 


0-lHo41 1 


0-18542 


-23 








11 32 




0-18543 1 








6 




12 27 


S VI 
S D ■ 


0-18520 


0-18549 1 


0-18549 




-29 




^ 


13 15 




0-18549 f 










Aug. 8 


11 7 


F V| 


0-1S521 


0-18542 1 


0-18515 


-24 








11 49 


F Df 




0-18548 1 






. 


13 




12 50 


S V 1 
S D 


0-1852S 


U-185U4 1 


0-18565 


— 


-37 




^^ 


13 34 




0-18566 f 










Aug. 9 


10 45 


F VI 
F D ■ 


0-1853G 


0-18558 1 


0-18553 


-17 


1 






11 11 




0-18548 f 








9 




11 44 


S VI 
S D ■ 


0-18529 


0-18555 1 


0-18557 


— 


-28 






12 50 




U-18559 I' 










Aug. 10 


10 55 


F Vl 
F D ■ 


0-184G8 


0-18490 1 


0-18492 


-24 


' 




,, 


11 43 




0-18494 f 






■ 


6 


J, 


12 50 


S VI 
S Df 


0-18487 


0-18514 1 


0-18517 


— 


-30 






13 31 




0-18521 ) 










Aug. 12 


10 53 


F V| 


0-18500 


0-18519 1 


0-18525 


-25 


-30 1 






11 37 


FDf 




0-18530 I 






5 


j_ 


12 50 


S Vl 


0-18520 


0-18548 1 


0-18550 


— 




•• 


13 31 


S Df 




0-18552 j 










Mean . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


+0-00007 



Comparison of Dip Circle No. 94 loith the Instrument in use in the 

Falmouth Observatory. 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 


Dip 


F-S=)3 


August 6 

») 
August 7 

August 9 
»i 
)» 

August 10 

August 12 
>> 






H. M, 

17 32 

18 46 

16 14 

14 38 

15 25 
15 28 

17 35 
17 35 
15 27 
15 24 
15 32 

15 28 

16 17 
16 42 


S 
F 
S 
F 
S 
F 
S 
F 
S 
F 
S 
F 
S 
F 


O ( 

66 58 8 \ 
66 58-0/ 
66 57-1 1 
66 58-6 f 
66 57-81 
66 59-5 1 
66 54-51 

66 56-4/ 

67 0-6 1 
67 1-1 f 

66 59-8 \ 

67 01/ 
fifi 59-0 1 
67 0-6 J 


-0-8 
+ 1-5 
+ 1-7 
+ 1-9 
+ 0-5 
+ 0-3 
+ 1-6 


Mean 


+ 1-0 



The curves used were those obtained from the self-recording instruments 
iu use in the Observatory ; but as the vertical force instrument was not 
working well the dip circles were directly compared with each other, as in 
the first method used at Ivew. Each of the dips given in the above 
table is the niea.n of the two observations, one of which was made with 
each of the two needles employed with the instruments. The individual 



94 



REPORT — 1896. 



observations were in close agreement, and it hardly seems necessary 
to record them, as the value of /3 is itself a test of the accuracy of the 
observations. 

Stonyhurst Observatory. 

Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Instrument in nss in the 
Stonyliurst Observatory. Declination. 



Date 


Time 


Instru- 
ment 


Declination 


Curye 
(C) 


2-C-Zo 

' 

44-8 
44-3 

46-9 

4G-5 

44-3 

46-0 
44-8 

45 8 


S'-C = Z 


2-S=Zo-Z 

= i8 


August 17 

>» 
August 18 

August 10 

)) 
August 20 
August 21 

)» 
August 22 


H. M. 

16 46 

17 35 
9 30 
9 53 
9 30 

10 

17 50 

18 6 
10 
10 29 

9 33 
9 56 

15 48 

16 11 
9 51 

10 8 


b 
2 
2 
S 
2 
S 
2 
S 
2 
S 

s 

2 
2 
S 

2 


o / 

18 36-4 } 
34-2 1 
31-1 y 
35-1 1 
350 \ 

37-1 r 

34-3 
34-8 f 
31-2 i 
34-7 1 
34-2 1 
34-1 f 
.35 81 
37-4 1 
33-9 1 
34-2 


t 

49-4 

49 4 
46-8 
48-0 
48-1 
49-8 
47-8 
48-2 
46-9 
48-0 
47-2 
48-1 
51-0 

50 8 
47-1 
48-4 


t 

47-01 

47-3 j 

46-G 1 

46-7 ) 
47-0 i 

46-g} 
46-8 1 


t 
— 22 
-2-8 
-0-4 
-0-1 
-2-4 
-10 
-1-8 
-1-0 


Mean 




— 


— 


— 


— 


-l'-5 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Instrument in iise in 
tJie Stonyhurst Observatory. Horizontal Force. 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 

and 
Observation 


H 


Curve 


Mean 
Curve 


2'-C=Z„ 


S'-C = Z 


2-S = Z„-Z 




II. M. 














Aug. 10 


9 89 


2 VI 
2 D 
S V\ 

S V 1 
S Dl 


0-17182 


0-(l027G ) 


0-00277 


0-1G905 


0-1G895 , 




»» 


10 57 
12 6 




2-H| 
281 \ 






+ 0-00010 


tt 


12 21 
12 52 


0-17175 


2S4 
278 ■ 
27:'. j 


I -00283 






,^ 


1 22 


s v) 












Aug. 17 


11 


S V) 


0-17193 


284 1 


0-00287 




0-1090C ^ 






11 28 


S D)" 




291 f 






-0-00001 




12 22 


2 V) 


0-17198 


285 1 


0-00293 


0-1G905 






13 58 


2 D) 




:wi , 










Aug. 19 


10 20 


S V 1 


0-171G2 


27U 1 


0-J02G8 




0-1C894 ) 






10 47 


S D) 




2(l(i 1 






+0-00010 




12 22 
14 


2 VI 
2 D) 


0-17190 


279 , 
293 1 


0-00283 


0-1C9J4 


) 




Aug. 20 


10 56 


S V) 
S D) 


0-17171 


2711 


0-00271 




0-1G900] 




„ 


11 19 




272 1 






+0-00003 




12 18 


2 V) 


0-17201 


279) 


0-J0293 


0-1G9J3 




^^ 


14 


2 Dr 




318i 










Aug. 21 


10 53 


2 V) 


0-17I8G 


259 ) 


0-002G3 


0-1C923 


1 




J, 


11 44 


2 Df 




2liS 1 






+0-00017 


J, 


12 14 


S VI 


0-17177 


277 1 
2li5 


C-00271 




0-1G90G ) 






12 42 


S D) 














14 38 


2 Vt 


0-17206 


293) 


0-00300 


0-1G906 


1 






15 21 


2 Df 




308 f 






-0-00009 




IG 28 


S V) 
S Df 


0-17212 


3()0) 


0-00297 




0-16915) 




}i 


IG 51 




294 f 




— 






Me&D 


— 


— 


— 




— 




-0-00005 



ON COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC INSTRUMENTS. 



95 



Comparison hetiveen Dip Circle Dover No. 94 and the Instrument 
in use at the Stonyhurst Observatory. 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 


Dip 


2-S = ;8 


August 18 
August 19 

n 

August 20 
August 22 




H. M. 

16 25 
16 27 
16 1 
16 4 
15 23 
15 22 

11 20 

12 16 


2 
S 
2 
S 
2 
S 

s 

2 


321 
6-1 1 
21 ■ 
4-3 f 
1-2-1 
4-0 / 
G-01 
2-8/ 


-2-9 

-2-2 
-2-8 
-3-2 


Mean . 


— 


— 


— 


-2''8 



In the account of the observations at Stonyhurst the Observatory 
instruments are indicated by the letter 2. The measurements with 
the survey instruments were made by Mr. Watson ; those with the 
Observatory instruments by Mr. Ronchette, who usually makes the regular 
observations. 

The dip observations were not very satisfactory. The needles used 
at the Observatory were not in good agreement, and after some trials it 
was determined to use the needles employed with No. 94 in the experi- 
ments with both instruments. Whereas, therefore, the dip obsei'vations 
elsewhere included any difference between the ' bias ' of the needles 
ordinarily used at the Observatory and of dip circle 94, at Stonyhurst this 
element of error was eliminated, and the comparison was between the dip 
circles only. 

In this as in other cases each dip recorded in the table is the mean of 
the results obtained with the two needles. 



Valentia Observatory (Caherciveen). 

The observations at Caherciveen were made by Mr. Watson, using the 
survey instruments, and by the superintendent, Mr. J. E. CuUum, who 
used the observatory instruments. 

Since there are no self-recording instruments at Caherciveen, the 
observations were made in a slightly different manner from that adopted at 
the other observatories. A tripod was erected at a distance of about 
ten yards from the magnet house, and on the line joining the pillar and 
the fixed mark. Observations were then made simultaneously with one 
instrument in the magnet house and the other on the tripod outside. The 
instruments were then interchanged and the observations repeated. By this 
means it was possible to eliminate the effect of any change in the element and 
any difference between the value at the two positions. In the case of the 
dip observations only one set were performed in the above manner ; the 
rest were taken as at the other observatories. The lens of the vibration 
magnet was found to be loose, as it had not been screwed ' home ' after the 
lens and scale were interchanged when the observatory was moved from 
Valentia to Caherciveen. It was therefore screwed in as far as it would 
go, and the moment of inertia was again determined by Mr. Cullura. 



96 



REPORT — 1896. 



Com2')arison of Magnetoineter No. 70 with the Instrument used in 
the Valentia Observatory (Caherciveen). Declination. 



Date 


Time 


Instrument 


Position of 
Instruooent 


Declina- 
tioa 


V-S 
(S outside) 


V-S 
(V outside) 




H. M. 






O 1 


• 


/ 


August 31 


11 2 


rv 

IS 


M. H. 

outside 


21 55-7 
21 57-9 


-2-2 


— 




11 38 


rv 
s 


M. H. 


21 58-5 


-2 4 







outside 


22 0-9 





. 




12 26 


rv 

IS 


outside 


22 2-6 


. 


±0-0 




M. H. 


22 2-6 





— 




13 16 




outside 


22 3-9 


. 







M. H. 


22 8-8 





+ 01 




13 47 


rv 
■ s 


outside 


22 61 





— 




M. H. 


22 5-3 





+ 0-8 




13 57 


1 V 

IS 


outside 


22 6-3 





, 




M. H. 


22 5-6 





+ 0-7 




15 20 


/v 
' s 


M. H. 


22 1-4 










outside 


22 2-0 


-0-6 







15 31 


/v 
Is 


M. H. 


22 0-3 


. 


— 




outside 


22 1-2 


-09 







15 59 


rv 
■ s 


M. H. 

outside 


21 59-2 
21 69-9 


-0-7 


— 




16 8 


■ s 


M. H. 


21 58-3 


-0-6 







outside 


21 58-9 


— 


— 




16 41 


rv 
■ s 


outside 
M. H. 


21 56-6 
21 66-4 


— 


+ 0-2 




16 53 


rv 


outside 


21 56-0 




+ 01 




M. H. 


21 55-9 


— 


— 


Mean 


— 


— 


— 


-1-2 


+ 0-3 



/3=-0'-4. 



Comparison of Magnetometer No. 70 with the Instrument used in the 
Valentia Observatory (Caherciveen). Horizontal Force. 



Date 


Time 


Instru- 
ment 


Position of 
Instrument 


H. 


1 V-S 
X 10^ 
(S outside) 


V-S 
(V outside) 


. 


H. M. H. M. 












Aug. 30 


17 39 to 18 53 


(V 

is 


outside 
M.H. 


017603 
0-17654 





-51 


Aug. 31 


17 29 to 18 24 


fV 

Is 


outside 
M.H. 


0-17615 

0-17650 


— 


-35 


»» 


18 41 to 18 52 


fV 

Is 


M.H. 

outside 


017600 
0-17670 


-70 


— 


Sept. 1 


15 38 to 16 21 


IS 


M.H. 

outside 


0-17611 
0-17658 


-47 


• — 


)» 


17 14 to 18 29 


fV 
tS 


outside 
M.H. 


0-17619 
0-17650 


— 


-31 


u 


13 21 to 13 31 


fV 

Is 


M.H. 
outside 


0-17602 
0-17641 


-39 


— 


Sept. 2 


11 10 to 12 


(V 
'S 


M.H. 

outside 


0-17600 
0-17623 


-23 


— 


»» 


12 13 to 13 3 


(V 
IS 


outside 
M.H. 


01 7602 
0-17630 


— 


-28 


Mean ....... 


-45 


-36 



(8= -0 00010. 



ON COMrARISON OF MAGNETIC INbTRUMENTS. 



97 



Comparison of Dip Circle No. 94 vnth the Instrument in use in the 
Valentia Observatory (Caherciveen). 



Date 


Time 


Instru- 
ment 


Position of 
Instrument 


Dip 


V-S = J3 


Aug. 28 

tl 

Aug. 29 
Sept. 1 


II. M. 

10 57 

18 53 

(11 43 
(11 37 
(13 29 
1 13 23 
fl2 J5 
112 11 


(V 
■(S 

ll 

V 

s 

V 

s 

V 

s 


M.H. 
outside 
outside 

M.H. 

II 

11 

II 
II 


o r 

68 39-7) 
39-2 f 
42-1) 
38-6 f 
41-9, 
41-0 [ 
41-9 1 
40-7; 
42-5. 
42-5 I 


f 

+ 0-5 
+ 3-5 
+ 0-9 

+ 1-2 
±0-0 


Mean ....... 


+ l'-2 



Sum7nar]/. 

The following is a summary of the results obtained at the different 
observatories : — 





K-S 


F-S 


2-S 


V-S 


Declination 

Horizontal Force 

Dip 


-0'-4 

-0-00011 

-0'-6 


+ 0'-4 
+ 0-00007 
+ l'-0 


-l'-5 
-000005 
-2'- 8 


-0'-4 
-000040 
+ l'-2 



By subtraction we eliminate the instruments used in the comparisons, 
and get the following relations among the instruments of the observatories : 

The three figures refer to declination, horizontal force, and dip— in 
order — the differences of H being expressed in terms of Q-OOOOl C.G.S. 
units. 

The table is to be read from left to right, thus : — 

The declination given by the Kew standard=that given by the 
Falmouth instrument — 0'-8. 





Kev/ j Falmouth 


Stonyhurst j Valentia 


Kew .... 1 


— 


-0'-8 

-18 

-l'-6 


+ 1'-1 
-6 

+ 2'-2 


O'O 
+ 29 
-l'-8 


Falmouth 


+ 0'-8 
+ 18 
+ l'-6 


— 


+ 1'9 
+ 12 

+ 3'-8 


+ 0'8 
+ 47 
-0'-2 


Stonyhurst . . . I 


-I'l 
+ 
— 2'-2 


-l'-9 
-12 

-3'-8 


— 


-I'-l 
+ 35 
-4'0 


Valentia 


O'O 
-29 

+ r-8 


-0'-8 
-47 
+ 0'-2 


+ 1'1 
-35 

+ 4'-0 


— 



1896. 



98 REPORT— 1896. 



Mathematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Kayleigh (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Professor B. Price^ 
Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor 
W. M. Hicks, Professor P. A. MacMahon, Lieut.-Colonel Allai* 
Cunningham, and J^rofessor A. Lodge (Secretary), ajypointed jw 
the imrpose of calcidatiiig Tables of certain Mathematical Functions, 
and, if necessarij, of taking steps to carry out the Calculations, and 
to puhlish the residis in an accessible form. 

The first report of the Committee Avas made in 1889, when they pub- 
lished tables of the Bessel Functions, l„{x), for integral values of n front' 
to 11, from x-=0 to 6-0, at intervals of 0"2. The original intention had 
been to calculate tables of 3„{x) for various values of n, but in 188^ 
extensive tables of 3q{x) and 3J^a:) were published by Dr. Meissel of Kiel, 
and it was therefore considered advisable to work at tables of l„{x), 
which had not previously been calculated, the two classes of functions, 
being connected by the equation — . 

l,{x)=i-^'3,:{ix). 

In 1893 the report of the Committee contained a detailed table of 
Ii(^k) from o:^0 to S'lOO, at intervals of '001, to nine decimal places, of 
which the last figure was approximate. A short table of 3o[x-Ji) was- 
also given, to nine decimal places, from ,);=:0 to 6-0 at intervals of 0*2. 

The present table of I„(.x') is from x-=Q to 5-100, at intervals of -001 ,, 
to nine decimal places, the last figure being approximate, being exactly on 
the lines of the 1893 table of li{x). 

The Committee desire to reconmiend that tables of the Bessel Function.'; 
be published by the Association to six decimal places, with a preface 
giving some of their chief properties. 

The Committee have considered a proposition made at the Ipswich 
meeting last year by Colonel Cunningham, viz. that the British Asso- 
ciation should be asked to undertake the publication of a ' New Canon 
Arithmeticus ' which he had already nearly computed. Colonel Cunning- 
ham undertook to prepare one copy at his own expense, and asked that 
the British Association should pay the expense (about 2.5/.) of preparing^ 
a second copy and of having the two copies compared and checked ; one 
copy to be Colonel Cunningham's property, one copy to be the property 
of the Association ; the British Association to be asked also to pay the- 
whole cost of printing and publication of the work in. a separate 4to. 
volume (which would be of about same size as Jacobi's ' Canon Arith- 
meticus 'j. Colonel Cunningham would undertake to superintend the- 
whole work to completion, and to provide a preface descriptive of the 
tables. 

Tha Committee propose to recominend the Association ultimately to 
undertake the publication of Colonel Cunningham's ' New Canon Arith- 
meticus ' as proposed by the author. They desire to be reappointed with 
a grant of 2-")/. for the purpose of preparing a second copy of Colonel 
Cunningham's table and of comparing and cliecking the two copies. 



ON MATHEMATICAL FL'NCTIOXS. 



09 



x 


lo-i- 


Difl'ereuce 
0,250 




lo' 


Differfnce 

25,258 

25.759 

20,259 

760 

27,260 

761 

28,261 

762 

20,262 

763 


0000 


1-000 000 000 

1-000 000 250 
1-000 001 000 
1-000 002 250 

1-000 004 000 
1-000 006 250 
1-000 009 000 

1-000 012 250 
1-000 016 000 
1-000 020 230 


0050 


1-000 625 098 


0-001 
0-002 
0003 

0-004 
OOOo 
0-006 

0-007 
0-008 
0-009 


750 

1.250 

750 

2,250 

750 

3,250 

750 

4,250 

: 750 

5,250 ~ 

5,750 
6,251 

750 

7,250 

750 

8,250 

750 

9,251 

751 


0-051 
0-052 
0-053 

0054 
0-055 
0-050 

0-057 
0-058 
0050 


1-000 <;50 350 
1-000 676 115 
1-000 702 374 

1-000 729 134 
1-000 73(i 394 
1-000 784 153 

1000 812 416 
1000 841 178 
1-000 870 440 


0010 


1-000 025 000 


0060 

0-067 
0-062 
0-063 

0-064 
0-065 
0-060 

0-067 
0-068 
0-069 


1-000 900 203 


30,264 


0011 
0-012 
0013 

0-014 
0-015 
0-016 

0-017 
0-018 
0-019 


1-000 030 250 
1-000 030 000 
1-000 042 251 

1-000 049 001 
1000 030 251 
1-000 064 001 

1-000 072 251 
1-000 081 001 
1-000 090 252 


1-000 930 407 
1-000 901 231 

1000 992 495 

1-001 024 261 

1001 050 529 
1-001 089 290 

1-001 122 563 
1-001 150 335 
1-001 190 604 


30,764 

31,264 

760 

32,208 1 
707 1 
33,260 

770 

34.200 

771 


0-020 


1-000 100 003 


10,251 

10,751 

11,250 

751 

12,251 

751 

13,251 

751 

14,251 

752 


0-070 


1-001 225 375 


35,273 


0-021 
0-022 
0-023 

0-024 
0-025 
0-026 

0-027 
0028 
0029 


1-000 110 254 
1000 121 005 
1000 132 255 

1-000 144 006 
i-000 130 257 
1-000 169 008 

1-000 182 250 
1-000 106 010 
1-000 210 261 


0071 

0-072 
0073 

0-074 
0-075 
0076 

0-077 
0-078 
0-079 


1001 260 648 
1-001 290 420 
1-001 332 694 

1-001 309 469 
1-COl 406 745 
1-001 444 522 

1-001 482 799 
1001 .521 578 
1-001 560 859 


35,772 

30,274 

775 

37,270 
777 

38,277 
770 

30,281 
781 


0-030 


1-000 225 013 


15,252 

15,752 

10,252 

752 

17,253 

753 

, 18,253 

753 

10.253 

754 

20,254 

20,751 

21,255 

735 

22.250 

756 

23256 

757 

24,257 

75S 


0-080 


1-001 600 040 


40,283 1 


031 
0032 
0-033 

0-034 
0-035 . 
0-036 

0-037 
0038 
0-039 


1-000 240 265 
1-000 256 017 
1-000 272 260 

1-000 289 021 
1-000 300 274 
1-000 324 027 

1-000 342 280 
1000 361 033 
1-000 380 286 


0-081 
0-082 
0-083 

0-084 
0085 
0-OSG 

0087 
0-088 
0-089 

0-090 

0091 
0-092 
0093 

0-094 

0-095 

' 0-096 

: 0-097 
0-098 
0-099 


1-001 040 023 
1-001 6S1 707 
1-001 722 992 

1-001 764 778 
1-001 807 006 
1-001 840 855 

1001 893 140 
1-001 930 937 
1001 981 231 


40,784 
41,285 

786 

42,288 

789 

43,201 

791 

44,294 

794 


0-040 


1000 400 040 


1-O02 020 025 


45,297 


0-041 
0042 
0-043 

0-044 
0-045 
0-046 

0047 
0-048 
0-049 


1-000 420 294 
l-OOO 441 048 
1-000 462 303 

1-000 484 058 
1-000 506 314 
1-000 520 070 

1000 552 326 
1000 570 083 
1-000 600 340 


1002 071 322 
1002 117 120 
1-002 103 419 

1002 210 220 
1-002 257 523 
1-002 305 328 

1002 353 034 
1-002 402 412 
1-002 451 751 


45,798 
46,200 

801 ■' 

47,303 

805 

48,306 

808 
49,300 ■ 

812 


0-050 


1-000 625 098 


25,258 


0100 


1-002 501 503 


50,313 1 



H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1896, 



0100 



0-101 
0102 
0-103 

0-104 
0105 
0106 

0-107 
0-lOS 
0109 



0110 



0111 
0-112 

Oil:! 

0114 
0115 
0116 

0-117 
0-llK 
0110 



0-120 



0-121 
0-122 
0-123 

0-124 
0125 
0-126 

0127 
0128 
0129 



0-130 



0-131 
0-132 
0133 

0-134 
0-135 
0136 

0137 
0-138 
0139 



0140 



0-141 
0-142 
0-143 

0-144 
0-145 
0-146 

0-147 
0-148 
0-149 



1002 501 563 

1-002 551 876 
1002 602 692 
1002 054 009 



1002 
1-002 
1-002 



705 829 
758 150 
810 973 

1-002 864 298 
1-002 918 126 
1-002 972 456 



Difference 



1-003 027 28 



0150 



1-003 082 623 

1-003 138 459 

1-003 194 799 

1-003 251 641 

1-003 308 984 

1-003 366 831 

1-003 425 180 

1-003 4S4 031 
1-003 543 385 



1-003 603 241 



1-003 663 601 
1-003 724 463 
1-003 785 828 

1-003 847 696 
1-003 910 066 
1-003 972 940 

1004 030 317 
1-001 100 197 
1004 164 579 



1-004 229 465 



1-004 294 854 
1-004 :'.60 747 
1-004 427 141 

1-004 494 040 
1-004 561 442 
1-001 6'.>9 348 

1-004 697 757 
1-004 766 671 
1-004 830 086 



1-004 906 006 



1 004 970 430 

1-005 017 357 

1-005 lis 788 

1-005 190 722 

l-OOr, 263 161 

1-005 336 103 

1-00.-, 409 551 

1-005 483 501 

1-005 557 956 



1-005 632 915 



50,313 



50,816 

51,317 

820 

52,321 

823 

53,325 

828 

51,330 

832 



55,335 



55,836 

56.340 

842 

57,343 

847 

58,349 

851 

59.354 

856 



60,360 



60,862 
61,365 

868 

62.370 

874 
63,377 

880 
64.382 

886 



65,389 



65,893 

66,394 

899 

67,402 

906 

68,409 

914 

69,415 

920 



70,424 



70,927 

71,431 

934 

72,439 

942 

73,448 

950 

74,455 
959 



5,463 



0-150 



0-151 
0-152 
0-153 

0-154 
0-155 
0-156 

0-157 
0158 
0-159 



0160 



0-161 
0-102 
0-163 

0-164 
0-165 
0-166 

0-167 
0-168 
0-169 



0-170 



0171 

0-172 
0173 

0-174 
0175 
0-176 

0-177 
0-178 
0-179 



180 



0181 
0-182 
0183 

0-184 
0-185 
0186 

0-187 
0-188 
0-189 



lo-r 



1-005 632 915 



0-190 



0-191 
0-192 
0-193 

0-194 
0-195 
0-196 

0-197 
0-198 
0-199 



1-005 708 378 
1-005 784 347 
1-005 800 818 

1-005 937 794 
1006 015 275 
1-000 093 259 

1006 171 750 
1,000 250 745 
1-000 330 243 



Dift'erence 



1-006 410 217 



1-006 490 757 
1-006 571 770 
1-000 653 288 

1-006 735 312 
1-000 817 840 
1-006 900 874 
1-006 984 412 
1-007 068 457 
1-007 153 006 



1-007 238 061 



1-007 323 621 

1-007 409 686 

1-007 496 258 

1-007 583 334 

1-007 670 917 

1-007 759 006 

1-007 847 599 

1-007 930 699 

1-008 026 306 



0-200 



1-008 116 417 



1-008 207 035 
1-008 298 100 
1-008 389 790 

1-008 481 928 
1-008 571 570 
1-008 667 720 

1-008 701 375 
1008 855 .538 
1-008 950 207 



1-009 045 383 



1-009 141 006 

1-009 237 250 

1-009 333 953 

1-009 431 156 

1-009 528 866 

1-009 627 084 

1-009 725 808 

1-009 825 041 

1-009 924 780 



1-010 025 028 



75,463 



75,969 

76,471 

97(! 

77.481 

984 

78,491 

995 

79.498 
80,004 



80,510 



81,013 

518 

82,024 

528 

83.034 

538 

84,045 

549 

85.055 



85,560 

86,065 
572 

87,070 

583 

88,089 

593 

89.100 

607 

90,111 



90.018 

91,125 

030 

92,138 

642 

93.150 

655 

94.163 

669 

95.176 



95,683 



90.190 

697 

97,203 

710 

98.218 

724 

99,233 

739 

100.24S 



100,755 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



101 



•r 


10 10 025 028 


Dlfferecce 

100,755 

101,262 

770 

102.277 

785 
103.294 

802 

101,309 

817 j 
105,326 i 

105,834 i 


X I^A• j 


Difference 


0-200 


0-250 1015 686 141 


126,235 


0-201 
0-202 1 
0-203 

0-204 
0-205 
0-206 : 

0-207 
0-208 
0-209 


1-010 125 783 
10 10 227 045 
1 010 328 815 

1-010 431 092 
1-010 533 877 
1-010 637 171 i 

1-010 740 973 1 
1-010 845 282 
1-010 950 099 


0-251 
0-2o2 
0-253 

0-254 
0-255 
0-256 

0-257 
0-258 
0-259 


1015 812 376 
1-015 939 123 
1-016 066 382 

1-016 194 153 
1-016 322 436 
1-010 451 231 

1-016 580 539 
1-016 710 359 
1-016 840 092 


126.747 

127,259 

771 

128,283 

795 

129,308 

820 
130,333 

815 


0-210 


1011 055 425 1 


0-260 


1016 971 537 


131,358 


0-211 
0-212 
0-213 

0-214 
0-215 
0216 

0-217 
0-218 
0-219 


1-01 1 161 259 
l-Oll 267 601 
1-011 374 452 

1-011 4S1 812 
1-011 5.S9 679 
1-011 698 057 

1-011 806 942 
1-011 916 336 
1-012 026 239 


106,342 

851 1 
107,360 

867 

108,378 

885 

109,394 

903 

110,413 


0-261 
0-262 
0-263 

0-264 
0-26) 
0-266 

0-267 
0-268 
0-269 


1-017 102 895 
1-017 234 766 
1-017 367 150 

1-017 500 046 
1017 6:!3 456 
1-017 767 379 

1-017 901 816 
1-018 036 765 
1-018 172 229 


131,871 

132,384 

896 

133,410 

923 

134,437 

949 

135,464 

977 


0-220 


1-012 136 652 


110,922 


0-270 


1-018 308 206 


136,491 


0-221 
0-222 
0-223 

0-224 
0-225 
0-226 

0-227 
0-228 
0-229 


1012 247 574 
1-012 359 003 
1-012 470 943 

1012 583 393 
1-012 696 352 
1-012 809 819 

1012 923 797 
1-013 038 285 
1-013 153 282 


111,429 

910 
112,450 

959 

113,467 

978 

114,488 

997 

115,507 


0-271 
0-272 
0-273 

0-274 
0-275 
0276 

0-277 
0-278 
0-279 


1018 444 697 
1-018 581 702 
1-018 719 220 

1-018 857 253 
1-018 995 800 
1-019 134 861 

1019 274 436 
1 019 414 .526 
1-019 555 130 


137,005 

518 

138,033 

547 

139,061 

575 

140,090 

604 

141,119 


0-230 


1-013 268 789 


116,018 


0280 


1-019 696 249 141,635 


0-231 
0-232 
0-233 

0-234 
0-235 
0-236 

0-237 
0-238 
0-239 


1-013 384 807 
1-013 501 334 
1-013 618 371 

1-013 735 919 
1-013 853 976 
1-013 972 545 

1-014 091 623 

1-014 211 212 

1 1-014 331 312 


116,527 

117,037 
518 

118,057 

569 

119,078 

589 

120,100 

611 


0-281 

0-282 
0-283 

0-284 
0-285 
0-286 

0-287 
0-288 
0-289 


1-019 837 884 
1-019 980 032 
1020 122 696 

1-020 265 875 
1-020 409 569 
1-020 553 778 

1-020 698 503 
1-020 843 744 
1-020 989 500 


142.148 

664 

143,179 

694 

144.209 

725 

145,241 

756 

146,271 


0-240 1-014 451 923 


121,122 


0-290 


1-021 135 771 1 146,788 


0-241 
0-242 
0-243 

0-244 
0-245 
0-246 

0-247 
0-248 
0-249 


1-014 573 045 
1-014 694 677 
1-014 816 821 

1014 939 475 
1-015 062 641 
1-015 186 318 

1-015 310 507 
1-015 435 207 
1-015 560 418 


121,632 

122,144 

654 

123,166 

677 

124,189 

700 

125,211 

723 


0-291 
0-292 
0293 

0-294 
0-295 
0-296 

0-297 
0-298 
0-299 


1-021 282 559 

1021 429 863 
1-021 577 683 

1-021 726 017 
1-021 874 870 
1-022 024 238 

1-022 174 124 

1022 324 526 
1-022 475 445 


147,304 

820 

148,334 

853 
149,368 

886 

150,402 

919 

151,434 


0-250 


1-015 686 141 


126,235 


0-300 


j 1-022 626 879 


j 151,952 



102 



REPORT — 1S9G. 



.r 


h^- 


Difference 


! -'' 


V 

1-030 860 272 


Diflercnce 


0-300 

~"0-301~ 
0-302 
0-303 

0-304 
0-305 
0-306 

0-307 
0-308 
0-301) 


1-022 626 879 


151,952 


] 0-350 


177,956 


1-022 778 831 

1022 931 302 

1023 084 288 

1023 237 792 
I 023 391 813 
1-023 546 V,:>2 

1023 701 409 
1-023 856 984 

1024 013 075 


152,471 

986 

153,504 

154.021 

539 

155,057 

575 

156,091 

611 


0-351 

0-352 

i 0-353 

i 0-354 

0-355 

j 0-356 

i 357 

0-359 

0-360 

0-3(il 
0-362 
0-363 

0-364 
0-365 
0-36(; 

0-367 
0-368 
0-3(19 

0-370 

0-371 
0-372 
0-373 

374 
0-375 
0-376 

0-377 
()-37s 
0379 

0-380 

0-381 
0-3S2 
0-3S3 

0-384 
0-3S5 
0-386 

0-387 
0-388 
0-389 


1-031 038 228 
1031 216 706 
1031 395 707 

1-031 575 232 

1031 755 281 
1-031 935 854 

1-032 116 951 
1-032 298 572 

1032 480 717 

1-032 663 387 


178,478 

179,001 

525 

180,049 

573 

181,097 

621 

182,145 
670 


0-310 


1-024 169 686 | 157,129 


183,193 


0-311 
0-312 
0-313 

0-314 
0-315 
0-316 

0-317 
0-318 
0-319 


1024 326 815 
1024 484 461 
1024 642 626 

1-024 801 310 

1024 960 512 

1025 120 233 

1-025 280 474 
1025 441 232 
1-025 602 510 


157,646 

158,165 

684 

159,202 

721 

160,241 

758 

161,278 

797 


1-032 846 580 
1-033 030 300 
1-033 214 544 

1-033 399 311 
1033 584 605 
1-033 770 424 

1033 956 76!) 
1-034 143 638 
1-034 331 032 


183,720 

184,244 

767 

185,294 

819 

186,345 

869 

187,394 

922 

188,447 

188,972 
189,500 
190,025 

552 

191,079 

606 

192,132 

658 

193,187 


0-320 

0-321 
0-322 
0-323 

0-324 
0-325 
0-32G 

0-327 
0-328 
0-329 


1025 764 307 

1-025 926 623 
1-026 089 451) 
1-026 252 815 

1026 416 690 

1026 581 085 
1-026 746 000 

1-026 911 435 

1027 077 390 
1-027 243 865 


162,316 


1-034 518 954 


162,836 
163,356 

875 

1G!,395 

915 

165,435 

955 

166,475 

997 

167,517 


1-034 707 401 
1-034 896 373 
1-035 085 873 

1-035 275 898 
1035 466 450 
1-035 657 529 

1-035 849 135 
1-036 041 267 
1-036 233 925 


0-330 

0-331 
0-332 
0-333 

0-334 
0-335 
0-336 

0-337 
0-338 
0-339 


1-027 410 862 


1-036 427 112 


193,714 

194,241 

769 

195,298 

824 
196,353 

881 

197,409 

938 

198,467 


1027 578 379 
1-027 746 415 
1-027 914 974 

1-028 084 053 
1-028 253 653 
1-028 423 774 

1-028 594 417 
1-028 765 581 
1-028 937 267 


168,036 

559 

169,079 

600 

170,121 

643 

171, 164 

H86 

172,207 


1-036 620 826 
1-036 815 067 
1037 009 836 

1-037 205 134 
1-037 400 958 

1037 597 311 

1-037 794 192 
1-037 991 601 

1038 189 539 


0-340 


1-029 109 474 


172,730 


0-390 

0-391 
392 
393 

0-394 
0-395 
0-396 

0-397 
0-398 
0-399 


1-038 388 006 


198,996 


0-341 
0-342 
0-343 

0-344 
0-345 
0-346 

0-347 
0348 
0-349 


1-029 282 204 
1029 455 456 
1-029 629 229 

1-029 803 524 

1029 978 341 

1030 153 683 

1-030 329 546 
1030 505 931 
1030 682 840 


173,252 

773 

174,295 

817 

175,342 

863 

176,385 

909 

177,432 


1-038 587 002 
1-038 786 526 
1-038 986 579 

1-039 187 162 
1-039 388 275 
1-039 589 917 

1-039 792 088 
1-039 994 789 
1-040 198 021 


199,524 

200,053 

583 

201,113 

642 

202,171 

701 

203,232 

761 


0-350 


1-030 860 272 


177,956 


0-400 


1-040 401 782 


204,292 



ON MATHEMATICAL FCNCTION^S. 



103 



X 


IqX 


Difference 


X 


V 


Difference 


0-400 


1-040 401 782 


204,292 

204,823 
205,352 

884 1 


0-450 


1-051 269 338 


231,013 


0-401 
0-402 
0-403 


1-040 
1-040 
1041 


606 074 
810 897 
010 249 


0451 
0-452 
0-453 


1-051 500 351 
1-051 731 903 
1-051 903 993 


231,552 

232,090 

629 


0-404 
0-405 
0-406 


1-041 
1-041 
1041 


222 133 
4^8 548 
635 494 


206,415 : 
946 1 
207,477 


0-454 
0-455 
0-456 


1-052 190 022 
1-052 429 791 
1-1152 063 499 


233,169 

708 

234,247 


0-407 
0-408 
0-409 


1-041 
1-042 
1-042 


842 971 
050 980 
259 520 


208,009 

540 1 
209,072 


0-457 
0-458 
0-459 


1-052 897 746 
1053 132 534 
1-053 367 861 


788 
235.327 

867 


0-410 


1-042 


468 592 


209,604 1 


0-460 


1-053 603 728 


236,408 


0-411 
0-412 
0-413 


1042 678 196 
1-042 888 332 
1-043 099 000 


210,130 

668 ; 
211,200 


0-401 
0-402 
0-463 


1-053 840 136 
1-054 077 084 
1-054 314 572 


236,948 

237,488 
238,030 


0-414 
0-415 
0-416 


1-043 
1043 
1043 


310 200 
521 933 
734 199 


733 
212,266 

798 


0-404 
0-4(;5 
0-400 


1054 552 602 
1-054 791 172 
1-055 030 284 


570 

239,112 

653 


0-417 
0-418 
0-419 


1-043 
1-044 
1044 


94G 997 
160 329 
374 194 


213,332 

865 

214,397 

214,932 


O-407 
0-408 
0-409 


1-055 269 937 
1-055 510 131 
1-055 750 807 


240,194 

736 

241,278 


0-420 


1-044 


588 591 


0-470 


1-055 992 145 


241,820 


0-421 
0-422 
0-423 


1044 803 523 
1-045 018 988 

1045 234 987 


215,465 

999 

216,533 


0-471 
0-472 
0-473 


1-056 233 905 
1-05C 476 327 
1-050 719 232 


242,362 

905 

243,447 


0-424 
0-425 
0-426 


1-045 
1-045 
1-045 


451 520 
668 587 
886 188 


217,067 

601 

218,136 


0-474 
0-475 
0-470 


1-050 902 679 
1-057 206 009 
1-057 451 202 


990 
244,533 
245,076 


0-427 
0-428 
0-429 


1-04G 
1-046 
1-046 


104 324 
322 994 
542 199 


670 

219,205 

740 


0-477 
0-478 
0-479 

"o-480 

0-481 

0-482 
0-483 


1-057 696 278 
1-057 941 898 
1-058 188 061 


620 

246,163 

707 


. 0-430 


1-046 


761 939 


220,275 

220,811 
221,346 

881 


1-058 434 768 

1-058 682 018 

1058 929 813 

1059 178 152 


247,250 


0-431 
0-432 
0-433 


1-046 
1-047 
1-047 


982 214 
203 025 
424 371 


247,795 
248,339 

884 


0-434 
0-435 
0436 


1-047 
1-047 
1-048 


646 252 
868 670 
091 623 


222,418 

953 

223,490 


0-484 
0-485 
0-486 


1-059 427 030 
1-059 076 464 
1-059 920 437 


249,428 

973 

250,518 


0-437 
0-438 
0-439 


1-048 
1-048 
1-043 


315 113 
539 138 
763 700 


224,025 

562 

225,099 


0-487 

0-488 

; 0-489 


1060 170 955 
l-OOO 428 018 
1-000 679 626 


251,063 

008 

252,154 


0-440 


1-048 


988 799 


225,636 


; 0-490 


1-000 931 780 


252,700 


0-441 
0-442 
0-443 


1-049 
1-049 
1-049 


214 435 
440 607 
667 317 


226,172 

710 

227,247 


0-491 

0-492 

; 0-493 


1-001 184 480 
1-001 437 720 
1001 091 518 


253,246 

792 

254,339 


0-444 
0-445 
0-446 


1-040 
1-050 
1-050 


894 564 
122 349 
350 671 


785 

228,322 

860 


0-494 

0-495 

1 0-490 


1-001 945 857 
1-062 200 741 
1-002 450 173 


884 

255,432 

979 


0-447 

0-448 
0-449 


1-050 
1050 
1061 


579 531 

808 929 
038 865 


229,398 

936 

230,473 


1 0-497 

0-498 

; 0-499 


1-002 712 152 
1002 968 077 
1-003 225 750 


256,525 

257,073 

621 


0-450 


1-051 


269 338 


231,013 


0-500 


1-003 483 371 


258,169 



104 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lo^ 


Difterence 


.1" 


lo^- 


1 
Difference 


0-500 

0-501 
0-502 
0-503 

504 
0-505 
0-506 

0-507 
0-508 
0-509 


1-063 483 371 


258,169 


0-550 


1-077 066 856 


285,810 

286,367 
926 

287,484 

288,044 

608 

289,161 

721 

290,281 

840 


1-063 741 540 
1-064 000 256 
1-064 259 520 

1-064 519 332 
1-064 779 693 
1-065 040 602 

1-065 302 061 
1-065 564 068 
1-065 826 625 


258,7! 6 

259.264 

812 

260.361 

909 

261,459 

262.007 

557 

263,106 


0-551 
0-552 
0-553 

5.54 
0-555 
0-556 

0-557 
0-558 
0-559 


1-077 352 666 
1-077 639 033 
1-077 925 959 

1-078 213 443 
1-078 501 487 
1-078 790 089 

1-079 079 250 
1-079 368 971 
1-079 659 252 


0-510 


1-066 089 731 


263,657 


0-560 


1-079 950 092 


291,400 


0-511 
0-512 
0-513 

0-514 
0-515 
0-516 

0-517 
0-518 
0-519 


1-066 353 388 
1-066 617 693 
1-066 882 349 

1-067 147 655 
1-067 413 511 
1-067 679 918 

1-067 946 876 
1-068 214 386 
1-068 482 446 


264,205 

756 

265,306 

856 

266,407 

958 

267,510 
268,060 ■ 
611 

269,164 

269,715 

270,267 

820 

271,373 

925 

272,476 

273,031 

584 

274,138 

274,691 


0-561 
0-562 
0-563 

0-564 
565 
0-566 

0-567 
0-568 
0-569 


1-080 241 492 
1-080 533 454 
1-080 825 974 

1-081 119 056 
1-081 412 699 
1-081 706 903 

1-082 001 669 
1-082 296 997 
1-082 592 886 


291,962 
292,520 
293,082 

613 

294.204 

766 

295,328 

889 

296,451 


0-520 


1-068 751 057 


0-570 


1-082 889 337 


297,013 


0-521 
0-522 
0-523 

0-524 
0-525 
0-526 

0-527 
0-528 
0-529 


1-069 020 221 
1-069 289 936 
1-069 560 203 

1-069 831 023 
1-070 102 396 
1-070 374 321 

1-070 646 797 
1-070 919 828 
1-071 193 412 


0571 
0-572 
0-573 

0-574 
0-575 
0-576 

0-577 
0-578 
0-579 


1-083 186 350 
1-083 483 926 
1-083 782 065 

1-084 080 767 
1-084 380 032 
1-084 679 860 

1-084 980 252 
1-085 281 207 
1-085 582 728 


297,576 

298.139 

702 

299,265 

828 
300,392 

955 
301,521 
302,085 


0-530 


1071 467 550 


0-580 


1-085 884 813 


302,649 


0-531 
0-532 
0-533 

0-534 
0-535 
0-536 

0-537 
0-538 
0-539 


1-071 742 241 
1-072 017 487 
1-072 293 286 

1-072 569 639 
1-072 846 548 
1-073 124 010 

1-073 402 028 
1-073 680 602 
1 073 959 730 


275,246 

799 

276,353 

909 
277.462 

278,018 

574 

279.128 

683 


0-581 
0-582 
0-583 

0-584 
0-585 
0-586 

0-587 
0-588 
0-589 


1-086 187 462 
1-086 490 675 
1-086 794 454 

1-087 098 799 
1-087 403 708 
1-087 709 183 

1-088 015 224 
1-088 321 831 
1-088 629 005 


303,213 

779 

304,345 

909 
305.475 
3U6.041 

607 

307,174 

740 


0-540 


1074 239 413 


280,240 


0-590 


1-088 936 745 


308,308 


0-541 
0-542 
0-543 

0-544 
0-545 
0-546 

0-547 
0-548 
0-549 


1 074 519 653 
1 074 800 449 
1-075 081 801 

1-075 363 710 
1-075 646 175 
1-075 929 196 

1-076 212 775 
1-076 496 912 
1-076 781 605 


280,796 

281.352 

909 

282,465 

283.021 

579 

284,137 

()93 

285,251 

285,810 


0-591 
0-592 
0-593 

0-594 
0-595 
0-596 

0-597 
0-598 
0-599 


1-089 245 053 
1-089 553 926 
1-089 863 368 

1-090 173 377 
1-090 483 955 
1-090 795 099 

1-091 106 813 
1-091 419 094 
1-091 731 945 


308,873 
309,442 
310,009 

578 

311,144 

714 

312,281 

851 

31.V19 


0-550 


1-077 066 856 


0-600 


1-092 045 364 

1 


313,989 



ON MAl'HEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



105 



X 


Jor 


Ditterence 


a- 


lo^- 


Difference 


0-600 


1-092 045 364 


313,989 


0-650 


1-108 447 111 


342,760 


0-601 
0-602 
0-603 

604 
0-605 
0-606 

0-607 
0-608 
0-609 


1092 359 353 
1-092 673 911 
1-092 989 038 

1-093 304 737 
1-093 621 004 
1-093 937 843 

1094 255 251 
1094 573 231 
1-094 891 782 


314,558 
315,127 ! 
699 S 

316,267 ; 
839 i 
317,408 

980 
318,551 : 
319,122 


0-651 
0-652 
653 

0-654 
0-655 
0-656 

657 
0-658 
0-659 


1108 789 871 
1-109 133 213 
1-109 477 136 

1-109 821 642 
1-110 166 731 
1-110 512 403 

1-110 858 657 
1-111 205 495 
1-111 552 916 


343,342 

923 

344,506 

345,089 '' 

672 
346,254 

838 
347,421 
348,006 


0-610 


1-095 210 904 


319,694 


0-660 


1-111 900 922 


348,590 

349,174 

759 

350,343 

930 
351,514 
352,100 

687 

353,272 

860 


0-611 
0-612 
0-613 

0-614 
0-615 
0-616 

0-617 
0-618 
0-619 


1095 530 598 
1-095 850 864 
1-096 171 702 

1096 493 112 
1-096 815 094 

1097 137 650 

1-097 460 778 
1-097 784 480 
1-098 108 755 


320,266 

838 
321,410 

982 
322,5.-)6 
323,128 

702 

324,275 

849 


0-661 
0-662 
663 

0-664 
0-665 
0-666 

0-667 
668 
669 


1-112 249 512 
1-112 598 686 
1-112 948 445 

1-113 298 788 
1-113 649 718 
1-114 001 232 

1-114 353 332 
1-114 706 019 
1-115 059 291 


0-620 


1098 433 604 


325,423 

325,997 
326,573 
327,146 

721 

328,297 

873 

329,448 

330,024 

600 


0-670 


1-115 413 151 


354,446 

355,033 

620 

856,210 

795 

357,384 

972 

358,562 

359,151 

739 


0621 
0-622 
0-623 

0-624 
•0-625 
0-626 

0-627 
0-628 
0-629 


1-098 759 027 
1099 085 024 

1099 411 597 

1-099 738 743 

1100 066 464 
1100 394 761 

1-100 723 634 
1-101 053 082 
1-101 383 106 


0-671 
0-672 
0-673 

0-674 
0-675 
0-676 

0-677 
0-678 
0-679 


1-115 767 597 
1-116 122 630 
1-116 478 250 

1-116 834 460 
1-117 191 255 
1-117 548 639 

1117 906 611 
1-118 265 173 
1-118 624 324 


0-630 


1-101 713 706 


331,176 


0-680 


1118 984 063 


360,329 


0-631 
0-632 
0-633 

0-634 
0-635 
0636 

0-637 
0-638 
0-639 


1102 044 882 
1-102 376 636 
1102 708 967 

1-103 041 875 
1-103 375 360 
1-103 709 423 

1-104 044 064 
1-104 379 284 
1-104 715 081 


331,754 
332,331 

908 
333,485 
334,063 

641 

335,220 

797 
336,377 


681 
0-682 
0-683 

0-684 
0-685 
0-686 

0-687 
0-688 
0-689 


1-119 344 392 
1-119 705 311 
1-120 066 820 

1-120 428 920 
1-120 791 609 
1121 154 890 

1-121 518 762 
1-121 883 225 
1-122 248 281 


360,919 
361,509 
362,100 

689 
363,281 

872 

364,463 

365,056 

646 


0640 


1-105 051 458 


336,955 


0-690 


1-122 613 927 


366,239 


0-641 
0-642 
0-643 

0-644 
645 
646 

0647 
0-648 
0-649 


1-105 388 413 
1-105 725 948 
1-106 064 062 

1-106 402 757 
1-106 742 030 
1-107 081 886 

1-107 422 320 
1-107 763 335 
1-108 104 933 


337,535 

338,114 

695 

339,273 

856 

340,434 

341,015 

598 

342,178 

342,760 


0-691 
0-692 
693 

0-694 
0-695 
0-696 

0697 
0-698 
0699 


1-122 980 166 
1-123 346 998 
1-123 714 424 

1-124 082 441 
1124 451 053 
1-124 820 257 

1-125 190 056 
1-125 560 449 
1-125 931 436 


366,832 
367,426 
308,017 

612 

369,204 

799 

370,393 

987 

371,582 


0-650 


1-108 447 111 


0-700 


1-126 303 018 372,178 



1015 



REPORT 1896. 



X 


I„i- 


Difference 


X 


Jo'^ 


Difference 


0-700 


1-126 303 018 


372,178 0-750 


1 1-145 646 778 


402,298 


0-701 
0-702 
0-703 

0-704 
0-705 
0-706 

0-707 
0-708 
0-709 


1-126 675 196 
1-127 047 969 
1-127 421 336 

1127 795 300 
1-I2.S 1G9 860 
1-12S 545 017 

1-128 920 771 
1-129 297 121 
1-129 674 070 


372,773 

373,367 

964 

37-1,560 
375,157 

1 754 

376,350 

949 

377,544 

i 378,144 


1! 0-751 

0-752 

ij 0-753 

'! 0-754 
0-755 
0-756 

': 0-757 
li 0758 
1! 0-759 


1-146 049 076 
1-146 451 983 
1-146 855 500 

1-147 259 628 
1-147 664 367 
1-148 069 717 

1-148 475 679 
1-148 882 253 
1-149 289 439 


402,907 
403,517 
404,128 

739 

405,350 

962 

406,574 

407,186 

797 


0-710 


1-130 051 614 


1 0-760 


1-149 697 236 . 


408,411 


0-711 
0-712 
0-713 

0-714 
0-715 
0-716 

0-717 
0-718 
0-719 


1-J30 429 758 
1-130 80S 499 
1-131 187 839 

1-131 567 778 
1-131 948 315 
11 32 329 452 

1132 711 188' 
1-133 093 525' 
1-133 476 idi 


1 378,741 

379,340 

939 

380,537 

381,137 

736 

382,337 

937 

383,537 

" 384,136' 


• 0-761 
762 
0-763 

0-764 
0-765 
0-766 

0-767 
j 0-768 
i 0-769 


1-150 105 647 
1-150 514 (570 
1-150 924 308 

1-151 334 559 
1-151 745 424 
1-152 156 903 

1-152 568 997 
1-152 981 704 
1-163 395 028 


1 409,023 

638 

410,251 

1 865 
411,479 
412,094 

707 

413,324 

939 


0-720 

0-721 

0-722 
0-723 

0-724 
0-725 
0-726 

0-727 
0-728 
0-729 


1-133 859 999j 

1134 244 135i 
1-134 628 875 

1135 014 215 

1-135 400 157i 
1135 786 701 
1-136 173 847' 

1-136 561 595 
1-136 949 946 
1-137 338 900 


1 0-770 


1-153 808 967 


414,555 


384,740 

385,340 

942 

386,544 

387,146 

748 

388,351 

954 

389,558 


! 0-771 

! 0-772 

0-7; 3 

0-774 
0-775 
0-770 

0-777 
0-778 
0-779 

0-780 j 


1-154 223 622 
1-154 638 692 
1155 054 481 

1-155 470 884 
1-155 887 906 
1-156 305 645 

1-156 723 802 
1-157 142 676 
1-157 562 169 


415,170 

789 

416,403 

417,022 

639 

418,257 

874 
419,493 
420,111 


0-730 


1-137 728 458 


390,162 


1-157 982 280 


420,730 


0-731 

0-732 
0-733 

0-734 
0-735 
0-736 

0-737 
0-738 
0-739 


1-138 118 620' 
1138 509 385 
1138 900 755 

1-139 292 728 
1-139 685 308 
1-140 078 492 ! 

1140 472 282 ! 
1-140 866 677 i 
1-141 261 678 1 


390,765 

391,370 

973 

392,580 

393,184 

790 

304,395 

395.001 

608 


0-781 
0-782 
0-783 

0-784 
0-785 
0-786 

0-787 
0-788 
0-7S9 


1-158 403 010 
1-158 824 361 
1-159 246 330 

1-159 668 920 
1-160 092 129 1 
1-160 515 959 

1160 940 411 
1-161 365 482 
1-161 791 176 


421,351 

969 

422,590 

423,209 

830 

424,452 

425,071 

694 

426,316 


0-740 


1-141 657 280 


396,215 


0-790 


1-162 217 492 


426,938 

427,560 

428,183 

807 

429,430 

430,054 

678 

431,301 

928 

432,552 


0-741 
0-742 
0-713 

0-744 
0-745 
0-746 

0-747 
0-748 
0-749 


1-142 053 601 
1-142 450 322 
1-142 847 751 

1-143 245 787 
1-143 644 430 
1-141 043 682 

1-144 443 543 
1-144 844 013 1 
1-145 245 09l| 


396,821 
397,429 
398,030 i 

643 

399,252 
861 

400,470 

401,078 

687 

1 


0-791 
0-792 
0-793 

0-794 
0-795 
0-790 

0-797 
0-798 
0-799 


1-162 644 430 
1-163 071 990 
1-163 500 173 

1-163 928 980 
1164 358 410 
1164 788 464 

1-165 219 142 
1-165 050 443 
1-166 082 371 


0-750 


1-145 646 778 


402,298 


0-800 


1-166 514 923 


433,178 



ON MATHEMATICAL FLNCTlUNS. 



107 



X lor 


Difference 
433,178 


'• .T 


lu^ 


Differ* nee 


0-800 


1166 514 023 


\ 0-850 

. 0-851 

0-852 

i 0-853 

0-854 
0-855 
0-856 

i 0-857 
0-858 
0-859 


1-188 946 902 


464,878 


0-80L 
0-802 
0-803 

0-804 

0-805 

1 0-806 

! 0-807 
0-808 
0-809 

0-810"^ 


1-166 94S 101 
1-167 381 <I04 
1-167 816 333 

1-168 251 390 
1-168 687 072 
1-169 123 382 

1-169 560 318 
1-169 997 883 
1-170 436 077 


433,803 
434,429 
435,057 

682 

436,310 

936 

437,565 

438,194 

820 


1-189 411 780 
1-1S9 877 .SOO 
1190 343 463 

1-190 810 269 
1-191 277 719 
1-191 745 814 

1-192 214 553 
1-192 683 937 
1-193 153 966 


465,520 

466,163 

806 

467,450 

468,095 

739 

469,384 

470,029 

674 


1-170 874 897 


439,451 

440,078 

709 

441,339 

967 
442,599 
443,229 

861 
444,493 
445,122 


0-860 


.1193 624 640 


471,321 


0-811 
0-812 

0-813 

0-814 
0-815 
0-816 

0-817 
0-818 
0-819 


1171 314 348 
1-171 754 426 

1172 195 135 

1-172 636 474 
1-173 078 441 
1-173 521 040 

1173 964 269 
1-174 408 13C 
1-174 852 623 


0-861 
0-862 
0-863 

■ 0-864 

; 0-865 

0-866 

0-867 

0-868 
! 0-869 


1194 095 961 
1-194 567 928 
1-195 040 542 

1-195 513 S02 
1-195 987 710 
1-196 462 266 

1-196 937 470 
1-197 413 322 
1-197 889 823 


471,967 
472,614 
473,260 

908 
474,556 
475,204 

852 
476,501 
477,151 


0-820 


1-175 297 745 


445,756 

446,388 

447,021 

654 

448,288 

921 

449,555 

450,190 

824 

451,460 

452,095 I 


0-870 


1-198 366 974 


477,800 


0-821 

0-822 

\ 0-823 

' 0-824 
0-825 

0-826 

0-827 
0-828 
0-829 


1-175 743 501 
1-176 189 889 
1-176 636 910 

1-177 084 564 
1-177 532 852 
1177 981 773 

1-178 431 328 
1-178 881 518 
1-179 332 342 


i 0-871 
: 0-872 
! 0-873 

0-874 
0-875 
0-876 

0-877 
0-878 
0-879 


1-198 844 774 
1-199 323 224 
1-199 802 324 

1-200 282 074 
1-200 762 476 
1-201 243 529 

1-201 725 234 
1-202 207 591 
1-202 690 600 


478,450 

479,100 

750 

480,402 

481,053 

705 

482,357 

483,009 

662 


0-830 


1-179 783 S02 


0-880 


1-203 174 262 


484,316 

484,969 
485,622 
486,277 

932 

487,587 
488,242 

898 
489,554 
490,211 


0-831 
0-832 
0-833 

0-834 
0-835 
0-836 

0-837 
0-838 
0-839 

0-840 

0-841 
0-842 
0-843 

0-844 
0-845 
0-846 

0-847 
0-848 
0-849 


1-180 235 897 
1-180 688 028 
1-181 141 995 

1-181 695 999 
1-182 050 639 
1-182 505 917 

1-182 961 832 
1-183 418 385 
1-183 875 576 


452.731 i 
453,367 1 
454,004 ■ 

640 

455,278 

915 

456,553 

457.191 

830 


0-881 
0-882 
0-883 

0-884 
0-885 
0-886 

0-887 

0-888 
0-889 


1-203 658 578 
1-204 143 547 
1-204 629 169 

1-205 115 446 
1-205 602 378 
1-206 089 965 

1-206 578 207 
1-207 067 105 
1-207 556 659 


1-184 333 406 458,469 


0-890 


1-208 046 870 


490,867 


1-184 791 875 
1185 250 983 
1-185 710 731 

1-186 171 118 
1-186 632 146 
1187 093 815 

1-187 556 124 
1-188 019 075 
1-188 482 668 


459,108 

748 

460,387 

461,028 

669 

462,309 

951 
463,593 
464,234 


0-891 
0-892 
0-893 

0-894 
0-895 
0-896 

0-897 
0-898 
0-899 


1-208 537 737 
1-209 029 262 
1-209 521 445 

1-210 014 285 
1-210 507 784 
1-211 001 941 

1-211 496 758 
1-211 992 234 
1-212 488 370 


491,525 

492,183 

840 

493,499 

494,157 

817 

495,476 

496,136 

796 


0-850 


1-188 946 902 


464,878 


0-900 


1-212 985 166 


497,457 j 



108 



REroRT — 1896. 




ON MATHEMATICAL FUXCTION3. 



109 



X 


V- 


Difference 


I X 


lo* 


Difference 


1-000 


1-2G6 065 878 


565,509 

566,211 

913 

567,615 

5(i8,318 

■ 569,020 

724 

570,428 

571,133 

837 


1-050 


1-295 209 055 


001,113 


]-001 
1-002 
1-003 

1-004 
1005 
1006 

1-007 
1008 
1-009 


1-266 631 387 
1-207 197 598 
1267 764 511 

1-268 332 120 
1-208 900 444 
1-269 469 464 

1-270 039 188 
1-270 009 016 
1-271 180 749 


1-051 
1-052 
1-053 

1-054 
1-055 
1-056 

1-057 
1-058 
1-059 


1-295 810 108 
1-206 412 007 
1-297 014 569 

1-297 017 855 
1-298 221 80(! 
1-298 820 002 

1-299 432 064 
1-300 038 253 
1-300 045 108 


601,839 
602,562 
603,286 

604,011 

736 

605,462 

600,189 

915 

607,643 


1-010 


1-271 752 586 


572,542 


1 1-060 


1-301 252 811 


608,370 


1-011 
1012 
1013 

1-014 
1015 
1-016 

1017 
1-018 
1019 


1-272 325 128 
1-272 898 376 
1-273 472 330 

1-274 046 991 
1-274 622 359 
1-275 198 434 

1-275 775 217 
1-276 352 708 
1-276 930 908 


573,248 

954 

574,661 

575,368 

576,075 

783 

577,491 

578,200 
909 


1061 
1-062 
1063 

1-064 

1 1-065 

1-066 

1-067 
1-068 
1-069 


1-301 801 181 
1-302 470 278 
1-303 080 100 

1-303 690 602 
1-304 301 947 
1-304 913 962 

1-305 520 708 
1-300 140 184 
1-306 754 394 


609,097 

828 

610,556 

611,285 

612,015 

740 

613,476 

614,210 

939 


1020 


1-277 509 817 


579,620 

580,329 

581,039 

750 

582,461 

583,174 

885 

584,598 
585,311 
586,026 


1 1-070 


1-307 369 333 


615,672 


1-021 
1-022 
1-023 

1-024 
1025 
1026 

1-027 
1-028 
1-029 


1-278 089 437 
1-278 669 766 
1-279 250 805 

1-279 832 555 
1-280 415 016 
1-280 998 190 

1-281 582 075 
1-282 166 673 
1-282 751 984 


I 1-071 
1-072 
1-073 

1-074 
1-075 
1-076 

1-077 
1-078 
1-079 


1-307 985 005 
1-308 601 410 
1-309 218 547 

1-309 836 419 
1-310 455 026 
1-311 074 367 

1311 694 443 
1-312 315 255 
1-312 936 803 


616,405 
017,137 

872 

618,607 
019,341 
620,076 

812 
621,548 
622,285 


1030 


1-283 338 010 


586,739 


i 1-080 


1-313 559 088 


023,021 


J031 

1-032 
1-033 

1-034 
1035 
1-036 

1-037 
1-038 
1039 


1-283 924 749 
1-284 512 203 
1-285 100 371 

1-285 689 255 
1-286 278 854 
1-286 869 170 

1-287 460 203 
1-288 051 954 
1-288 644 420 


587,454 

588,168 
884 

589,599 
590,316 
591,033 

751 
592,466 
593,186 


1-081 

; 1-082 
1-083 
1084 
1-085 
1-086 

1-087 
1-088 
1-089 


1-314 182 109 
1-314 805 868 
1 315 430 365 

1-316 055 599 
1-316 ool 574 
1-317 308 287 

1-317 935 741 
1-318 563 935 
1-319 192 870 


623,759 
624,497 
625,234 

975 
626,713 
627,454 

628,194 
935 

629,^75 


1-040 


1-289 237 606 


593,904 


1-090 


1-31.1 822 545 


630,41,, 


1041 

1042 
1-043 

1044 
1-045 
1046 

1-047 
1-048 
1-049 


1-289 831 510 
1-290 426 133 
1-291 021 476 

1-291 617 538 
1-292 214 321 
1-202 811 824 

1-293 410 049 
1-294 008 995 
1-294 608 664 


594,623 
595,343 
596,C02 

783 
597,503 
598,225 

946 
599,669 
600,391 

601,113 


1-091 
1-092 
1-093 

1-094 
1-095 
1-096 

1-097 
1-098 
1-099 

TlOO~ 


1-320 452 963 
1-321 084 123 
1-321 716 026 

1-322 348 672 
1-322 982 062 
1-323 616 195 

1-324 251 074 
1-324 880 099 
1-325 523 068 


631.160 

903 

632,640 

633,390 
634,133 

879 

635,625 
636,369 
637,116 

637,862 


1-050 


1-295 209 055 


1 326 160 184 



no 



EEPORT — 1896. 



X 


Io»- 


Difference 


X 


Io.i- 


Difference 


■ 


1-100 


1-326 160 184 


637,862 


1-150 

1-151 
1-152 
1-153 

1-154 
1-155 
1-156 

1-157 

1-158 
1-159 


1-358 978 177 

1-359 654 003 
1-360 330 600 
1-361 007 970 

1-361 686 113 
1-362 365 031 
1-363 044 721 

1-363 725 187 
1-364 406 429 
1-365 088 446 


675,826 

676,597 
677,370 
678,143 

918 
679,690 
680,466 

681.242 

682,017 

793 


( 

1 


1-101 
1-102 
1-103 

1-104 
1-105 
1-160 

1-107 
1-108 
1-109 


1-326 798 046 
1-327 436 655 
1-328 076 012 

1-328 716 117 
1-329 356 971 
1-329 998 574 

1-330 640 926 
1-331 284 028 
1-331 927 881 


638,609 
639,357 
640,105 

854 

641,603 

! 642,352 

643,102 

853 

644,604 


i 

i 


1-110 


1-332 572 485 


645,355 

646,T07~ 

860 
647,613 

648,366 
649,121 

875 

650,629 
651,385 
652,142 


1-160 


1-365 771 239 


683,570 




1-111 
1-112 
J-113 

1-114 
1-115 
1-116 

1-117 
1-118 
1-119 


1-333 217 840 
1-333 863 947 
1-334 510 807 

1-335 158 420 
1-335 806 7S6 
1-336 455 907 

1-337 105 782 
1-337 756 411 
1-338 407 796 


i 1-161 
i 1-162 
' 1-163 

: 1-164 
1-165 
1-166 

1-167 
1-168 
1-J69 


1-366 454 809 
1-367 139 156 
1-367 824 281 

1-368 510 185 
1369 196 868 
1-369 884 329 

1-370 572 572 
1-371 261 594 
1-371 951 398 


684,347 

685,125 

904 

686,683 
687,461 
688,243 

689,022 

804 

690,585 


1 


1-120 


1-339 059 938 


652,897 


1-170 

1-171 
1-172 
1173 

1-174 
1175 
1176 

1-177 
1-178 
1-179 


1-372 641 983 


691,367 

692,150 

933 

693,716 

694,500 
695,286 
696,071 

856 
697,643 
698,429 

699,217 




1121 
1-122 
1-123 

1124 
1125 
1-12G 

1-127 
1-128 
1-129 


1-339 712 835 
1-340 366 490 
1-341 020 902 

1-341 676 072 
1-342 332 000 
1-342 988 687 

1-343 646 134 
1-344 304 341 
1-344 963 308 


653,655 
654,412 
(555,170 

928 
t;56.687 
657,447 

658.207 

967 

659,728 


1-373 333 350 

1-374 025 500 
1-374 718 433 

1-375 412 149 
1-376 106 649 
1-376 801 935 

1-377 498 006 
1-378 194 862 
1-378 892 505 




1-130 


1-345 623 036 


660,490 

661,251 
6(;2.014 

777 

663.540 
(;64,305 
665,069 '■ 

83 V 
666,599 
667,366 

668,132 


1-180 


1-379 590 934 




1-131 
1-132 
1133 

1-134 
1135 
1-136 

1-137 
1-138 
1-139 


1-346 283 526 
1-346 944 777 
1-347 606 791 

1-348 269 568 ' 
1-348 933 108 
1-349 597 413 

1-350 262 482- 
1350 928 316 
1-351 594 915 , 


1-181 

1182 
1-183 

1-184 
1-185 
1-186 

1-187 j 
1-188 ! 
1-189 1 


1-380 290 151 
1-380 990 155 
1-381 690 948 

1-382 392 530 
1-383 094 902 
1-383 798 064 

1-384 502 017 
1-385 206 760 
1-385 912 295 


700.004 
793 

701,582 

702,372 

703,162 

953 

704,743 
705,535 
706,327 




1-140 


1-352 262 281 ; 


1-190 


1-386 618 622 


707,120 




1-141 
1-142 
1-143 

1-144 
1145 
1146 

1-147 
1-148 
1-149 


1-352 930 413 
1-353 599 312 
1-354 268 979 

1-354 939 412 
1-355 610 615 
1-356 282 588 

1-356 955 329 
1-357 628 841 
1-358 303 124 


668,899 
669,667 
670,433 

671,203 

973 

672,741 

673,512 
674,283 
675,053 


1-191 
1-192 
1-193 

1-194 
1-195 
1-196 

1-197 ; 
1-198 : 
1-199 ! 


1-387 325 742 
1-388 033 655 
1-388 742 363 

1-389 451 864 
1-390 162 160 
1-390 873 252 

1-391 585 140 
1-392 297 824 
1-393 Oil 305 


707,913 

708,708 
709,501 

710,296 
711,092 

888 

712.684 
713,4.S1 
714,279 




1-150 


1-358 978 177 


675,826 


1-200 1 


1-393 725 584 


715,078 





ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



Ill 



X 


V 


Difference 


1 


lor 


Difference 


1-200 


1-393 725 584 

1-394 440 662 
1-395 156 537 
1-395 873 213 


715,078 


j 1-250 


1-430 468 718 


755,695 


1-201 
1-202 
1-203 


715.875 
716,676 
717,474 


1-251 
1-2.52 
1-253 


1-431 224 413 
1-131 980 934 
1-432 738 283 


7.50,521 
757,349 
758,170 


1-204 
1-205 
1-206 


1-390 590 C87 
1-397 308 961 
1-398 028 038 


718.274 
■ 719,077 

878 


1-254 
1-255 
1-256 


1-4.33 490 159 
1-434 2.55 4(;4 
1-435 015 299 


759,005 

835 

760,065 


1-207 
1-208 
1-209 


1-398 747 910 
1-399 468 596 
1-400 190 078 

1-400 912 363 


720.080 
721,482 
722,285 


1-257 
1-258 
1-259 


1-435 775 904 
1-430 537 459 
1-437 299 784 


701,495 
702,325 
703,157 


1-210 


723,089 


1-260 


1-438 002 941 


763,989 


1-211 
1-212 
1-213 


1-401 635 452 
1-402 359 345 
1-403 084 042 


723,893 
724,097 
725,505 


1-201 
1-262 
1-263 


1-438 820 930 
1-439 591 751 
1-440 357 400 


764.H21 
765.055 
706,489 


1-214 
1-215 
1-216 


1-403 809 547 
1-404 535 855 
1-405 262 970 


726,308 

727,115 

922 


1-264 
1-265 
1-260 


1-441 123 895 
1-441 891 218 
1-442 6.59 370 


767.323 

768,158 
994 


1-217 
1-218 
1-219 


1-405 990 892 
1-406 719 622 
1-407 449 161 


728,730 
729,539 
730,346 


l>-207 
1-208 
1-269 


1-443 428 370 
1-444 198 200 
1-444 968 865 


769,830 
770,665 
771,504 


1-220 


1-408 179 507 


731,156 


1-270 


1-445 740 369 


772,343 


1-221 
1-222 
1-223 


1-40S 910 663 
1-409 642 028 
1-410 375 405 


731,965 
732,777 
733,586 


1-271 
1-272 
1-273 


1-446 512 712 
1-447 285 892 
1-448 059 910 


773,180 

774,018 

860 


1-224 
1-225 
1-226 


1-411 108 991 
1-411 843 390 
1-412 578 600 


734,399 
735,210 
736,023 


1-274 
1-275 
1-276 


1-448 834 770 
1-449 610 469 
1-450 387 010 


775,699 
776,541 
777,381 


1-227 
1-228 
1-229 


1-413 314 623 
1-414 051 458 
1-414 789 108 


835 
737,650 
738,464 

739,279 } 


1-277 
1-278 
1-279 


1-451 104 391 
1-451 942 615 
1-452 721 682 


778,224 

779,007 

909 


1-230 

1-231 
1-232 
1-233 


1-415 527 572 


1-280 


1-453 501 591 1 


780,754 


1-416 266 851 
1-417 006 945 
1-417 747 855 


740,094 I 
910 1 
741,726 


1-281 
1-282 
1-283 


1-454 282 345 
1-4.55 063 943 
1-455 840 380 


781,598 
782,443 

783,289 


1-234 
1-235 
1-236 


1-418 489 581 
1-419 232 126 
1-119 975 487 


742.545 j 

743,.361 

744,179 


1-284 
1-285 
1-286 


1-450 629 075 
1-457 413 810 
1-458 198 792 


784,135 

982 
785,829 


1-237 
1-238 
1-239 


1-420 719 006 
1-421 404 664 
1-422 210 482 


998 
745,818 
746,638 

747,458 


1-287 
1-288 
1-289 


1-458 984 021 
1-459 771 299 
1-400 558 820 


780,078 
787,527 
788,375 


1-240 


1-422 957 120 


1-290 


1-401 347 201 j 


789,224 


1-241 
1-242 
1-243 


1-423 704 578 
1-424 452 857 
1-425 201 957 


748,279 

749,100 

924 


1-291 
1-292 
1-293 


1-402 130 425 ! 
1-402 920 501 i 
1-403 717 428 


790,070 

927 

791,780 


1-244 
1-245 
1-246 


1-425 951 881 
1-426 702 627 
1-427 454 190 


750.746 
751.569 
752.392 


1-294 
1-295 
1-290 


l-4(!4 509 208 [ 
1-405 301 838 
1-400 095 322 


792.030 
793.484 
794,338 


1-247 

i 1-248 

1-249 

1-250 


1-428 200 588 
1-428 939 800 i 
1-429 713 850 ; 


753.218 ! 
754.044 

808 


1-297 
1-298 
1-299 


1-466 889 600 
1-407 084 851 
1-468 480 89(i 


795.191 

790.045 

902 


1-430 468 718 


755,695 


1-300 


1-469 277 798 


797,758 



112 



EEPORT — 1896. 



X 


lor 


Difference 


1 

X 


Io.r 


DifFsience 


1-300 


1-469 277 798 


797,758 


1-350 


1-510 227 098 


841,348 


1-301 
1-302 
1-303 

1-304 
1-305 
1-306 

1-307 
1-308 
1-309 


1-470 075 556 
1-470 874 160 
1-471 673 640 

1-472 473 969 
1-473 275 157 
1-474 077 204 

1-474 880 109 
1-475 683 875 
1-476 488 502 


798,613 
799,471 
800,329 

801.188 

802,047 

905 

803,766 
804.627 
805,489 


1-351 
1-3.-12 
1-353 

1-354 
1-355 
1-356 

1-357 
1-3.58 
1-359 

1 1-360 

1-36 1 
1-362 
1-363 

1-.364 
1-365 
1-366 

1-367 
1-368 
1-369 


1-511 068 446 
1-511 910 681 
1-512 753 807 

1-513 597 821 
1-514 442 724 
1-515 288 518 

1-516 135 205 
1-516 982 781 
1-517 831 252 


842,235 
843,126 
844,014 

903 
845,794 
846,687 

847,576 
848,471 
849,363 


1-310 


1-477 293 991 


806,351 


1-518 680 615 


850,257 


1-311 
1-312 
1-313 

1-314 
1-315 
1-316 

1-317 
1318 
1-319 


1-478 100 342 
1-478 907 555 
1-479 715 631 

1-480 524 571 
1-481 334 377 
1-482 145 047 

1-482 956 583 
1-483 768 986 
1-484 582 255 


807,213 

808,076 

940 

809,806 
810,670 
811,536 

812,403 

813,269" 

814,138 


1-519 530 872 
1-520 382 022 
1-521 234 069 

1-522 087 on 
1-522 940 850 
1-523 795 586 

1-524 6.51 220 
1-525 507 752 
1-526 365 183 


851,150 

852,047 

942 

853,839 
854,736 
855,634 

856,532 
857,431 
858,331 


1-320 


1-485 396 393 


815,005 


1-370 


1-527 223 514 


859.231 


1-321 
1-322 
1-323 

1-324 
1-325 
1-326 

1-327 
1-328 
1-329 


1-486 211 398 
1-487 027 272 
1-487 844 016 

1-488 661 630 
1-489 480 116 
1-490 299 472 

1-491 119 701 
1-491 940 801 
1-492 762 776 


815.874 
816,744 
817,614 

818.486 
819,356 
820,229 

821,100 

975 

822,849 


1-371 
1-372 
1-373 

1-374 
1-375 
1-376 

1-377 
1-378 
1-379 


1-528 082 745 
1-528 942 878 
1-529 803 911 

1-530 665 848 
1-531 528 687 
1-532 392 430 

1-5.33 257 076 
1-534 122 629 
1-534 989 087 


860,133 

861,033 

937 

862,839 
863,743 
864,646 

865.553 
866,458 
867,365 


1-330 


1-493 585 625 


823,723 

824,598 
825,474 
826,351 1 

827,227 

828,106 

983 

829,863 
830,743 
831,622 

832,503 

833,386 
834,267 
835,150 

836,033 

919 

837,802 

838,688 
839,575 
840,460 


1380 


1-535 856 452 


868,271 


1-331 
1-332 
1-333 

1-334 
1-335 
1-336 

1-337 
1-338 
1-339 


1-494 409 348 
1-495 233 946 
1-496 059 420 

1-496 885 771 
1-497 712 998 
1-498 541 104 

1-499 370 087 
1-500 199 950 
1-501 030 693 


1-381 
1-382 
1-383 

1-384 
1-.385 
1-386 

1-387 
1-388 
1-389 


1-536 724 723 
1-537 593 002 
1-538 463 089 

1-539 334 086 
1-540 206 892 
1-541 079 709 

1-541 953 436 
1-642 828 075 
1-543 703 626 


869,179 

870,087 

907 

871,906 
872.817 
873,727 

874,639 
875,551 
876,464 


1-340 


1-501 862 315 


1-390 


1-544 580 090 


877,378 


1-341 
1-342 
1-313 

1-344 
1-345 
1-316 

1-347 
1-348 
1-349 


1-502 694 818 
1-503 528 204 
1-504 362 471 

1-505 197 621 
1-506 033 654 
1-506 870 573 

1-507 708 375 
1-508 547 063 
1-509 386 638 


1-391 

1-392 
1-393 

1-394 
1-395 
1-396 

1-397 
1-398 
1-399 


1 545 457 468 
1546 3.35 761 
1-547 214 968 

1-548 005 002 
1-548 076 131 
1-549 858 088 

1-550 740 963 
1-551 624 756 
1-552 509 468 


878.293 
879,207 
880,124 

881,030 

057 

882,875 

883.793 
884,712 
885.632 


1-350 


1-510 227 098 


841,348 ' 


1-400 


1-553 395 100 


886,552 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



113 



X 


V 


DiffereDce 


X 


lu'' 


Difterence 


1-400 


1-553 395 100 


886,552 


1-450 


1-598 864 661 


933,460 

934,416 
935,372 
936,330 

937,289 
938,248 
939,207 

940,168 
941,129 
942,091 


1-401 
1-402 
1-403 

1-404 
1-405 
1-40G 

1-407 
1-408 
1-409 


1-554 281 652 
1-555 169 125 
1-556 057 521 

1-556 946 839 
1-657 837 079 
1-558 728 244 

1-559 620 334 
1-660 513 348 
1-561 407 289 


887,473 
888,396 
889,318 

890,240 
891,165 
892,090 

893.014 

941 

894,868 


1-451 
1-452 
1453 

1-454 
1-455 
1-456 

1-457 
1-458 
1-459 


1-599 798 121 
1-600 732 537 
1-601 667 909 

1-602 604 2.39 
1-603 541 528 
1-604 479 776 

1-605 418 983 
1-606 359 151 
1-607 300 280 


1-410 


1-562 302 157 


895,795 


1-460 


1-608 242 371 


943,053 


1-411 
1-412 
1-413 

1-414 
1-415 
1-416 

1-417 
1-418 
1-419 


1-563 197 952 
1-564 094 675 
1-564 992 326 

1-565 890 906 
1-566 790 417 
1-567 690 859 

1-568 692 232 
1-569 494 536 
1-570 397 774 


896,723 
897,651 
898,580 

899,511 
900,442 
901,373 

902,304 
903,238 
904,172 

905,106 

906,041 

976 

907,913 

908,850 
909,787 
910,726 

911,664 
912,605 
913,546 


1-461 
1-462 
1-463 

1-464 
1-465 
1-466 

1-467 
1-468 
1-469 


1-609 185 424 
1-610 129 441 
1-611 074 422 

1-612 020 368 
1-612 967 280 
1-613 915 157 

1-614 864 002 
1-615 813 813 
1-616 764 594 


944,017 

981 

945,946 

946,912 
947,877 
918,845 

949,811 
950,781 
951,751 


1-420 


1-571 301 946 


1-470 


1-617 716 345 


952,720 


1-421 
1-422 
1-423 

1-424 
1-425 
1-426 

1-427 
1-428 
1-429 


1-572 207 052 
1-573 113 093 
1-574 020 069 

1-574 927 982 
1-575 836 832 
1-576 746 619 

1-677 657 345 
1-578 569 009 
1-579 481 614 


1-471 
1-472 
1-473 

1-474 
1-475 
1-476 

1-477 
1-478 
1-479 


1-618 669 065 
1-619 622 756 
1-620 577 418 

1-621 533 052 
1-622 489 659 
1-623 447 239 

1-624 405 795 
1-625 365 325 
1-626 325 831 


953,691 
954,662 
955,634 

956,607 
957,580 
958,556 

959,530 
960,506 
961,483 


1-430 1-580 395 160 


914,486 

915,429 
916,370 
917,314 

918.259 
919.203 
920,149 

921,095 

922,042 

989 


1-480 


1-627 287 314 


962,460 


1-431 
1-432 
1-433 

1-434 
1-435 
1-436 

1-437 
1-438 
1-439 


1-581 309 646 
1-582 225 075 
1-583 141 445 

1-584 058 759 
1-584 977 018 
1-585 896 221 

1-586 816 370 
1-587 737 465 
1-588 659 507 


1-481 
1-482 
1-483 

1-484 
1-485 
1-486 

1-487 
1-488 
1-489 


1-628 249 774 
1-629 213 212 
1-630 177 629 

1-631 143 025 
1-632 109 401 
1-633 076 759 

1-6.34 045 098 
1-635 014 420 
1-635 984 725 


963,438 
964,417 
965,396 

966,376 
967,358 
968,339 

969,322 
970,305 
971,289 


1-440 


1-589 582 496 


923,937 


1-490 


1-636 956 014 


972,274 


1441 
1-442 
1-443 

1-444 
1-445 
1-446 

1-447 
1-448 
1-449 


1-590 506 433 
1-591 431 320 
1-592 357 156 

1-593 283 943 
1-594 211 681 
1-595 140 370 

1-596 070 012 
1-597 000 608 
1-597 932 158 


924,887 
925.836 
926,787 

927,738 
928,689 
929,642 

930,596 
931,550 
932,503 


1-491 
1492 
1-493 

1-494 
1-495 
1-496 

1-497 
1498 
1-499 


1-637 928 288 
1-638 901 547 
1-639 875 793 

1-640 851 025 
1-641 827 245 
1-642 804 454 

1-643 782 652 
1-644 761 841 
1-645 742 019 


973,259 
974,246 
975,232 

976,220 
977,209 
978,198 

979,189 
980,178 
981,171 


1-450 


1-598 864 661 


933.460 


1-500 


1-646 723 190 


982,163 


1896. 










I 



114 



REPORT 189G, 



X 


lo.'- 


Difference 


X 


V 


Difference 


1-500 


1-646 723 190 


982,163 j 

983,156 
984,149 
985,144 : 

986,139 
987,136 
988,132 

989,130 ' 

990,128 

991,127 

992,127 

993,128 
994,129 
995,132 

996,134 
997,139 
998,142 

999,148. 
1,000,155 
1,160 

1,002,168 

1,003,176 1 
4,186 
5,196 

6,206 
7,218 
8,230 

9,243 
10.257 
11.271 


1-550 


1-697 062 826 


1,032,758 


1-501 
1-502 
1-503 

1-504 
1-505 
1-506 

1-507 
1-508 
1-509 


1-647 705 353 
1-648 688 509 
1-649 672 658 

1-650 657 802 
1-651 643 941 
1-652 631 077 

1-653 619 209 
1-654 608 339 
1-655 598 467 


1-551 
1-552 
1-553 

1-554 
1-555 
1-556 

1-557 
1-558 
1-559 


1-698 095 584 
1-699 129 375 
1-700 164 197 

1-701 200 053 
1-702 236 944 
1-703 274 870 

1-704 313 832 
1-705 353 830 
1-706 394 865 


1,033,791 
34,822 
35,856 

36,891 
37,926 
38,962 

39,998 
41,035 
42,074 


1-510 


1-656 589 594 


1-560 


1-707 436 939 


1,043,113 


1-511 
1-512 
1-513 

1-514 
1-515 
1-516 

1-517 
1-518 
l-f.l9 


1-657 5S1 721 
1-658 574 849 
1-659 568 978 

1-660 564 no 
1-661 560 244 
1-662 557 383 

1-663 555 52." 
1-664 554 673 
1-665 554 828 


1-561 
1-562 
1-563 

1-564 
l-5(>5 
1-566 

1-567 
1-568 
1-569 


1-708 480 052 
1-709 524 205 
1-710 569 399 

1-711 615 635 
1-712 662 913 
1-713 711 234 

1-714 760 598 
1-715 811 007 
1-716 862 462 


1,044,153 
45,194 
46,236 

47.278 
48.321 
49,364 

50,409 
51,455 
52,502 


1-520 


1-666 555 988 


1-570 


1-717 914 964 


1,053,549 


1-521 
1-622 
1-523 

1-524 
1-525 
1-526 

1-527 
1-528 
1-529 


1-667 558 156 
1-668 561 332 
1-669 565 518 

1-670 570 714 
1-671 576 920 
1-672 584 138 

1-673 592 368 
1-674 601 611 
1-675 611 868 


1-571 

1-572 
1-573 

1-574 
1-575 
1-576 

1-577 
1-578 
1-579 


1-718 968 513 
1-720 023 109 
1-721 078 755 

1-722 135 450 
1-723 193 195 
1-724 251 992 

1-725 311 841 
1-726 372 743 
1-727 434 699 


1,054,596 
55.646 
56,695 

57.745 
58,797 
59,849 

60,902 
61,956 
63,010 


1-530 


1-676 623 139 


1,012,287 


1-580 


1-728 497 709 


1,064,067 


1-531 
1-532 
1-533 

1-534 
1-535 
1-536 

1-537 
1-538 
1-539 


1-677 635 426 
1-678 648 729 
1-679 663 048 

1-680 678 385 
1-681 694 741 
1-682 712 116 

1-683 730 511 
1-684 749 926 
1-685 770 363 


1,0I3,.303 
14,319 
15,337 

1(;..356 
17.375 
18,395 

19,415 
20.437 
21,460 

1,022,483 


1-581 
1-582 
1-583 

1-584 
1-585 
1-586 

1-587 
1-588 
1-589 


1-729 .561 776 
1-730 626 897 
1-731 693 075 

1-732 760 312 
1-733 828 608 
1-734 897 963 

1-735 968 378 
1-737 039 854 
1-738 112 392 


1,065.121 
66,178 
67,237 

68,296 
69,3.55 
70,415 

71,476 
72,538 
73,601 


1-540 


1-686 791 823 


1-590 


1-739 185 993 


1,074,664 


1-541 
1-542 
1-543 

1-544 
1-546 
1-546 

1-547 

1-548 
1-549 


1-687 814 306 
1-688 837 813 
1-689 862 345 

1-690 887 902 
1-691 914 486 
1-692 942 097 

1-693 970 735 
1-695 000 -403 
1-696 031 099 


1,023,.507 
24,532 
25,557 

26,584 
27,611 
28,638 

29,668 
30,696 
31.727 ; 

1.032,758 i 


1-591 
1-592 
1-593 

1-594 

■ 1-595 

1-596 

1-597 
1-598 
1-599 


1-740 260 657 
1-741 336 386 
1-742 413 181 

1-743 491 041 
1-744 569 968 
1-745 649 964 

1-746,731 028 
1-747 813 161 
1-748 896 365 


1,075,729 
70,795 

77,860 

78,927 
79,996 
81,064 

82.133 
83,204 
84,275 


1-650 


1-697 062 826 


1-600 


1-749 980 640 


1,085,347 



ON iMATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



115 



.T 




lo:^ 




DiflTerence 


X 


lox 


Dift'erence 


1-600 

1 -601 
1G02 
1-603 


1-749 


980 


640 


1,085,347 


1-650 


1-805 578 834 


1,140,033 


1-751 
1-752 
1-753 


065 
152 
239 


987 
406 
899 


1,086,419 
87,493 

88,568 


1-651 
1-652 
1-653 


1-806 718 867 
1-807 800 016 
1-809 002 282 


1,141,149 
142,266 
143,384 


1-604 
1-G05 
1-G06 


1-754 
1-755 
1-756 


328 467 
418 110 
508 829 


89,643 
90,719 
91,796 


1-654 
1-655 
1-656 


1-810 145 666 
1-811 290 168 
1-812 435 7.'S9 


144.502 
145,621 
146,741 


1-G07 
1-608 
1-609 


1-757 GOO 625 
1-758 (;93 499 
1-759 787 452 


92,874 
93,953 
95,033 

1,096,113 


j 1657 
1 1-658 
I 1-659 


l-8i:! 582 530 
1-814 730 393 
1-815 879 379 


147,863 
148,986 
150,108 


1-610 


1-760 


882 


485 


1-660 


1-817 029 487 


1,151,231 


1-611 
1G12 
1-613 


1-761 978 
1-7G3 075 
1-764 174 


598 
792 
0G8 


1,097,194 
98,276 
99,359 


i 1-661 
1-662 
1-663 


I-.SIS ISO 718 
1-819 333 074 
1-820 486 556 


1,152,356 
153,483 
154,610 


1-G14 

i-t;i5 

1-616 


1-7G5 
1-76G 
1-767 


273 
373 
475 


427 
870 
398 


100,443 
101,528 
102,613 


1-664 

1-665 

) 1-666 


1-821 641 166 
1-822 796 902 
1-823 953 766 


155,736 
156,864 
157,994 


1-G17 
1-G18 
1G19 


1-768 
1-769 
1-770 


578 
681 

786 


Oil 
710 
49G 


10.3,699 
104,786 
105,875 


1-667 

1-668 

, 1-669 


1-825 111 760 
1-826 270 884 
1-827 431 139 


159,124 
160,255 
161,386 


1-G20 


1-771 


892 


371 


1,106,964 


1 1-670 

1 


1-828 592 525 


1,162,520 


1G21 
1-623 
1-623 


1-772 
1-774 
1-775 


999 
107 
216 


335 

388 
532 


1,108,053 
109,144 
110,236 


1-671 
1-672 
1-673 


1-829 755 045 
1-830 918 699 
1-832 083 486 


1,163,654 
164,787 
165,924 


1-G24 
1625 
1-G2G 


1-77G 

1-777 

1-778 


326 
438 
550 


768 
095 
516 


111,327 
112,421 
113,515 


1-674 

i 1-675 

1-676 


1-833 249 410 
1-834 416 470 
1-835 584 667 


167,060 
168,197 
169,334 


1G27 
1-628 
1-G29 


1-779 

1-780 
1-781 


664 

778 
894 


031 
641 
347 


114,610 
115,706 
116,803 


1-677 
1-678 
1-679 


1-836 754 001 
1-837 924 476 
1-839 09G 091 


170,475 
171,615 
172,755 


1-630 

1-G31~ 

1-632 

1-G33 


1-783 Oil 


150 


1,117,900 


1-680 


1-840 268 846 


1,173,897 


1-784 
1-785 
1-786 


129 

248 
368 


050 
048 
145 


1,118.998 
120,097 
121,198 


1-681 
1-682 
1-683 


1-841 442 743 

1-842 G17 783 
1-843 793 967 


1,175,040 
176,184 
177,328 


1G34 
1-635 
1-636 


1-787 
1-788 
1-789 


489 
611 
735 


343 
642 
043 


122,299 
123,401 
124,504 


1-684 
1-685 
1-686 


1-844 971 295 
1-846 149 769 
1-847 329 390 


178.474 
179,621 
180,767 


1-637 
1-638 
l-(;39 


1-790 
1-791 
1-793 


859 
985 
111 


547 
153 
864 


125,606 
126,711 
127,817 


1-687 
1-688 
1-689 


1-848 510 157 
1-849 692 073 
1-850 875 138 


181,916 
183,065 
184,216 


1-640 

1-641 
1-642 
1-643 


1-794 


239 


681 


1,128,923 


1-690 


1-852 059 354 


1,185,366 


1-795 
1-796 

1-797 


3G8 604 
498 634 
629 772 


1,130,030 
131,138 
132,246 


1-691 
1-692 
1-693 


1-853 244 720 
1-851 431 237 
1-855 618 908 


1,186,517 
187,671 
188,825 


1-644 
1-G45 
1-646 


1-798 
1-799 
1-801 


762 018 
895 375 
029 842 


133,357 
134,467 
135,579 


1-694 
1-695 
1-69G 


1-856 807 733 
1-857 997 713 
l-8o9 188 848 


189,980 
191,135 
192,291 


1-647 
1-648 
1-649 

1-650 


1-802 1C5 421 
1-803 302 112 
1-804 439 916 


136,691 
137.804 
138,918 


1-697 
1-698 
1-699 


1-860 381 139 
1-861 574 588 
1-862 769 195 


193,449 
194,607 
195,767 


1-805 


578 


834 


1,140,033 


1-700 


1-863 964 963 


1,196,927 



116 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


V 


UiffereDce 


X 


V 


Difference 


1-700 


1-863 964 962 


1,196,927 


1-750 


1-925 252 154 


1,256,142 


1-701 
1-702 
1-703 

1-704 
1-705 
1-706 

1-707 
1-708 
1-709 


1-865 161 889 
1-866 359 977 
1-867 559 228 

1-868 759 640 
1-869 961 217 
1-87! 163 959 

1-872 367 867 
1-873 572 941 
1-874 779 183 


1,198,088 
199,251 
200,412 

201,577 
202,742 
203,908 

205,074 
206,242 
207,411 


1-751 
1-752 
1-753 

1-754 
1-755 
1-756 

1-757 
1-758 
1-759 


1-926 508 296 
1-927 765 646 
1-929 024 206 

1-930 283 977 
1-931 544 959 
1-932 807 155 

1-934 070 564 
1-935 335 187 
1-936 601 026 


1,257,350 
258,560 
259,771 

260,982 
262,19G 
263,409 

264,623 
265.839 
267,056 


1-710 

1-711 
1-712 
1-713 

1-714 
1-715 
1-716 

1-717 
1-718 
1-719 


1-875 986 594 


1,208,581 


1-760 


1-937 868 082 


1,268,273 


1-877 195 175 
]-878 404 926 
1-879 615 848 

1-880 827 942 
1-882 041 211 
1-883 255 653 

1884 471 270 
1-885 688 063 
1-886 906 034 


1,209,751 
210,922 
212,094 

213,269 
214,442 
215,617 

216,793 
217,971 
219,149 


1-761 
1-762 
1-763 

1-764 
1-765 
1-766 

1-767 
1-768 
1-769 


1-939 136 355 
1-940 405 848 
1-941 676 560 

1-942 948 492 
1-944 221 645 
1-945 496 021 

1-946 771 621 
1-948 048 446 
1-949 326 495 


1,269,493 
270,712 
271,932 

273,153 
274,376 
275,600 

276,825 
278,049 
279,276 


1-720 


1-888 125 183 


1,220,328 


1-770 


1-950 605 771 


1,280,504 


1-721 

1-722 
1-723 

1-724 
1-725 
1-726 

1-727 
1-728 
1-729 


1-889 345 511 
1-890 567 018 
1891 789 707 

1-893 013 577 
1-894 238 630 
1-895 464 866 

1-896 692 288 
1-897 920 896 
1-899 150 689 


1,221,507 

222,689 
223,870 

225,053 
226,236 
227,422 

228,608 
229,793 
230,981 


1-771 

1-772 
1-773 

1-774 
1-775 
1-776 

1-777 

1-778 
1-779 

~l-780 


1-951 886 275 
1-953 168 008 
1-954 450 970 

1-955 735 162 
1-957 020 586 
1-958 307 242 

1-959 595 132 
1-960 884 256 
1-962 174 616 


1,281,733 

282,962 
284,192 

285,424 
286,636 
287,890 

289,124 
290,360 
291,596 


1-730 


1-900 381 670 


1,232,170 


1-963 466 212 


1,292,834 


1-731 
1-732 
1-733 

1-734 
1-735 
1-736 

1-737 
1-738 
1-739 


1-901 613 840 
1-902 847 199 
1-904 081 748 

1-905 317 489 
1-906 554 422 
1-907 792 549 

1-909 031 870 
1-910 272 386 
1-911 514 098 


1,233,359 
234,549 
235,741 

236,933 
238,127 
239,321 

240,516 
241,712 
242,909 


1-781 

1-782 
1-783 

1-784 
1-785 
1-786 

1-787 
1-788 
1-789 


1-964 759 046 
1-966 053 118 
1-967 348 430 

1-968 644 982 
1-969 942 776 
1-971 241 812 

1-972 642 092 
1-973 843 617 
1-975 146 388 


1,294,072 
295,312 
296,552 

297,794 ■ 

299,036 

300,280 

301,525 
302,771 
304,016 


1-740 


1-912 757 007 


1,244,107 


1-790 


1-976 450 404 


1,305,264 


1-741 
1-742 
1-743 

1-744 

1-745 
1-746 

1-747 
1-748 
1-749 


1-914 001 114 
1-915 246 421 
1-916 492 927 

1-917 740 634 
1-918 989 543 
1-920 239 656 

1-921 490 972 
1-922 743 493 
1-923 997 220 


1,245,307 
246,506 
247,707 

248,909 
250,113 
251,316 
252,521 
253,727 
254,934 

1,256,142 j 


1-791 
1-792 
1-793 

1-794 
1-795 
1-796 

1-797 
1-798 
1-799 


1-977 755 668 
1-979 062 181 
1-980 369 944 

1-981 678 956 
1-982 989 221 
1-984 300 739 

1-985 613 511 
1-986 927 537 
1-988 242 819 


1,306,513 
307,763 
309,012 

310,265 
311,518 
312,772 

314,020 

315,282 
316,538 


1-750 


1-925 252 154 


1-800 


1-989 559 357 


1,317,796 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



117 



X 


lox 


Difference 


X 


V 


Difference i 


1-800 


1-989 559 357 


1,317,796 


1-850 

^-85r^ 

1-853 
1-853 


2-057 on 587 


1,382,015 


1-801 
1-802 
1-803 


1-990 877 153 
1-992 196 208 
1-993 516 623 


1,319,055 
320,315 
321,576 


2058 393 602 
2-059 776 928 
2-061 161 567 


1,383,326 
384,639 
385,953 


1-804 
1-805 
1-806 


1-994 838 099 
1-996 160 937 
1-997 485 038 


322,838 
324,101 
325,364 


1-854 
1855 
1-856 


2062 547 519 

2063 934 786 
2-065 323 369 


387,267 
388,583 
389,900 


1-807 
1-808 
1-809 


1-998 810 402 
2-000 137 031 
2001 464 927 


326,629 
327,896 
329,163 


1-857 
1-858 
1-859 


2-066 713 269 
2068 104 487 
2-069 497 024 


391,218 
392,537 
393,856 


1-810 


2-002 794 090 


1,330,431 


1-860 


2-070 890 880 


1,395,178 


1-811 
1-812 
1-813 


2-004 124 521 
2-005 456 221 
2-006 789 191 


1,331,700 ! 
332,970 
334,242 


1-861 
1-862 
1-863 


2-072 286 058 
2-073 682 558 
2-075 080 381 


1,396,500 
397,823 
399,148 


1814 
1-815 
1-816 


2-008 123 433 

2009 458 946 

2010 795 733 


335,513 
336,787 
338,063 ; 


1-864 
1-865 
1-866 


2076 479 529 
2-077 880 003 
2-079 281 802 


400,474 
401,799 
403,128 


1-817 
1-818 
1-819 


2012 133 795 
2-013 473 131 
2-014 813 744 


339,336 
340,613 
341,891 


1-867 
1-868 
1-869 


2-080 684 930 

2082 089 386 

2083 495 172 


404,456 
405,786 
407,117 


1-820 


2016 155 635 


1,343,169 


1-870 


2-084 902 289 

2-086 310 739 
2-087 720 521 
2089 131 638 


1,408,450 

1,409,782 
411,117 
412,452 


1-821 
1-823 
1-823 


2-017 498 804 
2-018 843 252 
2-020 188 981 


1,314,448 
345,729 
347,011 


1-871 

1-872 ■ 
1-873 


1-824 
1-825 

1-826 


2021 535 992 

2022 884 286 
2024 233 863 


348,294 
349,577 1 
3.50,862 I 


1-874 
1-875 
1-876 


2090 544 090 
2-091 957 878 
2-093 373 005 


413,788 
415,127 
416,464 


1-827 
1-828 
1-829 


2-025 584 725 
2026 936 872 
2-028 290 307 


352,147 
353,435 
354,723 


1-877 
1-878 
1-879 


2094 789 469 
2-096 207 274 
2-097 626 420 


417,805 
419,146 
420,488 


1-880 


2029 645 030 


1,356,012 


1-880 


2-099 046 908 


1,421,831 


1-831 
1-832 
1-833 


2031 001 042 
2-032 358 343 
2-033 716 936 


1 ,357,301 
358,593 
359,885 


1-881 
1-882 
1-883 


2-100 468 739 
2-101 891 914 
2-103 316 434 


1,423,175 
424,520 

425,867 


1-834 
1-835 
1-836 


2035 076 821 
2-036 438 000 
2-037 800 472 


361,179 
362,472 
363,768 


1-884 
1-885 
1-886 


2-104 742 301 
2-106 169 515 
2107 598 078 


427,214 
428,563 
429,912 


1-837 
1-838 
1-839 


2039 164 240 

2040 529 305 

2041 895 667 


365,065 
366,362 
367,660 


1-887 
1-888 
1-889 


2-109 027 990 
2-110 459 254 
2-111 891 869 


431,264 
432,615 
433,969 


1-840 


2-043 263 327 


1,368,960 } 


1-890 


2-113 325 838 


1,435,322 


1-841 
1-842 
1-843 


2-044 632 287 
2046 002 548 
2-047 374 110 


1,370,261 1 
371,562 i 
372,866 


1-891 
1-892 
1-893 


2-114 761 160 
2-116 197 839 
2-117 635 874 


1,436,679 
438,035 
439,392 


1-844 

1-845 
1-846 


2-048 746 976 
2-050 121 145 
2-051 496 619 


374,169 
375,474 
376,780 


1-894 
1-895 
1-896 


2-119 075 266 
2-120 516 018 
2-121 958 128 


440,752 
442,110 
443,472 


1-847 
1-848 
1-849 


2052 873 399 
2054 251 486 
2-055 630 882 


378,087 
379,396 
380,705 


1-897 
1-898 
1-899 


2123 401 600 
2-124 846 435 
2-126 292 632 


444,835 
446,197 
447,562 


1-850 


2057 Oil 587 


1,382,015 


1-900 


2-127 740 194 


1,448,927 



118 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lor 


Difference l| 


X 


V- 


Difference 


1-900 


2-127 740 194 


1,448,927 !i 


1-950 


2-201 883 143 


1.518,008 


1-901 ! 
1-903 1 
1-903 

1-904 
1-905 
1-900 

1-907 
1-908 
1-909 

1-910 


2-129 189 121 
2-130 039 416 
2-132 091 077 

2133 544 107 
2-134 998 508 
2-136 454 280 

2137 911 424 
2- 139 369 942 
2-140 829 834 


1,450,295 i 
451,661 
453,030 1 

454.401 
455,772 
457,144 \ 

458,518 
459,892 
461,208 


1-951 
1-952 
1-953 

1-954 
1-955 
1-956 

1-957 
1-958 
1-959 


2-203 401 811 
2-204 921 904 
2-200 443 422 

2-207 906 308 
2-209 490 742 
2-211 010 545 

2-212 543 779 
2-214 072 445 
2-215 002 544 


1,520,093 
521,518 
522,940 

524.374 
525,803 
527,234 

528,606 
530,099 
531,533 


2142 291 102 


1,402,645 


1-960 


2-217 134 077 


1,532,968 


1-911 
1-912 
1-913 

1-914 
1-915 
1-910 

1-917 
1-918 
1-919 


2-143 753 747 
2145 217 769 
2140 6S3 172 

2-148 149 954 
2149 618 118 
2-151 087 664 

2152 558 594 
2- 154 030 909 
2-155 504 010 


1,464,022 
465.403 

466,783 : 

408,104 
469,546 
470,930 

472,315 
473,701 ' 
475,088 j 


1-961 
1-902 
1-963 

1-964 
1-965 
1-966 

1-967 
1-968 
1-969 


2-218 607 045 
2-220 201 450 
2-221 737 293 

2-223 274 574 
2-224 813 290 
2-226 353 459 

2-227 895 065 
2-229 438 115 
2-230 982 009 


1,534,405 
535,843 
537,281 

538,722 
540,163 

541,600 

543,050 
544,494 
545,941 


] -920 


2-156 979 698 


1,476,476 ; 


1-970 


2-233 528 550 


1,547,388 


1-921 
1-922 
1-923 

1-924 
1-925 
1-926 

1-927 
1-928 
1-929 


2-158 450 174 
2159 934 040 
2-101 413 297 

2162 893 945 
2-104 375 987 
2-165 859 423 

2107 344 254 
2-168 830 480 
2-170 318 105 


• 1.477,800 
479.257 

480,648 

482,042 
483,430 
484,831 

480,226 
487,025 
489,024 


1-971 
1-972 
1-973 

1-974 
1-975 
1-970 

1-977 
1-978 
1-979 


2-234 075 938 
2-235 024 775 
2-237 175 061 

2-238 726 798 
2-240 279 988 
2-241 834 632 

2-243 390 730 
2-244 948 284 
2-240 607 295 


1,548,837 
550,286 
551,737 

553,190 
554,644 
556,098 

557,554 
659,011 
560,470 


1-930 

1-931 
1-932 
1-933 

1-934 
1-935 
1-930 

1-937 
1-938 
1-939 


2-171 807 129 


1,490,423 


1-980 


2-248 067 705 


1,561,929 


21 73 297 552 
2-174 789 377 
2- 176 282 004 

2-177 777 234 
2-179 273 269 
2-180 770 710 

2-182 209 557 
2-183 769 813 
2-185 271 478 


1.491,825 
493,227 
494,030 

496,035 
497.441 

498,847 

500,256 
501,665 
503,076 


1-981 
1-982 
1-983 
1-984 
I 1-985 
1-980 

1-987 
1-988 
1-989 


2-249 629 694 
2-251 193 084 
2-252 757 930 

2-254 324 251 
2-255 892 031 
2-257 401 276 

2-259 031 988 
2-260 604 169 
2-262 177 819 


1,563,390 

564,852 

! 666,315 

567,780 
669,245 
570,713 

672,181 
573,650 
575,131 


1-940 


2-180 774 554 


1,504,487 


1-990 


2-263 752 940 


1,576,592 


1-941 
1-942 
1-943 

1-944 
1-945 
1-940 

1-947 
1-948 
1-949 


2188 279 041 
2-189 784 941 
2-191 292 255 

2-192 800 984 
2-194 311 129 
2-195 822 692 

2-197 335 074 
2-198 850 075 
2-200 365 898 


1,505,900 
507,314 
508,729 

510,145 
511,563 
612,982 

514,401 
515,823 
517,245 


1-991 
1-992 
1-993 

1-994 
1-995 
1-996 

1-997 
1-998 
1-999 


2-265 329 632 
2-266 907 598 
2-268 487 138 

2-270 068 154 
2-271 650 046 
2-273 234 610 

2-274 820 066 
2-276 406 996 
2-277 995 408 


1,578,066 
579,540 
581,016 

582,492 
583,970 
585,450 

586,930 
588,412 
589,894 

1.591,379 


1'950 


2-201 883 143 


1,518,608 


2-000 


2-279 585 302 



ox MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



119 



X 


V 


Difference 


i • - • 


Ipi 


Difference 


2-000 


2-279 585 


302 


1,.591,379 


2-050 


2-360 998 757 


1,667,207 


2-001 

2-002 
2-003 


2-281 176 
2-282 769 
2-284 303 


681 
546 
898 


1,592,865 
594.352 
595,839 


2-051 
2-052 
2-053 


2-362 665 964 
2-364 334 721 
2-366 005 029 


1,668,757 
670,308 
671,860 


2-004 
2-005 
2-006 


2-285 959 
2-287 557 
2-289 155 


737 
066 

885 


597,329 
598,819 
600,311 


2-054 
2-055 
2056 


2-.S67 676 889 
2 369 350 302 
2-371 025 270 


673,413 
674,968 
676,524 


2007 
2-008 
2-009 


2-290 756 
2-292 358 
2-293 961 


196 
000 
298 


601,804 
603,298 
604,794 


2-057 

2-058 

i 2-059 

I 2-060 


2-372 701 794 
2-374 379 875 
2-376 059 514 


678,081 
679,639 
681,200 


2010 


2-295 566 


092 


1,606,291 

1.607,788 
609,288 
610,789 


2-377 740 714 


1,682,761 

1,684,323 

(585,887 
687,453 


2-011 
2-012 
2-013 


2-297 172 
2-298 780 
2-300 389 


383 
171 
459 


2-061 
2062 
2-063 


2-379 423 475 
2-381 107 798 
2-382 793 685 


2-014 
2-015. 
2-016 


2-302 000 248 
2-303 612 538 
2-305 226 332 


612,290 
613,794 
615,298 


2-064 
2-065 
2-066 


2-384 481 138 
2-386 170 157 
2-387 860 744 


689,019 
690,587 
692,156 


2017 
2-018 
2-019 


2-306 841 
2-308 458 
2-310 076 


630 
433 
744 


616,803 
618,311 
619,818 

1.621,328 


; 2-067 

! 2-068 
! 2-069 


2-389 552 900 
2-391 246 627 
2-392 941 925 


693.727 
695,298 
696,871 

1,698,446 

1.700,023 
701.599 
703,177 


2-020 


2-311 696 


562 


2-070 


2-394 638 796 


2021 
2-022 
2-023 


2-313 317 
2-314 940 
2-316 565 


890 
729 
079 


1,622,839 
624,350 
625,864 


1 2-071 
2-072 
2-073 


2-396 337 242. 
2-398 037 265 
2-399 738 864 


2024 
2-025 
2026 


2-318 190 
2-319 818 
2-321 447 


943 
322 
216 


627,379 
628,891 
630,411 


2-074 
2-075 
2-076 


2-401 442 041 
2-403 146 799 
2-404 853 137 


704,758 
706,338 
707,921 


2-027 
2-028 
2-029 


2.323 077 
2-324 709 
2-326 343 


627 
557 
006 


631,930 
633,449 
634,971 

1,636,492 


2-077 

2-078 

1 2-079 

i 2 080 


2-406 561 058 
2-408 270 564 
2-409 981 654 


709,506 
711,090 
712,677 

~l77l4,265 


2 030 


2-327 977 


977 


2-411 694 331 


2-031 
2032 
2033 


2-329 614 
2-331 252 
2-332 892 


469 

485 
026 


1,638,016 
6.39,541 
641,067 


2-081 

2-082 
2-083 


2-413 408 596 
2-415 124 450 
2-416 841 895 


1,715,854 
717.445 
719,037 


2-034 
2035 
2-036 


2-334 533 
2-336 175 
2-337 819 


093 

687 
809 


642,594 
644,122 
645,652 


2-084 

2-085 

j 2-086 


2-418 560 932 
2-420 281 561 
2-422 003 786 


720,029 
722,225 

723,821 


2-037 
2-038 
2-039 


2-339 465 
2-341 112 
2-342 761 


461 
645 
362 


647,184 
648,717 
650,250 


2-087 
2-088 
2 089 


2-423 727 607 
2-425 453 023 
2-427 180 040 


725.416 
727,017 

728,618 


2-040 

2-041 
2-042 
2-043 


2-344 411 


612 


1,651,785 

"l,653,322~ 
6.54,859 
656,399 


2-090 


2-428 908 658 


1,730,219 

1,731.821 
733,425 
735,031 


2-346 063 
2-347 716 
2-349 371 


397 
719 

578 


2-091 

2092 

! 2-093 


2-430 638 877 
2-432 370 698 
2-434 104 123 


2044 
2-045 
2-046 


2-351 027 
2-352 685 
2-354 345 


977 
916 
395 


657,939 
659,479 
661,023 


2-094 
2-095 
2-096 


2-435 839 154 
2-437 575 792 
2-439 314 038 


7.36,638 
738,246 
739,855 


2-047 
2-048 
2-049 


2-356 006 418 
2-357 668 985 
2-359 333 098 


662,567 
664,113 
665,659 

1,667,207 


2-097 
2-098 
2-099 


2-441 053 893 
2-442 795 3.59 
2-444 538 437 


741.466 
743,078 
744,692 


2050 


2-360 998 


757 


2-100 


2-446 283 129 


1,746,308 



120 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lor 


Difference 


X 


lo-r 


Difference 


2-100 


2-446 283 


129 


1,746,308 


2-150 


2-535 605 


920 


1,828,840 


2-101 
2-102 
2-103 


2-448 029 
2-449 777 
2-451 526 


437 1 
361 
903 i 


1,747,924 
749,542 
751,161 


2-151 
2-152 
2-153 


2-537 434 
2-539 265 
2-541 097 


760 
287 
503 


1,830,527 
832,216 
833,905 


2104 
2-105 
2-106 


2-453 278 064 
2-455 030 845 
2-456 785 249 


752,781 
754,404 
756,027 


2154 
2-155 
2-156 


2 542 931 
2-544 767 
2-546 604 


408 
004 
293 


835,596 
837,289 
838,983 


2-107 
2-108 
2-109 


2-458 541 
2-400 298 
2-462 058 


276 
928 
206 


757,652 
759,278 
760,905 


2-157 
2-158 
2-159 


2 548 443 
2-550 283 
2-552 126 


276 
954 
330 


840,678 
842,376 
844,074 


2-110 


2-463 819 


111 


1,762,534 


2-160 


2-553 970 404 


1,845,773 


2-111 
2-112 
2113 


2-465 581 
2-467 345 
2-469 111 


645 

810 
606 


1,764,165 
765,796 
767,429 


2-161 
2-162 
2163 


2-555 816 
2-557 663 
2-559 512 


177 
651 
829 


1,847,474 
849.178 

850,882 


2-114 
2-115 
2-116 


2-470 879 
2-472 648 
2-474 418 


035 
099 

798 


769,064 
770,699 
772,337 


2-164 
2165 
2-166 


2-561 363 
2-56.-; 216 
2-565 070 


711 
299 
594 


852,588 
854,295 
856,003 


2117 
2-118 
2-119 


2-476 191 
2-477 965 
2-479 740 


135 

110 
725 


773,975 
775,615 

777,258 


2-167 
2-168 
2-169 


2-566 926 
2-568 784 
2-570 643 


597 
310 
734 


857,713 
859,424 
861,138 


2120 


2-481 517 


983 


1,778,899 


2-170 


2-572 504 


872 


1,862,852 


2121 
2 122 
2-123 


2-.4e3 296 
2-485 077 
2-486 859 


882 
426 
615 


1,780,544 
782,189 
783,836 


2-171 
2172 
2-173 


2-574 367 
2-576 232 
2-578 098 


724 
292 
578 


1,864,568 
866,286 
868,005 


2-124 
2-125 
2126 


2-488 643 
2-490 428 
2-492 216 


451 
936 
071 


785,485 
787,135 

788,786 


2-174 
2175 
2-176 


2-579 966 
2-581 836 
2-583 707 


583 
307 
753 


869,724 
871,446 
873,169 


2127 
2128 
2-129 


2-494 004 
2-495 795 
2-497 587 


857 
295 
387 


790,438 
792,092 
793,748 


2-177 
2-178 
2-179 


2-585 580 
2-587 455 
2-589 332 


922 

817 
438 


874,895 
876,621 
878,349 


2-130 


2-499 381 


135 


1,795,405 


2-180 


2-591 210 


787 


1,880,078 


2-131 
2-132 
2-133 


2-501 176 
2-502 973 
2-504 772 


540 
603 
325 


1,797,063 

798,722 
800,384 


2-181 
2-182 
2-183 


2-593 090 
2-594 972 
2-596 856 


865 
673 
213 


1,881,808 
883,540 
885,274 


2134 
2-135 
2-136 


2-506 572 
2-508 374 
2-510 178 


709 
756 
466 


802,047 
803,710 
805,376 


2-184 
2-185 
2-186 


2-598 741 
2-600 628 
2-602 517 


487 
496 
242 


887,009 

888,746 
890,484 


2-137 
2138 
2-139 


2-511 983 812 
2-513 790 884 
2-515 599 594 


807,042 
808,710 
810,380 


2-187 
2-188 
2-189 


2-604 407 
2-606 299 
2-608 193 


726 
949 
914 


892,223 
893,965 
895.707 


2-140 


2-517 409 


974 


1,812,051 

1,813,724 
815,398 
817,073 


2-190 


2-610 089 


621 


1,897,451 


2-141 

2-142 
2143 


2-519 222 

2-521 035 

: 2-522 851 


025 
749 
147 


2191 
2-192 
2193 


2611 987 
2-613 886 
2-615 787 


072 
269 
213 


1,899,197 
900,944 
902,693 


2144 
2145 
2-146 


1 2-524 668 
1 2-526 486 
1 2-528 307 


220 
970 
397 


818,750 
820,427 
822,108 


2-194 
2-195 
2196 


2-617 689 
2-619 594 
2-621 500 


906 
.348 
542 


904,442 
906,194 
907,947 


2-147 
2-148 
2-149 


2-530 129 
2-531 953 
2-533 778 


505 
294 
765 


823,789 
825,471 
827,155 


2-197 
2-198 
2199 


2-623 408 
2-625 318 
2-627 229 


489 
190 
648 


909,701 
911,458 
913,216 


2150 


2-535 605 


920 


1,828,840 


2-200 


2-629 142 


864 


1,914,974 



ox MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



121 



X 


lor 


Difforence 


X 


V 


Difference 


2-200 


2-629 142 


864 


1,914,974 

1,916,735 

918,497 
920,261 


2-250 

2-251 
2-252 
2-253 


2-727 078 


307 


2,004,886 


2-201 
2-202 
2-203 


2-631 057 
2-632 974 
2-634 893 


838 
573 
070 


2-729 083 
2-731 089 
2-733 098 


193 
917 
480 


2.006,724 

8,563 

10,405 


2-204 
2-205 
2-206 


2-636 813 
2G38 735 
2-640 659 


331 
357 
149 


922,026 
923,792 
925,561 


2-254 
2-255 
2-256 


2-735 

2-737 
2-739 


108 
121 
135 


885 
133 
224 


12,248 
14,091 
15,938 


2-207 
2-208 
2-209 


2-642 584 
2-644 512 
2-646 441 


710 
042 
143 


927,332 
929,101 
930,874 

1,932,649 

1,934,425 
936,201 
937,981 


2-257 

2-258 
2-259 

~2^260 


2-741 
2-743 
2-745 


151 

168 

188 


162 

948 
582 


17,786 
19.634 
21,486 


2-210 


2-648 372 017 


2-747 


210 068 


2,023,337 


2-211 
2-212 
2213 


2-650 304 
2-652 239 
2-654 175 


666 
091 
292 


2-261 
2-262 
2-263 


2-749 
2-751 
2-753 


233 
258 
285 


405 
597 
644 


2,025,192 
27,047 
28,904 


2-214 
2-215 
2-216 


2-656 113 
2-658 053 
2-659 994 


273 
034 
578 


939,761 
941,544 
943,326 


2-264 
2-265 
2-266 


2-755 
2-757 
2-759 


314 
345 

377 


548 
311 
934 


.30,763 
32,623 
34,485 


2-217 
2218 
2-219 


2-661 937 
2-663 883 
2-665 829 


904 
015 
913 


945.111 
946,898 
948,686 

1,950,476 


2-267 

2-268 
2-269 


2-761 
2-763 
2-765 


412 

448 
486 


419 
769 
983 


36,350 
38,214 
40,080 


2-220 


2-667 778 


599 


2270 


2-767 


527 063 


2,041,949 


2-221 
2-222 
2-223 


2-669 729 
2-671 681 
2-673 635 


075 
341 
401 


1,952,266 
954,060 
955,854 


2-271 
2-272 
2-273 


2-769 
2-771 
2-773 


569 
612 
658 


012 
831 
522 


2,043,819 
45,691 
47,564 


2-224 
2-225 
2-226 


2-675 591 
2-677 548 
2-679 508 


255 
904 
351 


957,649 
959,447 
961,246 


2-274 
2-275 
2-276 


2-775 
2-777 
2-779 


706 
755 
806 


086 
525 
840 


49,439 
51,315 
53,194 


2-227 
2-228 
2-229 


2-681 469 
2-683 432 
2-685 397 


597 
642 
490 


963,045 
964,848 
966,652 

1,968,457 


2-277 
2-278 
2-279 


2-781 
2-783 

2-785 


860 
915 
972 


034 
108 
062 


55,074 
56,954 

58,838 


2-230 


2-687 364 


142 


2-280 


2-788 


030 


900 


2,060,722 


2-231 
2-233 
2-233 


2-689 332 
2-691 302 
2-693 274 


599 
862 
932 


1,970,263 
972,070 
973,881 


2-281 
2-282 
2-283 


2-790 
2-792 
2-794 


091 
154 

218 


622 
231 
727 


2,062,609 
64,496 
66,386 


-> 2-234 
2-235 
2-236 


2-695 248 
2-697 224 
2-699 202 


813 
506 
Oil 


975,693 
977,505 
979,318 


2-284 
2-285 
2-286 


2-796 
2-798 
2-800 


285 
353 
423 


113 
390 
560 


68,277 
70,170 
72,064 


2-237 
2-238 
2-239 

2-240~ 


2-701 181 
2-703 162 
2-705 145 


329 
466 
419 


981,137 
982,953 
984,772 


2-287 
2-288 
2289 


2-802 
2-804 
2-806 


495 
569 
645 


624 

585 
443 


73,961 

75,858 
77,757 


2-707 130 


191 


1,986,592 

1,988,415 
990,239 
992,064 


2-290 


2-808 


723 


200 


2,079,658 


2-241 
2-242 
2-243 


2-709 116 
2-711 105 
2-713 095 


783 
198 
437 


2-291 
2-292 
2-293 


2-810 

2-812 
2-814 


802 
884 
967 


858 
420 

885 


2,081,562 
83,465 
85,371 


2-244 
2-245 
2-246 


2-715 087 
2-717 081 
2-719 077 


501 
393 
113 


993,893 
995,720 
997,548 1 


2294 
2-295 
2296 


2-817 
2-819 
2-821 


053 
140 
229 


256 
535 
723 


87,279 
89,188 
91,098 


2-247 
2-248 
2-249 


2-721 074 661 
2-723 074 043 
2-725 075 258 


999,382 i 
2,001,215 i 
3,049 


2-297 
2-298 
2-299 


2-823 

2-825 
2-827 


320 
413 
508 


821 
833 
759 


93,012 
94,926 
96,842 


2-250 

f 


2-727 078 


307 


2,004,886 


2-300 


2-829 


605 


601 


2,098,759 



122 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


I,>^ 


Difference 


X 


V 


Diftcrence 


2-300 


2-829 605 


601 


2,098,759 


2-350 


2-936 927 


511 


2,196,787 


2-301 
2-302 
2303 


2-831 704 
2-833 805 
2-835 907 


360 
038 
637 


2,100,678 
102.599 
104,521 


2-351 

2-352 

j 2-353 


2-939 124 
2-941 323 
2-943 523 


298 
089 

885 


2,198.791 
200,796 
202,805 


2-304 
2-305 
2-306 


2-838 012 
2-840 US 
2S42 226 


158 
604 
976 


106,446 
108,372 
110,299 


i 2-354 
2-355 
2-356 


2-945 726 
2-947 931 
2-950 138 


690 
504 
329 


204,814 
206,825 
208,839 


2-307 
2-308 
2-309 


2-844 337 
2846 449 
2 848 563 


275 
504 
063 


112,229 
114,159 
116,091 


2-.357 
2-358 
2-359 

2-360 


2-952 347 
2-954 558 
2-956 770 


168 

022 
892 


210.854 
212.870 

! 214,888 


2-310 


2-850 679 


754 


2,118,026 


2-958 985 


780 


2,216,907 


2-311 
2-312 
2-313 


2-852 797 
2-854 917 
2-857 039 


780 
742 
642 


2,119,962 
121,900 
123,838 


2-361 
2-362 
2-363 


2-961 202 
2-963 421 
2-965 642 


687 
617 
571 


2,218.930 
220.954 
222,979 


2-314 
2-315 
2-316 


2-859 163 
2-801 289 
2-863 416 


480 
259 

981 


125,779 
127 722 
1291667 


2-364 

2-365 

i 2-366 


2-967 865 
2-970 090 
2-972 317 


550 
556 
590 


225,006 
227.034 
229,067 


2-317 
2-318 
2-319 


2-865 546 
2-867 678 
2-869 811 


648 
261 
820 


131,613 
133,559 
135,510 


2-367 
2-368 
2-369 


2-974 546 
2-976 777 
2-979 010 


657 
754 

885 


231.097 
233.131 
235,169 


2-320 


2-871 947 


330 


2,137,461 


2-370 


2-981 246 054 


2,237,206 


2-321 
2-322 
2-323 


2-874 084 
2-876 224 
2-878 365 


791 
204 
571 


2,139,413 
141.367 
143,323 


2-371 
. 2-372 
1 2-373 


2-983 483 
2-985 722 
2-987 963 


260 
505 
791 


2,239,245 
241.286 
243,329 


2-324 
2-325 
2-326 


2-880 508 
2-882 654 
2-884 801 


894 
176 
418 


145,282 
147,242 
149,202 


2-374 
2-375 
2-376 


2-990 207 
2-992 452 
2-994 699 


120 
494 
915 


245,374 
247,421 
249,470 


2-327 
2-328 
2-329 


2-886 950 
2-889 101 
2-891 254 


620 
785 
915 

Oil 


151,165 
153,130 
155,096 


2-377 
2-378 
2-379 


2-996 949 
2-999 200 
3-001 454 


385 
904 
475 


251,519 
253.571 
255,625 


2-330 


2-893 410 


2,157,064 


2-380 


3-003 710 


100 


2,257,680 

2.259,739 
261.797 
263,858 


2-331 
2-333 
2-333 


2-895 567 
2-897 726 
2-899 887 


075 
110 
116 


2,159,035 
161,006 
162,978 1 


2-381 
2-382 
2-383 


3-005 967 
3-008 227 
3010 489 


780 
519 
316 


2-334 
2-335 
2-336 


2-902 050 094 
2-904 215 048 
2-906 381 978 


164,954 
166,930 i 
168,908 


2-384 
2-385 
2-386 


3012 753 
3-015 019 
3017 287 


174 
095 
079 


265.921 
267,984 
270,052 


2-337 
2-338 
2-339 

2-340 


2-908 550 
2-910 721 
2-912 894 


886 
775 
646 


170,889 ! 

172,871 

174,854 


2-387 
2-388 
2-389 


3-019 557 
3021 829 
3-024 103 


131 
251 
440 


272,120 
274.189 
276,262 


2-915 069 


500 


2,176,839 


2-390 


3-026 379 


702 


2,278,334, 


2-341 

2-342 
2-343 


2-917 246 
2-919 425 
2 921 605 


339 
165 

980 


2,178,826 
180,815 
182,804 


2-391 
2-392 
2-393 


3028 658 
3030 938 
3033 220 


036 
446 
934 


2.280.4101 
282,488: 
284,566 


2-344 
2-345 
2-346 


2-923 788 
2-925 973 
2-928 160 


784 
582 
374 


184,798 
186,792 : 

188,786 ' 


2-394 
2-395 
2-396 


3035 505 
3-037 792 
3-040 080 


500 
147 

877 


286,647 
288,730 
290,814 


2-347 
2-348 
2-349 


2-930 349 
2-932 539 
2-934 732 


160 
944 
727 


190,784 1 
192,783 ! 
194,784 


2-397 
2-398 
2-399 

2-400 


3-042 371 
3-044 664 
3-046 959 


691 
591 
579 


292.900 
294,988 
297,079 


2-350 


2-936 927 


511 


2.196,787 ! 


3049 256 


658 


2,299,170 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



125 



X 


I^- 


Difference 


X 


lor 
3-166 815 966 


Difterence 


2-400 


3-049 256 658 


2,299,170 


2-450 


2,406,120 


2-401 
2-402 
2-403 

2-404 
2-405 
2-40G 

2-407 

2-408 
2-409 


3051 555 828 
3053 857 091 
3-056 160 450 

3058 465 906 
3-060 773 461 
3063 083 117 
3065 394 876 
3-067 708 740 
3 070 024 709 




2,301,263 
303,359 
305,456 

307,555 
309.656 
311,759 

313,864 
315,969 
318,077 


2-451 
2-452 
2-453 

2-454 
2-455 
2-456 

2-457 
2-458 
2-459 


3-169 222 086 
3- 171 630 394 
3174 040 890 

3-176 453 577 

3-178 868 457 
3-181 285 532 

3-183 704 804 
3186 126 274 
3-188 549 945 


2.408.308 
410,496 
412,687 

414.880 
417.075 
419,272 

421.470 
423,671 
425.873 


2-410 


3-072 342 786 


2,320,188 


! 2-460 

1 


3-190 975 818 ! 2.428,077 


2-411 
2-412 
2-413 

2-414 
2-415 
2-416 

2-417 
2-418 
2-419 


3074 662 974 
3076 985 274 
3079 309 687 

3081 636 216 
3083 964 862 
3086 295 628 

3-088 628 515 
3090 963 525 
3093 300 660 


2,322,300 
324,413 
326,529 

328.646 
330,766 
332,887 

335,010 
337,135 
339,261 


' 2-461 
2-462 
2-463 

2-464 
2 465 
2-466 

2-467 
2-468 
2-469 


3193 403 895 
3-195 834 179 
3-198 266 672 

3-200 701 374 
3-203 138 288 
3-205 577 417 

3-208 018 762 
3-210 462 324 
3-212 908 106 


2,430,284 
432,493 
434,702 

4.36,914 
439,129 
441,345 

443,562 

445,782 
448,005 


2-420 


3-095 639 921 


2,341,389 


' 2-470 


3-215 356 111 


2.450,228 


2-421 
2-422 
2-423 

2-424 
2-425 
2-426 

2-427 
2-428 
2-429 


3-097 981 310 
3- 100 324 831 
3102 670 485 

3105 018 271 
3-107 368 193 
3-109 720 254 

3112 074 455 
3114 430 797 
3-116 789 282 




2,343,521 
345,654 
347,786 

349,922 
352,061 
354,201 

356,342 
358,485 
360,631 


2-471 

2-472 
2-473 

2-474 
2-475 
2-476 

1 2-477 

. 2-478 

2-479 


3-217 806 339 
3-220 258 793 
3-222 713 475 

3-225 170 387 
3-227 629 529 
3-230 090 906 

3-232 554 519 
3-235 020 368 
3-237 488 457 


2,452,454 
454,682 
456,912 

459.142 
461,377 
463,613 

465.849 
468,089 
470,330 


2-430 


3119 149 913 


2,362,778 


. 2-480 


3-239 958 787 


2,472,574 


2-431 
2-432 
2-433 

2-434 
2-435 
2-43G 

2-437 

2-438 
2-439 


3121 512 691 
3123 877 619 
3-126 244 698 

3-128 613 928 
3-130 985 314 
3-133 358 857 

3-135 734 559 
3138 112 421 
3-140 492 445 


2,364,928 
367,079 
369,230 

371,386 
373,543 
375,702 

377,862 
380,024 

382,188 

2,384,354 


, 2-481 

' 2-482 
2-483 

2-484 
2-485 
2-486 

2-487 
2-488 
2-489 


3-242 431 361 
3-244 906 180 
3-247 383 247 

3-249 862 564 
3-252 344 131 
3-254 827 951 

3-257 314 026 
3-259 802 360 
3-262 292 953 


2.474.819 

477,067 
479,317 

481,567 
483,820 
486,075 

488,334 
490,593 
492,853 


2-440 


3142 874 633 


2-490 


3-264 785 806 


2,495.116 


2-441 
2-442 
2-443 

2-444 
2-445 
2-44G 

2-447 
2-448 
2-449 


3145 258 987 
3-147 645 510 
3-150 034 203 

3-152 425 066 
3-154 818 103 
3-157 213 317 

3-159 610 709 
3162 010 279 
3-164 412 031 




2,386,523 
388,693 
390,863 

393.037 
395,214 
397,392 

399,570 
401,752 
403,935 


2-491 
2-492 
2-493 

2-494 
2-495 
2-496 

2-497 
2-498 
2-499 


3-267 280 922 
3-269 778 304 
3-272 277 953 

3-274 779 871 
3-277 284 060 
3-279 790 523 

3-282 299 261 
3-284 810 275 
3-287 323 569 


2,497,382 
499,649 
501,918 

504.189 
506,463 
508,738 

511,014 
513,294 
515,575 


2-450 


3-166 815 966 


2,406,120 


2-500 


3-289 839 144 


2,517,858 



324 



EEPORT — 1896. 



X 


Jo^ 


DiflFerence 


X 


lo^ 


Difference 


2-500 


3-289 839 144 


2,517,858 


2-550 


3-418 571 


188 


2,634,614 


2-501 
2-502 
2-503 


3-292 357 002 
3-294 877 145 
3-297 399 576 


2,520,143 i 
522,431 . 1 
524,719 


2551 
2552 
2-553 


3-421 205 
3-423 842 
3-426 482 


802 
804 
197 


2,637,002 
639,393 
641,786 


2-504 
2-505 
2-506 


3-299 924 295 
3-302 451 306 
3-304 980 610 


527,011 
529,304 
531,599 


2-554 
2555 
2-556 


3429 123 
3-431 768 
3-434 414 


983 
162 
737 


644,179 
646,575 
648,973 


2-507 
2-508 
2-509 


3-307 512 209 
3-310 046 105 
3-312 582 302 


533,896 
536,197 
538,497 


2557 
2-558 
2-559 


3-437 063 
3-439 715 
3-442 368 


710 
085 
863 


651,875 
653,778 
656,183 


2-510 


3-315 120 799 


2,540,800 


2-560 


3-445 025 


046 


2,658,589 


2-511 
2-512 
2-513 


3-317 661 599 
3-320 204 70 
3-322 750 118 


2,543,106 
545,413 
547,722 


2-561 
2-562 
2-563 


3-447 683 
3-450 344 
3-453 008 


635 

633 
043 


2,660,998 
663,410 
665,823 


2-514 
2-515 
2-516 


3-325 297 840 
3-327 847 874 
3-330 400 222 


550,034 
552,348 
554,662 


2-564 
2-565 
2-566 


3-455 673 
3-458 342 
3-461 012 


866 
104 
760 


668,238 
670,656 
673,076 


2-517 
2-518 
2-519 


3-332 954 884 
3-335 511 865 
3-338 071 165 


556,981. 
559,300 
561,622 


2-567 
2-5C8 
2-569 


3-463 685 
3-466 361 
3-469 039 


836 
333 
255 


675,497 
677,922 
680,348 


2-520 


3-340 632 787 


2,563,945 ; 


2-570 

2-572 
2-573 


3-471 719 


603 


2,682,776 


2-521 
2-522 
2-523 


3-343 196 732 
3-345 763 003 
3-348 331 602 


2,566,271 
568,599 
570,928 


3-474 402 
3-477 087 
3-479 775 


379 
586 
225 


2,685,207 
687,639 
690,074 


2-524 
2-525 
2-526 


3-350 902 530 
3-353 475 790 
3-356 051 384 


573,260 
575,594 
577,930 


2-574 
2-575 
2-576 


3-482 465 
3-485 157 
3-487 852 


299 
810 
760 


692,511 
694,950 
697,391 


2-527 
2-528 
2-529 


3-358 629 314 
3-361 209 582 
3-363 792 191 


580,268 
582,609 
584,951 


2-577 
2-578 
2-579 


3-490 550 
3-493 249 
3 495 952 


151 
986 
267 


699,835 
702,281 
704,727 


2-530 


3-366 377 142 


2,587,294 


2-580 


3-498 656 


994 


2,707,177 


2-531 

2-532 
2-533 


3-368 964 436 
3-371 554 077 
3-374 146 067 


2,589,641 
591,990 
594,339 


2-581 

2-582 
2-583 


3-501 364 
3504 073 
3-506 785 


171 

800 

883 


2,709,629 
712,083 
714,541 


2-534 
2-535 
2-536 


3-376 740 406 
3-379 337 098 
3-381 936 144 


596,692 
599,046 
601,403 


2-584 
2-585 
2-586 


3-509 500 
3-512 217 
3-514 936 


424 
423 

882 


716,999 
719,459 
721,922 


2-537 
2-538 
2-539 


3-384 537 547 
3-387 141 309 
3-389 747 432 


603,762 
606,123 
608,486 


2-587 
2-588 
2-589 


3-517 658 804 
3 520 383 191 
3-523 110 046 


724,387 
726,855 
729,324 


2-540 


3-392 355 918 


2,610,851 


2-590 


3-525 839 


370 


2,731,795 


2-541 
2-542 
2-543 


3-394 966 769 
3-397 579 986 
3-400 195 572 


2,613.217 
615,586 
617,958 


' 2-591 
2-592 
2-593 


3-528 571 
3-531 305 
3-534 042 


165 
434 
179 


2,734,269 
736,745 
739,223 


2-544 
2-545 
2-546 


3-402 813 530 
3-405 433 861 
3-408 056 567 


620,331 
622,706 
625,083 


2-594 
, 2-595 
! 2-596 


3-536 781 
3-539 523 
3-542 267 


402 
105 
291 


741,703 
744,186 
746,671 


2-547 
2-548 
2-549 


3-410 681 650 
3-413 309 114 
3-416 938 960 


627,464 
629,846 
632.228 


2-597 
2-598 
2-599 


3-545 013 
3-547 763 
3-550 514 


962 
119 
766 


749,157 
751,647 
754,138 

2,756,632 


2-550 


3-418 571 188 


2,634,614 


2-600 


3-553 268 


904 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



125' 



X 


lo'^ 


Difference 


X 


v- 


Difference 


2-600 


3-553 268 


904 


2,756,632 


2-650 


3-694 201 463 

3-697 085 625 
3099 972 396 
3702 861 777 


2,884,162 


2-601 
2-602 
2-603 


3-556 025 536 
3-558 784 663 
3-561 546 288 


2,759,127 
761,625 
764,125 


2-651 
2-652 
2-053 


2,886,771 
889,381 
891,994 


2-604 
2-605 
2-606 


3-564 310 
3-567 077 
3-569 846 


413 
041 
173 


766,628 
769,132 
771,639 


2-654 
2-655 
2-656 


3-705 753 771 
3-708 648 382 
3-711 545 609 


894,611 
897,227 

899,848 


2-607 
2-608 
2-609 


3-572 617 
3-575 391 
3-578 168 


812 
960 
619 


774,148 
776,659 
779,172 


2-657 
2-658 
2-059 


3-714 445 457 
3-717 347 928 
3-720 253 024 


902,471 
905,096 
907,723 

2,910.352 


2-610 


3-580 947 


791 


2,781,688 


2-660 


3-723 160 747 


2-611 
2-612 
2-613 


3-583 729 479 
3-586 513 685 
3-589 300 411 


2,784,206 
786,726 
789,248 


2-661 
2-662 
2-663 


3-726 071 099 
3-728 984 084 
3-731 899 703 


2,912,985 
915,619 
918,255 


2-614 
2615 
2-616 


3-592 089 659 
3-594 881 433 
3-597 075 732 


791,774 
794,299 
796,829 


2-664 
2065 
2-606 


3-734 817 958 
3-737 738 852 
3-740 662 387 


920,894 
923,535 
926,179 


2-617 
2-618 
2-619 


3-600 472 
3-603 271 
3-606 073 


661 
922 
815 


799,361 
801,893 
804,430 


2-067 
2-008 
2-069 


3-743 588 566 
3-746 517 390 
3 749 448 863 


928,824 
931,473 
934,124 


2-620 


3-608 878 


245 


2,806,966 


2-670 


3-752 382 987 


2,936,777 


2-621 
2-622 
2-623 


3-611 685 
3-614 494 
3-617 306 


211 
719 
769 


2,809,508 
812,050 
814,596 


2-671 
2-672 
2-673 


3-755 319 764 
3-758 259 195 
S-761 201 284 


2,939,431 
942,089 
944,750 


2-624 
2-625 
2-626 


3-620 121 
3-622 938 
3-625 758 


305 

506 
197 


817.141 
819,691 
822,243 


2-674 
2-675 
2-676 


3-764 146 034 
3-767 093 446 
3-770 043 523 


947,412 
950,077 
952,744 


2-627 
2-628 
2-629 


3-628 580 
3-631 405 
3-634 232 


440 
236 
588 


824,796 
827,352 
'829,912 


2-677 

, 2-678 

2-679 


3-772 990 207 
3-775 951 080 
3-778 909 765 


955,413 
958,085 
960,760 

2,963,436 


2-630 


3-637 062 


500 


2,832,471 


2-680 


3-781 870 525 


2-631 
2-632 
2-633 


3639 894 971 
3-642 730 005 
3-645 567 605 


2,835,034 
837,600 
840,166 


2-681 
2-082 
2-683 


3-784 833 961 
3-787 800 070 
3-790 768 872 


2,966,115 

968,796 
971,480 


2-634 
2-635 
2-630 


3-648 407 
3-651 250 
3-654 095 


771 
508 
816 


842,737 
845,308 

847,882 


2-684 
2-685 
2-686 


3-793 740 352 
3-796 714 519 
3-799 691 374 


974,167 
970,855 
979,546 


2-637 
2-638 
2-639 


3-656 943 
3-659 794 
3-662 647 


698 
157 
195 


850,459 
853,038 
855,619 


2-687 
2-68S 
2-689 


3-802 670 920 
3-805 653 158 
3-808 038 093 


982,238 
984,935 
987,633 


2-640 


3-665 502 


814 


2,858,201 


2-690 


3-811 625 726 


2,990,333 


2-641 
2-642 
2-643 


3-668 361 
3-671 221 
3-674 085 


015 

803 
178 


2,860,788 
863,375 
805,966 


2-691 
2-692 
2-693 


3-814 616 059 
3-817 609 095 
3-820 604 837 


2,993,036 
995,742 
998,449 


2-644 
2-645 
2-646 


3-676 951 
3-679 819 
3-082 690 


144 

703 
856 


868,559 
871,153 
873,750 


2-694 
2-695 
2-696 


3-823 603 280 
3-826 604 445 
3-829 608 316 


3,001,159 
3,871 
6,586 


2-647 
2-648 
2-649 


3-085 564 
3-688 440 
3-691 319 


606 
956 
907 


876,350 
878,951 
881,556 


2-697 
2-698 
2-699 


3-832 614 902 
3-835 024 200 
3-838 636 230 


9,304 
12,024 
14,747 


2-650 


3-694 201 


463 


2,884,162 


2-700 


3-841 650 977 


3,017,471 



126 



REPORT — 1896. 



I 


Io:i- 


Difl'ei-ence 

i 


.1- 


IqI- 




Difference 


2-700 

2-701 
2-702 
2-70;! 


3-841 


650 


977 


3,017.471 


2-750 


3-995 913 


107 


3,156,835 


3-844 
3-847 
3-850 


668 
688 
711 


448 
645 
571 


3,020,197 
22,926 
25,659 


2-751 
2-752 
2-753 


3-999 069 
4-002 229 
4-005 392 


942 
628 
167 


159,686 
162,539 
165,396 


2-704 
2-705 
2-706 


3-853 
3-856 
3-859 


737 
765 
796 


230 
623 
752 


28,393 
31,129 
33,869 


2-754 
2-755 
2-756 


4-008 557 
4-011 725 
4-014 896 


563 
817 
932 


168,254 
171,115 
173,979 


2-707 
2-708 
2-709 


3-862 
3-865 
3-868 


830 
867 
906 


621 
232 

586 


36,611 
39,354 
42,101 


2-757 
2-758 
2-759 


4-018 070 
4-021 247 
4-024 427 


911 
757 
471 


176,846 
179,714 
182,586 


2-710 


3-871 


948 


687 


3,044,849 


2-760 


4-027 610 057 


3,185,460 


2-711 
2-712 
2-713 


3-874 

3-878 
3-881 


993 
041 
091 


536 
137 
493 


3,047,601 
50,356 1 
53,110 1 


2-761 

2-762 
2-763 


4-030 795 
4-033 9S3 
4-037 175 


517 
853 
068 


3,188,336 
191,215 
194,097 


2-714 
2-715 
2-716 


3-884 
3-887 
3-890 


144 
200 
259 


603 
473 
104 


55,870 
58,631 
61,395 


2-764 
2-765 
2-766 


4-040 369 
4-043 566 
4-046 766 


165 
146 
015 


196,981 
199,869 
202,757 


2-717 
2-718 
2-719 

2-720 


3-893 
3-896 
3-899 


320 
384 
451 


499 
659 

588 


64,160 
66,929 
69,700 


2-767 

2-768 
2-769 


4-049 968 
4-053 174 
4-056 382 


772 
422 
966 


205,650 
208,544 
211,441 


3-902 


521 


288 


3,072,474 


2-770 


4-059 594 


407 


8,214,340 


2-721 
2-722 
2-723 


3-905 
3-908 
3-911 


593 
669 
747 


762 
Oil 
039 


3,075,249 

78,028 
80,808 


2-771 
2-772 
2-773 


4-062 808 
4-066 025 
4-069 246 


747 
990 
138 


3,217,243 

220,148 
223,056 


2-724 
2-725 
2-726 


3-914 827 
3-917 911 
3-920 997 


847 
4:!9 

817 


83,592 
86,378 
89,166 


2-774 
2-775 
2-776 


4-072 469 
4-075 695 
4-078 924 


194 

KiO 
038 


225,966 

228,878 
231,793 


2-727 
2-728 
2-729 


3-924 
3-927 
3-930 


086 
178 
273 


983 
940 
690 


91,957 
94,750 
97,546 


2-777 
2-778 
2-779 


4-082 155 
4-085 390 
4-088 628 


831 
542 
174 


234,711 
237,632 
240,555 


2-730 


3-933 


371 


236 


3,100,344 


2-780 


4-091 868 


729 


3,243,481 


2-731 
2-732 
2-733 


3-936 
3-939 
3-942 


471 
574 

680 


580 
725 
673 


3,103,145 
105,948 
108,754 


2-781 
2-782 
2-783 


4-095 112 
4098 358 
4101 607 


210 
618 
957 


3,246,408 
249,339 
252,274 


2-734 
2-735 
2-736 


3-945 
3-948 
3-952 


789 
900 
015 


427 
988 
361 


111,561 
114,373 
117,186 


2-784 
2-785 
2-786 


4-104 860 
4-108 115 
4-111 373 


231 
440 

588 


255,209 
258,148 
261,090 


2-737 
2-738 
2-739 


3-955 

3-958 
3-961 


132 
252 
375 


547 

548 
368 


120,001 
122,820 
125,641 


2-787 
2-788 
2-789 

2-790~ 


4-114 634 

4-117 898 
4-121 165 


678 
711 
691 


2(54,033 
266,980 
2(59,930 


2-740 

2-741 
2-742 
2-743 


3-9G4 


501 


009 


3,128,463 


4124 435 621 


3,272,881 


3-967 
3-970 
3-973 


629 
760 
894 


472 
762 

880 


3,131,290 
134,118 
136,948 


2-791 
2-792 
2-793 


4-127 708 
4-130 984 
4-134 263 


502 
337 
130 


3.275,835 
278,793 
281,753 


2-744 
2-745 
2-746 


3-977 
3-980 
3-983 


031 
171 
314 


828 
610 
227 


139,782 
142,617 
145,456 


2-794 
2-795 
2-796 


4-137 544 
4-140 829 
4-144 117 


SS3 
598 
279 


284,715 
287,681 
290,648 


2-747 
2-748 
2-749 


3-986 
3-989 
3-992 


459 
607 
759 


683 
980 
121 


148,297 
151,141 
153,986 


2-797 
2-798 
2-799 


4-147 407 
4-150 701 
4-153 998 


927 
545 
137 


293,618 
296,592 
299,567 


2-750 


3-995 


913 


107 


3,156,835 


2-800 


4-157 297 


704 


3,302,545 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



127 



X 


lox 


Difference | 


X 


Jo-i- 


Difference 


2-800 


4-157 297 704 


3,302,545 

3,305,527 
308.510 
311,496 

314,486 
317,476 
320,472 

323,469 
326,468 
329,470 


2-850 


4-326 126 469 


3,454,906 

3,458,024 
461,143 
464,267 

467,393 
470,519 
473,652 

476,785 
479,922 
483,063 


2-801 
2-802 
2-803 

2-804 
2-805 
2-806 

2-807 
2-808 
2-809 


4-160 600 249 
4-163 905 776 
4-167 214 286 

4-170 525 782 
4-173 840 268 
4-177 157 744 

4-180 478 216 
4-183 801 685 
4-187 128 153 


2-851 

2-852 
2-853 

2-854 
2-855 
2-856 

2-857 
2-858 
2-859 


4-329 584 375 
4-333 042 399 
4-336 503 542 

4-339 9(i7 809 
4-343 435 202 
4-346 905 721 

4-350 379 373 
4-353 856 158 
4-357 336 080 


2-810 

2 -811" 

2-812 
2-813 

2-814 
2-815 
2 816 

2-817 
2-818 
2-819 


4-190 457 623 


3,332,476 


2-860 


4-360 819 143 


3,486,204 


4-193 790 099 
4-197 125 583 
4-200 464 076 

4-203 805 583 
4-207 150 106 
4-210 497 648 

4-213 848 210 
4-217 201 796 
4-220 558 409 


3,335,484 
338,493 
341,507 

344,523 
347,542 
350,562 

353.586 
356,613 
359,642 


2-861 
2-862 
2-863 

2-864 
2-865 
2-866 

2-867 
2-868 
2-869 


4-364 305 347 
4-367 794 697 
4-371 287 195 

4-374 782 843 
4-378 281 645 
4-381 783 604 

4-385 288 722 
4-388 797 002 
4-392 308 448 


3,489,350 
492,498 
495,648 

498,802 
501,959 
505,118 

508,280 
511,446 
514,613 


2-820 


4-223 918 051 


3,362,674 


2-870 


4-395 823 061 


3,517,784 


2-821 
2-822 
2-823 

2-824 
2-825 

2826 

2-827 
2-828 
2-829 


4-227 280 725 
4-230 646 434 
4-234 015 180 

4-237 386 967 
4-240 761 797 
4-244 139 672 

4-247 520 595 
4-250 904 569 
4-254 291 598 


3,365,709 

368,746 
371,787 

374,830 

377,875 
380,923 

383,974 
387,029 
390,085 


2-871 
2-872 
2-873 

2-874 

I 2-875 

2-876 

2-877 
2-878 
2-879 


4-399 340 845 
4-402 861 801 
4-406 385 935 

4-409 913 248 
4-413 443 743 
4-416 977 423 

4-420 514 290 
4-424 054 348 
4-427 597 600 


3,520,956 
524,134 
527,313 

530,495 
533,680 
536,867 

540,058 
543,252 
546,448 


2-830 

2-83P 

2-832 

2-833 

2-834 
2-835 
2-836 

2-837 
2-838 
2-839 


4-257 681 683 


3,393,143 


2-880 


4-431 144 048 


3,549,646 


4-261 074 826 
4-264 471 032 
4-267 870 303 

4-271 272 641 
4-274 678 049 
4-278 086 530 

4-281 498 087 
4-284 912 722 
4-288 330 439 


3,396,206 
399.271 
402,338 

405,408 
408,481 
411,557 
414,635 
417,717 
420,801 

3,423,886 


2-881 

2-882 
1 2-883 

2-884 
2-885 
2-886 

2-887 
2-888 
2-889 


4-434 693 694 
4-438 246 544 
4-441 802 598 

4-445 361 859 
4-448 024 332 
4-452 490 018 

4-456 058 920 
4-459 631 042 
4-463 206 386 


3,552,850 
556,054 
.559,261 

562,473 
565,686 
568,902 

572,122 
575,344 
578,569 


2-840 

2-841 
2-842 
2-843 

2-844 
2-845 
2-846 

2-847 
2848 
2-849 


4-291 751 240 


2-890 


4-466 784 955 


3,581,797 

3,585,028 
588,261 
591,498 

594,738 
597,980 
601,226 

604,474 
607,725 
610,979 


4-295 175 126 
4-298 602 103 
4-302 032 172 

4-305 465 335 
4-308 901 597 
4-312 340 959 

4-315 783 425 
4-319 228 996 
4-322 677 677 


3,426,977 
430,069 
433,163 

436,262 
439,362 
442,466 

445,571 
448,681 
451,792 

3,454,906 


2-891 
2-892 
2-893 

2-894 

2-895 

i 2-896 

2-897 
2-898 
2-899 


4-470 366 752 
4-473 951 780 
4-477 540 041 

4-481 131 539 
4-484 726 277 
4-488 324 257 

4-491 925 483 
4-495 529 957 
4-499 137 682 


2-850 


4-326 129 469 


2-900 


4-502 748 661 


3,614,236 



128 



REPORT — 1896. 



a- 


lo^r 


Difference 


X 


I«x 


Difference 


2-900 


4-502 


748 661 


3,614,236 


2-950 


4-687 511 


830 


3,780,869 


2-901 
2-902 
2-903 


4-506 
4-509 
4-513 


362 897 
980 393 
601 153 


3,617,496 
620,760 
624,025 


2-951 
2-952 
2-953 


4-691 292 
4-695 076 
4-698 864 


699 
976 
666 


3,784,277 
787,690 
791,107 


2-904 
2-905 
2-906 


4-517 
4-520 
4-524 


225 178 
852 471 
483 037 


627,293 
630,566 
633,839 


2-954 
2-955 
2-956 


4-702 655 
4-706 450 
4-710 248 


773 
298 
245 


794,525 
797,947 
801,370 


2-907 
2-908 
2-909 


4-528 
4-531 
4-535 


116 876 
753 993 
394 391 


637,117 
640,398 
643,681 


2-957 
2-968 
2-959 


4-714 049 
4-717 864 
4-721 662 


615 
415 
646 


804,800 
808,231 
811,664 


2-910 


4-539 


038 072 


3,646,968 


2-960 


4-725 474 


310 


3,815,102 


2-911 
2-912 
2-913 


4-542 
4-546 
4-549 


685 040 
335 296 

988 846 


3,650,256 
653,550 
656,844 


2961 
2-962 
2-963 


4-729 289 
4-733 107 
4-736 929 


412 
953 
938 


3,818,541 
821,985 
825,432 


2-914 
2-915 
2-916 


4-553 645 690 
4-557 305 832 
4-560 969 275 


660,142 
663,443 
666,748 


2-964 
2-965 
2-966 


4-740 755 
4-744 584 

4-748 416 


370 
251 
585 


828,881 
832,334 
835,790 


2-917 
2-918 
2-919 


4-564 
4-568 
4-571 


636 023 

306 078 
979 442 


670,055 
673,364. 
676,678 


2-967 
2-968 
2-969 


4-752 252 
4-756 091 
4-759 934 


375 
623 
333 


839,248 
842,710 
846,176 


2-920 


4-575 


656 120 


3,679,994 


2-970 


4-763 780 509 


3,849,643 


2-921 
2-922 
2-923 


4-579 
4-583 
4-586 


336 114 
019 426 
706 061 


3,683,312 
686,635 
689,959 


2-971 
2-972 
2-973 


4-767 630 
4-771 483 
4-775 339 


152 
267 

857 


3,853,115 
856,590 
860,066 


2-924 
2-925 
2-926 


4-590 396 020 
4-594 089 307 
4-597 785 925 


693,287 
696,618 
699,952 


2-974 
2-975 
2-976 


4-779 199 923 
4-783 063 471 
4-786 930 503 


863,548 
867,032 
870,518 


2-927 
2-928 
2-929 


4-601 
4-605 
4-608 


485 877 
189 166 
895 795 


703,289 
706,629 
709,971 


2-977 
2-978 
2-979 


4-790 801 
4-794 675 
4-798 552 


021 
029 
531 


874,008 
877,502 
880,998 


2-930 


4-612 


605 766 


3,713,317 


2-980 


4-802 433 


529 


3,884,497 


2-931 
2-932 
2-933 


4-616 319 083 
4-620 035 749 
4-623 755 767 


3,716,666 
720,018 
723,373 


2-981 
2-982 
2-983 


4-806 318 
4-810 206 
4-814 097 


026 
026 
532 


3,888,000 
891,506 
895,015 


2-934 
2-935 
2-936 


4-627 
4-631 
4-634 


479 140 
205 871 
935 963 


726,731 
730,092 
733,455 


2-984 
2-985 
2-986 


4-817 992 
4-821 S91 
4-825 793 


547 
074 
116 


898,527 
902,042 
905,560 


2-937 
2-938 
2-939 


4-638 
4642 
4-646 


669 418 
406 240 
146 432 


736,822 
740,192 
743,565 


2-987 
2-988 
2-989 


4-829 698 
4-833 607 
4-837 520 


676 
758 
366 


909,082 
912,608 
916,135 


2-940 


4-649 


889 997 


3,746,942 


2-990 


4-841 436 


501 


3,919,666 


2-941 
2-942 
2-943 


4-653 
4-657 
4-661 


636 939 
387 259 
140 961 


3,750,320 
753,702 
757,088 


2-991 
2-992 
2-993 


4-845 356 
4-849 279 
4-853 206 


167 

367 
105 


3,923,200 
926,738 
930,278 


2-944 
2-945 
2-946 


4-664 
4-668 
4-672 


898 019 
658 524 
422 390 


760,475 
763,866 
767,261 


2-994 
2-995 
2-996 


4-857 136 383 
4-861 070 206 
4-865 007 575 


933,823 
937,369 
940,919 


2-947 
2-948 
2-949 


4-676 
4-679 
4-683 


189 651 
960 310 
734 368 


770,659 
774,058 
777,462 


2-997 
2-998 
2-999 


4-868 948 
4-872 892 
4-876 840 


494 
967 
996 


944,473 
948,029 
951,590 


2-950 


4-687 


511 830 


3,780,869 


3-000 


4-880 792 


586 


3,955,152 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



129 



X 


lox 


Difference 


X 


V 


Difference 


3000 

3-001 
3002 
3003 


4-880 792 586 


3,955,152 


3050 


5082 982 


407 


4,137,453 


4-884 747 738 
4-888 706 456 
4-892 668 744 


3.958,718 
962,288 
965,861 


3-051 
3-052 
3-053 


5-087 119 
5-091 261 
5095 405 


860 
044 
962 


4,141,184 
144,918 
148,656 


3-004 
3005 
3-006 


4-896 634 605 
4-900 604 042 
4-904 577 057 


969,437 
973,015 
976,597 


3054 
3-055 
3056 


5099 554 
5-103 707 
5107 863 


618 
014 
153 


152,396 
156,139 

159,886 


3007 
3-008 
3009 


4-908 553 654 
4-912 533 837 
4 916 517 609 


980,183 
983,772 
987,365 


3-057 
3-058 
3-059 


5112 023 
6116 186 
5-120 354 


039 
676 
068 


163,637 
167,392 
171,149 


3010 


4-920 504 974 


3,990,959 


3-060 

3061 
3062 
3063 


5-124 525 


217 


4,174,909 

4,178,674 
182,442 
188,213 


3011 
3012 
3013 


4-924 495 933 
4-928 -490 490 
4-932 488 650 


3,994,557 

998,160 

4,001,764 


5-128 700 
5-132 878 
5-137 061 


126 
800 
242 


3014 
3015 
3016 


4-936 490 414 
4-940 495 786 
4 944 504 770 


5,372 

8,984 

12,598 


3-064 
3-065 
3066 


5-141 247 
5-145 437 
5-149 631 


455 
441 
205 


189,986 
193,764 
197,546 


3017 
3018 
3019 


4-948 517 368 
4-952 533 584 
4-956 553 422 


16,216 
19,838 
23,462 


3-067 
3-068 
3069 


5-153 828 751 
5-168 030 081 
5162 235 199 


201,330 
205,118 
208,910 


3-020 


4-960 576 884 


4,027,090 


3-070 


5-166 444 


109 


4,212,704 


3-021 
3022 
3023 


4-964 603 974 
4-968 634 695 
4-972 669 049 


4,030,721 
34,354 
37,993 


3-071 
3-072 
3-073 


5170 666 
5-174 873 
5179 093 


813 
316 
620 


4,216,503 
220,304 
224,110 


3024 
3025 
3026 


4-976 707 042 
4-980 748 675 
4-984 793 952 


41,633 

45,277 
48,924 


3-074 
3075 
3-076 


5- 183 317 
5-187 545 
6-191 777 


730 
648 
378 


227,918 
231,730 
235,546 


3-027 

1 3 028 

3029 


4-988 842 876 
4-992 895 451 
4-996 951 681 


52,575 
56,230 
59,886 

4,063,547 

4,067,211 

70,878 
74,548 


3077 

' 3-078 

3-079 


5-196 012 
5-200 252 
5-204 495 


924 

288 
475 


239,364 
243,187 
247,013 


3030 


5001 Oil 567 


3080 


5-208 742 


488 


4,250,841 


1 3031 
3-032 
3033 


5-005 075 114 
5-009 142 325 
5013 213 203 


3-081 
3082 
3-083 


5-212 993 329 
5-217 248 004 
5-221 606 514 


4,254,675 
258,510 
262,351 


3034 
3035 
3-036 


5017 287 751 
5-021 365 973 
5025 447 872 


78,222 
81,899 
85,579 


3-084 
3-085 
3086 


5-225 768 
5-230 035 
5-234 305 


865 
059 
098 


266,194 
270,039 
273,889 


3037 
3038 
3-039 


5029 533 451 
5-033 622 714 
5-037 715 665 


89,263 
92,951 
96,640 


3-087 
3-088 
3-089 


5-238 578 987 
5-242 856 730 
5-247 138 330 


277,743 
281,600 
285,461 


3-040 


5-041 812 305 


4,100,333 


3-090 


5-251 423 


791 


4,289,325 


3-041 

3-042 
3043 


5-045 912 638 
5050 016 669 
5054 124 400 


4,104,031 
107,731 
111,435 


3-091 
3-092 
3093 


5-255 713 
5-260 006 
5-264 303 


116 
308 
371 


4.293,192 
297,063 
300,937 


3044 
3045 
3-046 


5058 235 835 
5062 350 977 
5066 469 829 


115,142 
118,852 
122,565 


3-094 
3-095 
3-096 


5-268 604 
5-272 909 
5-277 217 


?08 
123 
820 


304,815 
308,697 
312,581 


3047 
3048 
3-049 


5-070 592 394 
5074 718 676 
5-078 848 680 


126,282 
130,004 
133,727 


3-097 
3-098 
3-099 


5-281 530 
5-285 846 
5-290 167 


401 
870 
232 


316,469 
320,362 
324,258 


3050 


5-082 982 407 


4,137,453 


3-100 


5-294 491 


490 


4,328,156 



1896 



130 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 




Io.r 




DifftrFPnce 


X 


Tor 


Difference 


3-100 


5-294 


491 


490 


4,328,156 

' 4,332,058~ 
335,965 
339,874 


; 3-150 


5-515 749 636 


4 527,661 


3-101 
3-102 
3-103 


5-298 
5-303 
5-3C7 


819 
151 

487 


646 
704 
669 


3-151 
3-152 
3-153 


5-520 277 297 
5-524 809 040 
5-529 344 871 


4,531.743 
535,831 
539,920 


3104 
3-105 
3106 


5-311 
5-316 

5-:{20 


827 
171 
519 


543 
330 
034 


343,787 
347.704 
351,623 


3-154 
3-155 
3-156 


5-533 884 791 
5-538 428 805 
5-542 976 916 


544,014 
548,111 
552,213 


3-107 
3108 
3-109 


5-324 
5-329 
5-333 


870 
226 
585 


667 
205 
680 


355,548 
359,475 
363,405 


3-157 
3-158 
3-159 


5-547 529 129 
5-552 085 446 
6-556 645 872 


556,317 
560,426 
564,539 


3-110 


5-337 


949 


085 

425 
702 
921 


4,367,340 

4,371,277 
375,219 
379,164 


3-160 


5-561 210 411 


4,.568,655 


3-111 
3112 
3-113 


5-342 
5-346 
5-351 


31C 
687 
062 


.3-161 
3-162 
3-163 


5-565 779 066 
5-570 351 840 
5-574 928 738 


4,572,774 
576,898 
581,025 


3-114 
3-115 
3-116 


5-355 
5-859 
5-364 


442 
825 
212 


085 
197 
261 


383,112 
387,064 
391,021 


3-164 
3-165 
3-166 


5-579 .509 763 
5-584 094 919 
5-588 684 211 


585,156 
589,292 
593,429 


3-117 
3-118 
3-119 


5-368 603 
5-372 998 
5-377 397 


282 
261 
203 


394,979 
398,942 
402,909 ■ 


3-167 
3-168 
3-169 


5-593 277 610 
5-597 875 212 
5-602 476 929 


597,572 
601,717 
605,868 

4,610,021 


3-120 


5-;!81 


800 


112 


4,406,879 


3-170 


5-607 082 797 


3121 
3-122 
3123 


5-386 
5-300 
5-395 


206 
617 
032 


991 
842 
672 


4,410,851 
414,«30 
418,810 


H171 
3-172 
3-173 


5-611 692 818 
5-616 306 996 
5-620 925 335 


4,614,178 
618,339 
622,504 


3-124 
3-125 
3126 


5-399 
5-403 
5-408 


451 
874 
301 


482 
277 
059 


422,795 
426,782 
430,774 


3-174 
3-175 
3-176 


5-625 .547 8.39 
5-630 174 511 
5-634 805 356 


626,672 
630,845 
635,021 


3-127 
3128 
3-129 


5-412 
5-417 
5-421 


731 
166 
605 


833 
602 
370 


434,769 
438,768 
442,769 


3177 
3-178 
3-179 

3-180 


5-6.39 440 377 
5-(;44 079 577 
5-648 722 961 


639,200 
643,384 
647,572 


3-130 


5-426 048 


139 


4,446,776 1 


5-653 370 583 

5-658 022 296 
5-662 678 253 
5-667 338 410 


4,651,763 


3-131 
3-132 
3133 


5-430 494 
5-434 945 
5-439 400 


915 

701 

500 


4,450,786 
454,799 
458,815 


3181 
3-182 
3-183 


4,655,957 
660,157 
664,359 


3134 
3135 
3-136 


5-443 
5-448 
5-452 


859 315 
322 152 
789 012 


462,837 
466,860 
470,889 


3-184 
3-185 
3-186 


5-672 002 769 
5-676 671 335 
5-681 344 111 


668,566 
672,776 
676,990 


3-137 
3-138 
3-139 


5-457 
5-461 
5-466 


259 
734 
213 


901 
821 

775 


474,920 
478,954 
482,994 


3-187 
3-188 
3-189 

3-190 


5-686 021 101 
5-690 702 308 
5-695 387 738 


681,207 
685,430 
689,656 

4,69.3,884 


3-140 


5-470 696 769 


4,487,036 


5-700 077 394 


3-141 
3-142 
3-143 


5-475 

5-479 
5-484 


183 805 

674 88G 
170 018 


4.491,081 
495,132 
499,185 


3-191 
3-192 
3193 


5-704 771 278 
5-709 469 .395 
5-714 171 749 


4,698,117 
702,354 
706,596 


3-144 
3-145 
3-146 


5-488 
5-493 
5-497 


669 
172 
679 


203 
445 

747 


503,242 
507,302 
511,367 


3-194 
3-195 
3198 


5-718 878 345 
5-723 589 184 
5-728 304 272 


710,839 
715,088 
719,341 


3-147 
3148 
3-149 


5-502 
5506 
5-511 


191 114 
706 548 
226 054 


51.5,434 
5 19,. 506 
523,582 


3197 
3-198 
3199 


5-733 023 613 
5 737 747 210 
5-742 475 067 


723,.597 
727,857 
732,120 


3-150 


5-515 


749 


636 


4,527,661 


3-200 


5-747 207 187 


4,736,388 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



.tzi 



X 


lo^ 


Difference 


X 


lox 


Difference 


3-200 


5-747 207 187 


4,736,388 

4,740,661 
744,936 
749,214 


3-250 


5-989 335 998 


4,954,779 


3-201 
3-202 
3-203 


5-751 943 575 
5-756 684 236 
5-761 429 172 


3-251 
3-252 
3-253 


5-994 290 777 
5-999 250 027 
6-004 213 750 


4,959,250 
963,723 
968,200 


3-204 
3-205 
3-206 


5-766 178 386 
5-770 931 884 
5-775 689 669 


753,498 

757,785 
762,077 


3-254 
3-255 
3-256 


6009 181 950 
6-014 154 632 
6019 131 800 


972,682 
977,168 
981,657 


3-207 
3-208 
3-209 


5-780 451 746 
a-785 218 117 
5-789 988 786 


766,371 
770,669 
774,973 


3-257 
3-258 
3-259 


6-024 113 457 
6-029 099 608 
6-034 090 258 


986,151 
990,650 
995,152 

4,999,657 


3-210 


5-794 763 759 


4,779,279 


3-260 


6-039 085 410 


3-211 
3-212 
3-213 


5-799 543 038 
5-804 326 628 
5-809 114 532 


4,783,590 
787,904 
792,222 


3-261 
3-262 
3-263 


6-044 085 067 
6-049 089 235 
6-054 097 917 


5,004,168 

8,682 

13,200 


3-214 
3-215 
3-216 


5-S13 906 754 
5-818 703 299 
5-823 504 169 


796,545 

800,870 
805,200 


3-264 
3-265 
3266 


6-059 111 117 
6-064 128 841 
6-069 151 091 


17,724 
22,250 
26,780 


3 217 
3-218 
3-219 


5-828 309 369 
5-833 118 904 
5-837 932 776 


809,535 
813,872 
818,214 


3-267 
3-268 
3-269 


6-074 177 871 
6-079 209 187 
6-084 245 042 


31,316 
35,855 
40,396 


3-220 


5-842 750 990 


4,822,560 


3-270 


6-089 285 438 


5,044,944 


3-221 
3-222 
3-223 


5-847 573 650 
5-852 400 460 
5-857 231 723 


4,826,910 
831,263 
835,6?1 


3-271 
3-272 
3-273 


6-094 330 382 
6 099 379 878 
6 104 433 929 


5,049,496 
54,051 
58,611 


3-224 
3-225 
3-226 


5-862 067 344 
5-866 907 326 
5-871 751 673 


839,982 
844,347 
848,718 


3-274 
3-275 
3-276 


6-109 492 540 
6114 555 715 
6-119 623 457 


63,175 
07,742 
72,314 


3-227 
3-228 
3-229 


5-876 600 391 
5-881 453 482 
5-886 310 949 


853,091 
857,467 
861,849 


3-277 
3-278 
3-279 


6-124 695 771 
6-129 772 662 
6-134 854 133 


76,891 
81,471 
86,056 


3-230 


5-89] 172 798 


4,866,235 


3-280 


6-139 940 189 


5,090,044 


3-231 
3-232 
3-233 


5-896 039 033 
5-900 909 656 
5-905 784 673 


4,870,623 
875,017 
879,414 


3-281 
3-282 
3-283 


6-145 030 833 
6-150 126 069 
6-155 225 903 


5,095,236 

99,834 

104,435 


3-234 
3-235 
3-236 


5-910 664 087 
5-915 547 902 
5-920 436 123 


883,815 
888,221 
892,630 


3-284 
3-285 
3-286 


6-160 330 338 
6-165 439 377 
6-170 553 027 


109,039 
113,650 
118,263 


3-237 
3-238 
3-239 


5-925 328 753 
5-930 225 796 
5-935 127 256 


897,013 
901,460 

905,881 


3-287 
3-288 
3-289 


6-175 671 290 
6-180 794 171 
6-185 921 674 


122,881 
127,.503 
132,130 


3-240 


5-940 033 137 


4,910,306 


3-290 


6-191 053 804 


5,136,760 


3-241 
3-242 
3-243 


5-944 943 443 
5-949 858 179 
5-954 777 347 


4,914,736 
919,168 
923,607 


3-291 
3-292 
3-293 


6-196 190 564 
6-201 331 958 
6-2G6 477 991 


5,141,394 
146,033 
150,676 


3-244 
3-245 
3-246 


5-959 700 954 
5-964 629 002 
5-969 561 495 


928,048 
932,493 
936,941 


3-294 
3-295 
3-296 


6-211 628 667 
6-216 783 991 
6-221 943 966 


155.324 
159,975 
164,631 


3-247 
3-248 
3-249 


5-974 498 436 
5-979 439 831 
5-984 385 684 


941,395 
945,853 
950,314 


3-297 
3-298 
3-299 


6-227 108 597 
6-2.32 277 887 
6-237 451 842 


169,290 
173,955 
178,623 

5,183,296 


3-250 


5-989 335 998 


4,954,779 


3-300 


6-242 630 465 



k2 



132 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lor 


Difference 


X 


lo^ 


Difference 


3-300 


6-242 


630 


465 


5,183,296 


3-350 


6-507 


608 


601 


5,422,421 


3-301 
3-302 
3-303 


6-247 
6-253 
6-258 


813 
001 
194 


761 
734 
388 


5,187,973 
192,654 
197,340 


3-351 
3-352 
3-353 


6-513 
6-518 
6-523 


031 
458 
890 


022 
337 
551 


5,427,315 
432,214 
437,117 


3-304 
3-305 
3-306 


6-2C3 
6-268 
6-273 


391 
593 
800 


728 
756 
479 


202,028 
206,723 
211,421 


3-354 
3-355 
3-356 


6-529 
6-534 
6540 


327 
769 
216 


668 
692 
628 


442,024 
446,936 
451,853 


3-307 
3-308 
3-309 


6-279 
6-284 
6-289 


Oil 

228 
448 


900 
023 
853 


216,123 
220,830 
225,541 


3-357 
3-358 
3 359 


6-545 
6-551 
6-556 


668 
125 
586 


481 
255 
953 


456,774 
461,698 
466,629 


3310 


6-294 


674 


394 


5,230,257 


3-360 


6-562 


053 


582 


5,471,564 


3-311 
3-312 
3-313 


6-299 
6-305 
6-310 


904 
139 
379 


651 
627 
326 


5,234,976 
239,699 
244,428 


3-361 
3 362 
3-363 


6-567 
6-573 
6-578 


525 146 
001 647 
483 092 


5,476,501 
481,445 
486,394 


3-314 
3-315 
3-316 


6-315 623 
6-320 872 
6-326 126 


754 
914 
811 


249.160 
253,897 
258,638 


3-364 
3-365 
3-366 


6-583 
6-589 
G-594 


969 
460 
957 


486 
832 
134 


491,346 
496,302 
501,264 


3-317 
3-318 
3-319 


6-331 
6-336 
6-341 


385 
648 
916 


449 
832 
965 


263,383 
268,133 ■ 
272,887 


3-367 
3-368 
3-369 


6-600 
6 605 
6-611 


458 
964 
475 


398 
628 

828 


506,230 
511,200 
516,174 


3-320 


6-347 


189 


852 


5,277,644 


3-370 


6-616 


992 


002 


5,521,154 


3-321 
3-322 
3-323 


6-352 467 496 
6-357 749 904 
6-363 037 079 


5,282,408 
287,175 
291,946 


3-371 
3-372 
3-373 


6-622 
6-628 
6-633 


513 
039 
570 


156 
294 
421 


5,526,138 
531,127 
536,119 


3-324 
3-325 
3-326 


6-368 
6-373 
6-378 


329 
625 
927 


025 
746 
247 


296,721 
301,501 
306,285 


3-374 
3-375 
3-376 


6-639 
6-644 
6-650 


lOfi 
647 
193 


540 
(;56 
776 


54], 116 
546,120 
551,126 


3-327 
3-328 
3-329 


6-384 
6-389 
6-394 


233 532 
544 606 
860 473 


311,074 
315,867 
320,665 


3-377 
3-378 
3-379 


6-655 
6-661 
6-666 


744 
301 
862 


902 
039 
191 


556,137 
561,152 
566,174 


3-330 

3-331 
3-332 
3-333 


6-400 


181 


138 


5,325,466 


1 3-380 


6-672 


428 


365 


5,571,198 


6-405 
6-410 
6-416 


506 
836 
171 


604 
876 
959 


5,330,272 
335,088 
339,897 


3-381 
3382 
3-383 


6-677 
6 683 
6-689 


999 
575 
157 


563 
790 
052 


5,576,227 
581,262 
586,301 


3-334 
3-335 
3-336 


6-4-21 
6-426 
6-432 


511 
856 
206 


856 
572 
111 


344,716 
349,539 
354,368 


3-384 
3-385 
3-386 


6-694 
6-700 
6-705 


743 
334 
931 


353 
696 

087 


591,343 
596,391 
601,443 


3-337 
3-338 
3-339 


6-437 
6-442 
6-448 


560 
919 
283 


479 
679 
715 


359,200 
364,036 
368,879 


3-387 
3-388 
3-389 


6-711 
6-717 
6-722 


532 
139 
750 


530 
030 
593 


606,500 
611,563 
616,628 


3-340 


6-453 


652 


594 


5,373,723 

5,378,573 
383,428 
388,286 


3-390 


6-728 


367 


221 


5,621,699 


3-341 
3-342 
3-343 


6-459 
6-464 
6-469 


026 

404 
788 


317 
890 
318 


3-391 
3 392 
3-393 


6-733 
6-739 
6-745 


988 
615 
247 


920 
695 
550 


5,626,775 
631,855 
636,939 


3-344 
3-345 
3-346 


6-475 
6-480 
6-485 


176 
569 
967 


604 
753 

770 


393,149 
398,017 
402,889 


3-394 
3-395 
3-396 


6-750 
6-756 
6 762 


884 
526 
173 


489 
517 
639 


642,028 
647,122 
652,221 


3-347 
3-348 
3-349 


6-491 
6-496 
6-502 


370 

778 
191 


659 
424 
070 


407,765 
412,646 
417,531 


3397 
3-398 
3 399 


6-767 825 
6-773 483 
6-779 145 


860 
184 
616 


657,324 
662,432 
667,544 


3-350 


6-507 


608 


601 


5,422,421 


3-400 


6-784 


813 


160 


5,672,662 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



133 



X 


V 


Difference 


X 


lor 


Diflfcrmce 


3-400 


6-784 813 160 


5,672,662 \ 


3-450 


7-074 812 823 


5,934,549 


3-401 
3-402 
3-403 


6-790 485 822 
6-796 163 605 
6-801 846 515 


5,677,783 
682,910 
688,041 


3-451 
3-452 
3453 


7080 747 372 
7086 687 280 
7-092 632 554 


5,939,908 
945,274 
950,644 


3-404 
3-405 
3-406 1 


6-807 53 1 556 
6-813 227 732 
6-818 926 050 


693,176 
698,318 
703,463 


3-454 
3-455 
3-456 


7-098 583 198 
7104 539 217 
7110 500 616 


956,019 
961,399 
966,784 


3-407 
3-408 
3-409 


6-824 629 513 
6-830 338 124 
6-836 051 890 


708,611 
713,766 
718,927 


3-457 
a-458 
3-459 


7-116 467 400 
7-122 439 573 
7-128 417 142 


972,173 
977,569 
982,968 


3-410 


6-841 770 817 


5,724,090 i 


3-460 


7-134 400 110 


5,988,371 


3-411 
3-412 
3-413 


6-847 494 907 
6-853 224 165 
6-85S 958 597 


5,729,258 

734,432 
739,609 


3-461 

3-462 
3-463 


7-140 388 481 
7-146 382 262 
7-152 381 459 


5,993,781 

999,197 

6,004,615 


3-414 

3-415 
3-416 


6-864 698 206 
6-870 442 999 
6-876 192 979 


744,793 
749,980 
755,173 


3-464 
3-465 
3-466 


7-158 386 074 
7-164 396 113 
7-170 411 581 


10,039 
15,468 
20,902 


3-417 
3-418 
3-419 


6-881 948 152 
6-887 708 521 
6-893 474 091 


760,369 
765,570 
770,777 


3-467 
3-468 
3-469 


7-176 432 483 
7-182 458 824 
7-188 490 609 


26,341 
31,785 
37,235 


3-420 


6-899 244 868 


5,775,988 


3-470 


7-194 527 844 


6,042,689 


3-421 
3-422 
3423 


6-905 020 856 
6-910 802 059 
6-916 588 484 


5,781,203 
786,425 
791,651 


3-471 
3-472 
3-473 


7-200 570 533 
7-206 618 679 
7-212 672 289 


6,048,146 
53,610 
59,080 


3-424 
3-425 
3-426 


6-922 380 135 
6-928 177 015 
6-933 979 130 


796,880 
802,115 
807,355 


3-474 
3-475 
3-476 


7-218 731 369 
7-224 795 923 
7-230 865 955 


64,554 
70,032 
75,516 


3-427 
3-428 
3-429 


6-939 786 485 
6-945 599 084 
6-951 416 932 


812,599 
817,848 
823,103 


3-477 
3-478 
3-479 


7-236 941 471 
7-243 022 476 
7-249 108 975 


81,005 
86,499 
91,997 


3-430 


6-957 210 035 


5,828,361 


3-480 


7-255 200 972 


6,097,502 


3-431 
3-432 
3-433 


6-963 068 396 
6968 902 021 
6-974 740 914 


5,833,625 
838,893 
844,166 


3-481 
3-482 
3-483 


7-261 298 474 
7-267 401 484 
7-273 510 008 


6,103,010 
108,524 
114,043 


3-434 
3-435 
3-436 


6-980 585 080 
6-986 434 525 
6-992 289 252 


849,445 
854,727 
860,014 


3-484 
3-485 
3-486 


7-279 624 051 
7-285 743 618 
7-291 868 714 


119,567 
125,096 
130,630 


3-437 
3-438 
3-439 


6 998 149 266 
7004 014 573 
7-009 885 177 


865,307 
870,604 
875,906 


3-487 
3-488 
3-489 


7-297 999 34 1 
7-304 135 513 
7-310 277 227 


136,169 
141,714 
147,262 


3-440 


7-015 761 083 


5,881,213 


3-490 


7-316 424 489 


6,152,816 


3-441 
3-442 
3-443 


7-021 642 296 
7027 528 821 
7-033 420 663 


5,886,525 
891,842 
897,163 


3-491 
3-492 
3-493 


7-322 577 305 
7-328 735 681 
7-334 899 623 


6,158,376 
163,941 
169,510 


3-444 
3-445 
3-446 


7-039 317 826 
7-045 220 315 
7-051 128 135 


902,489 
907,820 
913,156 


3494 
3-495 
3-496 


7-341 069 133 
7-347 244 216 
7-353 424 879 


175,084 
180.663 

186,248 


3-447 
3-448 
3-449 


7-057 041 291 
7-062 959 787 
7-068 883 629 


918,496 
923,842 
929,194 


3-497 
3-498 
3-499 


7 359 611 127 
7-365 802 966 
7-372 000 399 


191,839 
197,433 
203,033 


3-450 


7-074 812 823 


5,934,549 


3-500 

1 


7-378 203 432 


6,208,639 



isr 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lox 


Difference 


X 


lo-^ 


Difference 


' 3-500 


7-378 203 432 


6,208,639 


3-550 


7-695 609 296 


6,495,512 


3-501 
3-502 
3-503 


7-384 412 071 
7-390 626 319 
7-396 846 183 


6,214,248 
219,864 

225,484 


3-551 
3-552 
3-553 


7-702 104 808 
7-708 (;06 195 
7-715 113 459 


6,501,387 
507,264 
513,146 


3-504 
3-505 
3-506 


7-403 071 667 
7-400 302 777 
7 415 539 518 


231,110 
236.741 
242,376 


3-554 
3-555 
3-556 


7-721 626 605 
7-728 145 639 
7-734 670 566 


519,034 
524,927 

530,828 


3-507 
3-508 
3-509 


7-421 781 894 
7-428 029 911 
7-434 283 576 


248,017 
253,665 
259,315 ; 


3-557 
3-558 
3-559 


7-741 201 394 
7-747 738 126 
7-754 280 76(! 


536,731 
542,641 
548,556 


3-510 


7-440 542 891 


6,264,971 j 


3-530 


7-760 829 322 


6,554,476 


3-511 
3-512 
3-513 


7-446 807 862 
7-453 078 494 
7-459 354 796 


6,270,632 
276,301 
281,972 


3-561 
3-562 
3-563 


7-767 383 798 
7-773 944 201 
7-780 510 535 


6,560,403 
566,334 
572,270 


3-514 
3-515 
3-516 


7-465 G36 767 
7-471 924 416 
7-478 217 747 


287,649 
293.331 

299,019 


3-564 
3-565 
3-566 


7-7S7 0S2 805 
7-793 661 017 
7-800 246 178 


678.212 
684,161 
590,113 


3-517 
3518 
3-519 


7-484 516 766 
7-490 821 477 
7 497 131 887 


,304.711 
310,410 
316.112 


3-567 
3-568 
3-569 


7-806 835 291 
7-813 431 363 
7-820 033 399 


596,072 , 

(;()2,036 

608,005 


3-520 


7-503 447 999 


6,321,820 


3-570 


7-826 641 404 


6,613,980 


3-521 
3-522 
3-523 


7-509 769 819 
7-516 097 353 
7-522 430 606 


6,327,534 
333.253 

338,977 


3-571 
3-572 
3-573 


7-833 255 384 
7-839 S75 344 
7-846 501 290 


6,619,960 
625.946 
631,937 


3-524 
3-525 
3-526 


7-528 709 583 
7-535 114 289 
7-541 464 729 


344.706 
350,440 
356,180 


3-574 
3-575 
3-576 


7-853 133 227 
7-859 771 161 
7-866 415 097 


637,934 
643,936 
649,943 


3-527 
3-528 
3-529 


7-547 820 909 
7-554 182 835 
7-560 550 510 


361,926 
367,675 
373,430 


3-577 
3-.578 
3-579 


7-873 066 040 
7-879 720 997 
7-886 382 973 


656,957 
661,976 
667,999 


3-630 


7-566 923 940 


6,379,190 

6,384,957 
3;)0,728 
396,505 


3-680 

1 3-581 
3-582 
3-5S3 


7-893 050 972 


6,674,029 

6,680,065 
686,105 
692,151 


3-531 
3-532 
3-533 


7-573 303 130 

7-579 6S8 087 
7-586 078 815 


7-899 725 001 
7-906 405 066 
7-913 091 171 


3534 
3-535 
3536 


7-592 475 320 
7-5".)8 877 606 
7-605 285 679 


402,286 
408,073 
413,865 


3-584 
3-585 
3-586 


7-919 783 322 
7-926 481 525 
7-933 185 785 


698,203 
704,260 
710,323 


3-537 
3-538 
3-539 


7-611 699 544 
7-618 119 206 
7-624 544 671 


419.662 
425,465 
431,274 


3-587 

3-588 
3-589 

1 

3-590 


7-939 896 108 
7-946 612 499 
7-953 334 964 


716,391 
722,465 
72.S,.545 


3-540 


7-630 975 945 


6,437,087 


7-960 063 509 


6,734,630 

6,740,720 
746,816 
752,917 


3-541 
3542 
3-543 


7-637 413 032 
7-643 855 937 
7-650 304 667 


6,442,905 
448,730 
454, 55U 


3-591 
3-.592 
3-593 


7-966 798 139 
7-973 538 869 
7-980 285 675 


3-544 
3-545 
3-546 


7-656 759 226 
7-663 219 620 
7-669 685 854 


460,394 
466,234 
472,078 


3-594 
3-695 
3-596 


7-987 038 592 
7-993 7!i7 617 
8-000 562 755 


759,025 
765,138 
771,257 


3-547 
3-548 
3-549 


7-676 157 932 
7-682 635 862 
7-689 119 649 


477,930 

483,787 
489,647 


3-597 
3-598 
3-599 


8-007 334 012 
8-014 111 392 
8-020 894 902 


777,380 
783,610 
789,645 

6,795,786 


3-550 


7 695 609 296 


6,495,512 


3-600 


8-027 684 547 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



135 



X 


Io.r 


Difference 


X 


lo-i' 


Difference 


3-600 


8-027 684 547 


6,795,786 


3-650 


8-375 114 570 


7,110,095 

7,116,528 
122,968 
129,414 

135,806 
142,323 

148,788 

155,256 
161,731 
168,212 


3-601 
3-602 
3-603 

3-604 
3-605 
3-606 

3-607 
3-608 
3-609 


8-034 480 333 
8041 282 265 
8-048 090 350 

8-054 904 592 
8061 724 997 
8068 551 572 

8-075 384 321 
8-082 223 250 
8-089 068 365 


6,801,932 

808,085 
814,242 1 

820,405 1 
826,575 ! 
832,749 

838,929 1 
845,115 , 
851,306 


3-651 
3-652 
3-653 

3-654 
3-655 
3-656 

3-657 
3-658 
3-659 


8-382 224 671 
8-389 341 199 
8-396 464 167 

8-403 593 581 
8-410 729 447 
8-417 871 770 

8-425 020 558 
8-432 175 814 
8-439 337 545 


3-610 


8-095 919 671 


6,857,504 


3-660 


8-446 505 757 


7,174,700 


3-611 
3-612 
3-613 

3-614 
3-615 
3-616 

3-617 
3-618 
3-619 


S-102 777 175 
8-109 640 882 
8-116 510 797 

8-123 386 926 
8-130 269 276 
8-137 157 851 

8-144 052 657 
8150 953 700 
8-157 860 985 


6,863,707 
869,915 
876,129 

882,350 

888,575 
894,806 

901,043 
907,285 
913,534 


3-661 
3-662 
3-063 

3-664 
3-665 
3-666 

3-667 
3-668 
3-669 


8-453 080 457 
8-460 861 649 
8-468 049 341 

8-475 243 537 
8-482 444 244 
8-489 651 468 

8-496 865 215 
8-504 085 491 
8-511 312 302 


7,181,192 
187,692 
194,196 

200,707 
207,224 
213,747 

220,276 
226,811 
233,351 


3-620 


8-164 774 519 


6,919,789 


3-670 


8-518 545 653 


7,239,898 


3-621 
3-622 
3-623 

3-624 
3-625 
3-626 

3-627 
3-628 
3-629 


8-171 694 308 
8-178 620 356 
8-185 552 669 

8-192 491 254 
8-199 436 116 
8-206 387 261 
8-213 344 694 
8-220 308 421 
8-227 278 448 


6,926,048 
932,313 
938,585 

944,862 
951,145 
957,433 

963,727 
970,027 
976,333 


3-671 
3-672 
3-673 

3074 
3-675 
3-676 

3-677 
3-078 
3-079 


8-525 785 551 
8-533 032 001 
8-540 285 010 

8-547 544 584 
8-554 810 729 
8-562 083 451 

8-569 362 755 
8-576 648 048 
8-583 941 136 


7,246,450 
253,009 
259,574 

266,145 
272,722 
279,304 

285,893 
292,488 
299,088 


3-630 


8-234 254 781 


6,982,645 


3-680 


8-591 240 224 


7,305,090 


3-631 
3-632 
3-633 

3-634 
3-635 
3-636 

3-637 
3-638 
3-639 


8-241 237 426 
8-248 226 388 
8-255 221 673 

8-262 223 287 
8-269 231 235 
8-276 245 524 

8-283 206 160 
8-290 293 147 
8-297 326 492 


6,988,962 

995,285 

7,001,614 

7,948 
14,289 
20,636 

26,987 
33,345 
39,709 


3-681 
3-082 
3-683 

3-684 
3-685 
3-686 

3-687 
3-688 
3-689 


8-598 545 920 
8-605 858 228 
8-613 177 155 

8-620 502 708 
8-627 834 892 
8-635 173 713 

8-642 519 177 
8-649 871 290 
8-657 230 059 


7.312,308 
318,927 
325,553 

332,184 
338,821 
345,464 

352,113 
358,769 
305,431 


3-640 


8-304 366 201 


7,046,078 


3-690 


8-664 595 490 


7,372,098 


3-641 
3-642 
3-043 

3-644 
3-645 
3-646 

3-647 
3-648 
3-649 


8-311 412 279 
8-318 404 733 
8-325 523 568 

8-332 588 790 
8-339 660 404 
8-346 738 418 

8 353 822 836 
8-300 913 064 
8-368 010 909 


7,052,454 
58,B35 
05,222 

71,614 
78,014 
84,418 

90,828 

97,245 

103,067 

7,110,095 


3-091 
3-692 
3-693 

3-694 
3-695 
3-696 

3-697 
3-098 
3-699 


8-671 967 588 
8-679 346 360 
8-686 731 811 

8-694 123 949 
8-701 522 779 
8-708 928 307 

8-710 340 539 
8-723 759 4S2 
8-731 185 142 


7,378,772 
385,451 
392,138 

398,830 
405,528 
412,232 

! 418,943 
425,660 
432,382 


3-650 


8375 114 576 


3-700 


8-738 617 524 


7,439,112 



136 



KEPORT — 1896. 



X 


V 


Difference 


X 


lo^ 


Differeoce 


3-700 


8-738 617 524 


7,439,112 


3-750 


9118 945 861 


7,783,538 

7,790,589 
797,647 
804,710 

811,780 
818,857 
825,940 

833,029 
840,126 

847,228 


3-701 
3-702 
3-703 

3-704 
3-705 
3-70G 

3-707 
3-70S 
3-709 


8-746 056 636 
8-753 502 482 
8-760 955 069 

8-768 414 404 
8-775 880 493 
8-783 353 342 

8-790 832 957 
8-798 319 344 
8-805 812 509 


7,445,846 
452,587 
459,335 

466,089 
472,849 
479,615 

486,387 
493,165 
499,950 


3-751 
3-752 
3-753 

3-754 
3-755 
3-756 

3-757 
3-758 
3-759 


9-126 729 399 
9-134 519 988 
9-142 317 635 

9-150 122 345 
9-157 934 125 
9-165 752 982 

9-173 578 922 
9-181 411 951 
9-189 252 077 


3-710 


8-813 312 459 


7.506,741 


3-760 


9-197 099 305 


7,854,337 


3-711 
3-712 
3-713 

3-714 
3-715 
3-716 

3-717 
3-718 
3-719 


8-820 819 200 
8-828 332 738 
8-835 853 079 

8-843 380 230 
8-850 914 196 
8-858 454 985 

8-866 002 601 
8-873 557 053 
8-881 118 345 


7,513,538 
520,341 
527,151 

533,966 
540,789 
547,616 

554,452 
561,292 
568,139 


3-761 
3-762 
3-763 

3-764 
3-765 
3-766 

■3-767 
3-768 
3-769 


9-204 953 642 
9-212 815 095 
9-220 683 671 

9-228 559 375 
9-236 442 214 
9-244 332 195 

9-252 229 324 
9-260 133 608 
9-268 045 053 


7,861,453 
868,576 
875,704 

882,839 
889,981 
897,129 

904,284 
911,445 
918,614 


3-720 


8-888 686 484 


7,574,992 


3-770 


9-275 963 667 


7,925,788 


3-721 
3-722 
3-723 

3-724 
3-725 
3-726 

3-727 
3-728 
3-729 


8-896 261 476 
8-903 843 328 
8-911 432 046 

8-919 027 636 
8-926 630 104 
8-934 239 457 

8-941 855 702 
8-949 478 845 
8-957 108 890 


7,581,852 

588,718 
595,590 

602,468 
(!09,353 
616,245 

623,143 
630,045 
636,955 


3-771 
3-772 
3-773 

3-774 
3-775 
3-776 

3-777 
3-778 
3-779 


9-283 889 455 
9-291 822 425 
9-299 762 581 

9-307 709 932 
9-315 664 485 
9-323 626 245 

9-331 595 219 
9-339 571 414 
9-347 554 837 


7,932,970 
940,156 
947,351 

954,553 
961,760 
968,974 

976.195 
983,423 
990,656 


3-730 


8-964 745 845 


7,643,872 

7,650,794 
657,724 
664,660 

671,600 
678,549 
685,504 

692,464 
699,432 
706,405 


3-780 

3-781 

3-782 
3-783 

3-784 
3-785 
3-786 

3-787 
3-788 
3-789 


9-355 545 493 


7,997,897 


3-731 
3-732 
3-733 

3-734 
3-735 
3-736 

3-737 
3-738 
3-739 


8-972 389 717 
8-980 040 511 
8-987 698 235 

8-995 362 895 
9-003 034 495 
9-010 713 044 

9 018 398 548 
9-026 091 012 
9-033 790 444 


9-363 543 390 
9-371 548 534 
9-379 560 932 

9-387 580 590 
9-395 607 516 
9-403 641 716 

9-411 683 196 
9-419 731 965 
9-427 788 027 


8,005,144 
12,398 
19,658 

26,926 
34,200 
41,480 

48,769 
56,062 
63,362 


3-740 


9-041 496 849 


7,713,385 


3-790 


9-435 851 389 


8,070,670 


3-741 
3-742 
3-743 

3-744 
3745 
3-746 

3-747 
3-748 
3-749 


9-049 210 234 
9-056 930 606 
9-064 657 970 

9-072 392 334 
9080 133 704 
9087 882 08G 

9-095 637 486 
9-103 399 910 
9-111 169 367 


7,720,372 
727,,364 
734,364 

741,370 

748,382 
755,400 

762,424 
769,457 
776,494 


3-791 
3-792 
3-793 

3794 
3-795 
3-796 

3-797 
3-798 
3-799 


9-443 922 059 
9-452 000 043 
9-460 085 347 

9-468 177 979 
9-476 277 946 
9-484 385 253 

9-492 499 908 
9-500 621 917 
9-508 751 288 


8,077,984 
85,304 
92,632 

99,967 
107,307 
114,655 

122,009 
129,371 
136,738 


3-750 


9-118 945 861 


7,783,538 


3-800 


9-516 888 026 


8.144,113 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



137 



X 


I^r 


Difference 


X 


lor 


Difference 


3-800 


9-516 888 026 


8,144,113 


3-860 


9-933 270 161 


8,521,607 


3-801 
3802 
3-803 


9-525 032 139 
9-533 183 634 
9-541 342 517 


8,151,495 
158,883 
166,277 


3-851 
3-852 
3-853 


9-941 791 768 
9-950 321 104 
9-958 858 174 


8,529,336 
537,070 
544,812 


3-804 
3-805 
3-806 


9-549 508 794 
9-557 682 474 
9-565 863 562 


173,680 

181.088 
188,503 


3-854 
3 855 
3-856 


9-967 402 986 
9-975 955 548 
9-984 515 866 


552,562 
560,318 
568,081 


3-807 
3-808 
3-809 


9-574 052 065 
9-582 247 991 
9-590 451 345 


195,926 
203,354 
210,790 

8,218,233 


3-857 
3-858 
3859 


9-993 083 947 
10-001 659 800 
10-010 243 430 


575,853 
583,630 
591,415 


3-810 


9-598 662 135 


3-860 


10-018 834 845 


8,599,207 


3-811 
3-812 
3-813 


9 606 880 368 
9-615 106 051 
9-623 339 189 


8,225,683 
233,138 
240,602 


3-861 
3-862 
3-863 


10-027 434 052 
10-036 041 058 
10-044 655 870 


8,607,006 
614,812 
622,627 


3-814 
3-815 
3 816 


9-631 579 791 
9-639 827 863 
9-648 083 411 


248,072 
255,548 
263,033 


3-864 
3-865 
3-866 


10-053 278 497 
10-061 908 944 
10-070 547 218 


630,447 
638,274 
646,110 


3-817 
3-818 
3-819 


9-656 346 444 
9-664 616 967 
9-672 894 987 


270,523 
278,020 
285,525 


3-867 
3-868 
3-869 


10-079 193 328 
10087 847 281 
10-096 509 083 


653,953 
661,802 
669,658 


3-820 


9-681 180 512 


8,293,036 


3-870 


10-105 178 741 


8,677,523 


3821 
3-822 
3-823 


9-689 473 548 
9-697 774 102 
9-706 082 181 


8,300,554 
308,079 
315,611 


3-871 
3-872 
3-873 


10 113 856 264 
10-122 541 658 
10-131 234 929 


8,685,394 
693,271 
701,158 


3-824 
3-825 
3-826 


9-714 397 792 
9-722 T20 942 
9-731 051 637 


323,150 
330,695 
338,248 


3-874 
3-875 
3-876 


10-139 936 087 
10-148 645 138 
10-157 362 088 


709,051 
716,950 
724,858 


3-827 
3 828 
3-829 


9-739 389 885 
9-747 735 693 
9-756 089 068 


345,808 
353,375 
360,948 1 


3-877 
3-878 
3-879 


10-166 086 946 
10 174 819 720 
10-183 560 414 


732,774 
740,694 
748,624 


3-830 

3-831 
3-832 
3833 


9-764 450 016 


8,368,528 

8,376,115 
383,710 
391,312 


3-880 


10-192 309 038 


8,756,560 


9-772 818 544 
9-781 194 659 
9-789 578 369 


3-881 

3-882 
3883 


10-201 065 598 
10-209 830 102 
10-218 602 557 


8,764,504 
772,455 
780,414 


3-834 
3-835 
3-836 


9-797 969 681 
9-806 368 600 
9 814 775 135 


398,919 
406,535 
414,158 


3-884 
3-885 
3-886 


10-227 382 971 
10-236 171 350 
10-244 967 703 


788,379 
796,353 
804,332 


3-837 
3-838 
3 839 


9 823 189 293 
9-83L 611 080 
9 840 040 503 


421,787 
429,423 
437,066 ! 


3-887 
3-888 
3-889 


10-253 772 035 
10-262 584 356 
10-271 404 671 


812,321 
820,315 
828,318 


3-840 


9-848 477 569 


8,444,717 


3-890 


10-280 232 989 


8,836,327 


3-841 
3-842 
3-843 


9-856 922 286 
9-865 374 660 
9-873 834 698 


8,452,374 
460,038 
467,710 


3-891 
3-892 
3-893 


10-289 069 316 
10-297 913 660 
10-306 766 029 


8,844,344 
852,369 
860,401 


3-844 
3-845 
3-846 


9-882 302 408 
9-890 777 796 
9-899 260 869 


475,388 
483,073 
490,766 


3-894 
3-895 
3-896 


10-315 626 430 
10-324 494 870 
10-333 371 357 


868,440 
876,487 
884,540 


3-847 
3-848 
3-849 


9-907 751 635 
9-916 250 102 
9-924 756 275 


498,467 
506,173 ! 
513,886 


3-897 
3-898 
3899 


10-342 255 897 
10-351 148 499 
10-360 049 170 


892,602 
900,671 
908,747 


3-850 


9-933 270 161 


8,521,607 


3-900 


10368 957 917 


8,916,830 















138 



REPORT — 1896. 





X 


lo^ 


DirtereDce 


X 

3-950 

3-951 
3-952 
3-953 

3-954 
3-955 
3-956 

3-957 
3-958 
3-959 


lo^ 


Difference 




3-900 


10-368 957 917 


8,916,830 


10-824 858 358 


9,330,631 




3-901 
3-902 
3-903 

3-904 
3-905 
3-906 

3-ri07 
3-908 
3-909 


10-377 874 747 
10-386 799 669 
10-395 732 689 

10-404 673 815 
10-413 623 054 
10-422 580 414 

10-431 545 903 
10-440 519 528 
10-449 501 295 


8,924,922 
933,020 
941,126 

949,239 
957,360 
965,489 

973,625 1 
981,767 1; 
989,918 


10-834 188 989 
10-843 528 091 
10-852 875 673 

10-862 231 742 
10-871 596 305 
10-880 969 372 

10-S30 350 949 
10-899 741 045 
10-909 139 667 


9,339,102 
347,582 
356,069 

364,563 
373,067 
381,577 

390,096 
398,622 
407,156 




8-910 


10-458 491 213 


8,998,077 

9,006,242 
14,415 
22,596 

30,785 
38,981 i 
47,183 

55,395 
63,613 
71,839 

9,080,073 

9,088,313 

96.562 

104,820 

113,082 
121,354 
129,633 i 

137,919 
146,215 
154,516 


3-960 

3-961 
3-9<;2 
3-963 

3-964 
3-965 
3-966 

3-967 
3-968 
3-969 

~3-970^ 

3-971 
3-972 
3-973 

3-974 
3-975 
3-976 

3-977 
3-978 
3-979 


10-918 546 823 


9,415,698 




3-911 
3-912 
3-913 

3-914 
3-915 
3-916 

3-917 

3-918 
3-919 


10-467 489 290 
10-476 495 532 
10-485 509 947 

10-494 532 543 
10-503 563 328 
10-512 602 309 

10-521 649 492 
10-530 704 887 
10-539 768 500 


10-927 962 521 
10-937 386 768 
10-916 819 574 

10-956 260 944 
10-965 710 888 
10-975 169 413 

10-984 636 528 
10-994 112 289 
11-003 596 556 


9,424,247 
432,806 
441,370 

449,944 

458,525 
467,115 

475,711 
484,317 
492,930 




3-920 


10-548 840 339 


n-013 089 486 


9,501.551 




3-921 
3-922 
3-923 

3-924 
3-925 
3-926 

3-927 
3-928 
3-929 


10-557 920 412 
10-567 008 125 
10-576 105 287 

10-585 210 107 
10-594 323 189 
10-603 444 543 

10-612 574 176 
10-621 712 095 
10-630 858 310 


11-022 591 037 
11-032 101 216 
11-041 620 031 

11-051 147 491 
11-060 683 (;05 
11-070 228 379 

11-079 781 821 
11-089 343 940 
11-098 914 743 


9,510,179 
518,815 
527,460 

536,114 
544,774 
553,442 

562,119 
570,803 
679,496 




3-930 


10-640 012 826 


9,162,824 


3-980 

3-981 

1 3 982 

3-983 

1 3-984 
3-985 
3-986 

1 3-987 

3-988 

: 3-989 

3-990 


11-108 494 239 


9,588,197 




3-931 
3-932 
3-933 

3-934 
3-935 
3-936 

3-937 
3-938 
3-939 


10-649 175 650 
10-658 346 793 
10 667 526 261 

10-676 714 061 
10-685 910 202 
10-695 114 690 

10-704 327 534 
10-713 548 741 
10-722 778 318 


9,171,143 
179,468 
187,800 

196,141 

204,488 
212,844 

221,207 
229,577 
237,956 


11-118 082 436 
11-127 679 340 
11-137 284 961 

11-146 899 307 
11-156 522 385 
11-166 154 204 

11-175 794 772 
11-185 444 097 
11-195 102 186 


9,596,904 
605,621 
614,346 

623,078 
631,819 
640,568 

649,325 
658,089 
666,862 




3-940 


10-732 016 274 


9,246,343 

9,254,737 
263,137 
271,548 

279,965 
288,390 
296,823 

305,263 
313,711 
322,167 


11-204 769 048 9,675,642 




3-941 
3-942 
3-943 

3-944 
3-945 
3-946 

3-947 
3-948 
3-949 


10-741 262 617 
10-750 517 354 
10-759 780 491 

10-769 052 039 
10-778 332 004 
10-787 620 394 

10-796 917 217 
10-806 222 480 
10-815 536 191 


3-991 
3-992 
3-993 

3994 
3-995 
3-996 

3-997 
3-998 
3-999 

4-000 


11-214 444 690 
11-224 129 122 
11-233 822 351 

11-243 524 385 
11-253 235 233 
11-262 954 902 

11-272 683 400 
11-282 420 735 
11-292 166 917 


9,684,432 
693,229 
702,034 

710,848 
719,669 

728,498 

737,335 
746,182 
755,035 




3-960 


10-824 858 358 9.330,631 


11-301 921 952 


9,763,898 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



139 



X 


V 


Difference 


X 


lo-t- 


Difference 


4 000 

4-001 
4-002 
4-003 


11-301 921 


952 


9,763,898 


4-050 

4051 
4-052 
4053 


11-801 144 


658 


10,217,562 

10,226,8.50 
236,147 
245,452 


11-311 685 850 
11-321 458 617 
11-331 240 263 


9,772,767 
781,616 
790,533 


11-811 362 
11-821 589 
11-831 825 


220 
070 
217 


4004 
4-005 
4-006 


11-341 030 
11-350 830 
11-360 638 


796 
224 
554 


799,428 
808,330 
817,241 


4054 
4-055 
4-056 


11-842 070 
11-852 325 
11-862 589 


669 
434 
523 


254,765 
2(;4,089 
273,418 


4-007 
4008 
4-009 

4-010 


11-370 455 
11-380 281 
11-390 117 


795 
956 
045 


826,161 
835,089 
844,024 


4057 
4-058 
4059 


11-872 862 
11-.S83 145 
11-893 437 


941 
699 

805 


282,758 
292,106 
301,463 


11-399 961 


069 


9,852,968 


4060 


11-903 739 


268 


10,310,828 


4-011 
4012 
4-013 


11-409 814 037 
11-419 675 957 
11-429 546 838 


9,861,920 

870,881 
879,849 


4-061 
4-062 
4063 


11-914 050 096 
11-924 370 298 
11-934 699 882 


10,320,202 
329,584 
338,976 


4-014 
4015 
4-016 


11-439 426 
11-449 315 
11-459 213 


687 
513 
325 


888,826 
897,812 
900,805 


4-064 
4 065 
4066 


11-945 0.38 
11-955 387 
11-965 745 


858 
233 
018 


34S,375 
357,785 
367,201 


4-017 
4-018 
4-019 


11469 120 
11-479 035 
11-488 960 


130 
937 
754 


915,807 
924.817 
933,835 


4-067 

4068 

i 4-069 

4070 


11-976 112 
11-986 488 
11-996 874 


219 

846 
908 


.376.627 
386,062 
395,505 


4-020 

4-021 
4022 
4 023 


11-498 8;!4 


58!» 


9,942,862 


12-007 270 


413 


10,404,956 


11-508 837 
U-518 789 
11-528 750 


•451 
348 

288 


9,951,897 
960,940 
969,992 


4-071 
4072 
4-073 


12-017 675 
12-028 089 
12-038 513 


369 

787 
674 


10.414,418 
423,887 
433,365 


4-024 
4-025 
402(5 


11-538 720 280 
11-548 699 332 
11-558 687 452 


979,052 

988,120 
997,197 


4-074 
4-075 
4076 


12-048 947 
12-(i59 389 
12 069 842 


039 

891 
238 


442,852 
452,347 

461,852 


4 027 
4-028 
4-029 

4 030 


11-568 684 
11-578 690 
11-588 706 


649 
931 
306 


10,006,282 
15,375 
24,477 

10,033.587 


4-077 
4-078 
4 079 


12-080 304 
12-090 775 
12-101 256 


090 
454 
340 


471,364 
480,886 
490,418 


11-598 730 


783' 


4-080 


12-111 746 


758 


10,499,956 


4-031 
4032 
4033 


11-608 764 
11-618 807 
11-628 858 


370 
076 
909 


10,042,706 
51,833 
60,967 


4-081 
4-082 
4083 


12-122 246 
12-132 756 
12143 275 


714 
219 

281 


10,509,505 
519,062 
528,627 


4034 
4-035 
4036 


11-638 919 
11-648 989 
11-659 069 


876 
988 
252 


70,112 
79,264 

88,424 


4-084 
4-085 
4086 


12-153 803 
12-164 342 
12-174 889 


908 
110 
895 


538,202 
547,785 
557,379 


4-037 
4-038 
4039 


11-669 157 
11-679 255 
11-689 362 


676 
270 
041 


97,594 
106.771 
115.957 


4-087 
4-088 
4089 


12-185 447 
12-196 014 
12-206 590 


274 
253 

841 


566,979 
576,588 
586,208 


4040 


11-699 477 


998 


10,125,151 


4-090 


12-217 177 049 


10,595,836 


4041 
4042 
4043 


11-709 603 
11-719 737 
11-729 881 


149 
503 

068 


10,134,354 
143,565 
152,786 


4-091 
4-092 
4-093 


12-227 772 
12-238 378 
12-248 993 


885 
356 
474 


10,605,471 
615,118 
624,772 


4-044 
4-045 
4-046 


11-740 033 
11-750 195 
11-760 367 


854 
867 
118 


162,013 
171,251 
180,495 


4-094 
4095 
4096 


12-259 618 
12-270 252 
12-280 896 


246 
681 

788 


634,435 
644,107 
653,788 


4-047 
4048 
4-049 


11-770 547 
11-780 737 
11-790 936 


613 
363 
375 


189,750 
199,012 
208,283 

10,217,562 


4-097 
4-098 
4-099 


12-291 550 
12-,302 214 
12-312 887 


576 
054 
231 


663,478 
673,177 

682,885 


4-050 


11-801 144 


658 


4-100 


12-323 570 


116 


10,692,602 



140 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lox 


Difference 


X 


lo^ 


Difference 


4100 


12-323 570 116 


10,692,602 


4-150 


12-870 291 948 


11,190,039 


4-101 
4-102 
4103 

4-104 
4105 
4-106 

4107 
4-108 
4109 


12-334 262 718 
12-344 965 045 
12-355 677 107 

12-366 398 913 
12-377 130 472 
12-387 871 792 

12-398 622 883 
12-409 383 754 
12-420 154 413 


10.702,327 
712,062 
721,806 

731,559 
741,320 
751,091 

760,871 
770,659 
780,457 


4-151 
4-152 
4-153 

4-154 
4-155 
4-156 

4-157 
4-158 
4159 


12-881 481 987 
12-892 682 212 
12-903 892 631 

12-915 113 252 
12-926 344 086 
12-937 585 143 

12-948 836 431 
12-960 097 960 
12-971 369 739 


11,200,225 
210,419 
220,621 

230,834 
241,057 
251,288 

261,529 
271,779 
282,039 


4-110 


12-430 934 870 

12-441 725 134 
12-452 525 214 
12-463 335 118 

12-474 154 857 
12-484 984 438 
12-495 823 872 

12-506 673 166 , 
12-517 532 331 
12-528 401 375 


10,790,264 

10,800.080 
809,904 
819,739 

829,581 
839,434 
849,294 

859,165 
869,044 
878,933 

10,888,830 


4-160 


12-982 651 778 


11,292,809 


4-111 
4-112 
4113 

4114 
4-115 
4116 

4-117 
4-118 
4-119 


4161 
4-162 
4-163 

4 164 
4165 
4-166 

4-167 
4-168 
4-169 


12-993 944 087 
13-005 246 675 
13016 559 551 

13-027 882 725 
13039 216 206 
13-050 560 004 

13-061 914 128 
13-073 278 588 
13084 653 394 


11,302,588 
312,876 
323,174 

333,481 
34.3,798 
354,124 

364,460 
374,806 
385,161 


4-120 


12-539 280 308 


4-170 


13-096 038 555 


11,395,525 


4-121 
4-122 
4123 

4-124 
4125 
4-12G 

4-127 
4-128 
4-129 


12-550 169 138 
19-561 067 875 
12-571 976 527 

12-582 895 106 
12-593 823 617 
12-604 762 072 

12-615 710 479 
12-626 668 848 
12-637 637 188 


10,898,737 
908,652 
918,579 

928,511 
938,455 
948,407 
958,369 
968,340 
978,320 

10,988,309 


4-171 
4-172 
4-173 

4-174 
4175 
4-176 

4177 
4-178 
4-179 


13-107 434 080 
13-118 839 979 
13-130 256 262 

13-141 682 939 
13-153 120 018 
13164 567 509 

13-176 025 423 
13-187 493 768 
13-198 972 555 


11,405,899 
416,283 
426,677 

437,079 
447,491 
457,914 

468,345 
478,787 
489,238 


4-130 


12-648 615 508 


4-180 


13-210 461 793 


11,499,698 

11,510,168 

-520,649 

531,138 

541,637 
552,146 
562,665 
573,193 
583,731 
594,279 


4-131 
4-132 
4-133 

4-134 
4-135 
4-136 

4-137 
4-138 
4-139 

4140 


12-659 603 817 
12-670 602 125 
12-681 610 440 

12-692 628 772 
12-703 657 130 
12-714 695 524 

12-725 743 963 
12-736 802 455 
12-747 871 010 


10,998,308 

11,008,315 

18,332 

28,358 
38,394 
48,439 

58,492 
08,555 

78,628 


4-181 
4-182 
4183 

4-184 
4-185 
4-186 

4-187 
4-188 
4189 


13-221 961 491 
13-233 471 659 
13-244 992 308 

13-256 523 446 
13-268 065 083 
13-279 617 229 

13-291 179 894 
13-302 753 087 
13-314 336 818 


12-758 949 638 


11,088,710 

11,098,800 
108,901 
119,011 

129,129 
139,258 
149,395 

159,543 
169,699 
179,864 


4-190 


13 325 931 097 


11,604,837 


4-141 
4-142 
4-143 

4-144 
4145 
4-146 

4-147 
4-148 
4-149 


12-770 038 348 
12-781 137 148 
12-792 24G 049 

12-803 365 060 
12-814 494 189 
12-825 633 447 

12-836 782 842 
12-847 942 385 
12-859 112 084 


4-191 
4-192 
4193 

4-194 
4195 
4-196 

4197 
4-198 
4-199 


13-337 535 934 
13349 151 338 
13-360 777 318 

13-372 413 886 
13384 061 051 
13-395 718 821 

13-407 387 207 
13-419 066 221 
13-430 755 869 


11 615,404 
625,980 
636,568 

647,165 
657,770 
668,386 

679,014 
689,648 
700,294 


4-150 


12-870 291 948 


11,190,039 


4-200 


13-442 456 163 


11,710,950 



ON MATOEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



141 



X 


lox 


Difterence 


X 


lo^ 


Difference 


4-200 


13-442 


456 


163 


11,710,950 


4-250 


14-041 


263 683 


12,256,456 


4-201 

4-202 
4-203 


13-454 
13-465 
13-477 


167 
888 
621 


113 

727 
017 


11,721,614 
732,290 
742,975 


4-251 

4-252 
4-253 


14-053 
14-065 
14-078 


520 139 

787 764 
066 568 


12,267,625 

278,804 
289,993 


4-204 
4-205 
4-206 


13-489 
13-601 
13-512 


363 992 
117 662 
882 036 


753,670 
764,374 
775,089 


•4-254 
4-255 
4-256 


14-090 
14-102 
14-114 


356 501 
657 755 
970 159 


301,194 
312,404 
323,625 


4-207 
4-208 
4-209 


13-524 
13-536 
13-548 


657 
442 
239 


125 

938 
486 


785,813 
796,548 
807,291 


4-257 
4-258 
4-259 


14-127 
14-139 
14-151 


293 784 
628 641 
974 738 


334,857 
346,097 
357,348 

12,368,611 " 


4-210 


13-560 046 777 


11,818,047 

11,828,810 
839,584 
850,368 


4-260 


14-164 


332 086 

. 


4-211 . 

4-212 

4-213 


13-571 
13-583 
13-595 


864 
693 
533 


824 
634 
218 


4-261 
4-262 
4-263 


14-176 700 697 
14-189 080 582 
14-201 471 749 


12,379,885 
391,167 
402,460 


4-214 
4-215 
4-216 


13-607 
13-019 
13-631 


383 
244 
116 


586 
748 
714 


801.162 
871,966 

SS2,780 ' 


4-264 
4-265 
4-266 


14-213 
14-226 
14-238 


874 209 
287 973 
713 052 


413,764 
425,079 
436,404 


4-217 
4-218 
4-219 


13-642 
13-654 
13-666 


999 494 
893 098 
797 536 


893 604 
904.438 
915,282 


4-267 
4-268 
4-269 


14-251 149 456 
14-263 597 195 
14-276 056 279 


447,739 
459,084 
470,441 


4-220 


13-678 


712 818 


11,926,136 


4-270 


14-288 


526 720 


12,481,808 

12,493,185 
504,572 
515,970 


4-221 
4-222 
4-223 


13-690 
13-702 
13-714 


638 
575 
523 


954 
953 

827 


11,936,999 
947,874 
958,757 


4-271 
4-272 
4273 


14-301 008 528 
14-313 .501 713 
14-326 006 285 


4-224 
4-225 
4-226 


13-726 
13-738 
13-750 


482 
453 
432 


584 
235 
791 


969,651 
980,556 
991,470 


4-274 
4-275 
4-276 


14-338 
14-351 
14-363 


522 255 
049 635 
588 434 


527,380 
538,799 
550,228 


4-227 
4-228 
4-229 


13-762 424 
13-774 426 
13-786 439 


261 
656 

984 


12,002,395 
13.328 
24,273 


4-277 
4-278 
4-279 


14-376 
14-388 
14-401 


13S 002 
700 332 
273 452 


561,670 
573,120 

584,582 


4-230 


13-798 


464 


257 


12,035,227 

"12,046,192 
57.167 
68,151 


4-280 


14-413 


858 034 


12,596.054 

12,607,537 
019,030 
630,534 


4-231 
4-232 
4-233 


13-810 
13-822 
13-834 


499 
545 
602 


484 
676 
843 


4-281 

4-282 
4-283 


14-426 
14-439 
14-451 


454 088 
061 625 
680 655 


4-234 
4-235 
4-236 


13-846 
13-858 
13-870 


670 
750 
840 


994 
141 
294 


79,147 

90,153 

101,168 


4-284 
4-285 
4-286 


14-464 
14-476 
14-489 


311 189 
953 238 
606 812 


642,049 
053,574 
665,110 


4-237 
4-238 
4-239 


13-882 
13-895 
13-907 


941 
053 
176 


462 
655 
883 


112,193 
123,228 
134,275 


4-287 
4-288 
4-289 


14-.502 
14-514 
14-527 


271 922 
948 579 
636 793 


676,657 
088,214 
699,782 


4-240 


13-919 


311 


158 


12,145,331 


4-290 


14-540 


336 575 


12,711,361 

12,722,950 
734,550 
746,161 


4-241 
4-242 
4-243 


13-931 
13-943 
13-955 


456 
012 
780 


489 
887 
361 


12,156,398 
167,474 
178,560 


4-291 
4-292 
4-293 


14-553 047 936 

14-565 770 880 
14-578 505 436 


4-244 
4-215 
4-216 


13-907 
13-980 
13-992 


958 
148 
349 


921 
579 
344 


189.658 
200,765 
211,883 


4-294 
4295 
4-296 


14-591 
14-604 
14-616 


251 597 
009 380 

778 795 


757,783 
769,415 
781,058 


4-247 
4-248 
4-249 


14-004 561 
14-016 784 
14-029 018 


227 
237 
386 


223,010 
234,149 
245,297 


4-297 
4-298 
4-299 

4-300 


14-629 
14-642 
14-655 


559 853 
352 564 
156 940 


792,711 
804.376 
816,052 

12,827,738 


4-250 


14-041 


263 


683 


12,256,456 


14-667 


972 992 



142 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lor 


Difference 


X 


lo^ 


DifFerence 
13,426,031 


4-300 


14-667 


972 992 


12,827,738 


4-350 


15-323 902 914 


4-301 
4-302 
4-303 


14-680 
14-693 
14-706 


800 730 
640 164 
491 306 


12,839,434 

851,142 
862,861 


4-351 
4-352 
4-353 


15-337 328 945 
15-350 767 227 
15-364 217 770 


13,438,282 
450,543 
462,815 


4-304 
4-305 
4-306 


14-719 
14-732 
14-745 


354 167 

228 758 
115 088 


874,591 
886,330 

898,082 


4-354 
4-355 
4-356 


15-377 680 585 
15-391 155 685 
15-404 643 081 


475,100 
487,396 
499,703 


4-307 
4-308 
4-309 


14-758 013 170 
14-770 923 014 
14-783 844 630 


909,844 
921,616 
933,400 

12,945,195 


4-357 
4-358 
4-359 


15-418 142 784 
15-431 654 805 
15-445 179 155 


512,021 
524,350 
536,692 


4-310 


14-796 


778 030 


4-31)0 


15-458 715 847 


13,549,045 


4-311 
4-312 
4-313 


14-809 
14-822 
14-835 


723 225 
680 225 
649 042 


12,957,000 
968,817 
980,644 


4-361 
4-362 
4-3G3 


15-472 264 892 
15-485 826 300 
15-499 400 084 


13,561,408 
573,784 
586,170 


4-314 
4-315 
4-316 


14-848 
14-861 
14-874 


629 686 
622 169 
626 501 


992,483 

13,004,332 

16,192 


4-364 
4-365 
4-3(;6 


15-512 986 254 
15-526 584 823 
15-540 195 802 


598,569 
610,979 
623,400 


4-317 
4-318 
4-310 


14-887 
14-900 
14-913 


642 693 
670 756 
710 701 


28,063 
39,945 
51,839 


4-367 
4-3()8 
4-361) 


15-553 819 202 
15-567 455 036 
15-581 103 312 


635,834 
648,276 
660,733 


4-320 


14-926 


762 540 


13,063,742 


4-370 

4-371 
4-372 
4-373 


15-594 764 045 


13,673,200 


4-321 
4-322 
4-323 


14-939 
14-952 
14-965 


826 282 
901 940 
989 524 


13,075,658 
87,584 
99,521 


15-608 437 245 
15-622 122 924 
15-635 821 094 


13,685,679 
698,170 
710,671 


4-324 
4-325 
4-326 


14-979 
14-992 
15-005 


089 045 
200 514 
323 942 


111,469 
123,428 
135,399 


4-374 
4-375 
4-376 


15-649 531 765 
15-663 254 950 
15-676 990 660 


723,185 
73,5,710 
748,247 


4-327 
4-328 
4-329 


15-018 
15-031 
15-044 


459 341 
606 721 
766 094 


147,380 
159.373 
171,376 


4-377 

4-37S 
4-379 


15-690 738 907 
15-704 499 702 
15-718 273 057 


760,795 
773,355 
785,926 


4-330 


15-057 


937 470 


13,183,391 


4-38t' 

4-.381 
4-382 
4-383 


15-732 058 983 


13,798,510 


4-331 
4-332 
4-333 


15-071 
15-084 
15-097 


120 861 
316 278 
523 731 


13,195,417 
207,453 
219,502 


15-745 857 493 
15-759 668 597 
15-773 492 308 


13,811,104 
823,711 
836,329 


4-334 
4-335 
4-33G 


15-110 
15-123 
15-137 


743 233 
974 794 
218 425 


231,561 
243,631 
255,712 


4-3S4 
4-385 
4-386 


15-787 .328 637 
15-801 177 596 
15-815 039 196 


848,959 
861,600 
874,253 


4-337 
4-338 
4-339 


15-150 474 137 
15-163 741 943 
15-177 021 852 


267,806 
279.909 
292,024 


4-3S7 
4-38S 
4-389 


15-828 913 449 
15-842 800 367 
15-856 699 962 


886,918 
899,595 
912,283 


4-340 


15-190 313 876 


13,304,150 

13,316.288 
328,436 
340,597 


4-3!l0 


15-870 612 245 


13,924,984 


4-341 
4-342 
4-343 


15-203 618 026 
15-216 934 314 
15-230 262 750 


4-391 
4-392 
4-31t3 


15-884 537 229 
15-898 474 924 
15-912 425 343 


13,937,695 
950,419 
963,154 


4-344 
4-345 
4-346 


15-243 
15-256 
15-270 


603 347 
956 114 
321 064 


352,767 
364,950 
377,144 


4-394 
4-39.-. 
4-396 


15-926 .388 497 
15-940 364 398 
15-954 353 058 


975,901 

988,660 

14,001,431 


4-347 
4-348 
4-349 


15-283 
16-297 
15-310 


698 208 
087 556 
489 121 


389,348 
401,565 
413,793 


4-.397 
4-31I.S 

4-3y.i 

4-401) 


15-968 354 489 
15-982 368 703 
15-996 395 711 


14,214 
27,008 
39,814 


4-350 


15-323 


902 914 


13,426,031 


16-010 435 525 


14,052,632 



ox MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



143 



X 


V- 


Diftdrenca 


X 

, 4-450 

1 




lo^ 




DiflFerence 


4-400 


16010 435 




14,052,632 


16-729 019 208 


14-708,899 


4-401 
4-402 
4-403 


16-024 488 
16038 553 
16-052 631 


157 
619 
924 


14,065.462 
78,305 
91,158 


4-451 
4-452 
4-453 


16-743 

16-758 
16-773 


728 107 
450 444 
186 231 


14,722,337 

735,787 
749,250 


4-404 
4-405 
4-406 


16-066 723 
16-080 827 
16094 944 


082 
105 

006 


104,023 
116.901 
129.791 


: 4-454 

: 4-455 
4-456 


16-787 
16-802 
16-817 


935 

698 
474 


481 
205 
417 


762,724 
776,212 
789,711 


4-407 
4-408 
4-409 


16109 073 
16-123 216 
16137 372 


797 
489 
094 


142,692 
155,605 
168,531 


1 4-457 
4-458 
4-459 


16-832 264 128 
16-847 067 351 
16-861 884 100 


803,223 
816,749 
830,287 


4-410 


16-151 540 


625 


14,181,468 


4-460 


16-876 


714 


387 


14,843,837 


4-411 
4-412 
4-413 


16165 722 
16-179 916 
16-194 123 


093 
510 

888 


14,194,417 
207,378 
220,352 


4-461 
4-462 
4-463 


16-891 
16-906 
16-921 


558 
415 

286 


224 
623 
596 


14,857,399 
870,973 

884,563 


4-414 
4-415 
4-416 


16-208 314 
10-222 577 
16-236 823 


240 
577 
911 


233,337 
246,334 
259,343 


4-464 
4-465 
4-466 


16-936 
16-951 
16-965 


171 

069 

981 


159 
321 
096 


898,162 
911,775 
925,401 


4-417 
4-418 
4-419 


16-251 083 
16-265 355 
16-279 641 


254 
619 
017 


272,365 
285,398 
298,443 

14,311,501 

14.3-24,570 
337,653 
350,746 


4-467 
4-468 
4*469 


16-980 
16-995 
17-010 


906 
845 
798 


497 
536 
225 


939,039 
952,689 
966,353 


4-420 


16-293 939 


460 


4-470 


17-025 


764 


578 


14,980,029 


4-421 
4-422 
4-423 


16-308 250 
16 322 575 
16-336 913 


961 
531 
184 


4-471 
4-472 
4-473 


17-040 
17-055 
17-070 


744 
738 
745 


607 
325 
744 


14,993,718 

15,007,419 

21,133 


4-424 
4-425 
4-426 


16-351 263 
16-365 627 
16-380 004 


930 
782 
752 


363,852 
376,970 
390,100 


4-474 
4-475 
4-476 


17-085 
17-100 
17-115 


766 
801 
850 


877 
737 
336 


34,860 
48,599 
62,352 


4-427 
4-428 
4-429 


16 394 394 
16-408 798 
16-423 214 


852 
095 
492 


403,243 
416,397 
429,564 


4-477 
4-478 
4-479 


17-130 
17-145 
17-161 


912 
988 
078 


688 
805 
700 


76,117 

89,895 

103,085 


4-430 


16-437 644 056 


14,442,743 


4-480 


17-176 


182 


385 


15,117,488 


4-431 
4-432 
4-433 


16-452 086 
16-466 542 
16-481 Oil 


799 
733 

871 


14,455,934 
469,138 
482,353 


4-481 
4-482 
4-483 


17-191 
17-206 
17-221 


299 
431 
576 


873 
177 
311 


15,131,304 
145,134 
158,975 


4-434 
4-435 
4-436 


16-495 494 
16-509 989 
16-524 498 


224 

805 
625 


495,581 
508,820 
522,073 


4-484 
4-485 
4 486 


17-236 735 
17-251 908 
17-267 094 


286 
115 
812 


172,829 
186,697 
200,577 


4-437 
4-438 
4-439 


16-539 020 
16-553 556 
16-568 104 


698 
036 
651 


535,338 
548,615 
561,903 


4-487 
; 4-488 
j 4-489 


17-282 
17-297 
17-312 


295 
509 
738 


389 
859 
235 


214,470 
228,376 
242,295 


4-440 


16-582 666 


554 


14,575,205 


4-490 


17-327 


980 


530 


15,256,226 


4-441 
4-442 
4-443 


16597 241 
16 611 S30 
16-626 432 


759 
278 
124 


14,588,519 
601,846 
615,183 


4-491 
4-492 
4-493 


17-343 
17-368 
17-373 


236 

506 
791 


756 
927 
056 


15,270,171 
284,129 
298,099 


4-444 
4-445 
4-446 


16-641 047 
16-655 675 
16-670 317 


307 
841 
739 


628,534 
641,898 
655,273 


4-494 
4-495 
4-496 


17-389 089 
17-404 401 
17-419 727 


155 
238 
317 


312,083 
326,079 
340,088 


4-447 
4-448 
4-449 


16-C84 973 
16-699 641 
16-714 323 


012 
673 
734 


668,661 
682,061 
695,474 


4-497 
4-498 
4-499 


17-435 
17-450 
17-465 


067 405 
421 515 
789 661 


354,110 
368,146 
382,195 


4-450 


16-729 019 


208 


14,708,899 


4-500 


17-481 


171 


856 


15,396,256 



144 



REPORT — 1896 



X 


lo^ 


Difference 


X 


lor 


Difference 


4-500 


17-481 171 856 


15,396,256 


4-550 


18-268 484 229 


16,116,194 


4-501 
4-502 
4-503 

4-504 
4-505 
4-506 

4-507 
4-508 
4-509 


17-496 568 112 
17-511 978 442 
17-527 402 859 

17-542 841 376 
17-558 294 008 
17-573 760 766 

17-589 241 664 
17-604 736 714 
17-620 245 931 


15,410,330 
424,417 
438,517 

452,632 
466,758 
480,898 

495,050 
509,217 
523,395 


4 55] 
4-652 
4-553 

j 4-654 
4-556 
4-656 

4-557 
4-558 
4-659 


18-284 600 423 
18-300 731 359 
18-316 877 051 

18-333 037 511 
18-349 212 755 
18-365 402 795 

18-381 607 645 
18 397 827 319 
18-414 061 831 


16,130,936 
146,692 
160,460 

175,244 
190.040 
204,850 

219,674 
234,512 
249,363 


4-510 


17-685 769 326 


15,537,587 


4 560 


18-430 311 194 


16,264,229 


4-511 
4-512 
4-513 

4-514 
4-515 
4-516 

4-517 
4-518 
4-519 


17-651 306 913 
17-666 858 707 
17-682 424 719 

17-698 004 962 
17-713 599 450 
17-729 208 196 

17-744 831 214 
17-760 468 516 
17-776 120 116 


15,551,794 
566,012 
580,243 

594,488 
608,746 
623,018 

' 637,302 
651,600 
665,911 


4-561 
4-562 
4-563 

4-564 
4-565 
4-566 

4-567 
4-568 
4-569 


18-446 575 423 
18-462 854 530 
18-479 148 530 

18-495 457 437 
18-511 781 265 
18-628 120 026 

18-544 473 736 
18-560 842 408 
18-577 226 055 


16,279,107 
294,000 
308,907 

323,828 
338,761 
353,710 

368,672 
383,647 
398,638 


4-520 


17-791 786 027 


15,680,235 


4-570 


18-593 624 693 


16,413,641 

16,428.659 
443.690 
458,735 

473,795 
488,869 
503,956 

519,067 
634,172 
549,302 


4-521 
4-522 
4-523 

4-524 
4-525 
4-526 

4-527 
4-528 
4-529 


17-807 466 262 
17-823 160 835 
17-838 869 759 

17-854 593 047 
17-870 330 712 
17-886 082 768 

17-901 849 229 
17-917 630 106 
17-933 425 415 


15,694,573 

708,924 
723,288 

737,665 
752,056 
766,461 

780,877 
795,309 
809,753 


4571 
4-572 
4-573 

4-574 
4-575 
4-576 

4-577 
4-578 
4-579 


18-610 038 334 
18-626 466 993 
18 642 910 683 

18-659 369 418 
18-675 843 213 
18-692 332 082 

18-708 836 038 
18-725 355 095 
18-741 889 267 


4-530 


17-949 235 168 


15,824,211 


4-680 


18-758 438 569 


16,564,444 


4-531 
4-532 
4-533 

4-534 
4-535 
4-536 

4-537 
4-538 
4-539 


17 965 059 379 
17-980 898 060 
17-996 751 226 

18-012 618 890 
18-028 501 065 
18-044 397 765 

18-060 309 003 
18076 234 793 
18092 175 149 


15,838,681 
853,166 
867,664 

882,175 
896,700 
911,238 

925,790 
940,356 
954,933 

15,969,526 


4-581 
4-682 
4 583 

4-584 
4-585 
4-586 

4-587 
4 588 
4-589 


18-775 003 013 
18-791 582 616 
18-808 177 391 

18-824 787 350 
18-841 412 510 
18-858 052 883 

18-874 708 484 
18-891 379 327 
18-908 065 426 


16,579,603 
594,776 
609,959 

625,160 
640,373 
655,601 

670,843 
686,099 
701,370 


4-540 


18-108 130 082 


4590 


18-924 766 796 


16,716,654 


4-541 
4-542 
4-543 

4-544 
4-545 
4-546 

4-547 
4-548 
4-549 


18-124 099 608 
18-140 083 740 
18-156 082 491 

18-172 095 875 
18-188 123 905 
18-204 166 595 

18-220 223 959 
18-236 296 010 
18-252 382 762 


15,984,132 

998,751 

16,013,384 

28.030 
42,690 
57,364 

72,051 

86,752 

101,467 


4-591 
4-592 
4-593 

4-594 
4-595 
4-596 

4-597 
4-598 
4-599 


18-941 483 450 
18-958 215 402 
18-974 962 667 

18-991 726 260 
19-008 503 194 
19-025 296 483 

19-042 105 142 
19-058 929 185 
19-075 768 626 


16,731,952 
747,265 
762,593 

777,934 
793,289 
808,659 

824,043 
839,411 
864,864 


4-650 


18-268 484 229 


16,116,194 


4-600 


19092 623 480 


16,870,280 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



145 



X 




lo^ 




Differeoce i x 


lo-r 


Difference 


4-600 


1 19-092 


623 


480 


1 16,870,280 


4-650 


19-955 


336 846 


17,660,154 


4-601 
4-602 
4 603 


19-109 493 
19-126 379 
19 143 280 


760 
482 
659 


16,885,722 
901,177 
916,647 


4-651 
4-652 
4-653 


19-972 997 000 
19-990 673 329 
20-008 365 848 


17,676,329 
692,519 
708,722 


4-604 
4-605 
4G06 


19-160 197 306 
19-177 129 437 
19-194 077 067 


932,131 
947,630 
963,143 


4-654 
4-655 
4-656 


20026 
20-043 
20061 


074 570 
799 512 
540 688 


724,942 
741,176 
757,425 


4-607 
4-C08 
4 609 


19-211 
19-228 
19-245 


040 
018 
013 


210 
880 
092 


978,670 

994,212 

17,009,767 


4-657 
4-658 
4-659 


20-079 298 113 
20-097 071 803 
20-114 861 772 


773,690 
789,969 
806,264 


4-610 


19-262 


022 


859 


17,025,339 


4-660 

4-661 
4-662 
4-663 


20-132 


668 036 


17,822,574 


4-611 
4-612 
4-613 


19-279 048 
19 296 089 
19-313 145 


198 
121 
644 


17,040,923 
56,523 
72,137 


20 150 
20-168 
20-186 


490 610 
329 509 
184 748 


17,838,899 
855,239 
871,594 


4-614 
4615 
4-616 


19-330 
19-347 
19-364 


217 
305 

408 


781 
547 
955 


87,766 
103.408 
119,066 


4-664 
4-665 
4-666 


20-204 056 342 
20-221 944 307 
20239 848 658 


887,965 
904,351 

920,751 


4-617 
4-618 
4-619 


19-38] 
19-398 
19-4]5 


528 
662 
813 


021 
759 
183 


134,738 
150,424 
166,126 


4-667 
4-668 
4-669 


20-257 
20 275 
20-293 


769 409 
706 577 
660 176 


937,168 
953,599 
970,045 


4-620 


19-432 


979 


309 


17,181,841 


4-670 


20-311 


630 221 


17,986,508 


4-621 
4-622 
4-623 


19-450 
19-467 
19-484 


161 
358 
572 


150 
721 
038 


17,197,571 
213,317 
229,075 


4-671 
4-672 
4-673 


20-329 
20-347 
20-365 


616-729 
619 713 
639 190 


18,002,984 
19,477 
35,985 


4-624 
4-625 
4-626 


19-501 
19-519 
19-536 


801 
045 
306 


113 
963 
603 


244,850 
260,639 
276,441 


4-674 
4-675 
4-676 


20383 
20-401 
20-419 


675 175 
727 683 
796 729 


52,508 
69,046 
85,601 


4-627 
4-62S 
4-629 


19553 
19-570 

19-588 


583 
875 
183 


043 
303 
396 


292,260 
308,093 
323,940 


4-677 
4-678 
4-679 


20-437 
20-455 

20-474 


882 330 
984 499 
103 253 


102,169 
118,754 
135,354 


4-630 


19-605 


507 


336 


17,339,802 


4-680 


20-492 


238 607 


18,151,970 


4-631 
4-632 
4-633 


19-622 
19-640 
19-657 


847 
202 
574 


138 
817 
388 


17,355,679 
371,571 
387,477 


4-681 
4-682 
4-683 


20-510 
20-528 
20-546 


390 577 
559 177 
744 423 


18,168,600 
185.246 
201,908 


4-634 
4-635 
4-636 


19674 
19-692 
19-709 


961 
365 

784 


865 
263 
597 


403,398 
419,334 
435,285 


4-684 
4-685 
4-686 


20-564 
20-583 
20-601 


946 331 
164 917 
400 195 


218,586 
235,278 
251,986 


4-637 
4-638 
4-639 


19-727 
19-744 
19-762 


219 
671 
138 


882 
132 
362 


451,250 
467,230 
483,225 


4-687 
4-688 
4-689 


20-619 652 181 
20-637 920 891 
20-656 206 340 


268,710 
285,449 
302,204 


4-640 


19-779 


621 


587 


17,499,236 

17,515,260 
531,300 
547,354 


4-690 


20-674 


508 544 


18,318,973 


4-641 
4-642 
4-643 


19-797 
19-814 
19-832 


120 
636 
167 


823 
083 
383 


4-691 
4-692 
4-693 


20-692 
20-711 
20-729 


827 517 
163 279 
515 840 


18,335,762 
352,561 
369,379 


4644 
4-645 
4-646 


19-849 
19-867 
19-884 


714 

278 
857 


737 
161 
670 


563,424 
579,509 
595,608 


4-694 
4-695 
4-696 


20-747 
20-766 

20784 


885 219 
271 431 
674 490 


386,212 
403,059 
419,924 


4-647 
4-648 
4-649 


19-902 453 278 
19-920 065 000 
19-937 692 851 


611,722 
627,851 
643,995 

17,660,154 


4-697 
4-698 
4-699 

4-700 


20-803 
20-821 
20839 


094 414 
531 218 

984 917 


436.804 
453,699 
470,610 


4-650 


19-955 


336 


846 


20-858 455 527 


18,487,536 



1896 



146 



EEPORT — 1896. 



X 


lo^ 


Differeiica 


.V 


For 


Diff. rence 


4-700 


20-858 455 527 


18,487,536 

18,504,479 
521,438 
538,411 


1 4-750 

4-751 
4-752 
4-753 


21-803 898 741 


19,354,230 


4-70L 
4-702 
4-703 


20-876 i'43 003 
20 895 447 542 
20 913 96S ".'80 


21-823 252 971 
21-842 024 948 
21-862 014 690 


' 19,371,977 

389,742 

! 407,522 


4-704 
4-705 
4-706 


20-982 507 391 
20-951 062 792 
20 969 035 198 


555,4fl 
572,406 

589.428 


4-75 4 
4-755 
4-756 


21-881 422 212 

1 21-900 847 532 

21-920 290 065 


425,320 
443,1.33 
460,963 


4-707 

4-708 
4-709 


20-988 224 026 
21-0(16 8:il C;»l 
21-025 454 609 


006,465 
623.5 1 S 
640,586 


1 4-757 

4-7.58 

' 4-759 

4-760 

4-761 
4762 
4 763 


21-939 751 628 
21-959 2.30 439 
•.; 1-978 727 113 


478,811 
496,674 
514,553 


4-710 


21-044 095 195 


18,657,671 

18,674,772 
691,888 
709,020 


21-998 241 606 

22-017 774 117 
220:!7 324 481 
22-056 892 775 


19,532,451 


4-711 
4712 
4-713 


21 06-2 752 8(in 
21-081 4--'7 ()3;-i 
21 100 11!) 526 


19,550,364 

568,294 
586,240 


4-714 
4-715 
4-716 


21-118 82S 516 
21-137 554 715 
21-156 298 047 


726.169 
743.332 

760,513 


4-7fi4 
4-765 
4-766 


2-2-076 479 015 
22-096 083 219 
221 15 705 402 


604,204 
622,183 
640,181 


4-717 
4-718 
4-719 

4-720 


21-175 058 560 
21-193 836 269 
21-212 631 li)0 


777,709 
794.921- 
812,148 


4-767 
4-768 
4-769 


22-135 345 583 
22-155 003 776 
22-174 6f<0 COl 


658,193 
076,225 
694,270 


21-231 443 338 


18,829,393 


4-770 


22-194 374 271 


19,712,335 


4-721 
4-722 
4-723 


21-250 272 731 
21-269 nil 384 
212S7 983 312 


18,846,653 ! 

86-!,928 
881,221 


4-771 

4-772 
4-773 


22-214 086 606 
22-233 817 021 
22-253 565 534 


19,7.30,415 
748,513 
766,626 


4-724 
4-725 
4-726 


21-306 864 533 
21-325 763 062 
21-344 678 916 


898,529 
915,854 
933 193 


4-774 
4-775 
4-776 


22-273 332 100 
2i'-293 116 918 
22-312 919 823 


784,758 
802,905 
821,070 


4-727 
4-728 
4-729 


21-363 012 109 
21-382 562 659 
21-401 530 582 

21-420 515 893 


9.50.550 
967,923 
985,311 


4-777 
4-778 
4-779 


22-332 740 893 
22 352 5.S0 145 
22-372 437 .595 


839,252 
857,450 
875,665 

19,893,898 

19,912,147 
930,413 
948,69(; 


4-730 


19,002,716 


4-780 


22-392 313 260 


4-731 
4-732 
4-733 


21-439 518 (iO!) 
21-458 538 740 
21-477 576 321 


19,020,137 
37,575 
55,028 


4-781 
4-782 
4-783 


TJil2 207 158 
22-432 119 .305 
22-452 049 718 


4-734 
4-735 
4736 


21-496 631 349 
21 515 703 846 
21-534 793 830 


72,497 

89,984 

107,485 


4-784 

4-7.S5 
4-786 


22-471 998 414 
22-491 965 411 
22-511 950 725 


966.997 

985,314 

20,003,648 


4-737 
4-738 
4-739 


21-553 901 315 
21-573 026 319 
21-592 168 858 


125,004 
142,539 
160 089 

79,177.657^ 

19,195.241 
:.'12,840 
230,457 


4-787 
4-788 
4-789 

4-T90 


22-531 954 373 , 
22-.551 976 373 
22 573 016 740 

22-592 075 494 


22,000 
40,367 

58,754 


4-740 


21-611 328 947 


20,077,155 


4-741 
4-742 
4-743 


•^l-iVM) 506 604 
21-649 701 845 I 
21-668 914 685 


4.791 
4-792 
4-793 


22-612 152 649 
22-632 248 225 , 
22-652 362 237 | 


20,095,576 
114,012 
132,466 


4-744 
4-745 
4-746 


21-688 145 142 
21-707 3i)3 231 i 
21-726 658 969 


248,089 
265,738 
283,404 


4-794 
4-795 
4-796 


2'>-672 494 703 
22-692 645 640 
22-712 815 065 


150,937 
169,425 
187,931 


4-747 
4-748 
4-7-J9 


21-745 942 373 
21-7(i5 243 45!) 
21-784 562 242 


301,086 
318,783 
336,499 

19,354,23U 


4-797 
4-798 
4-799 

4-800 


22-733 002 996 
22-753 209 450 
22-773 434 443 

22-793 677 993 


206,454 
224,993 
243,550 

20,262,125 


4-750 


21-803 898 741 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



147 



X 


lo=c 


Difference 


.r 


I„r 


Difference 


4-800 

4-801 
4-802 
4-803 

4-804 
4-805 
4-80G 

4-807 
4-808 
4-809 


22-793 677 993 


20,262,125 


4-850 


23-829 901 540 


21,213,203 


22-813 1)40 118 
22-834 220 S34 
22-854 520 159 

22-874 838 110 
22-895 174 705 
22-915 529 961 

22-035 !I03 895 
22-956 296 524 
22-976 707 867 


20.280,716 
299,325 
317,951 

336,595 
355,256 
373,934 

392,629 
411,343 
430,073 


4-851 
4-852 
4-853 

4-854 
4-855 
4-856 

4-857 
4-858 
4-859 


23-851 114 743 
23-872 347 422 
23-893 599 596 

23-914 S71 282 
23-936 lt!2 499 
23-957 473 264 

23-978 803 597 
24-000 153 514 
24-021 523 035 


21.232,679 
252,174 
271,686 

291,217 
310,765 
330,333 

349,917 
369,521 
389,143 


4-810 


22-997 137 940 


20,448,821 


4-860 


24042 912 178 


21,408,782 

21.428,440 
44S,117 
467,811 

487,525 
507.256 
527,005 

546.774 
566.560 
586,365 


4-811 
4-812 
4-813 

4-814 
4-815 
4-816 

4-817 
4-818 
4-819 


23-017 586 761 
23-038 054 346 
23-058 540 715 

23-079 045 883 
23-099 569 869 
23-120 112 691 

23-140 674 365 
23-161 254 909 
23-181 854 340 


20,467,585 
486,369 
505,168 

523,986 
542,822 
561,674 

580,544 
599,431 
618,837 

20,637,260 


4-861 
4-862 
4-863 

4-864 
4-865 
4-866 

4-867 
4-868 
4-869 


24-064 320 960 
24-085 749 400 
24-107 197 517 

24-128 665 328 
24-150 152 853 
24171 660 109 

24-193 187 114 
24-214 733 888 
24-236 300 448 


4-820 


23-202 472 677 


4-870 


24-257 886 813 


21,606,189 


4-821 
4-822 
4-823 

4-824 
4-825 
4-826 

4-827 
4-828 
4-829 


23-223 109 937 
23-243 766 138 
23-264 441 296 

23-285 135 430 
23-305 848 558 
23-326 580 696 

23-347 331 863 
23-368 102 077 
23-388 891 354 


20,656,201 
675,158 
694,134 

713,128 
732,138 
751,167 

770,214 
789,277 
808,360 


4-871 
4-872 
4-873 

4-874 

4-875 
4-876 

4-877 
4-878 
4-879 


24-279 493 002 
24-301 119 032 
24-322 764 922 

24-344 430 691 
24-366 116 353 
24-387 821 940 

24-409 547 456 
24-431 292 925 
24-453 058 366 


21,626,030 
645.890 
665,769 

6S5.067 
705,582 
725,516 

745,469 
765,441 
785,431 


4-830 


23-409 699 714 


20,827,459 


4-880 


24-474 843 797 


21,805,439 


4-831 
4-832 
4-833 

4-834 

4-835 
4-836 

4-837 
4-838 
4-839 

4-840 

4^84 1~ 

4-842 

4-843 

4-844 
4-845 
4-846 

4-847 
4-848 
4-849 


23-430 527 173 
23-451 373 749 
23-472 239 460 

23-493 124 325 
23-514 028 360 
23534 951 583 

23-555 894 014 
23-576 855 668 
23-597 836 565 


20,846,576 
865,711 

884,865 

904,035 
923,223 
942,431 

961,654 

980,897 

21,000,156 


4-881 

4-882 
4-883 

4-884 
4-885 
4-886 

4-887 
4-888 
4-889 


24-496 649 236 
24-518 474 703— 
24-540 320 214 

24-562 185 791 
24-584 071 451 
24-605 977 212 

24-627 903 094 
24-649 849 116 
24-671 815 295 


21,825,466 
845.512 
865,577 

885,660 
905.761 

925,882 

946,022 
966,179 
986.356 

22,006,552 


23-618 836 721 


21,019,435 


1 4-890 


24-693 801 651 


23-639 856 156 
23-660 894 886 
23 681 952 930 

23-703 030 306 
23-724 127 032 
23-745 243 126 

23-766 378 606 
23-787 533 489 
23-808 707 794 


21,038,730 
58,044 
77,376 

96,726 
116,094 
135,480 

154,883 
174,305 
193.746 

21,213,203 


4-H91 
4-892 
4-893 

4-894 
4-895 
4-896 

4-897 
![ 4-898 
1 4-899 


24-715 808 203 
24-737 834 969 
24-759 881 968 

24-781 949 220 
24-804 036 742 
24-826 144 554 

24-848 272 674 
24-870 421 122 
24-892 589 916 


22,026,766 
46.999 
67,252 

87,522 
107,812 
1:8,120 

1 '18,448 
168.794 

1 189.160 

1 - ■. 


4-850 


23-829 901 540 


i| 4-900 


24-914 779 076 


22.209,544 



l2 



143 



REPORT — 1896. 



X 


lo-r 


Difference 


X 


lo^ 


Difference 


4-900 


24-914 779 076 


22,209,544 


4-950 


26-050 626 651 23,253,325 


4901 
4-902 
4-903 

4-904 
4-905 
4-906 

4-907 
4-908 
4-909 


24-936 988 620 
24-959 218 567 
24-981 468 936 

25-003 739 747 
25-026 031 018 
25048 342 768 

25-070 675 017 
25-093 027 784 
25-115 401 087 


22,229,947 
250,369 
270,811 

291,271 
311,750 
332,249 

352,767 
373,303 
393,858 


4-951 
4-952 
4-953 

4-954 
4-955 
4-956 

4-957 
4-958 
4-959 


26-073 879 976 
26097 154 677 
26-120 450 772 

26-143 768 282 
26-167 107 227 
26-190 467 627 

26-213 849 501 
26-237 252 871 
26-260 677 755 


23,274,701 
296,095 
317,510 

338,945 
360.400 
381,874 

403,370 
424,884 
446,418 


4-910 


25-137 794 945 


22,414,433 


4-960 


26-284 124 173 


23,467,974 


4-911 
4-912 
4-913 

4-914 
4-9i5 
4-916 

4-917 
4-918 
4-919 


25-160 209 378 
25-182 644 406 
25-205 100 046 

25-227 576 319 
25-250 073 244 
25-272 590 839 

25-295 129 124 
25-317 688 119 
25-340 267 842 


22,435,028 
455,640 
476,273 

496,925 
517,595 
538,285 

558,995 
579,723 
600,471 

22,621,238 


4-961 
4-962 
4-963 

4-964 
4-965 
4-966 

4-967 
4-968 
4-969 


26-307 592 147 
26-331 081 696 
26-354 593 839 

26-378 125 598 
26-401 679 992 
26-425 256 041 

26-448 853 766 
26-472 473 187 
26-496 114 324 


23,489,549 
511,143 
532,759 

554,394 
576,049 
597,725 

619,421 
641,137 
662,872 

23,684,630 


4-920 


25-362 868 313 


4-970 


26-519 777 196 


4-921 
4-922 
4-923 

4924 
4-925 
4-926 

4-927 
4-928 
4-929 


25-385 489 551 
25-408 131 575 
25 430 794 406 

25-453 478 061 
25-476 182 562 
25-498 907 926 

25-521 654 174 
25-544 421 324 
25-567 209 397 


22,642,024 
662,831 
683,655 

701,501 
725,364 

746,248 

767,150 
788,073 
809,015 


4-971 
4-972 
4-973 

4-974 
4-975 
4-976 

4-977 
4-978 
4-979 


26-543 461 826 
26-5l-,7 168 232 
26-590 896 435 

26-614 646 455 
26-638 418 313 
26-662 212 029 

26-686 027 624 
26-709 865 117 
26-733 724 529 


23,706,406 
728,203 
750,020 

771,858 
793,716 
815,595 

837,493 
859,412 
881,351 


4-930 


25-590 018 413 


22,829.976 


4-980 26-757 605 880 


23,903.312 


4-931 
4-932 
4-933 

4-934 
4-935 
4-936 

4-937 
4-938 
4-939 


25-612 848 388 
25 635 699 345 
25-658 571 302 

25-681 464 280 
25-704 378 296 
25-727 313 372 

25-750 269 527 
25-773 246 780 
25-796 245 150 


22,850,957 
871,957 
892,978 

914,016 
935,076 
956,155 

977,253 

998,370 

23,019,509 


4-981 
4-982 
4-983 

4-984 
4-985 
4-986 

4-987 
4-988 
4-989 


26-781 509 192 
26-805 434 484 
26-829 381 777 
26-853 351 091 
26-877 342 447 
26-901 355 865 

26-925 391 367 
26-949 448 972 
26-973 528 701 


23,925,292 
947,293 
969,314 

991,356 

24,013,418 

35,.502 

57,605 

79,729 

101,874 


4-910 


25-819 264 659 


23,040,665 


4-990 


26-997 630 575 


24,124,0.39 


4-941 
4-942 
4-943 

4-944 
4-945 
4-946 

4-947 
4-948 
4-949 


25-8-12 305 324 
25-865 367 167 
25-888 450 206 

25-911 554 462 
25-934 679 954 
25-957 826 703 

25-980 994 126 
26-004 181 046 
26-027 394 681 


23,061,843 

83,039 

104,256 

125,492 
146,749 
168,023 

189,320 
210,635 
231,970 


4-991 
4-992 
4-993 

4-994 
4-995 
4-996 

4-997 
4-998 
4-999 


27-021 754 014 
27045 900 840 
27070 069 272 

27-094 259 931 
27-118 472 839 
27-142 708 015 

27-166 965 481 
27-191 245 257 
27-215 547 365 


24,146,226 
168,432 
190,659 

212,908 
235,176 
257,466 

279,776 
.302,108 
324,459 


4-950 


26-050 626 651 


23,253,325 


5-000 


27-239 871 821 


24,346,832 



ON MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. 



149 



X 


Iqx 


Difference 


X 


V 


Difference 


5-000 


27-239 871 824 


24,346,832 


5-050 


28-485 059 067 


25.492,459 


500] 
5-002 
5-003 

5-004 
5-005 
5-006 

5-007 
5 008 
5-009 


27-264 218 656 
27-288 587 881 
27-312 979 521 

27-337 393 596 
27-361 830 128 
27-386 289 137 

27-410 770 644 
27-435 274 670 
27-459 801 236 


24,369,225 
391,640 
414,075 

436,532 
459,009 
481,507 

504,026 
526,566 
549,127 


5-051 
5-052 
5-053 

5-054 
5055 
5-056 

5-057 
5-058 
5-059 


28-510 551 526 
28-536 067 446 
28-561 606 850 

28-587 169 758 
28-612 756 194 
28-638 366 178 

28-663 999 733 
28-689 656 880 
28-715 337 643 


25,515,920 
539,404 
562,908 

586,436 
609,984 
633,555 

657,147 
680,763 
704,399 


5-010 


27-484 850 363 


24,571,709 


5-060 


28-741 042 042 


25,728,058 


5-011 
5-012 
5-013 

5-014 
5-015 
5-016 

5-017 
5 018 
5-019 


27-508 922 072 
27-533 516 384 
27-558 133 321 

27-582 772 902 
27-607 435 150 
27-632 120 086 

27-656 827 730 
27-6S1 558 104 
27-706 311 229 


24,594,312 
616,937 
639,581 

662,248 
684,936 
707,644 

730,374 
753,125 
775,897 


5-06 L 
5-062 
5-063 

5-064 
5-065 
5-066 

5-067 
5-068 
5 069 


28-766 770 100 
28-792 521 839 
28-818 297 280 

28-844 096 447 
28-869 919 361 
28-895 766 044 

28-921 630 518 
28-947 530 806 
28-973 448 930 


25,751,739 
775,441 
799,167 

822,914 
846,683 
870,474 

894,288 
918,124 
941,982 


5020 


27-731 087 126 


24,798,690 


5-070 


28-999 390 912 


25,965,863 


5 021 
5022 
5-023 

5-024 
5-025 
5-026 

5-027 
5 028 
5-029 


27-755 885 816 
27-780 707 321 
27-805 551 662 

27-830 418 860 
27-855 308 937 
27-880 221 913 

27-905 157 810 
27-930 116 650 
27-955 098 454 


24,821,505 
844,341 
867,198 

890,077 
912,976 
935,897 

958,840 

981,804 

25,004,789 


5-071 
5-072 
5-073 

5074 
5075 
5-076 

5-077 
5-078 
5-079 


29-025 356 775 
29051 346 539 
29-077 360 229 

29-103 397 866 
29-129 459 472 
29-155 545 070 

29-181 654 682 
29-207 788 331 
29-233 946 039 


25,989,764 

26,013,690 

37,637 

61,606 

85,598 

109,612 

133,649 

157,708 
181,789 


5-030 


27-980 103 243 


25,027,796 


5-080 


29-260 127 828 


26,205,893 


5-031 
5-032 
5-033 

5-034 
5-035 
5-036 

5-037 
5-038 
5-039 


28005 131 039 
28-030 181 863 
28-055 255 736 

28-080 352 681 
28-105 472 718 
28130 615 869 

28-155 782 156 
28180 971 600 
28-206 184 223 


25,050,824 
73,873 
96,945 

120,037 
143,151 
166,287 

189,444 
212,623 
235,823 


5-08] 
5-082 
5-083 

5-084 
5-085 
5-086 

5087 
5-088 
5-089 


29-286 333 721 
29-312 563 740 
29-338 817 908 

29-365 096 248 
29-391 398 781 
29-417 725 531 

29-444 076 520 
29-470 451 771 
29-496 851 305 


26,230,019 
254,168 
278,340 
302,533 
326,750 
350,989 

375,251 
399,534 

423,842 


5040 


28-231 420 046 


25,259,045 


5-090 


29-523 275 147 


26.448,171 

26,472,524 
496,898 
521,296 

545,717 
570,160 
694,626 

619,114 
643,620 
668,161 


5-041 
5042 
5043 

5044 
5-045 
5-046 

5-047 
5-048 
5-049 


28-256 679 091 
28-281 961 380 
28-307 266 934 

28-332 595 776 
28-357 947 926 
28-383 323 406 

28-408 722 239 
28-434 144 445 
28-459 590 047 


25,282,289 
305,554 

328,842 

352,150 

375,480 
398,833 

422,206 
445,602 
4*i9,020 

25,492,459 


5-091 
5-0H2 
5-093 

5-094 
5-095 
5-096 

5-097 
5-098 
5-099 


29-549 723 318 
29-576 195 842 
29-602 692 740 

29-629 214 036 
29-655 759 753 
29-682 329 913 

29-708 924 539 
29-735 543 653 
29-762 187 279 


5-050 1 28-480 059 067 


5-100 


29-788 855 440 



150 



EEroRT — 189G. 



Exjjeyiments for improving tlie Construction of Practical Standards for 
Eledrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Carey Foster (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Lord Ray- 
LEiGH, Professors Ayrton, J. Perry, and W. G. Adams, Drs. 
0. J. Lodge, John Hopkinson, and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. 
Preece and Herbert Taylor, Professor J. D. Everett, Professor 
A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors A. W. Rucker, 
G. F. FitzGerald, G. Chrystal, and J. J. Thomson, Messrs. 
R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary) and W. N. Shaw, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stone y, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. G. 
Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, and Mr. E. H. Griffiths. 

APPENDIX PAGE 

I. — Extracts from Letters received, dealing with the Qnegtion of the Unit of 

Heat 15i 

II. — The Capacity for Heat of Water from 10° to 20° (1. referred to its Capacity 

at 10° C. an Unity 1(32 

III. — Recalculation of the Total Heat of Water from the U.rperiments of 

Beynault and Ban-land. By W. N. Shaw 162 

The work of testing resistance coils at the Cavendish Laboratory has 
been continued, and a table of the values of the coils tested is given. 



Ohms. 



No. of Coil 


Resistance of Coil in Ohms 


Temperature 


Paul, 38 ... "^^ No. 447 


1 -00098 


ll°-9 


Paul, 35 






^^ No. 448 


100 (1 - 00179) 


ll°-8 


Paul, 40 






^ No. 449 


1000(1 --00188) 


12°-5 


Elliott, 227 






. 3^ No. 450 


-99658 


l2°-4 


Paul, 37 






^ No. 451 


•99961 


13<'-4 


Nalder, 5324 






. !^ No. 452 


•99881 


12°-8 


Nalder, 5326 






. ^ No. 453 


■99869 


13°5 


Nalder, 4939 






;^ No. 454 


•99899 


13°-6 


ElUott, 323 






• i^ No. 455 


100050 


17°-7 


Elliott, 324 






H^ No. 456 


1^00067 


17°-8 


Elliott, 325 






• ^ No. 457 


100057 


17°-8 


Elliott, 326 






. ^ No. 458 


1-00060 


17°-8 















The comparison between the set of standards ordered from Germany — 
referred to in the last report— is not yet completed. The work will be 
continued during the current year. 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 



151 



At the Ipswich Meeting of tlie Association the question of a standcard 
thermal unit was referred to the Electrical Standards Committee, and has 
been under their consideration during the year. 

After the Ipswich Meeting Mr. E. H. Griffiths sent the folloAving letter 
to a number of physicists in various foreign countries, together with a copy 
of the paper ' he had communicated to the Association : — 

Herewith I forward you a copy of a recent communication to the ' Philo- 
sophical Magazine,' in which I "have endeavoured to call attention to the 
unsatisfactory nature of our present system of thermal measurements. _ 

At the Ipswich Meeticfr of the British Association the consideration of the 
question of a standard thermal unit was referred to the Electrical Standards 
Committee. 

As a member of tliat Committee I now approacli you with a request that 
you will communicate to me any sug-g-estions which you may regard as calculated 
to assist our deliberations on the subject. 

I am anxious to lay before the Committee the opinions of the leading 
authorities of all countries ; I trust, therefore, that you will favour me with 
some expression of vonr views, particularly as to the nature and magnitude 
of the thermal unit (if anv) that you would recommend for adoption. 

Unless you state that I am' to regard your rejily as ' for Committee only' 
or 'private,' I shall conclude that you have no objection to its publication. 

The importance of arriving (.if possible) at some general agreement regard- 
ing the thermal unit will, I hope, be accepted as a sufficient excuse for thus 
troubling you. 

Copies of the circular letter, and of the paper ' on the Thermal Unit, 
were sent to the following : — • 



Professor AbLe, Washington, U.S.A. 

Professor Ames, P.altimore. 

Processor Partoli, Pavia. 

Professor Barus, Providence, R.I. 

Professor Benoit, Sevres. 

Professor Berthelot, Paris. 

Professor Boltzmann, Vienna. 

Professor Callendar, ^Montreal. 

Dr. Cbappuis, Bureau International, 
Sevres. 

Dr. Curie, Paris. 

Professor Dieterici. Hanover. 

Professor Dorn, Halle. 

Professor Du Bois, U.S..\. 

I'rofessor Willard Gibbs. Vale, U.S.A. 

Dr. Guillaume, Bureau International, 
Sevres. 

Professor Hall, Harvard, U.S.A. 

Professor Himstedt, Freiburg. 

Professor Hittorf. Jliinster. 

Professor Joubert, Paris. 

Professor Kayser. Bonn. 

Professor Kohlrausch, Berlin. 

Professor de Kowalski, Freiburg, Swit- 
zerland. 

Dr. S. P. Langley, Washington, U.S.A. 

Professor Landolt, Berlin. 

Professor Le Chatelier, School of Mines, 
Paris. 



Professor Lippmann, Paris. 
Professor Victor Meyer, Heidelberg. 
Professor Nernst, Gottingen. 
Professor Nichols, Ithaca. D S.A. 
Professor Olszewski, Cracow. 
Profes.sor Ostwald, Leipzig. 
Professor Overbeck, Tiibingen. 
Professor Paschen, Hanover. 
Professor Planck. Berlin. 
Professor Pellat, Paris. 
Professor Pernet, Zurich. 
Professor Potier, Ecole Polytechnique, 

Paris. 
Professor Quincke, Heidelberg 
Professor Kemsen. Baltimore, U.S.A. 
Professor Rowland, Baltimore, U.S.A. 
Professor Runge, Hanover. 
Professor ScliuUer, Budapest. 
Professor Stohmann, Leipzig. 
Professor J. Thomsen, Copenhagen. 
Professor Van 't HoflF, Amsterdam. 
Profes.sor Vascby, Ecole Polytechnique, 

Paris. 
Professor E. Warburg, Berlin. 
Professor Wartha. Budapest. 
Professor Weber, Zurich. 
Professor E. Wiedemann, Erlangen. 
Professor G. Wiedemann, Leipzig. 
Professor Wiillner, Aachen. 



' Phil. Maj., November 1895. 



152 



REPORT — 1896. 



Replies were received from the following, and the Committee desire to 
thank those who so courteously responded to Mr. Griffiths' inquiry for their 
very valuable assistance. 



Professor Ames, Baltimore. 

Professor Boltzmann, Vienna. 

Professor Callendar, Montreal. 

Dr. Chappuis, Bureau International, 

Sevres. 
Professor Dieterici, Hanover. 
Professor Dorn, Halle. 
Dr. Guillaume, Bureau International, 

Sevres. 
Professor Le Chatelier, School of Mines, 

Paris. 
Professor Victor Meyer, Heidelberg. 
Professor Nernst, Gottingen. 



Professor Nichols, Ithaca, U.S.A. 
Professor Olszewski (and Colleagues), 

Cracow. 
Professor Ostwald, Leipzig. 
Professor Paschen, Hanover. 
Professor Planck, Berlin. 
Professor Quincke, Heidelberg. 
Professor Remsen, Baltimore, U.S.A. 
Professor Rowland, Baltimore, U.S.A. 
Professor Runge, Hanover. 
Professor Stohmann, Leipzig. 
Professor Wiillner, Aachen. 



Extracts from such replies as contain definite suggestions bearing on 
the question of the unit of heat are printed in Appendix I. ; the letters 
have been translated, and those which merely give general approval to 
some such scheme as that outlined have not been included. No replies 
were received adverse to the suggestion that an endeavour should be made 
to secure common agreement in the matter. 

The concluding propositions of Mr. Griffiths' paper were substantially 
as follows : 

(I.) To adopt as the theoretical unit of heat a multiple (42 xlO'^) of 
the erg. 

(II.) To adopt as the practical unit of heat, the heat required to raise 
1 gramme of water 1° C. of the nitrogen thermometer at some temperature 
t° C. as given by that thermometer. 

(III.) To adopt provisionally some formula expressing the specific heat 
of water in terms of the temperature over a range of, say, 10° C. 

If the numbei', 42 x 10*"' ergs, be adopted for the theoretical unit, then, 
according to the experiments of Rowland, the theoretical and the practical 
unit agree, provided that the temperature t° C. be 10° C. 

Mr. Griffiths, in the paper already referred to, has made a comparison 
of the results obtained by Joule, Rowland, Schuster, Miculescu, and him- 
self, for the amount of energy required to raise 1 gramme of water 1° C. 
at various temperatures. The results differ according as the readings of 
Joule's mercury thermometer are reduced to the scale of Rowland's air 
thermometer, or to the scale of the nitrogen thermometer, as has been 
done by Schuster. 

In the first case the mean values are — 

At 10° C. (41-971±-023)xl0«; and at 15° C. (41-891±-023) xlO'' ; 
and in the second — 

At 10° C. (41-958±-029) x 10« ; and at 15° C. (41-875±-029) x lO^. 

Tables of the values of the specific heat of water between 10° C. 
and 20° C. have been calculated by Mr. Griffiths, and are given in 
Appendix II. 

The Committee have made an analysis of those replies which contain 
definite suggestions. 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 153 

Most of the writers wish to see some multiple of the erg adopted as 
the theoretical unit, but thei'e are differences of opinion as to the mul- 
tiple to be chosen. 

Thus, Professors Dorn and Wiillner, Dr. Chappuis, and Professor Ames 
would prefer 42 x 10*^ ergs. Professor Ostwakl, Professor Olszewski and 
his colleagues, and Professor Callendar suggest 10" ergs. Professor Planck 
and M. Le Chatelier suggest 10* ergs, or in the case of the latter, as an 
alternative, 5x10^. 

Professors Rowland and Nichols consider the ice unit as theoretically 
best ; the latter, however, would be willing to adopt 42 x lO*' ergs as tlie 
theoretical unit, while Pi'ofessor Rowland writes : ' From a practical stand- 
point, however, the unit depending on the specific heat of water is cei*- 
tainly the most convenient. It has been the one mostly used, and its 
value is well known in terms of energy.' 

There is fairly general agreement in the view that as a practical unit 
the heat required to raise 1 gramme of water 1° C at some lixed tempera- 
ture must be taken, but views differ as to the temperature which it is 
most convenient to choose. 

Mr. Griffiths suggested the nitrogen thermometer as the standard 
of temperature. The French physicists agree in the opinion that the 
hydrogen thermometer should bo adopted, and reasons are given for this 
in the letters of M. Guillaume and M. Chappuis. The Committee concur 
in this view. 

The Committee are of opinion that Mr. Griffiths' paper, and the 
replies received by him, show clearly that it is desii-able to come to an 
agreement as to the definition of the unit of heat. 

They undei'stand that a Committee of the French Physical Society have 
the question at present under consideration, and they hope it may be 
possible for the Electrical Standards Committee of the British Association 
to co-operate with this Committee and with representatives of other foreign 
countries in the matter. 

The Standards Committee have provisionally approved the following 
propositions, with the view of opening international discussion of the 
question. They propose to send the propositions to representative bodies 
throughout the world, with a letter stating that they have been provisionally 
approved, inviting further discussion, and asking those bodies to take the 
steps which seem to them most desirable in order to secure international 
agreement on the matter. 

Proposition I. — For many purposes heat is most conveniently 
measured in units of energy, and the theoretical C.G.S. unit of heat is 
1 erg. The name Joule has been given by the Electrical Standards 
Committee to 10^ «rgs. 

For many practical purposes heat will continue to be measured 
in terms of the heat required to raise a measured mass of water through 
a definite range of temperature. 

If the mass of water be 1 gramme, and the range of temperature 1 ° C 
of the hydrogen thermometer from 9°-5 C. to ]0°-5 C. of the scale of that 
thermometer, then, according to the best of the existing determinations, 
the amount of heat required is 4-2 Joules. 

It will, therefore, be convenient to fix upon this number of Joules as a 
secondary unit of heat. 

This secondary thermal unit may be called a * Calorie.' 



154 REPORT— 1896. 

For the present a second proposition is 

Proposition II. — The amount of heat required to raise the tempera- 
ture of 1 gramme of water 1° C. of the scale of the hydrogen ther- 
mometer, at a mean temperature which may be taken as 10° C. of that 
thermometer, is 4'2 Joules. 

If further research should show that the statement in II. is not exact, 
the definition could be adjusted by a small alteration in the mean tem- 
perature at which the rise of 1° takes place. The definition in I. and 
the number (4-2) of Joules in a Calorie would remain unaltered. 

In Appendix II. a table is given showing the capacity for heat of 
water between 10° C. and 20° C, and in Appendix III. the values of the 
total heat of water has been calculated by Mr. Shaw from his experiments 
of Regnault and Rowland. 

Professor J. Y. Jones has, during the year, calculated the correction 
to be applied to the value of the international ohm in absolute measure 
given by him at the Oxford meeting (189i), in consequence of the ellipticity 
of the standard coil used in his experiments. The required correction is 
•00684 per cent., and the corrected value of the international ohm is 
•99983 X 10'' absolute units. 

In conclusion the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, 
with a grant of 5/. ; that Professor G. Carey Foster be chairman, and 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook secretary. 



APPENDIX I. 



EXTBACTS FROM LETTERS RECEIVED, DEALING WITH THE QUESTION OF 

THE Unit of Heat. 

1. — From Dr. C. Dieterici, Professor of Physics, Hanover. 

[This reply has, since it was sent to Mr. Griffiths, been printed in full in 
Wiedemann's A/maleH for February 1896. It is therefore not thought necessary 
to print it again here.] 

2.— From Dr. Dorn, Professor of Physics, Halle, 

December 27, 1895. 

[Traxslatiox.] 

... I quite agree with you that it is very necessary there should be 
an improvement in the department of calorimetry, and that the first step 
must be the determination of sharply defined units. I agree with you 
in the opinion that the new unit ought not to difier in a marked degree 
from the present, for it would otherwise cause great inconvenience to 
both physicists and chemists, and there would be no hope of introducing 
the new unit technically. 

I have really no objection to offer to the thermal unit being 42 x lO*"" 
ergs (or rather 41-89 x 10'' ergs). 

3. — From Dr. W. Osticald, Professor of Chemistry, Leijjziff, 
February 12, 1890. 

[Translation.] 
I entirely agree with your proposal to take some multiple of the erg 
as unit of heat. Such a step seems to me so undoubtedly necessary that, 
in my opinion, the question is lohen and not if such a change should be 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 155 

carried out. I therefore regard your proposition as a welcome oppor- 
tunity for going into the neglected question, and I may say that I am 
determined to recalculate, in the forthcoming third edition of my text- 
book, the whole of the thermo-chemical data in such a manner as to do 
my utmost to diminish the difficulties consequent on the transition. I 
have already (in 1891) expressed my opinion very clearly, and I now send 
you the memoir referring to it.' 

I differ from your proposals, however, as regards the magnitude of 
the unit to be adopted. I believe that only an erg multiplied by some 
integral power of 10 should be chosen. I formerly proposed a Mega-erg, 
but have now altered my opinion. 

As a practical multiple of the erg, we already possess one in electricity, 
viz., the Joule = 10' ergs ; and it appears to me to have the great 
advantage that the practical unit of energy in constant use in the 
two great departments of electiical and thermal measurements would be 
identical ; therefore I do not think that any other choice could be so 
advantageous. 

4. — From Dr. F. FascJien, Tit. Professor of Physics, Hanover, 
November 24, 1895. 

. . . We must have an absolute unit simply related to other absolute 
units, and that would be your ' Rowland ' ; but we must also know how 
to realise this unit. For this purpose the specific heat of water must be 
fixed for each temperature. 

I think, as the different observations on the variability of the specific 
heat of water differ so greatly, your statement III. (p. 3) is a very 
preliminary one. ... I think it would be best to propose that a new 
determination of the changes in the specific heat of water should be 
undertaken by some institute that has the necessary apparatus and 
money. 

5. — From Dr. M. Planck, Professor of Physics, Berlin, 
November 25, 1895. 

[Translation.] 

If I may venture on giving my opinion on the propositions made by 
you, I must emphasise, before all things, that I agree with you as to the 
necessity of having a well-defined universal unit of heat, and I should be 
very glad if your well-considered plans led to a definite result. As a 
theorist I would make even more radical demands as to the unit to be 
defined. The ideal universal unit of heat appears to me to be still more 
closely related to the definition of the electrical units ; consequently I 
would define : — 

I. One ' Rowland ' (or ' Meyer,' or ' Kelvin ') as that quantity of heat 
which is equivalent to 1 0^ ergs. 

II. According to the best measurements hitherto obtained 1 'Row- 
land' is that quantity of heat which raises 1 gramme of water at 15° C. 
through 2°-.39 C. It would be possible to modify this number in the 
light of subsequent experiments. We should thus avoid the arbitrary 
character involved in the choice of such numbers as 41-89 x lO*" or 42 x 10^. 

' See SUidien zur Energetih, p. 577. 



156 REPORT— 1896. 

At the same time I quite acknowledge that the establishment of this unit 
will cause a considerable revolution in present thermal calculations which 
will be difficult to carry out, and it will therefore probably meet with 
energetic opposition from practical physicists and from technical men. 
Still, as I have already remarked, I should consider it a great step in 
advance if even the value of the equivalent cf heat were established. 



6. — From Dr. Wiillner, Professor of Pltysics, Aachen, 
February 23, 1896. 

[Teanslation.] 

I, also, have finally decided on determining the unit of heat by the 
work done, inasmuch as I have endeavoured to determine the work which 
is equivalent to the mean calorie measured by the ice calorimeter. 

I hope I made it evident that I am quite aware of the uncertainty of 
this method of calibration. I thus arrived at the value 4175-S X 10\ or, in 
whole numbers, 4176 x 10^, whicli, according to Rowland, corresponds to the 
heat required to raise the unit weight of water through 1° G. at 22° C. 
of the air thermometer. 

I am, however, quite willing, if an agreement can be arrived at, to 
discard the always uncertain relation to the mean unit of heat, and to 
accept your proposed unit 42 x 10''. The tejnperature 15°, at wliich the 
specific heat of water is then unity, is more convenient. The consequence 
of such an agreement will be that all thermal measurements in which 
absolute values are aimed at will be made with the water calorimeter, 
in which case it appears easier to experiment with temperatures about 
15° ; also we are in better agreement as to the behaviour of water 
between 10° C. and 20° C, although, even then, there is not complete 
certainty. I should, for example, prefer to make the reductions at 15° 
entirely according to the observations of Rowland, as he has directly 
measured the equivalent of heat at these temperatures. Finally, as 
regards the designation of the new unit, I do not approve of giving it the 
name of a physicist ; also the name ' therm ' is suitable for English 
physicists, but not for others. 

Why should we not simply preserve the name ' thermal unit ' ? Or, if 
a distinctive name is used, then, approximating to the long-used ' calorie,' 
call the new unit a ' calor.' The definition would then be, ' A calor is the 
heat value of 41-89 x 10'^ ergs,' and, until further notice, the calor will be 
equal to the amount of heat which will raise the unit mass of water 
at 15° through 1° C. 

No especial name has been given to the length of the mercury column 
which is equivalent to 1 ohm. In no case would I advocate the adoption 
of a second definition for the practical unit (besides ' Rowland,' ' calor,' 
or simply ' thermal unit '), as that would lead to confusion. 



7. — From Dr. Boltzmann, Professor of Theoretical Physics, Vienna, 

November 26, 1895. 

The unit ought to be as simple as possible and capable of accurate 
determination, as all other qualities are of less importance. It would be 
simplest to choose the heat which raises the temperature from 10° to 11° C. 

In general I am in accord with all you say in your paper. The most 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 157 

important thing is that the same conception should be adopted everywhere, 
and for this reason I will fully accept the decision of the majority of the 
Committee. 

8. — From Dr. K. Olszewski, Professor of Chemistry, Cracow, 
December 14, 1895. 

I have taken the advice of my colleagues in the Cracow University, 
Professors Witkowski and Natanson, and I beg to submit to your attention, 
as well as to that of the British Association Electrical Standards Com- 
mittee, the following suggestions, being the conclusions arrived at con- 
jointly by the above-named gentlemen and myself. 

1 . It would be advisable, on theoretical grounds, to select a Joule, or 
10^ ergs, as the fundamental theoretical or ideal unit of heat-energy. 
Hence the following proposal is brought forward : — 

' That the theoretical or thermo-dijnamical, or, say, c.g.s. standard 
thermal unit, be defined as the heat equivalent of a Joule or of 10^ 
ergs, and termed a thermal Joule.' 

2. That, as a "practical thermcd unit, the quantity of heat required to 
raise 1 gramme of pure water through 1° of the thermo-dynamical scale at 
15° of that scale be temporarily adopted. 

3. That, in view of the exceptional importance of the question, steps be 
taken, by international co-operation or otherwise, leading to the deter- 
mination of the numerical value of the ratio between the theoretical unit 
and the practical unit, defined by 15°, as above stated, by some at least of 
the leading physical and metrological laboratories and institutions of the 
world, with the highest degree of accuracy nowadays attainable ; and to 
the extension (if possible) of such determinations over as great a range of 
temperature as practicable. Added to the highly valuable work already 
done, such an investigation cannot fail to settle the question of the specific 
heat of water ; and if this be done, the subject of thermal units will have 
lost nearly all of its present difficulty. 

9. — From Dr. Cliappuis, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 
Sevres, February 2, 1896. 

[Translation.] 

. . . Your arguments have led me to accept the propositions given by 
you on pp. 452 and 453. 

If, however, I may be allowed to express a wish, it is that the values 
may be reduced to the normal scale of temperature, i.e., to that of the 
hydrogen thermometer, and not to the air or nitrogen. 

It is true that the diSerence between these scales is very small, but 
still it is perfectly measurable. Some experiments of the Bureau Inter- 
national des Poids et Mesures (not yet published) have led me to the 
conclusion that the thermometric scale of hydrogen is independent of the 
initial pressui-e between 0-5 and 2 atmospheres, and that the hydrogen 
tiiermometer at constant pressure gives sensibly the same values as the 
thermometer at constant volume. It is not so with the nitrogen or the 
air thermometer. 

The difference between the nitrogen and hydrogen scales is indicated 
both in the original memoir (' Trav. et M^m. du Bui-eau International,' 



158 REPORT— 1896. 

Vol. VI.) in the pamphlet on thermometry of precision by M. Guillauiiie, 
as well as in Landolt and Bornstein's physical tables, 2nd edition, p. 93. 
Also a great number of physicists have adopted the decision of the 
International Committee of the Poids et Mesures to take, as the normal 
scale of temperature, that of the hydrogen thermometer at constant 
volume. 

10. — From Professor Le C'hatelier, School of Mines, Paris. 

[Traxslatiox.] 

... I should like the thermal unit to be a number of ergs chosen 
arbitrarily ; either 10* ergs, or, in order to approach more nearly to the 
present unit, 5 x 10*^ ergs. Then, as practical unit, I should like two : 

(1) A unit, of precision analogous to the ohm, which should be the quantity 
of heat yielded by a given mass of mercury in passing from one state to 
another, the states being defined by volume or electrical conductivity. 

(2) The present unit should be the specific heat of water at 1-3°. 

The use of water is indispensable for current researches, but it appears 
to me very doubtful for researches of precision. 

It is supposed that the condition of water and, consequently, its internal 
energy are completely determined when the pressure and temperature are 
ascertained. Now, nothing is less probable. Since Ramsay's researches, 
we know decisively that water is formed of a mixture of molecules at 
various degrees of association ; it is a system in equilibrium. The state of 
equilibrium of analogous systems is in theory entirely defined when the 
pressure and temperature are known. But in practice the state of 
equilibrium is only attained with an extreme slowness, and sometimes it is 
never reached. The lower the temperature, the more serious are those 
delays in reaching the state of equilibrium. It is therefore possible that 
the specific heat of water varies with the temperature, and that it differs 
according to whether the initial temperature of the experiment, has been 
reached when ascending or descending. 

11. — From Dr. Giiillaume, Bureau International des I'oids 
et Mesures, Sevres, November 19, 1895. 

[Tbaxslation.] 

I believe that if the French Committee adopt your proposal as to the 
fixing of the new unit, they will declare themselves still more decidedly 
in favour of the name which you have gi\en them, as it has already been 
proposed here to name ' therm ' the equivalent of heat of the erg or of one 
of its decimal multiples. 

I do not think, in return, that we could agree with you as to the scale 
of the nitrogen thermometer. There appears to be no doubt that the 
hydrogen thermometer gives a scale extremely like the thermo-dvnamic, and 
that it is, at all events, the most analogous we can have. Sooner or later 
it will be necessary to adopt the thermo-dynamic scale, and it is well 
to now approach to it as nearly as possible. 

Besides, this scale is one of a certain small number of units on which a 
legal authority has been conferred. It is now included in the decisions 
arrived at by the International Committee of Weights and Measures, 
which a certain number of States have introduced into their legislation. 

In itself the thing is actually of little importance ; but it becomes more 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 159 

important in proportion as experiments become more exact, and it is best 
to have as little as possible to change in the end. 

12. — From Professor J. S. Ames, Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A., 

December 10, 1895. 

... I must say your proposal appeals to me in every way. The 
10° unit seems to me to be preferable to the 15° one. 

13. — From Professor H. L. Callendar, Professor of Physics, McGill 
University, Montreal, December 5, 1895. 

I entirely agree that it would be a very great nnprovement to adopt 
an absolute unit in place of the present various and uncertain units based 
upon the peculiar properties of water. I think, however, that it would be 
better to connect it more simply and directly with the system of electrical 
units, and to use only names which are already familiar to all engineers, 
than to attempt to retain a close approximation to the value of any of the 
old specific heat units, which are essentially arbitrary. 

The following are the names of the series of thermal units which I 
should be inclined to suggest as being already famiUar in practice : — 

1. The thermal watt-second, or 'Joule,' defined as being equivalent 
to 10" c.g.s. units of work. A rider might be added to the effect that, 
according to the best determinations, this unit is approximately equal to 
\ of the gramme degree centigrade at 10° C. 

2. The thermal watt-hour, which would be equivalent to 3,600 
Joules, and would therefore be of a similar magnitude to the kilogramme 
degree centigrade, which is so largely used in the thermo-dynamics of the 
steam-engine. The watt-hour, in fact, would be exactly -2ths of the kilo- 
gramme degree centigrade at some temperature in the neighbourhood of 
10° C. 

3. The thermal kilowatt-hour, or simply kilowatt-hour, which, as 
the Board of Trade unit of electrical energy, is already so familiar and 
u.seful for the commercial measurement of large quantities of energy. 

In connection with the latter unit it may be remarked that it would 
be a great advantage if engineers could be induced to adopt the kilowatt 
as their unit of mechanical power in place of the horse power. The latter 
unit differs from the 'cheval-vapeur,' and being based upon the foot-pound 
has different values in different latitudes. For the order of accuracy 
generally attainable in steam-engine work, it would, as a rule, be suflicient 
to take the horse power as being |ths of the kilowatt power. 

For steam-engine work undoubtedly one of the most important units 
at present in use is the British thermal unit, or pound degree Fahrenheit. 
It happens that the watt-hour is very nearly equal to 3-400 B.T.U. 
The reduction of the latter to watt-hours may be very readily effected by 
multiplying by 0-3 and then reducing the result by 2 per cent. 

It would seem, on the whole, not improbable that the simple adoption 
of all the familiar units of electrical energy, with the prefix ' thermal,' if 
necessary, as our absolute units of heat, would result in a more general 
agreement and a greater simplification of expression than any attempt to 
re-define one of the older units in terms of the absolute system. The 



160 REPORT— 1896. 

latter course might readily lead to confusion, and would necessitate the 
retention of the constant factor J:=4"2 x 10^ in our equations whenever 
they involved electrical or mechanical measurements. 

To put the question in a brief and concrete form for the consideration 
of the Committee, I think that the views above expressed might be 
embodied in some such resolutions as the followine' : — 

1. That the thermal equivalents of the practical units of electrical 
energy above mentioned may be taken as convenient absolute units of 
heat. 

2. That when used to denote quantities of heat these units may be 
distinguished, if necessary, by prefixing the word ' thermal.' 

3. That the ' thermal watt-second,' which is intended to represent 
10" c.g.s. units of energy, be also called a 'Joule.' 

4. That tlie heat developed by an electromotive force equal to that of 
a standard Clark cell at 15° C, when acting through a resistance equal to 
one standard ohm, may be taken as 1-4340 Joule per second. 

5. That (pending the results of further investigations) the quantity of 
heat required to raise the temperature of one gramme of water through 
one degree of the centigrade air thermometer in the neighbourhood of 
10° C. may be taken as 4'200 Joules. 

6. That the thermal watt-hour, which is equal to 3-600 Joules, may 
be taken as equal to -Oths of the kilogramme degree centigrade at 10° C, or 
as equal to 3-4 times the pound degree Fahrenheit at 50° F. 

7. That for the reduction of observations to the standard temperature 
of 10° C. or 50° F., the temperature coefficient of the diminution of the 
specific heat of water may be taken as -00036 per 1° C, or -00020 per 
1° F., over the range 10° to 20°. 

With regard to the last resolution I do not see that anything would be 
gained in the present state of our knowledge by adopting a more compli- 
cated or discontinuous formula of reduction, until we are prepared to 
extend it to higher ranges of temperature. 

The name 'Joule,' as that of the father of the mechanical measurement 
of heat, would not, I think, be Open to objection. At the same time I feel 
that the choice of a special name for the absolute unit of lieat is one com- 
paratively of secondary importance. The really essential points to impress 
upon the world of science in general, and upon engineers in particular, 
are, that the specific heat of water is far from constant, and that 772 
foot-pounds are not very accurately equivalent to the B.T.XJ. Also that 
in measuring quantities of heat by the rise in temperature of a mass of 
water it is most important to have an accurately verified thermometer, 
and to state the limits of temperature between which the observations 
were taken. It would certainly be a great advantage for the reduction 
and comparison of observations to use always the same standard formulae, 
such as those which you suggest ; but it would still be necessary in accurate 
work to state the limits of temperature for subsequent identification, should 
these formulaa prove on more exact investigation to be not sufficiently 
approximate. 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. IGl 



H.^From Professor E. L. Nichols, Professor of P/njsics, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, U.S.A., January 12, 1896. 

The suggestion of defining the heat units by means of the melting of ice 
strikes me so favourably that, in spite of the difficulties which have hitherto 
been found in determining the precise heat of fusion, I am considering the 
question of the redetermination by new methods with a view of finding 
whether one can obtain a sufficient degree of accuracy to warrant the 
adoption of the heat of fusion of water as the basis for thermal measure- 
ment. 

15. — From Professor Eoidand, Professor of Physics, Johns Iloplcins 
University, Baltimore, U.S.A., December 15, 1895. 

As to the standard for heat measurement, it is to be considered from 
both a theoretical as well as a practical standpoint. 

The ideal theoretical unit would be that quantity of heat necessary to 
melt one gramme of ice. This is independent of any system of ther- 
mometry, and presents to our minds the idea of quantity of heat indepen- 
dent of temperature. 

Thus the system of thermometry would have no connection whatever 
with the heat unit, and the first law of thermodynamics would stand, as it 
should, entirely independent of the second. 

The idea of a quantity of heat at a high temperature being very dif- 
ferent from the same quantity at a low tempei'ature would then be easy 
and simple. Likewise we could treat thermodynamics without any refer 
ence to temperature until we came to the second law, which would then 
introduce temperature and the way of measuring it. 

From a practical standpoint, however, the unit depending on the 
specific heat of water is at present certainly the most convenient. It has 
been the one mostly used, and its value is well known in terms of energy, 
furthermore, the establishment of institutions where it is said thcSrmo- 
meters can be compared with a standard renders the unit very available 
in practice. In other words, this unit is a better practical one at j^re- 
sent. I am Aery sorry this is so, because it is a very poor theoretical one 
indeed. 

But as we can write our text-books as we please, I suppose that it is 
best to accept the most practical unit. This I conceive to be the heat 
required to raise a gramme of water 1° C. on the hydrogen thermometer 
at 20° C. 

I take 20° because in ordinary thermometry the room is usually about 
this temperature, and no reduction will be necessary. Howe%er, 15° 
would not be inconvenient, or 10° to 20°. 

As I write these words I have a feeling that I may be wrong. Why 
should we continue to teach in our text-books that heat has anything to 
do with temperature? It is decidedly wrong, and if I ever write a text- 
book I shall probably use the ice unit. But if I ever write a scientific 
paper of an experimental nature I shall probably use the other unit. 



189G. 



M 



162 



REPORT — 1896, 



APPENDIX II. 

The Capacity for Heat of Water from 10° to 20° C. 
TO ITS Capacity at 10° C. as Unity. 



REFERRED 



— 


Ro«rland 


Griffiths 


Bartoli and 
Stracciati 


Mean 


o 

10 


10000 


10000 


1-0000 


1-0000 


11 


•0905 


■9997 


•9997 


•999G 


12 


•9990 


•9994 


•9994 


•9993 


13 


•9985 


■9991 


•9991 


•9989 


14 


•9980 


•9989 


■9988 


•9986 


15 


•9974 


•9986 


•9985 


•9982 


16 


•9969 


•9983 


•9981 


•9978 


17 


•9964 


•9981 


•9979 


•9975 


18 


•9959 


•9978 


•9978 


•9972 


19 


•9954 


•9975 


•9977 


•9969 


20 


•9950 


•9973 


■9977 


•9967 



(Numbers given in italics are obtained by extrapolation.) 

Note. — If we assume the validity of the numbers in the last column, 

then any quantity of heat (Q,) expressed in terms of the capacity for 

heat of water at t° C. may be expressed with sufficient accuracy in terms 

of tlie thermal unit at 10° C. (Qio) by means of the following formula :— 

Q,o = Q,{l-^00033(<-10)}, 

whei-e t lies between 10° and 20° C. 

Then Qjo x4'2 gives the equivalent in Joules. 



APPENDIX III. 

Recalculation of the Total Heat op Water from the Experiments 
OF Regnault and Rowland. By W. N. Shaw. 

Tables of Thermal Data expressed in terms of Joules, 

The thermal data depending upon a thermal unit, which are, as a 
rule, included in tables of physical constants, comprise the following : — 

The variation of the specific heat of water with variation of tem- 
perature. 

Specific heats of various substances, solid, liquid, or gaseous. 

Latent heats of fusion. 

Latent heats of evaporation. 

Heat of chemical action. 

Thermal conductivities of various substances. 

The tables are mainly compiled by grouping the results obtained by a 
number of observers. Such results are only, strictly speaking, comparable 
where the scales of temperature, and the thermal units adopted for the 
i-eduction of the observations, are identical. With difierent observers 
this is only the case if very rough approximation be allowed ; but the 
experimental data communicated in the description of observations some- 
times afford the possibility of putting the results upon a better footing for 
comparison than that upon which the author's own I'eductions leave them. 
It is clear that the auxiliary data which must be used in order to render 
the I'esalts strictly comparable, are in effect precisely those which are 



ELECTKICAL STAXDARDS. 



103 



necessary to express tlie author's data in absolute measure, except tliat 
for the mere purposes of comparison one datum — the dynamical equivalent 
at one specitied temperature— is not actually required. At the same time 
the comparison of data is in no way vitiated by tlie use of some number 
(for the present a conventional one), in order to convert a result from 
some definite gramme- degree-unit to Joules. 

An examination of the tables of thermal data with a view to expressing 
the results in Joules furnishes, therefore, a very effective test of the com- 
parability of the results obtained by different observers for the same 
thermal constants, and, moreover, the difficulties to be met with in making 
the reduction to Joules give the best indication of the points which must 
be settled before the results of thermal measurement can be regarded as 
final. To carry out such an examination completely, using numbers for 
reduction that can only be regarded as provisional, would be an unneces- 
sary labour, but a few selected instances may help to exhibit some of the 
uncertainties which might reasonably be expected to disappear if ob- 
servers once recognised the desirability of expressing all thermal mea- 
surements in Joules, or in some accepted equivalent. 

As an example, I have computed the total heat of water at various 
temperatures as determined experimentally. I have used Rowland's num- 
bers for lower temperatures, and have recomputed Regnault's experiments, 
accepting Table I. (computed from Rowland) as correct. 

I think it might be possible to find data enough to recompute some 
others, e.g., the latent heat of steam at 100°, the specific heat of air at 
constant pressure, which, by the way, is almost exactly a Joule. The 
labour is, howe^'er, very considerable, and it might be abbreviated (for the 
Committee) if those who are or have recently been engaged in thermal 
measurements would supply the Committee with the results of their own 
observations reduced to Joules and thermometric units. 



Table I. — Total Heat of Water at Variouti TemperatureH of the scale of the 
Hydrogen Thermometer between 0" and 3G°, expressed in Joules 
(Rowland's Experiments). 



T 


; Total Heat in Jou'es 


T 


Total Heat in Joolcs 


between 0° and T° 


between 0° and T° 


O 

5 


21044> 


o 

21 


88-144 


6 


25-254 ! 


22 


92-321 


7 


29-462 


23 


9(;-496 


8 


33-6(58 


24 


100-671 


9 


37-871 


25 


104-844 


10 


42-072 


26 


109017 


11 


46-271 


27 


113-188 


12 


50-468 


2S 


117-359 


13 


54-663 


29 


121 -.530 


14 


58-856 ! 


30 


125-700 


15 


63040 


31 


129-871 


16 


(-.7-234 


32 


134042 


17 


: 71-420 


33 


138-214 


18 


75-604 1 


34 


142-3S(; 


19 


79-786 


35 


1 46-558 


20 


83-966 


36 


150-731 



' The total neat between 0° and Vf' is obtained by extrajiolation from I.owland's 
muubers. 

M 2 



1G4 



REPORT — 189G, 



The numbers are reduced from the table in the ' Memoires de I'ln- 
stitut,' tome xxi. p. 743, by assuming the mean specific heat of water for 
the calorimetric range of each experiment to be the specific heat of water 
as given in Rowland's table for the mean calorimeti'ic temj^erature of the 
experiment, and adding to the heat thus computed as that given out by- 
one gramme of water in cooling from T° to the final calorimetric tempera- 
ture, the further amount which, upon an estimation based on Rowland's 
data, would be given out on cooling to 0°. 

Some doubt has been thrown on the accuracy of the data quoted by 
Regnault in the table referred to. I have adopted Mr. Macfarlane Gray's 
conclusion that the computations of the mean specific heat are correct, 
though the data are erroneously printed in Regnault's paper. 

The results of the individual experiments are shown in the following 
table. In order to obtain a mean result a curve of differences (see figure) 







































> 




+ 6-0 
+ 40 


































/'9- 
































o 


^ 


y , 


\ 




























^ 


^ 


''. 










+ 2-0 




< 






















^^ 


'"''^ 














K 




•s. 








-V 






K 


:^'' 





















— r° 


. K 


b 










« 






. 






























-2-0 


















1 























100 



110 



120 



130 



IIU 



150 



IGO 



170 



180 



100 



Abscissae. — Air Temperatures (T.l 

Ordinates.— Differences (.iu Joules) between Total heit from 0° to T" and 4-2 x T. 

between total heat at temperature T and 4'2xThas been plotted, and 
the means of observations, collected into seven groups, have been taken 
and also plotted. These are indicated in the diagram by circular dots, 
the individual results being shown by crosses. 



Table II. — Regnault's Observations for the Total Heat of Water between 
0° C. and Various Temjjeratures (T) of the 'Air Thermometer' above 
the Boiling-2Joint of Water. 



(Reduced from Regnault's and Rowland's results. Espies 


3ed in Jou' 


es.) 


T 


Total Heat 
from 


4-2 xT 


Differ- 


T 


Total Heat 
fr in 


4 2 X T 


Differ- 




0° to T' 




eoce 




0° to T= 




ence 


107-70 


I. 
451-83 


452-34 


- -51 


ll°6-60 


I 

491-35 


[. 

489-72 


+ 1-G3 


107-90 


453-60 


453-18 


+ -42 


116-91 


492-46 


491-02 


+ 1-44 


107-79 


453-36 


452-72 


+ -64 


118-54 


498-76 


497-87 


+ -99 


109-38 


460-69 


459-40 


+ 1-29 


120-39 


504-86 


505-64 


- -78 


109-25 


461-44 


458-85 


+ 2-59 


120-84 


507-36 


.507-53 


- -17 


109-25 


460-94 


458-85 


+ 2-09 


121-86 


512-72 


611-81 


+ -91 


109-25 


460 84 


458-85 


+ 1-99 




III 






110-80 


465-76 


405-36 


-^ -40 








111-51 


467-00 


468-34 


- -74 


12891 


542-30 


541-42 


+ -88 


113-86 


478-56 


478-21 


+ -35 


130-40 


548-07 


547-69 


+ -38 , 



ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 
Tablk IL — coHttiiued. 



165 





Totftl Heat 




Diff r- 
ence 




Total Heat 






T 

O 


frciin 
0° to'I° 


4-2 xT 


T 


from 
0° to 1° 


4-2 xT 


Difler- 
euce 


IV. 









VI. 


■ 


ISTlfi 


577-27 


576-07 


+ 1-20 ' 


172-66 


728-47 


725-17 


+ 3-30 


i;!7-27 


577-9(5 


576-53 


143 


172-75 


730-82 


72555 


-r5-27 


138-27 


581-58 


580 73 


-(- -85 


172-71 


730-68 


725-38 


+ 5-30 




Y 






172-66 


730-59 


725-17 


+ 5-42 


L53 CS 


C4G-44 


645 46 


+ -98 




VII. 




154-80 


05 1-97 


050-16 


+ 1-S1 : 


179-23 


759-70 


752-77 


+ 0-93 


155-i;i 


654-27 


65356 


+ -71 


1S3-50 


770-57 


770-95 


+ 5-62 


156-82 


600-89 


658-64 


-2-25 


186-00 


787-34 


7S1-20 


+ 6-14 


158-82 


668-38 


067-04 


+ 1-34 


180-05 


791-62 


783-93 


+ 7-69 


15SI-19 


(;(;9-64 


(;08 60 


+ 1-04 


180-89 


790-80 


784-95 


+ 5-91 


l(i(>34 


675-74 


673-43 


+ 2-31 


187-75 


795-35 


78S-55 


4 6-80 


160'Cl 


677-61 


674-56 


+ 3 05 


190-30 


805-80 


799-51 


+ 6-29 



A curve based upon these means as accurate "would show a minimum 
ordinate above 100'' C. Without any definite experimental reason I have 
considered this as outside the range of prolmbility, and have drawn a 
curve corresponding to a gradual increase of specific heat between the 
limits of the experiments, viz., 107° and 190°, which fairly connects the 
means. Continuing that curve beyond 107° to 100°, and reading off from 
it the value of the total heat minus 4-2 xT at intervals of 10° we get the 
following result : — - 

Table III, — Total Heat of Water between 0° and T° {Air Thermometer) 
according to Regnault and Roivland. 



T 
f 


Total Heat between 0° and T° 
in Joules 


Excess over 4-2 x T 


o 

100 


420-68 


•68 


110 


462-73 


•73 


120 


504-80 


•80 


130 


546-88 


•88 


140 


589-04 


1-04 


150 


631-40 


1-40 


160 


074-02 


2-02 


170 


717-52 


3-52 


180 


761-60 


5-00 



Whence we obtain — 

Mean specific heat of water between 0° and 100° is 4-2068 Joules 
= 1^0016' thermometric units. 

Mean specific heat of water between 0° and 180° is 4^23 12 Joules 
:=1^0075' thermometric units. 

' It will be remembered that Kegnault gives for these two values 1-0050 and 
1 0133 resi^ectively. 



ICG 



KEroKT — 189G. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Eeport of the Committee, 
consistinfj of Lord McLarex, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Dr. JoHX Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Professor R. 
Co^ELA^'D. {Brawn up hij Dr. Buchax.) 

The Committee were appointed, as in former years, for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteorological 
obsei'vations on Ben Nevis. 

The hourly eye observations, carried on by night as well as by day, 
have been made without interruption during the year at the top of Ben 
Nevis ; and the continuous registrations and other observations have been 
carried on at the Low Level Observatory at Fort William with the same 
fulness of detail as heretofore. 

The Directors of the Observatories tender their best thanks to Messrs. 
A. Drysdale, M.A., B.Sc, A. Russell, B Sc, G. Ednie, and W. Thomson 
for the assistance they I'endered as volunteer obsei'vers during the summer 
months, thus giving a greater extension than could otherwise have been 
given to the holiday time of the members of the regular observing staff, 
which it is in every way so desirable to secure. 

Table I. gives for 1895 the monthly mean pressure, mean and ex- 
treme temperatures ; hours of sunshine ; amount of rainfall ; number 
of fair days, and of days when the rainfall exceeded one inch ; the mean 
percentage of cloud ; and the mean rain-band at both Observatories ; and 
the mean hourly velocity of the wind in miles at the top of the mountain. 
The mean barometric pressures at the Low Level Observatory are reduced 
to 32'^ and sea lc\el, but those at top of the Ben are reduced to 32° only. 

Table I. 



1S95 



Jan. , Fob. iMiiiclj| April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov, 



Dec. Year 



Mean Prrgsnre in Inches. 

Ben KevisOb- i 25-0»5 2.5-412 2r0ul 25-251 25-540 25-520) 2o-287| 25-2741 25-525| 25-222 

scrvatory 
Tort WiUiani 
Differences , 



I 



29-708 
4-673: 



30-169' 
4-727, 



--'9-617 29-819 30-101 30-042' 29-771 29-733! 30-012 
4-5Hi; 4-565, 4-ot2 4-51tj| 4-484] 4-459| i'i»; 

Mean Temj/eraturcs. 



29-802 
4-580 



25-1G61 25-038 1 25-284 



29-735 
4-569 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Uiffcreaces . 



17-5 lS-7 



33-4 
14-9 



30-9 
1-2-2 



40-6 
15-9 



45-9 
16-1 



29-652 29-852 
4-G14| 4-568 



30-7 



o 
36-3 


c 
39-9 


o 
3S-2 


o 
41-2 


o 
43-3 


o 
27-2 


o 
38-3 


o 
23-0 


52-7 
16-4 


55-4 
15-5 


55-4 

17-2 


56-9 
15-7 


5(i-6 
13-3 


43-6 
16-4 


42-5 
14-2 


39-6 
16-6 









Krtremes of Tcmjjerature, 


Maxi 


ma. 








BcnNevisOb- 


30-3 


o 
38-5 


37°.9 


o 
40-7 


O i O 

54-1 i 59-8 


o 
48-4 


50°6 


o 
69-9 


o 
63-3 


o 
40-7 


o 
34-1 


servatorv 










j 














Fort William 


45-5 


48-0 


51-9 


63-8 


73-0 74-4 


69-4 


70-3 


74-4 


G6-2 


66-1 


52-8 


Differences . 


15-2 


9-5 


14-U 


23-1 


18-9 14-6 


21-0 


19-7 


14-5 


12-9 


15-4 


18-7 









Udircmcs 


o/n 


mperature. 


Minima. 










o 


c 


o 


o 


o 


o ] o 


o 


o 


O 


O 


o 1 


BeuXevisOb- 


6-0 


1-S 


i-G 


11-6 


19-8 


242 30-0 


30-1 


30-3 


17-4 


lb-3 


13-9 


servator\- 


























Fort William 


9-0 


8-9 


26- G 


29-9 


36-0 


35-7 


44-3 


44-4 


41-5 


30-7 


27-8 


25-0 


Differences . 


3-0 


7-1 


18-0 


lS-3 


16-2 


11-5 


li-3 


14 3 


11-2 


13-3 


9-5 


11-1 



46-0 
15-3 



59-! 



74-4 
14-5 



1-8 



8-9 

7-1 



.METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



1G7 



Table l.—continued. 



jsao 



Jan. Feb. Marclil April May June I July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. I Dec. Year 



BenNevisOb- 

sarvatory 
Fort Williom 
Differences . 



Ben Nevis Ob- 

BervatoiT 
Fort William 
Differences . 



G-S9; 3-511 14-32 
2-70 j 

4-ia 



M3] 
2-41 1 



5-.55 
8-77 



Itainfall in Inches. 

11-73 i 3-G9 3-97 I lU-79 [ 12-76 8-95 



5-2GI 2-07 
0-47 I 1-G2 i 



3-04 
U-93 



4-89 
5-9U 



9-37 
3-39 



12-07 13-88 15-41 U8-00 



5-52 1 

3-13: 



Nuniber of Days 1 in. or more fell. 



1 


o 

- 1 


5 


4 


1 


1 


3 


4 





(1 


1 


30 








(1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


14 


1 


1 


o 


2 



Numher of Days of no Rain. 



BenNevisOb- 


11 


19 


4 


9 


17 


12 


3 ! 


scrvator\- 
















Fort William 


13 


20 


8 


12 


18 


18 


!) 


Differences . 1 


•> 


1 


4 


i> 


1 


G 


G 1 



I 12 




Mean Rain-land (scale 0-8). 



Ben Nevis Ob- 

STvatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 



0-9 


0-8 


2-0 


2-5 


2-3 


3-2 


2-3 


1-7 


33 


3-7 


3-6 


4-2 


1-G 


0-9 


1-3 


1-2 


1-3 


1-0 



4-2 I 2-7 



5-3 

1-9 



5-0 
8 



4-4 
1-7 



4-78 
7-29 



IS 
12 



2-6 
0-1 



8-47 
5-41 



12 
3 



1-8 



3-1 
1-3 



7-G5 

7-7G: 



CO-43 
57-57 



4 I 36 



8 

28 



10 



10 




1-4 



3-6 

1-S 







Kumher of Hours of Drir/ht SmisJune. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


29 


83 20 


82 1 139 


149 


24 : 25 1 74 


41 


2G 


3 


servatorv 




















Fort William 


49 


101 72 


113 197 


208 


75 


68 102 


104 


45 


8 


Ditt'ei-euces . 


20 


IS 52 


31 58 


59 


51 


33 28 


63 


19 


5 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
aervatory 



21 



Mean Hourly Velocity of Wind in Miles. 

18 1 18 I IG I IG I 5 I II I 12 I 15 1 



15 



19 



23 











Pe 


rcmitt 


ifje of Cloud. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 


S4 


GO 


95 


81 


75 


70 


95 


94 


79 


81 


80 


95 


servatory 


























Fort William 


GG 


45 


81 


73 


64 


65 


87 


87 


G9 


70 


65 


81 


Differences . 


18 


15 


14 


8 


11 


5 


8 


7 


10 


11 


15 


14 



125 
154 



2-3 



3-6 

1-3 



695 

1,132 
437 



IG 



82 



71 
11 



At Fort William the mean temperature of 1895 was 46°'0, being 0°-9 
less than the annual mean of previous years. The mean temperature at 
the top of Ben Nevis, was 30°-7 or 0°-7 less than the mean for the same 
years. This was the deficiency for the year over a wide district of Scot- 
land surrounding Ben Nevis. 

The following shows the departures from the mean temperatures during 
the great cold of the first two months of the year : — 

Table II. 



— 


Mean Temperature. 


Departures from Means. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Fort William Observatory 
Ben Nevis Observatory . . 


o 
32-4 

17o 


30°9 
18-7 


o 

-61 
-6-3 


O 

-7-6 
-4-7 



These very difierent results for the two months are a good example of 
the striking weather differences observed at the top and bottom of the 
mountain respectively, under different types of weather, or under cyclonic 
or anticyclonic conditions. Thus in January the weather usual to the 



168 



KEPORT — 1896. 



season prevailed — in other words, it was decidedly cyclonic — and conse- 
quently at both Observatories the lowering of the temperature below the 
average was substantially the same. But in February it was quite other- 
wise, the weather of this month being eminently anticyclonic. Hence, 
on account of the higher temperature at the top accompanying the anti- 
cyclones, the mean temperature of the month was only •i'^w under the 
average, but at Fort William the mean temperature was 7°'6 under the 
average. This effect of the prevailing anticyclones is also well seen in 
the difference of the mean temperature at the two Observatories. From 
the past observations the mean difference in February is 1.5°-1, whereas 
in February 1895 the difference was only 12°'2. 

Similarly striking contrasts were shown in the weather of the summer 
months at the two Observatories. The following indicates the departures, 
from the mean temperatures from June to September : — 

Table III. 



— 


Mean Temperature. 


Departures from Means. 


June 


July 


Aug. Sept. 1 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


FortWilliam Observ. 
Ben Nevis Observ. 


o 

55-4 
39-9 




55-4 
38-2 


56°9 
41-2 


5G°6 
43-3 1 


o 
+ 01 
+ 1-0 


o 

-1-4 
-21 


o 

-0 4 
+ 1-3 


o 

+ 3 4 
+ 5-4 



Of these four summer months it was in July when anticyclones pi'evailecl 
least, and it is seen that at the top of the mountain, as compared with 
Fort William, the mean temperature was relatively the lowest of the 
months ; notwithstanding, the difference between the mean temperatures of 
the two Observatories exceeded the average. But in September these 
conditions were all reversed. In this month the weather was strongly 
anticyclonic. Consequently, while at Fort William the mean temperature 
exceeded the average by 3° '4, the excess at the top of the mountain was 
5°-4 ; and while the mean difference between the top and bottom of tho 
mountain has been 15° -3, in September 1895 it was only 13°'3. 

In September the minimum temperature at the top of the Ben was 
30° -3, which is the highest minimum yet recorded for any September; 
thus further evidencing the anticyclonic influence on the weather at this 
high elevation in constantly maintaining a relatively higher temperature. 

Tal)le IV. shows the deviations from the mean temperatures of the 
month; from their respective averages : — 





Table IV. 










Fort 


Top of 






William. 


Ben Nevis. 


January 




. -01 


-6-3 


February 




. -7(1 


-4'7 


March . 




. 0-2 


1-0 


April . 




. 0-5 


2t 


May 




:v 1 


3-5 


June 




: . 01 


10 


July 




. -1-4 


-21 


August 




. 0-4 


1-3 


(September .. 




. 3-4 


5-4 


October 




. -31 


-41 


November 




. -01 


0-3 


December . 




. 0-2 


—20 


Year . 




. -09 


— OT 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



1G9 



The lUiiximum temperature at Fort William was 7r)°'0 on June 2, and 
at the top 59''-9 on September 9 ; where on June 25, r)'J°-8 was recorded. 
The minimum temperature was, at Fort William S^-i) on February 11, 
and on January 28 9°*0 was recorded ; and at the top 1°'8 on February 7. 
This is the lowest minimum temperature yet recorded at the Fort AVillians 
Observatory ; and the above minimum, l°-8, at the top of the mountain, is 
the lowest there, with the exception of the jirevious year, when tempera- 
ture fell to 0°'7. The minimum on the top fell ))elow freezing each 
month. 

As regards extremes of temperature, the diflerence between the 
maxima was greater in July, when it was 21°-0, and least in February, 
when it was only 9° '5 ; and the difference between the minima greatest 
in April, when it was 18°-3, and least in January, when it was only 3°'0. 

The registrations of the sunshine recorder at the top sliow 695 houi'S 
out of a possible 4,470 hours, being 115 hours fewer than in 1894. This 
equals 16 per cent, of the possible sunshine. The maximum was 149 hours 
in June, and the minimum 3 hours in December, being, along with January 
of the previous year, the lowest hitherto recorded in any month, except 
in December 1893, when there was only 1 hour of sunshine. At Fort 
William the number for the year was 1,132 hours, or 28 hours fewer 
than in 1894. The largest number was 208 hours in June, and the least 
8 hours in December. As the number of hours of possible sunshine at 
Fort AVilliam Observatory is 3,497 hours, the sunshine of 1895 was 
32 per cent, of the possible number of hours. 

In Table V. are enumerated for each month the lowest hygrometric 
observations : — 

Tablk V. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 




o 


o 


o 


O 



















Div Bulb 


17-1 


14-7 


24-6 


38-9 


32-3 


40 


3B-0 


50-1 


4ti-3 


29^3 


3ti-7 


220 


Wet Bulb 


14-0 


111! 


22-5 


28-4 


25-7 


34-0 


31-1 


47-2 


35-7 


25-8 


25^7 


20-4 


Dew-point 


-9-6 


-25-H 


-■J-9 


14-7 


1^2 


20-8 


23-8 


44-1 


24^0 


13^7 


9-2 


9^8 


Klastio Force . 


■027 


•Oil 


■038 


•085 


•071 


•112 


■128 


■289 


■129 


•OHl 


•0G5 


■Oti7 


llehitive Huniiility 


29 


13 


29 


3G 


33 


3U 


00 


80 


41 


50 


30 


58 


(Sat. = IUO) 


























Day ot Month 


20 


11 


9 


17 


8 


8 


5 


IS 


23 


17 


25 


20 



Of these lowest monthly humidities the lowest occurred on February 
11, when the dew-point fell to — 25°-8, the elastic force of vapour to 
0-011 inch, and the humidity to 13. On the other hand, in August no 
low humidities occurred, the lowest in this month being 80, a month 
which stands out as being characterised by unrelieved high humidities 
throughout. In this month the houis of sunshine were 25, which is the 
lowest yet recorded in August, except in 1889, when only 9 hours 
occurred ; and the amount of cloud was very large, being exceeded only 
by the August of 1889. At the Ben Nevis Observatory the percentage 
of cloud covering the sky was, on the mean of the year, 82, being 2 per 
cent, less than the mean of previous years. The variation among the 
months was unusually large, the lowest being 60 per cent, in February, 
and the highest 95 per cent, in March, J uly, and December. At Fort 
William the annual mean was 71 per cent., the lowest being 45 per cent, 
in February, and the highest 87 per cent, in July and August. The mean 
rain-band (scale 0-8) observation at the top was 2-3 for the year, the 



170 REPORT— 1896. 

highest being 4-2 in August, and the lowest 0-8 in February ; and at Fort 
William the annual mean was 3-6, the highest being 5-3 in July, and the 
lowest 1-7 in February. 

The mean hourly velocity of the wind at the top of the Ben was 10 
miles for the year, the highest monthly mean for the year being 23 miles 
for December, and the lowest 5 miles for June. This minimum of 5 
aniles per hour is the lowest mean monthly velocity yet recorded for any 
anonth since the beginning of 1884. For the three summer months, June, 
July, and August, the mean was at the rate of 11 miles per hour ; but in 
December, January, and February it was 21 miles, or nearly double the 
.summer velocity. 

The rainfall for the year at the top of the mountain was 118*00 inches, 
Ijeing 31-87 inches less than in 1894; and the lowest that has yet 
•occurred, excepting the year 188G, when tiie amount was 107"8.'5 inches. 
The highest monthly amount was 15-41 inches in December, and the 
lowest 3-54 inches in February. The above monthly maximum of 15-41 
inches is a very low maximum for the top of Ben Nevis. The heaviest 
■daily fall was 3-48 inches on August 29, which is also a rather small 
maximum daily fall for the year. 

On the top rain fell on 250 days, and at Fort William on 211 days, 
t»eing respectively 10 and 27 days under their averages. The maximum 
number of days on which rain fell at the top was 28 days in July and the 
:same number in August ; and at Fort AVilliam, 27 days in August ; and 
the minimum number of days 9 at the top, and 8 at Fort William in 
February. 

During the year the number of days on which an inch of rain was 
■exceeded was 36 at the top and 8 at Fort William. 

The mean rain-band (0-8) was 2-3 at the top and 3-6 at Fort William, 
Ibeing nearly the average ; the lowest being in January and February, and 
the highest in July and August. 

Auroras are reported to have been observed on the following dates : — 
February 5, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25 ; April 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 ; 
3Iay 2, 23 ; September 20, 22, 23, 29, 30 ; October 16, 17, 26 ; November 
10, 23, 24, 25 ; December 13, 22. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on April 23, 24, 25 ; May 1, 23, 24, 25 ; 
June 19, 28; July 2, 23; August 11; October 6; November 13, 14 ; 
December 1. 

The Zodiacal Light, February 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

Thunder and lightning was reported on May 9, 23, 24, 25 ; June 9, 
125, 26 ; July 2, 21 ; August 6, 11 ; December 5, 6. Lightning only on 
February 28 ; May 9, 23, 25 ; September 9, 10, 23, 24 ; October 1 ; 
November 10. 

At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure was for the year 
reduced to 32° and sea-level 29-852 inches, and at the top reduced only to 
32^, 25-284 inches, being 0-005 inch above, and 001 2 inch under, the 
respective averages. The difference for the two heights was thus 4-568 
inches, the mean difference being 4*553 inches. At the top the highest 
pressure was 25-975 inches on May 3, and the lowest 23-889 inches on 
November 11, the annual range being thus 2-086 inches; and at Fort 
William the highest was 30-673 inches on February 16, and the lowest 
28-601 inches on November 10, the annual range beijig 2-072 inches. 

The differences from the monthly means of the two Observatories 
greatly exceeded the average differences in January, February, October, 



METEOROLO(;iCAL OBSEKVATIOXS OX IJKN NEVIS. 171 

and December, which were substantially occasioned by the very low tem- 
perature of these months, so that the higli-level pressure, when reduced 
to sea level, closely agrees with the sea le\el pressure at Fort William. 

In September, ho\ve\er, though the mean temperature was 3° '5 and 
5° -4 respectively above the averages, the difference between the mean 
pressure at the two Observatories was 4-487 inches, the September averages 
of the previous 15 years being 4-450 inches. The characteristic of the 
weather of the month was eminently anticyclonic, and as the anticyclones 
extended, in a modified form, downward, considerably below the level of 
the summit, they carried down with them their characteristically very dry 
and therefore heavier air, thus increasing the density of the aerial stratum 
between the top and bottom of the mountain, above what would have 
been if this stratum had been of tlie usual humidity. Hence pressure at 
Fort William was relatively higher, and consequently the difference 
between pressure at the top and bottom was correspondingly increased. 

But during the last three days of the month over Scotland the sky 
was clear, sunshine strong, humidity high, night temperatures unusually 
high, and dews heavy, with calms or light winds. The weather of this period 
has been discussed with some fulness in a paper published in the last 
issued 'Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society,' to which reference 
may be here made. On these days, while at the top temperature was 
very high and the air clear and very dry, at Fort William, under a sky 
equally clear and temperature high, the air showed a large humidity, and 
this state of moisture extended to a height of about 2,000 feet, or nearly 
halfway to the summit. Thus, then, while the barometer at the top was 
under an atmosphere wholly anticyclonic, with its accompanying dry 
dense air, the barometer at Fort AVilliam was not so circumstanced. Ou 
the other hand, it was under the jjressure of such dry dense air, above 
the height of 2,000 feet only, Avhereas from this height down to sea level 
it was under the pressure of air whose humidity was large and pressure 
therefore much reduced. The result was that the sea-level pressure at 
Fort William was 0-050 inch lower than it would have been if the dry 
dense air of the anticyclone had been continued down to Fort William. 
This is confirmatory of what is to be expected, that the greater density 
of dry air as shown in our laboratories prevails equally in the fi-ee 
atmosphere. 

The discussion of the observations reveals numerous instances of an 
opposite condition of things, viz., the air at the lower levels remaining 
comparatively dry, while aloft at higher altitudes it is becoming rapidly 
moister, the moister air gradually occupying lower levels as a cyclone is 
advancing. In these cases the lower barometer reads — not the relatively 
lower, but the relatively higher, of the two. An important result is 
emerging as the discussion proceeds, since it appears that an indication 
is hereby given towards a more accurate knowledge than is at present 
possessed of the intensity of a coming cyclone and of the attendant anti- 
cyclone. 

In addition to the variability of the distribution with height of the 
immidity, the distribution of the temperature is also being particularly 
investigated, especially as regards the light it casts on the interpretation 
of the causes leading to the variability in the vertical distribution of the 
pressure. This department of the inquiry is in the hands of Mr. Omond, 
who read a preliminary paper on the subject at the meeting of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society in July last. 



172 KEroRT— 1896. 

The large inquiry carried on Ijy Dr. Buchan and Mr. Omond for some 
years, and reported on to the British Association in preceding Reports, on 
the influence of fog or cloud and clear weatlier respectively on the diurnal 
fluctuations of the barometer has been extended into other regions of the 
globe, notably into the Arctic regions, particularly over the ocean, the 
data employed being the observations made liy Mohn, during 1876-78, 
over the Norwegian .Sea and the Arctic Ocean, and those by the expedition 
of the Austrians in Jan Mayen, and ocean in the neighbourhood, in 
1882-83. The inquiry will be completed in a few months, and the results 
Avill be communicated to the next meeting of the British Association. 

For the contribution of the observations necessaiy to the carrying out 
of these inquiries the directors of tlie Ben Nevis Observatories have 
resolved to establish a temj^orai-y station, intermediate in height between 
the two Observatories, for the purpose of ascertaining with greater pre- 
cision than has hitherto been possible the extent to which anticyclones 
descend on the mountain, and more particularly the relations of pressure, 
temperature, and humidity at the new station as compared with the 
observations at Fort William and the summit of Ben Nevis. A suitable 
situation was formally obtained from tlie tenant on August 1-1, a complete 
set of instruments procured, and the building materials conveyed for the 
enlargement of the present hut to accommodate Mr. Muir, one of the 
assistant masters of the High School of Edinburgh, who had vokinteerecl 
his services as observer till the close of September. The height of the 
hut, where the barometer is placed, is 2,196 feet, or nearly midway in 
height between the two Observatories ; and the thermometer, rain-gauge, 
and other instruments are placed 30 yards distant above the hut over a grass 
plot on a slight ridge, which will to a large extent secure that the down- 
flowing cold-air currents which set in from terrestrial radiation chiefly at 
night will pass down on each side, thus protecting the thermometers from 
their disturbing influence. 



The Applicafion of Plwtor/raphy to the Flucidation of Meteorolo(jiccd 
Phenomena. — Sixth Report of the Committee, consistiiuj of Mr, 
G. J. Sy.mons (Chuirman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. 
HoPKixsox, and Mr. A. W. Clavden (Secretary). (Drawn ujj by 
the Secretary?) 

During the past year the attention of your Committee has been almost 
entirely confined to the determination of cloud altitudes by the photo- 
graphic method briefly sketched in former reports. As this method 
difiers considerably from those which have been employed elsewhere, and 
as it has been found to give very satisfactory results, it seems desirable to 
give a fuller description of the apparatus than appears in the report of 
two years back, in which it was flrst indicated. 

The observations are carried on upon a level piece of ground close to 
Exeter, between some workshops and shunting lines belonging to the 
London and South-Western Railway Company, who have given your 
Committee an agreement providing for the use of the site on payment of 
a nominal rent of \l. per annum. This ground is conveniently near the 
residence of the Secretary to your Committee : it provides an excellent 
sky view without interference of trees or buildings, and, being the property 
of the railway company, is under a certain amount of supervision. 



ox THE ELUCIDATION OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 173 

The site, moreover, admits of the selection of a base-line lying exactly 
east and west, a point of some impoi'tance for simplifying the reduction of 
the observations. 

The observing stations are at present placed only 200 yards apart. 
They are connected l)y a line of wire stretched on small telegraph poles in 
the ordinary manner. At each end the iron wire is soldered to an india- 
rubber coated insulated copper wire, which is led down one of the stays of 
the last pole into the camera-stand, in such a manner as to prevent any 
rain-water from flowing down this wire into the apparatus contained in 
the stand. 

Each stand is a four-sided cupboard built of thick matchboard ing, 
three sides sloping towards the top, which forms a level table about 
18 inches square. The fourth side, which faces north, contains a door 
which can be locked. The base of the cupboard is about 2 feet 6 inches 
square, and is supported by four legs about 9 inches above the surface of 
the ground. Several coats of paint have made these stands so secure 
against weather that exposure for more than two years has not eflected 
any injury except a slight shrinkage in the top, which is easily repaired. 
As the cameras and electrical apparatus are contained in these boxes, their 
construction is important. 

The two observing cameras have been specially constructed. Each 
sv/ings on trunnions between uprights rigidly secured to a flat stand. The 
camera can thus be directed to any altitude, and can be tirmly clamped. 
In order to make this clamping secure, and at the same time add to the 
steadiness of the whole, there is fixed to the base board of the swinging 
camera a flat board whose margin foi'ms a segment of a circle whose centre 
is the same as that of the trunnions. This passes smoothly between two 
pieces of wood let into the flat stand, which can be drawn together by a 
screw, thereby grasping the margin of the circle. The surfaces of contact 
are faced with leather, in order to prevent any sticking or injury to the 
polished clamping-board. 

Adjustment in azimuth, which need not be done with any great exact- 
ness, is eflected by rotating the whole apparatus on the levelled top of the 
camera-box. Each camera is provided with a lens of 18 inches focal 
lengtli, which is provided with an iris diaphragm, and covers a plate of 
the size known as whole plate. 

The two lenses were carefully compared, both by testing their focal 
lengths by the ordinary methods, and Anally by comparing two views 
taken simultaneously with the two cameras placed side by side. When it 
was seen that the two pictures coincided exactly, it was certain that the 
adjustments were correct, and the focus of each camera was fixed by 
firmly screwing up the adjusting screws and putting a coat of varnish 
over them to prevent any possibility of after-slipping. This fine adjust- 
ment is rendered possible by making the back part of the camera of the 
well-known ' bellows ' pattern. In order to be sure that no shrinkage of 
the materials should aflect the result, they were made of old, well-seasoned 
wood, were adjusted and freely exposed to sun and wind, and to the 
changes of temperature and moisture experienced by keeping them for 
several months in the camera-boxes. On again testing them by the 
superposition of two negatives, no change could be detected. The lenses 
are provided with shutters, which can be simultaneously released by an 
electro-magnet fixed to the front of the camera. The shutters used at 
present are of the kind known as the 'chronolux,' which can be adjusted 



17i REPORT— 1896. 

for any exposure from three seconds down to the one-sixtieth ; but in 
practice it is found that the exposures required are always very brief, and 
a latitude of exposure from a quarter of a second downwards would be 
ample. This is -vnth the diaphragm aperture about a quarter of an inch 
in diameter, and it is evident that variation in this would afibrd the 
equivalent of much greater variation in exposure. The shutters also 
suffer from the fact that the sliding portions are made of ebonite, which is 
liable to warp in consequence of the high temperatures sometimes pro- 
duced in the interior of the camera-box when exposed to a hot summer 
sun. Shutters like those at Kew, or with aluminium sliding parts, would 
probably be better. 

The electrical exposing connections proved to be a great source of 
trouble. The site is on hard Permian .sandstones and breccias, which are 
very dry, and so hard that it would have been very costly to have made a 
laro'e hole to be filled with coke. After several trials a satisfactory earth 
was ol)tained by leading the terminal to the end of about 50 yards of 
copper wire, such as is used by bell-hangers, and twisting this to and fro 
in a trench in the surface of the rock, which was then filled in with soil and 
turfed over. 

The electro-magnets on the cameras, however, required a fairly strong 
current to make sure that they would act, so the primary current from 
the discharging key works two relays of similar construction, placed one 
in each camera-box, which simultaneously close local independent cii'cuits 
and release the shutters. 

Another source of trouble has been the batteries. Those used were 
of the dry-cell type. But during the past summer they were found to 
fail several times, the moisture essential to their working being apparently 
driven off" by the excessive heat and drought to which they were exposed. 
If they could l)e placed in a more substantial structure, which could be 
kept cooler, they would doubtless do better. Your Committee propose to 
replace them by Leclanche cells next year. 

The plates used have been those already found to give excellent 
results for ordinary cloud photography, namely, Mawson and Swan's photo- 
mechanical plates, or those prepared by the same firm for transparencies. 

They are carried in double dark slides of the ordinary pattern, two of 
■which are provided for each camera ; but those belonging to the camera at 
one end of the base are slightly thicker, and differ in other ways from 
those used at the other end, so that there is no possibility of mistaking 
them after exposure, and they cannot Ije used for the wrong camera. 

On the right-hand side of the central \y.xvt of each camera is a small 
view-finder, in which a minute image of the view is projected on ground 
glass, and which is adjusted once for all, so that the view in the finder 
corresponds with that on the plate. 

A loose piece of black velvet for each camera completes the apparatus. 

Two observers are required, one for eacli camera, and in making the 
observations the Seci'etary to your Committee has been assisted by Mrs. 
Clayden, or by his brother, Mr. C. E. Clayden. 

Each observer is provided with three small flags— pink, blue, and 
yellow (to avoid railway colours), by means of which a simple code of 
sif^nals can be made. For simplicity, let us call tlie observers A and B, 
and suppose A directs the observations and B can close the key which 
will eft'ect the exposure. A watches tlie sky until a fa^-ourable opportunity 
seems to be approaching. He then puts up the yellow flag and places a 



ON THE ELUCIDATION OF METEOROLOGICAL rHENOMENA. l75 

dark slide in position, sets tho. shutter and adjusts the camera, so that the 
image of the sun is in about the centre of the ground glass of the finder. 
I> does the same with t!<e other camera, and, when i-eady, puts up the 
yellow flag at that end, and stands ready to press the exposing key. A 
then watches for tlie best moment for exposure, and, when it arrives, holds 
up the blue flag, on seeing which B presses the key and holds up the other 
blue flag as a signal that the exposure is complete at that end of the line. 
The pink flag is used as an indication that something is wrong, and delay 
is inevitable ; but if pink and blue are shown simultaneously, it means 
that the opportunity for a good observation has passed, and that the dark 
slide must be closed while waiting for another chance. 

As soon as one exposure has been made the dark slide is turned, and 
preparations are made for a second exposure, leaving tlie di-awing out of 
the slide until the signal is given. When A gives the signal for exposure 
he has his watch in his hand, and notes the time at which he hears the 
click made by the release of the shutter. This time is noted down and 
checked as soon as possible afterwards by comparing the watch with a 
trustworthy clock, and, if necessary, correcting the record. 

The exposures having been made, the cameras are replaced in their 
boxes, the relays are examined to see that the armatures have broken the 
local circuit, and the line wire is disconnected from the key, these precau- 
tions being taken to make sure that tlie batteries may not run dowrk 
owing to the circuits being unbroken or remade by the operations of 
spiders or accumulations of earwigs, which find a welcome shelter in the 
camera-boxes, and which it seems impossible to entirely exclude. 

The plates are then taken into the dark room, and before opening the 
dark slides the shutter of each is pulled out a little way, while the date 
and time of exposure are written in pencil in the corner of each plate. The 
subsequent processes do not remove this. They are then developed with 
pyro and ammonia developer, and for the most useful results a fairly rapid 
development is best. It should be remembered that prints will not be 
required, and that, provided all the detail obtainable is on the plate, very 
great differences of density are permissible. Indeed, when the image of 
the sun is quite hidden in a black blur, as seen by transmitted light, ifc 
can always be found on the glass side of the negative as a white or pale 
disc. Sometimes it is reversed, and stands out clearly by transmitted 
light ; but this is exceptional with the exposures which have been used. 

In order to work out the negatives we have certain facts known. 
These are the latitude and loiigitude of the place of observation, the 
date and time at which the observation was made, and the relative 
positions of the image of the sun, and the selected point of the cloud in the 
two negatives. The first step is to determine the altitude and azimuth of the 
sun, since its image on the plate is the fixed point of reference from which 
the co-ordinates of the point of cloud in the image will be measured. 

From the declination of the sun corrected for variation, and from the 
known latitude, the meridian zenith distance can be calculated. From 
the Greenwich time observed, tlie longitude and the equation of time, the 
sun's distance from the meridian is obtained. 

It .should be remembered that the meridian zenith distance need only 
be determined once for a number of observations made within a few 
hours of each other, and the correction of time is practically constant for 
a day. Moreover, it is useless to attempt to do more than ascertain the 
altitude to the nearest minute of ai'c. 



176 . REPORT— 1896. 

Now if H be the hour angle, T> the reduced declination, and M the 
meridian zenith distance, log versin H + Lcoslat. + L cos D — 20=log?i, 
where n is a natural number and *i + vers M=covers alt. 

Again, to tind the azimuth, vers sup. (lat. + alt.) — vers polar dist.=?;?., 
where m is another natural number, and log 7)i -|-L sec lat. + L sec alt. — 20 
.■=log vers azim. reckoned from south. Thus, on June 12 (local time 
12 hrs. 11 mins.) : — 

Log versin H=. 3 -06 1.3 10 
L cos lat. =9-801356 
L cos D =9-963379 



Log 71=2-82604.') /. n= 070 
VersM =113258 



Covers alt. =113928 

.', Alt. = 62° 23' 

Vers sup. (lat. + alt.)=60739.'> 
Vers N . polar dist. =606058 



m= 1337 



Logm = 3126131 

L sec lat. = 10- 198644 
L sec alt.= 10- 333900 



3-658675 
Vers azim. =00 1556 
.-.Azim. =5° 28' west. 

Two lines are then drawn on the negative, one vertical and one hori- 
zontal, intersecting in the centre of the sun's image. Two corresponding 
points in the cloud are selected, and their respective linear distances from 
the vertical and horizontal lines measured as accurately as possible. In 
some hazy cases this cannot be done with greater accuracy than about 
the -^yth of an inch ; but these are exceptions, and as a rule .some small 
speck or sharp angle of cloud can be found, the position of which may be 
fixed with certainty to the youth part of an inch. From these linear dis- 
tances the angular displacement is easily found, either by direct calcula- 
tion of the tangents or by reference to a previously constructed scale. By 
addinf or subtracting from the sun's azimuth, as the case may Ije, the 
position of the cloud point in azimuth from the two stations is determined, 
and thence the horizontal distance of the point vertically beneath the 
cloud from either station. 

Similarly the altitude of the cloud point from the same station is ob- 
tained from the corresponding plate, and the height above the horizontal 
plane then computed. 

Now if a and b be the angles irnm the stations A and B respectively, 
the difference of their sum from 180° gives the angle subtended by the 
base line at X, the point vertically beneath the cloud. "Then the distance 
AX is given by the equation : 

Log AX=L sin 6 - L sin AXB + log AB 



ON THE ELUCIDATION OF METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 177 

and the height A of the cloud point above X is given by the equation : 

Log /t=log AX + L tan alt. — 10. 

Thus in the case given above the angles a and b are 85° 45' and 92° 53', 
whence AXB must be 1° 22'. The altitude in angular measui'e is 67° 16'. 

Then : L sin 6 = 9-99945 

LsinAXB= 837749 



1-62195 
LngAB = 2-30103 
L tan alt. =10-38851 



lO + log/i =14-31150 
.-. h =20,488 yards =11-64 miles. 

If the angle AXB becomes much smaller than 1° less confidence can be 
placed in the result, and it is better to calculate from the different alti- 
tudes at the two stations, as such minute angles can only occur when the 
direction is nearly in line with the base. 

Now it is seen that in the above calculation the angle AXB is certainly 
small, but owing to the length of focus adopted an angle of 2' may be 
certainly detected, and by taking the mean of three or four measurements 
there is little risk of error-. The height determined above was that of 
some high cirriform clouds, and is confirmed, not only by other measure- 
ments on the same plates, but by other determinations made 35 and 47 
minutes later, the three determinations being 11-64, 11-2, and 11-45 
miles. 

A little later in the same day a still higher layer of ciri'us appeared, 
and two measurements of this at a brief interval of time work out to 
16-83 and 17-02 miles. 

These are, of course, extreme altitudes, and are quoted in order to 
show that the results obtained by the method employed are sufficiently 
accurate even under such circumstances. With lower clouds the displace- 
ments of the image relatively to that of the sun are much larger, and the 
heights obtained are more uniform. 

It should be remembered that the base line adopted is only 200 yards 
long. This is not quite enough for very exact measurements of great 
heights, nor is it enough for the determination of heights of less magni 
tude when the clouds under observation ai'e either east or west, that is, 
in line with the base. But, on the other hand, the effects of perspective 
are quite sufficiently troublesome with low-level clouds, or when an upper 
layer is seen through gaps in a lower one, and many negatives have had to 
be rejected from the impossibility of identifying corresponding points. In 
some cases the corresponding negatives were so much unlike that it was 
difficult to believe they could really have been simultaneous exposures. 
The distance of 200 yards has therefore been chosen as a convenient 
mean. For low stratus and cumulus 100 yards would be better, and for 
high cirrus about 400 yards would give more precise results. 

The orientation of the base line again simplifies the angular measure- 
ments, but for observations in the afternoon later than about 3.30 to 4 p.m. 
the horizontal projection of the base is reduced to a very trifling amount, 
and a complete installation should certainly consist of three stations, the 
third being placed either due north or due south of one of the others, so 
1896. X 



178 



REPORT — 1896. 



that either an east and west oi' a north and south line could be used at 
pleasure. 

The result of the observations made so far is to suiraest that the method 
has certain advantages over others which have been used elsewhere. 

1. The long focus gives a large image on which much minute detail 
can be seen, and affords a large displacement for a small angle and the 
best opportunity of selecting accurately corresponding points on the 
two negatives. 

2. The image of the sun as a fixed point of reference is completely 
reliable. 

3. The observation of the time is easily made, can be made with 
exactness, and is the only precise observation required at the time of 
exposure. 

4. There is no possibility of misunderstanding between the two 
obsei'vers. 

5. The share of work falling upon the assistant observer is extremely 
simple. 

6. The shortness of base diminishes perspective difficulties and allows 
the use of a smaller site. 

It has, however, one great disadvantage, it cannot be applied to clouds 
which do not come near enough to the sun to be in the same field of view, 
nor to clouds which completely hide' the sun. This, however, could easily 
be got over by providing each camera with altitude and azimuth circles, 
of which the former need only be graduated from the zenith to the horizon, 
wliile the latter should be complete. They should be provided with 
verniers reading to 2' of arc. Telephonic communication between the 
two stations would also be a convenience, but its absence has only been 
felt occasionally when things have gone wrong. 

Neaiiy a hundred pairs of exposures have been made, not counting 
many experimental observations, but all these have not yet been worked out. 

The following table gives the heights so far determined. They are 
given in yards and miles, the latter being offered for comparison with the 
Kew results. 



Date. 


Time 


Yards 


Miles 


Cloud 


April 17 . 


11. Jt. 

12 45 p.m. 


3,730 


2 13 1 
2-26 / 


Broken fragments of cu- 


,, ■• • 


12 45 


3,982 


mulus. 


May 8 .. 


4 10 


838 


•47 


Base of cumulus. 


,1 


4 15 


995 


•56 


Side of cumulus. 


11 


4 15 


1 ,950 


110 


Top of cumulus. 


May 14 . 


10 Oa.m. 


6,330 


3-59 


Cumulo-stratus. 


»» • • 


1 10 20 


7,575 


4-30 


Cumulo-stratus. 


n • • 


1 4 10 P.M. 


2,592 


1^47 


Stratus. 


JJ • 


4 15 


2,478 


1-40 


Stratus. 


May 15 . 


1 


3,358 


19 


Cumulus forming. 


)» 


4 30 


1,782 


hOl 


Cumulus disappearing. 


May 19 . 


10 15 a.m. 


2,525 


143 


Cumulus forming top. 


7» • 


10 20 


1,394 


•79 


Cumulus forming base. 


May 22 .. 


11 


7,708 


4^38 


Stratiform cloud forming. 


)j • 


o P.M. 

1 


5,847 


3-32 


Stratiform cloud disap- 
pearing. 


June 2 • 


?, 20 


10,288 


5-84 


Alto-cumulus forming. 


)i 


1 3 20 


12,530 


7^12 \ 
7-25 / 


Mackerel sky, massing 


»t • • 


i ;5 28 


12,772 


into high stratus. 



ox THE ELUCIDATION OF METEOROLOGICAL PHEXOMENA. 179 



Date 


i Time 

II. M. 

2 35 


1 Yards 


Miles I Cloud 


June 5 , 


i 

2.270 


1-28 Part of cumulus. 


>> 




2 40 


3.914 


222 Uppor part of cumulus. 


^y 




2 -M 


i 7,627 


4-38 High cuuiulo-stratus. 


*i 




1 2 5C» 


i 0,329 


3'02 ; To]) of cumulus. 


»» 




1 3 20 


1,790 


102 


Lower part of cumulus. 


)» 




3 20 


3,827 


2-17 


Middle of cumulus. 


1> 




4 45 


7,860 


4-4G 


Hi.gh cumulo-stratus. 


)» 




! 4 50 


2,618 


1-49 


Side of cumulus. 


it 




5 7 
5 20 


1,303 
669 


1 -74 "1 

•38 . 


Fragments of disappear- 


" 




5 20 


1,25.S 


•71 1 


ing- cumulus. 


June G 




1 10 


1,340 


•75 \ 




„ 




1 13 


2,051 


116 ' Fragracnt.s of disappear- 


n 




1 20 


1.112 


1 ■<■,:; " 1 hig cumulus. 


,, 




I 25 


1,895 


107 




June ] 




:; 


<;,S46 


; 3-89 


High stratus. 


»t 




3 5 


1,358 


i -77 ] 
■65 




»» 




3 5 


1,139 


Points on side of cumulus. 


>» 




3 5 


1,199 


■68 " 
•63 


The lowest by the base. 


*» 




3 12 


1,112 




June 12 




•» 25 A.M. 


8,378 


4-76 


Cirro-cumuhis. 


1» 




y 25 


8,216 


4-67 


Cirro-cumulus. 


iJ 




9 45 


3,470 


197 


Cumulus forming. 


n 




10 5 


6,912 


3-92 


Alto cumulus. 


11 




i<Q 10 


8,S38 


502 


Cirro-cumulus cirrifying. 


»» 




12 20 p.m. 


7,010 


3-9S 


Summit of cumulus. 


1» 




13 2ftlP.M. 


14,084 


8^00 


Cirro-stratus (a). 


it 




12 25 


■20,488 


1164 


Cirrus. 


It 




12 25 


16,804 


9-54 


Cirro-stratus (J). 


}f 




I 


13,923 


7-91 


Cirro-stratus (a). 


J» 




I 


16,958 


9-03 


Cirro-stratus (J/). 


)> * 




1 


19,717 


1120 


Cirrus. 


)t 




I 13 


16,110 


915 


Cirro-stratus (J). 


H < 




1 12 


20,164 


11-45 


Cirrus. 


*) < 




1 30 


29,633 


16-83 


Upper level cirrus. 


■Jl • 




1 32 


29,983 


17-02 


Upper level cirrus. 


E 


[eavy clouds 


lasted through the afternoon and 




cleared off 


about 4.30, after which — 


»» • 




5 20 


7,673 


4-36 


Cirro-cumulus. 


1» • 




5 25 


14,024 


7-97 


Cirrus. 


June 23 . 




U A.M. 


4,621 


2-63 


Strato-cumulus. 


1> • 




9 


4,997 


2^83 


Strato-cumulus. 


»» • 




5» 


5,559 


3-lK 


Alto-cumulus. 


H • 




9 3 


4,752 


2-70 


Strato-cumulus. 


f» • 




y 3 


5,535 


3-14 


Alto-cumulus. 


H ■• 


.. 


9 3 


7,122 i 


4-04 


Cirro-stratus. 


ft • 




9 30 


5,692 


3-23 


Alto-cumulus. 


>9 • 




9 30 


6,280 


3-56 


Cirro-stratus. 


»» • 




9 35 


6,671 1 


3-79 


Cirro-stratus. 


» • 




9 35 


7,644 


4-34 


Cirro-cumulu.<:. 


June 24 . 




11 56 


2,847 


1-61 "1 


Fragments on side of 


»j • 




12 soox 


2,431 i 


1-38 / 


cumulus. 


)f t 




12 NOON 


6,300 1 


3-58 


Alto-cumulus forming. 


51 • 




12 10 p.m. 


3,010 1 


1-71 


Fragment of cumulus. 


11 • 




12 10 


3,177 1 


1-80 


Top of cumulus. 


• » • 




12 15 


7,373 


419 


Cirro-cumulus. 


11 • • 


12 15 j 


8,684 


4-93 


Cirro-stratus. 

1 


TheahK 


3%e re 


'suits are out 


forwarrl h 


t nrpspnf. 


niftrplv f.n «Vir>Tir flio ^iT^/^ 



180 EEroRT — 1896. 

of determinations which have been made. Furthei- comment would be 
prematui-e, but they show that there is a wide field for future investiga- 
tion opened up in following the changes of level which attend changes in 
form. The general tendency to rise shown by clouds forming is well 
marked, and this is also true of the ascent of the general cloud-levels 
towards the early afternoon. But many more observations are requirod 
before such questions can be discussed. The negatives also contain matei-il 
for some determinations of cloud velocity in a horizontal plane, but time has 
not allowed of any being made as yet. 

Your Committee think, therefore, that the observations should certainly 
be continued, as they promise to throw considerable light on many ques- 
tions, and will at least give material for instructive comparison with 
other determinations made in America and on the Continent. 

Your Committee have done little to add to their collection, the time 
at their disposal having been almost entirely taken up by the cloud 
measurements . 

In conclusion, they would ask for reappointment, with the addition of 
Mr. H.N. Dickson, and a i-enewal of the grant of 151. 



Seismoloqical Investigation. — First Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. G. J. Symons (CJiairman), Dr. C. Davison and Professor 
J. Milne (Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, 
Mr. J. T. BoTTOMLEY, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG, the late Professor A. H. Green, Professor C. G. 
Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor E. Meldola, Professor 
J. Perry, Professor J, H. Poynting, and Dr. Isaac Koberts. 

Contents. 

TAGB 

Bejjort of Comm'dice 180 

I. Notes on Instruments ivliich mill record Eartliquahcs of Feehle Intcn,vty. 

Professor J. Milne, F.Ii.S. (Also see Section VII. and Appendix.) . 181 
II. Obserrations n-ith Milne's Penduluvis T and (f, 1895-1896. Professor 

J. MiLXB, F.R.S. 184 

The Localities and their Geology . . . . . •». . 184 
The InxtrHments T and U and their Installation .... 187 

Art.ificialli/ produced Bisturhances 188 

Sudden Dls2ilacements and EarthqxMlics in the Isle of Wight . . 189 
Earthqualies recorded in Europe, and possibly noted in the Isle of 

Wight, Attgust 19 to March l&m 191 

Kotes on. Special EarthtptaJtes. (See also Appendix, p. 229.) . . 199 
Tremors and Pulsations, their relationship to the hours of the day. 
Air-current effects. Effects of barometric pressure, t^emperature, 

frost, rain, ^c. . ' • . .200 

Diurnal Waves 212 

III. Changes in, the Vertical observed in Toltio, Septcniber 1894 to March 

1896. Professor J. MiLXE, F.R.S. ..... .215 

IV. Experimfnt at Oxford, drawn up by Professor H. H. TUKNEE . . 21fi 
V. The Perry Tromometer. Professor John Pebey, F.It.S. . . . 218 

VI. Earthquake Frequency (a Note). Dr. C. G. Knott, F.R.S.E. .. . 220 
VII. Instruments used in Italy. Charles Davison, So.D. . . . . 220 

At the Ipswich meeting of the Association it was resolved that the 
two committees which were studying vibrations of the earth's crust, viz.. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 181 

'The Committee for investigating the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena 
of Japan,' and 'The Committee on Earth Tremors,' should not be re- 
appointed individually, but that the whole subject should be referred to a 
new committee (consisting largely of the members of the old committees), 
which should be called 'The Committee on Seismological Observations.' 
This Committee now presents its first report, and in doing so desires to 
record its thanks to the Secretaries of the two old connnittees for having 
continued their work as joint Secretaries to the new one. Statements 
of what they have been doing form the bulk of the present report. 

The Committee, however, thinks that it would be well, in this its 
first report, to state definitely what it hopes to accomplish, and how far it 
thinks that the British Association should go. It has long been an un- 
written rule, that the Association should initiate work, but should not 
charge itself with its maintenance. That is precisely what your Committee 
desires. Now that it has been proved that any important earthquake is 
felt all over the globe, the Committee considers that ai-rangements should 
he made for the record and study of these movements. Your Committee 
believes that such records may prove as important as those of, e.g., 
terrestrial magnetism, and, just as v/e have magnetic observatories in 
various parts of the world, so in its opinion should there be seismological 
ones. But, before advocating their erection, it is essential that a decision 
be arrived at as to the form and the degree of sensitiveness of instrument 
to be recommended. 

This, and correspondence connected with the organisation of the 
system, is the work which the Committee desires to complete. Previous 
reports, and the appendices to the present one, show how much has been 
•done in this direction, but the Committee wants to do much more. It 
wishes to place side by side four good patterns of instruments, and to 
compare and study their records. When this is done it hopes to receive 
the support of the Association in approaching Government with the view 
to the establishment of a limited number of instruments identical in 
sensitiveness, in this country, in India and in the Colonies, and of a small 
■central office, at Kew or elsewhere, for co-ordinating and publishing the 
■results. As far as the Committee can at present judge, the equipment 
of each station with complete apparatus for continuous photographic record 
would not exceed 100^. For the experimental work of the coming year 
the Committee have one instrument, and can have the use of another 
■(constructed under a grant to Professor Milne by the Royal Society) ; it 
wishes to purchase two others, and will have to build piers. Arc, and pay 
for photographic necessaries and an assistant to run the instruments, 
which, altogether, would probably cost over 200i^. Your Committee 
thinks it desirable that to meet unforeseen items it should have 250/., but 
without 200/. the work cannot go on. 



Rejmrt hy Professor John Mii.ne, F.R.S. 

I. Notes on Instruments which will record Earthquakes of Feeble Intensity . 

What we desire to record are preliminary tremors of small amplitude 
followed by quasi-elastic waves of comparatively large a.mplitude. 

Within a hundred or two hundred miles of an origin, the former of 
these have periods varying between ^ and -jV of a second. At a great 



183 REPORT— 180G. 

distance, say one quarter of the earth's circumference, these moAj have 
periods of from 5 to 12 seconds. 

The latter near to an origin have periods -varying between \ and 
2 seconds, whilst at a great distance this period may be 20 secondst As 
an avei-age maximum -v-elocity for the propagation of the pi'eliminary 
tremors, we shall take 11 km. or about 7 miles per second. The large 
wave motion is propagated at about L of this rate. 

It has been found by trial that fifteen or twenty stations can l^e found 
on the globe, so tliat one of these shall be near to the antipodes of sliocks 
originating on the west coast of South America, Japan or the Pliilippines, 
or the Western Himalaya, whilst six or seven other stations between on© 
of these origins and its antipodes will lie at distances from each other of 
between one thousand and two thousand miles. 

Because such an arrangement of stations is possible, we may take one 
thousand miles as being the minimum difference in di.stance between 
observing stations relatively to important seismic centres. 

With the assumed velocity of propagation of 7 miles per second, the 
difference in times we expect to note will be about 143 seconds. 

Because some stations will be at shorter distances from each other 
relatively to origins, I shall assume that instruments are required to note- 
differences in time of 100 seconds. 



InslTuments. 
The instruments at our disposal are : — 

1. An Italian type like that of Yicentini which I call V, 

2. Von Rebeur's Horizontal Pendulum „ „ R.. 
3- Milne's „ „ „ ,, M. 
4. Darwin's Bifilar Pendulum ,, „ D. 

Yicentini.- — A pendulum of 100 k. at least 1-50 m. long. Light in- 
dices, multiplying motion eighty times relatively to the pendulum as a 
steady point, write on a moving surface of smoked paper. Two com- 
ponents of motion are recorded. 

Yon Reheur. —A light horizontal jDendulum weighing 42 grammes and 
188 mm. in length, carrying a small mirror. Light from a lamp is reflected 
from this back through suitable lenses upon a slit in a box containing a 
drum carrying a bi'omide film. 

Milne. — A horizontal pendulum with a boom 2 ft. 6 in. long, the 
whole apparatus within a case 4 ft. x 1 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. The end of the 
boom is continuously photographed on a bromide film 2 in. wide. Because 
the lamp is within 6 in. of the paper, the necessary light is small. 

Darioin. — A circular mirror with a bifilar suspension, so arranged that 
a slight tilt causes the mirror to rotate. This is immersed in paraffine. 
The instrument is exceedingly sensitive to change of level, but not to 
elastic tremors. The recording apparatus is photographic and very similar 
to that used by von Rebeur. 

Accuracy as time-recorders (importaTit). — The accuracy depends upon 
the rate at which the recording surface is moved, the method employed to 
mark time intervals upon its surface, and lastly the fineness or sharpness 
of definition of the record. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL IXVESTIGATIOX. 183 

Assuming that on a diagram we can measure -svithin -1:5 mm., bc- 



cause 



I 


)j 


J) 


11 


)J 


± 'J 


)5 


1 
':i 


5) 


>> 


)) 


55 


45 

90 


)> 


6 


J> 


5> 


)> 


)> 




)» 



\ runs at 5 mm. per minute, therefore we can re;ul to witliin 3 seconds. 
M „ 1 -■ •• " 15 

D „ 

By shaking M at known times, and comparing these times with times 
determined from the developed film, the difterence betM-een these is about 
half the expected error. Because this is probably true for the other 
instruments, the errors in 100 seconds may be. 



Y 1-5 seconds or 


per 


cent 


M 7-5 


>) 




)) 


1122 5 


>> 




)> 


D45 


5) 




5) 



Because time-intervals in Y and M do not depend upon tlie clock 
drivin"' the record -receiving surface, but are marked by an independent 
time-keeper, these errors should not exceed a small fraction of a second 
per hour. R and D do not share this advantage, tlie time being 
dependent upon a clock driving a drum or a broad iilrn of bromide paper. 

As a time recorder D is like R. Should the rate be made greater, 
it might involve an increase in light-source. The time intervals might 
also be marked by an independent clock. 

Y and M also pi-esent the advantage of yielding a diagram, the 
definition of which is much sharper than K and D. Y is sliglitly better 

than M. 

The M clock, which, however, only drives a film 2 inches wide, is so 
arranged that it can be instantly altered to drive the paper at a rate of 
about 6 or 10 in. per day, which, when recording diurnal waves, is 
sufficiently quick. 

Equality in Adjnsfment (important). — If two or more similar instru- 
ments are not adjusted to have equal sensibility, they may commence to 
indicate with different phases of motion, and much of what is gained in 
the accuracy of the time scale is lost. 

M and equivalent of E, can be adjusted to have a close similarity iu 
sensibility, and this is probably true of D. 

With Y, which writes by the friction of a pointer on a smoked surface, 
we have no experience, but from experience with its equivalent and a 
large experience with ordinary seismographs writing upon smoked surfaces, 
it seems likely that there would be great difficulty in obtaining equal 
sensibility, especially with instruments which were not side by side. 

Even if absolute equality is attainable with a group of instruments, it 
should be remembered that instruments further from the epicentre will 
necessarily indicate a later phase of the movement than those close to it. 
Sensibility. — All types record long period wave motion. 
Y gives an open diagram for movements, the period of wliich is not 
less than five seconds— that is of preliminary tremors at a distance from 
their origin. R and M show the presence of these, but of D we have no 
experience. 

R and D give diagrams of large amplitude, but V has tiie best 
definition. 



184 REPORT— 1896. 

We do not know which instrument would at a given station commence 
to move the first. The probable order would be R, M, D, V. 

Carts, trains and traffic, unless very near, do not affect any of the 
instruments. 

D and V are probably not affected by 'earth (?) tremors' whilst 
M and R are affected, but the serious character of these in obliterating 
effects due to small movements has been greatly reduced. 

D and R are most sensible to tilting effects like the diurnal wave, and 
therefore, unless we reduce their multiplication by reducing tJie distance 
between the miri'ors and the film, they require a broad recording surface. 

D is enth-ely unaffected by rapid tremors. The movement of the 
image during the passage of earthquake pulsations is absolutely steady, 
showing that the rapid vibrations superposed on the long waves (tiltingsof 
the ground) are entirely quenched. 

Installation and tvorking. — V requires a strong support, like a solid 
wall, and vertically a space of 10 or 12 feet. 

R, and D require, as at present used, at least 12 feet horizontally, and 
unless we reduce their multiplication, a fairly strong light, and consider- 
able isolation from the effect of loads. Six feet might be ample for R and 
D. The foundation for D costs 11. or 8^. 

M requires 4 feet horizontally, a small light, and moderate isolation. 

Each instrument will require about ten minutes' time daily, and about 
one hour each week. 

It is possible that the smoking and varnishing of a long roll of paper, 
as required by V, may be more troublesome than developing the photo- 
graphic films of M, R, and D. The M film lasts one week. R and D 
require changing at shorter intervals. 

Cost. — V, as made in Italy, aboiit 20/., but without timekeeper. 

M, as made in England, 45/. with timekeeper. 

R, as made in Strassljurg, about 29/. without special timekeeper. 
' D, as made in England, about 50/. without special timekeeper. 

Mr. Milne suggests to the Committee that they should buy the appa- 
ratus V and an R. After which \, M, R and D should be set up side by 
side. Let R and D be reduced in length to aljout 4 feet, and arranged to 
record on a surface similar to M. A broad recording surface requires a 
special clock to drive it, whilst it is expensive and troublesome to liandle. 
When this is done, and experiments have extended over two or three 
months, we shall then be in a position to speak more definitely about the 
relative merits of these instruments as earthquake recorders. 

II. Observations iritJt Pendulums T and U in the Isle of Wight, 1895-96. 

The Localities and their Geology, 

The position of Shide Hill House, where instrument T is installed, is 
approximately 50° 41' 18" N. Lat., and 1° 17' 10" W. Long. It is near 
to the Shide railway station, at the foot of the western side of Pan Down, 
which is a portion of the chalk backbone of tlie Isle of Wight. 

LTp on the Down the chalk reaches to within a few inches of the surface. 
At Shide Hill House disintegrated chalk, which may have a thickness 
of about G feet, is met with at a depth of 3 feet. In front of the house, 
or towards the west, at a distance of about 150 yards at the other side of 
a small stream, there is a railway. In a IST.E. direction, at a distance of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 185 

242 yards, there is a chalk quarry, where at certain fixed times blasting 
takes 23lace. 

At the back of the house within a few yards of the buildings in 
which the instrument is placed there is a lane down which on week days 
carts heavily laden with gravel pass. 

Through the kindness of Mr. A. Harbottle Escourt, Deputy Governor 
of the island, I was enabled to establish a second instrument (U) within 
the grounds of Carisbrooke Castle. The foundation is similar to that at 
Shide, being a brick column built up from the chalk. This stands in a 
small room, one wall of which is the western wall of the castle. Towards 
the east it faces the Bowling Gi^een. 

This instrument gave its first records about June 22, but it was not 
in proper working order until the middle of July. 

Shide lies at a distance of 1^ mile in a N.N.E. direction from Caris- 
brooke. Mount Joy, which is 274 feet high, lies between the two places. 

At Shide and continuing towards Carisbrooke the chalk ridge, which 
forms the backbone of the island, strikes E.S.E. to W.N.W., and dips at 
at a high angle approaching verticality towards the north. The central 
portion of this anticline has been removed by denudation, whilst its 
southei'n, which dips gently, can be seen in the Downs along the south 
coast. 

The steep dip on the northern side of this anticline is a feature 
common to the folds of the continuation of these rocks. Sudden mono- 
clinal folds are generally recognised as representing movements, which 
if continued result in faulting, and the home of faults is that of 
earthquakes. 

The faults wliich are actually visible or inferred from the displace- 
ment of beds in the Isle of Wighc are only seven or eight in number, 
and the throw of those, excepting the one supposed to exist a few miles 
«ast of Shide at Ashey, is but small (see ' The Geology of the Isle of 
Wight,' by H. W. Bristow, revised and enlarged by Clement Eeid, and 
Aubrey Strahan, 'Memoirs of the Geological Survey,' 1889). 

The structural and the stratigraphical conditions which I have per- 
sonally observed at Shide and its neighbourhood are as follows. The 
■chalk is so sharply tilted that it is reasonable to suppose that limits of 
its elasticity have often been exceeded. As a result of the pressure and 
metamorphic actions accompanying this distortion, the chalk has been so 
far hardened that when two pieces of it are struck together it has almost 
the ring of crystalline limestone, the flints if not broken into fragments 
have been brought together in patches, and have been so far fractured 
that by the application of light blows they fall in pieces. Siliceous 
matter has been deposited in veins, whilst slickensided surfaces in 
various directions apparently indicate that from time to time strain has 
been relieved by minor yieldings. 

At Alverton chalk pit, which lies to the west of Cai'isbrooke, the 
<;haik dips northwards at about 45°. Parallel to the dip the strike, and 
in intermediate directions the beds, are traversed by fracturer. which can 
be traced over lengths of 20 yards. 

That these fractures are not mere cracks but are accompanied by 
displacement, and therefore have the character of true faults, is shown in 
■one instance by the abrupt termination of a band of flint where it meets 
one of these lines, in another case, as also at Shide, it is shown by the 
smashing up of a mass of flint and the trailing out of the fragments of 



186 REPORT— 1896. 

the same along the fractured face in a du'ection parallel to that of the 
striations. The last indications of displacement are the striations them- 
selves. 

The surfaces of these fractures are yellowish in colour, indicating that 
they have formed channels for subterranean water, but notwithstanding 
the solvent action accompanying such percolation tlie striations remain 
singularly clear. 

The inference from this is that these fractures, which penetrate down- 
wards to unknown depths, are of comparatively recent origin. In an 
upward direction they can be traced to the lower portion of the disinte- 
grated chalk, but they cannot be traced through this into the overlying 
gravel and its thin capping of earth. 

Had these overlying materials been as resistant to fracture as the 
hard chalk beneath them, it might be reasonably supposed that these 
fractures had been produced before the deposition of the overlying 
materials. In this instance, as in all other instances where deposits 
of a soft and yielding character overlie strata of a much harder nature, 
one of the usual arguments respecting the age of faults may fail. Very 
large earthquakes are occasionally accompanied by dislocation which 
reaches through the alluvium to the surface, but with the majority of 
such disturbances, as with the fractui-es which accompany a subsidence 
in a mine, the dislocations only extend upwards through rocks which are 
in a state of strain. It is therefore reasonable to suppose that the dis- 
integrated chalk and its overlying soft materials could only be disturbed 
by faulting of an unusual charactei', and even in such instances, by 
settlement, the percolation of water and surface denudation traces of the 
same would be speedily obliterated. 

In the majority of instances traces of fracturing and even faulting 
at considerable depths would not be visible near the surface. The faults 
which have been observed in the chalk of the Isle of Wight anticline 
.and in the overlying tertiaries, up to the Hampstead beds, which have 
shai-ed its movements, are in all probability the natural records of earth- 
quakes of considerable magnitude. 

Although geological evidence indicates that the Xsle of Wight fold 
like those to the north of it was commenced in Miocene times, and was 
contemporaneous with movements which led to the building of the 
Italian peninsula and some of the largest mountain ranges in the world, 
actual earthquakes which have been felt in the Isle of Wight are but 
few in number. Dr. Groves, of Carisbrooke, who is familiar with the 
island and its history, has failed to meet with any accounts of such dis- 
turbances. Mr. Charles Davison, however, gives me the following list 
of shakings, which, although they did not originate in Vectis, may 
have been felt there — 1734, November 5 ; 1750, March 19 and 29 ; 
1755, November 1 (Lisbon); 1811, November 30; 1814, December G; 
1824, December 6 ; 1834, January 23 and August 27 ; 1853, April 1 ; 
1884, April 22 (Colchester) ; 1889, May 29 (Channel Islands). On the 
opposite coast during the last two hundred years, on the authority of 
Mr. J. E. Sawyer, it may be concluded that a shock of some violence has 
on the average been felt once in every ten years. These were particu- 
larly noticeable about Chichester. 

The reason that earth shakings never appear to have originated in 
the Isle of Wight, possibly lies in the fact that the strata in which it 
seems so likely that dislocations should occur is almost entirely com- 



ON hEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



187 



posed of materials wliicli are soft and yielding in their character, ainJ 
tlierefore adjust themselves to new forms by crusliing and gliding rather 
than by sudden fracturing. 

The appearance and structure of the Isle of Wight anticline is that 
of a district in seismic strain, in which we might expect to lind adjust- 
ments by intermittent and to some extent semi-viscous yielding. Later 
on it will be shown that horizontal pendulums founded in this chalk 
often exhibit sudden displacements, the cause of which is at present un- 
known. These are much too local in their character to be called earth- 
quakes, and it seems likely that they will prove to be settlements beneath, 
or very near to, the foundations of the piers on which the instruments are- 
placed. 

The Tnstnnncnts T and U and their Installation. 

The instrument and the installation at Shide is designated by the- 
letter T. Other horizontal pendulums of a similar type used in Japan 
are indicated by the preceding letters of the alphabet. 

Instrument T diHers from the one shown on p. 8-5 in the Report for 1895- 
in the arrangement of the boom, -which at its outer end carries a small 

Fig. 1. 




\aVI^ 



Table 



pWat ch 




^V^\ 



Boom 



\ 



M a son rrj 
Column 

Stand 




plate -with tico slits, one being large and the other small, the form of ther 
■bed plate, the balance weight being pivoted on an arm at right angles 
. to the length of the boom, and the arrangement of a watch, the large 
.hand of wliich every hour crosses the fixed slit in the box above tlie 

moving bromide to eclipse the light and give time intervals (see fig. 1). 



188 REPORT— 1896. 

Up to March 27, the boom constructed of varnished sti-aw and reed 
was 2 ft. 5| in. long and weighed § oz. The balance weight weighed 2| oz. 
With a period of 17 seconds a deflection at its outer end of 1 mm. corre- 
sponded to a tilt of 0"-71. 

On April 24 this was replaced by an aluminium boom 3 feet in length, 
weighing ^ oz. The balance weight weighs 8 oz. With a period of 31 
seconds, a deflection of 1 mm. at its outer end corresponds to a tilt of 
about 0"-2. 

The instrument stands upon the cement-covered top of a brick column, 
which is 1 ft. 6 in. square and 6 feet high. This rises freely in a pit 3 feet 
deep from a thin bed of concrete covering the surface of the disintegrated 
chalk. The sides of the column are oriented N S., and E W. 

The building in which this is placed is an old stable built with brick, 
and sheltered by trees on its north, south, and west sides. From October 
1895 the southern face of the column was covered with cement, which like 
■the top was on that day coated with paint. The pit in which the column 
rises is filled with dry straw and hay, whilst for some months the column 
itself was wrapped round with a double thickness of thick felt. 

About the end of June a second instrument which I call U was in- 
stalled at Carisbrooke Castle. It was made by Mr. R. W. Munro, of 
Granville Place, King's Cross Road, London, W.C. In nearly all respects, 
excepting that of better workmanship, it is similar to the one at Shide. 
It stands on a brick column inside a building, one wall of which is 
the western wall of the Castle, facing the bowling green. With a period 
•of 8 seconds its sensibility is such that 1 mm. deflection of the boom 
■corresponds to a tilt of about 0''-5. 

The cost of working one of these instruments, which includes benzine, 
bromide paper, used at the rate of 3 feet per day, and developers, is about 
2s. 6d. per week. To wind and compare the watch, mark the bromide 
papers with a date, and to refill the lamp, which has to be done daily, 
•occupies about 10 minutes. Changing and developing the papei's once 
a week can be done in about 45 minutes. The time occupied to analyse 
-a diagram depends upon its nature and the exactitude required in the 
necessary measurements. It may be 5 minutes or one hour. The walk to 
Carisbrooke and back takes about H hour. 



Artificial JDisturbances. — {Blasting), Train and Cart Effects.) 

At a distance of 242 yards on the N.N.W. side of the instrument 
there is a chalk quarry, at which when the present observations commenced 
■charges of powder of ^ lb. and upwards were fired. Since October 1 the 
quantities of powder employed are said to have been reduced, and the 
times of firing the same confined to the half hours between 9 and 9.30 a.m. 
and 2 and 2.30 p.m. 

Although I have several times had the opportunity of watching the 
instrument within 20 seconds of one of these explosions I never observed 
that any appreciable motion had been produced. 

It may therefore be assumed that the instrument was not seriously 
aifected by these operations. An assurance of this was obtained by com- 
paring the following list of explosions very kindly made by Miss E. A. 
Evelegh, of Shide House, which is within 50 yards of the quarry and a 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 189 

railway cutting leading to the same, with the records of sudden displace- 
ments and swinging of the instrument 



S >V llli^ 


Lll^ VJ. Lll 


^ 1110L>X Ui 


ll^llU 


• 


1895 


II. M 






August 30 


7 20 P.M. 


Heavy blast. 


Tf 


)} 


7 23 




Moderate blast. 




1» 


7 28 




j» •* 


September 29 


22 30 




In the cutting 


October 1 


20 15 




J9 )' 


)» 


2 


19 




„ „ double blast. 


») 


3 


22 10 




„ pit, heavy blast. 


yy 


4 


23 5 




»» II 


t9 


4 


23 25 




„ 2 or 3 small blasts. 


99 


8 


19 20 




„ „ double. 


?♦ 


9 


21 55 




»» »» 


»» 


10 


5 




jt it 


,, 


10 


18 25 




»» j» 


,, 


]0 


19 5 




»» )» 


99 


10 


23 20 




)> 99 


)» 


11 


5 5 




Very heavy double blast. 


»♦ 


11 


21 55 




la the pit. 


»» 


12 


1 15 




»» 


)» 


13 


20 15 




)» 


99 


13 


22 15 




99 


,j 


14 


2 




J» 


)» 


15 


3 25 




»» 


11 


15 


22 




»» 


J5 


16 


2 




»t 


?» 


16 


20 45' 




19 


»» 


17 


5 




f» 


)1 


17 
18 


21 55 
21 40 


11 


Very heavy. 



The result of the comparison shows that in most instances no effect 
can be traced to the explosions. In one or two instances, however, a 
slight blur from ^ to 1 mm. in width has been the result. 

The conclusion therefore is that the swingings recorded, which repre- 
sent sudden changes in the inclination of the ground, have not been the 
result of blasting. 

A few unusually heavy shots have, however, transmitted elastic vibra- 
tions as far as the instrument. These have caused the outer end of the 
boom to quiver but they have never produced a swing. 

The true amplitude of most of these is in all jirobability only a fraction 
of a millimetre and unless carefully looked for would hardly be visible in 
the photogram. 

A heavily ladeii cart passing at a distance of about 10 yards may 
produce a somewhat similar effect, but a light train at a distance of 150 
yards does not appear to produce any effect. 

Sudden Disj)laceme7its and Earthquakes recorded at Shide. 

By .sudden displacements I mean movements like those shown in fig. 2, 
Usually, as here shown, they occur in groups, but now and then they occur 
singly. A similar appearance can be produced by gently pushing the 
pier carrying the instrument and then allowing the swinging boom to come 
to rest. Were they due to settlement in or beneath the pier, I should 
expect that they would be accompanied by permanent displacements which 
is seldom the case. A curious feature which now and then shows itself, 
and can be seen in fig. 2, is a permanent displacement of two or three 



190 



REPORT — 189G. 



minutes followed by a sudden return to the normal position. Minute 
spiders have sometimes found their way inside a case, but it is very doubt- 
ful that they should be able to cause the sudden disturbances shown and 
finally leave the boom in its normal position and free to swing. With 
records from nineteen installations in Japan I never remember observing 
movements of this character. ^Yhatever may be the cause of these dis- 

FiG. 2. — Displacements on September 10. 




placements it is probably very local in its operation, and therefore they 
cannot be regarded as earthquakes. 

The duration of a displacement is evidently the length of time it takes 
a pendulum which has been slightly deflected to come to rest. AVith a 
light boom this is about H minute but with a heavy boom it may be 5 
minutes. A group of disturbances may extend over 20 or 30 minutes. 
One group of 40 occupies 3 or 4 hours. 

An earthquake originating at a distance has the appearance of fig. 3, 
which is probably the Shide record of the commencement of shocks which 
shook Cyprus on June 29, 1896. 

Between August 19, 1895, and March 27, 1896, or during 202 working 
days, 485 sudden displacements and earthquakes were recorded. 

In the following list the records referring to sudden displacements are 
those -which succeed each other at short intervals, and are marked 
* sudden ' or ' strong.' Those which are followed by the remark ' slight ' 
or ' moderate ' may be clue to actual earthquakes, the origins of which in 
some instances ha\e been at great distances. 

Records (August to November) marked A approximately correspond 
in time to disturbances noted by Professor Agamennone in the ' Bulletin 
Metcorologique et Seismique de I'Observateur Imperial de Constantinople.' 
T I'efers to records published by Professor Pietro Tacchini (for September 
and November) in the ' BoUettino della Societa Sismologica Italiana.' Q 
refers to records received from Professor Gerland at Strassburg, and K to 
those from Professor Kortazzi at Nicolaiew. 

These references, it will be observed, are very incomplete, and are 
only made up to the end of March 1896. In a subsequent report it is 
hoped that these will be completed, whilst the list itself will be extended 
up to date, and include the observations made at Carisbrooke. 

The corrections are given in minutes and seconds, and are to be added 
or subtracted as indicated. From August 19 to October 27 the times 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



191 



after correction may have an error of it 1 minute, but from the latter date 
onwards the errors should not exceed ± 5 seconds. 

The uncorrected times are given in hours and decimals of the same — 
Greenwich mean time. Noon = 24 or hours. 

Under the colunm ' Remarks ' the duration of disturbances is given 
in minutes and seconds. 

Tremor storms and pulsations are not included in this catalogue. 



Date 


Correctioa 


Time 


Kemarks 


18!).- 


M. S. 


H. 


■ 


August r.i 


+ 2 


9S)8r. A 
ir,-S83 


Ini. 27s., sudden. 


,1 -" 


+ 2 


7-783 
<>-38:! 








Two displace- 


The fir.'it is permanent to E. 






ments 


and the second partly back 
to \V. 






9-51G 


Im. 27s., sudden. 






9-900 


»» )» 






9-93H 


2m. 10s., „ 






11-2.S3 A 


>» 77 






11-383 


Om. 43s. „ 






11-51(; A 


2m. 54s. ,, 






12-383 A 


Im. 27s. „ 






12816 


Om. 43s. „ 


„ 28 


• • 


11-5 to 12 5. Alto- 
gether nine strong 
displacements 


From 1 to 2 m,, sudden. 






li-5 to 150. Five 


t» 9» 






strong shocks A 




., 30 


• 


5 to 4-0. There were 
three or four small 
displacements 


t 






9-560 


About Im. 30s. 1 






9-830 


•> i> 1 






9-880 


»1 Tl 






11-300 


Slight 






1C220 


Strong, 15m. earlier, two 

slight disturbances. 






16-463 


Slight. 


September 1 , 


• • 


8-050 A 


Moderate. i 






11-214 


19m. 






11-786 


Sliglit. 






11-860 


ti 






21-24 A 


Very slight disturbances. 
Tliese may Ije blasts. 




+ 37 


1-30-5-30 


Very slight disturbances. 
These may be blasts. 






9-G15 A 


Slight. 






11-930, the first 


Total duration 53m., but 






of seven heavy 


after the second there is 






displacements A 


an interval of no motion 
of 17 m. 






21 to 24 


Slight, as if by blasting. 


„ :^ . 


• • 


19-643 


Heavy, 3m. 






20-643 


Moderate, TSm. ! 


4 . 


• • 


2-000 


Slight. 






14-380 A 


1) 






I4-C43 


Strong. 






14-880 


Slight. 



192 



REPORT — 1896. 



Table I. — continued. 



Date 


Correction 


Time 


Remarks 


1895 


M. s. 


H. 








17-600, the first of 


These are separate, but are 






five strong dis- 


included in 16m.; the third 






plaoemeiits 


is strongest. 






18000, the first of 


The first is heavy. Total 






four displacements 


duration 18m. 






23-21 


Blasting ? 


September 5 . 


• ■ 


02 


Blasting. 






9-690 


Moderate. 






12-210, the first of 


„ Total duration 3m. 






two displacements 








12-790 


Moderate. 






12-857 


,, 






13071 


Strong. 






13-213 


Moderate. 






13-500 (about) 


Three very slight shocks. 






13-738 


Strong. 






14 (about) 


Two very slight shocks. 






15095 


Strong. 






15-518 


,1 






20-357 


Moderate. 


„ c . 


• • 


9-000 (about) 


», 






21-24 


Blasting. 


„ 7 . 


* * 


10-762-13000. There 
were fifteen large 
displacements 








14-047 


Moderate. 






11-095, first of five 


Total duration 20m., each 






displacements 


one separate. 


8 . 


• 


C-857 


Displacement of l-5m. and 
return. 






7357 


Displacement of 3m. and 
return. 






8-798, first of fortj-- 


Twenty-eight of these are 






two displacements 


large; there may have been 






which ended 12-014 


more in the series, but at 
midnight the bromide film 
ended. Record ceases un- 
til September 18. 


„ 19-24 


• 


One or two slight 
sudden displace- 
ments but no 
shocks 




25 . 


, , 


8-340 A 


Moderate. 






8-454 


», 






10928 A 


Slight. 






13-400 


»> 






23-5 to about 24-0 A 


Six sliglit shocks amongst 
tremors. 


., 26 . 


• 


4-691, followed by 
two others 


Moderate. 






5-600 A 


,1 






8-5 


Strong. 






9143 


Slight. ' 






9-262 


)» 






11-341 


)f 


27 . 


- 3 13 


4-739 


J) 






5-5 (about), three 


The second large. 






shocks X 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Tablr I. — eontinvei. 



193 



Date 


Correction 


Time 


Remarks 


1895 


M. 


s. 


H. 

7 120 
7-430 

7-5 to 8-5, six shocks 
9 5 (about) 
9-452 
9-660 
14-320 


Slight. 

All moderate. 

Moderate. 

Two slight shocks. 

Moderate. 


September 30 . 


- 4 


01 


6 (about) 
6-45 „ 
6-5 „ 

7 „ 
8 

9-853, the first of 


Two shocks, interval Im. 
One shock. 








Total duration 28m. ; the 








thirteen 


last are feebler and sepa- 
rated more widely than 
the first. 








21-80 (about) A 


Moderate. 








22 


Slight. 


October 1 


- 4 


20 


11-643, the first of 
five 


Moderate, duration of series 
1 hr. 5m. 


„ 2 


- 5 


07 


9-5-10-5 T 


Four or five shocks. 


„ 3 


- 


07 


6-0, the first of 
seventeen dis- 
placements 

8-5 (about) 


Duration Ihr. 10m. The first 
commenced gently. The 
heavy ones are slight dis- 
placements. 

Slight. 


.. 4 


+ 3 


58 


6-4,the first of three 
displacements 


Duration 8-5m. 


„ 5 


+ 4 


46 


100 (about) 


Moderate. 


„ 6 


+ 2 


47 


12-5, the first of six 
displacements T 


These occur in an interval 
of two hours. 


„ 8 


+ 3 


31 


10-140, the first of 
six shocks /\ 


The first commences gently, 
duration 30m. 


3 


+ 3 





10-3 (about) 


Slight. 


„ 11 


+ 11 


7 


5-09 

9 762 

10-215 

22-333, the first of 
two shocks A 


Displacement. 

Strong, duration 3m. 

Moderate. 

These are slight, and look 

like earthquakes from a 

distance. 


„ 1" 


+ 9 


41 


9-0 (about) 


Strong. 


„ M 


+ 6 


18 


21 


»» 


„ Hi 


+ 4 


3 


4-25 „ T 
5-5 „ 


Moderate. 
Two shocks. 


„ IS 


- 


47 


8-75, first of three 
shocks 
15-0 (about) A 


SHght. 


„ 13 


_ 2 


51 


to 3, there aie 
seventeen slight 
disturbances X 
8-25 (about) 

22-30 „ V.T.G.K. 


These have the character of 
disturbances from a dis- 
tance. 

Moderate. 

Strong displacement in the 
midst of tremors. 


,, 21 


• 


• 


6-25 T 


Strong. 


„ 22 to 30 


• 


• 


■ ■ • • 


Lining case with felt. Heavy 
tremors often eclipse pos- 
sible shocks. 


„ 30 to Nov. 4 


• 


• 


No shocks 





1896. 



194 



REPORT — 1896. 
Table I.— continued. 



Date 


Correction 


Time 


Remarks 


1895 


M. 


s. 


H. 




November 5 




, 


8-5 (about) 


Strong. 










9-6 


Moderate. 










22 (about) 


Slight disturbance. 




7 


+ 1 


30 


9-93, the first of 


Duration 55m. The first two 


*» 








six A 

16-8 (about) 
20-5 

21-75 „ the first 
of three 


are small, and the third is 

strong. 
Slight. 
Three slight. 
All slight. 




12 . 


- 1 





7-45 (about) 


Shock ? 


» 


13 . 


- 1 





8-302, slight but 
followed by forty- 
four displace- 
ments A 
22-25 (about) 


Total duration, 3hr. 8m. 
The third shock or group 
of shocks has a duration 
of 6m. 

Moderate. 


>1 


14 


- 1 





0-6 
2-6 

8-5 
22-3 


Slight. 

»» 
A slight displacement. 
Four shocks, duration 10m. 
Six shocks, duration about 

12m. 
Duration 26m. the fourth is 




15 . 


- 1 


2 


0-640, the first of 










six displacements 


a group lasting 6m. 










3-G, the first of 


Duration Ihr. 30m., the first 










thirteen 


shocks heavy, and those at 
the end slight. 










6 (about) 


Two slight. 










6-5, three 


Heavy. 


»J 


16 . 


- 1 


5 


3-9 (about) A 
20-0 


Slight blur. 
Three ? 




19 . 


- 1 


6 


6-2 „ 


Displacement. 




21 . 


- 1 


6 


11-270, the first of 


Duration 30m. All are dis- 


f» 








three displace- 
ments A 
No more until Dec.l 


placements to the W. The 
return swing of the last 
takes 7m. 


December 1 


- 1 


6 


11-0 (about) 


Slight, W. displacement. 




2 . 


- 1 


7 


100 „ 


)i )» )» 




5 . 


- 


44 


11-5, the first of 


Duration 2Jh. 










nine displacements 




9) 


9 . 


- 


42 


0-25 (about) 

20 

3-25 „ 


Strong. 
Slight. 
Vibrations. 


»» 


10 . 


• 


• 


11-7 
0-42 
14-7-15-0 (about) 


Slight displacement to W. 

Slight displacement to E. 
and then W. There are 
several of these up to 24ii. 


ff 


11 . 


- 


40 


3-25 (about) 


Slight displacement E. 


It 


14 . 


- 


30 


19-0 


Slight. 




15 . 


- 


11 


0-7 


,, 




23 . 


. 


. 


22-45 „ 


Moderate. 


l» 


25 . 


+ 


41 


19-0 
19-634 


Strong. 


>r 


2G . 


+ 


3G 


13-28 (about) A 
13-32 „■ 
19-15 
20-25 „ 


Moderate. 

Double shock. 
Moderate. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Table I. — continved. 



195 



Date 


Correction 


Time 


Remarks . 


1895 


M. 


S. 


H. 




December 27 . 


+ 


31 


3-50, 4 50, 4-45, 55, 
75.7-10,7-12,7-35, 
7-38,7-55,80,10-45, 
15 50, 190, 20-45, 
2115 


Approximate time of sixteen 
distinct displacements, the 
one at 1045 commences 
gently. 


„ 28 & 29 


• 


• 


■ • 


No records. 

Dec. 29 to Jan. 18 no shocks. 


1896 










January 1 7 


+ 


33 


22-45 (about) 


Two vibrations. 


„ 19 . 


+ 


36 


10 


Slight „ 


„ 22 , 


+ 


46 


6-317 

9-701, the first of 
five displacements 


Strong. 

Duration 30m. The third is 

a displacement to B., and 

the fifth to the W. 


„ 24 . 


+ 


55 


3-350, the first, of 
seven small dis- 
placements 


Duration 20m. 


,. 25 . 


+ 


59 


22-50 (about) 


Vibrations. 


February 5 


+ 1 


16 


2-5 „ 

2-8 

3140 


Slight displacement. 

»» It 
Decided shock. 


6 


+ 1 


22 


0-707 
4-190 


Slight. 
11 


8 . 


+ 1 


32 


1-952 


Decided shock. 


„ 1 12 . 


+ 1 


33 


2-0 (about) 


Vibrations. 


„ 21 . 


+ 1 


58 


15-561 

17-0 (about) 


Strong. 

Three, the two second strong. 


„ 24 . 


+ 1 


55 


5-25 „ 


Slight tremor. 


„ 28 . 


+ 1 


23 


15-805, the first of 

four 
20-25 (about) 
22 „ four 

displacements 


Duration 30m, 

Slight. 
Duration 8m. 


March 1 . 


+ 2 


10 


9-0 (about) 


Slight. 


„ 15 . 


+ 2 





4 000 


Shock commences ; max. 4m. 

later. 


,, 16 . 


+ 2 





5-548 


First of three very slight 
shocks. 


„ 22 . 


+ 2 


53 


1-191 
2-309 


First of two very slight 
shocks. 

First of five small shocks. 
Up to Mar. 27, when circum- 
stances compelled me to 
cease recording, there were 
no more shocks. 



After comparing 'sudden ' disturbances and decided 'shocks' noted in 
July 1896 -with similar records obtained at Carisbrooke, it is seen that 
these do not coincide in time. Therefore these movements, which appear 
to be so frequent in the winter, are extremely local in their action, and 
cannot be regarded as earthquakes. What they mean is at present 
unknown, and it will not be until two instruments have been installed 
near to each other that we can speak more definitely regarding their 
cause. 

Because the lists given by Dr. Agamennone, which include, with the 
earthquakes of Turkey and Asia Minor, those of Italy and other Euro- 



196 KEroRT— 1896. 

pean countries, are very full, we naturally expect to meet with approxi- 
mate coincidences in time between some of these shocks and those recorded 
pt Shide. As examples of these coincidences, the shock of August 19 
at 9-983h. and that of August 20 at 12-383h. may be taken. These two 
shocks followed heavy disturbances which took place in Asia Minor by 
intervals of about 28m. 32s. and 32m. 32s. Taking the distance between 
the Isle of Wight and the western part of Asia Minor at ^th of the 
earth'.s circumference and the velocity of a surface-wave at 2km. per 
second, these intervals of time should have been 23m. or 24m. The dis- 
crepancy of from 4m. to 8m. between what is observed and what would 
be expected might be explained on the assumption that the times noted in 
Asia Minor seem to be but roughly approximate. Several facts, however, 
indicate that many of the disturbances noted in the Isle of Wight, although 
they may agree in time with those catalogued by Agamennone, are not 
identical with the same. 

The Isle of Wight displacements commence suddenly and succeed each 
other at widening intervals of time, both of which characters are sugges- 
tive of shocks having a local origin. Farther than this, although certain 
of them may have taken place at an interval of time roughly proportional 
to the distance of an origin when there has been a heavy disturbance, 
there are many in the same series where this proportionality does not 
exist. For example, although it has been shown that two out of the 
thirteen .shocks of August 19 and 20 might be identical with shocks 
of those dates in Asia Minor, other shocks amongst the remaining 
eleven follow those in Asia Minor at intervals exceeding one hour, whilst 
some precede them. The important feature in the European and Isle of 
Wight records is tlie approximate coincidence in time of groups of 
shocks. On August 1 2 and 20 there were a succession of violent dis- 
turbances in Asia Minor, and on the same dates we find a marked set of 
disturbances in the folded and faulted strata of the Isle of Wight. For 
the same places the same phenomenon is repeated on November 13 and 14. 
In the Isle of Wight, on the former date, between 8.30 and 11.30 p.m., 
forty-four sudden tiltings were recorded, whilst in Asia Minor, between 
9.30 on the 13th until the night of the 14th, there were violent shakings. 
Observations of this character suggest the idea that either unfelt earth- 
waves radiating from centre of violent activity disturb strata in a critical 
condition in distant places, or that the relief of strain in one portion of 
the globe cause readjustment in distant localities. Large earthquakes, like 
that of 1755, have apparently caused secondary earthquakes, wliilst seis- 
mological chronology tells us that there have been periods when earth- 
quakes have been more frequent throughout the world than at others. 

Copies of this list have been sent to several of the principal observa- 
tories in Europe, where there is apparatus which might record similar 
disturbances. Up to date only three replies have been received, Avhich are 
as follows : — 

Di\ Eschenhagen, Potsdam. 

1895. Nov. 9. — Schwingungen des Magnets von Lloyd's Wage (M^net liegt 
Ost-West) nach den photographischen Curven ermittelt : — 



Beginn 




• 


H- 

. 1 


M. 

24.6 Mittl. 


Zeit Potsdam 


Maximum 


, 


• 


. 1 


27.0 




Ende 


, 




. 1 


27.8 




Amplitude sehr 


klein, 


C 


1 Bogenminute 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



J 97 



Andeutungen von Schwingungen sind noch um : 

1 31.0 
1 34.4 



896. 


Jan. 9.-3 Stosse an Lloyd's Wage 


beobachtet : — 




(1) Anfang . 
Maxim. 






H. M. 

3 1.1 P.M. M. Z. Potsd 
1.8 




Ende . 






2.9 




Amplitude . 






1 Bogenminute 




(2) Anfang 
Maxim. 






3 5.8 
r,.9 




Ende . 






8.9 




Amplitude . 






0.8 Bogenminute 




(3) Anfang 
Maxim. 






3 11.0 
12.6 




Ende 






13.9 




Amplitude . 






0.5 Bogenminute 



1896. Man 4. — Mehrere Stosse bei alien drei Komponenten beobachtet :— 



— 


I. Declination 


(Bieiarmapnet) 
11. Horiz. Comp. 


III. Wage 




H. 


jr. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


(1) Anfang . 


5 


44.8 a.m. 


5 36.2 


5 42.9 


Maxim. . 




46.2 


Scliwache Bewegung 


Schwache 


Ende 




47.7 


5 43.7 


Bewegung 


Amplitude 


c» 


.1' 




— • 


(2) Anfang . 


5 


48.3 


— 


5 45.3 


Maxim. . 




49.9 


Gleichmiissige Schwingungen 


46.3 


Ende 




51.7 


5 50.9 


48.0 


Amplitude 


c» 


1.0' 


O.o'-l.O' 


0.6' 


(3) Anfang . 


5 


55.1 


5 54.7 


5 48.5 


Maxim. . 


5 


58.3 


Schwache 


— 


Ende . 


6 


2.0 


Bewegung 


— 


Amplitude 


c" 


.1' 


— 


— 



Alle Zeitangaben sind nach mittlerer Zeit Potsdam gemacht (Oh. 52m. 1 5.4s. 
Zeitdifferenz gegen Greenwich). Dieselben sind auf \-\ m. sicher._ Die hier vorli^- 
genden Beobachtungen zeigen leider keine Coincidenz mit den dortigen. "' 

Potsdam, 1896, Juni 23. 

On November 2 and January 9 shocks were not recorded at Shide, 
■whilst on March 4, at the hours specified, the instrument was dismantled, 
and a felt lining removed from the case. 



Professor G. Agamennone, Constantinople. 

C'est avec grand plai.sir que j'ai re5u la liste des secousses sismiques que vous 
avez enregistrees -X Shide du 17 aout 1895 jusqu'au 27 mars 1896. 

Je n'ai pas manque de les confronter avec celles que j'ai dejil publiees ou que je 
publierai sous pen dans le ' Bulletin Meteorologique et Sismique ' de Constaatinople, 
bulletin que je m'honore de vous envoyeret que, je Pespere, vous devez reguli^rement 
recevcir. 

D'aprfes ce qn'il resulte de cette comparaison je n'ai pu y trouver aucune relation 
qui soit bien sflre, un intervalle de temps remarquable se trouvant toujours entre les 
commotions sismiques d'Orient et les perturbations indiquees par vos instruments, eu 
egard, bien entendu, aux diverses longitudes. 

Une difference moindre se montre seulement pour la secousse du 19 aout 1895, 
laquelle lut indiquee dans votre observatoire & 10'' 1" du matin, tandis que \ dTieure 



198 



REPORT — 1896. 



plus tard un desastreux tremblement de terre ravagea la ville d'A'idin et ses alen- 
tours en Asie Mineure. 

Je porte, enfin, ;\ votre connaissance qne ]e 29 juin passe, vers ll"" | du soir (t. m. 
Constantinople?) une forte secoiisse sismique tl eu lieu sur la cote de la Syrie et s'est 
fait ressentir austii avec une grande intensite i^ Larnaca (Chypre). 

6 juillet 1896. 

As Professor Agamennone remarks, my record for October 19 precedes 
the Aidin Disaster by about 15 minutes, but it follows the fourth and 
heaviest shock felt at Bouladan, at about 9h. 44m. 6s. G.M.T. 

The Cyprus shock of June 29 was recorded at Shide (see fig. 3). 



8.29,14 
I 



Fig .3.— June 29, 1896. Cyprus. 

9.29.14- 



I 9.2.2S 



H[]>ft>^,M^ 



1h. 



i?> 



10.29.14 



Dr. Adolfo Cancani writes that the Shide records do not correspond to 
those at llocca di Papa. 

Earthquakes recorded in Europe, followed by disturbances at Shide, 
Aug. \Q-Nov. 30, 1895. 



D4te 


Locality 


Charac- 
ter of 


G.M.T at 


GM.T. 


Diff. in 


Character at 




Shocks 


Locality 


at Sbide 


G.M.T. 


Shide 


\%m 






H M. S. 


H. M. S. 






Aug. ) 


Bouladan . 


Heavy 


9 44 6 


10 1 


17min. 


Sudden 


„ 20 


Patras 


— 


10 33 36 


11 16 


42 „ 




„ 20 


Aidin 


Heavy 


12 4 6 


12 25 


21 „ 


»1 


„ 28 


Zante 


Slight 


14 14 6 


14 30 


16 „ 


Strong 


Sept. 1 


Messina 


— 


8 
(about) 


8 2 


2 „ 
(about) 


Moderate 


„ 1 


Laibach . 


— 


10 8 
(about) 


11 1 


53 min. 
(about) 


»» 


— 


Laibach . 


Strong 


9 12 6 


9 38 


26 min. 


Slight 


— 


Zante 


Light 


13 4 6 


14 23 


59 „ 


„ 


„ 25 


Zante 


— 


7 47 6 
(and at night) 


8 20 


0<J „ 


Moderate 


„• 26 


Zante 


Feeble 


5 11 6 


5 30 


25 „ 




„ 27 


Spoleto 


— 


4 9 6 


4 43 


34 „ 


Slight 


Oct. 6 


Florence . 


— 


11 23 34 


12 30 


7 „ 


— 


„ 8 


Laibach . 


— 


night 


10 8 




First of 6 com- 
mence gently 


— 


Zante 


Strong 


11 4 6 


10 24 7 


20 „ 


Light 


„ 16 


Giano dell' 
Umbra . 




3 50 


4 19 3 


29 „ 


Moderate 



Out of these fifteen shocks, if we make an allowance of a few minutes 
in the accuracy of the times in the fourth column, then there are twelve of 
them recorded at Shide at about the times we should expect them to have 
reached that place. Two of the first three shocks which were 'sudden' at 
Shide took place when we might expect earth-waves to have reached that 
place from localities where there had been heavy disturbances. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 199 

Notes on Special Earthqiiakes} 

October 19, 21/^. 30m. G.M.T., 1895 {Strassburg).—l:he following 
note is derived from a sketch of the photographic trace sent to me by 
Dr. Gerland, of Strassburg. This sketch shows the movements which 
took place in a von Rebeur-Paschwitz pendulum on the morning of 
October 20. 

About 10 A.M. (S.M.T.) there were preliminary tremors, lasting about 
five minutes. These were followed by strong movements, reacliing thirty 
or more millimetres, which continued until about 11.30, during which 
time the pendulum was displaced by four steps towards the south. From 
this time the movement died out, but slight movements are observable 
aintil alter 1.30 p.m. The duration of the disturbance was therefore at 
least 3^ hours. 

Padua. — Observations made with the pendulum apparatus and multi- 
plying indices of Professor G. Vicentini : — 

ir. SI. s. 

Commencement 10 29 44 

End . . 11 55 45 

Duration . 1 26 

These times are probably mean European time. 

Nicolaiew (Professor Kortazzi). — ^Observation with a horizontal pen- 
dulum : — 

H. M. S. 

Commencement N.M.T 21 30 

Shide, Isle of Wight (Milne's Pendulum). — Unfortunately this dis- 
turbance occurred in the midst of a tremor storm. Its commencement 
and end are therefore lost. 

Strong movements occurred at 22h. 24m., 22h. 27m. and 22h. 32m. 
G.M.T. 

Reducing the observations to Greenwich mean time we obtain :— 

Commencemeat Maximum 

H. M. s. H. M. 8. 

Strassburg 21 28 55 22 28 55 about 

Padua 21 29 44 21 43 44 „ 

Nicolaiew 21 29 51 

Shide unknown 22 30 

These records show that three types of instrument have each been 
sufficiently sensitive to record the same disturbance. 

September 4, 5, 7 and 8. — It will be observed that on these days, from 
which it must be noted September 6 is omitted, when there was practically 
no movements, that shocks were very frequent. Dr. Gerland of Strass- 
burg writes me that on these days there were many small shocks, and a 
tendency for the pendulum to move towards the south. 

June 15, 1893. — On the above date Professor Vjcentini, at Padua, 
recorded disturbances, commencing at 10.45 a.m. G.M.T., which reached a 
maximum at about llh. 14m. p.m., ending about one hour later. 

At Shide a disturbance commenced at 10.30 a.m. G.M.T., but as the 
instrument was dismantled at 11.30 the record is incomplete. 

If we allow forty-five minutes for a disturbance to travel from Japan 
to Europe, and nine hours as the difference in time between Greenwich 
and Tokio, then in Japan mean time the earthquakes and sea- waves, which 

' See Appendix. . . 



200 



REPORT — 1896. 



resulted in the loss of about 30,000 lives, took place on June 15 at about 
8.30 P.M. Until July 11, when we learned that the destruction had taken 
place on June 15, the impression received from telegrams was that it 
occurred on June 17. We now know that the information derived from 
seismographs was correct, whilst that published as telegrams in our daily 
papers involved an error of two days. 

Jimie 29 to July 4, 1896. — At about 11 p.m. on June 29 there was a 
violent shock in Cyprus, which was followed by a series of others. 

An alarming shock was felt at 8.25 a.m. on July 3, and others at noon, 
12.38 P.M., 2.52 P.M., and 3.22 p.m. 

On these days many small shocks were recorded at Shide. Assuming 
a diiference in time between Cyprus and Greenwich of 2h. 1 2m., the above 
times and dates in G.M.T. are as follows, and are placed side by side with 
the observations made at Shide. 





Cyprus Shide 




H. JI. S. H. M. s. 


June 29 . 


8 48 severe 9 02 26 coDtinuing to 9 24 45 


July 2. 


18 13 „ 18 51 29 


„ 2. 


21 48 moderate not recorded 


,, 2. 


22 26 


., 3. 


40 


„ 3. 


1 10 „ . „ 



Tremors and Pulsations. 

In the following table the more or less continuous, regular, and 
irregular swingings or repeated tiltings which have been observed are 

Fig. 4. — Commencement and Growth of a Tremor Storm. 

10. P.M. II. RM. 




Oct, IDT." |89S 






isivrt. • leTtTS. 

LiMytiyityiiiiUiiiiiyiiil 



arranged chronologically. The numbers in brackets indicate the range of 
motion expressed in millimetres. The first entry for August 18 means 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



201 



that between 18 and 19 hourS the pendulum was swinging through a 
range of half a millimetre. On August 23 the motion was continuous 
for the whole twenty-four hours, and the extent of motion was 10 milli- 
metres. On days that are omitted, unless there are remarks to the 
contrai-y, the pendulum was at rest. Although the natural period of 



Fig. 5. — Tremor Storm and Deflection. 
0cT.I7l89S 3Tn-s. 



•41lTS. 




the pendulum was 17 seconds, it will be noticed that sometimes its 
period exceeded 5 minutes, while periods of H minute are com- 
mon. Irregular and comparatively rapid swingings of the instrument 
are called tremors. Some of these are apparently due to the establish- 
ment of air currents within the case of the instruments, while others 
seem to have their origin in actual movements of the supporting pier. 



Fig. 6. — Pulsations at Shide. 



8.28. 9.S0.P.M OCT IS^" IB35 




;^.y,/VV^^»^WAA^MAW^^^^v^^^AA^ 



^^,^^/^/^/^/\^^^^^vv\vlA^Art/vvvvv^/v^^vvv■,-— 



...■■..M<1^'«»«*«»»«..«>. 



Sh IDE 



Pulsations are slow movements which are regular in the period and 
amplitude on the photogram, having an appearance like that produced by 
a tuning fork recording its vibrations on a moving smoked surface. 
These pulsations are referred to as such, or as waves. Often they are 
distinct from tremors, but at other times they lead up to tremor storms, 
and in such cases it becomes diflScult to distinguish between i^ulsations 
and tremors. 



202 



REPORT — 1896. 



Fig. 4 shows the commencement of a tremor storm at 10 p.m. on 
October 10, with long period irregular waves. At 15 and 16 hours it will 
be noticed that there has been a great increase in amplitude. 

Fig. .5 shows a portion of a heavy tremor storm with a rapid tilt on 
October 17. 

Figs. 6 and 7 show pulsations at Shide, commencing on October 19, 

Fig. 7.— Pulsations at Strassburg (Pasclnviiz), enlarged ten times. 




■&t 9.30 P.M., and pulsations at Strassburg magnified 10 times. The latter 
are reproduced from the work of von Rebeur-Paschwitz because they are 
identical with records often obtained in Japan. 





Table 


II. 


Ddto 


— 


Remarks 




189£ 


>. 


August 






18 


18 tol9(o), 21 to 24 


. — 


19 


Oto 4 (1) 


— 


20 


to 3 (-5) 


— 


23 


to 24 (10) 


Windy. Trays of CaCl^ put in the 


21: 


to 24 (10) 


case. When this was taken out the 


25 


Heavy tremors 


heavy tremors ceased. This was 


26 


»» 


done three times. 


27 


J* 




28 






2<> 


»» 




30 


17 to 20(1) 





Sept. 






2 


5 to 8 (2) 


— 


4 


16 to 20, max. 18 (3) 


— . 


8 to 19 




No records. 


25 


23 to 24 (-5) 


Heavy rain and thunder. 


28 


2 to 4 (1) 


— 


28 


20 to 23 (4) 





1 29 


18 to 22 (3) 


Period 4m. 18s. 


' October 






1 


19 to 24, max. 22 (5) 





2 


to 3.30 


Tremors die out. 


2 


3 to 8.30, slight 


Very windy on the 3rd, and no tremor.?. 


2 
4 


9 30 to 24, max. 17 (G) 


— 


10.30 to 23, max. 16 (5) 


Periods 3m. 20s. to 4m. 


6 


12.30 to 18.30 


All tremors for the preceding week 
have long periods. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Table II. — continued. 



20.3 



Dite 


— 


Remarks 


October 






7 


Slight 


- , 


8 


„ 7 to 18 


Rain at night. 


8 


18 to 24, mas. 23 (10) 


Period 3ra. 


9 


to 5 slight, and slight all day 





9 


19 to 23 (5) 





10 


8 to 24, max. 18 (8), at 10 (2) 


Period is shorter. 




with 2in. period 


I'Sm. at end of storm. 


11 


6 to 24, very slight 





13 


14 to 21, max. 18 (o) 


Period reaches 54 m. 


14 


18 to 19, slight 





15 


21 to 21, „ 





10 


1 to 7 (3) 


Sudden increase from 2 mm. to 7 mm. 
in tremors after opening case at 
7.45 P.M. 


16 


7 to 24, max. 18 to 21 (15) 


Period Im 25s. to 2m. 50s. 


17 


to6 


Tremors die down. 


17 


9 to 24, max. 12 to 20 (fi) 


Period at 9h. about 2m. 50s., but de- 
creases at end of storm. Cold at 
night. 


18 


to 24, slight 


Max. of 2-5mra. after opening case at 
21. Dies out as regular pulsations 
of -Smm. and period Im. 25s. 


19 


4 to 5, two groups of 10 waves 


These r.re good examples of pulsations. 




each ( 1 ) 


The latter has 34 waves. Period 


19 


8 to 10, 34 waves per hour 


Im. 24s. to 2m. 7s. Max. range 2mm. 


19 


13 to 24, max. 21 (5) 





20 


to3 


Die out. 


20 


4 to 5, two groups of 9 waves 
each 


— 


20 


10 to 24, max. 20 (5) 


Commence as pulsations. 


551 


to 8 


Slight. 


21 


4 to 6, groups of slight regular 
waves 


— 


21 


8 to 24, 20 (5) 


Increase after opening case at 20. 


22^ 


to 11 


Reach 15mm. when the pendulum is 


92 


12 to 20(2) 


deflected and they stop suddenly. 


22 


20 to 24 (15) 


These large tremors commence after 
opening box. 


23-24 


Heavy tremors (10 to 15) 


No CaCl.j in box. 


24 


— 


Box painted inside, and face and top 
of column covered with cement. 


27 


Heavy tremors (10 to 15) 


These continue even with doors of case 


80 


U »» 


open. 


30 




Completely covered inside of case with 
thick felt and tremors cease. 


Nov. 






2 


11 to 22(1) 





5 


22 (-5) 





8 


22 to 24, slight 


9h., door slightly opened; closed it at 


9 


to 9, 


7h. on the 11th. On the 10th it was 
very stormy all day and no tremors. 


9 


1 to 2. irregular and slow 


Period 5-6m. 


9 


10 to 22 (1) 





11 


5 to 24, max. 14 to 24 (5) 


Become marl ed after closing door at 
7 1».M. Period 2-8m , but this is 
sliorter at end of storm. 


12 


to6 


Storm dies out. 


12 


6 to 7 


A calm dav. 



204 


report- 


-1896. 




Table II,— 


co}itmued. 


Date 


— 


Remaiks 


Nov. 






12 


7 to 24, max. 13 to 19 (r.) 


Period often 2-8m. 


13 


to 3, slight 


2.30, pulsations 6 waves, each -Smm. 
The column was felted and box filled 
round with straw. 


13 


3 to 24 


Now and then veiy slight irregularities. 


14 


10 to 14 


)» ), », 


14 


14 to 24, max. 18 to 20 (3) 


Period l-4m. Breeze, cloud, rain. 


16 


16 to 24, max. 19 to 21 (2) 


Period of irregular waves reaches 5-6m. 
High wind in morning and no tremors. 


17 


to 5, slight 


Dull, .showers, calm. 


17 


5 to 24, max. 9 to 14 (4) 


Irregular waves reach 4-2m. At 23.30 
a very heavy storm commences sud- 






denly. Frosty. 


18 


to 2.30 (5) 


Period 2-8m. and fairly regular. 


18 


2.30 to 24 


Dying out slowly. 


19 to 21 


No tremors 


Gauze put over door. 


22 


16 to 24, max. 22 to 24 (3) 


Period l-4m. Calm. 


23 


to 24, max. 12 to 24 (3 to 4) 


Period llm. Fine. 


24 


toS 


Tremors die out. N. wind. 


24 


8 to 24, slight 


Dull. Strong wind at night. 


24 


to 16, very slight 


— 


24 


IG to 24 (1) 


— ■ 


26 : 


to 16, very slight 


Dull, calm. 


27 


to 14, no tremors 


Ea,in. 


27 to 30: 


Up to 16 hours no tremors 


On 29th took gauze off. 


27 to 30 


16 to 4 (1) 


— 


Dec. 






1 


9 to 24, max. 18 to 22 (2 to 3) 


Fog in morning. 


2 


to 3, slight 


Fine. 


3 to 5 


No tremors except 23 to 24, 


Dull and damp. Strong wind on the 




slight 


4th and 5th. 


6 


to 24, from 3 violent 


High wind at night. 


7 


to 24 (10), violent 


Fine, windy. 


8 


to 24 (10), violent; die out 
from 19 hour.';, but increase 
slightly after opening door 


Calm. 


9 


No tremors 


Dull. 


10 


10 to 24. slight 


Fog, calm. 


11 


22 to 24, „ 


)) »i 


12 


1 to 3, 


Heavy S. gale from 10 a.m. 


12 


3 to 10, 


— 


12 


10 to 24, max. IS to 20 (.5) 


— 


13 


to 24, max. 9 to 22 (4) 


Moderate N. wind. 


14 


No tremors 


Fog, calm. 


15 


8 to 24, max. 18 (2) 


Opening door at 21 increased the 
tremor. Dull, no wind. 


16 


to 8 (3 or 4) 


At 8.45 door was closed and tremors 
are gi-eatly reduced. 


16 . 


8 to 24 (1 or 2) 


Rain. 


17. 


to 24 (1) 


Dull, fine. 


18 


0to24 (I) 


Slight increase of tremors at night. 
Dull, drizzle. 


19 


to 24 (4 or 5) 


Started by opening the door. Dull 
and calm. 


,20 


4 to 24, max. 18 to 24 (2) 


Calm, tremors reduced from 3 to almost 
zero by putting in wind guard. 




to 24 (2) 


Period 2-8m. Fog, calm. 




to 24, no tremors 


Fine, breeze. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Table II. — cuntlnved. 



205 



Date 

Dec. 
23 
24 
25 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 



Jan. 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
19 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

28 

29 

30 

31 

31 
Feb. 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
6 



_ 


Remarks 


No tremors 




Dull, S. wind. 




23 to 24, slight 




Kain, S.E. wind. 




to 24 (2) 




Period 2-8. Little snow. 




to 8, slight 




Drizzle. 




8 to 24, no tremors 




Dull, calm. 




14 to 17, slight 




11 11 




No tremors 




Dull, rain. 




»,» 




Clock sent to be cleaned. 






1896. 




to 24 (-5), max. 18 to 20 (1) 


Period 2-8m. Calm. 




0to24(-5tol),max.l5to24(l-5) 


Period regular, about 2-8 m. 


Fog, calm. 


to 24 (1) 




Eegular character. 




to 24 (1) 




11 11 




18 to 24 (1) 




11 1) 




to 24 (1) 




11 '1 




to 18 (-5) 




11 11 
From 5th to 10th no wind. 




No tremors 




Dull, calm. 




»» 




11 n 

Fine. 




1^ 
11 




Dull, calm. 

S.W. wind, sun, cloud. 

Dull, windy at night. 




11 




Fine, calm. 




11 




Dull, calm. 




to 9, no tremors 




11 11 




9 to 24 (10), max. 13 to 24 


Calm, drizzle. 




to 24 (3) 




Period l-25m. to 2m. Fine 


hard frost. 


to 9 (2) 




Dull, damp, calm. 




9 to 10, no tremors 









10 to 24 (1) 




Regular. 




8 to 22 (-5) 




Dull, calm. 




Occasionally very slig 


it and 


Calm, fog. 




regular 








No tremors 




Calm, but wind rising at n 


ight. 


to 24, no tremors 




S.W. wind all last night. 


Rain. 


No tremors 




Dull, calm. 
Drizzle. 




to 5, no tremors 




Fine. Frost at night. 




5 to 24, max. all night 


(10) 


— 




to 24. max. at night (5) 


Frosty, calm. 




to 24 (3) 




White frost, calm. 




to 10(1) 




Dull, calm. 




10 to 24 (2) 




— 




to 10, slight 




Dull, calm. 




10 to 24 (1) 









to 6, slight 




Calm, fine. 




6 to 24, max. 10 to 16 


(3) 


— 




to 17, no tremors 




S.W. breeze, dull. 




17 to 23, slight 









to 11, no tremors 




Dull, calm. 




11 to 22(1), max. 16 to 21 


^_ 




22 to 24, no tremors 









to 24, no tremors 




Dull, calm. 




(1 ). 




Wind in early morning, C3 


Im. 



206 



KEPORT — 1896. 
Table II. — eontiiiucd. 



Date 


— 


Remarks 


Feb. 






7 


to 13, no tremors 


Dull, damp. At night S.W. breeze. 


7 


13 to 21, max. 19 (2) 





8 


to 24, no tremors 


S.W. breeze, fine. At night heavy wind. 


9 


to 22, no tremors 


Drizzle, calm. 


9 


22 to 24, slight 


— 


10 


to 22, no tremors 


Fog. calm. 


10 


22 to 23, small pulsations (-5) 


Period 2-8m. to 5-6m. 


11 


to 10, no tremors 


Fine, calm. 


11 


10 to 12, pulsations (1), which 
lead to tremors 


Period 4-2m. 


11 


] 2 to 24, slow tremors (2) 


— 


12 


Slight tremors at night 


Fine, calm. 


13 


to 19, no tremors 


Fog, calm. 


13 


19 to 24, tremors or pulsations 
(0 


— 


14 


to 16, no tremors 


Dull, calm. 


14 


16 to 24, slow tremors, max. 22 to 
23, (2) 


— 


15 


to 18, no tremors 


Fine, calm. 


15 


18 to 24, slow tremors (2) 


— 


16 


to 6, slow tremors (2) 


Period 2-8m. to 4-2m. ; stop by open- 
ing door at 6-33, but in 1^ hour 
recommence. 


16 


6 to 7.30, no tremors 


— 


16 


7.30 to 24, max. 19 (2) 


Dull, damp. 


17 


to 2 (2) 


Calm, dull, cold. 


17 


2 to 4, no tremors 





17 


4 to 24, max. 17 to 24 (2) 


Period l-4m. to l-2m. 


18 


to 3 die out 


Fog, calm. 


18 


3 to 24, no tremors 


— 


19 


to 24, no tremors 


Calm, sunshine, cloud. 


20 


to 24, no tremors, but a trace 
of tremors at 22 


Dull, sea breeze. 


21 


to 24, no tremors, but a trace 
21 to 24 


Bright sunshine. 


22 


to 6, no tremors 


Dull. 


22 


to 24 (increase up to 5) 


Period at first 4-2m. 


23 


to 3, die out 


Fine, frosty last night. 


23 


3 to 6, no tremors 


— 


23 


5 to 24 (increase up to 3) 


Period l-4m. to 2-8m. Frosty at 
night. 


24 


to 1, die out 


— 


24 


1 to 6, no tremors 





24 


6 to 24, max. 18 to 20 (2) 


— 


25 


to 4, die out 


Frosty last night. 


25 


4 to 5, no tremors 


— 


25 


5 to 24, max. 17 to 24 (3) 


— 


26 


to 8, die out 


Cold, frosty, calm. 


26 


9 to 24, slight, max. 20 to 21 (1) 


Slight pulsations in groups of 3 to 8 at 
intervals of 30 minutes. 


27 


to 24, no tremors 


Fine, calm. 


28 


»5 IT 


Fine, stormy, N.W. wind. 


29 


>» )» 


Dull, S. wind. 


Mar. 






1 


to 13, no tremors 


Dull, S. wind. 


1 


13 to 24, slight 





2 


to 24, no tremors 


Fine. 


3 


No record 


Removed felt lining from box. [ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Table II. — continued. 



207 



Date 


— 


Kemarks 


Mar. 






4 


to 24, max. 16 (I) 


Stormj'. 


5 


to 3, slight 


Fine, breezy. 


5 


3 to 21, no tremors 





.'S 


21 to 24, slight 


After opening door. 


6 


to 2, slight 


Dull, S. wind. 


6 


3 to 24, no temors 





7 


to 24, no temors 


Rain, calm. 


8 


n )i 


Dull, W. wind.. 


9 


to 14, no tremors 


Dull, S.W. breeze. ' 


9 


14 to 24, max. 19 and 20 (5) 


Heavy dew at night. 


10 


to 1, die out 


Fine, calm. 


10 


1 to 8, no tremors 


— 


11 


No tremors 


Calm, dull. 


12 


7 to 24, max. 22 (5) 


Drizzle. 


13 


to 4, die out 


Calm. 


13 


4 to 12, no tremors 


— 


13 


12 to 21, slight 


— 


14 


to 13, no tremors 


Calm, fog. 


14 


13 to 23, max. 22 (5) 


— 


14 


23 and 24, no tremors 


Hoar frost in morning. 


15 


to 24, no tremors 


Calm, dull. From noon high wind. 


16 


to 16, no tremors 


High wind. 


16 


16 to 21, slight and slow 


— 


16 


21 to 24, no tremors 


— 


17 


to 24, no tremors 


Calm, drizzle. 


18 


to 3, no tremors 


Rain, N. wind. 


18 


3 to 24, max. 18 to 23 (5) 


Decrease by opening door. Heavy dew 

and frost. 


19 


to 1, die out 


Calm, tine. 


19 


1 to 8, no tremors 





19 


23, slight 


— 


20 


to 24, no tremors 


High wind, rain. 


21 


to 24, no tremors 


Rain, is. wind. 


22 


to 17, no tremors 


Dull, calm. 


22 


17 to 21, slight, slow 





22 


21 to 24, no tremors 





23 


to 16, no tremors 


Calm, fog. 


23 


16 to 22, slow max. 18-19 (2 
or 3) 


— 


23 


22 to 24, no tremors 





24 


to 17, no tremors 


Calm, fog. 


24 


18 to 21, slow max. 18 to 19 


Record like 23rd. 


25 


No record except 20 to 24, when 
tremors are 2 mm. 


Calm, dull. 


26 


to 5, die out 


Rain, breeze, high wind. 


26 


5 to 14, no tremors 





26 


14 to 24, max. 19 (3) 





27 


to 4, die out 


Fine, N.W. breeze. 


27 


4 to 10, no tremors 





27 


10 t 24 max. 17 to 19 (3) 


— 



Relationship of Tremors to the Hours of Day and Night. 
A general inspection of the preceding table leads to the conclusion that 
tremors have been more frequent and more intense during the night than 
during the day, and that they are especially marked during the early morn- 
ing. To render this relationship more clear, tables have been made 



208 



REPORT — 1896. 



in which tremors for successive days have been placed under columns 
representing 24 hours, 12 hours being midnight. These tremors had 
values assigned to them equal in millimetres to the range of motion 
they exhibited on the photograms. By adding these columns up verti- 
cally a value was obtained for the period considered for each hour of the 
day and night. This value has been considered as proportional to the 
intensity of motion exhibited at various hours. By simply adding up 
the number of entries a set of numbers were obtained which may be 
regarded as proportional to the tremor frequency. 

These two sets of numbers obtained for the months of November and 
December 1895, when plotted on squared paper, give the curves shown in 
fig. 8. 

From these curves we see that for the period considered tremors have 
been least intense and least frequent between 3 p.m. and 7 p.m., but from 

Fig. 8. — Tremors November and December 1895. 



.. 
















.>y~^ 


N, 






\ 












/, 




S 


- • 


■fO 


\- 










/ 




InCen,. 


\^ 




JO 
5>n 


\ 


\ 














/■ 






\ 




"^^ 


/ 


,.-— 


^^ 












Frc^^ 


',€/lC^ 


to 


■\ 


1 1 


"^T^ 


1 1 


— 1 — 1„ 













Hoa/y o i -z 3 ■* 5 6 7 s s /o if k 13 » /^ re /? /a /s ^o i/ 2z 23 24 

P M. AM. 

the latter hour there is a rapid increase in both these quantities. The 
intensity falls off rapidly from about 6 or 7 a.m., whilst the frequency 
commences to diminish about five hours later. 

From these observations it would seem that the cause of tremors may 
possibly be found in operations which grow in intensity during the night, 
and which become gradually enfeebled during the day. 

Tremors and Air Currents. 

Inasmuch as the atmosphere may be calm, and the air inside an 
observatory may always be apparently quiescent, and yet an instrument 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 209 

not necessarily a horizontal pendulum, but an ordinary pendulum, a 
balance, and perhaps even a magnetometer, shows considerable motion 
within its case, the question arises whether there be not air currents 
existing within the cases which cover such instruments. With compara- 
tively heavy horizontal pendulums in well ventilated cases in Japan 
tremors were always small and of rare occurrence, but with light 
pendulums in similar cases tremors of a pronounced character nearly 
always occurred between midnight and about six in the morning. With 
the light pendulum at Shide, beneath a fairly tight case, I found tremors, 
whether the inside of this was lined with thick felt, and the supporting 
pier covered with the same material, which kept the surroundings of the 
instrument at a fairly uniform temperature, or whether such coverings 
wei'e removed. Covering those portions of the column which were inside 
the case with cement, and painting the surface of the same, did not 
destroy the intruders. Another experiment was to replace the large 
doors of the case Avitli fine gauze, thus giving the instrument considerable 
ventilation ; but, as will be seen from the records (November 21-30), no 
great improvement was effected. By means of a very fine column 
of smoke from the spark at the end of a thin joss-stick, joints in the 
covering cases were tested for draughts. The column of smoke was also 
placed before a small hole usually closed by a cork, to see if there was any 
tendency in the air to enter or come out from the case, but no indication 
of the same was obtained. 

One very marked observation was that a strong tremor storm would 
suddenly cease, or be at least greatly altered in its intensity, by opening 
the door of the case for one or two minutes. ' 

Altiiough a sudden change of this last description has occurred with- 
out opening the doors, we have in this observation an indication that 
by some means or other, which do not seem to be effects due to differ- 
ences in temperature in different parts of a case, air-currents are from 
time to time established within a case, the mechanical working of which 
can be more or less destroyed by simply opening the door of the case. 

One cause of such currents may be due to the differfent rates at 
which aqueous vapour is absorbed or given off" at different points within 
the covering, and if these are steady they may set up a steady set of long 
period displacements in a light pendulum. 

By introducing a tray of calcium chloride inside the case, violent 
movements ha\e resulted, which only ceased after the desiccating agent 
was removed. 

These facts, coupled with tiie fact that tremors were apparently 
greatly reduced by surrounding the boom with a trough or wind-guard on 
three of its sides, lead to the conclusion that air-currents are from time 
to time generated within casings such as I have employed, which result 
ill movements which are with difficulty separable from those which are 
attributed to motion of the supporting pier. 

The fact that tremors occur when there is a slight fall in temperature 
outside the case, whilst the fall inside the same would be comparatively 
small, suggests the idea that at such times, although they have failed 
detection, there may be streams of air passing through the joints of the 
coverings. The unlikelihood of this is, however, referred to in the next 
.section. 

' In some instances, however, the opening of the door seems to have brought 
a tremor storm into existence. 

1896. P 



210 REPORT— 1896. 



Tremors in relation to Barometric Pressure, the Ht/ffrometric State of the 
Atmosphere, Temperature, Frost, Dew, Wind, and Hain. 

From November 18, 1895, a self-recording barometer, thermometer, and 
hygrometer of the Richard types were established at Shide, The two 
latter instruments usually stood upon the case covering the horizontal 
pendulum, but for one or two weeks they were placed inside the covering. 
The tremors have been written, with their magnitudes, on the diagrams 
showing changes in temperature. Altliougli these changes, which are 
indicated in degrees Fahrenheit, have been within a period of twelve or 
twenty-four hours small, it must be remembered that the corresponding 
changes which have sometimes taken place outside the building may have 
been comparatively large. The following notes, in which T, B, and H 
respectively mean temperature, barometer, and hygrometer, are based 
upon an inspection of these records : — 

1895. 
Nov. 18-25 . . Tremors occur with falls of T, 55°-49°. B rising, 29-7-30-05 in., and 

H slightly fluctuating, 40-5-40-7. 
Nov. 25-Dec. 2. Slight tremors, with falling T, which sometimes occurs during the 

day. B down to 29-4, and no tremors. 
Dec. 2-9 . . . T falls 56°-40°, and strong tremors of 10 mm. B rising. H steady. 
Dec. 16 . . . T at 48°, and tremors with falling T even during the day. B rising. 
Dec. 16- 2;] . . T falls 48°-43°, and tremors. B rising. 
Dec. 23-30 . . T falls to 43°, and tremors. B rising. 

1896. 
Jan. G-13 . . T falls 50°-45°, but tremors are very shght. B very high. 
.Jan. 13-20 . . T falls 51°-45°, and heavy tremors" of 10 mm. ; but there are falls 

50°-48° and no tremors. B 30-4. H steady. 
Jan. 20-27 . . T 45° and fairlj steady, with slight tremors, which, as usual, cease 

when it rises. 
Jan. 27-Feb. 3. T falls 52°-43°, and heavy tremors. So long as it remains at 43° 

tremors are slight, but with the slightest fall, even to 42°, they 

recommence. 
Feb. 3-10 . . T falls very slightly during the early morning on the 4th and 7th, 

and there are slight tremors. Whilst T is steady, even if it is 

low, there are no tremors ; also no tremors when rising. B high. 

H fluctuates, but not at the time of the tremors. 
Feb. 10-17 , . Slight tremors, with slight falls of T. B high. There are tremors 

with three falls of H. 
Feb. 17-24 . . Tremors with three falls of T, commencing at 48°. A rapid fall of 

T on the 22ud was accompanied with heavy tremors. B high. 

H shows decided fluctuations, but at the times of no tremors. 
Feb. 24-Mar. 2. T falls from 4o°-40°, and tremors. B high. H has fluctuations, 

but these occur with or without tremors. 
Mar. 2-9 . . . Tremors with T at 48°. A large B wave, 28-7-30-0, but no tremors. 

H fluctuating. 
Mar. 9-16 . . T falls, 58°-53° and 53°-45°, and tremors. B high. H steady. 
Mar. 16-23 . . T falls, 54°-52° and 54°-49°, and tremors. B moving steadily down 

and up, 29-5 to SO'O. H shows three waves, but not with tremors. 
Mar. 23-30 , . Six cases of tremors with slight falls of T, and the lower T the 

greater the tremors. H very irregular. The tremors are most 

when the air is dryest. B shows several moderately rapid 

changes, and the tremors chiefly occur with the falls. 

The conclusions which may be derived from these notes are : — 

1. There does not appear to be any relationship between the indica- 
tions of the hygrometer and tremors. When the door of the observing 
room was often left open during the day, at such times the hygrometer 



ON SEISM OLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 211 

would indicate considerable changes, which are the times at which tremors 
are least frequent. 

2. Tremors have occurred when tlie barometer has been high, low, 
rising or falling. These observations, however, do not throw any light 
upon the connection which may exist between the appearance of tremors 
and the state of the barometric gradient. 

3. Tremors nearly always appear when the temperature is falling, and 
therefore are frequent at night. When the temperature is steady or 
rising, tremors have been but seldom observed. 

The observation that tremors accompany a falling thei-mometer receives 
strong confirmation that they have been markedly large on frosty nights, 
and that these sometimes have continued whilst the morning sun has been 
thawing the frozen surface of the ground. Such coincidences occurred 
on January 20, 28, 29, 30, 31, February 22, 23, 24, 25, March 14 and 18. 

The only exceptions to this rule appear on November 2.5, January 14 
and 15, on which occasions the fall in temperature was from 50° to 49° 
and 48°, which, it may be remarked, are only small changes. 

From January 20 to 22 tremors were pronounced, whilst the tem- 
perature was steady at about 45°. Although there was this approximately 
constant temperature in the room, and a temperature yet more constant 
within the case, on the night of the 20th there was a hard frost, and 
possibly frost on the other nights. For each of these days it may therefore 
be assumed that between the day and night, outside the building, the 
change in temperature was great. The large differences in temperature 
between the outside and inside of the building no doubt resulted in the 
establishment of air-currents through a broken pane of glass and other 
air passages, but, as these do not appear to have disturbed the inside 
temperature, such air- currents must have been small. Rather, therefore, 
than looking to such currents as being the cause of the movements of the 
pendulum, it seems more reasonable to suppose them due to expansions 
and contractions which were taking place in the ground outside. 

Tremors have also occurred on nights which have been accompanied 
with heavy dew, as, for example, on March 9. This may possibly mean 
that when large quantities of aqueous vapour are escaping from the 
ground, as evidenced by copious condensation on its chilled surface, con- 
tractions or expansions may be taking place in the same. 

My note book also shows, as it has repeatedly shown in previous 
years, that tremors have been marked or entirely absent with heavy winds 
from different directions and at the time of calms. 

A long drought followed by heavy rain has been followed by slight 
tremors. 

The conclusions that are arrived at respecting the cause of tremors 
are yet wanting in certitude. 

It is probable that naturally produced elastic tremors with a high 
frequency have an existence in localities remote from earthquake centres, 
but this has not yet been demonstrated. The only records bearing upon 
such an investigation are a few taken at Shide. These are referred to 
when describing the Perry Tromometer. 

The long-continued movements which are so often observed with light 
horizontal pendulums are probably due to the same causes which produce 
movements in ordinary pendulums, delicate balances, and, as the Rev. W. 
Sidgreaves tells us, in suspended magnets beneath aii'-tight covers at Kew 

and Stonyhurst, 

p2 



212 



REPORT — 189G, 



As the result of many observations, I venture to suggest that the 
causes of the so-called ' earth tremors ' are twofold : — 

1. Air-currents within the cases. Such currents are produced by a 
cold current of air impinging upon the outside of covers like glass or thin 
metal, but they are not likely to be produced if the covering is made of 
thick wood lined witli thick felt. They may be produced by an inflow or 
outflow of air through ill-fitting joints, but what is more likely, as experi- 
ment has shown, by a difference in the rate at which moisture is con- 
densed, absorbed, or given off at different points within a cover. 

2. By movements in the superficial soil outside the building in which 
the instrument is installed. These movements take place in soil whilst it is 
freezing or thawing, and after a heavy shower on dry ground. They may 
also be produced at the time when there are rapid but small changes in 
barometric pressure over an area the different portions of which vary in 
their elasticity and resilience. 

Although these suggestions partially destroy the value of many records 
of ' earth ' tremors, they nevertheless leave us confronted with phenomena 
which it is the interest of all who have to work with instruments having 
delicate suspensions to understand more clearly, especially, perhaps, the 
reason that their frequency is so marked at particular hours and seasons. 

Diunial Wave and Wanrlering of the Pe7iduluvi. 

On May 24, 1896, a drum moving a bromide film at a rate of about 
'75 mm. in twenty-four hours was placed beneath pendulum T, and records 
were taken until June 15. The sensibility of the instrument was such 
that 1 mm. deflection indicated a tilt of 0"-56. 

The records yield the following results :— 



Date 


Furthest 


Farthest 


Ranpe of 


Differeoce 
iii Tem- 


Remarks 




East 

H. 


West 


mution 


perature 
F 




II. 


ti 




May 24 


S 


18 


1-12 


5° 


Rain last nigrht 


„ 25 








.'-. 


Wave slight. Fine, cloudy, K. wind 


„ 2G 








S 


Dull, S. wind 


,. 27 




24 


112 


7 


Fine, E. wind 


., 28 


8 


2t 


392 


f) 


Fine, N.W. wind 


,. 2f» 




3 




7 


l^air 




12 


21 


1 12 






., 30 


8 


24 


2-80 


3 


Dull, S.W. wind 


., 31 


8 


22 


4-48 


4 


Fine, E. wind 


June 1 

o 


8 


23 


3-36 


8 

7 


Fine 


n *- 


- 


19-24 


1-68 




„ 3 


tf 


18-24 


2-24 


5 


Fine 


,. 4 


6-7 


24 


1-68 





Fine 


.. 5 


(;-7 


22 


224 


3 


Dull, W. wind 


., 


G-T 


»>». 




r> 


Wave slight. Fine rain, W. wind 


„ 7 




24 




2 


,, „ Rain 


^ 








4 


,. practically straight. Fine 


„ 9 








4 


„ „ „ Dull, S. wind 


„ 10 








3 


„ „ ,, Drizzle 


.. H 








:: 


11 11 1. f» 


..12 




22 




5 


Fine 


.. 13 


i 


22 




^ 


Dull 



ON SEIfSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



213 



The differences in temperature whicli are in degrees Fahrenheit are 
those recorded in the instrument loom between about <S a.m. a)id 2 p.m. 

Fig. 9 shows tracings from the photograras of diurnal wav(!s observed 
h,t Shide. The range of motion lias varied between 1 ' and ;!". Usually 
the Western motion ceased about 10 a.m., from which hour the pendulum 
moved eastwards until about 7 or 8 p.m. The motion from 10 a.m. or noon 
is therefore similar to that which would accompany a decrease in the 
steepness of the open bare down on the eastern side of the pendulum, or 
a rising of the tree and grass covered valley on its western side. The fact 
that the movements were usually pronounced on bright fine days, and but 

FtG. 9.— Diurnal Wave at Shide. 



Kh':-^ 




feeble or absent when it was dull or wet. suggests the idea that the ob- 
served movements may have been the result of the removal l)y evapoiatiou 
of different loads from the two sides of the station. The niuplitude of the 
daily wave is far from being proportional to the daiiv range of tempera- 
ture observed near to the instrument. 

From May 24 to June 7 the pendulum gradually nio\pd westwards, 
and during this time the maximum temperature gradually rose from 
60° to 70°, that is to say, the direction of motion has been the same as 
that which takes place whilst the temperature is rising during the day. 
The creeping of the pendulum between the above two dates is in such a 



214 



REPORT — 1896. 



direction that it might be attributed to the removal of a larger load from 
the hill side of the instrument than from the valley side. 

Between June fi and 7 the maximum temperature fell to 65°, from 
which it rose to 68° on the 11th. During this time, however, the pendu- 
lum crept eastwards, or in the opposite direction to that in which, under 
similar conditions, it had been previously moving. From June 1 1 to 13 
the temperature rose from 65° to 72°, whilst the pendulum remained 
stationary. 

What these observations show for a period of only twenty- one days is 
true for longer periods, as observed in Japan, and generally agrees with 
the observations made at Strassburg, described by the late Dr. E. von 
Rebeur-Paschwitz. At this latter place, for a period of nineteen months, 
the character of the curve of wandering is similar to that for a curve of 
temperature ; but when we observe, as this author points out, that the 
minimum of temperature is reached from H to 2 mouths before a mini- 
mum in the curve, showing the displacement in the pendulum, whilst its 
maximum is reached about four months later, the relationship between 
the two becomes obscured. This and other results obtained at, Strass- 
burg are shown in fig. 10, reduced from the observations of von Rebeur. 

Fig. 10. 



ZO 80 




fS 60 



/0'40 



5°Z6 



J A S 



O A/ O 



J r M 

/d93 



A M J J A S 



O /\/ D J r MA. 



In this diagram the temperature curve taken in the cellar where the pen- 
dulum was installed is shown in dots. H P is the horizontal pendulum 
curve, L a curve from level observations, and N a Nadir curve. An in- 
crease in reading indicates a movement towards the north. Although, 
these three sets of observations were made with instruments near to each 
other, the difference of the Nadir curve from the other two is very strik- 
ing. The amounts of change are also noticeable, the horizontal pendulum 
having been tilted towards the south through 87', and if we take it from 
the commencemejit of the observations in April, 1892, this is increased 
to 1 43". 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



21i 



III. Changes in the Vertical observed in Tokio, September 19, 1894, to 

March 1, 1896. 

Peiidulum L. — On September 19, 1804, pendulum L, which has a 
boom about 5 feet in length, was installed beneath a wooden case on the 
concrete floor of a cellar in the N.W. corner of the College of Engineering 
at the Imperial University of Japan, in Tokio. When set up it had a 
period of about twenty-eight seconds, and 1 mm. deflection at the end of 
the boom which is in the meridian corresponds to an angular tilt of about 
0"*5. The doubt expressed regarding the value of the readings of this instrvi- 
ment arises fi-om the fact that the notes relating to its calibration were lost 
by tire. When the readings increase in value the ^^sndulum is swinging 
towards the west, which means that the ground may have been raised 
upon its eastern side. The diurnal motions of this instrument were small, 
not exceeding 1 or 2 mm. For several days readings taken about 9 a.m. 
have been identical, after which there would be noted a displacement of 
1 or more mm. For the first nine months these ajiparently sudden dis- 
placements were towards the east. This was followed by three months 
of westerly motion, and then three months more of displacements towards 
the east. For the remaining three months, although the general direction 
of motion is westwards, it has been somewhat erratic in character. 

The readings given in the following table are in millimetres, and 
the date for any reading is the day on which there was a change from the 
reading which precedes it. 




A fact of some importance connected with these displacements is that 
very many of them took place at the time of earthquakes which were 
sensible, and most of these small jumps were in the general direction in 



216 



REPORT — 1896. 



■which the pendulum was suffering displacement. My late colleague, 
Mr. C D. West, who from time to time has sent me these readings which 
are taken by one of the college servants, tells me that the displacement of 
January 26-27, 1896, cannot be accounted for, but the readings generally 
folloNV the seasonal changes in temperature — a conclusion which is at least 
true for 1895. Fig. 11. 

With the assumed values for the readings the approximate changes in 
the vertical have been as follows : — 

rt 

September, 1894, to June ] 1, 1895 
June 11, 1895, to August 23, 1895 
August 23, 1895, to November 24, 1895 
November 24, 1895, to January 27, 189G 
January 27, 1896, to February 29, 1896 
Total change during whole period 

This long-continued creeping in one direction is common to observa- 
tions made by Plantamour and others who have made like investigations. 



. 16 


East side 


sinking 


. 70 




rising 


. 110 




sinking 


. 60 




rising 


. 2-5 




sinking 


. 170 




sinking 



Fig. 11. — Change in Level observed in Tokio. 



rffo 



eo 



\60 



O 



^ 


















•J^, 






r\ 










1 

1^ 






\ 


/ 


\ 








1 




V 




\ 


/ 


\ 


i — 1 


^ 















i O N 

iss* 






y A S O 



N D J r M A 



IV. Experiments vnth a Horizontal Pendulum at the Oxford TJnimrsil'kf 
Observatory, 1896, May .5. Drawn vp by Professor H. H. Turner. 

1. During the morning Professor Milne setup his horizontal pendulum, 
which is similar to the one at Shide, on the slate slab in the Students'" 
Observatory. The level of the transit circle was set up on the same slab 
near the H.P., and watched throughout by Captain E. H. Hills, R.E. 
This slab rested on a hollow foundation of bricks about 10 inches in 
height, which in turn rested upon a bed of concrete a few inches in thick- 
ness, and common to the whole building. Beneath the concrete there is 
a natural bed of gravel a, few inches in thickness. Because the horizontal 
pendulum, which pointed from E. to W., stood on the slab near to its edge, 
it was to be expected that a load on the south side at a distance of, 
say, 3 feet would produce a greater effect than the same load would pro- 
duce when moved to the north side, where it would be distant 7 or 8- 
feet. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



217 



K The value of one division of the level may be taken=l''"0. 

The changes of level N. and S. were observed. 

2. Tlie crowd collected at 12.15-12.20: 76 men in all. Four com- 
panies of 18 each (with commanders=19) were formed by Mr. G. C. 
Bourne. These were halted with front rank 90 feet from observatory. 
(Pos. I.) 

Then marched up, two rear companies taken over fence and brought up 
inside : front rank 5 feet from N. side of building=10 feet from slab. 
(Pos. II.) 

Then retired to 90 feet. (Pos. III.) 

Then marched up again ' closer ' ; the two front companies came clos& 
up to building ; front rank thus about 5 feet from slab : other ranks say 
7, 9, and 11 feet from slab. (Pos. IV.) 

Then away again. (Pos. V.) 

Then marched up in open order, viz. : Each man two arm's lengths 
away : say at 5 feet apart. Front rank still close to hut, I.e. 5 feet from< 
slab; 2nd rank, 10 feet ; 3rd, 15 feet; 4th, 20, Ac, to 8th, at 40 feet 
from slab. (Pos. VI.) 

Then away again. (Pos. VII.) 

Then in more open order, say 10 feet apart :^ 
Front rank 10 feet away : 



2nd 
3rd „ 
8th „ 
Then away. 



20 

30 „ 

80 „ 

(Pos. IX.) 

side : 



(Pos. VIII.) 



In close order, front rank 5 feet away, next. 



Then on the south 
65 say, (fee. (Pos. X.) 

Then away ^ Pos. XI. 

A few experiments were made inside the observatory w ith loads of one 
or three men standing on the board floor within 3 or 7 feet of the 
instruments. 

The results obtained were as follows : — 



Jiesult of Loads outside the Obgervntory. 









1 










Taking the difference between 






^^ 








Level 

(Meau 

of 2 

ends) 


any reading and the readings 


Time 


Posi- 
tiou 


< s 




Order 


Side 
N.orS. 


Horizontal 
Pendulum 


before and after mean 


•Sia 


t..U 










PT. 


PT. 











Effect 


of 2 








II 


H.r. 


Level 


If 


12.20 


0. 


— 


— 





— 


— 


15-20 




// 




12.25 


0. 





— 





— 


49-5 


15-60 








12.27 to 12.28 


I. 


90 


102 


close 


N. 


49-5 


16-00 


'/ 






12.29 to 12.31 


11. 


10 


22 




N. 


50-5 


15-70 


+ l-25=+0-l2 


+ 0-25 


+ 0-34 


12.;!2 to 12.34 


III. 


!I0 


102 




N. 


49-0 


15-90 








12.35 to 12.37 


IV. 


5 


22 




N. 


50-0 


1510 


+ 1-50= +0-50 


+0-73 


+0-62 


12.38 to 12.4U 


V. 


90 


102 




N. 


48-0 


15-75 








12.41 to 12.43 


VI. 


5 


40 


01 en 


N. 


48-0 
afterwards 


15-35 


0-00 = 0-00 


+ 0-32 


+016 


12.44 to 12.46 


VII. 


90 


102 




N. 


47-0 


15-60 








12.47 to 12.48 


VIII. 


10 


80 


very open 


N. 


470 


15-15 


-f 0-50 = 0-17 


0-00 


+ 0-08 


12.49 to 12.50 


IX. 


90 


102 


)» 


N.&S. 


46-0 

afterwards 

45-25 


14-50 








12.54 to 12.55 


X. 


5 


15 


close 


S. 


44-25 


15-65 


-1-13= -0-38 


-0-G5 


-0-52 


12.58 to 12.57 


XI. 


90 


102 


*) 


S. 


45-5 


15-50 









For l»ad appjoacbing on N. side readings of H.P. increase. — Level decrease. 
„ ., S. „ „ decrease. — Level increase. 

One division of the horizontal pendulum=0". 33. 



218 



REPORT — 189G. 



3. Experiments inside the hut, within 3 
N. side of the instrument. 

EfiEect of 240 lb. Zero 59. 

On North side, Reading 60-5. 



feet S. side and 7 feet 



South „ „ 54-5. 

„ North „ „ 60-5. 

Effect of 570 lb. Zero 59. 

On South side, Reading 50. Effect 

„ North „ „ " 66. 



Effect l-5 = 0"-49 
., 4-5 = l"-48 
„ l-5 = 0"-49 



9 = 2"-97 
7 = 2"-31 



4. Experiment with load outside the hut within 5 feet on S. side 
and 5 feet on N. side. 



Effect of 570 lb. Zero 56. 

On South side, Reading 55. 
„ North „ „ 55. 



Effect l = 0"-33 
„ = 



This last reading is unsatisfactory. Five minutes later it became 55-5, 
but if the north side load showed an effect it ought to have exceeded 56. 

In the afternoon a few experiments were made in the main building of 
the Observatory. The horizontal pendulum was placed on the top of a 
massive pier whilst two boys and a man (almost 350 lb.) stationed them- 
selves in the basement of the building, first on the east side and then on 
the west side of the same. The difference in readings given by the two 
positions was approximately 0''-16. 

V. The Perry Tromometer. By Professor John Perry, F.K.S. 

What is interesting about the apparatus is this, that any periodic 
motion of the supports is faithfully indicated by the pointer if its frequency 
is several times the natural frequency of vibration when its supports are 
at rest. 

One body supported on a pivot with three Ayrton-Perry springs will 
record the vertical and two horizontal motions. 

A body P G Q is free to move about an axis P at right angles to the 
paper. G is its centre of gravity. An Ayrton-Perry spring is applied 

Fig. 12. 




vertically at Q from the point A. Weight of body is W. Vertical force 
at P is P, force at Q is Q. Let P and A get a vertical displacement .-r, 
downward, and let Q be displaced x downward. Let Q=Qq-|-c(.x — a*,) 
where c represents the constant of the spring. Then forming the equations 
of motion we find, neglecting friction 

x + n^x-^ex^+n-x^ . • . . (1) 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 219 

Where ^^'^ ' is called n- so that n divided by Stt is the frequency 
M(^- + a'-) 

of the natural vibration of Q. 

k'^ — ah . „ J 

^ „ IS called e. 

k- + a^ 

The distance PG is called a, and GQ is b, M is the mass of the body 
and k its radius of gyration about G. 

Assuming that friction will destroy the natural vibrations at Q, but 
neglecting the easily expressed friction term of (1), the forced vibration is 
easy to find. If an observer moves with P and A, he observes, not x, 
but K — .r,. Let ')/=x—Xi. Then if Xi-=h sin qt, 

J a(a + b) q^ . . 

Now if we arrange that n is, say, less than one-fifth of q [that is, that 
the natural frequency of Q is less than one-fifth of the frequency of A and P] 
we may say that the motion y which is observed is a faithful imitation of 
any periodic motion of P and A ; or, letting a i-b or PQ be called I and 

k- + a^^ki^, the square of the radius of gyration about P, y=— ,—^x^. 

A magnifying pointer on the spring enables this motion to be 
observed. 

It is obvious that the motion may be in a horizontal plane instead 
of a vertical. 

Note. By Professor Jons' Milne. 

A form of Perry Tromometer as experimented with at Shide consists of 
a hoiizontal beam free to oscillate upon a knife edge. This beam is 
heavily loaded by two unequal masses which to obtain a balance are 
placed at different distances from the knife edge. Attached to one of 
these masses and running vertically upwards is a light A. P. spring, the 
top end of which is held by a fixed support. To show the movements of 
the spring which coils or uncoils with vertical vibratory motion, a very 
light pointer, or a small mirror from which a beam of light is reflected, is 
attached to the same. One photogram representing a period of twenty- 
four hours has been obtained by this instrument at Shide. This shows 
that during nearly the whole of the day the mirror is in motion, and the 
fact that this motion is due to passing carts, carriages at a distance of 
.several hundred yards, and trains at a distance of about a mile speedily 
led to the conclusion that an instrument so extremely sensitive to rapid 
elastic motion could not be used at Shide. One interesting observation 
was that, at the time of the funeral of Prince Henry of Battenberg, when 
minute guns were being fired on ship-board at a distance of about five 
miles, each sound wave was accompanied by the sudden displacement of 
the spot of light through a distance of about one foot. It did not seem 
that vibrations came from their origin through the ground to disturb the 
instrument, but as sound waves through the air, which shook the building 
and the foundation on which the instrument rested. 

If an instrument of this description could be installed at a locality where 
we can assure ourselves that its movements could only be due to natural 



220 REPORT— 1896. 

causes, it seems likely that we should add to our records of the movements 
of the earth's crust forms of vibration which horizontal pendulums and 
seismographs are incapable of recording. 

VI. Eartliquake Frpqiiency. {Extract from a letter written by 

Dr. 0. G. Knott.) 

In my paper on Earthquake Frequency ('Trans. Seis. Soc. Japan,' vol. ix. 
1884), in which, probably for the first time, a sound mathematical treat- 
ment of periodicity was insisted upon, various possible causes of periodi- 
city in earthquake frequency were considered. Next to the solar annual 
and diurnal periods, the most important are the lunar monthly, fortnightly, 
and daily periods. From lack of completeness of information at that time^. 
it was impossible to search for these. But the great eight years' list of 
8,331 Japanese earthquakes, prepared recently by Professor Milne, seemed 
eminently suitable for harmonic treatment. Other necessary work has 
prevented me getting the investigation carried out so quickly as I had 
wished, but enough has been done to show the probable results in certain 
directions. 

The idea is that the tidal stresses due to the moon influence the perio- 
dicity. The lunar day gives a periodic tidal stress of comparatively short 
period ; the anomalistic month (from apogee to apogee) and the nodical 
month (from ascending node to ascending node), give periodic tidal 
stresses of long period. 

Tabulating the earthquakes according to the number of days each has 
happened after apogee, or after ascending node, we get two statistical 
tables of monthly means, one nearly 100 months. The anomalistic month 
is longer than the nodical month by almost exactly one-third of a day — 
in the hundred months, therefore, one will have gained upon the other by 
thirty days, or fully one month. The curves obtained, when created by 
harmonic analysis, give monthly, fortnightly, and weekly periods ; but 
the fortnightly is more marked in the nodical curve than in the anoma- 
listic. 

In discussing the daily lunar period, Ave must take account of the dis- 
tricts in which the earthquakes occur, for only in this way can we compare 
their times of occurrence with the time of meridian passage, or the time 
of high water. In the case of the Tokio and Yokohama district, there is 
evidence of a half daily period ; but the investigation is still far from 
complete. 

VII. Instruments used in Italy. By Dr. C. Davisox. 

In the following pages a description is given of a few of the principal 
instruments used in Italy for the registration of pulsations proceeding- 
from more or less distant origins. 

Many of the instruments erected in that country are long vertical 
pendulums, the movements of which are magnified and registei'ed in 
different ways. The length is made as great as circumstances will allow, 
so that for rapid vibrations the bob may be practically a steady point, and 
the bob is made as heavy as possible, so as to lessen the fi-iction intro- 
duced by the mechanical registration. Those who have used these pendu- 
lums claim that they possess the following advantages over the horizontal' 
pendulum and other instruments designed for photographic registration. 

1. They are much less expensive to work ; the cost of the paper on 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 221 

wliich the records are made being only about a franc or a franc and a half 
4% month. 

2. Any person can superintend and adjust them easily. 

3. They are not subject to the displacement of the zero-line. 

4. Owing to the great velocity which can be given to the paper, the 
■epoch of the different phases of the movement can be determined with 
great accuracy. 

5. They allow all the minute details of the movement to be studied. 
It is obvious that these, especially the two last, are great advantages. 

On the other hand, the long pendulums are subject to several objections 
•as compared with the horizontal and bifilar pendulums. 

1. Owing to their great length (Professor Riccd's seismometrograph 
at Catania is 26 metres long), they are difficult to install, and indeed 
I'equire a building almost specially constructed for the purpose. 

2. They are much less delicate than the horizontal and bifilar 
pendulums. 

3. The latter are also adapted for other purposes — e.g., investigating 
the bending of the ground by barometric and tidal loading — and this will 
facilitate their adoption at astronomical observatories, where, from the 
*ase with which the exact time can be ascertained, it is most desirable 
that they should be established. 

The instruments I propose to describe are : (1) Professor G. Vicen- 
tini's microseismograph ; (2) Dr. G. Agamennone's seismometrograph, 
(3) Dr. A. Cancani's seismometrograph, and (4) Professor G. Grablovitz's 
geodynamic levels. It will be seen that the first of these is more or less 
free from the above-named objections. 

Professw G. Vicentini's Microseismograpli. — An account of this instru- 
ment and the results which have so far been obtained with it is given in 
tlie following papers : 

1. G. Vicentini : Osservazioni e proposte suUo studio dei movimenti microsismici : 

' Atti della R. Accad. dei Fisiocritici ' (8iena), vol. v. 181)4. 

2. G. Vicentini : Osservazioni sismiche (two papers) : Ihid. 

.8. G. Vicentini : Movimenti sismici registrati dal microsismografo nella prima 
raetu del luglio 1894 : Ibid. 

4. M. Cinelli : Sulle registrazioni del microsismografo Vicentini avute a Siena 

del 15 luglio al 31 ottobre 1894 : IMd. 

5. G. Vicentini : Microsismografo a registrazione continua : Cenno sui movimenti 

sismici dei giorni 14 e 15 aprile 1895 : ' Bull, della Soc. Veneto-Trentina di 
Scienze Naturali' (Padova), vol. vl. 1895, pp. 5-12. 
G. G. Vicentini : Microsismografo a registrazione continua : ' Boll, della Soc. 
Sismol. Ital.,' vol. i. 1895, pp. 66-72. 

7. G. Vicentini : Intorno ad alcuni fatti risultanti da osservazioni microsismiche : 

' Atti e Mem. della R. Accad di Scienze, &c., in Padova,' vol. xii. 1896, 
pp. 89-97. 

8. G. Vicentini and G. Pacher : Considerazioni sugli apparecchi sismici registratori 

e modificazione del microsismografo a due componenti: 'Atti del R. 1st. 
Veneto di Scienze,' &c., vol. vii. 1896, pp. 385-399. 

9. G. Vicentini : Fenomeni sismici osservati a Padova dal febbraio al settembre 

1895 col microsismografo a due component!: 'Atti della Soc. Veneto- 
Trentina di Scienze Naturali ' (Padova), vol. iii. 1896, pp. 3-63. 

Some further details with regard to the construction of the instrument 
are taken from two letters written by Professor Vicentini to Professor 
Milne. 

Professor Vicentini was led to design this instrument owing, he says, 
to the difHculty of obtaining good photographic registration, the incon- 



222 



REPORT — 1896. 



Fig. 13. 




venience of working in the dark, and of using an apparatus which does 
not give its record until the sensitive paper is developed, and to the great 
expense of the photographic paper, the chemical reagents, and the source 

of light. 

His first experiments were made with an ordinary tromometer, about 
1-50 metre long, and with a bob 50 kg, in weight. The support of the 
pendulum was fixed in a wall of the University buildings of Siena, over- 
looking a much frequented road, on the third lloor, and about 20 metres 
above the ground. A short straw, terminating in a fine steel wire, was 
attached to the bottom of the bob, and the movements of the point of the 
wire were observed by means of a totally-reflecting prism and 
microscope provided with a micrometer. A tromometer of 
this kind does not give at any instant the true state of vibra- 
tion of the ground, its movements being aflected by previous 
disturbances. But if the pendulum be obliged to perform a 
very little work, such as the movement of the light vertical 
lever described below (tig. 13), the bob is rendered much more 
insensible to the rapid vibrations of the point of suspension. 
Substituting this lever for the straw referred to above, the 
movements of the lower end were observed with the micro- 
scope. The superiority of this arrangement is very evident. 
When a carriage, for instance, approaches from a distance, • 
the point of the lever at first vibrates parallel to the wall, 
then in a plane more and more inclined to it, until, when the 
carriage is just opposite the building, the vibrations are per- 
formed normally to the wall and are synchi'onous with tlie 
trampling of the horses. When the vibration of the ground 
ceases, the movement of the lever ceases contemporaneously. 
Thus, by the application of this vertical lever, the bob of the 
pendulum is transformed almost into a steady mass, and its 
steadiness during movements of the ground is further pro- 
moted by the addition of the two horizontal levers which give 
the component movements in two directions at right angles 
to one another. 

In the complete microseismograph erected in the University 
of Siena, the bob of the pendulum weighs 50 kg., and is sup- 
ported by three chains, united at their upper ends in a brass 
cap, to which is attached an iron wire about 2 mm. in diameter. 
This is fastened to a screw in a strong iron bracket driven into 
the wall. The length of the pendulum is about 1-50 metre. 
By means of the screw the bob can be raised or lowered. Immediately 
below the latter are fixed two iron bars to support it, and prevent damage 
to the registering apparatus in case the suspending wire or chains should 
break. The bob is also surrounded by an iron ring carrying three screws, 
whose oflice is to prevent excessive displacements of the pendulum. When 
the pendulum is connected with the recording levers it performs complete 
oscillations in 2*4 seconds. 

Fig. 13 shows the vertical amplifying lever referred to above. It 
consists of a thin tube of aluminium A, soldered at its upper end to a ring 
B of the same metal. To its lower end is fixed a sewing-needle, DE, 
whose cylindrical part has a diameter of 06 mm. The ring B is traversed 
at its highest point by a second needle, FG, exactly similar to the first. 
Its point, G, penetrating a short way inside the ring, rests in a small 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



223 



glass cup carried by a support fixed to the wall. The position of the cup 
can be adjusted by screws, both horizontally and vertically. The base of 
the bob is slightly conical, and in its centre a hole is made, covered by a 
sheet of brass, in which a small hole with bevelled edges is made which 
clasps the needle, FG, at the point H. By means of the adjusting screws 
fitted to the glass cup, the points G and E of the Jieedles are placed as 
nearly as possible in a vertical line below the centre of gravity of the bob. 
So long as the bob remains steady the point H is the fulcrum of the lever, 

the end E in the ratio 



and the movements of the wall are magnified at 



FiC4. 14. 




EH to GH. The total weight of this lever is 2-2 grammes ; its length is 
144 mm., and the ratio EH to GH is equal to 16. The friction at both 
the points G and H is extremely small. 

The movements of the lower end of the vertical lever are magnified by 
two light horizontal levers (fig. 14), which give the components of its 
motion in directions at right angles to one another. It should be mentioned 
that this figure is not drawn exactly to scale, and illustrates the slightly 
different arrangement in a new microseismograph recently erected at 
Padua. 

One of the levers, K, is rectilinear, and the other, K', bent at right 
angles. In the Siena instrument they are made of thin aluminium plate, 
terminating, at the ends L and L', in two very thin burnished steel 
needles, parallel to one another, and separated by a distance equal to the 



C'224 REPORT— 189G. 

thickness of the needle, DE, of the vertical lever. The vertical axis, M, 
consists of a fine steel needle, the lower point of which rests in the 
conical cavity of a small glass cup fixed to the plate, P. The axis, M', is 
exactly similar, but the lower end rests in a glass cup, whose height above 
the plate, P, can be adjusted by a screw. The levers are provided with 
-counterpoises, N, N', N". The needle, DE, of the vertical lever passes 
through the slits, L, L', and thus any displacement of the end, E, is 
decomposed by the horizontal levers into two components at right ano-les 
•to one another. 

At the free ends of the aluminium arms of the levers, fibres of glass are 
fixed at right angles to them with melted wax. In the apparatus after- 
wards erected at Padua (to which fig. 14 refers), these glass fibres are 
replaced by broad but thin strips of glass, the terminal parts being drawn 
out as fibres. 

In the horizontal levers the length of the long arm is about five times 
that of the short arm ; the movements of the wall supporting the apparatus 
•are therefore magnified about eighty times. 

The smoked paper on which the records are made is a continuous 
strip, and is driven by a drum which revolves by clockwork. The drum 
is placed so that the pens rest on its highest horizontal generator, and the 
fibres are made of such thickness and length that, with the slight friction 
to be overcome, they do not bend. To diminish their friction they are 
fused at the tip ; the smooth surface of a \ery small sphere of glass thus 
slides on tlie smoked paper. To equalise the friction of the two pens, that 
■of the pen K is first regulated by raising or lowering the support on 
which the plate P rests by means of the levelling screws with whicli it is 
provided. The contact of the other pen is then adjusted by moving the 
glass cup on which the axis M' rests. The clock which drives the drum 
may be of any kind, but, in order to measure tlie time, a chronograph is 
connected with a good pendulum clock which closes an electric circuit, 
■and thus causes a stroke to be made on the paper every minute. At each 
hour a double mark is made. 

The strip of paper is unrolled at the rate of about 2 mm. a minute. 
The pens leave on the paper a fine but very clear trace. When heavy 
carts pass by the University buildings the lines are simply widened, the 
lampblack being completely carried away. In the case of earthquake 
movements, however, the separate oscillations are clearly perceptible, 
though the more rapid ones are only to be seen with the aid of a lens. 
Pig. 15 reproduces the diagram obtained at Siena of the Japanese earth- 
quake of March 22, 1894. The toothed line in the middle shows the 
strokes which mark consecutive minutes. This figure may be compared 
with the record of the same earthquake obtained by means of the horizontal 
pendulum at Nicolaiew.' 

Beside the microseismograph above described. Professor Vicentini has 
recently erected a new instrument at Padua, designed, not for obtaining 
the times of the different phases of a disturbance, but for determining 
with greater exactness the direction in which the movement takes place. 
The mass of the new pendulum is 100 kg., and its length 3-36 metres. It 
contains a vertical amplifying lever, like the first instrument, but for the 
horizontal levers a small pantagraph was substituted at Dr. Pacher's 
suggestion. This is made of aluminium tubes, weighs about eight deci- 

' See Brit. Assoc. Hejf., 1894, p. 15G. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



225 



grammes, and magnifies five times the displacements of the lower end of 
the vertical lever. The rate of the smoked 
paper is increased to about 15 mm. a 
minute, a velocity which enables the pen- 
dular oscillations to be distinctly traced. 

Dr. G. Agamennone's Seismometro- 
graph. — The latest form of this instrument 
is described in a paper, ' Sopra un nuovo 
tipo di sismometrografo ' (' Boll. Soc. Bismol. 
Ital.,' vol. i. 1895, pp. 160-168). It was in- 
stalled at Rome about two years ago in 
the tower of the CoUegio Romano. Owing 
to the difficulty of reproducing the illustra- 
tion of this pendulum, several of the details 
of construction are necessarily omitted in 
the following account : — 

The bob of the pendulum consists of six 
discs of lead, weighing altogether nearly 
200 kg. This heavy mass is suspended by 
an iron rod 7 or 8 mm. in diameter and 16 
metres in length, but to make the pendulum 
more sensitive the upper end of the rod is 
prolonged as a steel wire 2 or 3 mm. in 
diameter, and 50 or 60 cm. long. At the 
lower end the rod terminates in a smooth 
cylinder of steel of about the same thick- 
ness, passing through slits made in the 
short arms of two horizontal levers. These 
levers, which turn with very little friction, 
are mounted on a strong frame provided 
with screws for securing the verticality of 
the axes about which the levers rotate. The 
longer arms of the levers are about 35 cm. 
in length, being about twelve times as long 
as the short arms. They are triangular in 
form, and are made of very thin brass 
tubes. The levers are bent, so that while 
the short arras are at right angles to one 
another, pens at the ends of the long arms 
record the components of the movement on 
the same strip of moving paper. The pens 
are supplied with ink of different colours 
to avoid confusion of the records if the 
pens should happen to cross one another. 
In order to prevent the pens leaving the 
strip of paper, the movements of the pen- 
dulum are limited by four screws. A 
strong box is placed immediately below the 
heavy mass to save the instrument from 
further damage in case the steel wire 
should break. 

The strip of paper on which the pens 
record the movements of the pendulum is driven by a cylinder about 

1896. ..^^... Q 




226 



REPORT — 1896. 



Fig. 16. 



1 



8 cm. in diameter, and rotating about a horizontal axis. The part of the 
paper on which the record is being made lies on a 
rectangular platform immediately above the driving 
cylinder. Two pens fixed to the platform record the 
time every half-hour on the edges of the strip of 
paper. As a rule the cylinder rotates once in an 
hour, so that the paper is driven at the rate of about 
30 cm. an hour. But when a shock occurs the 
velocity of the cylinder is immediately increased, so 
that for three revolutions it revolves once a minute, 
thus unrolling the paper at the rate of about 5 cm. a 
minute. 

The increased velocity is produced by means of a 
roller, started by an electrical seismoscope. This 
consists in the longer arms of the levers beiiig con- 
tinued backwards to a length about fifteen times as 
great as that of the short arms. Beside, and very 
near the further ends, are two small vertical rods, 
which turn at their lower ends about a horizontal 
axis. A A'ery slight movement of the levers closes 
an electric circuit, and at the same instant sets in 
motion the roller which gives the increased velocity, 
moves a collar which at once withdraws the vertical 
rods, so that they do not impede the oscillations of 
the multiplying levers, and also starts a clock pre- 
viously pointing to xii. The latter clock thus gives 
the time at which the increased velocity began. 

The increased velocity continues, as already men- 
tioned, for three minutes. At the end of this time 
the two vertical rods return to their original position. 
But if the pendulum is still in motion, electrical 
contact is immediately remade, the rods are again 
withdrawn, and the increased velocity re-established, 
so that with instantaneous interruptions this lasts 
until the movement is so slight that it ceases to start 
the seismoscope. 

Fig. 16 reproduces a diagram furnished by this 
seismometrograph on the occasion of the Caspian Sea 
earthquake of July 8, 1 89.5. 

Dr. A. Cancani'a Seisi^wmetrograph. — The chief 
difference in principle between this instrument and 
the preceding consists in the omission of the arrange- 
ments for increasing the velocity at the time of a 
disturbance. Seismometrographsof this pattern have 
been in use for some time in the the geodynamic 
observatory of Rocca di Papa near Rome. Two 
apparatus of larger dimensions have recently been 
constructed, one for Rocca di Papa and the other 
I for the observatory at Catania. These are described 
in a paper, 'Nuovo modello di sismometrografo a 
registrazione continua ' (' Boll. Soc. Sismol. Ital.,' 
' vol. ii. 1896, pp. 62-65). 
In the Rocca di Papa seismometrograph, the pendulum is 15 metres 
long and 200 kg. in mass. The weight is suspended by a steel wire 



5 

I 



in 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVf:STIGATION. 227 

4'5 mm. in diameter. Near its lower end, the wire passes through slits 
in the short arms of two horizontal levers. The long arms of the levers 
are made of two very light brass tubes which, soldered to a small metal 
plate, form a very elongated isosceles triangle in a horizontal plane. The 
short arms are inclined at 45° to the long arms in opposite directions, so 
that, while the former are at right angles to one another, the latter are 
parallel. The weight of each lever is 25 grammes ; the length of the long 
arm is 40 cm., and its ratio to that of the short arm is at present 10 to 
1 ; but this ratio can, if desired, be increased to 20 to 1. At the free 
end of the long arm is a small V-shaped frame, which carries a light pen 
furnished with a counterpoise, similar to those used in the meteorological 
instruments constructed by MM. Richard of Paris, The levers are 
arranged so that they are perfectly free throughout their whole range, 
passing one over the other without striking. 

The instrument at Catania differs only in details. The pendulum is 
26 metres long and 300 kg. in mass, and the horizontal levers are made 
of thin aluminium plate. 

In both apparatus, the strip of paper on which the registration is 
made is 14 cm. in breath, and is driven by a brass cylinder 60 cm. in 
circumference, which rotates once an hour. A strip of paper, which costs 
one franc, lasts for about seven days, and can be used at least four times, 
twice on each side, so that the daily cost is less than four centimes. 
Paper is also wrapped round the driving cylinder to prevent the loss of 
any part of the diagram, in case the moving strip should come to an end 
unexpectedly. 

For ten seconds at the beginning of every hour, the traces are inter- 
rupted, the levers being raised from the paper by means of a system of 
levers connected electrically with a chronometer. The experience of five 
yeai's with another instrument shows that this is the best of the methods 
which have been devised for marking the time. The subsequent move- 
ment of the levers does not seem to be in the least affected by their 
removal, and the missing part of the diagram is so small that it can be 
reconstructed with ease. 

The diagrams corresponding to distant earthquakes which are obtained 
with this seismometrograph are too large to be conveniently reproduced. 
The velocity of the paper being so great (60 cm. an hour),' the diagrams 
are exceedingly clear, showing the individual undulations so distinctly 
that all the elements of the motion and the epochs of the different phases 
can be determined with great precision. 

Professor G. Grablovitz's Geodynainic Levels. — For many of the details 
given below I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Grablovitz. The 
levels are installed in the R. Osservatorio Geodinamico of Casamicciola, in 
the island of Ischia, one being directed north and south, and the other 
east and west. 

The account of these levels is contained in the following papers : — 

1. ' Livelli geodinamici a registrazione continua:' 'Boll. Soc. Sismol. Itnl.,' 

vol. i. 1895, pp. 39-43. 

2. ' Nuovi metodi per indagini geodinamiche : ' Ihid. vol. ii. 1890, pp. 41-61. 

' The reasons which have led Dr. Cancani to regard this as the most suitable 
velocity for the study of pulsations from a distant earthquake are given in a valuable 
paper, ' Sugli strumenti piil adatti alio studio delle grandi ondulazioni provenienti 
da centri sismici lontani' {Jtend. delle R. Acead. dei Lincel, vol. iii. 1894, 
pp. 551-555). 

Q2 



228 



REPORT — 1896. 



Each level is 2-50 metres long, and consists of two vessels A, B (fig. 17) 
30 cm. in diameter and 25 cm. high, communicating with one another by- 
means of a tube C, 15 cm. in diameter. The level is filled with water, 
and, to prevent evaporation, floats, D, E, consisting of zinc dishes 28 cm. 
in diameter with a rim 3 cm. high, ai-e placed in the vessels at each 
end, and these again are surrounded with a stratum of oil. In the centre 
of the float D there rests a weight F of 100 grammes, connected by a wire 
with the end of the short arm of the amjalifying lever G, the fulcrum of 
the lever being fixed to a plate H resting on top of the vessel A. The 
arms of the levers are 3 mm. and 15 cm. in length, so that the movements 
of the float are magnified fifty times. The longer arms of the levers were 
at first furnished with pens filled with ink, but for these were afterwards 
substituted points writing on smoked paper, which give much clearer 
diagrams. The paper is wrapped round a cylinder K, rotating on a, 
vertical axis once in 53 minutes, and drives the paper under the pen at 
the rate of 5^ mm. a minute. The levers of the two levels are arranged 
with their pens on the same vertical line, and about 6 cm. from one another. 

In order that the records may not be superposed after a complete 
revolution is made, a cylinder L, 4 cm. in diameter, is lowered from a 
drum, driven by another clock, into. the vessel B. As it becomes immersed 
in the water the registering fioat D is slowly and gradually raised, and the 
pen in consequence traces a continuous spiral on the paper. As the 




Fig. 17. 









Fig. 18. 



E| 



'♦1>l » .» . 



cylinder rotates once in 53 minutes the diagram for each component 
consists of twenty-seven lines, the distance between consecutive lines 
being about a millimetre. To determine the time of any displacement of 
the float, a trace is impressed when the paper is put on and taken ofi", as 
well as at some intermediate time about equidistant from the ends of the 
24 hours. Or, if desired, an automatic hourly trace could be made by 
electric connection with a chronumeter. 

The lines of the spiral are parallel and equidistant. Except when the 

instrument requires sensitising, the registra- 
tion proceeds without jumps, showing that it 
is sensible to very small changes of level. 
Professor Grablovitz informs me that he 
has not been able to determine the smallest 
tilt which the levels can detect, but a displace- 
ment of the writing-point of half a milli- 
metre, corresponding to a tilt of the ground of 
2" can generally be read with certainty. 

The levels do not seem to be affected by 
the tremors of passing carts, &c., but they are 
sensible to certain seismic movements. They 

will not register slow movements taking place 

in a horizontal direction, for in such cases the 

water receives no displacement relatively to 

the tubes. Nor do they seem capable of 

recording the long-period pulsations of very distant earthquakes. For 

instance, on June 15 of the present year the horizontal pendulums at 



w| \ 



\ 






U4 



nI 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION, 



229 



Casamicciola revealed oscillations of 10", due probably to the earthquake 
which caused the great sea-waves in Japan ; but, at the same time, the 
levels were not aflfected, though the corresponding traces on their records 
would have been 2 '5 mm. in length. 

The most marked diagram so far obtained is that which was due to the 
severe earthquake in Carniola on April 14, 1895 (see lig. 18, in which the 
scale is half that of the original diagram). The curve in this case was, 
however, obtained before the employment of smoked paper, so that it is 
not so clear as that of a similar earthquake at the present time 
would be. 



APPENDIX. 

Notes on Special Earthquakes. By Professor J. Milne. 

About 11.30 P.M. on August '26, 1896, a diagram was obtained which 
may represent an earthquake that occurred in Iceland on that date. It 
shows three maxima. A much more remarkable record, however, is one 
commencing as a series of minute tremors at about 8.23 a.m. on August 31. 

Fig. 19. — Japan Earthquake ; Carisbrooke Castle Record. 




It is shown on the photogram from Shide, and also from that at Caris- 
brooke Castle (fig. 19), and the times of marked phases of motion in G.M.T. 
are as follows : — 



Carisbrooke 
"~ Castle 


Shide 


H. jr. s. 


H. M. S. 


1. Exceedingly minute tremors, August 30 . 20 23 6 


Too faint to be visible. 


2. First decided tremors 


20 31 46 


20 31 42 


3. Heavy motion commences 








20 57 6 


20 56 49 


4. First maximum (about) 








21 4 26 


21 1 


5. The maximum . 








21 14 26 


Not calculated. 


6. Heav-y motion . 








21 19 46 




7. „ „ . . 








21 23 6 


21 24 43 


8. „ ,, . . 








21 27 46 


Not calculated. 


9. End of tremors . 










23 16 20 


22 59 36 


Duration of disturbance 










2 53 20 




Duration of preliminary tremors 






34 


— 



2S0 REPORT— 1896. 

The reason that phase No. 1 is not shown at Shide — and it can only be 
seen in the Carisbrooke record with the help of a strong magnifying-glass 
— is apparently due to the fact that the Shide lamp gives a light which is 
smaller and therefore feebler than that at Carisbrooke. The photograms 
from the latter station have therefore a definition sharper than those from 
Shide. Carisbrooke records are also freer from ' tremors ' than those at Shide. 

Phases 2 and 3 respectively differ by 4 and 17 seconds ; but inasmuch as 
the Carisbrooke time was regulated by comparisons with an ordinary watch, 
it is remarkable that these well-defined periods are so closely coincident. 

The difference in duration at the two stations is also jjrobably due to 
difference in definition of the photograms. 

I do not know where this shock originated, but because the daily 
papers tell us that there was a severe earthquake in Japan on Augu.st 31, 
and because the preliminary tremors have outraced the principal motion 
by 34 minutes — which indicates an origin at a distance of about 6,000 
miles — the inference is that the above records refer to an exceedingly 
violent adjustment of crumpling strata, probably in Japan. If this 
inference is correct, then in that country, in its own time, a violent earth- 
quake took place on August 31 at a few minutes past 5 p.m. 



Electrolysis avd Electro-Ghemistry . — Report of the Oommittee, con- 
sisting of Mr. W. N. Shaw {Chairman), llev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
W. C. D. Whetham {Secretary). 

The parts of the original scheme for a report on the present state of 
electrolysis and electro-chemistry which remain to be dealt with are as 
follows : — 

III. {d) Electro-chemical thermo-dynamics. 
(e) Electric endosmose. 

{/) The theory of ionic migration and ionic velocities. 
{g) Relations between numerical values of the electrical and 
other physical properties of electrolytes. 

IV. A discussion of experimental methods and apparatus. 

V. Electro-chemical phenomena not usually included as ' electrolytic' 
VI. Some miscellaneous electrolytic phenomena. 

The Committee divided the work of Sections III. and IV. among its 
members. Electro-chemical thermo-dynamics and electric endosmose were 
assigned to Mr. Shaw, the theory of migration and ionic ^'elocities to Mr. 
Whetham, and the discussion of apparatus and methods to Mr. Fitzpatrick. 

Mr. Whetham has completed the account of the theory of migration, 
<fcc., and Mr. Fitzpatrick has dealt with the methods of measuring electrical 
resistance of electrolytes. With regard to the section upon the numerical 
relations of electrical conductivity with other properties of electrolytes 
the Committee are of opinion that very valuable results would be obtained 
by cai-rying out measurements of the several properties upon identical 
solutions with special precautions to protect the experiments against the 
effects of small impurities. They have learnt that Mr. E. H. Griffiths 
intends, in the course of the coming year, to make a series of observations 
on the freezing-points of solutions, and it is thought that the opportunity 
of making electrical nieasui-ements upon the same solutions should not be 
allowed to pass. Mr. Whetham will undertake the electrical portion of 
the work, and it is proposed to apply for a grant of bOl. towards the cost 
of the special apparatus necessary for it. 



ON ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 231 

It is also proposed to print forthwith, and circulate among those most 
likely to be interested, revised proofs of the portions which have been 
completed, but not to include them in the published Report for this year. 
It is intended to publish them in the Report for 1897, v/ith the remainder 
of the work that the Committee are able to put before the Association. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment, with the addition of 
the name of Mr. E. H. Griffiths, and with a grant of 501. 



Comparison and Reduction of Magnetic Ohsercations. — Report of the 
Comonittee, consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Dr. 
C. Cheee {Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. Schuster, Captain E. W. 
Creak, The Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and Pro- 
fessor A. W. RuCKER. (Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

Contents. 

Ncn-cyclic Effects at Kew Observatory during the selected ' Quiet ' Days of 
the Six Years, 1890-1895. By C. Chree, Sc.D. 

SECTIONS PAGE 

1. Jntroductory Remarlis : ' Non-cyclic'' Ejfect . ..... 231 

2. J\ron-cyclio ijffects diirinr/ SLv Years, 'i8\)0 1895 

3. Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Annval Changes . 
4-6. Mean Annval Values from ' Quiet' and Unrestricted Dajs . 
7-8. Relation of Non-cyclic Kffccts to Diurnal Ranges . 

9. Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to JDiurnal Inequalities . 
10. Elimination, of Non-cyclic Effect ...... 

11-12. Associated Phenomena 



231 
233 
234 
235 
236 
236 
237 

238 



Appendix. — Remarks by W. Ellis, F.R.S. 

Introductory Eemarhs : ' Non-cyclic ' Effect. 

§ 1. An analysis of the results from the Kew declination and hori- 
zontal force magnetographs during the selected ' quiet ' days of the five 
years, 1890 to 1894, was submitted last year to the Committee and 
adopted as its report for 1895. The corresponding inclination and 
vertical force results had also been pretty fully worked up, but I held 
them over pending an inquiry into the sufficiency of the temperature 
correction. Some considerable time may elapse before these results can 
be utilised to full advantage. It has thus seemed inexpedient to defer 
dealing with one set of phenomena whose general character is unaffected 
by any uncertainty as to the temperature correction, and whose existence 
seems to render desirable a reconsideration of the whole system of ' quiet ' 
day observations. The phenomena in question bear on what I termed 
last year the non-cyclic effect. 

Supposing Ho and H24 to denote mean values of the horizontal force 
at the first and second midnights of a selected series of days, then 
H24 — Ho was defined as the non-cyclic effect or variation of horizontal 
force ; and a similar definition applies in the case of any other element. 

Non-cyclic Effects during Six Years, 1890-1895. 

§ 2. It is proposed to give here complete data as to the non- cyclic 
effects in the selected ' quiet ' days at Kew during the last six years. To 
some extent this incorporates results given last year, but it seemed 



232 



REPORT — 1896. 



desirable to show side by side the results for all the elements throughout 
the same series of years. 

There are five selected ' quiet' days a month, and so a total of 360 in 
the seventy-two months of the six years considered. In November 
and December 1890, however, the vertical force magnetograph was out 
of action, which reduces by ten the number of days available in the case 
of the vertical force and inclination. 

In the following table, I., the six Januarys, six Februarys, &,c., of the 
six years have been combined together, so as to show the values of the 
cyclic effects at different seasons of the year. The figures under the 
heading ' Individual Months ' show in how many of the six Januarys, &c., 
the effect was an increase of the element in question, was nil, or a decrease. 
At the foot of the table appear the mean non-cyclic effects per ' quiet ' 
day throughout the six years, and the totals of the several columns under 
the headings ' Individual Months.' 

Table I. — Non-cyclic Effect from Six Years, 1890-1895 {Mean jser 

' Quiet ' Day). 



Month 


Dhclixation 


Horizontal Fpiics 


Vehtical Forck 


IXCLINATION 


^^'^'^^ Mouths 


(Effect) 
xlO' 


Individual 
Months 


(Effect) 
xlO» 


Individual 
Months 


Effect 


Individual 
Mouths 


January . 
February . 
March 
April 
May . 
June . 
July . . 
August 
September 
October . 
November 
December. 


+ 0'-63 
+ -33 
+ -18 
+ -12 
+ -07 

- -17 

- -23 

- -30 
+ -12 
+ -03 
+ -18 

- -10 


4 2 
3 3 
3 12 
3 3 
3 3 
3 3 

1 1 4 
3 3 

2 1 3 

3 12 
1 2 3 


+ 50 
+ 57 
+ 28 
+ 20 
+ 38 
+ 22 
+ 27 
+ 37 
+ 38 
+ 50 
+ 63 
+ 15 


+ U - 
5 1 
5 1 

5 1 

4 1 1 

6 1 

4 1 1 

4 2 

5 1 
6 

6 
6 
5 1 


-52 
+ 5 
+ 13 
-22 
-12 
-28 
-13 

- 8 
+ 30 
+ 5 
-12 

— ti 


+ - 

3 3 
2 2 2 

2 4 

3 3 
1 5 

1 5 
3 3 
3 1 2 
3 3 

2 3 
2 3 


-0'-47 

- -35 

- -17 

- -20 

- -27 

- -22 

- -22 

- -27 

- -18 

- -28 

- -40 

- -12 


+ - 
1 5 
1 5 
1 1 4 

1 1 4 

2 4 
1 1 4 

2 4 

1 5 
1 5 
1 5 

5 

2 3 


Annual 
mean . 


+0'-072 


- 


+ 36-4 


— 


-8-3 


— 


-0'-263 





Totals of 

mouths . — 


35 6 31 




60 7 5 


— 


25 3 42 


— 


9 8 53 



In the case of the decUnation + signifies a deflection to the west. Tlie true secular variation at 
present is towards the east. The comjionents of force are measured in G.G.S. units. 

Table II. gives the mean results for the several quarters of the year as 
deduced from Table I., while Table III. gives the annual means for the 
individual years. 



Table II. — Mean Non-cyclic Effect per ' Qioiet ' Bay for each Quarter 

of the Year. 



— 


Declination 


(Horizontal Force) 
xlO" 


(Vertical Force) x 10° 


IncUuatiou 


Quarters 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 
+ 39 


1 2 


3 


4 


1 2 


3 


4 


Effect . 


+0'-38 


+■01 --14 


+ •04 


+45 


+ 27 


+ 34 


-11 1 -21 


+ 3 


-4 


-0'-33| -•23 


—•22 -^28 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 233 
Table III. — Mean Non-cyclic Effect per ' Quiet ' Bay for each Year. 



Year 


Declination 


(Horizontal Force) 
xlO« 


(Vertical Force) 
xlO'' 


Inclination 


1890 


-0-36 


+ 23 


+ 15. 


-O'lO' 


1891 


+ -29 


+ 23 


-12 


- -18 


1892 


+ -14 


+ 53 


-20 


- -41 


1893 


+ -26 


+ 40 


-26 


- -35 


1894 


+ -15 


+ 33 


+ 12 


- -18 


1895 


- -06 


+ 44 


-15 


- -33 



Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Annual Changes. 

§ 3. To see the full significance of these data regard must be had to 
the magnitudes of the annual changes of the several elements. Table IV. 
gives these for the period considered, along with the number of average 
' quiet ' days, which, according to Table I., would have sufficed to produce 
changes numerically equal to the annual changes observed. 

Table IV. 



— 


Declination 


Horizontal 
Foice 


Vertical Force 


Inclination 


Mean annual change, 1890-95 . 

Number of ' quiet ' days pro- 1 

ducing equal change . . / 


-6'-8 
95- 


21 X 10-^ 
6 


-19x10-^ 
23 


-l'-9 
7^ 



The figures relating to the horizontal force and inclination are so 
significant that comment in their case seems unnecessary. 

As regards the declination and vertical force in individual months, 
notably January, the non-cyclic efiects have been as large and consistent 
as with the othei- two elements, but in general this has been far from the 
case. As Table III. shows, in two years out of the six both declination 
and vertical force have exhibited a mean non-cyclic effect opposite in sign 
to that supplied by the six years as a whole. 

In considering such a phenomenon one ought of course to remember 
that it is contrary to probability that any sixty arbitrarily selected days — 
the number on which an annual mean is based — will produce a diurnal 
variation truly cyclic after allowance is made for the normal annual 
change ; and thus part of the irregularity exhibited by Table III. may 
reasonably be attributed to pure chance. When, however, one looks at the 
uniformity of sign in the non-cyclic efiects in the horizontal force and 
inclination exhibited in Table I., and remembers that the monthly means 
in that table are based on only thirty days, one must, I think, conclude 
that the vaiiability of sign in the declination ^ and vertical force ^ results, 
at least in Table III., has probably a true physical basis. 

' In 1890 the means of vertical force and inclination are based on the results of 
only ten months, in one of which (March) an abnormally large positive non-cyclic 
effect was recorded in vertical force. 

^ In the case of declination, and it alone, the non-cyclic effect is opposite in sign 
to the secular variation. 

' In 1890 a. positive non-cyclic effect appeared in only one month (January) ; in 
1891 a negative effect in only one month (November). 

■* In both 1890 and 1894, however, a slight majority of individual months 
exhibited a negative non-cyclic effect as usual. 



234 REPORT— 1896. 

Mean Annual Values from ' Quiet ' and Unrestricted Days. 

§ 4. Table IV. is merely a plain statement of facts ; but if too exclu- 
sively considered it might unquestionably convey an exaggerated idea of 
the defects attaching to the ordinary use made of 'quiet ' days at the pre- 
sent time. At Kew Observatory they are employed to get out the mean 
diurnal inequality for summer and winter and the whole year, as well as 
the mean annual values of the several elements. 

As regai-ds the mean annual value of an element, the quantity 
' mean value from " quiet" days less mean value from all days ' may be 
irregularly positive and negative, or like the non-cyclic effect in the 
element it may be normally of one sign. It would certainly be desirable 
to know which of the alternatives is true. The meaning to be attached 
to the secular variation deduced from two consecutive years or from a 
short series of years would be much more uncertain if the former 
alternative represented the facts than if the latter did. 

In the Greenwich ' Magnetical and Meteorological Observations ' tables 
are published showing the diurnal variations both in ' quiet ' and unre- 
stricted days, but not apparently direct information as to the difference 
between the absolute values of means deduced from the ' quiet ' and from 
unrestricted days. 

At St. Petersburg, and then at Pawlowsk, it has, however, long been 
customary for Dr. Wild to select a series of normal ' quiet ' days whose 
results are dealt with alongside of those from unrestricted days. The 
principle of selection guiding the choice at Pawlowsk and Greenwich has 
probably been slightly different, but there is at least a strong presumption 
that the differences between the annual means from unrestricted days and 
from the Astronomer Royal's ' quiet ' days will prove to be of the same 
character as the corresponding differences observed in the case of Wild's 
'quiet' days. 

§ 5. The annual means for all the elements at St. Petersburg, from 
both ' quiet ' and unrestricted days, for some twelve to sixteen years 
preceding 1885 are given in a paper by Dr. Mtiller in the 'Repertorium 
fiir Meteorologie,' Bd. XII. No. 8. In the case of every element, according 
to Miiller's tables 20 to 2.3, the sign of the quantity ' " quiet " day mean 
less unrestricted day mean ' was uniformly, or practically uniformly, of 
one sign ; and the secular variations deduced from the ' quiet ' and un- 
restricted day results, even for consecutive years, showed a remarkably 
good agreement. The following summary of the mean results deducible 
from Miiller's tables is extracted from a recent paper by Leyst • : — 

Wildes Normal Days — all Days {Annual Means). 

Declination west . . + 0'-25. 

Inclination . . . — 0'-23. 

Vertical component . — 10"" x 8 C.G.S. units. 

Horizontal component . + 10"" x 35 ,, 

Tables of the monthly and yearly means for Wild's ' quiet ' days and 
for unrestricted days at Pawlowsk continue to be given in the ' Ann. des 
Phys. Central-Observatoriums.' The results from the last two volumes 
are as follows : — 

' Rep. fij/r Met. Bd. XVII. St. Petersburg, 1894, No. 1, p. 109. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 235' 



Wild's Normal Days 


— all Days (Annual Means). 


Year 


Declination 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


1893 
1894 


+ 0'-3 
+ 0'-6 


+ 10-" X 40 
+ 10-« X 60 


-lO-i'xSO 
-10-"xlO 



There would thus appear to be no essential change in the phenomena 
since the period to which Miiller's paper refers. 

§ 6. Wild's ' quiet ' days numbered only twenty-five in 1893 and 
thirty-three ' in 189 i, as against the Astronomer Royal's sixty a year ;. 
thus the results from the latter are likely to exhibit even less irregularity 
in their departures from the results of unrestricted days than the former. 
Mere surmises such as the preceding are vastly inferior to the actual 
numerical facts. Before deciding on the labour necessary to obtain the 
facts one has first, however, to estimate their probable value. One factor 
in this consideration which the practical man can fairly urge is that 
accuracy in absolute value to anything like 1 x 10"'', in the case even of 
the horizontal force, is an ideal we can hardly claim to have reached in 
this country. 

Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Diurnal Ranges. 

§ 7. An idea of the amount of uncertainty which the non-cyclic effect, 
may introduce into the mean diurnal inequalities for summer, winter, and. 
the whole year may be derived from Table V. It gives the ranges of the- 
elements, uncorrected for non- cyclic effect, as published annually in the 
Kew ' Report,' along with particulars as to the ratios borne by the mean, 
non-cyclic effects to the corresponding ranges. 

Table V. — Ranges of Elements from Annual Kew Reports. 



— 


Declinatiou 


(Horizontal Force) 
xlO' 


(Vertical Force) 
xlO= 


Inclination 


Y- ^ 


Sum- 
mer 


Year 


Win- 
ter 


Sum- 
mer 


Year 


Win- 
ter 


Sum- 
mer 


Y'ear 


Win- 
ter 


Sum- 
mer 


1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 


6-9 
8-2 
9-6 
10-1 
9-3 
8-5 


/ 

51 
6-0 
6-9 
7-4 
7-0 
5-6 

6-3 


8V 
10-2 
12-3 
130 
11-9 
12-1 


21 
29 
33 
37 
36 
33 


14 
20 
26 
29 
26 
20 


30 
40 
44 
46 
48 
46 


14 
17 
18 
17 
15 


9 
11 
10 
11 
10 


20 
25 
25 
22 
23 


/ 

1-7 

2^0 
2-2 
2-2 
2-0 

2-0 


/ 

1-1 
1^5 
1-7 
1^5 
1-2 


/ 

2^3 
2^7 
2^8 
2^8 
2^8 


Means . 


8-8 


11-4 


32 


23 


42 


16 


10 


23 


1-4 


•i-i 
-■08 


(Non-cvclic 
Effect) 4- 

(Uiicorrected 
range) 


-1--008 


+ •033 


-■006 


+ •12 


+ •19 


+ •07 


-•05 


-•08 


—04 


-•l:i 


-•21 



In the case of the vertical force and inclination the year 1890 has been, 
omitted, as the results for it are not altogether complete. 

' The number in most of the earlier years dealt with by Dr. Miiller seems, how- 
ever, to have been considerably greater. 



236 REPORT— 1896. 

§ 8. Table V. shows how much more important relatively the non- 
cyclic effect is in the winter than in the summer half-year. 

In the winter half-year we see that the non-cyclic effect in both 
horizontal force and inclination is equal to about one-fifth of the range. 
This does not of course imply that there is an uncertainty of 20 per cent, 
in the range, because, whatever be the nature of the correction applied to 
eliminate the non-cyclic effect, it is hardly likely to introduce more than 
a small fraction of the observed difference between and twenty-four 
hours into the algebraic difference of the maximum and minimum read- 
ings. The interval of time between these readings is in most cases nearer 
six hours than twelve. The fact, however, remains that in some indi- 
vidual winters the uncertainty as to the range must be very appreciable. 
When we come to individual winter months, notably January, when the 
observed range is least, the uncertainty is apt to be considerable. 

The preceding remarks refer exclusively to the uncertainties which 
the existence of the non-cyclic effect introduces into diurnal ranges 
deduced from ' quiet ' days. Previous reports of the Committee ' have 
dealt with differences between the ranges deduced from unrestricted and 
from ' quiet ' days. It seems to me, however, that such comparisons are 
open to criticism so long as the proper treatment of the non-cyclic effect 
remains uncertain. 

Relation of Non-cyclic Effects to Diurnal Inequalities. 

§ 9. In the yearly and half-yearly results the most critical point is the 
nature of the diurnal inequality in the late night and early morning- 
hours. The observed variation is then small, especially in winter, so that 
a disturbing element of no great absolute magnitude might completely 
alter the character of the phenomena. This will appear at once on I'efer- 
ence to the curves of declination and horizontal force in last year's 
report, pp. 212 and 220. The curves on p. 220 are certainly suggestive of 
the presence of some abnormal influence during the midnight hours ; at 
the same time this is not more true of them than of curves lOf the same 
type for Greenwich which Sir G. B. Airy - based on data derived from all 
days but those of considerable disturbance. 
I 

' Elimination of Non-cyclic Effect. 

§ 10. If diurnal inequalities are to be got out at all from ' quiet days ' in 
a form suitable for harmonic analysis, they must be made cyclic, and there 
is certainly no simpler way of doing this than that adopted last year, viz., 
treating the observed data as if the non- cyclic effect proceeded uniformly 
throughout the twenty-four hours. This method of treatment does not 
prejudice the facts. Supposing the non-cyclic effect to proceed irregularly 
throughout the twenty-foui' hours, then it may most conveniently be ana- 
lysed into terms, one being a linear function of the time, the others periodic 
functions whose periods are twenty-four houi's or submultiples thereof. 
The linear term is eliminated by the method adopted last year. The 
cyclic terms of course remain, and are incorporated with the other cyclic 
terms of like period which go to make up the diurnal inequality on ' quiet ' 

' B.A. Report, 1886, p. 71. See also paper by Messrs. Robson and Smith, 
Phil. Ma/j., August 1890, p. 143. 

^ Phil Trans, for 1863 and for 1885. 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 237 

days. It would, however, be impossible to separate the two sets of cyclic 
terms by any mathematical device, without au addition of physical facts 
or a supply of theories in their place. One way of obtaining additional 
facts would be to compare for a series of years the constant coefficients in 
the hai'monic analysis of the diurnal inequalities from ' quiet ' and un- 
restricted days. The accidental features introduced by the arbitrary 
nature of the choice of ' quiet ' days might, however, prove troublesome. 

The term in the non-cyclic effect treated as a linear function of the 
time may in its turn be composed of a series of terms, some possibly fluc- 
tuating regularly with the season of the year, others possibly of very long 
period ; its magnitude, at least in individual months, may depend in large 
measure on the accidental preference of one set of ' quiet ' days to another. 

Associated Phenomena. 

§ 11. It was pointed out last year {I.e., p. 213) that the elimination of 
the non-cyclic effect through a correction consisting of a linear function 
of the time was determined solely by considerations of convenience and 
mathematical simplicity. It was carefully explained (I.e., §§ .5, 6) that 
General Sabine and Dr. Lloyd had observed phenomena in magnetic 
storms so exactly the converse of those presented by the non-cyclic ejBfect 
on ' quiet ' days as to suggest that the two classes of phenomena were inter- 
dependent ; and the conclusion was drawn that if this interdependence 
were true the non-cyclic effect might be expected in reality to progress 
irregularly throughout the twenty-four hours. 

These conclusions may now, perhaps, be regarded as more than sur- 
mises. In the 'Met. Zeitschrift ' for September 1895 Dr. van Bemmelen 
has described phenomena he terms Nachstorung, which appear to be of the 
same general character as, if not identical with, what has been termed 
here the non-cyclic effect. 

As the title he selected implies, Dr. van Bemmelen associates the 
phenomena very intimately with magnetic storms. His investigations 
have included data from a variety of stations ; and whilst his theoretical 
conclusions may, perhaps, undergo modification in the future, his work 
certainly indicates that an increase of knowledge as to this outstanding 
phenomenon on ' quiet ' days is likely to be of service in the general theory 
of terrestrial magnetism. 

§ 12. In the meantime it might be safest not to assume that the non- 
cyclic element is an effect, and a preceding magnetic storm a cause. The 
fact that the horizontal force, for instance, tends to rise abnormally fast 
during a ' quiet ' day may, of course, merely represent a recovery from an 
abnormal loss occasioned by a magnetic storm ; but it is at least con- 
ceivable that the abnormal fall during a magnetic storm may be partly a 
consequence of abnormal increase jDreceding it, or the two phenomena 
may be effects of a common cause. 

If ' quiet ' days, with no appreciable disturbance, were the rule, one 
might possibly determine with ease the relationships of any given 'quiet' 
(lay to a preceding or succeeding disturbed day ; but appreciable move- 
ments will usually be found both before and after a ' quiet ' daj^ at no great 
interval of time. If the causes operating in large and small disturbances 
are the same, then it is not improbable a priori that a small disturbance 
within a day or two of a ' quiet ' day may have more to do with it than a 
large disturbance a week befoi-e or after. It should also be remembered 



/ 



238 REPORT— 1896. 

•that General Sabine found that whilst, as a rule, large disturbances lowered 
the horizontal and raised the vertical force, the opposite results ensued in 
a very considerable number of instances. 

In proposing any additions to the existing ' quiet ' day system, or any 
substitute, it must be remembered that one of the main objects aimed at 
by its introduction was a substantial saving in the labour required to 
obtain comparable results from different observatories. The tabulation of 
the whole mass of curves was felt in most cases too serious a burden. 
Considerable light might be thrown on the question of the uniformity or 
variableness of the non-cyclic element throughout the day by a very 
simple addition, viz., curve measurements at the noons preceding and suc- 
ceeding each ' quiet' day. In the course of this paper other suggestions 
have been made, but they could be put into effect only at observatories 
prepared to tabulate all the curves. 

In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the assistance I have derived 
from discussing a variety of the points involved with Mr. T. W. Baker, 
Chief Assistant at the Kew Observatory. 



APPENDIX. 

Remarks hy W. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. 

Having had the opportunity of reading Dr. Chree's report on non- 
cyclic magnetic effects, I would beg to be allowed to offer the following 
remai-ks : — 

I had read with great interest Dr. Chree's ' Comparison and Reduc- 
tion of Magnetic Observations,' forming the report of the Magnetic Com- 
mittee for the year 1895, in which he discusses the Kew magnetic results 
on 'quiet' days for the years 1890 to 1894. I had lately commenced to 
work up in a similar way the corresponding Greenwich results in order 
to make comparisons between Greenwich and Kew, when treated for the 
same years in a similar manner. Interesting questions are involved, 
since it cannot be said to be at present known how far the magnetic 
changes at two places not remotely distant one from the other should be 
expected to be similar, and if not similar to what extent there may be 
difference, and also whether any part of such difference might be instru- 
mental. It is not satisfactory to compare results for one period with 
results for another place for a different period, because at any one place 
the phenomena may vary considerably at different times. But my work 
is not sufficiently advanced to enable me to put the results at present into 
shape ; still I may perhaps give some information bearing on points now 
discussed by Dr. Chree. In Table I. he gives the mean non-cyclic effect 
for 'quiet' days for different magnetic elements for each month of the year, 
deduced from the Kew observations of the six years 1890 to 1895. My 
numbers for Greenwich are for the five years 1890 to 1894. At Kew the 
non-cyclic change in declination is positive in the first five, and in the 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh months of the year, and negative in the 
remaining months. At Greenwich it is positive in the first five months 
and in the eleventh month, and negative in the other months. At both 
places the largest positive value is in January, Kew = 4- 0'"63, Green- 
wich = -|- 0''46 ; the largest negative value is in August, Kew =^ — 0'*30, 



ON COMPARISON AND REDUCTION OF MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



239 



Greenwich = — 0'-42. Mean for year at Kew = +0'"072, at Greenwich 
= +0''007. In horizontal force the non-cyclic effect at Kew is positive 
in all months, and similarly at Greenwich. The greatest values at Kew 
are (effect xlO*" in C.G.S. units), in January, February, October, and 
November, + 50, + 57, + 50, and -f 53 respectively ; and similarly at 
Greenwich, the values being +62, +5.3, +7.3, and +57 respectively. 
Mean for year at Kew = +36, at Greenwich = +40. In vertical 
force there is considerable difference, both in magnitude and sign, between 
the non-cyclic effect in different months at the two places. The mean for 
year at Kew = — 8, and at Greenwich = — 18. In this comparison it 
is to be remembered that the Kew results depend on the observations of 
six years, and the Greenwich results only on those of five years. 

As regards now the mean values in separate years (Table III.) ; of 
the five years 1890 to 1894 the non-cyclic change in declination is in the 
same direction in four of the five years at both places ; in horizontal force 
in the same direction in all years, and in vertical force in three years. 
The actual numbers are : — 



Non-cyclic change 


1890 


1891 1892 


1893 


1894 






In declination 






At Kew 

At Greenwich .... 


-0'-36 
-0'-23 


+ 0'-29 +0'-14 
+ 0'-08 -0'-20 

In hnrizontal forci 


+ 0'-26 
+ 0'-15 


+ 0'-15 
+ 0'-24 


At Kew 

At Greenwich .... 


+ 23 

+ 18 


+ 23 + 53 

+ 37 +68 

In veHical force 


+ 40 
+ 44 


+ 33 
+ 33 


At Kew 

At Greenwich .... 


+ 1.5 
-12 


-12 

- 8 


-20 
-30 


-26 
-24 


+ 12 
- 4 



In vertical force there is a tendency to a uniformly greater negati^■e 
value at Greenwich than at Kew. Considering, however, the values at 
each station separately, the greatest negative values occur in the same 
two years, 1892 and 1893, at both places. 

One question that I had set myself to discuss was how far the abso- 
lute magnetic values, as, for instance, the mean monthly values, differ, as 
determined from the five ' quiet ' days in each month, and as determined 
from all days (excepting those of excessive magnetic disturbance). In the 
Greenwich ' Observations' there are given in Tables I., III., and VII. of 
the magnetic section mean daily values of declination, horizontal force, and 
vertical force respectively throughout the year (excepting days of exces- 
sive disturbance). The means of these values for different months are 
given in Table XI. Extracting from the different tables the values for 
the adopted 'quiet' days, and taking the mean in each month, the variation 
of these means from the corresponding means of Table XI. gives in each 
case the deviation of the ' quiet ' days mean from that for all days. Since 
the mean of the five selected days falls always near the middle of the 
month, the comparison, for a first inquiry, sufficiently eliminates the 
secular variation, considering it uniform, the only possible supposition. 
The excess of the ' quiet ' day monthly mean above the all day or 



240 



REPORT — 1896. 



unrestricted monthly mean is, in each month of the year, for each 
element, as follows (average of live years 1890 to 1894) : — 



Greenwich 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Juue 


July 



Aug. I Sept. 



Got. 



Nov. 



Deo. 




In declination 
I -O'-Ol I +0'-12 I +0'-24 I -O'-IO I +0'-12 | +0'-10 | O'-OO | +0'-10 | — 0'-06 | -0'-08 | +0'-24,0'-00 

In Iwrizontal force 

f35 I +42 I +24 I +37 [ +31 | +20 | +22 | + 5 | +27 | +55 | +51 |+57 

In vertical force 



+ 31 I -2G 



-10 



-13 



-11 



+ 10 I -17 I - 2 



+ 3 I 



-40. 1 



5 1-17 



Mean j'early excess of ' quiet ' day value in declination = + 0'-05 
„ „ ,, in horizontal force = -h 34 

„ „ „ in vertical force = — 8 



The corresponding separate yearly differences are :- 



Greenwich 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1894 


i 




In declination 






+ O'-Ol 


-0'-12 1 +0'-07 1 +0'-19 


+ 0'-12 


Excess of absolute 

' quiet ' day value - 
above all days value 


+ 11 1 


In horizontal force 
+ 37 1 + 31 1 +37 

In vertical force 


+ 53 


V 


- 8 


- 7 _ 26 1 - 14 


+ 14 



I have not sufficient opportunity at the present moment to add much 
by way of discussion of these numbers, but taking tlie element in which 
the difference of absolute value is most marked, that of horizontal force, 
some few remai'ks may be offered. We see that the uniformly positive 
non-cyclic change on ' quiet ' days is accompanied by an increased absolute 
value of horizontal force on such days, as compared with the value from 
all days, as we should perhaps expect. At Greenwich magnetic disturb- 
ance commonly causes diminution of horizontal force, after which the 
value works back to a more normal one. But there are years in which 
the magnetic registers are unusually quiet, with few disturbances of even 
moderate amount, as in the years 1878 and 1879. The inference would 
be that in such years the difference between the absolute value for the 
especially ' quiet ' days and that for all days should be small, varying to a 
certain extent in different years with the more or less prevalence of 
magnetic disturbance. I cannot, however, for the moment refer to the 
Pawlowsk differences of which Dr. Chree speaks, to ascertain whether 
they exhibit variations of this character. Further, whether the rise of 
value on ' quiet ' days lepiesents a recovery from abnormal loss during dis- 
turbance, or whether the abnormal fall during disturbance is in any way 
a consequence of preceding abnormal rise, may be a question. But the 
view that the recovery on ' quiet ' days is rather a consequence of abnormal 
fall during disturbance, that is, that the disturbance is really the primary 
dominating factor, appears to receive support from the following considera- 
tion. When disturbance suddenly arises it seems to break out over the 



•calf coMrARisox and reduction of magnetic observations. 241 

whole earth at precisely the same moment of absolute time (see ' Proc. 
Roy. Soc' vol. lii. p. 191). But an instantaneous magnetic shock 
sensible over the whole globe could scarcely, one would imagine, arise 
from action from within alone ; and since magnetic disturbances are more 
frequent when sunspots are numerically high, there seems reason to 
suppose that the exciting cause is in such cases mainly external. To 
pursue this matter is, however, rather to enter the region of speculation. 

It may perhaps be remarked that the mean non-cyclic change for 
.horizontal force and vertical force on 'quiet' days is + 40 and — 18 
respectively ; also that the mean excess of absolute value on such days over 
all days is correspondingly + 34 and — 8 respectively. Thus the rela- 
tion in both elements is of the same character. 

A part of my work consisted of a comparison of diurnal inequalities 
of the magnetic elements on ' quiet ' days with those found by including all 
<lays (always excepting the excessive magnetic disturbances), and also of 
.a comparison of diurnal range as given : (1) by 'quiet' days as observed ; 
(2) by 'quiet' days corrected for non-cyclic change ; and (3) by including 
all days, in all cases for the different months of the year ; but tlie work 
is not sufficiently advanced to enable any particulars to be given. 

Dr. Chree, referring to a previous report of the Magnetic Committee 
and to a paper by Messrs. Robson and Smith in the ' Phil. Mag.' for 
August 1890, speaks of the differences between diurnal ranges deduced 
from unrestricted days, that is all days, and from ' quiet ' days. I may 
perhaps point out that these comparisons were between ' quiet ' days at Kew 
and all days at Greenwich, and were for the element of declination only. 
Jn such a comparison the question of difference of locality must be taken 
into account, and also possibly to some extent the difference of instruments. 
Rut in a paper which I communicated to the ' Phil. Mag.' for January 1891 
I made a more direct comparison of results, for the one year 1889, compar- 
ing the diurnal inequalities for 'quiet' days (five in each month) at 
Greenwich with those for all days at the same place. This comparison 
was made for all the three elements of declination, horizontal force, and 
vertical force. The five-day results were not corrected for non-cyclic 
change, but in declination and vertical force this was evidently small. 
The results show a marked difference between the diurnal inequalities for 
■"^juiet ' days and for all days. The later work in this dii'ection, yet incom- 
plete, to which I have above referred, includes a discussion of the diurnal 
inequalities for the five years 1890 to 1894 for 'quiet' days and for all 
days, and the results seem likely to support those found for the single 
year 1889. 

Solar Radiation. — Twelfth Beport of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
G. G. Stokes (Chairman)^ Professor H. McLeod {Secretary), 
Professor A. Schuster, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Sir H. E. 
HoscoE, Captain W. de W. Abney, Mr. C. Chree, Mr. G. J. 
SyiMONS, and Mr. W. E. Wilson, appointed to consider the best 
Methods of Recording the Direct Intensity of Solar Radiation. 
{Drawn xip by Sir G. G. Stokes.) 

Ar the date of the tenth report of this Committee, Professor McLeod, 

who had undei'taken to make some experiments with the Stewart's 

actinometer used as a ' dynamical ' actinometer, tried wlietlifn- it might 

1896. B 



2i2 REPORT— 1890. 

not be advantageous to substitute for the internal thermometer a thermo- 
electric arrangement whereby the solar radiation should be measured by 
the deflection of a galvanometer. A thin disk of blackened copper was 
lixed in the position previously occupied by the flattened bulb of the 
internal thermometer, and two wires led from this disk, namely, a 
platinoid wire from behind the middle point of the disk and a copper 
wire from the edge, the second junction of the two metals being embedded! 
in the solid copper of the case, the temperature of which was given by the 
case-thermometers. A d'Arsonval galvanometer was intercalated in the 
thermo-electric circuit, and the difterence of temperatures of the twO' 
junctions was given by the deflection of tlie mirror, which was read by 
eye by means of a divided scale. This arrangement Avas found to work 
in a very satisfactory manner ; the obser\'ations could be taken in a 
shorter time than with the thermometer ; and on reducing the results by 
the formula given in a former report it was found that the numbers 
obtained for a magnitude theoretically proportional to the radiation came 
out very consistent with one another when they were deduced from 
different trios of readings taken on the same occasion. Professor McLeod 
had not, however, sufficient leisure to continue the experiments as he 
wished, and INIr. W. E. Wilson took charge of the instrument with a view 
to continue the experiments. 

Mr. Wilson modifled the apparatus by introducing an arrangement by 
wliich the light reflected by the mirror of the galvanometer, instead of 
serving for eye c-bservations, was received on a photographic plate which 
descended by clockwork, and recorded the deviations of the mirror at 
times which were recorded by a fixed light falling on the plate, which was 
interrupted at each second, so that the former light traced out a curve, 
the ordinates of which corresponded to the deflections, while tlie abscissae 
gave the time. 

In this manner very neat curves were obtained, which gave a perma- 
nent recoj'd of the observations. This record was of course exempt from 
possible errors of reading, and could be dealt with at leisure. In a later 
arrangement tlie interruptions at each second Avere i-ecorded on the curve 
itself as well as on the line of abscissa;, a method which presents certain 
advantages for the subsequent reduction. 

In order to obtain a base line corresponding to an equality of tempera- 
ture of the disk and the case, the plate v,as started, and the permanently 
fixed light and that reflected from the mirror not yet deflected were 
allowed to record themselves a few seconds before the sun's rays were 
allowed to fall on the plate. The latter gave a short straight line, parallel 
to the axis of abscissae, corresponding to no deviation, from which the 
curve started when the light of the sun was let on. 

The curves obtained in the preliminary trials Avere sent to Sir George 
8tokes for reduction. Tlie rapidity of the change from the straight line 
traced before incidence of the sun's rays to a curve which showed no sign 
of the discontinuity of the initial conditions showed that the effect of the 
inertia of the galvanometer was practically insensible, provided at least a 
very few seconds were allowed for the instrument to get into train, that 
is, provided a minute portion of the curve, iiear the point cf sudden 
change in the conditions, were excluded in the reduction. 

The galvanometer was dead-beat, but it is conceivable that the 
damping force might have been such as to cause a sensible difference 
between the angular position of the mirror of the galvanometer and that 



ON SOLAR RADIATION. 243 

corresponding to equilibrium between the torsional force at the moment 
and the deflecting force belonging to the thermo-electric current at the 
bame moment. A special experiment showed, however, that such was not 
the case, and that the difference between tho actual position and that 
corresponding to equilibrium was practically insensible, provided a very 
few seconds were allowed to elapse after any sudden change of the nature 
of letting on or cutting off the sun's light. 

It follows from this that the simple differential equation mentioned in 
the report of the Committee for 1892 may be used in this case as well as 
when the solar rays actuated an internal thermometer. The integral of 
the differential equation shows that the curve is a logarithmic curve, the 
parameter of which, or index of the exponential, is constant, provided the 
constant relating to cooling, the q of that report, is the same under all 
circumstances. 

Measurement of tlie cur\es obtained showed that they agreed extremely 
well with logarithmic curves. Any two logarithmic curves, of which the 
parameter is the same, may be superposed by moving one relatively to the 
other without disturbing the parallelism of their axes, but not if the 
pai-ameters are different. In general the curves obtained seemed to be 
sensibly superposable, indicating that q was not merely constant during 
an exposure made under gi^-en circumstances, but even when the circum- 
stances were different ; as, for example, when one diaphragm was replaced 
by another of twice the area. In one case, however, it seemed that the 
coefficient was slightly but sensibly smaller. The constancy or otherwise 
of (7 is a point still under examination. Should it prove to be sensibly 
different when the circumstances are changed, the expression may still be 
obtained from three observations, that is, from three points of the curve. 
If, for the sake of simplifying the formula, the intervals of time are 
chosen equal, the expression {\iif l{- l^HC) has merely to be multiplied 
by q, the expression for which need not at present be written down, in 
order to obtain a measure of the radiation. It may be well to remark 
that this measure is merely relative ; the question of obtaining the radia- 
tion in absolute measure is one into which the Committee have not as yet 
entered. 



Bilillograpliii of Spedroscopii. — Report of the Committee, consisthui oj 
Professor Herbert JMcLeod, Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
Mr. H. G. Madan, and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

The work of collecting and arranging the titles of papers on subjects 
related to spectroscopy has been continued up to the present date. 

In the Report presented by the Committee last year it was proposed 
to discontinue the work at the end of 1895, and it was suggested that the 
four sections of the list of titles should be printed as a separate publica- 
tion. In view, however, of the meeting of the International Committee 
to consider the preparation of a catalogue of scientific literature, the 
Committee now proposes to continue the work up to the year 1900. so as 
to complete the list up to the time when the International Bureau will 
commence its labours. 

The Committee, therefore, asks for reappointment. 



244 



REroRT— 189G. 



The Eledrolytlr Methoih of Quantitative Anal i/sis.— Tltlril Report of the 
Committee, condidinrj of Professor J. Emersox Reynolds {Chair- 
man), Dr. C. A. KoHX (Secretary), Professor P. Franklais'd, Pro- 
fessor F. Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
Mr. D. H. Nagel, a7id Professor W. Carletox Willl\ms. 

The bibliography of the subject having been completed for the last Report, 
the Committee have been able to give their full time to experimental work 
during the past year. In addition to the appended results on the arrange- 
ments adopted for the work, the determination of bismuth, antimony and 
tin, and the separation of the Uvo latter, the work on the determination of 
cobalt, nickel and zinc is well advanced, and will be included, together with 
further work on bismutli, in the next Report of the Committee. 



The Determination of Bismuth. {Part I.) By Professor J. Emerson 
Reynolds, D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S., and G. Percy Bailey, B.A. 

Bibliography. 



Autlior 



Journal 



Year 



LuckovT, C. . . . j Dingier Polyt. J. 

Luckow, C. . . . ; Zeits. aiial.Oheui. 

Classen, A., and Rcis, if. A. I Ber. 



1864 
1880 
1881 



I 
Thomas, X.W.i-Snutli,E.F. I Amcr. Cliem. J. . 1 1883 



Wleland, J. 



. I Eer. 



Smith, E. F., & Knerr, E. 15. I Anier. Chem. J. . 
JIassen, A., ami Liuhvig, li. ' Bcr. 



1884 

1885 
1881) 



Moore, T. 
Brand, A. 



Yortmann, G. 



RUdorff, F. . 



Cliem. Xews . ' 188G 
Zeits. anal. Chem. I 1889 



Ber. 



1891 



Zeits.angew.Chem. 1892 



Freudenberg, H. . . . ' Zeits.pliys.Cliem. 
Smith, E. F., & b-iltar, .1. B. ; J. Analyt.A App. 

j l.'heni. 
Thomalen, H. . • ■ i Zeits. Electro- 

Chem. 



1893 
1893 



1894 



Yol. Page I Composition of Electrolyte 



178 
19 
14 



5 

17 

8 
19 



24 



12 

7 



42 
1 

1622 



114 



1611 
206 

:i23 

209 
081 



2749 



198 



97 
128 



;;o4 



Sulphuric acid 
Xitrio ai'iil 

Animoiiiuui oxalate and nitric, 
aoiil 
( Sulphuric acifl 

- Citric acid andsoiliumlo-Jrate 
[ Citric acid 
( Oxalic acid 
] Nitric acid 
Sulphuric acid 
Potassium and ammonium 

oxalates 
Pliosphuric acid 
Sodium ]iyropUospha,te, ammo- 
nium carliouate, aud ammo- 
nium oNialate 
Hydroeliloric acid and potas- 

"shim iodidf' : m nmahnvn 
Hydrochloric acid and alcohol ; 

Nitric and tartaric aciil3 ; a.) 

atnahjatii 
Ammouinii\ hydrate an I tar- 
\ taric acid ; ii.s aiiwhinm 
Sodium iiyruplicspliutc, potas- 

cium oxalate, and potassium 

sulpliate 
Sulphuric acid 
Nitric acid 

Sodium pyrophosphate, potas- 
sium oxalate, auii iulphate 



The examination of methods for the electrolytic estimation of this 
metal was conducted in the chemical laboratory of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The electrolytic department of the laboratory is iitted in the usual 
way. The currents lequired are derived from the ' Bristol ' type of storage 
cells, made up in sets of si.x in each case, with connections .so arranged 
that currents of 'l amperes and 4, 8, or 12 volts can be obtained as required. 
These cells, whicli are compact and light, have given very satisfactory 
results during two years' frequent use, and are now in perfectly good order. 



ON KLKCTUOLYTIC METHODS OF QUAXTITATIVK ANALYSIS. 245 

The measurements of currents for most purposes is effected by the 
\3sual gravity ammeters indicating 0'5 to 2 amperes, but much smaller 
currents than O'O ampere must be used in bismuth estimations ; the 
most satisfactoi-y mode of measuring them was by means of a delicate 
astatic galvanometer, with silk fibre suspension, and carefully calibrated 
in the position in which it was used. A curve was plotted for converting 
deflections into amperes, so that O'Ol ampere could be read directly, and 
O'OOl ampere current measured by interpolation. Pro\isiou was also 
made for slmnting in a gravity voltmeter. 

For bismuth estimation a box of coils giving high resistances was used 
for regulating the current, as the platinoid spiral with slide, in genera' 
use in the laboratoiy, did not offer more than 30 ohms resistance. 

A long series of preliminaiy experiments made with bismuth nitrate 
solutions and different forms of electrodes indicated : — 

1. That the conical form of negative electrode is not suitable for use 
ill the estimations of bismuth, as it is difficult to get good adherent deposits 
on the cones, unless the solutions are very dilute. 

2. That the large, smooth surface of a carefully spun platinum dish is 
liest suited fur the negative pole in bismuth estimations. The dishes used 
in the test estimations weighed from 3-5 to 38 grammes, and the internal 
areas averaged 190 square centimetres. 

3. That a large flat spiral of platinum wire for the positive electrode is 
more satisfactory than a disc, as it allows free circulation in the liquid. 

A large number of experiments were made in the first instance with a 
view to ascertain the kind of solution most convenient for electrolysis, 
the nitrate or sulphate being used as the staiting point in the production 
of the different liquids actually electrolysed. Irregular results were 
obtained with the simple nitrate containing varying proportions of free 
nitric acid ; but good determinations were more easily made in solutions 
of the sulphate when electrolysed by currents of 0'08 to 0'2 ampere. 

On the other hand, for the purposes of actual analysis, it seemed of 
more practical importance to ascertain how far the more convenient 
nitrate solution could be made to afford good reguline deposits of bismuth, 
which should admit of washing without loss or material oxidation. It 
was found that careful adjustment of the current is one of the elements 
of success, but not the only one, and that 0-03 ampere is the maximum 
current that should be used nearly to the end of the operation, though 
O'l may be passed to complete deposition. Regulation of the current did 
not alone prove suflicient to neutralise the effect of excess of niti-ic acid, 
and most of the substances were tried which have been recommended for 
use in similar electrolyses. Of these, metaphosphoric acid and citric acid 
proved so much better than any others Ave employed that our attention 
was directed chiefly to examine their eftects in test experiments with 
bismuth nitrate. 

Test Experiments. 

The bismuth used in the preparation of the test solutions was carefully 
purified. In the first instance it was repeatedly fused with small quan- 
tities of nitre and cast. This metal was then heated to low redness for 
fifteen minutes with potassium cyanide and sulphur, with constant 
stirring ; was again cast, and reheated to bright redness with 5 per cent, 
of a mixture of pure sodium and potassium carbonate. The fine metal so 
obtained was dissolved in nitric acid, the solution evaporated to a small 
bulk, and then precipitated as oxynitrate by water. The washed pro- 



21.6 



KEPORT — 1S9(). 



duct -svas again dissoh'ecl in nitric acid, and \vas fractionally precipitated 
by ammonia, the first and last fractions Ijcing rejected. The middle 
fraction, after thorough washing, -was preserved and used in the prepara- 
tion of the final test solutions of bismuth. 

The first solution of bismuth nitrate prepared contained, in 25 c.c, 
0-125 grme. of bismuth. This contained a sufficient excess of nitric acid 
to prevent precipitation unless diluted with about ten volumes of water. 

In the following series of estimations 25 c.c. of the solution were used 
in each case, and either diluted to 150 c.c. in a platinum dish with water 
only, or made up to the total volume of 150 c.c. with water after addition 
of the various substances stated below. The electrolysis was then com- 
menced with the current specified, and the action usually allowed to 
continue all night. At the end the current was generally increased, in 
order to complete the deposition. 

As slight oxidation takes place at the edge of the liquid even with 
apparently very good reguline deposits, the latter, when washed, dried, 
and weighed, were in some cases oxidised by nitric acid, the solution 
carefully evaporated to dryness, and heated until the bismuth nitrate was 
converted wholly into BioO-,. Fi'om the oxide obtained the weight of Bi 
was then calculated. This operation is easilj' executed in the electrolytic 
dish, and was found to be a useful check, especially when the results of 
electrolysis seemed too good. 



0-125 prtne. Bi in folution 


Currents in 


Bi 

as Metal 


Bi from 
B' ji ».-, 


Remarks 


diluted to 150 c.c. 


Amperes 


grme. 


gruie. 




1. Water and Nitrate 


0-008 


0-13 





Loose deposit, evident 


only 


increased 

at end to 

0-05 






oxidation. 


2. Ditto 


0-05 


OlS.-iS 


— 


Loose, but reguline. 


3. +2 c.c. strong Me- 


002 


0-124 


— 


Very firm deposit, easily 


taphosphoric acid 








■washed. No apparent 


solution 








oxidation. 


4. +2 c.c. HPO3 solu- 


0-0 J in- 


0-127 


— 


Not so firm, and not per- 


tion 


creased to 
0-05 at end 






fectly' reguline. 


5. -f 4 c.c. HPO3 solu- 


003 to 


0-125 


0-1248 


Yer^' firm and reguline ; 


tion 


005 at end 






easily washed. 


0.-1-1 grme. of Citric 


0-OOS to 


0-130 


0-1238 


Firm, but coloured owing 


Acid 


0-01 






to oxidation. 


7. + 1 grme. of Citric 


001 to 005 


0-12C 


— 


Firm good deposit ; 


Acid 








slightly oxidised. 


8.-1-2 grmes. of Citric 


0-01 


0-124G 


— 


Very firm, easily washed, 


Acid 








and apparently unoxi- 
dised. 


9.-1-2 grmes. of Citric 


0-01 


01246 


0-1246 


}i 91 


Acid 










10. +2-5 grmes. of 


0-01 to 0-1 


0-125 


0-1249 


91 f> 


Citric Acid 


at end 








11. -I-2-5 grme.s. of 


001 to 01 


0-125 


0-1247 


1* >9 


Citric Acid 


at end 








12. 0-05192 grme. of Bi 


0-005 to 


0-0526 


0-052 


>l » 


as Nitrate + 2-75 


0-01 at end 








grme. Citric Acid 










13. 07 grme. of Bi as 


0-005 to 


0-07 


0-0697 


9* •» 


Nitrate + 2 '2 grme. 


0-01 at end 








of Citric Acid 











ON ELECTROLYTIC MKTHODS OI-' QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 247 

Operating in this ^vay, the results on the preceding page, from 1 to 11, 
were ol>tained with 25 c.c. of liismuth nitrate solution=0'125 grnie. of Bi 
diluted to 150 c.c. 

Experiments 12 and 13 were made with solutions of different strengths 
and larger proportions of nitric acid than those which precede. 

So far as experiments with the simple nitrate solutions were concerned 
the results merely confirmed all our previous experience, as it is very 
■ditticult to obtain a good adherent dep>osit on electrolysis except from very 
•dilute solutions. 

Tlie results obtained witli metaphosphoric acid under the conditions 
specified indicate that the reagent controls deposition in a very marked 
way, and enables us to get good adherent reguline deposits even in 
presence of much free nitric acid and when using a comparatively strong 
■current. The use of metaphosplioric acid is therefore attended %vith 
considerable advantage in the case of simple bismuth nitrate solutions. 

Citric acid has proved quite as effective as metaphosphoric acid, and 
»ives a wider range of utility in general analysis. Moreover bismuth can 
be separated from alkaline citrate solution in good condition and with 
considerable accuracy ; hence we are disposed to prefer the use of citric 
acid to that of metaphosphoric acid in electrolytic determinations of 
bismuth. 

The separation of bismuth from stronger solutions and from other dis- 
solved metals will be considered in the next report. 

The Ajjparatus employed and the Arrangament of tlie Circidts for 
Electrolytic Analysis. By Charles A. KoiiN, Ph.D., B.Sc. 

The arrangements for electrolytic work described in this portion of the 
Report ha%'e been fitted up in the Chemical Laboratory of University 
College, Liverpool, where the work on the determination iif antimony and 
tin and their separation has been carried out. 

A set of five secondary cells charged by a dynamo were employed 
tlu-oughout the analyses. 

Electrodes. 

Platinum dishes of about 200 c.c. capacity, and weighing 37-38 
grme., were used as the cathode, and small platinum discs with holes 
bored through them to admit of the escape of the evolved gases as the 
anode. For the determination of both antimony and tin, sand-blasted 
phitinum dishes were found preferable to the ordinary polished dishes ; 
this is especially the case when the deposition of a metal is effected 
from a hot solution. The electrodes were kept 20 mm. apart. Glass 
stands with brass supports as described by Classen were used to hold the 
electrodes, the support for the dishes being covered with an asbestos card 
when lieating was necessary. 

Voltmeter and Ampere-meter. 

A suitable ampere-meter for electrolytic analysis has long been a de- 
sideratum. The use of the water