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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

SiJV 



EEPORT 



OF THE 



SIXTY-SEVENTH MEETING 



OP THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



TORONTO IN AUGUST 1897. 



LONDON : 
JOHN MUERAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 

1898. 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



PRINTED BY 

SPOmSWOODE AKD CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

lOKDON 



CONTENTS. 



m 

Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xl 

Trustees and General Officers, 1831-1898 lii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 . . . liii 

List of Evening Lectures Ixxi 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxiv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Toronto Meeting Ixxv 

Officers and Council, 1897-98 Ixxvii 

Treasurer's Account Ixxviii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxii 

Committees appointed by the General Committee at the Toronto Meet- 
ing in August 1897 Ixxxviii 

Communications ordered to be printed in e.vteiuo xcvii 

Resolutions referred to the Council for Consideration, and action if 

desirable xcvii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcviii 

Places of Meeting in 1898, 1899, and 1901 xcix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes c 

General Meetings cxvi 

Address by the President, Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.CL , LL.D., Sc.D., 
Treas.R.S., V.P.S.A., For.Sec.G.S., Correspondant de ITnstitut de 

France, &c 3 

A 2 



iv REPORT — 1897. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



{^An asterisk * indicates tJiat tJie title only is given. The mark •(■ indicates the same 
hut a reference is given to the journal or newspaper where it is published in extenso.] 



Page 
Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor R. Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretarj^), Mr. 
Fkancis Galton, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. G. J. 
Stmons, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir John Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
T. G. BoNNEY, Mr. W. Whitaker, Professor E. B, Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, and Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram 23 

Report on the State of the Principal Museums in Canada and Newfoundland. 
By Henry M. Ami, M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S 62 

Wave-length Tahles of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. Dewar, G. D. 
LiTEiNG, A. Schuster, W, N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and 
Captain Abney. (Drawn up by Dr. Watts.) 75 

Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — -Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunning- 
ham (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. 31. Hicks, Major P. A. Mac- 
Mahon, and Professor A. Lodge, appointed for calculating Tables of certain 
Mathematical Functions, and, if necessary, for taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to publish the results in an accessible form 127 

The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Pheno- 
mena. — Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Symons 
(Chairman), Professor R. Meldola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. H. N. Dickson, 
and Mr. A. W. Claxden (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 128 

Seismological Investigation. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. G. J. Symons (Chairman), Dr. C. Davison and Mr. John Milne 
(Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. J. T. Botiomley, 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L. Daewin, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Meldola, Professor 
J. Perey, Professor J. H. Poynting, and Dr. Isaac Roberts 12D 

I. Report of Work done for the establishment of a Seismic Survey 
of the World, drawn up by John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S 129 

II. Records of the Gray-Milne Seismograph. By John Milne, 

F.R.S., F.G.S 132 

III. The installation and working of Milne's Horizontal Pendulum. 

By John Milne, F.R S., F.G.S 137 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
IV. Observations at Carisbrooke Castle and Shide. By John Milne, 

F.R.S., r.G.S 146 

V. Earthquake Records from Japan and other places. By John 

Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S , 153 

VI. The highest apparent Velocities at which Earth-waves are propa- 
gated. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S 172 

VIII. Diurnal Waves. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S 176 

VIII. The Perry Tromometer. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S 181 

IX. Sub-oceanic Changes. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S 181 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for Elec- 
trical Measiu-ements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
G. Caeet Foster (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebkook (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Professors W. E. Ayeton, J. Peeet^ W. G. 
Adams, and Oliver J. Lodge, Drs. John Hopkinson and A. Muirhead, 
Messrs. W. H. Preece and Herbert Taxlor, Professors J. D. Everett 
and A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald, 
G. Cheystal, and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpateick, Professor J. Vieiamu Jones, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P Thompson, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths, and Professor A. W. Ruckee 206 

Appendix I. — Note on the Constant-Volume Gas-Thermometer. By 

G, Caeey FosTEE, F.R.S 210 

„ II. — On a Determination of the Ohm made in Testing the 
Lorenz Apparatus of the McGill University, Mon- 
treal, By Professor W. E. Ayeton and Professor 
J. ViEiAMU Jones 212 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord IMcLaeen, Professor A. Ceitm Brown (Secretary), Dr. John 
MuEEAY, Dr. Alexandee BucHAig^, and Professor R. Copeland. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Btjchan.) 219 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Geiffiths, Rev. T. C. Fitz- 
pateick, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham (Secretary), on the present state of 
our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 227 

Appendix. — The Theory of the Migration of Ions and of Specific Ionic 

Velocities. By W. C. Dampiee Whetham, M.A. ... 227 

The Historical Development of Abelian Functions up to the time of Riemann. 
By Harris Hancock 246 

The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor T. E. Thorpe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), 
Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. Russell, Captain Abney, 
Professor W. Steoud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 286 

The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Chairman), Professor II. E. Aemsteong 
(Secretary), Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. George Gladstone, Sir John 
Lubbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson 287 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Tilden (Chairman), and Dr. H. E. Aemsteong 
(Secretary) 292 



vi REPORT — 1897. 

Page 
TLe Carbohydrates of the Cereal Straws. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor R. Wakingtoit (Chairman), Mr. C. F. Cross (Secretary), and 
Mr. Manning Peentice. (Drawn up by the Secretaby.) 294 

The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis. — Fourth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Emerson Reynolds (Chairman), Dr. 
C. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Feaneland, Professor F. Clowes, Dr. 
Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, and Professor W. Caeleton 
Williams 295 

The Production of Haloids from Pure Materials. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. 
C. H. Bothamlby, Mr. J. T. Cttndall, and Mr. W. A. Shenstone (Secre- 
tary), appointed to investigate the Production of Haloids from Highly-puri- 
fied Materials 295 

Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Mr. E. J. Garwood (Secretary), 
Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crtoe, Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, Dr. 
Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. J. W. 
KiRKLEY, Ml-. R, Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lampltjgh, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. G. H. Morton, Professor H. A.' Nicholson, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Steahan, Dr. H. Woodward, and Dr. Traqttair, appointed to study the 
Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. (Drawn up by Mr. Garwood.) 296 

Structure of a Coral Reef. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney (Chairman), Professor AV. J. Sollas (Secretary), 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors J. W. Judb, C. Lapwoeth, A. C. 
Haddon, Boyd Dawxins, G. H. Darwin, S. J. Hickson, and A. Steavart, 
Admiral W. J. L. Wharton, Drs. H. Hicks, J. Murray, W. T. Blanford, 
C. Le Neve Foster, and H. B. Guppy, Messrs. F. Darwin, H. 0. Forbes, 
G. C. Bourne, A. R. Binnie, J. W. Gregory, W. W. Watts,, and J. C. 
Hawkshaw, and Hon. P. Fawcett, appointed to consider a project 
for investigating a Coral Reef by Boring and Sounding 297 

Photogi-aphs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Eighth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. J. E. Bedford, 
Mr. E. J. Garwood, Mr. J. G. Goodchild, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Robert 
Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, 
Mr. H. B. Woodward, Mr. F. Woolnough, and Professor W. W. Watts 
(Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 29& 

Cretaceous Fossils in Aberdeenshire. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of T. F. Jamieson (Chairman), A. J. Jukes Browne, and John Milne 
(Secretary), appointed to ascertain the Age and Relation of the Rocks in 
which Secondary Fossils have been found near Moreseat, Aberdeenshire ... 333 

Appendix. — On the Fossils collected at More.seat. By A. J. Jukes 

Browne 337 

Singapore Caves. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. 
Flower (Chairman), Mr. H. N. Ridley (Secretary), Dr. R. Hanitsch, Mr. 
Clement Reid, and Dr. A. Russel Wallace, appointed to explore certain 
Caves near Singapore, and to collect their living and extinct Fauna 342 

The Fossil Phyllopoda of the Paleozoic Rocks.— Thirteenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor T. Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
Professor T. Rupeet Jones ) 343 

Irish Elk Remains.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins (Chairman), his Honour Deemster Gill, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 



CONTENTS. Vii 

Paga 
Rev. E. B. Savage, and Mr. P. M. C. Kermodb (Secretary), appointed to 
examine the Conditions under which remains of the Irish Elk are found in 
the Isle of Man 346 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Professor T. Q. Bonnet, Mr. P. 
F. Kendall (Secretary), Mr. C. E. De Range, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. TiDDEMAN, Rev. S. N. Haeeison, Mr. J. Hoenb, Mr. Dtjgald 
Bell, Mr. F. M. Bueton, and Mr. J. Lomas, for investigating- the Erratic 
Blocks of the British Isles and taking measures for their preservation 349 

The Necessity for the Immediate Investigation of the Biology of Oceanic 
Islands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flowek 
(Chairman), Professor A. C. Haddon (Secretary), Mr. G. C. Boxjene, Dr. 
H. 0. Foebes, Professor W. A. Heedman, Dr. John MtrREAT, Professor 
Newton, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Professor W. F, R. Weldon. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 352 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman (Chaii-man), Pro- 
fessor E. Ray Lankestee, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor S. J, 
HicKsoN, Mr. A. Sedgavick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Mr. W. E. Hoylb, 
and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary) 353 

Appendix I. — Report on the Occupation of the Table. By Mr. H. M. 

Vernon 354 

„ II. — List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1, 1896, to June 30, 1897 356 

„ III. — List of Papers which were published in 1896 by Natu- 
ralists who have occupied Tables in the Zoological 
Station 357 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Seventh Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blanford, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. 0. Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. E. A. 
Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 358 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Second Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Professor W. A. Heedman, 
Mr. W. E. HoYLE, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, Dr. D. Sharp, 
Mr, C. D. Sherborn, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, 
and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary) 359 

Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Profes.sor Newton (Chairman), Mr. John Cordeadi 
(Secretary), Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barrington, Rev. E. 
PoNSONBY Knublet, and Dr. H. 0. Forbes, appointed to work out the 
details of the Observations of the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87 362 

Life Conditions of the Oyster : Normal and Abnormal. — Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Professor 
R. BoYCE (Secretary), Mr. G. C. Bourne, and Professor C. S. Sherring- 
ton, appointed to Report on the Elucidation of the Life Conditions of the 
Oyster under Normal and Abnormal Environment, including the Effect of 
Sewage Matters and Pathogenic Organisms. (Drawn up by Professor 
Herdman and Professor Boyce.) , 363 

Index Animalium. — Report of a Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flower 
(Chairman), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. H. Woodward, Rev, T. R. R. Stbb- 
binq, Mr. R. MacLachlan, and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), appointed 
to superintend the Compilation of an Index Animalium 367 



viii REPORT— 1897. 

Page 

Afrieau Lake Fauna. — Eeport of tbe Committee, consisting of Dr. P. L. 
ScLATEE (Cliairman), Dr. John Mtjeray, Professor E, Rat Lankestee, 
Professor W. A. Herdman, and Professor G. B. Howes (Secretary) 368 

Zoology and Botany of the AVest India Islands. — Tenth Eeport of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. P. L. Sclatee (Chairman), Mr. Geoege Murray 
(Secretary), Mr. W. Caeeuthees, Dr. A. C. L. Gunthee, Dr. D. Shaep, 
Mr. F. Dtj Cane Godjian, Professor A. Newton, and Sir Geoege Hamp- 
SON, on the present state of our Knowledge of the Zoology and Botany of 
the West India Islands, and on taking Steps to investigate ascertained 
Deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora 369 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Professor 
E. Rat Lankester (Secretaiy), Professor S. H. Vines, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 
and Professor W. F. R. Weldon, appointed to enable Mr. Waltee Gar- 
stang to occupy a table at the laboratory of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion at Plymouth for an experimental investigation as to the extent and 
character of selection occurring among certain eels and fishes, and to cover 
the cost of certain apparatus 370 

The Position of Geography in the Educational System of the Country. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. J. Mackinder (Chairman), 
Mr. A. J. Heebertson (Secretary), Dr, J Scott Keltie, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, and Mr. Eli Soweebetts. (Prepared by the 
Secretary.) 370 

The Climatology of Africa. — Sixth Report of a Committee consisting of Mr. 
E. G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Sir John Kiek, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. H. 
R Mill, and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chair- 
man.) 409 

Experiments on the Condensation of Steam. By Professor H. L. Callenbae 
and Professor J. T. Nicolson 418 

Paet I. A New Apparatus for Studying the Rate of Condensation of 
Steam on a Metal Surface at DiSerent Temperatures and 
Pressures. By H. L. Callendae and J. T. Nicolson 418 

Paet II. An Electrical Method of Measuring the Temperature of a 
Metal Surface on which Steam is Condensing. By Pro- 
fessor H. L. Callendae 422 

Calibration of Instruments used in Engineering Laboratories. — Appendix to 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. B. W. Kennedt, F.R.S. 
(Chairman), Professor J. A. Eaving, F.K.S., Professor D. S. Cappee, Pro- 
fessor T. H. Beaee, and Professor W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. (Secretary) 424 

Screw Gauge. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. 
Preece (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Beamwell, Sir H. Tbeeman 
Wood, Major-Gen. Webber, Col. Watkin, Messrs. Conead W. Cooke, 
R. E. Crompton, a. Stroh, A. Le Neve Foster, C. J. Hewitt, G. K. B. 
Elphinstone, T. Bucknet, E. Rigg, and W. A. Price (Secretary), ap- 
pointed to consider means by which Practical Effect can be given to the 
Introduction of the Screw Gauge proposed by the Association in 1884 426 

Linguistic and Anthropological Characteristics of the North Dravidian and 
Kolarian Races. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. 
Sidney Haetland (Chairman), Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. J. L. Mtees, 
and Mr. Hugh Ratnbied, Jun. (Secretary) 427 

Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir Douglas Galton (Chairman), Dr. Feancis Waenee (Secretary), Mr. 



CONTEXTS, ix 

Page 
E. W. Bkabeook, Dr. J. G. Gabson, and Mr. E. White "Wailis. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 427 

Appendix. — Six Tables showing for each inquiry the children who ap- 
pear to require special care and training on mental or 
physical grounds. The classes of children are presented 
in sub-groups arranged in age-gi-oups and according to 
the school standards 431 

An Ethnological Survey of Canada.- — First Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. Geoege Dawson (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. E. W. Bkabeook, 
Professor A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Dr" J. G. Boukinot, Abbe 
CuoQ, Mr. B. SuLTE, Abbe Q'anquat, Mr C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Botle, 
Ecv. Dr. ScADDiNG, Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, Dr. Neeeb Beatjchemin, Rev. 
Dr. G. Patteeson, Professor D. P. Penhallow, and Mr. C. N. Bell 440 

Appendix I. — The Growth of Toronto Children. By Dr. Feanz Boas 443 

„ II. — The Origin of the French Canadians. By B. Sulte . . . 449 

Anthropometric Measurements in Schools. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Macalistee (Chairman), Professor B. Windle 
(Secretary), Jlr. E. W. Beabeook, Professor J. Cleland, and Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson 451 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom. — Fifth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Beabeook (Chairman), Mr. E. Sidney 
Haetland (Secretary), Mr. FejINCIS Galton, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Professor 
A. 0. Haddon', Dr. Joseph Andeeson, Mr. J. Romillt Allen, Dr. J. 
Beddoe, Professor D. J. Cunningham, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. 
Aethue J. Evans, Mr. F. G. Hilton Peice, Sir H. Howoeth, Professor 
R. Meldola, General Pitt-Rivees, and Mr. E. G. Ratenstein. (Drawn 
up by the Chairman.) 452 

Appendix I. — Further Report on Folklore in Galloway, Scotland. 

By The late Rev. Waltee Geegoe, LL.D 456 

„ 11. — Report on the Ethnography of Wigtownshire and 

Kirkcudbrightshire 500 

„ HI. — Report of the Cambridge Committee for the Ethno- 
graphical Survey of East Anglia 503 

., IV. — Observations on Physical Characteristics of Children 
and Adults taken at Aberdeen, in Banfishire, and in 
the Island of Lewis .506 

„ V. — Anthropometric Notes on the Inhabitants of Cleck- 

heaton, Yorkshire 507 

,. VI. — Report of the Committee on the Ethnographical 

Survey of Ireland 510 

Silchester Excavation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of ]Mr. A. J. 
Evans (Chairman), Mr. John L. Myees (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. Bea- 
beook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund Com- 
mittee in their Explorations 511 

Functional Activity of jVerve Cells. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. VV. H. Gaskell (Chairman and Secretary), Mr. H. K. Andeeson, Pro- 
fessor F. GoTCH, Professor W. D Halliburton, Professor J. B. Haycraft, 
Dr. J. N. Langley, Professor J. G. McKendeick, Dr. Mann, Professor 
BuEDOX Sandeeson, Professor E. A. Schafee, Professor C. S. Sheeeing- 
TON, and Dr. A. D. Wallee, appointed to investigate the changes which 
are associated with the Functional Activity of Nerve Cells and their Peri- 
pheral Extensions 512 



X REPORT — 1897. 

Page 
Appendix I. — On the Origin, Course, and Cell-connections of the 
Viscero-motor Nerves of the Small Intestine. By 
J. L. Bunch, M.D., B.Sc 513 

„ II. — Electromotive Changes in the Spinal Cord and Nerve 
Roots during Activity. By Professor Francis 
GoTCH, F.R.S., and G. J. Burch, M.A .514 

„ III. — The Activity of the Nervous Centres which correlate 
Antagonistic Muscles in the Limbs. By Professor 
C. S. Sherrington, M.D., F.R.S 516 

„ IV. — On the Action of Reagents upon Isolated Nerve. By 

A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S., and S. C. M. Sowton 518 

„ V. — Histological Changes in Medullated Nerve after Treat- 
ment with the Vapours of Ether and Chloroform, 
and \vith CO,. By A. D. Waller, M.D , F.R.S., 
and F. Seymour Lloyd 520 

„ VI. — An Investigation of the Changes in Nerve Cells in various 
Pathological Conditions. By W. B. Warrington, 
M.D., M.R.C.P 525 

Physiological Applications of the Phonograph. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor John G. McKendrick (Chairman), Professor G. G. 
Murray, Mr. David S. Wingate, and Mr. John S. McKendrick, on the 
Physiological Applications of the Phonograph, and on the Form of the 
Voice-curves made by the Instrument 526 

The Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors when introduced into 
the Circulation. Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
E. A. ScH.iPER, F.R.S. (Chairman), Professor C. S. Sherrington, F.R S., 
Professor R. W. Boyce, and Professor W. H. Thompson (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 531 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceae. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. B. Farmer (Chairman), Professor R. W. Phillips (Secre- 
tary), Professor F. O. Bower, and Professor Harvey Gibson 537 

Preservation of Plants for Exhibition. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor Bayley Balfour, 
Professor Errera, Mr. W. Gardiner, Professor J. R. Green, Professor 
M. C. Potter, Professor J. W. H. Trail, Professor F. E. Weiss, and Pro- 
fessor J. B. Farmer (Secretary), appointed to Report on the best Methods 
of Preserving Vegetable Specimens for Exhibition in Museums 537 



CONTENTS. Xk 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST I'd. 

Page- 
Address by Professor A. R. Foksyth, MA., D.Sc, F.Pi.S., President of the 

Section 541 

1. Report on Seismological Investigations ... 549' 

2. Report on Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 5-50' 

3. On the Unification of Time. By John A. Patterson, M.A 550 

4. Preliminary Note on Photographic Records of Objective Combination 

Tones. By A. W. RticKER, F.R.S., R. W. Forsyth, and R. So-\vier ... 551 

FRIBA T, AUG UST 20. 

1. On the Determination of the Surface Tension of Water, and of certain 

Dilute Aqueous Solutions by means of the Method of Ripples. By 
N. Ernest Dorset, Ph.D 551 

2. On a New Method of Determining the Specific Heat of a Liquid in terms 

of the International Electrical Units. By Professor H. L. Callendae, 
M.A., F.R.S., and H. T. Barnes, M.A.Sc 5-52^ 

3. On the Behaviour of Argon in X-Ray Tubes. By Professor H. L. Callen- 
dae, M.A., F.R.S., and N. N. Evans, M.A.Sc 5-53 

4. On the Fuel Supply and the Air Supply of the Earth. By Lord Kelvin, 
F.R.S 553 

6. A Canadian and Imperial Hydrographic Survey. By Professor Alex- 
ander Johnson, M.A., LL.D 554 

6. On the Specific Heat of Superheated Steam. By Professor J. A. Ewing, 
F.R.S., and Professor Stanley Dunkeeley 554 

7. *New Varieties of Kathode Rays. By Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S. ... 555 • 

8. On the Spectra of Oxygen, Sulphur, and Selenium. By C. Runge and 

F. Paschen 5-55 

9. The Influence of Pressure on Spectral Lines. By J. Larmor, F.R.S. ... 555 

10. Changes in the Wave-frequencies of the Lines of Emission Spectra of 

Elements. By W. J. Humphreys 556 

1 1 . *An Experiment with a Bundle of Glass Plates. By Professor Silt anus 

P. Thompson, F.R.S 557 

12. *A Tangent Galvanometer. By Professor Siltanus P. Thompson, F.R.S. 557' 

13. On the Constitution of the Electric Spark. By Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. 557 



xii REPOKT — 1897. 

Page 
1-i. A Reduction of Rowland's Value of tte Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 

to the Paris Hydrogen Scale. By Wm. S. Day, Ph.D 559 

15. ''A Comparison of Rowland's Mercury Thermometer with a Griffiths' 

Platinum Thermometer. By F. Malloet and C. W. "Waidner 560 

MONBAY, AUGUST 23. 
Department I. — Mathematics axd Physics. 

1. Report on Tables of certain Mathematical Functions 660 

2. On the Solution of the Cubic Equation. By Alexander Macfaelane... 560 

3. The Historical Development of the Abelian Functions. By Dr. Harris 

Hancock 560 

4. On a Notation in Vector Analysis. By Professor 0. Heneici, F.R.S. ... 560 

6. *New Harmonic Analyses. By Professor A. A. Michelson and S. W. 
Steatton 562 

6. *The Multipartite Partitions of Numbers which possess Symmetrical 
-Graphs in three Dimensions. By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 562 

7. On the Quinquisection of the Cyclotomic Equation. By J. 0. Glashan. 562 

8. A Kinematic Representation of Jacobi's Theory of the Last Multiplier. 

By J. Laemoe, F.R.S ,562 

9. Increase of Segmental Vibrations in Aluminium Violins. By Dr. A. 

Springer 564 

Department II. — Meteorology. 

1. Report on Observations at the Ben Nevis Observatory 564 

2. Report on the Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteoro- 
logical Phenomena ' 564 

3. Monthly and Annual Rainfall in the British Empire, 1877 to 1896. By 
John Hopkinson, F.R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Inst.C.E .564 

4. On the Temperature of Europe. By Dr. van Rijckevoesel 566 

5. *The Climatology of Canada. By R. F. Stupaet 567 

6. The Great Lakes as a Sensitive Barometer. By F. Napiee Denison ... 567 

7. *Slow Refrigeration of the Chinese Climate. By Dr. .1. Edkins 569 

8. Progress of the Exploration of the Air with Kites at Blue Hill Observa- 

tory, Mass., U.S.A. By A. Lawrence Rotch, S.B., A.M., F.R.Met.Soc. 569 

9. Kites for MeteorologicalUses. By C. F. Marvin 569 

10. Meteorites, Solid and Gelatinous. By Dr. Otto Hahn 569 

11. ^November Meteors and November Flood Traditions. By R. G. Hali- 
burton 569 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 2 4. 
Department I. — Elecxeicity. 

1. Demonstrations on the Form of Alternating Currents. By Professor Dr. 
F.Beaitn 57Q 

2. Note on an Electrical Oscillator. By Nicola Tesl a 670 

3. An Electric Curve Tracer. By Professor E. B. Rosa 571 



CONTEJ^TS. XUl 

Page 

4. On the Use of the Interferometer in the Study of Electric Waves. By G. 

F. Hull 574 

5. An Instrument for Recording Rapidly Varying Potential Differences and 

Currents. By W. Duddell 575 

6. Report on Electrical Standards 575 

7. *0n the Calculation of the Coefficient of JIutual Induction of a Circle and 

a Co-axial Helix. By Professor J. Vieiamtj Jones, F.R.S 575 

8. On a Determination of the Ohm made in Testing the Lorenz Apparatus 
of the McGill University. By Professor W. E. Ateton, F.R.S., and 
Professor J. Viriamu Jones, F.R.S 575 

9. On the Relations between Arc Curves and Crater Ratios with. Cored 
Positive Carbons. By Hertha Ateton 575 

10. On the Source of Luminosity in the Electric Arc. By H. Cee'R' and O. 

H. BAsatriN 577 

11. On some New Forms of Gas Batteries and a New Carbon-consuming 

Battery. By Willard E. Case 579 

1 '2. On the Determination of the State of lonisation in Dilute Aqueous Solu- 
tions containing- two Electi'olytes. By Professor J. G. SlAcGREeoR, 
D.Sc 581 

Department II. — General Physics. 

1. An Apparatus for Verifying the Law of Conservation of Energy in the 

Human Body. By Professor W. 0. Atwater and Professor E. B. Rosa 583 

2. The Rate of the Decrease of the Intensity of Shrill Sounds with Time. 

By A. Walmer Duff 583 

3. A New Instrument for Measuring the Intensity of Sound. By A. G. 

AVebstee and B. F. Shaepe 584 

4. Atmosphere in its Effects on Astronomical Research. By Peecival 
Lowell 585 

5. ^Automatic Operation of Eclipse Instruments. By Professor David P. 
Todd 585 

G. The Cause of the Semi-annual Inversions of the Type Solar Curve in the 
Ten-estrial Magnetic Field. By Professor Frank H. Bigelow 585 

7. *Observations at Toronto with Magnet Watch Integrator. By Professor 
Frank H. Bigelow 586 

8. The Yerkes Observatory. By George E. Hale o86 

0. *The Effects of Tension and Quality of the Metal upon the Changes in 
Length produced in Iron Wires by Magnetisation. By B. B. Brackett. 586 

10. On the Susceptibility of Diamagnetic and Weakly Magnetic Substances. 

By A. P. AViLLS 586 

11. On Magnetic Periodicity as connected with Solar Physics. By Arthur 
Harvey 587 



WUBNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

1, On the Refractivity of certain Mixtures of Gases. By Professor Ramsay, 
F.R.S., and Morris AV.Travees 587 

i'. Note on the Use of the Trifilar Suspension in Physical Apparatus. By 
SiLTANua P. Thompson, F.R.S 588 



Xiv REPORT — 1897. 

Page 

3. *0n Zeeman's Discovery of the Effects of Magnetism on Spectral Lines. 

By Professor 0. J, Lodge, F.R.S ^. 588 

4. *0n the Use of a Constant Total Current Shunt with Ballistic Galvano- 

meters. By Professor W. E. Atrton, F.RS., and J. Mather 588 

5. *The Sensihility of Galvanometers. By Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., 
and J. Mather 588 

6. *Short versus Long Galvanometers for Very Sensitive Zero Tests. By 
Professor W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and J. Mather 588 

7. On a Research in Thermo-electricity by means of a Platinum Resistance 
Pyrometer. By H. M. Tort, M.A 588 

8. On a Simple Modification of the Board of Trade Form of the Standard 
Clark Cell. By Professor H. L. Callendar, M.A., F.R.S., and H. T. 
Barnes, M.A.Sc 591 

9 *0n the Cyclical Variation -with Temperature of the E.M.F.of the H Form 
of Clark's Cell. By F. S. Spiers, F. Twtman, and W. L. Waters 591 

10. On the Disruptive Discharge in Air and Dielectric Liquids. By T. W. 

Edmondson 591 

Section B. -CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 19. 

.Address by Professor W. Ramsay, Pli.D , F.R.S., President of the Section ... 593 

1. Reform in the Teaching of Chemistry. By Professor W. W. Andrews... 601 

2. Report on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools 608 

S. Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 608 

4. *Interim Report on the Proximate Chemical Constituents of the various 
kinds of Coal 608 

5. Report on the Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 608 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. *Helium. By Professor W. Ramsat, F.R.S 608 

2. * Contributions to the Chemistry of the Rare Earth Metals. By Professor 
BOHUSL AV Brauner 608 

3. On the Chemistry and the Atomic Weight of Thorium. By Professor 
BoHUSLAV Brauner 609 

4. The Atomic Weights of Nickel and Cobalt. By Professor Theodore 

W. Richards, A. S. Cushman, and G. P. Baxter 609 

5. *0n the Occurrence of Hydrogen in Minerals. By M. W. Travers 610 

6. The Spectrographic Analysis of Minerals and Metals. By Professor W. 

N. Hartlet, F.R.S., and Hugh Ramage 610 

MONDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Demonstration of the Preparation and Properties of Fluorine. By Pro- 
fessor E.Mbslans 611 

2. *The Properties of Liquid Fluorine. By Professor H. Moissan and Pro- 
fessor J . Dewar, F.R.S 61 1 

3. 'Demonstration of the Spectra of Helium and Argon. By Professor W. 

Ramsay, F.R.S 611 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

4. The Permeability of Elements of Low Atomic Weight to the Rontgen 
Rays. By John Waddell, B.A., D.Se 611 

5. Continuation of Experiments on Chemical Constitution and the Absorp- 
tion of X Rays. By J. H. Gladstone, D.Sc, F.R.S., and W. Hibbert . 611 

6. *0n the Action exerted by certain Metals on a Photographic Plate. By 

Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S 612 

7. 'Photographs of Explosive Flames. By Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. 612 

8. Distribution of Titanic Oxide upon the Surface of the Earth. By F. P. 
DUNNINGTON, F.C.S 612 

9. Deliquescence and Efflorescence of certain Salts. By F. P. Dunnington, 
F.C.S 612 

10. Some Notes on Concentrated Solutions of Lithium and other Salts. By 
John Waddell, B.A., D.Sc, Ph.D - 613 

11. *0n the Formation of Crystals. By W. L. T. Addison 613 

12. Note on a Compound of Mercury and Ozone. By E. C. C. Balt 613 

13. The Reduction of Bromic Acid and the Law of Mass Action. By James 

Wallace Walkee, Ph.D., M.A., and Winifeed Jtjdson 613 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 2i. 

1. On the Composition of Canadian Virgin Soils. By FeankT. Shittt, M.A,, 
F.LC, F.C.S 616 

2. Analysis of Some Precarboniferous Coals. By Professor W. Hodgson 
Ellis 620 

3. *The Constitution of Aliphatic Ketones. By Professor P. C. Freer 621 

4. *The Chemistry of Methylene. By Professor J. U. Nee 621 

5. Formation of a Benzene-Ring by Reduction of a 1 : 6 Diketon. By A. 

Lehmann 621 

6. Condensation Products of Aldehydes and Amides. By Charles A. Kohn, 

Ph.D.,B.Sc 622 

7. A New Form of Bunsen Burner. By Hugh Marshall, D.Sc 623 

WEDNESBA T, A UG UST 25. 

1. *Molecular Movement in Metals. By Professor W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
C.B.,F.R.S 623 

2. The Causes of Loss incurred in roasting Gold Ores containing Tellurium. 

By Dr. T. K. Rose 623 

3. *The Behaviour of Lead and of some Lead Compounds towards Sulphur 
Dioxide. By H. C. Jenkins 624 

4. *The Vapour Tensions of Liquid Mixtures. By Dr. W. L. Miller and 

T. R. ROSEBROUGH 624 

5. *The Electrolytic Determination of Copper and Iron in Oysters. By Dr. 

C. A. Kohn 624 

6. The Nitro-Alcohols. By Professor Louis Henry 624 

7. The Plaster of Paris Method in Blowpipe Analysis. By Professor W. W\ 

Andrews 625 

8. *Some Experiments with Chlorine. By R. Ransford 627 

9. Report on the Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis 627 



Xvi REPORT — 1897. 

P&ge 

10. Report on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 627 

11. Report on the Direct Formation of Haloids from Piu-e Materials 627 

12. *Interim Report on the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 627 

13. Report on the Carbohydrates of the Cereal Straws 627 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

Address by Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S., President of the Section 623 

1. Some Typical Sections in South-western Nova Scotia. By L. W. Bailey, 
Ph.D 640 

2. Problems in Quebec Geology. By R. AV. Ells, LL.D., F.R.S.C 640 

3. Report on Life-Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks 642 

4. The Stratigraphic Succession in Jamaica. By Robert T. Hill 642 

5. Preliminary Notice of some Experiments on the Flow of Rocks. By 
Feank D. Adams and John T. Nicolson 642 

6. The Former Extension of the Appalachians across Mississippi, Louisiana, 

and Texas. By Professor John C. Beannee, Ph.D 043 

7. Report on the Investigation of a Coral Reef 644 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. A Group of Hypotheses bearing on Climatic Changes. By Professor T. 

C. Chamberlin 644 

2. Distribution and Succession of the Pleistocene Ice Sheets of Northern 
United States. By Professor T. C. Chamberlin 647 

3. On the Glacial Formation of the Alps. By Professor A. Pence 647 

4. On the Asar of Finland. By P. Keopotkin 048 

5. The Chalky Boulder-clay and the Glacial Phenomena of the Western- 
Midland Counties of England. By H. B. Woodward, F.R.S 649 

6. Glacial and Interglacial Deposits at Toronto. By A. P. Coleman, Ph.D. 650 

7. On the Continental Elevation of the Glacial Epoch. By J. W. Spencer 
Ph.D., F.G.S 651 

8. The Champlain Submergence and Uplift, and their Relations to the Great 
Lakes and Niagara Falls. By Feank Buesley Taylor 652 

9. *Remarks introductory to the Excursion to Niagara Falls and Gorge. By 

G. K. Gilbert G53 

10. Drift Phenomena of Puget Sound and their Interpretation. By Bayley 
WiiLis 653 

11. The Southern Lobe of the Laurentian Ice Sheet. By Professor C. H. 
Hitchcock 653 

12. On the Origin of Drumlins. By Professor N. S. Shalee 654 

13. The pre-Glacial Decay of Rocks in Eastern Canada. By Robert Chal- 
3IERS, F.G.S.A 655 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 21. 
1. Note on Certain pre-Cambrian and Cambrian Fossils supposed to be re- 
lated to Eozoon. By Sir W. Dawson, F.R.S , 656 



CO.NTENTS, Xvil 

Pag« 

2. Note on a Fish Tooth from the Upper Arisaig series of Nova Scotia. By 

J. F. Whiteaves 656 

3. On some new or hitherto little known Palaeozoic Formations in North- 

Eastern America. By H. M. Ami, M.A., F.G.S 657 

4. Some Characteristic Genera of the Cambrian. By G. F. Matthew, 
LL.D., D.Sc , F.R.S.C [ 657 

5. Eeport on the Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks 658 

6. Report on the Secondary Fossils of Moreseat, Aberdeenshire 658 

7. Influence d'un gboulement sur le Regime d'une Riviere. ParMgr. J.-C. K. 
Laflamme 658 

8. *Report of the Coast Erosion Committee of the East Kent and Dover 

Natural History Societies. By Captain D. McDakin 658 

9. Report on the Fauna of Caves near Singapore 658 

MOJVDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles 659 

2. On the Relations and Structure of certain Granites and associated Arkoses 
on Lake Temiscaming, Canada. By A. E. Baelow, M.A., and W. F, 
Ferriee, B.A.Sc 659 

3. Report on the Irish Elk Remains in the Isle of Man 660 

4. On some Nickeliferous Magnetites. By Willet G. Miller 660 

5. Differentiation in Igneous Magmas as a result of Progressive Crystallisa- 
tion. By J. J. H. Tball, M.A., F.R.S 661 

6. The Glaciation of North-Central Canada. By J. B. Ttbeell 662- 

7. The Geological Horizons of some Nova Scotia Minerals. By E. Gilpin, 

Jr., LL.D., F.R.S.C ; 663- 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. On the Possible Identity of Bennettites, Williamsonia and Zamites gigas. 

By A. C. Sewaed, M.A., F.G.S 663 

2. Glacial Geology of Western New York. By Heeman LeRot Fair- 

child, B.Sc 664 

3. Second Report on Seismological Investigation 664 

4. Earth Strains and Structure. By 0. H. Howaeth 664 

5. Palaeozoic Geography of the Eastern States. By E. W. Clatpole, B.A., 
D.Sc 66& 

6. On the Structure and Origin of certain Rocks of the Laurentian System. 
ByFEANKD. Adams, Ph.D., F.R.S.C 665 

7. Report on Photographs of Geological Interest 666 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

1. *Joint discussion with Section H. on 'The First Traces of Man in 

America' 666 

2. 'Exhibition of the Ferrier Collection of Minerals in the Biological Museum 666 

3. "Exhibition of the Collection of Canadian Fossils in the Museum of the 

School of Practical Science 666 

1897. a 



xviii REPORT — 1897. 

Page 

4. 'Exhibition of a Collection of Devonian Fossils from Western Ontario in 

the Section Room. By Dr. S. Woolvertojt 666 

5. 'Exhibition of a Collection of British Geological Photographs in the Sec- 
tion Room 666 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

Address by Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S., President of the Section 667 

1. Report on Investigations made at the Zoological Station, Naples 683 

2. Report on Investigations made at the Laboratory of the Marine Biological 
Station, Plymouth 683 

3. *0n the Naples Marine Station and its Work. By Dr. Anton Dohrn ... 683 

4. *0n a proposed Lacustrine Biological Station. By Professor R. Ramsay 
Weight 683 

5. *The Origin of Vertebrata. By Professor C. S. Minot 683 

FRIDA Z, A UG UST 20. 

1. Reconstruction and Model of Phenacodus primsevus. Cope. By Professor 

Henry Fairfield Osboen 684 

2. On Skeletons and Restorations of Tertiary Mammalia. By Professor 

Henry Fairfield Osboen 684 

3. Oysters and the Oyster Question. By Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 685 

4. The Amblyopsidse, the Blind Fish of America. By Dr. C. H. Eisenmann 685 

5. The Origin of the Mammalia. By Professor Henry Fairfield Osboen... 686 

6. Description of Specimens of Sea-trout, Caplin, and Sturgeon from Hudson 
Bay. By Professor Edward E. Prince 687 

7. On the Esocidae (or Luciidse) of Canada. By Professor E. E. Prince ... 688 

8. *Recent Additions to the Fish Fauna of New Brunswick. By Dr. Philip 
Con 689 

9. Theories of Mimicry as illustrated by African Butterflies. By Professor 

Edward B. PouLTON, M.A., F.R.S 689 

10. *0n the Surface Plankton of the North Atlantic. By W. Gaestang, M.A. 691 

11. 'Remarks on Branchipus stagnalis. By A. Halkett 691 

12. Report on Zoological Bibliography and Publication 691 

13. Report on the Index generum et specierum animaliuni 691 

14. Report on the Zoology and Botany of the West Indian Islands 691 

15. Interim Report on Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland 691 

16. Report on African Lake Fauna 691 

17. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 691 

18. Report on the Necessity for the Immediate Investigation of the Biology 

of Oceanic Islands 692 

MONDAY, AUGUST 2Z. 

1. Protective Mimicry as Evidence for the Validity of the Theory of Natural 

Selection. By Professor Edwaed B. Potjlton, M.A., F.R.S 692 

2. Economic Entomology in the United States. By L. 0. Hoavaed, Ph.D. 694 



CONTENTS. xix 

Page 

3. On some remains of a Sepia-like Cuttle-fish from the Lower Cretaceous 
rocks of the South Saskatchewan. By J. F. Whitbates 694 

4. The Statistics of Bees. By Professor F. Y. Edgeworth 694 

5. The Appearance of the Army Worm in the Province of Ontario during 

1896. By Professor J. HoTES Panton, M.A 695 

6. *0n a supposed New Insect Structure. By Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 695 

7. *0n Recapitulation in Development, as illustrated by the Life History of 
the Masked Crab (Corystes). By W. Gaestajtg, M.A 695 

8. *0n Muaculo-glandular Cells in Annelids. By Professor Gustavb Gilson 695 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 2i. 

1. On the Plankton collected continuously during a traverse of the Atlantic 

in August, 1897. By Professor W. A. Herdman, F.Pv,.S 695 

2. The Determinants for the Major Classification of Fish-like Vertebrates. 

By Professor Theodore Gill 696 

3. On the Derivation of the Pectoral Member in Terrestrial Vertebrates. By 
Professor Theodore Gill 697 

4. *The Morphological Significance of the Comparative Study of Cardiac 
Nerves. By Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S 697 

5. *Observations upon the Morphology of the Cerebral Commissures in the 

Vertebrata. By Dr. G. Elliot Smith, M.A 697 

6. *Some points in the Symmetry of Actinians. By Professor J. P. 
McMuREiCH 697 

7. *The Natural Plistory of Instinct. By Professor C. Llotd Morgan, M.A, 697 

8. On the Hsematozoon Infections in Birds. By W. G. MacCallum, B.A... 697 

9. The Post-embryonic Development of Aspidogaster conchicola. By Joseph 

Stafford, Ph.D ;'.. 698 

10. *0n a particularly large Set of Antlers of the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). 

By G. P.Hughes 698 

11. *0n the Evolution of the Domestic Races of Cattle, with particular Re- 

ference to the History of the Durham Short Horn. By G. P. Hughes... 698 



■ Section E.— GEOGEAPHY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 
Address by J. Scott Keltie, LL.D., Sec.R.G.S., President of the Section ... 699 

1. Kafiristan and the Kafirs. By Sir George Scott Robertson, K.C.S.I. ... 712 

2. Report on the Climate of Tropical Africa 712 

3. Novaia Zemlia and its Physical Geography. By E. Delmar Morgan, 
F.R.G.S 712 

4. Sea Temperatures north of Spitsbergen. By B. Leigh Smith 713 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. Scientific Geography for Schools. By Professor Richard E. Dodge 714 

[ 2. Report on Geographical Education 714 

3. Forestry in India. By Lieut.-Col. Fred. Bailey 714 

a 2 



XX REPORT — 1897. 

Page 
4. A Scheme of Geographical Classification. By Hugh ±Iobekt Mill, D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E 715 

6. On the Distribution of Detritus by the Sea. By Vaughan Coenish, 
M.Sc, F.R.G.S., F.C.S 716 

6. On certain Submarine Geological Changes. By John Milne, F.R.S., 
F.G.S 71& 

7. The Congo and the Cape of Good Hope, 1482 to 1488. By E. G. Raven- 

stein 717 

MONDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Institutions engaged in Geographic Work in the United States. Bj' 

Marcus Bakee 71S 

2. A Brief Account of the Geographic Work of the United States Coast and 

Geodetic Survey. By T. C. Mendenhall 719 

3. The Hydrography of the United States. By F. H. Newell 719 

4. The Coastal Plain of Maine. By Professor William Moreis Davis 719 

5. *The Unification of Time at Sea. By C. E. Lumsden 720 

6. The Barren Lands of Canada. By J. B. Tteeell, M.A., B.Sc 720 

7. Geographic Work of the United States Geographical Survey. By Charles 

V. Walcott 720' 

8. The Topographical Work of the Geological Survey of Canada. By J. 
White 721 

9. The United States Daily Weather Survey. Bv Professor Willis L. 
MooEE, LL.D .' 721 

TUESBA Y, A UGUST 24. 

1 . The Economic Geography of Rhodesia. By F. C. Selous 721 

2. *A Journey in Tripoli. By J. L. Mtees, M.A 722 

3. On the Direction of Lines of Structure in Eurasia. By Prince Keopoikin 722 

4. Potamology as a Branch of Physical Geography. By Professor Albeecht 

Pence ." 793 

5. *Geographical Development of the Lower Mississippi. By E. L. Coet- 
hill „ 793 

6. * South-eastern Alaska Geography and the Camera. By Otto J. Klotz . 724 

7. *The First Ascent of Mount Lefroy and Mount Aberdeen. By Professor 

H. B. Dixon, F.R.S 794 

8. Mexico Felix and Mexico Deserta. By O. H. Howaeth 724 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 2o. 

1. *The Material Conditions and Growth of the United States. By Henry 
Gannett 735 

2. Geographical Pictures. By Hugh Robeet Mill, D.Sc, F.R.S.E 725 

3. Geographical Wall-pictures. By Professor Albeecht Pence 725 

4. Geography in the University. By Professor William Moreis Davis ... 726 



CONTENTS. XXI 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

Page 
Address by Professor E. C. K. Gonner, M.A., President of the Section 1'27 

1. The History of Trade Combination in Canada. By W. Ji. Mooee 737 

2. Eecent Aspects of Profit Sharing. By Professor N, P. Gilman 738 

3. A Consideration of a European Monopoly as a Contribution to the Theory 

of State Industries. By S. M. Wickett, Ph.D 738 

4. *Statistics of Deaf-Mutism in Canada. By G. Johnson 739 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. *Some Fallacies in the Theory of the Distribution of Wealth. By Pro- 

fessor A. T. Hadles- 740 

2. Canada and the Silver Question. By John Davidson, D.Phil 740 

4B. *The Origin of the Dollar. By Professor W. G. Sumnke 740 

4. *Silver and Copper in China. By Dr. J. Edkins 740 

5. *Characteristics of Canadian Economic History. By Professor A. Shoett 741 

6. Economic History of Canada. By J. Castell Hopkins 741 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 23. 

1 . National Policy and International Trade. By Edwin Cannan, M.A. ... 741 

2. On Public Finance, chiefly in relation to Canada. By J. L. McDottqali, 
M.A., C.M.G 742 

3. Crown Revenues in Lower Canada (1763-1847). By J- A. McLean 742 

4. The Evolution of the Metropolis, and Problems in Metropolitan Govern- 
ment. By Wm. H. Hale, Ph.D 743 

6. Local Differences in Discount Rates in the United States. By R. M. 
Beeckeneidge, Ph.D 744 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

1. *The Economic Geography of Rhodesia. By F. C. Selotts 746 

2. *Economic Aspects of the Workmen's Compensation Bill. By J. R. 

Macdonald 740 

3. *The Relation of the Employment of Women and Children to that of Men. 

By Caeeoll D. Weight 746 

4. *Recent Reaction from Economic Freedom in the United States. By R. 

R. BowKEE 746 

5. *The Theory of Economic Choices. By Professor F. H. Giddings 746 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

1. *Some Economic Notes on Gold Mining in Canada. By Professor J. 

Mayor 746 

2. *Theory of Railway Rates. By W. M. Ackwoeth 746 



xxii REPORT — 1897. 

Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

Page 
Address by G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E., President of the Section 747 

1. The Soulanges Canal, a Typical Link of the 14-foot Inland Navigation of 

Canada hetween Lake Erie and Montreal. By J. Monko, M.Inst.C.E. ... 754 

2, On the Hydraulic Laboratory of McGill University. By Professor Henet 

T, BovET, M.Inst.C.E., and J. T. Fakmee, Ma.E 754 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. Supplementary Report on the Calibration of Instruments in Engineering 
Ljiboratories ^ 755 

2. The Strength of Columns. By Professor Gaetano Lanza 755 

3. Results of Experiments on the Strength of White Pine, Red Pine, Hem- 
lock, and Spruce. By Professor H. T. Bovey, M.Inst.C.E 758 

4. A New Apparatus for Studying the Rate of Condensation of Steam on a 

Metal Surface at Diflerent Temperatures and Pressures. By Professor 

H. L. Callendab, M.A., F.R.S., and Professor J. T. Nicolson, B.Sc. ... 759 

6. Tests on the Triple-expansion Engine at Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. By Professor Cecil H. Peabodt 759 

MONDAY, AUGUST 2Z. 

1. Report on Small Screw Gauges 761 

2. 'Montreal Electric Tramway System. By G. C. Cunningham 761 

3. The Present Tendencies of Electric Tramway Traction. By J. G. W. 
Aldeidge, A.M.Inst.C.E 761 

4. On a New Method of Measuring Hysteresis in Iron. By J. L. W. Gill, 
B.A.Sc 762 

6. A New Method of Investigating the Variation of the Magnetic Qualities 

of Iron with Temperature. By F. H. Pitchee, M.A.Sc 763 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 2i. 

1. *Some Tests on the Variation of the Constants of Electricity Supply 

Meters with Temperature and with Currents. By G. W. D. Ricks 766 

2. 'Roller Bearings. By W. B. Maeshall 766 

3. Analysis of Speed Trials of Ships. By W. G. Walkee, M.Inst.M.E., 
A.M.Inst.C.E 766 

4. *A Modern Power Gas Plant Working in a Textile Factory. By H. Allen 767 

5. *Effect of Temperature in Varying the Resistance to Impact, the Hard- 
ness, and the Tensile Strength of Metals. By A. Macphail 767 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST Id. 

1. tThe Scalp-lock : a Study of Omaha Ritual. By Miss Alice C. Fletchee 788 

2. +The Import of the Totem among tlie Omaha. By Miss Alice C. 
Fletchee 788 



CONTENTS. XXIU 

Page 

3. Squaktktquaclt, or the Benign-faced Oannes of the Ntlakapamuq, British 

Columbia. By C. Hill-Tout 788 

4. The Blackfoot Legend of Scar-face. By R. N. WiLsox 788 

5. Blackfoot Sun-ofFerings. By R. N. Wilson 789 

6. *Star-lore of the Micmacs of Nova Scotia. By Stansbuky Hagae 789 

7. fThe Lake Village of Glastonbury and its place among the Lake dwellings 

of Europe. By Dr. R. Mottko 789 

8. Report on the Silchester Excavations 789 

9. Some Old-world Harvest Customs. By F. T. Elwoetht 789 

10, Report on the North Dravidian and Kolarian Races of Central India 789 

FBI DA Y, A UGUST 20. 

Address by Sir William Turnee, M.B., M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 

President of the Section 768 

1. '^Demonstration of the Utility of the Spinal Curves in Man. By Pro- 
fessor Andeeson Stuaex 790 

2. *The Cause of Brachycephaly. By Professor A. Macalistee, F.R.S 790 

3. *Note8 on the Brains of some Australian Natives. By Professor A. 
Macalistee 790 

4. *0n some Cases of Trepanning in Early American Skulls. By Dr. W. J. 
McGee 790 

5. A Case of Trepanning in North- Western Mexico. By W. Cael Lxjm- 
HOLXZ and Dr. A. Hedlicka 790 

6. Report on the Mental and Physical Deviations in Children from the Normal 791 

7. Report on Anthropometric Measurements in Schools 791 

8. *An Experimental Analysis of certain Correlations of Mental Physical 
Reactions. By Professor Lightner Witmee 791 

9. The Growth of Toronto School Children. By Dr. Feanz Boas 791 

10. *The Physical Characteristics of European Colonists born in New Zealand. 
By Dr. H. O.Foebes 791 

MONDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. tEeport on the North- Western Tribes of Canada 791 

2. *The Seri Indians of the Gulf of California. By Dr. W. J. McGee 791 

3. *Historical and Philological Notes on the Indians of British Columbia. By 

C. HiLL-TouT ; 791 

4. The Kootenays and their Salishan Neighbours. By Dr. A. F. Chambee- 

LAIN : 792 

5. Kootenay Indian Drawings. By Dr. A. F. Chambeelain 792 

6. *A Rock Inscription on Great Central Lake, Vancouver Island. By 

J. W. MacKay 793 

7. Blackfoot Womanhood. By Rev. John Maclean, M.A., Ph.D 793 

8. On the Hut-burial of the American Aborigines. By E. Sidney Haetland 794 

9. Report on the Ethnological Survey of Canada 795 

10. The Origin of the French Canadians. By B. Stjlte 795 

11. Report on the Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom 795 

12. 'The Evolution of the Cart and Irish Car. By Professor A. C. Haddon 795 



Xxiv EEPORT — 1897. 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

Page 

1. *The Jesup Expedition to the North Pacific. By Professor F.W.Putn-am 795 

2. 'Discussion of Evidences of American-Asiatic Contact 795 

3. Why Human Progress is by Leaps. By George Iles 796 

4. *0n the Transmission of Acquired Characters. By Professor J. Cossar 
EwAET, F.R.S 796 

6. *0n the Kafirs of Kafiristan. By Sir Geoege Robertson, K.C.S.I 796 

6. "On the Mangyans and Taghanuas of the Philippine Isles. By Professor 
Dean C. Worcester 796 

7. Report on the Necessity of the Immediate Investigation of the Anthro- 

pology of Oceanic Islands 796 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

* Joint Discussion with Section C (Geology) on the First Traces of Man in 

the New World 796 

a. "The Trenton Gravels. By Professor F. W.Putnam 796 

h. 'Human Relics in the Drift of Ohio. By Professor E. VV. Clatpole 796 

1. On some Spear-heads made of Glass from West Australia. By Sir W. 

Turner, F R.S., F.R.S.E 796 

2. *The Genesis of Implement-making. By F. H. Gushing 797 

3. *Adze-making in the Andaman Islands. By Professor A. C. Haddon ... 797 



•Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental Pathology and 

Experimental Psychology). 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

Address by Professor Michael Foster, M.D., Sec.R.S., President of the 

Section 798 

1. The Rhythm of Smooth Muscles. By Professor H. P. Bowditch 809 

2. The Innervation of Motor Tissues, with special reference to Nerve- 
endings in the Sensory Muscle-spindles. By Professor G. Carl Huber, 
M.D., and Mrs De Witt 810 

3. *The Muscle-spindles in Pathological Conditions. By 0. F. F. Griinbaum: 811 

4. The Ear and the Lateral Line in Fishes. By Frederic S. Lee, Ph.D.... 811 

•6. *0n the Efiect of Frequency of Excitations on the Contractility of Muscle. 
By Professor W. P. Lombard 812 

^6, A Dynamometric Study of the Strength of the Several Groups of Muscles, 
and the Relation of Corresponding Homologous Groups of Muscles in 
Man, By J. H. Kellogg, M.D 812 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 20. 

1. The Output of the Mammalian Heart. By Dr. G. N. Stewart 813 

2. Observations on the Mammalian Heart. By W. T. Porter 814 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page 
3. On the Resistance of the Vascular Channels. By Professor K. Hukthle 815 
4 *The Comparative Physiology of the Cardiac Branches of the Vagus 
Nerve. By Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S 816 

5. On Rhythmical Variations in the Strength of the Contractions of the 

Mammah an Heart. By Arthur R. Ctjshnt 816 

6. Report on the Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors 817 

7. The Absorption of Serum in the Intestine. By Professor E. Watmotjth 

Reid 817 

8. *The Function of the Canal of Stilling in the Vitreous Humour. By 

Professor Andbeson Stuart 820 

0. ^Description of some pieces of Physiological Apparatus. By Professor 
Anderson Stuart 820 

10. On the Phosphorus Metabolism of the Salmon in Fresh Water. By D. 

Noel Paton, M.D., F.R.C.P., Ed 820 

11. *Electrostatical Experiments on Nerve Simulating the effects of Electric 
Rays. By Professor Jacques LoEB 821 

12. The Gastric Inversion of Cane Sugar by Hydrochloric Acid. By Pro- 

fessor Graham Lusk 821 



MONDAY, AUGUST 23. 

1. Study of the Comparative Physiology of the Cells of the Sympathetic 
Nervous System. "By Professor G. Carl Huber 822 

2. Investigrations in the Micro-chemistry of Nerve Cells. By J. J. Mac- 

KENZIE ••• °^-^ 

3. An Investigation of the changes in Nerve Cells in various Pathological 
conditions. By W. B. Warrington, M.D. (Lond.), M.R.C.P 822 

4. Action of Reagents on Isolated Nerve. By Dr. A. Waller, F.R.S 822 

5. Action of Anaesthetics on Nerve. By F. Seymour Lloyd 822 

6. *Action of Anaesthetics on Cardiac Muscle. By Miss Welby 822 

7. P(5riode Refractaire dans les Centres Nerveux. Par Professor Dr. C. 
RiCHET 823 

8. *0n a Cheap Chronograph. By Professor W. P. Lombard 823 

0. Demonstration of the Pendulum Chronoscope and Accessory Apparatus. 
By Dr. E. W. Scripture 824 

10. The Tricolour Lantern for Illustrating the Physiology and Psychology of 

Colour- vision. By Dr. E. W. Scripture 824 

11. Observations on Visual Contrast. By C. S. Sherrington, M. A., M.D. , 
F.R.S 824 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 2i.. 
■^Discussion with Section K on the Chemistry and Structure of the Cell 826 

1. *0n the Rationale of Chemical Synthesis. By Professor R. Meldola, 
F.R.S 826 

2. 'On the Existence in Yeast of an Alcohol-producing Enzyme. By Pro- 
fessor J. R. Green, F.R.S. .' 826 

3. *New Views on the Significance of Intra-cellular Structures and Organs. 

By Professor A. B. Macallum, Ph.D 826 



XXvi REPORT — 1897. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

Page 

1. Preliminary Account of the Effects upon Blood-pressure produced by the 

Intra-venous Injection of Fluids containing Choline, Neurine, or Allied 
Products. By F. W. Mott, M.D., F.R.S., and W. D, Hallibitktoit, 
M.D., F.R.S 826 

2. *0n the Distribution of Iron in Animal and Vegetable Cells. By Pro- 
fessor A. B. Macalltjm, Ph.D 827 

3. "On the Presence of Copper in Animal Cells. By Professor W. A. Heed- 
man, F.R.S., and Professor Rubeet Botce 827 

4. *0n Internal Absorption of Haemoglobin and Ferratin. By F. "W. G. 
Maceat 828 

5. "On Secretion in Gland Cells. By R, R. Bensley 828 

6. *The Morphology and Physiology of Gastric Cells. By R. R. Benslet... 828 

7. Visual Reaction to Intermittent Stimulation. By 0. F. F. Geunbattm... 828 

8. Functional Development of the Cerebral Cortex in Different Groups of 

Animals. By Professor Wesley Mills, M.A., M.D 828 

9. The Psychic Development of Young Animals and its Somatic Correlation, 
with special reference to the Brain. By Professor Wesley Mills, 
M.A., M.D 829 

10. "The Physiology of Instinct. By Professor Lloyd Moegan, F.G.S 829 

11. *The Nature and Physical Basis of Pain. By Professor L. Wither 829 

12. The Action of Glycerine on the Tubercle Bacillus. By S. Monckton 

CoPEMAN, M.A., M.D., and F. R. Blaxell, M.D 829 

13. *Inhibition as a Factor in Muscular Co-ordination. By Professor C. S. 
Sheeeington, F.R.S 830 

14. *A Movement produced by the Electric Current. By Professor F. 
Beatjn 830 

Section K.— BOTANY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 19. 

1. Report on the Preservation of Plants for Exhibition 859 

2. Report on the Fertilisation of the Phoeophycese 859 

3. The Grov?th of the Mycelium of Aecidium graveolens (Shuttlew.) on the 
Branches of the Witches' Broom on Berberis vulgaris. By P. Magnus... 859 

4 Stereum hirsutum, a Wood-destroying Fungus. By Professor H. Mae- 
shall Waed, D.Sc, F.R.S 860 

5. The Nucleus of the Yeast Plant. By Haeold Wager 860 

6. A Disease of Tomatoes. By W. G. P. Ellis, M.A 861 

7. On the Chimney-shaped Stomata of Holacantha Emoryi. By Professor 
Charles E. Bessey 861 

8. Some Considerations upon the Functions of Stomata. Bv Professor 
Chaeles E. Bessey .'. 861 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 20. 

Address by Professor H. Maeshall Ward, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 

Section ; 861 

1. On the Species of Picea occurring in North-eastern United States and 
Canada. By Professor D. P. Penhallow 862 



CONTENTS. XXVll 

Page 

2. *Contribution to the Life History of Eanunculus. By Professor Coulter 862 

3. On the Distribution of the Native Trees of Nebraska. By Professor 
Chaeles E. Besset 862 

4. The Vegetation Regions of the Prairie Province. By Roscoe Pound and 
Feebeeic E. Clements 863 

5. The Zonal Constitution and Disposition of Plant Formations. By Eeedeeic 

E. Clements 863 

6. The Transition Region of the Caryophyllales. By Fredeeic E. Clements 864 

7. Note on Pleurococcus. By Dorothea F. M. Pertz 864 

MONDAY, AUGUST 2Z. 

1. Antherozoids of Zamia integrifolia. By Herbert J. Webber, M. A 864 

2. *0n Diagrams illustrating tlie result of Fifty Years' Experimenting on 
the Growth of Wheat at Rothamsted, England. By Dr. H. E. Aem- 
STEONG, F.R.S 865 

3. A Preliminary Account of a New Method of Investigating the Behaviour 

of Stomata. By Francis Darwin, F.R.S 865 

4. *Notes on Lilsea. By Professor Campbell 866 

5. *Lecture on Fossil Plants. By A. C. Seward, M. A 866 

6. *0n the Existence of Motile Antherozoids in the Dictyolacese. By J. L. 
Williams 866 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 24. 

*Joint discussion with Section I on the Chemistry and Structure of the 
Cell ; introduced by the reading of three Papers, viz: — 

' The Rationale of Chemical Synthesis. By Professor R. Meldola , F.R.S. 

*0n the Existence of an Alcohol-producing Enzyme in Yeast. By 
Professor J. R Green, F.R.S. 

*The Origin and Significance of Intracellular Structures. By Professor 
A. B. Macallum, Ph.D 866 

1. Further Observations on the Insemination of Ferns, and specially on 
the Production of an Athyrioid Asplenium Trichomanes. By E. J. Lowe, 
F.R.S 866 

2. On more than one Plant from the same Prothallus. By E. J. Lowe, 
F.R.S 867 

3. Results in Experiments in the Cross-fertUising of Plants, Shruhs, and 
Trees. By Wm. Saunders 867 

4. *0n a Hybrid Fern, with Remarks on Hybridity. By Professor J. B. 

' Farmer 868 

5. The Morphology of the Central Cylinder in Vascular Plants. By E. C. 
Jeffrex 869 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

1. The Gametophyte of Botrychium virginianum. By Edward C. Jeffrey, 

B.A 870 

2. Remarks on Changes in number of Sporangia in Vascular Plants. By 

F. 0. Bower, F.R.S 872 



xxviii REPORT — 1897. 

Page 

3, Notes on Fossil Equisetaceae. By A. G. Seward, M.A., F.G.S 872 

4, *0n Streptothrix actinomycotica and allied species of Streptothrix. By 
Professor E. M. Oeookshank, M.D 873 

5, *Observations on the Cyanophyceae. By Professor A. B. Macallum, Ph.D. 873 

^. Report upon some Preliminary Experiments with the Rontgen Rays on 
Plants. By George F. Atkiitson 873 

Index 874 



Erratum 
Page 28G, for Dr. W. N. Perkin, read Dr. W. H. Perkin. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in difiierent parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The OflBcers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Gomjoositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Membees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX REPORT — 1897. 

gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay witJwut intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Oralis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members luho have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhers' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. &d. per volume. • 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

> A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale, at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xxxi 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Co'mmittee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1, Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before the Meethig 
of the Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. ^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election: 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,* and of preparing Reports 

' Eevised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 

"^ Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

» Passed, Edinburgh, 1871. 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 



X3:xii REPORT — 1897. 

thereon, and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex oficio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold such preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first "Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease.^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Eook, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'' Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Thursday and Saturday.^ 

The business is to be conducted in the foUowingr manner : — 



o 



1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessary, in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communicatious, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book- post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 

' Sheffield, 1879. 2 Swansea, 1880. ^ Edinburgh, 1871. 

♦ The meeting on Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. ^ Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXUl 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 
3. Papers which have heen reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Office and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hy Authors, are to he forwo.rded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Oommittee should be named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
^ This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, 1871. 

1897. b 



xxxiv REPORT — 1897. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingness to accept the office, the Ohairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should he appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient luorJcing. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement whether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be nominated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must iirst be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. "^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

• Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

' Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

5. In each Committee tlie Chairman is the only person entitled to 

call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasui'er is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. "When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
farther grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of Natural History are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Association. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,^ and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours 
of meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee, except for Thursday and 
Saturday. 



XXXvi KEPORT — 1897. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Comr)iittee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the SectionaJ 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are ex officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.^ 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

• Passed by the General Committee at Newcastle, 1863. 

• Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 

• Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATIOX. XXXvii 



Corresponding Societies} 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, a, 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abTireviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
'General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

9. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



xxxviii EEPORT — 1897. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing i-esnlts. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the OfiBcers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi.ceo's. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

» 5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

( 3 ) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

' Paased by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



KDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rale, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OfiBcers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xl 



REPORT — 1897. 






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xlviii 



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PAST PEESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES, xlix 



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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PEESIDEXTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



U 




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lii 



REPOET — 1897. 



TEUSTEES AND GENEEAL OFFICEES, 1831—1898. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Muechison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S, 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 



1862-81 
1872-98 
1881-83 



1883- 
1883- 



Sir P. Egeeton, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
Sir Lyon (now Lord) Playfaik, 

F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. "Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. RticKEE, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



-35 



-36 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 



Veenon Haecouet, 

Vkenon Haecouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1836-37 Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 
and R. I. Muechison, 
Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 
and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. "Walkee, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 



1337- 

1839 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 



■39 



1-45 



50 



-53 

-59 
-61 
-62 



-68 



71 



1866- 
1868- 
1871- 
1872- 

1876- 
1881- 



1882- 
1883- 



1895-97 



1897-98 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S., and Dr. 
T. THOMSON, F.R.S. 
72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
76 Capt. Douglas Galton. F.R.S., 
and Dr. Michael Fostee, 
F.R.S. 

81 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Dr. P. L. SclATEE, F.R.S. 

82 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Prof. F. M. Balfoue, 
F.R.S. 

83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFEE, B'.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. ScHAFEE, F.R.S., and 

Prof. W. C. Robeets- Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

1831 John Phillips, Esq., ;Secreterw. I 1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

1832 ----- 



Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Geipfith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Goedon, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G, Geiffith, Esq., M.A., Acti^tg 

Secretary. 



Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-98 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A. 



liii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.K.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.K.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHTSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. "William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . "WTiewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F P S 
Prof. M'buUoch, M.R.LA, ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. "W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

P.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch,Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof . Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof 

Tyndall. 



liv 



REPORT — 1897. 



Date and Place 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. K. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. IMacquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



S. 

S. 

F. 
. T. 

G. 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfoiir Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G . C. Foster, B. A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir "W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Raukine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

T.^aidall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J, 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

B. B. Hayward. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. CliflEord, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomlev, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof . W. K . Cliff ord, J. W. L . Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G.F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J.W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomlev, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomlev, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 



PBESIDKNTS AMD SECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen. . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



CardiflE 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 



Presidents 



1897. Toronto 



Et. Hon. Prof. Lord Eayleigh, 

M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.E.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir E. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

E.E., F.E.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.E.S., V.P.E.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster. Ph.D., 

F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
B. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. A. W. Eiicker, M.A., 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.E.S. 

Prof. A. E. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Eev. G. Eichardson. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. E. C. Eowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
E. E. Baynes, E. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
E. E. Bavnes, E. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
E. E. Baynes, E. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
E. E. Baynes, E. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
E. E. Baynes, E. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge,'Prof. A. L. Selby. 
E. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge. 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, 

W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEEALOGT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Jolmston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRT AND MINERALOGY. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.E.S. .. 
Eev. Prof. Cummina: 



Michael Faraday, F.E.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.E.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.E.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Cumming- 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson,. Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. E. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, E. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Hunt, J, Graham. 

E. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
I E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Eandall. 



Ivi 



EEPORT 1897. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878, 
1879. 



Swansea . 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich . . 
Belfast 



Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen.. 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Edinburgh 



Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 



Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.K.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.Di,F.R.S. 

Prof. J. F. "W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof.W.*A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair, C.B., FIR.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W.A.MiUer, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. '\V. Williamson, 

W. bdli'ng, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Benee Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S... . 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Da^'y, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J, 
M. Thomson, 



PBESIDENTS AND SECEETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. 
1883. 

1883. 

188i. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 
I 1890. 

1891. 
\ 1892. 

1893. 

1894. 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
iipon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897, 



Liverpool. 
Toronto . 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schnnck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B.. F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



SECTioK B (continued).- 
Fioi. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 



P. P. Bedson.H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr.W. J.Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W, W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 
j D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
'C. H, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefas, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 

—CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn. J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn 
Prof. W. H- Ellis, A. Harden, C. A.. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



' John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
J. Phillips, T. J. ToiTie, Rev. J. Yates. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1 839. Birmingham 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

R. J. Griffith i Captain Port lock, T. J. Torrie. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 'William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 



<Teo5'.,R.I.Murchison,P.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

<?eo5'.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Oeoqrapliy, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'eoi7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 



T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham, R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 



iviii 



REPORT 1897, 



Date and Place 



1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 
1850. Edinburgh" 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geo-, 
ffrajjhy, G. B. Greenough, 
F.R.S. I 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. ...j 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

I 
Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. I 

Henry Warbra-ton, Pres. G. S.; 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A.,' 

F.R.S. I 

Leonard Horner, F.R.S ' 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B.,' 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison 

F.R.S. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Secular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 
Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, 

Prof. Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c {contimied). — geology. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenliam 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.-CoL Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsaj-, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 



C. J. F. Bunburj^ G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James Mac Adam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, AVilliam Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J, Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E, W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorbj-. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H, C, 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith, 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C, 

Sorbj^, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev, E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W, Pengelly. 



' The subject of Geography was separated from Geology and combined with 
Ethnology, to constitute a separate Section, under the title of the 'Geographical 
and Ethnological Section ' ; for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page Ixiv, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1876. 
1876. 

1877. 



Dundee 
Norwich 



Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 
Brighton.., 
Bradford .. 
Belfast 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin. 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 



Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 
R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E.,F.G.S. 

Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. G. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S., Sec. 

Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S., 

Sec. G.S. 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 



R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R, G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 
J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
mah, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G; A. Lebour. J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Blarr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 

A. Miers, Clement Reid. 
J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miei-s, Clement 

Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 



k 



EEPOET 1897. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgh. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...lEev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.! C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham [W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1833. Dublin. 
1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. PlymoiTth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Orford 



Eev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



John Eichardson,M.D., F.E.S. 



Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 

Eootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, 

Dr. Eichardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Her- ' Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. j Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, B 

I Patterson. 
Very Eev. the Dean of Man- ' Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 'Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., ] Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.E.S. Wooldridge. 

H. E.Strickland, M.A.,F.E,S.' Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

j Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence, F.E.S , 

ProL Goodsir, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S.... 
Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.E.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F.E.S. 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E, 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Eobert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. BuckmaD, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. E. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Eobert Patterson, Dr. W. B. Steele. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham ' 



Presidents 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Kev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued'). — BIOLOGY. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool... 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— i>(^. 

of Physiol., Prof. Humphry, 

F.R.S.— i?<?^. of Anthropol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Bep. of Zool. and Hot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep.of Ethno., E. B. T3'lor. 

Prof.G. Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.\..'S>. — Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol. ,VT:oi.M.. 
Foster, M.D., ¥.!,.&.— Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Bot. and 
.2i)oZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthrojwl., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

SirJ.Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. AUman, F.R.S.— D^'i?. of 
Anat.and Physiol.^^ol. Ru- 
therford, '^i).—Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprej-. 



1 



• The title of Section D was changed to Biology; and for the word 'Sub- 
section,' in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word 'Depart- 
ment ' was substituted. 



Ixii 



KEPOHT — 1897. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton.' 



1883. Southport^ 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Presidents 



1875. Bristol .... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth. 



Prof. Eedfern, U.D.—Dep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.K.S.— i)<'i?.oM%- 
tho'op., Sir W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, Y.^.&.— Dep.of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, ¥ .^.'A.—Bej). of 
Anthropol., Prof. EoUeston, 
F.R.S. 

A.. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bcjf. of Anat. and Phi/siol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendricic. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister.-r-2><'^. of 
Anthro2)ol.,'F.G2ilton,¥.U.ii. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
B('2). of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. B..S.—Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthrojjol., 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bej). of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. P3'e-Smith. 

A. C. L. Giinther, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
¥.B,.ii.—Bep. if Anthropol., 

F. W. Rudler,"F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. J. S. Burden Sander- 
son, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of. Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



Secretaries 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S. 



W. T. Thiselton- Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye- Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. y^. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifcr. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestlej^ 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 



' The Departments of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were 
amalgamated. 

' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixs. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath 



1889. Newccastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edmburgh 
1893.Nottinghami 

1894. Oxford* ... 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



Presidents 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.K.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.K.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Eutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.K.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfonr, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



SECTION D (continued) 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. B. Ponlton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



C. Bailey, F. B. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

—ZOOLOGY. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. 0. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, T. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

18.33. Cambridge iDr.J. Haviland '. IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh [Dr. Abercrombie I Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dt. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr .J.Brown, Prof. Conper,Prof. Reid. 



1835. Dublin Dr. J. C. Pritchard 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. P. M. Ro^et, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S... 
James Watson, M.D 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... ! P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

1842. Manchester Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

1844. York J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

1845. Cambridge iProf. J. Haviland, M.D Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixx. 
* The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixiv 



KEPOET — 1897. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. . 

ton. 

1847. Oxford ' ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



I C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
I gent. 

^Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
I Ormerod. 



PHTSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1«57. 
1858. 

1«59. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham.- 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Dav3', F.R.S. L.& E. 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smitli, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthcrs. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Mi.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast. 

1853. Hull. 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., |R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. CuU, F. D. Havtland, AV. H. 
Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 1 R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 
Pres. R.I.A. | Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 



> By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology' (see p. Ix.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

2 Vide note on page Ixi. , 



PRESIDENTS AxND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



i858. Leeds 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
■1863. 
J 864. 
'1865. 
1866, 

•1867. 
1868. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear - Admiral Sir James 
Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 
F.R.S. 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyiil Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



I 



1869. Exeter 

aSTO. Liverpool... 
1871. Edinburgh 
1S72. Brighton... 
J 873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.., 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen.. 
1897. 



SECTION E {continued). 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B.,' 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm.SirE. Ommanney, C.B., 
F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G.. F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



— GEOGEAPHT. 

H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.AbbeLaflamme, J.S. O'HaUoran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

d 



Ixvi 



BEPORT 1897. 



Date and Place 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Mancliester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1890. 


upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 



Presidents 



Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

KC.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, B.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfau-.K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

■poo 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 

J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 



Secretaries 



F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic, 

E. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltic, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltic, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 



1833. 
1834. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge! Prof. Babbage, F.R.S I J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Clcland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 



1838 
1839 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford , 



Swansea ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
P. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R.W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

coclc 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
I V.P.R.S.E. I Stark. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut,-Col, Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 



Birmingham Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 
Edinburgh 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow . 



Presidents 



Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P,,F.K.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.E.S 

K. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



Secretaries 



J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, jun. 

Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, "W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION p (continued). — ECONOMIC science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 



Rt, Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau "W. Senior, M.A. . . . , 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



1862. Cambridge | Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

1863. Newcastle . William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.., 

1873. Bradford .., 

1874. Belfast , 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 



William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., G.J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 



M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown 

Rt.Hon. Sir StaffordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



L 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K. C.S.I 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 



E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett , Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. MoUoy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1897. 



Date and Place 



1883. 

1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 



Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 




Secretaries 



R. H, Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., C.I.B., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

K s s 
Prof. A.Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 
F.S.S. 



1894. Oxford.... 

1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A 



Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 
I F.S.S. 
I L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 



Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
!Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorlev. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlav, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. "Higc^s, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. 0. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. 

Shortt. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



■1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

'1839. Birmingham 
'1840. Glasgow .... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. 

1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
ift47. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
185L 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
South'mpt'n 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingh'm 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 



T. G. Bimt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T- 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Me-surier, W. P. Struvg. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 



1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883, 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 



Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth.,. 

Dublin 

Sheffield .,. 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton 
Southport 
Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 



Presidents 



John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S, 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R. S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H, Barlow, F.R.S. 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S. E. 
W. Froude, C.E.,M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres. Inst.C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 
C.E. 



Secretaries 



John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W.S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
I R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev, F, Harrison, 
I Henry Wright. 
'p. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster, 
p. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F, Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

0. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C, 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T, 

King, J. N. Shoolbred, 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J, P. Smith, 
H, M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman. 

E. H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, 

J. N. Shoolbred. 
A, T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W, J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J, N, 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G, Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F, Churton, H. T, 

Wood, 
A. T. Atchison, B. Rigg.H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W B 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 



Ixx 



REPORT 1897. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1891. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 

1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 



Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto . . . 



Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 



Presidents 



Prof. Osborne Eeynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.E.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

P.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 



Secretaries 



C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popple well, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. E.S,, 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



Sir W. H. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A. 



Flower. K.C.B., 
Flinders Petrie, 



Sir W. Turner, F.E.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. E. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

E. Morison, Dr. E. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. E. Howden, H. 

Ling Eoth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

E. Howden, H. Ling Eoth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Eev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. E. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Eoth. 
J. L. Myres, Eev. J. J. Eaven, H. 

Ling Eoth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



1896. 
1897. 



Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 

M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M. S. Pembrey. 
Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 
Prof. E. Boyce, Prof. C. S. 

ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 



Sherring- 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.E.S.I A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. JefiErey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 



Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 

1851. 
1853. 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



1853. Hull. 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof, WiUis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,r.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.G.S. 



Robert Hunt, F.R.S... 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways, 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the JSgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope, 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. iSchonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operat ions of Swansea 
and its Neighbourliood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocilies on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nu rition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclii >e of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discover\ jf Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Plienomena in the 
Geology and Pliysical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 



Ixxii 



KEPORT — 1897. 



Date and Place 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



Lecturer 



Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.K.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. "W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .. 



1860. Oxford. 



1861. Manchester 



1863. Cambridge 
1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. E. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Fhillips,LL.D.,F.R.S 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. "Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S... 



William Hnggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odlincr, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D.. F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. ClifiEord 



Subject of Discourse 



Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform Research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

raretied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
.\rctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 
Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the MicZ- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the- 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modert> 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 



1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.K.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
\V. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F R S 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 



W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. E.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. BaU, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. 

John Murraj', F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. , 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. , 

Col. SirF. de Win ton 

Prof. W. E. AjTton, F.R.S. . 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A.W.Eucker,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing.M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 



Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals are 

Automata, and its History. 
The Colours of Polarised Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The ChaUenger Expedition. 
Physical Phenomena connected with 

the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission o3 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some DifFculties in the Life of 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 



Ixxiv 



REPORT — 1897. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1894. Oxford 


Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M. A. 


Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 


1895. Ipswich ... 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 


Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 


1896. Liverpool... 


F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 


Developments. 
Safety in Ships. 
Man before Writing. 


1897. Toronto ... 


Prof. Roberts Austen, F.R.S. 


Canada's Metals. 




J. Milne, F.R.S 


Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 



LECTURES TO THE OPEEATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1867. Dundee 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Blatter and Force. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 


A Piece of Chalk. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


Experimental Illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 


1870. Liverpool... 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,M.P., 
F.R.S. 


Savages. 


1872. Brighton ... 


W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 


Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 


1873. Bradford ... 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Fuel. 


1874. Belfast 


Prof. Odling, F.R.S 


The Discovery of Oxygen. 


1875. Bristol 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 


A Piece of Limestone. 


1876. Glasgow ... 


Commander Cameron, C.B., 

R.N. 
W. H. Preece 


A Journey through Africa. 


1877. Plymouth... 
1879. Sheffield ... 


Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power. 


W. E. Ayrton 


1880. Swansea ... 


H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 


The North-East Passage. 


1881. York 


Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 
F.R.S. 


Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 




1882. Southamp- 


John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 


Unwritten History, and how to 


ton. 




read it. 


1883. Southpnrt 


Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 


Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 


1884. Montreal ... 


Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 


Comets. 


1885. Aberdeen... 


H. B. Dixon, M.A 


The Nature of Explosions. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 


The Colours of Metals and their 




F.R.S. 


Alloys. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 


Electric Lighting. 


1888. Bath 


Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 


The Customs of Savage Races. 




F.R.S. 


1889. Newcastle- 


B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 


The Forth Bridge. 


upon-Tyne 






1890. Leeds 


Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 


Spinning Tops. 


1891. Cardie 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 


Electricity in Mining. 


1892. Edinburgh 


Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


Electric Spark Photographs. 


1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 


Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 


Spontaneous Combustion. 
Geologies and Deluges. 


Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ... 


1895. Ipswich ... 


Dr. A. H. Fison 


Colour. 


1896. Liverpool... 


Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 


The Earth a Great Magnet. 


1897. Toronto ... 


Dr. H. 0. Forbes 


New Guinea. 









Ixxv 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE TORONTO MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— 'Proiessor A. R. Forsyth, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Proi. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. Henrici, F.R.S. ; Dr. G. W. Hill ; Prof. A. Johnson, M.A., 
LL.D. ; Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. ; Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. ; President Loudon ; Prof. A. A. Michelson ; Prof, S. 
Newcomb. 

Secretaries. — Prof. W. H. Heaton, M.A. {Recorder) ; J. C. Glashan ; 
J. L. Howard, D.Sc. ; Prof. J. C. McLennan, B.A. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R 8. 

Vice-Presidents.— Trot G. F. Barker ; Prof. F. W. Clarke ; Prof. H. B. 
Dixon, F.R.S. ; W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S. ; Prof. B. J. Harrington ; 
Prof. E. W. Morley ; Prof. W. H. Pike ; Prof. I. Remsen ; Prof. 
W. C. Roberts-Austen, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. W. H. Ellis ; Arthur Harden {Recorder) ; Charles 
A. Kohn ; Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. LeNeve Foster, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. G. K. Gilbert ; Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson, 
M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D. ; G. W. Lamplugh ; 
Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S. {Recorder). 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY, 

President.— Vroi. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Proi. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. R. Meldola, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. E. B. Poulton, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Prof. R. Ramsav 
Wright, M.A., B.Sc 

Secretaries. — Walter Garstang, M.A. ; Prof. E. E. Prince, B.A. ; W. E. 
Hoyle, M.A. {Recorder). 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— 3 . Scott-Keltie, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Burwash ; E. G. Ravenstein ; Prof. Albrecht 
Penck ; F. C. Selous ; Coutts Trotter. 



Ixxvi EEPORT — 1897. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor E. C. K. Gonner, M.A.^ 

Vice-Presidents.— Vroi. W. Clark, M.A., LL.D. ; Prof. J. Mavor ; the 
Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, K.O.B. 

Secretaries.— 'E. Cannan, M.A. ; Prof. A. Shortt, M.A. ; Henry Higgs, 
LL.B. {Recorder). 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— 2toI. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. T. Bovey, M.A. ; 
Prof. John Galbraith, M.A. ; Prof. G. Lanza ; Prof. W. C. Unwin, 
F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. [Recorder) ; W. A. Price, 
M.A. ; Prof. Callendar, M.A., F.R.S. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY, 

President. -Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — E. W. Brabrook, C.B., Pres. Anthr. Inst. ; Prof. A. 
Macalister, M.D., F.R.S. ; R. Munro, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; Dr. W. J. 
McGee ; Prof. F. W. Putnam, D.Sc. 

Secretaries. — A. F. Chamberlain, Ph.D. ; H. O. Forbes, LL.D. ; Prof. 
A. C. Haddon, D.Sc. ; J. L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A, {Recorder). 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President— 'Prot Michael Foster, M.A., LL.D., Sec. R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lord Lister, P.R.S. ; Surgeon-General J. S. Billings ; 
Prof. H. P. Bowditch, M.D. ; W. H. Gaskell, M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. 
A. B. Macallum, M.B., Ph.D. ; Prof. W. Osier, M.D. ; Prof. C. 
Richet, M.D. ; Prof. A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. Rubert Boyce, M.B. {Recorder) ; Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, M.D., F.R.S. ; L. E. Shore, M.D. 

SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

* 

President.— 'Fvoi. Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. D. P. Penhallow, M.A. ; Prof. Farlow, M.D., 
LL.D. ; Prof. F. O. Bower, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — E. C. Jeffrey, B.A. ; Prof. Bretland Farmer, M.A. ; A. C. 
Seward, M.A. ; Prof. F. E. Weiss, B.Sc. {Recorder). 

' Prof. Gonner was unable to attend the Meeting. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1897-98. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIB JOHN E7ANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A., Treasurer of the Royal Society of LonJon. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Bxcelleucy the Right Hon. the Earl op 

Aberdeen, G.C.M.G., Governor-General of the 

Dominion of Canada. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Ratlkigh, M.A., 

D.O.L., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Kelvin, G.O.V.O., M.A., 

LL.D., D.O.L., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Rt. Hon. Sir Wilfrid Ladbier, GC.M.G., 

Prime Minister of the Dominion of Canada. 
His Honour the Liectbnant-Governob of the 

Province of Ontirio. 



The Hon. the Premier of the Province of Ontario. 
The Hon. the Minister of Education for the 

Province of Ontario. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Tuiter, Bart., G.C.M.G., 

O.B., LL.D. 
Sir William Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
The Mayor of Toronto. 
Profeasor J. Loudon, M.A., LL.D., President of 

the University of Toronto. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
SIR W. OROOKES, F.R.S., V.P.O.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Ducib, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bisnop of Bristol, D.D. 
The Right Hon. Sir Edward Fry, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart.. D.O.L., F.R.S. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Bristol. 



The Principal of University College, Bristol. 
The Master of the Society of Merchant Venturers 

of Bristol. 
John Beddoe, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Profeasor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, LL.D., P.R.S., F.S.A., 

F.G.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Professor E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., University College, London, W.C. 
Professor W. C. Roberts- Austen, C.B., F.R.S., Royal Mint, London, E. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., College Road, Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, Sec.R.S., Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRISTOL. 

Arthur Lee, Esq. | Bertram Rogers, Esq., M.D. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRISTOL 
J. W. Aurowsmith, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Boys, C. Vernon, Esq., F.R.S. 
Oreak, Captain E. W., R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwin, F., Esq.. F.R.S. 
Edgeworth, Professor F. T.. D.O.L. 
Fhemantle, Hon. Sir C. W., K.O B. 
Hallirurton, Professor W. D., F R.S. 
Harcourt, Professor L. P. Vernon, M.A. 
Herd .MAN, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Hopkinson, Dr. J., F.R.S. 
Hoksley, Victor, Esq , F.R.S. 
Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Meluola, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



Preece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Professor S. P., F.R.S. 
Tho.mson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
Tylob, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
White, Sir W. H., K.O.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former ye.irs, 
the Secretary, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.A. 
The Right Hon. Lord Playfair, G.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OP FORMER TEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, X.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, (t.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 



Lord Ravleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Plavfair, G.G.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, Bart., K.O.B., 
F.R.S. 



Sir Wm. Huggins, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof.J.S.BurdonSanderson.F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER TEARS. 



F. Galton, Esq.. F.R.S. 

Prof. Michael Foster, Sec.R.S. 

G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 

Professor H. MoLeod, F.R.S. 



P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

AUDITORS. 
I Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., F.R.S. 



IDr.D.H. 6oott,F.B.S. 



Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1897. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1896-97. RECEIPTS. 

£ t. d. 

Balance brought forward 957 15 3 

Life Compositions 490 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 336 

Annual Subscriptions 580 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 1369 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 873 

Sale of Publications 217 18 5 

Interest on Deposit at Liverpool Bank 18 16 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 3 12 6 

Dividends on Consols 200 7 4 

Dividends on India 3 per Cents 104 8 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : — 

Erratic Blocks Committee £1 3 

Corresponding Societies Committee 8 10 

Calibration Committee 15 18 11 

Ethnographical Survey Committee 3 17 

Electrical Standards Committee 16 15 10 

38 3 7 

Income Tax returned 30 8 G 

Sale of Tickets for Toronto Meeting (to June 30) : — 

Life Members 40 

Annual Members 26 

New Annual Members 24 

Associates 32 

122 



June 30, 1896: Consols 

India 3 per Cents 



£5341 9 7 



Investmentx 

£ s. d. 
7537 3 5 
3600 



£11,137 3 5 



Lt)dwig Mond, 1 i j.^ 
Hebbeet McLbod, I^^**"'"'- 



GENERAL TREASUKER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxix 

from July ], 1896, to June 30, 1897. Cr. 

1896-97. PAYMENTS. 

£ s. <l. 
Expenses of Liverpool Meeting, including Printing, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &c 157 8 6 

Rent and Ofiice Expenses 61 4 7 

Salaries 508 15 

Printing, Binding, &c 1158 10 6 

Payment of Grants made at Liverpool : 

£ J. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Integrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 60 

Electrolytic Quantitative Analysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological Interest 15 

Remains of tlie Irish Elk in the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 910 8 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands 40 

To work out Details of Observations on the Migration of 

Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condition of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes associated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and their Peripheral Exten- 
sions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phaeophyceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 



1059 10 8 



In hands of General Treasurer : 

On deposit at Liverpool 1500 

At Bank of England, Western Branch £939 7 4 

Less Cheques not presented 60 10 

878 17 4 

Cash 17 3 



- 2396 4 
£5341 9 7 



Account 

£ s. d. 

June 30, 1897 : Consols 7537 3 5 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



£11,137 3 5 



Aethue W. RiJCKEB, General Treasurer. 
July 9, 1897. 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1897. 







Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 


Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 




Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 




18.31, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, .June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 . ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.B.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, P.R.S 

SirT. M.Brisbane, D.C.L 

The R ev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D 

The Marquis of Lansdownc 


169 
3U3 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 


6.1 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 

8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
1-t 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
3« 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 

8 




Oxford 




Cambridge 




Edinburgh 




Dublin 




Bristol 




Liverpool 


The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland 




Ncwcastle-on-Tyue. . . 
Birmingham ." 




Tlie Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 




Glasgow 


The Marquis of Breadalbane . . . 




Plymouth 


The Rev. \Y. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton 




Manchester 




Cork 


The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, DD 




York 




Cambridge 


Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . . 




Southampton 


Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart. . . . 




Oxford 




Swansea 


The Marquis of Northampton ... 




Birmingham 


The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 




Edinburgh 




Ipswich 

Belfast 




1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

3863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 


Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, P.R.S. 




Hull 




Liverpool .... 


The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

Tlie Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. 




Glasgow 




Cheltenham . 




Dubhu 


The Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. ... 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 




Leeds 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 


The Lord Wrottesley, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUis, M.A 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Bucoleuch, K.C.B 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L. 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D. .. 




Manchester 




Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Bath 




Birmingham 




Nottingham 




Dundee 




Norwich 




Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 


Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. . . 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 


Prof. J. Tvndall. LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John itawkshaw, O.E., F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsav, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir H. E. Roseoe, D.C.L., F.B.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 




Bristol 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




York 




Southampton . 




Southport 




Montreal 




Aberdeen 




Birmingham 




Manchester 




Bath ... 




Newcastle-on-Tyne... 
Leeds ".... 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 




Nottingham . 




Oxford 


The Marquis of SaUsburv,K.G.,F.B.S. 

Sir Douglas Gallon, F.R.S 

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 




Ipswich 




Liverpool 




Toronto 









• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxi 



at Annual Heelings of the Association. 



Attended by 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



New 
Annual 
Members 



46 
75 
71 
45 
94 
65 
197 
54 
93 
128 
61 
63 
56 
121 
143 
104 
156 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
368 
341 
413 
328 
435 
290 
383 
286 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 

152 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

125 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies 



33t 

"n 

407 
270 
495 
376 
447 
510 
244 
610 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
630 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 
682 



1100» 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
509 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 



Foreigners 



Total 



34 

40 



28 



35 
36 
53 
15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45: 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&60H.5 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
60 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2567 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
2107 
2441 
1776 
1664 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1498 







































































































Sums paid 


on Account 


of Grants 


for Scientific 


Purposes 


£20 


167 


435 


922 12 6 


932 2 2 


1595 11 


1546 16 4 


1235 10 11 


1449 17 8 


1565 10 2 


981 12 8 


831 9 9 


685 16 


208 6 4 


275 1 8 


159 19 6 


345 18 


391 9 7 


304 6 7 


205 


380 19 7 


480 16 4 


734 13 9 


507 15 4 


618 18 2 


684 11 1 


766 19 6 


1111 5 10 


1293 16 6 


1608 3 10 


1289 15 8 


1591 7 10 


1750 13 4 


1739 4 


1940 


1622 


1572 


1472 2 6 


1285 


1685 


1151 16 


960 


1092 4 2 


1128 9 7 


725 16 6 


1080 11 11 


731 7 7 


476 8 1 


1126 1 11 


1083 3 3 


1173 4 


1385 


995 6 


1186 18 


1511 5 


1417 11 


789 16 8 


1029 10 


864 10 


907 15 6 


583 15 6 


977 15 6 


1104 6 1 


1059 10 8 



Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1862 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1867 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 



: Including Ladies. § Fellowsof the American Association wereadmitt&lasHon.Membersforthis Meeting. 



1897 



Ixxxii REPORT — -1897, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Beport of the Council for the Year 1896-97, presented to the General 
Committee at Toronto on Wednesday, August 18, 1897. 

The Meeting at Montreal in 1884 was the first occasion on which tlie 
Association held a Meeting beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. 
Some of the Members then considered that it was a hazardous experiment ; 
but the decided success of that Meeting fully justified the innovation, 
and when an invitation was received for holding another Meeting in the 
Dominion of Canada, in the University City of Toronto, the General 
Committee accepted it with unanimity. 

The Executive Committee at Toronto have succeeded in making very 
complete preparations for the reception, not only of British Members of our 
Association, but of several Continental and numerous American Men of 
Science who propose to take part in our proceedings. The Council desire 
to record their grateful sense of the e0"orts made by Professor Macallum and 
his colleagues to render this Meeting a success, and of the liberality with 
which those efibrts have been supported by the Dominion Government, 
the Government of the Province of Ontario, and the City of Toronto. 
The Council also desire cordially to thank the Associated Cable Companies 
for granting, under certain restrictions, free ocean telegraphy during the 
Meeting to Members coming from the United Kingdom. The Council 
have likewise to offer their thanks to the several Railroad and Steamship 
Companies which have afforded special facilities to Members. 

The Council have nominated Sir Donald Smith, High Commissioner for 
the Dominion of Canada, the Hon. Arthur Sturgis Hardy, Premier of the 
ProAdnce of Ontario, and the Mayor of Toronto to be Vice-Presidents of 
the Association. 

The Council heard with great regret that Mr. Alan Macdougall, who 
was appointed one of the Local Secretaries for the Toronto Meeting, had 
died after a long illness. Mr. Macdougall took an active part in the pro- 
ceedings which gave rise to the invitation to Toronto, presented to the 
Association in the year 1894, at the meeting at Oxford. 

The Council have been informed by Mr. Vernon Harcourt that he 
does not intend to offer himself for re-election as General Secretary after 
the Toronto Meeting. Mr. Vernon Harcourt has held the office of General 
Secretary for fourteen years, and the Council desire to record their sense 
of the invaluable services which he has constantly rendered to the 
Association during this period. The Council recommend that Professor 
Roberts- Austen, C.B., F.R.S., be appointed General Secretary in succession 
to Mr. Harcourt. 

Professor Schafer having informed the Council that it would be incon 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxiii 



venient for him to attend the Meeting at Toronto, they have requested 
Professor Roberts- Austen to undertake the duties of General Secretary 
during the Meeting in his place. 

The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer during 
the past year, and his accounts from July 1, 1896, to June 30, 1897, 
which have been audited, will be presented to the General Committee. 

The Council have elected the following Foreign Men of Science, who 
have attended Meetings of the Association, to be Corresponding 
Members : — 



Dr. F. Kohlrausch, Berlin. 

Dr. van Rijckevorsel, Kotterdam. 



Prof. E, Zacharias, Hamburg. 



The following Resolutions were referred to the Council for considera- 
tion and action, if desirable :— 

(1) ' That the Council be requested to take such steps as they think 
best to bring before the Government the question of the establishment of 
a National Physical Laboratory, in general accordance with the recom- 
mendations contained in the Report appended hereto, and to invite the 
•co-operation of the Royal Society of London, the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Physical Society, and 
other kindred societies, in securing its foundation.' 

The Council, after considering this question, resolved to appoint a 
Committee to bring the proposal before the Government. 

The Committee consisted of the following Members : — 



The President of the Royal Soc 
Lord Kelvin 
Lord Rayleigh . 
Mr. Francis Galton . 
Professor A. W. P.iicker . 
Sir Douglas Galton . 
Sir H. E. Roscoe 
Mr. R. T. Ulazebrook 
Professor Oliver Lodge . 
Professor A. Schuster 
Professor G. F. Fitzgerald 
The Astronomer-Royal . 
Mr. A. Vernon-Harcourt . 
Captain Abney 
Dr. John Hopkinson 
Professor W. E. Ayrton . 



ety 



-Royal Society. 



British Association 



Royal Irish Academy. 

Royal Astronomical Society, 

Chemical Society. 

Physical Society. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. 



The Royal Society of Edinburgh was also represented by Lord Kelvin. 

The Council have been informed that, at the request of the Committee, 
■a Deputation waited upon Lord Salisbury, and have recently learned 
that a Committee has been appointed by the Treasury : ' To consider 
and report upon the desirability of establishing a National Physical 
Laboratory for the testing and verification of instruinents for physical 
investigation ; for the construction and preservation of standards of 
measurements and for the systematic determination of physical constants 
4ind numerical " data" useful for scientific and industrial purposes, and to 
report whether the work of such an institution, if established, could be 
associated with any testing or standardizing work already performed 
wholly or partly at the public cost.' 

The following will be the members of the Committee :— 

e2 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT — 1897. 



The T.ord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

(^Chairman). 
Sir Courtenay Boyle, K.C.B. 
Sir Andrew Noble, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
W. C. Roberts-Austen, Esq., C.B., 

F.R.S. 



Robert Chalmers, Esq., of the 

Treasury. 
A. W. Riicker, Esq., D.Sc, F.RS. 
Alexander Siemens, Esq. 
T. E. Thorpe, Esq., F.R.S. 



have, during the last 



(2) ' That it is of urgent importance to press upon the Government 
the necessity of establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for Greater Britain, 
which, by collecting information with regard to the native races within 
and on the borders of the Empire, will prove of immense value to science 
and to the Government itself.' 

The Council referred this question to a Committee consisting of the 
President and General Officers, with Sir John Evans, Sir John Lubbock,. 
Mr. C. H. Read, and Professor Tylor. The Report of the Committee was 
as follows : — 

' A central establishment in England, to which would come informa- 
tion with regard to the habits, beliefs, and methods of government of 
the primitive peoples now existing would be of great service to science, 
and of no inconsiderable utility to the Government. 

' 1 . The efforts of the various societies which 
twenty years, devoted themselves to collecting and publishing ethno- 
logical information have necessarily produced somewhat unequal, and 
therefore unsatisfactory, results. Such societies had, of course, to depend 
upon the reports of explorers, who usually travelled for another purpose 
than that in which the societies .were interested ; and such reports were 
naturally unsystematic, the observers being mostly untrained in the 
science. Again, whole regions would be unrepresented in the transac- 
tions of the societies, perhaps from the absence of the usual attractions of 
travellers, e.g. big game or mineral riches. This has been to some extent 
corrected, at least as to the systematic nature of the reports, by the pub- 
lication of " Anthropological Notes and Queries " by the Anthropological 
Institute, with the help of the British Association. 

' If it be admitted that the study of the human race is an important 
branch of science, no further ai'gument is needed to commend the gather- 
ing of facts with regard to the conditions under which aboriginal races 
now live, and, if this work is worth doing, it should be done without 
delay. With the exception, perhaps, of the negro, it would seem that 
none of the lower races are capable of lining' side by side with whites. 
The usual result of such contact is demoralisation, physical decline, and! 
steady diminution of numbers ; in the case of the Tasmanians, entire 
disappearance. Such will probably soon be the fate of the Maories, the 
Andamanese, the North American Indians, and the blacks of Austi-alia. 
While these exist it is possible to preserve their traditions and folk-lore, 
and to record their habits of life, their arts, and the like, and such direct 
evidence is necessarily more valuable than accounts filtered through the 
recollection of the most intelligent white man. 

' It is scarcely necessary to enlarge upon this point, as no one will 
seriously question the value to science of such information. But it does 
seem necessary to urge that no time be lost. 

' 2. As to the benefit to the Government of these inquiries, the history 
of our relations with native tribes in India and the Colonies is rich in 
examples. No one who has read of the ways of the African can doubt 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 'Ixxxv 

that a thorough study of his character, his beliefs and superstitions, is a 
jiecessity for those who have to deal with him. And what is true of the 
natives of Africa is also true, in a greater or less degree, of all uncivilised 
races. Their ideas of common things and common acts are so radically 
different from those of civilised man that it is impossible for him to 
understand them without a special training. 

' Even in dealing with the highly civilised natives of India it is most 
necessary that an inquirer should be familiar with their religion, and 
with the racial prejudices which the natives of India possess in common 
Avith other civilised nations. 

' A training in knowledge of native habits is now gone through by our 
officers, traders, and missionaries on the spot ; and by experience — some- 
-times dearly bought — they, after many failures, learn how to deal with 
the natives. By the establishment of such a Bureau as is here advocated 
•much might be done to train our officers before they go out, as is now 
done by the Dutch Government, who have a handbook and a regular 
course of instruction as to the life, laws, religion, &c., of the inhabitants 
•of the Dutch Indies. The experience thus gained would then mature 
rapidly, and they would become valuable servants to the State more 
•quickly. 

' The collecting of the necessary information for the Bureau could be 
done with but little expense and with a very small staff only, if the 
■scheme were recognised and forwarded by the Government. If instruc- 
tions were issued, for instance, by the Colonial Office, the Foreign Office, 
the Admiralty, and the Intelligence Branch of the War Office, to the 
officers acting under each of these departments, not only that they were 
at liberty to conduct these inquiries, but that credit would be given to 
them officially for good work in this direction, there is little doubt that 
many observers qualified by their previous training would at once put 
themselves and their leisure at the disposal of the Bureau. 

' The Bureau itself, the central office, would be of necessity in London 
— in no other place could it properly serve its purpose — and preferably, for 
the sake of economy and official control, it should be under the adminis- 
tration of some existing Government office. But the various interests 
involved make it somewhat difficult to recommend where it should 
he placed. The Colonial Office would obviously present some advantages. 
"The British Museum has been suggested, with good reason, and there 
•appears to be no insuperable difficulty if the Trustees are willing to 
undertake the responsibility of controlling such a department. 

' The staff would not be numerous. A Director accustomed -to deal 
•with ethnological matter would necessarily direct the conduct of the 
inquiries, and until the material assumed large proportions, two or three 
<;lerks would probably suffice. If the value of the results were considered 
to justify it, the increase of the area of operations over the world would 
probably call for additional assistance after the Bureau had been at work 
for a few years. 

' The Bureau of Ethnology in the United States aims chiefly at pub- 
lishing its reports, but its area is limited to America. The scope of the 
•present proposal is so much wider that the Committee think it better not 
to deal with the question of publication at present. 

' If this report be adopted by the Council it will be necessary to 
approach the Government, and impress upon them the importance of 
liaving such an organisation for carrying out these recommendations. 



IxXXvi REPORT — 1897. 

For this purpose a Deputation should be appointed, and it would be well 
to invite the Council of the Anthropological Institute to appoint two 
members.' 

The Council resolved that the Trustees of the British Museum be re- 
quested to consider whether they could allow the proposed Bureau to be 
established in connection with the Museum : and if they are unable to 
sanction this proposal, that the authorities of the Imperial Institute be 
requested to undertake its establishment. 

The matter is now under the consideration of the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1S97, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor E. Meldola {Chairman), Sir Douglas Galton, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, 
Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, and Professor W. W. Watts is 
hereby nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S., Chairman, and 
Mr. John Hopkinson, Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies to be held during the Meeting at Toronto. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 

Anderson, Sir W. 
Foxwell, Professor. 
Lodge, Professor 0. J. 



Vines, Professor. 

Ward, Professor Marshall. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Boys, C. Vernon, Esq., F.K.S. 

Creak, Captain E. W., E.N., F.R.S. 
*Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 

Edgeworth, Professor F. T., M.A. 
*Freinantle, The Hon. Sir C. W., K,C.B. 
♦Halliburton, Prafessor W. D., F.R.S. 

Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M. A., 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Herdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 

Hopkinson, Dr. J., F.R.S. 

Horsley, Victor, Esq., F.R.S. 

Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



Preece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S, 

Ramsay, Professor W., F.R.S. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 

Symons, G. J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 
F.R.S. 
*Thompson, Professor S. P., F.R.S. 

Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 

Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 

Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
*White, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



It was resolved last year, at the Liverpool Meeting, that two meetings 
of the General Committee shall be held at Toronto, and that an adjourned 
meeting shall be held in London at the beginning of November, for the 
election of the President, Officers, and Council for 1897-8, and for fixing 
the date of the Meeting in that year. The Council have arranged that 
the adjourned meeting shall be held at the Rooms of the Royal Society, 
Burlington House, on Friday, November 5, at 3 p.m. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxvii 

At this meeting an invitation which has been received from the 
Corporation of Glasgow to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association 
in 1901 in that city will be presented to the General Committee. 

The Council, acting on behalf of the Association, have presented to 
Her Majesty the Queen the following Address of Congratulation on the 
completion of the sixtieth year of her reign : — 

To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 

May it please your Majesty, — 

We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the President and 
Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
desire most respectfully to approach your Majesty with the expression of 
our sincere and heartfelt congratulations on the completion of the sixtieth 
year of your Majesty's auspicious reign. 

During that reign, which has exceeded in length that of any of your 
illustrious predecessors, the increase in prosperity of your Majesty's 
subjects has been unparalleled. 

This advance in the welfare of the nation has been in no small degree 
due to the astonishing progress of science during this period, and its 
application to the details of daily life ; and we thankfully recognise the 
interest constantly displayed both by your Majesty and by members of 
your Royal Family in the promotion of science. Of this, the acceptance 
by His Royal Highness the late lamented Prince Consort of the Presidency 
of this Association at Aberdeen, in the year 1859, was a conspicuous 
illustration. 

That your Majesty's subjects in all parts of the globe are united in 
their efforts to promote the advancement of knowledge is evinced by the 
fact that the Association holds its annual meeting this year at Toronto, 
on the invitation of one of the principal Dependencies of your Empire, the 
great Dominion of Canada. 

There, as here, the Members of the Association will ever pray that 
your Majesty may long be spared to rule over a contented, grateful, and 
united Empire. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

Lister, 

President. 

June 23, 1897. 

The Address was laid before the Queen by the Home Secretary, who 
has informed the Council that Her Majesty was pleased to receive the 
same very graciously. 



Ixxxviii 



REPORT — 1897. 



Committees appointed by the General Committee at the 
Toronto Meeting in August 1897. 



1, Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 




Seismological Observations. 



To assist the Physical Society in 
bringing out Abstracts of Phy- 
sical Papers. 

To co-operate with Professor Karl 
Pearson in the Calculation of 
certain Integrals. 



Carey 



Cka irma n . — Professor 
Foster. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, -W. G. Adams, 
and Oliver J. Lodge, Lord Eay- 
l«igh, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, 
Professors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professors G. F. FitzGerald and 
J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor J. 
Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Eennie, Mr. 

E. H. Griffiths, Professor A. W. 
Eiicker, and Professor A. G. 
Webster. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. J. S3'mons. 
Secretaries. — Dr. C. Davison and 

Professor J. Milne. 
Lord Kelvin, Professor W, G. 

Adams, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Sir 

F. J. Bramwell, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L. Darwin, Mr, G. F. 
Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Professor 0. G. Knott, Professor 

G. A. Lebour, Professor E. Mel- 
dola. Professor J. Perry, Pro- 
fessor J. H. Poynting, Dr. Isaac 
Eoberts, Dr. G. M. Dawson, 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
C. V. Boys, Professor H. H. 
Turner, and Mr. M. Walton 
Brown. 

Cliairman. — Dr. E. Atkinson. 
Secretary . — Professor A. W. 
Eiicker. 

Chaii'man. — Rev. Eobert Harley. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. E. Forsyth. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. 
Lodge, and Professor Karl Pear- 
son. 







100 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxix 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The present state of our Know- 
ledge in Electrol3'sis and Elec- 
tro-chemistrj'. 



To establish a Meteorological Ob- 
servatory on Mount Koyal, 
Montreal. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra of 
the Elements. 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quan- 
titative Analysis. 



The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours. 



The Promotion of Agriculture : 
to report on the means by which 
in various Countries Agricul- 
ture is advanced by research, 
by special Educational Insti- 
tutions, and by the dissemina- 
tion of information and advice 
among agriculturists. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. —Ux. W. C. D. Whet- 
ham. 

Eev. T. C. Fitzpatrick and Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths. 

Chairman. — Professor Callendar. 
Secretary. — Professor C. H. Mc- 

Leod. 
Professor F. Adams and Mr. K. F. 

Stupart. 

Cliairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. 

Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain 

Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Emerson 

Reynolds. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 
Professor Frankland, Professor F. 

Clowes, Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. 

A. E. Fletcher, and Professor W. 

Carleton Williams. 

Chairman.— T)r. T. E. Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hum- 
mel. 

Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. 
RusseU, Captain Abney, Pro- 
fessor W. Stroud, and Professor 
R. Meldola. 

Chairman.— Sir .John Evans. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Professor M. Foster, Professor 
Marshall Ward, Sir J. H. Gilbert, 
Right Hon. J. Bryce, Profes- 
sor J. W. Robertson, Dr. W. 
Saunders, Professor Mills, Pro- 
fessor J. Mavor, Professor R. 
Warington, Professor Poulton, 
and Mr. S. U. Pickering. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 
Secretary.— Tiof. P. F. Kendall. 
Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 

De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 

Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, 

and Mr. J. Lomas. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
35 



50 



20 



12 



8 



5 







xc 



REPORT — 1897. 



1. Recfiiving Chants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider a project for investi- 
gating the Structure of a Coral 
Keef by Boring and Sounding. 



To explore certain Caves in the 
Neighbourhood of Singapore, 
and to collect their living and 
extinct Fauna. 

[Last year's grant of 40Z. unex- 
pended.] 

The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



To study Life-zones in the British 

Carboniferous Rocks. 
[Balance of last year's grant.] 



To examine the Conditions under 
which remains of the Irish Elk 
are found in the Isle of Man. 

[Balance of last year's grant.] 



To ascertain the Age and Relations 
of the Rocks in which Secondary 
Fossils have been found near 
Moreseat, Aberdeenshire. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor T. G. Bon- 

ney. 
Secretary. — Professor W. J. Sollas. 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors 

J. W. Judd, C. Lapworth, A. C. 

Haddon, Boyd Dawkins, G. H. 

Darwin, S. J. Hickson, and 

Anderson Stuart, Admiral Sir 

W. J. L. Wharton, Drs. H. 

Hicks, J. Murray, W. T. 

Blanford, C. Le Neve Foster, 

and H. B. Guppy, Messrs. F. 

Darwin, H. 0. Forbes, G. C. 

Bourne, Sir A. R. Binnie, Dr. J. 

W. Gregory, and Mr. J. C. 

Hawkshaw. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Ridley. 

Dr. R. Hanit.sch, Mr. Clement 
Reid, and Mr. A. Russel Wal- 
lace. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — ProfessorW.W.Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, 
E. J. Garwood, W. Graj-, H. B. 
Woodward, J. E. Bedford, R. 
Kidston, R. H. Tiddeman, J. J. 
H. Teall, J. G. Goodchild, H. 
Coates, and C. V. Crook. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. J. Garwood. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. 
J. W. Kirkley, Mr. R. Kidston, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. G. H. Morton, 
Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. 
B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Mr. P. C. Kermode. 
His Honour Deemster Gill, Mr. 

G. W. Lamplugh, and Canon 

E. B. Savage. 

Chairman. — Mr. T. F. Jamieson. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Milne. 
Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne. 




£. s. d. 

40 



10 



10 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCl 



1. Receiving Grants of Money— coniinwed.. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To further investigate the Fauna 
and Flora of the Pleistocene 
Beds in Canada. 



To enable Mr. H. M. Vernon to 
investigate the development of 
Echinoderm larvee experiment- 
ally, or, failing this, to ap- 
point some other competent in- 
vestigator to carry on a defi- 
nite piece of work at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples. 

To enable Profesor S. J. Hickson 
to study the fertilisation of 
Alcyonium, Mr. C. D. Scott to 
investigate the physiology of 
secretion in Tunicata, and 
Messrs. A, H. Church and G. 
Brebner to study the repro- 
duction of marine Algae, or, in 
default of these, to appoint 
some other competent Natu- 
ralist to do a definite piece of 
work at the Plymouth Marine 
Laboratory. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



The Biology of the Lakes of 
Ontario. 



Healthy and unhealthy Oysters. 



Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



State Monopolies in other 
Countries. 



Members of the Committee 



Cliairman.— 
Secretary. — 

man. 
Professor D. 

Ami, and 



-Sir J. W. Dawson. 
Professor A. P. Cole- 

P. Penhallow, Dr. H. 
Mr. G.W. Lamplugh. 



Chairvian. 

Herdman 
Secretary. — '. 
Professor E 

fessor W. 

fessor S. 

Sedgwick 

M'Intosh, 



— Professor W. 



Mr. Percy Sladen. 
Kay Lankester, Pro- 
F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
J. Hickson, Mr. A. 

, Professor W. C. 

and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 



Chairman.— Mx. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Eay 

Lankester. 
Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, and Professor 

W. F. K. Weldon. 



Chairman.— Six W. H. Flower. 

Secretary.— Mr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. H. Wood- 
ward, Kev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Mr. E. McLachlan, and Mr. 
W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Professor L. C. Miall. 
Secretary. — Professor R. Ramsay 

Wright. 
Senator Allan, Dr. G. M. Dawson, 

Professor W. H. Ellis, Professor 

E. E. Prince, . and Professor 

John Macoun. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor R. Boyce. 

Mr. G. C. Bourne, Professor C. S. 
Sherrington, and Dr. C. Kohn. 

Chairman.— Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
and Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Chairman. — Professor H. Sidg- 

wick. 
Secretary.— Mr. H. Higgs. 
Mr. W. M. Acworth, the Rt. Hon. 

L. H. Courtney, and Professor 

H. S. Foxwell. 



Grants 



20 



s. d. 




100 



20 



100 



75 



30 



10 



15 



XCll 



REPORT 1897. 



1. Receiving Gravis of Money — continued. 



Subject fur Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


Future Dealings in Raw Produce. 


Cliairman. — Mr. L. L. Price. 

Secretaries. — Professor Gonner 
and Mr. E. Helm 

Mr. Hugh Bell, Major P. G. 
Craigie, Professor W. Cunning- 
ham, Professor Edgeworth, Mr. 
R. H. Hooker, and Mr. H. R. 
Rathbone. 


£ s. d. 
10 


To consider means by which better 


Chairman.— Mt. W. H. Preece. 


20 


practical effect can be given to 


Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Price. 




the Introduction of the Screw 


Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 




Gauge proposed by the Associa- 


Sir H. Trueman Wood, Maj.- 




tion in 1884. 


Gen. Webber, Mr. R. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Mr. 
T. Buckney, Col. Watkin, Mr. 
E. Rigg, and Mr Conrad W. 
Cooke. 




The Physical Characters, Lan- 


Chairman.— TioiessoT E. B. Tylor. 


75 


guages, and Industrial and So- 


Secretary.— M.r. Cuthbert E. Peek. 




cial Condition of the North- 


Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Hali- 




western Tribes of the Dominion 


burton, Mr. David Boyle, and 




of Canada. 


Hon. G. W. Ross. 




The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 


Cliairmaii. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Gene- 
ral Pitt-Rivers, Sir John Evans, 
and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. 


37 10 


To organise an Ethnographical 


Chairman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 


25 


Survey of the United Kingdom. 


Secretary. — Mr. E. Sidney Hart- 




[And unexpended balance in hand.] 


land. 
Mr. Francis Galtcn, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
Romilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Mr. W. Crooke, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, 
Dr. H. 0. Forbes, Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Price, Sir H. Howorth, 
Professor R, Meldola, General 
Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. E. G. 
Ravenstein. 




To co-operate wiih the Silchester 


Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 


7 10 


Excavation Fund Committee in 


Secretary. — Mr. John L. Myres 




their Explorations 


Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 





COMMITTEES ArP01^'TED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCIU 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To organise an Ethnological Sur- 
vey of Canada. 



The Anthropology and Natural 
History of Torres Straits. 



To investigate the changes which 
are associated with the func- 
tional activity of Nerve Cells 
and their peripheral extensions. 



Fertilisation in Phseophycese. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. George Dawson. 

Secretary. — Dr. George Dawson. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, Dr. J. G. Bourinot, Abbe 
Cuoq, Mr. B. Suite, Abbe Tan- 
quay, Mr. C. HUl-Tout, Mr. 
David Boyle, Eev. Dr. Scad- 
ding, Hev. Dr. J. Maclean, 
Dr. Neree Beauchemin, Rev. 
Dr. G. Patterson, Professor 

D. P. Penhallow, Mr. C. N. Bell, 
Hon. G. W. Ross, Professor J. 
Mavor, and Mr. A. F. Hunter. 

Chairman. — Sir W. Turner. 

Secretary. — Professor A. C. Had- 
don. 

Professor M. Foster, Dr. J. Scott 
Keltic, Professor L. C. Miall, 
and Professor Marshall Ward. 

Chairman.— Bt. W. H. Gaskell. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Waller. 
Professor Burdon Sanderson, Pro- 
fessor M. Foster, Professor 

E. A. Schiifer, Professor J. G. 
McKendrick, Professor W. D. 
Halliburton, Professor J. Y>. 
Haycraft, Professor F. Gotch, 
Professor C. S. Sherrington, Dr. 
J. N. Langley, Dr. Mann, and 
Professor A. B. Macallum. 

Chairman. — Professor J.B.Farmer. 
Secretary. — ProfessorR.W.Phillips. 
ProfessorF. O. Bowerand Professor 
Harvey Gibson. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Mr. G. J. S}-mons, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Sir John Evans, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor 
T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. Cuthbert Peek, Mr. Horace 
T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, 
and Professor W. W. Watts. 



Grants 



£ 
75 



s. d. 





125 



100 



15 



25 



XCIV 



REPORT — 1897. 
2. Not receiving Chants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To confer with British and Foreign 
Societies publishing Mathematical 
and Phj'sical Papers as to the desir- 
ability of securing Uniformity in the 
size of the pages of their Transactions 
and Proceedings. 

Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



To confer with the Astronomer Royal 
and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the 
Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
with a view of cairying out such 
comparison. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



The Collection and Identification of 
Meteoric Dust. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of drj' Land and under 
Water. 



That Professor S. P. Thompson and Pro- 
fessor A. W. Riicker be requested to 
draw up a Report on the State of our 
Knowledge concerning Resultant 
Tones. 

The Application of Photography to the 
Elucidation of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. Burton, Mr. 

R. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. 

Riicker, and Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney. 



Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Mr. Jolm Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Professor R. Copeland. 



Cliairman. — Professor A. W. Riicker. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. Watson. 
Professor A. Schuster and Professor H. 
H. Turner. 



Chairman. — Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, 
and Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Chairman. — Mr. John Murraj'. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Murray. 
Professor A. Schuster, Lord Kelvin, the 

Abbe Renard, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. M. 

Grabham, Mr. John Aitken, Mr. L. 

Fletcher, Mr. A. Ritchie Scott. 



Chairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Professor H. L. Callendar. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary.— Ht. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. John Hopkin- 
son, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



xcv 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



For Calculating Tables of certain Ma- 
thematical Functions, and, if neces- 
s&Tj, for taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to publish the re- 
sults in an accessible form. 



Considering the best Methods of Ke- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation, 



That Mr. E. T. Whittaker be requested 
to draw up a Report on the Planetary 
Theory. 

The Continuation of the Bibliography 
of Spectroscopy. 



The Carbohydrates of Barley Straw. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



The Description and Illustration of the 
Fossil Phyllopoda of the PalEeozoic 
Rocks. 

To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Type Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Canadian 
Photographs of Geological Interest. 



Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 

Secretary. — Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cun- 
ningham. 

Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. 
M. Hicks, Major P. A. Macmahon, and 
Professor A. Lodge. 

Chairman. — Sir G. G. Stokes. 

Secretary. — Professor H. McLeod. 

Professor A. Schuster, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. 
de W. Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, and Pro- 
fessor A. A. Rambaut. 



Chairman. — Professor H. SIcLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts-Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 



Chairman. — Professor R. Warington. 
Secretary. — Mr. C. F. Cross. 
Mr. Manning Prentice. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. ^?roiessox H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Mr. W. R. Dun- 
stan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thompson. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Rev. Professor T. Wiltshire. 
Secretary. — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F.Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidston, Pro- 
f es^Qr H. G. Seeley, and Mr. H. Woods. 

Chairman'.~PioiessoT A. P. Coleman. 

Secretary. — Mr. Parks. 

Professor A. B, Willmott, Professor F. 

D. Adams, Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, and 

Professor W. W. Watts. 



XCVl 



REPORT — 1897. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Tiie Investigation of the African Lake 
Fauna by Mr. J. E. Moore. 



To continue tlie investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandvsrich Islands, with 
power to co-operate with the Com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose by 
the Royal Society, and to avail them- 
selves of such assistance in their in- 
vestigations as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government or the Trus- 
tees of the Museum at Honolulu. The 
Committee to have power to dispose 
of specimens where advisable. 

The Necessity for the immediate inves- 
tigation of the Biology of Oceanic 
Islands. 



To report on the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Zoology and Botany 
of the West India Islands, and to 
take steps to investigate ascertained 
deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora. 

To work out the details of the Obser- 
vations on the Migration of Birds at 
Lighthouses and Lightships, 1880-87. 



Zoological Bibliography and Publica- 
tion. 



Anthropometric Measurements in 
Schools. 



To co-operate with the Committee ap- 
pointed by the International Con- 
gress of Hygiene and Demography in 
the investigation of the Mental and 
Physical Condition of Children. 

Linguistic and Anthropological Cha- 
racteristics of the North Dravidians 
— the Uranws. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Professor G. B. Howes. 

Dr. John Murray, Professor E. Ray 
Lankester, and Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. Hick- 
son, Mr. O. Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and 
Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Cliairman. — Sir \V. H. Flower. 

Secretary. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 

Mr. G. C. Bourne, Dr. H. O. Forbes, Pro- 
fessor W. A. Herdman, Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Dr. John Murray, Professor 
A. Newton, and Mr. A. E. Shipley. 

Cliairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 

Mr. W. CaiTuthers, Dr. A. C. Giiiither, Dr. 

D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, 
and Professor A. Newton. 

Chair tiian.—Troiessor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. 
Barrington, Mr. W. E. Clarke, Rev. 

E. P. Knubley, and Dr. H. O. Forbes. 

Cliairman. — Sir W. H. Flower. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. W. E. 

Hoyle, Dr. P. Lutley Sclater, Mr. Adam 

Sedgwick, Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. C. D. 

Sherborn, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and 

Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Macalister. 
Secretary. — Professor B. Windle. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor J. Cle- 
land, and Dr. J. Q. Garson. 

Chairman. — Sir Douglas Galton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
and Mr. White Wallis. 



Cliairman. — Mr. E. Sidney Hartland. 
Secretary. — Mr. Hugh Raynbird, jun. 
Professor A. C. Haddon and Mr. J. L. 
Myres. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



XCVll 



2. Not receiving Gi'ants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose Members of the Committee 


The physiological effects of Peptone 
and its Precursors when introduced 
into the circulation. 

The Establishment of a Biological 
Station in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 


Cliairman. — Professor E. A. Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor W. H. Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor C. S. 
Sherrington. 

Cliairman. — Profe'ssor E. E. Prince. 
Secretary. — Professor D. P. Penhallow. 
Professor J. Macoun, Dr. T. Wesley 

Mills, Professor E. Macbride, Dr. A. B. 

Macallum, and Mr. W. T. Thiselton- 

Dyer. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

A Report on ' The Historical Development of Abelian Functions,' by Dr. Harris 
Hancock. 

A Paper by Professor Callendar and Professor J. T. Nicolson on ' A New Apparatus 
for Studying the Rate of Condensation of Steam on a Metal Surface at different 
Temperatures and Pressures.' 

The Table of Measurements made by Professor Martens for the Committee on 
' Calibration of Instruments in Engineering Laboratories.' 

A Report by Dr. Henry M. Ami on ' The State of the Principal Museums in Canada 
and Newfoundland.' 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That, in view of the facts (1) that a Committee of Astronomers appointed by the 
Royal Society of London, in consequence of a communication from the Royal Society 
of Canada, has recently considered the matter, and has arrived at the conclusion that 
no change can now be introduced in the Nautical Almanac for 1901, and (2) that few 
English Astronomers are attending the Toronto Meeting of the Association, 

Resolved : That the Committees of Sections A and E are not in a position to arrive 
at any definite conclusion with respect to the Unification of Time ; but they think it 
desirable to call the attention of the Council to the subject, in which the interests of 
Mariners are deeply involved, with the view of their taking such action in the matter 
as may seem to them to be desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of approaching the 
Government with a view to the establishment in Britain of experimental agricultural 
stations similar in character to those which are producing such satisfactory results in 
Canada. 

That a Committee be appointed to report to the Council whether, and, if so, in 
what form, it is desirable to bring before the Canadian Government the necessity for 
a Hydrographic Survey of Canada, and that the following be the Committee : — 

Professor A. Johnson (Chairman and Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. 
Darwin, Admiral Sir W. J. L. Wharton, Professor Bovey, and Professor Macgregor. 



1897. 



xcviii REPORT — 1897. 



Synopsis of Gh-ants of Money ajpfroiydated io Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Toronto Meeting, August 1897. The 
Navies of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Gh-ants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

£ s. d. 

*Foster, Professor Carey — Electrical Standards 75 

*Symons, Mr. G. J. — Seismological Observations 75 

* Atkinson, Dr. E.— Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

*Harley, Rev. K— Calculation of Certain Integrals 20 

*Shaw, Mr. W. N. — Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 35 

Callendar, Prof. — Meteorological Observatory at Montreal... 50 

Cheriiistry. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E. — Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of 

the Elements ■••• 20 

♦Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson. — Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 12 

*Thorpe, Dr. T. E. — Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 8 

Evans, Sir J. — Promotion of Agriculture 5 

Geology. 

♦Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks 5 

♦Bonney, Professor T. G.— Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

♦Flower, Sir W. H. — Fauna of Singapore Caves (Unexpended 

balance in hand, 40^.) — 

♦Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 10 
♦Marr, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 

(Unexpended balance in hand) — 

Dawkins, Professor "W. Boyd. — Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man (Unexpended balance in hand) — 

♦Jamieson, Mr. T. F. — Age of Rocks near Moreseat 10 

Dawson, Sir J. W. — Pleistocene Fauna and Flora in Canada 20 



Zoology. 
♦Herdman, Professor W. A. — Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

♦Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Table at the Biological Laboratory, Ply- 
mouth 20 

♦Flower, Sir W. H. — Index Generum et Specierum Animalium 100 

Miall, Prof.^ — Biology of the Lakes of Ontaiio 75 

♦Herdman, Prof. W. A.— Healthy and Unhealthy Oysters ... 30 

Carried forward £810 

* Reappointed. 



xcix • 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 810 

Geography. 
*Ravenstein, Mi\ E. G. — Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

Sidgwick, Prof. H. — State Monopolies in other Countries ... 15 
Price, Mr. L. L. — Future Dealings in Raw Produce 10 

Mechanical Science. 
*Preece, Mr. W. H.— Small Screw Gauge 20 

Anthropology. 

*Ty lor, Professor E. B.— North- Western Tribes of Canada ... 75 

*Munro, Dr. R.— Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

*Brabrook, Mr. E. "W. — Ethnographical Survey (and unex- 
pended balance in hand) 25 

Evans, Mr. A. J. — Silchester Excavation 7 10 

*Dawson, Dr. G. M.— Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Turner, Sir W. — Anthropology and Natural History of 

Torres Strait 125 

Physiology. 

Gaskell, Dr. W. H. — Investigation of Changes associated 
with the Functional Activity of Nerve Cells and their 
Peripheral Extensions 100 

Botany. 
Farmer, Professor J. B. — Fertilisation in Phseophycea; 15 

Corresponding Societies. 

*MeIdola, Professor R. — Preparation of Report 25 

£1,350 
* Reappointed. — — — ^ 



The Annual Meeting in 1898. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1898 will commence on 
Wednesday, September 7, at Bristol. 

The Annual Meeting in 1899. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1899 will commence on 
Wednesday, September 13, at Dover. 

Tlie Annual Meeting in 1901. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1901 will be held at 
Glasgow. 



[ 2 



REPORT — 1897. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Gh^ants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ■■■ 105 

±^67 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron ( Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mudin Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 



1 


10 


2 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam- vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions . 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



£ 


s. 


d. 


110 








63 


10 





144 


2 





35 


IS 


6 


21 


11 





9 


4 





103 





7 


28 


7 


G 


274 


1 


2 


100 





4 


171 


18 





11 





6 


166 


16 





10 


10 


6 


50 








16 


1 





40 








3 








22 








49 


7 


8 


118 


2 


9 


50 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railvray Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels ,. 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. . 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannire 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gaseson Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnitcs 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 











10 







8 G 







Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



*. 


d. 




















1 


11 


9 






£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Bails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



cu 



REPORT — 1897. 















8 


4 














9 


6 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and MoUusca of the 
.aigean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 f 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 13 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 ^ 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain .. . 10 

Exotic Anoplui-a 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 15 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1847. 

£ g. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals .. . 10 
■Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Inflvience of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ «. i. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



" 1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 















8 


5 


7 


11 




















16 


4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 0/ 



575 



CIV 



REPORT — 1897. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

J507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kevr Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ i. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusids! 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam -vessels 'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 r. 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels ]24 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 

£766 19 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . ;00 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Tran.i- 

actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee ." 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 











































































5 


10 









£1111 5 10 



GENERAL STATEMENT, 



CV 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

FatentLaws 21 6 

MolluscaofN.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Sco'tland 6 9 6 

Eavages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Bredgins; the Mersey 5 

Prison D^iet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

K'Bw Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 























































































































£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida ••■ 10 

£1608 3 10 







3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon iinder pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Hiimber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compoi^nds 20 

Amyl ComiDOunds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acidg 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredgiug Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


10 








7 


10 



CVl 



REPORT — 1897. 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining' the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fi elds 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf- bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compoimds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750" 



s. d. 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorat ions 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Soimd under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 



1868. 

£ *, d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory, . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ,.. 150 

Steamship Performances . .. 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 'M 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds ^ 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ]00 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals .50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 



















































































































































































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



evil 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 

Physiological Action Kela- 

tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

filaintaining the Establish- 
ment at kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Committee on Marine Faima 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Kainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 
Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny Eiver Sediment 3 

Slechanical Equivalent of 
Heat 








































































































































... 50 





n 






£1572 









1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Keports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

P>ritish Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Eainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Eainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Eecord 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Eainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperatiare .. . 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 


























































































































£1285 
















































































































£1685 



•cvm 



REPORT — 1897. 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

■Zoological Record 100 

'Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

'■Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 6 

Piiysiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Moimtain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labjrrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

ElliiDtic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 23 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

■Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
'Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

'Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

ilnstructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£96 

1876. 

•Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine . . . 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measm-ing Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpere, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in Nevir 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobiity- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra ... 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 









































































































15 


6 



£ «. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 0' 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 30 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 0' 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 

of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



ex 



REPORT — 1897. 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Eefractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings ■ 30 

£476 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... SO 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor- laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 50 

£1126 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 





























































3 1 









1 


11 






































































































































1 11 



1883. 

£ «. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 

Tatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 (t 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Paleo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliogi-aphy of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 10 

£1173 























4 






































(1 

























































4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1885. 

£ s. d. 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis iiO 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

:£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ i. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

CaeGwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



cxu 



REPORT — 1897, 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatoiy 150 

Electrical Standards 2 G 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Blechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on H5'dracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic Sj'stem 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricitj' 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. a. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Pateozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higlier Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Phj^siology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

PeUian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXIU 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 



£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 1 00 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Kays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Kegistration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1,029 10~0 
1897. ^,,,,,«^,^_ 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 60 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Dotany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Eemains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 

g 



CXIV 



REPORT — 1897. 



£ «. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 ]5 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 b 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 6 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonestield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the . 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survej' 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 4 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 
Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 
High-level FHnt-drifts 10 

Tableatthe Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 35 

Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

^£977 



«. 


d. 























01 





0. 





a 














(> 


1 





5 





a 























G 





























a 














9 


4 





































































15 5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXV 



189G. 

£ i. d. 
Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Keprinting Discussion on the 
Kelation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

C'Umatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 







































() 


1 



















































































































































£ s. d. 
Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

:£1,104 6 1 

1897. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 

Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 

Extensions 180 

Oysters and TjT)hoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceas 20 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



Cxvi REPORT — 1897. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 18, at 8 p.m., in the Massey Hall, Toronto, 
Lord Lister, M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres.R.S., resigned the office of 
President to Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Treasurer of the 
Royal Society, who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which 
see page 3. 

On Thursday, August 19, at 8.30 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the 
Legislative Buildings. 

On Friday, August 20, at 8.30 p.m., in the Massey Hall, Professor 
Roberts- Austen, C.B., F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Canada's Metals.' 

On Monday, August 23, at 8.30 p.m., in the Massey Hall, Professor 
John Milne, F.R.S. , delivered a discourse on ' Earthquakes and Volcanoes.' 

On Tuesday, August 24, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
University Buildings. 

On Wednesday, August 25, at 2.30 p.m., in the Gymnasium, the 
concluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes 
were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Bristol. [The Meeting is ap- 
pointed to commence on Wednesday, September 7, 1898.] 



M-ratuin. 
Report 1896, page 867, line 4, /or Professor GoanEH., read Mr. L. L. Pkice. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1897. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

SIE JOHN EVANS, K.O.B. 
D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., Treas.R.S., V.P.S.A., For.Sec.G.S. 

CORKESPONDANT DE l'InSTITUT DE FrANCE, <fec. 

PRESIDENT. 



Once more has the Dominion of Canada invited the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science to hold one of the annual meetings of its 
members within the Canadian territory ; and for a second time has the 
Association had the honour and pleasure of accepting the proffered 
hospitality. 

In doing so, the Association has felt that if by any possibility the 
scientific welfare of a locality is promoted by its being the scene of such a 
meeting, the claims should be fully recognised of those who, though not 
dwelling in the British Isles, are still inhabitants of that Greater Britain 
whose prosperity is so intimately connected with the fortunes of the 
Mother Country. 

Here, especially, as loyal subjects of one beloved Sovereign, the sixtieth 
year of whose beneficent reign has just been celebrated with equal rejoic- 
ing in all parts of her Empire ; as speaking the same tongue, and as in 
most instances connected by the ties of one common parentage, we are 
bound together in all that can promote our common interests. 

There is, in all probability, nothing that will tend more to advance 
those interests than the diffusion of science in all parts of the British 
Empire, and it is towards this end that the aspirations of the British 
Association are ever directed, even if in many instances the aim may not 
be attained. 

We are, as already mentioned, indebted to Canada for previous hos- 
pitality, but we must also remember that, since the time when we last 
assembled on this side of the Atlantic, the Dominion has provided the 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1897. 

Association with a President, Sir William Dawson, whose name is alike 
■well known in Britain and America, and whose reputation is indeed 
world-wide. We rejoice that we have still among us the pioneer of 
American geology, who among other discoveries first made us acquainted 
with the 'Air-breathers of the Coal,' the terrestrial or more properly 
arboreal Saurians of the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Coal-measures. 

On our last visit to Canada, in 1884, our place of assembly was Mont- 
real, a city which is justly proud of her McGill University ; to-day we 
meet within tlie buildings of another of the Universities of this vast 
Dominion — and in a city, the absolute fitness of which for such a purpose 
must have been foreseen by the native Indian tribes when they gave to a 
small aggregation of huts upon this spot the name of Toronto — 'the place 
of meetings.' 

Our gathering this year presents a feature of entire novelty and ex- 
treme interest, inasmuch as the sisfer Association of the United States of 
America, — still mourning the loss of her illustrious President, Professor 
Cope, — and some other learned societies, have made special arrangements 
to allow of their members coming here to join us. I need hardly say how 
welcome their presence is, nor how gladly we look forward to their taking 
part in our discussions, and aiding us by interchange of thought. To 
such a meeting the term ' international ' seems almost misapplied. It may 
rather be described as a family gathering, in which our relatives more or 
less distant in blood, but still intimately connected with us by language, 
literature, and habits of thought, have spontaneously arranged to take 
part. 

The domain of science is no doubt one in which the various nations of 
the civilised world meet upon equal terms, and for which no other pass- 
port is required than some evidence of having striven towards the advance- 
ment of natural knowledge. Here, on the frontier between the two great 
English-speaking nations of the world, who is there that does not inwardly 
feel that anything which conduces to an intimacy between the representa- 
tives of two countries, both of them actively engaged in the pursuit of 
science, may also, through such an intimacy, react on the affairs of daily 
life, and aid in preserving those cordial relations that have now for so 
many years existed between the great American Republic and the British 
Islands, with which her early foundations are indissolubly connected ? 
The present year has witnessed an interchange of courtesies which has 
excited the warmest feelings of approbation on both sides of the Atlantic. 
I mean the return to its proper custodians of one of the most interesting 
of the relics of the Pilgrim Fathers, the Log of the ' Mayflower,' May this 
return, trifling in itself, be of happy augury as testifying to the feelings of 
mutual regard and esteem which animate the hearts both of the donors 
and of the recipients ! 

At our meeting in Montreal the President was an investigator who 
had already attained to a foremost place in the domains of Physics and 



ADDRESS. ? 

Mathematics, Lord Rayleigh. In his address he dealt mainly with topics, 
such as Light, Heat, Sound, and Electricity, on which he is one of our 
principal authorities. His name and that of his fellow-worker. Professor 
Ramsay, are now and will in all future ages be associated with the dis- 
covery of the new element. Argon. Of the ingenious methods by which 
that discovery was made, and the existence of Argon established, this is 
not the place to speak. One can only hope that the element will not 
always continue to justify its name by its inertness. 

The claims of such a leader in physical science as Lord Rayleigh to 
occupy the Presidential chair are self-evident, but possibly those of his 
successor on this side of the Atlantic are not so immediately apparent. 
I cannot for a moment pretend to place myself on the same purely scien- 
tific level as my distinguished friend and for many years colleague, Lord 
Rayleigh, and my claims, such as they are, seem to me to rest on entirely 
difierent grounds. 

Whatever little I may have indirectly been able to do in assisting to 
promote the advancement of science, my principal efforts have now for 
many years been directed towards attempting to forge those links in the 
history of the world, and especially of humanity, that connect the past 
with the present, and towards tracing that course of evolution which plays 
as important a part in the physical and moral development of man as it 
does in that of the animal and vegetable creation. 

It appears to me, therefore, that my election to this important post 
may, in the main, be regarded as a recognition by this Association of the 
value of Archreology as a science. 

Leaving all personal considerations out of question, I gladly hail this 
recognition, which is, indeed, in full accordance with the attitude already 
for many years adopted by the Association towards Anthropology, one of 
the most important branches of true ArchiBology. 

It is no doubt hard to define the exact limits which are to be assigned 
to Archaeology as a science, and Ai'chseology as a branch of History and 
Belles Lettres. A distinction is frequently drawn between science on 
the one hand, and knowledge or learning on the other ; but translate the 
terms into Latin, and the distinction at once disappears. In illustration 
of this I need only cite Bacon's great work on the ' Advancement of 
Learning,' which was, with his own aid, translated into Latin under the 
title ' De Augmentis Scientiarum.' 

It must, however, be acknowledged that a distinction does exist be- 
tween Archseology proper, and what, for want of a better word, may be 
termed Antiquarianism. It may be interesting to know the internal 
arrangements of a Dominican convent in the middle ages ; to distinguish 
between the difierent mouldings characteristic of the principal styles of 
Gothic architecture ; to determine whether an English coin bearing the 
name of Henry was struck under Henry II., Richard, John, or Henry 
III., or to decide whether some given edifice was erected in Roman, 



6 REPORT— 1897. 

Saxon, or Norman times. But the power to do this, though involving no 
small degree of detailed knowledge and some acquaintance with scientific 
methods, can hardly entitle its possessors to be enrolled among the votaries 
of science. 

A familiarity with all the details of Greek and Roman mythology and 
culture must be regarded as a literary rather than a scientific qualifica- 
tion ; and yet when among the records of classical times we come upon 
traces of manners and customs which have survived for generations, and 
which seem to throw some rays of light upon the dim past, when history 
and writing were unknown, we are, I think, approaching the boundaries 
of scientific Archseology. 

Every reader of Virgil knows that the Greeks were not merely orators, 
but that with a pair of compasses they could describe the movements of 
the heavens and fix the rising of the stars ; but when by modern Astro- 
nomy we can determine the heliacal rising of some well-known star, with 
which the worship in some given ancient temple is known to have been 
connected, and can fix its position on the horizon at some particular spot, 
say, three thousand years ago, and then find that the axis of the temple is 
directed exactly towards that spot, we have some trustworthy scientific 
evidence that the temple in question must have been erected at a date 
approximately 1100 years B.C. If on or close to the same site we find that 
more than one temple was erected, each having a different orientation, 
these variations, following as they may fairly be presumed to do the 
changing position of the rising of the dominant star, will also afibrd a 
guide as to the chronological order of the diSerent foundations. The 
researches of Mr. Penrose seem to show that in certain Greek temples, of 
which the date of foundation is known from history, the actual orientation 
corresponds with that theoretically deduced from astronomical data, 

Sir J. Norman Lockyer has shown that what holds good for Greek 
temples applies to many of far earlier date in Egypt, though up to the 
present time hardly a sufficient number of accurate observations have been 
made to justify us in foreseeing all the instructive results that may be 
expected to ai-ise from Astronomy coming to the aid of Archaeology. 

The intimate connection of Archaeology with other sciences is in no 
case so evident as with respect to Geology, for when considering subjects 
such as those I shall presently discuss, it is almost impossible to say 
where the one science ends and the other begins. 

By the application of geological methods many archaeological questions 
relating even to subjects on the borders of the historical period have been 
satisfactorily solved. A careful examination of the limits of the area over 
which its smaller coins are found has led to the position of many an 
ancient Greek city being accurately ascertained ; while in England it has 
only been by treating the coins of the Ancient Britons, belonging to a 
period before the Roman occupation, as if they were actual fossils, that 
the territories under the dominion of the various kings and princes who 
struck them have been approximately determined. In arranging the 



ADDRESS. 7 

chronological sequence of theae coins, the evolution of their types— a pro- 
cess almost as remarkable, and certainly as well-defined, as any to be 
found in nature — has served as an efficient guide. I may venture to add 
that the results obtained from the study of the morphology of this series 
of coins were published ten years before the appearance of Darwin's great 
work on the 'Origin of Species.' 

When we come to the consideration of the relics of the Early Iron 
and Bronze Ages, the aid of Chemistry has of necessity to be invoked. 
By its means we are able to determine whether the iron of a tool or 
weapon is of meteoritic or volcanic origin, or has been reduced from iron- 
ore, in which case considerable knowledge of metallurgy would be involved 
on the part of those who made it. With bronze antiquities the nature 
and extent of the alloys combined with the copper may throw light not 
only on their chronological position, but on the sources whence the copper, 
tin, and other metals of which they consist were originally derived. I am 
not aware of there being sufficient differences in the analyses of the native 
copper from different localities in the region in which we are assembled, 
for Canadian Archaeologists to fix the sources from which the metal was 
obtained which was used in the manufacture of the ancient tools and 
weapons of copper that are occasionally discovered in this part of the 

globe. 

Like Chemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology may be called to the 
assistance of Archseology in determining the nature and source of the 
rocks of which ancient stone implements are made ; and, thanks to 
researches of the followers of those sciences, the old view that all such 
implements formed of jade and found in Europe must of necessity have 
been fashioned from material imported from Asia can no longer be main- 
tained. In one respect the Archaeologist differs in opinion from the 
Mineralogist— namely, as to the propriety of chipping off fragments from 
perfect and highly finished specimens for the purpose of submitting them 
to microscopic examination. 

I have hitherto been speaking of the aid that other sciences can afford 
to Archaeology when dealing with questions that come almost, if not quite, 
within the fringe of history, and belong to times when the surface of our 
earth presented much the same configuration as regards the distribution of 
land and water, and hill and valley, as it does at present, and when, in all 
probability, the climate was much the same as it now is. When, how- 
ever, we come to discuss that remote age in which we find the earUest 
traces that are at present known of Man's appearance upon earth, the aid 
of Geology and Palaeontology becomes absolutely imperative. 

The changes in the surface configuration and in the extent of the 
land, especially in a country like Britain, as well as the modifications of 
the fauna and flora since those days, have been such that the Archaeologist 
pure and simple is incompetent to deal with them, and he must either 
himself undertake the study of these other sciences or call experts in them 



8 REPORT — 1897. 

to his assistance. The evidence that Man had already appeared upon the 
earth is afforded by stone implements wrought by his hands, and it falls 
strictly within the province of the Archaeologist to judge whether given 
specimens were so wrought or not ; it rests with the Geologist to deter- 
mine their stratigraphical or chronological position, while the Palaeonto- 
logist can pronounce upon the age and character of the associated fauna 
and flora. 

If left to himself the Archseologist seems too prone to build up theories 
founded upon form alone, irrespective of geological conditions. The Geo- 
logist, unaccustomed to archteological details, may readily fail to see the 
difference between the results of the operations of Nature and those of 
Art, and may be liable to trace the effects of man's handiwork in the 
chipping, bruising, and wearing which in all ages result from natural 
forces ; but the united labours of the two, checked by those of the Palae- 
ontologist, cannot do otherwise than lead towards sound conclusions. 

It will perhaps be expected of me that I should on the present occa- 
sion bring under review the state of our present knowledge with regard 
to the Antiquity of Man ; and probably no fitter place could be found 
for the discussion of such a topic than the adopted home of my venerated 
friend, the late Sir Daniel Wilson, who first introduced the word ' pre- 
historic ' into the English language. 

Some among us may be able to call to mind the excitement, not only 
among men of science but among the general public, when, in 1859, the 
discoveries of M. Boucher de Perthes and Dr. Rigollot in the gravels of 
the valley of the Somme, at Abbeville and Amiens, were confirmed by 
the investigations of the late Sir Joseph Prestwich, myself, and others, 
and the co-existence of Man with the extinct animals of the Quaternary 
fauna, such as the mammoth and woolly-haired rhinoceros, was first 
■vartually established. It was at the same time pointed out that these 
relics belonged to a far earlier date than the ordinary stone weapons 
found upon the surface, which usually showed signs of grinding or polish- 
ing, and that in fact there were two Stone Ages in Britain. To these 
the terms Neolithic and Palaeolithic were subsequently applied by Sir 
John Lubbock. 

The excitement was not less, when, at the meeting of this Association 
at Aberdeen in the autumn of that year. Sir Charles Lyell, in the presence 
of the Prince Consort, called attention to the discoveries in the valley of 
the Somme, the site of which he had himself visited, and to the vast lapse 
of time indicated by the position of the implements in drift-deposits a 
hundred feet above the existing river. 

The conclusions forced upon those who examined the facts on the spot 
did not receive immediate acceptance by all who were interested in Geo- 
logy and Archaeology, and fierce were the controversies on the subject 
that were carried on both in the newspapers and before various learned 
societies. 



ADDRESS. 9 

It is at the same time instructive and amusing to look back on the 
discussions of those days. While one class of objectors accounted for the 
configuration of the flint implements from the gravels by some unknown 
chemical agency, by the violent and continued gyratory action of water, 
by fracture resulting from pressure, by rapid cooling when hot or by rapid 
heating when cold, or even regarded them as aberrant forms of fossil 
fishes, there were others who, when compelled to acknowledge that the 
implements were the work of men's hands, attempted to impugn and set 
aside the evidence as to the circumstances under which they had been 
discovered. In doing this they adopted the view that the worked flints 
had eLther been introduced into the containing beds at a comparatively 
recent date, or if they actually formed constituent parts of the gravel then 
that this was a mere modern alluvium resulting from floods at no very 
remote period. 

In the course of a few years the main stream of scientific thought left 
this controversy behind, though a tendency to cut down the lapse of time 
necessary for all the changes that have taken place in the configuration of 
the surface of the earth and in the character of its occupants since the 
time of the Palaeolithic gravels, still survives in the inmost recesses of the 
hearts of not a few observers. 

In his Address to this Association at the Bath meeting of 1864, Sir 
Charles Lyell struck so true a note that I am tempted to reproduce the 
paragraph to which I refer : — 

' When speculations on the long series of events which occurred in the 
glacial and post-glacial periods are indulged in, the imagination is apt to 
take alarm at the immensity of the time required to interpret the monu- 
ments of these ages, all referable to the era of existing species. In order 
to abridge the number of centuries which would otherwise be indispensable, 
a disposition is shown by many to magnify the rate of change in pre- 
historic times by investing the causes which have modified the animate 
and inanimate world with extraordinary and excessive energy. It is 
related of a great Irish orator of our day that when he was about to 
contribute somewhat parsimoniously towards a piiblic charity, he was 
persuaded by a friend to make a more libei-al donation. In doing so he 
apologized for his first apparent want of generosity by saying that his 
early life had been a constant struggle with scanty means, and that "they 
who are born to affluence cannot easily imagine how long a time it takes 
to get the chill of poverty out of one's bones." In like manner we of the 
living generation, when called upon to make grants of thousands of 
centuries in order to explain the events of what is called the modem 
period, shrink naturally at first from making wliat seems so lavish an 
expenditure of past time. Throughout our early education we have been 
accustomed to such strict economy in all that relates to the chronology of 
the earth and its inhabitants in remote ages, so fettered have we been by 
old traditional beliefs, that even when our reason is convinced, and we 



10 REPORT— 1897. 

are persuaded that we ought to make more liberal grants of time to the 
Geologist, we feel how hard it is to get the chill of poverty out of our 
bones.' 

Many, however, have at the present day got over this feeling, and of 
late years the general tendency of those engaged upon the question of the 
antiquity of the human race has been in the direction of seeking for 
evidence by which the existence of Man upon the earth could be carried 
back to a date earlier than that of the Quaternary gravels. 

There is little doubt that such evidence will eventually be forthcoming, 
but, judging from all probability, it is not in Northern Europe that the 
cradle of the human race will eventually be discovered, but in some part 
of the world more favoured by a tropical climate, where abundant means 
of subsistence could be procured, and where the necessity for warm 
clothing did not exist. 

Before entering into speculations on this subject, or attempting to lay 
down the limits within which we may safely accept recent discoveries as 
firmly established, it will be well to glance at some of the cases in which 
implements are stated to have been found under circumstances which 
raise a presumption of the existence of man in pre-Glacial, Pliocene, or 
even Miocene times. 

Flint implements of ordinary Palaeolithic type have, for instance, been 
recorded as found in the Eastern Counties of England, in beds beneath 
the Chalky Boulder Clay ; but on careful examination the geological 
evidence has not to my mind proved satisfactory, nor has it, I believe, 
been generally accepted. Moreover, the archaeological difficulty that Man, 
at two such I'emote epochs as the pre-Glacial and the post-Glacial, even if 
the term Glacial be limited to the Chalky Boulder Clay, should have 
manufactured implements so identical in character that they cannot be 
distinguished apart, seems to have been entirely ignored. 

Within the last few months we have had the report of worked flints 
having been discovered in the late Pliocene Forest Bed of Norfolk, but in 
that instance the signs of human workmanship upon the flints are by no 
means apparent to all observers. 

But such an antiquity as that of the Forest Bed is as nothing when 
compared with that which would be implied by the discoveries of the 
work of men's hands in the Pliocene and Miocene beds of England, 
France, Italy, and Portugal, which have been accepted by some 
Geologists. There is one feature in these cases which has hardly received 
due attention, and that is the isolated character of the reputed discoveries. 
Had man, for instance, been present in Britain during the Crag Period, 
it would be strange indeed if the sole traces of bis existence that he left 
were a perforated tooth of a large shark, the sawn rib of a manatee, and 
a beaming full face, carved on the shell of a pectunculus ! 

In an address to the Anthropological Section at the Leeds meeting of 
this Association in 1890 I dealt somewhat fully with these supposed 



ADDRESS. 1 1 

discoveries of the remains of human art in beds of Tertiary date ; and I 
need not here go further into the question. Suffice it to say that I see no 
reason why the verdict of ' not proven ' at which I then arrived should be 
reversed. 

In the case of a more recent discovery in Upper Burma in beds at 
first pronounced to be Upper Miocene, but subsequently ' definitely 
ascertained to be Pliocene,' some of the flints are of purely natural and 
not artificial origin, so that two questions arise : first, Were the fossil 
remains associated with the worked flints or with those of natural forms ? 
And second, Were they actually found in the bed to which they have 
been assigned, or did they merely lie together on the surface 1 

Even the Pithecanthropus erectus of Dr. Eugene Dubois from Java 
meets with some incredulous objectors from both the physiological and the 
geological sides. From the point of view of the latter the difficulty lies 
in determining the exact age of what are apparently alluvial beds in the 
bottom of a river valley. 

When we return to Paleolithic man, it is satisfactory to feel that we 
are treading on comparatively secure ground, and that the discoveries of 
the last forty years in Britain alone enable us to a great extent to recon- 
stitute his history. We may not know the exact geological period when 
first he settled in the British area, but we have good evidence that he 
occupied it at a time when the configuration of the surface was entirely 
difierent from what it is at present : when the river valleys had not been 
cut down to anything like their existing depth, when the fauna of the 
country was of a totally difierent character from that of the present day, 
when the extension of the southern part of the island seaward was in 
places such that the land was continuous with that of the continent, and 
when in all probability a far more rainy climate prevailed. We have 
proofs of the occupation of the country by man during the long lapse of 
time that was necessary for the excavation of the river valleys. We have 
found the old fioors on which his habitations were fixed, we have been 
able to trace him at work on the manufacture of fiint instruments, and by 
building up the one upon the other the fiakes struck off by the primaeval 
workman in those remote times we have been able to reconstruct the 
blocks of flint which served as his material. 

That the duration of the Palfeolithic Period must have extended over 
an almost incredible length of time is sufficiently proved by the fact that 
valleys, some miles in width and of a depth of from 100 to 150 feet, have 
been eroded since the deposit of the earliest implement-bearing beds. Nor 
is the apparent duration of this period diminished by the consideration 
that the floods which hollowed out the valleys were not in all probability 
of such frequent occurrence as to teach Palaeolithic man by experience 
the danger of settling too near to the streams, for had he kept to the 
higher slopes of the valley there would have been but little chance of his 
implements having so constantly formed constituent parts of the gravels 
deposited by the floods. 



12 EEPORT— 1897. 

Tl\e examination of British cave-deposits affords corroborative evi- 
dence of this extended duration of the Palaeolithic Period. In Kent's 
Cavern at Torquay, for instance, we find in the lowest deposit, the breccia 
below the red cave-earth, implements of flint and chert corresponding in 
all respects with those of the high level and most ancient river gravels. 
In the cave-earth these are scarcer, though implements occur which also 
have their analogues in the river deposits ; but, what is more remarkable, 
harpoons of reindeer's horn and needles of bone are present, identical in 
form and character with those of the caverns of the Reindeer Period in 
the South of France, and suggestive of some bond of union or identity of 
descent between the early troglodytes, whose habitations were geographi- 
cally so widely separated the one from tlie other. 

In a cavern at Creswell Crags, on the confines of Derbyshire and 
Nottinghamshire, a bone has moreover been found engraved with a repre- 
sentation of parts of a horse in precisely the same style as the engraved 
bones of the French caves. 

It is uncertain whether any of the River-drift specimens belong to so 
late a date as these artistic cavern-remains ; but the greatly superior 
antiquity of even these to any Neolithic relics is testified by the thick 
layer of stalagmite, which had been deposited in Kent's Cavern before its 
occupation by men of the Neolithic and Bronze Periods. 

Towards the close of the period covered by the human occupation of 
the French caves, there seems to have been a dwindling in the number of 
the larger animals constituting the Quaternary fauna, whereas their re- 
mains are present in abundance in the lower and therefore more recent of 
the valley gravels. This circumstance may afibrd an argument in favour 
of regarding the period represented by the later French caves as a con- 
tinuation of that during which the old river gravels were deposited, and 
yet the great change in the fauna that has taken place since the latest of 
the cave-deposits included in the Paleolithic Period is indicative of an 
immense lapse of time. 

How much greater must have been the time required for the more 
conspicuous change between the old Quaternary fauna of the river gravels 
and that characteristic of the Neolithic Period ! 

As has been pointed out by Pi-of. Boyd Dawkins, only thirty-one out 
of the forty-eight well- ascertained species living in the post-Glacial or 
River-drift Period survived into pre-historic or Neolithic times. We 
have not, indeed, any means at command for estimating the number of 
centuries which such an important change indicates ; but when we 
remember that the date of the commencement of the Neolithic or Surface 
Stone Period is still shrouded in the mist of a dim antiquity, and that 
prior to that commencement the River-drift Period had long come to an 
end ; and when we further take into account the almost inconceivable 
ages that even under the most favourable conditions the excavation of 
wide and deep valleys by river action implies, the remoteness of the date 



ADDRESS. 13 

at which the Palaeolithic Period had its beginning almost transcends our 
powers of imagination. 

We find distinct traces of river action from 100 to 200 feet above the 
level of existing streams and rivers, and sometimes at a great distance 
from them ; we observe old fresh-water deposits on the slopes of valleys 
several miles in width ; we find that long and lofty escarpments of rock 
have receded unknown distances since their summits were first occupied 
by Paleolithic man ; we see that the whole side of a wide river valley has 
been carried away by an invasion of the sea, which attacked and removed 
a barrier of chalk cliffs from 400 to 600 feet in height ; we find that what 
was formerly an inland river has been widened out into an arm of the 
sea, now the highway of our fleets, and that gravels which were originally 
deposited in the bed of some ancient river now cap isolated and lofty 
hills. 

And yet, remote as the date of the first known occupation of Britain 
by man may be, it belongs to what, geologically speaking, must be 
regarded as a quite recent period, for we are now in a position to fix with 
some degree of accuracy its place on the geological scale. Thanks to 
investigations ably carried out at Hoxne in Suffolk, and at Hitchin in 
Hertfordshire, by Mr. Clement Reid, under the auspices of this Associa- 
tion and of the Royal Society, we know that the implement-bearing beds 
at those places undoubtedly belong to a time subsequent to the deposit of 
the Great Chalky Boulder Clay of the Eastern Counties of England. It 
is, of course, self-evident that this vast deposit, in whatever manner it 
may have been formed, could not, for centuries after its deposition was 
complete, have presented a surface inhabitable by man. Moreover, at a 
distance but little farther north, beds exist which also, though at a some- 
what later date, were apparently formed under Glacial conditions. At 
Hoxne the interval between the deposit of the Boulder Clay and of the 
implement-bearing beds is distinctly proved to have witnessed at least 
two noteworthy changes in climate. The beds immediately reposing on 
the Clay are characterised by the presence of alder in abundance, of hazel, 
and yew, as well as by that of numerous flowering plants indicative of a 
temperate climate very different from that under which the Boulder Clay 
itself was formed. Above these beds characterised by temperate plants, 
comes a thick and more recent series of strata, in which leaves of the 
dwarf Arctic willow and birch abound, and which were in all probability 
deposited under conditions like those of the cold regions of Siberia and 
North America. 

At a higher level and of more recent date than these — from which 
they are entirely distinct — are the beds containing Palaeolithic imple- 
ments, formed in all probability under conditions not essentially different 
from those of the present day. However this may be, we have now con- 
clusive evidence that the Palaeolithic implements are, in the Eastern 
Counties of England, of a date long posterior to that of the Great Chalky 
Boulder Clay. 



14 REPORT— 1897. 

It may be said, and said truly, that the implements at Hoxne cannot 
be shown to belong to the beginning rather than to some later stage of 
the Palffiolithic Period. The changes, however, that have taken place at 
Hoxne in the surface configuration of the country prove that the beds 
containing the implements cannot belong to the close of that period. 

It must, moreover, be remembered that in what are probably the 
earliest of the Palaeolithic deposits of the Eastern Counties, those at the 
highest level, near Brandon in Norfolk, where the gravels contain the 
largest proportion of pebbles derived from Glacial beds, some of the 
implements themselves have been manufactured from materials not 
native to the spot but brought from a distance, and derived in all pro- 
bability either from the Boulder Clay or from some of the beds associated 
with it. 

We must, however, take a wider view of the whole question, for it 
must not for a moment be supposed that there are the slightest grounds 
for believing that the civilisation, such as it was, of the Palaeolithic Period 
originated in the British Isles. We find in other countries implements 
so identical in form and character with British specimens that they 
might have been manufactured by the same hands. These occur over 
large areas in France under similar conditions to those that prevail in 
England. The same forms have been discovered in the ancient river 
gravels of Italy, Spain, and Poi'tugal. Some few have been recorded 
from the north of Africa, and analogous types occur in considerable 
numbers in the south of that continent. On the banks of the Nile, many 
hundreds of feet above its present level, implements of the European 
types have been discovered ; while in Somaliland, in an ancient river 
valley at a great elevation above the sea, Mr. Seton-Karr has collected 
a large number of implements formed of flint and quartzite, which, 
judging from their form and character, might have been dug out of the 
drift deposits of the Somme or the Seine, the Thames or the ancient 
Solent. 

In the valley of the Euphrates implements of the same kind have 
also been found, and again farther east in the lateritic deposits of 
Southern India they have been obtained in considerable numbers. It is 
not a little remarkable, and is at the same time highly suggestive, that 
a form of implement almost peculiar to Madras reappears among imple- 
ments from the very ancient gravels of the Manzanares at Madrid. In 
the case of the African discoveries we have as yet no definite Palseonto- 
logical evidence by which to fix their antiquity, but in the Narbada 
Valley of Western India Palaeolithic implements of quartzite seem to be 
associated with a local fauna of Pleistocene age, comprising, like that of 
Europe, the elephant, hippopotamus, ox, and other mammals of species 
now extinct. A correlation of the two faunas with a view of ascertaining 
their chronological relations is beset with many difficulties, but there 
seems reason for accepting this Indian Pleistocene fauna as in some 
degree more ancient than the European. 



ADDRESS. 15 

Is this not a case in which the imagination may be fairly invoked in 
aid of science ? May we not from these data attempt in some degree to 
build up and reconstruct the early history of the human family ? There, 
in Eastern Asia, in a tropical climate, with the means of subsistence 
readily at hand, may we not picture to ourselves our earliest ancestors 
gradually developing from a lowly origin, acquiring a taste for hunting, 
if not indeed being driven to protect themselves from the beasts around 
them, and evolving the more complicated forms of tools or weapons from 
the simpler iiakes which had previously served them as knives ? May we 
not imagine that, when once the stage of civilisation denoted by these 
Palaeolithic implements had been reached, the game for the hunter became 
scarcer, and that his life in consequence assumed a more nomad character ? 
Then, and possibly not till then, may a series of migrations to 'fresh 
woods and pastures new' not unnaturally have ensued, and these follow- 
ing the usual course of 'westward towards the setting sun' might 
eventually lead to a Palieolithic population finding its way to the extreme 
borders of Western Europe, where we find such numerous traces of its 
presence. 

How long a term of years may be involved in such a migration it is 
impossible to say, but that such a migration took place the phenomena 
seem to justify us in believing. It can hardly be supposed that the pro- 
cess that I have shadowed forth was reversed, and that Man, having 
originated in North-Western Europe, in a cold climate where clothing 
was necessary and food scarce, subsequently migrated eastward to India 
and southward to the Cape of Good Hope ! As yet, our records of dis- 
coveries in India and Eastern Asia are but scanty ; but it is there that 
the traces of the cradle of the human race are, in my opinion, to be 
sought, and possibly future discoveries may place upon a more solid 
foundation the visionary structure that I have ventured to erect. 

It may be thought that my hypothesis does not do justice to what 
Sir Thomas Browne has so happily termed ' that great antiquity, 
America.' I am, however, not here immediately concerned with the 
important Neolithic remains of all kinds with which . this great continent 
abounds. I am now confining myself to the question of Palaeolithic man 
and his origin, and in considering it I am not unmindful of the Trenton 
implements, though I must content myself by saying that the ' turtle- 
back ' form is essentially different from the majority of those on the wide 
dissemination of which I have been speculating, and, moreover, as many 
here present are aware, the circumstances of the finding of these American 
implements are still under careful discussion. 

Leaving them out of the question for the present, it may be thought 
worth while to carry our speculations rather further, and to consider the 
relations in time becween the Palaeolithic and the Neolithic Periods. We 
have seen that the stage in human civilisation denoted by the use of the 
ordinary forms of Paleolithic implements must have extended over a vast 



16 BEPORT — 1897. 

period of time if we have to allow for the migration of the primseval 
hunters from their original home, wherever it may have been in Asia or 
Africa, to the west of Europe, including Britain. We have seen that, 
during this migration, the forms of the weapons and tools made from 
silicious stones had become, as it were, stereotyped, and further, that, 
during the subsequent extended period implied by the erosion of the 
A^Ueys, the modifications in the form of the implements and the changes 
in the fauna associated with the men who used them were but slight. 

At the close of the period during which the valleys were being eroded 
comes that represented by the latest occupation of the caves by Paleolithic 
man, when both in Britain and in the south of France the reindeer was 
abundant ; but among the stone weapons and implements of that long 
troglodytic phase of man's history not a single example with the edge 
sharpened by grinding has as yet been found. All that can safely be said 
is that the larger implements as well as the larger mammals had become 
scarcer, that greater power in chipping flint had been attained, that the 
arts of the engraver and the sculptor had considerably developed, and 
that the use of the bow had probably been discovered. 

Directly we encounter the relics of the Neolithic Period, often, in the 
case of the caves lately mentioned, separated from the eailier remains by 
a thick layer of underlying stalagmite, we find flint hatchets polished at 
the edge and on the surface, cutting at the broad and not at the narrow 
end, and other forms of implements associated with a fauna in all essential 
respects identical with that of the present day. 

Were the makers of these polished weapons the direct descendants of 
Palpeolithic ancestors whose occupation of the country was continuous 
from the days of the old river gravels ? or had these long since died out, 
so that after Western Europe had for ages remained uninhabited, it was 
re-peopled in Neolithic times by the immigration of some new race of 
men ? Was there, in fact, a ' great gulf fixed ' between the two occupa- 
tions ? or w^as there in Europe a gradual transition from the one stage of 
culture to the other ? 

It has been said that 'what song the Syrens sang, or what name 
Achilles assumed when he hid himself among women, though puzzling 
questions, are not beyond all conjecture ' ; and though the questions now 
proposed may come under the same category, and must await the dis- 
covery of many more essential facts before they receive definite and satis- 
factory answers, we may, I think, throw some light upon them if we 
venture to take a few steps upon the seductive if insecure paths of con- 
jecture. So far as I know we have as yet no trustworthy evidence of any 
transition from the one age to the other, and the gulf between them 
remains practically unbridged. We can, indeed, hardly name the part of 
the world in which to seek for the cradle of Neolithic civilisation, though 
we know that traces of what appear to have been a stone-using people 
have been discovered in Egypt, and that what must be among the latest 



ADDRESS. 17 

of the relics of their industry have been assigned to a date some 3,500 to 
4,000 years before our era. The men of that time had attained to the 
liighest degree of skill in working flint that has ever been reached. 
Their beautifully made knives and spear-heads seem indicative of a culmi- 
nating point reached after long ages of experience ; but whence these 
artists in flint came or who they were is at present absolutely unknown, 
and their handiworks afford no clue to help us in tracing their origin. 

Taking a wider survey, we may say that, generally speaking, not only 
the fauna but the surface configuration of the country were, in Western 
Europe at all events, much the same at the commencement of the Neolithic 
Period as they are at the present day. We have, too, no geological indi- 
cations to aid us in forming any chronological scale. 

The occupation of some of the caves in the south of France seems to 
have been cari'ied on after the erosion of the neighbouring river valleys 
had ceased, and so far as our knowledge goes these caves offer evidence of 
being the latest in time of those occupied by Man during the Palaeolithic 
Period. It seems barely possible that, though in the north of Europe 
there are no distinct signs of such late occupation, yet that, in the south, 
Man may have lived on, though in diminished numbers ; and that in some 
of the caves, such, for instance, as those in the neighbourhood of Mentone, 
there may be traces of his existence during the transitional period that 
connects the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages. If this were really the case, 
we might expect to find some traces of a dissemination of Neolithic culture 
from a North Italian centre, but I much doubt whether any such traces 
actually exist. 

If it had been in that part of the world that the transition took 
place, how are we to account for the abundance of polished stone hatchets 
found in Central India ? Did Neolithic man return eastward by the 
same route as that by which in remote ages his Palseolithic predecessor 
had migrated westward ? Would it not be in defiance of all probability 
to answer such a question in the aflarmative 1 We have, it must be 
confessed, nothing of a substantial character to guide us in these specula- 
tions ; but, pending the advent of evidence to the contrary, we may, I 
think, provisionally adopt the view that owing to failure of food, climatal 
changes, or other causes, the occupation of Western Europe by Palseolithic 
man absolutely ceased, and that it was not until after an interval of long 
duration that Europe was re-peopled by a race of men immigrating from 
some other part of the globe where the human race had survived, and in 
course of ages had developed a higher stage of culture than that of 
Palseolithic man. 

I have been carried away by the liberty allowed for conjecture into 
the regions of pure imagination, and must now return to the realms of 
fact, and one fact on which I desire for a short time to insist is that 
of the existence at the present day, in close juxtaposition with our own 
civilisation, of races of men who, at all events but a few generations ago, 

1897. c 



18 REPORT— 1897. 

lived under much the same conditions as did our own Neolithic predecessors 
in Europe. 

The manners and customs of these primitive tribes and peoples are 
changing day by day, their languages are becoming obsolete, their myths 
and traditions are dying out, their ancient processes of manufacture are 
falling into oblivion, and their numbers are rapidly diminishing, so that it 
seems inevitable that ere long many of these interesting populations will 
become absolutely extinct. The admirable Bureau of Ethnology instituted 
by our neighbours in the United States of America has done much 
towards preserving a knowledge of the various native races in this vast 
continent ; and here in Canada the annual Archseological Reports pre- 
sented to the Minister of Education are cndering good service in the 
same cause. 

Moreover the Committee of this Assoj.ation appointed to investigate 
the physical characters, languages, and industrial and social conditions of 
the North- Western tribes of the Dominion of Canada is about to present 
its twelfth and final report, which in conjunction with those already pre- 
sented will do much towards preserving a knowledge of the habits and 
languages of those tribes. It is sad to think that Mr. Horatio Hale, 
whose comprehensive gi'asp of the bearings of ethnological questions, and 
whose unremitting labours have so materially conduced to the success of 
the Committee, should be no longer among us. Although this report is 
said to be final, it is to be hoped that the Committee may be able to 
indicate lines upon which future work in the direction of ethnological and 
archaeological research may be profitably carried on in this part of Her 
Majesty's dominions. 

It is, however, lamentable to notice how little is being or has been 
officially done towards preserving a full record of the habits, beliefs, arts, 
myths, languages, and jihysical characteristics of the countless other tribes 
and nations more or less uncivilised which are comprised within the 
limits of the British Empire. At the meeting of this Association held last 
year at Liverpool it was resolved by the General Committee ' that it is of 
urgent importance to press upon the Government the necessity of 
establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for Greater Britain, which by collect- 
ing information with regard to the native races within and on the borders 
of the Empire will prove of immense value to science and to the Govern- 
ment itself.' It has been suggested that such a bureau might with the 
^greatest advantage and with the least outlay and permanent expense be 
connected either with the British Museum or with the Imperial Institute, 
and the project has already been submitted for the consideration of the 
Trustees of the former establishment. 

The existence of an almost unrivalled ethnological collection in the 
Museum, and the presence there of officers already well versed in 
ethnological research, seem to affiard an argument in favour of the proposed 
bureau being connected with it. On the other hand, the Imperial Insti- 



ADDRESS. 19 

tute was founded with an especial view to its being a centre around which 
every interest connected with the dependencies of the Empire might 
gather for information and support. The establishment within the last 
twelve months of a Scientific Department within the Institute, with well- 
appointed laboratories and a highly trained staff, shows how ready are 
those concerned in its management to undertake any duties that may 
conduce to the welfare of the outlying parts of the British Empire ; a fact 
of which I believe that Canada is fully aware. The Institute is therefore 
likely to develop, so far as its scientific department is concerned, into a 
Bureau of advice in all matters scientific and technical, and certainly a 
Bureau of Ethnology such as that suggested would not be out of place 
within its walls. 

Wherever such an institution is to be established, the question of its 
existence must of necessity rest with Her Majesty's Government and 
Treasury, inasmuch as without funds, however moderate, the undertaking 
cannot be carried on. I trust that in considering the question it will 
always be borne in mind that in the relations between civilised and 
uncivilised nations and races it is of the first importance that the pre- 
judices and especially the religious or semi-religious and caste prejudices 
of the latter should be thoroughly well known to the former. If but a 
single ' little war ' could be avoided in consequence of the knowledge 
acquired and stored up by the Bui'eau of Ethnology preventing such a 
misunderstanding as might culminate in warfare, the cost of such an 
institution would quickly be saved. 

I fear that it will be thought that I have dwelt too long on primaeval 
man and his modern representatives, and that I should have taken this 
opportunity to discuss some more general subject, such as the advances 
made in the various departments of science since last this Association met 
in Canada. Such a subject would no doubt have afforded an infinity of 
interesting topics on which to dilate. Spectrum analysis, the origin 
and nature of celestial bodies, photography, the connection between heat, 
light, and electricity, the practical applications of the latter, terrestrial 
magnetism, the liquefaction and solidification of gases, the behaviour of 
elements and compounds under the influence of extreme cold, the nature 
and uses of the Bontgen rays, the advances in bacteriology and in pro- 
phylactic medicine, might all have been passed under review, and to many 
of my audience would have seemed to possess greater claims to attention 
than the subject that I have chosen. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that most, if not indeed all, of 
these topics will be discussed by more competent authorities in the various 
Sections of the Association by means of the Presidential addresses or 
otherwise. Nor must it be forgotten that I occupy this position as a 
representative of Archceology, and am therefore justified in bringing before 
you a subject in which every member of every race of mankind ought to 
be interested — the antiquity of the human family and the scenes of its 
infancy. 

c2 



20 REPORT— 1897. 

Others will direct our thoughts in other directions, but the farther we 
proceed the more clearly shall we realise the connection and inter- 
dependence of all departments of science. Year after year, as meetings 
of this Association take place, we may also foresee that ' many shall run 
to and fro and knowledge shall be increased.' Year after year advances 
will be made in science, and in reading that Book of Nature that lies ever 
open before our eyes ; successive stones will be brought for building up 
that Temple of Knowledge of which our fathers and we have laboured 
to lay the foundations. May we not well exclaim with old Robert 
Recorde ? — 

' Oh woorthy temple of Goddes magnificence : Oh throne of glorye and 
seate of the lorde : thy substance most pure what tonge can describe 1 
thy signes are so wonderous, surmountinge mannes witte, the effects of 
thy motions so diuers in kinde : so harde for to searche, and worse for to 
fynde — Thy woorkes are all wonderous, thy cunning unknowen : yet 
seedes of all knowledge in that booke are sowen — And yet in that boke 
who rightly can reade, to all secrete knowledge it will him straights 
reade ' ' 

' Preface to Robert Recorde's Castle of KnoKledge, 15o(>. 



I 



EEPOETS 

ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 

OS THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Corresponding Societies Committee.— Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor K. Meldola [Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes 
{Secretary), Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas Galton, Sir Kaw- 
SON Eawson, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir John 
Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. 
Whitaker, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, and 
Kev. Canon H. B. Tristram. 

The following Corresponding Societies nominated delegates to the Toronto 
meeting. The attendance of the delegate at the first meeting of the 
Conference is indicated by the letter a, and at the second by the letter b. 

A Andersonian Naturalists' Society . . Malcolm Laurie, B.Sc. 
Belfast Natural History and Philosophical ] 

Society [ William Swanston, F.G.S. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . J 

A B Berwickshire Naturalists' Field Club . G. P. Hughes. 

Buchan Field Club John Gray, B.Sc. 

A B Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club . John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

CardifE Naturalists' Society . . . Professor J.Viriamu Jones, F.R.S. 

B Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . . Professor A. C. Haddon, B.Sc. 

East Kent Natural History Society . . A. S. Reid, M.A., F.G.S. 

A B East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' H. R. Mill, D.Sc. 
Societies 

A B Essex Field Club Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S. 

B Federatedlnstitution of Mining Engineers Archibald Blue. 

B Glasgow Natural History Society . . Professor B. E. Prince, B.A. 

A B Hertfordshire Natural History Society . John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

A B Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- G. W. Lamplugh, F.G.S. 
quarian Society 

Leeds Naturalists' Club .... Harold Wager, F.L.S. 

A Liverpool Geological Society . . . Professor W. A, Herdman, F.R.S. 

A B Manchester Geographical Society . . W. E. Hoyle, M.A. 

AB Manchester Microscopical Society . . Professor F. E.Weiss, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

North of England Institute of Mining and W. Hamilton Merritt. 
Mechanical Engineers 

A B North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club W. D. Spanton, F.R.C.S. 

A B Perthshire Society of Natural Science . H. R. Mill, D.Sc. 



24 REPORT— 1897. 

A Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . . Rev. J. O. T.evan, M.A., F.G.S. 

A B Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic G. W. Lamplngh, F.G.S. 
Society 

B Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . . Professor L.C.Miall,F.R.S.,F.L.S. 

The first meeting of the Conference was held in the University of 
Toronto on Thursday, August 19. The Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee were represented by Professor Meldola, F.R.S., Chairman, and Mr. 
John Hopkinson, Secretary of the Conference. 

The Chairman suggested that, in view of the smallness of the gathering 
(only eleven delegates being present), a paper on the Museums of Canada, 
by Dr. Henry M. Ami, of Ottawa, be deferred to the next meeting. A.t 
the Liverpool Conference the question of federation amongst the local 
Natural History Societies of Great Britain had been referred to the 
Corresponding Societies Committee, and the action of the Committee had 
been embodied in the Report, which the Secretary would now read. 

Mr. Hopkinson then read the following Report of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee : — 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association beg 
leave to submit to the General Committee the following Report of the 
results of an attempt made, since the Liverpool Meeting, to obtain the 
opinions of tlie local scientitic Societies on the question of the desirability 
of a much greater amount of federation among them than at present 
prevails. 

In accordance with the decision of the Committee at a meeting held 
October 29, 1896, copies of Mr. Abbott's scheme for the formation of 
District LTnions of Natural History Societies (which was discussed at the 
Liverpool Conference of Delegates of the Corresponding Societies) were 
forwarded to the sixty-six Corresponding Societies and to fifty-eight others, 
together with the following letter : — 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 
Burlington House, London, W. 

Noveviber 1896. 
Sir, — We are requested by the Corresponding Societies Committee to call your 
attention to a scheme drawn up by Mr. George Abbott (General Secretary of the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies) for promoting District Unions of Natu- 
ral History Societies, a copy of which is inclosed. This scheme was discussed at 
the Conference of Delegates of the Corresponding Societies of the British Association 
held at the Liverpool Meeting of the Association last September, when the great ad- 
vantages of federation were generally admitted, and some examples of it were 
explained. At a meeting of the Corresponding Societies Committee on October 2!» 
the Report of the Conference of Delegates was considered, and it vpas decided that, 
as the circumstances in which the local Societies are placed are extremely varied, it 
is desirable that each Society shall be asked its opinion on Mr. Abbott's scheme, and 
as to what kind of federation it considers to be the best. We have therefore to state 
that the Corresponding Societies Committee will be greatlj' obliged if your Society 
will be good enough to favour them with its views on the subject at any date not 
later than December 20, 1896. 

We are, Sir, yours faithfully, 

R. Meldola, Chairman, 
T. V. Holmes, Secretary, 
Corresponding Societies Committee, British Association. 
The Secretary. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 25 

When the Committee met on March 19, 1897, only twenty-six answers 
had been received. The Secretary was accordingly directed to write to 
eleven of the Corresponding Societies which had not replied asking for 
some expression of their views on the subject of federation before the end 
of April. This second application produced eight additional replies, 
making the total received thirty-four, which may be thus classed : — 

Answers from Corresponding Societies 20 

„ other local Societies 14 



34 



As regards the nature of the replies the Societies may be thus 

arranged : — 

Belong to Unions already ........ 9 

In close touch with a Union ....... 1 

Prevented by circumstances from joining Unions . . .2 

Undecided 4 

Generally favourable to Unions 9 

Unfavourable in their own cases 9 

34 

The answers received from Societies which already belong to a Union, 
or are in close touch with one, call for no remark. The two Societies 
prevented by circumstances from joining Unions are the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society and the Marlborough College Natural History Society. 
In the replies from the four Societies classed as ' undecided,' perhaps the 
most significant remark is to the effect that the Club in question is doubt- 
ful whether economy of energy might not be dearly purchased by loss of 
'enthusiasm, and whether ' a deadening uniformity ' might not result from 
Unions. Of the nine Societies generally favourable to Unions, two only, 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and the Leicester Literary 
and Philosophical Society, sent definite, detailed plans of what they pro- 
posed to accomplish in their own localities. And a thii'd, the Essex Field 
Club, stated that it was in communication with the Norfolk and Norwich 
Natural History Society with the view of establishing some degree of co- 
operation between the two Societies in the future. The others contented 
themselves with the remark that union was a step in the right direction, 
or with some other phrase expressing vague approval. 

The replies received from the Societies classed as ' unfavourable in 
their own cases ' vary very much as to their apjjroval of federation in the 
abstract. All these Societies are Corresponding Societies, and have 
counties or other large areas as their spheres of work. 

It is noticeable that while most of the replies received before March 19 
were, more or less, favourable to federation, those sent in answer to the 
second application are all, more or less, unfavourable. This difference 
between the character of the earlier and the later replies seems to point 
to the conclusion that the local Societies addressed which have sent no 



26 REPORT— 1897. 

answer — 90 out of 124 — have abstained either because they are wholly 
uninterested in schemes of federation, or are more or less unfavourable to 
them. Judging from answers received, it would appear that Societies 
having a whole county or some district of similar size as their sphere of 
operations are usually indifferent, or averse, to union with adjacent counties 
or districts. Members of such Societies do not generally feel a strong 
local interest in larger areas, and at the same time they do not need the 
help of other Societies in the publication of their transactions. On the 
other hand, experience shows that a large number of tlie smaller local 
Societies are associations rather for lectures and excursions than for local 
scientific work. And the brief annual reports they issue are of little 
interest, except to their own members. Consequently they also are unin- 
terested in questions about federation. 

A feeling unfavourable to federation may result fi-om the existence in 
a district of two large towns of nearly equal importance within a few miles 
of each other. Thus both the Bath Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club and the Bristol Naturalists' Society report that some years ago 
an unsuccessful attempt was made to promote some kind of union among 
the local Societies there. 

A glance at the Federations of the past may be of use. Three or four 
years ago the Midland Naturalists' Union and tlie Cumberland and West- 
morland Association both came to an end, after the former had existed 
sixteen years, and the latter a few months longer. The ultimate failure 
of the Midland Union was, in all probability, largely due to the want of 
any common feeling among its members of being ' Midlanders.' But 
Cumberland and Westmorland are two counties which have a strona 
affinity for each other, and have been much associated together in many 
ways. Possibly the ultimate failure of their Association may have been 
mainly the result of the absence of any town in those counties so pre-emi- 
nent in size and importance as to be able to form a recognised standard 
and central Society. 

Two Societies, which once belonged to the Midland Union, express a 
preference for Unions like the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. The great 
advantage possessed by that federation lies, however, in the fact that all 
its members, though they may live as far apart as any members of the 
Midland Union once did, have the common feeling of being Yorkshire- 
men. But Warwickshire, for example, may feel no special affinity for 
Nottinghamshire, or the county of Leicester for that of Staflfbrd. 

In short, while no one can doubt the great desirability on all grounds 
of increased federation among the various local Societies, it is obvious that 
success must depend, not on the abstract merits of any given scheme, but 
on its suitability to the local conditions in which it is expected to work. 

Some disappointment may be felt at the slightness of the interest 
manifested in federation. But it may be hoped that many Societies which 
are more or less averse to any close federation with neighbouring Associa- 
tions have, nevertheless, had their thoughts profitably directed towards 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 27 

the attainment of a much greater amount of mutual co-operation and 
assistance than at present prevails. 

The following Societies have been added to the list of the Correspond- 
ing Societies : — 

1. The Halifax Scientific Society and Geologists' Field Club. 

2. The Brighton and Susses Natural History and Philosoijhical Society. 

3. The Andersonian Naturalists' Society. 

The Chairman, in inviting discussion, said that there were great 
differences of opinion with regard to federation, but he thought that 
much good might result from some such scheme as the grouping of 
counties for occasional meetings of their Local Societies, if for no other 
purpose than to avoid duplication of work. By the proceedings of Local 
Societies being collected into one publication, diffuseness would be avoided, 
and the money spent by individual Societies upon printing might profitably 
be diverted into other channels. 

Professor Herdman said that many scientific men in provincial towns 
like Liverpool had thought a great deal about this question in recent 
years, but there were many difficulties in the way, some of which he dis- 
cussed. As a matter of history, for one or other of these reasons, every 
attempt made by the Liverpool Geological and Biological Societies to 
decide upon a line of action with other Local Societies had ended in 
failure. Office-bearers in active Societies of good standing were, as a rule, 
opposed to federation, and if there were one subscription to federated 
Societies the income of each individual Society would be reduced. 

Dr. H. R. Mill stated that the East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' 
Societies was very successful, all the members of the federated Societies 
having the same feeling of local patriotism, and that the Perthshire 
Society of Natural Science was one of the best of these Local Societies, 
its museum being one of the sights of Perth. The Kirkcaldy Natural 
History Society was also one of the best in the Union. These Societies 
meet in different towns each year, have joint excursions, and are so satis- 
factorily related as to give him great faith in the importance of union. 
He thought there should be a better result from the action of the Corre- 
sponding Societies Committee than from any other agency, and wished 
that some stronger action had been taken than was indicated in its 
Report. 

Mr. G. P. Hughes said that the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club was 
doing first-class work in archieology and natural history, but he did not 
think that federation could be accomplished in the counties of England 
north of Yorkshire and Lancashire, the area being so large. 

The Rev. J. 0. Bevan spoke in favour of joint meetings of the Wool- 
hope Naturalists' Field Club, the Cardiff Natural History Society, and 
the Caradoo and Severn Valley Field Club. It seemed to him that the 
British Association possessed the best means of leading provincial Societies 
into union. 

Professor Weiss said that the Manchester Microscopical Society was 



28 REPORT— 1897. 

willing to federate with some of the other Local Societies, and found a desire 
for affiliation, but a difficulty in carrying it out, many Societies thinking 
that they would lose more or less of their identity in union. He thought 
that economy might be effected by original papers being published in 
journals specially devoted to the branch of science of which they treat, 
the Local Societies only publishing accounts of their meetings and 
excursions which would be of interest to all their members. 

Mr. W. D. Spanton, while deprecating actual federation, was in favour 
of joint meetings of the Societies in his district — North Staffordshire. 

Mr. R. E. Dodge (New York) mentioned the Scientific Alliance of 
New York as having accomplished something by union, the announce- 
ment of meetings being satisfactorily made in the Bulletin of the Alliance, 
and the libraries of the different Societies being kept together in one 
building. At Washington the Joint Commission, on which all the Govern- 
ment scientists are represented, was formed on similar lines. 

Dr. Henry M. Ami (Ottawa) said that this question had also arisen in 
Canada. For two years they had been attempting to bring about the 
union of the Ottawa Literary Society and the Ottawa Field Naturalists' 
Club. This club was wasting energy by the publication in the ' Ottawa 
Naturalist ' of non-scientific matter which crowded out scientific papers. 
There was a movement on foot in Canada to form a Canadian Academy 
of Science, in which geology, botany, zoology, and microscopy would be 
represented. 

Mr. Hopkinson said that there were various ways in which federation 
could be carried out, which he might roughly group under three heads — 
amalgamation, union, and co-operation with representation. He instanced 
the Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club as a good example of the 
benefit of amalgamation, a strong field club doing good local work, and 
publishing the results, having been formed by the coalition of two Societies 
which were struggling for existence. The advantages of union without 
amalgamation were well illustrated by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
each Society composing it being quite independent, but meeting together 
at an annual congress in different Yorkshire towns. Amongst its mem- 
bers were several Yorkshiremen, like himself not now residing in the 
county nor being members of any of the affiliated Societies. The publi- 
cations of the Union were devoted to the meteorology, geology, botany, 
and zoology of Yorkshire. Under the third heading might be cited the 
present Conference, or such Societies represented as were co-operating 
with Committees of Research of the British Association ; while there were 
several intermediate links between the three grades of union. Federa- 
tion, therefore, did not imply sacrifice of individuality. 

Section C. 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh called attention to the appointment of a Com- 
mittee of this Section for obtaining a collection of Canadian Geological 
Photographs, on the same lines as the British Committee. 



CORRESPONDING SOUETIES. 29 

Section D. 

Professor Herdman requested the delegates of Societies located on the 
coast to give attention to the investigation of green oysters and to the 
causes which may account for the colour. If oysters were observed to be 
at all tinged with green, it was desirable to ascertain whether any local 
conditions, such as the presence of copper mines near the sea, or some 
other pollution of the water, explained the fact. Professor Herdman said 
he would be grateful for full details as to any observed cases. 

Mr. W. E. Hoyle urged the importance of the accurate use of generic 
and specific names in the publications of Local Societies. In particular, 
when naming new species, full and accurate descriptions should always be 
given. 

The second meeting of the Conference was held in the University of 
Toronto on Monday, August 23. The Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee were represented by Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S., President of 
the Association, and by Professor Meldola, F.R.S., Chairman, and Mr. 
John Hopkinson, Secretary of the Conference. 

The Chairman said that it was usual, at this second meeting of the 
delegates, to take the various Sections in alphabetical order, and hear from 
representatives appointed by the sectional Committees any suggestions 
they might have to make with regard to the Committees of Research to 
which the Corresponding Societies could render assistance ; but he sug- 
gested that they should take advantage of the presence of Professor 
Miall, President of Section D, who would make some remarks upon a 
possible line of work in which the representatives of the Local Societies 
were interested. 

Professor Miall then made the following remarks : — ' My appearance 
here this afternoon is due to the fact that Professor Meldola and myself, 
who visited Niagara on Saturday, fell into conversation upon the work of 
the Local Societies. Your chairman thought it might be of some use to 
bring before this meeting, in the form of suggestions, as practical as 
possible, some portions of our talk at Niagara Falls. The Local Societies 
carry on a great variety of work, but upon that and upon the special 
influence of those Societies with regard to scientific investigation I do not 
intend to offer any remarks. I desire only to bring before you one par- 
ticular line of inquiry which may be of interest to you, and from which 
we may perceive how one side of natural history is, as it seems to me 
unjustly neglected. I refer to the study of life-histories. We study 
animals and plants in a great variety of forms ; we compile statistics of 
them, and we collect specimens ; but the central point of interest, the 
life-history of the animal, is neglected. 

' It may be thought that this study of life-histories is not specially 
suited for the amateurs who compose a large part of the Local Societies. 
It cannot be denied that the work is hard and has special difficulties con- 
nected with it, for to prosecute it in an adequate manner involves some 



30 REPORT— 1897. 

knowledge of anatomj and physiology, and also some acquaintance with 
the problems of development as well as a considerable power of obser- 
vation and much enthusiasm. These certainly appear to be large demands, 
but we cannot expect to get any scientific results of real importance 
which are not procured at the cost of much labour. The things which 
lie upon the surface and are easily got at are, as a rule, in the present 
development of science, not of very great value. If we aim at achieving 
real scientific results we must expect to have to pay for them both with 
our time and with our labour. 

' If there be anyone here who may think of devoting himself to the 
study of life- histories, I need hardly say that he has an abundant choice of 
subjects, even in so narrow and so well worked a country as England. 
I will ask your permission to take a run over that department of natural 
history with which I have of late years occupied myself. I refer to the 
study of insects. Anyone who has occupied himself with promoting the 
scientific study of insects will, I think, agree with me when I say that almost 
everything still remains to be done. The insects have been collected and 
classified, but with rare exceptions their life-histories are still unknown. 
Let me instance the Le^iidoptera and Coleoptera, for the simple reason 
that they are better known than the rest. "VVe know well their external 
forms or shapes ; the stages of many have been recorded and drawn ; and 
along with these external features we know something about their food- 
plants, mode of life, and so on ; but how their mode of life and peculiarities 
of structure are interrelated we know not. I think it is a reproach to 
the naturalists of our generation that they are content to leave the higher 
knowledge of insects and devote tlieir whole attention to mechanical details. 

' As a type of M'hat I am dealing with, let me refer you to the common 
Diptera. I do not think that more than a dozen out of the vast number of 
these insects have been thoroughly investigated. It seems that 200 or 300 
have been studied, at least superficially, and of these we know more or less; 
but they are among many thousands of which it seems that we are practi- 
cally in complete ignorance. "What, then, can we expect to learn about such 
a subject as this unless we are prepared to meet difficulties and incur the 
cost of time and labour ? Here is a vast and important field inviting the 
attention of naturalists ; and when we consider the number of enthusiastic 
naturalists scattered, not only over our own, but also over every other 
country, we might surely expect most important results if this business 
were taken seriously in hand. 

' As to the methods of inquiry, let me suppose that any one of you 
intends to take up li\ e natural history. I should recommend him to study 
the things which are commonly found round about him ; to procure those 
animals which he is accustomed to see again and again every day, and 
which he will not have to go a mile or two to procure, say from the nearest 
stream if not too far away. Then as to the helps which exist, there is a 
literature of this subject ; but one difficulty is that most, if not all, of this 
literature is written in a foreign language. Malpighi wrote in Latin, and 



I 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 31 

Swammerdani in Dutch, Reaumur in French, while Boerhaave translated 
Swammerdam's work into Latin. 

' It is singular that so great a lapse of time has taken place with little 
addition to the literature of this subject, since these writers are of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The work which they carried 
forward with so much promise of high achievements was allowed to fall 
into neglect. There are a few exceptions, but, generally speaking, from the 
commencement of the century up to the present time the subject seems to 
have fallen into almost complete abeyance. 

' To incite beginners to undertake this special work of the study of life- 
histories, I think that something might be done if we were to put before 
them a single example of a common insect worked out with some degree of 
detail. If that were done in England it would get over the difficulty felt 
by naturalists who have not made acquaintance with a foreign language. 
We have hardly any examples of life-histories worked out and presented 
to us in a thoroughly acceptable form. This difficulty seems to me so 
considerable that I am now trying to draw up such a life- history of the 
Chii-onomus, or blood-worm, which is everywhere accessible. It is one 
of the most instructive insects known to naturalists, and in twelve months 
I hope to have its life-history ready for the use of the student. 

' But it is not enough merely to have a book put into the hands of 
students ; they must know how the actual work of observation is done. 
It might be possible to pick up from among the members of the Corre- 
sponding Societies in various parts of England an enthusiastic party of 
young men and show them how particular things are done. For instance 
how to capture certain kinds of insects, how to study them anatomically, 
how to disclose the embryonic development and the inner changes which 
accompany metamorphosis. Let me suppose that out of the members of 
the Local Societies situated within convenient distance of the city of Leeds 
where I have my laboratory, twelve should agree to assemble some time 
next summer, say in July, and take up the work which I have proposed, 
each to bring his own microscope, if he has one. I will then undertake to 
go through a quite elementary course of training on the Chironomus, its 
life-history and its development. I think I can undertake to initiate 
such a party of investigators into a useful method of carrying on the study 
of life-histories, and I think they will carry home with them, from a short 
course of study, a detei'mination to pursue the work. We could then try 
the experiment in another district, London for instance ; and I should also 
be glad to do anything by way of correspondence to further this study. 

' If we should succeed in carrying out this plan it might lead to a 
revival of the study of natural history in our country. Each student 
might turn into a centre of infection when he went home, and spread the 
virus through his brother naturalists. Let us look forward to such a 
revival, and if the suggestions which I have made should command for 
this subject the sympathy it deserves, we may realise a bright future for 
this important branch of knowledge.' 



32 REPORT — 1897. 

Sir John Evans expressed the indebtedness of the meeting for the 
practical suggestions of Professor Miall. He hoped that those present 
would realise the desirability of extending the work of the Local Societies 
in the direction indicated. Listening to Professor Miall's plea for the 
study of the life-histories of insects, he recalled the observation of a great 
ancient authority, Pliny, who said that the nature of things is nowhere 
more complete than in the least (Cum natura rerum nusquam magis 
qicam in minimis tota sit), a remark which he thought foreshadowed the 
results discovered by naturalists by means of the mici'oscope in modern 
times. 

The Chairman said that he would like to express the hope that when 
Professor Miall's suggestions had been circulated among the members of 
the Corresponding Societies, and his ideas had borne fruit, they would 
have the pleasure of hearing, at another Conference, of his students having 
achieved valuable work under his tutorship. 

Dr. Ami then read his ' Report on the State of some of the Principal 
Museums in Canada and Newfoundland,' which was ordered by the 
General Committee to be printed in extenso, see p. 62. 

The Chairman said that he could not help being struck with the great 
wealth of material existing in Canada. Englishmen must feel a certain 
amount of regret that the museum question is not taken up with more 
earnestness in their own country. Their provincial museums only existed 
with much difficulty, and were altogether dependent upon private bounty 
in carrying on their existence. Anyone who visits many of the local 
museums in England must see that the museum question has not taken 
that prominent part in public opinion which it ought to do. Dr. Ami 
had collected a vast amount of information of great value. There must 
be in the museums of Canada much valuable material in the way of types, 
and students in all parts of the world would be the gainers if it were 
widely known where those types were to be found. 

Professor Prince explained that the Fisheries Collection at Ottawa 
under his charge was made for the Fisheries Exhibition in London in 
1883, and was brought back to Canada and given a permanent home. It 
was scarcely representative of the various fisheries of the Dominion, but 
it was an interesting collection to anyone coming from the old country, as 
it represents the waters of a country abounding in ganoids and other 
remarkable creatures of scientific interest. He considered the Victoria 
Museum to be a perfect model of its kind. 

Professor Meldola then proposed a vote of thanks to Dr. Ami, and 

Mr. Hopkinson seconded it, remarking that he was specially interested 
in the museum question at the present time, for, with other members of 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, including Sir John Evans, he 
was now endeavouring to raise sufficient money to build and endow a 
museum for Hertfordshire, for which Earl Spencer had granted an ample 
site at St. Albans. They had already been promised about 1,500/., but 
had decided not to commence building until 2,000/. had been raised. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

A temporary museum had been opened at St. Albans, and he felt sure, 
from their success in obtaining objects of local interest for it, that if the 
money required could be raised an interesting and valuable collection 
would be got together. He feared that Dr. Ami's paper was too long to 
be published in the Report of the Conference of Delegates, but as the 
Conference stands upon the same footing as any Section of the Association, 
it was empowered to suggest to the Committee of Recommendations that 
this paper was considered of sufficient importance to be published in 
extenso in the Report of the Association, and he moved that this request 
be made. 

The vote of thanks and recommendation were carried unanimously. 

Section H. 

Professor Haddon, speaking on behalf of the Ethnographic Survey 
Committee, said that it seemed to him that, while the Local Societies 
properly spend a great deal of time on natural history, they neglect the 
study of man, who is an animal, and deserves to be studied as thoroughly 
as the lower animals. Local Societies might well undertake a survey of 
the ethnography of their own districts. He would be sorry to draw 
students away from the study of other branches of natural history, but he 
thought that there must be many members of the Local Societies who did 
not study the fauna, the flora, or the geology of their locality, but would 
be interested in ethnographical work of some kind. There are several 
anthropological investigations which could be attempted almost anywhere. 
Besides observations on the colour of the hair and eyes, the stature, the 
shape of the head, and other physical characters, the customs and beliefs 
of the people and their folk-lore should be studied. As examples, mention 
need only be made of local customs on particular days, or the numerous 
and very interesting singing games of children, such as 'Jenny Jo,' 
' Dukes-a-riding,' ' Green Gravel,' and the like. These might seem to be 
trifling matters, but many such customs and games are the only records 
we have left to us of the religious rites and social customs of our 
ancestors, and therefore they are by no means to be despised. It would 
also be advisable for the local scientific and photographic Societies to 
interest their members in depicting the geology, natural history, and 
ethnology of their district, the latter especially. Many opportunities for 
the study of British anthropology are vanishing or becoming modified, 
just as surely as are corresponding details in the islands of the Pacific. 



189/ 



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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



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1897. 



50 



REPORT — 1897. 



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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 



51 



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Union 
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1897 


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00 00 - " 


to 
. . - .o 

- - " '00 
t— ( 


Ci 
00 

1— < 


i 


to 

00 


CO 


CO b- CO t^ 

CC' :» '00 CO - 


1896 

1897 
1896 




03 

P-> 


o t- 
(M ^ M 

m cC' ^ 
-^ I- o 

CO •— < 


«5 

to -* 03 ffl 

Ol t- lO o 

1 1 1 1 

t-T CO O to 
O O O CO 


to (M CO 

O to f-H -^ CO 

Th CO th la 0-j 
1 1 1 1 1 

O — ' ^ t- Ci 

O CO « CO 1— 
-* -C !M 


rH 

C»5 
t 

00 

r~ 

CO 


1— ( 

1 

(M 

CO 


CO 

CO 

1 

CO 

t— 1 

CO 


CO 

o 

CO 


t^ t- c; CO 

-*< 00 -* r: CO o 

Kl ^ CO <N t- 5<1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 

iM CO o lo in ^ 

CO 00 to 00 CO o 


— t- o 

_„ c: i-i tc o 

^ rt (M ^ rl 

1 o ^ l^ t- 

'^ C5 IM lO ^ 








^^'^■■p^' 


S '"' S " HH 

n t^; hH t^ 1-1 


r 




h4 






CO ^ 
C3 . l-( 

2 t^ 



Pi 









« ■ 



. 5S . 

Ot r^ 09 



« 
g 



,f4 k 



- V. ^ ^ 2 



"5 




CU 




-t-3 








H 


>. 


•T3 


-tJ 










CB 


o 


> 


CQ 










J2 




.a 




< 








3 
< 



s 



o . 
O o 

CC o 

. 03 

bo . 

0) o 



O ,: O 

D o ° 

: bb v'. W" 

O OCo 
(U O (U 

9 j3 



t> 



O 



O^ 



§-§§ 

> oi > 



ti=« bb^ bb 

'73 • ^ „• 3 
'x Tt tn 'S M 
a> S oi y <u 
S S a 9 fl 



o 

bb 
o 

O 

-a 
o 
C 

OS 



u 
o 

03 



Pi 



o 
o 



o 
o 
en 



o 

CO 

bo 
o 
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C5 

0> 
13 






o 

hb 
o 
o 

O 

-a 
o 



• o ■ 
CO § 

bb=« 

K'g 
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■- o o 

C- o o 
.02CO 

= ^ bbn= 

DO t-1 1*2 "T' 



a 



a 
.<1 



CO 



c« 



,_, 03 



a 
o 

_bx) 

'S 



bo 
O 

Pi 

-73 

• a 

c« 



^ 



o 
a 

bCJ= 



^ t3 

o a 

CO 05 

rt * tn ' 

=« o a' 

^^- S § 

22H o 

° s g g 

o "^ > uj 

a2g ° 

m ••:; >. i-i s 

2 .ti 0^ 9 (u 

"3 tK C bx) o 

o o iH v; »■■ 

E-i<!!HH 



(1 

a 

u 
<u 

c« 
u 



<! 
a 

a> 

O '- 

-. "> 

■S a 

be c c3 

a -rt tH 

° M g 



• CO JO ce 

C3 .-S -S 

•213.3 

. g Jq 
I-- IT -^ 

?r "^ a 



n 



-~ en 

'-' <U .-. 

- " CO 

fjH & a 



=« 2 « 

^3 O to " 

S iS'a o 

M <i) rt a 

!^Pi ^.2 
c3 "^ ■^ 3 
':3 "^ • :r 



<0 o 

& <o 

•X. CJ 

<:^ 

ci .G 

o 
a) 

ia'Sao 

^ Ph o 






!« >. 



"C t; EL* 
o bcS 

rt ° o • 

S: b a> .S 

o o be c 

5 <D *" - 



c3 a 

aj . ^ 

'-^ N bO 

t- 0; C 

gr>1 W 



^ S ^ 

0) o a 



<u :S (U 



■^ a 13 13 
S'^ o c,2 

a r— Kr O 



o 

CO 



a 



O " 

-^ 9 
a " 

CO !-■ 

"a :S 

2?S 
H 



■^'^ '^ 



o d) 

g.2 

a "S 
fe a 

1° 

O 
Pi 



a 

•j3 ■§ '3 ti 

o '- ^ 

.2-S S 

Pi f- t* "^ 
a " a a 

=« g ID'S 
O ^ 

mo 03 

2 ^ == 
a r-j-i o 



<o 

a 

.'a 

a 

55 



• a ce 

o h 

•^ s o a ^ Pi 

0^ h; o 03 Hr .^ 
. !:; -g ja c ■^ .ti 



bo > 



03 



o3 



o S O £ 

&au:^p5 

0) 2 03 03 

^ S; -c .a 
HPiHH 



•-5 " ^ 

^^ a o o g^ 

ce -^ 03 .2 o 3 q 

a .;; ^ H 9 " -s 

c4 03-1-^ 03 m 

bfl C J C O j3 .« 



^ ° . 

02.2^. 

r^^ ^^ K* 

'3 C In" 

2 a fcr 

O t3 C3 

c w w 



if S c 
te^'.i^ 



P3 



.M=!w 






bjc_,- 






■g.2 

03 3 
03 O 



5 a 
ca o 









O o 

03 

aV^ 

^2; E 



13 

a 

o3 



"opq 
o 



s o 



J 03 - ^ 



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O M 



O 03 

'-1 03 

P3 



a ' 
o . 
!2 a 



■a-' 



K CO 02 H > 



03 C3 



^ en 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



53 



I- 

■00 



CO 



I 
CO 



as 

I 



I 

CO 



00 

1 



(M TO 
•~ t~- 

eo t-i 

I I 

CO O 

as en 



1—1 as 

C-. to 

I I 

O 1^ 



CO CO 
CD 00 
cq CO 

I I 

C5 » 

aico 



•O 

CO 



00 



I 

CO 



CO 
I— I 00 



« 



k1 



M 






P5- >< 



> 



><! 






<3 

s 



ft; ^ 



13 






•^ 









-C! 


O 


13 


OQ 


c« . 




■^ 


:;3 


H- 1 


Si 


o 


^ 


02 


o 




tao 



c« 
02 



3 "3 



o 
o 

CO 






o 

o 
CO 



^ 
Ph 



ho 



^5 



o 
o 

02 



Ph 
o 

CO 

o 



w 




c 


O 






S^z; 







I— I <u 

■ J3 

CU o 



(3 



o 
o 



02 



o 

o 

cS [2 

. d 

I- y2 
o 



U a) 

S o 

o 

o 






a 
o 



.a 









a 


o 


-i3 


-3 

o 




<4-i 


a 


o 


r^ 


o 


> 




-M 


up- 


0> 




a 


a 


-t-J 


o 


k-H 


rt 


^ 


Ph 


(>1 


-3 



o 



a 















V 



c 

0_| o 2 



to -p 
. — 1 t-i 

O 3 

-a O' 
o 

•yn ID 
^ <U 

03 J:: 
o '^ 



oo 2 

-' 5< 
I a' 

OO <J 

ca 

•r: T* m ■-; 
M ho tn -t; 

1 .S ?^ 8 

-- fl 2 « '" 

1 1 a ^"1 

CG -- '^ .''^ 



o 
CIS 




^ 





y 


1 


cc! 


n 


SO 




bn 


a 


fl 



. t>0 



C5 a 

=*! 

0,0 
o a 

cS w 



ID 

O 

•s 



O 

f— I 

• a 



o 



c 2 



m , 



3 CO o 

CS 0) !h 

rt i- " 

Jd rrt +^ 



~ O o '^ .5 ri 



a 2 



2 t» o w a 

■^ o - tn a 

"-< _ S o '-' 

O 3 m S S 



f^ g .^ ''^ I 



o 
as-'*-' 

a a"^ 

O .5 

CO ..'-13 

c« bjoa 

>^ 3 X 



be 
a 



3 



w w^z; 



TO <U 

Ph o 

^H ^w^ 3 ^ 

iH a ij a 
3 o a' 

12; H 



"^ /-\ d 

M ° S 

c« a a 
H o 2 

.,-1 t^— 1 

«-, .ta .2 . 

■-i o S ' 
E? O CO 

§ ^3, 
Ph " 

o a'§. 
.a^i-5 
^ £ o. 

'^ a<« 
•" o 



a 

o a a 



.2 a a 
■S ° .2 






a CO 

a> ^ 

:3.5 

O a; 






P3 



pa 



a 

a 

CO 



o 
.a 



o 



c3 

o 

a" 
o 

cS 

o 



^Q 



W W 



w 



t3 

o 
Q 



- o 

s:^ CO 
o o 



1^. <K 
1 ^ • . 



a bo 
z. ° 



^ o 



d 

a' 

13 



a 
I 

CO 



cP^ 
o _ 
tn 3 

^ a 

u ::3 





t- CO 


1^ 






CO t- 




<J> OS 


OS 






.OS .OS . 




00 CO 


oo 






-00 -00 - 




I— 1 t-H 


I— 1 






1-i ^H 




00 CO 


oo 






— 1- o sa 

<n CO LO t- 2 




y. ox 


00 








1 1 


1 








C^l -H 


M 






CD Crs i-H i-H 1 




CO e-1 


00 






O CO -»< 5 

lO CO ^ 




^ C-1 


IN 
















5° . 




,—1 








.OS .4 




>-H M 








.M 1 hH . 

;»> lo >-H : 

KN C5 ►>] 




• - 


• 






' cj ; ' 




■).* 








? ts 
















"> . 








. .^^ 












' ^1^ ' 




-« 










tS 






• 






CO 








&. «o 




S 








^ S 




e = 


£ 










^ 








t^ 




• • 


• 






■ 'g ' ■ 


w 




bo 






• bb'» -bb 




to 


a 






a ^ a 


!3 


a 


W 






H2 H 


1^ 


H . 








. Qj 


t~^ 




a 






• a • c 




a ^ 


•.-« 
S 






1^" S w -s S 




l-H M 


^.3 

to 






t-H -ij b»; 1— 1 +3 


sg bo 

TO C 

55W 


S 

hH 






W rd S « -d 




a 








UJ 
o 


CO !z< 


f:^ 






;z;fep;:z;Pc 












S 


• • 


1i 


.»3 


a 


• • • • irt 


1 




?i 


Ph 


f> 


!^ 


■ • 




Jh 


02 




s 




^ 


03 


o 


hj fe a 


.o 


• • 


■*^ 




'■+3 




OQ 


to 

a 
S| 


a 

'bb 

a 

bo 


a 
a 

a 


12 

03 

a 

o 
O 


Gold-mining in Burma 
Eoasting of Ores . 
j, or Horseless Carriage 
aulage Clip 

of various Types of Ro 
as to their proper Selec 




^1 


.9 
'3 
a 

a 

3 


o 
O 

"o 
O 


o 

CO 




1-^ o 


o o 

a m 


>>a-^i;w a to 

gals. 2 -2 -2 




^1 


o 

o 

o 


to 


4-3 


otes u 
echan 
utomo 
ocentr 
escrip 
Rema 




5tti 


H 






;z;g<3HQ 




. :t3 

^ a 


• • 






'h ■ ■ ■ 




t-5 rt 


a bo 






a . ■ 




CO - 

a« 


C« 3 
o ■ 






y, A. H. 
, Horac 
, John 

gton, W 




^-^ 


:5 3' 

O ID 








>., 






'-' a a a 




_aj ___. 


; H 






ass -s 






■^ c3 






O O O - >H 






Jh 










CQH 


PP 






P3pqp5 O 



54 



REPORT — 1897. 



1 
3 


•a 
to 

X 


CO 
00 


t~ CO 

oi OS 

00 00 


^ 


. 


. 


00 


CD 

..05 
-00 


. 


-os 

-00 


•> 


CO t^ 

.0-- 05 
-00 00 


J 


OS 

00 


~ 


. 


. .05 


CO 

OC' - 


Oi 


f— ( 




i-H 








t— < 


-H 








I-H 


I-H 




T—t 






)-H 


f-H 



1^5 



in 



I 

t-H 

la 



O oo — . 



»c 



(M 



N CO lo ~ m 

O lO C-l I -H 

O •* c; S c^ 

IM CO -^ " CO 



05 
CO 



1 


1 1 


CO 


o 


r^ 


(M 


^H 


-H 



lO IM O 
1— I CO ^ 05 
00 rt « (M 
I I I I 
O 00 t- -+l 
t~ IM in 05 

r-l IM IM 



^ O CO 

00 CO CO 

I I I 

"# t- CD 

t~ 05 in 



o 

03 

1-H 

I 



m 

IM 
IM 

I 

IM 
IM 



2 ^ 

=*> 00 



CO CO 05 

O I— I in 

1— I IM rH 

I I I 

in I-H in 
O o m 

I— I CM 1-H 






X 



i< 









'x>< 



^% ^ 






■>5 



f^i 



Pi 



^ 



1 


.1 


00 ao oo 



• 


..5 


, 


.1 




-1 


6 


•^ 



8 



^ 






^ 



. ."^ 






I 



IS 


II 



M 

<( 
n 
o 



03 

a 



T3-S 
c3 o 



o 



Ph 

& 
o 

60 

cS 
S 



• bb 

C 60 



a 



►S-ti-'W^ 
bc5 Son 



bo 



^3 



bo • 

.si 



g' 



IK ^^ 

a o 

t-H O 

. ft 



. -tJ bb 
S a 

Re 



«HH 

'Vi- 
la tS 



02 



bO 

a 



CQ 
fl 

I-H 

bb 

a 



o 
o 

"3 
o 

a, 

'> 



S ^ "tJ 



bb 

a 

d 

in 

a 






Ul 



bb 

a 
W 



-ti • • 

a 

3 
O . 

R§ • 
"C 02 ^ 

13 . « 






p. 
Oi 

o 






^ 



u 

CO 
Oi 

a 

'bb 
a 



02 

a" 

o 

3 



bo 

a 



lU 



u 

o 

M 

en 



o 



c3 
W 

a 
o 



a 

o a) 

2 o 

."» a 



ca ;2 m a 

I— I ^ -^ t-H 

ego B cj 



"S .2 ■" 

ho Ph ^ 2 -^ 
o ^ a S <ri 

J fc. --H ^ 

a SE >.cs 
S o £ ^ .2 



^^' 



-o •> 
ce ? 
^ .. 
Eh a 

o '^ 

2 S S 

*^ a !=i 
•2 >,o 

g a <p 
fH 2 o 



m 



OH 



—; IP o .a 
W02Ph H 



IS'" 

ca-5 a 

O! c3 ° 

S bcJS 
KPh 



' 3 
P 

• o 
a 



c:> 

C4 

, ts 
a 

c3 



a 

•5b 
■ a 

Ed 
bD 

• a 



g> cS 3 

c ft 
tS a> -a 



• bo bo s 

a a 5 

^'i a-3 

■ .2 g O OQ 

M O hH M 

-a qPh cs 
fH o s <u -t^ 

05 R "^ 3 

bo.^ ^ >>^ 

a Ph .3 s ■»" 

a «3 -T, ° "^ 
f^ Si 2 ^ -2 S 

^ s ^ 2 § a 

.2 So ti-e go 
-sjHJa 



a 



bo 

a 



o 
+3 









bo 

a 

2 

c« 

W 



bo 

a 
•f-i 

a 



Sh 
O 



• bO 

a 

• -H 

. a 



02 



bo 



H 02 



a 
.2 

C« 

_o 

» — I 

ft' 
ft 

< 

A 
H 



bo 

a 
"ft 

SO 
o 

•^3 bo 
Is a 



a 
.2 
a 

hi 

-^O bo 

g bD.9 

bc2 

-H 3 •" 
J' (H CO 

-e >i02 

^« 3 



C3 a cS 05 

eg a -M 



o bo 



s ftg'.s a.spsSr- I 



gS 



<) !-5o2 W 









a 

2 
a 



a 

ft" 



««> 

•SI'S 

OOP 



*3 o 

K2 W 

w >> 



a 
o 



^ o^ _- 



3P3 „ 

22 b=^ 
g a c3 ■ 






. 60 . 
►^ ofe 

bo ^- g 

2i^ o 

O O 03 



" a 

O w 



,a 



a> 

a) 

X 



Ph ^ 

o 

- Ph 

-a 02 cs 
"a) « o 

w w 



o 



H 

• rH . bo 

rn t^ a> 

^.5'g 

a e=-g 
o o .2 



-a 
o 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



55 



CO 






o . 
o 
t» ^ 

• S 
S til 



J 9 "1 1 

CH *^ ^ Q 



00 00 -00 



05 OS 
OO 00 



OO 



to 

CS 

00 



.05 

-OO 



00 00 lO 

O CO CO ■— I 

CD «D <0 CO 
I I I I 

Oi CO CO CO 

•* CO CO o 

to CO CO 






00 



•«*l T— I 

■* (^^ 
I I 

QO O 



05 

I 

CO 
C3 



CD 

CO 
lO 

I 
CO 



CO 

I 
00 



05 
I 

m 

CO 



CO o 
<M -^ 
rH (M 
I I 
(M 00 
(M CO 
1—1 (M 



00 
<N 

I 

OO 
05 



«n 
CO 

CO 

I 

I— ( 
CO 

CO 




• • -s ill 
a c 
a H 

■ . o " 



o a S a 

p4 * CA - 

.S 'iS J3 <u 



o 

•— ( 

o 
o 



. o 
o 

4i CO 

tig 

*^ > 



a 



o 

CI 

'6 



iJO 

a 



be 



^ » ^ ^ 



bo 

d 



n 



<u 



cc 

02 



si 



<U M 



b^' 



w 



Ph.2 53 o 



M-H 



o 



55f3 

JS c« fl 
» C3 m 

Si," s 

bp 60 o 

ra cS o 

Q c3 ^ 

MW g 

S o o o 
•g _« iJ "^ 



0) 

60 

o 



<o a 
cues 



CS 
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i 









0) 

r-^ O 

"a 



0-1 ^ 

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1/2 _r1 

=« s5 bo.S ° 

*+-• I ^ [vi 'r^ 
g fl «3 a *^ P 

CO a bD ^ bc-d 

— fT^ r^ a oj 



OS.: 



,cc 



a 



55 >? a «« -ti 
^ o o rt 

^ 2 9 fl 

-- « ^ .2 a 

ri ,a O O CJ 

.a toQ s <j 

3 o 



n 
o 



c« 
o 

3 
O to 



-, P ca S g g 

H i ^o a g- 

=g 'P.-S "g PL, O 

9 'S p3 ^ S °* 

fl fl IB " >- CI 

o Cm-i to , -e 

m oO 0.0 0fL, 

a - - ^ 



Oi 



a 
•S) 

CI 
bo 

'3 






a 



ba 

a 



^ bflo 

53 SO 

o bo's 

(3 C CO 

CO c! O 

t«l 4> .„ 



cS 

a 

60 

a 



-j= » .5J ^ !3 f^ -d 

«2-g ^.M 60^ d 

!z; M H 



.2 '9 
*^ a 

H 



•CO 

a 
. t« 

be 

bo3 . . - 

- s 1 .2 .2 ^ ;5 
s -? s -2 i >r 

■go otS«2^ 
"dart 

-4^ r^ "— ' O iM 



CO -3 

O ' 



^ 


fl 


bi b 


c 


-*^ 


eft 


^ 


3 




>,<-! 


o 




,, 


cS 


fl 


a 


o 


o 



o 
o 

Ph 

o 

» 
M 



u 

02 



S§ 



a 

M ^ 
CD O 



fi o s . 



-t= 1^ r 



cS 



o t' 



r^ d O O fl 

PiPhPhPh 






o 
P3 



« 



a 

CS 






o 


=?« 


fe 


r/5 


^ 


coc 


a 
o 


d 


-t^ 


^"S. 


S- 




o 
o 


^ a 


a 


a 


CO 


coco 


CO 


CO 



!zi 









o 

ao 

CO ^ 



c 
o 



ci 



t- CO 

a C5 

OO 00 



O 

t» -^ 

Tji r-l 
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CO in 

CO CO 






M 






o 

o 



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K 



a s 

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PQ 



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IS 

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02 

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if CW § 

O ^ . _Q 

<! pq m 



56 



REPORT — 1897. 





1 "^ 


I- 


CD t- -^ 


t^ CD 




t- 




CD 




t^ CD t- CO 




•S.S 


OS 


- C3 . . O ..C5 


C: CTJ 


•> •» 


Ci 


^ 


CI 


» » ........ 


O C3 C-. O 




p^-~ 


CO 


-OO - - 00 -OO 


OO CO 


" • 


00 


- 


OO 


- - .V - .. .. 


GO 00 GO GO 




•"■ 


T— 1 r-( ^H 


r-i ,— 1 




-H 




.— 1 




^ --- , 






l^ f— 1 OO t^ CD 


-*l 


O CO 


•^ 


CD 


rH 


CD Tt< Oi O 


_;._l^ O •* 1 






-^it^tONto t~c«ico 


CD 00 


CM oa 


CD 


CD 


in 


CD r-< C^ lO t- ^ ' 


'O CO CO 1 




M 


f-t 1- 


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62 REPORT— 1897. 



Meport on the State of the Principal Museums in Canada and Neiv- 
foundland. By Henry M. Ami, M.A., D.Sc,, F.G.S., of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.'] 

The following report on the state of the principal museums in Canada 
and Newfoundland is based upon information contained in a correspond- 
ence between the Director of the Geological Survey Department at 
Ottawa (Dr. Dawson) and the curators or officers in charge of the several 
museums, who very kindly supplied the information desired. 

The four following points in connection with museums received 
particular attention : — 

1. The approximate number of specimens classified and displayed in 
each museum. 

2. The relative importance of collections in geological, mineralogical, 
botanical, zoological, ethnological, or other classes of material. 

3. Any special collections acquired from individuals included in the 
museum. 

4. Types of species (if any) preserved in the museum, with the name 
of the describers. 

The order in which the several museums are presented is r/eographi- 
cal. Beginning with the most easterly one, the Museum of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, and closing 
with the Provincial Museum of British Columbia, Victoria, British 
Columbia. 

The principal object in view in preparing this report was to gather 
definite information regarding the amount of material at present housed 
in the various museums of the country, and thus enable the Director of 
the National Lluseum at Ottawa and others, to whom applications for 
information are constantly coming in, to give satisfactory replies. 

The report consists of a consecutive list of museums in Canada and 
Newfoundland, including only the principal ones known to the Depart- 
ment, with brief descriptions or abstracts of the contents of the different 
museums enumerated. 

Brief descriptions and notes on fifty-one private collections in Canada 
are also added. 

This report does not profess to be complete in every respect. The in- 
formation presented, however, has been obtained from the most reliable 
sources available — from official letters sent by the curators or officers in 
charge of the several museums addressed, or from published papers and 
reports on the contents of museums in the different provinces. 

The thanks of the writer are due to Dr. G. M. Dawson, Director of the 
Geological Survey Department at Ottawa, for many valuable suggestions 
and kind ofiices in preparing this report. 

Geological Survey of Newfoiundland. — Contains about 3,000 specimens, 
of which 2,000 at least are arranged and classified, to illustrate the 
economic and natural resources of this colony. The mineralogical 
cabinets comprise 600 specimens ; the palseontological and geological 



ON THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 63 

collections include 850 specimens ; whilst the collections of birds, fishes, 
shells, &c., number together 426 specimens. There is an herbarium 
of the plants of the island, prepared by Professors B. L. Robinson and 
H. Schenck, of Harvard. Economic exhibits of the fisheries (seal and fish- 
oil, &c.) of Newfoundland. There is also a fair collection of ethnological 
specimens, besides a numismatic collection. Museum, in charge of J. P. 
Howley, Esq., F.G-.S., Director of the Geological Survey of Newfoundland, 
and supported by the legislative grant, is located in St. John's, Newfound- 
land, in the Post OQice Building. 

Provincial Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia. — Contains about 10,000 
specimens. The geological cabinets include : Minerals, 1,000 specimens ; 
rocks, 300 specimens ; fossil organic remains, 2,000 specimens, for the 
most part collected and arranged by the late Dr. D. Honeyman. The 
zoological department includes 1,500 specimens, and the botanical collec- 
tion is that prepared by Dr. Henry How. Museum supported by grant 
from the Legislature of Nova Scotia, and in charge of Dr. E. Gilpin, F.G.S., 
Commissioner of Mines for the province. Located in a large room, 
80 feet by 20 feet, in the uppermost storey of the Halifax City Post Office, 
the property of the Dominion Government. Types. Contains a few 
types of fossils described by Dr. Honeyman and the type specimen of a 
giant squid described by Professor A. E. Verrill. Curator : Dr. E. Gilpin, 
M.A., F.G.S., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

The University Museum, JDaUiousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. — 
Contains upwards of 1,600 specimens, classified and arranged for the use 
of students and professors. Of 700 specimens in the zoological collection 
the native birds of Nova Scotia form an important part. The geological 
cabinets comprise a good series of Nova Scotian minerals, Nova Scotian 
carboniferous fossils, and European cretaceous fossils, 450 specimens in 
all. The Patterson collection of archseological remains from various 
parts of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is of considerable import- 
ance : it includes 330 pieces. The Thomas McCuUoch collections com- 
prise birds, rocks, fossils, minerals, and plants. An herbarium illus- 
trating the flora of Nova Scotia is in course of preparation. Supported 
by the University authorities and by the Thomas McCuUoch fund of 
;$1,400 given to Dalhousie in 1884. The Rev. Dr. Forrest, principal, and 
Professor E. Mackay, pro-curator, in charge, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Acadia University Musezim, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. — Contains upwards 
of 5,000 specimens, neatly arranged and classified for the use of students 
and professors. The geological cabinets include 504 specimens of minerals, 
365 rock specimens, and 800 fossil organic remains. The zoological 
collections comprise 690 specimens, divided as follows : — Ornithological : 
birds, birds' eggs, and their nests, 300 specimens. Conchological, 300 
species, besides a large number of marine invertebrates. In the herba- 
rium we find nearly all the plants occurring in New Brunswick, presented by 
G. U. Hay, of St. John, N.B., besides collections from various parts of 
the province and from foreign countries. There is also a small ethno- 
logical collection. The zeolites, amethysts, and trap rocks from Blomidon 
are of local and special interest. There is also a fair collection of coins. 
Curator : Professor A. E. Coldwell, M.A., Wolfville, Nova Scotia. 

King's College Museum, Windsor, Nova Scotia. — For the use of 
students. Contains 5,500 specimens. The mineralogical cabinets hold 
the first place ; the botanical collections come next. The next 
important individual collection is the Cosswell Herbarium of phaeno- 



64 REPORT — 1897. 

gamous and cryptogamous plants from Great Britain. Supported by the 
Senate of King's College. Acting Curator : Professor F. W. Vroom, 
Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

Pictou Academe/ Museum, Pictou, Rova Scotia. — Includes a very good 
and fairly complete collection of the birds and mammals of the county of 
Pictou, an herbarium, and a cabinet of geology illustrating the minerals 
of Nova Scotia, with special reference to the coals, iron ores, and fossil 
remains of Pictou County. Enriched by numerous collections made and 
arranged by Dr. A. H. Mackay, Superintendent of Education for Nova 
Scotia, and a past principal of the Academy. 

Natural History Society of New Brunswick Museum, St. John, N.B. — • 
Contains about 15,000 specimens, arranged and classified. The Gesner 
Museum of Geology, &c., is included in the same building. Geological 
collections comprise 1,400 specimens of minerals, upwards of 1,000 
specimens of fossils, and the zoological department, embracing collec- 
tions of birds, fishes, reptiles, mammals, insects, shells, birds' eggs, and 
birds' nests, contains 3,741 specimens in all. There is a good herlaarium, 
comprising about 6,-500 sheets, 1,500 New Brunswick phanerogams 
and cryptogams, and 5,000 phanerogams, foreign, European, West 
Indies, United States, Canada. About 600 specimens in the archaeo- 
logical cabinets and 200 in the ethnological series. The palseontological 
collections are chiefly those of Dr. G. F. Matthew and of the late 
Professor C. F. Hartt. 

Type specimens of fossil organic remains from rock formations in the 
vicinity of St. John, &c., described by Dr. Matthew, Professor S. H. 
Scudder, Mr. C. F. Hartt, and Sir J. W. Dawson are carefully preserved 
in the cabinets of this museum. 

' The most valuable,' Dr. Matthew writes, ' are the types of the 
Devonian plants collected by Hartt and described by Sir William Dawson.' 
There are here also the types of the fossil insects described by Dr. S. H. 
Scudder that were collected by Hartt.' Also some few other types and 
a good many typical fossils of various formations. The museum is housed 
in six rooms on the second floor of St. John City Market, Charles Street. 
The society receives a small annual grant from the New Brunswick 
Legislature. Curators of the Museum : Dr. G. F. Matthew, Samuel W. 
Kain, Esq., A. Gordon Leavitt, Esq. 

The University Museum, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, 
N.B. — Organised about 1836 by Dr. James Robb. The approximate 
number of specimens classified and displayed to-day in the museum is 
2,800, of which about 1,300 belong to the geological collections of minerals, 
rocks, and fossils from various parts of New Brunswick and other pro- 
vinces of Canada, Europe, and the United States. There are 1,495 speci- 
mens in the zoological cabinets, including birds, birds' eggs (representing 
250 species), reptiles, crustaceans, fishes, insects, molluscs, and star-fishes, 
&c., most of which are the gift of foreign institutions and societies. There 
is also the nucleus of a small archaeological collection, including pipes, 
pottery, and stone implements from New Brunswick, with a few from the 
United States. The economic mollusca, the Cambrian fossils of St. John, 
New Brunswick, and the ornithological collection by Messrs. Ganong, 
Matthew, and Adney respectively comprise the most conspicuous and 

' See Reports on Fossil Plants of the Devonian and Upjyer Silurian of Canada. 
Geological Survey of Canada, Montreal, 1871. 



ON THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 65 

special collections. Curator : Professor L. W. Bailey, M.A., Ph.D., 
F.R.S.C., Pi-ofessor of Geology, University of New Brunswick. 

Museum de VUniversitc Laval, Quebec, Quebec. — The nucleus of this 
collection, which now amounts to 35,000 specimens, arranged and classified, 
was the old ' Cabinet de Min^ralogie ' of the Quebec Seminary. The 
mineralogical cabinet to-day comprises more than 4,000 specimens. Of 
special interest is a collection of minerals made by the Abbe Haiiy for the 
Quebec Seminary. Besides 1,000 specimens of rocks, determined by Dr. 
Sterry Hunt, the geological collections include upwards of 1,000 fossil 
remains, some from Canada, determined by the late Mr. E. Billings and 
by Dr. H. M. Ami, others from the late Abbe Joachim Barrande, of 
Bohemia. The zoological collections include 17,000 specimens : 1,200 
mammals, 14,000 insects, and 2,000 shells from various parts of the world. 
The botanical collections, including I'Abbe O. Brunet's herbarium, named 
by Gray, Hooker, Engelman, and Michaux, comprise upwards of 10,000 
sheets. Herbaria, by Hall, Parry, Harbour, Geyer, N. Bieid, Leidenberg, 
Vincent, Moser, Smith, Durand, Nuttall, and Rafinesque are also included 
in the botanical collection at Laval. 

The dried specimens of plants are supplemented by an excellent collec- 
tion of woods from Canada and foreign countries. 

An archasological and ethnological collection of about 1,000 pieces, 
prepared by Dr. Joseph Charles Tache, for the most part illustrates the 
manners and customs of the Huron aborigines and Indians of North-East 
America. The numismatic collection contains some 3,000 coins and 
medals. 

The 'Lea collection' of Unios, the Macoun collection of North-West. 
Canadian plants, the St. Cyr Herbarium of Quebec, the Dr. Ahem col- 
lection of Quebec fossils, form some of the more conspicuous collections in 
the museum of the University. Curator and Kector : Very Rev. 
Mgr. J. C. K. Laflamme, P.A., F.R.S.C. 

Museum de V Instruction Puhlique, Quebec, Quebec. — Contains 32,450' 
specimens, neatly housed, but uncomfortably overcrowded in a portion of 
the uppermost storey of the Provincial Parliament Building, Quebec. 
The local Legislature has given a small annual grant to the curator for 
the support and maintenance of this museum for a number of years. 
The geological collections consist of 3,500 specimens of minerals and 780 
fossils. The zoological collections amount to 4,430 specimens as follows : 
Mammals, 60 ; birds (mounted), 46 ; birds (skins), 514 ; birds' eggs, 271 ; 
fishes, 65 ; mollusca, 3,480. The entomological collection is large and 
contains 15,670 specimens, including as it does I'Abbe Provancher's 
type collections of Canadian insects, described and figured in his ' Faune 
Entomologique de Quebec' The St. Cyr Hei'barium is very exten- 
sive, and includes an excellent series of the Quebec flora. It contains 
7,870 sheets. Curator of the Museum : Mons. D. N. St. Cyr, Quebec, 
Quebec. 

Museum du Seminaire de Philosophie, Montreal, Quebec. — For the use 
of the students and professors. Contains about 6,300 specimens, of which 
2,000 are geological (minerals and rocks) ; 1,500 palaeontological ; 2,810 
zoological, besides a fair collection of botanical specimens for teaching 
purposes. Amongst the special collections we note one, ' Collection de 
Mineralogie faite pour le College de Montreal par les soins du c^lebre 
Haiiy, 1822.' Most of the fossils are European. Curator : L. Lepoupon. 

Museum du College Saint-Laurent, St. Laurent, near Montreal, Quebec 
1897. p 



65 EEPORT— 1897. 

Miscellaneous collections, comprising upwards of 18,000 specimens. Up- 
wards of 1,000 specimens each of minerals, rocks, and fossils comprise the 
geological cabinets, and as many each of the zoological and botanical 
collections, according to the curator's report. The ' Crevier collection ' of 
fossils from Montreal and vicinity and a numismatic collection form the 
most interesting special collections we note in this museum. Supported 
by private contributions and donations of friends to the Congregation of 
the Holy Cross. The collections are classed under twenty-five heads and 
in charge of the curator — Rev, Joseph C. Carrier, C.S.C, St. Laurent, 
Quebec. 

Peter Redpath Museum of McGill College, Montreal, Quebec. — 75,000 
specimens, arranged and classified for the use of professors, students, and 
the general public in a large, well lighted, and commodious fire-proof build- 
ing, built for the purpose, in 1882, by the munificent gift of the late Peter 
Redpath, Esq. The geological collections, including the Dawson collec- 
tions of Devonian, Carboniferous, and Cretaceous fossil plants, of Pleisto- 
cene fossils, Microsauria, Eozoon, and many other types, and the Logan 
Memorial Collection include some 16,540 specimens, divided as follows : — 
Fossils, 8,000 ; minerals, 2,880 ; rock specimens, 5,660. The Holmes and 
Miller cabinets of minerals are included in the above figures. There are 
also excellent collections of petrographical slides. The zoological collec- 
tions comprise 19,685 specimens as follows : — 

Specimens 

Mammals 170 

Birds 500 

Birds' eggs ........ 125 

Reptiles 90 

Fishes 200 

iJrustacea 300 

MoUusca 7,500 

Insects 10,000 

Echinodermata ....... 250 

Annulata ........ 100 

Anthozoa 200 

I'rotozoa and Hj'drozoa ..... 250 

The University Herbarium consists of upwards of 30,000 sheets, and 
includes the Holmes Herbarium and the Macoun collections of Canadian 
plants, exhibited at the World's Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, in 
1876. There are also representative collections from Australia, India, 
Japan, South Africa, Soutli America, and Northern Europe. Specimens 
of the Canadian timber trees, as well as those of the United States and 
foreign countries, are included in the ' Economic Collection.' Botanical 
collections in charge of Professor D. P. Penhallow. 

The archiuological and ethnological collections comprise some 1,200 
specimens illustrating the implements, pottery, and weapons of the abo- 
rigines of Canada and foreign countries, besides Egyptian antiquities in 
the Dawson collection. 

The ' Carpenter collection ' of shells is a special feature, and contains 
many types. The Chitonidre are of special interest. The McCulloch col- 
lection of birds is also worthy of note, besides the entomological collections 
of Messrs. Bowles, Cooper, and Pearson, acquired for the museum in recent 
years. 

Types. — This museum contains numerous type specimens of species and 



I 



ON THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 67 

varieties of recent and fossil organisms described by Sir William Dawson, 
Professor James Hall, George Jennings Hinde, T. Rupert Jones, Joseph 
Leidy, O. C. Marsh, D. P. Penhallow, J. T. Donald, and P. P. Carpenter. 
Hon. Curators : Sir William Dawson, Dr. B. J. Harrington, Dr. D. P. 
Penhallow, Dr. F. D. Adams, Dr. W, E. Deeks, Peter Redpath Museum, 
Montreal. 

Museum of the Natural History Society of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec. — 
Total number of specimens displayed and classified, 18,250. Of these the 
zoological collections comprise nearly two-thirds, viz., 11,220 specimens, 
as follows : — 

Mammals (mounted) 150 

Birds (mounted) 1,300 » 

Eeptiles (mounted) 50 

Fish (mounted) 120 

Shells, classified and labelled .... 4,000 

Crustacea 200 ' 

Insects 5,000 

Kadiates ........ 150 

Corals and sponges 250 

11,220 

These 11,220 specimens, together with a botanical collection of Cana- 
dian and British plants, numbering 1,600 sheets, make up the total of 
12,820 biological specimens. The geological collections comprise 1,500 
rocks and fossils, besides 2,500 minerals, amongst which are some rare 
old finds. Of birds' eggs there is a collection of 160 specimens. 

There is also the ' Terrier collection ' of Egyptian antiquities, pre- 
sented in 1859 ; the ' C. U. Shepard collection ' of minerals, numbering 600 
specimens ; and a rare collection of birds from the Malay Archipelago 
presented by H. J. Tiffin, Esq., in 1892. 

The collections in this museum have been enriched from time to time 
by private donations, and much of the work in classification is due to Sir 
William Dawson, Mr. J. F. Whiteaves, the late Mr. E. Billings, and many 
others. This society received provincial aid for a number of years, but is 
now supported by the members of the Natural History Society of Mon- 
treal. (Curator : J. B. Williams, Esq., 32 University Street, Montreal, 
Quebec. 

Museum of the Geological Survey of Cavada — the National Museum of 
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. — Contains some 92,000 specimens, arranged and 
classified for reference. The finest and most complete collection of Cana- 
dian minerals, rocks, and fossils. The geological cabinets and cases 
include upwards of 14,000 specimens of minerals and rocks, illustrating 
the mines and mining industry of Canada, besides a typical collection of 
16,000 fossil organic remains neatly labelled and classified, representing 
about 4,600 species, of which about 1,000 are the types of species de- 
scribed by the late E. Billings, and some 600 types described by Mr. 
Whiteaves. Other type specimens of fossil organic remains in the collec- 
tion are the types of species established by Sir Wm. Dawson, Sir W. E. 
Logan, J. W. Salter, Dr. S. H. Scudder, Professor T. Rupert Jones, 
Professor E. O. Ulricli, Professor E. D. Cope, Professor H. Alleyne 
Nicholson, Dr. Henry Woodward, Profes.sor James Hall, Dr. Arthur H. 

' 600 of these are Canadian. 

F 2 



68 REPORT— 1897. 

Toord, Mr. W. R. Billings, Dr. H. M. Ami, and Mr. L. M. Lambe.. 
Among special suites may be mentioned fossils characterising the ' Quebec 
Group ' of Logan and Billings from Quebec and Newfoundland. 

About 150,000 specimens, illustrating the palseontological characters of 
the various geological formations in Canada, from Atlantic to Pacific, and 
from the United States boundary line to the Arctic Circle, are kept for 
reference in the store-room and basement of the museum, together with 
a series of duplicate specimens for collections intended for educationat 
purposes. 

There is also a remarkably fine collection of Ordovician Crinoidea from 
the Trenton of Ottawa and Hull, and a fine series of Devonian fishes 
from Bay des Chaleurs, and the original specimens of Eozoon canadense. 

The zoological collections comprise 15,000 specimens, including the 
' Whiteaves collection ' of shells, Atlantic and Pacific coast shells of British 
North America — corals, radiates, and sponges from various localities — 
besides birds, mammals, reptiles, and the ' Geddes collection of Lepi- 
doptera,' chiefly Bocky Mountain and Canadian. 

Types : North Pacific and N; Atlantic recent sponges described by 
Mr. L. M. Lambe ; Mollusca, foraminifera and other invertebrates de- 
scribed by Mr. J. F. "Whiteaves, A. E. Verrill, J. B. Smith, Alex. Agassiz 
and others. 

Ethnological collection includes the 'Mercier collection ' (chiefly N.W. 
Eskimo) ; the ' Herschfelder collection ' of Indian remains from Ontario ; 
the Powell collection of Pacific or West Coast Indians of British Columbia, 
besides various collections made by officers of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 

Madoc Meteorite, Thurlow Meteorite (pars) also in the collection. 

The herbarium contains upwards of 80,000 sheets, of which 50,000 
form the most complete collection of Canadian plants. Besides numerous 
types and co-types of Canadian species described by Hooker, Michaux, 
Torrey, Pursh, Gray, Watson, Kindberg, Robinson, Peck, and other 
botanists, the herbarium comprises large and representative collections 
from Great Britain, Scandinavia, Northern Russia, France, Germany, 
Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Greenland, the United States of America, 
including Alaska, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Natal, &c. There 
are also included the classic herbaria prepared by Menzies, Sir Joseph 
Back, Sir John Richardson, Douglas, Drummond, and other arctic 
explorers in the early years of this century, besides a complete collection 
of Canadian woods and a fair collection of the native fruits from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. The herbarium is in charge of Professor John 
Macoun, Dominion Botanist. 

Director of the Museum : Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 

The Fisheries Museum, Ottawa, Canada. — Under the immediate care 
of the Department of Marine and Fisheries at Ottawa. Contains the 
best collection of Canadian fishes in the Dominion. This collection, 
primarily brought together in 1883 as part of the exhibit from Canada at 
the Fisheries Exhibition, London, England, gives a very fair idea of the 
fisheries of the large bodies of fresh and salt water of the Dominion from 
an economic standpoint. Specimens determined for the most part by Mr. 
J. F. Whiteaves, of the Geological Survey of Canada in 1883. Now in 
charge of Professor Ed. E. Prince, B.A., F.L.S., Commissioner of Fisheries 
for Canada, Ottawa. 

Central Experimental Farm Museum, Ottawa, Ontario. — Contains a 



k 



'OW THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IX CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 69 

■good 'herbarium of Canada. Collections of native and cultivated fruits, 
seeds, etc., preserved in a liquid medium for reference for agricultural as 
well as horticultural purposes. Samples of the cereals, grasses, and fruits 
which grow in Canada as the result of tests made at the central and other 
■experimental stations in Canada. Samples of soils from different portions 
of Canada and the North-West. Director : Dr. Wm. Saunders, F.R.S.C, 
Ottawa, Ontario. Maintained by the Dominion Government Territories, 
forming part of the Department of Agriculture. Collections of insects 
injurious and beneficial to vegetation. Botanical and entomological 
collections in charge of Dr. James Fletcher, Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 

Quee7i's University Museum, Kingston, Ontario. — Contains 22,700 
Gpecim&ns, arranged and classified for the use of professors and students. 
Of these there are 3,600 minerals and rocks and 5,000 fossil organic 
remains, in all 8,600 geological specimens. The zoological collections, 
chiefly mollusca and other invertebrata, number 3,146 specimens. Ento- 
mological and ethnological collections defective. 

The herbarium is an excellent one, and contains 9,435 sheets of 
Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia of Canada and other countries. Type 
specimen : Large slab showing tracks of Saicropus ungui/er, Dawson, 
from the Carboniferous rocks of Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. 

Special collection : The ' Rev. Andrew Bell collection ' of minerals, 
•rocks, and fossils, consisting of 1,500 specimens. Curator : Rev. J. Fowler, 
M.A., F.R.S.C, Kingston, Ontario. 

Museum of the School of Mining, Kingston, Ontario. — The mineral 
collection consists of about 9,000 specimens, classified as follows : — 
(1) Specimens to which students have access, 5,650 ; (2) specimens illus- 
trating physical mineralogy, 900; (3) mineral species, 2,120, specimens; 
{4) ores, &c. 

The palpeontological collections consist of the Columbian Exposition 
-collection sent to Chicago by the Geological Survey of Canada, and presented 
to the Ontario School of Mining, together with a number of specimens of 
Ontario palseozoic fossils. Curator : Professor W. G. Miller, M.A., Ph.D. 

Biological Museum, University of Toro7ito, Toronto, Ontario. — Contains 
between 15,000 and 20,000 specimens, of which the geological department 
includes about 12,000 specimens, as follows : — 

Ferrier collection of minerals .... 6,000 specimens 

Pala3ontological collections 4,000 „ 

Kocks, &c 2,000 

The zoological collections alone number 8,000 specimens, and include 
specimens of living and fossil representatives of the various classes and 
orders of the animal kingdom, as well as a large series of models for educa- 
tional purposes. There is also a good herbarium, with collections of woods, 
models, &c., all of which serve to illustrate the botanical department in 
■the university. The ethnological department, established by the late Sir 
Daniel Wilson, contains a large collection of crania and implements. 

There are no types in the museum. Curators : Professor R. Ramsay 

Wright, M. A., Ph.D., Professor A. B. Macallum, M. A., C. Jeffrey,Esq., M. A. 

Museum of the School of Practical Science, Toronto, Ontario. — Contains 

'6,000 specimens, of which 3,292 belong to the geological department, and 

■are divided as follows : — 

Minerals 1,245 specimens 

Rocks 1,647 „ 

Fossil organic remains 400 „ 



70 REPORT — 1897. 

Besides the above there is also a students' collection of 1,600 species 
for reference, and 1,200 thin or microscopic sections of rocks. Economic 
minerals a speciality. Curator : Professor A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., 
University College, Toronto, Ontario. 

Museum of Victoria University, Toronto, Ontario. — 3,000 specimens 
are included in the geological collections (500 mineral specimens, 500 
rocks, and 2,000 specimens of fossil organic remains). There is also the 
' Taylor collection of archteological remains ' from both the eastern and 
"western hemispheres. Meteorite from near Victoria, N.W.T. Curator : 
Rev. N. Burwash, D.D., Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario. 

Ontario Archceological Museum, Toronto, Ontario. — Supported sinc& 
1887 by an annual grant of ^1,000 from the Ontario Legislature. 
Excellent collection of stone and clay pipes, copper and iron, and 
stone implements and weapons from various portions of the province of 
Ontario, besides collections from United States mounds, from British 
Columbia, &c. The collections in all amount to about 20,000 pieces (not 
counting individual wampum beads, &c.), thousands of flints, hundreds of 
celts (plain and grooved), gouges, hundreds of bone and horn instruments,, 
numerous clay vessels, 200 crania, 700 miscellaneous Aztec specimens, 
250 slate gorgets, 40 ' bird ' amulets, besides clay vessels from Aztec and 
Pueblo mounds. 

The collection is neatly labelled and catalogued as to exact name of 
locality, name of donor, collector, and date. Curator : David Boyle, Esq., 
Ontario Archaeological Museum, in connection with the Department of 
Education, Ontario. 

Canadian Institute Museiim., Toronto, Ontario. — Supported by legisla- 
tive grant and membership fees. It is located at 58 Bichmond Street 
East, Toronto. Established 1849 ; incorporated by Boyal Charter, 1851. 
The specimens belonging to the old Natural History Society of Toronto 
(now the Biological Section of the Institute) form part of the Canadian 
Institute Museum collections. The zoological collections comprise the 
following : — 

Birds (Canadian) 729 specimens 

Birds' eggs ("Canadian) 329 

Birds (foreign) 1.50 

Mammals ........ C2 

, Reptiles 200 

Insects 2,000 

There is also a small herbarium. Curator : James H. Fleming, 
Esq., Canadian Institute. 

Hamilton Association M2iseu7n, Hamilton, Ontario. — Contains 8,000 
specimens, arranged and classified, of which there ai'e about 3,300 
geological, divided as follows : — Fossil organic remains, 2,500 ; minerals,. 
800. Fine collection of the sponges and graptolites of the Niagara forma- 
tion, Canada. The herbarium contains 1,400 sheets, belonging chiefly tO' 
the local flora. Zoological collection defective, although some few and 
rare species are exhibited. Small collection of ethnological specimens 
from Canada and the South Sea Islands. The Mrs. S. E. Carry collections 
of 3,000 specimens of shells, recent and fossil, and of Indian relics form 
part of the exhibits at present in the musuem — a loan collection. 
Secretary (pro-Curator), S. A. Morgan, B.A., 26 Erie Avenue, Hamilton, 
Ontario. 

Ontario Agricultuxal Q allege Muse^im, . Guelph, Ontario. — Contains 



ON THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 71 

about 5,000 specimens : Minerals, 230 ; rocks, a small collection ; fossils, 
65 ; zoological collection miscellaneous, and divided as follows : — 

Birds 398 specimens 

Keptiles J,^ " 

Fishes -''y i> 

Mollusca 102 „ 

Molluscoidea •^> i. 

Insects ......■•• '''7 ,> 

Annuloida 1!^ » 

Coelenterata 11 ,. 

Protozoa 1 » 

In all . . . 1,422 

The botanical collections, comprising dried plants and seeds for agricul- 
tural purposes, European plants, ifcc, contain 1,698 specimens and 
samples, besides a fair collection of Canadian woods. 

Museum and college under the supervision of the Department of 
Education for Ontario, Dr. S. P. May, Toronto, organiser of the museum, 
and J. Hoyes Panton, officer in charge, Guelph Agricultural College, 
Guelph, Ontario. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, London, Ontario. — Contains the 
leading collection of entomological specimens in Ontario. The Society 
has also a botanical and a geological section. Curators of the Museum : 
J. Moffiitt, Esq., Professor Dearness, and S. Woolverton, London, Ontario. 

Museum of the Literary and Historical Society of Manitoba, Wi7mipeg, 
Manitoba. — Contains several thousand specimens. The natural history 
collection comprises the birds, mammals, and insect fauna of the province 
and the North- West Territories of Canada. Very fair collection of 
minerals, rocks, and fossils from various geological formations in Mani- 
toba and the other provinces. Housed in special apartments in the City 
Hall of Winnipeg. Curator : Charles N. Bell, Esq., City Hall, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Canada. 

Provincial Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba. — Contains several hundred 
specimens of fossils from the Trenton limestone of Manitoba, and from 
the Cretaceous shales of the North-West Territories. Located in the 
Parliament Buildings, Winnipeg, and supported by a grant from the 
Provincial Legislature. 

Rocky Mountain Parh Museum, Alberta, Cfflwoc?a.— Supported by the 
Dominion Government. The majority of the specimens exhibited were 
sent from the Geological Survey Department and Museum at Ottawa. 
Contains interesting collections of the birds, plants, woods, &c., of local 
interest to tourists and travellers. Illustrates the fauna and flora of the 
Rocky Mountain region of Canada. Superintendent : H. Douglas, Esq., 
Banff', Alberta, North- West Territories. 

Provincial Museitm, Victoria, Britislo Columbia. — This is one of the 
best kept and most interesting collections in Canada. Upward of 11,000 
specimens arranged and classified for reference. Good collections of 
rocks, minerals, and fossils of British Columbia and other parts of Canada. 
The Newton H. Chittenden collections in ethnology of special value and 
interest. Zoological collections fairly complete. 

Types : Two type specimens of birds : (1) Melospiza Lincolnii, 
Brewster; (2) Zaprora salivus, Jordan, from near Nanaimo, Gulf of 
Georgia, British Columbia. Curator : John Pannin, Esq., P.O. Box 471, 
Victoria, British Columbia. 



72 



REPORT — 1897. 



Notes on Private Collections in Canada. 



1. Dr. A. H. Mackay . 

2. Andrew Downs, Esq. 
.3. Harry Austin, Esq. . 

4. T. J. Egan, Esq. 

5. The Lawson Herba- 

rium. 



6. Dr. John Somers 

7. Dr. Lindsay 



Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Good reference collections in botany and zoology. Special 
collection of Canadian SpongillEe; also micro-organisms. 

Ornithological collection. 

(Dartmouth) Ornithological collection. 

(Dalhousie University) Ornithology. 

Containing the extensive series of mounted and dried 
plants of Nova Scotia and other parts of Canada, viith 
special reference to the Ranunculacese and Filices of 
the whole Dominion, 
llerbarium. 
Herbarium. 



9. 
10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



St. John, New Brunswick. 

St. John and New Brunswick Diatomacea. 

Numismatic collection. 

New Brunswick and general Canadian plants. 



Dr. Lucien Allison . 

S. D. Scott, Esq. 

(i. U. Hay, Esq., 

F.R.S.C. 
A. Gordon Leavitt, Esq. Collection of native birds for reference. 



J. S. Maclaren, Esq. 
Dr. G. F. Matthew, 
F.R.S.C. 



Dr. T. J. W. 
F.R.S.C. 



Sir Wm. Van Home, 

K.C.M.G. 
Rev. Robert Campbell, 

D.D. 



Harold 
B.A. 



18. Dr. B. J. Harrington 



Numismatic collection, collection of medals, clasps, &c. 

Best collection of St. John group fossils. Palfeozoic 
fossils from maritime provinces and other parts of 
Canada. Numerous types of species of fossil plants, 
sponges, mollusca, insecta, trilobita, &c., from various 
horizons (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian) 
in the Palfeozoic of New Brunswick ; European fossils ; 
also recent plants and marine invertebrates. 

Montreal, Quebec. 

Burgess, Herbarium contains about 1.5,000 sheets. Excellent and 
very complete collection of Canadian flowering plants, 
including North- West Territory and Rocky Mountain 
flora, 2,509 species. Ontario collection very complete. 
Canadian vascular cryptogamic plants, 7,000 sheets, 

Extensive collection of fossil organic remains from Canada, 
the United States, and Europe. 

Herbarium containing plants representing flora of Mon- 
treal Island, Murray Bay, and other portions of the 
Province of Quebec. 

Complete collection of the ferns of the island of Montreal. 
Fair collection of Phanerogamia of Montreal Island and 
vicinity. 

Cabinets of minerals from Canada and the United States 
for reference collection. Type specimens, dawsonite, 
chemawinite, &c. 



B. Gushing, 



19. W. Hague Harring- 
toi:, Esq., F.R.S.C. 



20. Dr. James Fletcher, 
F.L.S., F.R.S.C. 



Ottawa, Ontario. 

Very complete collection of Ottawa Coleoptera and Hymen- 
optera. ; also Spiders and Proctotrypidge. Contains 
numerous types of species new to science. Also collec- 
tion of Canadian flowering plants. 

Specimens illustrating his ' Ottawa Flora ' or ' Flora Otta- 
waensis ' as published in the ' Transactions of the 
Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club.' Botanical collections 
from nearly all parts of the Dominion and elsewhere. 
Also extensive collections of insects injurious and 
beneficial to vegetation, &c. Excellent collection of 
Lepidoptera. 



ON THE PRINCIPAL MUSEUMS IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 



73 



21. Walter K. Billings, 

Esq. 

22. W. L. Scott, Esq., 

B.A. 

23. George E. White, 

Esq. 

24. Frank E. Latchford, 

Esq., B.A. 



25. Dr. H. Beaumont 

Small 

26. E. B. Whyte, Esq. . 

27. Walter F. Farrier, 

Esq., F.G.S. 

28. Dr. H. M. Ami . 



29. J. Burr Tyrrell, Esq., 

B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S. 

30. W. J. Wilson, Esq., 

B.Sc. 

31. Joseph Towsend, Esq. 



32. T. W. E. Sowter, Esq. 



Very complete collection of Ordovician fossils from the 
Ottawa Valley, including those from Paquette's Rapids, 
Hull, and Ottawa City and vicinity. 

Excellent collection of birds and birds' eggs of Ottawa 
and vicinity. 

Excellent collection of mounted birds and birds' skins for 
reference in Ottawa district. 

Collection of Ottawa Unionidae contains Jlnio horealis, 
A. F. Gray, a type from the Ottawa River described from 
Mr. Latchford's collection. Also large series of Ohio 
and Western Ontario as well as other Canadian 
shells. 

Good collection of the flowering plants about Ottawa and 
vicinity. 

Excellent reference collection of the flora of Ottawa and 
vicinity. Perth specimens. Species of rare occurrence 
in the collection. 

Excellent collection of Canadian minerals. Also foreign 
type and other minerals. Collection of rocks — litho- 
logical. Canadian fossil organic remains. 

Fair collection of Ottawa and general Canadian flowering 
plants. Foreign and domestic shells. Collection of 
Canadian ethnological specimens. Utica fossils from 
Ottawa and vicinity. 

Collection of Canadian Acaridas and Arachnidse. Con- 
tains types described by G. Haller, A. Poppe, F. Koenicke, 
J. H. Emerton, J. W. Peckham, and J. B. Tyrrell. 

Choice collection of Devonian fossil plants from the ' fern- 
ledges ' of Lancaster Co., New Brunswick. Also two 
co-types of fossil insects described by Dr. G. F. Matthew. 

Palseontological collections : 3,000 Guelph fossils ; 1,000 
Ordovician fossils from Trenton, Utica, and Lorraine of 
Ontario ; 500 Niagara corals and other fossils ; 400 pre- 
Glacial plants and shells. 

(Aylmer, Quebec.) Collection of Chazy fossils from 
Aylmer and vicinity. Fair collections of Trenton and 
Black River fossils from the Ottawa Palseozoic Basin. 
Mr. Sowter's collections of Ordovician fossils include 
more than 2,000 specimens. 



33. Rev. J. M. Goodwillie, 
M.A. 



Vernon, Ontario. 

Collection of archfeological remains from Ontario ; also 
Hamilton group, Niagara, Clinton, and Black River 
fossils from various districts in Ontario. 



34. 



35. 



Rev. Professor James 
Fowler, M.A., 
F.R.S.C. 



W. G. 
M.A. 



Kidd, Esq., 



Kingston, Ontario. 

Large herbarium, consisting of 14,731 sheets, representing 
flora of New Brunswick very completely, and that of 
other parts of British North America very well, besides 
foreign specimens. 

Very good collection of the minerals of Ontario. This 
collection was exhibited at the World's Fair, Chicago, 
in 1893 as part of the Province of Ontario exhibit. 



Lansdowne, Ontario. 

SS. Kiev. W. G. Young, Ornithological and Oological collection. 
M.A. 



74 



REPORT — 1897. 



Toronto, Ontario. 

37. B. E. Walker, Esq., Extensive Rnd choice collection of Canadian, Niagara, 

F.G.S. Hamilton group and Ordovician fossils. Also fine col- 

lection of British and United States fossils. Unde- 
scribed Stromatoporoids. 

38. James H. Fleming, 2,000 bird-skins, including 500 species, nearly all Canadian 

Esq. birds. Also mounted birds from Canada and some 

foreign birds. 

39. Hon. G. W. Allan . Collection of native (Canadian) birds. 



40. A. E. Walker, Esq. 

41. A. T. Neill, Esq. 

42. Col. C. C. Grant 



Hamilton, Ontario. 

Collections of local fossils, including rare and undescribed 

fossil sponges from Silurian of the district. 
Collections of fossils and minerals from Canada, ranging 

from the Laurentian to the Cretaceous. 
Collection of Medina, Clinton, and Niagara fossils, 

graptolites and sponges a speciality. Also few Indian 

relics. 

43. Thomas McHwraith, Complete collection of Canadian birds,- also many foreign 

Esq. species. 

44. A. Alexander, Esq. . Botanical collection, local flora. Also Georgian Bay 

plants. 

Grimsby, Ontario. 

45. Jonathan Pettit, Excellent collection of Niagara (Silurian) fossils, contain- 

Esq. ing good crinoidea, &c. 

Thedford, Ontario. 

46. Rev. Hector Currie, Very complete collection of Hamilton group fossils from 

M.A. Thedford (Widder), Bartlett's mills, &c., in Lambton 

County, Ontario. 



London, Ontario. 

47. Rev. W. Mintern Collection of Devonian fossils, chiefly corals from Western 
Seaborn, M.A. Ontario. 



48. — Willing, Esq. 



Olds, N. W.T. 

Entomological collection, North-West noctuids. Type 
specimens and undescribed specimens in collection. 



Victoria, British Columbia. 

49. Dr. C. F. Newcombe. Excellent collection of Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils 

from British Columbia, &c. Numerous undescribed 
forms, including decapod Crustacea. 

Canadian and British moUusca. Large and important 
reference collection of Western (especially) as well as 
Eastern recent shells (Nanaimo, B.C.). 

General collection of fossil organic remains, from the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary of Vancouver and other 
islands, and recent natural history specimens from 
British Columbia (Victoria, B.C.). 



60. Rev. G. W. Taylor, 
M.A., F.R.S.C. 

61 Jolin Fannin, Esq. . 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS 75 



Wave-length Tables of the 8])edra of the Elements and Coonpotmds. — 
Report of the Committee^ consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman'), 
Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors 
J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 
Wolcott Gibes, and Captain Abney. (Braivn up by Dr. Watts.) 



Cobalt. 

Hasselberg : 'Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.,' Bd. 28, No. 6, 1896. 
Esner and Haschek : ' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cv. (2), 189G. 



Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Arc Spectrum 


Characler 


K + 


1 
\ 


in Vacuo 


*553106 


7 




1-51 


4-9 


18074-8 


6525-27 


5 




»} 


1) 


18093-7 


*552i-24 


2 




f) 


ti 


18097-1 


•5523 56 


6 




t* 


11 


18099-4 


5516-29 


3 




Jl 


ft 


18123-1 


5495-94 


4 




1-50 


5-0 


18190-2 


5489-90 


6 




19 


11 


18210-3 


*5488-38 


3 




»» 


it 


18215-3 


♦5484-22 


6 




J) 


11 


18229-1 


*5483-57 


8 


5483-70 Tbalen 


11 


1) 


18231-3 


5477-37 


4 




»» 


11 


18251-9 


♦5477-13 


6 




»J 


)1 


18252-7 


5470-73 


4 




1-49 


l> 


18274-1 


5469-55 


4 




1) 


It 


18278-0 


*5454-79 


7 




11 


»1 


18327-5 


6453-61 


2 


5453-30 „ 


11 


11 


18331-5 


5452-53 


3 




1> 


11 


18335-1 


*5444-81 


7 


5444-30 „ 


If 


11 


18361-1 


♦5437-25 


4 




1-48 


ti 


18390-0 


5431-30 


3 




» 


11 


18406-8 


5427-59 


2 




ft 


11 


18419-4 


6427 41 


2 




>l 


If 


18420-0 


5427-01 


2 




it 


1 


18421-7 


5425-87 


3 




yf 


11 


18425-2 


5408-37 


3 




it 


11 


18485-0 


5407-75t 


5 




if 




18487-0 


♦5402-24 


4 




(> 


11 


18505-8 


5400-03 


3 




1-47 


11 


18513-4 


5394-02 


2 




91 


5-1 


18534-3 


5391-01 


2 




11 


}) 


18544-3 


♦5390-71 


3 








18545-3 


♦5381-99 


5 




if 




18575-4 


♦5381-31 


4 




tl 


1} 


18577-7 


♦5377-99 


2 








18589-2 


5374-21 


2 




Jl 


It 


18602-3 


♦5370-60 


2 




>1 


>• 


18614-8 



> 



* Coincident -with a solar line. 

t Solar line double, Co and Mn (Co>Mn). 

J Observed also by Exner and Haschek in the spark spectrum. 



76 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — coyitinued. 



Wave- 






Reduction to 




length 

(Rowland) 

Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


1_ 

A. 


♦5369-79tt 


63 


6369-25 Thalen 


1-47 


51 


18617-6 


536913 


3 






ft 


18619-9 


5366-97 


3 






l> 


18627-4 


♦5362-97 


6 


5363-75 „ 


1-46 


91 


18641-3 


*5359-41 


2 


5360-75 „ 




»f 


18653-7 


*5359-16 


2 






t1 


18654-5 


6353-69§ 


3 


5353-65 „ 




19 


18673-6 


*5352-22 


5 


6352-45 „ 




11 


18678-7 


5349-29 


4 






If 


18689-3 


6347-68 


4 






11 


18694-6 


6344-79 


3 






tl 


18704-7 


♦534358 


6 


6343-85 „ 




1^ 


18708-9 


♦5342-86 


8 


£343-35 „ 




f) 


18711-5 


5341-53 


63 






It 


18716-1 


5339-71 


4 






If 


18723-5 


5337-56 


2 






11 


18729-9 


5336-36 


3 






11 


18734-2 


*5335-06 


4 double 






)l 


18738-8 


*o333-85 


4 






It 


18743-0 


♦5332-85 


4 






It 


18746-6 


♦5331-65 


6i 






tl 


18750-8 


5326-49 


3 








18769-0 


5326-15 


4 






It 


18770-2 


♦5325-44 


5 




1-45 


tt 


18772-7 


5321-95 


3 






ft 


18785-0 


♦5316-96ttt 


5 






It 


18802-6 


♦6312-84 


5 






It 


18817-2 


5310-47 


3 






II 


18825-6 


5301-24 


6i 






5-2 


18858-3 


529245 


2 






It 


18889-6 


5288-02 


3 






tf 


18905-5 


5287-78 


3 






tt 


18906-3 


♦528368 


3 






11 


18921-1 


♦5280-85 


G 


6280-69 




ft 


18931-1 


5276-38 


5 






tt 


__l8947-2 


5268-72 


6s 


5268-79 




tt 


18974-7 


♦5266-71 


6 


6266-79 


1-44 




18982-2 


♦5266-51 


6 






It 


18982-7 


♦5266-00 


3 






11 


18984-5 


♦5257-81 


S 






tt 


19014-1 


5254-83 


4 






It 


19024-9 


5250-21 


4 




1-43 




19041-6 


♦5248-12 


5 






It 


19049-2 


5237-32 


2 






91 


19088-5 


♦523537 


53 


5235-49 




jl 


19095-6 


♦5230-38 


53 


6231-09 






19113-9 


6222-71 


3 






t) 


19141-9 


521928 


2 






It 


19154-7 


♦5218-42 


4 






tl 


19157-7 


♦5212-87 


5s 


6213-09 


1-42 


,. 


19178-1 



•§ Solar line double 



/Co 5353-69. 
\ Fe 5353-59. 

ttt Solar line double {ggle^s} ' 



ft Titanium 5369-81. 



the corona line. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. *]1 

Cobalt — continued. 



VVave- 

lensth 

(Rowland) 

Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 

A 


♦521108 


2 




1-42 


5-2 


19184-7 


5210-28 


3s 






»» 


19187-6 


♦5176-27 


5s 






5-3 


19313-6 


6172-49 


4n 




1-41 


f> 


19328-7 


5166-30 


4 






n 


19350-9 


*5165-32 


4 






*> 


19354-6 


5159-03 


4n 






i» 


19378-2 ' 


5158-61 


4n 






>t 


19379-8 


5156-53 


5 






f> 


19386-8 


5155-04 


3 






i> 


19393-2 


»5154-26 


5 






It 


19396-1 


*5153-43 


3 






»» 


19399-3 


*5150-03 


4 






If 


194121 


*5149-32|| 


3 






f> 


19414-7 


*5146-96 


6 






M 


19423-6 


*5145-73 


4n 






It 


19428-2 


*5142-65 


3 






II 


19439-9 


5133-65 


6s 




1-40 


1> 


19474-0 


*5126-37 


5s 






1) 


19501-7 


5125-88 


5 






»> 


19504-5 


5124-99 


3 






It 


19506-9 


•5123-01 


5 




„ 


Jt 


19514-5 


♦5113-41 


5 






5-4 


19551-0 


♦5109-08 


5 






1> 


19567-6 


♦5108-55 


2 






l» 


19569-6 


♦5105-73 


4 






1? 


19580-4 


5100-30 


3 




1-33 


»» 


19601-3 


♦5095-18 


5 






II 


196210 


5088-08 


3 






»> 


19648-4 


5077-64 


3 






11 


19688-8 


5035-16 


2 




1-38 


II 


19854-9 


5034-24 


3 




1, 


ir 


19858-6 


5033-55 


2 






II 


19861-3 


♦5022-37 


8 




1-37 


5-5 


19905-4 


5007-49 


3 






i» 


19964-6 


♦4993-27 


3 






11 


20022-3 


4988-15§ 


5 




1-36 


II 


20042-0 


4986-69 


3 






l» 


20047-9 


498015 


5 






II 


20074-2 


4974-75 


3 






l» 


20096-0 


4972-16 


5 






It 


20106-5 


4971-22 


3 






»» 


20110-3 


»4968-09 


3n 






11 


20123-0 


♦4967-72 


2 






II 


20124-5 


4966-77 


5 






• 1 


20128-3 


4959-89 


2 






)l 


20156-2 


♦4953-37 


4 




1-35 


II 


20182-8 


4948-77 


3 






II 


20201-9 


4942-56 


2 






5-6 


20226 8 


4941-53 


2 






»» 


20231-0 


4936-61 


3 






II 


20251-2 


4935-40 


2 






II 


20256-2 


4933-08 


3 




>i 


II 


20265-7 



II Also Md.. 



§ Double. 



78 



REPOET — 1897. 
Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Arc Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


•4928-4811 


6 




1-35 


5-6 


20284-6 


4925-20 


3 




>) 


1» 


20298-2 


4920-47 


4 




»» 


>» 


20317-6 


♦4912-62 


3 




1-34 


»1 


20350-1 


4908-68 


3 




1» 


11 


20366-5 


4907-78 


2 




Jl 


ft 


20370-2 


4907-30 


2 




tl 


11 


20372-2 


4904-37 


5 




>9 


11 


20381-4 


4899-72 


6 




)J 


1* 


20403-7 


4897-36 


4 




»» 


»» 


20413-6 


♦4887-19 


4 




,j 


11 


20472-8 


4882-90 


6 




»» 


>1 


20474-0 


4880-43 


2 




J» 


11 


20484-4 


4878-53 


3 




1-33 


11 


20492-4 


♦4869-59 


4 




»» 


11 


20530-0 


♦4868-05 


10 


4867-90 Thal6n 


»» 


H 


20536-4 


4863-64 


3 




)l 


IJ 


20555-1 


4862-29 


3 




>* 


»» 


20560-4 


♦4855-86 


2 




»» 


5-7 


20587-9 


4855-40 


3 




»» 


»l 


20589-9 


♦4843-61 


5 




»t 


11 


20640-1 


♦4840-42§ 


9 


4839-90 „ 


1-32 


11 


20653-7 


♦4818-13 


3 




») 


tl 


20749-2 


♦481611 


4 




»» 


>* 


20757-9 


4814-16 


6 


1 4814-40 „ 


■ » 


11 


20766-4 


♦4813-67 


9 


1* 


11 


20768-5 


4798-01 


3 




1-31 


11 


20836-3 


14797-93 


3 




»» 


It 


20836-6 


4796-46 


4 




»> 


11 


20843-0 


4796-00 


5 




»» 


)l 


20845-0 


♦479303 


8 


4792-54 „ 


»» 


11 


20857-9 


4785-26 


5 




>I 


11 


20891-8 


4782-76 


3 




5» 




20902-7 


4781-62 


6 




»» 


5-8 


20907-9 


♦478014 


8 


4779-54 „ 


»> 


11 


20914-1 


♦4778-42 


5 




») 


1» 


20921-6 


♦4776-49 


7 




)» 


11 


20930-1 


♦4771-27 


7 




»» 


11 


20957-4 


♦4768-26 


6 




91 


11 


20966-2 


4767-33 


5 




H 




20970-3 


4756-93 


4 




1-30 


11 


21016-2 


♦4754-59 


6 




»t 


11 


21026-5 


♦4749-89 


9 


4749-34 „ 


f> 


11 


21047-3 


4746-31 


4 




l» 


)1 


21063-2 


4742-76 


2 




1» 


>i 


210790 


4742-40 


2 




>» 


11 


21080-6 


4738-34 


2 




11 


,, 


21098-6 


4737-95 


5 




11 


11 


21100-4 


4735-04 


5 




Jl 


11 


21113-3 


4732-25 


3 




11 


11 


21125-8 


4728-14 


6 




1-29 


5-9 


21144-1 


4727-95 


3 




f» 


)) 


21144-9 



See Titanium, § Solar line double \ 



Fe 4840-50 f 481410 
Co 4840-42 1 4814-35 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 79 

Co B ALT — contimted. 



i 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 


4725-44 


2 




1-29 


5-9 


21156-1 


4721-61 


3 




>1 


)> 


21173-3 


*4718-67 


5 




J» 


11 


21186-9 


4704-57 


3 




11 


it 


21250-0 


4699-35 


4 




») 


it 


21273-6 


*4698-60 


6 




»> 


»i 


21277-0 


*4697-19 


3 




it 


»» 


21283-4 


$4693-37 


7 




it 


a 


21300-7 


4688-68 


3 




1-28 


If 


21322-1 


4686-05 


3 




>> 


ff 


21334-0 


$■►4682-53 


8 




1* 


a 


21350-1 


4680-62 


3 




11 


ff 


21358-8 


4677-73 


3 




*> 


ff 


21372-0 


4677-46 


3 




>» 


Ji 


21373-3 


4676-91 


3 




11 


If 


21375-7 


466804 


3 




f> 


11 


21416-4 


$4663-58 


8 




»» 


If 


21436-9 


*4657-56 


5 




1* 


Jf 


21464-6 


4655-01 


4 




1-27 


ft 


21476-3 


4653-93 


3 




11 


11 


21481-3 


4652-01 


3 




»» 


it 


21490-2 


$4651-28 


3 




J» 


it 


214936 


*4645-34|| 


3 




)l 


It 


21521-5 


*4644-48 


5 




11 


11 


215250 


4643-92 


4 




11 


If 


21527-6 


4640-99 


3 




»» 


It 


21541-6 


$*4629-47|| 


9 




I» 


6-0 


21594-8 


462905 


4 




}t 


It 


21596-7 


$4625-88 


6 




it 


t) 


21611-5 


4624-70 


3 




>» 


1» 


21617-0 


$4623-15 


5 




11 


It 


21624-3 


4622-83 


3 




If 


ff 


21625-9 


4620-96 


3 




11 


M 


21634-5 


4614-18§ 


4 




1-26 


)1 


21666-3 


4612-57 


2n 




11 


ff 


21673-9 


4609-03 


3 




»» 


If 


21690-3 


*4607-46 


4 




»l 


If 


21697-9 


4601-31 


4 




It 


ft 


21726-9 


$*4597-02 


8 




9» 


ft 


21747-2 


$*4594-75 


8 




It 


f) 


21758-0 


*4588-86 


4s 




»» 


Jf 


21785-9 


4587-08 


3s 




»» 


»f 


21794-4 


$4581-76§ 


10 


4581-75 Thal^n 


11 


It 


21819-7 


4580-32 


5 




1-25 


ft 


21826-5 


4575-12 


3 




>» 


tf 


21851-4 


4573-75 


2 




it 


f f 


21857-9 


$4570-18 


6 




It 


ff 


21875-0 


4566-77 


5 




11 


tf 


21891-3 


$4565-74 


9 




it 


If 


21896-2 


4564-98 


3 




1* 


It 


21899-9 


4564-35 


4s 




i> 


61 


21902-8 


456413 


3 




tt 


n 


21903-9 


4562-11 ' 3 




It 


n 


21913-6 


II s 


3e Titanium 


§ 


Solar 1 


iDe dou 


bie (4581-69. 



80 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave. 

length 


Intensity 
and 


Previona Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 


Character 






1 


in Vacuo 


Aic Spectrum 






A.+ 


A 




4553-51 


3 




1-25 


61 


21955-0 


t»4549-80^ 


8 




f> 


»> 


21972-9 


4547-06 


3 




» 


j> 


21986-1 


*4546-14 


5 




>) 


t> 


21990-6 


$4545-42 


4 




l> 


»» 


21994-1 


J*4543-99 
4540-96 


7 




»> 


»t 


22001-0 


3 




1-24 


»> 


22015-7 


$•4534-18 


« 




»» 


It 


22048-3 


$♦4531-14 


10 


4531-45 Thal6n 


»» 


f> 


22063-1 


: 


:4528-12 


5 




t» 


f » 


22078-1 


t 


:4526-94 


3 




)> 


>» 


22083-9 


•4525-97 


3 




*J 


»» 


22089-9 


*4524-88 


3 




»? 


1* 


22093-9 


4519-42 


4n 




., 


>» 


22119-6 


♦4517-28 


7 




>l 


t> 


22131-1 


♦4514-33 


6 




»» 


t> 


22145-6 


4500-71 


2 




1-23 


>i 


22212-6 


4499-45 


2 




1) 


*» 


22218-8 


$4494-92 
4492-23 


5s 
3 






6-2 


22241-1 
22254-5 


4490-46 


3 




t> 


tt 


22263-2 


4486-89 


4s 




»» 


t» 


22281-0 


4484-65 


4s 




i> 


ft 


22292-1 


$»4484-07 
4483-70 


5s 




II 


ft 


22294-5 


5n 




tr 


tt 


22296-8 


$♦4478-45 
4477-36 


6 




i> 


l» 


22322-9 


3n 




It 


»T 


22328-4 


■\ 


:4471-96 


4 




»» 


»> 


22355-4 


X 


■4471-70 


6 






»i 


H 


22356-7 


$♦4469-72 
$♦4467-04 

$4445-88 


8 






)» 


>t 


22366-6 


7 






1-22 


»» 


22380-0 


6 






IF 


»l 


22486-5 


$4445-21 


4 






f> 


J» 


22489-9 


4442-13 


2 






»> 


11 


22505-5 


♦4438-05 


2 




If 


i> 


225262 


♦4436-37 


3 




*» 


f* 


22534-7 


$4431-78 
4421-48 


4 




l» 


6-3 


22558-0 


Cs 




1-21 


>i 


22611-6 


$4417-55 


6 




>» 


»f 


22630 7 


♦4416-63 


3 




» 


jt 


22635-4 


$♦4402-85 
♦4395-99 


4 




)) 


1) 


22706-3 


4 




» 


1) 


22741-7 


$♦4392-02 
$♦4391-70 
$♦4388-02 
$♦4380-25 
♦4379-3711 


5 




1-20 


n 


22762 3 


6 




)> 


>1 


22763-9 


4 




*9 


»> 


22783-0 


en 




it 


l> 


22823-4 


3 




tt 


»> 


228280 


$4375-70 


4 




tt 


»» 


22847-2 


$♦4375-09 


5 




tt 


tl 


228504 


♦4374-66 


3 




t» 


F» 


22852-6 


$♦4373-77 


6 




*> 


It 


22857-3 




$4a71-2I 


I 6 






tt 


1* 


22870-3 



% Solar line double | ^g^gigQ, a Titanium line at 454979. 
II Perhaps due to Vanadium. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 81 

Cobalt — continued. 



Wavp- 
length 


Intensity 
and 


(Rowland) 


Character 


Arc Spectrum 




436G-37 


3 


4362-11 


2 


t4361-20 


2 


*4360-98 


3 


*4359-60 


3 


^4367-33 


2 


•4357-05 


4 


*4353-96 


3 


4340-39 


2 


t4339-76 


6 


4331-38 


5 


*J320-53 


3a 


4310-24 


2 


t*4309-54 


4 


$4307-57 


4 


t*4303-36 


5 


4298-14 


3n 


::*4292-4l 


4ii 


::*4285-93 


5s 


*4276-25 


4 


4270-68 


3 


$4268-59 


4 


426818 


3 


$4263-92 


3 


*426005 


3 


t*42o2-47 


6 


$4248-37 


3 


$4245-76 


3n 


4242-06 


4 


*4241-69 


4 


*4238-63 


3 


*4237-54 


3 


$♦4234-18 


5 


*4230-15 


2 


$*4225-28 


3 


$*421503 


2 


$421026 


2 


$4207-77 


3 


4198-58 


3 


4198-01 


2 


*4193-01 


2 


$*4190-87 


6 


:*4187-44 


4 


$4171-02 


4 


$4162-33 


5 


$*4 158-58 


5 i 


$•4150 59 


4 


t4139-58 


4 


$4122-42 


4 


$*4l21-47 


9 


$*4118-92§ 


9 


$*4110G9 


8 





Reduction to 




Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


(Rowland) 


A + 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 




1-20 


6-4 


22895-9 




|» 


II 


22918-3 




99 


II 


22923-1 




f) 


II 


22924-2 




t* 


(1 


22931-5 




tl 


II 


22943-4 




»» 


It 


22944-9 




119 


II 


22961-2 




»» 
It 


11 
tt 


23033-0 
23036-3 




it 


II 


23080-9 




it 


t( 


23138-9 




1-18 


II 


23194-2 




If 


n 


231979 




II 


6-5 


23208-4 




II 


fl 


23231-2 




II 


It 


23259-4 




11 


II 


23290-4 




11 


l» 


23325-7 




117 


It 


23378-5 




II 


tt 


23409-5 




II 


tt 


23420 4 




n 


If 


23422-7 




II 


II 


23446-1 




If 




23467-4 




II 


6-6 


23509-1 




fi 


11 


23531-8 




11 


It 


23546-3 




1-16 


1> 


23566-9 




1» 


tt 


"23568-9 




II 


It 


23585-9 




11 


n 


235920 




II 


11 


23610-7 




IT 


It 


236332 




1» 


■ II 


23660-5 




fl 


1? 


237180 




It 

tt 


tt 
11 


23744-9 
23759-0 




115 


6-7 


23811-0 




»I 


l> 


23814-2 




fl 


I* 


23842-6 




If 


)l 


23854-7 




1* 


11 


23874-2 




11 


It 


23968-2 




1-14 


ft 


24018-3 


, 


f) 


11 


24040-0 




If 


It 


24086 3 




I* 


6-8 


24150-2 




1-13 

ft 




24250-8 
24256-4 




II 
It 


It 
It 


24271-4 
24320-0 



1897. 



§ Solar line double ( 4i|9!q2 ^°' 



G 



82 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 
Character 


(Rowland) 




J._ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Arc Spectrum 






A + 


\ 




4110-21 


4 




1-13 


6-8 


24322-9 


4109-83 


2 




ft 


»l 


24325-1 


4104-89 


4 




11 


»> 


24354-4 


♦4104-57 


49 




tf 


f» 


24356-3 


4097-37 


4 




»» 


6-9 


24399-0 


4096-08 


4 




*» 


jf 


24406-7 


♦4093-20 


4 




1-12 


»» 


24423-9 


♦4092-98 


4 




l> 


If 


24425-2 


t*4092-55§ 


8 




»» 


>f 


24427-7 


t*4086-47 


7 




>» 


ff 


24464-1 


♦4085-74 


3 




1* 


fi 


24468 5 


♦4084-28 


3 




J» 


u 


24477-2 


$♦4082-76 


5 




n 


It 


24486-3 


4081-63 


3 




11 


l» 


24493-1 


$♦4077-55 


5 




n 


tf 


24517-6 


4076-74 


4 




u 


ft 


24522-5 


4076-28 


5s 




»» 


tt 


24525-3 


4069-70 


3 




t* 


tf 


24564-9 


t»4068-72 


6s 




11 


t» 


24570-8 


$♦4066-52 


6s 




ti 


ft 


24584-1 


$♦4058-75 


5s 




9* 


>l 


24631-2 


♦4058-36 


5s 




)J 


l» 


24633-6 


$4057-36 


4s 




11 


f ) 


24639-7 


$4057-10 


4 




t) 


ft 


24641-2 


$4054-08 


4 




1-11 


tt 


24659-6 


$♦405308 


5 




91 


tt 


24665-7 


$4049-43 


3 




l> 


7-0 


24687-8 


$♦4045-53 


8 




tf 


» 


24711-6 


♦4040-96 


4 




ff 


tt 


24739-6 


♦4040-76 


3 




»» 


tt 


24740-8 


$4035-73 


7 




>l 


tt 


24771-7 


$♦4027-21 


6 




I* 


91 


248241 


$*4023-54 


3 




If 


11 


24846-7 


$♦4021-05 


7 




»» 


11 


24862-1 


$♦4019-47 


4 




n 


11 


24871-9 


$♦4014-12 


4 




1-10 


tt 


24905-1 


$♦4011-08 


2 




»» 


tt 


24923-9 


$♦3998-04 


8 


3997-94 L. &D. 


»* 


71 


25005-1 


•3995-45§$$ 


9 


3995-33 


f> 


>t 


25021-4 


♦3994-65 


3 




l» 


tt 


25026-4 


$♦3991-82 


4 


3992-04 


») 


tt 


25044-1 


3991-69 


4 




»» 


t) 


25044-9 


• 


:3990-45 


4 


3990-84 


)l 


tt 


25052 7 


■ 


■3987-26 


4 


• 3987-74 


*9 


ft 


25072-8 


$♦3979-65 


6 


3979-34 


it 


I) 


25120-7 


3979-03 


3n 




ft 


It 


25124-6 


$♦3978-80 


6 




If 


It 


25126-1 


$3977-36 


3 




•> 


ft 


25135-2 


1 


:3975-48 


3 




1-09 


tj 


25147-1 



$$ Exner and Haschek's numbers: 3995-52. 
„ „ , ,. , ,, f 4092-45. f 3995-456. 

§ Solar line donble | ^^gg-SG Co. 1 3995-36. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 83 



Cobalt — continued. 



Wave- 
length 
( Rowland 1 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Arc SpectTum 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


t*3974-87 


6 


3974-74 L. & D. 


109 


7-1 


25150-9 


t*3973-29 


3 




1) 


11 


25161-0 


$3972-66 


4 




»» 


II 


25164-9 


::3969-25 


6 


3969-44 


it 


II 


25186G 


::3961-14 


4 




j> 


1? 


25238-2 


t*3958-06 


6 


3958-34 „ 


i> 


JI 


25257-8 


*3957-79 


2 




ti 


11 


25259-5 


t*3963-05 


7 


3953-04 


j» 


7-2 


25289-7 


$3952-47 


4 




)» 


II 


25293-4 


t»3947-28 


3 




» 


11 


25326-7 


::*3945-47 


6 


3945-53 „ 


ji 


)l 


25338-3 


::*3941-87 


6 


3941-53 „ 


>9 


» 


25361-5 


::"'394i-oi 


5 




f* 


»• 


253670 


::*3936-12§ 


8 


3936-13 


1-08 


tl 


25398-5 


::*3934-05 


4 




I) 


11 


25411-9 


$3933-32 


2 




*) 


»l 


25416-6 


$3929-42 


4 




f> 


II 


25441-8 


$3925-32 


3 




>» 


II 


25468-4 


$*3922-88 


5s 




a 


II 


25484-3 


3921-24 


3 




)> 


fl 


25494-9 


$*3920-S9§§ 


4s 




II 


II 


25497-2 


$3920-28 


4 




II 


If 


25501-2 


3919-79 


3 




I) 


11 


25504-4 


$3917-26 


5 


3916-83 


II 


II 


25520-8 


::*3915-66 


2 




j> 


If 


25531-3 


::*3910-08§ 


7 


3909-63 


II 


II 


25567-7 


;:»3906-42 


6 


3905-83 


II 


7-3 


25591-6 


::*3904-20 


4 




If 


If 


25606-1 


::*3898 64§ 


4 




II 


ri 


25642-7 


::*3895-12 


7 


3994-93 


1-07 


»» 


25665-8 


'3894-21$$ 


lOnr 


3994-03 


JI 


»» 


25671-8 


3893-44 


3 




)l 


fr 


25676-9 


$*389319 


23 




II 


t) 


25678-6 


$3892-26 


3 




11 


)» 


25684-7 


$3891-83 


3 




)» 


>» 


25687-6 


$♦3885-40 


4s 




n 


>» 


25730-1 


$*3884-76 


5 


3884-63 


11 


}f 


25734-3 


$*3882-04§ 


7 


3881-63 


1) 


)» 


25752-4 


$*3881-18 


3 




II 


1) 


25758-1 


$*3880-54 


3 




II 


|» 


25762-3 


$*3876-99 


6 


3876-72 


»> 


j» 


25785-9 


*3874-10$$ 


7n 


3873-82 


II 


)» 


25805-1 


*3873-25$$ 


9n 


3873-02 


II 


>» 


25810-9 


$*3870-65 


4s 




11 


*i 


25828-2 


*3866-92 


2 






11 


25853-1 


$3863-72 


3 




JI 


»» 


25874-5 



f 3920-99 Fe. 

§§ Solar line triple- ^)20-8! Co. 

L 3920-75 Fe. 

$$ Exncr and Haschek's numbers: 3894-13, 3874-05, 3873-17. 

R Q^io. i,-„^ ^^„w. / 3936-12 Co. r 3882-12 / 391008 Co 
§ Solar line double | ^^^^.^r^ [ 3882-04 Co { 390998 Fe 



3898-65 Co. 
3898-55, 



02 



84 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 









Keduction to 




Wave- 

lensth 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Obaeivations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

VriquPDcy 

in Vacuo 




1 


Arc Spectrum 






A.+ 


k" 




J*3861-29 


6 


3861-12 L. &; D. 


1-07 


7-3 


25890-8 


•8860-55 II 


4 




)• 


n 


25895-7 


13856-!I3 


4s 


' 


106 


n 


25920-1 


t*3851-97 


4 




»f 


11 


25953-4 


$3851-09 


53 




ft 


yi 


25959 4 


3850-24 


3 




»» 


i^ 


259651 


♦38.15-59t|: 


9nr 


3845-42 


1» 


11 


25996-5 


J*3843-90 


4 




11 


11 


26007-9 


»3842-20tt 


7n 


3842-02 


»J 


1) 


26019-5 


t*3841-60 


4s 




11 


II 


26023-5 


$3836-04 


3 




»1 


ti 


26061-2 


J3835-82 


3 




11 


11 


26062-7 


t*383302 


3 




»1 


11 


26081-8 


$3820-02 


4 




11 


7-4 


261706 


$3818-08 


3 




„ 


11 


26183-9 


$3817-02 


4 




11 


^y 


26191-2 


$*38l6-58 


5 


3816-31 


1-05 


• 1 


26194-2 


$*3816-46 


5 


3815-72 


11 


11 


26195-0 


$3814-58 


4 




11 


II 


26207-9 


$*3812-57 


3 




11 


II 


26221-7 


$*38ii-ii; 


3 




11 


11 


26231-4 


$*3808-24 


4 


3807-91 


11 


11 


26250-5 


$*3805-90 


3 




11 


II 


26267-7 


$3777-65 


4 


3777-60 


11 


ii 


26464-2 


$3774-72 


4 


3774-60 


1-04 


11 


26484-7 


$3760-52 


• > 




»1 


7-5 


26584-7 


$3759-83 


3 




11 


II 


26589-4 


$*37o5-59 


5s 




11 


.1 


26619-5 


$3754-50 


3 


3754-50 


t1 


11 


26627-2 


$3752-95 


2 




1> 


11 


26637-9 


$*3751-75 


4 




M 


11 


26646-7 


$*375006 


5 




• 1 


II 


26658-7 


$3745-61 


7 


3746-40 


If 


It 


26689-4 


3740 31 


4 




H 


»» 


26728-3 


; 


:*3736-30 


5 


3735-80 


1-03 


11 


26756-9 


; 


:*3734 30 


53 




f> 


11 


26771-3 


; 


^*3733-62 


5 


3733-40 


It 


11 


26776-2 


; 


:*3732-52t 


(•) 




11 


t> 


26784-1 


; 


■*373I-42 


2 




11 


11 


26792-0 


• 


:*3730-Gl§§ 


■ 5 


3730-40 


11 


II 


26797-8 


■ 


*3726-SO 


3 




11 


7-6 


26825-1 


; 


*3712-3i 


4 


3712-20 


l» 


»» 


26929-8 




♦3711-80 


i -^ 




11 


19 


26933-5 


'■*3708-96 


i 5 




11 


l» 


26954-1 




:*3707-61§ 


! 4 




11 


>f 


26964-0 




:*3704-17 


6 


3704-10 


11 


»» 


26989-0 




:*3702-40 


5 


3702-30 „ 


11 


tt 


27001-9 



II Also Manganese. 

$$ Exner and Haschek's numbers : 3845-57, 3842-12. 



^ Also Iron. 

§ Solar line" double {^JgJ.-JOJi,; 



r 3730-60 Co. 
§§ Solar line triple \ 3730-50 \ ^ 
[3730-43/ 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



85 



Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A + 


1 


*J3693-65 


5s 


3693-39 L. & D. 


1-02 


7-6 


27065-9 


*3693-53 


3 






») 


27066-8 


J3693-27 


5 


3692-99 




1> 


27068-7 


t*3690-87 


4s 


3690-79 „ 




»» 


27086-3 


$3686-63 


3 






II 


27117-4 


t3685-13 


3 






)» 


27128-5 


t*3684-62 


5 






11 


27132-2 


t*3683-18^ 


7 


3683-09 




7-7 


27142-8 


J*3676-69 


6 






l» 


27190-7 


J*3670-20 


3 






)l 


27238-8 


t3662-33 




3662-38 „ 




n 


27297-3 


t*3658-U5ir 


3 






» 


27329-3 


::*365712 


4s 


3656-68 


1-01 


t> 


27336-2 


::*3654-59 


4s 


3654-58 




n 


27355-2 


::*3652-68 


5 






If 


27369-5 


$3651-42 


4s 






»i 


27378-9 


t*3649-471[ 


6 


3649-38 




o 


27393-5 


$3648-30 


4 






II 


27402-3 


$3647-82 


5 






t* 


27405-9 


$*3647-25 


4 






»> 


27410-2 


$3645-60 


3 






»i 


27422-6 


$3645-36 


4 






t) 


27424-4 


$3643-34 


5 


3643-28 




t> 


27439-6 


$*3641-95 


5 


3641-68 




n 


27450-1 


$*3639-63§ 


5 


3(J39-48 


„ 


tt 


27467-6 


$3637-49 


4s 






7-8 


27483-7 


$*3636-89 


4s 


3636-68 


„ 


)» 


27495-7 


$*3634-86 


5 


3634-78 


„ 


]) 


27503-6 


$3633-52 


3s 






)» 


27613-7 


$*3633-00 


5 


3632-78 




n 


27517-7 


$363212 


4 






11 


27524-3 


$3631-55 


6 




•1 


11 


27528-7 


$*3627-96 


7 


3627-88 




i> 


27555-9 


$*3625-13 


5 




„ 


)» 


27577-4 


*3624-48 


4 






IT 


27582-4 


$*3620-59 


4 






11 


27612-0 


$3618-17 


3 






11 


27630-5 


$*3615-56 


4 


3615-38 


1-00 


11 


27650-4 


$*3611-S9 


5 


3611-88 




11 


27678-5 


$*3609-92 


3 






11 


27693-6 


3608-50 


3 






11 


27704-6 


$*3605-50§ 


6 


3605-58 


,> 


11 


27727-6 


$*3605-19 


4 




„ 


11 


27730-0 


$*3604-62 


4 




i1 


11 


27734-4 


3600-99 


3 




,, 


11 


27763-1 


$*3596-67 


4 




„ 


11 


27795-7 


*3595-00$$ 


7r 


3594-98 „ 




7-9 


27808-5 


$*3591-92 


3 






»» 


27832-5 


$3589-44 


2 






11 


27851-6 



e c 1 V J ui r3605-62re ( 3586-30 Fe. 
§ Solar Ime double j gg^^.g^ ^^ ^ gggg.gg co. 

$$ Exner and Haschek's number : 3595-00. 



Tf Also Iron. 



86 



REPORT — 1897. 

Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
lencrth 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillatioa 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


(Rowland) 


and 
Character 


(Rowland) 




1_ 


Arc Spectrum 






\ + 


A. 




*3587-30tt 


lOnr 


3587-28 L. & D. 


1-00 


7-9 


27868-2 


*3586-20§ 


3 




» 


n 


27876-8 


t3585-92 


3 




»1 


tt 


27878-9 


4 


:*3585-28 


7r 




tt 


tt 


27883-9 


: 


:*3584 92 


5s 




>» 


It 


27886-7 


$3582-00 


4 




>t 


It 


27909-5 


$357916 


4 




t» 


tt 


27931-6 


357901 


4 




tl 


t» 


27932-8 


t*3578-20 


4 


3577-98 


»• 


tt 


27939-1 


3577-80 


3 




0-99 


11 


27942-2 


*3577-36 


3 




it 


It 


27945-7 


t*3575-48 


7nr 


3575-47 


$1 


11 


27960-4 


J*3575-06 


6nr 


3575-07 


ti 


11 


27963-7 


*3569-48ti 


lOnr 


3569 47 „ 


ti 


11 


28007-4 


*3568-36 


3 




tt 


1) 


28016-2 


t*3565-08 


6r 


356507 


tt 


It 


28042-0 


t*3564-25 


4 




tt 


11 


28048-5 


t*3563-04 


5s 




tt 


tt 


28058-0 


*3562-22 


5s 




1) 


It 


28064-5 


*3561-01tt 


6r 


356107 


tt 


tt 


28074-0 


$3560-44 


4 




tt 


ti 


28078-5 


t*3558-90 


5s 




tt 


ti 


28090-7 


*3553-28 


3 




ft 


11 


28135-1 


t*3553-l2n| 
1*3552-85 f 


5 




It 


ti 


28136-4 


4 


3552-97 


ft 


11 


28138-5 


; 


:*3550-72 


6r 


3550-67 


tt 


8-0 


28155-3 




:*3548-60 


5 


3548-57 


tt 


tt 


281721 




:*3546-86 


4 




ft 


It 


28186-0 


1*3543-40 


6s 


3543-37 


tf 


tt 


282135 


$3534-92 


4 




0-98 


tt 


28281-2 


*3533-49: 


tt 


7r 


3533-37 


ft 


tt 


28292-6 


*3529-92: 


tt 


9nr 


3529-87 


IT 


tt 


28321-3 


1*3529-17 


6 


3528-96 


tt 


It 


28327-3 


»3526-96t$ 


9nr 


3526-86 


tt 


tt 


28345-0 


*3525-97 


3 




• t 


tt 


28353-0 


♦3523-85 


5 




ft 


tt 


28370-0 


*3523-57t$§ 


6r 


3523-46 


t) 


tt 


28372-3 


$*3523-00 


4 








28376-9 


*3521-70t$ 


6r 


3521-46 


It 


tt 


28387-4 


t*3520-20 


6 


352006 


ft 


tt 


28399-5 


*3519-90 


4 




ty 


It 


28401-9 


*3518-49$;: 


7 


3518-26 „ 


tt 


tt 


28413-3 


*3513-62tJ 


7 




tt 


tt 


28452-7 




*3512-78 


n 


7 


3512-56 


11 


tt 


28459-5 



S Solar line double ^^'^^^'^^ ^^ I ^^^^'^^ ^^ ( 3523-57 Co. 
5 Hoiar line aouDie j^gggggQ ^q ] 3586-20 Co { 3523-47 

XX Exner and Haschek's numbers : 3587-36, 3569-58, 3560-97, 3533-46, 352996, 
3527-00, 3523-60, 3521-70, 3518-53, 3513-58, 3512-80. 
3553-12 Co. 
Solar line triple \ 3552-98 Fe. 
3552-85 Co. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLEs!'OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 87 



Cobalt — continued. 









Reduction to 




Wave- 
length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 
Character 


(Rowland) 




1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Arc Spectrum 






\ + 


\ 




*3510-53tt§ 


7 


3510-26 L. & D. 


0-98 


8-1 


28477-6 


•'3509-98tt§ 


7 


3509-86 




It 


28482-1 


*3506-4-tJt 


8nr 


3506-16 




T» 


28510-8 


t3505-28 


3 






IT 


28520-3 


$3504-88 


4 






)1 


28523-5 


*3603-86 


3 


3503-96 „ 




)1 


28531-9 


t*3502-76 


6nr 


3502-56 „ 




11 


28540-9 


*3502-'iltt 


9nr 


3502-16 




11 


28543-7 


J*3496-83§ 


6r 


3496-56 


0-97 


11 


28589-2 


*3495-82|t 


7 


3495-66 




11 


28597-1 


t*3492-15 


3 






11 


28627-6 


f*3491-46 


5 


3491-16 „ 




11 


28633-2 


$3490-89 


5 






11 


28638-0 


*3489-54tt 


8r 


3489-36 




11 


28649-0 


t*3487-86 


4 






11 


28662-8 


t*3485-49 


7 


3485-25 




11 


28682-3 


t*3483-55 


6r 


3483-25 „ 




11 


28698-2 


$3480-16 


3 






II 


28726-2 


*3478-90 


4 


3478-55 




11 


28736-6 


1*3478-69 


4 






11 


28738-5 


1*347801 


3 






11 


28744-0 


1*3476-49 


4 


3476-55 




11 


28756-5 


*3474-66l^ 


4 






11 


28771-7 


*3474-15J$ 


8nr 


3473-95 




11 


28775-9 


$*3471-52§ 


5 






11 


28797-7 



Spask Spectrum. 



Exner and 

Haschek 

Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 
Spark Spectrum 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3469-2 


2 




0-97 


8-2 


28817 


3468-7 


2 




1) 




28821 


3468-3 


2 








28825 


3467-7 


2 




If 




28830 


3467-5 


2 




„ 




28831 


3465-96 


8 








28843-8 


3465-5 


2 








28848 


346301 


8 








28868-4 


3461-3 


4 








28883 


3460-5 


2 








28890 


3458-5 


2 




0-96 


11 


28906 


3457-8 


2 




If 




28912 J 



* Double. 

ft Exner and Haschek's numbers : 3510-52, 3509-92, 350645, 350230, 349578, 
3489-58, 3474-11. 

3471-52 Co. 



§ Solar line double | g^j^.^f ^e. 



88 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 



Exner aod 






Reduction to 




Hascbek 

Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


lutensitj- 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 


Spark Spectrum 






0-96 


A 




3457-1 


4 




8-2 


28918 


3456-6 


2 




tt 


tl 


28922 


3456-2 


2 




ft 


t» 


28926 


3455-6 


2n 




)f 


»l 


28931 


3455-4 


5 




II 


1) 


28932 


3453-71 


8 




If 


ft 


28946-2 


3453-0 


4 




ff 


11 


28952 


3452-6 


2 




II 


)1 


28956 


3452-1 


2 




If 


11 


28960 


3451-8 


2 




ft 


tl 


28962 


•3451-3 


2 




yi 


tl 


28967 


3449-62 


7 


, 


ff 


11 


28980-5 


3449-32 


7 




9f 


1* 


28983-0 


3447-5 


2 




tl 


1) 


28999 


3447-3 


2 




ft 


tl 


29000 


3446-5 


6 




If 


11 


29007 


3445-6 


2n 




ff 


11 


29014 


3443-82 


7 




If 


11 


29029-3 


3443-4 


2 




ff 




29033 


3443-2 


5 




yi 


ft 


29035 


3442-2 


2 




fl 


It 


29043 


3441-4 


3 




ft 


11 


29050 


3441-3 


2 




II 


tl 


29051 


3440-8 


2 




■ f 


t) 


29055 


34390 


4 




It 


It 


29070 


34380 


2 




ft 


11 


29079 


3437-2 


2 




ft 


fl 


29085 


3435-9 


2 




>t 


11 


29096 


3435-6 


2 




t> 




29099 


3433-18 


7 




If 


8-3 


29120-1 


3432-5 


2 




fl 


It 


29125 


3431-73 


7 




II 


ft 


29131-5 


3431-1 


2 




ft 


It 


29137 


3430-9 


2 




fl 


ft 


29139 


34300 


2 




91 


11 


29147 


3429-5 


2 




fl 




29151 


34290 


2 




If 


11 


29155 


3428-5 


4 




ft 


tl 


29159 


3426-6 


2 




It 


tt 


29175 


3424-7 


4 








29192 


*3424-0 


4 




fl 


11 


29198 


34230 


2 




ft 


It 


29206 


3421-9 


2 




ff 




29216 


3421-0 


2 




fl 


11 


29223 


3417-9 


4 




0-95 


tl 


29250 


3417-32 


7 




ft 




29254-4 


3415-9 


5 




ff 


11 


29267 


3414-9 


6 




ff 


tt 


29275 


3413-7 


2 




tf 


tl 


29286 


3412-80 


7 




ft 


It 


29293-2 


3412-48 


7 




ff 




29295-9 


3411-7 


2 




ft 


It 


29304 


3409-32 


7 




ff 




29323-0 


3407-1 


2 




ft 


ft 


293*3 


3405-28 


8 




tl 


tl 


29357-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



89" 



Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haachek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Qpciliatioii 


and 
Character 


(Rowland) 




1_ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






X + 


A 




3403-7 


2 




0-95 


8-3 


29372 


3403-3 


2 




)t 




29375 


3402-3 


2 




11 




29384 


3402-2 


2 




If 




29385 


3402-0 


2n 




ft 




29386 


3399-3 


2n 




f f 




29410 


3399-0 


2 




It 




29416 


3395-50 


7 




t) 


8-4 


29442-3 


3393-1 


4 




tf 




29464 


3391-2 


4 




9) 




29480 


3390-6 


2 




II 




29485 


3388-30 


7 




$t 




29504-8 


3387-8 


5 




l» 


,, 


29510 


3385-4 


5 




ir 




29531 


33841 


2 




ff 




29542 


3382-3 


2 




ft 




29558 


3381-7 


2 




tt 




29563 


3381-2 


2 




1) 




29567 


3378-9 


4 




»T 




29587 


3378-5 


2 




0-94 




29591 


3377-2 


4 




1} 




29602 


3376-4 


2 




11 




29609 


3375-2 


2n 




tt 




29620 


3374-8 


2 




tt 




29623 


3374-4 


4 




It 




29627 


33742 


2 




II 




29629 


3373-4 


4 




It 




29636 


3372-2 


2 




tt 




29646 


3371-1 


5 




It 




29656 


3370-5 


4 




It 




29661 


3369-7 


4 




tt 




29668 


3368-8 


2 




It 




29676 


3367-3 


5 




It 




29690 


3366-4 


2 




It 




29697 


3366-0 


2 




tl 




29701 


3365-3 


2n 




It 




29707 


3364-5 


2 




tt 




29709 


3363-9 


2 




It 




29719 


3363-4 


2 




11 




29724 


3363-0 


4 




1) 




29727 


3361-7 


4 




tt 




29739 


3361-5 


2b 




tt 


8-5 


29741 


3360-5 


2b 




tt 




29749 


3359-4 


4 




tl 




29759 


3358-8 


4 




It 




29765 


3358-3 


2n 




II 




29769 


3357-0 


2 




It 




29780 


3356-6 


2 




11 




29784 


3356-1 


2 




II 




29788 


3355-3 


2 




It 




29796 


3354-48 


7 




It 




29802-4 


3352-9 


4 




tt 




29817 


3351-7 


2 




II 




29828 


3351-3 


2n 




tl 




29831 


3350-5 


2 




It 




29838 



k 



90 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 
Huscbek 

Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




(Rowland) 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


Spars Spectrum 






A. 




3348-3 


4 




0-94 


8-5 


29858 


3347-1 


4 




1) 


11 


29869 


3346-4 


2 




11 


11 


29875 


3344-2 


2 




11 


11 


29895 


3342-9 


4 




11 


11 


29906 


3342-1 


2 




11 


It 


29913 


3341-5 


4 




f1 


It 


29918 


3340-0 


4 




t» 


11 


29932 


3337-3 


2 




0-93 


It 


29956 


3336-6 


2 




11 


11 


29963 


3334-3 


5 




11 


It 


29983 


3333-5 


4 


• 


It 


It 


29H90 


3329-6 


4 




11 


11 


30026 


3328-4 


2 




]f 


11 


30036 


3327-1 


4 




11 


11 


30048 


3325-4 


4 




11 


8-6 


30066 


33240 


2 




f 1 


tt 


30076 


3323-0 


2 




11 


• 1 


30085 


3322-3 


5 




11 


11 


30092 


3320-5 


2 




It 


It 


30107 


3320-0 


2 




It 


It 


30111 


3319-6 


4 




n 


tt 


30115 


3319-4 


2 




11 


11 


30117 


3318-6 


2 




)i 


It 


30124 


3315-2 


2 




tt 


11 


30155 


3314-2 


5 




ft 


It 


30164 


3313-3 


2 




It 


It 


30172 


3313-1 


2 




It 


11 


30174 


3312-3 


4 




tt 


tt 


30181 


3308-9 


2 




9t 


t1 


30213 


3308-6 


2 




ft 


11 


30215 


3307-3 


4 




11 


11 


30227 


3306-5 


2 




tt 


tt 


30234 


3305-8 


2 




11 


tt 


30241 


3305-2 


2 




tt 


11 


30246 


3304-9 


2 




11 


■ 1 


30249 


3304-2 


2 




It 


It 


30255 


3304-0 


2 




tt 


• 1 


30257 


3303-4 


2a 




tt 


tt 


30263 


3301-9 


2n 




tt 


11 


30277 


3301-3 


2a 




0-92 


tt 


30282 


3298-8 


4 




ft 


tt 


30305 


3297-6 


2b 




t( 


tt 


30316 


3296-G 


2b 




ft 


tl 


30325 


3294-7 


2 




tt 


It 


30343 


3294-1 


2 




tt 


»t 


30348 


3293 5 


2 




tt 


11 


30354 


3292-2 


2 




t1 


It 


30366 


3290 6 


2b 




It 


»1 


30381 


3287-7 


2 




tt 


8-7 


30407 


3287-4 


4 




tt 


>» 


30410 


3286-0 


2a 




tt 


It 


30423 


3283-9 


2 




tt 


If 


30451 


3283-57 


7 




ft 


II 


30446-0 


3282-3 


2b 




tt 


» 


30457 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 91 



C BALT — continued. 



Exner and 

Haschek. 

Wave length 

(Kowland) 

Spark Spectrum 



3281-5 

3279-4 

32790 

3278-3 

3277-8 

3277-5 

3276-G 

3274-10 

32720 

3271-4 

3270-5 

3269-7 

3269-3 

3268-2 

3267-9 

3265-5 

3265-0 

3262-5 

3261-8 

3261-2 

3260-9 

3260-0 

3258-5 

3258-2 

3256-5 

3254-3 

3250-1 

3247-70 

3247-30 

3247-2 

3246-3 

3246-0 

3245-7 

3245-5 

3244-2 

3243-8 

3239-1 

3238-5 

3238-0 

3237-2 

3235-7 

3234-7 

3234-3 

32310 

3228-8 

3228-2 

3227-1 

3226-3 

3225-3 

3224-8 

3221-8 

3221-4 

3219-2 

3218-0 

3217-2 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2n 

4 

2 

2 

4 

4 

4n 

7 

5 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2ii 

2n 

2 

4 

4 

2n 

2u 

6 

2ii 

2 

4 

2 

6 

4 

7 

7 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

5 

2 

2n 

2a 

2n 

4 

4 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

2a 

4 

4 

2 

2a 

4 

2 

2 





Reduction to 




Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 






\ 






0-92 


8-7 


30465 




»* 


»> 


30484 




U 


II 


30488 




l> 


fl 


30495 




»> 


If 


30499 




1) 


ff 


30502 




n 


1» 


30510 




i» 


II 


30534-0 




If 


II 


30553 




i> 


M 


30561 




II 


• 1 


30567 




i> 


II 


30575 




II 


fl 


30579 




II 


• t 


30589 




II 


If 


30592 




II 


fl 


30514 




»i 


II 


30619 




II 


II 


30642 




II 


II 


30649 




II 


f 1 


30655 




II 


II 


30657 




0-91 


II 


30666 




II 


fl 


30680 




It 


fl 


30683 




It 


If 


30699 




Jl 


If 


30720 




fl 


8-8 


30759 




II 


ft 


30782-2 




If 


tf 


30785-4 




»> 


i> 


30787 




)l 


11 


30795 




11 


11 


30798 




l» 


11 


30801 




II 


11 


30803 




II 


11 


30815 




11 


11 


30819 




II 


11 


30864 




11 


>i 


30869 




II 


11 


30874 




If 


11 


30882 




II 


11 


30896 




11 


11 


30906 




II 


11 


30910 




11 


11 


30941 




II 


11 


30962 




l» 


11 


30968 




H 


fl 


30979 




IJ 


)i 


30986 




11 


ff 


30996 




11 


ft 


31001 




tl 


ff 


31030 




11 


ff 


31033 




0-90 


fl 


31056 




If 
If 


ff 
•> 


31066 
31074 



92 



REPORT— 1897. 
Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Chai-actcr 


Pre^^ou3 Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1_ 


Spark Spectram 






A + 


A. 




3217-0 


2 




0-90 


8-8 


31076 


3215-4 


2 




» 


8-9 


31091 


3214-2 


2 




f* 


t) 


31103 


3213-5 


2 




t) 


tt 


31110 


3212-1 


2 




»» 


») 


31123 


3210-9 


4 




• ( 


ft 


31135 


3210-3 


4 




U 


It 


31141 


3206-2 


2 




»» 


tf 


31181 


♦3204-1 


2 




tl 


tt 


31201 


3203-2 


2 




• ) 


tt 


31210 


3202-3 


2 




l» 


It 


31219 


3200-5 


2 




» 


ft 


31236 


3199-4 


2 




t> 


ft 


31247 


3198-7 


2 




tt 


ft 


31254 


3198-5 


2b 




>> 


ff 


31256 


3197-2 


2 




»I 


ft 


31268 


31970 


2 




l» 


It 


31270 


3196-6 


2 




»» 


ft 


31274 


3196-2 


2 




ft 


>I 


31278 


3194-1 


2b 




»l 


11 


31299 


3193-2 


2 




l> 


fl 


31308 


3192-3 


2 




»> 


tt 


31316 


3191-3 


2 




It 


ft 


31326 


3189-8 


2 




tt 


ft 


31341 


3188-5 


5 




tt 


11 


31354 


3186-4 


4 




• » 


tt 


31374 


3186-0 


4 




J> 


>t 


31378 


3184-4 


2 




1* 


.. 


31394 


3182-2 


4 




0-89 


ft 


31416 


3180-4 


2 




tt 


90 


31434 


31801 


2 




ti 


fl 


31437 


3179-6 


2 




(> 


tt 


31441 


3177-3 


5 




)* 


If 


31464 


3176-0 


4 




ti 


19 


31488 


3174-2 


4 




tt 


tt 


31495 


3173-2 


2 




It 


If 


31505 


3172-1 


2n 




f } 


11 


31516 


3171-4 


2b 




M 


ft 


31523 


3169-8 


5 




fl 


ft 


31539 


3168-1 


4 




tt 


ft 


31556 


3164-6 


2 




t) 


11 


31591 


3163-7 


2 




tt 


ft 


31600 


3161-7 


4 




tt 


ft 


31620 


3161-2 


2 




ft 


II 


31625 


3159-8 


4 




» 


f 1 


31639 


3158-8 


5 




99 


fl 


31655 


3156-7 


2n 




It 


ft 


31670 


3155-8 


2 




II 


It 


31679 


♦3154-82 


7 




tt 


tl 


31688-6 


3152-8 


4 




tt 


ff 


31709 


3150-8 


2n 






ft 


ft 


31729 


3149-4 


4 






If 


ft 


31743 


3147-1 


5 






It 


9-1 


31766 


3144-1 


2 






It 


tl 


31797 


3140-7 


2 






0-88 


» 


31831 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



93 



Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 
Hascbek 


Intensity 




Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Previous Observations 
(Ro->vland) 




Frequency 






(Rowland) 


Character 




1_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






\ + 


\ 




3140'0 


5 




0-88 


91 


31838 


3137-9 


2 








31859 


3137-4 


5 






" 


31865 


3136-9 


2 








31870 


3132-3 


2 








31916 


3130-9 


4 




If 


»» 


31931 


3129-6 


2 








31944 


3129-1 


. 2 




„ 




31949 


3127-4 


2 








31966 


31269 


2 








31972 


3126-7 


2 








31974 


3123-0 


2b 








32011 


3121-6 


6 








32026 


3121-5 


5 








32027 


3118-4 


4 








32059 


3116-8 


2n 








32075 


3115-8 


2n 








32085 


3115-2 


2n 








32092 


3114-5 


2 






9-2 


32099 


3114-3 


4 








32101 


3113-6 


4 




J 




82108 


3112-3 


2 








32122 


3111-4 


2 








32131 


3110-9 


2 








32136 


3110-7 


2n 








32138 


3110-2 


4 








32143 


3109-6 


4 








32149 


3109 3 


2 








32153 


3107-6 


2 








32170 


3107-2 


2 








32174 


3105-9 


2 








32188 


3105-5 


2 








32192 


31041 


2 








32206 


3103-8 


4 








32210 


3102-5 


4 








32223 


3100-9 


2 




0-87 




32240 


3100-6 


2 








32243 


3100-2 


2 








32247 


3099-2 


2 








32257 


3098-3 


4 








32267 


3097-3 


2 








32277 


3096-9 


2 








32281 


3096-5 


2 








32286 


3095-8 


2 








32293 


3093-3 


2a 








32319 


3090-4 


4 








32349 


3089-7 


4 








32361 


3088-7 


2 








32367 


3088-0 


2 








32374 


3086-9 


6 








32386 


3086-6 


4 








32389 


3082-9 


2n 


' 




9-3 


32428 


3082-7 


6 








32430 


3081-0 


4 








32448 


3079-5 


4 








32464 



94 



REPORT — 1897. 



Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 
Haschek ^^ 






Reduction to 




tensity 
and 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


(Rowland) 






Frequency 


(Rowland) ^° 


aracter 




X + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






/\, *^ 


\ 




3078-7 


2n 




0-87 


9-3 


32472 


3077-8 


2n 




IJ 


t» 


32482 


3077-3 


2n 




n 


>) 


32487 


3076-3 


2 




»» 


n 


32498 


3073-6 


4 




»» 


ft 


32526 


3072-4 


6 




t» 


f» 


32539 


3072-1 


4 




It 


»> 


32542 


30710 


2 




»» 


»5 


32554 


3068-7 


2 




tJ 


»i 


32578 


3066-5 


2 




M 


i> 


32601 


3064-7 


4 




l» 


»j 


32621 


3064-5 


4 




** 


»» 


32623 


3063-6 


2 




1» 


tt 


32632 


3062-3 


2n 




0-86 


It 


32646 


3061-9 


6 




1) 


tf 


32650 


3061-0 


2 




l» 


11 


32660 


3060-1 


4 




»1 


»i 


32670 


3058-6 


2 




J» 


II 


32686 


3056-8 


2 




» 


l» 


32705 


3055-2 


2 




») 


l> 


32722 


3054-8 


2 




• I 


»» 


32726 


30530 


2 




IT 


9-4 


32746 


3050-6 


2 




t> 


11 


32771 


3050-2 


2 




»> 


it 


32776 


3048-9 


5 




)» 


tt 


32790 


3048-3 


2 




!■> 


II 


32796 


3046-3 


2 




ft 


»» 


32818 


3044-10 


7 




»T 


If 


32841-0 


3042-6 


4 




>» 


II 


32858 


3041-9 


2 




l» 


II 


32865 


3041-7 


2 




»» 


II 


32867 


3041-0 


2 




« 


n 


32875 


3039-7 


2 




tf 


II 


32889 


3036-8 


2 




tl 


.. 


32920 


3035-5 


2 




» 


tf 


32935 


3034-7 


5 




It 


tt 


32943 


3034-5 


4 




» 


II 


32945 


3034-2 


2 




J» 


II 


32949 


3032-6 


2n 




I* 


n 


32966 


3032-0 


2 




M 


91 


32973 


3031-4 


2 




it 


»» 


32979 


3031-2 


2n 




ti 


>J 


32981 


3028-4 


2n 




n 


1» 


33012 


3026-7 


2ii 




ir 


II 


33030 


3026-5 


S 




»• 


it 


33032 


3024-5 


2 




» 


9-5 


33053 


3023-7 


2 




0-85 


j> 


33062 


3022-8 


2b 




»» 


)» 


33072 


3022-5 


2 




JI 


»i 


33075 


3020-1 


2 




T) 


)} 


33101 


3019-9 


2 




Jl 


»> 


33104 


: 3019-3 


2 




11 


j» 


33111 


3017-7 


6 




J» 


» 


33128 


3017-5 


2 




>l 


» 


33130 


1 3015-8 


2 




» 


» 


33149 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 95 

Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschett 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 

Spark Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo" 


\ + 


1 
A 


3013-7 


5 




0-85 


9-5 


33172 


3011-7 


2 






tl 


33194 


3011-2 


2n 




y^ 


IJ 


33199 


3010-1 


2 




)j 


tl 


33211 


3008-9 


4 






1) 


33225 


3008-3 


2 




tj 


f 1 


33231 


3006-1 


2 




rt 


19 


33256 


3005-8 


2 






II 


33259 


30050 


2b 






It 


33268 


3001-7 


2b 




jf 


1} 


33304 


3000-7 


4 






It 


33316 


2999-8 


2 




ti 


11 


33326 


2996-7 


2 




f > 


9-6 


33360 


2995-2 


4 




fT 


1» 


33377 


2990-4 


2 






f) 


33430 


2989-7 


6 




9t 


T} 


33438 


2988-2 


2 




tr 


11 


33455 


2987-2 


6 




)) 


1* 


33466 


2982-3 


2 




0-84 


11 


33521 


*2981-7 


4 






tl 


33528 


2978-1 


2 




tl 


II 


33568 


2975-6 


2 






It 


33597 


2973-3 


4 




•9 


1| 


33623 


2971-7 


2b 




„ 


9-7 


33641 


29711 


2n 




iy 


II 


33648 


2968-7 


2 




„ 


It 


33675 


2968-3 


2n 






ft 


33679 


2965-3 


2a 




iy 


It 


33713 


2964-8 


2n 






II 


33719 


29630 


2n 




)) 


n 


33740 


•»2961-7 


2ii 




»| 


ft 


33754 


2961-3 


2 






jt 


33759 


2961-0 


2 




f) 


It 


33762 


2959-7 


2 




If 


Jl 


33777 


2957-8 


2 






tt 


33799 


2955-5 


2 






19 


33825 


2954-83 


8 




tf 


tl 


33833-2 


2954-0 


2 




It 


19 


33842 


29440 


2 






9-8 


33957 


2943-2 


6n 




}} 


91 


33967 


2942-5 


2 




0-83 


tl 


33975 


2942-2 


2 






tt 


33978 


2934-1 


2 






It 


34072 


2933-7 


2 






It 


34077 


2930-5 


5n 




}t 




34114 


2929-7 


4 




yt 


tt 


34123 


2929-0 


2 




yy 


It 


34131 


2928-1 


2 






tt 


34142 


2927-8 


4 




1) 


tl 


34145 


2927-0 


2 




}f 


It 


34155 


2925-6 


2n 






91 


3417.1 


2924-8 


2n 






tt 


34180 


2924-2 


2u 




If 


It 


34187 


2921-7 


2b 




If 


It 


34217 


2919-7 


2 




l» 


9-9 


34240 



06 



REPORT — 1897. 
Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haechek 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-lenttth 


and 


(Rowland) 




Frequency 






(Rowland) 


Character 






l_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






A + 


\ 




2918-7 


5n 




0-83 


9-9 


34252 


2916-7 


2n 








34275 


2916-2 


2n 








a 1281 


2915-5 


2n 








34289 


2914-7 


2 








34299 


2913-7 


2 








34311 


2912-1 


2n 








34329 


2911-6 


2ii 








34335 


2910-1 


2a 








34353 


2908-9 


2n 








34367 


2907-7 


2a 








34381 


2907-0 


2 








34390 


2905-6 


2q 


■- 






34406 


2905-2 


2ii 








34411 


2904-3 


2 








34422 


2903-8 


2n 




0-82 




34428 


2903-2 


2 








34435 


2899-9 


2 








34474 


2898-8 


2 








34487 


2897-9 


2n 








34498 


2895-9 


2 






lO-O 


34522 


2895-5 


2 








34526 


2895-3 


2 








34529 


2894-9 


2 








34534 


2892-4 


2n 








34563 


2890-5 


6 








34586 


2889-7 


4 








34596 


2888-6 


2n 








34609 


2886-5 


4 








34634 


2883-8 


2 








34666 


2883-5 


2 








34670 


2882-3 


2 








34684 


2882-0 


2 








34688 


2880-5 


2b 








34706 


2879-7 


2n 








34716 


2878-6 


2 








34729 


2876-9 


2 








34750 


2876-6 


2 








34753 


2874-2 


2 








34782 


2874-1 


2 








34785 


2873-5 


2 








34791 


2873-0 


2 








34797 


2872-6 


V 






lo'] 


34802 


5:871-28 


7 








34817-6 


2870-2 


4n 








34831 


2868-3 


2n 










34854 


2S67-5 


2ii 










34864 


2866-7 


2a 










34873 


2865-6 


2n 










34887 


2862-7 


2 






0-81 




34922 


2861-5 


2n 








34937 


2859-7 


2 








34959 


2858-5 


2 








34973 


2857-3 


2b 








34988 


2866-2 


2 




1 






35002 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 97 

Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1_ 


Spark Spectrum 






\ + 


A 




2855-8 


2 




0-81 


101 


35006 


2853-5 


2b 






■ 1 


35035 


2852-2 


2 






J> 


35051 


2851-0 


2 






»* 


35065 


28501 


2 






>» 


35078 


2849-7 


2 






»» 


35081 


2818-4 


2b 






10-2 


35097 


2845-8 


4 






l> 


35129 


2844-2 


2 






»» 


35149 


2840-8 


2 






1» 


35191 


2838-0 


2b 






») 


35226 


2837-3 


4 






)> 


35235 


2835-8 


2 






• > 


35253 


2835-1 


4 




,, 


ff 


35262 


2834-5 


2 






1* 


35270 


2834-0 


2 






»» 


35276 


2831-7 


2 






»» 


35304 


2828-7 


2n 






>I 


35342 


2827-4 


2 






»f 


35358 


2827-0 


2 






M 


35363 


2825-3 


6 






»> 


35384 


2823-7 


2 




0-80 


10-3 


35405 


2823-3 


2b 






1) 


35410 


2821-9 


2n 






»» 


35427 


2820-1 


2 






%y 


35450 


2819-5 


2 






If 


35457 


2819-0 


4 






11 


35464 


2818-8 


2 






>» 


35466 


2818-2 


2 






)* 


35474 


2817-2 


2 




,, 


}) 


35486 


2816-3 


4b 




,, 


n 


35498 


2815-9 


2 






)» 


35503 


2815-7 


4 






1) 


35505 


2813-4 


2 






>) 


35534 


2813-0 


2 






»v 


35539 


28127 


2n 






. j> 


35543 


2811-7 


2 






ti 


35556 


2811-0 


5 






)j 


36565 


2809-5 


2 






If 


35584 


2809-2 


2 






19 


35587 


2807-2 


4 






II 


35613 


2807-1 


2 






fi 


35614 


2805-8 


2 






If 


35630 


2805-6 


2 






t> 


35633 


2804-7 


2 






»» 


35644 


2804-2 


2n 






II 


35651 


28039 


4 




-J 


»» 


35G66 


2802-7 


4 






ft 


35670 


2802-3 


2b 






»l 


35675 


2801-2 


2 






It 


35689 


2799-2 


2 






10-4 


35714 


2799-0 


2 






It 


35717 


2798-5 


4 






n 


35723 


2797-2 


4 




() 


ti 


35740 


2797-0 


4 






>i 


35743 



II 



98 



REPORT — 1897. 
Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 


Spark Spectrum 






0-80 


X 




2796-3 


4 




10-4 


35752 


2794-9 


4 




1) 




35769 


2794-0 


5b 




1) 




35781 


2791-7 


2 




)t 




35810 


2791-1 


2 




1» 




35818 


27896 


3 




f> 




35837 


2786-1 


4 




fl 




35882 


2785-6 


4 




U 




35889 


2782-8 


2 




0-79 




35925 


2782-3 


2ii 




f) 




35931 


2781-6 


2 




tl 




35941 


2780-1 


2 




ft 




35960 


2779-6 


2 




t> 




35966 


2779 


4 




ft 




35974 


2778-3 


2 




}f 




35983 


2776-3 


6 




t» 




36009 


2775-2 


4b 




t* 


10-5 


36023 


27740 


2 




It 




36039 


2773-0 


2 




It 




36052 


2771-0 


2b 




tt 




36078 


2769-2 


4 




tl 




36101 


2767-0 


4n 




If 




36130 


2766-4 


4 




It 




36138 


2764-9 


2 




i\ 




36158 


2763-9 


4 




tt 




36171 


2763-2 


2b 




ft 




36180 


2762-4 


2b 




VI 




36190 


2762-1 


2 




II 




36194 


2761-6 


2 




It 




36201 


2761-5 


2 




II 




36202 


2760-5 


2 








36215 


27586 


2 




1) 




36231 


2758-4 


2 




If 




36242 


27580 


2 




If 




36247 


2757-4 


2 


, 






36255 


2754-7 


2b 




tt 




36291 


2752-4 


2 








36321 


2751-0 


2 




tt 


l6-6 


36331 


2750-4 


2b 








36347 


2748-6 


2 




II 




36371 


2745-3 


4 




II 




36415 


2742-5 


2 




II 




36452 


2742-2 


2 




1* 




36456 


2741-6 


2 




0-78 




36464 


2740-5 


2 




tl 




36479 


2739-2 


4 




ft 




36496 


2738-5 


2 




11 




36505 


2737-5 


2 




II 




36519 


2737-2 


2 




It 




36523 


2734-9 


4b 




If 




36553 


2733-8 


2 




tl 




36568 


2733-2' 


4 




ij 




36576 


2731-3 


4 




II 




36604 


2731-0 


2 


II 




36606 


2729-4 


2n 


1 


tl 




36627 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 99 

Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


(Rowland) 




1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






\ + 


A ~ 


27290 


2n 




0-78 


10-6 


36632 


2728-1 


4a 




It 


It 


36645 


2724-6 


2 




t» 


tf 


36692 


2723-7 


2 




» 


51 


36704 


2723-0 


2a 




>» 


10-7 


36713 


2722-2 


2 




») 


It 


36724 


2721-1 


4 




»» 


It 


36739 


2720-0 


2 




»J 


tl 


36754 


2719-1 


2 




»1 


»t 


36766 


2717-3 


2a 




t» 


ft 


36792 


2716-5 


2 




f 1 


tl 


36801 


2716-1 


4 




»? 


n 


36807 


2713-5 


2b 




11 


II 


36842 


2711-9 


2a 




11 


II 


36864 


2710-4 


2 




»» 


It 


36884 


2709-2 


4a 




tl 


If 


36900 


2708-1 


4 




»» 


19 


36915 


2707-6 


4n 




l> 


ft 


36922 


2706-8 


6a 




»» 


tl 


36934 


2706-0 


2 




»f 


II 


36944 


2704-3 


2 




*) 


fl 


36967 


2702-5 


4 




• » 


19 


36992 


2701-8 


2 




f> 


II 


37001 


2700-6 


O 




*f 


fl 


37018 


26980 


2 




0-77 


10-8 


37053 


2697-1 


4 




f» 


It 


37066 


2695-9 


2 




>» 


)• 


37082 


2694-75 


8 




It 


ft 


37098-4 


26931 


4a 




>» 


It 


37121 


2692-4 


2a 




>» 


If 


37131 


2689-8 


4 




t» 


II 


37167 


2689-2 


2b 




It 


II 


37175 


2687-0 


2b 




ft 


11 


37205 


2686-3 


2b 




»t 


It 


37215 


2685-4 


2 




ft 


II 


37227 


2684-6 


5a 




1» 


If 


37239 


2683-5 


2a 




It 


It 


37254 


2682-8 


2a 




II 


1* 


37264 


2682-2 


2 




If 


tl 


37272 


26820 


2 




II 


t| 


37275 


2680-5 


4 




l» 


l| 


37296 


2680-3 


2 




*9 


11 


37298 


2679-9 


2 




ft 


11 


37304 


2678-2 


4 




• t 


II 


37328 


2676-2 


5n 




n 


If 


37356 


2674 


2 




ft 


10-9 


37372 


2673-7 


2 




ft 


t» 


37390 


2673-3 


2 




ft 


If 


37396 


2672-3 


4b 




f» 


It 


37410 


2670-8 


4 




It 




37431 


2669-9 


4b 




t* 


11 


37444 


2668-3 


2b 




f» 


)i 


37466 


2666-3 


2 




It 


11 


37494 


2665-3 


2 




t> 


11 


37608 


2663-58 


8 




M )» i 


37632-6 












H2 



100 



REPOKT — 1897. 



Co BALT — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1 


Spark Spectrum 






\ + 


A." 




2662-7 


2n 




0-77 


10-9 


37545 


2662-2 


2n 




t» 


f> 


37552 


2658-1 


2 




»J 


» 


37610 


2656-5 


4b 




»» 


>) 


37633 


2653-74 


7 




076 


)J 


37671-8 


2652-8 


4 




>, 


110 


37685 


2652-4 


2 




)j 


f) 


37691 


2650-3 


2 




r> 


JJ 


37721 


2648-70 


7 




»j 


f » 


37743-3 


2646-5 


2 




IT 


J? 


37775 


2643-2 


2 




»> 


f> 


37821 


2641-2 


2n 




»T 


f> 


37851 


2641-0 


2n 




»» 


»> 


37853 


2640-5 


2 




»» 


»» 


37861 


2639-3 


2n 




t> 


»» 


37878 


2G381 


2 




(t 


»J 


37895 


2637-9 


2 




t) 


f> 


37898 


2637-4 


4 




t1 


1> 


37905 


2636-1 


4 




ff 


ff 


37924 


2634-9 


4 




tT 


J» 


37941 


2632-30 


8 




t9 


f» 


37978-6 


2631-4 


4 




tl 


111 


37993 


2631-1 


4 




t1 


»> 


37996 


2630-5 


2 




tt 


*t 


38004 


2628-8 


2 




1* 


II 


38029 


2627-7 


2 




(1 


tl 


38045 


2627-0 


2n 




ft 


ff 


38055 


2625-5 


2 




t» 


f1 


38077 


2625-3 


4 




If 


If 


38080 


2624-5 


2n 




ft 


1) 


38091 


2624-0 


2 




l» 


11 


38099 


2623-7 


2 




f* 


ft 


38103 


2622-6 


2 




tt 


ff 


38119 


2622-4 


2 




ft 


ft 


38122 


26220 


4n 




rt 


91 


38128 


2621-0 


2b 




ff 


II 


38142 


2619-8 


4 




ff 


If 


38160 


2618-8 


4 




»f 


>» 


38174 


2615-3 


2b 




If 


>f 


38226 


2614-39 


7 




ff 


ft 


38238-7 


2613-5 


5 




ti 


It 


38262 


2612-6 


4n 




If 


II 


38265 


2610-4 


2 




9t 


ft 


38297 


26090 


2 




0-75 


11-2 


38318 


26081 


2 




f 1 


»» 


38331 


2605-9 


5 






i> 


38363 


2605-7 


5 




If 


t> 


38366 


2604-5 


4 




ff 


»> 


38384 


2603-3 


2 




If 


If 


38411 


2600-9 


2 




f f 


»i 


38437 


2594-4 


2 




ff 


n 


38534 


2594-2 


2 




f 1 


If 


38537 


2593-8 


4 




ff 


99 


38542 


2593-5 


2 




f f 


» J 


38547 


2591-5 


2 




>» 


»1 


38577 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES Of THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 101 

Cp B ALT — eontimied. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Ha$cbek 

Wave-length 

(RoTvland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo" 




1 


Spark Spectram 






A + 


11-3 




2o89-l 


4ii 




0-75 


38612 


2o87-25 


8 






11-3 


38639-8 


2585-3 


2 






It 


38669 


2583-2 


4 






It 


38700 


2582-30 


8n 






11 


38713-9 


2581-4 


2 






11 


38728 


2580-38 


8n 






tl 


38742-7 


2575-6 


2b 






tt 


38815 


2574-9 


5 




J} 


tl 


38825 


2574-5 


4 






If 


38833 


2572-3 


2 






tt 


38865 


2569-8 


4 




ti 


It 


38903 


2569-0 


2 






11 


38915 


2567-4 


4 






11-4 


38939 


2567-0 


2 






11 


38945 


2565-5 


4 




tf 


tt 


38968 


2564-18 


8 




0-74 


If 


38987-4 


2562-7 


2 






ft 


39010 


*2o62-3 


2 






It 


39016 


2561-0 


2 






tl 


39036 


2560-10 


7 




It 


tl 


39050 


2659-48 


8 




Ij 


tt 


39059-0 


2558-6 


2 






It 


39073 


2557-4 


4 




• • 


It 


39091 


2556-8 


4 




tt 


tl 


39103 


2555-2 


2 




tl 


tt 


39125 


2554-3 


2 




»t 


It 


39140 


2554-0 


2 




If 


• f 


39143 


2553-3 


2 




«* 


tt 


39154 


2553-0 


2 




ft 


It 


39159 


2552-4 


4 




19 


tt 


39168 


2550-6 


2a 




It 


tf 


39195 


2549-9 


2a 




11 


It 


39206 


2549-4 


2a 




It 


1* 


39214 


2548-6 


2 




It 


11-5 


39226 


2548-4 


2 




(T 


tt 


39229 


2546-80 


7 




It 


11 


39253-5 


2546-3 


4 




• t 


It 


39262 


2545-8 


2 




tt 


tt 


39269 


25451 


4 




II 


It 


39280 


2544-6 


4 




It 


It 


39288 


2544-3 


4 




It 


It 


39293 


2543-8 


2 




It 


tf 


39300 


2543-4 


2 




It 


tt 


39316 


2542-00 


8a 




If 


tt 


393280 


2540-7 


6 






tt 


39344 


2540-3 


2 




tt 


t! 


39354 


2538-9 


2 






fj 


39376 


2537-6 


2 




It 


t* 


39396 


2536-8 


2 




11 


tt 


39409 


2536-6 


3 




II 


It 


39412 


2536-1 


4 




tl 


tt 


39420 


2535-7 


2 




If 


tt 


39426 


2535-4 


2 




If 


tl 


39431 


2534-5 


2n 




tt 


• 1 


39446 



102 



REPORT — 1897, 
Cobalt — continvei. 



Exner and 

Uaschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 

Spark Spectrum 



25340 

2533-8 

2531-9 

2530-1 

2529-6 

26291 

2528-68 

2528-3 

2526-2 

2525-08 

2524-7 

2523-0 

2521-5 

25210 

2519-90 

2517-9 

2517-5 

2515-6 

2514-0 

2513-1 

2512-4 

2512-2 

2511-9 

251123 

2509-3 

2508-1 

2506-8 

2506-51 

2505-7 

2504-0 

2500-9 

2500-6 

2498-8 

2497-6 

2496-8 

2495-5 

2494-7 

2493-6 

2492-4 

2492-2 

2491-4 

2491-2 

2490-8 

2490-4 

2487-4 

2487-2 

2486-5 

2485-4 

2484-4 

2484-3 

2484-1 

2483-6 

2483-3 

2482-2 

2480-2 







Reduction to 




Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


and 


Previous Observations 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 






Character 


(Rowland) 


A + 


1 








A , 




6 




0-74 


11-5 


39452 


4 




l> 


11 


39455 


2n 




H 


yy 


39485 


5 




»» 


11-6 


39512 


2 




f> 


11 


39520 


2 




»» 


11 


39528 


7 




f) 


fl 


39534-7 


4 




** 


„'/ 


39540 


2 




J» 


11 


39573 


7 




1) 


11 


39591-1 


4 


. 


>» 


11 


39697 


4 




)i 


11 


39623 


5 




fl 


11 


39647 


2 




»» 


11 


39655 


8 




»f 


It 


39672-5 


2 




0-73 


11 


39704 


4 




t> 


1» 


39710 


2 




1» 


11 


39740 


2 




»» 


11 


39765 


2 




f» 


11 


39780 


2 




»> 


11 


39791 


2 




•f 


jj 


39794 


2 




• » 


11-7 


39798 


7 




fT 


11 


39808-0 


2 




»t 


11 


39840 


4 




>J 


11 


39859 


2 




1» 


11 


39879 


8 




»J 


11 


398844 


2n 




t« 


11 


39897 


2 




»> 


)» 


39924 


2 




»> 


11 


39974 


2 




>» 


1) 


39978 


5 




l» 


11 


40007 


4 




»» 


11 


40026 


2 




>I 


11 


40039 


2 




11 


11 


40060 


2 




11 


11 


40073 


2 




»> 


11-8 


40101 


2 




>* 


11 


40110 


2 




»» 


»» 


40113 


2 




• * 


u 


40126 


2 




II 


u 


40129 


2 




11 


>» 


40136 


5 




11 


»» 


40142 


4 




11 


»» 


40191 


4 




11 


T» 


40194 


6 




*1 


»f 


40205 


5 




11 


»l 


40223 


2 




11 


»> 


40239 


2 




>' 


II 


40241 


2 




I» 


» 


40244 


4 




»l 


l» 


40252 


2 




II 


)1 


40257 


2 




• I 


1} 


40275 


2 




11 


a* 


40307 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 103 

Cobalt — continued. 



I 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Hascbek 
Wave-lenpth 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Kowland) 


Character "^ ""^ 




1_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 




A + 


\ 




24791 


4 




0-73 


11-8 


40325 


2478-5 


2 




J) 




40335 


2478'2 


4 




J) 




40340 


2477-4 


4 




»» 




40353 


2477-3 


4 




)» 




40355 


2476-6 


2 




11 


ii-9 


40366 


2476-4 


2 




J> 




40369 


2473-1 


2 




)) 




40423 


2472-9 


2 




11 




40426 


2471-8 


2b 




«1 




40444 


2470-3 


2 




11 




40469 


2469-5 


4 




0-72 




40482 


2467-0 


5 




• 1 




40528 


2464-2 


6 




1> 




40569 


24621 


2 




J> 




40604 


2461-8 


2 




l» 




40608 


2461-2 


2 




11 




40619 


2460-2 


2 




11 




40635 


2459-3 


4 




1> 


12-0 


40650 


2456-2 


2 




1) 




40701 


2455-5 


2n 




1* 




40713 


2454-5 


2 




»» 




40729 


2454-2 


2 




tf 




40734 


2453-8 


2 




fl 




40741 


2453-3 


4 




IJ 




40749 


2452-5 


4 




>* 




40763 


2451-6 


2n 




1> 




40778 


2450-0 


6 




>l 




40804 


2449-2 


4 




»> 




40818 


2447-8 


6 




99 




40841 


2446-6 


2 




9* 




40861 


2446-0 


6 




11 




40871 


2443-8 


6 




ft 


12-1 


40908 


2442-6 


6 




9» 




40928 


2441-7 


4 




11 




40943 


2441-1 


2n 




11 




40953 


24390 


4 




1) 




40988 


2438-4 


2n 




Jl 




40998 


2438-0 


4 




11 




41005 


24370 


4 




1» 


11 


41022 


2436-7 


2 




9) 




41027 


2436-3 


2 




11 




41034 


2435-1 


4 




15 


11 


41054 


2434-2 


2 




11 




41069 


2432-6 


5 




f> 




41096 


2432-3 


4 




11 




41101 


2431-7 


2 




t1 




41111 


2430-8 


2 




11 




41127 


2430-6 


2 




11 




41130 


2429-9 


4 




tl 




41142 


2429-5 


2 




11 


11 


41149 


2428-4 


4 




ft 


11 


41167 


2426-6 


2 




it 


12-2 


41198 


2426-2 


4 




1* 


fl 


41206 


2425-0 


4 




• 1 


It 


41225 



104 



REPORT— 1897. 
Cobalt — cmitinued. 



Exner and 






Reductioa to 




Haschelc 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 




1_ 


Frequency 
in Vflpiio 


Spark Spectram 






A.-t- 


\ 


li-i » a^ui.^ 


*2423'7 


4 




0-72 


12-2 


41247 


2422G 


2n 






1) 


41260 


2422-1 


2 






t» 


41274 


24210 


O 




on 


11 


41293 


2420-8 


4 






IT 


41297 


2419-3 


2 






»» 


41322 


2418-5 


4 






}} 


41336 


2417-7 


4 






>> 


41350 


2417-0 


4 






t1 


41362 


2416-0 


4 


^ 




If 


41379 


2415-3 


4 






}t 


41391 


2414-5 


2 






J1 


41404 


2414-2 


4 






)l 


41410 


2411-6 


4 






12-3 


41454 


2409-5 


2n 






}f 


41490 


2408-8 


4 






1} 


41502 


2408-4 


4 






tf 


41509 


2407-7 


4 






19 


41521 


2407-5 


4n 






11 


41525 


2406-3 


2n 






1) 


41546 


2406-0 


2ii 






If 


41551 


2405-2 


2 








41565 


2404-6 


4 






f f 


41575 


2404-3 


4 








41580 


2403-8 


4 






tf 


41589 


2402-9 


2 






ff 


41604 


2402-1 


2 






f1 


41618 


2401-6 


2 








41627 


2399-1 


2 






f f 


41670 


2398-4 


4 






If 


41682 


2397-4 


6 






12-4 


41700 


2396-8 


2 






f ) 


41710 


2395-5 


4 






)f 


41733 


2394-5 


4 








41750 


2394-0 


2 






f 1 


41759 


2392-6 


4 








41784 


2391-2 


2 








41808 


23895 


4 






)f 


41838 


2388-8 


6 








41850 


2386-7 


4 






tf 


41887 


2386-4 


4 








41892 


23fi5-6 


2 






f f 


41906 


2384-0 


2 




ri 


tf 


41934 


2383-4 


5 






tf 


41945 


2383-1 


2 






12-5 


41950 


2382-3 


4 






tl 


41964 


2381-9 


2 






t» 


41971 


2381-7 


5 






ft 


41975 


23810 


2 






t1 


41987 


2380-5 


2 




f 1 


ff 


41996 


2378-60 


7 




If 


ff 


42032-6 


2377-1 


2a 




It 




42056 


2376-9 


2 




(t 


f 1 


42060 


2375-2 


4 






It 


42090 


2373-7 


2 




0-70 


It 


4211G 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. l05 

Cobalt — eontinufd. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Hacchek 


Intensity 
and 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Previous Observations 




Frequency 






(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Character 


(Rowland) 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 


2373-4 


2 




0-70 


12-5 


42122 


23731 


2 








42127 


2372-5 


2 








42138 


2371-9 


4 








42148 


2371-6 


2 








42154 


2370-7 


4 








42170 


2369-7 


2 








42187 


2367-4 


2b 






12-6 


43227 


2367-2 


2 








42231 


2366-7 


2 








42240 


2365-6 


2q 








42260 


2365-2 


2 








42267 


2365-0 


2 








42270 


2363-82 


7 








42291-8 


2363-6 


2 








42313 


2362-3 


2 








42319 


2361-6 


4 








42331 


2361-1 


2 








42340 


2360-7 


4 








42347 


2360-4 


4 








42353 


2359-0 


2 








42378 


2358-2 


4 




" 




42392 


2356-6 


2 








42421 


2356-5 


2 








42423 


2355-6 


2 








42439 


2355-0 


2 








42450 


2354-5 


2 






12-7 


42459 


2353-4 


5 








43479 


2352 2 


2 








42500 


2351-9 


4 








42506 


2351-2 


4 








42518 


2348-4 


2b 








42569 


2347-8 


4 








42580 


2347-4 


4 








42587 


2347-2 


2 








42591 


2346-6 


4 








42602 


2345-5 


4 








42622 


2345-4 


2 








42624 


2344-7 


4 








42636 


2344-3 


4 








42644 


2343-6 


2 








42656 


2342-4 


2 








42678 


2341-2 


4 








42700 


2340-3 


2 






12-8 


42717 


2339-5 


2 








42731 


2339-0 


4 








42740 


2338-7 


2 








42746 


2338-0 


4 








42759 


2337-5 


2 








42768 


2337-1 


2 








42775 


2336-3 


4 








42790 


2334-8 


2 








42817 


2334-3 


4 








42828 


2333-6 


2 








42839 


2333-1 


2 








42848 



106 



REPORT — 1897, 
Cobalt — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




HascheR 


IntpTisitv 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 




Frequency 




(Rowland) 


Character 




1_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






A + 


\ 




2330-4 


4 




0-70 


12-8 


42898 


2329-2 


4 




>f 


11 


42920 


2327-7 


4 




»> 


•1 


42948 


2327-2 


2 




1* 


12-9 


42957 


2326-u 


4 




>> 


II 


42970 


2326-1 


4 




»» 


11 


42977 


2324-3 


4 




0-69 


11 


43011 


2320-5 


2 




JJ 


11 


43081 


2319-9 


2 




II 


»l 


43092 


2318-4 


2 




»9 


11 


43120 


2318-2 


2 




IS 


fl 


43124 


2317-1 


4 




»» 


11 


43144 


2316-1 


2 




f> 


II 


43163 


2314-2 


4 




t* 


13-0 


43198 


2313-7 


2 




f» 


11 


43208 


2312-6 


2 




»f 


VI 


43228 


2311-6 


4 




»l 


» 


43247 


2309-3 


2 




»7 


fl 


43290 


2309-0 


2 




)> 


t» 


43296 


2307-7 


4 




»J 


»» 


43320 


2307-5 


2 




»» 


11 


43324 


2306-1 


2n 




»* 


11 


43350 


2305-1 


2 




l» 


1) 


43369 


2304-1 


2 




It 


1» 


43388 


2303-0 


2 




>) 


II 


43409 


2302-5 


2 




»> 


»l 


43418 


2302-0 


2 




II 


11 


43427 


2301-4 


4 




II 


)» 


43439 


23002 


2 




ri 


13-1 


43461 


2299-9 


2 




11 


II 


43467 


2298-9 


2 




11 


11 


43486 


2297-3 


2 




»i 


1» 


43516 


2296-7 


2 




11 


VI 


43528 


2296-0 


2 




11 


11 


43541 


2295-2 


2 




11 


1> 


43556 


2293-5 


2 




» 


II 


43588 


2293-4 


4 




11 


»> 


43590 


2292-1 


4 




11 


II 


43615 


2291-5 


2 




>> 


»» 


43627 


2290-5 


2 




»i 


11 


43646 


2287-9 


2 




11 


13-2 


43695 


2287-8 


2 




II 


•1 


43697 


2287-2 


2 




• I 


>» 


43709 


2286-3 


5 




II 


»» 


43726 


2283-G 


2 




)i 


n 


43778 


2282-5 


2 




11 


i» 


43799 


2282-0 


4 




19 


tt 


43808 


2281-2 


2 




11 


It 


43824 


2280-6 


2n 




l» 


It 


43835 


2278-9 


2 




II 


II 


43868 


2278-7 


2 




»» 


11 


43872 


2277-4 


2 




0-68 


II 


43897 


2277-0 


2 


- 


fl 


II 


43904 


2276-6 


2 




» 


11 


43912 


2276-3 


2 




11 


II 


43918 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 107 

Co BALT — continved. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 
Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


' 




(Rowland) 


Character 


A.+ 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






A. 




2275-8 


2 




0-68 


13-3 


43928 


2275-5 


2 






»» 


43933 


2273-3 


2n 






1» 


43976 


2272-4 


2 






»» 


43993 


2271-4 


2 






l» 


44013 


2270-4 


2 






n 


44032 


2269-8 


2 






11 


44044 


2268-3 


2 






l> 


44073 


2266-5 


4 






tT 


44108 


2264-6 


2 






»» 


44145 


*2261-7 


2 






13-4 


44202 


2260-1 


4 






n 


44233 


2256-7 


4 






»i 


44299 


2256-1 


2 






t} 


44311 


2253-5 


4 






»> 


44362 


2252-3 


2b 






»i 


44386 


2251-2 


2n 






f» 


44408 


2250-5 


2n 






13-5 


44422 


2250-1 


2n 






t> 


44429 


2248-7 


2 






• r 


44457 


2248-2 


2 






l» 


44467 


2246-9 


2 






l» 


44493 


2246-2 


2n 






»» 


44507 


2245-2 


4 






II 


44526 


2242-8 


2 






» 


44574 


2242-6 


2 






tl 


44578 


22371 


2 






13-6 


44687 


2232-1 


4 






j> 


44787 


2230-5 


4n 




i> 


yi 


44819 


2229-1 


2 




0-67 


• i 


44847 


22250 


2 




„ 


13-7 


44930 


2220-3 


4b 




„ 


fl 


45025 


2213-9 


4 




„ 


13-8 


45155 


2211-5 


2 






11 


45204 


2206-3 


4 






II 


45311 


2205-9 


2 






1» 


45319 


2205-6 


2 






9j 


45325 


2205-2 


2 






u 


45333 


22030 


2 




„ 


13-9 


45379 


2193-7 


4 




„ 


II 


45571 


2192-6 


2 






11 


45594 


2192-3 


2 






14-0 


45600 


2190-9 


2 






ij 


45629 


2190-7 


4 






»> 


45634 



108 



REPORT — 1897. 



Nickel. 

Hasselberg, 'Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akadem. Handl.' Bd. 28, No. 6, 1896. 
Exner and Haschek,' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cv. (2), 1896. 







] 


Reduction to 




Has-elberfc 
Wave length 

(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1 


*5893-13 


5 


5893-22 Thalen 


1-61 


4-6 


16964-3 


*5858-03 


4 


5857-72 


1-60 


)1 


17066-0 


*6847-26 


O 




1-59 




17097-4 


*5805-45 


4 




1-58 


4-7 


17220-5 


*5796-35 


2 




?» 


II 


17247-5 


*576110 


5 




1-57 


It 


173531 


*5754-86 


G 




>» 


]| 


17371-9 


*5748-57 


.S 


. 


ti 


11 


17390-9 


*5715-31 


6 




1-56 


4-8 


17492-1 


*571210 


6 




J» 


11 


17501-9 


*5709-80 


7 




»• 


1» 


17508-9 


»5695-22 


6n 




1-55 


11 


17553-8 


•5682-44 


7a 




)) 


n 


17593-3 


♦5670-22 


4 






1) 


17631-2 


*5664-28 


n 




1-54 


11 


17649-7 


•5649-90 


5 




tf 


It 


17694-6 


•5643-31 


3n 




»l 


ft 


17715-3 


•5642-08 


3 




It 


II 


17719-2 


6639-02 


«'> 




If 


II 


17728-8 


•5637-32 


4 




)> 


It 


17734-1 


•5628-62 


3 




»* 


11 


17761-5 


•5625-56 


6 




1-53 


11 


17771-2 


•561500 


63 




It 


II 


17804-6 


•5600-29 


4 




tt 


4-9 


17851-3 


•5594-00 







1) 


II 


17871-4 


•5592-44t 


7s 




>» 


H 


17876-4 


•5589-63 


4n 




1-52 


II 


17885-4 


•5588-12 


53 




ft 


II 


17890-2 


•5578-98 


5 




|1 


tl 


17919-5 


•5553-97 


43 




»» 


11 


18000-2 


•5510-28 


5s 




1-50 


II 


18143-0 


6504-50 


3 




It 


»l 


18162-1 


•5495-20 


3s 




ft 


50 


18192-7 


•5477-13 


10 


5477-20 


ft 


tl 


18252-7 


•5468-42 


2 




1-49 


It 


18281-8 


•5462-71 


4 




tt 


11 


18300-9 


•543610 


5s 




1-48 


ft 


18390-5 


•5424-85 


4 




1* 


It 


18428-7 


•5411-50 


4s 




It 


If 


18474-2 


•5392-68 


2 




1-47 


5-1 


18538-6 


•5388-71 


2 




11 


II 


18552-2 


•5371-64 


5 




»T 


It 


18611-2 


•5268-59 


2 




1-44 


11 


18975-1 


•5220-51 


2 




1-43 


11 


19149-9 


•5216-72 


2 




11 


1* 


19163-8 


•5197-40 


2 




1-43 


53 


19235-1 


5192-70 


2 




»• 


n 


19252-5 



• Coincident with a solar line. 

t Solar line double ; least refrangible component due to Nickel. 

t Observed also by Exner and Haschek in the Spark spectrum. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 109 

^iCKEJj— continued. 









Beduction to 




Hasselberp 
Wave-length 

(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1 


*5186-80 


2 




1-42 


5-3 


19274-4 


*5184-78 


3 




»» 


11 


19281-9 


*5176-73 


4 


5176-71 Thalen 


>» 


1? 


19311-9 


*5168-83 


5 


5169-41 „ 


1-41 


Jl 


19341-4 


*5158-20 


2 




If 


51 


19381-3 


*51 55-92 


7n 


5156-21 


»J 


H 


19389-9 


♦5155-34 


4n 




it 


J) 


19392'1 


*5153-43 


4 




fi 


I) 


19399-3 


*5146-64 


8n 


5146-81 „ 


»> 


I) 


19424-9 


*5142-96 


7n 


5143-11 


» 


11 


19438-8 


*5137-23 


8s 


5137-91 


1-40 


J> 


19460-4 


♦5131-94 


3n 




U 


II 


19480-5 


*5130 55 


2 




n >» 


19485-8 


»5129'52 


6 




1) 


II 


19489-7 


*5125-39§ 
5121-74 


5 




1} 


11 


19505-4 


3 




»» 


H 


19519-3 


*5] 15-55 


8s 


511600 


»> 


5-4 


19542-8 


»510313 


4 




It 


>l 


19590-4 


*5100-13 


7n 


510066 


1-39 


II 


19601-9 


*5099-50 


5s 


5099-46 „ 


l> 


11 


19604-4 


*5097-06 


4ii 




II 


II 


19613-7 


*5094-61 


2 




If 


II 


19623-2 


* 5089-1 3 


2 




)) 


11 


19644-3 


*5088-74 


2 




11 


11 


19645-8 


♦5084-27 


8ii 




II 


II 


196631 


♦5082-55 


5n 




f» 


11 


19669-8 


♦5081-30 


lOn 


6081-56 


ft 


II 


19674-6 


♦5080-70 


10 


5080-70 „ 


11 


Jl 


19676-9 


♦5080-16 


3 




11 


l> 


19679 


♦5058-22 


2 




1-38 


19 


19664-4 


♦5051-74§ 
♦5049-Olt 


2n 
6n 




• 1 

l» 


19 
1* 


19689 8 
19700-5 


♦5042-35 


5q 




»» 


II 


19726-6 


«5038-80 


4 




»l 


91 


19740-6 


♦5035-55 


10 


5035-56 


l» 


)» 


19753-4 


♦5018-50 


4n 




1-37 , 


5-5 


19920-8 


♦5017-75 


7 


5017-46 


i» 


i» 


19923-8 


*5012-62 


4s 




II 


)» 


19944-1 


♦5011-1] 


3n 




II 


jt 


19950-2 


♦501022 


2 




t« 


»i 


19953-7 


♦5003-92 


2 




II 


j» 


19978-8 


♦6000-48§ 


6n 




II 


>» 


19992-6 


♦4998-42 


4 




II 


)> 


200008 


«4997-04 


2n 




II 


•1 


i! 0006-3 


♦4984-30 


7 


4084-10 


1-36 


II 


20057-6 


♦4980-36 


7 


4980-40 „ 


II 


»» 


20073-4 


♦4976-54 


2 


• « 


11 


n 


20088-8 


♦4971-54 


3 




If 


)l 


201090 


♦4953-34 


3 




1-35 


11 


20182-9 



§ Solar line double \ kq'I-SS 

t Not coincident with Chromium, 504896. 



110 



REPORT — 1897. 



Nickel — contimiecl. 









Reduction to 




Hasselberg 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1_ 


Arc Spectrum 






A.-1- 


A 




*4946-20 


2 




1-35 


5-5 


20212-0 


♦4945-63 


3n 




»> 


It 


20214-4 


*4937-51 


4n 




J» 


5-6 


20247-5 


*493602 


4s 


4935-90 Thalen 


)> 


It 


20253-6 


*4925-74 


3 




n 


)t 


20295-9 


♦4918-86 


2 




»» 


H 


20324-3 


*4918-53 


5s 


4918-40 „ 


»> 


It 


20325-7 


•491415 


4n 




1-34 


It 


20343-8 


•4912-22 


3n 




*} 


11 


20351-8 


•4904-56 


7 


4904-70 


19 


19 


20383-6 


•4887-16 


3 




1) 


11 


20456-2 


•4874-95 


2 




1-33 


It 


20507-4 


•4873-60 


4 


4873-80 


»1 


II 


20513-1 


•4870-97t 


4 




fl 


tl 


20524-2 


•4866-42 


7 


4866-20 


»* 


It 


20543-4 


•4864-46 


2n 




H 


l> 


20551-7 


•4864-11 


3n 




f» 


It 


20553-1 


•4857-57 


3 




l» 


5-7 


20580-7 


•4855-57 


6 


4855-60 „ 


If 


• 1 


20589-2 


•4852-70 


3a 




f1 


11 


20601-4 


•4843-27 


2 




It 


II 


20641-5 


•4838-80 


4 




1-32 


1) 


20660-6 


•4832-86 


3 




u 


(1 


206860 


•4831-30 


6 


4831-10 


M 


It 


20692-7 


•482918 


6 


4829-30 


» 


II 


20701-7 


•4821-29 


2 




It 


II 


20736-0 


•4817-97 


2 




II 


It 


20749-9 


•4814-77 


2 




II 


fl 


20763-7 


•4812-15 


2 


' 


»» 


tf 


207750 


•4809-05 


2 




If 


t» 


20788-4 


•4807-17 


4 




II 


II 


20796-6 


•4792-98 


2 




1-31 


tl 


20858-1 


•4786-66 


6 


4786-64 


II 


11 


20885-7 


•4786-42 


2 






II 


20886-7 


•4773-56 


2 




II 


5-8 


20943-0 


•476407 


4 




1-30 


II 


20984-7 


*4762-78 


3 




II 


II 


20990-3 


•4756-70 


6 


4765-84 


It 


91 


21017-2 


•4754-95 


3 




It 


II 


21024-9 


•4752-58 


4 




ft 


It 


21035-4 


•4752-30 


3 




• 1 


It 


21036-6 


•4732-66 


4 




11 


11 


211240 1 


•4732-00 


4 




II 


ft 


21126-9 


•4729-50 


2 




1-29 


II 


21138-1 


•4728-06 


2 




tl 


It 


21144-5 


^•4715-93 


6 




It 


It 


21198-9 


$•4714-59 


9 


4714-54 


?> 


99 


212050 


•4712-24 


2 




• 1 


II 


21215-5 


t*4703-96 


6a 




t» 


6-9 


21252-8 


t*4701-72 


4 




II 


»i 


21262-9 


t*4701-52 


2 




It 


»» 


21263-8 


J*4686-39t 


5s 




1-28 


It 


21332-5 


•4675-80 


2 




11 


»i 


21380-8 



t Not coiacident with Chromium, 4870'96, 4686-38. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. Ill 

Nickel — continued. 









Reduction to 




Hasselberg 
Wave-length 

(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


X + 


1_ 


■ 


^♦4667-96 


4 




1-28 


5-9 


21416-7 


■ 


:*4667-16 


3 




H 


II 


21420-4 


*4655-85 


2 




»» 


l> 


21472-5 


t''4648-82 


6 


4647-88 Thalen 


1-27 


» 


21504-9 


*4647-47 


3 




l> 


11 


21511-2 


*4618-22§ 


3 




»» 


6-0 


21647-4 


*4614-85 


2 




1-26 


11 


21663-2 


J*4606-37 


5 




»f 


i> 


21703-1 


1*4605-15 


8 




n 


11 


21708-8 


J*4600-51 


6 




If 


If 


21730-7 


$459611 


4n 




t) 


II 


21751-5 


J*4595'07 


4 




»> 


II 


21756-5 


t*4592-69§ 


7 




i» 


11 


21767-7 


♦4580-77 


3 




1-25 


II 


21824-4 


4567-59 


2 




»» 


11 


21887-4 


•4560-10 


4 




») 


6-1 


21923-2 


*4553-37 


3 




J» 


II 


21955-7 


J*4561-45 


4 




»» 


• I 


21964-9 


t*4547-44 


5 




11 


11 


21984-3 


t*4547-14§ 


4 




J» 


M 


21985-7 


1*4520-20 


5s 




1-24 


II 


22116-8 


|»4513-20 


4 




If 


11 


22151-1 


4506-53 


2 




>i 


II 


22183-9 


•4490-71 


4ii 




1-23 


6-2 


222620 


»4481-30 


2n 




ft 


11 


22308-8 


t*4470-61 


8 




1» 


II 


22362-1 


f*4466-54 


4 




1*22 


tf 


22382-5 


1*4463-57 


4 




n 


11 


22397-4 


J*4462-59 


8 




t» 


11 


22402-3 


f*4459-21§ 


9 




at 


11 


22419-3 


4450-44 


2 




>» 


11 


22463-5 


4450-29 


2 




•t 


11 


22464-2 


$4442-61 


4 




** 


11 


22503-1 


4441-64 


2 




•t 


II 


225080 


$4437-75 


4 




t» 


11 


22527-7 


1*4437-17 


5 




»» 


11 


22530-4 


4423-24 


3 




1-21 


6-3 


22601-6 


$♦4410-70 


5n 




)» 


II 


22665-8 


$*4401-70§ 


9 




)) 


II 


227122 


*4401-02 


4 




II 


11 


22715-7 


*4399-75 


4 




II 


1) 


22722-3 


$♦4398-78 


2 




f» 


11 


22727-3 


4390-47 


3a 




1-20 


II 


22770-3 


$♦439000 


4 




11 


11 


22772-7 


$4386-62 


3n 




l» 


11 


22790-3 


$•4384-68 


5 




H 


11 


22800-4 


4383-05 


2 




11 


If 


22808-9 


♦4370-21 


3n 




1* 


11 


22875-9 


$♦4368-45 


4 




1) 


6-4 


22885-0 


■ 


:»4359-731| 


6s 




11 


i> 


22930-8 



§ Solar line f 4618-22 Ni / 4592-70 Ni f 4547-15 Ni / 4459-20 Ni 
double \ 4618-15 1 4592-80 Fe { 4547-25 Fe 1 4459-30 Fe 

f 4359-80 Ba. 
11 Solar line triple \ 4359-78 Cr. 

I 4359-73 Ni. 



f 4401-70 Ni. 
1 4401-60 



112 



KEPORT — 1897. 



^iCKEh— continued. 



Hasselberp 
Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Character 


t*4356-07 
J4331-78 
*4330 85 


4n 

6 

5 


*4325-75 


5s 


*4325-49 


3a 


*4307-40 


3 


*4298-94 


2 


t*4298-68 


3 


*4297-15 


2 


::*4296-06 


6 


-■*4288-16§ 
1*4284-83 


7 
5 


*4252-25 


2 


4236-55 


3 


J4231-23 
4221-87 


4 


4202-33 


2 


:;*4201-88 


5s 


1*4200-61 


4s 


1*4195-71§ 
14184-65 
14167-16 

1*4164-82 


5 
3 
3n 

2s 


1*4150-55 


3 


*4143-12 


2 


*4142-47 


4 


*4142-34 


2 


14138-67 
4123-96 


2 
o 


1*4121-48 


6s 


1»41]614 
4104-37 


4 
2 


1*4086-30 


2 


4075-75 


an 


4075-05 


33 


4073-08 


2 


4069-39 


2 


4064-55 


4 


14057-45 
4046-91 


2 
2 


*4025-26 


3 


14022-20 
1*4019-20 


2 
3 


14017-65 


4n 


14010-14 


3 


1*4006-30 


4 


*3995-45 


7 


3994-13 


4n 


13984-18 

13974-83 

l*3973-70§ 


4n 
4u 

8 



Previous Measurements 
(Rowland) 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 


\ + 


1 


1-19 


6-4 


• » 


II 


» 


II 


)» 


II 


1» 

1-18 


II 

6-5 


f ) 


II 


»» 


II 


H 


II 


ft 


»J 


I» 


II 


1-17 


II 

6-6 


116 


II 


II 


It 


tf 

115 


tt 

It 


t> 


II 


It 


6-7 


l» 


II 


1-14 


tl 
II 


n 

II 


11 

6-8 


II 


II 


II 


II 


»i 

113 




II 


It 


II 


II 


II 

1-12 


It 

6-9 


»l 


>i 


II 


11 


II 


n 


II 


tt 


IT 


II 


l-ll 


7-0 


II 


)l 


II 


1) 


11 


1! 


1-10 


11 

II 


II 
II 


t» 

71 


11 


II 


109 


II 
11 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



22950-1 
23078-8 
23083-8 
23111-0 
23112-4 
23209-4 
23255-0 
23256-5 
23264-7 
23270-6 
23313-5 
23331-6 
23510-4 
23597-5 
23627-2 
236796 
23789-7 
23792-3 
23799-5 
23827-2 
23890-2 
239905 
24003-9 
24086-5 
24129-6 
24133-4 
24134-1 
24155-6 
24241-7 
24256-3 
24287-8 
24357-5 
24465-1 
24528-5 
24532-7 
24544-5 
24566-8 
24596-1 
24639-1 
24703-2 
248361 
24855-0 
24873-6 
24883-2 
24929-8 
24953-7 
25021-4 
25029-5 
25092-1 
25151-2 
25158-4 



§ Solar line double 



r 4288-15 r 4195-77 Fe / 8973-81 Fe. 
1 428805 1 4195-71 Ni 1 3973-70 Ni. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE^SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 113 

Nickel — continued. 









Reduction to 




Hasselberg 
Wave-length 

(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Freqaency 

ia Vacuo 


\ + 


1_ 


t*3972-31 


5 




1-09 


71 


25167-2 


$3970-65 


4n 




M 


tf 


25177-7 


3954-61 


3n 




f» 


7-2 


25279-7 


J3944-25 


7n 




II 


It 


25346-2 


t3914-65 


2 




1-08 


fl 


25537-9 


t*3913-12 


4 




»» 


tt 


25547-9 


*3912-44 


3n 




fl 


t* 


255523 


*3909-10 


3a 




t) 


7-3 


25574-0 


t»3905-67 


3 




»• 


)t 


25596-5 


1*3889-80 


5s 




1-07 


ft 


25701-0 


t*3871-73 


3 




t9 


It 


25821-0 


t*3863-21 


5 




t* 


If 


258800 


*3858-40JJ 


9r 


3858-42 L.&D. 


t« 


It 


25910-2 


t*3844-71 


3 




1-06 


It 


26002-5 


*3844-40 


3ii 




If 


t» 


26004-6 


1*383302 


4 




If 


f» 


26081-8 


t*3832-44 


5 


3832-32 


It 


ft 


26085-7 


i*3831-82 


G 




»l 


ft 


260900 


3829-49 


5 




1* 


ft 


26105-8 


t*3811-46§ 


2 




1-05 


7-4 


26229-3 


*3807-30tt 


8 


3807-22 


If 


It 


26257-9 


t*3793-75 


6s 




II 


It 


26351-7 


t*3792-48 


5s 




t1 


ft 


26360-6 


*3783-67tt 


8 


3783-C2 


*l 


tl 


26422-0 


*3778-22 


3 




)» 


If 


26460-1 


*3775-71tt 


9 


3775-62 


104 


tf 


26477-7 


{*3772-70 


5s 




tf 


7'5 


26498-7 


*3769-58tt 


2 


3769-50 


If 


fl 


26520-7 


t*3762-76 


4 




>» 


fl 


26568-7 


i*374915§ 


4s 




1* 


tl 


26665-2 


1*3744-68 


5s 




ft 


ft 


26697-1 


i*3739-89 


2 




If 


II 


26731-3 


t*3739-36t 


5 




l» 


It 


26735-0 


t*3736-94 


7s 


3736-70 


1-03 


tt 


26752-4 


t*3730-88 


3 




tl 


■ It 


26795-8 


t*372905 


2 




It 


ft 


268090 


i*3724-95 


3 


3724-80 


tf 


7-6 


26838-4 


t*3722-63 


6 




• 1 


(1 


26855-1 


t*3715-61 


3 




»l 


fl 


26905-9 


♦3713-87 


2 




»* 


II 


26918-5 


*3713-49 


2 




ft 


It 


26921-2 


t*3697-04 


2 




91 


>. 


27041-1 


t*3694-10§ 


4 




1-02 


tl 


27062-6 


j*3688-58 


53 


3688-19 


tf 


II 


271031 


3683-65 


2 




fl 


7-7 


27139-3 


t*3674-28§ 


78 


3673-99 


If 


IT 


27208-5 


{♦3670-57 


5s 


3670-29 „ ' 


It 


If 


272360 



§ Solar line f 3811-56 Ti / 3694-20 Fe f 3674-28 Ni. 
double 1 3811-46 Ni \ 3694-10 Ni t 3674-18 Fe. 
f 3739-46 Fe. 
t Solar line triple \ 373936 Ni. 
[ 3739-26 Fe. 
%% Exner and Haschek'a numbers 
1897. 



3858-49, 3807-28, 378364, 3775-71, 376963. 

I 



114 



REPORT — 1897. 



Nickel — continued. 











Keduction to 




Hasselberp 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1 


Arc Spectrum 








X + 


A." 




^♦3669-38§ 


43 






1*02 


7-7 


27244-9 


$♦3668-35 


2 






>» 




27252-5 


J^3664-24tt 


6s 


3663-99 L. 


&D. 


» 




27283-1 


$♦3662-10 


43 






»» 




272990 


13644-13 


2 






1-01 




27433-7 


i3642-58 


2 






)) 




27445-4 


$♦3641-78 


3 






»» 




27451-4 


$♦363510 


4s 


3635-49 


51 


»J 


7-8 


27601-8 


$♦3630-04 








»» 




27540-1 


$♦3624-87^ 


6s 


3624-68 


»» 


»» 




27579-4 


♦3619-52^$ 


lOnr 


3619-38 


,^ 


?» 




27620-2 


$♦3612-86 


7 


3612-68 


)? 


1-00 




27671-1 


$♦3611-58 


2 






It 




27680-9 


♦3610-60$$ 


4r 


3610-38 


9» 


»» 




27688-4 


$♦3609-44 


5 






t» 




27697-3 


$♦3607-02 
$♦3602-41 


2 






)J 




27715-9 


5 






5> 




27751-4 


♦3597-84$$ 


7n 


3597-58 


t» 


)» 




27786-7 


$♦3588-08 


58 






>» 


7-9 


27862-2 


♦3577-37 


2 






0-99 




27945-6 


♦3571-99$$ 


7nr 


3571-78 


»» 


l> 




27987-7 


♦3566-50$$ 


9nr 


3566-27 


t> 


»J 




28030-8 


$♦3561-91 
$♦356008 


4s 


3561-67 


t? 


*> 




28073-3 


2 






t» 




28081-4 


$♦3553-63 


4 


3553-37 


rr 


ff 




28132-3 


♦3551-66 


5 


3551-37 


tj 


it 


8-0 


28147-8 


$^3548-34§§ 


5 


3548-07 


99 


)J 




28174-2 


♦8533-89 


2n 






0-98 




28289-4 


$♦3530-73 
$♦3529-76 


3 


3530-47 


yy 


j» 




28314-8 


2 






»» 




28322-5 


$♦3529-03 


3 






., 




28328-4 


$♦3528-13 


5 






19 




28335-6 


♦3524-65$$ 


lOnr 


3524-46 


9f 


J> 




28363-6 


♦352319 


3 






»» 




28375-4 


♦3519-90$$ 


6 


3519-66 


n 


)> 




28401-9 


$♦3518-80 


4 


3518-56 


t) 


»» 




28410-8 


$«35l6-35 


4 






>» 




28430-6 


♦351517; 


H 


9nr 


3514-96 


?) 


»» 




284401 


♦351406: 


:$ 


6 






f) 




28449-1 


♦3510-47: 


1:$ 


8nr 


3510-26 


»J 


» 


8-1 


28478-1 


$♦3507-85 


4s 


3507-86 


1) 


l» 




28499-4 


$♦3502-76 


4 






)» 




28540-8 


♦3501-00$$ 


6 


3500-55 


f» 


»» 




28555-2 


$♦3496-50 


2 






0-97 




28591-9 


♦349310$$ 


9nr 


3492-85 


»» 


jt 




28619-8 


$♦3486-04 




5 


3485-75 


19 


f> 




28677-7 



§ Solar line r 3973-81 Fe f 3811-56 Ti f 3694-20 Fe / .^674-28 Ni f 3669-37 Ni. 
.iouble\ 3973-70 Ni \ 3811-46 Ni [ 3694-10 Ni [ 3674-18 Fe [ 366930 Fe. 
$$ Exner and Haschek's numbers : 361952, 361055, 3597-78, 3571-96, 3566-50, 
3524-60,3519-90,3515-15,3514-10, 3510-45, 350100, 349315. 
§§ Also Manganese. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 115 



Nickel — continued. 









Reduction to 




Hasselberg 
Wave-length 

(Rowland) 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A-^ 


1 

\ - 


t*3480-36 


2 




0-97 


8-1 


28724-6 


: 


:*3479-43 


2 








28732-2 


: 


:*3478-48 


2 








11 


28740-1 


*3472-68tt 


7nr 


3472-45 L & D. 






»l 


28788-1 


J*3469-64 


5s 


3469-45 






8-2 


28813-2 


t*3467-63 


5s 


3467-35 






)j 


28829-9 


t*3462-95 


■ 


2 










28872-7 


*3461-78: 


\x 


8nr 


3461-66 








28878-7 


*3458-59^ 


IX 


Snr 


3458-45 


0-96 


»> 


28883-3 



Spark Spectrum. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Hascbek 
Wave-length 

(R.wl^nd) 
•<park Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


\ + 


1_ 
A 


3458-51 


8 




0-96 


8-2 


28906-0 


3454-2 


4 




»» 




28942 


3453-5 


5 




J» 




28948 


3452-92 


7 




• 1 




28952-8 


3450-6 


2 




T» 




28972 


3449-5 


4 




»» 




28982 


3449-2 


4 




»» 




28984 


3448-5 


2 




t* 




28990 


3446-34 


8 




»» 




29008-1 


3444-4 


2 




•) 




29025 


34^4-0 


2 




>» 




29028 


34430 


2 




)» 




29036 


3442-6 


2 




f> 




29042 


3439-0 


2n 




»» 




29070 


3435-6 


2 




»» 




29099 


3433-65 


7 




»l 




29115-3 


3427-8 


2 




tf 


8-3 


29165 


34263 


2 




M 




29178 


3423-76 


7 




»t 




29199-4 


3422-8 


2 




»l 




29208 


3422-4 


2 




I» 




29211 


3421-4 


4 




»» 




29220 


3420-8 


2 




11 




29225 


3414-83 


8 




0-95 




29275-7 


34140 


4 




t» 




29283 


3413-5 


5 


»» 




29287 


3412-6 


2 




»» 




29295 


3412-1 


2n 




ft 




29299 


3411-1 


2ii 




IJ 




29308 


3409-5 


4 




fl 




29322 


34091 


4 




11 




29325 



XX Exner and Haschek's nunibexi 
f Probably due to Cobalt. 



3472-59, 3461-72, 3458-51. 



i2 



116 



REPORT — 1897. 



Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 
'Vacuum 




Haschck 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in "V'acuo 




1 


Spark Sj.ectrum 






A.-f 


\ 




3407-4 


5 




0-95 


8-3 


29340 


3403-5 


5 




II 




29374 


3401-8 


2 




11 




29388 


3401-3 


4 




,, 




29393 


339G-3 


2 




11 


8-4 


29436 


33930.5 


7 




1) 




29463-6 


3391-2 


6 




I» 




29480 


3385-7 


2 




H 




29528 


3381-1 


5 




11 




29568 


3380-62 


7 




l» 




29572-0 


3376-4 


2 




0-94 




29609 


3374-8 


5 




It 




29623 


3374-4 


5 




tl 




29627 


3374-1 


5 




II 




29630 


3372-1 


6 




»» 




29647 


3369-6r. 


7 




tl 




29668-2 


33679 


2 




1» 




29684 


3366-9 


4 




,, 




29693 


33G6-3 







11 




29698 


3365-9 


6 




t» 




29702 


3364-7 


2 




It 




29712 


33640 


o 




)> 




29719 


3363-8 


2 




11 




29720 


8362-9 


2 




11 




29728 


3361-7 


5 




I? 




29739 


3359-3 


4 




|i 


8-5 


29760 


3350-5 


4 




!• 




29838 


3345-1 


2 




• 1 




29886 


3339-1 


2n 




11 




29940 


33361 


2b 




093 




29967 


3327-5 


2 




11 




30045 


3327-0 


2 




11 




30049 


3322-4 


6 




11 


8-6 


30090 


3320-9 


2 




11 




30103 


3320-3 


G 




11 




30109 


3315-7 


G 




It 




30151 


33131 


2 








30174 


3312-3 


4 




tl 




30182 


3310-2 


2 




It 




30201 


3309-5 


2 




11 




30207 


33069 


2 




tl 




30231 


3305-0 


2 




11 




30248 


3302-6 


2n 








30270 


3301-8 


2a 




,^ 




30278 


3299-2 


2b 




0-92 




30301 


3296-3 


2 




tl 




30328 


3293-8 


2 








30351 


3290-7 


2 




1) 




30380 


3288-5 


2b 




1» 


8-7 


30400 


3287-1 


4 




tl 




30413 


3286-0 


2a 




11 




30423 


3285-1 


2 




11 




30431 


3284-5 


, 2 




11 




30437 


3282-8 


5 




tl 




30453 


3281-9 


4 








30461 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 117 

Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 
Wave-length 


Intensity 


Previous Observations 


Vucuum 


Oscillation 
Frc(|uency 


and " 


(Rowland) 






(Rowland) 


Character 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






A 




3280-7 


2 




0-92 


8-7 


30472 


3276-7 


2b 








30510 


3275-0 


2 








30525 


32740 


6 








30535 


3273-6 


2n 








30538 


3271-2 


5 








30561 


3269 


2 








30581 


3268-2 


2 








30589 


3261-9 


2n 








30648 


3261-1 


2n 








30656 


32590 


2n 




0-91 




30675 


3256-1 


2 








30703 


3250-8 


6 






8*8 


30753 


32495 


4 








30765 


3248-6 


5 








30773 


3247-72 


7 








307820 


3245-5 


2n 








30803 


3243-22 


7 








30824-8 


32420 


2 








30876 


32371 


2 








30883 


3236-4 


2n 








30890 


3235-8 


2 








30895 


3234-8 


6 


, 






30905 


32340 


2 








30912 


3233-11 


7 








30921-2 


3231-6 


2 








30935 


3227-2 


4 








30978 


3225-2 


6 








30997 


32240 


2 








31008 


3223-7 


4 








31011 


3221-8 


5 








31030 


3221-4 


5 








31033 


3220-2 


2 




0-90 




31045 


3220-0 


2 








31047 


3219-5 


2 








31052 


3217-93 


7 








31067-1 


3216-9 


4 








31077 


32157 


2n 






8-9 


31088 


3214-1 


6 








31104 


3213-5 


4 








31110 


3212-5 


2 








31119 


32101 


4 








31143 


32091 


*i: 








31152 


3207-1 


2 








31172 


3205-4 


2 








31188 


3204-7 


2 








31195 


3202-3 


5 








31219 


3200-6 


4 








31235 


31995 


2 








31246 


3197-3 


5 








31267 


3195-7 


4 








31283 


3195-4 


2 








31286 


3195-1 


2 








31289 


3192-2 


2b 








31317 


3191-3 


54 . 


■ i 






31326 



118 



REPORT — 1897. 



Nickel — continued. 



Exnei- and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 
Wave-length 


Intensitj' 


Previous Ohservations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


and 


(Rowland) 






(Rowland) 


Character 


\ + 


1 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






\ 




3189-9 


2a 




0-90 


8-9 


31340 


3187-8 


2n 








31361 


3186-7 


2n 








31371 


3186-3 


2 








31375 


3184-5 


4 








31393 


3183-4 


2 








31404 


3183-2 


2 








31406 


3181-9 


4 




0-89 




31419 


3179-7 


2n 






9-0 


31441 


3179-0 


2n 








31447 


3177-5 


2 








31462 


3177-0 


2 


* , 






31467 


3176-4 


2 








31473 


3174-2 


2n 








31495 


3170-8 


2 








31529 


3166-5 


2 








31572 


3165-6 


2 








31581 


3165-0 


2 








31587 


3164-4 


2 








31593 


3159-7 


2 








31640 


3154-8 


2 








31689 


3153-5 


2u 








31702 


3153-0 


2 








31707 


3151-5 


2n 








31722 


3149-5 


2 








31742 


3146-4 


2 






9-1 


31773 


3145-8 


4 








31779 


3145-3 


2 








31784 


3134-26 


8 




0-88 




31896-4 


31330 


2b 








31909 


3129-5 


4 








31945 


3127-8 


2a 








31962 


3127-3 


2n 








31967 


3121-7 


2n 








32025 


3121-0 


2b 








32032 


3116-8 


2 








32075 


3114-3 


6 






9-2 


32101 


3107-8 


2 








32168 


3105-6 


4 








32191 


310200 


8 








32228-1 


3101-61 


8 




0-87 




32232-1 


3099-2 


6 








32257 


3097-2 


5 








32278 


3094-4 


2 








32307 


3089-9 


2 








32355 


3088-3 


2n 








32371 


3087-2 


6 








32383 


3080-82 


7 






9-3 


324496 


3066-6 


2 








32600 


3064-75 


7 








32619-8 


3064-1 


2 








32627 


3057-72 


8 




0-86 




32694-8 


3054-40 


7 








32730-4 


3050-88 


8 






9-4 


32768-0 


3047-2 


2 






tf 


32808 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Nickel — contmued. 



Exner and 

Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


K + 


1 


Spark Spectram 






K~ 




30451 


5 




0-86 


9-4 


32831 


3038-05 


7 




n 




32906-4 


3035-5 


2 




n 




32935 


3032-6 


2 




5) 




32966 


30320 


5 




»> 




32973 


3031-3 


2 




)i 




32980 


3029-5 


2 




)» 




33000 


30260 


2 




9) 




33038 


3024-2 


2 




M 


9-5 


33058 


3020-0 


2 




0-85 




33104 


3019-3 


6 




» 




33111 


3012-10 


8 




H 




33189-9 


3008-2 


2 




») 




33233 


3003-73 


8 




)» 




33282-4 


3002-60 


8 




*> 




33295-0 


3092-66 


7 




if 


9-6 


33405-5 


3091-3 


2 




19 




33420 


3088-1 


4 




11 




33456 


3087-3 


2 




»1 




33465 


3085-8 


2 




*> 




33482 


30850 


2 




)) 




33491 


3084-3 


5 




»» 




33499 


3083-6 


4 




l» 




33507 


3081-8 


6 




0-84 




33527 


3076-8 


2 




If 




33583 


3073-8 


2 




11 




33617 


3065-5 


2b 




II 


9-7 


33711 


3061-5 


2 




»» 




33757 


3058-5 


2 




11 




33791 


3055-2 


2b 




II 




33829 


3047-6 


4 




11 




33916 


3044-1 


6 




11 


9-8 


33956 


3042-9 


2 




0-83 




33970 


3034-8 


2a 




11 




34064 


3022-3 


2a 




II 




34210 


2921-3 


2b 




II 


9-9 


34221 


2919-2 


2b 




II 




31246 


29171 


2b 




II 




34271 


2914-2 


2 




)l 




34305 


2913-7 


6 




11 




34311 


2912-3 


2 




11 




34327 


2907-6 


4 




11 




34383 


29060 


2n 




11 




34402 


2900-3 


2a 




0-82 




31469 


2897-2 


2n 




>t 




34506 


2892-5 


2n 




)> 


10-0 


34562 


2891-4 


2u 




If 




34575 


2883-8 


2b 




II 




34666 


2882-5 


2b 




J) 




34682 


2881-6 


2 




»» 




34693 


2881-3 


2a 




If 




34697 


2873-3 


2 




f> 




34793 


28700 


2 




If 


lo'i 


34833 


2868-7 


2 




t> 




34849 


2865-5 


i 2 




II 




34888 



120 



REPORT — 1897, 
Nickel — continued. 



£xner and 






Reduction to 




Haschek 


Intensity 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-leDgth 
(Rowland) 


and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1_ 


Spark Spectrum 






A.+ 


A 

10-1 




2864-2 


2n 




0-81 


34904 


2863-7 


6 




ft 




34910 


2861-6 


2b 




»> 




34935 


2858-2 


2 




»} 




34977 


2857-5 


2b 




t> 




34986 


2855-6 


2 




» 




35009 


2853-6 


2b 




1} 




35033 


2852-2 


4 




II 




35051 


2851-1 


2b 




II 




35064 


2849-8 


2b 




H 




35080 


2846-0 


2n 




II 


10-2 


35127 


2843-8 


2b 




II 




35154 


2842-5 


5 




II 




35170 


2840-7 


2n 




t» 




35193 


2839-0 


2 




II 




35214 


2837-3 


2n 




1» 




35235 


2836-6 


2b 




>♦ 




35243 


2835-6 


2 




11 




35256 


2835-2 


2b 




II 




35261 


2834-6 


2 




II 




35268 


2832-4 


2 




l» 




35296 


2831-6 


2 




J» 




35306 


2829-2 


2 




fl 




35336 


2825-3 


4 




II 




35384 


2823-9 


2ii 




0-80 


10-3 


35402 


2823-3 


2 




11 




35410 


2821-3 


4 




11 




35435 


2816-4 


2n 




II 




35496 


2815-6 


2n 




1* 




35506 


2814-3 


2 




• 1 




35523 


2813-3 


2n 




n 




35535 


2812-3 


2n 




fl 




35548 


2810-3 


2b 




II 




35573 


2808-3 


2 




fl 




35599 


2807-6 


2n 




If 




35608 


2805-7 


4 




fl 




35632 


2804-8 


2 




II 




35643 


2802-74 


7 




II 




35669-1 


2802-3 


2 


> 


II 




35675 


2801-2 


2 




II 




35689 


2800-9 


2n 




II 




35693 


2798-7 


4 




II 


10-4 


35721 


2798-3 


2 




ff 




35726 


27981 


2 




»i 




35729 


2795-59 


7 




11 




35760-2 


2794-9 


4 




II 




35769 


2790-8 


2n 




II 




35822 


2785-5 


2b 




II 




35890 


2779-8 


2 




0-79 




35964 


2775-4 


2b 




l> 


l6-5 


36021 


2771-5 


2n 




fl 




36072 


2770-2 


2 




fl 




36088 


27690 


2b 




II 




36104 


2760-7 


2 




tt 




36213 


2759-0 


2b 


• 


fl 




36235 



Oy WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 

i^lCK^ii— continued. 









Reduction to 




Exner and 

HaBchek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland') 


Intensit}' 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Ro-wland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in 'Vacuo 


\ + 


1_ 


Spark Spectrum 






A 




2746-8 


2 




0-79 


10-6 


36395 


27431 


2 




»» 


»1 


36444 


2737'7 


2 




0-78 


»» 


36516 


2735-5 


2 






t» 


36545 


2725-0 


2ii 






10-7 


36686 


2723-7 


2 






}« 


36704 


2722-9 


2 






)) 


36715 


2722-4 


2 






J» 


36721 


2721-2 


2 






J» 


36737 


2711-9 


2 






1* 


36864 


2710-7 


2 






»» 


36880 


2710-4 


2 






»J 


36884 


2708-8 


2n 






>1 


36906 


2707-7 


2 






l> 


86921 


2706-6 


2 






)) 


36936 


2705-6 


2 






»> 


36949 


27031 


2 






10-8 


36984 


2700-4 


2n 






»» 


37021 


2699-3 


2ii 






)» 


37036 


2696-6 


2 




0-77 


»» 


37073 


2695-5 


3 






)J 


37088 


2693-2 


2 






)) 


37120 


2690-7 


2b 






») 


37154 


2689-8 


2 






» 


37166 


2684-5 


4b 






1) 


37240 


2682-4 


2b 






V 


37269 


2680-4 


2 






»» 


37297 


2679-2 


2b 






10-9 


37314 


2674-8 


2 






11 


37375 


2674-5 


2 






H 


37379 


2673-3 


2n 






1> 


37396 


2670-4 


2 






1> 


37437 


2666-9 


2n 






11 


37486 


2666-1 


2 






11 


37497 


2665-9 


2 






»1 


37500 


2665 3 


4 






11 


37508 


2659-6 


2n 






11 


37589 


2655-9 


2n 






1» 


37641 


2655-4 


2n 






11 


37648 


2662-5 


2b 




0-76 


11-0 


37689 


2650-8 


2b 






11 


37713 


26470 


2b 






11 


37768 


26420 


2b 






11 


37839 


2641-3 


2b 






11 


37849 


26398 


2 






11 


37871 


2639-5 


2n 






»J 


37875 


2638-2 


2 






11 


37894 


2637-2 


2b 






11 


37908 


2633-0 


2n 






)7 


37968 


2632-5 


2n 






11 


37976 


2631-6 


2n 






11-1 


37989 


2631-5 


4 






)» 


37990 


2631-2 


4 






11 


37994 


2630-4 


4 






»» 


38006 


2629-7 


2 




1 u 


n 


38016 



122 



REPORT — 1897. 
Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 




Hascbek 

Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1_ 


Spark Spectrum 






\ + 


A 




2629-4 


o 




0-76 


11-1 


38020 


2626-5 


2b 






,, 


38062 


2623-1 


2 






1» 


38112 


2622-1 


2 






'tl 


38126 


2618-9 


2b 






H 


38173 


2615-3 


4b 






)1 


38226 


2613-9 


2 






»7 


38246 


2611-7 


2 






11 


38278 


2610-7 


2 






1? 


38293 


2610-2 


4n 






11 


38300 


2606-5 


4b 




0-75 


11-2 


38355 


2605-7 


4 






1» 


38366 


2603-9 


2 






1» 


38393 


2603-6 


2 






l» 


38397 


2602-8 


2 






11 


38409 


2601-2 


4b 






11 


38433 


2599-1 


2 






1» 


38464 


2597-7 


2 






11 


38485 


2592-8 


2 






11 


38557 


2589-8 


2 






11 


38602 


2589-6 


2 






11 


38605 


25890 


2 






11 


38614 


2588-4 


2 






11-3 


38623 


2588-1 


2 






11 


38627 


2587-6 


2 






11 


38635 


2584-1 


4 






l» 


38687 


2583-4 


2 






»» 


38698 


2578-5 


2 






I' 


38771 


2571-0 


2n 






11 


38884 


2569-8 


2ii 






»t 


38903 


2566-2 


4n 






11-4 


38957 


2563-8 


2 




0-74 


11 


38994 


2561-6 


2 






It 


89027 


2560-3 


2n 






11 


39047 


2558-7 


2 






11 


39071 


2558-0 


2 






11 


39082 


2556-8 


2b 








39100 


2555-2 


2n 






11 


39125 


2553-0 


2b 






11 


39159 


2551-1 


2 






11 


39188 


2550-7 


2 






11 


39194 


25500 


2 






11 


39205 


2549-4 


4 






11 


39214 


254S-8 


2 






11-5 


39223 


2547-5 


2 






»» 


39243 


2547-3 


2 






n 


39246 


2546-00 


7 






1» 


39265-8 


2543-5 


2 






11 


393C5 


2541-3 


2 






11 


39339 


2540-8 


2 






11 


39347 


2540-3 


2 






11 


39354 


2539-2 


4 






11 


39371 


2536-1 


2 






11 


39420 


2535-7 


2n 






11 


39426 


2535-3 


2ii 




1) 


11 


39432 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 

Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 

Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 






Reduction to 




Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillatirn 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


A.+ 


1_ 


Spark Spectrum 






A. 




2533-6 


2 




0-74 


11-5 


39459 


2532-2 


2 






>1 


39480 


25291 


2 






11-6 


39528 


2528-1 


2 






H 


39543 


2527-6 


2 






ij 


39551 


2524-3 


2 






n 


39603 


2522-9 


2 






11 


39625 


2521-7 


2 






11 


39644 


2521-4 


2 






11 


39649 


2521-2 


2 






11 


39652 


2519-3 


2q 






11 


39682 


2518-2 


2 






11 


39699 


2517-9 


2 




o"73 


11 


39704 


2516-2 


2 






11 


39730 


2514-7 


2a 






11 


39754 


2510-92 


8 






11-7 


39814-3 


2506-8 


2 






11 


39879 


2505-8 


5 






11 


39895 


2492-1 


2 






11-8 


40115 


2491-2 


2 






„ 


40129 


2490-8 


2 






J» 


40136 


2490-7 


2 






1» 


40137 


2484-3 


4n 






Jl 


40241 


2483-3 


2 






1> 


40257 


2482-7 


2n 






I* 


40267 


2482-2 


2n 






If 


40275 


2480-2 


2 






IJ 


40307 


2479-9 


2 






»» 


40312 


2478-6 


2 






»> 


40333 


2476-9 


2 






»» 


40361 


2473-1 


6 






11-9 


40423 


2472-1 


2 






»» 


40439 


2470-6 


2 






11 


40464 


2466-8 


2n 




0-72 


f1 


40526 


2465-3 


2 






»1 


40551 


2461-9 


2 






1* 


40607 


2461-3 


2 






120 


40617 


2455-5 


2 






j> 


40713 


2454-0 


2 






1) 


40738 


2452-4 


2ii 






n 


40764 


2451-1 


2n 






»• 


40786 


2449-1 


2 






»» 


40819 


2448-3 


2 






I) 


40833 


2445-6 


2 






f) 


40878 


2444-6 


2 






»i 


40894 


2441-8 


2 






12-1 


40941 


2441-7 


2 






J? 


40943 


2439-3 


2 






»> 


40983 


2439-1 


2 






i> 


40987 


2437-92 


7 






ft 


41006-5 


2436-7 


2 






If 


41027 


2433-6 


4 




t> 


t> 


41079 


2432-9 


2 






» 


41091 


2432-6 


2 






>* 


41096 


2432-3 


2 




II 


tf 


41101 



124 




REPORT — 1897. 










Nickel — continued. 




Exner and 

Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 

Spark Spectium 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 
(Rowland) 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
iu Vacuo 


A + 


1_ 

A, 


2431-6 


2 




0-72 


12-1 


41113 


2429-2 


2 






)» 


41154 


2428-4 


2 






It 


41167 


2425-0 


2 






12-2 


41225 


2424-1 


2 






>» 


41240 


2423-7 


2 






»J 


41247 


2423-4 


2 






tt 


41252 


2422-8 


2ii 






»l 


41263 


2421-3 


2 




0-71 


»» 


41288 


2420-8 


2 






t> 


41297 


2419-4 


2 






»» 


41321 


2417-7 


2 






)» 


41350 


2416-18 


7 






>* 


41375-5 


24141 


2 






»» 


41411 


2413-3 


2 






» 


41425 


2413-1 


4 






»» 


41428 


2412-3 


2 






12-3 


41442 


2411-6 


2 






M 


41454 


2410-6 


2 






l» 


41471 


2409-7 


2 






»» 


41487 


2408-8 


2 






l> 


41502 


2408-6 


2 






11 


41508 


2407-7 


2 






»l 


41521 


2407-3 


2 






n 


41528 


2406-3 


2 






>i 


41535 


2406-4 


2 






»» 


41544 


2405-2 


5 






»i 


41565 


2404-2 


2 






i» 


41582 


2403-6 


2 






f 1 


41592 


2401-9 


2 






)» 


41622 


2398-2 


2 






»» 


41686 


2395-S 


2 






12-4 


41728 


2394 7 


4 






1) 


41747 


2394-49 


7 






»> 


41750-1 


2392-G 


4 






l» 


41784 


2392-1 


2 






• 


41792 


2380 5 


2 






1* 


41838 


2389 3 


2 






)f 


41841 


2387-7 


4 






It 


41869 


2386-7 


2 






»J 


41887 


2386-6 


2 






11 


41889 


2386-4 


2 






19 


41892 


2385-6 


2 






»> 


41906 


23850 


2 






l» 


41917 


2384-9 


2 






»l 


41918 


2383-5 


4 






»l 


41943 


2382-0 


4 






12-5 


41970 


2379-6 


2 






11 


42012 


2378-7 


4 






H 


42028 


23760 


2 






1} 


42076 


2375-4 


6 






t> 


42086 


2372-2 


2 




0-70 


l» 


42143 


2369-3 


2 






»f 


42195 


2368-7 


2 






12-6 


42204 


2367-5 


4 


.'i 


II ' 


» 


42225 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 

Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Haschek 
Wave-length 
(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Observations 


Oscillation 


(Roivland) 


\ + 


1 _ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






K 




2366-7 


4 




0-70 


12-6 


42240 


2366-0 


2 




n 


i» 


42252 


2365-8 


2 




11 


II 


42256 


2363-9 


4 




ti 


11 


42290 


2362-2 


O 




i» 


II 


42320 


2360-5 


2 




11 


11 


42351 


2360-2 


2 




11 


»♦ 


42356 


2360-0 


2 




,, 


i» 


42360 


23590 


2 




)f 


11 


42378 


2358-8 


2 




tr 


11 


42381 


2356-9 


o 




i» 


»i 


42414 


2356-5 


4 




11 


11 


42423 


2355-0 


2 




») 


11 


42450 


2350-8 


2 




ti 


12-7 


42526 


23500 


2 




ff 


II 


42540 


2348-2 


2 




If 


»» 


42573 


*2347-5 


2 




»» 


»» 


42586 


2346-7 


2 




11 


11 


42600 


2345-4 


4 




II 


)» 


42624 


2345-3 


4 




n 


1» 


12625 


2344-4 


2 




»> 


II 


42642 


2344-1 


2 




»» 


)l 


42647 


2343-6 


4 




»• 


II 


42656 


2343-2 


2 




11 


II 


42664 


2343-0 


2 




It 


11 


42667 


2341-2 


4 




M 


„ 


42700 


2340-3 


2 




tl 


12 8 


42717 


2339-7 


2 




11 


)> 


42728 


2337-6 


2 




1) 


1* 


42766 


2337-2 


2 




»» 


l« 


42773 ■ 


2336-7 


4 




II 


*» 


42782 


2334-6 


5 




tl 


19 


42821 


2331-7 


2 




»* 


»> 


42874 


2330-0 


2 




11 


11 


42905 


2329-8 


2 




11 


II 


42909 


2329-3 


2 




II 


11 


42918 


2327-4 


2 




»l 


12 9 


42953 


2326-5 


4 




11 


fl 


42970 


2325-9 


2 




69 


11 


42981 


2323-3 


2 




>l 


1» 


43029 


23230 


2 




1* 


l» 


43035 


2322-8 


*> 




l> 


11 


43038 


2320-2 


4 




1» 


11 


43087 


2319-8 


4 




II 


II 


43094 


23186 


4 




»• 


11 


43116 


2317-3 


2 




• « 


11 


43141 


2316-2 


4 




II 


f» 


43161 


2314-1 


2 




«l 


13-0 


43200 


2313-8 


2 




It 


)i 


43206 


23130 


4 




»» 


}f 


43221 


2312-4 


4 




>» 


tt 


43232 


2311-7 


2 




»• 


ff 


43245 


2311-0 


2 




»■ 


If 


43258 



Double. 



126 



REPORT — 1897 



Nickel — eontimted. 



Exner and 




Reduction to 




Haschek 
Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous Observations 
(Ro-ffland) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






(Rowland) 


Character 


X•^ 


1 


in Vacuo 


Spark Spectrum 






A 




2308-6 


4 




0-69 


13-0 


43303 


2307-8 


4 




}> 


?» 


43318 


2305-3 


4 




J» 


^j 


43365 


2304-7 


2 




J> 


fi 


43387 


2303-8 


4 




)* 


1) 


43394 


23030 


4 




»> 


i» 


43409 


2301-5 


2 




ty 


i» 


43437 


2300-3 


4 




»» 


13-1 


43460 


2299-8 


4 




» 


*» 


43469 


2298-3 


4 




7» 


» 


43497 


2297-6 


4 




»» 


>l 


43511 


2297-2 


4 




»> 


>» 


43518 


2296-6 


4 




>» 


ff 


43530 


2292-1 


2 




*• 


)) 


43615 


2290-0 


2 




>J 


»» 


43655 


2289-4 


2 




» 


;• 


43667 


2288-7 


2 




M 


»i 


43680 


2288-4 


2 




fr 


13-2 


43686 


2287-7 


4 




»i 


If 


43699 


2287-1 


4 




»i 


»I 


43710 


2281-2 


2 




1* 


») 


43824 


2278-8 


4 




»> 


»» 


43870 


2278-4 


4 




n 


11 


43877 


2277-3 


4 




0-68 


51 


43899 


2276-6 


4 




«) 


)1 


43912 


2276-2 


2 




»t 


»> 


43920 


2275-7 


4 




»» 


13-3 


43930 


2274-8 


4 




>» 


>l 


43947 


2272-0 


2 




?) 


*9 


44001 


2271-7 


2 




>* 


II 


44007 


2270-2 


4 




»» 


11 


44036 


2265-5 


2 




11 


II 


44127 


2264-6 


4 




ty 


I* 


44145 


2263-1 


2 




t» 


13-4 


44174 


2260-1 


2 




9t 


■ 1 


44233 


2259-4 


2n 




•9 


11 


44247 


22580 


2n 




)t 


%y 


44274 


2257-0 


2 




91 


ji 


44294 


2256-2 


4 




)» 


1) 


44309 


2254-0 


4 




f) 


)) 


44353 


2253-2 


2 






*t 


44368 


2250-7 


2 




t* 


13-5 


44412 


2249-6 


2 




}f 


}) 


44439 


2247-3 


2 




»T 


II 


44485 


2247-1 


2 




»» 


19 


44489 


2245-2 


2n 




)* 


ij 


44526 


2242-7 


2 




») 


t% 


44576 


2241-7 


2 




»» 


»» 


44596 


2228-1 


2 




0-67 


13-6 


44867 


222S-5 


4 




»» 


13-7 


44900 


2225-0 


4 




J) 


ff 


44930 


2224-5 


2 




tl 


f 1 


44940 


22231 


2 




«1 


II 


44968 


2221-3 


2 




T» 


11 


45005 


2220-5 


4 




>» 


» 


45021 ' 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 127 

Nickel — continued. 



Exner and 






Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Haschek 

Wave-length 

(Rowland) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Previous Measurements 
(Rowland) 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


- i- 


Spark Spectrum 








2216-5 


4 




0-67 


13-7 


45102 


2211-2 


2 


. 


»» 


13-8 


45210 


2210-4 


4 




»» 


• » 


45227 


2206-8 


2n 




)» 


)» 


45300 


2205-7 


2n 




fl 


t» 


45323 


2203-7 


2 




» 


13-9 


45364 


2201-4 


4 




»> 


«> 


45412 


2192-5 


2 




>» 


»» 


45596 


2188-2 


2 




1» 


14-0 


45686 


2185-6 


4 




0-66 


»» 


45740 


2180-7 


2 




l» 


J» 


45743 


2179-5 


2 




»» 


141 


45868 


2177-4 


2n 




J) 


»t 


45912 


2169-3 


4 




»» 


14-2 


46084 


2161-5 


2 




0-65 


»• 


46250 


2131-2 


2 




>» 


14-5 


46908 


2107-8 


2 




»» 


14-7 


47428 



Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Lieut. -Colonel 
Allan Cunningham, R.E. (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor E. 
Price, Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A. G. Greenhill, Pro- 
fessor W. M. Hicks, Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., awcZ Professor 
A. Lodge, appointed for calculating Tables of certain Mathematical 
Functions, and, if necessary, for taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to puhlish the residts in an accessible form. 

The ' New Canon Arithmeticus ' is a table quite similar to Jacobi's 
' Canon Arithmeticus,' except that it is calculated for the base 2 through- 
out, -whilst Jacobi's tables are for various bases. 

The new table contains the solution of the congruence 2^=R (mod. j^) 
for all primes (/>)<1000, and also of 2^=R (mod. y) for all powei's of 
primes, p"- <1000. 

The left-hand table gives the least Residues (R) to Argument x ; this 
table has been computed throughout by two computers independently, 
and the two copies have been checked throughout by both computers ; 
thus this table is complete. 

The right-hand table, giving the values of x (the exponent) to 
Argument R is merely a re-arrangement of the former ; one copy is 
complete, the other copy is about half done, and checked in part. 

The whole of the grant of '2bl. for the year 1896-97 has been spent. 
The Committee ask for reappointment without further grant, the 
Secretary (Lieut. -Colonel Allan Cunningham, R.E.) undertaking to com- 
plete the second copy, and the checking of both copies (without asking 
for further grant) if the reappointment of the Committee be sanctioned. 



128 REPORT — 1897. 



TJie Ai^plication of PJiotography to the Elucidation of Meteorological 
Phenomena. — Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
G. J. Symons (Ghaii-man), Professor E. Meldola, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNSON, Mr. H. N. Dickson and Mr. A. W. Clayden {Secre- 
tary). (Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

The work of the Committee has been continued during the past year, 
especially with regard to the measurements of cloud altitudes by means of 
photography. A considerable number of the results given in the report 
for 1896 have been verified by repeating the reduction of the plates. 

In order to afford an efficient check upon the accuracy of last year's 
results, the altitude and azimuth of the sun were calculated by a different 
method and the altitude of the cloud deduced from a fresh set of co- 
ordinates measured on the plate. 

In no case did the new determination differ more than about 3 per 
cent, from the old one, and in the majority of cases the agreement was 
very much closer. Particular attention was given to the instances in 
which the clouds had been determined to be floating at unusually great 
altitudes, and there is no doubt that those determinations are substantially 
correct. 

During the last nine months it has not been possible to keep up a 
continuous series of photographs. The excessive rainfall of the early part 
of the year transformed the level ground between the camera stands and 
around one of them into a series of muddy pools, so that work was impractic- 
able. But with this exception exposures have been made whenever 
opportunity offered, and the stock of negatives has been largely increased. 

None of these additions have yet been reduced. The time available 
for the observations is limited, and it has been thought better to accumu- 
late negatives during the finer part of the year and reserve them to be 
reduced in the winter, when opportunities for making observations are 
rare. 

The warping of the ebonite shutters of the cameras has again proved 
troublesome, and steps have been taken to get them replaced by similar 
pieces of aluminium, a change which will probably be effected before this 
report is presented. Some delay was also caused by the mischievous 
behaviour of some unknown persons, who, on .Tune 22, amused themselves 
by breaking the connecting wires and endeavouring to upset one of the 
camera stands. 

Leclanche cells of the ordinary pattern have been substituted for the 
faulty dry cells formerly used, and have given complete satisfaction. 

There is a good stock of plates in hand, and the photographs will be 
continued during the summer. 

No fresh departure having been made, and the current expenses not 
being heavy, the grant made at Liverpool has not been drawn. 

The work of the Committee being now limited to the investigation in 
the hands of the Secretary, who will continue it at his own expense, no 
grant in aid is asked, but the Committee would wish to be reappointed 
for another year. 



I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 129 

Seismological Investigations. — Second Report of the Gommittee, con- 
sisting of Mr. Gr. J. Symons {Chairman), Dr. C. Davison and 
Mr. John Milne (Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Professor 
G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Mr. G. F. 
Deacon, Professor J. A. Ewing, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Professor R. Meldola, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor J. H, Poynting, and Dr. Isaac Roberts. 

Contents. 

PACiB 

I. Report of Work done for the estahlighment of a Seismic Survey of the 

World, drawn lip by JOH.y Miiji^E, F.B.S., F.G.S. . . . .129 

II. Records of the Oray- Milne Seismograph. 5// John MiLNE, F.R.S., F.6.S. 132 
III. Installation and working of Milne's Horizontal Pendulum. By John 

Ui\,T<i^, F.R.S.. F.G.S. 137 

rV. Observations at Carisbrooke Castle and Shide. By John Milne, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 146 

Carisbrooke Records . . . . . . . . . .146 

Earthquakes at Shide 149 

V. Earthquake Records from Japan and other j)laces. By John Milne, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 153 

VI. Highest apparent Velocities at which Earth-waves are propagated. By 

John Milne, P.R.S., F.G.S. 172 

VII. Diurnal Waves. By Johj<! M.ihi'iE, F.R.S., F.G.S. . . . .176 

VIII. The Perry Tromometer. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. . . .181 

IX. Sub-oceanic CJtanges. By jojrn MihifS, F.R.S., F.G.S. . . . 181 

Brady seismic Action . . . . . . . . . .182 

Sedimentation and Erosion . . 187 

Causes resulting in the yielding of Submarine Banks . . . .188 

Cable Fracture 189 

Cmiclusions and Suggestions for a Seismic Survey of the World . . 204 

I. Report of Work done for the establishment of a Seismic Survey of the World. 
Professor Milne has reported to the Committee that on January 31, 
1895, he had issued a circular calling attention to the desirability of 
observing earthquake waves which had travelled great distances, with 
working drawings of the necessary installations. 

Some months later Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz drew up suggestions 
for the establishment of an international system of earthquake stations. 
To this scheme Professor Milne and other members of the Committee lent 
their names. 

After the death of von Rebeur these suggestions were translated into 
French and issued by Dr. G. Gerland of Strassburg, on his own respon- 
sibility. 

For this reason, but more especially because individual efforts have not 
led to any definite results, the Committee have issued a letter to a number 
of observatories requesting co-operation in the observation of earthquakes 
which are propagated round and possibly through the earth. 

Dr. Michie Smith has informed Professor Milne of the co-operation 
which might be expected from the Government of Madras. The Kew 
Committee have decided to establish an instrument. 

Mr. Oldham, Director of the Geological Survey of India, has evinced a 
desire to assist in making observations. It is likely that Professor Turner 
of Oxford will purchase a seismograph, whilst others have made inquiries 
respecting the necessary installation. Sir Clement Markham has already 
offered his hearty support in carrying out a seismic survey of the world, 
1897. K 



130 REPORT— 1897. 

and there were strong reasons for believing that we might expect assist- 
ance from both the Royal Geographical and Eoyal Astronomical Societies. 

Letter sent to various Observatories and Persons. 

Bbitish Association for the Advancement of Scibncb : 

Burlington House, 

London, W. 

1897. 

To ' 



giB^ — It has been established that the movements resulting from a 
large earthquake originating in any one portion of our globe can, with 
the aid of suitable instruments, be recorded at any other portion of the 
same ; therefore the Seismological Investigation Committee of the 
British Association are desirous of your co-operation in an endeavour 
to extend and systematise the observation of such disturbances. 

Similar instruments should be used at all stations ; and the one 
recommended by this Committee as being simple to work, and one that 
furnishes results sufficiently accurate for the main objects in view, is 
indicated in the accompanying report (see pp. 2-4) by the letter M ; a 
sketch of the same is shown on p. 7, whilst there is an example of one of 
its records on p. 49. 

We desire to know whether you are disposed to purchase, and make 
observations with, one of these instruments, the cost of which, including 
photographic material to last one year, packed for shipment, is about 50Z. 
Should you reply in the affirmative, we shall be pleased to arrange with 
a competent maker for the construction of an instrument for you, and to 
furnish instructions respecting installation and working. In case an 
instrument be established at your observatory, we should ask that notes 
of disturbances having an earthquake character be sent to us for analysis 
and comparison with the records from other stations. From time to time 
the results of these examinations would be forwarded to your observatory. 

The first object we have in view is to determine the velocity with 
which motion is propagated round or possibly through our earth. To 
attain this, all that we require from a given station are the times at 
which various phases of motion are recorded ; for which purpose, for the 
present at least, we consider an instrument recording a single component 
of horizontal motion to be sufficient. Other results which may be ob- 
tained from the proposed observations are numerous. 

The foci of submarine disturbances, such, for example, as those which 
from time to time have interfered with telegraph-cables, may possibly be 
determined, and new light thrown upon changes taking place in ocean beds. 

The records throw light upon certain classes of disturbances now and 
then noted in magnetometers and other instruments susceptible to slight 
movements ; whilst local changes of level, some of which may have a 
diurnal character, may, under certain conditions, become apparent. 

Trusting that you will find it possible to co-operate in this endeavour 
to extend our knowledge of the earth on which we live, 
We remain, Sir (on behalf of the Committee), 

Your obedient servants, 

G. J. SYMONS, Chairman, C. DAVISON, "I Jbmi iTonorary 

J. MILNE, J Secretaries. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 131 

It is requested that Replies be addressed to — 

The Seismological Committee, British Association, 

Burlington House, London, W. 



Letter sent to the Foreign Office on February 25, 1897. 

Shide HiU House, Newport, I.W., 
February 25, 1897. 

To the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Aifairs, Whitehall, London. 

Sir, — I am directed by the Seismological Committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science to state that they are anxious 
to obtain the assistance of the Marquess of Salisbury with a view to 
ascertaining, through Her Majesty's representatives in the countries 
mentioned, whether the Governments of the same would be disposed to 
co-operate in carrying out the observations indicated in the inclosed 
circular, which are considered of great scientific importance. 

The countries with which the Committee desire to communicate are 
Chili, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, U.S. of Columbia, Mexico, Brazil, the 
Netherlands for Java, Greece, Spain, Portugal for the Azores, Russia for 
Russia and Siberia, and Japan. 

Should his Lordship be pleased to grant the assistance of Her 
Majesty's Government in this matter, I shall have the honour to forward 
further copies of the circulars and pamphlets of which specimens are 
inclosed. 

The Committee have learned that the Government of Madras are 
desirous to establish a station ; whilst Admiral Wharton, Hydrographer 
to the Admiralty, considers the attainment of the objects in view of great 
practical value to his department. 

I have the honour to remain. Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servant, 

John Milne. 

Communication with the Colonial Ofice. 

A letter identical with that sent to the Foreign OfiSce, and in which 
thefoUowing colonies were mentioned — Newfoundland, Bermuda, Barbados, 
Trinidad, Jamaica, Honduras, Guiana, St. Helena, the Falklands, Cyprus, 
and Malta — was forwarded on February 25, 1897, to the Colonial Office. 

Communication with the Under-Secretari/ of State for India, April 10, 1897. 

A letter in terms similar to the two preceding letters was addressed 
to the Under-Secretary of State for India asking for co-operation in 
establishing one station at Aden, three in India, and one in Further 
India. 

The results of these three communications have been that the Marquess 
of Salisbury has granted the co-operation which was asked, a reply is 
promised from the Colonial Office, whilst the Under-Secretary of State 
for India has asked for and received more copies of our circulars and 
reports. 

K 2 



132 REPORT— 1897. 

In addition to the above, thirty-one copies of circulars and reports 
have been distributed as follows : — 

last of Observatories, 8fc., to which Circulars and Reports have been sent. 

1. U.S.A. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University. Professor E. C. Pickering. 
3. „ St. Louis, Miss. Washington University. Professor W. S. Chaplin. 

3. „ Terre Haute, Ind. Polytechnic Institute. Professor T. Gray. 

4. „ Williams Bay, Wis. Yerkes Observatory. Professor G. E. Hale. 

5. „ San Francisco, Berkeley, Cal. University of California. Professor 

Joseph Le Conte. 

6. Australia, Perth. The Observatory. Ernest Cook, M.A 

7. „ Adelaide. Sir C. Todd, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

8. „ Melbourne. The Observatory. P. Baracchi. 

9. „ Sydney. The Observatory. H. C. Russell, F.R.S. 

10. New Zealand, Wellington. Sir J. Hector, F.R.S. 

11. Africa, Cape Town. The Observatory. D. Gill, F.R.S. 

12. „ Natal. The Observatory, e". Neville Nevill. 

13. India, Madras. The Observatory. Dr. Michie Smith. 

14. „ Calcutta. Geological Survey. R. D. Oldham. 

15. Mauritius, Port Louis. Royal Alfred Observatory. T. F. Claxton. 

16. Hawaii, Honolulu. Lieutenant A. G. Hawes. 

17. Malta, Gozo. The College. Father James Scoles, S.J. 

18. Manila. Meteorological Observatory. Father Saderra, S.J. 

19. China, Shanghai, Zikawei. Rev. L. Froc, S.J. , 

20. „ Hong Kong. The Observatory. Dr. W. Doberk. 

21. South America, Argentine. Cordova Observatory. W. G. Davies. 

22. Canada, Toronto. The Observatory. Professor Stupart. 

23. France, Paris, 126, Rue du Bac. M. A. d'Abbadie. 

24. „ „ Bureau Central Meteorologique. M. Professor Mascart. 

25. Roumania, Bucharest. Institut Meteorologique. Dr. Hepites. 

26. Austria, Vienna. Hohewarte. Professor Dr. J. Hann. 

27. Sweden, Upsala. Observatoire M§t6orologique. Professor H. H. Hildebrandsson. 

28. Switzerland, Geneva. Professor F. A. Forel. 

29. Spain, Cadiz. W. G. Forster. 

30. Belgium, Uccle. Observatoire Royal de Belgique. A. Lancaster. 

31. India, Calcutta. Geological Survey. C. L. Griesbach. 

Offers for immediate co-operation have been received from Professors 
E. C. Pickering (No. 1), Dr. D. GUI (No. 11), and Professor Stupart 
(No. 22) ; Dr. Hepites (No. 25) will co-operate, using an instrument 
received from Dr. Tacchini ; whilst Dr. J. Hann (No. 26) replies that he 
is establishing the Ehlert type of pendulum, and later may also use ours. 
Co-operation may be expected at some future time from Professor G. E. 
Hale (No. 4) and Mr. Ernest Cook (No. 6). 

The applications Nos. 13, 14, and 21 will, it is hoped, receive a reply 
through the Under-Secretary of State for India. 

The replies from Nos. 2, 9, 17, 19, and 30 indicate that co-operation 
cannot be expected. 

From the remainder replies have not yet been received. 

II. Records of the Gray -Milne Seismograph. 
By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The first of the above seismographs constructed in 1883, partly at the 
expense of the British Association, still continues to be used as the 
standard instrument at the Central Observatory in Tokio. 

I am indebted to the Director of that institution for the following 
records. The records with which they are continuous will be found in 
the 'Report of the British Association' for 1895, p. 115. 



I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



133 



Catalogue of Earthquahis recorded at the Central Meteorological Ohaervatortj in Tokio 
between May 1895 and February 1896. 



No. 



Day 



Time 



Direction 



Maximum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Horizontal 

Motion 



Maximum 

Peiiod and 

Amplitude of 

Vertical 

Motion 



Nature of 
Sliock 



1,523 


IV. 


6 


1,524 


„ 


9 


1,525 


1) 


14 


1,52G 


5> 


16 


1,527 




22 


1,528 


„ 


25 


1,529 


„ 


25 


1,530 


)» 


27 


1,531 




28 


1,532 


VI. 


2 


1,533 


» 


2 


1,534 




7 


1,535 


„ 


7 


1,536 


„ 


11 


1,537 


„ 


15 


1,538 


„ 


16 


1,539 


„ 


20 


1,540 


„ 


20 


1,541 


,, 


24 


1,542 


'» 


29 


1,543 


<)■> 


30 


1,544 


VII. 


2 


1,545 


JJ 


4 


1,546 


„ 


3 


1,647 




9 


1,548 


,^ 


10 


1,549 


'1 


11 


1,550 




15 


1,551 


" 


17 


1,552 


1) 


18 


1,553 


i» 


27 


1,554 


n 


31 


1,555 


VIII. 


1 


1,556 


j» 


1 


1,557 


)» 


3 


1,558 


15 


24 


1,559 




31 


1,560 


IX. 


3 


1,561 


)J 


6 


1,562 


1) 


7 


1,563 


1> 


9 


1,564 


1) 


10 


1,565 


)) 


18 


1,566 


11 


21 


1,567 


1i 


21 


1,568 


}) 


24 


1,569 




25 


1,670 


X. 


4 


1,571 


»» 


8 


1,572 




11 


1,573 


„ 


12 


1,574 


)t 


13 


1,675 




13 


1,576 


J^ 


16 


1,577 


jl 


15 


1,578 


^^ 


17 


1,579 


,, 


23 


1,580 


„ 


24 


1,681 




24 


1,582 


n 


26 


1,683 


»i 


25 


1,584 




27 


1.585 


)» 


27 



H. M. S. 

30 27 
6 20 34 

4 30 48 
11 46 41 

2 45 29 

6 38 43 

7 08 02 

5 41 59 

8 33 36 
11 45 19 

8 38 

1 13 55 

2 30 15 

46 23 
4 30 31 

1 17 38 

2 51 48 
11 56 65 

1 47 57 
7 03 27 

7 16 

9 12 67 

8 54 11 

10 42 07 

2 26 59 

11 08 36 

3 52 07 

9 23 40 
10 8 



r.M. 

P.M. 

r.M. 

A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
A.M. 
P.M. 



9 55 
09 

4 44 
3 53 

7 32 

5 36 
11 16 

9 37 

8 18 
37 

8 02 

9 53 

43 
3 18 

11 24 
11 03 

1 48 

2 52 
fi 01 

1 16 

3 11 

2 18 
8 34 
1 33 

6 35 

3 05 
1 49 
6 66 

6 55 

7 48 
11 30 

S 24 
11 44 

4 33 



42 P.M. 
03 A.M. 
30 P.M. 
60 A.M. 
35 P.M. 

48 A.M. 
8 P.M. 

21 P.M. 

11 P.M. 

26 A.M. 
06 A.M. 

22 P.M. 
52 P.M. 
54 P.M. 
30 A.M. 

27 P.M. 

10 A.M. 

12 a.m. 

12 P.M. 
01 P.M. 

63 P.M. 

23 P.M. 
50 A.M. 
57 P.M. 
35 A.M. 

11 P.M. 

26 P.M. 
26 P.M. 

63 A.M. 
17 P.M. 

12 A.M. 
03 P.M. 
23 A.M. 

49 P.M. 



1895. 



1 01 



1 07 



10 
1 28 



1 25 



37 

39 



1 29 



37 



1 08 



55 



23 



W.N.W., E.S.E. 
N.N.W., S.S.E. 



S.-N. 
S.W., N.E. 



S.W., N.E. 

S.-N. 
E.S.E., W.N.W. 



S.-N. 



S.-N. 



N.N.E., S.S.W. 



S.-N. 



S.-N. 



0-5 



0-6 
1-0 



0-5 



0-8 



0-6 



0'2 



0-4 



0-8 
0-4 



0-2 
0-4 



0-7 



0-4 
0-5 



0-4 



0-4 



1-7 



61 



0-5 



sU 



sli 
not 



0-3 

slight, 



ght 



ght 
hing 



slight 



slight, quick 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 

i> 

weak, quick 

slight 



weak, slow 

weak, quick 

slight 



0-1 



very 



slight, 



0-2 



slight. 



very 



1-3 



very 



rather weak, 

quick 

slight 

weak, slow 

» 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 



weak, quick 
slight 

(thing fallen 

down to south) 

strong, quick 

slight 



weak, quick 
slight 



134 





^ 




■*3 


No. 


H 










1,586 


X. 


1,687 


XL 


1,588 


„ 


1,589 


„ 


1,590 


,^ 


1,591 


^^ 


1,592 


»7 


1,593 


XII. 


1,594 


»» 


1,595 


T» 



28 
7 
8 
11 
1!» 
22 
28 
10 
12 
31 



REPORT— 1897. 
Catalogue of Earthquakes — continued. 



Day 



Time 



1,596 


I. 


1 


1,597 


^j 


2 


1,598 


„ 


^^ 


1,599 


„ 


5 


1,600 


„ 


7 


1,601 


„ 


7 


1,602 


„ 


9 


1,603 


„ 


9 


1,604 


,, 


9 


1,605 


^^ 


9 


1,606 


»» 


10 


1,607 


»» 


10 


1,608 




10 


1,609 


)» 


10 


1,610 




10 


1,611 




10 i 


1,612 


,' 


10 ; 


1,613 


^] 


10 i 


1,614 




10 1 


1,615 


,, 


10 


1,616 


^, 


10 


1,617 


,, 


10 


1,618 


^, 


10 1 


1,619 


„ 


10 


1,620 


J, 


11 


1,621 


„ 


11 


1,622 


„ 


n 


1,623 




11 


1,624 


,, 


11 


1,625 


,, 


11 


1,626 


„ 


12 


1,627 


„ 


13 


1,628 


,^ 


15 


1,629 




16 


1,630 


^, 


16 


1,631 


„ 


19 


1,632 


,, 


22 


1,633 


,, 


22 


1,634 


it 


22 


1,635 




22 


1,636 


„ 


22 


1,637 


„ 


22 


1,638 


II. 


2 


1,639 


„ 


5 


1,640 


„ 


9 


1,641 


,^ 


12 


1,642 


„ 


14 


1,643 


„ 


14 


1,644 


>' 


15 


1,645 


1» 


18 


1,646 




18 


1,647 


1» 


23 


1,648 


)' 


23 


1,649 




24 


1,650 


n 


25 



H. M. S. 
17 51 A.M. 
13 28 A.M. 
:i 43 34 A.M. 
3 9 39 A.M. 
:! 27 23 P.M. 

10 47 54 A.M. 
6 12 55 A.M. 

11 19 33 a.m. 
11 15 32 A.M. 

6 04 27 A.M. 



9 11 23 I\.M. 

6 13 19 I'.M. 

10 12 21 P.M. 

11 24 27 P.M. 

4 10 56 P.M. 

7 44 P.M. 
10 17 16 P.M. 
10 42 20 P.M. 

10 50 37 P.M. 

11 14 49 P.M. 
31 42 A.M. 
39 09 A.M. 
46 17 A.M. 

46 32 A.M. 

1 22 01 A.M. 

2 12 51 A.M. 
2 50 24 A.M. 

5 52 20 a.m. 

6 41 41 A.M. 

7 04 21 A.M. 
11 24 29 A.M. 

4 42 46 P.M. 

8 08 44 P.M. 
10 21 59 P.M. 

33 05 A.M. 

5 50 08 A.M. 

7 06 43 A.M. 

8 49 12 A.M. 

10 36 65 A.M. 

4 47 30 P.M. 

11 06 37 P.M. 

5 26 35 A.M. 
4 24 54 A.M. 

2 42 31 A.M. 

4 14 25 A.M. 

6 08 22 P.M. 

3 11 25 A.M. 

4 43 40 A.M. 

5 28 15 A.M. 

7 16 27 A.M. 

6 16 29 P.M. 
3 30 09 A.M. 

5 02 00 A.M. 

5 10 17 P.M. 

7 47 21 P.M. 

6 37 44 A.M. 

1 56 11 A.M. 

2 03 44 A.M. 
1 16 20 A.M. 

about 

5 13 P.M. 

10 19 27 P.M. 

7 41 47 P.M. 

9 35 50 P.M. 
9 56 03 P.M. 
69 59 A.M. 



43 



Direction 



Ma.ximum 

Period and 

Amplitude of 

Horizontal 

Motion 



S.E., N.W. 



1896. 



0-3 



9 23 



2 16 



S.-N. 



S.-N. 



2 43 N.W.. S.E. 



4 22 
4 



36 



10 



2 50 
30 



1 09 
40 



3 55 



S.-N. 
W.N.W.. E.S.E. 



E.-W. 



S.-N. 

S.S.E., N.N.W. 
S.S.W., N.N.E. 



2-2 



0-9 



1-4 



1-3 
1-2 



0-2 



1-0 



0-5 

0'2 



S.S.E.. N.N.W. 0-5 
S.-N. ' 1-0 



0-5 



Maximum 

Perioil and 

Amplitude of 

Vertical 

Motion 


sees. 


mm. 


— 





Nature of 
Shook 



slight 



weak, quick 
slight 



ilO S.-N. 0-3 0' 



16-2 



0-5 



notli ing weak, slow 

slight 



0-5 . 0-( 



1-7 
1-0 



strong, slow 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 

weak, slow 

slight 



0-4 I 0-2 



0-2 



N., W.S.E. 



1-0 



0-3 



2-3 

0-3 



0-3 
0-3 



3-7 



slight. 



0.3 



slight, very 



weak, quick 
slight 



weak, slow 

slight 
weak, quick 



slight 



weak, quick 

rather weak 
slight 



weak, slow 
slight 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Catalogue of Eabthquakes — continued. 



135 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 






1 






a 




Amplitude of 


Amplitude of 










'■3 




Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 


No. 


1 


Day 


Time 


C3 

a 

a 


Direction 


Motion. 


Motion 


Sliock 




— 











sees. 


mm. 


sees. 1 mm. 

1 






H. M. S. 


U.S. 












1,651 


II. 


25 


7 58 25 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ! — 


sligllt 


1,662 


„ 


28 


9 35 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,653 


„ 


29 


5 56 35 A.M. 


3 7 


E.-W. 


0-3 


0-2 


— 


— 


weak, quick 


1,654 


1, 


29 


11 27 02 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ' 


slight 


1,655 


III. 


1 


5 29 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,656 




6 


7 40 46 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 1 — 


t» 


1,657 


If 


6 


11 51 31 P.M. 


2 


S.W., N.E. 


0-G 


4-3 


0-6 0-4 


weak, quick 


1,658 


ft 


9 


10 16 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— — 


slight 


1,659 




10 


8 54 48 P.M. 


— 


— , 


— 


— 


— — 


»» 


1,660 


»» 


12 


7 12 16 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




1,661 




13 


2 36 23 A.M. 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


f. 


1,662 


11 


14 


4 44 32 A.M. 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,663 


»» 


14 


10 15 32 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,664 


ft 


14 


11 41 48 P.M. 


— • 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,» 


1,665 


11 


16 


10 33 16 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tt 


1,66 6 




17 


2 37 08 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


1,667 


^, 


20 


3 35 57 A..M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,668 


jj 


20 


11 32 20 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,669 


i» 


26 


6 28 49 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»i 


1,670 


IT. 


1 


2 63 13 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.. 


1,671 




1 


2 50 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




1,672 


,' 


2 


1 41 55 A.M. 


1 18 


E.-W. 


1-2 


0-2 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,673 


J 


2 


11 38 57 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.slight 


1,674 


^ 


10 


5 39 53 P.M. 


45 


S.-N. 


0-5 


0-2 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,675 


ji 


11 


10 35 35 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,676 


,j 


11 


10 69 49 P.JI. 


2 62 


N.W., S.E. 


0-3 


1-5 


0-3 


0-2 


weak, quick 


1,677 


jj 


13 


10 05 07 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,678 


** 


13 


10 13 47 P..M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.. 


1,679 




15 


7 41 39 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,680 


,^ 


15 


8 26 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)i 


1,681 


,j 


19 


7 59 02 P.M. 


4 07 


N.N.W., S.S.E. 


1-2 


0-9 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,682 


,, 


20 


1 36 17 A.M. 


1 50 


W.N.W., E.S.B. 


1-5 


0-6 


— 


— 


„ 


1,683 


„ 


20 


23 13 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,684 


„ 


21 


9 05 03 A.M. 


1 57 


S.\V., N.E. 


1-6 


0-6 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,685 


„ 


21 


19 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,686 




2:! 


37 41 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,687 


„ 


23 


5 08 46 A.M. 


1 21 


N N.W., S.S.E. 


0-3 


0-6 


— 


— 


weak, quick 


1,688 


1, 


26 


7 02 37 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,689 


,» 


26 


10 49 66 A.M. 


2 06 


S.S.E., N.N.W. 


0-7 


2-5 


0-6 


0-2 


weak, quick 


1,690 




25? 


5 28 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sUght 


1,691 


V. 


4 


7 37 62 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,692 




5 


3 01 50 A.M. 







— 


— 


— 


— 


1» 


1,693 


^^ 


7 


2 37 17 P.M. 


1 55 


W.N.W., E.S.E. 


1-3 


0-8 


■ — 


— 


weak, slow 


1,694 


,, 


11 


11 32 58 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,695 




10 


26 13 A.M 


1 25 


S.E., N.W. 


0'4 


0-4 


0-3 


0-1 


weak, quick 


1,696 


j^ 


17 


3 39 59 P.M. 


2 20 


E.S.B., W.N.W. 


1-2 


1-8 


0-7 


0-2 


weak, slow 


1,697 


j^ 


21 


3 58 33 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,698 


J, 


26 


6 43 31 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,699 


,, 


26 


8 20 54 P.M. 


30 


S.W., N.E. 


0-3 


0-3 


— 


— 


weak, quick 


1,700 


^, 


29 


1 18 50 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,701 


VI. 


1 


7 25 52 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,702 


„ 


4 


3 32 52 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,703 


„ 


6 


6 26 41 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,704 


„ 


7 


11 18 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»> 


1,705 


„ 


7 


9 50 09 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


1,706 


„ 


8 


5 23 36 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,707 


„ 


11 


6 02 17 A.M. 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,708 


„ 


11 


6 61 59 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


It 


1,709 


„ 


14 


11 03 08 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,710 




15 


5 44 43 P.M. 














— 


— 


t» 


1,711 


" 


15 


7 34 14 P.M. 
arbout 


3 48 


W.N.W., E.S.E. 


1-3 


0-8 


Sligllt, 


very 


weak, slow 
slight 


1,712 


J, 


15 


7 44 P.M. 


— 








— 


— 


— 


11 


1,713 


„ 


15 


8 33 53 P.M. 


— 








— 


— — 


n 


1,714 


,, 


15 


9 38 P.M. 


— 








— 


— — 


11 


1,716 




16 


9 02 31 P.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— — 


»♦ 


1,716 


„ 


15 


9 14 14 P.M. 








— 


_ 


— i — 


M 


1,717 




15 


9 27 35 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 1 — 


t* 


1,718 


„ 


15 


9 66 39 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


' — 


11 1 



136 



REPORT — 1897. 
Catalogue of Eabthquakes — continued. 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 






^ 






a 




Amplitude of 


Amplitude o: 






a 
o 

1^ 






■r? 




Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 
Shock 


No. 


Day 


Time 


u 

(5 


Direction 


Motion 


Motion 


sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 








B. M. S. 


M. S 














1,719 


VI. 


16 


49 48 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,720 


»» 


16 


1 05 22 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,721 


>y 


16 


1 32 14 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


») 


1,722 


ji 


16 


4 16 30 A.M. 


4 55 


W.N.W.. E.S.E. 


0-8 


0-4 


slight. 


very 


weak, quick 


1,723 


5» 


16 


5 01 09 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,724 


)> 


16 


6 40 01 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,725 




16 


8 01 14 A.M. 


3 20 


W.S.W., E.N.E. 


10 


0-3 


slight. 


very 


weak, quick 


1,726 


»» 


16 


8 15 20 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,727 




16 


8 16 29 A.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— 





ji 


1,728 


,j 


16 


9 32 01 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


1,729 


)i 


16 


9 47 11 A.M. 








— 


— 


_ 


— 


„ 


1,730 




16 


r.M. 





_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ji 


1,731 


»> 


16 


1 26 12 P.M. 








— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,732 


>» 


16 


1 28 38 P.M. 








— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,733 


i» 


16 


1 29 48 P.M. 








— — 


— 


— 


„ 


1,734 




16 


3 11 31 P.M. 








— — 


— 


— 


., 


1,735 


)) 


16 


4 23 27 P.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


,1 


1,736 


)) 


16 


4 44 58 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


}, 


1,737 


» 


16 


5 46 18 P.M. 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,738 


» 


16 


6 31 18 P.M. 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,739 


„ 


16 


9 58 03 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




1,740 


„ 


16 


10 33 29 P.M. 


1 05 


N.N.E., S.S.W. 


0-7 


0-2 


— 


— 


weak, quick 


1,741 


„ 


17 


7 47 27 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,742 


») 


17 


8 41 19 A.M. 








— 


— 


— 


— 




1,743 


)» 


17 


10 30 20 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,744 


5» 


17 


48 28 r.M. 


3 25 


E.N.E., W.S.W. 


1-4 


0-4 


slight. 


very 


weak, slow 


1,745 


») 


17 


3 13 39 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 






slight 


1,746 


)) 


18 


5 49 38 P.M. 





— 


— 


. — 




— 




1,747 


i1 


22 


2 53 59 P.M. 








— 


— 








„ 


1,748 




24 


11 24 17 P.M. 








— 


— 





— 


„ 


1,749 


„ 


25 


2 09 19 P.M. 








— 


— 





— 


„ 


1,750 


it 


26 


7 27 06 P.M. 








— 


— 


_- 






1,751 




30 


7 26 03 A.M. 








— 


— 


^ 




11 


1,752 


YII. 


1 


5 30 43 A.M. 








— 


— 





— 


11 


1,753 


„ 


1 


7 13 50 P.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,754 


„ 


3 


11 38 17 P.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,755 


„ 


5 


4 69 28 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,756 


„ 


6 


26 57 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


11 


1,757 


„ 


6 


2 21 25 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,768 


» 


7 


35 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,759 


n 


7 


9 39 33 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




1,760 


»> 


9 


10 03 40 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


„ 


1,761 


„ 


10 


4 49 20 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,762 


5i 


11 


7 44 27 A.M. 


, 





— 


— 




— 




1,763 




12 


35 26 P.M. 








— 





— 


— 


,1 


1,764 


„ 


13 


7 63 35 P.M. 





— 


— 





— 





11 ' 


1,765 


»> 


15 


10 31 12 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 








,1 


1,766 


»» 


16 


9 43 20 P.M. 








— 













1,767 


» 


17 


10 41 47 P.M. 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 

slight, quick 


1,768 


»> 


18 


69 44 P.M. 


1 68 


S.S.E., N.N.W. 


0-6 


0-7 


slight. 


very 


1,769 


» 


18 


3 36 17 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,770 


„ 


19 


4 12 32 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


1,771 


„ 


19 


7 44 15 P.M. 








— 


— 


— 


— 




1,772 


>» 


29 


56 33 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 





J 


1,773 


») 


29 


5 63 36 P.M. 


2 16 


S.W., N.E. 


0-8 


3-2 


sUght, 


very 


weak, slow, 
stop clock 


1,774 


VIII. 


1 


11 49 04 A.M. 


2 09 


S.E., N.W. 


0-8 


2-2 


0-4 


0-3 


weak, quick 


1,775 


a 


11 


8 23 36 A.M. 


20 


S.W., N.E. 


0-3 


0-6 


slight, 


very 


rather weak, 
quick 


1,776 


H 


12 


4 31 56 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,777 


» 


13 


10 50 37 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


1,778 


5J 


14 


7 33 28 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 





— 


" 


1,779 




14 


8 51 21 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


1,780 


„ 


17 


4 28 48 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 




1,781 


„ 


20 


6 05 37 P.M. 


D 60 


E.N.E., W.S.W. 


0-3 


2-9 


0-2 


0-25 


weak, quick 


1,782 


)» 


21 


1 24 41 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


slight 


1,783 


„ 


23 


1 37 10 P.M. 








— 


— 


. — 







1,784 


») 


26 


5 49 37 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,1 


1,785 


„ 


27 


7 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 

Catalogue of Earthquakes — continued. 



137 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 






5 






o 




Amplitude of 


Amplitude of 












Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 


No. 


1 


Day 


Time 


2 
a 

M.S. 


Direction 


Motion 


Motion 


Shock 


sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 


' 






H. M. S. 














1,786 


VIII. 


29 


7 01 01 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


slight 


1,787 


yi 


30 


7 32 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


JJ 


. 1,788 




31 


8 38 21 A.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


. ■. " » 


' 1,789 


»» 


31 


4 42 11 P.M. 


— 


— 


slig 
liori 


lit, 
zoutal 


— 




sligut, slow 


1,790 


») 


31 


5 09 33 P.M. 


— 


Destructive in 
Akita 




)) 


slight, 


very 


» 


1,791 


IX. 


1 


2 56 51 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,792 


,, 


4 


3 15 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


„ 


1,793 


n 


5 


11 07 46 P.M. 


— 


— 


slig 
hori 


ht, 
zontal 


— 




j» 


1,794 


n 


10 


11 17 53 A.M. 


— 






»» 


slight, 


very 


slight, quick 


1,795 




12 


8 12 54 P.M. 


— 




— 




— 


— 


slight 


1,796 




12 


11 16 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


■ — 


— 


>s 


1,797 




19 


8 59 21 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,798 


X. 


1 


2 38 07 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,799 


J, 


7 


9 22 35 A.M. 


— 





— 


— 


— 




„ 


1,800 


)} 


8 


1 43 08 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




,} 


1,801 




10 


10 56 01 A.M. 


— 


^ 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,802 


1) 


28 


5 51 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




)) 


1,803 


XI. 


6 


7 42 59 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




»J 


1,804 


,j 


7 


11 07 17 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5) 


1,805 


jj 


10 


8 06 21 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)> 


1,806 


» 


11 


1 36 58 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1> 


1,807 




13 


13 61 P.M. 


— 


■ — 


-— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


a,808 


,, 


16 


6 06 02 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,809 


,j 


18 


11 08 19 A.M. 


2 50 


S.S.W., N.N.E. 


1-0 


U-4 




— 


slight, slow 


1,810 


XII. 


7 


10 37 29 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


- - 


— 


slight 


1,811 


„ 


9 


7 56 41 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 






— 


» 


1,812 




10 


4 44 01 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


. — 


— 


)> 


1,813 


^, 


12 


11 22 26 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,814 


,J 


13 


4 02 47 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


>» . _ 


«1,815 




17 


1 17 25 A.M. 


67 


S.S.E., N.N.W. 


0-2 


1-9 


0-3 


0-6 


weak, very quick 














First begins ' very sliglit. 
















and after 5 seconds it sliows 
















strong liorizontal motion. 
















and continued 9 seconds; 
















then gradually became 
















quieter. 





» other shocks were :— Yokohama, Ih. 17m. 39s., slight; Yokosuka, Ih. 17m. 30s., weak; Mai- 
•bashi, Ih. 30m. 03s., slight; Gifu, Ih. 20m. 46s., sUght. This shock is supposed to represent a landslip 
.in the Bay of Tokio, for it only extends round ToMo. 

III. On the Installation and working of Milne's Horizontal Pendulum. 
By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

General Remarks. — As it has been established that the movements re- 
sulting from a large earthquake originating in any one portion of our globe 
can, with the aid of suitable instruments, be recorded in any other portion 
of the same, the Seismological Committee of the British Association have 
asked for the co-operation of observers in various parts of the world in an 
•endeavour to extend and systematise the observation of such disturbances. 
The first object in view is to determine the velocity with which motion is 
propagated round and possibly through our earth. To attain this, all 
that is required at a given station is the times at which various phases of 
motion are recorded, for which purpose, for the present at least, an instru- 
ment recording a single component of horizontal motion is sufficient. 
Other results which may be obtained from the proposed observations are 



138 



REPORT — 1897. 



numerous. The foci of submarine disturbances — such, for example, as 
those which from time to time have interfered with telegraph cables — 
may possibly be determined, and new light thrown upon changes taking 
place in ocean beds. The records throw light upon certain classes of dis- 
turbances now and then noted in magnetometers and other instruments 
susceptible to slight movements, whilst local changes in level, some of 
which may have a diurnal character, may, under certain conditions, become 
apparent. 

The Instrument. — The general features of a type of instrument which 
the Committee have selected as being sufficient for the attainment of 
the objects in view are shown in the accompanying sketch. 

The instrument consists of an iron bed-plate and stand carried on 

Fig. ]. 




Pivot on Boom 



E 



^ 



oWatch 




Stand 



Boom 



P 9 O 



three levelling screws. Resting against a needle-point or pivot projecting 
from the base of the stand, and held in a nearly horizontal position by a 
tie, is a light aluminium boom. Attached to the outer end of this boom 
there is a small rectangular plate in which there are two slits, one of which 
is large and the other is small. Partly for the purpose of balancing the 
weight of the outer end of the boom, and partly for obtaining the ' steady 
point ' of a seismograph between the attachment of the tie to the pivot, a 
weighted cross-bar is pivoted. 

When the boom swings to the right or left, the rectangular plate with 
its slits passes to the right and left across a fixed slit in the lid of a box, 
inside which a 2-inch (50 mm.) strip of bromide paper is being driven by 
clockwork. Light from a lamp is reflected downwards by a mirror to 
cover the whole of the latter slit. It however only enters the box to 



J 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 139 

the right and left of the floating-plate and through the slits in the same. 
When the boom is steady, the resulting photogram on the moving bromide 
paper will be, when developed, that of a white band equal in width to 
that of the moving- plate, down the centre of which band are two very 
clearly defined lines, one of which is thick and the other thin (tigs. 2, 3, 
and 5). To the right and left of this white band the paper will have 
been blackened by the light which entered at the two ends of the fixed 
slit. On one edge of one of these black bands, at intervals of about 
50 mm., there will be seen a series of white marks which have been 
produced by the minute-hand of a watch, the broadened extremity of 
which has hourly at the half -hour passed over the efid of the fixed slit, 
and for a period of about one minute eclipsed the light. 

Should the clock at any time have failed to drive the bromide strip 
with regularity this will at once be seen by differences in the distances 
between successive time marks. 

Installation. — The instrument may be placed on any solid pier in an 
observatory, on a specially constructed pier in the ground-floor of an ordi- 
nary dwelling, or in a hut or shed in the open. The room should be dry, 
which will generally be the case if means are provided for ample ventila- 
tion. In order that the photographic paper may be examined or removed 
at any time, the windows of the room should be provided with shutters, 
through one of which red light can be admitted. A column or pier of 
convenient size may be two bricks, or 18 inches (45 cm.) square, which 
rises 2 feet 8 inches (80 cm.) above the floor. The base of this may rest 
on a 6-inch (15 cm.) layer of concrete, which in turn rests on a bed of 
gravel rammed in the natural earth. The top of such a column may be 
made smooth by a thin facing of cement, whilst its sides should be oriented 
N.-S. and E.-W. It is convenient to have space to pass round the pier on 
three sides. The table, which projects from the column in a N.-S. direction 
and carries the clock-box should be strong, 3 feet 8 inches (1*12 m.) long, 
3 feet 7 inches (1'09 m.) broad, and rise 1 foot 8 inches (50 cm.) above 
the floor of the room. The upper surface of this table is therefore exactly 
1 foot (30 cm.) below the top of the column. If an existing pier is used 
the height of the table must be increased or decreased to maintain the last 
dimension. The table is made wide to gi%'e space for the clock-box, which 
is run out upon it from its covering-case when removing a film. 

The installation may be on an alluvium plain or on solid rock. 

Adjustment of the Pendulitm. — The instrument is to be so placed that 
the boom is in the meridian, or points N.-S. The balance weight is to be 
placed at a distance of 3| inches (87 mm.) from the pivot, and the attach- 
ment of the tie at a distance of about 5 inches (125 mm.). At the latter 
point, but not shown in the sketch, there is a small upright, from the top 
of which a thread is carried to within about 9 inches (22 cm.) from the 
outer end of the boom. This is to prevent the boom from sagging. After 
the bed-plate of the stand has been made approximately level, the boom 
is suspended, as shown in the sketch, with its outer end about ^ inch 
(3 mm.) above the top of the clock-box. To increase or decrease this 
distance the tie, the last inch or so of which at its upper end is made of 
unspun silk, may be shortened or lengthened by means of a screw at the 
top of the stand. 

The next point is to give the boom a certain sensibility, which 
increases as the period of its swing increases. Tlie sensibility which 
must be arrived at is that which corresponds to an adjustment that 



140 REPORT— 1897. 

results in the pendulum having a period of 15 seconds — that is to say, 
it is reached when the pendulum makes one complete swing or one back 
and forward motion in 15 seconds. To make this adjustment the pivot 
against which the boom abuts may be moved in and out until the desired 
period is approximately obtained, after which the front screw of the stand 
may be raised or lowered until the adjustment is completed. To observe 
the period the observer presses with his hand against the side of the 
column. This sets the boom in motion. He then goes to the end of the 
instrument, and, looking downwards through a plate of glass beneath the 
lamp, watches the rectangular plate on the end of the boom and notes 
with a watch how many seconds it takes for the boom, as it slowly moves 
across the scale of millimetres fixed in the top of the clock-box parallel to 
the slit in the same, to complete a back and forward motion. For various 
reasons it seems that in all forms of horizontal pendulums this quantity 
will not remain constant for any great length of time. It therefore must 
be noted, say, once a week, and if any marked change has taken place the 
instrument should be readjusted. For stations founded on rock the pendu- 
lum may be adjusted to have a period of 18 seconds ; but with a pendulum 
having this sensibility in a station on alluvium, the diurnal motion may 
exceed the width of the slit in the clock-box, and with changes of weather 
and the seasons the wandering of the pendulum to one side or the other 
will be so great that readjustments will be continually required. 

The boom is to be brought into a central position by turning one or 
other of the two back screws in the bed-plate. 

The Sensibility of the Instrument. — The distance between the two 
back screws of the instrument is 150 mm. The front one of these has 
0-5 mm. pitch, so that one complete turn of this would tilt the 
stand through an angle the tangent of which would be measured by 
3 X -r5~o = a^o- -^y nieans of a lever fitting the head of the screw, rather 
than giving it a complete turn, it may be turned 1°, 2°, or any other 
fraction of a complete turn that may be desired, this quantity being 
indicated by a pointer attached to the screw which moves over an arc 
gi-aduated in degrees. For example, assuming that the boom has a period 
of 18 seconds, and we find by several trials that a 1° turn of the 
test-screw corresponds to a deflection of the outer end of the boom of 
5 mm., as shown on the scale opposite the slit in the clock-box, and 
assuming, further, that we can read displacements on the photogram of 
1 mm., under these circumstances we can measure tiltings the angular 
values of which would be 

11 11 1 

X X „--r^ X - = - 



2 150 360 5 540000' 

and because 1 sec. of arc=l/206265, it follows that 1 mm. deflection of 
the outer end of the boom corresponds to a tilt of 0"-38. 

If we read deflections to within half a millimetre, to do which there is 
no difficulty, the sensibility of the instrument is doubled. For the object 
in view this is not required, and if a deflection of 1 mm. is obtained for a 
tilt of 1" to 0''-5, this will he. sufficient. 

Clock-box. — This, which can be run on rails in and out of the instru- 
ment-case, has a cover which is removed to wind the clock and put new 
paper in the roll. Once a day, when the lamp is filled and trimmed, and 
the watch is wound, this cover is removed, and the 3 or 4 feet of paper 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 141 

which has accumulated is roughly rolled up. At this time the date may 
be written in pencil on the bromide film on the top of the upper roll. 
The small top roll shown in the sketch should barely touch its neighbour, 
whilst a corresponding roll in contact with the driving-roll should press 
somewhat tightly on the latter. These two latter rolls are not shown in 
the sketch. Should the papers at any time refuse to move freely, it may 
be necessary to alter the adjustment between these rolls to see that they 
have not become sticky by contact with the bromide surface, or even to 
cover the driving-roll with a piece of thin but roughish paper. If 
moisture is suspected as being the cause of a stickiness of the bromide a 
saucer of calcium chloride may be placed in the clock-box. The most 
convenient form in which to use this substance is as cake mixed with 
asbestos. Every week this can be dried over a strong fire. 

Calcium chloride, or other desiccating agents, must not be introduced in 
the instrument-case, for if they are a circulation of air is set up, and the 
boom swings to and fro, giving records which have often been called earth- 
tremors. For earthquake work the driving-roll must be adjusted in its 
outermost position, when it will turn once per hour. In its inner position 
it turns once in twelve hours, when it may be used, for example, for studying 
the diurnal wave. 

The Watch. — This must be compared fairly often with a standard 
timekeeper, and its rate noted. It is particularly important that the 
time at which its hour-hand commences and ends its eclipse over the slit 
in the clock-box be noted, as it is from these markings that the times of 
earth disturbances are measured. This can be done either by watching 
the hour-hand of the watch by looking down the tube down which the 
mirror reflects light, or by watching the same when the clock-box is taken 
out of the instrument-case. 

Developing, fixing, and copying the Film. — The films, which are 25 feet 
in length, are developed once a week. The developer employed has been 
chosen, because the same solutions may be used for several successive 
developments. The stock is kept as two separate solutions, made up as 
follows : — 



1st Solution. 



' Sulphate of soda, I oz. or 1 part by weight. 

Carbonate of potash, ^ oz. or \ ,, „ ,, 

Bromide of potash, Jg oz. (lOgrs.) or;^ „ „ „ 

Water, 5 oz. or 6 „ „ „ 



2nd Solution. I^f.''^' I T' ^^^ ^''-^ °' I " " " 

(^ Water, 5 oz. or 5 „ „ „ 

For use one ounce of each of these solutions is to be taken and mixed 
with about 24 ounces of water, and the whole is then poured into the 
developing- tray. 

The film is doubled backwards and forwards in this solution, and the 
tray kept agitated until the development takes place, when the solution 
is poured off into a bottle to be kept until the following week. After the 
second time of use it may be strengthened with half an ounce of each of 
the above two solutions, when it will last two weeks longer. It is then 
thrown away. The next operation is to pour water once or twice into the 
developing-tray, and to rinse the film, after which it is dragged bodily over 
the end of the tray into a second tray containing a strong solution of 
hyposulphite of soda (1 hypo and about 4 water). Whilst in this solu- 
tion the folds of the film are one by one gently opened to allow the hypo 



142 



REPORT — 1897. 



to penetrate. After 10 or 15 minutes, when, by examination of the back 
of the film, all trace of yellow colour in the film is seen to have dis- 
appeared, the hypo is poured back to its bottle and the film is thoroughly 
washed for at least 15 minutes in several changes of clean water. The 



Fig. 2. — Japan Earthquake ; Carisbrooke Castle Record. 




hypo may be used perhaps twenty times until it has become dirty and 
ceases to have a saline taste. 

The film in its tray of water is then placed on a plank or flat floor. 
One end of the film is pulled out of the tray and placed face upwards on 



Fig. 8. — Displacements on September 10. 



::.-".■-:'■-'''" | 10/30 


SepTSV 
1895 


■prnmr "^T^ 


jiiiiiiimMH 



the plank or floor, after which the tray is drawn backwards and the film 
runs out and is left to dry. 

Any particular portion of a film may be reproduced by tracing on 
tracing-paper, or by photographical printing. For the latter process 



place the film with its back on a piece of 



glass or 



the glass face of a 



printing frame. A piece of bromide paper is placed with its sensitive 
surface in contact with the film, and over this a strip of wood or the back 
of the printing frame, when the whole four are clamped together with 
springs, clips, or indiarubber bands. 



i 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



143 



This is held up to the light of an oil lamp or an ordinary gas-burner 
at a distance of 30 inches for 3 to 10 seconds. Next it is developed in a 
little fresh but dilute developer. If the developer appears too strong, 
add water and a few drops of a 10 per cent, solution of bromide of 
potassium. Too long exposure causes the parts which should be white to 
become grey. A weak acid bath (citric acid 1 part in 40 of water) tends 
to remove stains. In warm climates a saturated alum bath may be used. 
If blisters appear weaken the hypo-bath. 

Although photographic reproduction is here referred to, reproduction 
by tracing is quicker and usually sufficient. 

TJie Photograms. — When the pendulum is at rest the photogram con- 
sists of two straight lines, one of which is thin and the other thick, like 

Fig. 4. — Commencement and Growth of a Tremor Storm. 

'O-P-M. II. P.M. 










ISlvrs. 



those shown over a distance of about a quarter of an inch on the left-hand 
side of fig. 2 (' British Association Report,' 1896, fig. 19, p. 229,') which is 
the diagram of an earthquake recorded at Carisbrooke Castle, in the Isle 
of Wight, but which had its origin in Japan. The reason that two spots 
of light are used is that for slow movements the fine line gives the best 
definition, but for rapid movements the light passing through the fine slit 
is not sufficient to produce an impression on the photographic surface, 
and therefore, as in the middle of the figure, we have to rely on the image 
from the large spot. 

Because the watch makes its eclipses at the half-hour the intervals 
marked as 20 hours, 21 hours, and 22 hours are read as 20-5 hours, 21 "5 
hours, and 22'5 hours, and then corrected from the known rate of the 
watch and the observed time of the eclipses. What is chiefly required 

' This figure, like the others, having been reproduced from a wood block, is not 
so clear as the original. 



144 



REPORT^189/ 



from such a diagram is the Greenwich mean time of the commence- 
ment of the preliminary tremors which is near the small arrow, the 
commencement of decided motion, and the duration of the disturb- 
ance. After this, notes may be made of the number of maxima dis- 
placements. 

Such notes, together with a tracing or photographic reproduction of 
the diagram, should be sent to the Seismological Committee, British Asso- 
ciation, Burlington House, London, W. 

In many instances the preliminary tremors, which in the illustration 
continue over an interval of 34 minutes, may only continue over 5 or 10 
minutes, and their duration appears, to be connected with the distance at 
which the disturbance originated. The cause of sudden displacements 
without preliminary tremors like those shown in fig. 3 ('British Association 
Report,' 1896, fig. 2, p. 190) is at present unknown. They are rare, and 
may be due to subsidence beneath the supporting pier. In a dark room, 
and especially in a warm climate, when removing the clock-box, it is 
quite possible that now and then a minute spider may find its way 

Fig. 5. — Pulsations at Shide. 



8.28.9.30.P.M OCT 







■.......■itn-««^««««»>mn,i,, 



Shide 



into the case. If when moving this box the boom is not set in 
motion, the existence of the work of such an intruder may be suspected, 
and it and its web must be removed. Such troubles are, however, 
very rare. 

A photogram commencing with intermittent long-period movements, 
like those shown in the upper part of fig. 4 (' British Association Report,' 
1896, p. 200), and increasing until they resemble its lower portion, indicates 
that the boom has been swinging from side to side under the influence of 
air currents established inside the case. Such movements, which have 
been called earth-tremors and microseismic storms, are at times extremely 
regular in their character. These latter, with periods of 2 or 3 minutes, 
are called pulsations (fig. 5. See ' British Association Report,' 1896, fig. 6, 
p. 201). These movements are frequent during the winter months, and 
especially at night. 

Although they form an interesting study, because they may often 
eclipse the record of an earthquake, it is necessary that they should be 



I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



145 



destroyed or avoided. Often they nitay be destroyed by giving the room 
in which they are situated a copious and even draughty ventilation. If 
this does not succeed, the instrument must have a new installation. They 
are seldom met with in a badly constructed hut or beneath a tent. 







Examples 


of Daily Records. 








Error of 




Date 


Light out 


Light in 


Eclipse 


Kemarks 








Watch 




1897 


h. m. 


b. m. 


sec. 




Feb. 12 


10.41 
21.55 


10.55 
21.57 


-33 


Period 18 s. Sensibility 1° = 5 mm. Reset 
25° to 30°. 


„ 13 


10.30 
21.38 


10.50 
21.40 


-39 


Eclipsed light from 10.55 to 10.56, as sliown 
by the eclipse watch. 



&c., &c., &c., up to the end of the week. 

From the above records it will be observed that the light has been 
removed or extinguished twice a day. The times at which this is done is 
very roughly noted with a pocket-watch. In the morning the lamp is 
refilled, the eclipse watch wound, and, if necessary, the pendulum, which 
may have wandered too much on one side, is reset. 

The error of the eclipse watch must, relatively to some standard time, 
be noted accurately. For meaning of ' period ' and ' sensibility,' which 
only need be determined once a week, and which can be expressed in 
seconds of arc, see pp. 139, 140. 

From the mark shown on the developed film when the light is eclipsed 
the time at which the watch commences to make an eclipse mark can be 
calculated. These times, as shown on the dial of the eclipse watch, should 
always be the same, and therefore in order to guard against accident they 
are only made occasionally. By adding or subtracting the error of the 
eclipse watch to the time at which an eclipse mark has been made, the 
exact G.M.T. of this mark is obtained, from which any particular phase of 
an earth movement may be computed. 



Weekly Bejwrt. 

At the end of the week a report is drawn up of the records, the 
form of which largely depends upon the movements which have been 
recorded. 

All times must be expressed in Greenwich mean time (civil), the day 
commencing after 24 hours or midnight. Thus the ordinary notation of 
June 16, 1.30 a.m., and June 16, 11.30 p.m., becomes June 16, 1.30, and 
June 16, 23.30. 

The most important elements to be noted about an earthquake 
disturbance are : — 

1. The exact time at which preliminary tremors commence. 

2. The duration of those tremors. 
1897. 



14(6 REPORT— 1897. 

3. The times at which various maxima of motion are attained, and the 
tilting they represent expressed in seconds of arc. 

4. The total duration of the disturbance. 

5. A tracing of the photogram. 

IV. Observations at Carisbrooke Castle and Shide. 
By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

In the report for last year it was stated that at about the end of June, 
through the kindness of Mr. A. Harbottle Estcourt, Deputy-Governor 
of the Isle of Wight, I had been enabled to establish a second horizontal 
pendulum at Carisbrooke Castle, and a description of this installation, 
together with that at Shide, was given in some detail. The object of the 
second installation was to see how far the records of two similar instru- 
ments at some distance apart coincided in character. The Shide records, 
as already reported upon, consist of movements due to earthquakes which 
have originated at some distance — disjdacements, which show that the boom 
of the instrument has suddenly been caused to swing or change its zero 
points ; tremors, which are irregular swingings of the boom extending over 
many hours or several days ; pulsations, which are regular back and forth 
movements of a pendulum, which movements have periods of two or three 
minutes ; diicrnal waves and seasonal waiiderhigs. 

In the following report these movements will be discussed in the order 

in which they are here mentioned, the Carisbrooke records being taken 

first. 

The Carisbrooke Records. 

The Carisbrooke records were obtained between June 16 and August 31, 
1896. Because the journey to Carisbrooke and back entailed a walk of 
four miles, it was only visited once every twenty-four hours. For this 
reason, together with the fact that the clockwork arrangement often 
failed to drive the photographic paper — an imperfection which has since 
been remedied — there were very many interruptions in the continuity of 
the records. Notwithstanding this, a sufficient number were obtained to 
compare with corresponding records at Shide, and to indicate the character 
of Carisbrooke as an observing station. 

The earthquakes recorded were as follows : — 

July 5. — Four exceedingly small, elastic switchings of the boom, the first 
at 3 hrs. 6 mins. 47 sees., and the last at 3 hrs. 44 mins. 7 sees. 

July 21. — At 7 hrs. 3 mins. 53 sees, there was a small elastic disturbance 
with 5 maxima. 

August 30. — A very heavy disturbance (see fig. 2), corresponding in 
time, points of maxima, and other detail with the Shide record, No. 36. 
This earthquake had its origin in Japan. 

The first two records, which have amplitudes of "5 to 1 mm., do not 
•correspond with records at Shide, whilst there are similar nSnute dis- 
turbances recorded at Shide which are not visible on the Carisbrooke 
photograms. The conclusion, for the present, at least, is that these small 
tremors, which suggest an elastic switching of the end of the boom, are 
very often of local origin, whilst earthquake movements of a pronounced 
character are recorded in a similar manner at both stations. The reason 
that no record was obtained at Carisbrooke on August 26 (No. 35 in the 
Shide list) was because on that day the recording apparatus was not in 
operation. The days of such interruptions are indicated on the general 
list of disturbances, pp. 147, 148. 



i 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



147 



The sudden displacements or disturbances noted at Carisbrooke are 
given on the list just mentioned. As compared with Shide they are very 
few in number, and at the two stations there was no agreement in the 
times at which they took place. 

Tremors and pulsations, which I am inclined to regard as being due to 
slow and fairly regular air currents within the covering cases of instru- 
ment, were practically absent at Carisbrooke. 

Because the observation of the diurnal wave and longer-period move- 
ments require an adjustment of the clockwork, so that it runs at a; 
Slow speed, these were not observed. Inasmuch as readings taken of the 
position of the end of the boom showed but little change, it is probable 
that they are small. 

Because the latter three classes of inovement were frequent at Shide, 
whilst they were practically absent at Carisbrooke, it is evident that thei 
latter station is the better site for the observation of earthquakes. 



Displacements observed at Carisbrooke Castle and Shide in, 1896. 
1. d.= large displacement; m. d. = moderate displacement; s. d.= small displacement.' 



Date 



June 16 
„ 21 



23 

25 
26 
27 



28 



»» 


29 


July 


2 


)» 


3 


fl 


" 


If 


»» 


»> 


4 


,, 


5 


„ 


7 




9 




12 


H 


11 


11 


13 


»1 


11 


n 


14 




17 


If 


21 







Shide 




Carisbrooke 




rime 




Character 


Time 


Character 


H. 


M. 


S. 




H. M. S. 




23 


40 





1. d. 


— 


— 


6 


29 


50 


s. d. 


— 


— 


6 


38 


36 


s. d. 


— 




6 


55 


48 


s. d. 


— 


— 


21 


38 


36 


s. d. 


— 


— 


7 


4 


24 


1. d. 


5 51 40 


1. d. 


18 


45 


12 


1. d. 


— 


— 


2 


13 


5 


s. d. 


5 34 32 


1. d. 


4 


33 


44 


s. d. 


19 13 12 


s. d. 


10 


18 


16 


m. d. 


Not working 


— ; 


10 


6 


26 


s. d. 


)» i» 


— 


6 


28 


26 


s. d. 


7 22 21 


s. d. 


8 


16 





s. d. 


7 32 31 


s. d. 


13 


.31 


26 


s. d. 


7 47 31 


1. d. 


17 


31 





s. d. 


Not working 


— - 


2 


53 


24 


s. d. 


51 ' )1 


— i 


6 


47 


4 


s. d. 





— : 


7 


4 


16 


1. d. 





— 1 


10 


8 


50 


1. d. 


Not working 


— 


18 


51 


29 


i. d. 


)? ii 


— 


10 


26 


47 


m. d. 


>1 IT 


— 


21 


10 


41 


s. d. 


)» n 


— 


21 


26 


41 


s. d. 


u ij 


— 


19 


53 


6 


B. d. 


11 11 


— 


9 


47 


6 


s. d. 





— 


9 


26 


20 


1. d. 


Not working 


— ' 


5 


43 


11 


s. d. 


11 11 


— i 


1 


36 


40 


1. d. 


11 11 


— i 


7 


45 


40 


1. d. 


11 11 


— 





41 


17 


1. d. 


11 11 


— 


18 


41 


17 


1. d. 


11 11 


— 


1 


3 


51 


s. d. 


11 1' 


— 


.5 


12 


42 


1. d. 


Not working 


— 


5 


26 


25 


1. d. 


— 


i 

1 


10 


8 


48 


s. d. 


— 


1 



L2 



148 



REPORT — 1897. 



Displacements observed at Caeisbeooke Castle and Shide in lS96—cont. 


Date 


Shide 


Carisbrooke 


Time 


Character 


Time 


Character 


July 24 


2 20 13 


m. d. 










8 34 45 


s. d. 




— 


11 )) 




10 33 17 


s. d. 


— 


— 






13 21 41 


s. d. 


— 


— 






19 59 41 


s. d. 


— 


— 






21 39 9 


s. d. 


— 


— 


" 25 




2 16 18 


m. d. 


— 


— 






9 39 12 


1. d. 


12 30 10 


1. d. 


" 26 




13 22 2 


1. d. 


— 


— 


„ 27 




7 13 3 


1. d. 


— 


— 






10 10 27 


s. d. 


— 


— 






21 40 21 


m. d. 


— 


— 


',', 29 




2 31 33 


m. d. 


— 


— 


Tl )1 




10 7 43 


s. d. 


— 


— 






14 29 55 


. 1. d. 


— 


— 


!,' 30 




4 14 39 


s. d. 


2 8 47 


— 






10 17 15 


s. d. 


19 30 7 


1. d. 


!! 31 




2 14 33 


s. d. 


— 


— 






10 21 27 


s. d. 


— 


— 


11 n * 




18 47 3 


s. d. 


— 


— 


Aug. 1 




2 2 56 


s. d. 


— 


— 






18 54 6 


s. d. 


— 


— 


',', 2 




18 54 19 


s. d. 


— 


— 


„ 3 . 




Not working 


— 


5 34 


m. d. 


„ 4 to 1 


1 . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 12 . 




4 35 36 


I. d. 


— 


— 


)} 11 ' 




10 31 56 


1. d. 


— 


— 


„ 13 




2 15 26 


s. d. 


— 


— 


„ 14 




15 54 16 


1. d. 


— 


— 


„ 15 




1 57 46 


s. d. 


— 


— 






13 58 68 


s. d. 


— 


— 






15 32 44 


1. d. 


— 


— 






15 49 


1. d. 


— 


— 


", 16 




9 10 4 


1. d. 


— 


— 






9 13 22 


1. d. 


— 


— 


11 11 




21 38 12 


1. d. 


— 


— 


„ 17, 18 




— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 19 




1 55 32 


1. d. 


— 


— 


"4 

11 ■ »» 




17 19 54 


1. d. 


16 47 48 


1. d. 


„ 20 




2 26 41 


1. d. 


— 


— 






18 59 39 


1. d. 


— 


— 






21 9 41 


1. d. 


20 7 50 


m. d. 


,',' 21 




9 36 37 


s. d. 


— 


— 


„ 23 




22 26 22 


1. d. 


8 1 8 


1. d. 












11 51 48 


1. d. 


i) i» 

„ 24 







— 


4 57 6 


— 


„ 28 




2 7 27 


s. d. 


— 


— 






5 50 45 


1. d. 


— 


— 






10 22 27 


1. d. 


— 


— 


", 30 




7 9 16 


s. d. 


— 


— 


11 11 




22 29 34 


1. d. 


~ 





Records with an Earthquake-like Character ohierved at Shide, 1896-97. 
For the commencement of the Shide records (August 19, 1895, to 
March 22, 1896) the reader is referred to ' Report of the British Associa- 
tion' for 1896, p. 191, in which shocks and displacements are included in 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



149 



one list. The following list only includes movements which have an 
earthquake-like character ; but as it is possible that certain small displace- 
ments may have been mistaken for earthquakes when examining the list, 
the following explanatory notes will make it easy to identify records which 
are doubtful. 

The sign > , or a series of such signs, indicates a small movement, or 
a series of small movements, with an amplitude of about 1 mm., which 
commenced suddenly and ended gradually. It is quite possible that some 
of them, at least, may be due to some local cause — as, for example, a slight 
settlement beneath the pier on which the instrument is rested — and there- 
fore are not earthquakes. The sign --^, or a series of such signs, indicates 
a very small movement, or series of movements, which commenced 
gradically and ended gradually. Such movements have a true earthquake 
character ; but because I have no record where they were nearly simul- 
taneously recorded at Carisbrooke, they must, in many instances, at least, 



be of local origin. 



Disturbances which are ' moderate,' or disturbances which have 
amplitudes exceeding 2 mm., if these commence gently it may be as- 
sumed that they are of earthquake origin. 

All large disturbances commencing with decided preliminary tremors 
are certainly earthquake effects. Those to which an asterisk is attached 
are described at the end of the list in more or less detail. The materials 
for their description have been derived from my own observations, obser- 
vations made in Japan, communications from various observers in Europe 
and Great Britain, the ' Bolletino della Societa Sismologica Italiana,' thte 
columns of ' Nature,' and other sources. 



Earthquakes observed at Shide, Isle of Wight, 1896-97. (_All times are given in 
Greenwich mean astronomical time. Midday or noon = or 24 hours^ 



No. 



Date 



Hour of com- 
mencement, 
G.M.T. 



Remarks 



Observed also at 






s^ 






a 






■i: M 






. 3 


03 


a 


3 




-a 

o 

CO 


C14 





w a 



1896. 



1* 


June 14 


2 


,, 22 


3 


,. 24 


4 


„ 27 


5 




6 




7 


., 28 


8* 


,, 29 


9 


„ 30 


10 




11 


July 1 


12 




13 




14 




15 


.. 2 



H. 

22 

10 

9 

13 

13 

14 

9 

9 

9 

10 

18 

9 

10 

11 

12 

8 



M. S. 

30 

6 26 
47 56 

8 35 
58 59 
30 19 
27 17 

2 26' 
24 45, 

6 



57 
1 
51 
13 
53 
22 



Large ^ > 
Small > 



Four maxima 
Small -^ 



150 



EEPORT 1897. 



Earthquakes observed at Shide — continued. 







! 

Hour of com- 


1 


Obsetved also at 










is 

J- at 


No. 


Date 


menceuipnt. 


£■■50131118 






^ 


■°r^ 






GM.T. 






E 


.£ 


act.. 
— o 










a 




"S 


5^ 












to 














en 

1— 1 


Ph 


g 


f3a 






H. M. S. 




16 




10 11 31 


Moderate, commences gently 










17* 




IS 51 29 


.. > 










18 


July 8 


14 54 14 


Small /-v^-^^' 










19 




17 46 11 


.. ^'^ 










20 


„ 11 


10 8 49 


Moderate. Four maxima 










21 


,. 16 


8 12 53 


Small 










22 


„ 17 


19 2 40 


Moderate. > 










23 


„ 18 


9 48 


Small > 










2i 




18 53 14 


„ •^ 










25 




23 52 50 


Small. Several maxima > 










26 


„ 30 


11 25 0\ 
13 25 OJ 












27 


„ 31 


23 25 


,. .. .. '"^ 










28 


Aug. 12 


23 53 36 


Very small ^ 










29 


„ 14 


10 19 50 


Small '-^ 










30 




11 27 16 


„ £',. 










31 


„ 23 


5 38 52 


IT 5» 










32 


„ 25 


4 27 31 


)» J> * • • ' ' 










33 




5 3 21 


)f ** 










34 




12 33 15 


.. > 










35* 


„ 26 


11 23 48 


Large preliminarj' tremor.'^ last 
Im. 16s. Duration 50m. 


— 


— 


— 




36* 


„ 30 


20 23 6 


Large preliminary tremors last 
34m. Duration nearly 3h. 


— 


— 






37 


Sept. 10 


57 51 


Small ^^ 










38 




17 36 23 


., > 










39 


„ 12 


17 44 32 


Small preliminary tremors last 
5m. 44s. '-^ 




— 


— 




40 




18 52 29 


Small '-> 










41 


„ 14 


51 39 


„ > '-^ > . 




- 






42 


„ 20 


4 20 .50 


„ ^ 










43 




4 29 10 


> 










44 




4 37 21 


i» »» 










45 




4 59 10 


)> >* • 








— 


46 




16 14 48 


Moderate 










47* 


., 21 


17 2 2 


Total duration— 35m. 50s.^'-^'-^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


48* 


„ 23 


11 59 50 


Moderate preliminary tremors 
7m. 10s. Duration — 28m. 40s. 


— 


- 





— 


49* 


,. 24 


10 39 20 












50 


tf »• 


11 40 24 


Duration — 34m. 6s. '-^ . 






— 


— 


51 


Oct. 6 


12 51 27 


Twelve separated maxima, end- 
ing at 14h. 9m. 18s. > > >&c. 


— 








52 


,. 13 


10 17 52 


Small > 










53 


„ 14 


7 41 25 


Moderate 










54 


„ 25 


5 57 26 


Small > 










65 


„ 27 


10 15 10 


> followed at lOh. 28m. 50s. 
by '-N'^. Duration — 21m. 










56* 


., 31- 


' 17 18 2 


Large preliminary tremors last 
13m. 51s. Total duration— 
3h. to 4h. 










57 


Nov. 2 


4 9 56 


Small > . ... 






— 


-? 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



151 



Earthquakes observed at Shide — oojitinned. 







Hour of cora- 




Observed also at 








O 3 


No. 


Date 


mencemett, 


Remarks 






^ 








G.M.T. 




S 


a 


•3 












3 


CO 


1 


=?S 










« 


"o 




-d •- 












Ch 


S 


S 6 












—. ] 






H. M. S. 










58 




8 14 58 


Small > 










59 




10 20 42 


>i M 










60 


Nov. 4 


5 1 46 1 


» > > 










61 




6 27 41 


> 










62 




8 57 47 


Moderate 










63 




10 U 9 


Small ^ 










64 


„ 5 


3 40 19 


„ > 


• 








65 




6 52 19 


jt )) 










66 




6 69 35 


») )» 










67* 




9 44 58 


Large preliminary tremors last 
15m. 16s. Total duration — 
55m. 










68 


„ 26 


9 27 29 


Moderate -^ 






^ 




69 


Dec. 1 


21 55 33 


End at 23h. 31m. 20s. '^^ - 










70 


„ 4 


8 7 50 


Small /-N.-s^'-N 








— 


71 




8 43 3 


> > > 










72 




9 33 18 


> > > -^ 










73* 


„ 16 


14.30 to 22.0 


A series of small tremors. 
Maxima 17h. 30m. 










74 


„ 18 


13 12 11 

16.28 to 18.2S 


Small tremors 










75 


„ 26 


11.30 to 22.30 


/-\/->/-\ 
















1897. 


76 


Jan. 3 


2 27 3 


Preliminary tremors last 8m. 
31s. Maxima motion at 
2h. 36m. 53s. 










77 


„ 8 


22 39 3 


Maxima at 22h. 40m. 23s. ^ . 






— 




78 


„ 16 


10.8 to 10.29 


Small .-s--s.^ .... 




— 






79 




23 52 47 


,. - 










80 


„ 17 


9 16 3 


•> ^^'-^ 










81 


„ 18 


11.3010 16.30 


Tremors with maxima ■ at 
14h. 3m. 50s. 










82 


„ 23 


9 43 20 


Small '-^ 










83* 


Feb. 6 


19 59 3 


Tremors last 26m. 40s. Total 
duration — Ih. 6m. 


— 


— 


" 




84 


„ 7 


11 55 7 


Small ^ 




— 






85 


„ 12 


14 8 11 


Tremors last 3m. 50s. Dura- 
tion— 13m. 20s. 




— 






86 


„ 13 


3 23 36 


Moderate. Duration— 9m. 20s. '— 










87 


„ 16 


12.30 to 22.30 


' Small ^^^ .... 








-? 


88 


„ ]'.) 


12 17 47 


Four moderate maxima, ending 
13h. 16m. 27s. From 6h. to 
lOh. not working. 




= ? 


_? 




89 


Mar. 1 


14 40 14 


Moderate > . . . . 






— 




90 


,. 2 


14 49 34 


.. > 










91 




9 48 11 


Small /->'-N'^ 










93 


„ i:! 


22 46 56 


^ 






( 




93 


,. 15 


19 36 27 


Jloderate. Total duration— 
29m. 20s. 






i " 




94 


„ 16 


4 49 49 


Small '-^ 










95 


„ 18 


1 37 26 


t» i» 











152 REPORT— 1897. 

Fig. 6.— August 26, 1896. FiG. 7.— September 12, 1896. 




iOOOOC^ 



-"S*-®- 



Ftg. 8.— September 21, 1896, 
17. i. t 

L 



g Qnn Oi «n 



Fig. 9.— September 23, 1896. 

1I.S9.S0 



-^^=^J><w><I>- 



Fig. 10.— October 31, 1896. 



17 .11. 2 



JjUssa&s^j^^ 



Fig. 11 November 5, 1896. 



.44. 58 
i 



Fig. 12. 




Fig. 13.— Potsdam, February 6, 1897. 

20 21 




t 

19. 50.30 
G.M.T. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



153 



V. Earthquake Records from Japan and other places. 
By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Earthquake No. 1. — On the Sea-waves and Earthquakes of June 15, 1896, 

in North Japan. 
(Unless otherwise stated, Japan mean time, or Gr.M.T. + 9 hours, is here used.) 

The sea-waves which at about 8 p.m. on June 15, 1896, invaded the 
north-eastern coast of Nippon were as destructive to life as those which 
accompanied the well-known eruption on August 26, 1883, of Krakatoa, 
whilst one of the shocks by which they were preceded was of such severity 
that it was clearly recorded in Europe, and in every probability caused a 
disturbance over the entire surface of the globe. 

The magnitude of this disturbance, and the sub- oceanic changes by 
which it was probably accompanied, make it well worthy of record. The 
sources from which the following notes bearing upon this catastrophe have 
been derived are various. Amongst the more important are translations 
from the writings of Professor Kochibe and other officers of the Geological 
Survey of Japan ; extracts from Japanese newspapers ; the records of the 
Central Observatory in Tokio, and those from a large number of other 
observatories at which disturbances were recorded ; and, lastly, the writer's 
personal knowledge of the devastated districts, and experiences connected 
■with sea-waves and earthquakes which have previously occurred in the 
same locality. 

A full discussion of the phenomena which accompanied this great 
catastrophe might be divided under two heads, one containing an account 
of the earthquakes which were recorded, and the other an account of the 
sea-waves. 

Although one or two houses were destroyed by earthquake movement 
in Yamada, the greatest destruction was that caused by sea-waves, of 
which the first three were the greatest. The places which suffered most 
were Kamaishi, Yoshiyama, and neighbouring towns and villages lying in 
the inlets of the cliff-bound coasts of Rikuzen and Rikuchu, on the 
N.E. coast of Nippon. Fishermen twenty or twenty-five miles off shore 
did not observe anything unusual. 

List 1. — Shocks recorded in Japan on June 15 and 16, 1896. 



Time (M.J.T.) 


Duration 


Direction 


Remarks 


Intensity 


H. M. S. 










7 32 30 P.M. 


5 m. 

( The high tide came, 
and continual shocks 
[ were felt. 


J E.N.E. 
\ W.S.W. 


A few houses "1 
damaged J 


slight 


7 53 30 
















8 2 35 










8 23 15 










8 33 10 










8 59 










9 31 30 










9 34 5 










9 45 40 










9 50 10 










10 32 10 










11 22 










11 33 15 











154 



REPORT — 1897. 



The first list is that of thirteen shocks noted on June 15 at the Ob- 
servatory in Miyako, a place lying to the north of Kamaishi and Yamada, 
where the sea-waves were felt with great force. 

The following is a list of shocks noted at observatories in various parts 
of Japan. The Tokio shocks will also be found in the list of records from 
the Meteorological Obsei-vatory in that city (pp. 13.5-6, Nos. 1,710 to 1,740). 
Of these latter, it will be noted that there were only three of marked in- 
tensity, and it does not seem that these were connected with the occur- 
rence o£ the first sea -waves. 



L\:it 2 — Earthqiiahes noted at Ohgerratories in Northern Japan in 189G. 



Date 


Japan Mean Time 


Character of Shock 


Place 




H. M. S. 






June 15 


5 43 15 P.M. 


slight 


Fukuoka. 


)» 


5 44 


1) 


Choshi. 


„ 


5 44 43 


)) 


Tokio. 


u 


5 47 13 


») 


Kofu. 


}) 


7 33 20 


weak, slow 


Awomori. 


If 


7 34 


slight, slow 


Fukushima. 


yi 


7 34 14 


weak, slow 


Tokio. 


)i 


7 30 20 


slight, slow 


Nemuro. 


ft 


7 34 30 


weak 


Hakodate. 


», 


7 34 4.5 


slight, slow 


Sakai. 


If 


7 35 


weak, slow 


Utsunomiya. 


tt 


7 36 21 


51 


Kofu. 




7 39 


slight 


Yamagata. 


]^ 


7 45 57 


ji 


Fukushima. 


»i 


7 48 43 




., 




7 52 


„ 


»i 


»» 


7 57 


slight, slow 


»» 


1) 


8 3 


i» 


Awomori. 


15 


8 7 5U 


slight 


Yamagata. 


»t 


8 5 36 


weak, slow 


Kofu. 


»> 


8 10 26 


slight 


Fukushima. 




8 21 20 


»» 


Awomori. 


■) 


8 27 20 


?» 


Fukushima. 


'» 


8 32 45 


»» 


Awomori. 


tf 


8 33 53 


»i 


Tokio 


it 


8 38 10 


ji 


Awomori. 


»» 


8 59 23 


slis:ht, slow 


11 




8 59 35 


^slight 


Fukushima. 


• ) 


9 38 


»i 


Tokio. 




9 3 31 


1) 


„ 


,^ 


9 3 45 


i» 


Kofu. 


,, 


9 6 20 


t) 


Yamagata. 


,, 


9 11 37 


11 


Fukushima. 


?? ' 


9 13 55 


It 


AwomOri. 


»S 


9 14 14 


n 


Tokio. , 


»i 


9 17 20 


»t 


Kofu. 


»1 


9 19 40 


11 


Awomori. ' 




9 26 18 


t) 


Fukushima. 


,, 


9 27 35 


11 


Tokio. 


,» 


9 27 52 


11 


Awomori. 


1^ 


9 32 


It 


,, 


5t 


1 9 46 31 


11 


,, 




9 46 57 


11 


Fukushima. 


»1 


9 49 30 


11 


Awomori. 


»» 


9 56 30 


11 


i» 


»1 


9 56 39 


11 


Tokio. 


»» 


9 69 52 


11 


Kofu. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



155 



List 2 — continved. 



Date 


Japan Mean Time 

11. M. S. 


Character of Shock 


Place 








June 15 


10 2 


slight 


Yamagata. 




10 9 2r. 


1» 


Awomori. 


») 


10 82 36 


)) 


tt 


ti 


U 19 7 


Tt 


It 


ti 


11 30 18 


It 


jt 


1) 


11 56 30 


»» 


tt 


June 16 


34 51 A.M. 
48 45 


j 


It 




49 


weak, slow 


Ishinomaki. 




49 48 


slight 


Tokio. 


jt 


51 8 


j» 


Kofu. 




1 5 22 


i» 


Tokio. 




1 5 45 


)» 


Awomori. 




1 25 33 


11 


tt 




1 32 14 


11 


Tokio. 




1 47 2 


1' 


tt 




1 47 36 




Kofu. 


>. 


1 52 


)» 


Yamagata, 




1 57 53 


)» 


Awomori. 




2 39 


51 


,, 




3 16 50 


weak, slow 


Utsunomiya. 




4 15 20 


slight 


Fukushima. 




4 16 30 


weak, quick 


Tokio. 




4 16 35 


slight, slow 


Sakai. 




4 17 


slight 


Awomori. 


'» 


4 18 5 


n 


Niigata. Clocks 
stopped. 




4 18 28 


weak, slow 


Kofu. 




4 22 


slight 


Yamagata. 


^^ 


5 1 9 


»» 


Tokio. 




6 1 48 


ft 


Awomori. 


f 1 


6 40 1 


It 


Tokio. 


)• 


7 17 16 


)» 


Awomori. 


»t 


7 51 12 


t» 


tt 




8 49 


weak 


ti 


)» 


8 50 


slight 


Fukushima. 




8 1 14 


weak, quick 


Tokio. 




8 3 4 


weak 


Kofu. 


", 


8 6 


slight 


Yamagata. 




8 14 17 


n 


Awomori. 




S 14 45 




} 


Fukushima. 


1. 


8 15 20 
8 16 29 
8 20 20 
8 22 57 A.M. 
8 58 29 




y 
1 
» 

1 


Tokio. 

tt 
Yamagata. 
Awomori. 
Hikone. 




9 30 35 




1 


Awomori. 




9 32 1 






Tokio. 




9 46 11 
9 47 11 
10 1 7 
25 26 P.M. 




t 

t 
1 


Awomori. 
Tokio. 
Hikone. 
Fukushima. 


It 


26 12 




» 


Tokio. 


ji 


1 15 3 






tt 




1 28 38 






tt 


„ 


1 29 48 




» 


ft 


»» 


3 11 31 




t 


ff 



156 REPORT— 1897. 

Nearly all these disturbances were only felt in the northern part of 
Nippon. Thirty-three were noted in Awomori, 26 were recorded in 
Tokio, 15 in Fukushima, 10 in Kofu, 7 in Yamagata, and 2 in Sakai. 
The two shocks recorded at Hikone, which is 450 miles distant from 
Miyako, were probably of local origin. The fact that the Miyako earth- 
quakes were only sufficient to disturb seismographs in North Japan, whilst 
the effect of one at least of the series was recorded in Europe, indicates 
that the origin of these movements was far from land. Had it been a few 
hundred miles still farther off shore it seems likely that ordinary seismo- 
graphs, recording on smoked-glass surfaces, would have failed to have 
given any indications that submarine disturbances had taken place. We 
have, therefore, here an illustration of the necessity of using horizontal 
pendulums with photographic recording apparatus, or the equivalent of 
such instruments, if we desire to study sub-oceanic movements or the 
effects produced by earthquakes which have originated at great distances. 

Sea-waves. — Coast of Rikuzen and Rikuchu (Home Department 
Report). — First high water at 8.25 p.m. Altogether ten large waves, the 
first three being at intervals of six minutes. 

Miyako. — First high water, 8.20 p.m. Sea retreated about 7.15 p.m. ; 
sea rose about 8.0 and 8.7 p.m. This last tide or wave rose 15 feet, and 
people and houses were carried away. The tide I'ose six times. 

Tawoi mura. — Sea retreated 1,800 feet. 

Hakodate (Yesso). — Tides rose and fell from 10 p.m. on the 15th until 
10 A.M. on the 16th. At 4 p.m. on the 16th quiet was restored. 

Mororan (Yesso). — High tide at 8 p.m. 

TokacJii and Moyori (Yesso). — At 11 p.m. the tide was 10 feet lower 
than usual. It rose four or five times to heights of 60 or 100 feet. 

Kinkazan. — Tide gauge showed changes of 7 or 8 feet. 

Bonin Ids. — Tide rose 3 or 4 feet. 

Hawaii. — In fourteen hours fourteen tides were noticed, commencing 
at 7.38 P.M. 

Sotcnds. — Sounds like thunder or the report of a heavy gun were heard 
at many places, at Miyako before 8 p.m. ; at Kitsugawa, in Miyagi 
Ken ; at Tokachi and Moyori, in Yesso, &c. 

Unusual Set of Ocean Currents. — Sweeping up the eastern coast of 
Japan is the great Black Stream, or Kuro Siwo, the strength of which, 
as indicated by the distance to which it is felt and its position with 
regard to the coast, is subject to seasonal variation. Along the inundated 
coast a warm current is felt from spring to autumn, whilst during the 
winter months the same shores experience a current that is cold. In 
1896, spring passed, and yet the cold water hugged the shore, and the 
fishermen seeking bonito had to go farther than usual from land until 
they reached warmer waters. 

Origin of the Disturbance. — Because the village of Taoi was destroyed 
by two great waves, one coming from the south and the other from the 
north, it has been assumed that at a distance of from five to eight miles 
off the village a submarine landslip had taken place, and the waters rushed 
inwards towards the scene of dislocation. Because places along 150 or 
200 miles of the coast on which Taoi is situated were inundated at about 
the same time, as Professor Kochibe points out, it is clear that the origin 
of the convulsion was at a very much greater distance from the land than 
that just indicated. 

Because the sea-waves were preceded by earthquakes it is evident 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 157 

that at least one of the latter must have been accompanied by enormous 
dislocations in order to have produced the former. 

These earthquakes, as recorded on land, were comparatively small, 
which, from what we know of the dissipation of earthquake energy as it 
radiates from its origins, indicates that the earth vibrations must have 
travelled at least 100 miles. 

The least interval of time that we can give between the arrival of the 
vibratory wave and the sea-waves is that observed at Miyako, which is 
21 minutes. 

If we assume a mean depth for the ocean off the north-east coast of 
Nippon, along an easterly line, to the origin of the disturbance at 2,000 
fathoms, then the distance from the land to the origin may be expressed 

V 12000x^x21 x60, 

or about 130 geogi-aphical miles. 

Again, if we assume ■y., to be the velocity of the sea-wave, which may 
be taken at 500 feet per second, this being a somewhat low observed 
velocity for earthquake sea- waves approaching this coast; d, the velocity 
of the vibratory waves, which over a short range has often been observed 
at 7,000 or 8,000 feet per second ; and T the observed interval of time 
between the arrival of the two waves, then the distance of their origin 
from the coast is 

or in this case about 113 geographical miles. 

If we make i;2=600 feet per second, the distance of the origin becomes 
about 140 geographical miles. 

Because we have taken the least interval that can be assigned to the 
difference in the times of the arrival of the land and sea- waves, it may 
be concluded that the origin of the Japan disturbance of June 15 was 
along a submarine line at a distance of 1 20 to 1 40 geographical miles off 
the coast of Noi-th-east Nippon. 

Such a locus is at a depth of 4,000 fathoms, and, so far as we know 
the sub-oceanic contours, exactly at the bottom of the Nippon slope, 
forming the western boundary of the Tuscarora Deep, a well-known 
origin for many large earthquakes (see map, fig. 14). 

Although much evidence may be adduced to show that early in June 
1896 the ocean currents were deranged in direction and intensity, the 
cause of the submarine dislocation was probably seismic. 

Velocity of Propagation of Earth-waves. — Assuming the origin to lie 
120 geographical miles east of Miyako, to which place it travelled at a 
rate of 8,000 feet per second, which fairly well accords with the velocity 
it travelled from the Miyako isoseist to Tokio, and velocities of propaga- 
tion of similar earthquakes over short ranges, the time, within a few 
seconds, at which the earthquake occurred was, in G.M.T., June 14 
22h. 31m. Os. 

G.M.T. — Times at ivhich Preliminary Tremors commenced in Europe. 





H. 


Ji. 


.s. 




M. 


.s. 


Padua . 


. 22 


46 


57 


Time to travel . 


. 15 


57 


Ischia . 


. 22 


4!) 


50 


»» 


. 18 


50 


Rocca di Papa . 


. 22 


5(> 


18 


»» 


. 25 


18 



158 



REPORT — 1897. 



Fig. 14. — Map to show submarine earthquake origins near Japan. 

i. E 




CHOKA,SAN SOCHISAN 

C ,'\/v/^ 





U-— -^^■^"' ~~\ 


lOOO^itbS '■ 


\^ SBOO // 1 


\,. ... .- aoo0^-___ J 


Ha/t/uiiwJtes Au ce Oimsd or frvusTu \9 
oocar coC O 


._ .«?».» J 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



159 



The last observation evidently refers to a phase of movement different 
from that of the first two, and therefore will not be further considered. 



Padua 
Ischia 



9,.320 kms 
9.749 „ 



Velocity 



9" kins, per sec. 
8-7 „ 



We should expect to have found these two velocities to have been nearly 
equal. Their mean value, or the probable rate at which motion was 
transmitted from Japan to Italy, was 

9'2 kms. per sec. on an arc. 
And about 8'3 ,, ,, ,, on a chord. 

The velocity of transmission to Tokio was about .3 kms. per second. 

Earthquake No. 8 (Cyprus).' 

A severe earthquake took place in Cyprus on June 29, at about 
8h. 48m. Os. Other records of this disturbance were as follows : — 

1. Shide . 

2. Ischia 

3. Rocca di Papa 

4. Rome 

5. Padua ......... 

6. Catania .......... 8 

7. Nicolaiew . 

The observations 2 to 7 clearly indicate a large error in the obser- 
vation made near the origin in Cyprus. The only calculations of velocity 
which can therefore be made are on paths between the Nicolaiew isoseist 
and the first six places. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


9 


2 


26 


8 


48 


20 


8 


48 


27 


8 


48 


35 


8 


49 





8 


50 


30 


8 


47 










Distance in Kms. 


Time of Transit 




Placea 


Distance io Kms. 


from the 


from the 


Velocitr in Kms. 


from Cyprus 


Nicolaiew 


Nicolaiew 


per Sec. 






Isoseist 


Isoseist 




Nicolaiew . 


1,332 




-M. s. 




Catania 


1,684 


352 


3 30 


1-7 


Ischia 


1,813 


481 


1 20 


60 


Rome . 


1,998 


666 


1 31 


7-3 


; Padua 


2,192 


860 


2 


7-1 


Shide . 


3.404 


2,072 


1.5 , 26 


2-2 



The first and last determinations may possibly refer to the maximum 
phases of motion, and the three intermediate ones to the velocity alon<^ a 
path at some depth beneath the surface. 

We have here an illustration of high velocities of propagation, which 
we sometimes find between places each of which are at a distance from 
an epicentre. 

Earthquake in Iceland, No. 35, 1896. 

August 26, at about 10.30 p.m. in local time. Very severe shocks 
originating in or near the Hekla ridge. Many landslides, four houses 
thrown down. One fissure on the Oelvus River, 6 miles long. New 
geysers appeared. Great surface changes. 

August 27, 9.15 a.m., also severe. 

' See British Association Report, lfc9R, pp. 199 and 200. 



160 



REPORT — 1897. 



September 5, 11.30 p.m., also severe. 
6, 2.0 A.M. „ 

„ 19, 11.20 A.M. „ I 

The above dates and hours, which Latter, in all probability, are only 
approximately correct, become in Greenwich mean time as follows : — 



Aug. 26 

Sept. 5 

„ 19 



H. 


M. H. 


M. 


11 


50 and 22 


35 


12 


50 „ 15 


50 





40 





The first of these was recorded at Shide, Edinburgh, Strassburg, 
Ischia, Potsdam, Nicolaiew, Kew, Paris, and possibly at other places. 
The remainder were not noted at Shide, because at the hours mentioned 
the instrument was not working, excepting on the 19th, when there was 
a heavy tremor storm. The second and third were recorded at Strass- 
burg, and the third and fourth were feebly shown at Edinburgh. 



G.M.T. 



Shide Records — 

Commencement . . ' . . . . .11 
End of preliminary tremors 

1st max. attained 

2nd „ „ 

3rd „ „ 

End 



H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


23 


48 


11 


25 


4 


11 


26 


12 


11 


27 


39 


11 


32 





12 


10 





11 


10 





11 


30 






Edimhurgh Royal Ohservatory (Bifilar Pendulum)- 

Commencement 11 

End 

Kew (Declination Curve) — 

1st small crest 11270 approx. 

2nd „ „ 11 29 „ 

.3rd „ , 11 31 „ 

Paris {Para Saint Maur) — ' Magnetic ' perturbations 
observed by M. Moureaux — 



11 


86 





11 


42 





11 


46 






Magnetometers at Greenwich, Falmouth, and Stonyhurst were not 
disturbed. 

Strassbwrg (Horizontal pendulum used by Dr. G. Gar- 
land) — 

Commencement 
Maximum . 
Until . 
End 



Rome 

Roeca di Papa (15-metre pendulum) 
„ (7 „ .. ) 

Catania, S.K.-N.W. . 
N.E.-S.W. . 
Padua .... 

Tsc}i.ia,'E,.W. 

N. 30° E.-N. 30° W. 
N. 30° W.-S. 30° E. 



1 See Nature, Oct. 15, 1896, p. 574 



H. M. 8. 

11 22 9 

11 22 37 

12 13 47 
12 58 37 

11 23 

11 26 20 

11 36 50 

11 25 4 

11 26 58 

11 30 

11 30 54 

11 31 54 

11 31 54 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



161 



The following table of distances from Hekla, in Iceland, to places 
whei'e movements were observed, together with the times at which the 
latter commenced, shows that it is impossible to make any reliable calcu- 
lations respecting the velocity with which motion was propagated. The 
causes of the discrepancies are probably to be found in the diflerences in 
the form of the instruments employed, and the want of a sufficiently open 
time scale on many of the record- receiving surfaces : — 

KnoR. 
Shide 1,831 



Strassburg 
Padua 
Rome . 
Lschia 
Catania 



2,368 
2,775 
.S,182 
3.367 
3,747 



ir. 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 



M. 

23 
22 
30 
23 
30 
25 



s. 

48 
9 



54 
4 



Earthquake Iso. 36 (N.E. Japan, Nambu'). 

For the phases of this earthquake as recorded at Carisbrooke Castle 
and at Shide, see 'Report of the British Association,' 1896, pp. 229, 230. 
The photogram is repi-oduced in this Report, p. 142. 

This shock created considerable destruction in the north-west part of 
Nippon. It was recorded in Tokio as a slow horizontal movement with a 
slightly vertical component, but the records from ordinary seismographs 
v/ere too small for accurate measurement. The time of its commencement 
in Tokio was, in local time, 5h. 9m. 33s. P.M., or in G.M.T., 20h. 9m. 33s. 

When this motion was recorded the disturbance would have advanced 
4° on its path towards Europe. 

The time taken for three of the various phases of motion to reach 
Shide and the Isle of Wight, and the velocities of propagation, were as 
follows : — 





Velocity on 


Velocity on 




Arc. 


Chord. 


U. M. S. 


Ivms. per Sec. 


Kms. per Sec 


Phase 1. Tremors . . . 13 33 


1111 


0-4G 


„ 3. Heavy motion . . 47 33 


315 


268 


„ 5. Tlie maximum . . 1 4 53 


23 


196 


The following table is a comparison of 


the Carisbrooke Castle 


Strassburg records : — ' 






Carisbrcoke 


Strafsburg 


Difference 


H. »r. s. 


JI. Ml s. 


M. s. 


Commencement of tremors . . 'M 23 G 


20 17 50 


5 16 


„ max. . . 20 57 G 


20 29 56 


27 10 


End 23 IG 20 


23 38 2 


21 42 


Duration 2 . '53 20 


3 20 12 


26 52 


Duration of preliminary tremors . 34 


12 C 


21 54 



and 



Because earthquake movement dies away gradually and fitfully, it is 
not at all remarkable that there should be nearly 27 minutes difference in 
the recorded duration of the disturbance as shown at Carisbrooke and 
Strassburg. The differences between the two records which are noticeable 
are in the times at which the preliminary tremors commenced and their 
duration. Because Carisbrooke is not more than 360 kms. fai'ther from 
North Japan than Strassburg, it might be expected that the preliminary 
tremors at the latter place would have been observed about half a minute 
before they reached the Isle of Wight. A difference e.xceeding five 
minutes either indicates that the Carisbrooke instrument is less sensitive 



1597. 



Nature, April 15, 1897, p. 558. 



M 



162 



REPORT — 1897. 



than that at Strassburg, or else that between the Strassburg isoseist and 
the Isle of Wight, motion was propagated at only a little over 1 km. per 
second, which, it may be noted, is a rate of transmission often observed 
over short ranges near to an epicentre. An inference to be derived from 
this is, that for purposes of comparison it is desirable that all stations 
should be furnished with instruments of equal sensibility. 

If we accept the Strassburg record of the arrival of the first tremors as 
correct, then the average velocity of propagation from Japan to that place 
exceeded on the arc 18 kms. per second, whereas the average of very many 
other observations on the same path have yielded apparent velocities of 
half this quantity. 

The origin of this disturbance was along two almost north and south 
lines in the middle of North Nippon. It may be taken as lying to the 
north and south of a point in 140° 50' E. long, and 39° 40' N. lat. 

The times at which the shock was automatically noted at various towns 
were in local time as follows : — 

H. M. s. 
Miyako . . . . ' . . . . 5 8 55 P.M. 

Awomori 5811 

Yamagata 580 

Ishimaki 5 8 10 

Tokio 5 9 33 

The distance between Tokio and Yamagata is about 150 g.m., and 
Tokio and the origin 240 g.m. Between the first two places the time 
taken for the vibration to travel was 90 seconds, indicating a velocity of 
about 10,000 feet per second. Assuming this to be correct, then the time 
taken from the origin to Tokio would be 2m. 44s., from which it may be 
concluded that the shock originated at 5h. 7m. 9s., or, in G.M.T., August .30, 
20h. 7m. 9s. 

The times at which the commencement of this disturbance was noted 
in Europe were as follows : — 

H. Jl. s 

Shide 20 23 6 

Strassburg 20 17 50 

Ischia 20 20 30 

Rocca di Papa (p. maximum by a horizontal pendulum) . 21 3 50 

., ( „ „ 7-metre „ ) . 20 55 

( „ „ 15 „ „ ) . 20 41 15 

Rome 20 21 15 

Catania, N.E.-S.W 20 25 24 

S.E.-N.W 20 21 4» 

Nicolaiew 20 7 30 

Time of origin in North Jf;pan . . . . . . 20 7 9 

Omitting the observations at Rocca di Papa and Nicolaiew, the fol- 
lowing velocities have been determined : — 



— 


Shide 


Strassburg 


Ischia 


Rome 


Catania 


Time of transit 


15m. 57s. 


10m. 41s. 


13m. 21s. 


14m. Gs. 


14m. 39s. 


Distance on arc, in kms. 


9,290 


9,157 


9,468 


9,564 


9,796 


Distance on chord, in 












kms. 


8,532 


8,H7 


8,608 


8,698 


8,864 


Velocity on arc, in kms. 












per sec. 


9-7 


14 2 


11-8 


11-2 


111 


Velocity on chord, in 












kms. per sec. 


8-9 


131 


10-7 


10-2 


100 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



163 



The previous calculation for Strassburg was from the Tokio isoseist, 
but even the present result seems very high, whilst that for Shide is a 
little low. 

EavthquMke No. 47 (September 21, 1896). 



Shide . 
Fucecchio . 
Eome . 
Ischia . 
Padua . 

Eocca di Papa, E.-W. 
Catania, N.E.-S.W, 
S.E.-N.W. 
Pavia . 
Nicolaiew . 



Distance from 
Tiflis 


32° 


40' 


23° 
23° 
24° 


18' 
0' 
0' 


23° 


0' 


25° 


'20' 




— 



Time 


, G.M.T. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


17 


2 


2 


16 


51 


50 


16 


53 


25 


16 


53 


58 


16 


54 





16 


54 





16 


54 


8 


16 


54 


16 


16 


55 


30 


16 


52 






The origin may have been near Tiflis, 

Earthquake No. 48 (September 23, 1896). 



Shide . 
Caltagirone 
Catania, N.E.-S.W. 
N.W.-S.E. 
Ischia 
Kome . 

Eocca di Papa . 
Pavia . 
Nicolaiew . 



Earthquake No. 49 (September 24, 1896) 



Shide (only partly shov.-n) 
Ischia 
Eome . 

Catania, N.E.-S.W. 
S.E.-N.W. 
Nicolaiew . 



Earthqualie No. 56 (October 31, 1896). 



Observations at Shide, Isle of Wight- 
Preliminary tremors commence 
„ „ end . 

„ „ duration 

1. Large waves . 

2. Maximum 

3. Maximum 

End of disturbanue about . 

Duration, 3 or 4 hours. 
Nicolaiew, commenceaient 
Ischia, ,, 

Potsdam, shock at 

Origin probably Tashkent. 



G.M.T. 



H. 


SI. 


s. 




59 


50 




50 







51 


40 




52 


4 




52 


8 




52 


5 




58 


30 




54 







52 







G.M.T. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


10 


39 


20 


10 


46 


33 


10 


46 


40 


10 


46 


50 


10 


46 


47 


10 


49 






G.M.T. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


17 


18 


2 


17 


31 


55 




13 


53 


17 


31 


55 


17 


53 


25 


18 





35 


21 








]7 


5 


30 


]7 


8 


5 


17 


21 


6 



164 REPORT— 1897. 

Earthquake Iso. 67 (November 5, 1896). 

Sliidc Records : h. 

Preliminary tremors commence 9 

,, „ duration 

Maximum .... 

Duration of disturbance about 
Mcolaiew, commencement 
Ischia, „ 



G.M.T. 


M. 


s. 


44 


58 


15 


40 





47 


55 





39 


30 


54 


17 



Earthquake No. 73 (Severn Valley). 

SJtide Records, December 16, 1896. 

The earthquake which created so much alarm in the Severn Valley 
at about 5.. 30 a.m. on December 17, when chimneys were shattered and 
certain buildings more or less unroofed, was only barely perceptible in 
the Isle of Wight. The booms of the seismographs at Shide were not 
slowly tilted from side to side, as is the case when they record earthquakes 
originating at a great distance, but merely set in a state of elastic vibra- 
tion, behaving, in fact, like the pointers of seismographs intended to 
record movements which we feel. The range of these elastic movements, 
for the most part, were about 1mm., and did not exceed 3 or 4mm. One 
marked motion commenced at 17h. 30m. 55s., and lasted 5 minutes. 

These tremors, which were intermittent and not continuous, as is 
the case in an ordinai-y tremor storm, commenced about 11 p.m. on the 16th, 
and ended at about 1 1 a.m. next morning. The duration of each group 
was from 1 to about 6 minutes, and they were separated by intervals of 
5 to 60 minutes. Twenty-two of the tremor groups shown by one instru- 
ment apparently closely agree in time with 22 maxima shown by a second 
instrument in another room. 

Because there were certainly movements or phenomena observed 
indicating movements of the ground before and after the chief shock, 
the approximate times at which a few of the twenty-two groups of 
tremors were noted are here given. 

December 16 : at about 11 hrs. ; after 14 hrs. ; at 15 hrs., two 
groups ; 16 to 18 hrs. an intermittent series, with a maximum about 
17h. 30m.; between 18 to 19 hrs., two groups; and the last at about 
22 hrs. 

Should it be found necessary, the exact time of each of these may be 
computed from the original photograms. 

Details connected with many observations contained in the first two 
columns will be found in ' Symons's Meteorological Magazine,' January 
1897. These observations indicate that during the night of December 16 and 
17 persons living in widely separated districts were from time to time dis- 
turbed by what they considered to be a tremulous motion of the ground. 
Because it was night time, in no instance that I am aware of can it be 
assumed that accurate time observations were made ; and, therefore, a 
few of them have been bracketed together, as possibly referring to the same 
disturbance. 

The Leicester and Hampshire observations, made between 9.30 a.m. 
and noon, strangely enough, were the result of observing similar pheno- 
mena, namely, the twitching of telegraph wires. In Leicester this was 
seen by a number of persons, the wires vibrating vertically in an unusual 
and extraordinary manner, there being no wind or other cause to which 
the movement could be attributed. 



ON seismological investigation. 



165 



Tremors Observed before the Shock 011 December 16, at about 177*. 32m. 1896. 



Place 


Time 


I.W. Seismo- 
graph 
T 


Duration 


T.W. Seii'ino- 
graph 


Duration 




H. M. 










Eochdale 


after 10 










Brixton . 
Bangor . 


11 
13 42 


H. M. S. 
14 3 52 


M. S. 

4 18 


H. M. S. 

14 4 31 


M. S. 

2 47 


Near Worcester 
Maidenhead . 


14 10 
14 55 


14 12 28 
14 36 38 


2 52 
7 10 


14 11 29 
14 39 11 


2 47 
4 5 


Worcester 

Salop 

Worcester 


15 
15 15 

15 35 1 
15 50 I 


15 53 57 


4 5 


15 50 34 


5 45 


Wolverhampton 
DroitwicU 


IG Oj 
16 15T 
16 20 \ 


16 25 18 


2 44 


16 24 3 


1 23 


CardifE . 
Hereford . 


16 30 J 
16 50 


16 42 2 


14 


16 43 45 


max. 


Salop 

Alderley Edge 
Hereford . 

,, . . • 


17 
17 I 
17 20 
17 30 


17 10 2 


1 24 


17 11 29 


max. 



Tremors Observed after the Shock on December 16, at Vih. 32 w. 1896. 



Place 


Time 


I.W. Seismo- 
graph 
T 


Duration 


I W. Sfismo- 

graph 

W 


Duration 


Dulwich . 

Southampton . 
Leicester . 

»i ... 

Hampshire 


H. M. 

17 50 \ 
17 57 J 
21 30 
23 
(about) 
after 24 


H. M. S. 

17 54 33 

18 8 30 

21 21 3 

22 42 22 

23 49 2 


M. 8. 
5 45 

13 57 
2 47 
2 52 

22 22 


H. M. S. 

17 50 5 

18 5 15 

21 24 11 

22 36 27 


M. S. 
6 49 

4 5 

5 27 



At the time the tremors were recorded Seismograph T was mo-\'ing 
under the influence of convection or other air currents. From time to 
time, however, it showed maxima of rapid motion, which indicates the 
existence of an influence superimposed upon the slow swing. The times 
of the commencement of these maxima are therefore not closely defined. 
Notwithstanding this want of definition, it is worthy of note that eleven 
of these records closely agree with the commencement of ten groups of 
tremor records obtained from Seismograph W in another room, and the 
times at which persons in various parts of England believed that they 
had been disturbed by slight earthquakes, or had seen evidences of earth 
movement. 

During the night there were altogether thirteen tremors at which the 
seismographs moved sinjultaneously ; but it must be noted that there were 



166 



REPORT — 1897. 



a number of extremely small movements recorded by the two seismo- 
graphs which did not agree as to their times of occurrence. 

Should further comparisons of the records lead to agreements similar 
to those here indicated, the conclusion will be that England is much more 
frequently shaken by very small earthquakes than is generally supposed. 



Earthquake No. 83 (February 6, 1897). 



Shide Tieeords : 
Preliminary tremors commence 
2nd max. 
3rd „ 
4th „ 
1st large waves commence 

,, „ „ end 
2nd „ „ commence 

„ „ „ end 
1st concluding vibrations 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 

Duration of preliminary tremors 
„ disturbance, about 



G.M.T. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


19 


59 


3 


20 


5 


43 


20 


9 


43 


20 15 


3 


20 


15 


43 


20 


22 


23 


20 


23 


43 


20 


31 


43 


20 


33 


3 


20 


35 43 


20 45 


3 


20 54 23 




26 


40 


1 


6 






Strasshvrri Records. (Dr. G. Geeland with Dr. Ehleet's Pendulums.) 



— 


Begin 


End 


After Shocks end 


1st Pendulum E. & W. 
2nd Pendulum N.W. & S.E. 
3rd Pendulum S.W. & N.E. 


H. M. s. 
19 49 50 
19 45 25 
19 45 25 


H. M. S. 

20 46 19 
20 40 20 


H. M. S. 

21 41 39 
21 54 
23 30 



On the third pendulum there were three maxima of tremors. 
Duration of preliminary tremors, 38m. 27s. 



Potsdam. Dr. Eschexhagen. 

From a photographic reproduction of Dr. Eschenhagen's diagrams the 
following times are obtained : — 



Commencement of preliminary tremors 
Duration of „ 



Nicolaio)v 
Tsoliia , 



G.M.T. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


19 


50 


30 




29 


16 


19 


57 





19 


55 






ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 167 



Earthquake of February 19, 1897. Oiigin, Japan (8h. 49m. Os. G.M.T.). 

This earthquake was not recorded at Shide, the clock of the recording 
apparatus having stopped. It was recorded at other stations as follows : — 

H. M. s. 

Edinburgh 9 30 (maximum) 

Nicolaiew 8 52 

Ischia 8 55 30 

Potsdam 9 4 1 

The following are the times (J.IVLT.) at which the shock was noted in 
Japan : — 

Miyako. — 5h. 49m., strong and sudden, clocks stopped. 

Yamagata. — 5h. 49m. 10s., strong and sudden, clocks stopped. 

Akita. — 5h. 49m. 30s., strong and sudden, clock stopped. 

Ishinomaki. — 5h. 49m. 30s., strong and sudden, clock stopped. 

Niigata. — 5h. 46m. 36s., strong, clocks stopped. 

Fukushinia. — 5h. 49m. 48s., strong, clocks stopped. 

Utsunomiya. — 5h. 50m. Os., strong, houses shaken. 

Mayibashi. — 5h. 47m. 56s., strong, clocks stopped. 

Tokio. — 5h. 49m. 37s., strong and slow, clocks stopped. 

Mito. — 5h. 50m., strong and slow, clocks stopped. 

Kofu. — 5h. 50m., strong and slow, clocks stopped. 

Choshi. — 5h. 51m. 24s., strong and long. 

Ifagoya. — 5h. 52m. 36s., strong, clocks stopped. 

Jfagano. — 5h. 50m. 5s., weak and slow. 

jK'gaya. — 5h. 48m., weak and slow. 

Aivomori. — 5h. 50m., weak and sudden, clocks stopped. 

Hakodate. — 5h. 59m. 48s., weak and sudden, stopped. 

Uwajima. — 5h. 52m. 45s., weak and slow. 

Yokosuka. — 5h. 49m. 57s., weak and long. 

Yokohama. — 5h. 51m. 20s., weak, clocks stopped. 

Hamannatsv,. — 5h. 7m., weak. 

Eikone. — 5h. 50m. 27s., weak and long. 

'Gifu. — 5h. 57m. 10s., weak. 

Kioto. — 5h. 51m. 4s., weak, with rumbling. 

Fushiki. — 5h. 50m. 45s., slight and slow. 

Nemuro. — 5h. 40m. 45s., slight and long. 

Kushiro. — 5h. 50m., 50s., slight, with rumbling noises. 



The greatest disturbance appears to have taken place at Sendai and 
in N.E. Nippon, from which it is not unlikely that the origin of the 
shock was near to that of June 15, 1896 (see Shock No. 1). This being 
the case, the rate of travel on paths 9,749, 8,760, and 8,241 kms. to Ischia, 
Potsdam, and Nicolaiew would respectively be 24, 9*7, and 45 kms. per 
second ! The first and last of these computations we hope to be in a 
position to correct in some future report. 

Examples of earthquakes which have sensibly shaken the whole of 
North Japan caii be found the effects of which do not appear to have 
reached Europe. 



168 



REPORT — 1897. 



Earth Movements recorded by a Bifilar rendulum at the Royal Observatory^ 

Edinburgh. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


1 


32 


2 




3 




4 




5 


35 


6 




7 




8 






45 


9 


47 


10 


48 


11 


51 


12 


57 


13 




14 


67 


15 




16 


70 


17 


83 


18 




19 




20 


87 


21 




22 




23 


88 



Date 



Aug. 25 



26 



Nov. 



Dec. 
Feb. 



Sept. 20 

''1 

23 
Oct. 6 



2 

4 

5 

26 

4 
6 



7 
16 
19 



Mar. 18 



Time, 
G.M.T. 



H. 
4 
5 



M. 
45 

40 



21 10' 

2 10 

11 15 

11 50 



18 

22 

23 

1 

3 

5 

6 

17 



35 

50"! 
20 J 
50 i 
35 I 

20 J 



11 57 \ 

12 17/ 
20 10 
20 30 
22 46 

6 48 
22 35"! 
10 15 f 



12 32" 
12 47 

12 I; 

13 17 
2 54 



Eem.irks. 



Slight tilt to North. 
„ ,, South. 

Four slight bends in curve, North and South 
alternately. 

Gap in curve. No photogi-aphic effect pro 
duced from llh. 15m. to llh. 30m. ; broadened 
and badly defined line llh. 30m. to llh. 50m. 

Tilt, to North. 

Gap very similar to the one at llh. 15m. 

Four bends in curve, South and North alter- 
nately. 

Trace of diffusion in the curve line. Line 
slightly bent at several points during the 
day. 

Line distinctly diffused for 20 minutes. 

Bend to North. 
Normal direction resumed. 
Bend to South. 
Tilt to North. 

Line very irregular, sinuous. 

Several very slight irregularities during the 

day. None well marked. 
Small tilt to South. 
Large tilt to North, about 2"-5. 
Line diffused, with well-marked widening to^ 

South. 
Large tilt to North. 

•» >» »» 

Strong „ „ 

Gap in photographic trace. (At 9h. 30m gap 
begins abruptly. At 9h. 48m. line is nearly 
normal for a few minutes Slight diffusion 
and widening lasts up to lOh. 2m.) 

Gap in photographic line. (Atl2h.32m.lineshows- 
slight trace of diffusion and widening. 12h. 
47m. to 12h. 52m. line is nearly normal, when 
thegap begins, and ends sharply at 13h. 17m.) 

Small tilt to North. 



ON SELSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



169 



Becords received from Professor Kortaszi, Nleolaiew. The Instrument employed 
■mas von Reheur's Horizontal Pendulum. Time, O.M. T. 





a . 




Time 




No. 




Date 














Remarks. 




CO .^ 




Commence- 
ment 


Muximam 


Ecd 








d 






















1896 


H. BI. 


s. 


H. M. 


s. 


H. M. 


s. 




1 


1 


June 14 


— 




22 










Record spoiled. Jiipan. 


2 


8 


"1 ,, 29 


8 47 





. — . 




9 22 





Cyprus. 


3 


r 


9 36 


30 


— 




— 




Small. Cyprus. 


4 


35 


Aug. 26 


11 22 





11 37 





12 22 





Max. amp. 10mm Also 
sharp at llh. 2:lm. c!0s. 
Iceland. 


6 


36 


„ 30 


20 7 


30 


20 33 





23 7 





Also sharp at 201i. 17m. 
Os. and 21h. 7iii. Os. 
Japan . 


6 


39 


Sept. 12 


17 12 





17 32 





18 12 





Max. 15mm. 


7 


47 


,, 21 


16 52 





16 59 





17 32 





Max. 35mm. Earth- 
quake in Tiflis. 


8 


48 


„ 23 


n 52 





11 57 





13 .52 





Sharp at llh. 5rm. 30<. 


9 


49 


,. 24 


10 49 





11 35 





12 10 





Max. 7-5mm. Sharp at 
llh. 6m. Os. 


10 


56 


Oct. 31 


17 5 


30 


17 19 





19 





Max. 52mm. Sbarp at 
17h. lOm. Os. Djarkeut 
and Przewalsk. 


11 


57 


Nov. 2 


3 51 





3 59 





4 12 





Max. 4-5mm. 


12 


67 


.. 5 
1897 


9 39 


30 


9 56 





11 22 





Max. 18mm. Sharp at 
9h. 44m. 30s. and 9h. 
52m. Os. 


13 


74 


Jan. 8 


22 24 





22 52 





24 38 





Max. 8mm. Sharp at 
22h. 48m. Os. 


14 


83 


Feb. 6 


19 57 





20 16 





21 22 





Max. 30mm. Sharp at 
20h. 2m. Os. 


15 


85 


„ 12 


14 6 





14 18 

r 9 8 




01 


15 22 





Mas. 10mm. Sharp at 
14h. 16m. Os. 


16 


88 


„ 19 


8 52 





10 16 
[l2 25 


. 


15 2 





Separated maxima. 












oj 








17 


89 


Mar. 1 


14 32 





14 48 





15 13 





Max. 4mm. 


18 


93 


„ 15 


18 31 





19 22 





20 12 





Max. 19mm. Sbnrp at 
19h. 9m. Os. and 19h. 
17m. Os. 



170 



KEPORT — 1897. 



Records received from Br. Giulin Grahlovitz, Director R. Osserratorio Geodinamico 

di Casamicelola, Ischia. 

The movements were recorded on smoked paper by means of two horizontal 

pendulums. 





60 














1^ 




Time, G.M.T. 








No. 


I* 


Date 








Remarks. 




213 
O 




Commeace- 
ment 


Maximum 


End 


AV^^&A-Ab*4 ^M\J* 






1896 


H. M. s. 


H. M. s 


H. M. 


s. 




1 


1 


June 14 


22 49 50 


r23 33 46\ 
\23 36 49/ 


30 





Large. 


2 


— 


„ 15 


17 38 47 









3 


— 


)» »» 


11 23 33 


— 


— 






4 


8 


„ 29 


8 48 20 


rs 56 3\ 
18 59 25/ 


9 17 





Moderate. 


5 


35 


Aug. 26 


11 30 54 


fU 39 0\ 
111 41 OJ 


12 





Iceland. Large. 


6 


— 


l» l» 


22 55 30 


— 







„ Moderate. 


7 


36 


„ 30 


20 20 30 


r21 7 0^1 
\21 13 0/ 


22 22 







8 


— 


Sept. 5 


12 2 43 







Iceland. 


9 


— 


„ 11 


20 30 35 


— 









10 


— 


„ 17 


2 63 40 





— 




Calabria. 


11 


47 


,, 21 


16 53 58 


16 59 


17 20 





Weak. 


12 


48 


„ 23 


11 52 8 


fll 59 01 
\12 4 Of 


12 43 





i» 


13 


— 


,» 24 


10 46 33 


— 


— 






14 


49 1 
or^ 
50 J 


)1 l» 


11 54 


12 7 30 


Uncertain 


f Instrument disturbed by 
\ strong wind. 


15 


— 


Oct. 29 


23 56 35 


— 


— 






16 


56 


„ 31 


17 8 5 


ri7 31 0\ 
117 34 0/ 


18 32 





Moderate. 


17 


67 


Nov. 5 


9 54 17 


flO 2 0\ 
\10 3 0/ 


10 38 





»» 


18 


— " 


„ 9 

1897 


22 32 8 


— 


— 






19 


— 


Jan. 10 


9 8 


— 


— 




Gulf of Persia. 


20 


83 


Feb. 6 


19 55 


r 20 28 "1 
120 35 OJ 


21 





Moderate. 


21 


— 


„ 11 


11 53 


— 


— 




Calabria. 


22 


— 


„ 19 


8 55 30 


9 45 


10 20 





Moderate. 


23 


88 


»l »» 


12 16 


13 18 


14 30 








Eleven records refer to the same disturbances noted at Shide. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



171 



The following observations have been received from Professor Dr. 
Eschenhagen, Konigliches Meteorologisch-Magnetisches Observatorium, 
Potsdam : — 

Becords of Magnetographs. 





Correspond- 








No. 


ing Shide 
No. 


Date 


Time, G.M.T. 


Remaiks. 






1896 


H. M. s 




1 


35 


Aug. 26 


U 29 15 


Strong on all three magnetographs at 
llh. 34m. 45s. 


2 





„ 27 


11 2 57 


Weak, but strong at llh. 7iii. 45s. 


3 


36 


„ 31 


— 


Earthquake, but instrument was also 
artificially disturbed. 


4 


— 


Sept, 5 


12 11 45 


From Iceland. 


5 


:!9 


., 12 


— 


Earthquake, but instrument was also 
artificially disturbed. 


6 


41 


„ 14 


— 


M >» »J T» 


7 


47 


„ 21 


17 6 27 


Weak. Strong at Im. 42s. later. Ends 
at 17h. 17m. 45s. 


8 


48 


„ 23 


12 3 45 


Weak for 4m. Also at 12h. 8m. 57s. to 
12h. 1 3m. 27s. 


9 


56 


Oct. 31 
1897 


17 21 6 


Shock, but chief shock at 17h. 27m. 


10 


83 


Feb. 6 


20 31 57 


Duration, 4m. Lloyd's balance. 


11 


88? 


„ 19 


9 41 33 


j> •> 


— 


— 




9 43 59 


i» i» 


— 


— 


— 


9 48 33 


ft I* 



Observations with a Conical Pendulum carryivg a small Mirror on a Glass Boom 
20 cm. in length, and held horizontally by a Quartz Fibre. Period, about 15s. 
The apparatus is similar to that iised for several years in Japan.^ 



No. 


Corresponding 
Shide No. 


Date 


Approx im ate Time, 
G.M.T. 


Remaiks. 






1897 


H. M. S. 




1 


— 


Jan. 3 


11 7 52 


Duration, 21i. 


2 


— . 


,, 10 


9 6 39 


,, Ih. 


3 


— 


„ 12 


9 6 31 


„ Ih. 


4 


78 


„ 16 


10 36 29 




5 


— 


„ 19 


14 37 37 




6 


83 


Feb. 6 


20 5 8 


„ 2h. 


7 


84 


7 


12 5 11 




8 


85 


,. 12 


15 5 23 


„ Ih. 


9 


— 


„ 14 


3 35 25 




10 


— 


„ 15 


10 5 25 


„ Ih. 


11 


— 


„ 19 


9 14 31 


„ 2b. 


12 


88 




12 5 31 


„ 2h. 


13 


— 


„ 20 


15 50 36 




14 


— 


., 23 


23 35 50 




15 


— 


Mar. 2 


9 6 10 


„ 2h. 


16 


— 


4 


12 4 38 


,, 111. 


17 


— 


6 


19 5 40 





The lists, it will be observed, are only comparable from January, 1897, 
after which there are two magnetograph disturbances, corresponding to 
two movements of the horizontal pendulum. The comparison between 
these shows considerable dift'erences in time, and indicates the necessity 

' See Report of British Association, 1892. 



172 



REPORT — 1897. 



of obtaining records from similar instruments, each recording on a surface 
moving with sufficient rapidity to give an open time scale. It is satis- 
factory to note that twelve of the disturbances were common to North 
Germany and the Isle of Wight. 

The following are more exact determinations of the coinmenceynent 
of disturbances, determined from photograms : — 



No. 4 (Shide 78), Jan. IG 
„ 6 ( „ 83), Feb. 6 
„ 11 „ 19 

„ 12 ( „ 88), „ 19 



11. ji. s. G.M.T. 
10 2 6 
19 50 30 
9 4 1 
12 20 9 



Observations at Mocoa di Papa. Dr. A. Cancani. (These observations reached 
Shide too late to be used in computations of velocity, &c.) 



No. 


Sbide 
No. 


Date 


Comraeoce- 
ment 


Maximum 


Remarks 






1896 


H. M. s. 


H. M. S. 




1 


1 


June 14 


22 56 • 


23 23 15 


Period 18 seconds. 


2 


8 


„ 29 


8 48 27 


8 52 30 


Also at 8h. 59m. 


3 


35 


Aug. 26 


11 26 40 


11 35 


End at llh. 46m. 


4 


36 


,. 30 


20 21 


21 3 


End at 22h. 16m. ; the long 
waves commenced at 20h. 
41m. 


5 


— 


Sept. 5 


12 6 


12 15 




6 


— 


,, 11 


20 38 20 


20 56 


End about 22h. 


7 


47 


,, 21 


17 
(about) 


— 


Duration 37m. 


8 


48 


„ 23 


11 65 


12 3 


End about 12h. 20m. 


9 


56 


Oct. 31 


17 


17 31 


End about 18h. 


10 


67 


Nov. 5 


9 59 


10 1 30 


Duration Ih. 


11 


83 


Feb. 6 


20 24 


20 27 19 
/ 9 37 20 














9 39 30 




12 




„ 19 


8 29 


" 


9 41 20 

9 45 10 

I 9 47 


' 










ri3 8 




13 


88 


i» )» 


11 55 


13 14 

■ 13 19 

13 26 





VI. The Highest Ajjparent Velocities at which Earth-tuaves are Propagated. 
By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The following table of the highest apparent velocities with which 
earthquake motion is propagated over paths of varying length has been 
drawn up for the purpose of indicating the general character of the 
information we at present possess bearing upon this subject. 

The sources from which information has been derived are various, the 
more important being as follows : — 

' Horizontalpendel-Beobachtungen,' by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz 
('Beitrage zur (3^eophysik,' Band II.). These include observations made at 
Strassburg, Potsdam, Wilhelmshaven, Nicolaiew, Charkof, by the present 
writer in Japan, by observers in Italy and other places. ' Bollettino 
della Societa Sismologica Italiana,' vols. i. and ii. The catalogues, edited 
by Professor P. Tacchini, contained in the volumes give prominence to the 
observations made at Italian stations, whilst observations made in Europe 
and Japan have not been neglected. ' Transactions of the Seismological 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



173 



Society,' vols, i.-xx. Seventeen Reports on Seismic Phenomena drawn up 
by the writer for the British Association, 1881-1896. 

With the exception of groups of observations made within a few 
hundreds of kilometres of an epifocal area, all records which refer to 
maxima phases of motion, as, for example, those which appareiitly disturb 
magnetographs, have been neglected, and therefore, taken as a whole, the 
velocities given in the following list are based upon the times at which 
preliminary tremors have commenced to show themselves at various 
stations. 



Apparent Veloci 


Uj of Earthquake Motion along 


Paths of Varying Length. 










Dis- 


Dis- 


Velocity 










Place of 


tance on 


in Kms. 






Epicentre 


Date 


Observation 


tance in 
Degrees 


Arc iu 
Kms. 


per Sec. 
on Arc 

17-0 






1. S. A., Santiago . 


Oct. 27, 1894 


Tokio 


156 


17,400 


Mean of ob- 
















servations 
















at tliree 
















stations in 
















Tokio. 




2. 


„ 


Charkof 


119 


13,230 


12-13 






3. Mexico 


Nov. 2. 1894 


Nicoliiiew 


102 


11,300 


10-0 






4. S. A., Santiago . 


Oct. 27, 1894 


Rome 


100 


11,200 


10-85 






5. Merida Venezuela . 


Apr. 28, 1894 


Charkof 


94-8 


10,550 


9-1 


Mean of ob- 
servations 




^ 












at Charkof 
and Nico- 
laiew. 




6. JapaD, Sakata . 


Oct. 31, 1896 


Catania 


88-15 


9,796 


11-1 






7. „ N.E. Coast . 


June 15, 1895 


lochia 


87-8 


9,749 


8-7 






8. „ Sakata . 


Oct. 31, 1896 


Rome 


86-10 


9,564 


11-2 






9. „ Tokio 


Oct. 18, 1892 


Strassburg 


86-6 


9,520 


5-87 






10. „ „ . . 


Nov. 4, 1892 


,, 


„ 


„ 


8-1 






11. „ Nemuro . 


Mar. 22, 1893 


Rome 


86-0 


9,500 


9-9 






12. „ Sakata . 


Oct. 31, 1896 


Ischia 


85-3 


9,469 


11-8 






i;i. „ Nemuro . 


Mar. 22, 1894 


S. Russia 


85-3 


9,477 


8-7 






14. „ N.E. Coast 


June 15, 1895 


Padua 


84-4 


9,320 


9-7 






15. „ Sakata . 


Oct. 31, 1896 


Isle of Wight 


83-7 


9,290 


9-7 






l(i. California . 


Apr. 19, 1892 


Strassburg 


82-7 


9,180 


3-93 






1 7. Japan, Sakata . 


Oct. 31, 1896 


„ 


82-5 


9,157 


14-2 






18. „ Tokio 


Apr. 17, 1889 


Willielnishaven 


81-7 


9,070 


6-8 






19. „ „ . . 


^, 


Potsdam 


80-6 


8,950 


11-3 






20. Philippines 


Mar. 16, 1892 


Nicolaiew 


78-9 


8,758 


6-08 






21. „ Luzon . 


^, 


,, 


„ 


,, 


5-41 






22. Japan, Tokio . 


Mav 11, 1892 


„ 


71-2 


7,910 


9-55 






2S. „ „ . . 


Oct. 18, 1892 




— 


— 


3-23 






24. „ ., . . 


Nov. 4, 1892 


J, 


_. 


— 


6-28 






25. „ „ . . 


Jiar. 23, 1893 


„ 


— 


— 


3-72 






26. „ „ . . 


Jan. 18, 1895 




— 


— 


6-3 






27. „ Nemuro . 


Mar. 21, 1894 


Mid Italy 


70-7 


• 7,857 


8-2 






28. „ Tokio 


Oct. 7, 1894 


Charkof 


70-4 


7,814 


13-0 






29. Quetta 


Dec. 211, 1892 


Strassburg 


45-7 


5,290 


5-65 






3U 


Feb. 13, 1893 


„ 


,, 


„ 


3-08 






:U. Central Asia, Wjcrnoje 


July 11, 1889 


Wilbelmshaven, 
Potsdam 


43-3 


4,806 


5-00 






32. Quetta 


Dec. 20, 1892 


— 


34-6 


3,840 


3-86 






.■53. Asia Minor, Amcd 


Apr. 16, 1896 


Strassburg 


18-0 


1,990 


3-50 






o4. Patras .... 


Aug. 2.5, 1889 


Potsdam 


15-4 


1,732 


2-59 






:'.5. Charleston . 


Aug. 31, 1886 


— 


15-0 


1,678 


5-18 






:ui. Thebes 


Mav 23, 1893 


Strassburg 


14-8 


1,650 


2-4 






:; 7. Asia Minor, Amcd 


Apr. 16, 1896 


Padua 


14-0 


1,580 


9-4 






:;s. Bucharest . 


Oct. 14, 1892 


Strassburg 


13-0 


1,450 


2-35 






:;;i. Taloria, Epirus . 


June 13, 1893 




12-1 


1,350 


3-0 






1 4U. „ „ . . 


„ 


Nicolaiew 


11-4 


1,270 


3-1 






41. Thebes 


May 23, 1893 


„ 


10-3 


1,150 


2-0 






42. Naples. 


Jan. 25, 1893 


.'^trassburg 


9-0 


1,000 


3-62 






43. Mount r,art.'aiio, Italy 


Aug. 10,1893 


,, 


,, 


,, 


3-62 






44. Japan, Nemuro . 


Mar. 22, 1893 


Tokio 


8-7 


965 


2-6 


Average 
max. for 
group of 
4 shocks. 




45. „ Noto 


Dec. 9, 1891 


" 


2-4 


272 


2-3 


Average for 
a group. 




4G. „ Gifu 


Oct. 28, 1801 




2-2 


241 


2-4 


Max. for a 
group of IS 
shocks. 





174 



REPORT — 1897. 



A glance at the above table, or the diagrammatic representation of the 
same (tig. 15), shows that either thei-e have been great differences in the 
velocities with which movements have been propagated to points equally 
distant from given origins, which is unlikely, or that there have been 
laraer errors in the determination of the time at which motion commenced 
at different stations. 

Possible causes for these errors are easily found. 

Fig. 15.— Velocities of Earth-waves round or through the Earth. 




180 170 160 ;fO "W ISO 120 HO 100 30 (30 70 60 60 tO 30 20 W 

Degrees, 1° = 111 Km. 

1. Different instruments; some being horizontal pendulums recording 
photographically, others being pendulums varying in length and in the 
frictional resistance of pointers recording on smoked surfaces, may have 
unequal degrees of sensibility. 

2. Similar instruments may be differently adjusted. 

3. When a record is received on a sui-face moving at a rate of about 
20mm. per hour, the error in determining the time at which a disturbance 
commenced may be 1 minute. 

4. A local shock may be mistaken for one arriving from a distance. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 175 

Examination of Cases where the Velocity has been Abnormally High. 

Shock No. 1. — This was recorded at three stations in Japan Ijy hori- 
zontal pendulums recording on photographic surfaces. From the fact that 
ordinary seismographs did not record an earthquake on that day, and 
because each photogram began with gentle tremors, it is safe to assume 
that they represented an earthquake originating at a great distance. 
Unfortunately, the note-books containing the clock corrections were burned, 
but taking the time determinations direct from the photograms, they lead 
to the conclusion that motion was propagated to Japan from a place 
almost at its antipodes at a rate varying between 16 and 19 kms. per 
second. 

The greatest merit in this record is that it falls in line with what we 
should expect from records taken over shorter ranges. 

Shock 17. — Like other Strassburg records, this was obtained on paper 
moving at a rate of about 1 mm. in three minutes. Independently of this, 
however, we see that for the same shock at four other observatories 
velocities of 9-7, 11"1, 11'2, and ITS kms. per second have been calculated 
(Nos. 15, 6, 8, and 12), and it is therefore highly probable that the 
determination for Strassburg of 14-2 kms. is too high. 

Shock 28. — We have here another case of a record from a surface 
moving at a rate of 1 mm. in about three minutes, whilst the epicentre 
may have been distant from Tokio. 

Shock 37 . — Because a delicate seismograph at Catania was disturbed 
2 minutes 40 seconds before the one at Padua suggests the idea that 
these Italian records possibly refer to a local disturbance, and not to the 
one in Asia Minor. This point has been discussed by Professor M. G. 
Agamennone (see ' Bollet. A. Soc. Sis. Italiana,' vol. ii.. No. 8). 

Shock 35. — This estimate is based upon a most careful and elaborate 
analysis of records, none of which, however, were obtained fi'om the 
automatic indications of seismographs. 

Abnormally Low Velocities. 

Shocks 9 and 23. — We have here two observations for the same shock, 
and we find that the photograms obtained at Strassburg and Nicolaiew 
were ' schwach und wenig scharf,' and for the former there was an 
' unbestimmter anfang,' from which it may be concluded that the com- 
mencement of movement at these places was not determined. 

Shock 21. — From the Nicolaiew record it appears that the commence- 
ment of this disturbance is thus noted : ' 5-02 h. (?) Anfang der Storung.' 
The uncertainty here expressed possibly explains the low velocity 
recorded. 

Shock 16. — Here again there appears to have been difficulty in 
determining the commencement of movement, owing to the undefined 
character of the photogram. 

Shock 25.^ — This was observed not onh* at Nicolaiew, but also at 
Strassburg, the velocities being 3-72 and 4-2 kms. per second respectively. 
Although von Rebeur in his ' Horizontalpendel-Beobachtungen,' p. 492, 
tells us that these velocities are based upon tlie observation of the time at 
which the first weak movement is visible, from a table on p. 443 they 
appear to have been determined from the observation of the instant at 
which there was a sudden increase in motion, and are used with other 



176 



REPORT 1897. 



observations to determine the mean velocity of propagation, which is that 
of the greatest movements. 

Shock 3. — Movement in Europe was extremely small, and no record 
was obtained at Nicolaiew. Possibly the smallness of the diagram, which 
began 'little by little,' may have rendered it difficult to make accurate 
measurements on the time scale. 

The general result of the examination of data which have led to the 
determination of velocities which appear to be either too high or too 
low, is to find that such data are either imperfect or capable of another 
interpretation. 

The doubtful cases are placed in circles, and to these, based upon a 
long experience in observing earthquake velocities over ranges up to about 
1,000 kms., I should be inclined to add Nos. 33, 39, 40, 43, and 42. 

If, therefore, we exclude the computations the accuracy of which is doubt- 
ful, the general results towards which the continuation of the observations on 
the propagation of earth-waves over ranges of varying length point is 
approximately indicated in the following table : — 



Distance fiom Origin 


App.arcnt Velocity in Km?, per Sec. 


In Degrees 


Iq Kms. 

i 


Oq Ate 


On Chord 


10 

50 

80 

100 

120 

160 


2,200 

5,500 

8,800 
11,100 

1S,200 ! 
17,700 


2 to 3 

5 

8 

10 

12 ? 
16 ? 


2 to 3 
5 

7-5 

8-8 
10 ? 
10-5 ? 



VII. Diurnal Waves. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Observations made on the Tennis Ground at Shide Hill House. Installation V. 

On September 5, 1896, the horizontal pendulum which had been in 
use at Carisbrooke Castle was brought to Shide, where it was installed on 
a slate slab resting on an upended earthenware drain-pipe, sunk some 
inches in the ground, covered by a jointer's tent standing in the middle of a 
tennis ground. The chief object of this installation was to study the diurnal 
wave, as shown by the movements of a pendulum so placed that for ten or 
twenty yards, at least, on all sides of it the surface conditions were fairly 
similar. The tennis ground is in the middle of a small paddock which 
slopes towards the west. On the eastern side, at a distance of forty 
yards, is the building in which instrument T was installed, beyond which 
the ground quickly rises to Pan Down. The sun, rising on this side, reached 
the tent over the top of some high trees at about 9 a.m., throwing the 
shadow of the tent towards the N.W. At about 4 P.M. this shadow, after 
travelling through N. to the N.E. was lost, as the sun sank behind Mount 
Joy on the west. 

The bromide film was run at a rate of about 3^ inches in twenty-four 
hours, which was sufficiently rapid to give an easily measurable diagram of 
the daily movement of the pendulum, the boom of which pointed from its 
pedestal towards the south. 

On September 13 a heavy tarpaulin (30 x 30 ft.) was spread over the 
grass, immediately up to the tent on its west side. On October 13 this 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 177 

was moved to the east side, the object being to see whether such a cover- 
ing had any effect on the character of the diurnal wave. 

The Observations (1806). 

1st tveek (Sept. S-T-J). — From the 8th to the 14th daily waves were 
marked, but there was such a marked steady displacement towards the 
valley on the west that adjustments were required almost daily. 

On the 8th and 1-ith it was fairly tine, but on all the other days there 
was much rain and the weather was dull. The westei'ly motion, or down- 
ward tilting towards the saturated valley, was also marked in the records 
of T. 

2nd iveek (Sfpf. 14:-21). — Because the westerly motion had been so 
great the sensibility of the instrument was reduced, with the result that 
the daily wave was hardly visible. There was still, however, a westerly 
tendency. The weather was dull or fine, but there was no heavy i-ain. 

3rd week (Sept. 21-27) :— 

Sept. 21. 1 5-24 hours slight tremors. Fine. S. wind. 

„ 22. 18-20 hours slight tremors. Fine. Strong S.W. wind. 

„ 23 Steady. Fine. Strong S.W. wind. 

„ 24. 12-19 hours slight tremors. Fine. W. wind. Eain at night. 

„ 25. Steady. Strong wind, rain. 

,, 26. Steady. Rain, but calm. 

„ 27. Steady. Stormy. S.W. wind. 

On the 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th there were slight daily waves, but 
after adjustment on the 25th the movement was barely visible. 

It may be inferred that with cloudy weather the daily wave has beert 
small. The shock shown by T on the 21st is not shown. 

4th tveek {Sept. 28-Oct. 2) :— 

Sept. 28. East motion completed i P.M. Fine. W. wind. 

,, 29. East motion completed 4.45 P.M. Rain. S. wind. 

„ 30. East motion completed 2-30 to 3.30 p.m. Fine. N. wind. 

Oct. 1. East motion completed 3 30 p.m. Fine. \V. wind. 

For six hours before the above times the motion was easterly, and for 
si.K hours after it was westerly. In no instance were the waves large. 

Two slight disturbances were noted, but these do not agree in time 
with displacements observed on T. 

5ik week (Oct. 2-9) :— 

Oct. 2. East motion completed 5 p.m. West motion completed at 10.50 P.M. 

On all other days no movement. This was discovered as being due to 
a spider, which was caught on Oct. 10. 
6th iceek {Oct. 9-15) :— 

Oct. 9. East motion completed 3.15 p.m., and west at 9 p.m. Amp .Omni. 

Fine. W. wind. 
„ 10. East motion completed 4 p.m. Amp. 3mm. Fine. S. breeze. 
„ 11. No record. Dull. N. wind. 
„ 12. East motion completed 6 P.M., and west at IShrs. Amp. 3mm. 

N. breeze. Dull. 
„ 13. Record bad. A large tarpaulin placed on ground on west side of 

tent. Fine. N. wind. 
„ 14. East motion completed about noon. Wave small. Fine. N.E. 

wind. 
,, 15. Bast motion completed 3 p.m., and west at 6.50 p.m. Amp. Gmm. 

Little rain. Dull. S. wind. 
1897. N 



178 REPORT— 1897. 

We have here a case (on Oct. 15), where there has been a fairly large 
wave on a dull day, and a small one (Oct. 10) on a fine day. 
Very small tremors were seen on the following days : — 

Oct. 9. 5 to 9 hours. 
„ 14. 7 to 14 „ 
„ 15. 4 to 7 „ and again 11 to 22 hours. 

Three displacements were recorded which do not agree in time to 
those noted by T. 

1th toeek {Oct. 16-22) :— 

Oct. 16. Very slight wave. Dull. Strong N. wind. 
„ 17. East motion completed 2h., and west at 6 p.m. Amp. 6mm. 

Fine. N. wind. 
,, 18. East motion completed 3h., and west at 10 p.m. Amp. 14mm. 

Fine. N.W. wind. 
„ 19 to 20. Practically straight ; possibly held fast. 

The diurnal waves were marked on fine days. 

Slight tremors were only observed on the 16th, to 14 hours. There 
was one strong deflection on the 16th, which is not shown on T. 
Wi week {Oct. 23-30) :— 

East motion completed 2h. 30m., and west about 8 P.M. Amp. 

11mm. Fine. N. wind. 
Ea-!t motion completed Ih., and west about 12 p.m. Flat. Eain. 

S.VV. wind. 
East motion completed 3h. 80m. Fine. N. wind. 
No record. 
East motion completed 2h. 30m., and west about 8 p.m. Amp. 

14mm. Fine. W. wind. 
East motion completed 4h., and west about 9 p.m. Amp. 10mm. 

Fine. W. wind. 
East motion completed 3h., and west about 7 p.m. Amp. 10mm. 

Fog. Calm. 

It is difficult to say when the west motion is completed. The sharp 
motion eastwards is from about 8 a.m. to 3 p.m., and westwards 3 p.m. to 
8 P.M. Decided waves have been with fine weather, when cloudy and 
wet, waves have been absent. 

Slight tremors were observed as follows : — 



Oct 


23. 


1» 


24. 


11 

J' 


25. 
26. 
27. 


»1 


28. 


IJ 


29. 



Oct. 23. 


3 to 7 hoi 


irs and 18 to 21 hours 


„ 24. 


11 to 21 . 




„ 25. 


8 to 15 , 




„ 27. 


3 to 8 , 




„ 28. 


4 to 8 , 




„ 29. 


3 to 8 , 





Tremors, therefore, occurred at night, and whilst there was a rapid 
westerly displacement. Moderately marked displacements took place on 
the 23rd to 24th, which are not shown by T. 

°)th iceek {Oct. m-Nov. 6.) :— 

Oct. 30. No record. Moved tarpaulin to the east side of tent. 
„ 31. East motion 10 A.M. to 2.30 P.M., west motion 2.30 P.M. to 6.30 P.M. 
Amp. 8 mm. Fine. N. wind. 
Nov. 1. East motion 3 A.M. to 3.0 p.m., west motion 3 to 8 p.m. Wave 
small. Dull. N.E. wind. 
2. No record. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 179 

Nov. 3. East motion 5 A.M. to 2.30 p.m., west motion 2.30 p.m. to 6 P.M. 

Amp. 4 mtn. Dull. N. wind. 
„ 4. East motion 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., west motion 3 p.m. to 7. .SO p.m. 

Amp. 8 mm. Fine. N. wind. 
„ 5. East motion 8.30 A.m. to 3 p.m., west motion 3 P.M. to midnight. 

Amp. 10 mm. Fine. E. wind. 

The greatest movements have been on the fine days. 

Tremors were observed on October 30, 3 to 17 hours, of 2 mm. range, 
and slight tremors on October 31 and November 4. 

Three displacements were noted which do not agree with the records 
of T, but the earthquakes Nos. 55 and 59 shown by T were well recorded. 

10th week {Nov. 6-13.) :— 

Nov. 6. East motion from before noon to 2.30 p.m., west motion 2.30 to 

8 p.m. Amp. 7 mm. Fine. N. wind. 
„ 7. East motion 6.30 a.m. to 3.0 p.m., west motion 3 to 6 p.m. Amp. 

1 mm. Fog, frost. 
„ 8. No wave, but westerly displacement midnight to 7 A.m. Eain. 

N. wind. 
„ 9. East motion from before noon to 2.45 p.m., west motion 2.45 to 

8 P.M. Amp. 7 mm. Fine. N. wind. 
„ 10. East motion 9 A.m. to 3.30 p.m., west motion 3.30 to 7 p.m. Amp. 

6 mm. Fine. Calm. 
„ 11. East motion from before noon to 2 p.m., west motion 2 to 6 p.m. 

Amp. 1 mm. Dull. W. wind. 
„ 12. East motion 9 A.M. to 3 p.m., west motion 3 to 6 p.m. Amp. 8 mm. 

Dull. S. wind. Afterwards fine. 

The diurnal wave is evidently pronounced on fine days, and small or 
absent when it has been rainy, cloudy, or dull. 
Tremors were noted as follows : — 

Nov. 6. 4 to 12 hours. Slight. 

„ 7. 7 to 22 „ Maxima of 2 mm. at 19 hours. 
„ 9. 4 to 12 „ „ 1 mm. at G hours. 

„ 10. 6 to 11 „ „ 1 „ 

„ 11. 18 to 20 „ „ 5 „ 

„ 12. 4 to 13 „ „ 1 „ 

Six small displacements were noted, which do not agree with the records 
of T. 

The Diurnal Wave. 

Figure 1 6 shows half-size tracings of daily waves taken from the origi- 
nal photograms. Angular values for these waves may be approximately 
obtained by assuming that 1 mm. deflection corresponds to a change 
in inclination of 0'5 sec. of arc. Should accurate measurements of these 
quantities be required, they can be obtained from my note-books. 

Days on which the diurnal wave was very small have been omitted. 
The curves which are given clearly show that the daily deflection is 
variable in amount ; but whether the ground around the tent was open, or 
covered by a tarpaulin on the west side or on the east side, the times at 
which the pendulum commenced, completed, and ended its sharper 
movements are practically the same. If we commence in the morning, 
the direction of movement of the pendulum from a north-south line, 
or its normal position, was such that it tended to approach a position that 
would place its boom in a line with the sun and the shadow of the tent. 
That is to say, it swung towards the east, but it continued this motion 

N2 



180 



REl'ORT — 1897, 



Fig. 16.— Diurnal Waves at Shide, 
1896. 




until the sun had passed the meridian, 
or until 2 or 3 p.m. Then it returned, 
following the sun until 7 or 9 p.m. 

The text accompanying these dia- 
grams shows that the movements are 
practically confined to fine days, from 
which it may be concluded that the- 
effect is connected with solar radiation. 

In previous reports I have suggested 
that it might be produced by the differ- 
ence in load removed by evaporation on 
two sides of an installation, such loads 
from a surface of grass being represented 
by the removal of 4 or 5 lb. per square 
yard per day. 

The experiment with the tarpaulin- 
cover placed first on one side of the 
tent and then on the other, which failed 
to produce any marked effect on the 
character of the diurnal motion, indi- 
cates not only that this is practically 
uninfluenced by differential evaporation 
effects, but also by the heat received 
by the ground on two sides of an in- 
stallation, these effects being local. 
We therefore have to look to the in- 
strument, the pier on which it stands', 
or external effects on a widespread 
area. The fact that the diurnal wave is 
marked on a brick pier rising from a 
solid foundation in the middle of a 
brick building shaded by trees,' and 
also in cellars, in both of which places 
the changes in temperature have been 
small, indicates that the movements 
are not to be accounted for by warp- 
ings on the pier or portions of the in- 
strument. 

The fact that strong and steady 
westerly deflections corresponding to 
an increase on the slope of the hill on 
which T and V stood accompany wefc 
weather, and that reverse movements 
follow fine weather, indicates that a 
load in the valley apparently causes 
this to sink, whilst during the removal 
of such a load it apparently rises. It 
seems natural to conclude that the 
diurnal waves are movements with a 
similar origin. On hot days the valley 
loses moisture, and therefore it rises. 



' Britixh Association BejJort, 1896, p. 213. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 181 

and the pendulum travels eastwards, whilst at night moisture is accumu- 
lated, and it sinks.' 

VIII. The Perry Tromometer. By John Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

A Perry Tromometer, similar to that described in the Report of this 
Committee for 1896, with photographic recording apparatus, has been 
constructed, and for some days installed at Shide. Its sensitiveness to 
elastic tremors was such tiiat it recorded trains moving at a distance of 
over half a mile, carriages at a distance of a quarter of a mile, and all 
v-ehicles passing along a road near to the building in which it was placed. 
For these reasons it was dismantled, but it may be again used when a site 
free from the above-mentioned artificial disturbances, to which may be 
added the sound-waves from heavy guns fired at a distance of five or six 
miles, can be found. 

In conclusion to the preceding sections of the Report the fact that the 
records of earthquakes and other movements have been continuous has 
been in consequence of the great interest taken in the observations by my 
assistant, Shinobu Hirota, who not only understands the working of the 
instruments in all their details, but has from time to time shown con- 
siderable ingenuity in devising and constructing new pieces of apparatus. 

IX. fSuh-oceanic Changes. By JoiiN Milne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The object of the following notes, which are an epitome of a paper to 
be communicated to the Royal Geographical Society of London, is to show 
that beneath seas and oceans there are a certain class of geological changes 
in operation Avhich are more frequent, and often more intense, than 
corresponding changes on land. 

The sites of these changes are to be found below low-water mark at 
comparatively shallow depths on submerged plateaus surrounding conti- 
nents and islands, and on the face, and especially near to the base of the 
steeper slopes of continental domes, and around submarine banks at 
depths which may even reach 4,000 fathoms. On the level floor of 
oceans, where sediments accumulate with immeasurable slov/ness, and 
whei-e for years and years ocean cables lie undisturbed, geological changes 
are, so far as a lifetime is concerned, not recognisable. 

The submarine operations to which it is particularly desired to draw 
attention are those which are seismic and volcanic, the former at least 
often being accompanied by the displacement as a landslide of such 
enormous volumes of material that the whole surface of an ocean may be 
agitated. Evidences that such displacements have had a reality is to be 
found in the conditions under which cables have been buried, and in the 
marked change in soundings near to spots where seismic efforts have been 
exerted. 

Other causes leading to displacement of materials on the face and 
near to the base of submerged slopes are overloading by sedimentation, 
erosion, the escape of water from submarine springs, and the effects of 
currents. 

The various sub-oceanic phenomena to which it is particularly desired 
to call attention will be treated in the following order : — 

1. Brady seismic action. — Because earthquakes originating beneath 

' British Association Beport, 1895, pp. 133-139, 



182 REPORT— 1897. 

the sea are more numerous and more intense than those originating on 
land, the inference is that bradyseismic activity and phenomena which 
accompany earthquakes, like landslides, are also more pronounced beneath 
the sea than they are on land. 

Bradyseismical movements include movements of upheaval or depres- 
sion, by which rocks are bent, folded, faulted, ordisplaced, by thrust, together 
with those which are the result of overloading, and may be exhibited as basal 
crush. One set of movements involve the idea of elastic and seismic 
strain, whilst the others a gravitational effect. 

2. Sedimentation and erosion. — Submarine landslides which in part 
are due to earthquakes. 

The effects of overloading, submarine springs and currents. 

.3. Changes evidenced by cable interriqjtions and soundings. 

4. Conclusions. 

1. Bradyseismic Action, 

Earthquakes the Origin of ivhich are Submarine. — The earthquakes 
which have a submarine origin may be divided into three groups : — 

1. Those which have been felt and recorded on land, and which, 
therefore, may be assumed, in the generality of cases, to have originated 
on a coast-line or within a few hundred miles off in the ocean. 

2. Those which have been recorded on shipboard out at sea, either as 
tremors or as severe movements. Many of these disturbances are 
probably volcanic. 

3. Those which have not been felt on land, but have been distinctly 
recorded there. In this group we find many of the earthquakes which 
shake the world. 

As illustrative of the frequency of the first group, I will quote from 
observations made in Japan. • Between 1881 and 1883 in North Japan 
the writer found that, out of 419 shocks, no less than 218 of them had 
originated beneath the ocean. There had been 137 which had originated 
on or near the seaboard, and therefore some of these had been of sub- 
oceanic origin, whilst only 64 had originated inland. A large number of 
these earthquakes came from the deep water off the mouth of the Tonegawa, 
the largest river in Japan, which, as it approaches the sea, crosses the 
alluvial plain of Musashi. 

Between 1885 and 1892 no less than 8,331 earthquakes were recorded 
in Japan — that is, on the average during this period of eight years there 
were about one thousand shocks per year.'^ A glance at the map showing 
the distribution of origins of these disturbances shows that nearly all of 
them have originated along the eastern seaboard, and have been frequent 
near the alluvial plains. Between January 1885 and December 1888, 
when seismic activity was in a normal state — that is to say, when there 
were no long series of after-shocks — 2,018 earthquakes were recorded, of 
which at least 1,034, or 50 per cent., originated beneath the sea. In 
Japan, therefore, along a coast-line of 1,140 miles, there has recently 
been at least about 250 submarine shocks per year. In some years there 
have been 500. 

From a seismic map of the world, I should estimate that round the 

' ' On 387 Earthquakes observed during Two Years in North Japan,' by John 
Milne, Trans. Seis. Sec, vol. vii. pt. ii. 
* Trans. Seis. Soc, vol. xx. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 183 

Pacific there are at least ten sub-littoral districts where earthquake 
frequency may be about half that of Japan. If this is accepted as 
probable, the sub-littoral seismic activity of the Pacific is represented 
by 2,500 shocks per year, some of which have been accompanied by 
submarine landslips and consequent changes in the configuration of the 
ocean bed. When these latter are gi'eat, it is assumed that ocean-waves 
are created. If we consider the seismic activity round the coasts of the 
other oceans and seas which cover our globe as being, when taken 
together, equal to that of the Pacific, then for the world, out of a possible 
10,000 shocks per year, 5,000 of them have their origin on the sub-oceanic 
continental slopes. 

To get information about the second group, or earthquakes which 
have originated far from land, we have to turn to the voluminous 
catalogues of Perrey, Mallet, Kluge, di Ballore, Fuchs, and other statis- 
ticians. Such extracts have been made by Dr. Emil Rudolph in his 
papers, ' Ueber Submarine Erdbeben und Eruptionen,' ' who gives us an 
account of 333 sub-oceanic earthquakes and eruptions. Because the 
greater number of these shocks are of volcanic origin, they will be more 
specifically referred to in the next section. The distribution of these is 
various, but here and there they herd together, indicating localities where 
changes are comparatively rapid. One favourite locality for submarine 
disturbances is in the Equatorial Atlantic, about 20° W. long., and again 
at 30° W. long., near to St. Paul's. For each of these regions Dr. 
Rudolph gives about thirty-seven shocks, in depths of water exceeding 
1,000 and 2,000 fathoms. 

The chief source of information for our last group is, however, derived 
from the records of horizontal pendulums. Taking a list of them published 
in the ' Transactions of the Seismological Society,' vol. xx., by the late 
Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, out of 301 records obtained in twenty- 
seven months, there are only 25 which can with certainty be traced to 
their origin. Out of the 176 which remain, 105 were almost simul- 
taneously recorded at places so widely separated as Potsdam, Wilhelms- 
haven, Strassburg, Nicolaiew, and Tokio, and therefore cannot be disposed 
of as being due to some accidental disturbance of an instrument or to 
small shocks of local origin. Each of them was a disturbance affecting a 
very large area, and indicates an initial impulse of great magnitude. 
What is true for the observations in Europe has also been true for my 
own observations in Japan, and also in the Isle of Wight, the only 
difference being that in Europe the stations were from 300 to 600 iniles 
apart, whilst in Japan and the Isle of Wight the stations were usually 
near to each other, and never more than 30 miles apart. In some 
instances, however, earthquakes of unknown origins were recorded in 
Japan and Europe, and it is fair to assume that in these instances the 
whole world had been shaken. 

One disturbance noted by the author in Japan on June 3, 1893, had a 
duration of five and a half hours. It was also recorded in Birmingham, 
Strassburg, and Nicolaiew, at which latter place the duration of motion 
extended over eleven hours. Amongst unfelt earthquakes, both for magni- 
tude and duration, it exceeded all that have yet been recorded. 

Because the character of the unfelt movements, the origin of which 
cannot be traced, is identical with the character of those which have been 

' Beitrage zur Geo2>hysiJi, Band I. and II. 



184 REPORT — 1897. 

traced to earthquakes originating at great distances, it is, for the present 
at least, assumed that the cause of the former is similar to the cause of 
the latter. If this is the case, the only place towards which we can turn 
to find the origin of the former appears to be beneath our oceans, and 
when they are of a magnitude approaching that of June .3 their origins 
must have been very far from land, otherwise a sensible shaking would 
have beeii observed upon the nearest shores. 

If we take the three classes of records to which we have referred in 
conjunction, the conclusion to which they point is not simply that the 
submarine evidences of seismicity are more nvmierous than those on land, 
but also that they are very much more intense. 

The Character of Submarine Seismic Districts. — If we compare 
together the characters of the districts where earthquakes of submarine 
origin are frequent with those where they are practically unknown, the 
differences are striking. In the former the land, as shown on the seaboard, 
usually consists of strata which are geologically new ; it exhibits evidences 
of recent elevation, some of which can be traced to historical times, whilst 
its average slope from the mountains in the interior down beneath the 
ocean is, over a considerable distance, relatively very steep.' The unit of 
distance over which such slopes have been measured is taken at 2°, or 
120 geographical miles. The following are a few examples of such slopes : — 

West Coast, South America, near Aconcagua . 1 in 20-2 ] 

Tlie Kurils ifrom Urap 1 in 22-1 | Sei.sraic 



Japan, west coast of Nippon 
Sandwich Islands nortliwards 
Australia generally 
Scotland from Ben Nevis 
South Norway 
South America, eastwards . 



1 in 30-4 r districts. 

1 in 23-5 ) 

1 in 91 S 

1 in 158 (Non-seismic 

1 in 73 I districts. 

1 in 943 I 



The conclusion derived from this is, that if we find slopes of con- 
siderable length extending downwards beneath the ocean steeper than 1 in 
35, at such places submarine earthquakes, with their accompanying land- 
slips, may be expected. On the summit of these slopes, whether they 
terminate in a plateau or as a range of mountains, volcanic action is 
frequent, whilst the earthquakes originate on the lower portions of the 
face and base of these declivities. 

The Cause of Seismic Strain, Deformation, Thrust, and Crush. — "We 
assume that the contours referred to in the last section are mainly the 
result of rock-movement, and that seismic strain, due to a tendency to 
further adjustment, is greatest where earthquake origins are most frequent. 
The home of the volcano is evidently the place where the rocks have been 
most deformed, whilst that of the earthquake is at the base of steep sub- 
oceanic slopes where most deformation is in progress. The nature of the 
forces in operation producing this deformation is twofold. First, there 
is the horizontal thrust, so strongly emphasised by Lapworth, which may 
or may laot tend to increase the height of the mountain ranges bounding 
its line of action ; and, secondly, a factor dependent on gravity, which, 
acting on the side of subaerial and marine denudations, tends to lower 
them. Earthquakes are for the most part spasmodic accelerations in 
processes with these characters. 

' See ' Note upon the Geographical Distribution of Volcanoes,' by J. Milne, Geol. 
Mat)., April 1880. Also address to the Geological Section of the British Association, 
in 1892, by Professor C. Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL IXVESTIUAIIJ-V. " 185 

The distortions observed in fossils and pebbles, the difference in 
thickness of contorted strata, and the ' creep ' in coal-mines, all indicate 
that great pressures may set up movements in stratified materials corre- 
sponding to a flow. Mr. AVilliam Barlow, in a paper on the ' Horizontal 
Movements in Rocks,' ' as evidence of this, calls attention to the contor- 
tions and foldings observed in glacial drift produced by a load above, the 
dip seen on the face of the Grand Canon of Colorado, and the slight eleva- 
tion observed in the area surrounded by cliffs known as the ' San Rafael 
Swell.' These and other appearances may be regarded as instances of 
'creep' upon a large scale, when materials have been squeezed out from 
beneath superincumbent strata. 

In studying bradyseismical movement we usually take cognisance of 
that which is most apparent. This is the vertical component of a dis- 
placement, whilst the horizontal movement may be entirely overlooked. 
The geotectonic structure of many countries, however, shows us that dis- 
placements by horizontal thrust have taken place on an enormous scale, 
and it is not unlikely that these forces, accelerated by the effects of crush, 
are yet in operation round the basal contours of continental areas. Sub- 
oceanic earthquakes are therefore announcements that sub-oceanic brady- 
seismic action is in progress, and because these disturbances are more 
numerous round the submerged frontiers of continental domes and in mid- 
ocean than they are on land, it may be concluded that the distortions and 
displacements due to bending, thrust, and crush are greater beneath the 
sea than they are upon continents and islands. 

Eartltquakes and Landslides. — In addition to these bradyseismical 
effects, which only produce appreciable changes in sub-oceanic contour 
after the lapse of long intervals of time, there are the effects which accom- 
pany the actual shaking, which we may assume are not far different from 
those effects which we see produced by earthquakes originating on land. 
Many earthquakes which we feel, although they may create alarm and 
shatter chimneys, do not produce any effect upon rocks and cliffs. This, 
however, does not preclude the idea that shakings of equal intensity would 
not produce effects upon submarine slopes, where, as compared with similar 
slopes on land, critical conditions may more nearly approach in character 
to the mechanism of the hair trigger. Severe earthquakes on land are 
almost always accompanied by great landslides, and mountains which may 
for ages have been green with forest growth l)y the sliding away of 
materials en their sides suddenly present the appearance of having been 
whitewashed. The probable effect of similar shakings originating beneath 
the ocean in the vicinity of steep slopes needs no explanation. 

Another effect which sometimes accompanies these disturbances, and 
which may have been their cause, is the creation of a fault 50 or 150 
miles in length, by which the country on one side of this, relatively to 
that on the other, has been suddenly raised or lowered 20 to 30 feet. 
Earthquakes of this nature, if of submarine origin, would naturally 
produce similar effects over large areas, and, if the magnitude of the 
displaced materials, whether by landslides or faulting, were large, as com- 
pared witli the depth of the superincumbent waters, would also give rise 
to sea-waves. 

One of the most recent examples of effects of this description was that 
which occurred on June 15, 1896, off the north-east coast of Japan. On 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, November 1888. 



186 REPOKT— 1897. 

the evening of that day a submarine earthquake occurred in this locality 
which was recorded in the Isle of Wight ; and, from the magnitude of the 
diagrams, it may be assumed that the world was shaken from pole to pole. 
Following this shaking, great sea-waves spread over the Noi'th Pacific 
Ocean. The explanation of these phenomena is that the earthquake was 
produced by fracture of the rocks, not at a point, but over a considerable 
length, which movement, being accompanied by the displacement of huge 
masses of material, gave rise to the sea-waves. The sub-oceanic contour of 
this locality, where the depth of the water increases at the rate of 1,00(} 
fathoms in 25 miles until the 4,000-fathom line of the Tuscarora Deep is 
reached, lends itself to this supposition. The only difficulty we experience 
is to estimate the volume of the matei'ial which must have been more or 
less suddenly displaced at these great depths to have produced so great a 
disturbance on the surface of the ocean. It is not likely that it was less 
than that of the greatest landslide of which we have historical record as 
having occurred upon the surface of the earth. 

The data we have for calculating the position of the origin of these 
great disturbances are numerous and exact. Our knowledge of the dissi- 
pation of earthquake energy, as represented by its destructivity as it 
radiates, indicates that an earthquake which dislodged sufficient material 
to disturb the whole of the North Pacific Ocean must, at the very least, 
have originated 100 miles away from Miyako, on the north-east coast of 
Nippon, at which places a few houses were shattered. 

The calculations to be found on p. 1.57, strangely enough, bring us 
exactly to the base of the western boundary of the Tuscarora Deep, above 
which there are 4,000 fathoms of water. This is a place from which many 
earthquakes have originated, affording evidences, particularly in this 
instance, of sudden sub-oceanic changes along the basal frontier of a 
continent the magnitude of which it is difficult to estimate. 

Submarine Volcanic Action. — If highly heated rocks saturated with 
water were the only condition necessary for a display of volcanic action, 
such activities might be as marked in ocean basins as round their margins. 
The geological distribution of volcanoes, however, shows that before a 
volcanic magma can expend and find exit on the surface, the pressure due 
to superincumbent strata must be relieved, which is apparently obtained 
when they are sufficiently crumpled upwards to form mountain ridges. 
If, therefore, we seek for volcanic action beneath the sea, we may expect 
to find the same along submarine ridges, and if we discover the same, as 
we do along the central ridge of the Atlantic, the conclusion is that along 
such a ridge an upward brady seism ical movement is in progress, and not 
far from the region of eruptions there should be a region of earthquakes. 

In certain instances, apparently, as is the case with the Aleutians and 
the Kurils, so many eruptions have taken place along a submarine ridge 
that a continuous and almost connected chain of islands has been formed. 
On the flanks of the most southei'n of the latter group recent marine 
strata have been raised, which, taken in conjunction with the fact that 
hardly a year passes without some new eruption being noted, whilst sub- 
marine shocks of earthquakes are frequent, indicates that Japan may in 
time become connected with Kamschatka. 

Any attempt to enumerate the various submarine ridges of volcanic 
activity at present evidenced by these outcrops would be beyond the scope 
of the present paper. One curious form of evidence, indicating the exist- 
ence of volcanic activity entirely hidden in ocean depths, is referred to by 



28 disturbances. 


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ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 18T 

Mr. W. G. Forster, in his paper on ' Earthquake Origin,' ' from which we 
learn that cables have, after their interruptions, been recovered from 
which the gutta-percha had been melted— probably by water at a high 
temperature. The cables referred to are near the Lipari Islands and 
between Java and Australia. 

Some idea of the frequency of earthquakes and volcanic shocks origin- 
ating in the ocean may be obtained from a paper by Dr. Emil Rudolph.^ 
From his descriptions, which are derived from the catalogues of Perrey^ 
Mallet, the archives of the London Meteorological Office, &c., the follow- 
ing table has been drawn up : — • 

North Atlantic, 1724-1886 .... 

Azores, 1843-1884 

Cape Verde Islands, 1854-1883 . 

St. Paul's, 1845-1886 . ... 

Equatorial Atlantic, 1747-1878 . 

West Indies, Leeward Islands, 1839-1886 . 

South Atlantic, 1616-1875 .... 

West Mediterranean, 1724-1865 . 

East Mediterranean, 1820-1886 . 

Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, 1751-1884 

Indian Ocean, 1818-1883 .... 

North Pacific, east side, 1790-1885 

South Pacific, east side, 1687-1885 

North Pacific, west side, 1773-1681 . 

South Pacific, west side, 1643-1885 . 

East Indian Archipelago, 1796-1883 . 

Total . . 333 

The records generally are more frequent as we approach modern times, 
and, to some extent, for those seas and oceans where there have been the 
greatest number of observers. Dr. Rudolph regards all his records as 
referring to shocks of volcanic origin, and, if they agree with his definition 
of Seebeben, which are shakings originating in the ocean and propagated 
as elastic waves, we concur in his views. 

2. Sedimentation and Erosion, 

This section of the paper is a consideration of conditions which lead to 
the formation of sub-oceanic surfaces of instability which may yield by the 
continuation of the operations by which they are produced, or by seismic 
or volcanic actions. 

The first fact to be noticed is that the materials resulting from marine 
denudation round coast-lines and subaerial denudation of continental 
areas are almost entirely deposited in the ocean, upon an area which is- 
relatively -small as compared with that from which they were derived, and 
therefore the rate of growth on littoral areas per superficial unit is on the 
average greater than the rate of loss similarly estimated on continents. 
We know from soundings that the materials derived from land are not 
always deposited to form a gently sloping submarine plain, but often to 
form surfaces with steep slopes. Thus, for example, the line of the CongO' 
continued seawards is represented by a gully the sides of which have 
apparently been built up as a submarine levde. Materials thus accumu- 
lated under the influence of gravity and hydrodynamic action apparently 

' Trans. Seis. Soc, vol. xv. p. 73. ^ See p. 183. 



188 REPORT— 1897. 

result in contours which have reached limits of stability ready to yield as 
more materials accumulate, by facial slidings, by overloading, by changes 
in currents, by seismic action, and in other ways. 

Forms of Stability. — On land we have many illustrations of natural 
curves of stability. A volcano mainly consisting of lapilli which have 
accumulated round a central orifice has a form dependent upon the 
density and strength as represented by resistance to crushing of its com- 
ponent materials. To increase the height of such a mountain, it would be 
necessary to increase the area of its base. The upper portion of Mount 
Fuji has a slope of 30°, but as we proceed downwards the slope becomes 
less and less until at last it is asymptotic to the plain from which it rises. 
'The average slope of this volcano is 15°. 

If, therefore, on the face of a bank formed by the accumulation of 
.sediments, soundings, taken at points separated by one or more miles, 
indicate a certain inclination, it may be inferred that the steepest slope 
may possibly greatly exceed the quantity thus determined. 

The only experiments bearing upon slopes of stability formed beneath 
water with which the writer is acquainted are a few made by himself. 
These experiments, which were made with sand and carried out in various 
manners, pointed to the following general results : — 

1. Sediments deposited under the influence of currents accumulate in 
slightly flatter forms than those of similar materials built up on land. 

2. Peaks, edges and corners of loose materials which may be fairly 
stable on land are beneath water, even when it is still, quite unstable, and 
quickly become rounded. 

3. A mound or bank when thus rounded is very stable even under the 
influence of strong currents, but the unstable form may be quickly repro- 
duced by the accumulation of new sediments. 

The conclusions then are, first, if we find beneath water very short 
slopes of detrital materials, if they are 2° or 3° less than the angle at 
which similar materials ai^e self-supporting on land, they have reached a 
limit of stability ; and, secondly, average slopes over distances of one or 
more miles indicate the existence of much steeper slopes over shorter 
lengths. 

Causes resulting in the Yielding of Submarine Banks. — Because it is 
not likely that submarine earthquakes the movements of which are felt 
round the world are the result of volcanic action whenever these are 
accompanied by sea-waves, it may be inferred that the latter have been 
produced by the di.sloclgment of vast masses of material from the faces of 
steep slopes. Illustrations of such changes will be given in the next 
section. 

That intermittent facial sliding takes place on steep slopes during the 
accumulation of new materials is rendered likely by what we observe 
taking place on the faces of a mound of sand, submerged beneath water, as 
it grows upwards as an accumulation from a fine stream of sand descending 
from above. 

Basal crush with horizontal displacement would only be expected to 
occur around the lower edges of slopes of great height ; and as it is hardly 
reasonable to suppose that such slopes owe their form simply to the 
accumulation of sedimentary deposits, then the frequent origin of 
earthquakes in such localities indicates that the pi'imary cause of crush or 
thrust is the result of yielding in rocky masses rather than that of 
detritus. When speaking of cable-interruptions it will be seen that some 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 189 

of these have been attributed to the displacement of materials which have 
been loosened by the submarine escape of fresh water. Examples of 
springs of fresh water in bays and along coast-lines are numerous, whilst 
there is abundant evidence of the absorption of rainfall and even of rivers 
on continental areas, which in some instances it is suspected find an exit 
in the sea bottom. Granted the existence of sub-oceanic springs, we see in 
them at and near their exits a possible cause by which deposits may 
be loosened and landslips take place. Under certain conditions such 
dislocations might be expected to be periodical, following, for example, 
the rainy seasons. Ocean currents which fluctuate in direction and 
intensity, together with those of temporary character produced by the 
backing up of water during gales in bays, estuaries, and coasts, may also 
disturb the isostasy of submarine materials. 

For details of these and other operations producing sub-oceanic change 
reference must be made to the writer's original paper. 

3. Cable Fracture. 

The fact that, on the level plains of ocean beds, cables lie for years. 
and years without disturbance is another testimony to the facts brought 
together by geologists to show that the flat plains of ocean beds are regions 
where there is but little change. Directly, however, we approach sub- 
oceanic banks or the margins of continental slopes, although the 
depths may be abysmal, the fact that cables after interruption 
have to be broken away from beneath materials which hold them 
fast, indicates that regions of dislocation have been reached, and 
what is true for these great depths is also true for localities nearer 
land. Sometimes cables are bent and twisted, sometimes they are crushed. 
Now and again sections are recovered which, from the growth of shells 
and coral on all sides, show that they have been suspended. Others show 
that fracture has apparently been the result of abrasions, whilst the ends 
of wires, one of which is concave and the other convex, slightly drawn 
out, indicate that yielding has been the result of tension. Needle-pointed 
ends suggest electrolytic action ; ' but, although cable-interruption may 
occur in these and other ways, the explanation which best accords with 
the observations made during cable-recovery generally are those which 
attribute their dislocation to sudden displacement of the bed in which 
they are laid, or to their burial by the sliding down of materials from 
some neighbouring slope. 

Sometimes it will be seen that earthquake movement and cable 
fracture have been simultaneous, whilst many instances will be given 
where an interruption has occurred at about the same time that an unfelt 
movement has been recorded on land. These latter records, which in the 
lists are marked with an asterisk, are unfortunately not numerous, and 
only refer to days between the following dates : — 

1. Observations at Potsdam, Wilhelmshaven, Strassburg, Nicolaiew, Teneriffe, anrl 
in Japan. These, which include many of the writer's observations, are published in 
' Beitriige zur Geophysik,' Band II., by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, March 27 to 
October 5, 1880; January 4 to April 27, 1891; February 23, 1892, to August 31, 
1893. . ^. ■„ 

2. Observations at Charkow by Prof. G. Lewitzky, August 4, 1893, to October s! 
1894. 

' This may be due to electrolytic action between the zinc and iron of the 
sheathing wires, or to the cable having rested on a mineral deposit. 



190 REPORT— 1897. 

3. Observations by Prof. G. Vicentini, at Padua, February 1 to August 29, 1895. 

4. Catalogues of Prof. P. Tacchini, January 1895 to October 16, 1896. 

5. Observations at Shide, Isle of Wight, by John Milne, August 19, 1895, to May 
1897. 

Fracture of Cables in Deep Ocemis. 
The times of earthquakes are given in G.M.T. astronomical time. Noon = 24 hours. 

North Atlantic. — Through the kindness of an engineer, whose experi- 
ence in the laying and repairing of cables has extended over many years, 
I am enabled to give the dates at which various cables have become 
ruptured, or been restored to working order. The only case of alteration 
in depth which he noticed was during the repairs of November 1884, but 
this was not great. It seemed as if the picked-up cable had to be pulled 
from under a bank of earth which had slipped down from the eastern 
slope of the Newfoundland Bank. 

The following is a table of North Atlantic cable-interruptions : — 

North-eaitern Slope of Flemish Cap.— (37° W. to 44° W. long.) July 1894 (about); 
June 1888 (about) ; September 1889 ; September 1881 ; June 10, 1894* ; July 28, 
4.40 A.M., 1885 ; April 18, 8 p.m., 1885 ; July 25, 8 A.M., 1887 ; June 1895. 

Near South-eastern Slope of the Newfoundland Bank. — (46° W. and 50° W. long.) 
September 1887 (about) ; October 3, 9.15 p.m., 1884 ; October 4, 4.8 A.m., 1884 ; 
October 4, 4 and 8 a.m., 1884 ; September 1889. 

An unfelt eairthquake was recorded, June 11, 7h. 22m., 1894, very strong at 
Charkow. 

A striking feature connected with these Atlantic troubles is that 
nearly all have occurred in deep water near to the base of the eastern 
slope of the Flemish Cap, 330 miles from St. John's, Newfoundland, or 
the south-eastern slope of the Newfoundland Bank. Off the Flemish Cap 
in lat. 49° N. and long. 43° E. there is a .slope, in a distance of 60 miles, 
from a depth of 708 fathoms to 2,400 fathoms, or 1 in 35. Another 
slope, over a distance of 30 miles, is fi'om 275 to 1,946 fathoms, or 1 in 17. 
Off the eastern side of the Newfoundland Bank, in a distance of 25 miles, 
the depth changes from 27 to 1,300 fathoms, indicating a slope of 1 in 19. 

These slopes are all well within the limits at which from time to time 
yielding, due to bradyseismical thrust or secular crush, should be expected ; 
and the further a cable can be kept away from the scene of such action, if 
we may judge from experience, the longer will be its life. 

In one case only has the cause of failure been attributed to a land- 
slide, which it is just possible was caused by, or accompanied with, seismic 
phenomena. A very significant fact is the case when three cables running 
in parallel lines about 10 miles apart broke, at points nearly opposite to 
«ach other, on the same straight lines. This was on October 4, 1884. 
At first the accidents were attributed to the grapnel of a cable vessel, but 
as no grappling was done then this hypothesis had to be abandoned. 
Because three cables broke apparently at the same time in the same 
locality, one inference is, that the cause resulting in rupture was common 
to all, and this may have been a sudden cliange in the configuration of the 
ocean bed. Such a change does not necessitate any alteration in depth, 
such as could be detected by sounding, but either a landslip along a line 
of considerable length or simply a line of fracture like that which was 
suddenly formed along the Neo valley in Japan in 1891. 

When, on the American and English coasts, types of seismometers 
which will record the unfelt movements of the earth's crust have been 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 191 

established, it seems likely that the cause of cable interruptions may be 
better understood. Because the fifteen repairs indicated in the previous 
table possibly cost half a million sterling, the advisability of localising 
areas that should be avoided, and that we should be able to attribute 
effects to their real cause, are evidently desiderata of great importance. 

St. Louis — Fernando Noronlia. — From a paper read at the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers by Mr. H. Benest, A.M.Inst.C.E., ' On some repairs to the South American 
Company's cables off Cape Verde in 1893 and 1895,' it seems that the St. Louis — 
Fernando Noronha cable has been twice broken. The first break occurred on 
December 26, 1892, about 130 miles from St. Louis du Senegal, in a depth of 1,220 
fathoms, at the time of a heavy gale. The tape covering for 140 fathoms was rubbed 
bare to the sheathing wires, but on one side only. The sheathing wires at the break 
were drawn out as if they had been broken in a testing-machine. The Fernando side 
of the break also showed the e.fect^ of rubbing, and the character of the fracture 
was similar to the other end. In picking up these two ends there was at first a strain 
in one case not exceeding 26 tons, and the other of 4 tons ; but as the ends were 
approached this rose to about 6 tons, when the cable evidently cleared itself from 
some obstruction, and came easily on board. 

Although we have here evidence of what may possibly have been a 
submarine landslip, I am not aware that at that time any disturbance was 
noted in Europe. 

The second date is March 10, 1895. Here, again, great difficulty was 
experienced in breaking out the cable from beneath the mud, detritus, or 
whatever the materials were that had covered it. The position of this 
break was about 20 miles south-west from that of 1893. 

On March 5, at 22 hours G.M.T., a very large unfelt disturbance was 
recorded in Europe, and one of moderate intensity at several places in 
Italy on May 10, at 10.4 p.m. 

Mr. Benest holds the opinion that these fractures are connected with 
submarine river outlets and gully formations in the ocean beds. The 
gradients in the vicinity of the fractures vary from 1 in 34 (1° 30') to 
1 in 7 (8°). 

Pemanibnco—Cape Verde.— To the north-west of St. Paul's (lat. 2° 41' 45" N., 
and long. 30° 29' 15" W.), which is a volcanic centre, two cables broke simul- 
taneously in a depth of 1,675 fathoms, indicating that the rupture was due to a 
widespread cause. This was on September 21, 1893. Here, in the deep ocean, this 
was the only failure in nineteen years. 

Madras — Peiiang and Aden — Bomlay. — These interruptions are referred to on 
pp. 198, 199. 

hiterruptions to Cables on or near to Sub-oceanic Continental slopes. 

West Coast of Central and South Ainerica. — As illustrative of conditions 
which may exist round many parts of tlie west coast of South America, 
where there have been sudden and gradual upliftings of the land within 
historical time, a portion of a chart showing contours near to the mouth 
of the river Esmeralda is reproduced. The soundings are in fathoms. 
Those in ordinary figures are from information received prior to June 
1895, whilst those in larger type are from soundings taken in March 1896. 
Changes from 13 or 20 fathoms to upwards of 200 fathoms in this short 
interval of time are certainly remarkable ; and as the position of the cable- 
repairing vessel ' Relay,' belonging to the Central and South American 
Telegraph Company, which made the observations, was ensured by cross- 
bearings on the land, their general accuracy cannot be doubted. 

The figures surrounded by a circle were taken many years ago, and 



192 KEPORT— 1897. 

are probably no longer correct. Off the shore, in a distance of 3 miles, 
there is a depth of 200 fathoms, indicating a slope of 1 in 15, whilst at 
distances of 10 miles from shore, over a length of 1 mile, slopes of 1 in 3 
may be found. 

We have evidently here many instances of recent change in sub-oceanic 
form, and at the same time illustrations of conditions where considerable 
instability might be expected, and cable interruptions might therefore 
frequently occur. It will be noted, by reference to the map, that the 
position of fractures which have taken place are grouped near to the base 
of these steep slopes, and in this respect follow the rule of similar occur- 
rences in the North Atlantic. 

The following is a list of certain interruptions which have taken 
place off the coasts under consideration : — 

La Lihcrtad — Salina Cruz. — November 25, 1890. 

Panama — San Juan del Sur. — .June 4, 1889* ; July 31, 1889*. 

Sta. Elena — Bvenaventura. — This section is laid off the mouth of the river 
Esmeralda, at which point many breaks have occurred. Lat. 58' 20" JS., long-. 
79° 41' 25" W. August 30, 1890; January 25,1891*; February 13,1892; Decem- 
ber 5, 1893* ; December 6, 1893* ; December 14, 1893* ; December 20, 1893.* 

Paita {Peru)— Sta. Elena {Ec-nadnr). — This section passes Talara point, where 
many breaks have occurred. Lat. 4° 29' S., long. 81° 17' W. September 1892,- 
May 19, 1883 ; September 3, 1886 ; May 15, 1889* ; March 31, 1891* ; April 9, 1891* ; 
May 14, 1892*. 

MoUendo — Chorillos {Peru'). — This section crosses the gully oflE Pescadores point, 
lat. 16° 24' S., long. 73° 18' W. February 23, 1884 ; March 24, 1884 ; April .'>, 
1884; June 13, 1884; January 30, 1886; August 13, 1886; August 16, 1887; 
March 25, 1887 ; December 10, 1887, supposed to have been broken by an earth- 
quake ; December 11, 1888 ; February 21, 1890 ; March 15, 1890 ; March 30, 1891* ; 
June 4, 1895* ; October 16, 1892*, supposed to have been broken by an earthquake. 

Arica — MoUendo. — May 9, 1S77, by an earthquake; July 15, 1887; before 
June 24, 1891 ; August 13, 1891 ; June 6, 1895*, shore end broken by waves. 

Iquiqiie — Arica. — May 9, 1877, by earthquake; May 7, 1878, by an earthquake; 
June 12, 1895*, shore end broken by waves. 

Colder a — Antofagasta. — July 7, 1886. 

Valparaiso, Serena. — July 26, 1877; August 15. 1880, by earthquake; July 8, 
1885 ; before August 19, 1891. July 4, 1895*, by landslide or earthquake. 

The unfelt earthquakes which were noted in or near Europe were as 
follows : — 

.Tanuary 25, 1891, 5-Olh. A small disturbance was recorded at Teneriffe. 

March 26, 1891, 13-6h. to 14-8h. There was an earthquake of moderate 
intensity noted in Teneriffe. 

May 15, 1892. At 2-9h. at Strassburg, and at 3-7h. at Nicolaiew, there was a 
feeble shock. It is, however, possible that this earthquake may have had its origin 
at Stavanger, in Norway. 

October 13, 1892. At 1707h., and October 17, at ll-88h, at Stra.ssburg. 

December 16, 1893. At Charkow at 13h. 13m. there was a strong disturbance. 

June 4, 1895. At Padova at i8h. 23m., large disturbance. 

July 5, 1895, 5h. 32m. At Padova, origin evidently at a great distance. 

Whether these seven unfelt movements recorded on the eastern side 
of the Atlantic were connected with seismic disturbances on the western 
side of South America leading to cable interruptions, it is impossible to 
speak with confidence until we know the hours at which these interrup- 
tions took place. In the meanwhile, all that we can say is, that it is 
worthy of note that out of fourteen cable interruptions, seven of them 
took place about the times when delicately suspended instruments in or 
near Europe were set in motion. Six interruptions took place when 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 193 

earthquakes were felt, whilst others were caused by landslips, which in 
turn may have been the result of mechanical shaking. On certain 
sections, as for example that connecting Arica and Mollendo, fractures 
have only taken place in certain months, which in this instance are June, 
July, and August. Restrictions like this suggest that the cause of 
fracture has been due to landslips brought about by the escape of fresh 
water beneath sea-level, the action of currents, or other sub-oceanic 
phenomena having seasonal maxima. 

The interruptions off Pescadores Point (16° S. lat.), although, when 
recovering cables, branches of almost petritied trees have been brought 
to the surface, Mr. R. Kaye Gray attributes to the great unevenness of 
the bottom, there being in that neighbourhood submarine hills 3,000 and 
4,000 feet in height. 

The following notes liearing upon the above sections were kindly 
drawn up by Mr. W. E. Parsone, who has been engaged in cable work on 
the west coast of South America : — 

Arica— Mollendo Section. — This section was laid in 1875. On the night of May 9, 
1877, while the cables between Arica and Lima were being used for direct working, 
a very distinct shock of earthquake was felt by the operator in the Lima office at 
about 10.30 P.M., during receipt of a message from Arica, and communication 
ceased a few seconds later. The intermediate station of Mollendo afterwards 
reported that the shock was also felt there, and at about the same time,. and that 
they were unable to communicate with Arica. Mr. Parson6 located the rupture of 
the Arica— Mollendo section as close to the shore at Arica, and proceeded by first 
opportunity to that place, where it was found that a violent earthquake shock on 
May 9, 1877, had been accompanied by a tidal wave of unusual severity, which had 
completely wrecked the greater portion of the town. The sea-front and harbour 
had suffered enormous damage, the iron pier having been washed away, and prac- 
tically all the craft in the port having parted their moorings or foundered. In 
undertaking the repair, tons of anchor-moorings and material were picked up with 
the cable, which had been considerably dragged out of position and twisted for a 
considerable distance from the shore. Communication on this section was restored 
on May 2i, 1877, and worked without interruption until it was permanently 
repaired by renewing a portion of the shore-end and intermediate cable on 
November 17, 1878. 

Iquique — Arica Section. — This section was laid in 1875. On May 7, 1878, a severe 
shock of earthquake was experienced in the neighbourhood of Iquique, after which 
the cable connecting that place with Arica was found to be interrupted. Mr. 
Parson6 located the rupture at 6 knots from Iquique on the intermediate cable in 
60 fathoms of water, and, after considerable difficulties working with barges, there 
being no repairing-ship obtainable, succeeded in lifting the cable on the spot. Both 
ends were recovered, and it was found that the cable (intermediate) had snapped 
clean through, the compound on either side of the break being undisturbed, except 
at, say, a distance of 18 inches on either, where the sheathing wires had made one 
complete turn. There the compound had sprung, and some of the strands parted, 
and the sheathing wires compressed out of position. But for these comparatively 
slight indications of the enormous force which must have been exerted to make so 
clean a break in heavy intermediate type, the cable was in no way damaged, the 
rest of the cable being in as good condition as the day it left the factory. The 
earthquake, which was undoubtedly the direct cause of the rupture, was said to 
have a direction from south-west to north-east, and it was noticed with much surprise 
that the base of the high cliffs on the fore-shore bore marks of recent disturbance 
at a spot bearing due north-east from the position of the break. The disturbance 
referred to had the appearance of a recently formed cavern or tunnel — a few feet 
above the beach where the base of the hard rock was met — as if some enormous 
piece of artillery had been fired point-blank into the rock, and this bad also caused 
a falling away of the surface rock above the opening, which peels ofE in layers like 
decomposed slate. We could not land at the place to examine it more closely on 
account of the surf and rocks, but attempted to do so by clambering and crawling 
over the headland of rock ; but large thin sections of decomposed surface slipped 

1897. o 



194 KEPORT— 1897. 

away with us continually, and ^e had to give up the attempt. Communication was 
restored with a piece of deep-sea cable and permanently repaired with the s.s. 
'Ketriever' on November 21, 1878. 

La Serena — Valparaiso Section. — This cable was laid in 1876, and interrupted off 
the Limaree River on July 26, 1877, as was thought, by floods from the river, although 
in its normal condition it is practically a dry bed before it reaches the sea. 

This section was again interrupted on August 15, 1880, by an earthquake ; and 
the same section was again interrupted by a landslip on July 4, 1885, presumably due 
to an earthquake. 

Mollendo — CJiorillos Section. — This cable was laid in 1875, and was frequently 
interrupted off Pescadores Point to the north of Mollendo, where considerable 
inequality of depth is experienced, due presumably to the channels of an extinct or 
subterranean river, whose estuary may now be some miles at sea, and create 
periodical submarine convulsions at great depth and at, say, 40 or 50 knots from 
the coast. In any case, all difficulty has ceased in this locality, since the cable has, 
for a considerable length, been diverted to close inland and laid as close to the shore 
as it was safe for a ship to get. 

This section was also broken in two different places by an earthquake which 
occurred on December 10, 1887. 

Sast Coast of South America. — The geological and topographical 
conditions on the east coast of South America are strikingly different 
from those met with on the west coast. On this latter coast the land 
plunges rapidly downwards beneath the sea, as a slope produced by 
bradyseisraic thrust and folding, whilst on the former, when measured 
over long distances, the slope is gentle, indicating an absence of orogenic 
activities. Although the land is generally continued seawards at a low 
angle by the deposition of sediments and the scouring action of currents, 
here and there declivities may have been produced by such epigenic 
actions. 

On the following sections interruptions have been rare or have not 
occurred : — 

Maldonailo — Montevideo. — Since 1 875. 

Santos— Chv I/. Since 1892. 

Ch uy — Maldonado. — Since 1875. 

Itio Grande do Sul — Chuy. — Since 1875. 

From these sections, which lie on the northern side of the Rio de la 
Plata estuary, as we proceed northwards interruptions have been more 
and more frequent. They are as follows : — 

Montevideo— Bueiios Ayres. — October 12, 1889. 

Sta. Catharina—JRio Grande do Sul.— June 16, 1890. 

Santos— Sta. CatJiarina. — March 12, 1890. 

Montevideo— Rio Grande do Sul.— April 25, 1889 ; June 11, 1889* ; December 4, 
1889 ; May 4, 1890 ; December 4, 1891. 

Chuy— Montevideo.— 3\xne 27, 1892; July 10, 1892* {restored); November 11, 
1892 (date of interruption not recorded). 

Rio de Janeiro— Santos.— KpTil 16, 1889; April 5, 1890; December 24, 1890. 

Balda—Rio de Janeiro.— 3a,n\is,Tj 31, 1889; September 3, 1889* ; September 21, 
1889* ; July 24, 1891 ; July 31, 1891 ; September 4, 1896. 

Pernamhuco-Balda.-April 1, 1889 ; July 20, 1889; July 14, 1891. 

CeaTa—Pernambuco.— April 8, 1890; March 14, 1891*; September 1, 1893* 
January 12, 1895 ; March 3, 1896 ; March 4, 1897*. 

3Iaranham—Ceara.— May 22, 1889*; April 29, 1890; January 20, 1891 
January 28, 1891 ; March 4, 1891*; March 8, 1891* ; November 25, 1891 ; October 11 
1892*; February 12, 1894*; March 6, 1894*; November 25, 1894; April 28, 1896 
December 2, 1896.* 

Para— 3faranMm. —Beptemher 6, 1888; November 2, 1888; May 22, 1889* 
December 27, 1889; January 10, 1890; July 24, 1890; January 12, 1891 ; October 19, 



il 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 195 

1891; December 2, 1891; January 19, 1892; October 15, 1892*; March 20, 1893* 
September 1, 1893*; March 24, 1894*; July 23, 1894*; November 1, 1894 
November 10, 1894; November 15, 1894; January 7, 1895: February 9, 1895* 
October 10, 1895*; December 13, 1895*; December 18, 1895*; July 9, 1896* 
August 6, 1896* ; October 8, 1896* ; May 5, 1897.* 

In the above li.st the thirty-one interruptions marked with an asterisk 
took place whilst horizontal pendulums were in operation in or near 
Europe. 

The European observations were as follows : — 

September 18, 1889. At Potsdam, 6-92h. to 9-3h., there was a large disturbance, 
which suddenly became great at 7-87h. At Wilhelmshaven the disturbance lasted 
from 7h. to 9-5h. The origin is unknown. 

September 5, 1889. At Potsdam there was a heavy disturbance at 22-67h., with 
a sudden increase at 2308h. At Wilhelmshaven similar phases are at 22-5h. and 
2308h. Large disturbances also with unknown origin were noted on August 29 at 
18-48h. 

October 9, 1892. At Strassburg and Nicolaiew, at about 2-45h. and 2 70h. 

March 3, 1891. At Tenerifife, earthquake at l-79h. Origin unknown. 

May 2], 1889. At Potsdam, a heavy disturbance at 10-55h. to U-lh. Origin 
unknown. 

March 20, 1893. At Strassburg and Nicolaiew, at 5-18h. and 5'27h. At this 
time there was an earthquake in Catania. 

October 13, 1892. In Strassburg 1707h. to ]7-78h. An earthquake on the 
Donau. 

September 1, 1893. At Charkow at 9.35 A.M. 

February 12, 1894. At Charkow, a strong disturbance at 1.35. 

March 24, 1894. At Charkow, about this time, exceedingly heavy disturbances 
were recorded. From 17h. 35m. on the 21st to 2h. 48m. on the 22nd ; from 9-35h. on 
the 22nd to 3-35h. on the 2.3rd ; and on the 24th, from Oh. 26m. to Ih. 2m. 

July 22, 1894. At Charkow, from ll-35h. to 17-35h. 

October 9, 1895, at 13h. 26m. Slight. 

July 8, 1896, at 14h. 54m. and 17-46. At Shide. 

October 6, 1896, at 21-51b. At Shide. 

May 5, 1897, at 10-44h. At Shide. 

December 2, 1896, at 10 to 11 a.m. At Shide. 

Inasmuch as two of the interruptions took place on May 22, 1889, 
find two on September 1, 1893, which closely correspond with the unfelt 
but heavy earthquake in that year, we may say that out of twenty-nine 
interruptions sixteen of these have approximately coincided with the times 
at which earthquakes with unknown origins have been recorded in Europe. 

Because on the Para — Maranham ^ section interruptions have been 
frequent in October, November, and December, and on the Maranham — 
Ceara section in November and in March, in searching for the cause of 
these interruptions we should look to variations in ocean currents or 
phenomena with a seasonal change. 

IFest Coast of Europe and Africa. 

Mediterranean Lipari — Milazzo Sea. — December 1, 1888 ; March 30, 
1889* ; September 15, 1889* ; February 9, 1893.* 
Zante—Canea.—Kaxch. 29, 1885. 

' ' The Para — Maranham cable is, I believe,' a friend writes me, ' laid on a 
shallow muddy bottom, the mud being so fluid that it is .said that a schooner with 
a fair wind can make a good passage when half in mud and half in water.' If this 
is so, then the Amazon floods may have much to answer for in connection with 
cable-interruption. 

02 



196 REPORT— 1897. 

Patras — Corinth. — September 9, 1888 ; August 25, 1889* (two inter- 
ruptions). 

The earth-movements which were observed were as follows : — 

March 28, 1889. At 7'.S5h. at Wilhelmshaven, fairly large. 

September 13, 1889. At 6-50h. at Potsdam and from 7h. to 9-5h. at Wilhelms- 
haven. 

February 9, 1893. At Strassburg 6-23h. to 8-48h., and at Nicolaiew 619h. to 8-07h.^ 
heavy movement. The epicentre possibly near Samotrace. Two other earthquakes 
were noted on this day. 

August 25, 1889. At Potsdam at 7-62h. and at Wilhelmshaven from 7-53h. to Oh., 
a large disturbance. Epicentre near Patras. 

The Lipari — Milazzo fractures took place in depths of from 400 to 650 
fathoms 2 or 3 miles distant from Vulcano, about north-east from 
Solfatore. 

The Zante — Canea interruption occurred about 5 miles west by south 
off Sapienza Island, in a depth of 1,500 fathoms with a clay bottom. 
Soundings varied as much as 250 fathoms in the length of the ship, and 
from 1,350 to 1,834 fathoms in half a mile. 

The first of the Patras — Corinth breaks occurred about 2 miles north 
of Akraia, in mud at a depth of 197 fathoms, whilst one of the second 
interruptions took place in the same locality, in depths varying between 
408 and 270 fathoms within a mile, and the other, in cable No. 2, within 
half a mile south of Morno point. 

Mr. W. G. Forster, writing in the ' Transactions of the Seismological 
Society,' vol. xv., respecting these districts, tells us that after the Filiatra 
shock in 1886 it was found, by the broken cable 30 miles away, that 
some four knots of the same had been covered by a landslip, whilst the 
depth of the water had increased from 700 to 900 fathoms. In 1867, 
after the destruction of Cephalonia, the soundings taken after the shock 
were different from those taken before. Again, on September 9, 1888, at. 
5.4 P.M., the town of Vostizza, in the Gulf of Corinth, was destroyed, and 
simultaneously the cable between Zante, Patras and Corinth was inter- 
rupted. The cause of this, as deduced from soundings and the appear- 
ance of the fractured cable, appears to have been either a sudden tautening 
caused by the sweeping down of a mass of clay from a 100-fathom bank 
to a 300-fathom bank, or the actual yielding of the bed on which the 
cable lay. 

In 1889 a second cable was laid down in the Gulf of Corinth, but this, 
when it had been down about three months, was, together with the 1884 
cable, fractured at the time of an earthquake on August 25 at 8.51 p.m. 
The 1889 cable seemed to have been smashed by the movement of a mass 
of material about a mile in length, whilst the 1884 cable was broken at 
two points by a slip on a 10 to 450 fathom bottom. 

In the districts considered by Mr. Forster, there are, as he points out, 
great irregularities in submarine contours, the depths within short 
distances changing from 50 to 300 and then to 1,000 fathoms. By the 
deposition of silt, and the undermining of steep slopes by bottom currents, 
the exit of underground springs and even rivers, overhanging shelves, 
tottering and precipitous rocks, and other unstable arrangements, may 
suddenly give way and cables suffer rupture. 

The facts are that the sub- oceanic contours are such that they might 
be expected to be unstable, and that these contours, at the time of earth- 
quakes, have suddenly been changed. In one instance there has been an 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 197 

increase in depth of over 2,400 feet, and in another of 1,200 feet ; whilst 
in the case of the 1889 disturbance, eleven and a half minutes later, 
unfelt earth-waves of considerable magnitude were recorded at Wilhelms- 
haven, 1,732 kilometres distant. Similar unfelt movements have also 
been recorded at distant places at about the time when cable-interruptions 
took place, in every instance where we have been able to make comparisons. 
The conclusion, then, is that in this region earthquakes occur, producing 
beneath the ocean what is equivalent to the landslips which similar move- 
ments produce on land. 

Bay of Biscay. — About 1875 the Direct Spanish cable was broken 
about 150 miles north of Bilbao by what seemed to be a submarine 
landslip, which may have been produced by an undercurrent produced by 
the piling up of the surface waters under the influence of a westerly gale. 
The soundings showing the neighbourhood of the interruption indicate 
slopes of 1 in 7 and even 1 in 3, and it is therefore a district in which 
landslides and dislocations might be expected to occur. From Mr. R. 
Kaye Gray I learn that the 1872 Bilbao cable broke down periodically — 
usually in the month of March, with or after a heavy north-west gale. 
This took place about 30 miles to the north of Bilbao, and, when repairing, 
it was invariably found that 4 or 5 miles had been buried. The cause of 
these interruptions was attributed to a heavy submarine current caused 
by the piling-up of surface water, cutting the prolongation of a river-bed 
with steep walls which, when undercut, fell in masses to bury the cable. 

St. Thome — St. Paul de Loanda. — Interruptions which have been 
noted on this section wei*e as follows : — 

January 22, 1892; September 13, 1892*; November 24, 1892*; February 17, 
1893*; April 11, 1893*; May 30, 1893*; February 5, 1894*; January 22, 1895* ; 
January 15, 1896* ; May 2, 1896* ; June 15, 1896.* 

The dates on which unfelt earthquakes were recorded were as 
follows : — 

September 13, 1892. At Strassburg a very large disturbance from 9'54h. to 
13*31h. Origin unknown. 

February 16, 1893. At Strassburg at 008h. Origin possibly in Japan. 

April 11, 1893. At Strassburg and Nicolaiew, 18-58h. to 19h. Moderate. On 
April 8 at these stations there was a heavy movement from l-871i. to i'lTh. Origin 
unknown. 

May 30, 1893. At the above stations from 4 33h. to 5-32h. ; a great movement. 

February 5, 1894. At Charkow from 4h. 54m. to lOh. 34m. there was a strong 
movement. 

January 18, 1895, 2h. 37m. At many places in Italy. 

January 15, 1896, 7h. 10m. At many places in Italy. 

May 2, 1896, lb. 20m. Strong through Europe. 

June 13, 1896, 14h. 54m. Strong through Italy. 

June 14, 1896, 22h. 46m. Strong through Italy and at Shide. Origin, Pacific 
Ocean. 

We have therefore ten cases of interruptions on or near to the dates 
of nine of which large earthquakes were recorded. It is difiicult to 
imagine that this particular district should be characterised by any 
seismic activity, but it seems possible that, if it is a district where 
sediments rapidly accumulate to attain an unstable form, these might 
from time to time give way under the influence of earth-waves originating 
at a great distance. 

On this particular section Mr. R. Kaye Gray points out that, from 



198 - REPOiiT— 1897. 

the mouth of the Congo, extending seawards, there is a difficult gully 
to cross, the walls of which are 2,000 feet in height ! Although the gully- 
widens towards the west, this height is maintained for a considerable 
distance. The shallowest water is found along the edges of this gully, 
which therefore has a transverse section not unlike that of a river bounded 
by a naturally formed levee. 

The East Coast of Africa. — The following are interruptions noted in 
various cable sections along the east coast of Africa : — 

Mozambique — Zanzibar. — February 1, 1885 ; April 2, 1885 ; September 2G, 1894*. 

Delaqoa Bay — Durban. — October 15, 1890; November 18, 1890; December 10, 
1894 ; January 20, 1896* ; July 13, 1896*. 

Mozambique — Delagoa Bay {Lorenzo Marquez). — November 11, 1890 ; November 
18. 1890; January 5, 1893*; January 25, 1893*; June 9, 1895*; December 24, 
1896.* 

Zanzibar — Mombasa. — December 20, 1890 ; January 25, 1892 ; September 4, 
1894*; September 26, 1894*; March 6, 1896*; August 23, 1896*; September 
23, 1896*. 

Aden — Zanzibar. — January 8, 1890^ May 11, 1891 ; December 5, 1891 ; February 
20, 1893*; August 9, 1893* ; December 21, 1894; September 2, 1895*; December 
24, 1895* ; January 27, 1896* ; March 16, 1896* ; March 23, 1897 (?).* 

With the nineteen interruptions marked with an asterisk, there are 
eleven instances where these may have corresponded with the records of 
unfelt earthquakes. Approximate coincidences with earth- movements 
are as follows : — 

January 22, 1893, at 19'87h. A weak disturbance was noted at Nicolaiew and 
Strassburg. 

September 1, 1894, from Ih. 43m. to 4h. 21m. Moderate at Charkow. 

September 25, 1894, 16h. 49m. to 17h. 8m. At Charkow. 

February 20, 1893, from 19-23h. to 19-78h. At Strassburg small, origin in Japan. 

August 9, 1893, from 17h. 11m. to 191i. 4m. At Strassburg moderate. 

March 3, 1896, at 16h. 33m. Recorded through Europe. 

August 21, 1896, at lOh. Om. Recorded at Padua. 

September 2, 1895, at l-3h. to 9-6h. and 19h. At Shide. 

March 15, 1896, at 19h. 36m. At Shide. 

September 21, 1896, at 16h. 63m. Recorded through Europe. 

March 23, 1897. At Sliide at 4-29h., slight. 

Sir James Anderson, in 1887, speaking about the interruptions off 
the river Rovuma (11° S. lat.), remarks that, so far as soundings showed, 
there was an even bottom and all that could be desired as a bed on which 
to place a cable, yet every year the cable broke. The broken ends 
suggested that the cable had been suspended until it snapped. Although 
the cable was shifted further out, and then closer in, it still broke. This 
happened eight times, and it was noticed that the interruptions occurred 
at about the same time of the year. Seven of these breaks are fairly on 
the same line, and Sir James's suggested explanation of this cause was 
that the time when the interruptions occur is at the termination of 
the rainy season in the African mountains, at Avhich time fresh-water 
springs take away the bottom on which the cable lies, and leave it 
suspended. 

Mr. John Y. Buchanan suggests that sometimes a cable may be 
broken in consequence of its slowly subsiding through ooze, until the 
catenary strain becomes so great that it eventually snaps. 

Aden — Bombay. — Interruptions noted on this section were the 
following : — 

July 11, 1881 ; June 3, 1885 ; July 27, 1885 ; July 11 1888 August 11, 1888. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 199 

On the second and last of the above dates the two cables connecting 
Aden with India were simultaneously broken, and the traffic between 
India, Australia, and the East had to pass over the land lines of Russia, 
Persia, and Turkey. The fractures took place on an even bottom a few 
hundreds of miles from Aden. At the time of the 1885 interruption, a 
fearful cyclone was raging at Aden, and it is therefore possible that the 
ruptures may be attributed to causes similar to those which seem to have 
operated on the Bilbao cables (p. 191). The place of fracture was 119 
nautical miles from Aden, 20 to 25 miles south of the Arabian coast, at a 
depth of 870 to 990 fathoms, on an even bottom of mud. 

Penang and Madras. — Interruptions noted on this section have been 
as follows : — 

May 12, 1873 ; November 15, 1875 ; March 28, 1876 ; November 9, 878 ; April 22, 
1880 ; January 31, 1881 ; June 6, 1883 ; November 15, 1883 ; June 13, 1884 ; Septem- 
ber 2, 1886 ; November 2, 1886 ; November 14, 1886 ; September 22, 1888 (?) ; May 13, 
1890. 

On the above dates horizontal pendulums or the equivalent instru- 
ments were not in operation, but that these interruptions were partly 
due to sub-oceanic change may be inferred from the fact pointed out by 
Sir John Pender in the 'Electrical Review ' of May 23, 1890, who says 
that nearly all the interruptions on this line have taken place on very bad 
ground near the Nicobar Islands. 

The following completes the list of interruptions on far eastern 
lines : — 

Rangoon — Penang. — September 4, 1886; May 13, 1890. 

Singapore— Pcnanq. — November 20, 1873; August 7, 1876; November 8, 1876 
December 20, 1876; July 20, 1877 ; October 19, 1877 ; September 30, 1878. 

£atavia^Singaj}ore.— March 31, 1873 (?) ; May 20, 1874 (?) ; August 13, 1874 
August 18, 1874 ; December 14, 1874 ; September 2, 1875 ; November 5, 1875 ; May 9 
1876 ; June 28, 1876 ; October 25, 1876 ; February 27, 1877 ; September 28, 1877 ; NO' 
vember 9, 1877 ; January 22, 1878 ; May 2, 1878; August 31, 1878; October 28, 1878 
December 28, 1878; September 20, 1879; December 3, 1883. 

Port Darfvi7i and Java (Banjoewanji) June 21, 1872; April 27, 1876; Novem- 
ber 8, 1877; September 27, 1878; May 29, 1879; July 4, 1879; March 5, 1883 
March 10, 1883 ; April 6, 1883 ; October 22, 1883 ; June 29, 1888 (two cables broken) 
October 10, 1888 (both cables broken); October 22, 1888 (both cables broken) 
July 11, 1890* (three cables broken, one being to Roebuck Bay); February 23. 
1893*; March 22, 1893*; September 27, 1893*; October 25, 1893* (two cables 
broken) ; ' October 26, 1893*. 

The horizontal pendulum records are as follows : — 

February 22, 1893. At Strassburg, ll-28h. to ll-78h. ; also at Nicolaiew. 
Moderate. 

March 20, 1893. At Strassburg, 5-18h. to 5-53h. ; also at Nicolaiew. Mode- 
rate. Origin probably in Zante. 

September 11, 1893. At Charkow, 16h. 13m. to 17h. 50m. 

October 22, 1893. At Charkow, 6h. 53m. to 8h. 14m. 

The two fractures of June 29, 1888, took place 20 and 25 miles south 
by west of Mount Dodo, Sambawa, where depths vary from 734 to 1,130 
fathoms. Sir John Pender, at the ordinary general meeting of the 
Eastern Extension Australasia and China Telegraph Company,^ says that it 
was found that these breaks resulted from ' volcanic ' action ; and, curiously 

> See Electrician, November 3, 1893. * Ibid., October 12, 1888. 



200 



REPORT — 1897. 



enough, when the cables were recovered, all sorts of things, even the roots 
of trees, were found attached to them. The whole thing seemed to be a 
great upheaval of nature. From the same paper, August 20, 1888, we 
learn that these two interruptions took place at points widely separated. 
In Port Darwin time, the fractures took place on June 29, at 10.40 p.m. 
The three interruptions of July 11, 1890, took place, in Banjoewanji time, 
at 1.35 A.M., on a rough, uneven bottom, between Tafel Hoek (Bali) and 
Balambangan Point, Java, where the depths vary from 155 to 927 fathoms. 
The duplicate cable was broken in three places, and overlaid about 65 miles 
from Banjoewanji. The three cables run along two sides and near the 
bottom of a gully separating Baly from Java, and are about 7 miles 
apart. They practically broke on one line, and the cause was ' volcanic ' 
action.' In this instance, as in that of June 30, 1888, the submarine 
displacements extended over an unusually wide area ; and, when we refer 
to a chart, it is seen that at a distance of 9 miles in a south-west 
direction from Tafel Hoek there is a depth of 1,180 fathoms, indicating a 
slope of 1 in 7. 

The only interruptions which can be compared with the records of 
horizontal pendulums are the last five, whilst the time of the inter- 
ruption of March 22, 1893, is not known. The mean Greenwich times 
and dates at which the remaining four took place in 1893 are as follows : — 

1. February 22, between 4h. 20m. and 161i. 20m. 

2. September 12, 12h. 20m. 

3. October 24, 17h. 5m. 

4. October 26, 3h. Om. 

The conclusion is that only the first of these four interruptions took 
place when an unfelt earthquake was recorded in Europe, but similar dis- 
turbances were noted on September 11 and October 22. 

The following table is a comparison of the days and hours when 
earthquakes were felt in Java, with the times at which cables were 
interrupted : — 



Shocks felt in Java and Sumatra in approximate 
G.M.T. (Batavia time — 7 hours) 


Date and G.M.T. of cable- 
interruptions 


1872, June 16, 12h. to 14h .... 

1876, April 23, lOh. 15m. Sumatra . 

1877, November 3 to 4 

1878, September 21, 19h. 30m. Sumatra 

1879, withoat records. 

1883, March 6, 4h. 45m. Sumatra . 

„ October 18, 17h. Om. Banjoewanji 
18S8, June 29, 21h. 33m. Batavia . 
„ October 8, 12h. 18m. Series of shocks 1 
9, 12h. 26m. ... J 
„ „ 21, 12h. 5m. Light shock . 
1890, July 10, 16h. 50m. to 19h. 40m. Series of 

shocks, some heavy. Java 
1893, February 23, 15h. 15m. Java. 
„ March 22, 13h. 32m. Light. Java 
„ September 9, 22h. 57m. Moderate. Java 
„ October 23, 9h. 53m. Fifteen shocks, ~| 
very heavy. Java > 
„ October 25. A light shock . . J 


June 21. 
April 27. 
November 8. 
September 27. 

March 5. 
October 22. 
June 29, 3h. 40m. 

October 9. 

October 22. 
July 11, 6h. 35m. 

February 23, 4h. 20m. and 16h. 20m. 
March 22 (time unknown). 
September 27, 12h. 20m. 

October 25, 17h. 25m. 



See Eleotrician, October 24, 1890, vol. sxv. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



201 



For the interruptions of cables on June 29, 1888, and July 10, 1890, 
we have the assurance of those connected with their management that 



A Tabular Arrangement of the Foregoing 


Interruptions. 








Name of cables 


a 


J3 


OS 


a. 
< 




s 

■-5 


3 


< 


-4-3 


6 


> 




"3 
14 


North Atlantic 


_ 








1 





3 


3 





3 


4 








St. Louis — Fernando Noronha . 


— - 





1 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


1 


2 


Pernambuco— Cape Verde 


— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Luhibestad— Salina Cruz 


— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


Panama — San Juan del Sur 


— 





— 





— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


Sta. Elena — Buenaventura 


1 


1 


— 





— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


4 


7 


Paita— Sta. Elena . 


— 





1 


1 


3 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


7 


Mollendo— Chorillos 


1 


2 


4 


1 


— 


2 


— 


2 


— 


1 


— 


2 


15 


Arica— Mollendo . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


2 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


Iquique — Arica 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


Caldera — Antofagasta 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Valparaiso — Serena 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


2 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


5 


Montevideo — Buenos Ayres . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


Sta. Catharina — Rio Grande "I 












1 














1 


do Sul . . . j 
























Santos — Sta. Catharina . 




— 


1 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Montevideo — Rio Grande do Sul 




— 


— 


1 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5 


Chuy— Montevideo 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


3 


Rio de Janeiro — Santos . 


_- 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


3 


Bahia— Rio de Janeiro . 


1 


— 


— 





— 


— 


2 


— 


3 


— 


— 


— 


6 


Pernambuco — Bahia 


— 


— 




1 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


Ceara — Pernambuco 


1 


— 


3 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


6 


Maranham — Ceara . 


2 


1 


3 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


2 


1 


13 


Para — Maranham . 


4 


1 


2 


— 


2 


— 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


27 


Lipari — Milazzo 


— 


1 


I 





— 


— 


. — 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


4 


Zante — Canea .... 




— 


1 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Patras — Corinth 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


2 


St. Thome— St. Paul de Loanda 


3 


2 


— 


1 


2 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


— 


11 


Mozambique — Zanzibar . 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


3 


Delagoa Bay — Durban . 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


1 


1 


5 


Mozambique^Delagoa . 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1 


6 


Zanzibar — Mombasa 




— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


3 


— 


. — 


1 


7 


Aden — Zanzibar 


2 


1 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


3 


10 


Aden — Bombay 


— 


— 


— 


__ 


— 


1 


3 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 


Pen an g — Madras 




— 


1 


1 


1 


9 


— . 


— 


2 


— 


5 


— 


13 


Rangoon — Penang . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 





— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


2 


Singapore — Penang 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





1 


1 


— 


1 


2 


1 


6 


Batavia — Singapore 




1 


1 


— 


3 





— 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


19 


Port Darwin — Java 


21 


1 

12 


3 
25 


2 
14 


1 
19 


2 


2 


— 


2 


5 


1 


— 


19 


19 


23 


16 


28 


20 


22 


26 


245 



the cause was volcanic or seismic, whilst the actual or close coincidence 
m. the dates at which the remaining interruptions have taken place with 
the days on which earthquakes have been felt leads to the belief that 
the Port Darwin — Java section has suffered more from the effects of 
sudden sub-oceanic change than from any other cause. The European 
recoi'ds of February 22 evidently refer to the disturbance which caused 
the interruption on that date in Java between the hours 4-20h. and 
16-20h. 

The above table is a list of the thirty-eight lines just discussed, 
along which one or more cables are laid. Since these lines were esta- 



202 REPORT— 1897. 

blished, the number of interruptions Avhich have occurred have been at 
least 245. For certain lines it would appear that fractures were more 
frequent at one season than at others, and that therefore a proper analysis 
of the table or its parts — such, for example, as those to which earthquake 
statistics have been subjected — might lead to the discovery of periodicities 
in cable-interruptions. Unfortunately, because the material in our 
possession is yet so meagre, such discussions must for the present be 
reserved. 

Out of the 245 breaks, 87 of them, each marked with an asterisk, 
occurred at the times when instruments were in operation which would 
record unfelt earthquake effects. Fifty-eight of the 87 cable-interrup- 
tions occurred at or about the times when Europe was agitated by these 
unfelt movements. The fractures accompanying earthquake, or, as it is 
sometimes called, volcanic movement — which could be felt, and which 
in two instances caused destruction on neighbouring shores — were at 
least 10 in number, which may be raised to 24 by including the Java 
records. In three of these instances, two or three cables were broken 
simultaneously. With the latter the submarine dislocations extended 
over a wide area ; in the Gulf of Corinth great changes in ocean 
depth were brought about, and from this latter place we know the motion 
to have radiated so that a few minutes after the interruption well-defined 
diagrams of earth- waves were obtained at localities 1,000 miles distant, 
at places where no movement could be felt. 

Instances like the latter clearly establish a connection between cable- 
interruptions, earthquake-motion which has been felt, submarine disloca- 
tion, and the records of horizontal pendulums in distant localities. This 
being the case, and because earthquake-motion cannot be felt at great 
distances from its origin, it is reasonable to conclude that the records of 
unfelt earthquakes which approximately coincide in time to those at which 
cables have been interrupted may sometimes indicate that submarine 
geological changes have accompanied seismic efforts. 

Although certain conclusions arrived at in this paper are definite, 
until the materials necessary for analysis can be obtained, others remain 
matters of inference. The records of interruptions for the lines men- 
tioned are, we have reason to believe, incomplete. The horizontal 
pendulum records with which to make comparisons have not only been 
few in number, but, because they are confined to Europe, could only be 
expected to throw light upon disturbances originating at a great distance, 
which were exceptionally large. The records of earthquakes which have 
been felt ai-e confined to an imperfect list for Java, a few from the Medi- 
terranean, and a few reported from the west coast of South America. 
Lastly, the hours, and in some cases even the days, on which cable- 
interruptions have taken place, together with the probable cause of these 
interruptions, are unknown. These latter facts are no doubt to be found 
in the archives of many cable companies, and it would be to the interest 
of all who desire to increase our knowledge of sub-oceanic change if com- 
parisons could be made between the records of unfelt earthquakes now 
published, and the times and circumstances at and under which corre- 
sponding cable-ruptures have taken place.' 

' The writer, whose address is Shide Hill House, Newport, I.W., England, would 
be glad to receive any information respecting the day, hour, and probable causes of 
failure, connected with cable-interruption. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



203 



All that it is expected to find is that a certain, and probably a 
small, proportion of these interruptions may correspond in time with 
seismic disturbances ; and, because we know that certain cables have 
been lost by landslips and dislocations accompanying earthquake-move- 
ment, it is to be hoped that the expectation may be regarded as a 
reasonable conjecture. 

An Attempt to estimate the Frequency of Submarine Dislocations. — 
If it can be assumed that the majority of cable-interruptions are due to 
submarine displacements, and not to faults inherent in themselves (which 
are comparatively of rare occurrence), the swaying of suspended sections 
under the influence of waves and currents, the movements of marine 
creatures, the boring of a teredo, and other exceptional causes, tlien the 
tables which have been given of cable fractures will give some idea of the 
frequency of such displacements. Because the list of interruptions for 
a number of the lines mentioned are imperfect, and because each cable 
follows a path carefully chosen as not being likely to suffer from sub- 
marine disturbance, the frequency of dislocation derived from such an 
assumption is more likely to be a minimum than a maximum. From the 
known number of interruptions which have occurred on sections of given 
length in a given number of years, the following table of dislocation 
frequency per mile of coast per year has been computed. 



Cable IHs location jjer Mile per Tear. 




Name of cable 


Length in 
nautical 


Number of breaks 




miles 


per mile per year 


Mollendo— Chorillos 


510 


0002 


Arica^Mollendo 








146 


0003 


Iquique — Arica . 








128 


00040 


Antofagasta— Iquique 








250 


00000 


Caldera — Antofagasta 








229 


00004 


Coquimbo— Caldera . 








215 


0-0000 


Valparaiso— Coquimbo 








219 


0001 


Santos — Chuy . 








744 


0000 


Maldonado — Montevideo 








72 


000 


Chuy — Maldonado 








125 


0-000 


Rio Grande do Sul— Chuy 








148 


0000 


Montevideo — Buenos Ayres 






'32 


0-004 


Sta. Catharina — Rio Grande do Sul 






397 


00004 


Santos — Sta. Catharina 






293 


0-0005 


Montevideo — Kio Grande do Sul 






349 


o-ooi; 


Chuy — Montevideo . 






201 


001 


Rio de Janeiro — Santos 






223 


0-009 


Bahia — Rio de Janeiro 






768 


00011 


Pernambuco— Bahia . 






404 


0-0036 


Ceara — Pernambuco . 






481 


00018 


Maranham — Ceara . 






408 


0-004 


Para — Maranham 






381 


0-OOS 


St. Thom6 — St. Paul de Loauda 






785 


0003 


Delagoa Bay — Durban 






348 


0-008 


Mozambique — Delagoa 






971 


0001 


Zanzibar — Mombasa . 






150 


0-007 


Aden — Zanzibar 






1,914 


00008 




10,891 


0-0023 average 



204 REPORT— 1897. 

The coasts taken are the east and west sides of South America and 
Africa. The total length considered representing shores which are 
steep and those which are gently inclined is about 11,000 miles. The 
general result which is reached is that the dislocations per mile per year, 
on the coast-lines considered, which may be taken as having on the 
average a character similar to that of the coast-lines of the world, are 
represented by the number 0"0023, that is to say, there is on the average 
one dislocation for every 434 miles per year. If we increase this number 
to 500 miles, and remember the character of the records and that of the 
paths to which they refer, although we have attributed all the interrup- 
tions to submarine change, we are inclined to the opinion that the 
estimate is not too great. This being granted, then, as there are about 
156,000 miles of coast-line in the world, if the same were surrounded by 
loops of cal)les, although each section might be laid in the most favour- 
able position, more than three hundred interruptions resulting from sub- 
marine disturbance might be expected to occur every year. In deep 
water on a level soft bottom experience shows that a cable may remain 
undisturbed and unchanged for long periods of time, indicating, as we 
have already pointed out, that geological change is proceeding with 
extreme slowness. 

4. Conclusions and Suggestions for a Seismic Survey of the World. 

Because earthquake origins are more numerous beneath the sea than 
■upon the land, it is fair to assume that the bradyseismical operations 
resulting in the folding, bending, crushing, faulting, and thrusting of rock 
masses are more active in the recesses of the ocean than they are upon 
our continents. Sub-oceanic volcanic activity, as, for example, that which 
is met with in the mid- Atlantic, probably indicates the existence of 
bradyseismic movement and a relief of strain. The concentration of de- 
tritus derived from continental surfaces along coast-lines on tracts which 
are comparatively small, indicates that beneath the sea the growth by 
sedimentation is greater per unit area than the similarly estimated loss is 
by denudation on the land. This rapid submarine growth, largely under 
the influence of gravity, but modified by hydrodynamic action, leads to 
the building up of steep contours, the stability of which may be destroyed 
•by the shaking of an earthquake, the escape of water from submarine 
springs, the change in direction or intensity of an ocean current, or by 
other causes which have been enumerated. That submarine landslides of 
great magnitude have had a real existence is proved for certain localities 
fcy the fact that after an interval of a few years very great diSerences in 
depth of water have been found at the same place, whilst sudden changes in 
depth have taken place at the time of and near to the origin of submarine 
•earthquakes (see pp. 193 and 197). Large ocean-waves unaccompanied by 
volcanic action indicate that there have been very great and sudden dis- 
placements of materials beneath the ocean. The most important evidence 
of sub- oceanic change is, however, to be found amongst the archives of 
the cable engineer. The routes chosen for cables are carefully selected as 
being those where interruptions are least likely to occur ; and yet, as it 
ihas been shown, something which is often of the nature of a submarine 
landslip takes place and some miles of cable may be buried. Here we 
seem to have proof positive, especially along the submerged continental 
plateaus, of sudden sub- oceanic dislocation. Because these changes are 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 205 

frequent, it is reasonable to suppose that sedimentation and erosion and 
other causes which lead up to the critical conditions are geologically 

rapid. 

Briefly, the foregoing notes and facts indicate that beneath the oceans 
certain important geological changes are more rapid than they are upon 
land, whilst new sources from which information respecting these changes 
may be obtained are pointed out to the student of dynamical geology. 

The more important of these sources are the experiences of the cable 
engineer and the records of seismographs, which are sensitive to unfeli 
movements. When a number of these instruments have been established 
round the world, on the borders of great oceans, and on oceanic islandsy 
it is diificult to overestimate the practical and scientific results which will 
follow. 

The greater number of records, as it has been shown, would refer to- 
disturbances which originated beneath the sea. From the times at which 
earth-waves arrived at different stations, as, for example, on the two sides 
of the Atlantic, it would be possible to localise their origins, and in time 
districts would be indicated which it would be well for those who lay 
cables to avoid. Work of this nature has, by means of ordinary seismo- 
graphs, been partially accomplished for Japan, and the seismic maps of 
that country ' show that sub-oceanic disturbances originating near to the 
coast are herded in groups. Should a trans-Pacific cable be landed in. 
that country, to effect this through the middle of one of these groups- 
would be inviting its destruction. 

If we had the means of knowing that when an interruption occurred 
in a cable at the same time an unfelt earthquake had been recorded, we- 
should then be in a position to attribute the fault to its proper cause.. 
The practically simultaneous failure of three Atlantic cables in 1884 led 
to the hypothesis that they had been broken by the grapnels of a 
repairing vessel ; fortunately for the owners of this vessel, it could not be- 
substantiated. 

From the 'Electrician ' of August 20 and October 12, 1888, we learn 
that the simultaneous interruption of the two cables connecting Java and 
Australia in 1888 cut off the latter from the outside world for nineteen 
days, and gave a pretext for calling out the military and naval reserves to- 
meet the contingency of war having broken out. In 1890 three cables 
Avere simultaneously broken, and telegraphic communication with Australia, 
was cut off for nine days. On these occasions, had there been established 
in Australia a proper instrument for recording unfelt movements of the' 
ground, it is extremely likely that the cause of the interruption would 
have been recognised as due to seismic action, and the fear of war and the- 
probable accompanying commercial paralysis would have been averted. 
Other direct benefits, which have already been derived from the records; 
of instruments such as it is here proposed to establish round the world, 
are that they enable us to extend, correct, and even to cast doubt upon 
certain classes of telegraphic information published in our newspapers. 

Late in June last year we learned from our newspapers that a great 
disaster had taken place in North Japan, and that nearly 30,000 peoplfr 
had lost their lives. Seismograms taken in the Isle of Wight not only 
indicated how many maxima of motion had taken place, but showed that 
there had been an error in transmission of two days, the catastrophe; 

' See Seismological Jortrnal, vol. ir. 



206 • REPORT— 1897. 

having taken place on the evening of June 1 5, so that all who were to 
reach the stricken district after that date were in safety. 

On August 31 of the same year, the Isle of Wight records showed that a 
disturbance similar to that which had occurred in Japan had taken place. 
On account of this similarity, it was stated that we should probably hear 
of a great earthquake having taken place in or near that country on the 
above date at 5.7 p.m. Four weeks later this was verified by mail. 
Another instance occurred some weeks latei-, when our newspapers an- 
nounced that a great earthquake had taken place and sevei'al thousand 
lives had been lost in Kobe. No doubt those who had friends and pro- 
perty in that city were filled with anxiety. On this occasion the Isle of 
Wight instruments were still indicating that nothing of the magnitude 
described could have occurred. Later it was discovered that the telegram 
was devoid of all foundation. 

If we next turn to the scientific aspect of the proposed investigations, 
we at once recognise the importance of the results which it is hoped may 
be obtained for the hydrographer and the student of physical geography 
and geology. 

The greatest result which it is hoped may be achieved is to accurately 
determine the rate at which earthquake motion is propagated over long 
distances. In some instances the rates which have already been deter- 
mined are so high, reaching 12 and more kilometres per second, that 
the supposition is, that motion does not simply go round our earth, but 
that it goes throuffh the same ; and if this is so, then a determination of 
these rates of transit will throw new light upon the eSective rigidity of 
our planet. 



Experiments for improving the Condrnction of Practical St(i7ida7-ds for 
.Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor G. Carey Foster (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and Oliver J. Lodge. Drs. John 
HoPKiNSON and A. Muirhead, Messrs. W. H. Preece and 
Herbert Taylor, Professors J. D. Everett and A. Schuster, 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald, G. Chrystal, 
and J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. 
•Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. G. Forbes, 
Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. Griffiths, and Professor A. W. 
Rucker. 

I. JVute on tlic Const ant-rolume Gas-tTiermmncfer. By G. CABEY Fostee, F.R.S. 210 
II. On a Determination of the Ohm made in Testing the Lorenz Apparatus of tne 
McGill University, Montreal. By Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.Ii S., and 
Professor J. Vieiamu Jones, F.R.S. 213 

At the Liverpool meeting the Committee agreed that the ' calorie,' 
defined as the heat equivalent of 4-2 x 10'' ergs, should be adopted as the 
unit for the measurement of quantities of heat, but the question as to the 
exact part of the absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature at which 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 207 

this quantity of heat could be taken as equal to one water-gramme-degree 
was for the time being left open. 

This resolution has made it incumbent on the Committee to consider 
carefully — 

1. The relation between the results of measurements of intervals of 
temperature by accepted methods and the absolute scale ; 

2. The specific heat of water in terms of the erg and its variation with 
temperature. 

With regard to the first point there appears to be no reason to doubt 
that the scale of a constant-volume hydrogen-thermometer is very nearly 
identical with the absolute scale. ' The Committee have therefore decided 
to recognise the standard hydrogen-thermometer of the Bureau Inter- 
national des Poids et Mesures as representing, nearly enough for present 
purposes, the absolute scale. This convention has at least the advantage 
of giving a definite meaning to statements of the numerical value of 
intervals of temperature within any range for which comparison with the 
hydrogen-thermometer is practicable. If future investigation should show 
that it is inaccurate to any appreciable extent, corresponding corrections 
can be applied when necessary. 

Experience of the use of the platinum resistance-thermometer in various 
hands encourages the hope that it will afford a convenient and trust- 
worthy working method of referring the indications of mercury- or other 
thermometers to those of the standard hydrogen-thermometer. The Com- 
mittee have consequently much satisfaction in learning that Dr. C. A. 
Harker, formerly of Owens College, is at this moment carrying out at 
Sevres, on behalf of the Committee of the Kew Observatory, and with the 
concurrence of the Director of the Laboratories of the Bureau Inter- 
national, a direct comparison of platinum thermometers belonging to the 
Kew Observatory with the standard hydrogen-thermometer of the 
Bimreau. 

As to the dynamical value of the specific heat of water — in other words 
the mechanical equivalent of heat — it was pointed out by Professor 
SSchuster and Mr. Gannon in 1894 ^ that the results of the best determi- 
nations by direct mechanical methods agree among themselves much more 
•closely than they do with those that are founded upon electrical measure- 
ments of the energy expended, although these in turn are in good agree- 
ment among themselves. Additional significance is given to this remark 
by the comparison of those determinations which, by extending over an 
appreciable range of temperature, indicate the rate of variation of the 
specific heat of water. Of such determinations there is one of each kind, 
that of Professor Rowland by the mechanical method, and that of Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths by the electrical method. The results of the former of these 
liave recently undergone an elaborate revision at the hands of one of 
Professor Rowland's pupils, Mr. W. S. Day,^ who has compared the 
three principal thermometers employed in the experiments with the 
■Sevres hydrogen-standard by means of three Tonnelot thermometers 
which had been compared at the Bureau with the hydrogen-standard. 
Messrs. C W. Waidner and F. Mallory* have also compared two of 

' See Appendix No. 1 to this Eeport. 

^ Phil. Tranx., vol. clxxxvi., p. 462 ; Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. Ivii., p. 31. 
' Johns Hopkins University Circulars, pp. 44, 45 (June 1897) ; also Phil. Mag., 
xliv. K9-172. 

* Ibid., pp. 42, 43 (June 1897) ; Phil Mag., xliv. 165-169. 



208 



REPORT — 1897. 



Rowland's thermometers with a platinum thermometer made by Mr. 
Griffiths. The result of this discussion is to leave Rowland's original 
value unchanged at 15°, and to raise it by four parts in 4,000 at 25°, 
making the rate of variation of the specific heat of water almost exactly 
the same as that given by Griffiths's experiments throughout the same 
range. 

The following table gives the numerical values : — 

Values of the SiJeciJlc Heat of Water at 15° C. 

1. By mechanical friction : — 



Author 


Date 


Result 


Joule 

Miculescu 

Rowland 


1878 
1892 
1879 


4172 X 10* ergs. 
4181 „ 
4189 „ 


Reynolds and Moorby 


1897 


A^a'> irv4 f mean specific heat 
4183x10* 1 from 0° to 100° C. 



2. By electrical methods :- 


— 




Author 


Date 


Result 


Griffiths 

Schuster and Gannon 


1893 
1894 


4199-7 X 10* ergs. 
4197 „ 



Variation of the Specific Heat of Water. 



Temperature 




Specific Heat 














Rowland 




Griffiths 




6 


4204 X 10* 









10 


4197 „ 









15 


4189 ., 




4199-7 X 10 




20 


4183 „ 




4193-2 „ 




25 


4177 „ 




4187-4 




30 


4173 „ 




— 




35 


4174 „ 




— 





Joule's (1878) result is given by Schuster and Gannon {Proc. Roy. Soc, Ivii. 
p. 31) as 775 foot-pounds at Greenwich per degree Fahr. As Professor Schuster 
has examined the thermometers employed by Joule, this value is adopted as the most 
trustworthy statement of the result of Joule's experiments : it is reduced to ergs and 
the Centigrade scale. 

Miculescu (^Ann. Chim. Phys. [6], xxvii. 237) states his result as 426-84 kilogramme- 
metres per kilogramme-degree of the normal hydrogen-thermometer between 10° and 
13°. Taking^ = 980 96, this is equivalent to 4187 X 10 ergs per gramme-degree. The 
mean temperature ll°-5 hivs been adopted and reduction to 15° has been made by 
means of the rate of variation given by Rowland's experiments. 

Reynolds' and Moorby's experiments {Proc. Roy. Soc, Ixi.) refer to the whole range 
from 0° to 100°. Their result is stated, in foot-pounds at Manchester and degrees 
Fahr., as 776-94. To reduce to ergs and the Centigrade scale this number has 
been multiplied by 18 x 3048 x 981-34. 

Schuster and Gannon (^Proc. Roy. Soc, Ivii. 25-31). 

Rowland's and Griffiths' results are quoted from Day (Phil. Mag., August 1897, 
p. 171), whose statement is adopted by Griffiths in Nature for July 15, 1897. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 209 

The agreement between the separate determinations by the mechauical 
and by the electrical methods respectively, and the regularity of the 
■differences between Rowland's values and those of Griffiths, is such as to 
raise a strong presumption that, in the experiments by both methods, 
errors of observation have been reduced to a very small amount. At the 
same time the difference between the two sets of results points to some 
constant source of error in the measurement of energy affecting one or 
both. The mechanical method is, in principle, so direct and simple that 
it is difficult to suppose its results affected by a constant error. On the 
other hand, the electrical method being less direct and more complicated, 
there is here more room for uncertainty in the data. 

The electrical determinations depend upon the well-known relation 
between thermal and electrical energy, which is expressible in the three 
forms — 

Schuster and Gannon's experiments are based upon the second form 
-of the equation, those of Griffiths on the third. In both of them electro- 
motive force was measured by comparison with a Latimer Clark's cell. 
Schuster and Gannon measured, in addition, the strength of their current 
by means of a silver-voltameter, and Griffiths measured a resistance in 
terms of the ohm. 

The accepted value of the electromotive force of the Clark's cell depends 
in its turn on the electrochemical equivalent of silver as determined by 
Lord Rayleigh and Professor F. Kohlrausch, and consequently it appears 
that the electrical determinations of the mechanical equivalent involve a 
double reference to the electrochemical equivalent of silver, so that any 
inaccuracy in the adopted value of this quantity would involve a duplicate 
■error in the value of the mechanical equivalent deduced therefrom. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that, in a recent letter to 
^Nature,' vol. Ivi. p. 292, Lord Rayleigh has stated that he does not 
■consider that a possible error of one part in 1,000 is excluded from his 
determination of the electrochemical equivalent of silver. If it be 
assumed that his value is one part in 1,000 too small, this would almost 
exactly account for the difference between the electrical determinations 
into which this quantity enters as a factor and . the direct mechanical 
'detei minations. 

It thus appears to be a matter of urgent importance that a redeter- 
mination of the electrochemical equivalent of silver should be made, and 
that the general question of the absolute measurement of electric currents 
should be investigated. In order to enable them to carry out this investi- 
gation, the Committee have decided to ask for reappointment and to apply 
for a grant of 100^. towards the expense of the necessary apparatus and 
•experiments. 



1897. 



210 REPORT— 1897. 



APPENDIX I. 



Note on the Constant-volume Gas-thermometer. 
By G. Carey Foster, F.B.S. 

The absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature introduced by Lord 
Kelvin is connected with the properties of real fluids by the equation ' 

rfT_ dv 

T — T^ ^^> 

where dv is the infinitesimal increment which unit mass of a fluid occupying- 
the volume v undergoes when it is heated, under constant pressure, from 
the absolute temperature T to the infinitesimally higher absolute tempera- 
ture T-f c^T, and ho is the amount of work required to restore the original 
temperature of unit mass of the fluid when it has undergone a fall of 
pressure, Sp, by passing through a porous plug, as in Joule and Thomson's 
experiments, without loss or gain of heat. 

It follows that, if there is any fluid which does not undei'go a change 
of temperature when forced through a porous plug, an infinitesimal change 
of temperature is to the total temperature on the absolute scale as tlie 
resulting change of volume of this fluid is to the total volume. Such a fluid 
would be called a perfect gas. 

The following discussion of the bearing of the results of *\\q porous- 
plug experiments on the indications of a constant-volume gas-thermometer 
is taken from a copy which the writer made in January 1894 of a fuller 
discussion of these experimen ' s communicated to him by his friend and 
former pupil, Mr. John Rose-Tnnes. Mi-. Rose-Innes will shortly read a 
paper on this question beforn the Physical Society of London. In the 
meantime the writer has his permission to make the present use of his 
hitherto'unpublished results. 

It will be remembered that Joule and Lord Kelvin found that all the 
gases they experimented on were, with the exception of hydrogen, slightly 
cooled by being forced through the plug. With hydrogen the eflect was 
smaller than with other gases and was a rise of temperature. At a given 
temperature the cooling eflect was, up to five or six atmospheres, propor- 
tional to the diflerence of pressure on opposite sides of the plug. For a 
given change of pressure the eflect decreased with rise of temperature, 
and Joule and Lord Kelvin concluded that it was approximately propor- 
tional to the inverse square of the temperature reckoned from — 273° C. 
With hydrogen the variation with temperature was too small for them to 
consider it as clearly established ; if anything the efiect became greater as 
the temperature rose. 

Mr. Rose-Innes's discussion of these results is founded upon his 
remark that an empirical formula with two constants, a and /3, namely 

^^^k+t + i'' 

' Compare equation (16) of Lord Kelvin's article ' Heat ' in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica, vol. si. p. 571 ; Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol, iii. 



I 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 211 

where () is the cooling eflfect and t temperature on the ordinary centigrade 
scale, represents the experimental values rather more accurately than the 
inverse-square formula. The values of a and yS calculated by him for air, 
carbonic acid gas, and liydrogen, the change of pressure being represented 
by 100 inches of mercury, are as follows : — 

Air . , 

Carbonic Acid 

Hydrogen . . . 

To apply equation (1) to the discussion of the gas-thermometer, we 
may begin (like Joule and Kelvin) by expressing the work civ, required 
to restore the gas to its initial condition, in terms of the observed cooling 
effect, and may write 



a 


|8 


441-5 


-0-697 


2i;i5 


-4-9S 


64-1 


- -331 



"«=JC9=Jc(^ + /3), 



where J is the mechanical equivalent of heat and C the specific heat of 
the gas under constant pressure. If we remember that J may be written 
J^W/??if:(', where Wis the work that must be spent to raise the tempera- 
ture of a mass m of water by the amount 0', we see that the thermometric 
scale on which d and ti' are expressed is of no consequence, provided it is 
the same for both. 

Putting IT for the change of pressure producing a cooling effect 0, we 
may write equation (1) thus, taking reciprocals of both sides : 

^ce-"--rr{T+^^j (') 

or, dividing throughout by T- and integrating between limits T and 
infinity — 

(V\ _V_JCfa l3\ 

With I'egard to the first term on the right, it may be remarked that 
all gases appear to approximate more and more nearly as temperature 

rises to agreement with the equation ^^ =R (a constant). Applying this 
to (3), we get 

2? T n V2T2"''tA 



or. 



HT JG p f a . r, \ ... 

^^=^-n--i(2f-^^ j ... (4) 

Neglecting, provisionally, the Joule-Kelvin effect, we have, as a first 
approximation, 

RT 

and we may take this value as accurate enough for use in the small tei'm 
containing p on the right-hand side of (4). 

r 2 



212 KEPORT— 1897. 

We thus get, as a second approximation to the value of }} — 

Now let V remain constant, and let p^, Tq and p^, Tj represent pressure 
and temperature at the melting-point of ise and at the boiling-point of 
water respectively ; we then get 

i'«=^[To-J^(ta-f/3To)] 

^^^=? [T.-^(ia + /3T0]. 
By subtraction 

and 

Hence 

or, finally, if we assume 100 as the numerical value of the interval Ti— Tq 

T-To=100 P'J'"; 

whence we may conclude that, to the degree of approximation attained in 
this calculation, the scale of the constant volume gas-thermometer is 
identical with the absolute thermodynamic scale. 

APPENDIX II. 

■-On a Determination of the Ohm made in Testing the Lorenz Apparatus 
of the McGill University, Montreal, hy Professor W. E. Ayrton, 
i^.R.S., and Professor J. Viriamu Jones, F.B.S. 

This apparatus, made by Messrs. Nakler Brothers, is in general arrange- 
ment and dimensions similar to the Cardiff apparatus described in the 
'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,' 1891, A, pp. 1-42, and 
in the 'Electrician,' June 1895, vol. xxxv. pp. 231 and 253. 

The field coil, in pursuance of a suggestion contained in the Royal 
Society paper, consists of a single layer of wire wound in a helical groove 
of semicircular section, cut in the cylindrical surface of a massive marble 
ring of about 21 inches outside diameter, 15 inches inside diameter, and 
6 inches thick. This helical groove has 201 complete turns with a pitch 
of 0-025 inch. Bare wire, of mean thickness 0-02136 inch, was first used. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 213 



and the outside diameter of the coil so wound was measured in the 
Whitworth machine with the foUov.'ing results : — 



Diameter 


Near front face 


Near middle 


Near back face 


0°-180° 


2104772 


21-04765 


21-04765 


10°- 190° 


21 04795 


21-04765 


2104952 


20° -200° 


2104768 


21-04755 


2104905 


30°- 210° 


21-04805 


21-04745 


21-04818 


40° -220° 


21-04785 


21-04755 


21-04825 


50° -230° 


21-04808 


21 04730 


21-04812 


60° -240° 


21-04752 


2104755 


2104805 


70° -250° 


21-04755 


21-04755 


2104822 


80° -260° 


2104785 


21-04795 


21-04895 


90° -270° 


21-04812 


21-04780 


21-04942 


100° -280° 


2104805 


21-04815 


21-04925 


110° -290° 


2104808 


2104825 


21-04898 


120° -300° 


21-04785 


2104840 


21-04905 


130° -310° 


21-04828 


21-04835 


21-04915 


140° -320° 


21-04828 


21-04815 


2104908 


150° -330° 


2104805 


21-01805 


21-04932 


160° -340° 


21-04872 


21-04795 


21-04858 


170° -350° 


21-04778 


21-04785 


21-04812 


Mean 2104797 


21-04784 


21-04872 



General mean = 21-04818 inches. 

The temperature, which was taken at each observation, varied between 
19°-9 C. and 21° C, and had a mean value of 20°-4 C. Correcting for the 
difference between the tempeiature at which the bars of the Whitworth 
machine have their specified value and this mean temperature, we have 
for the mean outside diameter of the coil, when wound with bare wire 
0-02136 inch thick, 

21-04932 inch at 20°-4C. 

From the above measurements it is clear that the wire lay on a very 
true circular cylinder. With bare wire, however, of the thickness used it 
was found impossible to obtain sufficient insulation between pairs of 
convolutions. Hence, after much time had been spent in endeavouring to 
insulate the successive turns by forcing paraffin wax in between them, &c., 
the coil was unwound and rewound with double silk covered wire which 
had been first dried, then drawn through paraffin wax, and lastly baked 
before the winding was commenced. To wind so large and heavy a ring 
was not an easy matter, and it was not until the winding had been 
performed three times that the layer looked sufficiently uniform and quite 
free from abrasion of the silk. 

The mean thickness of the double silk covered wire used in the last 
winding was 0-01914 inch, so that the outside diameter of the wound 
coil, calculated from the value given above for the coil wound with bare 
wire, was 

21-04488 inches at 20°-4C. 

The coil was then brushed over with melted paraffin wax, bound round 
with silk ribbon that had been soaked in a solution of shellac, and finally 
loosely covered up with a wide silk ribbon that had been passed through 
paraffin wax. 



214 KEPOET— 1897. 

During the time that the ring was unwound the linear coefficient of 
expansion of the marble was measured by Messrs. Spiers, Twyman, and 
Waters, three of the students of the City and Guilds Central Technical 
College. The experiment was attended with difficulty, for it was far from 
easy to bring so large a mass of a badly conducting substance to the 
same temperature, but ultimately the result 0*000004 per 1° C. was 
obtained. 

At the conclusion of the resistance observations recorded further on, 
the silk ribbons and the protecting layer of paraffin wax were carefully 
removed until the silk covering of the wire appeared, and the diameter of 
the coil was measured along two directions at right angles to one another. 
The maximum difference between four measurements was only five 
hundred-thousandths of an inch, and after the introduction of the proper 
temperature corrections, the mean value of the outside diameter of the 
coil was found to be 

21-04687 inches at 20°-4 C. 

This result is about one part in ten thousand larger than the calcu- 
lated value given above, and the difference is probably due to the silk 
covering of the wire having swollen slightly when the wound coil was 
brushed over with melted paraffin wax. In the calculation, therefore, of 
the coefficient of mutual induction we have considered it more accurate 
to use the value obtained by direct experiment. Subtracting from that 
value — 21 •04687 — the thickness of the double silk-covered wire — 0-01914 
— we have for the mean diameter of the coil from axis to axis of the loire 

21-02773 inches at 20°-4 C. 

Shortly before the last set of resistance measurements was carried out, 
the edge of the phosphor bronze disc was ground in position so as to be 
made quite true with the axis of rotation, and immediately after the com- 
pletion of the investigation the diameter of the disc was measured and 
found to be 13-01435 inches at 19°-5 C. Messrs. Spiers, Twyman, and 
Waters had previously determined its linear coefficient of expansion to 
be 00000125 per 1° C, so that its diameter was 

13-01451 inches at 20°-4 C. 

During 1896 Mr. W. G. Rhodes, when he was an Assistant at the 
Central Technical College, carried out the long calculation of the co- 
efficient of mutual induction between the coil, as wound with bare wire, 
and the disc by using the method given in the paper in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' above referred to, and with the following values : — • 

Diameter of coil or 2 A =21*02673 inches. 

Diameter of disc or 2 « =13-01997 inches. 

Axial length of helix or 2 x =5-025 inches, 
ix'umber of convolutions or w=201 
He found 

M= 18056-36 inches. 
= 45862-33 centimetres. 

This calculation was checked by Mr, Mather and independently by 
one of the authors, 

Now it can be shown that for the above values of A, a, x, and n 

$^=1-246 — + 2-343 ^ + 0-0997—, 
M A a X 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 215 

and so the value of M for the particular values of 2 A and 2 a given 
above, viz. 21-02772 and 13-01451 can be calculated. When this is done 
we find 

M= 18037-51 inches. 
=45814-45 centimetres. 

and this was the value of M which we employed in our final determina- 
tion, after allowance had been made for the effect of the central brush, as 
will be described further on. 

The accuracy of the preceding calculations was tested in the fol- 
lowing way. Values of 2 A and 2a, differing slightly from those em- 
ployed by Mr. Rhodes, were selected, and by means of the formula for 

-— the proportional change in M was determined by Mr. Twyman. Then 

M 

the value of M for these changed values of 2 A and 2 a, was calculated by 

the authors from a new formula involving an elliptic integral of the third 

kind.i 

The centre brush consists of a tube, 0-135 inch outside diameter, 
which projects into an axial hole in the disc of 0-144 inch diameter. 
Oontact with the edge of the disc is made by three small tangential 
phosphor bronze tubes lightly pressed on it, at points separated by 
angular distances of 120\ Through all four tubes a small stream of 
mercury is kept flowing, as this is found to greatly diminish the disturbances 
caused by variations in the thermo-electric effects ; and the employment 
of three brushes at the circumference, as suggested by Rowland, eliminates 
small errors due to imperfect centering of the coil and disc. 

To prevent the mercury which drops out of the central tube-brush 
touching the disc at a larger radius than that of the hole in its centre an 
ebonite boss is cemented to the disc, and this causes the mercury to drop 
away quite clear of the metal of the disc. 

If we take as the effective outside diameter of the central tube 0-139 
inch, that is the mean of 0-135 and 0-144 inch, calculation shows that tho 
coefficient of mutual induction is reduced by 4-50 centimetres, so that 
finally we have 

M= 45809 -95 centimetres.. 

As the allowance for the central brush only diminishes M by one part 
in ten thousand it is clear that, for that degree of accuracy, an error of a 
few per cent, in estimating the diameter of the central brush is of no 
consequence. 

The method of making the observations was the same as that described 
in the papers on the Cardiff apparatus read before Section A of the British 
Association at Nottingham and Oxford (vide Report of the Committee 
on Electrical Standards, Appendices 1893 and 1894). The use of an 
extremely sensitive Ayrton-Mather galvanometer of the d'Arsonval type 
materially facilitated the readings being taken. Two such narrow coil 
galvanometers were specially constructed by Mr. Mather himself for use 

• An account of this new formula as well as of that for -- will shortly be pub- 

M. 

lished by Professor Viriamu Jones. 



216 



REPORT — 189/ 



with the Lorenz apparatus, and the data of the second instrument are 



contained in the following table. 

Kesistance of suspended coil .... 

„ coil and suspension 

Periodic time of complete swing 

Scale distance actually used 

in divisions at actual scale distance 



Deflection 

used 
Deflection in divisions at scale distance equal to f 204 

2,000 scale divisions \ 35-8 



1^9 ohms. 
6-75 „ 
7-6 seconds. 
f 1412 millimetres, 
i 1340 scale divisions-, 
i 137 per micro-ampere.. 
\ 23-8 „ micro-volt. 

micro-ampere, 
micro-volt. 



The resistance coils used were those previously employed in the Cardiflf 
determination of the ohm {vide Report of the Committee on Electrical 
Standards, Appendices IT. and III., 1894). They have been tested once 
by Mr. Glazebrook, and twice by the kindness of Major Cardew in the 
Board of Ti'ade Electric Standardising Laboratory, with the following 
results : — 



Coil. 


A. 

Mr. Glazebrook, 
Jan. -March 1894. 


B. 

Board of Trade, 
November 1896. 


C. 
Board of Trade, 

August 1897. 


No. 3,873 
„ 3,874 
„ 4,274 
., 4,275 


9-9919 atl4°-8C. 
9-9926 atl4°-9C 

•100050 at 15°-2C. 

•100053 at 15°-2C. 


9-992994 at 14°-86 C. 
9-993213 at 14°-91 C. 

•1000595 at 14°-77 C. 

•1000722 at 15°-14 C. 


10-00712 at 19°-3 0. 
10-00775 at 19°-3 C. 

-100078 at 19°-4 C. 

•100081 at 19°-4 0. 



The coils Nos. 3,873 and 3,874 were stated by the makers, Messrs. 
Nalder, to be wound with platinum silver wire, and the two others, Nos. 
4,274 and 4,275, with manganin. 

In the following table are given the temperature coefficients as- 
Bupplied originally by the makers, and as calculated from the tests A and 
C, and B and C. 



Temperature Coefficients of Resistance per \° C. 



Coil. 


As supplied by 
Messrs. Nalder. 


From tests 
A and C. 


From tests 
B and C. 


No. 3,873 
,, 3,874 
„ 4,274 
» 4,275 


0000270 
0-000300 
O0000I27 
0-0000127 


0-000360 
0-000344 
0-0000667 
0-0000667 


0-000318 
0-000331 
0-0000399 
0-0000207 



These figures show that a redetermination of the temperature co- 
efficients, which we are now carrying out, is necessary. 

Fortunately the last set of determinations of the resistance of these four 
coils was carried out at Westminster, within a fortnight of the completion of 
our absolute measurements, and we are much indebted to Major Cardew 
for his kind promptness in the matter. The temperatures of these 1897 
Board of Trade measurements were so nearly those of the coils during 
our final absolute determinations, which were from 18°'8 to 19°-4 C, as 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



!17 



to render the effect of possible errors in the temperature coeflBcients. 
negligible to the degree of accuracy aimed at by us. "We have, therefore, 
used the August 1897 Board of Trade values for these coils as transmit- 
ting the Board of Trade ohm to the laboratory in Exhibition Road. 

The standard thermometers used in the investigation were sent to 
Kew and their en-ors were determined at the time by the kindness of 
Dr. Chree ; also, thanks to Sir J. Norman Lockyer, the clock in the 
Mechanical Department of the Central Technical College, which trans- 
mitted seconds to the fast running Bain Chronograph, was frequently 
timed by reference to the current sent hourly to his room from the 
General Post OfEce, and at 10 A.M. from Greenwich. 

The results of successive measurements of the absolute resistances 
became very concordant after, little by little, various possible causes of 
small errors had been eliminated. Nine sets taken on July 30, 1897,, 
gave the following results for the value of the Board of Trade ohm in. 
true ohms, without allowance for the error in the clock rate. 



1-000286 
1-000256 
1-000285 
1-000351 
1-000295 
Mean 



1-000277 
1-000306 
1-000284 
1-000307 



1-000294 



or, since the clock was found to lose, during the daytime, at the rate of 
three seconds per twenty-four hours, it follows that according to this, 
investigation 

1 Board of Trade ohm= 1-00 026 true ohms. 

It is important to consider in which direction this result will b& 
affected by sources of error that cannot be removed by careful adjustment,, 
centering, &c. They may be classified as follows : — 



Source of Error. 

1. Over-estimation of the diameter of the coil arising, 

for example, from the stress on the copper wire 
having caused it to compress the under side of its 
silk covering. 

2. Under- estimation of the diameter of the phosphor 

bronze disc from a neglect of the tips of the cir- 
cumferential brush tubes being possibly pushed 
away from the disc by the stream of mercury 
issuing, &c. 

3. Presence of iron pipes, girders, &c. in the neighbour- 

hood of the apparatus. 

4. Traces of iron in the phosphor bronze disc. 



support of the 
of the circum- 



5. Defective insulation between the 

central brush and the supports 
ferential brushes. 

6. Defective insulation between the convolutions on the 

coil. 

7. Traces of iron in the marble ring. 



Effect Produced. 
Result would be toe- 
small. 



Result would be too 
small. 



Result would be too 

small. 
Result would be very 

slightly too small. 
Result would be tocv 

large. 

Result would be toc> 

large. 
Kesult would be too 

large. 



218 REPORT— 1897. 

8. Defective insulation of parts of the circuit from one Effect would depend 

another. upon the position of 

the leaks. 

9. Permanent magnetic field at the apparatus. No effect, for the current 

through the field coil 
was periodically re- 
versed. 

As regards 4 and 7, special induction balances were constructed and 
used by Mr. Mather to test the permeability of both the marble ring and 
the phosphor bronze disc ; but, although a deviation from unity of one 
part in fifteen thousand could have been detected in the permeability of 
either, no such deviation was observed. 

As regards 5 and 8, careful tests were made every day of the 
insulation resistance of the apparatus, and it was always found to be 
greater than one thousand megohms. 

6. The insulation between the adjacent convolutions of wire could not 
be measured when they were silk covered and buried in paraffin wax, 
since a small leak between a pair of turns would not change the apparent 
resistance of the copper coil by as much as the variation in temperature 
of a fraction of one degree. We had, therefore, to content ourselves with 
the precautions, previously described, which were taken to secure high 
insulation in the winding of the coil. 

When the ring was wound with bare wire it was possible to roughly 
compare the insulation resistance between pairs of convolutions by 
sending a constant current through the coil and measuring, very 
accurately, the P.D. between every adjacent pair of the 201 turns. This 
we did several times, but it was a long and laborious task. 

When constructing a new Lorenz apparatus it will be well to consider 
whether two separate helices should not be cut in the cylindrical surface 
of the marble ring in which two independent bare wires would be bound, 
a turn of the one being everywhere (except at the extreme ends) between 
two turns of the other. The insulation resistance, therefore, between 
the two windings would measure the insulation between the adjacent 
turns, while in the ordinary use of the apparatus the two windings would 
be joined in series so as to constitute a single coil. In this way it may 
be possible to be more sure of the absence of 6 than by using paraffined 
double silk covered wire, and at the same time, to entirely remove 1. 

The direction of our experimental result, which shows that the Board 
of Trade ohm is between two and three parts in ten thousand larger than 
the true ohm could not, however, arise from 1. Nor could it arise from 
either 2 or 3, still many experiments were made to detect any evidence 
of the effective diameter of the disc being larger than its true diameter, 
as measured in the Whitworth machine. But no change in the pressure 
of the circumferential brush-tubes, nor alteration in the shape of their 
ends, &c., indicated that, with the brushes as we employed them, the 
effective diameter of the disc differed from its true diameter. 

Our thanks are due to the three students whose names are given above 
for much assistance in carrying out the long series of observations ; to Mr. 
Harrison for bringing to bear, from time to time, the experience that he 
had previously gained in the use of the Lorenz apparatus ; and we are 
especially indebted to Mr. Mather for the suggestive aid which he rendered 
us throughout the whole of the present investigation. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



219 



Mcteorolor/ical Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren, Professor A. Crum Brown (Secre- 
tarij). Dr. John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Professor 
K. OorELAND. (Draicn up by Dr. Bl'CHAn.) 

The Committee was appointed, as in former years, for the purpose of 
co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteoro- 
logical observations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories. 

The hourly eye observations by night as well as by day have been made 
with the utmost regularity by Mr. Angus Rankin, the Acting Superin- 
tendent, and the assistants during the year. The continuous registrations 
and other observations have been carried on at the Low Level Observatory 
at Fort "William with the same accuracy and fulness of detail as heretofore. 

The Directors of the Observatories tender their best thanks to Messrs. 
A. J. Herbertson, T. S. Muir, A. Drysdale, M.A., B.Sc, P. S. Hardie, 
George Ednie, and John S. Begg, for the invaluable assistance rendered 
by them as volunteer observers during the summer and autumn months, 
thus giving much needed relief to the members of the regular observing 
staff. 

Table I. shows for the year 1896 the mean monthly and extreme 
pressures and temperatures ; amounts of rainfall, with the days of rain, 
and the number of days when the amount exceeded one inch ; the hours of 
sunshine ; the mean percentage of cloud ; the mean velocity of the wind in 
miles per hour at the top of the mountain ; and the mean rainband at both 
observatories. The mean barometric pressures at Fort William Observa- 
tory are reduced to 32° and sea level, but those at the Ben Nevis 
Observatory are reduced to 32° only. 

Table I. 



1896 JaD. Feb. March April May | June July | Aug. Sept. Oct. 



Kov. Dec. Year 



Mean Pressure in Inches. 



Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences , 



25-534I 25-5071 25-021 



30-17!)! 30-140J 29-597 
4'645l 4-U3 



25-4431 25-711 
30-045 30-266 



25-410 



29-890 
4-480 



25-459 



29-958 
4-499 



25-460 25-1721 25-127 



4-570 4-6021 4-565 

Mean Temperatures 



29-974 
4-514 



29-646 
4-474: 



29-704 
4-577 



25-488 



30-092 
4-604 



25-077 



29-661 

4-584 



Ben Nevis Ob- 


o 
28-2 




28-1 


o 
25-2 


o 
2i)-4 


38°9 


o 
41-1 




40-5 




38-6 


37°0 


26°7 


29°9 


o 
25-2 


servatory 


























Fort William 


41-3 


43-4 


41-5 


46-7 


53-8 


56-2 


56-7 


55-4 


53-1 


42-6 


4.3-3 


39-1 


Differences . 


13-1 


15-3 


16-3 


17-3 


14-9 


15-1 


16-2 


16-8 


16-1 


15-9 


13-4 


13-9 









Extremes 


of Temperature, 


Maxi 


ma. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


o 
42-0 


o 
38-J 


o 
37-2 


44'^8 


o 
53-2 


o 
61-3 




52-9 


50°0 


o 
48-7 


o 
43-0 


39°8 


o 
89-1 


servatory 


























Fort William 


55-0 


52-0 


52-1 


60-6 


75-2 1 78-6 


70-3 


67-0 


67-4 


57-3 


52-2 


51-7 


Differences , 


13-0 


13-1 


14-9 


15-8 


22-0 


17-3 


17-4 


170 


18-7 


14-3 


12-4 


12-6 









Extremes 


of Temperature, 


Minima. 








Ben Nevis Ob- 


14*^2 


16°-8 


o 

15-5 


o 
19-4 


20°2 


30°9 


o 
31-3 




29-9 


o 
27-3 


14':4 


o 
16-0 


l|-8 


servatory 


























Fort William 


25-5 


33-6 


27-6 


30-2 


34-7 


46-3 


42-4 


40-0 


35-4 


25-9 


24-7 


22-6 


Differences 


11-3 


16-8 


12-1 


10-8 


14-5 


15-4 


11-1 


101 


8-1 


11-5 


8-7 


7-8 



25-367 



29-929 
4-562 



32-4 



47-8 
15-4 



61-3 

78-6 
17-3 



14-2 



22-6 
8-4 



220 



REPORT — 1897. 











Table ] 


. — continued. 












1896 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 








Rainfall in Inches. 












Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


16-20 


11-15 


19-55 


10-04 


2-91 


9-74 


6-87 11-01 


10-78 


13-07 


9-77 


12-47 133-56 


9-50 
6-70 


8-2fi 
2-89 


10-64 
8-91 


3-65 
6-39 


1-27 
1-64 


5-05 
4-69 


3-96 6-29 
2-91 4-72 


7-01 
3-77 


5-55 

7-52 


4-68 
5-09 


8-63 

3-84 


74-49 
69-07 








Number of Days 1 in. or more fell. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


5 

3 
2 


4 

3 
1 


7 

2 
5 


3 


3 


1 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 

2 

1 


3 

1 

2 


i ' 
1 
4 


3 


3 


6 

4 
1 


44 

16 

28 








Numler of Days of Rain. 












BeuNevjsOb- 

servatory 
Fort WilUam 
Differences . 


23 

24 

-1 


17 

18 

-1 


26 

24 

2 


26 

22 
4 


12 

7 
5 


20 

20 



21 

18 
3 


24 

21 
3 


22 

21 

1 


26 

21 
5 


18 

17 

1 


24 

24 



259 

237 
22 








Mean Rainland {scale 0-8). 












Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


1'9 

3-6 

1-7 


2-4 

3-8 
1-4 


2-7 1-8 

3-9 3-5 
1-2 1-7 


1-9 

3-8 

19 


2-4 

4-4 

2-0 


3-3 2-8 

4-6 4-5 
13 1-7 


2-7 

5-4 
2-7 


2-0 

3-4 
14 


1-6 

3-5 
1-9 


17 

3-5 
1-8 


2-3 

4-0 
1-7 








JVumher of Hotirs of Bright Sunshine. 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


36 


33 


30 


33 


222 


79 


90 


81 


29 


41 


59 


23 


756 


17 
-19 


28 
-5 


85 
55 


93 
60 


231 
9 


129 
50 


135 
45 


131 
50 


74 
45 


71 
30 


25 
-34 


17 

-6 


1,036 
28U 






1 


Mean Hourly Veloeity of Wind in 


Miles 










Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 


14 


12 


13 11 13 6 11 9 

Mean Percentage of Cloud. 


13 


16 


13 


18 


12 


Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory 
Fort William 
Differences . 


80 

82 
-2 


86 

87 
-1 


92 

77 
15 


92 

80 
12 


56 

S4 
2 


89 

78 
11 


86 

83 
3 


87 

80 
7 


91 
80 

11 


81 

70 
14 


70 

74 
-4 


86 

76 
10 


83 

77 
6 



At Fort William the mean atmospheric pressure for the year, at 32'* 
and sea level, was 29*929 inches, and at the top reduced only to 32°, 
25'367 inches, being respectively 0'082 inch and 0'071 inch above the 
averages. The difference for the two Observatories was thus •i'562 inches, 
being only very slightly more than the average difference. At the top of 
the mountain the absolute maximum pressure for the year was 26"252 
inches, occurring at 10 a.m. of January 9, which is the highest yet 
observed since the Observatory was established in 1883. At Fort William 
at the same hour the pressure was 30'102 inches, also the highest hitherto 
noted there. 

The barometric observations at this time will be long remembered 
as having been in all parts of the British Islands absolutely the highest 
hitherto recorded in each locality since barometers began to be in use. 
In the morning of January 9, a broad belt of low temperature stretched 
across Scotland from the Lewis to the Lothians, and it was within this 
low temperature area that the absolutely highest readings of the barometer 
were made. At several stations in the counties of Stirling, Dumbarton, 
and the west of Perthshire, the sea-level readings rose to or slightly 
exceeded Sl'lOO inches, the absolute highest of all being 31"108 inches at 
Ochtertyre. It is remarkable that it was at Ochtertyre that the lowest 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 221 

barometric observation hitherto made occurred, that observation being 
27-333 inches, thus giving the range of 3"775 inches, a range which future 
observation is not likely to increase. The weather at the time was strongly 
anticyclonic, as the subjoined extracts from the Observatories show : — 



Table II. 



Top of Fort 

Ben Nevis. William. 



Dry bulb 290 26-7 

Wet ditto 21-3 2G-4 

Cloud 10 

Wind ENE2 

Sunshine, to 10 60min. none 

The differences from the mean monthly pressures greatly exceeded the 
average in January, February, May, July, August, and November, those 
for January and May being greater than any that had occurred for the 
previous forty years, and in these months accordingly relatively high 
temperatures ruled on the top of Ben Nevis. 

The following Table shows the deviations from the mean temperatures 
of the months from the respective averages : — 



Table III. 



Fort Top of 

William. Ben Nevis. 



January 2*6 44 

February 4-1 42 

March 1-4 1.4 

April 1-3 1-9 

May 41 56 

June M 21 

July -0-2 0-2 

August -0-9 -1-2 

September 04 -09 

October -4-1 -4-3 

November —0-4 1-9 

December -0-5 0-2 

Year 09 10 

Thus it is seen the temperature at the top of Ben Nevis was relatively 
much higher than at Fort William in January, May, and November, when 
well developed anticyclones were of most frequent occurrence. 

During the first half of the year temperature was above the average 
at both Observatories, the mean excess at Fort William being 2°"4 and at 
the top of Ben Nevis 3° -3. On the other hand, during the second half of 
the year the mean temperature was 1°'0 under the normal at Fort 
William, and 0°-8 at the top of Ben Nevis. The two extreme months 
were February, when mean temperature was fully 4°'0 above the normal, 
and October, when it was fully 4°0 under it at the two Observatories. 

The absolutely highest temperature recorded during the year was 79°-9, 
on June 14 at Fort William, and 61 °3, also on June 14, at the top of Ben 
Nevis. The absolutely lowest temperature was 22°*0 on December 18 at 
Fort William, and at the top 14°'2 on January 23. The minimum 
temperatures are exceptionally high for both places. At the top of the 



222 



REPORT — 1897, 



mountain 14°-2 is the highest minimum temperature of any year since the 
Observatory was established. 

As regards extremes of temperature the difference between the two 
maxima was greatest in May, when it was 22° -0, and least in December, 
when it was 12°'6 ; and the difference between the two minima was 
greatest in Februai-y, when it was 16°-8, and least in December, when it 
was only 7°'8. 

The registrations of the sunshine recorder at the top show 756 hours 
out of a possible 4,470 hours, being 61 hours more than in 1895. This 
equals 17 per cent of the possible sunshine. The maximum was 222 hours 
in May, being the highest hitherto recorded in any month except in June 
1888, when the number of hours of clear sunshine was 250. The 
minimum was 23 hours in December, no higher monthly minimum having 
yet been recorded in any year. At Fort William the number of hours for 
the year was 1,036, being 96 hours fewer than in 1895. This great 
difference in favour of the top was due to a greater prevalence of anti- 
cyclones during 1896, when clearer weather prevails at the top than at the 
foot of the mountain. The maximum was 231 hours in May and the 
minimum 17 in January and again in December. As the number of 
hours of possible sunshine at Fort William is 3,497, the sunshine of 1896 
was 30 per cent, under the possible. 

In the subjoined Table are given for each month the lowest hygro- 
metric readings : — 

Table IV, 



— 


Jan. 

o 
25-0 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 

o 
46-6 


June 


July 


Aug.. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 
29°0 


Dry Bulb 


2(;°0 


o 
23-2 


38°8 


o 
47-0 


O 

44-4 


45°0 


48';7 


o 
2^5 


O 

26^1 


Wet Bulb 


18-0 


19-0 


16^8 


30^0 


33-0 


37-8 


35-3 


35-2 


42^5 


18^5 


19^1 


238 


Dew-point 


-20-5 


-lB-7 


-22^9 


18-8 


16-7 


27-7 


24-7 


23-4 


35-7 


-1-8 


-16-3 


4-9 


Elastic Force . 


■017 


■019 


•014 


•102 


•093 


■151 


•133 


•125 


•209 


•040 


•017 


■054 


Relative HumiJitv 


!.■! 


13 


11 


45 


29 


47 


45 


42 


61 


35 


14 


34 


(Sat. = 100) 


























Day of Mouth 


9 


23 


12 


24 


31 


2G 


17 


23 


e 


2C 


3 


1 



Of these lowest monthly humidities the lowest occurred on March 12, 
when the dew-point was — 22°-9, the elastic force of vapour -014 inch, 
and relative humidity 11. Very low humidities also occurred in January, 
February, and November. No low humidities were recorded in Sep- 
tember, the lowest being on the 6th, when the dew-point was 35-7, and 
the humidity 61, and in this month the sunshine was small, being only 
29 hours, which is the smallest recorded in this month since 1885, when 
only 25 hours were recorded. 

At the Ben Nevis Observatory the mean percentage of cloud covering 
the sky was 83, which is the average, the maximum being 92 in March 
and April and the minimum 56 in May ; and at Fort William the mean 
was 77, the maximum being 87 in February and the minimum 54 in May. 
It will be noted that in the anticy clonic months of January, February, May, 
and November, the sky at the top was much more clear of cloud as com- 
pared with the foot of the mountain than is usually the case. 

The mean rainband (scale 0-8) observation at the top was 2*3 for tlie 
year, the highest being 3-3 in July, and the lowest 1-6 in November ; and 
at Fort William 4-0 for the year, the highest being 5^4 in September, and 
the lowest 3-4 in October. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 223 

The mean hourly velocity of the wind at the top of Ben Nevis was 
12 miles for the year, being the lowest velocity of any year since the 
observations began . The maximum mean monthly velocity was 18 miles 
an hour in December, and the minimum only 6 miles in June. For the 
three summer months, June, July, and August, the mean was at the rate 
of 9 miles per hour, but for the three winter months, December, January, 
and February, it was 15 miles per hour. These are respectively the 
lowest mean summer and the lowest mean winter velocities of the wind 
hitherto recorded at this Observatory. 

The rainfall for the year at the top of Ben Nevis was 133'56 inches, 
being 15'56 inclies greater than the rainfall of 1895. It was, however, 
11-95 inches under the average of the past observations. The highest 
monthly amount was 19-54 inches in March, and the lowest 2-91 inches in 
May, being the smallest rainfall of any previous May. The heaviest fall 
on any single day was 2-94 inches on January 17, which is absolutely the 
least daily maximum fall yet recorded for any year. 

On the top rain fell on 259 days, and at Fort William on 237 days, 
these numbers of days being the average rainy days at the two Observa- 
tories. At the top the maximum number of rainy days was 26 in March, 
April, and October ; and at Fort William, 24 in January, March, and 
December. The minimum number of days of rain at the top was 12 days 
in May, and at Fort William 7 days, also in May. 

During the year the number of days on which an inch of rain, or more, 
was precipitated was 44 at the top and 16 at Fort William ; at the latter 
place an inch of rain was not reached on any day of April, May, June, 
July and November, but at the top, on the other hand, this amount was 
exceeded on 7 days of March, while May had only one such day. 

Auroras are reported to have been observed on the following dates : — 
January 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 22, 29, 30, 31 ; February 2, 3, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19 ; 
March 11, 12, 13, 14, 23, 30, 31 ; April 14, 15 ; May 2, 3, 4, 11, 17 ;. 
September 4 ; October 11, 13, 14, 15, 17 • November 8. 

St. Elmo's Fire was seen on January 12, 27 ; June 20 ; October 5 ; 
December 26. 

The Zodiacal Light, March 12, 13. 

Thunder and lightning was reported on January 20 ; April 10 ; 
June 4 ; September 16. 

Lightning only, September 14 ; December 31. 

It was intimated in last year's Report that an intermediate station 
had been established on Ben Nevis, at a height of 2,322 feet, or neai-ly 
midway in height between the two Observatories. This temporary 
station was established for the purpose of ascertaining with greater pre- 
cision than has hitherto been possible the extent to which anticyclones 
descend on the mountain ; but more particularly the relations of pressure, 
temperature, humidity, rainfall, cloud, and wind at this intei'mediate 
station with the observations at Fort William and on the summit of Ben 
Nevis. The three stations are in a line with each other, and the heights 
are 4,406, 2,322, and 42 feet. The observations were made by Mr. Muir, 
of the Royal High School of Edinburgh, during September. A report on 
the observations was prepared by Mr. Muir and read by him at a Meeting 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh last winter. The observations at this 
intermediate station have been again resumed this year, and arrangements 
have been made for a continuous record of observations from July 19 to 
September 30. This year the weather fortunately has hitherto (till 



224 REPORT — 1897. 

August 9) been mostly anticyclonic, being the type of weather so mucli 
desired for the observations needed in carrying out the important inquiries 
referred to above. 

During the past year much of the time of the office in Edinburgh, 
aided by Mr. Ormond and the staff on Ben Nevis, has been spent in pre- 
paring for the press the whole of the observations, hourly and otherwise, 
made at the two Observatories from January 1888 to 1896. These obser- 
vations, now ready for press, will fill two large quarto volumes. A dis- 
cussion of the observations from December 1883, when they commenced, 
to December 1896, is in progress, which, it is expected, will be finished in 
the spring of next year. 

Among the separate parts of this large discussion, already completed, are 
the mean hourly variation of the barometer, and the temperature, for the 
months and the year, at each of the two Observatories for the same terms 
of years, from August 1890 to December 1896, or six years and five months. 
The two sets of curves are therefore strictly comparable, being calculated 
for the same time. The results are given in the four Tables, V., VI., 
VII., and VIII., at the end of this Report. 

The hourly observations made by the Swedish expedition at Jan 
JVIayen in 1882-83, particularly the hourly barometric obsei'vations in 
clear and clouded weather respectively, together with the observations 
made on the open sea of the Arctic Ocean by the same expedition. The 
results, in clear and in clouded weather, are of the greatest possible interest 
in their relation to similar inquiries made with the observations of the two 
Ben Nevis Observatories, and of other observatories in different parts of 
the world, and reported on by your Committee in their Annual Reports 
for several years past. 

" But an equally great interest attaches to the discussion of these 
barometric observations made on the open sea of the Arctic regions in 
1882-83, together with similar observations made by Professor Molin 
in the Arctic Ocean in the summer months of 1876-77-78. From the 
observations made on this ocean at a season when the sun is constantly 
above the horizon, it is shown that there is only one daily maximum and 
one minimum of pressure closely agreeing with the diurnal curve of 
temperature. At the same season the small island of Jan Mayen presents 
in its diurnal curves of pressure the usual double maxima and minima. 

The same discussion opens up important inquiries as to the different 
effects on the diurnal curves of pressure according as the terrestrial 
radiation from the earth's surface towards space, proceeds from extended 
fields of snow, bare rock or soil, grass, or sheets of water. 

The hourly observations of the rainfall and snowfall at the two 
•Observatories have been discussed, from which it is shown that the diurnal 
■curves have two maxima and two minima, and that the summer and 
winter curves present striking differences. 

The work of preparing maps, showing for each day the amount of the 
rainfall at 120 stations well distributed over Scotland, is steadily progress- 
ing. As the work proceeds it becomes more and more apparent that as 
regards large rainfalls with west wind — (1) over all Scotland ; (2) over 
western districts only ; (3) north of the Grampians only ; (4) south of the 
Grampians only ; or with east winds — (5) over all Scotland, an exceedingly 
rare occurrence ; (6) over eastern districts only ; (7) over only a narrow 
strip on the coast ; (8) over the foreshores only of the Firth of Forth, the 
Moray Firth and the Pentland Firth, these inquiries receive much elucida- 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEN NEVIS. 



225 



tion from the contrasted hourly observations of the two Ben Nevis 
Observatories, particularly the observations of dry and wet bulb 
hygrometers. 

Table V. — Hourly Variation of the Barometer at the Ben Nevis Observa- 
tory. Mean ofQ-7 years from August 1890 to December 1896. Height, 
4:,i06 feet. Thefgures represent thousandths of an inch. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


Year 


1 AM. 


- 1 


1 


1 


- 5 


- 3 


- 2 


- 2 


- 2 


2 


- 3 


1 


3 


- 1 


2 „ 


- 3 


- 3 


- 5 


-10 


- 8 


- 8 


- 7 


- 8 


- 3 


- 5 


- 3 


- 


- 5 


3 " 


— 5 


- 7 


-11 


-14 


-13 


-13 


-12 


-13 


- 9 


-11 


- 6 


— 3 


-10 


i .. 


-11 


-10 


-16 


-ir 


-17 


-17 


-15 


-19 


-13 


-15 


- 9 


- 8 


-14 


5 „ 


-14 


- 9 


-15 


-17 


-18 


-16 


-16 


-21 


-16 


-13 


-10 


-11 


-14 


6 ,. 


-18 


- 9 


-13 


-13 


-14 


-14 


-14 


-18 


-14 


-12 


- 9 


-11 


-13 


7 „ 


— 15 


- 7 


- 9 


- 8 


-11 


-10 


-10 


-14 


-10 


- 8 


- 6 


- 9 


-10 


8 " 


-10 


- 2 


- 4 


- 3 




- 5 


- 5 


- 9 


- 8 


- 2 


1 


— 4 


- 5 


9 ,. 


- 5 


3 


- 1 


- 


- 4 


- 2 


- 2 


- 5 


- 4 


2 


5 


1 


- 1 


10 „ 


- 


4 


1 


5 











- 1 


- 1 


5 


9 


6 


2 


11 „ 


4 


7 


5 


8 


3 


3 


4 


2 


1 


8 


9 


9 


5 


Noon 


4 


7 


7 


10 


6 


5 


6 


7 


3 


8 


S 


4 


6 


1 P.M. 





4 


8 


12 


9 


7 


8 


10 


7 


7 





- 1 


6 


2 .. 


— 1 





4 


11 


11 


8 


9 


10 


5 


5 


— 4 


- 4 


4 


3 




- 4 


- 


1 


8 


10 


6 


7 


9 


3 


3 


- 7 


- 5 


3 


4 


' 


- 


— 2 





6 


8 


6 


6 


7 


2 


1 


- 5 


- 2 


2 


5 


' 


5 





3 


5 


6 


5 


6 


7 


2 


4 


- 1 


- 1 


3 


6 




8 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


6 


3 


7 


2 


1 


5 


7 


' 


11 


6 


9 


5 


5 


6 


5 


7 


6 


8 


3 


4 


6 


8 


' 


13 


6 


9 


6 


7 


6 


4 


10 


10 


7 


4 


7 


7 


9 


' 


14 


5 


9 


5 


9 


10 


8 


11 


10 


5 


5 


8 


8 


10 


' 


12 


6 


8 


4 


8 


10 


8 


10 


10 


2 


6 


7 


8 


11 




9 


5 


6 


1 


6 


8 


7 


7 


9 





6 


8 


6 


Midnight 


4 


4 


3 


- 2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


5 





4 


7 


3 


laches 25- + 


•228 


•294 


•183 


•388 


•448 


•471 


•391 


•188 


•371 


•209 


•255 


•168 


•300 



Table VI. — Hourly Variation of the Temperature at the Ben Nevis Ob- 
servatory. Mean of 6-7 years from August 1890 to December 1896. 
Height, i,iOQfeet. The figures represent tenths of a degree Fahrenheit. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


- 1 


- 3 


- 5 


-11 


-13 


-17 


-13 


— 8 


- 7 


- 2 


- 2 


- 2 


- 7 


2 „ 


- 2 


- 3 


- 6 


-11 


-15 


-19 


-16 


-10 


- 9 


- 2 


- 1 


- 1 


- 8 


3 I 


- 2 


- 4 


- 6 


-12 


-17 


-22 


-17 


-12 


-10 


- 4 


- 


2 


- 9 


4 „ 


- 1 


- 4 


- 8 


-14 


-20 


-22 


-19 


-13 


-11 


- 6 


- 1 


- 1 


-10 


5 „ 


- 2 


- 4 


— 9 


-15 


-19 


-20 


-18 


-14 


-12 


- 6 


- 1 


- 1 


-10 


6 „ 


- 1 


- 5 


-11 


-12 


-16 


-17 


-17 


-14 


-12 


- 7 


- 2 


- 2 


-10 


7 „ 


- 2 


- 6 


-11 


- 9 


-11 


-12 


-13 


-11 


-10 


- 8 


- 6 


- 2 


- 8 


8 „ 


- 2 


- 8 


- 6 


- 5 


- 7 


— 6 


- 8 


- 8 


- 6 


- 5 


- 6 


- 2 


- 6 


9 „ 


- 2 


- 5 


- 1 


1 


- 


- 


- 2 


- 3 


- 1 


- 2 


- 2 


- 2 


- 2 


10 „ 





- 1 


3 


7 


7 


6 


4 


3 


4 


2 








3 


11 !, 


2 


4 


7 


10 


14 


11 


10 


8 


8 


5 


2 


3 


7 


Noon 


3 


8 


10 


14 


19 


16 


15 


12 


12 


8 


4 


6 


10 


1 P.M. 


5 


10 


13 


19 


23 


21 


19 


15 


14 


9 


4 


6 


13 


2 „ 


4 


10 


13 


18 


24 


24 


21 


17 


16 


9 


6 


3 


14 


3 „ 


1 


9 


13 


18 


24 


25 


23 


18 


16 


8 


4 


2 


13 


4 „ 





7 


10 


16 


20 


24 


20 


16 


13 


4 


1 


1 


11 


5 >. 





2 


4 


10 


16 


20 


17 


12 


10 


2 





1 


8 


6 „ 











6 


10 


15 


11 


9 


4 











e 


7 „ 


- 1 


- 


- 1 


- 1 


4 


10 


6 


4 


1 


- 1 


- 1 





2 


8 „ 


- 


- 


- 2 


- 4 


- 2 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 1 


1 


- 


- 


9 ,. 


- 


- 1 


- 2 


- 5 


- 5 


- 3 


- 2 


- 2 


- 3 


- 1 


- 


- 1 


- 2 


10 „ 


- 1 


- 1 


- 2 


- 7 


- 8 


- 8 


- 6 


- 6 


- 5 


- 1 


- 


- 


- 4 


11 " 


- 1 


- 


- 3 


- 8 


-11 


-12 


- 8 


- 7 


- 6 


- 2 


- 


- 1 


- 6 


Midnight 


- 


- 1 


- 4 


-10 


-12 


-14 


-10 


- 9 


- 6 


- 2 


- 1 


- 2 


- 6 


JXcau 


22^6 


24-6 


24-5 


296 


34-1 


40^1 


40-9 


39-9 


38-4 


301 


28 6 


25-0 


31-5 



1897. 



226 



REPORT — 1897. 



Table VII. — Hourly Variation of the Barometer at Fort William. Mean 
of 6-7 years from August 1890 to December 1896. Height, 42 feet. 
The figures represent thousandths of an inch. 



Hour 


Jau. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


2 


3 


4 


4 


9 


10 


8 


4 


6 








2 


4 


o 





2 


1 


2 


8 


8 


5 





4 


- 4 


- 1 


1 


2 


3 „ 


- 4 


- 4 


- 7 


- 2 


2 


4 





- 6 


- 3 


- 9 


- 6 


- 3 


- 3 


4 „ 


- 9 


— 5 


- 9 


2 


2 


4 


- 


- 8 


- 5 


-10 


- 8 


- 8 


- 5 


5 „ 


-15 


- 8 


- 8 


- 2 


2 


4 


- 


- 9 


- 8 


-11 


- 9 


-12 


- 6 


6 „ 


-18 


- 5 


- 4 


4 


7 


8 


4 


- 6 


- 4 


- 6 


- 7 


-11 


- 3 


7 „ 


-17 


- 3 


- 2 


7 


T 


8 


6 


- 3 


- 1 


- 3 


- 5 


— 9 


- 1 


8 „ 


-10 


6 


4 


11 


9 


10 


7 


1 


2 


6 


5 


- 2 


4 


9 „ 


- 5 


7 


5 


9 


6 


6 


5 


2 


3 


7 


8 


3 


5 


10 „ 


3 


10 


7 


10 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


9 


13 


10 


7 


11 ., 


4 


8 


6 


5 


- 2 


- 





1 


- 1 


7 


13 


11 


4 


Noon 


1 


7 


5 


3 


- 5 


- 2 











4 


7 


5 


2 


1 P.M. 


- 5 


- 2 


- 


- 3 


- 9 


- 7 


- 4 


- 2 


- 3 


- 1 


- 


- 2 


- 3 


2 „ 


- 4 


- 8 


- 5 


- 6 


-11 


- 9 


- 5 


- 1 


- 5 


- 4 


- 6 


- 7 


- 6 


3 „ 


- 4 


-14 


-10 


-14 


-14 


-14 


- 9 


- 6 


-11 


- 7 


-10 


- 9 


-10 


4 „ 


1 


-12 


-10 


-16 


-15 


-16 


-12 


- 6 


-11 


- 6 


- 8 


- 4 


-10 


5 „ 


2 


-10 


-11 


-16 


-16 


-19 


-14 


- 7 


-12 


— 5 


- 6 


- 4 


-10 


6 ,. 


8 


- 1 


— 4 


-12 


-12 


-16 


-11 


- 4 


- 6 


3 


- 1 





- 5 


7 „ 


10 


2 





- 8 


- 8 


-12 


- 9 


- 1 


- 2 


4 





1 





8 „ 


15 


4 


7 





- 


- 4 


- 2 


7 


8 


7 


3 


6 


4 


9 „ 


13 


4 


8 


4 


6 


3 


4 


10 


10 


6 


3 


6 


6 


10 „ 


14 


6 


11 


6 


12 


10 


10 


13 


13 


4 


6 


10 


10 


11 „ 


9 


5 


10 


6 


12 


11 


10 


11 


12 


2 


4 


7 


8 


Midnight 


8 


8 


9 


7 


12 


13 


10 


9 


10 


1 


5 


/ 


8 


Inches 29-+ 


•874 


•929 


■796 


•963 


1^006 


•976 


•875 


•811 


•876 


•767 


•842 


•779 


•876 



Table VIII. — Hourly Variation of the Temperature at Fort William. 
Mean of Q-1 years from August 1890 to December 1896. Height, 42 
feet. The figures rejyresent tenths of a degree Fahrenheit. 



Hour 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


,AIay 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year 


1 A.M. 


- 2 


- 8 


-18 


-32 


-40 


-42 


-32 


-26 


-19 


-13 


- 7 


- 3 


-20 


2 „ 


— 4 


-11 


-21 


—38 


-46 


-49 


-36 


-29 


-23 


-16 


- 9 


- 5 


-24 


3 „ 


- 4 


-11 


-24 


-41 


-49 


-53 


-39 


-21 


-25 


-17 


- 8 


- 5 


-26 


4 „ 


- 5 


-13 


-26 


-45 


-53 


-56 


-42 


-33 


-29 


-19 


- 8 


- 6 


-28 


5 „ 


- 6 


-14 


-26 


-47 


-57 


-53 


-40 


-34 


-29 


-20 


- 8 


- 6 


-28 


6 „ 


- 6 


-16 


-30 


-48 


-45 


-41 


-33 


-32 


-32 


-21 


_ 9 


- 6 


-27 


7 „ 


- 5 


-15 


-29 


-37 


-28 


-26 


-20 


-23 


-27 


-20 


— 7 


- 5 


-20 


8 „ 


- 6 


-16 


-26 


— 22 


-15 


-12 


- 9 


-12 


-18 


-18 


- 9 


- 3 


-14 


9 „ 


- 5 


-12 


-10 


- 4 


3 


5 


5 


2 


- 6 


- 9 


- 5 


- 2 


- 3 


10 „ 


- 4 


- 6 


- 


11 


15 


17 


14 


11 


7 


1 


- 1 


- 2 


6 


11 „ 


1 


5 


13 


24 


29 


28 


23 


20 


19 


15 


7 


3 


16 


Noon 


6 


12 


23 


35 


36 


33 


28 


26 


26 


22 


12 


6 


22 


1 P.M. 


12 


20 


32 


45 


45 


41 


36 


32 


32 


29 


16 


10 


29 


2 „ 


12 


25 


35 


50 


50 


46 


40 


35 


36 


31 


17 


11 


32 


3 „ 


10 


28 


39 


55 


64 


61 


43 


40 


41 


32 


16 


10 


35 


4 „ 


5 


24 


38 


52 


52 


51 


40 


37 


37 


28 


11 


7 


32 


5 „ 


3 


17 


33 


46 


48 


50 


37 


33 


32 


17 


7 


5 


27 


6 „ 


1 


9 


21 


37 


40 


44 


30 


25 


19 


7 


3 


3 


20 


7 „ 


1 


4 


10 


20 


28 


34 


22 


12 


8 


3 


2 


2 


12 


8 „ 


- 1 





3 


5 


8 


14 


6 


1 


- 1 


- 2 


- 1 





3 


9 ,, 


- 


- 3 


- 2 


- 5 


- 6 


- 4 


— 5 


- 6 


- 6 


- 3 


- 2 


- 


- 4 


10 „ 


- 


- 5 


- 8 


-14 


-17 


-16 


-15 


-12 


-12 


- 6 


— 4 


- 1 


- 9 


11 „ 


- 


- 6 


-12 


-21 


-26 


-26 


-21 


-17 


-15 


- 8 


- 4 


- 3 


-13 


Midnight 


- 2 


- 8 


-15 


-28 


-34 


-34 


-28 


-22 


-18 


-13 


- 6 


— 4 


-18 


Mean 





























ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 227 



JEledrolysis and Electro-chemistry. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Rev.T. 0. 
FiTZPATRiCK, My. W. C. J). Whetham (Secretary), on the present 
state of our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

Appendix. — The Tlieory of the Migration of Ions and of Specific Ionic Velo- 
cities. By W. C. Dampiee Whetham, M.A page 227 

The experiments upon the electrical properties of solutions, in relation to 
their thermal properties, towards the expenses of which a grant of 50?. 
was made, are in progress. The apparatus for the measurement of the 
resistance of solutions has been designed, constructed, and tested. It has 
been proved to work satisfactorily by test experiments with pure water 
and with solutions of potassium chloride. 

The cost of the apparatus, the essential parts of which had to be madfr 
of platinum, has exceeded the amount of the grant. 

The expenses incidental to the completion of the experiments are 
estimated by the Secretary at 35?., and the Committee desire that that, 
sum be placed at their disposal in the ensuing year. 

The section of the report on electrolysis treating of the theory of 
migration of ions and of specific ionic velocities prepared by Mr. 
Whetham last year is printed as an appendix to this report. 

The Committee regret that the pressure of other engagements has 
prevented further progress with the compilation of the report. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 35?. 



APPENDIX. 

(f) The Theory of the Migration of Ions and of Specific Ionic Velocities^.. 
By W, C. Dampier Whetham, M.A. 

The liberation of the products of electrolysis at the electrodes, and at 
the electrodes only, shows that a continuous passage of the opposite ions in 
opposite directions through the liquid must be going on. Whether the 
ions are free from each other during their passage, or accomplish their 
journey by means of continual decomposition and recombination of mole- 
cules, does not matter for our present purpose. The numbers of the ions 
in the middle portion of the liquid do not change, but, while the current 
passes, a constant excess of anions is delivered at the anode, and of 
kations at the kathode. 

If the opposite ions move with equal velocities, the result of the 
passage of the current will be that, while the composition of the middle 
portion of the solution remains unaltered, the products of the decomposi- 
tion, which appear at the electrodes, are taken in equal proportions from 
the solution surrounding the anode, and from that round the kathode. 

If, however, one of the ions travels faster than the other, it will get 
away from the portion of the solution whence it comes more quickly than 
the other ion enters. The concentration of this region will therefore fall 
faster than that of the liquid round the other electrode, and the ratio 

Q2 



228 REPORT — 1897. 

between the rates at which salt is taken from the neighbourhoods of the 
anode and kathode gives also the ratio between the velocities of the 
kation and anion. 

Thus, by measuring the contents of vessels containing the electrodes 
before and after the passage of the current, we can determine the ratio 
between the velocities of the two ions in any given case of electrolysis. 
Many such investigations have been made by Hittorf,' Lenz,^ Loeb and 
Nemst,^ and Kistiakowsky.* An account of their methods and results 
will be found in Professor Ostwald's ' Lehrbuch der AUgemeinen Chemie,' 
2nd edition, vol. ii., p. 598, and most of the numerical results obtained 
are included in a table compiled by T. C. Fitzpatrick and published in the 
previous portion of this report, which appeared in 1893. 

A further step was taken by Professor F. Kohlrausch in the year 1879.^ 
Kohlrausch introduced a satisfactory method of measuring the conduc- 
tivity of electrolytes by means of alternating currents, and showed that, 
from a knowledge of the conductivity, the sum of the opposite ionic 
velocities (i.e. the velocity with which the opposite streams of ions travel 
past each other) could be calculated. 

Faraday's work showed that the passage of a definite quantity of elec- 
tricity through the solution involves the decomposition of a definite mass 
of electrolyte, which varies as its chemically equivalent weight and as 
the quantity of electricity. Thus the quantity of electricity which must 
pass in order to decompose the equivalent weight of an electrolyte in 
grams is independent of the nature of the electrolyte. 

We may therefore represent the facts by considering the process of 
electrolysis to be a kind of convection, the ions moving through the 
solution and carrying their charges with them. Each univalent ion may 
be supposed to carry a certain definite charge, which we may take to be 
the true natural unit of electricity ; each divalent ion carries twice as 
much, and so on. 

Let us take, as an example, the case of an aqueous solution of hydro- 
chloric acid whose concentration is w gram-equivalents per cubic centi- 
metre. 

There will then be m gram-equivalents of hydrogen ions and the same 
number of chlorine ions in this volume. Let us suppose that on each 
gram-equivalent of hydrogen there reside -f q units of electricity, and on 
each gram-equivalent of chlorine ions —q units. If u denote the average 
velocity of the hydrogen ions, the positive charge carried per second across 
unit area normal to the flow is m q u. Similarly, if v be the average 
velocity of the chlorine ions, the negative charge carried in the opposite 
direction is m q v. But positive electricity moving in one direction is 
equivalent to negative electricity moving in the other, so that the total 
•*eurrent, C, is to 5- (u + v). 

Now let us consider the amounts of hydrogen and chlorine liberated at 
the electrodes by this current.^ At the kathode, if the chlorine ions were 
at rest, the excess of hydrogen ions would be simply those arriving in one 

' Pogq. Ann. 1853-9, vol. Ixxxix. pp. 177 ; xcviii. p. 1 ; ciii. p. 1; cvi. pp. 337,513. 
= Mem. Petersh. Ak. 1882, vol. ix. p. 30. 
' Zeits. physikal. Chem. 1883, vol. ii. p. 948. 
* Zeits. physikal. Chem. 1890, vol. vi. p. 97. 
' Wied. Ann. vol. vi. p. 160. 

° This modification of Professor Lodge's method of developing Kohlrausch's equa- 
tion was suggested to the writer by Professor G. F. FitzGerald. 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY, 229 

second, viz. m u. But, since the chlorine ions move also, a further 
separation occurs, and m v hydrogen ions are left without partners. The 
total number of gram -equivalents liberated is therefore m{u4-v). This 
must, by Faraday's law, be equal to r]C, where rj denotes the electro-chemical 
equivalent of hydrogen. Thus we get 

m{u + v)=rjC=ri m q(u-\-v), 
and it follows that the charge, q, on one gram-equivalent of each kind of 
ion is equal to 1 /r]. 

We know that Ohm's law holds good for electrolytes, so that the 
current C is also given by k. dF/dx, where k denotes the conductivity of 
the solution, and d'Pjdx the potential gradient, i.e. the fall in potential 
per unit length along the lines of current flow. 

Thus -(u + v)=k. dP/dx ; 

V 

k (fP 

m ax 
Now t] is 1-0352 + 10"*, and the concentration of a solution is usually 
expressed in terms of the number, «, of gram-equivalents per litre instead 
of per cubic centimetre. 

Therefore M + i;=l-0352 xlQ-^ - • 5^- 

n ax 

When the potential gradient is one volt (10* C.G.S. units) per centi- 
metre, this becomes 

w + t;=l-0352xlO'x~. 

n 

Thus, by measuring in C.G.S. units the conductivity of a solution of known 
concentration, the relative velocity of its ions can a1» once be deduced. It 
is true that, in this investigation, we have assumed that all the contents 
of the solution are actively concerned in the electrolysis — an idea which 
seems to be disproved by the diminution in the molecular conductivity 
with increasing concentration. But although, at any instant, only a part 
of the electrolyte is active, we must imagine that each portion will become 
active in turn, two given ions of opposite kinds being sometimes free 
{i.e. active) and sometimes paired (i.e. inactive). The immediate effect, 
therefore, of the decrease in ionisation, with increasing concentration, is 
to diminish the relative velocity of the ions, and this diminution will 
reduce the molecular conductivity in accordance with the equation. 

Since Hittorf's numbers give us the ratio of the ionic velocities, we 
can deduce the absolute values of u and v from this theory. Thus, for 
instance, the molecular conductivity of a solution of potassium chloride 
containing one-tenth of a gram-equivalent per litre is 1113 x lO"'"* C.G.S. 
units at 18° C. 

.-. M-ft;=l-0352x 10' X 1113x10-", 

= 1-153 X 10-^=0-001153 cm. per sec. 

Hittorf's experiments show us that the ratio of the velocity of the 
anion to that of the kation in this solution is -51 : -49. The absolute 
velocity of the chlorine ion under unit potential gradient is therefore 
0-000589 cm. per sec, and that of the potassium ion 0-000564 cm. 
per sec. Similar calculations can be made for solutions of other con- 



230 



REPORT — 1897. 



centrations. The following table shows Kohlrausch's latest ' values for 
the ionic velocities of three chlorides of alkali metals in 10"'' cms. per 
sec. at 18° C, calculated for a potential gradient of 1 volt per cm. : — 



71 


KCl 


NaCl 


LiCl 


«+t) 


« 


V 


u + v 


u 


V 


u+v 


u 


V 





1350 


660 


690 


1140 


450 


690 


1050 


360 


690 


00001 


1335 


654 


681 


1129 


448 


681 ■ 


1037 


356 


681 


•001 


1313 


643 


670 


1110 


440 


670 


1013 


343 


670 


•01 


1263 


619 


644 


1059 


415 


644 


962 


318 


644 


•03 


1218 


597 


621 


1013 


390 


623 


917 


298 


619 


•1 


1153 


564 


589 


952 


360 


592 


853 


259 


594 


•3 


1088 


531 


557 


876 


324 


552 


774 


217 


557 


1-0 


1011 


491 


520 


765 


278 


487 


651 


169 


482 


30 


911 


442 


469 


582 


206 


376 


463 


115 


348 


5-0 


— 


— 


— 


438 


153 


285 


334 


80 


254 


100 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


117 


25 


92 



These numbers clearly show the increase in ionic velocity as the dilu- 
tion gets greater. Moreover, if we compare the values for the chlorine 
ion obtained from observations on these three different salts, we see that, 
as the solutions get very weak, the velocity of the chlorine ion becomes 
the same in all of them. Similar phenomena appear in other cases, and, 
in general, we may say that, at great dilution, the velocity of an ion is 
independent of the nature of the other ion present. This at once leads 
to the idea of specific ionic velocities, the values of which for different ions 
are given by Kohlrausch in the following table : — 



K . 


66 X 


10-5 cms. 


per sec. 


CI . 


69 X 


10-5 cms. 


per sec. 


Na . 


45 






I 


69 






Li . 


36 






NO3 . 


64 






NH, . 


66 






OH . 


182 






H . 


320 






C,H30, . 


36 






Ag . . 


57 






CaH.O, . 


33 







Having once obtained these numbers, we can calculate the molecular 
conductivity of the dilute solution of any salt, and the comparison of such 
values with observation furnished the first confirmation of Kohlrausch's 
theory. Some exceptions, however, are known. Thus, acetic acid and 
ammonia give solutions of much lower conductivity than is indicated by 
the sum of the specific ionic velocities of their ions as determined from 
other compounds. 

Professor Oliver Lodge was the first to directly measure the velocity 
of an ion.2 In a horizontal glass tube connecting two vessels filled with 
dilute sulphuric acid, he placed a solution of sodium chloride in solid agar- 
agar jelly. This solid solution was made alkaline with a trace of caustic 
soda to bring out the red colour of a little phenol-phthalein added as 
indicator. A current was then passed from one vessel to the other along 
the tube. The hydrogen ions from the anode vessel of acid were thus 
carried along the tube, forming hydrochloric acid as they travelled, and 
decolorising the phenol-phthalein. By this method the velocity of the 



» Wied. Ann. 1893, vol. 1. p. 385. 

- Bntish Association Revert, 188fi p, 389. 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTEy. 231 

hydrogen ion through a jelly solution under a known potential gradient 
could be observed. The results of three experiments gave 0-0029, 0'0026, 
and 0*0024 cm. per sec. as the velocity of the hydrogen ion for a poten- 
tial gradient of one volt per centimetre. Kohlrausch's number is 0*0032 
for the dilution corresponding to maximum conductivity. Lodge does 
not mentioQ the concentration of his solution, but it was probably large 
enough to appreciably reduce the velocity. 

When the current density at the kathode of a solution of copper sul- 
phate exceeds a certain limit, the copper is deposited as a brown or black 
hydride. C. L. "Weber ' explained this as due to the inability of the copper 
ions to migrate fast enough to keep up the supply for carrying the 
current, part of which will consequently be conveyed by sulphuric acid 
formed by the action of SO4 ions on the water. By measuring the limiting 
current density and the conductivity of the solution, he estimated the 
speed of the copper ions when they could travel just fast enough to carry 
all the current, and hence he deduced their specific velocity. Similar 
methods were used for solutions of cadmium sulphate and zinc nitrate. 
The copper sulphate measurements were repeated with an improved appa- 
ratus by Sheldon and Downing.^ This method does not appear to be a 
very good one, for the dilution of the liquid round the kathode makes 
it impossible to accurately determine the conductivity of the solution 
concerned. This source of error will make the deduced velocities too 
great. 

Direct determinations of the velocities of a few other ions have been 
made in another way by the present writer.^ Two solutions, having one 
ion in common, of equivalent concentrations, different densities, different 
colours, and nearly equal specific resistances, were placed one over the other 
in a vertical glass tube. In one case, for example, decinormal solutions of 
potassium carbonate and potassium bichromate were used. The colour of 
the latter is due to the presence of the bichromate group, CrjOy. When a 
current was passed across the junction, the anions CI and Cr207 travelled 
in the direction opposite to that of the current, and their velocity could 
be determined by measuring the rate at which the colour boundary moved. 
Similar experiments were made with alcoholic solutions of cobalt salts, in 
which the velocities of the ions were found to be much less than in water. 
The behaviour of agar jelly was then investigated, and the velocity of an ion 
was shown to be very little less through a solid jelly than in an ordinary 
liquid solution. The velocities could therefore be measured by tracing 
the change in colour of an indicator or the formation of a precipitate. 
Thus decinormal jelly solutions of barium chloride and sodium chloride, 
the latter containing a trace of sodium sulphate, were placed in contact. 
Under the influence of an electromotive force, the barium ions moved up 
the tube, and their presence was shown by the trace of insoluble barium 
sulphate formed. 

The following table shows the velocities of all ions which have been 
experimentally determined. A comparison is given with their values as 
calculated, for the same concentration, on Kohlrausch's theory. 

' Zeits. physihal. Cliem. 1889, vol. iv. p. 182. 
^ Physical Ilevie7v. 1893, vol. i. p 51. 

= Phil. Tram. 1893, vol. clxxxiv. A, p. 337; Phil. Mag., October, 1894; Phil. 
Trans. 1895, vol. clxxxvi. A, p. 507. 



232 



REPORT — 1897. 





its 


Specific Ionic velocitj' in 




Name of Ion 


a a ^ 

O IS a- 

5 w„ 


centimetres 


per second 


Observer 








-.5^ 


Calculated 








O o « 


from 
Ivohlrausch's 


Observed 






0.3 


theory 






Hydrogen in chlorides . 


— 


00028 


0026 


0. J. Lodge 


„ in acetates . 


007 


0000048 


0000065 


W.C.D.Whetham 


Zinc 


0003 


000030 


00051 


C. L. Weber 


Cadmium .... 


0007 


000031 


000051 


II 


Copper (in sulphates) . 


001 


000030 


000042 


11 


17 11 • • 


01 


000017 


000045 


Sheldon and 
Downing 


„ (in chlorides) . 


0-1 


— 


000031 


W.C.D.Whetham 


Barium 


01 


000037 


000039 


*t 


Calcium .... 


01 


000029 


000035 


It 


Silver ..... 


01 


000046 


000049 


If 


Sulphate group (SOj) . 


0-1 


00049 


00045 


»> 


Bichromate group (CrjO,) 


01 


00047 


000047 


9* 


Cobalt (in alcoholic CoCl.,) . 


005 


— 


0000022 


I) 


„ („ „ Co(N03),) 


05 


— 


0000044 


>» 


Chlorine (in alcoholic CoCl^). 


005 


— 


000026 


»l 


Nitrate group (NO,) (in alco- 










holic Co(N03)j) . 


005 


— 


0000035 


»» 



Note. — The migration data for solutions of copper chloride are not known. 
The specific ionic velocity of copper at infinite dilution (when it would be inde- 
pendent of the nature of the combination) is given by Kohlrausch as 0-00031, but in 
a solution of the strength used it would be considerably less. The sum of the 
ionic velocities of cobalt chloride in alcohol, as calculated from the conductivity, 
is 0-000060 cm. per sec, and that of cobalt nitrate 0-000079. These numbers are to 
be compared with the sum of the observed velocities given in the table — namely, 
0-000048 and 0000079 respectively. 

The agreement will be seen to be quite as good as can be expected'. 
The number for the hydrogen ion in acetic acid is especially interesting', 
for it shows that, in cases where the conductivity is abnormally low, such 
as those of acetic acid and ammonia, the ionic velocities are reduced in the 
same proportion. In such cases the mean free time of the ions (adopting 
the language of the dissociation theory) is small as compared with their 
mean paired time. They can move forward only while they are free, and 
thus their velocity is reduced, and, with it, the conductivity of the solution. 
Kohlrausch's theory, therefore, probably holds good in every case, even if 
alcohol be the solvent, if the proper values are given to the ionic velocities — 
i.e. the values which express the velocities with which the ions actually 
move in the solution of the strength taken, and under the conditions of 
the experiment. 

If we restrict ourselves to the specific ionic velocities — the velocities 
at infinite dilution — -we must introduce a factor measuring the ratio of the 
actual to the limiting relative velocity of the ions. If we call this ratio a, 
and take u and v to denote the specific ionic velocities, we can express the 
conductivity by the equation 



a (u + v) 



1-0352 X 10'- 
n 



or 



k / , X 10-' 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 233 

The coefficient a is thus given by the ratio between the actual mole- 
cular conductivity of the solution and its value at infinite dilution, and 
can therefore be readily determined. 

The velocities of the ions may be reduced by an increase in frictional 
resistance, by a diminution in the fraction of the dissolved substance 
which is, at any moment, active, or by a combination of both these causes. 
In dilute solutions the resistance offered by the liquid to the passage of 
the ions through it is probably sensibly the same as in pure water ; but 
when the proportion of non-ionised molecules becomes considerable, we 
cannot assume that this is the case. Arrhenius' experiments on the con- 
ductivity of jelly solutions,' while they certainly show that the ionic 
friction does not depend on the molar viscosity of the medium, do not prove, 
as usually seems to be assumed, that it is not affected by the addition of 
more of the electrolyte, which would cause a molecular change. 

While the solution is dilute enough for the friction to be taken as 
constant, however, the coefficient n can be given a very simple physical 
meaning. The fraction which expresses the ratio of the actual to the 
limiting velocity of the ions must then also express the fraction of 
its time during which, on the average, any ion remains active ; that is, it 
must express the fractional number of molecules which are, at any 
moment, in a state of activity. This fractional number may be called the 
coefficient of ionisation. 

Thus, although we can, if we like, always put Kohlrausch's theory iri 
the form shown in our last equation, the constant « will only have a 
definite physical meaning when the solution is so dilute that the ionic 
viscosity keeps constant. This caution is necessary, for it seems to be 
universally assumed that o, as deduced from the ratio of the actual to 
the limiting conductivity, always expresses the ionisation of the solution, 
whatever its concentration may be, although for fairly strong solutions no 
convincing evidence has been adduced in favour of the assumption made. 
It is possible that some of the discrepancies between the ionisation as 
found from the conductivity and as deduced in other ways — as, for example, 
from the depression of the freezing point — may be due to this cause. 

On the other hand, the equation given on p. 229, in which u and v 
denote the actual velocities of the ions under the conditions of the experi- 
ment, probably holds good whatever be the concentration of the solution, 
and this gives the simplest and most certain form of Kohlrausch's theory. 

The fact that the molecular conductivity of aqueous solutions becomes, 
in general, constant as the dilution gets very great shows that the veloci- 
ties of the ions must then become independent of the concentration of the 
solution. This seems to offer strong evidence in favour of the view that 
the ions are free from each other, which is also indicated by the fact that 
the specific velocity of an ion at great dilution comes out the same 
whatever be the nature of the other ion present. 

If the ions are not free, the alternative is to suppose that they move- 
forward by taking advantage of a collision between two solute molecules by- 
means of which an interchange of ions may occur, and each makes a step 
in advance. Now the frequency with which such collisions would happen, 
must vary as the square of the concentration ; and, since the quantity of 
electricity conveyed must also depend on the number of ions present, the 
conductivity would vary as the cube of the concentration. The motion of 
the ions cannot, therefore, depend on collisions between the molecules o£ 

' British Association Report, 1886, p. 344. 



234 REPORT— 1897. 

dissolved matter. It must be an independent motion, and the ions must 
be dissociated from each other. It will be noticed that there is nothing 
to show that the ions are not combined with solvent molecules, and there 
seems reason to suppose that such may be the case. 

We may conclude, from the experimental confirmation described 
above, that the velocity of an ion, as calculated by Kohlrausch's theory 
from the conductivity, really does represent the actual speed with which, 
on the average, the ion makes its way through the solution. We can 
therefore apply the theory with confidence to cases in which the experi- 
mental confirmation would be difficult or impossible. 

If we know the specific velocity of any one ion, we can, from the con- 
ductivity of very dilute solutions, at once deduce the velocity of any other 
ion with which it may be combined, without having to determine the 
migration constant of the compound, which is a matter involving consider- 
able trouble. Thus, taking the specific ionic velocity of hydrogen as 
0'0032 cm. per second, we can, by determining the conductivity of dilute 
solutions of any acid, at once find the specific velocity of the acid radicle 
involved. Or, again, since we know the specific velocity of the silver ion, 
we can find the velocities of a series of acid radicles at great dilution by 
measuring the conductivity of their silver salts. 

By such methods Ostwald, Bredig, and other observers have found the 
specific velocities of many ions both of inorganic and organic compounds, 
and examined the relation between constitution and ionic velocity. A 
full account of such data will be found in a paper by Bredig in vol. xiii. of 
the ' Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie,' p. 191. The velocities are 
calculated from the conductivities measured in terms of mercury units, 
and so must be multiplied by 110 x 10~' if they are wanted in centimetres 
per second. 

The velocity of elementary ions is found to be a periodic function of the 
atomic weight, similar elements lying on similar portions of the curve. 
The curve much resembles that giving the relation between atomic weight 
and viscosity in solution. For complex ions the velocity is largely an 
additive property ; to a continuous additive change in the composition of 
the ion corresponds a continuous but decreasing change in the velocity. 
Thus Ostwald's results for the anions of the formic acid series give 



HjCjO, 38-3 

H,C,0, 34-3 



3V.2W„ u^-3j _ 4.Q 



Formic acid . . HCO™ 51-2} _i2-9 

Acetic „ TT ^, ,^ nn „ 

Propionic „ 

Butyric ,, 

Valeric „ . . H'C.^0.," 28-8; - 2-0 

Caproic „ . . H„Csd2 27-4} - 1-4 



Diff. for CHj 



ILc'a 30-8[ "" 3-5 



Bredig finds similar relations for every such series of compounds which 
he examined. Isomeric ions of analogous constitution have equal 
velocities. A retarding effect is, in general, produced by the replacement 
of H by CI, Br, I, Me, NH2 or NO2 : of any element by an analogous one 
of higher atomic weight (except O and S) ; of NH3 by H2O ; of (CN)6 by 
(0204)3 ; by the change of amines into acids ; of sulphonic acids into 
carboxylic acids ; acids into cyanamides, dicarboxylic into monocarboxylic 
acids ; and by monamines into diamines. The additive effect is, however, 
largely influenced by constitution. Thus in metamerides the velocity 
increases with the symmetry of the ion, especially as the number of 
C— N unions gets greater. 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 235 

Diffusion of Electrolytes. — An application of the theory of ionic velocity 
due to Nernst' and Planck - enables us to calculate the diffusion constant 
of dissolved electrolytes. According to the molecular theory, diffusion is 
due to the motion of the molecules of the dissolved substance through the 
liquid. When the dissolved molecules are uniformly distributed, the 
osmotic pressure will be the same everywhere throughout the solution, 
but if the concentration varies from point to point, the pressure will vary 
also. There must, then, be a relation between the rate of change of the 
concentration and the osmotic pressure gradient, and thus we may consider 
the osmotic pressure gradient to be analogous to a force driving a body 
through a viscous medium. 

In the cases of non-electrolytes and of all non-ionised molecules this 
analogy completely represents the facts, and the phenomena of diffusion 
can be deduced from it alone. But the ions of an electrolytic solution can 
move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the 
truth of Ohm's law for electrolytes indicates. They will therefore diffuse 
independently, and the faster ion will travel quicker into pure water in 
contact with a solution. The ions carry their charges with them, and, as a 
matter of fact, it is found that, in general, water in contact with a solu- 
tion takes with respect to it a positive or negative potential, according 
as the positive or negative ion travels the faster. 

This process will go on until the simultaneous separation of electric 
charges produces an electrostatic force strong enough to prevent further 
separation of ions. We can therefore calculate the rate at which the 
salt as a whole wiU diffuse by examining the conditions for a steady state, 
in which the ions diffuse at an equal rate, the faster one being restrained 
and the slower one urged forward by the electric forces. 

Let us imagine that we have an aqueous solution of some electrolyte 
at the bottom of a tall glass cylinder with pure water lying above it. In a 
layer of liquid at a height x let the concentration {i.e. the number of 
gram-molecules per cubic centimetre) be c, and the osmotic pressure p. 
At a height x + dx these become c—dc and p—dj) respectively. The 
volume of the layer cut off by horizontal planes at these heights is qdx, 
where q is the area of cross-section, and this volume contains cqdx 
gram -molecules of electrolyte. The difference of osmotic pressure between 
the planes is dp, so that, on our analogy, we must imagine that the 
force acting on the layer is —qdp (the negative sign being taken 
because the force is in the direction in which x> decreases) and the 

force on one gram-molecule is — 1-. Now from the velocities of the 

c dx 

two ions under unit potential gradient, as found by Kohlrausch's theory, 

it is easy to deduce the velocity with which they will travel when unit 

force acts on them. Let us call these velocities U and V for the kation 

and anion respectively. The actual velocities in our case will therefore 

be — — -^ and — — f, so that the amounts passing any cross-section 
c dx c dx 

of the cylinder in a time dt are 

-Vq^ dt and-Vo ^ dt. 
dx dx 

> Zeits. physikal. Cliem. vol. ii. p. 613. Account in Nemst's Tkeoretische Chemie, or 
Whetham's Solution and Electrolysis. 
2 Wied. Ann. 1890, vol. xl. p. 561. 



236 REPORT— 1897. 

If U is different from V a difference of potential is set up, the effect 
of which, when a steady state is reached, is to make the ions travel to- 

dP 

gather. If the potential gradient is the numbers of the two ions which 

ax 

would cross, under the action of this force alone, are 

—JJqc — - dt and+ Yqc -,- dt. 
ax ax 

Under the influence of both the osmotic and the electric forces the 
number of gram-equivalents which diffuse in a given time must be equal, 
so that we get 

or eliminating dVjdx, 

,^ 2UV dp ., 

For dilute solutions we may assume that the gaseous laws hold good, so 
that 

jp=cRT, 

c, the concentration, being the reciprocal of the volume in which one 
gram-molecule is dissolved. 

U + V ^ dx 

We shall need the intermediate steps of this investigation when we 
consider Nernst's account of contact diflerences of potential ; but it has 
been pointed out to the writer by Professor Fitzgerald that, when the 
electrostatic forces make the opposite ions diffuse at equal rates, this last 
equation merely expresses the fact that the resistance offered by the liquid 
to the passage of an electrolyte is the sum of the resistances offered to the 
passage of its ions— a result which we should naturally have expected from 
the general properties of electrolytic solutions. 

Thus, on the osmotic pressure analogy, the force acting on one gram- 

molecule of hydrochloric acid is / ; so that, if we call k the resistance 

c dx 

offered when the velocity is unity, the average velocity will be ^ 

ck dx* 
and the number of gram-molecules crossing a section of the cylinder in one 
second will be 

dN=-14P.cqdt=.-lqf-dL 
ck dx k dx 

Now the osmotic pressure of an electrolyte with two ions is double the 
normal value, so that 

^=2cIlT, 
and we get 

,T.-r 2RT dc ,, 

d2\ = — —-— q -=- dt. 
k ax 

The resistances to hydrogen and chlorine moving with unit velocity are 
1/U and 1/V respectively, so that the resistance to hydrochloric acid is 

7,-1 I 1_U+V 
U + V~ UV ' 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 



237 



and we get the same equation as Nernst — 

c?N=--|^ RT^^^ dt. 
U + V ^ dx 

From the general theory of diffusion we may take the quantity of sub- 
stance diffusing through unit area in one second to be proportional to the 
gradient of concentration, so that the quantity crossing an area 5' in a time 
dt is 

m= -V)q f- dt 
dx 

where D is a constant. 

By comparing this with our last equation, we see that, for electrolytes, 

the diffusion constant is given by the expression 

2UV 



D= 



U + V 



RT. 



T is the absolute temperature, R the gas constant corresponding to one 
gram-equivalent of substance (viz. 1-974 calories per degree or 8-29 x 10'^ 
ergs per degree), so that it only remains to calculate U and V, the 
velocities with which the ions move under the action of unit force. 

We have already seen that the charge of electricity carried by one 
gram-equivalent of a kation is +I/17, and the charge on one gram- 
equivalent of an anion is — 1 /ri, where r) represents the electro-chemical 
equivalent of hydrogen. The quantity of electricity associated with one 
gram-equivalent of any ion is therefore 1/ -00010352 =9653 electro- 
magnetic units. If the potential gradient is one volt (10® C.G.S. units) 
per centimetre, the force acting on this gram-equivalent will be 9,653 x 10® 
dynes. This, in dilute solution, gives the ion its specific velocity, say u. 
Thus the force required to give the ion unit velocity is 

p^^9 -653xl0n ^ 9J4 x 10' ^^^^^^^^ ^^,^^,^ 

u u 

If the ion have an equivalent weight A, the force producing unit 

10^ 
velocity when acting on one gram is P,=9-84x-j— kilograms weight. 

Thus, in order to drive one gram of potassium ions ■<vith a velocity of one 
centimetre per second through a very dilute water solution, we must exert 
a force equal to the weight of 38,000,000 kilograms. The table gives 
other examples.' 





Kilograms Weight 


— 


Kilograms Weight 


Pa 


Pi 


Pa 


Pi 


K 

Na . 
Li . 
NH, . 
H . 
Ag . . 


15 X 108 
22 „ 
27 „ 
15 „ 
31 „ 
17 ,. 


38 X 10« 

95 „ 
390 „ 

83 „ 
310 „ 

16 „ 


CI . 
I 

NO3 . 
OH . 
C2H3O2 . 
CaH.O, . 


14 X 10' 

14 ,, 

15 „ 
5-4 „ 
27 „ 
30 „ 


40 X 10« 

11 ,. 
25 „ 
32 .. 
46 „ 

41 „ 



" KoLlrausch, Wied. Ann. 1893, vol. 1. p. 385. 



238 



EEPORT — 1897. 



Since the ions move with uniform velocity, the frictional forces 
brought into play must be equal and opposite to the driving forces acting, 
and therefore these numbers also represent the ionic friction coeflScients 
in very dilute solution at 18° C. 

Let us now return to the consideration of the velocity. We have seen 
that the force acting on one gram-equivalent of an ion, when the poten- 
tial gradient is one volt per centimetre, is 9,653 x 10* dynes, and that, in 
dilute solution, this gives to the ion its specific velocity u. The velocity 
it would attain under unit force will therefore be 



U = 



u 



9653 



xlO ^cms. per second. 



In the case of hydrochloric acid, for example, the specific velocity of the 
hydrogen is 00032, and that of the chlorine 0'00069 cm. per second. 

.•.U=3-32 X 10-^^ and V=7-15 x lO"'" cms. per second. 

the velocities, for convenience, being reckoned in centimetres per day. 

By experiments on diffusion this constant T> can be found experi- 
mentally,' and the agreement between theory and Scheffer's observations 
is shown by the table. 



Substance 


D observed 


D calculated 


Hydrochloric acid, HCl .... 


2-30 


2-49 


Nitric acid, HNO, . 






2-22 


2-27 


Potash, KOH . 






1-85 


210 


Soda, NaOH . 






1-40 


1-45 


Sodium chloride, NaCl . 






111 


112 


Sodium nitrate, NaNO, . 






103 


106 


Sodium formate, NaCOOH 






0-95 


0-95 


Sodium acetate, NaC02CH3 






0-78 


0-79 


Ammonium chloride, NH^Cl 






1-33 


1-44 


Potassium nitrate, KNO, 






1-30 


1-38 



The theoretical numbers are slightly increased by the assumption that 
the ionisation of the solutions is complete, which is not accurately the 
case. This correction, then, would make the agreement still better. 

The possibility of thus calculating the diffusion constant must be 
regarded as very strong evidence in favour of the soundness of the 
analogy underlying the investigation. 

Further developments for the cases of other solvents and of mixed 
electrolytes have been traced by Arrhenius,^ who shows, for example, 
that the rate at which hydrochloric acid diffuses will be increased by the 
presence of one of its salts. This is confirmed experimentally. Thus, 
when 1-04 normal HCl diffuses into 0*1 NaCl, D is calculated as 2'43 and 
observed as 2-50 ; and when the NaCl solution is 0'67 normal, calculation 
gives 3 58 and observation 3-51. 

Contact Difference of Potential. — As we have seen above, when a 
solution is placed in contact with water, the water will take a positive or 



' Account in Solution and Electrolysit, p. 49. 
' Zeits. physiTtal. Chem. 1892, vol. x. p. 51. 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 239 

negative potential with regard to the solution, according as the kation or 
the anion has the greater specific velocity and, therefore, the greater initial 
rate of diflfusion. This idea can be developed to explain the difference of 
potential at the surface of contact of two solutions or of a solution and a 
metal. 

Taking the equation which expresses the relation that, when a steady 
state is reached, the ions migrate at equal rates, viz. — 

\ax ax J \dx ax J 

we get 

t^p_l V-U ^ 

dx c V + TJ dx' 

or, since for dilute solutions ^=cRT, 

dP_RT Vj-U^ 
dx p V+U dx 
which gives on integration 

If we have absolutely pure water in contact with a solution, py is zero,, 
and the difference of potential apparently becomes infinite. Absolutely 
pure water cannot be obtained, and the table of Nernst's experimental 
results, given on p. 242, shows too small a range of concentrations to fairly 
test this equation. Nevertheless, cases will be described later in which 
high potential-differences were observed when the concentration of the 
ions on one side was made very small. 

When the solutions of two different electrolytes are placed in contact, 
similar things occur. Thus (Nernst) let us suppose that we have a 
solution of hydrochloric acid in contact with one of lithium bromide. On 
the one hand more hydrogen ions than chlorine ions will diffuse from the 
acid solution into the other, and therefore the salt solution will receive a 
positive charge. On the other hand, more bromine ions than lithium ions 
will diffuse from the salt solution into the acid, and thus the potential 
difference will be increased. 

When a metal dissolves in a solution, Nernst traces an analogy with 
the evaporation of a liquid. He ascribes to each metal a ' solution -pres- 
sure ' with regard to water, depending only on the temperature, which 
tends to drive the metal into solution in the form of positively charged 
ions. But this process will electrify the solution positively, and leave 
the metal negatively charged. Electric forces will therefore be set up, 
which oppose the further solution of the metal, and seek to drive back 
to it the ions already in solution. The electrostatic capacities of the ions 
are very great, and hence equilibrium may be reached long before a weigh- 
able quantity has been dissolved. 

As the quantity of ions in solution increases, we may get equilibrium 
set up, the solution pressure being balanced by the osmotic pressure of 
the dissolved ions and the electrostatic forces of their charges. This 
happens, for example, when silver is dipped into a solution of sodium 
chloride. If, however, the solution pressure is very great, the electric 
forces may reach such an amount that positive ions must be driven out of 
the solution. Such cases occur when hydrogen is evolved from acids or 



240 REPORT — 1897. 

one metal precipitated from its solution by another. In each case an 
electrically equivalent amount of the metal is dissolved. 

When hydrogen is evolved, it is first dissolved by the metal, from 
which it separates in an electrically neutral form as soon as its concentra- 
tion is high enough to give it a vapour pressure exceeding one atmosphere. 
The process can be arrested by the application of an atmospheric pressure 
sufficiently great, and this gives a measure of the solution pressure of the 
metal used. Experiments are difficult, but Beketoff ' and Brunner - have 
shown that hydrogen at a high pressure can precipitate silver, platinum, 
and palladium ; Cailletet ^ arrested its evolution from zinc and sulphuric 
acid, while Nernst and Tammann * have examined the action of other 
metals. 

The electromotive force developed at the contact of a metal and a 
solution of one of its salts has been deduced by Nernst by considering the 
work done when one unit of electricity passes,^ but it seems that the same 
result can be obtained from the equation giving the potential difference 
between the solutions of an electrolyte of different concentration, which 
we have already developed in the form 

If we suppose that in the case of a metal we are concerned with one 
ion only — the positive one — we can put V = O, since no negative ions 
enter or leave the metal, and the equation becomes 

E= -RTW^^ 
Pi 
where f.^ denotes something corresponding to the osmotic pressure of 
the kations in the substance of the electrode, which gives its solution 
pressure P. Thus, neglecting the negative sign, we get 

E = ET%,? 
P 
p denoting the osmotic pressure of the ions of the metal in the solution. 

In a simple galvanic cell of any ordinary form there are two metals, 
say zinc and copper, in contact with the same solution of electrolyte. The 
equation then becomes 

E = RT (log, ?.' - log, ??) 

where P, and^, refer to the zinc, and Pj and p^, to the copper. In two- 
fluid cells, such as the Daniell, since the electromotive forces at the 
electrodes are much greater than at the contact of the liquids, the same 
equation may still be applied. 

Galvanic cells can be constructed with two electrodes of the same metal 
placed in solutions of different substances, or even of the same substance 
at different concentrations. In this case, since the unknown solution 
pressure of the metal is the same at the opposite electrodes, we can calcu- 
late the total electromotive force of the cell. 

' Corrfpt. Rend,, vol. xlviii. p. 442 (1859). 
"^ Pogg. Ann. vol. cxxii. p. 153 (1864). 
' Com^pt. Rend. vol. Ixviii. p. 395 (1869). 
* Zeitg. physiltal. Chem. vol, ix. p. 1 (1892). 
' Zeits. physlkal. Chem. vol. iv. p. 148 (1889). 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CUEMISTRY. 



241 



Thus, taking a combination arranged according to the scheme 

Ag I 0-1 AgNOa I 0-01 AgNOa | Ag 

in which silver electrodes are placed, one in decinormal and one in centi- 
normal solutions of silver nitrate, we get from the sum of the electromotive 
forces of its various junctions 



v+u 



P\ 



where jd, and p^ denote the osmotic pressures of the silver ions in 
decinormal and centinormal solutions of silver nitrate respectively. 
In the scheme 



Ho 



H&Cl, 



01 HCl I 0-01 HCl 



Hg,Cl, 



Hs 



we have the first and the last contact identical, so that we may consider 
the 'depolariser,' mercurous chloride, as the electrode, and thus get a cell 
whose action depends on the negative chlorine ions. Its electromotive 
force will be 

By this method the following table was constructed byNernst,i giving 
a comparison between the observed and calculated values of the electro- 
motive force of concentration cells. C, and C, denote the concentration 
of the two solutions in gram -equivalents per litre. 



Electrolj'te 


Ci 


Cj 


E in volts 
(observed) 


E in volts 
(calculated) 


HCl . 


0105 


0-0180 


00710 


00717 


)> 




01 


0-01 


00926 


0-0939 


HBr . 




0126 


0-0132 


0-0932 


0-0917 


KCl . 




0125 


0-0125 


0-0532 


0-0542 


NaCl . 




0-125 


0-0125 


0-0402 


0-0408 


LiCl . 




01 


0-01 


0-0354 


00336 


NH^Cl 




01 


001 


00546 


0-0531 


NaBr 




0125 


0-0125 


00417 


00404 


NaO^CjHj 




0125 


0-0125 


0066 


0-0604 


NaOH 




0-235 


0-030 


0-0178 


00183 


NH^OH 




0-305 


0-032 


0-024 


0-0188 


KOH . 




0-1 


0-01 


0-0348 


0-0298 



The equations indicate that, in cells with both electrodes of the same 
metal, the electromotive force will be greater if the concentration of the 
ions of the metal in the solution round one electrode is made very small. 
This can easily be Hone by placing the electrode in a solution which pre- 



1897. 



Zeitt. phynkal. Chevi. vol. iv. p. 161 (1889). 



242 REPORT— 1897. 

cipitates the metal. Thus Ostwald ' found that the electromotive force 
of the cell 

Ag I 0-1 AgNOa 1 1-0 KCl | AgCl | Ag^ 

was 0"51 volt. Here the osmotic pressure of the silver ions in the solu- 
tion of potassium chloride is very small to begin with, and is still further 
reduced because the solubility of the silver chloride is lowered by the 
presence of chlorine ions. The pressure can be calculated, and an appli- 
cation of Nernst's formula leads to a theoretical value for the electro- 
motive force of 0'52 volt — a remarkable agreement with the observed 
value. 

Other similar cells, giving high electromotive forces with identical 
electrodes, were examined by Ostwald. 

Volt. 

1. Silver nitrate (0-1) against silver chloride in potassium chloride . 0'51 

2. „ „ „ ammonia 0-54 

3. „ „ „ silver bromide in potassium bromide . 064 

4. „ „ „ sodiurii thiosulphate . . . .0-84 

5. „ „ „ silver iodide in potassium iodide . . 0'91 

6. „ ,, „ potassium cyanide ... . 131 

7. „ „ „ sodium sulphide 1'38 

Comparisons of other cells, in all cases showing an agreement between 
the observed values and those calculated on the analogy of Nernst and 
Planck, will be found in the second volume of Ostwald's ' Lehrbuch,' 
pp. 848, 850. 

The number of silver ions can also be reduced by adding some sub- 
stance which, by combining with them, removes them from solution. 
This is shown by the fact that cells Nos. 2, 4, and 6 in the above list have, 
like the others, high electromotive forces. 

Other metals have been used as electrodes by Zengelis,** who showed 
that, in many cases, the electromotive forces of cells whose electrodes 
were copper, lead, nickel, or cobalt were greater the more the concentra- 
tion of the ions round one electrode was depressed by the addition of a 
salt. 

Hittorf "• has even shown that the effect of a cyanide round a copper 
electrode is so great that copper becomes electropositive towards zinc. 
Thus the cell 

Cu I KCN I K2SO4 1 ZnS04 | Zn 

furnishes a current which carries copper into solution and deposits zinc. 
In a similar way, silver could be made positive towards cadmium. 

If we know the concentration of the ions round one electrode, it is 
possible to calculate them round the other from observations on the 
electromotive force, and this has been done by Behrend.' 

The same ideas have been applied by Le Blanc '^ to the study of gal- 

' LelirlucTi, 2nd ed. vol. ii. p. 882. 

* In order to prevent the formation of a precipitate an indifferent substance, e.g. 
KNO,, is interposed between the AgNOj and the KCl. 

' Zeits. physikal. Chem. vol. xii. p. 298 (1893). 
*■ Zeits. physikal. Chem. vol. x. p. 592 (1892). 

* Zeit$. physilial. Chem. vol. xi. p. 466 (1893). 

« Zeits. physikal. Chem. vol. viii. p. 299 ; vol. xii. 333 ; vol. xiii. 163 (1891-94). 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 243 

vanic polarisation. He finds that, at the decomposition point in a 
solution from which a metal is deposited at the kathode, the electro- 
motive force of polarisation at this electrode is equal to the electrolytic 
solution pressure of the metal in the solution, and is independent of the 
nature of the electrode, provided it is not attacked. The numerous 
apparent exceptions to this rule are referred to secondary effects, such as 
the development of gases at the electrodes, which cause the electromotive 
force necessary for their liberation to depend on the nature and condition 
of the electrode. This, for example, makes the decomposition limit of 
water rise to about 1-6 volt ; but when these effects are eliminated, it is 
found that the true value comes out as 1"03 volt. Now 1"03 volt is the 
maximum electromotive force of the oxy-hydrogen gas battery ; and thus 
the decomposition of water is a reversible process at 1*03 volt. 

Freudenberg ' has applied the theory to the electrolytic separation of 
metals, and finds that metals are separated from a solution, through which 
a constantly increasing current flows, in the revei'se order of their ' decom- 
position pressures.' They can often be thus separated for quantitative 
chemical analysis. The influence of the solvent on the solution pressure 
of metals has been investigated by H. C. Jones,^ who examined cells 
whose electrodes were silver in solutions of silver nitrate of equal strength, 
the solvent round one electrode being water, and round the other ethyl 
alcohol, methyl alcohol, or acetone. In all cases the water solution was 
negative to the other. The ionisation of the salt in ethyl alchohol being 
known, the ratio of the solution pressures can, in this case, be calculated, 
and comes out 0'024. 

Much discussion has taken place about the exact significance of the 
' solution pressure ' of a metal — the property represented by P in Nernst's 
equations. Following Nernst, Ostwald considers that P is a function 
of the metal and temperature only, and consequently independent of the 
nature of the negative iron. Measurements of the potential differences 
at single reversible junctions — i.e. when the kation is of the same metal as 
th§ electrode — have been made by Le Blanc ^ and Neumann.'' The latter 
measured the electromotive forces of cells made up with the junction in 
question at one electrode, and mercury in a normal potassium chloride 
solution with an excess of calomel at the other. The normal mercury 
calomel electrode has a potential difference of 0"560 volt, and thus the 
value of the other contact could be found, the potential difference between 
the liquids being assumed to be small. Neumann found that at great 
dilution the potential difference was in general independent of the anion ; 
but Paschen, Bancroft, and other observers, working with metals in. 
solutions not of their own salts, which there is reason to suppose form 
limiting cases of the reversible electrodes and are subject to the same laws, 
have found that the potential difference does, when the metal is copper, 
platinum or mercury, depend on the anion. Many experiments on cells 
containing non-reversible electrodes have been made to determine the 
influence of the nature of the ions and of concentration. Among these 
experiments we may mention those of Paschen,* Ostwald,*^ Oberbeck and 

' Zeits. pJiysikal. Chem. vol. xii. p. 97 (1893). 
" Zeits, physihal. Chem. vol. xiv. p. 346 (1894). 
' Zeits. physikal. Chem. 1893, vol. xii. p. 345. 

* Zeits. pliygikal. Chem. 1894, vol. xiv. p. 225. 

* Wied. Ann. 1891, vol. xliii. p. 590. 

' Zeits. j}/njdJial. Chem. 1887, vol. i. p. 583. 

b2 



244 REPORT— 1897. 

Edler,^ Bancroft,^ and A. E. Taylor.^ Taylor finds reason to suggest that 
the difierences found by some of the observers on changing the anion 
may be due to large potential differences at the surface of contact of the 
two liquids in the cells. He finds that such differences arise in cases 
where there is a tendency to form complex salts. Moreover, it has been 
found by Gouy,* Rothmund/ and Luggin'' that the maximum surface 
tension of mercury is not the same in all solutions, as Lippmann's law- 
supposes, but varies in cases where complex salts might be formed. Now 
the values taken for the potential difference at a contact between mercury 
and solution depend on this result, and so an error is introduced into 
many of the observations which depend on the subtraction of this 
potential difference from the total electromotive force of a cell. Such con- 
siderations may possibly explain exceptions to the rule that the potential 
difference between a metal and an electrolyte is independent of the nature 
of the anion. More experiments on the subject, particularly with rever- 
sible electrodes, would be of great value. 

In a general review of the results of this theory of the migration of 
the ions, the agreement between calculation and observation is most re- 
markable. The experimental measurements of the absolute velocities of 
various ions, which have been described, fully confirm the general truth 
of the theory, and leave no doubt that the values calculated from the con- 
ductivities and migration constants give the real average speeds Avith 
which the ions travel. 

The ability of Kohlrausch's theory to represent the facts being thus 
established, it must follow that, in dilute solutions, the motion of one ion 
is independent of the nature of the other ion present. This suggests that 
the ions are free from each other for, at any rate, the greater part of their 
time, and this idea is, as we have seen, confirmed by the fact that the con- 
ductivity of a dilute solution is proportional to the concentration, whereas, 
if the ion were free only at the instants of collision between dissolved 
molecules, it would vary as some higher power of the concentration. 

Further evidence, pointing in the same direction, is furnished by the 
general success of Nernst and Planck's theory of the diffusion of electro- 
lytes, and of the contact difference of potential between solutions. The 
numerical deductions from this theory, which agree in general with the 
results of experiment, involve (i.) the specific ionic velocities, as determined 
by Kohlrausch, and (ii.) the freedom of the opposite ions to migrate inde- 
pendently of each other until the electrostatic forces prevent further 
separation. Thus we seem obliged to accept the idea, originally suggested 
and strongly supported by other phenomena outside the scope of this 
section of the Report, that the ions not only enjoy perfect freedom of 
interchange, as Ohm's law demands, but are actually dissociated from 
each other for, at any rate, the greater part of their existence. It must 
be particularly noticed that this freedom from each other does not at all 
prevent the ions from forming chemical combinations with the solvent 



* Wied. Ann. 1891, vol. xlii. p. 209. 

' Zeits. physiMl. Chem. 1893, vol. xii. p. 289; Physical iZmew, 1896, vol. iii.p.250. 
3 Journal Physical Chemistry, 1896, vol. i. pp. 1, 81. 

* Compt. Bend. 1892, vol. cxiv. pp. 22, 211, 657. 

* Zeits. physihal. Chem. 1894, vol. xv. p. 1. 

* Zeits. physihal. Chevi. 1895, vol. xvi. p. 667. 



ELECTROLYSIS AND ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 245 

molecules. Neither does it throw any light on the fundamental nature 
of solution. It has been very generally assumed that the dissociation 
theory of electrolytes was necessarily bound up with a view of solution 
which considers the dissolved matter to be in a state dynamically similar 
to that of a gas, and to produce osmotic pressure by the impacts of its 
molecules, just as a gas produces pressure on the walls of its containing 
vessel. 

Now Poynting ' has shown that the phenomena of osmotic pressure 
can, on certain not improbable assumptions, be completely represented by 
the hypothesis that chemical union occurs between the solvent and the 
dissolved matter. In the present state of our knowledge the dissociation 
ttheory of electrolytes seems perfectly compatible with such an explanation.'^ 
All that follows from the facts is the essential freedom of the ions from 
each other. "Whatever be the cause of osmotic pressure, it certainly de- 
pends, to a first approximation, at all events, on the number of dissolved 
anolecules, and not on their nature, and thus, whether it be due to impact 
or to chemical union, it will have an abnormally great value when, as in 
the case of electrolytes, the number of effective molecules is increased by 
•dissociation. 

Again, the theory does not forbid the assumption that complex mole- 
ocular aggregates, formed of two or more solute molecules, may exist, 
especially in concentrated solutions, as well as dissociated ions. Such 
molecules would be electrolytically inactive, unless an odd ion was linked, 
to them. They would also, as has been suggested by Wildermann and 
others, explain a lowering of the freezing point less than that calculated 
ii'om the conductivity. 

It has been found that the specific resistance of many liquids, including 
■water (i.e. a dilute solution of electrolytes), increases when the electrodes 
are brought within a certain critical distance of each other.^ Similar 
phenomena have been observed in the case of gases, through which an 
electric discharge was passing, by Lord Kelvin, Bailie, and Peace,^ and 
this has been explained by J. J. Thomson on the hypothesis that a com- 
plete chain-like structure is necessary for electrolytic conduction, which 
cannot occur unless there is room for such a chain to form. It is possible 
that the same explanation may hold good for liquids, the necessary 
electrolytic unit being a complex structure formed of a dissociated ion 
and several solvent molecules. From what has been said, it will be seen 
■that there is nothing inconsistent with this idea in the dissociation 
theory. 

To sum up the results of this section, we may say that, whatever may 
be the ultimate nature of solution, it seems certain that the electrolytic 
ions migrate in accordance with Kohlrausch's theory, and, in a homo- 
geneous solution, are free to travel independently of each other through 
the liquid. 

' Phil. Mag. 1896, vol. xlii. p. 289. 

2 See letters in Nature, 1896, voL liv. p. 571 ; vol. Iv. pp. 33, 78, and 150. 

^ Koller, Wien. Ber. 1889, vol. 98, ii. p. 201. 

' See J. J. Thomson's Recent Researclies in Electricity, p. 72. 



246 REPORT— 1897. 

The Historical Developme^it of Ahelian Functions up to tJie time of 
Riemann. By Harris Hancock, 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in externa among the Reports] 

(1) In 1846, R. Leslie Ellis ' presented to the British Association a 
* Report on the Recent Progress of Analysis (Theory of the Comparison of 
Transcendents).' At the beginning of this memoir he says : 'The province 
of analysis, to which the theory of elliptic functions belongs, has within the 
last twenty years assumed a new aspect ; in no subject, I think, has our 
knowledge advanced so far beyond the limits to which it was not long 
since confined.' ' This circumstance,' he continues, ' would give a particular 
interest to a history of the recent progress of the subject, even did it now 
appear to have reached its full development. But on the contrary, there 
is now more hope of further progress than at the commencement of the 
period of which I have been speaking.' 

These statements appear more emphatic when we consider that after 
the lapse of fifty years, since the publication of Ellis's report to the present 
time, the same remarks are literally true, and when at the end of this 
period we find that there is more hope for the future progress of analysis, 
the theory of functions, than there has ever been before. 

So great has been the growth of this science, extending on the one hand, 
and with a broadening influence, far into the realms of almost every 
branch of mathematical study, and on the other hand so comprehensive 
and varied in character is its application to physical problems, that the 
development of Ellis's work must be divided into many parts. 

(2) The present report which the author has the honour of submitting 
to the Association is intended as a brief account of that part of the work 
already begun by Ellis which treats of the developments of the Abelian 
(including the hyperelliptic) functions. It is also found that the develop- 
ment of these functions has been so rapid and so extended that an ade- 
quate account of it would require much more space than can be given here. 
The author has consequently decided to make this statement for the period 
up to the time of Riemann. With Riemann, Weierstrass, Clebsch and 
Gordan, Cayley and others, the subjecttakesdirections so essentially different 
that separate accounts along these different lines seem very desirable. 

Much regarding the history of the general theory of functions may be 
found in Forsyth, ' Theory of Functions ' ; Harkness and Morley, ' A 
Treatise of the Theory of Functions ' ; Casorati, ' Teorica delle funzioni di 
variabili complesse ' ; Brill and Nother, ' Die Entwicklung der algebrai- 
schen Functionen in alterer und neuerer Zeit ' (see ' Jahresbericht der 
deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung,' 1894, bd. iii.). Fruitful sources 
for researches regarding the elliptic functions are Konigsberger, ' Zur 
Geschichte der Theorie der elliptischen Transcendenten in den Jahren 
1826-29,' Leipzig, 1879 ; short notices about ih^ first discovery of elliptic 
functions are given by Gauss, ' Werke,' iii. p. 491 ; ' Correspondance 
math^matique entre Legendre et Jacobi ' (Crelle's Journal, bd. Ixxx. 
p. 205) ; and especially good is the account given by Enneper, ' Elliptische 
Functionen : Theorie und Geschichte,' Halle, 1890. 

These works give more or less extended accounts of the subject under 

' Ellis, Report of the Sriiish Association for the Advancement of Science, 1846, 
p. 34. We shall hereafter use the word ' Ellis ' in referring to this paper. 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 247 

consideration ; other sources of information will be cited in their proper 
places. 

(3) A good account (especially from the German standpoint) is given 
of the early development of the theory of functions by Brill and Nother 
(loc. cit.). I shall here consider very briefly only such parts of the theory 
of elliptic functions that have a direct bearing upon this report, omitting 
as far as possible what has already been given by Ellis. 

(4) The contributions towards the advancement of the elliptic 
functions by Tschirnhaus (1683-1700), the Bernoullis (1690-1730), 
Fagnano ('Produzioni Matematiche,' Pesaro, 1750) are discussed by 
Enneper (' EUiptische Functionen '). 

Two works which must have exercised great influence upon subsequent 
writers are Maclaurin, 'A Treatise on Fluxions,' Edinb. 1742, and 
d'Alembert, ' Recherches sur le calcul integral ' (' Histoire de I'Acad. de 
Berlin,' 1746, pp. 182-224). 

(5) Euler extended and systematised the work that Fagnano had 
begun. It was known that the expressions for sin (a+/?), sin (a — ^), etc., 
gave a means of adding or subtracting the arcs of circles, and that between 
the limits of two integrals that express lengths of arc of a lemniscate an 
algebraical relation exists, so that the arc of a lemniscate, although a 
transcendent of higher order, may be doubled or halved just as the arc of 
a circle by means of geometric construction. 

It was natural to inquire if the ellipse, hyperbola, etc., did not have 
similar properties ; investigating such questions, Euler made the remark- 
able discovery of the addition-theorem of elliptic integrals {cf, ' Nov. 
Comm.' Petrop. vi. pp. 58-84, 1761 ; vii. p. 3 ; vii. p. 83). 

Euler showed that if 

•where <f>{i) is a rational integral function of the fourth degree in i, there 
exists between the upper limits x, y, and a of the integrals an algebraic 
relation which is the addition-theorem of the arcs of an ellipse and is the 
algebraic solution of the differential equation ^ 

^^ + ^'^ =0 
n/</'(^) V^W 

Euler stated that the above results were obtained, not by any regular 
method, but pothis tentando, vel divinando, and suggested that mathe- 
maticians seek a direct proof. The numerous discoveries of Euler are 
systematised in his work, ' Institutiones calculi integralis.' 

The fourth volume (p. 446) contains an extension of the addition- 
theorem to integrals of the second and third kinds, as they were sub- 
sequently classified and named by Legendre, 

In each case geometrical application of the formulae are made for the 
comparison of elliptic arcs. 

(6) The addition-theorem for elliptic integrals gave a similar meaning in 
higher analysis to the elliptic functions as the cyclometric and logarithmic 
functions had had for a long time. See Enneper (' EUipt. Funct.,' p. 541 
et seq.) regarding the position occupied by Euler in the development of 
the elliptic functions, and for a statement regarding Legendre's work in 

' Euler, Nov. Comm, vol. x. pp. 3-50. 



248 REPORT— 1897. 

this branch of mathematica confer Dirichlet's ' Gedachtnissrede auf Jacobi ' 
(Jacobi's ' Werke,' vol. i. p. 9). 

(7) The suggestion made by Euler that one should find a direct method 
of integrating the diflferential equation proposed by him (art. 5) was 
carried out by Lagrange, who by direct methods integrated this equation, 
and in a manner which elicited the great admiration of Euler. (See 
' Miscell. Taurin.,' iv. 1768 ; or Serret's ' CEuvres de Lagrange,' vol. ii. 
p. 533.) 

(8) The consideration of relations between integrals that have different 
moduli gave rise to a theorem due to Landen (and proved somewhat 
differently by Lagrange), in accordance with which an elliptic integral 
may be transformed into another integral of the same kind by means of 
algebraic transformations. Landen (' Phil. Trans.,' 1775, p. 285 ; or 
'Mathematical Memoirs,' by John Landen, London, vol. i. 1780, p. 33) 
proves that in general the hyperbola may be rectified by means of two 
ellipses, with the addition of an algebraic quantity.' 

The germ of the general theory of transformation is contained in this 
theorem, as has been observed by Legendre.'-^ 

By means of algebraic tranformations Landen was able to reduce 
elliptic integrals of the first kind into forms that had the same modulus, 
and showed that an elliptic integral of the first kind could be transformed 
into an elliptic integral of the first kind with smaller modulus, or into an 
integral of the first kind with smaller amplitude and greater modulus. 

Lagrange^ showed that the integration of any irrational function 

which contains the square root of a function <^ may be made to depend 

P (•«) 
upon the integration of a function of the form — -^ where P is rational ; 

and that if <^ is not higher than the fourth degree in x, the integration 
may be reduced to that of 

Ncfcc 



V(l±;j2x2)(l-!-92a;2)' 

N denoting a rational function in cc^, and ^; and q constants. If the 
elliptic integral be reduced to this form, Lagrange showed by the intro- 
duction of a new variable that this integral may be transformed into 
another of similar form, but in which v and q become two new quantities 
jp' and q' , and that if ^^ is greater than q, p' becomes greater than f and 
^' less than q. By the repetition of this process the factor corresponding 
to \A2_(fx^ maybe made as near unity as we desire, and consequently the 
integral may be expressed by a circular arc or logarithm ; if, however, 
the transformations are made in the other direction, the functions corre- 
sponding to l+^j^a;^ and l+^'-a;- become as near equal as we wish, and 
thus the elliptical integral reduces to a lower transcendent.'' 
Legendre investigated the general integral given above, 

f '^dx 



J >/ a + ySa; -f- yai^ 4- Sa;3 + ex* ' 

' An interesting geometric construction of this transformation is found in a letter 
of Jacobi to Hermite (Jacobi's Werke, bd. ii. p. 118). See also a geometric jKoof by 
MacCullagh {Tra,ns. of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xvi. p. 76). 

■ See Ellis, p. .S7. 

' Memoire de VAcad. de So., 1784-85 ; (Euvres ii. p. 253. 

* Ellis, p. 44. Casorati, Teorica delle funcioni, kc, p. 6. 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 249 

and showed that it was always possible to reduce it to one or the other of 
three forms essentially different. 

We may mention, in passing, as being among the early English con- 
tributions to the subject memoirs by Brinkley ('Dublin Trans.' ix. p. 145, 
1803) and Wallace ('Edinb. Trans.' v. p. 253). A criticism of Talbot's 

* Researches on the Integral Calculus '(' Phil. Trans.' 1836, p. 177, and 
1838, p. 1) is given by Ellis, p. 41. 

(9) The theory of the elliptic functions, as Abel and Jacobi ^ found it 
in 1827, offered many highly enigmatical phenomena, which could not be 
explained by the principles that were at that time in vogue. For example, 
the degree of the equation which is found by means of Euler's theorem, 
and upon whose solution depends the division of the elliptic integral, 
was not, as in the analogous question of the division of the circle, equal 
to the number of the parts, but to the square of this number. It was easy 
to see the meaning of the real roots, whose number agrees with the 
number we have in the division of the circle ; however, the number of 
imaginary roots must have seemed without explanation (Dirichlet, 

* Gedachtnissrede,' p. 9). 

We shall next consider the inverse functions of the integrals which we 
have been treating. With Jacobi ^ we begin with the simple algebraic 
integral 

P dx . _i 

M= =sm ^x. 



p dx 
Jon/1-c 



In this expression we may either consider %<, as a function of the upper 
limit X, or inversely, the upper limit a; as a function of u. In the first 
case, when tt ^sin~^a;, it is not possible to express u in the form of a 
power series which is convergent for every value of x ; and for a given 
value of X, u is not determinate, but has an infinite number of values, 
differing by multiples of 27r. But when we regard the upper limit a; as a 
function of u, and write cc^sin u, then x may be expressed as a series 
which is convergent for all values, real and imaginary, of u; and when u is 
given a definite value, then x also has a definite value, and x considered 
as a function of tt enjoys all the properties of a rational function. 
The next more general algebraic integral is the elliptic integral 



M= r ^"^ =T\{x). 



As above, tt=n(a;) cannot be expressed by a series that is always 
-convergent ; and for a given value of x the variable u has not a definite 
value, but a double infinity of values, differing by multiples of the periods 
of elliptic functions (see next article). 

The innate property of this integral could not be recognised if we 
considered the transcendent x alone ; but we have to regard the upper 

' Their first writings on this subject are : Abel, Crelle, bd. ii. September 1827 ; 
Jacobi, two letters to Schumacher dated June 13 and August 2, 1827, in the Attrono- 
viiiche NachHchten, No. 123, vol. vi. 

- Jaoobi, Contiderationei generalei de tramcendentibus Abelianif ( Werke, bd. ii. 
p, 8). 



250 REPORT— 1897. 

limit a; as a function of u, and with Legendre we write a;=sin <f>, so that 
the integral above becomes 



Jos/l-/c2a 



We consider as a function of m, and write 0:=amplitude of M^am(M), 
so that x= sin am (M)=sn u. 

The function x^snu enjoys all the properties of a rational fractional 
function, and, as is shown later in connection with the ^-function, the 
numerator and denominator of this fraction may be developed in rapidly 
convergent series for all real or imaginary values of m. Hence the elliptic 
function x=snu has one, and only one, definite value, corresponding to a 
given value of u. 

(10) Periods of the inverse /unctions. — Abel and Jacobi recognised 
that the elliptic functions have at the same time the nature of circular 
functions and of exponential functions in that they are periodic for both 
real and imaginary values of the arguments. They saw that the function 
x=snu, for example, remained unaltered when u is changed into m4-4K 
or into M + 2K' V — 1, where K and K' are definite constants. 

Jacobi often repeated that the introduction of the imaginary was a 
complete solution of all the enigmas that had previously beset this 
subject.* 

The introduction of the imaginary and the necessity of treating the 
limit as a function of the integral were two great advances made by 
Jacobi and Abel. 

(11) Abel's investigations took different directions from those of Jacobi. 
Abel devoted himself to problems that have to do with the multiplication 
and division of elliptic integrals, their double periodicity, and their defini- 
tion by infinite products. By the help of the principle of double periodi- 
city he penetrated deeply into the nature of the roots of the equation 
upon which the division depends, and made the unexpected discovery that 
the general division of the elliptic integral with arbitrary limit may be 
performed algebraically (i.e. through the extraction of roots) as soon as 
the special division of the so-called complete integrals is presupposed 
performed. 

The simplest case of this special division is for the modulus to which 
the lemniscate corresponds ; and Abel shows that the division of the 
entire lemniscate is completely analogous to that of the circle, and may 
be performed by geometric construction in the same cases as the circle 
admits. The solution of the circle had been solved some twenty-five years 
before by Gauss. The admirers of Gauss with Dirichlet, from whom the 
above extracts have been made (loc. cit. p. 11), contend, from certain 
remarks (among others) made by Gauss in connection with the division of 
the circle and the lemniscate, that the principle of double periodicity was 
also known to Gauss. Some persons might, however, insist that Gauss 
too was beset by some of the enigmas above referred to, and that it was 
more likely that Gauss omitted to mention these dilemmas than to keep 
silent about the remarkable doubly periodic property of the functions 
that are connected with the lemniscate. In this connection Enneper 
(• Elliptische Functionen,' p. 7) says that it is to be regretted that Gauss 
did not communicate his remarkable discoveries to his contemporaries and 
invite their co-operation. 

■ See Dirichlet, Qeddchtnissrede auf Jacobi (Jacobi's Werke, i. 10). 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 251 

Another important discovery is due to Abel's investigations : when 
the multiplier became infinitely large in the formulse through which he 
represented the elliptic functions of a multiple argument by means of 
functions of the simple argument, he obtained remarkable expressions for 
the elliptic functions in form of infinite series that are expressed as 
quotients of infinite products.' 

Jacobi, contemporaneously with Abel, was occupied in another part of 
the theory of elliptic functions, and with equally as great success. A 
fortunate induction of considering the transformation and the multiplica- 
tion from a common point of view, and the last as a special case of the 
first, led him to the conjecture that rational functions of any degree may 
be used to transform an elliptic integral into an integral of the same form. 
This conjecture was at once confirmed, since the number of constants, 
which may be arbitrarily disposed of for any degree is sufiicient to satisfy 
all conditions in order that the form of the transformed integral may 
agree with the original {cf. Dirichlet, he. cit. p. 12). 

Jacobi also showed how the elliptic functions may be expressed in the 
form of infinite products, which may be represented by trigonometric 
series, and he further used the infinite series to express the square and 
product of these functions. These results, with the general theory of 
transformation, are systematised in the ' Fundamenta Nova,' Konigsberg, 
1827; Jacobi's 'Werke,' bd. i. p. 49; further developments in this 
direction are mentioned by Enneper ('EUip. Funct.' p. 74 et seq.). A 
report of this work is given by Ellis (pp. 49-59). See also a paper by 
Poisson (Crelle, bd. x. p. 342). 

(12). Statement of Abel's Theorem — We write, as above, 

If in this expression X = 1 — x-, and if there exists a given algebraic 
relation x^^ -{■ x^^ ^ Ij then, 

(1) n(a;,) + n(a;2) = Constant ; 

i.e. if sin^^ + sin^i// = 1 then f i- 4' =k. 

Further, if X= (1 — a;-) (1 — K^a;^), and if we have given the algebraic 
relation ^ 

4(1- x^^) (1 - Xi^) (1 - x^^) = (2 - cci* - Ka^ + x^^ + K^x^^x^WYf 
then is 

(2) U(x,) + U{x,) + n{x,) = 0. 

From these two examples it is seen that, although in general we cannot 
integrate (I.) by means of algebraic or logarithmic functions, neverthe- 
less, we have expressions (1) and (2) for the sums of such integrals, pro- 
vided the variables that occur in these integrals are connected by algebraic 
relations. 

By Euler's theorem, any number of elliptic integrals of the first kind may 

' See in this connection Cayley, Liouv. Journ. x. p. 385 ; also numerous papers 
in his collected works : — Heine (Crelle, bd. xxxiv. p. 122) ; Eisenstein (Crelle, bd. xxxv. 
p. 153 ; Liouville {Lumv. Journ. t. ii. p. 433) ; Lipschitz {Acta Math. bd. iv. p. 193); 
Biermann {Theorie der analytischen Functionen, p. 323), &c. 

* See a paper by Boole, ' On the comparison of transcendents,' Phil. Tram. 1857, 
p. 750; and also Rowe, ' Memoir on Abel's theorem," Phil. Tram. Pt. III. 1881. 



252 REPORT— 1897. 

be expressed by one such integral, where the upper limit of this integral 
is a rational function of the upper limits of the other integrals. Similar 
results are found for the elliptic integrals of the second and of the third 
kinds. For those of the second kind there enters, in addition, an algebraic 
function, and for those of the third kind a logarithmic algebraic function. 

Abel considered the integrals of any algebraic functions, and established 
a theorem for the transcendents that arise from the integrals of these 
functions, which has for them the same meaning as Euler's theorem has 
for the elliptic transcendents. 

The question proposed by Abel is : Suppose X in formula (I.) above is 
any algebraic function of x, then is it possible, taking different variables, 
to establish algebraic (or logarithmic) relations between integrals of the 
form 

F dx 



"<^'=i:^' 



when the variables are connected by requisite algebraic equations ; that is, 
can algebraic (or logarithmic) relations be found among 

U(xi), n(a;2), , . . n(a;„), 

when x^, X2, . . . x^ are connected by algebraic equations 1 If such is 
the case, the question next arises : How many algebraic equations are 
necessary, and do these equations depend upon the nature of the 
function X ? 

Abel, in his celebrated paper, 'Memoire sur une Propri^t^ Gt^nt^rale d'une 
Classe Tres-Etendue de Fonctions Transcendantes,' 'CEuvres Completes,' 
t. i. p. 145 (Sylow and Lie), considered the question in a still more 
general form, and found that all those functions whose derivatives may be 
expressed through algebraic equations, in which the coefficients are 
rational functions of one and the same variable possess properties that 
are analogous to those of the elliptic functions stated above. 

The results of these investigations are expressed in the following 
theorem, known as Abel's theorem : If we have several /unctions whose 
■derivatives may he (expj'essed as) the roots of one and the same algebraic 
equation, and all the coefficients in this algebraic equation are rational 
/unctions of one and the same variable, then it is always possible to express 
the sum, of any number of functions which are like the first functions by 
ineans of an algebraic {and logarithmic) function, provided a certain 
number of algebraic relations can be established between the variables of the 
ficnction in question.^ 

The number of these relations does not depend upon the number of the 

dw, dm dm„ 

» Such functions are ^ = R (y„a;,), -^' = R (.y^x^), ... ^ = R (yn.*™). 

■R denoting a rational function, where Xi(i = 1,2,. . . n) are the points of inter- 
section of two curves x^^'iV) = ^^^ ^ (^^V) = 0. a-nd j/i are the corresponding 
values of y that are obtained from these two equations. 

Now every symmetric function of the solutions common to x C"'. V) = 0> ^.nd 
'6(x,y) = is a rational function of the coefficients of these two equations. 

Hence 2 I 'R(x,y')dx is an one-valued function of the coefficients of x(*. V) = 0, 



C=lJ 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OK ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 253 

functions, but only upon the nature of the particular functions that ar© 
considered. 

The same theorem is still true when we suppose the functions multi- 
plied by any rational number positive or negative. 

We may therefore deduce the following theorem : Wc are always able 
to express the sum of a given number of functions, wliich are multiplied 
each by a rational number, and in which the variables are arbitrary, by a 
similar sum of functions, Avhose number is determinate, and in which the 
variables are algebraic functions of the given functions. 

As a further consequence is the theorem that the sum of any number 
of integrals of the form considered may be expressed by the sum of a 
definite number of such integrals with (perhaps) the addition of a deter- 
minate algebraic (and logarithmic) expression, in which the variables are 
algebraic functions of the variables of the first integrals. 

We therefore have the following result : Although in general we cannot 
integrate an algebraic function by means of algebraic or logarithmic 
functions, we may, however, obtain for the sum of a certain number of 
such transcendental integrals an expression which is composed of algebraic 
(and logarithmic) functions. 

Abel considered further the smallest number p of integrals through 
which the sum of any number of other integrals may be expressed. This 
is the well-known number which denotes the class (Classen- zahl) of the 
connectivity of Riemann's surface xi^t 2/)> upon which y is an one- valued 
function of x, and Clebsch's deficiency of the algebraic cui've x(^"j y) = 0. 
(See Cayley's ' Addition to Mr. Rowe's Memoir,' loc. cit. p. 752.) 

Jacobi (' Werke,' bd. i. p. 379) writes : ' To this theorem we prefer to 
give as the most beautiful monument of [Abel's] extraordinary intellect, 
the name Abel's theorem, since it bears the entire stamp of his depth of 
thought. We consider it the greatest mathematical discovery of our time, 
as it in a simple form, and without the apparatus of the calculus, gives 
utterance to the deepest mathematical thought.' 

Legendre calls the theorem a monumentum cere perennius (letter to 
Jacobi, Jacobi's ' Werke,' bd. i. p. 376). 

The theorem is contained in a paper written in the year 1825, but not 
published until after Abel's death : ' Sur la comparaison des fonctions tran- 
scendantes ' (' CEuvres,' t. ii. p. 55). The theorem so stated in this paper is : 
The sum of any number of functions which have an. algebraic differential 
may be expressed through a definite number of such functions. It is de- 
veloped in the large memoir above mentioned, ' Memoire sur une propridte, 
etc.,' which was presented to the French Academy, October 1826, and not 
published until 1841 in the 'Memoires des Savants Etrangers,' t. vii. 

Legendre in the third supplement of the ' Traits des fonctions ellip- 
tiques,' p. 191, gives to the transcendent 

and e(x, y) = 0, this one-valued function being by Abel's theorem an algebraic (and 
logarithmic) function. 

The points {Xi,yi') (i = 1, 2, . . . ?^) are not independent of each other, but as 
soon as a certain number of them is given, the remaining jy (say) are of themselves 
determined, being the roots of an algebraic equation of the ^th degree, whose 
coefficients are rational functions of those points that are given, so that between 
these coefficients there exist p algebraic relations. 



254 REPORT— 1897. 

where y" (a;) is a rational function of x and X a function of greater degi-ee 
than the fourth in x, the name ultra-elliptic ; when X is of the fifth or 
sixth degree in x, it is said to be of the first order ; ^ when X is of the 
seventh or eight degree in x, of the second order, etc. In each order three 
different kinds of integrals are to be distinguished, which are entirely 
analogous to those ' which the nature of things has introduced into the 
theory of elliptic functions.' 

Jacobi (' Werke,' bd. i. 1832, p. 376) wished to call these the Abelian 
transcendents, on account of the following works of Abel that had at that 
time appeared : — 

' Remarques sur quelques propri^t^s g^nerales d'une certaine sorte de 
fonctions transcendantes ' (Crelle, bd. iii. 1828, p. 313). 

' Demonstration d'une propriety gen^rale d'une certaine classe de fonc- 
tions transcendantes ' (Crelle, bd. iv. p. 200). 

These papers treat of the more special functions in which y is con- 
nected with X by the relation 2/^=X, where X has the same meaning as 
above ; the term hyperelliptic is usually applied to such functions, Abelian 
being used in general to designate transcendents in which y is defined as 
any function of x through the algebraic equation x(^> y)=0' 

(13) Abel's theorem. — A brief account of some of the fundamental 
statements of the preceding article is given here. The mode of procedure 
is nearer that of Riemann, Fuchs, and later writers than that of the 
original memoir. Some of the results as derived by Abel are given later. 

The algebraic equation 

x(^>y)=po+Piy+P2y^+ • . • +;'n-ij'''"'+2/"=x(y)=0, 

in which all the coefficients p are rational integral functions of x, and the 
integral function 

%.2/)=9o+5'iy+?22/'+ • • • +5'n-i2/"-'=%)=0, 
where the ^''s are likewise integral functions of x, when considered geo- 
metrically, represent two curves, which intersect in a certain number of 
points. In the coefficients of these two equations may appear quantities, 
-?/, V, w, . . . , quantities quite indeterminate, upon which the coefficients 
depend. 

The co-ordinates of the intersection of the two curves are functions of 
ti, V, w, . . , , so that we may write the two curves in the form 

X{x,y ; u,v,w, . . .)=0, 
6{x,y ; u,v,w, . . .)=0. 

Let the points of intersection of the two curves be 

^1.2/1 ; ^2,y2 ; ^zyy-i ; • • '^^,y^ ; 

and when particular values iiP,v^,w^, . . . are given to t(,,v,w, . . . , let 
the corresponding points of intersection be 

a^i^yi" ; a:20,y,'> ; x^^,y^<^ . . . xj^,yj>. 
' Legendre uses the word class. We may remark here that, when he divides in- 

tegrals of the form -—— into the three different lands, he must first assume that 
J Vf (a?) 

n is less than- -1 or ~ , where X is the degree of <p(^x). See Richelot (Crelle, bd. 

xii. p. 185), where different forms of the integrals corresponding to the different kinds 
axe considered. 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 255 
Let R {Xyy) be any rational function of x and y, and form the sum 

2^ 'R(x„y,)dx,. 
-KJ xj>,y° 

For the present discussion it is in every respect sufficient to consider 
only one parameter ?t, and to specify the function 8(x,y)=:0, which we do 
by writing 

e{x,y)=(l>(x,y)-u\P{x,y)=0, . . (1) 



or M= - \ '^^ 



.0(^^ 



4'{x,y) 



The rational function -^^— Stakes the value Uq as often as it does any 

xP{x,y) 

other value u. 
Writing 



(I.) to.= 'R(x„y,)dx., 



we have 



«-" '=■'' x,,y, 
(II.) 2«'.= 2 R(«4/.)^^- 

In the expression (II.) we shall study w as a function of u. 
From (I.) 

dw^ dw, dx,_^, dx, 

du dx^dk^^'^-'^'^d^ .... (2) 

Differentiate (1) with regard to u, and we have 

WoxJx=x,\^y )x=x,dx.\du 

^ y=y. y=y. 



y=y, y=y. 

Sincef ^ ) -r-'+i^] =0, we have, after substitutine the 

\oyJx=x,ax, \oxJx=x, ° 

y=y. y=y, 

value of -^' from this equation in (3), a formula for — which is rational 
ax. du 

in a;,, y.and u. We may therefore write ~=S(x„7/„2c), where S denotes 

du 
3. rational function. 

dw 
du 



Further, -^'='R{x.,y.) S{x„y„u)=T(x„y„%i) where T is also a rational 



function. 

-^^"^^^^'Sm^ ^~S^(^"y"^*)=^(")' ^^y- ^^^^^ *■(") '8 * rational 
«=i «=i 

function in u. 



256 REPORT— 1897. 

Hence upon integrating 



du. 



(HI.) 2«'.= 2 '^k,y,)dx, = \r{u) 

.=1 -=ij.T.o,2^.o J 

We note that the number fi does not depend upon the function R(a;,y). 

(14) We thus have the sum of fi integrals expressed as the integral of 
a rational function of the parameter u. This integral depends upon the 
nature of the function 'R{x,y) being, first, a constant ; secondly, the differ- 
ential of a logarithmic function which is equivalent to a determinate 
algebraic function ; thirdly, a logarithmic expression which likewise is deter- 
minate, when the integral ^{x,y)dx are special integrals of the first, 

second, and third kinds respectively. 

The discussion of these special integrals, the normal integrals of the 
first, second and third kinds, is found in Forsyth, ' Theory of Functions,' 
p. 443 ; Harkness and Morley, * A Treatise on the Theory of Functions,' 
p. 435 ; Neumann, ' Theorie der Abel'schen Integrale,' p. 245, &c. 

(15) Neither ' has proved that any algebraic curve may by means of 
birational transformations be transformed into another curve in which 
the highest singularities are double points with distinct tangents. We 
may therefore assume that the curve •^{x,y)=^Q has no higher singularities 
than these. Upon this hypothesis the most intricate integral that arises 
may be expressed linearly in tei'ms of the normal integi'als of the first, 
second and third kinds, with the addition, perhaps, of an algebraic 
expression. 

Abel allowed the curve x(a.',7/)=0 to have any kind of singularity ; 
and hence the expression for the algebraic and logarithmic functions that 
stand on the right of formula (III.) in art. 13 are necessarily very com- 
plicated. By making use of the methods mentioned above, this complexity 

is avoided, and the representation of the integral r(u)du may be obtained 

in comparatively simple form. 

(16) Denote the /> linearly independent normal integrals of the first 
kind by v^{x,y){h=l, 2, . , , 2^) ', then, as in art. 13, 

^x.,y. __ 

dv,Jlx,y)dxz=Q (mod. const.), 

•=ijx\y' 

or VI dv,^(x,y)dx-\-2i^\ dVf,(x,y)dxr=S) {:moA. q.oxv?,\j.), 

where ^4- 2= A*- 

The points a;",, f, {k = 1, 2, ... 9) ; 33",+,, 2/V« (->• = 1, 2, . . . jo) and 
the points a;,, y, (^'= 1, 2, . . . q) may be chosen at pleasure ; but the 
remaining^; points a;,+^ 3/,+, (c = 1, 2, . . . ;:>) are no longer arbitrary, the 
a;'s being the roots of an algebraic equation of the ^jth degree 

3?"+ a^x^-'^ -^ a^x^-'^ + . . . -I- Kp = 0, 

* Nother, Math. Ann. bd. ix. p. 17 ; see also Halphen, Bulletin de la Soc. Math, 
de France, t. iv. Dec. 1875, and t. iii. Feb. 1875 ; Bertini, Mevista di Matem. 1891, 
and Math. Ann. bd, xliv. p. 158 ; Poincare, Compt. Rend. July 1893. 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 2o7 

where the constants a,, a.^, . . rt^, are determinate rational functions of 
the other points, 

'•'■'., !/'\ (v = 1, 2 . . . ,7) ; a;V., y%.. (^- = 1, 2 . . . p) 
find.'-,, »/.(/:= 1, 2 . . . q). 

The corresponding values of y are the remaining ordinates of the points 
of intersection of the curves y {x,i/) = jO, and ti {x,y) = 0. 

(17) Abel, in the proof of his theorem, stated in art. 12 wrote : 



';'>('^') = [f{^',y)d^, 



■where/ {x,i/) is any rational algebraic function of .v and y. He then 
considered the sum of such integrals 

i = M 

t ^ 1 

where .r- (i = 1, 2, . . . ^() are the points of intersection of the two curves 
x(-*-")2/) = 0, 6{o:,y) = ; that is, the roots of the equation E(:<;) = 0, 
which is obtained by eliminating y out of the two given equations. 

Of these points of intersection some may be stationary, while the others 
are movable, the fixed points being independent of the parameters 
10, V, tr, . . . (art. 13). Hence E (x) may be composed of two factors 
Fu{x) and F(.«), of which Fu(.<:) does not depend upon u, v, iv, . . . 

Abel wrote the subject of integration in the form 

f\(^ ,y) 

A{^;y) x'{y) ' 

where /i(x,y) and f;{x,y) are integral functions of x and y and 

X'(2/) = ^^. 
d y 

He found that V ^i.-'-) = 'y, /'('^■' /■) c^.y. = v, 

tZi <=i A{^i,yi)x{yi) 

where v may be a constant phis an algebraic function plus a logarithmic 
function. (A concise expression for v, due to Rowe, is given in art. 20.) 

(18) After restricting tlie functions /\{x,y) , f.2{x,y) and Fo(.>j) in such 
a way that the logarithuaic and algebraic functions of the expression above 
disappeared, Abel found that the function f\{x,y) contained a certain 
number of arbitrary constants, a number which depended only upon the 
nature of the curve x(-'''I/) = ^- '^^^^ number he designated by 
y(=^>, of art. 13). 

In the equation 0{x,y) = q^, + q^y + q.pf- + . . . + q,^_^y"-^ = 0, a 
certain number of the coefficients of x in the functions q are supposed 
indeterminate. Denote these by o, (/,, «2> • • • We saw above that the 
upper limits .i;,(i =1, 2, . . . yu) of the integrals in (I.) are the roots of 
the equation E(.r) = 0, and mfiy be expressed as functions of the inde- 
pendent quantities «, «,, a.^, . . . , of which there are, say, a. 

Let these functions be : 

»i =/i(«> «ij «2. • • • )' '^'2 —f-i^h «:, «o, ...).. . .T^ =/^(«, (ix-, «2, . . . ). 
1897. s 



258 REPORT— 1897. 

From these relations it is seen that as soon as a of the x's are given, 
the remaining fi — a may be determined in terms of the known ones. Abel 
showed how to effect this determination, and in general that f^ — a = ■y. 

In two special cases considered by Abel this number is less than y. 
(See also Rowe, Memoir on Abel's Theorem, 'Phil. Trans.' 1881, p. 731.) 
Professor Cayley, in the ' Addition to Mr. Rowe's Memoir,' proved that y 
was always equal to the deficiency of the curve x(^)2/) = 0) whatever its 
singularities. 

Professor H. F. Baker has recently proved the same theorem by means 
of graphic methods in the ' Cambr. Trans.' xv. Part IV. ; see also 
'Math. Ann.,' 45, p. 133. 

As a special case Abel gave the equation xi^'V) = the form 
y» + Po = 0. 

The form of the integrals whose sum is to be expressed as in 
formula (I.) is 



I 



Mx)clx^ 



For the hyperelliptic functions {n = 2), when Pq is of the 2?n — P' or 
2-in}^ degree, Abel showed that ^ — a = m — 1 . 

(19) Mathematicians were much interested in the new functions which 
must be introduced in connection with the Abelian integrals. The 
Academy at Copenhagen wished to see these functions extended to all 
integrals of algebraic functions, which are included in Abel's theorem ; ' 
and in regard to this wish Jiirgensen, Broch, Minding, Rosenhain wrote 
some very important memoirs. The value of these memoirs, however, on 
account of their less generality was much diminished when Abel's great 
paper was finally published in 1841. 

Minding, in two short papers (Crelle, bd. ix. p. 295, 1833, and bd. xi. 
p. 233, 1834), showed how to represent the algebraic and logarithmic 
functions of Abel's theorem for the special cases in which the algebraic 
functions satisfy an equation of the third degree. 

Jiirgensen (' Sur la Sommation des Transcendantea a difierentielles 
algebriques,' Crelle, bd. xix. p. 113), took, as the subject of integration, 
the quotient of two functions T(x, Sj) and Q{x, s,), where P and Q are 
integral functions, and where z^ is a root of an equation that is similar to 
Abel's x(^>2/) = 0. 

After reducing ^ }' ' ~'( to a form -^'-jj where \ and v denote in - 
Q {x, 2.) r{x) 

legral functions (see Liouville, ' Note sur la Determination des integrals 
dont la valeur est algebrique,' Crelle, bd. x. p. 347),^ he considered a 

sum of integrals of the form — ^ ' t ' where the summation is taken over 

the fi roots of the resultant of two algebraic equations. This sum he 
expressed in the form of an algebraic and logarithmic function. 

In a second paper (Crelle, bd. xxiii. p. 126) Jiirgensen denoted by X(x, yj 

' Cf. Jacobi, Gesam. Werke, bd. ii. p. 517. He does not mention Jiirgensen. 
^ See also references cited in art. 11, and a paper by Liouville, Sur Vintegratioii 
d'une classe de fo notions transcendaiites, bd.xiii. p. 93. 



ON THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ABELIAN FUNCTIONS. 259 

a rational function of x and any one of the n roots y^ {i=l, 2, . . . n) of 
the equation 

the p's being integral functions of x ; then X (see Liouville's paper men- 
tioned above) may be given one or the other of the forms 

■wherey(cc) is a rational function of x, and <p,{^) ^^ ^^ integral function of 
X and y.. 

Two leading questions are considered : (1) To find the cases in which 

one can express X.dx by a finite number of algebraic and logarithmic 
operations (see art. 34) ; (2) To find the relations among the integrals 

\f{^i)fX^\)d^u \f{^2)l'h{^2)dx.2, . . . 

which correspond to variables Xi, x^, . , . that depend upon one another, 
and upon the different roots y^, y^, . . . 

Broch, ' Memoire sur les fonctions de la forme,' 



ix'-y^-'fix^) {R{x'-)Y'Pdx,' 



(Crelle, bd. xxiii. p. 148, 1841), developed rules for the summation of the 
transcendents mentioned in the title, where y (a;'') is a rational function of 

x", y an integer which is dirisible by , r and p are integers, and s an in- 

y 

teger less than r. p. 

These are analagous to the investigations of Abel on the hypei'elliptic 
functions which had already been published. 

In a previous memoir (Crelle, bd. xx. p. 178), Broch had discussed the 
special case where ^?=1 and s=--l. The basis of this paper is Abel's 
memoir, ' Demonstration d'une propriete gdn^rale,' (fee. Broch also sought 
the minimal number of integrals (Abel's y), through which a sum of inte- 
grals could be represented. 

Minding divided his paper, ' Propositiones quaedam de integralibus 
functionum algebraicarum,' &c. (Crelle, bd. xxiii. p., 255), into three heads. 
He first gives an expression for a sum of integrals of the form 

{ <Po (a^i) F (a ;^, y< jpJ dXj 
J <t>(^) 

when fg and F are integral functions, and 

(J){x) — {X — Ci){x — C<^) . . . (x — c^), 

the c's denoting constants, x^ and yi are the common intersections of two 
curves 

i'o2/"+^i2/""'+ • . • +Pn=0; 9i2/"-'+?22/"~^+ • • • +?-.=0, 
which correspond to Abel's ■)^(x,y)=:0 and 6{x,y)=^0. 

Minding further allowed arbitrary variable parameters in his functions 
q, so that his results, as Brill and Nother • remark, are only less general than 
those of Abel in that fixed points of intersection of the two curves are not 
considered. 

' Jahrether. der devtichen Mathematiker' Vereinigung, bd. iii. p. 229. 

S2 



260 REPORT— 1897. 

The contents of the second head are indicated by its title ' De numero 
minimo integralium ad quae numerus datus eiusmodi integralium reduci 
potest.' 

In the third head he makes application of the preceding theorems to 
the equation : 2^oy"+l^n=^- (See also art. 19.) 

Ramus (Crelle, bd. xxiv. p, 69) derives a formula for the expression of 
the sum of /m integrals \//(a;i) + i^(.'C2)+ • • • -l-"4'(-*-'V)> ^^'here \p{x) has either 

the form -^ ^ ' y™ (a;) dx or -iLJ^ -^^ , where y{.x-) is an integral function 
J X — cc J X — ct y ( '*^ ) 

of X, m a positive integer, and y"' (x) is one of the n roots yi (■>■), y^G'^")) •