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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

s-ir 



I 



:REPOET 



OF THE, 



SIXTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



BRISTOL IN SEPTEMBER 1898. 




LONDON : 
JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 

1899. 

Office of the Association .- Burlington House, London, W. 



PEBJTKD BT 

SPOTTISWOODE AXD CO., NRW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xxix 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 

Secretaries from commencement xl 

Trustees and General Officers, 1831-1899 lii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 1832 .. liii 

List of Evening Lectures '..... Ixxi 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxiv 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Bristol Meeting Ixxv 

Officers and Council, 1898-99 Ixxvii 

Treasurer's Account Ixxviii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxii 

Committees appointed hy the General Committee at the ' Bristol Meet- 
ing in September 1898 Ixxxvi 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso xc vi 

Resolutions refei-red to the Council for consideration, and action if 

desirable xcvi 

Change of Days of meeting of the General Committee and of the Committee 

of Recommendations xcvi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money xcvii 

Places of Meeting in 1899, 1900, and 1901 xcix 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes c 

General Meetings cxvi 

Address by the President, Sir William Okookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S 3 

A 2 



iv REPORT — 1898. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



[ Jm asterisk * indicates that tlie title only is given. Tlie mark f indicates tlve same, 
hit a reference is given to tJte joxtmal or nervspa/per where it is published in extenso.] 



Page 
Correspouding Societies Committee. — Ifeport of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor R. Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holjces (Secretary), Mr. 
Francis Galton, Sir Douglas Galton, Dr. J. G. Gakson, Sir J. Evans, 
Mr. J. IIoPKiNSON, Mr. \V. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor T. G. 
Bonnet, Sir Cuthbekt E. Peek, Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O, 
Bevan, and Professor W. AV. Watts 41 

Meteorological Observatory, Montreal. — Report of the Committee for the 
Establishment of a Meteorological Observatory on the Top of Mount Royal, 
Montreal, consisting of Professor H. L. Callendar (Chairman), Professor 
C, H. McLeod (Secretary), Professor F. Adams, and Mr. R. F. Stitpart.... 79 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Dr. C. Chree (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, Professor G. Chrystal, Professor 
A. Schuster, Captain E. W. Creak, the Astronomer Royal, Mr. William 
Ellis, and Professor A. W. Rucker 80 

I. Magnetic Results at Greenwich and Kew Discussed and Compared, 
1889 to 1896. By William Ellis, F.R.S 80 

II. Account of the Late Professor John Couch Adam's Determination 
of the Gaussian Magnetic Constants. By Professor W. G. 
Adams, F.R.S 109 

Stream-line Motion of a Viscous Film. 

I. Experimental Investigation of the Motion of a Thin Film of 

Viscous Fluid. By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, LL.D 136 

II. Mathematical Proof of the Identity of the Stream Lines obtained 

by Means of a Viscous Film with those of a Perfect Fluid 
moving in Two Dimensions. By Sir G. G. Stokes, F.R.S 143 

Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cunningham 
(Secretary), Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. L. Glaishek, Professor A. G. 
Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, Major P. A. MacMahon, and 
Professor A. Lodge, appointed for calculating Tables of certain Mathematical 
Functions, and, if necessary, for taking steps to carry out the Calculations, 
and to publish the results in an accessible form 145 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for Elec- 
trical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
G. Carey Foster (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, V/. G. Adams, and Oliver 
J. Lodge, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. A. Muirhead, Mr. W. H. Preece, Pro- 
fessors J. D. Everett and A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
G. F. FitzGebaid and J. J. Thomsoii, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
BoTTOMLET, Rev. T. 0. FiTZPATRicK, Professor J. Vieiamtj Jones, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, and Professor A. "VV. Ruckee, and Professor A. G. Webster... 145 

Appendix I. — Comparison of tlie Standard Coils used by Professors J. 
Viriamu Jones and W. E. Ayrton in their deter- 
mination of the absolute resistance of Mercury with 
the Standards of the Association. By R. T. Glaze- 
brook, F.R.S 147 

„ II. — On the Determination of the Temperature Coefficients 
of two 10-ohm Standard Resistance Coils (Nos. 3873 
and 3874) used in the 1897 determination of the 
ohm. By M. Solomon 151 

„ III. — An Ampere Balance. By Professor W. E. Atrton, 

F.R.S. , and Professor J. Viriamu Jones, F.R.S. ... 157 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, Rev. T. C. 
FiTZPATRiCK, and Mr. W. C. D. Whetham (Secretary), on the present state 
of our knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 158 

On the Use of Logarithmic Coordinates. By J. H. Vincent, D.Sc, A.R.C.Sc. 159 

Introduction 159 

Construction of an Impedance Chart 161 

Discussion of a Non-translatant 162 

Construction of a Chart for Waves on a Frozen Sea 163 

Another Method of treating the same Non-translatant 167 

The Use of Logarithmic Coordinates to find an Approximate Equation 

connecting a Series of Experimental Results 171 

Tri-dimensional Logarithmic Coordinates 172 

Semi-logarithmic Coordinates 174 

The Graphical Computation of the Hyperbolic Functions ■ 174 

Conclusion . . 1 78 

Seismological Investigations. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. G. J. Stmons (Chairman), Dr. 0. Davison and Mr. John Milne 
(Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor T. G. 
Bonnet, Dr. J. T. Bottomlet, Mr. C. V. Bots, Sir F. J. Beamwell, 
Mr. M. Walton Brown, Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L. Darwin, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Dr. G. M. Dawson, Professor J. A. 
EwiNG, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor R. 
Meldola, Professor J. Perry, Professor J. H. Potnting, Dr. Isaac 
Roberts, and Professor H. H. Turner 179 

I. Progress made towards the Establishment of Earthquake-observing 

Stations round the World. By John Milne 179 

II.;'Notes on Special Earthquakes. By John Milne 185 

III. Catalogue of Earthquakes Recorded in Tokio, December 17, 1896, 

to December 16, 1897 189 

IV. Earthquakes Recorded at Shide, Isleof Wight, Edinburgh, Bidstone, 

and certain Stations in Europe, with Discussion on the same. 
By John Milne 191 

V. On Certain Characteristics of Earthquake Motion. By John Milne 218 

VI. Magnetometer Disturbances and Earthquakes. By John Milne 226 

VII. Suboceanic Changes in Relation to Earthquakes. By John Milne 251 

VIII, A Time Indicator. By John Milne 255 



Vi REPORT — 1898. 

Page 
IX. On the Civil Time Employed Throughout the World. By John 

Milne 255 

X. Great Circle Distances and Chords of the Earth. By John 

Milne 256 

XI. Certain Small Fractions of an Hour. By Shinoba Hieota 257 

XII. Earthquake Observations in Italy and Europe. By John Milne 258 

XIII, Preliminary Examinations of Photograms obtained with the 

Seismometer in the Liverpool Observatory. By W. E. 
Pltjmmee 272 

XIV. A List of Keports relating to Eaj-thquakes, published by the 

British Association A 276 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaeen, Professor A. Cetjm Beown (Secretary), Sir John 
Mueeay, Dr. Alexandee Buchan, and Professor Copeland. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Buchan.) 277 

The Application of Photography to the Elucidation of Meteorological Pheno- 
mena. — Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. J. Stmons 
(Ohairmau), Professor R. Melbola, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. H. N. Dickson, 
and Mr. A. W. Clatden (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 28.3 

The Action of Light upon Dyed Colours. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. T. E. Thoepe (Chairman), Professor J. J. Hummel (Secretary), Dr. 
W. H. Peekin, Professor W. J. Russell, Captain Abney, Professor 
W. Steoud, and Professor R. Meldola. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) ... 285 

The Carbohydrates of the Cereal Straws. — Third Report of the Committee, 
consisting" of Professor R. Waeington (Chairman), Mr. Manning Pren- 
tice, and Mr. C. F. Ceoss (Secretary). (Drawn up by Mr. Ceoss.) 293 

The Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis. — Fifth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Emeeson Reynolds (Chairman), Dr. 
C. A. KoHN (Secretary), Professor P. Feankland, Professor F. Clowes, Dr. 
Hugh Maeshall, Mr. A. E. Fletchbe, and Professor W. Caki.eton 
Williams 2!M 

The Determination of Zinc. By Professor W. Caeleton Williams 295 

The Determination of Nickel and Cobalt (Part I.). By Hugh Marshall 300 

Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Txlden (Chairman), and Br. H. E. Armsteong 
(Secretary) 3^1 

The Promotion of Agriculture. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Professor H. E. Armsteong (Secretary), 
Professor M. Fostee, Professor Maeshall W^abd, Sir J. H. Gilbert, 
Right Hon. J. Bryoe, Professor J. ^Y. Robertson, Dr. W. Saunders, 
Professor Mills, Professor J. Mavoe, Professor R. Waeington, Professor 
PouLTON, and Mr. S. U. Pickeeing, appointed to report on the Means by 
which in Various Countries Agriculture is advanced by Research, by 
Special Educational Institutions, and by the Dissemination of Information 
and Advice among Agriculturists 312 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professor J. Dewar, Pro- 
fessor G. D. LivEiNG, Professor A. Schuster, Professor W^. N. Hartley, 
Professor Wolcott Gibbs, and Captain Abney. (Drawn up by Dr. Watts.) 313 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone (Ohairmau), Professor H. E. Armstrong 
(Secretary), Professor W. R. Dunstan, Mr. George Gladstone, Sir John 
Lttbbock, Sir Philip Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, and Professor S. P. 
Thompson -t33 

Appendix. — Schedule II. — Elementary Science and Geography 438 

Schedule IV. — Elementary Physics and Chemistry 438 

Bibliography of Spectroscopy. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor H. McLeod, Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, Mr. H. G. Madan, 
and Mr. D. H. Nagel 439 

The Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks. — Fourteenth Report of the 
Committee, con.sisting of Professor T. Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Profei^sor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
Professor T. Rupert Jones) 519 

Canadian Pleistocene Flora and Fauna. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir J. W. Dawson (Chairman), Professor D. P. Penhallow, Dr. H. 
Ami, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh and Professor A. P. Coleman (Secretary), 
appointed to further investigate the Flora and Fauna of the Pleistocene 
Beds in Canada 522 

Appendix. — Pleistocene Flora of the Don Valley. By Professor D. P. 

Penhallow 525 

Life Zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Mr. E. J. Garwood (Secretary), 
and Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendall, Mr. J. W. 
KiRKLEY, Mr. R KiDSTON, Mr. G. W^ Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, 
Mr. G. H. Morton, Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Strahan, and Dr. H. Woodward, appointed for the purpose of studying 
the Life Zones in the Carboniferous Rocks. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) , 529 

Photographs of Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Ninth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor James Geikie (Chairman), 
Professor T. G. Bonnet, Dr. Tempest Anderson, Mr. J. E. Bedford, 
Mr. H. CoATES, Mr. C. V. Crook, Mr. E. J. Garwood, Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, Mr. William Grat, Mr. Robert Kidston, Mr. A. S. Reid, Mr. J. 
J. H. Teall, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Mr. H. B. Woodward, Mr. F. 
WooLNOUGH, and Professor W. W. Watts (Secretary). (Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) , 530 

Photographs of Geological Interest in Canada. — First Report of Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. P. Coleman (Chairman), Professor A. B. Will- 
mott. Professor F. 0. Adams, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, 
and Mr. W. A. Parks (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 646 

Appendix. — Circular Letter issued by the Committee. 

Irish Elk Remains. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins (Chairman), his Honour Deemster Gill, Rev. E. B Savage, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, and Mr. P. M. C. Kermode (Secretary), appointed to 
examine the Conditions under which remains of the Irish Elk are lound in 
the Isle of Man 548 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. Hull (Chairman), Professor T. G. Bonnet, Professor W. J. 
SoLLAs, Mr C. E De Range, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. Harrison, 
Mr. J. HoRNE, the late Mr. Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, IMt. J. 



viii REPORT — 1898. 

Page 
LoMAS, and Mr. P. F. Kendall (Secretary), appointed to investigate the 
Erratic Blocks of the British Isles, and to take measures for their preserva- 
tion. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 552 

Structure of a Coral Reef. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonnet (Chairman), Professor W. J. Sollas (Secretary), 
Sir Archibald Geikie, Professors J. W. Judd, C. Lapwoeth, A. C. 
Haddon, Boyd Daweins, G. H. Dabwin, S. J. Hickson, and Andekson 
Stuaet, Admiral Sir W. J. L. Whakton, Dr. H. Hicks, Sir J. Murray, 
Drs. W. T. Blanfokd, C. Le Neve Foster, and H. B. Gttppy, Messirs. F. 
Darwin, H. 0. Forbes, G. C. Bourne, and J. W. Gregory, Sir A. R. 
BiNNiE, and Mr. J. C. Hawkshaw, appointed to consider a project for 
investigating a Coral Reef by Boring and Sounding 556 

The Eurypterid-bearing Rocks of the Pentland Hills. — Final Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. H. Traquair (Chairman), Mr. M. Laurie 
(Secretary), and Professor T. Rupert Jones 557 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Eighth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. Newton (Chairman), Dr. W. T. Blanfokd, 
Professor S. J. HiCKsoN, the late Mr. O. Salvin, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
Mr. E. A. Smith, and Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary) 558 

Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Flower (Chairman), Professor W. A. Herdman, 
Mr. W. E. Hotle, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. Adam Sedgwick, Dr. D. Sharp, 
Mr. C. D. Sherborn, Rev. T. R. R. Stebsing, Professor W. F. R. AVeldon, 
and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary) 558 

Life Conditions of the Oyster : Normal and Abnormal. — Third and Final 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Hjerdman (Chair- 
man), Professor R. Botce (Secretary), Mr. G. C. Bourne, Dr. C. A. Kohn, 
and Professor C. S. Sherrington, appointed to Report on the Elucidation 
of the Life Conditions of the Oyster under Normal and Abnormal Environ- 
ment, including the EflFect of Sewage Matters and Pathogenic Organisms. 
(Drawn up by Professor Herdman, Professor Boyce, and Dr. Kohn.) 559 

Bii'd Migration in Great Britain and Ireland. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. John Cordeaux 
(Secretary), Mr. John A. Haevie-Beown, Mr. R. M. Baeeington, Rev. E. 
PoNSONEY Knubley, and Dr. H. O. Foebes, appointed to work out the 
details of the Observations of the Mgi-ation of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87 569 

Index Animalium. — Report of a Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Flowbe 
(Chairman), Mr. P. L. Sclatee, Dr. H. Woodward, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Mr. R. MacLachlan, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, and Mr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), 
appointed to superintend the Compilation of an Index Animalium 570 

Caves in the Malay Peninsula. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
W. H. Flower (Chairman), Mr. H. N. Ridley (Secretary), Dr. R. Hanitsch, 
Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. A. Russel Wallace, appointed to explore 
certain caves in the Malay Peninsula, and to collect their living and extinct 
Fauna 571 

Appendix.— Report by Air. H. N. Ridley 572 

Canadian Biological Station. — First Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. E. Prince (Chairman), Dr. T. Wesley Mills, Dr. A. B. 
Macallum, Professor John Macoun, Professor E. W. MacBeide, Mr. W. 
T. Thiselton-Dyer, and Professor D. P. Penhallow (Secretary), on the 
Establishment of a Biological Station in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 682 

Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. C. Bourne (Chairman),Profe88or 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
E. Rat Lanxester (Secretai-y), Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon 583 

Report of Algological Work. By G. Beebnee 583 

Report on Nerves of Arenicola, Nereis, &c. By F. W. Gamble, M.Sc. 584 
Report on Mr. J. H. Wadswoeth's collection of material for the Study 
of the Embryology of Alcyonium. By Professor S.J. Hickson,F.R.S. 585 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Heedman, Professor E. Ray 
Lankestee, Professor W. F. R. Weldon, Professor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Professor McIntosh, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, and Mr. Percy Sladen 
(Secretary) 587 

Appendix I. — The Pseudobranch and Intestinal Canal of Teleosteans. 

By James F. Gemmill 588 

J, II. — (I) The Relations between Marine Animal and Vege- 
table Life in Aquaria. By H. M. Vernon 589 

„ (2) The Relations between the Hybrid and Parent 

Forms of Echinoid Larvse. By H. M. Vernon ...589 

„ III. — On the Variation of Cardium, Donax, and Tellina. By 

J. Parkinson 593 

,, IV. — List of Naturalists who have worked at the Zoological 

Station from July 1, 1897, to June 30, 1898 594 

„ V. — List of Papers which were published in 1897 by Natu- 
ralists who have occupied Tables in the Zoological 
Station 595 

Photographic Records of Pedigree Stock.— By Feanois Galton, D.C.L. 
(0.xf.), Hon. Sc.D.(Camb.), F.R.S 597 

The Climatology of Africa.— Seventh Report of a Committee consisting of Mr. 
E G. Ravenstein (Chairman), Sir John Kirk, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. H. 
R. Mill, and Mr. H. N. Dickson (Secretary). (Drawn up by the Chair- 
man.) •■ 603 

The Mechanical and Economic Problems of the Coal Question. By T. Foestee 
Brown, M.Inst.C.E 611 

A New Instrument for Drawing Envelopes, and its Application to the Teeth 
of Wheels and for other Purposes. Bv Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, LL.D., 
M.Inst.C.E 619 

Screw Gauge. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. 
Peeece (Chairman), Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Beamwell, Sir H. Tetjeman 
Wood, Major-Gen. Webbek, Col. Watkin, Messrs. Conead W. Cooke, 
R. E. Ceompton, a. Steoh, A. Le Neve Foster, C. T. Hewitt, G. K. B. 
Elphinstone, T. Buckney, E. Rigg, C. V. Boys, and W. A. Price (Secre- 
tary), appointed to consider means by which Practical Effect can be given 
to the Introduction of the Screw Gauge proposed by the Association in 1884 627 

The North- Western Tribes of Canada.— Twelfth and Final Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor E. B. Tyloe (Chairman), Sir Cuthbert 
E. Peek (Secretary), Dr. G. M. Dawson, Mr. R. G. Halibueton, Mr. 
David Boyle, and Hon. G. W. Ross, appointed to investigate the Physical 
Characters, Languages, and Industrial and Social Conditions of the North- 
western Tribes of the Dominion of Canada 628 

I.— Physical Characteristics of the Tribes of British Columbia. By 

Feanz Boas and Livingston Faeeand 628 

II.— The Chilcotin. By Livingston Farrand 645 



X REPORT — 1898. 

Page 
III.— The Social Organisation of the Haida. By Franz Boas 648 

IV. — Linn^uistics. By Feanz Boas 6.54 

V. — Summary of tlie "Work of the Committee in Bri*ish Columbia. 

By Franz Boas 667 

Appendix — Index to Reports, I V.-XII 684 

Torres Straits Anthropological Expedition. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consistiug of Sir W. Turner (Chairman), Professor A. C. Habdon (Secre- 
tary), Professor M. Foster, Dr. J. Scott-Keltie, Professor L. C. Miall, 
and Professor Marshall Ward, appointed- to investigate the Anthropology 
and Natural History of Torres Straits 688 

Silchester Excavation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. J. 
Evans (Chairman), Mr. John L. Myers (Secretary), and Mr. E. W. Bra- 
brook, appointed to co-operate with the Silchester Excavation Fund Com- 
mittee in their Explorations 689 

Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among Children in Public 
Elementary and other Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir DoTTGLAS Galton (Chairman), Dr. Francis Waenee (Secretary), Mr. 

E. W. Beabeook, Dr. J. G. Gaeson, and Mr. E. White Wallis. (Report 
drawn up by the Secretary.) 691 

Appendix. — Table showing co-relations of conditions of defect among 
1,120 children, subnormal in constitution, mental, or physical 692 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury.— Third Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. R. MuNEO (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Sir John 
Evans, General Pitt-Rivers, Mr. A. J. Evans, and Mr. A. Bulleid 
(Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) . 694 

An Ethnological Survey of Canada. — Second Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. G. M. Dawson (Chairman and Secretary), Professor D. P. Pen- 
hallow (Vice-Chairman), Mr. E. W. Beabeook, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. E. S. Hartland, Sir John G. Bourinot, Abbe Cuoq, Mr. B. Sulte, 
Abbe Tanguay, Mr C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle. Rev. Dr. Scadding, 
Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, Dr. Meeee Beauchemin, Rev. Dr. G. Patterson, 
Mr. C. N. Bell, Hon. G. W. Ross, Professor .1. Mavor, and Mr. A. F. 
Hunter 

Appendix I.— Haida Stories and Beliefs. By C. Hill-Tout 700 

„ II. — Customs and Habits of Earliest Settlers of Canada. 

By Benjamin Sulte 709 

Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom.— Sixth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. E. W. Brabrook (Chairman), Dr. Francis 
Galton, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. 0. Haddon, Dr. Joseph Anderson, 
Mr. J. RoMiLLT Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, Mr. W. Crooke, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Sir H. Howortii, Professor R. Meldola, General 
PiTX-RivEES, Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, and Mr. E. Sidney Hartland 
(Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 712 

Functional Activity of Nerve Cells. — Second Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. VV. H. Gaskell (Chairman), Professors Buedon Sanderson, 
M. Foster, E. A. Schafer, J. G. McKendrick, W. D. Halliburton, 
J. B. Haycraft, F. Gotch, 0. S. Sherrington, and A. B. Macallum, 
Dr. J. N. Langley, Dr. G. Mann, and Dr. A. Waller (Secretary), 
appointed to investigate the changes which nre associated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve Cells and their Peripheral Extensions 714 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Appendix T. — Structural Alterations observed in Nerve Cells. Bv 

W. B. Wakeington, M.D .'. 715 

„ II.— Excitato]-y Electrical Changes in Nerve. By Francis 

GoTCH, F.R.S., and G.J. Buech, M.A 716 

„ III.— The Effects upon Blood-pressure produced by the 
Intra- venous Injection of Fluids containing Choline, 
Neurine, and Allied Substances. By F. W. MoxT, 
M.D., F.R.S., and W. D. Haxloxjeton, M.D., 
F.R.S 717 

„ IV.— The Myelination of Nerve Fibres. By H. V. Andee- 

soN, M.D 717 

„ v.— The Histology of Nerve Cells. By Gustav Mann, M.D. 719 

The Physiological Effects of Peptone and its Precursors when introduced into 
the Circulation. Second Interim Report of a Committee, consisting of 
Professor E. A. Schapee, F.R.S. (Chairman), Professor C. S. Sheeeing- 
TON, F.R.S., Professor R. W. Botce, and Professor W. H. Thompson 
(Secretary). (Drawn up by the Secretary.; 720 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor J. B. Faemee' (Chairman), Professor R. W. Phillips (Secretary), 
Professor F, 0. Bowee, and Professor Harvey Gibson 729 



xii REPORT — 1898. 



INTEENATIONAL CONFERENCE 

ON 

TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Page 
Address by Professor A. W. Ruckeb, M.A., D.Sc, Sec. R.S., President of 

the Conference 733 

1. On the Relative Advantages of Long and Short Magnets. By Professor 

E. Mascaet 741 

2. On the Construction of Magnets of Constant Intensity under Changes of 
Temperature. By J. R. Ashwoeth, B.Sc 742 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. On the Establishment of Temporary Magnetic Observatories in Certain 

Localities, especially in Tropical Countries. By Professor von Bbzold 
and General Rykatcheff 743 

2. The Application of Terrestrial Magnetism to the Solution of some 
Problems of Cosmical Physics. By Aethtje Schtjstee, F.R.S 745 

3. Antrag auf Massnahmen ziir systematischen Erforschung der Saecular- 
variationen der erdmagnetischen Elemente. Von Dr. Ad. Schmidt ... 747 

4. On Simultaneous Magnetic Observations. By Dr. Eschenhagen 748 

6. Discussion on Monthly Means 749 

6. A Discussion on the Publication of the Differences between the Hourly 
Means of the Components of the Magnetic Force (X, Y, Z) and the 
Monthly Means 749 

7. On Magnetic Observations in the Azores. By Albert, Prince of Monaco 749 

8. *0n Magnetic Observatories in Cape Colony. By Dr. Beattie and 
Mr. MoERisoN 750 

9. Sur le Mouvement diume du Pole Nord d'un Barreau Magn^tique 
suspendu par le centre de gravity. Par J. B. Capello 750 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1 . An Account of the late Professor John Couch Adams's Determination of 
the Gaussian Magnetic Constants. "By Professor W. Getlls Adams, 
F.R.S 752 

2. On a Simple Method of obtaining the Expression of the Magnetic 
Potential of the Earth in a Series of Spherical Harmonics. Bv Aeihtjr 
Schuster, F.R.S '. 752 



CONTENTS. Xm 

Page 

3. *Gn Magnetic Observations at Funafuti. By Captain E. W. Creak, R.N., 

F.R.S 755 

4. On the Relations between the Variations in the Earth Currents, the 

Electric Currents from the Atmosphere, and the Magnetic Perturbations. 
By Selim Lemsteom 755 

5. On the Interpretation of Earth-current Observations. By Aethtjr 

SCHTJSTEE, F.R.S 756 

6. On the Construction of Magnetic Observatories. By Dr. Snellen 757 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

A Joint Meeting with Sections A and G— the Magnetic and Electrolytic 

Effects of Electric Railways 758 

1. On the Disturbance of Magnetic Observatories by Electric Railways. 

By W. TON Bezold 758 

2. On the Magnetic Effects of Electric Railways at Berlin. By Dr. 

ESCHENHAGEN 758 

1. On the Form of the Isomagnet.c Lines in the Neighbourhood of the 

Volcano Etna. By Ltriei Palazzo 758 

2. On the Influence of Altitude above the Sea on the Elements of Terrestrial 

Magnetism. By Dr. van Rijckevoesel and Dr. W. van Bemmelbn . . . 760 

3. On the Variation of Terrestrial Magnetic Force with Altitude. By 

Professor J. Liznae 760 

Extracts from the Report of the Permanent Committee on Terrestrial 
Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity to the International Meteoro- 
logical Conference 761 



Xiv REPORT — 1898. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. *^^ 

Address by Professor W, E, Ateton, F.R.S., President of the Section 767 

1. Pepoi-t on Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observations 777 

2. Lenses not of Glass. By J. W. Giffoed 777 

3. On the Articulation and Acoustics of the Spirate Fricative Consonant.*. 

By E. J. Lloyd, D.Lit., M.A., F.R.S.E 777 

4. On the Conservation of Energy iu the Human Body. By Edwaed B. 
Rosa, and W. 0. Atwatee 778 

6. On a Pneumatic Analogue of the Potentiometer. By W. N. Shaav, 
F.R.S •. 778 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Comparison between Charging a Secondary Cell at Constant Potential 
and at Constant Current, more especially as regards Efficiency. By A. A. 
Cahex and J. M. DoNALDSOJf 779 

2. On a Magaifying Telephone. By Professor Oliter Lodge, F.R.S 782 

3. *0n the Measurement of Small Differences in Resistance. By E. H. 
Griffiths, F.R.S 782 

4. The Dynamical Theory of Refraction, Dispersion, and Anomalous Disper- 
sion. By Lord Kelvin, G.C V.O 782 

6. Continuity in Undulatory Theory of Condensational-refractional Waves 
in Gases, Liquids, and Solids, of Distortional Waves in Solids, of Electric 
Waves in all Substances capable of transmitting them, and of Radiant 
Heat, Visible Light, Ultra-Yiolet Light. By Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O. ... 783 

6. Heat of Combination of Metals in the Formation of Alloys. By Alex- 
ander Galt., D.Sc 787 

7. A Platinum Voltmeter. By Professor H. L. Callendar, M.A., F.R.s!!! 788 

8. *0n Radiation from a Source of Light in a Magnetic Field. Bv Professor 

T. Preston, F.R S ! 789 



9. On the Discovery by Righi of the Absorption of Light in a Magnetic Field. 
By SiLVANTJS P. Thompson, D.Sc, F.R.S 789 

10. On the Dissipation of Energy in tlie Dielectric of a Condenser. By 

Edward B. Rosa and Aethue W. Smith 790 

11. Hydrometers of Total Immersion, By A. VV. Warrington, M.Sc 791 



CONTENTS. XV 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

Depaktment I.— Mathematics. 

Page 

1 . Report on Tables of certain Mathematical Functions 701 

2. The Mathematical Representation of Statistics. By Professor F. Y. 

Edgewoeth ^1 

3. On the Use of Logarithmic Co-ordinates. By J. H. Vincent 791 

4. Stream Line Motion with Viscous Fluids in two Dimensions, and in three 
Dimensions. By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, LL.D 792 

5. Mathematical Proof of the Identity of the Stream Lines obtained W 
means of a Viscous Film with those of a Perfect Fluid moving in two 
Dimensions. By Sir G. G. Stokes, F.R.S 792 

6. On Graphic Representations of the two simplest cases of a Sinple Wave : 
{a) Condensational-refractional, (6) Distortional. By Lord Kelvin, 
G.C.V.0 792 

7. A New Method of Describing Cycloidal and other Curves. By Professor 

H. S. Hele-Shaw, LL.D 792 

8. The Recent History of the Theory of the Functions used in Analysis. 

By E. T. Whittaker 793 

0. The Dynamical Explanation of certain observed Phenomena of Meteor ^ 

Streams. By Dr. G. Johnstone Stonet, F.R.S 793 

10. *Survey of that nart of the Scale upon which Nature works, about which 

Man has some Information. By Dr. G. Johnstone Stonet, F.R.S 796 

11. The Imaginary of Logic. By Professor G, J. Stokes 796 

Department II. — Meteorology. 

1. Report on the Ben Nevis Observatory 796 

2. Report on Meteorological Photography 796 

3. Report on Seismological Investigation 796 

4. Interim Report on the Montreal Meteorological Observatoi7 796 

5. A Quantitative Bolometric Sunshine Recorder. By Professor H. L. Cal- 

lendar, M.A., F.R.S 796 

6. Progress in the Exploration of the Air by means of Kites at Blue Hill 

Observatory, Mass., U.S.A. By A. Lawrence Rotch, S.B., A.M 797 

7. *A New Form of American Kite. By Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S. ... 797 

8. Analogies between the Yearly Ranges of some Meteorological and Mag- ^ 

netic Phenomena. By Dr. van Rijckbvorsel 797 

9. The Classiiication of Polydiurnal Weather Types in relation to the Pro- 
longation of the Daily Forecast in Western Europe. By Douglas 
Archibald, M.A., F.R.Met.Soc 798 

10. The Rainfall of the South- Western Counties of England. By John 

HoPKiNSON, F.R.Met.Soc, Assoc.Iust.C.E 799 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

*A Discussion on the Results of the Recent Solar Eclipse E.xpeditions 801 

1. Interim Report on Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry S^l 

2. *Dilute Solutions. By E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S 801 

3. "Conductivity of Dilute Solutions. By W. C. D. Wheih.vm 801 



xvi REPORT — 1898. 

Page 

4. Velocity of the Electricity in the Electric Wind. By Professor A. P. 

CH ATTOCK 801 

-5. Dalton'sLaw. By W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 801 

6. On the Determination of the State of lonisation in Dilute Aqueous Solu- 

tions containing two Electrolytes: No. 2. By Professor J. G. MacGregoe 803 

7, The Carbon-Cousuming Cell of Jacques. By S. Skinner 804 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 
A discussion on the Magnetic and Electrolytic Actions of Electric Railways 805 

1. Report on Electric Standards 805 

2. On Standard High Resistances. By F. B. Fawcett 805 

5. *0n the Electric Conductivity and Magnetic Permeability of a Series of 

New Alloys of Iron. By Professor W. F. Barrett, W. Brown, and 
R. A. Hadfield 805 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. The Drop of Potential at the Carbons of the Electric Arc. By Mrs. 

Atrton 805 

2. Some Experiments ou the Efiect of Pressure on the Thermal Conductivities 

of Rocks. By Dr. C. H. Lees 807 

3. On the Determination of the Thermal Conductivity of Water. By S. R. 
Milner, B.Sc, and Professor A. P. Chattock 808 

4. Experiments on the Influence of Electricity on Plants. By Selim Lbm- 
strom 808 

5. The Action of Electricity upon Plants. By E. H. Cook, D.Sc 809 

6. *Experiments with the Brush Discharge. By E. H. Cook, D.Sc 810 

7. The Ancient Standard Weights and Measures of the City of Bristol. By 

W. R. Barker 810 

8. Some Preliminary Experiments on the Luminosity produced by striking 
Sugar. By J. Btjrke, M.A 810 

9. On the Electromagnetic Theory of Reflection on the Surface of Crystals. 

By Dr. Chas. E. Cttret 811 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by Professor F. R. Japp, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. , President of the 
Section 813 

1. (Ju the Extraction from Air of the Companions of Argon and on Neon. 

By William Ramsay and Morris W. Tkavers 828 

2. *0n the Position of Helium, Argon, Krypton, &c., in the Periodic Classi- 

fication of the Elements. By Professor J. Embeson RErNOLDS, F.R.S.... 830 

3. Report on the Electrolytic Methods of Quantitative Analysis 830 

4. *A new form of Stand for Electrolytic Analysis. By Dr. Hugh Marshall 830 
o. Report on the Continuation of the Bibliography of Spectroscopy 830 



CONTENTS. Xvii 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

Page 

1, Some Researches on the Thermal Properties of Gases and Liquids. By 
Sydney Young, D.Sc, F.R.S 831 

2. On the Action of certain Metals and Organic Bodies on a Photographic 

Plate. By W. J. Russell, Ph.D., F.R.S 834 

•3. The Action of Bacteria on the Photogi-aphic Plate. By Percy Fkank- 
L.\ND, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.R.S 835 

4. Further E.^periments on the Absorption of the Rontgen Rays by Chemical 

Compounds. By J. II. Gladstone, D.Sc, F.R.S , and Waltee Hibeeet 835 

5. Report on the Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 836 

6. On the Cooling Curves of Fatty Acids. By Dr. A. P. Laueie and E. II. 
SXEANGB 836 

7. On the More Exact Determination of the Densities of Crystals. By 

the Earl op Berkeley .'. 837 

8. The Equivalent Replacement of Metals. By Professor Feank Clowes, 
D.Sc, Lond 838 

9. A note on Alkaline Chlorates and Sulphates of Heavy Metals By W. 

R. HoDGKiNSON and A. H. Coote 839 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

'■■'A Discussion on the recent Eclipse Expeditions 810 

1. Report on the Teaching of Natural Science in Elementary Schools 840 

2. * Juvenile Research. By Profe.ssor II. E. Aejisteong, F.R.S 840 

8. Green Cobaltic Compounds. The Result of Oxidising Cobaltous Salts 
in presence of Organic Salts of the Alkali Metals. By R. G. Duerant, 
M.A.,F.C.S 840 

4. Analysis of Dorsetshire Soils. By C. M. Luxmooee, D.Sc, F.I.C SH 

5. Report on the Carbohydrates of Cereal Straws 842 

6. Interim Report on the Promotion of Agriculture 842 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

L Recent Advances in the Leather Trade. By J. Goedon Paeker, Ph.D. 842 

2. Diamidated Aromatic Amidines, a New Class of Colouring Matters. By 
Professor E. Noelting 843 

3. The Oxidation of Glycerol in presence of Ferrous Iron. By Heney 

J. HoESTMAN Fenton, M.A., and Henet Jackson, B.A., B.Sc 844 

4. Action of Hydrogen Peroxide on Carbohydrates in the Presence of Iron 

Salts. By R. S. Moeeell, M.A., Ph.D., and J. M. Ckopts, B.A., B.Sc. 845 

5. *An Experiment illustrating the Effect on the Acetylene Flame of vary- 

ing proportions of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas. By Professor J. 
Emeeson Reynolds, F.R.S 845 

0. On a 10-Candle Lamp to be as a Standard of Light. By A. G. Veenon 
Haecouet, F.R.S 845 

7. On a Convenient Form of Drving Tube. By A. G. Veenon Hae- 
couet, F.R.S .' 840 

8. Standards of Purity for Sewage Effluents. By Dr. S. Rideal 847 

1'. Action of Ammonia on Gun-cotton. By W. R. Hodgkinson and Captain 

OwEN,R.A 847 

1898. a 



xvni 



EEPORT — 1898. 



Pape 

10. On Nitroso-pinene. By J. A. Sxiythe 849 

11. The Constitution of Oxycannabin. By T. B. Wood, M.A., W. T. N. 

Spivey, M.A., and T. H. Easterfield, M.A., Ph.D 849 

12 The Action of Certain Substances on tlie Undeveloped Photographic 

Image. By C. H. Bothamlet, F.I.C, F.C.S 850 

13. Report on a New Series of Wave-lenf^th Tables of the Spectra of the 

Elements ^^1 

14. Report on Isomeric Naphthalene Derivates 851 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by W. II. IIxjdleston, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 852 

1 Notes on the Geology of the Bristol District. By Professor C. Lloyd 
Morgan, F.G.S 862 

2. The Building of Clifton Rocks. By E. B. Wethered, F.G.S 862 

3. On the Revision of South Wales and Monmouthshire by the Geological 

Survey. By A. Strahan 863 

4. On the Exploration of two Caves at Uphill, Weston-super-Mare, contain- 
in"- remains of Pleistocene Mammalia. By the late Edward Wilson, 
F.G.S 867 

5. The Comparative Actions of Subaerial and Submarine Agents in Rock 
Decomposition. By Thomas II. Holland, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 868 

G On Arborescent Carboniferous Limestone from near Bristol. Bv Horace 
B. Woodward, F.R.S '. 869 

7. Report on Photographs of Geological Interest in Britain 869 

8. Report on Photographs of Geological Interest in Canada 869 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 0. 

1. The Comparative Value of Different Kinds of Fossils in Determining 
Geological Age. By Professor O. C. Marsh 869 

•''. On Aggregate Deposits and their Relations to Zones. By Rev. J. F. 
Blake, M.A., F.G.S 872 

3. The Geological Structure of the Malvern and Abberley Ranges. By 

Theodore Groom, M.A., D.Sc 872 

4. The Age of the Malvern and Abberley Ranges. By Theodore Groom, 

M.A. D.Sc 873 

5. On the probable Source of the Upper Felsltic Lava of Snowdon. Bv J. 

R. Dakyns, M.A "..... 874 

6. On the Occurrence of Arenig Shales beneath the Carboniferous Rocks at 

the Menai Bridge. By Edward Greenly 874 

7. On an T'plift of Boulders at Llandegfan, Menai Straits. By Edward 
Gkeexly 874 

8. On the Comparative Dimensions of some Atoms. By W. L. Addison ... 874 

9. Leadhillite in Ancient Lead Slags from the IMendip Hills. By L. J. 

Spencer, M.A., F.G.S 875 

10. Supplementary List of British Minerals. By L. J. SrENCER, M.A., F.G.S. 875 



CONTENTS. xix 

Page 

11. On the Age and Origin of the Granite of Dartmoor, and its Relations of 
the Adjoining Strata. By Alexander Sojierv ail , 877 

12. Report on Fossil Phyllopoda 878 

13. Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks 878 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. *0n the Relation and Extension of the Franco-Belgian Coalfield to that 

of Kent and Somerset. By R. Etheeidge, F.R.S 878 

2. The Laws of Climatic Evolution. By Marsden Manson, C.E., Ph.D 878 

'.J. On the Sub-oceanic Physical Features of the North Atlantic. By Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S 879 

4. The Eastern Margin of the North Atlantic Basin. By W. H. Httdles- 
TON, F.R.S 881 

5. -^The Great Earthquake of 1897. By R. D. Oldham 882 

G. Report on the Pleistocene Flora and Fauna of Canada 882 

7. On Worked Flints from Glacial Deposits of Cheshire and the Isle of Man 

By J. Lomas, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 882 

8. "On some Dinosaiirian Remains from the Oxford Clay of Northampton. 

By C. W. Andrews 883 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. ■'Restoration by Charles Knight of the Extinct Vertebrates : Brontosaurus, 
Phenacodus, Coryphodon, Teleoceras. By Professor H. F. Osborn 883 

2. ■•'The Work of Encrusting Organisms in the Formation of Limestone. 

By E. B. Wetheeed 883 

3. The Action of Waves and Tides on the Movement of Material on the 

Sea Coast. By W. H. Wheeler, M.InstC.E , 883 

4. Further Exploration of the Ty Newydd Cave, Tremeirchion, North Wales. 

By Rev. G. C. 11. Pollen, S.J., F.G.S 884 

•J. Further Exploration of the Fermanagh Caves. By Thomas Pluneett... 885 

6. Report on Remains of the Irish Elk in the Isle of Man 885 

7. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles 885 

8. Report on Seismological Investigation 885 

9. Report on the Fauna of Caves near Singapore 886 

10. Report on the Structure of a Coral Reef 886 

11. Final Report on the Eurypterids of the Pentlands 886 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY (INCLUDING ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY). 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by \V. F. R. Weldon, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Zoology, University College, London, President of the 
Section 887 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 0. 

1. *The Proof obtained by Guy A. K. Marshall that Precis octavia-nata- 
censis and P. sesamus are seasonal forms of the same species. By 

Professor E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S. . 902 

a 2 



XX REPORT — 1898. 

Page 

2. Photographic Records of Pedigree Stock. By Francis Galton, 

M.A., F.R.S 902 

3. Preliminary Note on the Races and Migrations of the Mackerel (Scomber 
scomber). By Walter Garstaiig, M.A. 902 

4. *0n a proposed Biological and Physical Investigation of the English 
Channel. By Walter Garstang and H. N. Dickson 905 

5. On the Phylogeny of the Arthropod Amnion. By Arthur Willet, 

D.Sc. Lond., Hon. M.A. Cantab 905 

G. *0n the Micro-chemistry of Cells. By Professor A. B. Macallitm 905 

7. *A Case of Protective Resemblance in Mice. By Dr. 11. L. Jameson ... 905 

8. Final Report on the Life Conditions of the Oyster, Normal and Ab- 

normal 905 

9. Interim Report on Zoological Bibliography and P ublication 905 

10. *Remark3 on the Report of the International Zoological Congress on 
Nomenclature. By Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing 905 

11. Report on the Index Animalium 906 

12. Report on the Canadian Biological Station 906 

13. Report on the Investigations made at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Plymouth 906 

14. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples . 906 

15. Interim Report on Bird Migration in Great Britain and Ireland 906 

16. Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 906 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. An Experimental Enquiry into the Struggle for Existence in Certain 
Common Insects. By Edward B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S., and Cora B. 
Sanders 906 

2. Animal Intelligence as an Experimental Study. By Professor C. Lloyd 
Morgan 909 

3. On the Families of Sauropodous Dinosauria. By Professor 0. 0. Marsh 909 

4. *A New Theory of Retrogression. By G. A. Reid 911 

5. On the so-called Fascination of Snakes. By Dr. A. J, IIaerison 911 

6. On the Scientific Experiments to Test the Effects of the Closure of 
Certain Areas in Scottish Seas. By W. C. McIntosh, F.R.S 911 

7. On a Circulatory Apparatus for Use in Researches on Colour Physiology 

and other Investigations. By F. W. Keeble, M. A., and F. W. Gamble, 
M.Sc 913 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. "On Musical Organs in Spiders. By R. I. Pocock 914 

2. On the Origin of the Vertebrate Notochord and Pharyngeal Clefts. By 

A. T. Masteeman, B.A., D.Sc 914 

3. *Le D6veloppement du Cojur chez les Tuniciers : Quelques consid(§ratioDS 

sur la phylogenie des Ascidies simples. Par Professeur Ch. Julin 916 

4. *Demon8tration of Dr. Field's Card-catalogue of Zoological Literature. 

By W. E. HoTLE 916 

5. A Phylogenetic Classification of the Pelmatozoa. By F. A. Bather, 

M.A.,F.G.S 916 



CONTENTS. Xxi 

Page 

6. 'On the Detection of Phosphorus in Tissues. By Professor A. B. 

Macallum, Ph.D 923 

7. Report on the Physiological Eftects of Peptone and it^ Precursors when 
introduced into the Circulation 923 

8. Report on Oaves in the Malay Peninsula 923 

9. Report on Nerve-cells 923 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by Col. G. Eael Chuech, President of the Section 924 

1. On Waves. By Vattghan Oornish, M.Sc, F.R.G.S., F.O.S 937 

2. Report on the Climate of Tropical Africa 937 

3. The Temperature and Salinity of the Surface Waters of the North 

Atlantic during the years 1895-96. By H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E 937 

4. The Oceanographical Results of the Austro-Hungarian Deep-sea Expedi- 
tions 1890-96. By Dr. K. Natteree 938 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Theories on the Distribution of the Oceans and Continents. By J. W. 
Geegort, D.Sc 938 

2. The Great Indian Earthquake of June 12, 1897. By R. D. Oldham 939 

3. On Earthquake Study. By Professor J. Milne, F.R.S 940 

4. The Valley of the Yangtze. By Mrs. Isabella L. Bishop, F.R.G.S. ... 940 

5. Across the Sierra Madre from Mazatlan to Durango. By 0. H. 
Howaeth 94 1 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Political Geography. By J. Scott Keltie, LL.D., Sec. R.G.S 942 

2. The Prospects of Antarctic Research. By Hugh Robekt Mill, D.Sc, 
F.R.S.E 942 

3. *The National Photographic Record. By Sir Benjamin Stone, M.P. ... 943 

4. Sokotra. By Mrs. Theodoee Bent 943 

5. *The Upper Nile. By Sir Chaeles W^ Wilson, R.E., K.C.B., F.R.S... . 943 

6. *Twenty-eight Years in Central Australia. By Louis de Rougemont .. . 943 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Tirah. By Colonel Sir Thomas Holdich, R.^ 944 

2. Christmas Island. By C. W. Andeews 044 

3. Notes on a Visit to North-Eastern Kamchatka. By Captain G. E. II. 
Baeeett-Hamilton 044 

4. '^The Impending Economic Revolution in China. By G. G. Chisholm ... 04.5 

6. On a Proposed Great Globe. By Professor Elisee Reclus 945 

6. The Edinburgh Outlook Tower. By Professor Pateick Geddes 945 



xxii REPORT — 1898. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

Page 

1. The Orthography, Location, and Selection of Names for the National 

Maps. By Henet T. Ckook, Memb.Inst.C.E 947 

2. On the Employment of Balloons for Geographical Research. By Captain 
B.Baden-Powell 948 

3. The Use of Electric Balloon Signalling in Arctic and Antarctic Expedi- 
tions. By Ekic Stuakt Bkuce, M.A., F.R. Met. Soc 948 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by James Bonae, M.A., LL.D., F.S.S., President of the Section 950 

1. A Plea for the Study of Economic History. By W. Cunningham, LL.D., 
D.D., D.Sc 962 

2. A Defence of Poor Law Schools. By W. Chance 962 

3. *Poor Law Administration. By Douglas Dent 963 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Industrial Conciliation. By L. L. Price 963 

2. Some Economic Aspects of the Imperial Idea. By Ethel B, Faeadat, 
M.A 964 

3. Banking in Canada. By B. E. Walkeb 964 

4. The Question of the Ratio. By F. J. Faeadat 966 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. Municipalities as Traders. By Geoege Peaeson 966 

2. Ought Municipal Enterprises to Yield a Profit in A id of Rates ? By 
Edwin Cannan, M.A 907 

3. Rectification of Municipal Frontiers. By AV. M. A.cwoeth 968 

4. ^Economic and Social Influences of Electric Traction. By Professor S. P. 

Thompson, F.R.S 968 

5. Shipping Rings and the Manchester Cotton Trade. By John R. Gallo- 
way 968 

6. The Efiect of Sugar Bounties. By Geo. E. Davies 9G9 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Comparison of the Changes in Wages in France, the United States, and 
the United Kingdom from 1840 to 1891. By A. L. Bowley, M.A 970 

2 Saving and Spending : a Criticism of Recent Theories. By A. W. Flux 972 

3. On Partnership of Capital and Labour as a Solution of the Conflict 
between them. By Henby Vivian 973 

4. The Expenditure of Middle-Class Working Women. By Miss C. E, 
Collet 973 

5. The Wakefield Land System, and the Developments from it in the 
Colonies. By W. P. Reeves 974 



CONTENTS. XXIU 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Page 
Address by Sir JoHNWoLFE-BAERr,K.C.B., F.E.S., President of the Section 1)76 

1. 'New Works at Barry Docks. By K. C. H. Davison 987 

2. *Conditions necessary for the Successful Treatment of Sewage by Bacteria. 

By W. J. DiBDiN : 987 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. ^Description of an old Newcomen Engine at Long Ashton, near Bristol. 

By W. H. Peaeson, M.Inst.C.E 987 

2. *ractitious Airs. By Sir Feedeeick Beamwell, Bart., F.R.S 987 

3. The Mechanical and Economic Problems of the Coal Question. By 

T. FoESTER Beown, M.List.C.E 987 

4. The Hydraulic System of Jointing of Tubes on Tubular Bodies. By 

Claude Johnson, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.E.E 987 

r). *Description of an Instrument for Measuring small Torsional Strains. 
By E.G. CoKEE 988 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. *Electric Power in AVorkshops. By A. Siemens, M.Inst.C.E 989 

2. The Application of the Electric Motor to small Industrial Purposes and 
its Effects on Trade and on the Community Generally, By Alfeed 

H. GiBBiNGs, M.I.E.E 989 

3. Electric Power and its Application on the Three-phase System to the 
Bristol Waggon and Carriage Works. By W. Geipel, M.Inst.C.E 989 

4. "The Electric Lighting System at Bristol, with Special Reference to 
Auxiliary Plant. By H. Faeadat Peootoe. 991 

5. 'Electric Traction by Surface Contacts. By Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson, F.Pt.S., and Miles Walkee 991 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

1. Schemes for the Improvement of the Waterway between the Bristol 
Channel and the Birmingham District. By E. D. Maetex, M.A., 
M.Inst.C.E 991 

2. On the Welsh Methods of Shipping Coal. By Professor J. Etan 993 

3. A New Instrument for Drawing Envelopes, and its Application to the 

Teeth of Wheels and for other purposes. By Professor PI. S. IIele- 
Shaw, LL.D., M.Inst.C.E 994 

4. Hydraulic Power Transmission by Compressed Air. By William 
Geoege Walkee, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E 994 

6. Combined Electric Lighting and Power Plant for Docks and Harbours. 

By J. G. W. Aldeidge 994 

6. Electric Canal Haulage. By A. H. Allen, A.Inst.E.E 995 

7. On the Pacidc Cable. By Chaeles Beight, F.R.S.E., A.M.Inst.C.E. ... 996 



xxiv BEPOUT — 1898. 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Page 
Address by E. B. Beabrook, C.B., F.S.A., President of the Section O'JO 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report on Mental and Physical Deviations from the Normal among 
Children in Public, Elementary, and other Schools 1010 

2. On Human Life at Extreme Altitude?. By O. IL IIowarth 1010 

3. On the Human Ear as a Means of Identification. By Miss M. A. Ellis 1011 

4. On Tabu in Japan in Ancient, Medireval, and Modern Times. By 

K. MiXAKATA 1011 

5. On some Stone Implements from South Africa. By G. Leith 1011 

6. On some Roman Symbolic Hands. By F. T. Elwoethy 1012 

7. On the Boat-building of Siam. By H. Waeington Smyth, MA 1013- 

8. Oil the Reed Organ of the Lao Shans. By H. Waeington Smyth, 
M.A., F.R.G.S 1013 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 9. 
Address by the President 1013 

1. On the Mediaeval Population of Bristol. By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. 1013 

2. Note on the Origin of Stone-worship. By Professor H. A. Miees 1013 

3. On tlie Prehistoric Antiquities of the Neighbourhood of Bristol. By 
Professor C. Lloyd Moegan 1014 

4. On the Circles of Stanton Drew. By A. L. Lewis, F.C.A., Treas. 
Anthr. Inst 1014 

5. On the Survival of Palteolithic Conditions in Tasmania and Australia, 
with Especial Reference to the Modern Use of Unground Stone Im- 
plements in West Australia. By Professor E. B. Tyloe, F.R.S 1015 

6. *0n the Natives of North- West Austraha. By Louis be Rougemont... 10]>> 

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1. Report on the North- Western Tribes of Canada lOl-j 

2. On the Tarahumare People of Mexico. By A. Keauss lOJo 

3. *0n some Rock-Drawings from British Columbia. By C. HiLL-Tot'T . . . 101 fv 

4. On the Myths and Customs of the Musqualde Indians. By Mary A. 
OwEx : 1016; 

5. Report on the Ethnological Survey of Canada 1016- 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. On a Buddhist Image found in an Irish Bog. By Miss A. G. Weld ... lOlG 

2. The Ilill Tribes of the Central Indian Hills— their Ethnology, Customs, 

and Sociology. By William Ceooke, B.A 10](? 

3. Interim Report on the Anthropology and Natural History of the Torres 
Straits lOlG 

4. On the Tribes inhabiting the vicinity of the Mouth of the Wanigela 

(Ivemp Witch) River, New Guinea. By R. E. Guise 1017 

6. The Montzu of Western Sze-chuan. By Mrs. Isabella Bishop 1017 

6. The Swati and Afridi. By Col. Sir Thomas Holdich, K.C.LE 1017 



. CONTENTS. XrV 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 

Page 

1. The Law and Nature of Property among the Peoples of the True Negro 

Stock. By Miss Maet H. KiNGSLEY 1018 

2. The Native Secret Societies of the West Coast of Africa. By H. P. 
FiizGeeald Makkiott 1019 

3. On the Natives of the Niger Delta. By M. le Comte Charles de Cardi 1019 

4. Ancient Works of Art from Benin City. By C. H. Read, F.S.A 1020 

5. On the Languages of Kavirondo. By C. W. Hoblet, F.R.G.S 1020 

6. *0n Egypt under the First Three Dynasties, in the Light of Recent 
Discoveries. By Professor W. M. Flinders Peteie 1020 

7. On the Folk-lore of the Outer Hebrides. By Miss A. Goodrich-Feeer 1020 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14. 

1. Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury 1021 

2. *0n the Place of the Lake Village of Glastonbury in British Archteology. 

By Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 1021 

3. "On Traces of Terramare Settlements in Modern Italian Towns. By 

Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L 1021 

4. *0n the Megalithic Monuments of Dartmoor. By P. F. S. Amert 1021 

6. Report on the Silchester Excavations 1021 

6. 'On Walled-up Skeletons. By Miss Nina Lataed 1022 

7. Report on the Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom 1022 

8. On Traces of Early Kentish Migrations. By T. W. Shore, F.G.S 1022 

9. On the Folk-lore of Guernsey. By the late Mrs. Murray Aynsley 1023 

10. On some Myths and Fancies of Insect Life. By S. Clement Sout.ham 1023 

11. tOn the Exploration of two Caves at Uphill, Weston-super-Mare, con- 

taining remains of Pleistocene Mammalia. By the late Edward 
Wilson, F.G.S 1023 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Address by Professor F. 0. Bowee, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section 1024 

1. Report on Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 1043 

2. On the Form of the Protoplasmic Body in certain Florideaj. By 
Reginald W. Phillips, M.A 1044 

3. On Reproduction in Dictyota dichotoma. By J. Lloyd Williams 1044 

4. On the Origin of Railway-bank Vegetation. By S. T. Dunn 1044 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER !). 

1. A Method of obtaining Material for Illustrating Smut in Barley. By 

W. G. P. Ellis, M.A lO^a 

2. On a new Medullosa, from the Lower Coal-Measuves of Lancashire. By 

D. H. Scott, M.A.,Ph.D., F.R.S 1045 

3. On the Alcohol -Producing Euzvme in Yeast. By Professor J. R. Green, 

J? j> g ' 1046 



XXvi REPORT — 1898. 

Page 

4. A Potato Disease. By Professor H. Makshall Ward, D.Sc, F.R.S.... 1046 

5. Penicillium as a AVood-destroying Fungus. By Professor H. Marshall 

Ward, D.Sc, F.R.S lOiS 

SATURDA Y, SEPTEMBER 10. 

1 . On a Fine Specimen of the Halonial branch of a Lepidodendron allied to 

L. fuliginosum (Will). ByD. H. ScoiT, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 1049 

2. On an English Botryopteris. ByD. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 1050 

3. On the Structure of Zygopteris. By D. H. Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 1050 

4. A Rare Fern, Matonia pectinata (R. Br.). By A. 0. Seward, F.R.S.... 1050 

5. The Prothallus of Lycopodium clavatum (L.). By William H. Lang, 
M.B., B.Sc „ 1050 

G. Note on the Anatomy of the Stem of Species of Lycopodium. By C. E. 
Jones 1051 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 12. 

1. A Discussion on the Alternation of Generations in Plants : — 

(ff) Alternation of Generations in the Archegoniatae. By William 

IL Lang, M.B.,B.Sc 1051 

{J>) On Alternation of Generations in the Thallophytes. By Professor 

Georg Klebs 1057 

(e) The Formation of the Zygospore in Polyphagus Euglenre. By 

Harold Wager 1064 

2. On the Peltation of Leaves. By Professor C. de Oandolle 1065 

3. Changes in the Sex of Willows. By L PL Bxjrkill, M.A 1065 

4. Apogeotropic Roots of Bowenia spectablilis (Hk. f.). By H. H. AV. 

Pearson, B.A 1066 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23. 

1. Preliminary Note on Changes in the Gland Cells of Drosera produced bj-^ 

Various Food Materials. ByLiLTH. Huie 1066 

2. Theoretical Calculation of an Osmotic Optimum. By Professor Dr. L. 

Erreea 1067 

•J. On the Unit to be adopted for Osmotic Measurements. By Professor 

Dr. L. Errera 1068 

4. The Knight-Darwin Law. By Francis Darwin, F.R.S 1068 

5. Structure of the Yeast-cell. By Professor Dr. L. Errera 1068 

G. Stmcture of the Yeast Plant. By Harold Wager 1069 

7. Observations on the Cytology of Achlya Americana (Humphrey) var. 

nov. By A. H. Trow 1069 

Index 1071 



CONTENTS. XXVll 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I.-III. 
Illustrating Dr. J. II. Vincent's Paper on the use of Logarithmic Coordi- 
nates. 

PLATE IV. 

Illustrating Mr. Fra.ncis G Alton's Memoir on Photographic Eecords of 
Pedigree Stock. 

PLATE V. 

IllustratiDg the Paper by Professor von Bezold and General Eykatcheff ' On 
the Establishment of Temporary Magnetic Observatories in Certain Localities, 
especially in Tropical Countries.' 

PLATES VI.-VIII. 

Illustrating M. Capello's Paper ' Sur le Mouvement diurne du Pole Nord d'un 
Barreau MagniStique suspendu par le centre de graviti?.' 

Map and Plans illustrating Colonel Geoege Eael Chitkch's Address to the 
Geographical Section. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Assocution contemplates no interference with tlie ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Membees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXX REPORT — 1898. 

grahiitoushj the Reports of the Association for the yeai* of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted fi'om 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') 
price, according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 

— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

AnnualMembers who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, .are on sale, at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXI 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ' ; and the arrangements for it shall be 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Membeks. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of "Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of sub- 
mitting new claims under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must he 
sent to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting 
of the Association. The decisimi of the Coiincil on the claims of any Member 
of the Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporaey Members.'^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organising Sectional Committees.^ 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sec- 
tions are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their 
names are submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organising Com- 
mittees for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and 
Reports likely to be submitted to the Sections,'' and of preparing Reports 

' Eevised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 

^ Revised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Passed, Edinburgh, 1871. 

^ Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 
thfy are to be read, are novs- as far as possible determined by Organising Committees 
for the several Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become 



xxxii REPORT — 1808. 

thereon, and on tbe order iu wliicli it is desirable that they should be 
read, to be presented to the Committees of the Sections at their first 
meeting. The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex o^cio members 
of the Organising Sectional Committees.' 

An Organising Committee may also hold sucb preliminary meetings as 
the President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any 
circumstances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 
11 A.M., to nominate the first members of the Sectional Committee, if 
they shall consider it expedient to do so, and to settle the terms of their 
report to the Sectional Committee, after which their functions as an 
Organising Committee shall cease. ^ 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.^ 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the 
General Committee, these Ofiicers, and those previous Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents of the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 
'2 P.M., in their Committee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees 
by selecting individuals from among the Members (not Associates) present 
at the Meeting whose assistance they may particularly desire. The Sec- 
tional Committees thus constituted shall have power to add to their 
number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute- 
Book, and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged 
with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day in the Journal of 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday,'' Monday, and Tuesday, for the 
objects stated in. the Rules of the Association. The Organising Committee 
of a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee except for Thursday and Saturday.'^ 

The business is to be conducted iu the following manner : — 



o 



1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of 

the previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 

necessary, iu order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the 
several Communications, that each antlior should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir 
of a length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to the Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to tlie Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their Reports and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed cither to the Recorder of the Section or to the Assistant General 
Secretary hefore the conclusion of the Afeetinr/. 

' Sheffield, 1870. = g^a,nsea,'l880. » Edinburgh, 1871. 

* The meeting en Saturday is optional, Southport, 1883. ' Nottingham, 1893. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXlll 

Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accord- 
ingly- 
3. Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organ- 
ising Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional 
Committees.^ 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 
and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Organising Committee.^ The list of Communi- 
cations to be read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general 
distribution of business throughout the week shall be provisionally ap- 
pointed, At the close of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall 
forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed to be read. The 
Printer is charged with publishing the same before 8 A.M. on Thursday 
in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed 
to be read on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early 
in the day as possible to the Printer, who is charged with printing the 
same before 8 a.m. next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one 
of the Secretaries of each Section (generally the Recorder) should call 
at the Printing Ofi&ce and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily 
in the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of 
the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the !Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hy Authors, are to he forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee (vide p. xxxi), and will 
receive, on application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets 
entitling them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the com- 
munications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to state 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, Philosophical Institutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should he named, and 

' These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 
' This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, Edin- 
burgh, )871. 

1898. b 



XXxiv KEPORT — 1898. 

one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
scmally or in ivriting his willingness to accept the office, the Chairman to have 
the responsibility of receiving and dishursing the grant (if any has been made) 
and securing the presentation of the Report in due time ; and, further, it is 
expedient that one of the members should he appointed to act as Secretary, for 
ensuring attention to business. 

That it is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on a 
Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient worTcing. 

That a tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section should be sent each year to the Recorders of the several Sec- 
tions, to enable them to fill in the statement ichether the several Committees 
appointed on the recommendation of their respective Sections had presented 
their reports. 

That on the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee for a 
special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional Committee, the 
number of Members of such Committee be then fixed, but that the Members to 
serve on such Committee be noviinated and selected by the Sectional Com- 
mittee at a subsequent meeting.^ 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assist- 
ance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary 
for presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be 
done, the Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 



Notices regarding Grants of Money. "^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 
4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 
terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted ia 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

• Revised by the General Committee, Bath, 1888. 

^ Revised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXSV 

5. la each Committee tlie Cliairman is tiie only person entitled to 
call on tlie Treasurer, Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., for 
such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

C. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 
June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

7. The Chairman of a Committee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, -with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and al>o to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
repoi't has been received. 

10. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 

for collecting specimens of Natural History are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Association. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 
1-2. All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Asso- 
ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 

L 

H The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
Ijefore the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 

.^LSSOCZCltlO^h 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken, ' and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

' The Organising Committee of a Section is empowered to arrange ths hours 
of meeting of the Section and Sectional Committee, except for Thursday and 

Saturday. 

b3 



Business of the Sections. 



XXXvi EEPOKT — 1898. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to llie Section wMch 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to -which they are 

appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant General Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 

Xo person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed dar- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed o:* 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
■which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Presidents of the Association in former years are e.c officio members of 
the Committee of Recommendations.^ 

All Recommendations of Grants of ]\Ioney, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects .shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the 
General Committee unless previously recommended by the Committee of 
Recommendations . 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.^ 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
80me other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant General Secretary.^ 

' Passed by the General Comroittce at Newcastle, 1863. 

* Passed by tlie General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 

* Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVU 



Corresponding Societies} 

1. Any Society is eligible to be placed on the List of Corresponding 
Societies of the Association which undertakes local scientific investiga- 
tions, and publishes notices of the results. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to the 
Assistant General Secretary on or before the 1st of June pi'eceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, and 
must be accompanied by specimens of the publications of the results of 
the local scientific investigations recentl}^ undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
•General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before the 
1st of June, to the Assistant General Secretary of the Association, ai 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which will 
contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society as may 
be required tor the information of the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
■a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 

6. A Corresponding Society shall have the right to nominate any 
one of its members, who is also a Member of the Association, as its dele- 
gate to the Annual Meeting of the Association, who shall be for the time 
a Member of the General Committee. 

Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

7. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee, 

8. The Delegates of the various Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex oflicio members. 

0. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

10. The Secretaries of each Section shall be instructed to transmit to 

' Passed by the General Committee, 1884. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1898. 

the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recommen- 
dations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee of 
Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation of 
Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise vray in ■which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

11. It will be the duty of the Delegates to mate themselves familiar 
^-•ith the purport of the several recomraendationsbrought before the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those i-ecommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion, and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 



Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and 

Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 
( 3 ) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

' Tassed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874. 



RDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXxix 

•whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — Ist, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of the Members of the General 
Committee whom they recommend for election as Members of 
Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the 

OflBcers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



xl 



REl'ORT — 1898. 



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REPORT — 1898. 



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REPORT — 1898. 



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lii 



EEPORT — 1898. 



TRUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831— 1899. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuEcniSON (Bart.), 

r.R.s. 

1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
183!»-44 F. Bailv, Esq., F.E.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R S. 
18fi2-81 Sir P. Egeuton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1872-99 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoodb, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883-99 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (now Lord) Playfaik, 

F.R.S. 
1898-99 Prof. A. W. EuCKEB, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1 S3 1 Joxath a n G bay, Esq . 
1832-02 John Taylor, Esq . F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 



1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
1891-98 Prof. A. W. RiJCKEE, F.R.S. 
1898-99 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES, 



1S32- 
1835- 



3G 



183C-37 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. \V. 

F.RS., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 



1837 

1-839 

1 845- 
1850- 

1652- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862. 



■39 

-45 

50 
52 

53 
59 
61 
.62 
03 



1863-65 
1865-66 



Vernon Harcourt, 

Vbrnon Harcouet, 
and F. Bailv, Esq., 



Vernon Harcouet, 
and R. I. MURCHISON, 

Esq.. F.R.S. 
R. I. McRcnisoN, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. MiJECHiSON, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine.F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 



1866 
1868 
1871- 
1872- 

1876- 
1881- 



1882 
1883 



1895 

1897 



-68 



-71 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst. F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hiest, F.R.S., and Dr. 
T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
72 Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
76 Capt. Douglas Galton. F.R.S., 
and Dr. Michael Fostee, 
F.R.S. 

81 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.B.S., 

and Dr. P. L. ScLATER, F.R.S. 

82 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and Prof. F. M. Balfoue, 

F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Harcouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
■97 A. G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFER, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. ScHAFER, F.R.S., and 

Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 



-83 
-95 



-99 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
1881-85 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. 1). Forbes, Acting 

SecretuT)/. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-7.S G. GRiFi-iTii, Esq., M.A. 
1S78-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Asiietant Si-vretary. 
1881 G. Griipith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secrctarij. 



Bonney, F.R.S., 



Prof. T. G. 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Gbiffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1590-99 G. Griffith, Esq.. M.A. 



liii 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Eev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854, 

1855, 

1856, 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Clieltenham 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William AATie well, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Wliewell, F.R.S.,,. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, AV. S. Harris, F. W, 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof, Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevalliur, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. ' Stevelly, 

Arch, Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev, 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof, Stevellj', 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevellj', G. G, 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W, 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes, 
S. Jackson, W. J. Mactjuorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W, J. JIacquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth. J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Pncklo. Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tjmdall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. South wood. 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 



LiV 



REPORT 1898. 



Date and Place 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Secretaries 



Rev. W. 
V.P.R.S. 



Whewell, D.D. 



1866. Nottinj:fham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 

Tyndall, LL.D., 



Sylvester, LL.D., 
Maxwell, M.A., 



Prof. J. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 

W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof . G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc, 
Rev. R-of. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S 
George Johnstone Stouey, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rajleigh 

M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof . Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Pro'f. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. 

Jenkin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Poster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. CliflEord. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof . W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S.Herschel,G.F.Rodwell 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. HerBchel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F, 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. B. Ayrton, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 



PEESIDEjSTS AKD SECEETAHIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189G. 

1897. 
1898. 



Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen. . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

CardiflE 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 

I;iverpool... 

Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. W. Riicker, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 
C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
R. B. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 
R. E. Bavnes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A, 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, .1. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, 

W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
Prof. A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, 

C. H. Lees, Prof, W. Watson. E. T. 

Whittaker. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



.John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C'.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James P. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846, 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S... 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 



Prof. Miller, Dr. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S i Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming ; Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 
Prof. Johnston, 
Reynolds. 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. Prof. Miller, H. L. Pat tinson,. Thomas 

Richardson. 
Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S I Dr.L.Playfair,B.Solly,T.H. Barker. 

Rev. Prof. Gumming R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller. 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. RaiulalL 



Michael 
F.R.S. 



Faraday, D.C.L., 



Ivi 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Hull 



Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M. A., 

Liverpool Prof.W.*A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Cheltenham; Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 



Dublin 
Leeds 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. Oxford |Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 



Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 
I D.C.L. 
Aberdeen... i Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. 



1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

J 874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 



Manchester I Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Cambridge j Prof. W.H.Miller, M. A.,F.R.S. 

Newcastle Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
Bath W. bdli'ng, M.B., F.R.S 



Birmingham 
Nottingham 
Dundee ... 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 
j F.R.S.E. 
Norwich ...I Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Exeter Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Liverpool... Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

I F.R.S. 
Edinburgh Prof. T. Andrc\vs,M.D., F.R.S. 

Brighton ... j Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Bradford... Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Belfast Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 

Bristol 'a. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 
Glasgow ... W. H. Pcrkin, F.R.S 

Plymouth... 'f. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Dublin ' Prof. JLixwell Simpson, M.D., 

I F.R.S. 
Sheffield ... Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveiner, 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R, 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. X. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong. W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tildcn. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, AV. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thomr 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, J, 
M. Thomson. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



1880. Swansea 



1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

188i. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1898. Bristol. 



Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D.. F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 



Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tildon, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas.C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



SECTION B (confinued).- 
Prof. E. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 



P. P. Bedson,H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, n. Forster IMorley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr.AV. J. Simpson. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley, W. W. 

J. Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H, Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H, Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
.J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Jlorley. 

—CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kolm.J. \V. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III.- 

1832. Oxford |R. L Murchison, F.E.S. 

1833. Cambridge. jG. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
1831. Edinburgh . Prof. Jameson 



-GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPHY. 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yatcsv 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. . 

1839. Birmingham 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AN 

R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'co5'.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

(y<;o«7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Gcof/rajjhij, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

G'eo/)'.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 



D GEOGRAPHY. 

Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hanter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham, R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 
Geoqraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Chiu-les Darwin. 



Iviii 



KEPOET — 1898. 



Date and Place 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh I 



Presidents 



Charles Lyell, F.'R.S.—Geo- 
grajjhy, G. B. Greenough, 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

K. I. Murchison, F.K.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W, J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Secular, M.D. 

W. J.Hamilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R, 
Lloj'd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson,Prof.01dham,Prof.Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldliam, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION c (continued'). — geology. 



1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 



Ipswich 
Belfast.. 



Hull 

Liverpool . . 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen,.. 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 



WiniamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

"VVilliamHopkins,M.A.,LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.^ 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormcrod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, 

Robert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Lon^muir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, under the title of the 'Geo- 
graphical and Ethnological Section,' see page Ixiv. 



PKESIDEMT.s AND SECEETAEIEiS OF TUE SECTIONS. 



lix 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.. 

1874. Belfast 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin. 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Soulhport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de il.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, P.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T.Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. .John Young, M.D. . 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S,, Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. .T. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S.. 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S., 

Sec. G.S. 
Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudleston, F.R S 



E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 
J.Armstrong,F.W.Rudler,W.Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, Clement 
Reid. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge' 

1834. Edinburgli. 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.! C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham [W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir \V. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. I Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S .G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

I Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of 3Ian- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. | Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... ^ Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.R.S. I Wooldridgc. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixiii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 
1866, Cheltenliam 



1857, Dublin. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 
F.R.S. 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hj'ndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

William Keddic, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 



' At this Aleeting Pliysiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixiii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date and Place 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Presidents 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham ' 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.K.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Rev". Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S.... 

Dr. John E, Gray, F.E.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S, ... 



Secretaries 



Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued) , — biology. 



1866. Nottingnam 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee 

Norwich 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool. 



» 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford .. 



Prof. Huxley, Y.n.S.—Bej). 

of Physiol, Prof. Humphry, 

F.E.S.— Dej). of Anthroj)ol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physioloijij, W. 

H. Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
— JJcp. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.E.S.— 
Bcp.if Etlino., E. B. T3'lor. 

Prof.G. Eolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.E.S., F.lu.S. — Bep. of 
Anat. and P/njsiol.,'Pioi.M-. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Bep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.E.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.E.S.— 2)e/7. of Bot. and 
.^ooZ.,Prof.WyvilleTliomson, 
F.E.S.—Bep. of Antho-ojwl., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Phynol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.E.S.— Bep. of Antkropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.E.S.— i>^yA of 
Anat.and Pliynol.,Vroi. Eu- 
therford, M.Ai.—Bcp. of An- 
tkropol., Br. Beddoe, F.E.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T . 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T, Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram . 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gam gee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
Kine. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology ; and for the word ' Sub- 
section,' in the rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word 'Doput- 
ment' was substituted. 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol ... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.., 



1878. Dublin , 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1879. Sheffield 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton.' 



1883. Southport'' 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Prof. Redfern, M.D.—Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— D^^. ofAn- 
throj).,SiT W.R.Wilde, M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.E.S.—Bejf.of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, F.R.y.— iJe/A of 
Anthrapol., Prof. Rolleston, 
F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Dej). of Zool. and Bot. 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.- 
Bep. of Anat. and Phys-iol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and PhydoL, 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
A)ithrojwl.,¥.G2Mon,F.B..h. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
B(p. of AnthropoL, Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F. R. S.— Bep. of Anthrojwl. , 

E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A. C.L.Gunther,M.D.,F.R.S.|G. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol, F. M. Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z>e^. ufAnthrojwl., 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 
Richard Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

— Bep. of Anthrojwl., Prof. 
W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. J. S. Burden Sander- 
son, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bcj). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of AnthropoL, Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins. F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M. A., 
F.R.S.— i)ep. of AnthropoL, 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pvc-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 



E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. K. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B . Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 



Prof. H. N. Moseley 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. F.R.S.E. 



Howard 
wick. 



Saunders, Adam Sedg- 



G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S 



W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam. 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
M.A.,IProf. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 



' The Departments of Zoology and Botany and of Anatomy and Physiology were 
amiilgamateil. 

* Anthropolog}' was made a separate Section, see p. Ixx. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



ixm 



Date and Place 



1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. CardifE. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford « ... 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool.,, 

1897. Toronto .., 

1898. Bristol.,... 



C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, \v. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall W'ard. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Wai'd. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 

SECTION D (continued). — zoology. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Prof, W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Prof, E. B, Poulton, F,R.S. ,,. 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, T. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge iDr.J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834, Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie IDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Telloly, M.D., F.R.S.. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof . Couper,Prof. Reid, 



JSECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY, 



1841. Plymouth... P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 



1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S, 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 



Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixx. 
2 The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixiv 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

ton. 

1847. Oxford ' ... | Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. 



Secretaries 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 

Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 

1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 

Birming- 
ham. - 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Prof.G.Eolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S. L.& E. 

G. B. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Strutliers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 

Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 

Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Ivii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton Dr. J. C. Pritcbard 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King, 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E.^ — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1831. Ipswicu 

1852. Belfast... 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 
5837. Dublin 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., 

Pres. E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., 

F.E.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Eev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres. E.LA. 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Eichard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Eumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



' By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were 
incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Phy- 
siology ' fsoe p. Ix.). Section E, being then vacant, was assigned in 1851 to 
Geography. 

■■' Vide note on page Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECBETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1S61. Manchester 
1862. Cambridge 
]«63. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
1566. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P.,K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Re V. J . Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
■ Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 
1898. 



SECTION E (^continued). — geography, 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroj', 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. -Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G.. F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 

Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid. 
K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tackett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.Abb^Latiamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

d 



Ixvi 



REPOBT 1898. 



Date and Place 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1890. 


upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


CardifE 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 
H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 
Sulivan, A. Silva White. 

A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 
A. Silva White. 

John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva AVhite, Dr. Yeats. 

J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 
Keltie, A. Silva White. 

Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 
Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 

John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 
Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
M.A., John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 
R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 



1833. 
1834, 



Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm.Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, 

■p T> /~t O 

Major l! Darwin, Sec. E.G.S. iCol. F. Bailev, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

I H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
J. Scott-Keltie, LL.D. jCol. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

I H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

j Trapnell. 

STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, YI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge i Prof. Babbage, F.R.S ..] J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



18.35. 
1836. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool.. 



1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 

1S47. 

1843. 
1849. 

1850 



Newcastle 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth . . . 

Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S \W. Greg, Prof. Longfleld. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R.W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. E. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Nelson. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee,! Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr, 
V.P.R.S.E. I Stark. 



Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut. - Col. Sj'kes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 



Birmingham Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 
E'im burgh 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAEIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P.,F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

E. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 


J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, jun. 


1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 


E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875, 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883, 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 
Cheltenham 1 Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 
Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich.... 
Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton, 
, Southport 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan , 



James Heywood, M.A.,F.E.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., 

M.R.LA. 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgi-ave, F.R.S, 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H, D, Hutton, W, 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M, 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D, 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C, 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
FoxweU, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

d2 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 

1898. 


Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Presidents 



Sir Kichard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.K.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A.., F.S.S. 

Robert GifEen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon, Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. MarshaU, M.A.,F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F.S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Ba^table, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D. 



Secretaries 



Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. EUiott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro. 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Conner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Conner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 



Bristol 

Liverpool.. 
Newcastle 



1839. Birmingham 
Glasgow .... 



1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
South 'mpt'n 

Oxford 

Hwau.sea ... 
Birmingli'ir! 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



1853. Hull 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir .John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I. A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. St ephenson,M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. 

Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. " Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struvfi. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiz 



Date and Place 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1860. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. PljTnouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



Presidents 



John Scott Eussell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine. F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E. 



J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J.Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. JefEery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H, 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Poster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 



H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 

iH. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

I J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S C.Barlow,H.Bauerman.E,H.Carbutt, 

I J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. .Tames Thomson, LL.D., I A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 



1882. Southamp- 

ton 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



C.E., F.R.S.E 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres. Inst. C.E. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 



Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomlev, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. r. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T, 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J, 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigs;. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, B. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 



Ixx 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 



1889. Newcastle 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds ... 



1891. CardifiE 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford.... 

1895. Ipswich , 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 

1898. Bristol.... 



Presidents 



W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.E.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.E.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vcrnon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. VV. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popple well, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

"\V. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 
189.3. Nottingham 



1894. Oxford.... 

1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 

1898. Bristol.... 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. .... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. ' 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pibt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S,, 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, "VV. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. E. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. MjTes, Rev. J. J. Eaven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. 0. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, .J. L. Myres, G. Parker, 



1894. Oxford. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 

M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 
BI. S. Pembrey. 

Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton, Dr. L. E. Shore. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 




Secretaries 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



W. T. Thiselton-Dj-er, F.E.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof, Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUKES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork . 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull. 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M.L Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R. S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F,R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the ExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schohbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidits ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


18G0. 


Oyford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich .. 

Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



Lecturer 



Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .. 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. 

Royal. 
Prof.'Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.... 



Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S , 

J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. T}Tidall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .V/. J. ]\Tacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.A.Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K. CliflEord 



Subject of Discourse 






Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform Research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent Discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia.. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands'. 
Electrical Discharges in highly 

rarefied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun, 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dj'namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be» 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analj'sis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulse. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 



1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 



1875. Bristol .... 

1876. Glasgow , 

1877. Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 



1884. Montreal... 

I 

I 1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardiflE 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. C.Williamson.F.K.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.K.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirW3rville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F H S 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 



W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. E.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. DaUinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. .. 

John Murray, F.R.S.E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. .. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. .. 

Col. SirF. de Winton 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. .. 



Subject of Discourse 



are 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
PrDf. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. A Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 



Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 

in relation to Insects. 
The Hypothesis that Animals 

Automata, and its History. 
Tlie Colours of Polarised Light. 
Railway Safety Appliances. 
Force. 

The CJiallenger Expedition. 
Physical Phenomena connected with 

the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 
The New Element, Gallium. 
Animal Intelligence. 
Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 

Chemical Action. 
Radiant Matter. 
Degeneration. 
Primeval Man. 
Mental Imagery. 
The Rise and Progress of Palteon- 

tology. 
The Electric Discharge, its Forms 

and its Functions. 
Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 
Recent Researches on the Distance 

of the Sun. 
Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 
Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 

Forms of Life. 
The Electric Light and Atmospheric 

Absorption. 
The Great Ocean Basins. 
Soap Bubbles. 
The Sense of Hearing. 
The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 
Explorations in Central Africa. 
The Electrical Transmission of 

Power. 
The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 

Crust. 
The Hardening and Tempering of 

Steel. 
How Plants maintain themselves in 

the Struggle for Existence. 
Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 
Some Diffculties in the Life o£ 

Aquatic Insects. 
Electrical Stress. 
Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 
Flame. 
The Discovery of the Physiology of 

the Nervous System. 
Experiences and Prospects of 

African Exploration. 



Ixxiv 



EEPORT — 1898. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1894. 


Oxford 


Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 


Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


Prof. S. P. Tliompson, F.R.S. 


Magnetism in Rotation. 






Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 


The Work of Pasteur and its various 






F.R.S. 


Developments. 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 


Safety in Ships. 






Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 


Man before Writing. 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. Roberts Austen, F.R.S. 


Canada's Metals. 






J. Milne, F.R.S ,. 


Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 


1898. 


Bristol 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 


Funafuti : the Study, of a Coral 
Island. 






Herbert Jackson 


Phosphorescence . 







LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



Liverpool . 
Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast .... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen ... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Lecturer 



Prof. J. Tyndall,LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W. Siemens, D.G.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayr ton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S.. 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oi:ygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North-East Pas.sage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their enemies and Signal to their 

friends. 



Ixxv 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE BRISTOL MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Trot "W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Rt. Hon. Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. ; Sir 
Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. ; Prof. Mascart ; Prof. A. W. Riicker, 
Sec.R.S. ; General-Major Rykatcheff ; Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. S. Young, F.R.S. 

■Secretaries.— 'Proi. A. P. Chattock, M.A. ; J. L. Howard, D.Sc. ; C. H. 
Lees, D.Sc; Prof. W. Watson, B.Sc. (Recorder); E. T. Whit- 
_ taker, B.A. 

P SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Troi. F. R. Japp, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Troi. E. Noelting ; J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. 
B Ramsay, F.R S. ; A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. ; Prof. Emerson 

pi Reynolds, F.R.S. ; W. J. Russell, F.R.S. ; W. Shenstone, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— C. A. Kohn (Recorder) ; F. Wallis Stoddart ; T. K. 
Rose. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— 'R. Etheridge, F.R.S. ; Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. ; 
E. B. Wethered ; W. Whitaker, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. Winwood. 

Secretaries. — G. W. Lamplugh ; Professor H. A. Miers, F.R.S. (^e- 
corder) ; H. Pentecost. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Froi. W. F. R. Weldon, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Francis Galton, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Prof. Francis Gotch, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. O. C. 
Marsh ; Henry Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof. R. Boyce ; Walter Garstang, M.A. ; Dr. A. J. Har- 
rison ; W. E. Hoyle, M.A. (Recorder). 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Co\. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Col. F. Bailey, Sec. R.S.G.S. ; Prof. Boyd Dawkins, 

F.R.S. ; Colonel J. Farquharson, C.B. ; J. Scott Keltic, LL.D., Sec. 

R.G.S. ; B. Leigh Smith; F. F. Tuckett ; General Sir Charles W. 

Wilson, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— H. N. Dickson, F.R.G.S. ; H. R. Mill, D.Sc, F.R.G.S. 

(Recorder) ; H. C. Trapnell, LL.B. 



Ixxvi BEPORT— 1898. 

SECTIOK F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— 3 . Bonar, M.A., LL.D., F.S.S. 

7ice-Presidents.—2Tot E. C. K. Conner, M.A., F.S.S. ; L. L. Price, 
M.A., F.S.S. ; Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., F.S.S. ; Rev. Canon 
Glazebrook, M.A. 

Secretaries.— E. Cannan, M.A., F.S.S. ; l>rof. A. W. Flux, M.A., F.S.S. ; 
H. Higgs, LL.B., F.S.S. {Recorder) ; W. E. Tanner, M.A. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— ^\r John Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E, 

Vice-Presidents. — W. Proctor Baker ; Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. ; T. Forster Bro^vn, M.Inst.C.E. ; G. F. Deacon, 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Secretaries. — Prof. T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. [Recorder) ; Prof. J. 
Munro, M.Inst.M.E. ; H. W. Pearson, M.Inst.C.E. ; W. A. Price, 
M.A. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— 'E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — A. J. Evans, F.S.A. ; Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S, ; 
Dr. Francis Galton, F.R.S. ; C. H. Read, F.S.A. ; Dr. Paul Topinard ; 
Prof. E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — H. Balfour ; J. L. Myres, jNI.A., F.S.A. {Recorder) ; G. 
Parker, M.D. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— 'Prol F. O. Bower, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Troi. H. Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. D. H. 
Scott, F.R.S. ; Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — A. C. Seward, F.R.S. {Recorder) ; Harold Wager ; J. W. 
White. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1898-99. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., V.P.O.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of DcrciE, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Tlie Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bristol, D.D. 
The Right Hon. Sir Edward Fry, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F S A 
Sir F. j! BRAMWELt, Bart., D.O.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Right 'Worshipful the Mayor of Bristol. 



The PRiNcrpAL of TTniversity College, Bristol. 
The Master of The Society of Merchant Venturerg 

of Bristol. 
JOHK Beddoe, Esq., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Professor T. G. BoNJJBY, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., 

F.G.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor Michael Foster, M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Sec. R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the LoBD ARCHBiSHor op Oanibr- 

BORY, D.D. 
The Most Hon. the Marquis or Salisbury, K.G., 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Dover. 
The Right Hon. Lord Herschbll, G.O.B., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



The Major-General Commanding the South- 
eastern District. 

The Right Hon. A. Akkrs-Douolas, M.P. 

The Very Rev. F. W. Farrar, D.D., P.R.S., Dean 
of Canterbury. 

Sir J. Norman Lockyeb, K.C.B., F.R.S., P.R.A.S. 

Professor G. H. Darwin, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Professor E. A. Schafbr, LL.D., F.R.S., Hniversitv College, London, W.C. 

Professor W. C. RoBERTS-AnsTsy, C.B., D.C.L., P.R.S., Royal Mint, London, E. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., College Road, Harrow, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor G. Cakey Foster, B.A., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT DOVER. 
E. Wollaston Knocker, Esq., C.B. 1 W. H. Pendlebury, Esq., M.A. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT DOVER. 
A. T. Walmisley, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 



ORDINARY 
Boys, C. Vernon, Esq., F.R.S. 
Creak, Caotain B. W.. R.N., F.R.S. 
Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Fremantle, Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
Gaskell, Dr. W. H.. F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M.A 
Hebdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL.D. 
Macmahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 
Marr, J. B.. Esq., F.R.S. 
Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Preecb, W. H., Esq.. C.B., F.R.S. 

Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 

Reynolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D., 

Shaw', W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 
TniSELTON-DYER, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Professor S. P., F.R.S. 
Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. " 
TiLDEN, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
XJnwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 
White, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vi^PresHents Elect the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the Secreta^JJ, the General Tre^^^^^^ for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and 
Secretaries fbr the ensuing Meeting. ^^^^^^^^ (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock Bart., M.P., D.C.L, LL.D F.R.S., F.L.3. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A. , D.C.L., LL.D., i' .R.S., 1' .K.A.&. 
Professor A. W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, Sec. R.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
Lord Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 
Sir G. G. Stokes, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L. , F.R.S. 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir F. A. Abel, Bart.. K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Huggins, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. J.S.Burdon Sanderson,F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury, K.G., 

Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., FJl.S. 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 
F Galton Esa . F R S. I P. L. Sclater, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. i Sir Douglas Galton, K^.B..F.R.S. 

ProlSSoLr.l-ec. R.S. Prof. T. G^Bonaey, D.Sc F R.S. A Vernon^ ^l^^ck^sf c 'r I " 

G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. I Prof. A. W. Wilhamson, F.R.S. | Prof. A. W. RucKer, bee. n.o. 



Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
I Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 



I Sir H. Trueman Wood, M.A. 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1898. 



Br. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1897-98. RECEIPTS. 

£ t. d. 

Balance brought forward 2396 4 

Life Compositions 120 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 218 

Annual Subscriptions 465 

Members of American Association 159 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 648 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 103 

Sale of Publications 175 17 

Interest on Deposit at Liverpool Bank 24 5 6 

Dividend on Consols 200 7 4 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 104 8 

Unexpended Balance of Grant returned by the Committee 

for the Calculation of certain Integrals 10 



;£4623 18 2 



InvestmeuU. 

£ s. d. 

Consols 7537 3 6 

India 3 per Cents 3600 



£11,137 3 5 
Arthub W RirCKEB, Gciwral Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxix 



from July ], 1897, to June 30, 1898. Cr. 

1897-98. EXPENDITURE. 

£ J. (/. 
Expenses of Toronto Meeting, including Trinting, Adver- 
tising, Payment of Clerks, &c 108 9 7 

Kent and Office Expenses 60 16 

Salaries '. 510 

Printing, Binding, &c 1028 8 7 

Payment of Grants made at Toronto : 

& s. d. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations 75 

Abstracts of Physical Tapers 100 

Calculation of certain Integrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at Montreal 50 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements .... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 8 

Erratic Bloclcs 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Laboratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Speoierum Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oysters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Airica 10 

State Monopolies in other Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North-Western Tribes of Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural History of Torres Strait 125 

Investigation of Changes associated -with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and their Peripheral Exten- 
sions 100 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 15 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 

1212 

In hands of General Treasurer : 

On deposit at Liverpool (National Provincial 

Bank) 1521 2 7 

At Bank of England, "Western Branch £219 11 1 

Z<?.'!« Cheque not presented 37 10 

182 1 1 

1703 3 8 

Petty Cash in hand 10 4 

£4623 18 2 



I have examined the above Account with the books and vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the balances at the 
bankers on Current and Deposit Accounts, and have ascertained that the Invest- 
ments are duly registered in the names of the Trustees. 

W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 

3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.G. 
Approved— July 12, 1898. 

Herbert IvIcLeod, "I . , ,., „. 
D.H.SCOTT '\^^ditors. 



Ixxx 



REPORT — 1898. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27.. 

1832, June 19,. 

1833, June 25.. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 
183G, AuK. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10 .. 

1839, Aug. 26 .. 

1840, Sept. 17.. 

1841, July 20 .. 

1842, Julie 23 . 

1843, Aug. 17.. 

1844, Sept. 26.. 

1845, June 19.. 

1846, Sept. 10 . 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9 .. 

1849, Sept. 12.. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aus. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22.. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, .Tune 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 ., 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26., 

1864, Sept. 13., 

1865, Sept. 6 ., 

1866, Aug. 22., 

1867, Sept. 4 . 

1868, Aug. 19 ., 

1869, Aug. 18 ., 

1870, Sept. 14., 

1871, Aug. 2 . 

1872, Aug. 14., 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19 . 

1875, Aug. 25 . 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15. 

1878, Aug. 14 . 

1879, Aug. 20 . 

1880, Aug. 25 . 
18.81, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19. 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13. 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11. 

1896, Sept. 16. 

1897, Aug. 18. 

1898, Sept. 7 . 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Canibrirlge 

Eilinljurgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Nowcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Birmingham 

(llasgow 

Plymouth 

Mancliester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgli 

Xp.siwich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liyerpool 

(llasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds ... 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plvnionth 

DiibUn 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York , 

Soutliamptou 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Miinchester 

Bath 

N e\vcastle-on-Tyne . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingliam 

Oxford" 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 



Presidents 



The Earl Fitzwilliam.D.C.L 

The Rev.W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick. F.R.S 

SirT. M.Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provo.st Lloyd, LL.D 

The Marquis of Lansiiowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland 

The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt 

The Marquis of Bread.albane 

The Rev. W. AYhewoll, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

TlieEarl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. (;. Peacock, DD. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart,. 

Sir Roderick I. Murohison, Bart 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton 

The Rev. T. R. Robin.son, D.D 

Sir David Brew.ster, K.H. 

Cr. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

Willi.am Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. 

Prof. C. a. B. Daiibeny, M.D 

The Rev. Humphrey Lloyil, D.D 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis, M..A. 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A 

Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 

TheDuIceot Bucoleuch. K.C.B 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. Ct. G. Stokes, D.C.L. 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D 

Dr. W. B. Carpencer, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S 

Prof. T.Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M..^.., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman. M.D.. F.R.S 

A. C.Ramsay, LL.D.. F.R.S 

Sir .John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Caylev, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh. F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe. D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson 

The Marquis of S,alisburv,K.G.,F.R.S, 

Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. .., 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 



Old Life 
Members 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 
281 



New Life 
Members 



65 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 
3 
12 
9 
8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
IS 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 



« Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDAKCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxi 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 










Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid 
on Account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 




Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 







— 


— 


— 





353 


__ 


— 


1831 







— 


— 


~. 


—^ 





— 


— 


1832 










— 








900 


— 


— 


1833 










— 


_ 





1298 


— 


£20 


1834 







— 


— 








— 


— 


167 


1835 







— 


— 








1350 


— 


435 


1836 










— 





, 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 













1100» 





2400 


— 


932 2 2 


1838 










— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 
















40 


i;i63 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 


. — 


60* 




891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331« 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 


__ 


160 











1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— . 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 


208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864. 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




2S9 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 



: laeluding Ladies. J Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 



1898. 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1898. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Report of the Council for the Year 1897-98, presented to the General 
ComTtiittee at Bristol on Wednesday, September 7, 1898. 

The Meeting held at Toronto last August was attended by a represen- 
tative body of members from the British Isles and from the Dominion 
of Canada, and by a large number of scientific men from the United States 
of America and from the Continent of Europe. The success of the 
Meeting had been confidently anticipated in view of the experience of 
the Montreal Meeting in 1884, and that this anticipation was fully 
realised was largely the result of the unremitting exertions of the Local 
Ofiicers and Committee at Toronto, and the support which was received 
from the Government of the Dominion, the Government of Ontario, and. 
the City of Toronto. 

A Permanent Committee on Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric 
Electricity was appointed at the Meeting of the International Meteoro- 
logical Conference at Paris in 1896. The members of this body were 
desirous of holding a Conference with other magneticians, and at the 
suggestion of Professor Riicker, who is President of the Committee, the 
Council decided to invite the Committee to hold the Conference at 
Bristol during the Meeting of the British Association. This invitation 
was accepted, and it was decided that the Conference should meet as a 
Department of Section A, and that the foreign magneticians who might 
attend should have all the privileges of foreign members of the Associa- 
tion. The Council have reason to believe that this arrangement will 
work satisfactorily, and that the Conference will be well attended. 

The Council have nominated the Master of the Society of Merchant 
Venturers to be a Vice-President of the Association for the Meeting at 
Bristol, in addition to the Vice-Presidents elected at the last meeting of 
the General Committee. 

The Council have received Reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year, and his Accounts from July 1, 1897, to June 30, 
1898, which have been audited, will be presented to the General 
Committee. 

The Council have been informed by Professor Riicker that he does not 
intend to offer himself for re-election as General Treasurer after the 
Bristol Meeting. Professor Riicker has held this post since 1891, and the 
Council desire to put on recoi'd their sense of the important services 
which Professor Riicker has rendered to the Association during this period. 
The Council recommend that Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., be 
appointed General Treasurer in succession to Professor Riicker. 

The Council have to deplore the loss by death of Lord Playfair, who 
had been one of the Trustees of the Association since 1883. The Council 
have nominated Professor Riicker as Trustee, the other Trustees being 
Lord Rayleigh and Sir John Lubbock. 

The Council have elected the following men of Science who have 
attended Meetings of the Association to be Corresponding Members : — 



Professor C. Barus, Brown University. 
M. C. de Candolle, Geneva. 
Dr. G. W. Hill, West Nyack, N.Y. 
Professor Oskar Montelius, Stockholm. 



Professor E. W. Morley, Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
Professor C. Richet, Paris. 
Professor W. B. Scott, Princeton, N.J. 



The Council were invited to nominate one or two Members to give 



REPOKT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxiii 

evidence before the Committee appointed by the Government to report on 
the desirability of establishing a National Physical Laboratory, and at 
their request Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., and Professor W. E. 
Ayrton, F.E..S., gave evidence before this Committee. A Report has 
been presented to Parliament, and the Council trust that the delibera- 
tions of the Committee will result in the establishment of a National 
Laboratory. 

In regard to the Resolutions referred to them for consideration and 
action, if desirable, the Council have to report : — 

(1) That the Council appointed a Committee to consider the desira- 
bility of approaching the Government with a view to the establishinent 
in Britain of experimental Agricultural Stations similar in character to 
those which are producing such satisfactory results in Canada. The 
Committee having reported that much is already being done in this 
direction by County Councils and Agricultural Societies, advised that 
the co-operation of these bodies should first be invited. The Committee 
was re-appointed for this purpose, and sent in a Report, the principal 
recommendation of which was adopted by the Council, and is as follows : 

' Your Committee recommend that the Board of Agriculture be in- 
formed that, in the opinion of the British Association, there is an urgent 
need for the co-ordination of existing institutions for agricultural research, 
and that the Association hopes that steps may be taken towards this end, 
including the strengthening of the scientific work of the Board of Agri- 
culture and the provision of the means for dealing adequately with scien- 
tific questions which may come before it.' 

At the request of the Council this Report was brought by the Presi- 
dent to the notice of the President of the Board of Agriculture, from 
whom the following reply was received : — 

Boarrl of As:i-iPHl'ui"e. 
■1 Whitehall Place, London, S.W., 2Gth July, 189,1 
Sir, — I have laid before the Board of Agriculture your letter of the 18th inst., 
and I am desired to express to the Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science the thanks of the Board for the attention which the 
Council have been so good as to give to the important subject of agricultural 
research. 

The Board will not fail to bear in mind the views set out in the Resolution com- 
municated to them in the letter above referred to. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

P. G. Chaigie, Assistant Secretary. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S.. .tc, President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Burlington House, W. 

(2) That a Committee was appointed to report to the Council whether, 
and, if so, in what form, it is desirable to bring before the Canadian 
Government the necessity for a Hydrographic Survey of Canada, and that 
the following formed the Committee : — Professor A. Johnson (Chairman 
and Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, Admiral Sir 
W. J. L. "Wharton, Professor Bovey, and Professor Macgregor. 

The Committee reported to the Council, and it was decided, in con- 
formity with the recommendation contained in the Report, that tlie 
following Resolution should be sent to the Canadian Government : — 

' The Council of the British Association have learnt with regret that 
the Government of the Dominion of Canada is contemplating the discon- 
tinuance of their Tidal Survey of Canadian Waters. Wliilst the work 
already carried out is primarily connected with Hydrograpliy and Na\i- 



Ixxxiv REPORT — 1898. 

gation, they consider that Science will incur a great loss if the work of 
the Survey is discontinued. They would, therefore, urge on the Govern- 
ment the desirability of continuing the Tidal Survey as heretofore.' 

The President transmitted the Resolution to the Governor-General, 
■who forwarded it to the Government of the Dominion of Canada for their 
favourable consideration. 

The Council have received the following in reply : — 

Extract from a Report of the Committee of the Honourable the Privi/ Council,, 
approved by His Excellency on the 20th June, 1898. 

On a Report dated 25th April, 1898, from the Minister of Marine and Fisheries,, 
stating that he has had under consideration a letter, dated 9th March, 1898, from 
the President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, enclosing a 
resolution adopted at a meeting of the Council of the Association, urging the desira- 
bility of continuing the Tidal Survey as heretofore. 

The Minister recommends that the Association be informed that, in view of the 
limited appropriation made by ParHament, it has been deemed advisable to defer the 
prosecution ot the Survey for the present, and to confine tlie work to the maintenance 
and operations of the Tidal gauges already established, and the preparation of tide 
tables. 

The Committee submit the same for your Excellency's approval. 

John J. JIcGee, 

Clerk of the Privy Council. 

(3) That a Committee was appointed by the Council to consider the- 
following Resolution : 'That, in view of the facts (a) that a Committee of 
Astronomers appointed by the Royal Society of London, in consequence 
of a communication from the Royal Society of Canada, has recently con- 
sidered the matter, and has arrived at the conclusion that no change can 
now be introduced in the " Nautical Almaiiac " for 1901, and (6) that few 
English astronomers are attending the Toronto meeting of the Association : 
the Committees of Sections A and E are not in a position to arrive at 
any definite conclusions with respect to the Unification of Time ; but they 
think it desirable to call the attention of the Council to the subject, in 
which the interests of mariners are deeply involved, with the view of their 
taking such action in the matter as may seem to them to be desirable.' 

Several members of this Committee had also served on the Committee 
of the Royal Society, and after careful re-consideration of the whole 
question the Committee saw no good reason for dissenting from the con- 
clusion which had been recently adopted by the Royal Society, and 
reported in the following terms : — 

' The Committee report that, as there is a great diversity of opinion 
amongst astronomers and sailors as to the desirability of the adoption of 
civil reckoning for astronomical purposes, and as it is impossible to carry 
out such a change in the " Nautical Almanac " for the year 1901, they do 
not recommend that the Council of the British Association should at 
present take any steps in support of the suggested change of reckoning.' 

The President has transmitted this Report to the Royal Society of 
Canada. 

In their Report last year at Toronto the Council informed the General 
Committee that the establishment of a Bureau for Ethnology was under 
the consideration of the Trustees of the British Museum. Since that 
date, the following letter, addressed to the President, has been received : 

British Museum, December 1.5, 1897. 
Dear Sir John Evans, — Referring to a letter of May 19 last, from Lord Lister, as- 
President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, requesting the 
Tiustees of the Eritish Museum to consider whether they could allow a Bureau for 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Ixxxv 



Ethnology for Greater Britain to be established in connection with the Museum, I 
am directed by the Trustees to inform you that they are quite of opinion that such a 
Bureau might be administered in connection with the Ethnographical Section of 
their collections with advantage both to the objects in view of the Association and 
to the enlargement of the British Museum collections. They are, therefore, willing 
to accept in principle the proposal of the British Association, and they would be 
ready to take the necessary steps for carrying it into effect so soon as certain 
xe-arrangements affecting space, kc, which are now taking place within the Museum, 
shall have been finished, as it is expected, in the course of the coming year. 

Believe me, yours very truly, 

E. Maunde Thompson. 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L , LL.D., &c. &c. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies ComnDittee for the past 
year, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and the titles 
of the more important papers, and especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by those Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1S98, has been received. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis 
Galton, Professor E.. Meldola (Chairman), Sir Douglas Galton, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Sir Cuthbert E. Peek, 
Mr. Horace T. Brown, Rev. J. O. Bevan, and Professor W. W. Watts, is 
hereby nominated for reappointment by the General Committee. 

The Council nominate Mr. W. Whitaker, F.R.S., Chairman, and 
Mr. T. Y. Holmes, Secretary, to the Conference of Delegates of Corre- 
«ponding Societies to be held during the Meeting at Bristol. 

The Council announce with very great regret the loss that they have 
recently sustained by the death of Dr. John Hopkinson, F.R.S. 

In accordance with the regulations the retiring Members of the 
Council will be : — 



Edgeworth, Professor. 
Horsley, Mr. Victor. 



Symons, Mr. G. J. 
Ramsay, Professor W. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 
of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Boys, C. Vernon, Esq., F.R.S. 

Creak, Captain E. W., R.N., F.R.S. 

Darwin, F., Esq., F.R.S. 

Fremantle, The Hon. Sir C. W., K.C.B. 
-»Gaskell, Dr. W. H., F.R.S. 

Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 

Harcourt, Professor L. F. Vernon, M.A., 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Herdman, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
*Keltie, J. Scott, Esq., LL D. 
*MacMahon, Major P. A., F.R.S. 

Marr, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Meldola, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 



Preece, W. H., Esq., C.B., F.R.S. 
*Price, L. L., Esq., M.A. 

Revnolds, Professor J. Emerson, M.D , 
F.R.S. 

Shaw, W. N., Esq., F.R.S. 

Teall, J. J. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

Thiselton-Dyer, W. T., Esq., C.M.G., 
F.R.S. 

Thompson, Professor S. P., F.R.S. 

Thomson, Professor J. M., F.R.S. 
*Tilden, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 

Tylor, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 

Unwin, Professor W. C, F.R.S. 

White, Sir W. H., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



An invitation to hold the Annual Meeting of the Association in the 
year 1900 at Bradford, and an invitation from Cork for a future Meeting, 
have been received, and will be presented to the General Committee on 
Monday, September 12. 



Ixxxvi 



REPORT — 1898. 



Committp:es appointed by the General Committee at the 
Bristol Meeting in September 1898. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 

[And 75Z., last year's grant not 
expended.] 



Seismological Observations. 



Members of the Committee 



To assist the publication 
' Science Abstracts.' 



of 



Experiments on the Heat of com- 
bination of Metals in the forma- 
tion of .Allovs. 



Chairman. — Lord Eayleigh. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, \V. G. Adams, 
Oliver J. Lodge, and G. 
Carey Foster, Dr. A. Jluirhead, 
Mr. W. H. Preece, Profes- 
sors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. li'leming. 
Professors G. F. FitzGeiald and 
J. J. Thomson, Mr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor J. 
Viriamu Joues, Dr. G. John- 
stone iStoney, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. 
E. H. Griffiths, Professor A. W. 
Riicker, and Professor H. L. 
Callendar. 

CJiairnian. — Prof. J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. Meldola, Professor J. Perry, 
Professor J. H. Poynting, Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. 
Boys, Professor H. H. Turner, 
5Ir. G. J. Symons, and Dr. C. 
Davison. 

Cliairman. — Professor A. ">V. 
Riicker. 

Secretary. — Professor W. E. Ayr- 
ton. 

Captain Abney and Professor S. P. 
Thompson. 

Cliairman. — Lord Kelvin. 
Secretary.^Di. A. Gait. 
Professor F, G. FitzGerald, Dr. 

J. H. Gladstone, and Professor 

O. J. Lodire. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
225 



rs 



100 



20 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxvii 
1. BeceAring OranU of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



Eadiation from a source of Light 
in a Magnetic Field. 



To co-operate with Professor Karl 
Pearson in the Calculation of 
certain Integrals. 



The Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours. 



The relation between the Absorp- 
tion Spectra and Chemical Con- 
stitution of Organic Substances. 



To establish a Uniform System of 
recording the Results of the 
Chemical and Bacterial Exam- 
ination of Water and Sewage. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Geological In- 
terest. 



Members of the Committee 



Cludrman. — Professor G. F. Fitz- 
gerald. 

Secretary. — Professor T. Preston. 

Professor A. Schuster, Professor 
O. J. Lodge, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Professor Molloy, 
and Professor W. E. Adeney. 



Chairman. — Rev. Robert Harley. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Forsyth. 

Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Professor A . 
Lodge, and Professor Karl Pear- 
son. 



Chair man. ~Y)r. T. E. Thorpe. 

Secretary. — Professor J. J. Hum- 
mel. 

Dr. W. H. Perkin, Professor W. J. 
Russell, Captain Abney, Pro- 
fessor W. Stroud, and Professor 
R. Meldola. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Pro- 
fessor W. Noel Hartley. 

Professor F. R. Japp, and Professor 
J. J. Dobbie. 



diairman. — Professor W.Ramsay. 

Secretary. — Dr. S, Rideal. 

Sir W. Crookes, Professor F. 
Clowes, Professor P. F. Frank- 
land, and Professor R. Boyce. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Hull. 

Secretary.— Frof. P. F. Kendall. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. E. 
De Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Mr. J. Home, Mr. 
Dugald Bell, Mr. F. M. Burton, 
Mr. J. Lomas, Mr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, Mr. J. W. Stather, and 
Mr. R. D. Tucker. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretary. — Prof essorW. W . Watts. 

Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. An- 
derson, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, 
E. J. Garwood, W. Gray, H. B. 
Woodward, J. E. Bedford, R. 
Kidston, R. H. Tiddeman, J. J. 
H. Teall, J. G. Goodcliild, H. 
Coates, and C. V. Crook. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
50 



10 



10 



50 



10 



15 



10 



Ixxxviii 



EEPORT — 1898. 
1. Ileceivinff Grmits of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Kocks. 



To examine the Conditions under 
which remains of tlie Irish Elk 
are found in the Isle of Man. 



To further investigate the Fauna 
and Flora of the Pleistocene 
Beds in Canada. 



Photographic and other Kecords 
of the Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryfaen. 



The Investigation of the Ty 
Newydd Caves, Tremeirchion. 



The Excavation of the Ossiferous 
Caves at Uphill, near Weston- 
super-Mare. 



To enable Dr. H. Lyster Jamie- 
son, or, failing him, some other 
competent investigator, to carry 
on a definite piece of work at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 



Members of the Committee 




Cluiirmaji. — Mr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. J. Garwood. 

Mr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, 
Mr. A. H. Foord, Mr. H. Fox, 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Dr. G. J. 
Hinde, Mr. P. F. Kendal), Mr. 
J. W. Kirkley, Mr. R. Kidston, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. G. H. Morton, 
Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. 
B. N. Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
Secretary. —Mv. P. C. Kermode. 
His Honour Deemster Gill, Mr. 

G. W. Lamplugh, and Canon 

E. B. Savage. 

Chairman. — Sir J. W. Dawson. 

Secretary. — Professor A. P. Cole- 
man. 

Professor D. P. Penhallow, Dr. H. 
Ami, and Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Hicks. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly. 

Mr. A. Strahan, Professor P. 
Kendall, Professor J. F. Blake, 
Mr. T. Mellard Reade, and Mr. 
G. H. Morton. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Hicks. 
Secretary. — Rev. G. C. H. Pollen. 
Mr. A. Strahan, Mr. E. T. Newton, 

Mr. G. H. Morton, and Rev. — 

Hull. 



Chairman. — Professor C. Lloyd 

Morgan. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Bolton. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. 

W. R. Barker, Mr. Reynolds, and 

Mr. E. T. Newton. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. 

Herdman. 
Secreta7-y. — Professor G. B. Howes 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. Weldon, Pro- 
fessor S. J. Hickson, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, and Professor W. C. 
M'Intosh. 



£ s. a. 
10 



15 



30 



5 



40 



30 



100 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxxbc 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To enable Mr. Martin T. Wood- 
ward to study the embryology of 
the MoUusca ; Mr. T. N. Taylor 
to investigate the embryology of 
the Polyzoa; and Mr. G. Breb- 
ner to continue his studies on 
the reproduction of marine 
Algse, and to enable other com- 
petent Naturalists to perform 
definite pieces of work at the 
Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To work out the details of the 
Observations on the Migration 
of Birds at Lighthouses and 
Lightships, 1880-87. 



To construct a Circulatory Ap- 
paratus for keeping Aquatic 
Organisms under definite Physi- 
cal Conditions. 

The Periodic Investigation of the 
Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Channel 
during 1899. 



The Exploration of the Island 
Socotra. 



State Monopolies in other 

Countries. 
[Unexpended balance of 

13Z. 13«. 6^.] 



Future dealings in Raw Produce. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Professor E. Kay 

Lankester. 
Professor Sydney H. Vines, Mr. 

A. Sedgwick, Professor W. F. R. 

Weldon, and Mr. W. Garstang. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. A. Bather. 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, Mr. R. McLachlan, 

and Mr. W. E. Hoyle. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Mr. John Cordeaux. 
Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. 

R. M. Barrington, Rev. E. P. 

Knubley, and Dr. H. 0. Forbes. 

Chairman.— M^T. W. E. Hoyle. 
Secretary.— Mr. F. W. Gamble. 
Professor S. J. Hickson and Mr. 
F. W. Keeble. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Ray 

Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. Walter Garstang. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, and Mr. 

H. N. Dickson. 

Chairman.— T>T. J. Scott Keltie. 

Secretary.— Bt. H. O. Forbes, Dr. 
W. T. Blanford, Prof essor Bayley 
Balfour, Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon. 

Chairman. — Professor H. Sidg- 

wick. 
Secretary.— Mt. H. Higgs. 
Mr. W, M. Acworth, the Rt. Hon. 

L. H. Courtney, and Professor 

H. S. Foxwell. 

Chairman. — Mr. L. L. Price. 

Secretary.— VTof. A. W. Flux. 

Major P. G. Craigie, Professor 
W. Cunningham, Professor 
Edgeworth, Professor Conner, 
Mr. R. H. Hooker, and Mr. H. 
R. Rathbone. 




100 



15 



15 



100 



35 



5 



zc 



REPORT — 1898. 



1. Ruceivbig Grants of Maney — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To consider means by which better 
practical effect can be given to 
the Introduction of the Screw 
Gauge proposed by the Associa- 
tion in 1884. 

[Balance of last year's grant un- 
expended, \ll. Is. 2d.'] 



The Lake Village at Glastonbury. 



To organise an Ethnographical 
Survey of the United Kingdom. 

[And unexpended balance in 
hand, IIZ.] 



To co-operate with the Silchester 
Excavation Fund Committee in 
their Explorations 

To organise an Ethnological Sur- 
vey of Canada. 



Preparing a new edition of 'Notes 
and Queries on Anthropology.' 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. A. Price. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir F. J. Bramwell, 
Sir H. Trueman AVood, Maj.- 
Gen. Webber, Mr. R. E. Cromp- 
ton, Mr. A. Stroh, Mr. A. Le 
Neve Foster, Mr. C. J. Hewitt, 
Mr. G. K. B. Elphinstone, Mr. 
T. Buckney, Col. Watkin, Mr. 
E. Rigg, Mr Conrad W. Cooke, 
and Mr. Vernon Boys. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. BuUeid. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Gene- 
ral Pitt-Rivers, Sir John Evans, 
and Mr. Arthur J. Evans. 

ClMirman. — Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Sidney Hart- 
land. 

Mr. Francis Galtcn, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Professor A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. Joseph Anderson, Mr. J. 
Romilly Allen, Dr. J. Beddoe, 
Mr. W. Crooke, Professor D. J. 
Cunningham, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Mr. Arthur J. Evans, 
Dr. H. O. Forbes, Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Price, Sir H. Howorth, 
Professor R. Meldola, General 
Pitt-Rivers, and Mr, E. G. 
Ravenstein. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. J. Evans. 
Secretary. — Mr. John L. Mjnres. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook. 

Chairman. — Professor D. P. Pen- 
hallow. 

Secretary. — Dr. George Dawson. 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Professor 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hart- 
land, Sir J. G. Bourinot, Abb6 
Cuoq, Mr. B. Suite, Abb6 Tan- 
quay, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, Mr. 
David Boyle, Rev. Dr. Scad- 
ding, Rev. Dr. J. Maclean, 
Dr. Meree Beauchemin, Rev. 
Dr. G. Patterson, Mr. C. N. Bell, 
Professor E. B. Tylor.Hon.G. W. 
Ross, Professor J. Mavor, and 
Mr. A. F. Hunter. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 
General' Pitt-Rivers, Mr. C. H. 
Read and Mr. J. L. Myres. 




£ s. d. 



60 







10 



33 



40 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCl 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the age of 
Stone Circles. 



The physiological effects of Pep- 
tone ' and its Precursors when 
introduced into the circulation. 



Investigation of the Electrical 
Changes accompanying the Dis- 
charge of the Respiratory 
Centres. 



Influence of Drugs upon the Vas- 
cular Nervous System. 



Histological Changes in Nerve- 
cells. 



The Micro-chemistry of Cells. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. J. G. Garson. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 
Gen. Pitt-Rivers, Sir John Evans, 

Mr. C. H. Read, Professor Mel- 

dola, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 

Munro, and Professor Boyd- 

Dawkins. 

Cliairman. — Professor E. A. 

Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor \V. H. 

Thompson. 
Professor R. Boyce and Professor 

C. S. Sherrington. 



Histology of Suprarenal Capsules. 



Comparative Histology of Cerebral 
Cortex. 



Fertilisation in Phaeophycese. 



Experimental Investigation of 
Assimilation in Plants. 



-Dr. A. Waller. 
Professor Waymouth 



Cliairman 
Secretary. 

Reid. 
Professor F. Gotch and Dr. J. S 

McDonald. 



67ifffr)«a».— Professor Francis 
Gotch. 

&cr«ter?/.— Professor W. D. Halli- 
burton. 

Dr. F. W. Mott. 



E. 



A. 



Chairman. — Professor 

Schafer. 
Secretary. — Professor R. Boyce. 
Professor C. S. Sherrington and 

Dr. W. B. Warrington. 

Chairman.— Fioiessoi: E. A. 
Bchiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor A. B. Mac- 
allum. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor W. D. Halliburton, and 
Mr. G. C. Bourne. 

Chairvian. — Professor E. A. 

Schafer. 
Secretary—Ur. Swale Vincent. 
Mr. Victor Horsley, 

Chairman. — Professor F. Gotch. 
Secretary.— T)-!:. G. Mann. 
Dr. F. W. Mott. 

CZ/rtirma?!.— Professor J.B.Farraer. 
fecreter?/.— ProfessorR.W.Phillips 
ProfessorF. 0. Bower and Professor 
Harvey Gibson. 

Chairman.— Mr. F. Darwin. 
Secretary.— FroiessoY J. R. Green. 
Professor Marshall Ward. 



Grants 



£ $. d. 
20 



30 



20 



10 



20 



40 



20 



10 



20 



20 



XCll 



REPORT — 1898. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 


Members of the Committee 


Grants 


Zoological and Botanical Publica- 
tion. 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 


Clmirman. — Rev. T. R. E. Stebbing. 

Secretary.— 'iAx. F. A. llather. 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Pro- 
fessor W. F. R. AVeldon, Mr. A. 
C. Seward. Mr. Adam Sedg- 
wick, Mr. C. D. ShiTborn, Mr. 
B. Daydon Jackson, Mr. W. E. 
Hovle, Dr. P. L. ^clater, and 
Dr.'D. Sharp. 

Chairman. — Professor 11. Meldola. 

Secretary. — Mr. T. V. Holmes. 

Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Douglas 
Galton, Mr. G. J. Symons, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Sir John Evans, 
Mr. J. Hopkinsoii, Professor 
T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Sir Cuthbert E. Peek, Mr. Horace 
T. Brown, Rev. J. 0. Bevan, 
and Professor W. W . Watts. 


£ J. d. 
5 

25 



2. 'Hot receiuing Grants of Mo7iei/. 




To confer with British and Foreign 
Societies publishing Mathematical 
and Phj'sical Papers as to the desir- 
ability of securing Uniformity in the 
size of the pages of their Transactions 
and Proceedings. 

Co-operating with the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



To confer with the Astronomer Royal 
and the Superintendents of other 
Observatories with reference to the 
Comparison of Magnetic Standards 
with a view of carrying out such 
comparison. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ob- 
servations. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor S. P. Thompson. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Swinburne. 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, Mr. C. V. Burton, Mr. 

R. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. W. 

Riicker, and Dr. 6. Johnstone Stoney. 



Chairman.- — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Mr. John Murray, Dr. A. Buchan, and 
Professor E. Copeland. 

Chairman. — Professor A. W. Riicker. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Watson. 
Professor A. Schuster and Professor H. 
H. Turner. 



Chairman. —Professor W. G. Adams. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. Chree. 

Lord Kelvin, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. 
Schuster, Captain B. W. Creak, the 
Astronomer Roj'al, Mr. William Ellis, 
and Professor A. W. Riicker. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Kot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCllli 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



The present state of our Knowledge 
in Electrolysis and Electro-che- 
mistrj'. 



To establish a Meteorological Observa- 
tory on Mount Eoyal, Montreal. 



The Eate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of dry Land and under 
Water. 



That Professor S. P. Thompson and Pro- 
fessor A. W. Riicker be requested to 
draw up a Report on the State of our 
Knowledge concerning Resultant 
Tones. 

The Application of Photography to the 
Elucidation of Meteorological Phe- 
nomena. 



For Calculating Tables of certain Ma- 
thematical Functions, and, if neces- 
sary, for taking steps to carry out the 
Calculations, and to publish the re- 
sults in an accessible form. 



Considering the best Methods of Re- 
cording the Direct Intensity of Solar 
Radiation, 



To consider the most suitable Method 
of Determining the Components of 
the Magnetic Force on board Ship. 



That Mr. E. T. Whittaker be requested 
to draw up a Report on the Planetary 
Theory. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary.— Mr. W. C. D. Whetham. 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Mr. E. H. 
Griffiths, and Mr. S. Skinner. 

Chairman. — Professor H. L. Callendar. 
Secretary. — Professor C. H. McLeod. 
Professor F. Adams and Mr. R. F. 
Stupart. 

Cliairman. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Secretary. — Professor J. D. Everett. 

Professor Lord Kelvin, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Sir A. Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Professor 
Edward Hull, Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr, 
W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. E. Wethered, 
Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Professor H. L. Callendar. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. J. Symons. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. W. Clayden. 
Professor R. Meldola, Mr. John Hopkin- 
son, and Mr. H. N. Dickson. 

Chairman. — Lord Kelvin. 

Secretary. — Lieut. -Colonel Allan Cun- 
ningham. 

Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. 
JI. Hicks, Major P. A. Macmahon, and 
Professor A. Lodge. 

Chairman.— Dv. G. Johnstone Stoney. 

Secretary. — Professor II. McLeod. 

Sir G. G. Stokes, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, Captain W. de W. 
Abney, Dr. C. Chree, Professor G. F. 
FitzGerald, Professor H. I;. Callendar, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. E. Wilson, 
and Professor A. A. Rambaut. 

Chairman.— Professor A. W. Riicker. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. H. Lees. 

Lord Kelvin, Prof essor A. Schuster, Cap- 
tain Creak, Professor Stroud, Mr. C. V. 
Boys, and ]Mr. W. Watson. 



XCIV 



REPORT 1898. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Mo/iei/—continaed. 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested to 
draw up a Report on the present 
state of tlie Tlieory of Point-Groups. 

Preparing a new Series of Wave-length 
Tables of the Spectra of the Ele- 
ments. 



The Continuation of the Bibliographj' 
of Spectroscopy. 



The Teaching of Natural Science in 
Elementary Schools. 



The Electrolytic Methods of Quantita- 
tive Analysis. 



The Promotion of Agriculture : to re- 
port on the means by which in various 
Countries Agriculture is advanced by 
research, by special Educational Insti- 
tutions, and by the dissemination of 
information and advice among Agri- 
culturists. 



Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives. 



The Description and Illustration of the 
Fossil Phyllopoda of the PaliEozoic 
Eocks. 

To consider the best Methods for the 
Registration of all Tj^pe Specimens 
of Fossils in the British Isles, and 
to report on the same. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Canadian 
Photographs of Geological Interest. 



Members of the Committee 



Chair7na7i. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 

Secretaiy. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 

Sir J. N. Lockyer, Professors J. Dewar, 

G. D. Liveing, A. Schuster, W. N. 

Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, and 

Captain Abney. 

Chairman. — Professor H. McLeod. 
Secretary. — Professor Roberts- Austen. 
Mr. H. G. Madan and Mr. D. H. Nagel. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. H. Gladstone. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. George Gladstone, Mr. W. R. Dun- 
stan, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Philip 
Magnus, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Dr. Sil- 
vanus P. Thompson, and Professor A. 
Sroithells. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Emerson Rey- 
nolds. 

Secretary. — Dr. C. A. Kohn. 

Professor Frankland, Professor F. Clowes, 
Dr. Hugh Marshall, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, 
and Professor W. Carleton Williams. 

Chairman.— ^\r ^ohn Evans. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Professor M. Foster, Professor Marshall 
Ward, Sir J. H. Gilbert, Right Hon. J. 
Bryce, Professor J. W. Robertson, 
Dr. W. Saunders, Professor Mills, 
Professor J. Mavor, Professor R. 
Warington, Professor Poulton, and 
Mr. S. U. Pickering. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Tilden. 
Secretary. ^Tiofessoi H. E. Armstrong. 

Chairman. — Rev. Professor T. Wiltshire. 
Secretary. — Professor T. R. Jones. 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Rev. G. F. Whidborne, Mr. R. Kidstnn, Pro- 
fessor H. G. Seeley, and Mr. H. Woods. 

Clmirman. — Professor A. P. Coleman. 

Secretary. — Mr. Parks. 

Professor A. B. Willmott, Professor F. 

D. Adams, Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, and 

Professor W. W. Watts. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 
2. Kot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCV 



Subject for Investigation or Purpose 



To report upon the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Structure of Crys- 
tals. 



To continue the investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, with 
power to co-operate with tlie Com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose by 
the Royal Society, and to avail tliem- 
selves of such assistance in their in- 
vestigations as may be offered by the 
Hawaiian Government or the Trus- 
tees of the Museum at Honolulu. The 
Committee to have power to dispose 
of specimens where advisable. 

To report on the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Zoology and Botany 
of the West India Islands, and to 
take steps to investigate ascertained 
deficiencies in the Fauna and Flora. 

To promote the Systematic Collection 
of Photographic and other Records 
of Pedigree Stock. 

Climatology of Tropical Africa. 



To Investigate and Report on Professor 
Elisee Reclus' Scheme of producing a 
Relief Globe on a large scale. 

The Anthropology and Natural History 
of Torres Straits. 



To co-operate with the Committee ap- 
pointed by the International Con- 
gress of Hygiene and Demography in 
the investigation of the Mental and 
Physical Condition of Children. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Anthropological Interest. 



The Present State of Anthropological 
Teaching in the United Kingdom and 
Elsewhere. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Professor N. Story Maske- 

lyne. 
Secretary. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Mr. L. Fletcher, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. G. F. H. Smith, 

and the Earl of Berkeley. 

Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 

Secretary .—'Dr. David Sharp. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, Professor S. J. Hick- 
son, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. F. Du Cane 
Godman, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Dr. P. L. Sclater. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. Murray. 

Mr. W. Carruthers, Dr. A. C. Gunther, Dr. 

D. Sharp, Mr. F. Du Cane Godman, 

and Professor A. Newton. 

Chairman. — Sir. Francis Galton. 
Secretary. — Professor W. F. R. Weldon. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. N. Dickson. 
Sir John Kirk, Dr. H. R. Mill, and 
Mr. G. J. Symons. 

Chairmam. — Col. G. Earl Church. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. 
Lieut.-Col. F. Bailey, Professor P. Geddes, 
Dr. J. Scott Keltie, and Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Chairman. — Sir W. Turner. 
Secretary. — Professor A. C. Haddon. 
Professor M. Foster, Dr. J. Scott Keltie, 

Professor L. C. Miall, and Professor 

Marshall Ward. 

Chairman. — Sir Douglas Galton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis Warner. 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Gar.son, 
and Mr. White Wallis. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. 

H. Balfour, Mr. E. S. Hartland, and 

Professor Flinders Petrie. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Tylor. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Ling Roth. 

Professor A. Macalister, Professor A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Dr. R. Munro, 
and Professor Flinders Petrie. 



XCvi REPORT — 1898. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

' On Logarithmic Coordinates,' by Dr. J. H. Vincent. 

' On Stream-Line Motion witli Viscous Fluids in Two Dimensions,' by Professor 
H. S. Hele-Shaw. 

'Mathematical Proof of the Identity of the Stream-Lines obtained by Means of 
a Viscous Film with those of a Perfect Fluid moving in Two Dimensions,' by Pro- 
fessor Sir G. G. Stokes, F.R.S. 

'On the Relative Advantages of Long and Short Magnets,' by Professor E. 
Mascart. 

'On the Establishment of Temporary Magnetic Observatories in certain localities, 
especially in Tropical Countries,' by Professor von Bezold and Gen.-Major 
Rykatcheff. 

' Photographic Records of Pedigree Stock,' vrith the accompanying Illustrations, 
by Mr. Francis Galton. 

' Some of the Mechanical and Economic Features of the Coal Question,' by Mr. 
T. Forster Brown. 

' A new Instrument for drawing Envelopes, and its Application to the Teeth of 
Wheels, and for other purposes,' by Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw. 

• The Papers on the Alternation of Generations in the ArchegoniatEe and Thallo- 
phyta,' by Professor Klebs and Mr. W. H. Lang, in the Proceedings of the Sections. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action 

if desirable. 

That having regard to the letter of December 1.5 last, from Sir E. Maunde 
Thompson, the Council be requested to take further action with regard to a Bureau 
of Ethnology, by renewing the correspondence with the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

That the Council be requested to consider the desirability of representing to the 
Colonial Government that the early establishment of a Magnetic Observatory at the 
Cape of Good Hope would be of the highest utility to the science of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, especially in view of the Antarctic Expeditions which are about to leave 
Europe, and that the Observatory should be established at such a distance from 
electric railways and tramways as to avoid all possibility of disturbance from them. 

That the Council be requested to consider the advisability of urging Her 
Majesty's Government to place at the disposal of the Seismological Committee of 
the British Association a suitable building for the housing of Apparatus for con- 
tinuous Seismological observations. 

That the Council be requested to urge strongly on the Indian Government the 
desirability, in the interests both of administration and of science, to promote an 
inquiry, under the direction of skilled anthropologists, into the physical and mental 
characteristics of the various races throughout the Empire, including their institu- 
tions, customs, and traditions, and a carefully organised photographic survey. 

That the Council be recommended to issue the collected Reports on the North- 
Western Tribes of Canada in a single volume at a moderate price, reprinting sO' 
many of the Reports as may be necessary. 

That the Council be requested to bring under the notice of the Admiralty the 
importance of securing S3'stematic observations upon the Erosion of the sea coast of 
the United Kingdom, and that the co-operation of the Coastguard might be profitably 
secured for this purpose. 

That the Council be requested to take into consideration whether any alteration* 
in the hours of meeting of the Sectional Committees and of the General Committee- 
on the first day of the Annual Meeting of the Association are desirable, and to- 
report to the General Committee at the Dover meeting. 

Change of Days of Meeting of General Committee and Committee of 

Recommendations. 

The second meeting of the General Committee was appointed to be held on 
Friday, and the first meeting of the Committee of Recommendations on the following, 
Monday. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XCVll 

Synopsis of Grants of Money api^ropriated to Scientific Purposes hy the 

General Committee at the Bristol Meeting, September, 1898. Tlie 
Names of the Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics. 

£ s. d. 

*Rayleigh, Lord— Electrical Standards (and £75 in hand) ... 225 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 75 

*Rucker, Professor A. W.—' Science Abstracts ' 100 

Kelvin, Lord — Heat of Combination of Metals 20 

FitzGerald, Professor G. F. — Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 

*Harley, Rev. R. — Calculation of Certain Integrals 10 



* 



Cliem,istry. 

*Thorpe, Dr. T. E.— Action of Light upon Dyed Colours 10 

Hartley, Professor W. N. — Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of Organic Substances 50 

Ramsay, Professor W. — Chemical and Bacterial Examina- 
tion of Water and Sewage 10 

Geology. 

*Hull, Professor E.— Erratic Blocks 15 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Photographs of Geological Interest ... 10 

*Marr, Mr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 10 
*Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — Remains of Irish Elk in the 

IsleofMan 15 

*Dawson, Sir J. W. — Pleistocene Fauna and Flora in Canada 30 

Hicks, Dr. H.— Records of Drift Section at Moel Tryfaen... 5 

Hicks, Dr. H.—Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Lloyd-Morgan, Professor C. — Ossiferous Caves at LTphill ... 30 

Zoology. 

•*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples 100 

*Bourne, Mr. G. C. — Table at the Biological Laboratory, 

Plymouth ... 20 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Generum et Specierum Ani- 

malium 100 

♦Newton, Professor A. — Migration of Birds 15 

Hoyle, Mr. W. E. — Apparatus for keeping Aquatic Organ- 
isms under definite Physical Conditions 15 

Lankester, Professor E. R. — Plankton and Physical Condi- 
tions of the English Channel during 1899 100 

Geography. 
Keltie, Dr. J. Scott— Exploration of Socotra 35 

Carried forward 1,090 

* Reappointed. 
1898. f 



xcviii REPORT — 1898. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 1,090 

jEconomic Science and Statistics. 

*Sidgwick, Professor H. — State Monopolies in other Countries 

(£13 13s. Gd. in hand) — 

*Price, Mr. L. L. — Future Dealings in Raw Produce 5 

Mechanical Science. 
*Preece, Mr. W. H.— Small Screw Gauge (£17 Is. 2cl in hand) — 

Anthropology. 

*Munro, Dr. R. —Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

*Brabrook, Mr. E. W. — Ethnographical Survey (and balance 

in hand) 25 

*Evans, Mr. A. J. — Silchester Excavation 10 

""•Tenhallow, Professor D. P. — Ethnological Survey of Canada 

(and £35 17s. Od. in hand) 35 

Tylor, Professor E. B. — New Edition of ' Anthropological 

Notes and Queries ' 40 

Garson, Dr. J. G. — Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A. — Physiological ES'ects of Peptone... 30 
Waller, Dr. A. — Electrical Changes accompanying Discharge 

of Respiratoiy Centres 20 

Gotch, Professor F. — Influence of Drugs upon the Vascular 

Nervous System 10 

Schafer, Professor E. A. — Histological Changes in Nerve Cells 20 

Schafer, Professor E. A. — Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Schafer, Professor E. A. — Histology of Suprarenal Capsules 20 
Gotch, Professor F. — Comparative Histology of Cerebral 

Cortex 10 

Botany. 

^Farmer, Professor J. B. — Fertilisation in Phoeophycete 20 

Darwin, Mr. F.— Assimilation in Plants 20 

*Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R. — Zoological and Botanical Publica- 
tion 5 

Corres2)onding Societies. 
*Meldola, Professor R. — Preparation of Report 25 

£1,495 
* Reappointed. ' 


























































SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS 01' MONEY. Xcix 

The Annual Meeting in 1899. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1899 will commence on 
Wednesday, September 13, at Dover. 

The Annual Meeting in 1900. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1900 will be held at Brad- 
ford. 

The Annual Meeting in 1901. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in U901 will be held at 
Glasgow. 



f 2 



REPORT — 1898. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid an account of 
Gi^ants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossillchthyology ... 105 

1.'167 



183G. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossillchtliyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Eain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





3 

















6 






±"435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

"Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 



£922 12 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fislies 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides .50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

£ 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 

. nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Minin"- Statistics 50 



s. 


d.. 





(y 


10 





2 


(\ 


18 


6 


11 





4 








7 


7 


G- 


1 


2 





4 


18 








6 


16 


0- 


10 


6 





a 


1 








O 





a 





0' 


n 
1 


8 


2 


» 









i?1595 11 O 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 O' 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 0- 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 O 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 O 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 O 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 O 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 O 

Meteorological Observations . 62 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 & 

Working Population 100 O 

School Statistics 50 O 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Masrnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CI 



1811. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

■Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

■Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

IMeteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

'Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

^Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 6118 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

.Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

JMarine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

^Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Rail-way Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) • 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

■Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mometric Instruments 90 



£ g. d. 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 111 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Re^vision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

"Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoologj' 2 14 II 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



cu 



REPORT — 1898. 



£ B. d. 

Additional Experiments ou 

the Forms ofVessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Eeduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 
of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland . . . 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strata 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes 1842 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
.^gean and Red Seas 1842 

Geographical Distributions of 
Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 
the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals GO 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 















8 


4 














9 


6 



35 



100 



117 17 3 

7 3 





17 6 





100 

23 

20 

100 




11 10 




10 






7 3 












1845. 

£ i. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plj'mouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 
Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York.. 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 



£831 9 9 



£981 12 8 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 .3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cm 



1847. 

£ i. d. 
Compntation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

:e275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Eadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Kesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852, 

£ i. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480^6^4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 0" 

1855 £500 



1} 



675 



CIV 



EEPORT — 1898. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 0^ 

£734 13 ~0 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the "West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California ......... 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 6 

£507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 6 

Vitality of Seeds 6 6 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ I. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 



1S60. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 ('> 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ „ 

1861 £22 0/'-' 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium... 20 

Chemical Alloj's 20 

Classified Index to the Tran.s- 

actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee ." 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£iriT" 





















































































6 


10 








6 


10 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CV 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Eocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Eavages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Ee- 

sistance 50 

Eailway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

•Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Ealloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

■Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 



£ ». d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Eocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Ee- 

sistance 100 

Analysis of Eocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 9 

Eain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 60 

Spectral Eays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Eain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compoimds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Eesearches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Eesearches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredgiag Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 60 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Eesistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors iO_ 

'£159r 



























8 























9 




























































































10 








7 


10 



CVl 



REPORT — 1898. 



1866. 

£ g. d. 
Maintaining: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . GOO 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British EainfaU 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Lron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanidesof Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascaxene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 J) 

£1760 13 4 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, ifcc. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

J1739 4 



1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ,.. 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall .50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercnry and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Faima, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals CO 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature .., 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British JIarine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 6 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 








































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cvu 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions :•■•■ 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 O 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

TidarCommittee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration.. 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 


























































































































£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Undergroimd Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 



£1685 



•cvm 



REPORT — 1898. 



1874. 

£ g. d. 

■Zoological Kecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

"Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

.Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Eossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone-corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

Bigh Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

:£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Crcsols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Develoi^ment of Mj'xinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£9 60 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Lavsr 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ 
Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 6 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam-vessels .... 



s. d. 













































10 



































15 












5 












£1092 


4 


2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeas, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature .. . 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New- 
Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 















[1 


7 



























































































18 






















9 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CIX. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Eecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for 4th Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration . . . 100 

Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

TJndergroimd Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 0> 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 0* 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 0- 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9^ 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 0- 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 0- 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8- 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 0' 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 0- 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 0- 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 0" 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 (> 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 0- 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 0- 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 0' 

Geological Record 100 0- 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 0- 

Eecord of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 0- 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 0' 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 0- 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 r 



ex 



REPORT — 1898. 



1881. 

£ ». d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 



. 30 












£476 


3 


1 



1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

ExplorationofRaygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 iTl 



1883. 

£ *. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives ■ 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaso- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural Historj' of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£T083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phylloijoda of Pateo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 10 

£1173 4 















4 
































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXI 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Ea3^gill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 
Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondarj- Beds . 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 1.50 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 0~6 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... £0 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius .^0 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 60 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 



t. 


d. 

































c 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analj-sis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

E lectrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of -Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwjn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglese}' 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migi-ation of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



cxu 



REPORT — 1898. 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palffiontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrev^s 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

:£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ i. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 O 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Pateozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments witli a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

• Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palffiozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



CXIU 



£ s. d. 

Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Associatioa 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuarie.s 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 (» 

Corresponding Societies 20 



£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysisof Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 6 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

1898. ^^,^,^s«^ 



1892. 

£ a. ,1. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oklbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Kurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 

g 



CXIV 



REPORT — 1898. 



£. t. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakorani 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training S 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North -Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Jleteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 

Wave-lengt h Tables 10 

Action of Light upon D)'cd 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Pliyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurrpterids of the I'entland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonestield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Marine Biological Association 5 
Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Aby.ssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 

Anthropometric Ijaboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583^ 



1895. 





















5 


6 







































































































































15 6 





£ 


t. 


d. 


Electrical Sta ndards 


25 








Photographsof Meteorological 




Phenomena 


10 

75 

100 










Earth Tremors 





Abstracts of Pliysical Papers 





Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 








vations made at Falmouth 








Observatory 


50 








Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 








dards 


25 








Meteorological Observations 








on Ben Nevis 


50 








Wave-length Tables of the 




Spectra of the Elements ... 


10 








Action of Light upon Dyed 








Colours 


4 


6 


1 


Formation of Haloids from 




Pure Materials 


20 








Isomeric NajDhthalene Deri- 




vatives 


30 








Electrolytic Quantitative An- 








alvsis 


30 
10 









Erratic Blocks 





PaliEozoic Phyllopoda 


5 








Photographs of Geological In- 








terest 


10 








Shell-bearing Deposits at 








Clava, &;c 


10 








Eurypterids of the Pentland 




Hills 


3 








New Sections of Stonesfield 




Slate 


50 








Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 


10 








Nature and Probable Age of 








High-level Flint-drifts 


10 








Table at the Zoological Station 








at Naples 


100 








Table at the Biological Labo- 








ratory, Plymouth 


15 








Zoology, Botany, and Geology 








of the Irish Sea 


35 


9 


4 


Zoology and Botany of the 




West India Islands 


50 








Index of Genera and Species 




of Animals 


50 








Climatology of Tropical Africa 


5 








Exploration of Hadramut ... 


60 








Calibration and Comparison of 








Measurins: Instruments ... 


25 








Anthropometric iMcasure- 








ments in Schools 


.■) 








Lake Village at Glastonbury 


30 








Exploration of a Kitchen- 








midden at Hastinjjs 


10 
10 









Kthnograjihit^al Survey 





Physiological Applications of 








the Phonograph 


25 








Corresponding Societies .... 


30 








£977 


15 


5 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



cxv 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 

► cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... .SO 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 

Tran.sactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 2 6 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 

Straw .". 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Kelation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

HiUs 3 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palfflolitbic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Kelation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1,104 6 1 



1897. 

& s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 0. 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchescer Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phteophyceje 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of Certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



ex VI 



REPORT — 1898. 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Carbon- 
iferous llocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters " .W 



Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 O 

Small Screw Gauge 20 (> 

Nortli- Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 O 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

EtlmologicalSurvey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activitj' of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 O 

Fertilisation in Phaophyceae 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1.212 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, September 7, at 8 p.m., in the People's Palace, Bristol, 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., resigned the office of President to 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S., who took the Chair, and delivered 
an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Thursday, September 8, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Clifton College. 

On Friday, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in the People's Palace, Professor 
W. J. SoUas, M.A., F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Funafuti : the Study 
of a Coral Island.' 

On Monday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., in the People's Palace, Herbert 
Jackson, Esq., delivered a discourse on ' Phosphorescence.' 

On Tuesday, September 13, at 8.30 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Clifton College. 

On Wednesday, September 14, at 2.30 p.m., in the Museum, the con- 
cluding General Meeting took place, when the Proceedings of the General 
Committee and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were explained 
to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Dover. [The Meeting is ap- 
pointed to commence on Wednesday, September 13, 1899.] 




PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1898. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Sm WILLIAM CROOKES, F.E.S, V.P.C.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



For the third time in its history the British Association meets in your 
City of Bristol. The first meeting was held under the presidency of the 
Marquis of Lansdowne in 1836, the second under the presidency of 
Sir John Hawkshaw in 1875. Formerly the President unrolled to the 
meeting a panorama of the year's progress in physical and biological 
sciences. To-day the President usually restricts himself to specialities 
connected with his own work or deals with questions which for 
the time are uppermost. To be President of the British Association 
is undoubtedly a great honour. It is also a great opportunity and a great 
responsibility ; for I know that, on the wings of the Press, my words, be 
they worthy or not, will be carried to all points of the compass. I propose 
first to deal with the important question of the supply of bread to the 
inhabitants of these Islands, then to touch on subjects to which 
my life work has been more or less devoted. I shall not attempt any 
general survey of the sciences ; these, so far as the progress in them 
demands attention, will be more fitly brought before you in the difierent 
Sections, either in the Addresses of the Presidents or in communications 
from ^lembers. 

Before proceeding with my address I wish to refer to the severe loss 
the British Association has sustained in^the death of Lord Playfair. Witli 
Sir John Lubbock and Lord Rayleigh, Lord Playfair was one of the 
Permanent Trustees of our Association, and for many years he was 
present at our meetings. It would be difficult to overrate his loss to 
British science. Lord Playfair's well-matured and accurate judgment, 
his scientific knowledge, and his happy gift of clothing weighty thoughts 
in pei'suasive language, made his presence acceptable, whether in the 
council chamber, in departmental enquiries, or at light social gatherings, 
where by the singular laws of modern society, momentous announcements 
are sometimes first given to the world. Lord Playfair (then Sir Lyon 

B 2 



4 KEPORT — 1 898. 

Playfair) was President of the British Association at Aberdeen in 1885 ; 
his Address on that occasion will long be remembered as a model of pro- 
found learning and luminous exposition. 

And now I owe a sort of apology to this brilliant audience. I must 
ask you to bear with me for ten minutes, for I am afraid what I now 
have to say will prove somewhat dull. I ought to propitiate you, for, to 
tell the truth, I am bound to bore you with figures. Statistics are rarely 
attractive to a listening audience ; but they are necessary evils, and those 
of this evening are unusually doleful. Nevertheless, Avhen we have pro- 
ceeded a little way on our journey I hope you will see that the river of 
figures is not hopelessly dreary. The stream leads into an almost unex- 
plored region, and to the right and left we see channels opening out, all 
worthy of exploration, and promising a rich reward to the statistic 
explorer who will trace them to their source — a harvest, as Huxley 
expresses it, 'immediately convertible into those thijigs which the most 
sordidly practical of men will admit to have value, namely, money and 
life.' My chief subject is of interest to the whole world — to every race — 
to every human being It is of urgent importance to-day, and it is a life 
and death question for generations to come. I mean the question of Food 
supply. Many of my statements you may think are of the alarmist order ; 
certainly they are depressing, but they are founded on stubborn facts. 
They show that England and all civilised nations stand in deadly peril of 
not having enough to eat. As mouths multiply, food resources dwindle. 
Land is a limited quantity, and the land that will grow wheat is absolutely 
dependent on difficult and capricious natural phenomena. I am constrained 
to show that our wheat-producing soil is totally unequal to the strain put 
upon it. After wearying you with a survey of the universal dearth to be 
expected, I hope to point a way out of the colossal dilemma. It is the 
chemist who must come to the rescue of the threatened communities. It 
is through the laboratory that starvation may ultimately be turned into 
plenty. 

The food supply of the kingdom is of peculiar interest to this meeting, 
considering that the grain trade has always been, and still is, an important 
feature in the imports of Bristol. The imports of grain to this city 
amount to about 1'5,000,000 bushels per annum— 8,000,000 of which 
consist of wheat. 

What are our home requirements in the way of wheat 1 The con- 
sumption of wheat per head of the population (unit consumption) is over 
6 bushels per annum ; and taking the population at 40,000,000, we require 
no less than 240,000,000 bushels of wheat, increasing annually by 2,000,000 
bushels, to supply the increase of population. Of the total amount of wheat 
consumed in the United Kingdom we grow 25 and import 75 per cent. 

So important is the question of wheat supply that it has attracted the 
attention of Parliament, and the question of national granaries has been 
mooted. It is certain that, in case of war with any of the Great Powers, 



I 



ADDRESS. O 

wheat would be contraband, as if it were cannon or powder, liable to 
capture even luider a neutral Hag. We must therefore accept tlie situation 
and treat wheat as munitions of war, and grow, accumulate, or store it as 
such. It has been shown that at the best our stock of wheat and Hour 
amounts only to 04,000,000 bushels — fourteen weeks' supply — while last 
April our stock was equal to only 10,000,000 bushels, the smallest ever 
recorded by ' Beerbohm ' for the period of the season. Similarly, the 
stocks held in Europe, the United States, and Canada, called ' the world's 
visible supply,' amounted to only 54,000,000 bushels, or 10,000,000 less 
than last year's sum total, and nearly 82,000,000 less than that of 1893 
or 1894 at the corresponding period. To arrest this impending clanger, it 
has been proposed that an amount of 04,000,000 bushels of wheat should 
be purchased by the State and stored in national granaries, not to be 
opened, except to remedy deterioration of grain, or in view of national 
disaster rendering starvation imminent. This 04,000,000 bushels would 
add another fourteen weeks" life to the population ; assuming that the 
ordinary stock had not been drawn on, the wheat in the country would 
only then be enough to feed the population for twenty-eight weeks. 

I do not venture to speak authoritatively on national granaries. The 
subject has been discussed in the daily press, and the recently published 
Report from the Agricultural Committee on NationalAVheat Stores brings 
together all the arguments in favour of this important scheme, together 
with the difficulties to be faced if it be carried out with necessary com- 
pleteness. 

More hopeful, although difficult and costly, would be tlie alternative 
of growing most, if not all our own wheat supply here at liome in the 
British Isles. The average yield over the United Kingdom last year was 
29-07 bushels per acre, the average for the last eleven years being 29-46. 
For twelve months we need 240,000,000 bushels of wheat, requiring about 
8,250,000 acres of good wheat-growing land, or nearly 13,000 square 
miles, increasing at the rate of 100 square miles per annum, to render us 
self-supporting as to bread food. This area is about one-fourth the size 
of England.' 

A total area of land in the United Kingdom equal to a plot 110 
miles square, of quality and climate sufficient to grow wheat to the 
extent of 29 bushels per acre, does not seem a hopeless demand.- It is 
doubtful, however, if this amount of land could be kept under wheat, 
and the necessary expense of high farming faced, except under 
the imperious pressure of impending starvation, or the stimulus of a 
national subsidy or permanent high prices. Certainly these 13,000 square 
miles would not be available under ordinary economic conditions, for 
much, perhaps all, the land now under barley and oats would not be 

- Tlie total area of the United Kingdom is 120,979 square miles; therefore the 
required land is about a tenth part of the total. 



6 jtKrouT— 189S. 

suitable for wheat. In any case, owing to our cold, damp cliiuate and 
capricious weather, the wheat crop is hazardous, and for tlie present our 
annual deficit of 180,000,000 bushels must be imported. A permanently 
higher price for wheat is, I fear, a calamity tiiat ere long must be faced. 
At enhanced prices, land now under wheat will be better farmed, and 
therefore will yield better, thus giving increased production witliout 
increased area. 

The burning question of to-day is. What can the United Kingdom do 
to be reasonably safe from starvation in pn^sence of two successive 
failures of the world's wheat harvest, or against a hostile combination of 
European nations ? We eagerly spend millions to j^i'otcct our coasts and 
commerce ; and millions moi'e on ships, explosives, guns, and men ; but 
we omit to take necessary precautions to supply ourselves with the very 
first and supremely important munition of war — food. 

To take up the question of food-supply in its scientific aspect, I 
must not confine myself exclusively to our own national requirements. 
The problem is not restricted to the British Isles — the bread-eaters of the 
whole world share the perilous prospect — and I do not think it out of place 
if on this occasion I ask you to take with me a wide, general survey of 
the wheat supply of the Avhole world. 

Wheat is the most sustaining food grain of the great Caucasian race, 
which includes the peoples of Europe, United States, British America, tlie 
white inhabitants of South Africa, Australasia, parts of South America, 
and the white population of tlie European colonies. Of late years the in- 
dividual consumption of wheat has almost universally increased. In 
Scandinavia it has risen 100 per cent, in twenty-five years ; in Austro- 
Hungary, 80 per cent. ; in France, 20 per cent. ; while in Belgium it has 
inci'eased 50 per cent. Only in Russia and Italy, and possibly Turkey, 
has the consumption of wheat per head declined. 

In 1871 the bread-eaters of the world numbered 371,000,000. In 1881 
the numbers rose to 416,000,000 ; in 1891, to 472,600,000, and at the 
present time they number 516,500,000. The augmentation of the world's 
bread-eating population in a geometrical ratio is evidenced by the fact that 
the yearly aggregates grow progressively larger. In the early seventies 
they rose 4,300,000 per annum,' while in the eighties they increased by more 
than 6,000,000 per annum, necessitating annual additions to the bread 
supply nearly one-half gi-eater than sufficed twenty-five years ago. 

How much wheat will be required to supply all the.se hungry mouths 
with bread ? At the present moment it is not possible to get accurate 
estimates of this year's wheat crops of the world, but an adequate idea 
may be gained from the realised crops of some countries and the promise 
of others. To supply 516,500,000 bread-eaters, if each bread-eatuig unit 
is to have his usual ration, will require a total of 2,324,000,000 bushels 
for seed and food. AVhat are our prospects of obtaining this amount ? 

According to the best authorities the total supplies from the 1897-98 



ADDRESS. 7 

harvest are 1,921,000,000 bushels.' The requirement of the 516,500,000 
bread-eaters for seed and food are 2,324,000,000 bushels ; there is thus a 
dertcit of 403,000,000 bushels, which has not been urgently apparent 
owing to a surplus of 300,000,000 bushels carried over from the last 
harvest. Respecting the prospects of the harvest year just beginning it 
must be borne in mind that there are no remainders to bring over from 
last harvest. We start with a deficit of 103,000,000 bushels and have 
6,500,000 more mouths to feed. It follows, therefore, that one-sixth of the 
required bread will be lacking unless larger drafts than now seem possible 
can be made upon early produce from the next harvest.^ 

The majority of the wheat crops between 1882 and 1896 were in excess 
of current needs, and thus considerable reserves of wheat were available 
for supplementing small deficits from the four deficient harvests. But bread - 
eaters have almost eaten up the reserves of wheat, and the 1897 harvest 
being under average, the conditions become serious.-' That scarcity and 
high prices have not prevailed in recent years is due to the fact that since 
1889 we have had seven world crops of wheat and six of rye abundantly 
in excess of the average. These generous crops increased accumula- 
tions to such an extent as to obscure the fact that the harvests of 1895 
and 1896 were each much below current requirements. Practically speak- 
ing, reserves are now exhausted, and bread- eaters must be fed from current 
harvests — accumulation under present conditions being almost impossible. 
This is obvious from the fact that a harvest equal to that of 1894 (the 
greatest crop on record, both in acre-yield and in the aggregate) would 
yield less than current needs.* 

It is clear we are confronted with a colossal problem that must tax the 
wits of the wisest. When the bread-eaters have exhausted all possible 
supplies from the 1897-98 harvest, there will be a deficit of 103,000,000 
bushels of wheat, with no substitution possible unless Europeans can be 
induced to eat Indian com or rye bread. Up to recent years the growth 
of wheat has kept pace with demands. As wheat-eaters increased, the 
acreage under wheat expanded. The world has become so familiarised 
with the orderly sequence of demand and supply, so accustomed to look 
upon the vast plains of other wheat-growing countries as inexhaustible 
granaries, that, in a light-hearted way it is taken for granted that so many 
million additional acres can be added year after year to the wheat-growing 
area of the world. We forget that the wheat-growing area is of strictly 
limited extent, and that a few million acres regularly absorbed, soon 
mount to a formidable number. 

The present position being so gloomy, let us consider future prospects. 
What are the capabilities as regards available area, economic conditions, 
and acreage yield of the wheat-growing countries from whence we now draw 
our supply ? 

' Appendix B. '-' Appendix C. 

' Appendix D. * Apppendix E. 



8 REPORT— 1898. 

For the last thirty years the United States have been the dominant factor 
ill the foreign supply of wheat, exporting no less than 145,000,000 bushels. 
This shows how the bread-eating world has depended, and still depends, 
on the United States for the means of subsisteqce. The entire world's 
contributions to the food -bearing area have averaged but 4,000,000 acres 
yearly since 1869. It is scarcely possible that such an average, under 
existing conditions, can be doubled for the coming twen ty -five years. ' 
Almost yearly, since 1885, additions to the wheat-growing area have 
diminished, while the requirements of the increasing population of the 
States have advanced, so that the needed American supplies have been 
drawn from the acreage hitherto used for exportation. Practically there 
remains no uncultivated prairie land in the United States suitable for 
wheat-growing. The virgin land has been rapidly absorbed, until at present 
there is no land left for wheat without reducing the area for maize, hay, 
and other necessary crops.' 

It is almost certain that within a generation the ever increasing popu- 
lation of the United States will consume all the wheat grown within its 
borders, and will be driven to import, and, like ourselves, will scramble 
for a lion's share of the wheat crop of the world. This being the outlook, 
exports of wheat from the United States are only of present interest, and 
will gradually diminish to a vanishing point. The inquiry may be 
restricted to such countries as probably will continue to feed bread-eaters 
Avho annually derive a considerable part of their wheat from extraneous 
sources. 

But if the United States, which grow about one-fifth of the world's 
wheat, and contribute one-third of all wheat exportations, are even now 
dropping out of the race, and likely soon to enter the list of wheat- 
importing countries, what prospect is there that other wheat-growing 
countries will be able to fill the gap, and by enlarging their acreage under 
wheat, replace the .supply which the States have so long contributed to 
the world's food 1 The withdrawal of 145 million bushels wiU cause a 
serious gap in the food supply of wheat importing countries, and unless 
this deficit can be met by increased supplies from other countries there 
will be a deartli for the rest of the world after the British Isles are suffi- 
ciently supplied. 

Next to the United States, Russia is the gi'eatost wheat exporter, 
supplying nearly 95 million bushels.^ 

Although Russia at present exports so lavishly this excess is merely 
provisional and precarious. The Russian peasant population increases 
more rapidly than any other in Europe. The yield per acre over 
European Russia is meagre — not more than 8-6 bushels to the acre — 
while some authoi'ities consider it as low as 4*6 bushels. The cost of 
production is low — lower even than on the virgin soils of the United 
States. The development of the fertile though somewhat overrated 

" Appendix F. ^ Appendix G. ' .\ppenclix H. 



I 



ADDRESS. 9 

' black earth,' which extends across the southern portion of the empire 
and beyond the Ural Mountains into Siberia, progresses rapidly. But, as 
we have indicated, the consumption of bread in Russia has been reduced 
to danger point. The peasants starve and fall victims to ' hunger typhus,' 
whilst the wheat growers export grain that ought to be consumed at 
home. 

Considering Siberia as a wheat grower, climate is the first considera- 
tion. Summers are short — as they are in all regions with continental 
climates north of the 45th parallel — and the ripening of wheat requires a 
temperature averaging at least 65° Fahr. for fifty -five to sixty-five days. 
As all Siberia lies north of the summer isotherm of 65° it follows that 
such region is ill adapted to wheat culture unless some compensating 
climatic condition exists. As a fact, the conditions are exceptionally 
unfavourable in all but very limited districts in the two westernmost 
governments. The cultivable lands of "Western Siberia adapted to grain- 
bearing neither equal in extent nor in potential productive powers those 
of Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. There are limited tracts of fair pro- 
ductiveness in Central Siberia and in the valleys of the southern affluents 
of the Amoor, but these are only just capable of supporting a meagre 
population. 

Prince Hilkoff, Russian Minister of Ways and Communications, 
declared in 1896 that ' Siberia never had produced, and never would pro- 
duce, wheat and rye enough to feed the Siberian population.' And, a year 
later, Prince Krapotkin backed the statement as substantially correct. 

Those who attended the meeting of the British Association last year 
in Canada must have been struck with the extent and marvellous capacity 
of the fertile plains of Manitoba and the North-West Provinces. Here 
were to be seen 1,290,000 acres of fine wheat-growing land yielding 
18,261,950 bushels, one-fifth of which comes to hungry England. Ex- 
pectations have been cherished that the Canadian North- West would 
easily supply the world with wheat, and exaggerated estimates are drawn 
as to the amount of surplus land on which wheat can be grown. ' Thus 
far performance has lagged behind promise, the wheat-bearing area of all 
Canada having increased less than 500,000 acres since 1884, while the 
exports have not increased in greater proportion. As the wheat area of 
Manitoba and the North- West has increased the wheat area of Ontario 
and the Eastern provinces has decreased, the added acres being little 
more than sufficient to meet the growing requirements of population. 
We have seen calculations showing that Canada contains 500,000,000 
acres of profitable wheat land. The impossibility of such an estimate 
ever being fulfilled will be apparent when it is remembered that the 
whole area employed in both temperate zones for growing all the staple 
food crops is not more than 580,000,000 acres, and that in no country has 
more than 9 per cent, of the area been devoted to wheat culture.- 

> Appendix I. " Appendix J. 



10 REPORT— 1898. 

The fertility of the North-West Provinces of the Dominion is due lo an 
exceptional and curious circumstance. In winter the ground freezes to a 
considerable depth. Wheat is sown in the spring, generally April, when 
the frozen ground has been thawed to a depth of three inches. Under the 
hot sun of the short summer the grain sprouts with surprising rapidity, 
partly because the roots are supplied with water from the thawing depths. 
The sunnuer is too short to thaw the ground thoroughly, and gate-posts 
or other dead wood extracted in autumn are found still frozen at their 
lower ends. 

Australasia as a potential contributor to the world's supply of wheat 
atfords another fertile field for speculation. Climatic conditions limit the 
Australian wheat area to a small portion of the southern littoral belt. 
Professor Shelton considers there are still fifty million acres in Queensland 
suitable for wheat, but hitherto it has never had more than 150,000 acres 
under cultivation. Crops in former days were liable to rust, but since 
the Rust in Wheat conferences and the dissemination of instruction to 
farmers, rust no longer has any terrors. I am informed by the Queens- 
land Department of Agriculture that of late years they practically have 
bred wheat vigorous enough to resist this plague. For the second season 
in succession, the wheat crop last year was destroyed over large areas in 
Victoria ; and in South Australia the harvest averaged not more than about 
3| bushels per acre after meeting Colonial requirements for food and seed, 
leaving only 684,000 bushels for export. In most other districts the yield 
falls to such an extent as to cause Europeans to wonder why the pursuit 
of wheat-raising is continued. 

New Zealand has a moist climate resembling that of central and 
southern England, while South Australia is semi-arid, resembling western 
Kansas. Only two countries in the world yield as much wheat per acre 
as New Zealand — these are Denmark and the United Kingdom. Not- 
withstanding the great yield of wheat, due to an equable climate, New 
Zealand finds fruit and dairy farming still more profitable. The climatic 
conditions favourable to wheat are also conducive to luxuriant growths 
of nutritious grasses. Thus the New Zealander ships his butter more 
than half-way round the world, and competes successfully with Western 
Europe. 

During the last twenty-seven years the Austro-Hungarian population 
has increased 21-8 per cent., as against an increase of 54-6 per cent, in the 
acreage of wheat. Notwithstanding this disparity in the rates of increase, 
exports have practically ceased by reason of an advance of nearly 80 per 
cent, in unit consumption. There can be little doubt that Austro-Hungary 
is about to enter the ranks of importing nations, although in Hungary a 
considerable area of wheat land remains to be brought under culti- 
vation. ' 

Eoumania is an important wheat-growing country. In 1896 it pro- 

' Appendix K. 



ADDRESS. 11 

duced 69,000,000 Inisliels, and exported 34,000,000 bushels. It has 
a considerable amount of surplus land which can be used for wheat, 
although for many years the wheat area is not likely to exceed home 
requirements. 

France comes next to the United States as a producer of wheat ; but 
for our purpose she counts but little, being dependent on supplies from 
abroad for an average quantity of 14 per cent, of her own production. 
There is practically no spare land in France that can be put under wheat 
in sufficient quantity to enable her to do more than provide for increase 
of population. 

Germany is a gigantic importer of wheat, her imports rising 700 per 
cent, in the last twenty-five years, and now averaging 35,000,000 bushels. 
Other nations of Europe, also importers, do not require detailed mention, 
as under no conceivable conditions would they be able to do more than 
supply wheat for the increasing requirements of their local popula- 
tion, and, instead of I'eplenishing, would probably diminish, the world's 
stores. 

The prospective supply of wheat from Argentina and Uruguay has been 
greatly overrated. The agricultural area includes less than 100,000,000 
acres of good, bad, and indifferent land, much of which is best adapted 
for pastoral purposes. There is no prospect of Argentina ever being able 
to devote more than 30,000,000 acres to wheat ; the present wheat area 
is about 6,000,000 acres, an area that may be doubled in the next twelve 
years. But the whole arable region is subject to great climatic vicissitudes, 
and to frosts that ravage the fields south of the 37th parallel. Years of 
systematised energy are frustrated in a few days — perhaps hours — by a 
single cruelty of Nature, such as a plague of locusts, a tropical rain, or a 
devastating hail storm. It will take years to bring the surplus lands of 
Argentina into cultivation, and the population is even now insufficient to 
supply labour at seed time and harvest. 

During the next twelve years, Uruguay may add a million acres to 
the world's wheat fields ; but social, political, and economic conditions, 
seriously interfere with agricultural development. 

At the present time South Africa is an importer of wheat, and tlve 
regions suitable to cereals do not exceed a few million acres. Great 
expectations have been formed as to the fertility of Mashonaland, the 
Shire Highlands, and the Kikuyu plateau, and as to the adaptation of 
these regions to the growth of wheat. But wheat culture fails where the 
banana ripens, and the banana flourishes throughout Central Africa, 
except in limited areas of great elevation. In many parts of Africa insect 
pests render it impossible to store gi'ain, and without grain-stores there 
can be little hope of large exports. 

North Africa, formerly the granary of Rome, now exports less than 
5,000,000 bushels of wheat annually, and these exports are on the decline, 
owing to increased home demands. With scientific irrigation, Egypt 



12 REPORT— 1898. 

could supply three times her present amount of wheat, although no increase 
is likely unless the cotton fields of the Delta are diverted to grain grow- 
ing. In Algeria and Tunis nearly all reclaimed lands are devoted to the 
production of wine, for which a brisk demand exists. Were this land 
devoted to the growth of wheat, an additional five million bushels might 
be obtained. 

The enormous acreage devoted to wheat in India has been declining 
for some years, and in 1895 over 20,000,000 acres yielded 185,000,000 
bushels. Seven-eighths of this harvest is required for native consumption, 
and only one-eighth on an average is available for export. The annual 
increase of population is more than 3,000,000, demanding an addition to 
the food-bearing lands of not less than 1,800,000 acres annually. In 
recent years the increase has been less than one-fourth of this amount.' 

In surveying the limitations and vicissitudes of wheat crops, I have 
endeavoured to keep free from exaggeration, and have avoided insistance 
on doubtful points. I have done my best to get trustworthy facts and 
figures, but from the nature of the case it is impossible to attain complete 
accuracy. Great caution is required in sifting the numerous varying 
current statements respecting the estimated areas and total produce of 
wheat throughout the world. The more closely ofhcial estimates are 
examined, the more defective are they found, and comparatively few 
figures are sufficiently well established to bear the deductions often drawn. 
In doubtful cases I haVe applied to the highest authorities in each country, 
and in the case of conflicting accounts have taken data the least favour- 
able to sensational or panic- engendering statements. In a few instances 
of accurate statistics their value is impaired by age ; but for 95 per cent, 
of my figures I quote good authorities, while for the remaining 5 per cent. 
I rely on the best commercial estimates derived from the appearance of 
the growing crops, the acreage under cultivation, and the yield last year. 
The maximum probable error would make no appreciable difference in my 
argument. 

The facts and figures I have set before you are easily interjiroted. 
Since 1871 unit consumption of wheat, including seed, has slowly increased 
in the United Kingdom to the present amount of 6 bushels per head per 
annum ; while the rate of consumption for seed and food by the whole 
world of bread-eaters was 4"15 bushels per unit per annum for the eight 
years ending 1878, and at the present time is 4-5 bushels. Under present 
conditions of low acre yield, wheat cannot long retain its dominant posi- 
tion among the food-stuffs of the civilised world. The details of the 
impending catastrophe no one can predict, but its general direction is 
obvious enough. Should all the wheat-growing countries add to their 
area to the utmost capacity, on the most careful calculation the yield 
would give us only an addition of some 100,000,000 acres, supplying at the 
average world-yield of 12-7 bushels to the acre, 1,270,000,000 bushels, 

' Appendix L. 



ADDRESS. 13 

just enough to supply the increase of population among bread- eaters till 
the year 1931. ^ 

At the present time there exists a deficit in the wheat area of 31,000 
square miles— a deficit masked by the fact that the ten world crops of 
wheat harvested in the ten years ending 1896 were more than 5 per cent, 
above the average of the previous twenty-six years. 

When provision shall have been made, if possible, to feed 230,000,000 
units likely to be added to the bread-eating populations by 1931 — by the 
complete occupancy of the arable areas of the temperate zone now parti- 
ally occupied — where can be grown the additional 330,000,000 bushels of 
wheat required ten years later by a hungry world 1 What is to hajapen 
if the present rate of population be maintained, and if arable areas of 
sufiicient extent cannot be adapted and made contributory to the subsist- 
ence of so great a host ? 

Are we to go hungry and to know the trial of scarcity ? That is the 
poignant question. Thirty years is but a day in the life of a nation. 
Those present who may attend the meeting of the British Association 
thirty years hence will judge how far my forecasts are justified. 

If bread fails — not only us, but all the bread-eaters of the world 
what are we to do ? We are born wheat-eaters. Other races, vastly 
superior to us in numbers, but differing widely in material and intellectual 
progress, are eaters of Indian corn, rice, millet, and other grains; but 
none of these grains have the food value, the concenti-ated health-sus- 
taining power of wheat, and it is on this account that the accumulated 
experience of civilised mankind has set wheat apart as the fit and proper 
food for the development of muscle and brains. 

It is said that when other wheat-exporting countries realise that the 
States can no longer keep pace with the demand, these countries will 
extend their area of cultivation, and struggle to keep up the supply pari 
jmssu with the falling ofi" in other quarters. But will this comfortable 
and cherished doctrine bear the test of examination ? 

Cheap production of wheat depends on a variety of causes, varying 
greatly in different countries. Taking the cost of producing a given 
quantity of wheat in the United Kingdom at 100s., the cost for the same 
amount in the United States is 67s., in India 66s., and in Eussia 54s. 
We require cheap labour, fertile soil, easy transportation to market, low 
taxation and rent, and no export or import duties. Labour will rise in 
price, and fertility diminish as the requisite manurial constituents in the 
virgin soil become exhausted. Facility of transportation to market will 
be aided by railways, but these are slow and costly to construct, and it 
will not pay to carry wheat by rail beyond a certain distance. These 
corsiderations show that the price of wheat tends to increase. On the 
other hand, the artificial impediments of taxation and customs duties tend 
to diminish as demand increases and prices rise. 

' Appen ?.is M. 



o 



14 REPORT— 1898. 

I have said that starvation may be averted through the laboratory. 
Before we are in the grip of actual dearth the Clieniist will step in and 
postpone the day of famine to so distant a period that we, and our sons 
and grandsons, may legitimately live without undue solicitude for the 
future. 

It is now recognised that all crops require what is called a 'dominant' 
manure. Some need nitrogen, some potash, others phosphates. Wheat 
pre-eminently demands nitrogen, fixed in the form of ammonia or nitric 
acid. All other necessary constituents exist in the soil ; but nitrogen is 
mainly of atmospheric origin, and is rendered ' fixed ' by a slow and 
precarious process which requires a combination of rare meteorological 
and geographical conditions to enable it to advance at a sufficiently rapid 
rate to become of commercial importance. 

There are several sources of available nitrogen. The distillation of 
coal in the process of gas-making yields a certain amount of its nitrogen 
in the form of ammonia ; and this product, as sulphate of ammonia, is a 
substance of considerable commercial value to gas companies. But the 
quantity produced is comparatively small ; all Europe does not yield more 
than 400,000 annual tons, and, in view of the unlimited nitrogen required 
to substantially increase the world's wheat crop, this slight amount of 
coal ammonia is not of much significance. For a long time guano has 
been one of the most important sources of nitrogenous manures, but 
guano deposits are so near exhaustion that they may be dismissed from 
consideration. 

Much lias been said of late years, and many hopes raised by the 
discovery of Hellriegel and Wilfarth, that leguminous plants bear on 
their roots nodosities abounding in bacteria endowed with the propertj- 
of fixing atmospheric nitrogen; and it is proposed that the necessary 
amount of nitrogen demanded by grain crops should be supplied to the 
soil by cropping it with clover and ploughing in the plant when its 
nitrogen assimilisation is complete. But it is questionable whether such 
a mode of procedui'e will lead to the lucrative stimulation of crops. It 
must be admitted that practice has long been ahead of science, and 
for ages farmers have valued and cultivated leguminous crops. The four- 
course rotation is turnips, barley, clover, wheat — a sequence popular more 
than two thousand years ago. On the Continent, in certain localities, 
there has been some extension of microbe cultivation ; at home we have 
not reached even the experimental stage. Our present knowledge leads 
to the conclusion that the much more frequent growth of clover on the 
same land, even with successful microbe-seeding and proper mineral 
supplies, would be attended with uncertainty and difficulties. The land 
soon becomes what is called ' clover sick ' and turns barren. 

There is still another and invaluable source of fixed nitrogen. I mean 
the treasure locked up in the sewage and drainage of our towns. 
Individually the amount so lost is trifling, but multiply the loss by the 



ADDRESS. ] 5 

number of inhabitants, and we have the startling fact that, in the United 
Kingdom, we are content to hurry down our drains and water courses, 
into the sea, fixed nitrogen to the value of no less than 16,000,000?. per 
annum. This unspeakable waste continues, and no effective and universal 
method is yet contrived of converting sewage into corn. Of this barbaric 
waste of manurial constituents Liebig, nearly half a century ago, wrote 
in these prophetic words : ' Nothing will more certainly consummate the 
ruin of England than a scarcity of fertilisers — it means a scarcity of food. 
It is impossible that such a sinful violation of the divine laws of Nature 
should for ever remain unpunished ; and the time will probably come for 
England sooner than for any other country, when, with all her wealth in 
gold, iron, and coal, she will be unable to buy one-thousandth part of 
the food which she has, during hundreds of years, thrown recklessly 
away.' 

The more widely this wasteful system is extended, recklessly returning 
to the sea what we have taken from the land, the more surely and quickly 
will the finite stocks of nitrogen locked up in the soils of the world become 
exhausted. Let us remember that the plant creates nothing ; there is 
nothing in bread which is not absorbed from the soil, and unless the 
abstracted nitrogen is returned to the soil, its fertility must ultimately be 
exhausted. When we apply to the land nitrate of soda, sulphate of am- 
monia, or guano, we are drawing on the earth's capital, and our drafts 
will not perpetually be honoured. Already we see that a vircrin soil 
cropped for several yeai's loses its productive powers, and without artificial 
aid becomes infertile. Thus the strain to meet demands is increasingly 
great. Witness the yield of forty bushels of wheat per acre under 
favourable conditions, dwindling through exhaustion of soil to less than 
seven bushels of poor grain, and the urgency of husbanding the limited 
store of fixed nitrogen becomes apparent. The store of nitrogen in the 
atmosphere is practically unlimited, but it is fixed and x'endered assimilable 
by plants only by cosmic processes of extreme slowness. The nitrogen 
which with a light heart we liberate in a battleship broadside, has taken 
millions of minute organisms patiently working for centuries to win from 
the atmosphere.' 

The only available compound containing sufficient fixed nitrogen to be 
used on a world-wide scale as a nitrogenous manure is nitrate of soda, or 
Chili saltpetre. This substance occurs native over a narrow band of the 
plain of Tamarugal, in the northern provinces of Chili between the Andes 
and the coast hills. In this rainless district for countless aaes the con- 
tinuous fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the soil, its conversion into 
nitrate by the slow transformation of billions of nitrifying organisms, its 
combination with soda, and the crystallisation of the nitrate have been 
steadily proceeding, until the nitrate fields of Chili have become of vast 
commercial importance, and promise to be of inestimably greater value in 

' Appendix N. 



IG KEPORT— 1898. 

the future. The growing exports of nitrate from Chili at present amount 
to about 1,200,000 tons. 

The present acreage devoted to the world's growth of wheat is about 
103,000,000 acres. At the average of 12*7 bushels per acre this gives 
2,070,000,000 bushels. But thirty years hence the demand will be 
3,260,000,000 bushels, and there will be difficulty in finding the necessary 
acreage on which to grow the additional amount required. By increasing 
the present yield per acre from 12-7 to 20 bushels we should with our 
present acreage secure a crop of the requisite amount. Now from 12"7 to 
20 bushels per acre is a moderate increase of productiveness, and there is no 
doubt that a dressing with nitrate of soda will give this increase and more. 

The action of nitrate of soda in improving the yield of wheat has been 
studied practically by Sir John Lawes and Sir Henry Gilbert on their 
experimental field at Rothamstead, This field was sown with wheat for 
thirteen consecutive years without manure, and yielded an average of 11 '9 
bushels to the acre. For the next thirteen years it was sown with wheat, 
and dressed with 5 cwt. of nitrate of soda per acre, other mineral consti- 
tuents also being present. The average yield for these years was 364 
bushels per acre — an increase of 24-5 bushels. In other words, 22-SG lbs. 
of nitrate of soda produce an increase of one bushel of wheat. 

At this rate, to increase the world's crop of wheat by 7 3 bushels, about 
li cwt. of nitrate of soda must annually be applied to each acre. The 
amount required to raise the world's crop on 163,000,000 acres from the 
present supply of 2,070,000,000 bushels to the required 3,260,000,000 
bushels will be 12 million tons distributed in varying amounts over the 
wheat-gi'owing countries of the world. The countries which produce more 
than the average of 12'7 bushels will require less, and those below the 
average will require more ; but, broadly speaking, about 12,000,000 tons 
annually of nitrate of soda will be required, in addition to the 1^ million 
tons already absorbed by the world. 

It is difficult to get trustworthy estimates of the amount of nitrate 
surviving in the nitre beds. Common rumour declares the supply to be 
inexhaustible, but cautious local authorities state that at the present rate 
of export, of over one million tons per annum, the raw material ' caliche,* 
containing from 25 to 50 per cent, nitrate, will be exhausted in from 
twenty to thirty years. 

Dr. Newton, who has spent years on the nitrate fields, tells me there 
is a lower class material, containing a small proportion of nitrate, which 
cannot at present be used, but which may ultimately be manufactured at 
a profit. Apart from a few of the more scientific manufacturers, no one 
is sanguine enough to think this debatable material will ever be worth 
working. If we assume a liberal estimate for nitrate obtained from the 
lower grade deposit, and say that it will equal in quantity that from the 
richer quality, the supply may last, possibly, fifty years, at the rate of a 
million tons a year ■ but at the rate required to augment the world's 



ADDRE.SS. 17 

supply of wheat to the point denianded thirty years hence it will not last 
more than four years. 

I have passed in review all the wheat-growing countries of the world, 
with the exception of those whose united supplies are so small as to make 
little appreciable difference to the argument. The situation may be 
summed up briefly thus : — The world's demand for wheat — the leading 
bread-stuff — inci'eases in a crescendo ratio year by year. Gradually all 
the wheat-bearing land on the globe is appropriated to wheat-growing, 
until we are within measurable distance of using the last available acre. 
We must then rely on nitrogenous manures to increase the fertility of the 
land under wheat, so as to raise the yield from the world's low average — 
12'7 bushels per acre — to a higher average. To do this efficiently and 
feed the bread-eaters for a few years will exhaust all the available store 
of nitrate of soda. For years past we have been spending tixed nitrogen 
at a culpably extravagant rate, heedless of the fact that it is fixed with 
extreme slowness and difficulty, while its liberation in the free state takes 
place always Avith rapidity and sometimes with explosive violence. 

Some years ago Mr. Stanley Jevons uttered a note of warning as to 
the near exhaustion of our British coalfields. But the exhaustion of the 
world's stock of fixed nitrogen is a matter of far greater importance. It 
means not only a catastrophe little short of starvation for the wheat- 
eaters, but indirectly, scarcity for those who exist on inferior grains, 
together with a lower standard of living for meat-eaters, scarcity of 
mutton and beef, and even the extinction of gunpowder ! 

There is a gleam of light amid this darkness of despondency. In its 
free state nitrogen is one of the most abundant and pervading bodies on 
the face of the earth. Every square yard of the earth's surface has 
nitrogen gas pressing down on it to the extent of about seven tons — but 
this is in the free state, and wheat demands it Jixed. To convey this idea 
in an object-lesson, I may tell you that, previous to its destruction by fire, 
Colston Hall, measuring 146 feet by 80 feet by 70 feet, contained 27 tons 
weight of nitrogen in its atmosphere ; it also contained one-third of a ton 
of argon. In the free gaseous state this nitrogen is worthless ; combined 
in the form of nitrate of soda it would be worth about 2,000?, 

For years past attempts have been made to effect the fixation of 
atmospheric nitrogen, and some of the processes have met with sufficient 
partial success to warrant experimentalists in pushing their trials still 
further ; but I think I am right in saying that no process has yet been 
brought to the notice of scientific or commercial men which can be con- 
sidered successful either as regards cost or yield of product. It is possible, 
by several methods, to fix a certain amount of atmospheric nitrogen ; but 
to the best of my knowledge no process has hitherto converted more than 
a small amount, and this at a cost largely in excess of the present market 
value of fixed nitrogen. 

The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen therefore is one of the great 

1898. c 



18 REPORT— 1898. 

discoveries awaiting the ingenuity of chemists. It is certainly deeply 
important in its practical bearings on the future welfare and happiness 
of the civilised races of mankind. This unfulfilled problem, which so far 
has eluded the strenuous attempts of those who have tried to wrest the 
secret from nature, differs materially from other chemical discoveries 
which are in the air, so to speak, but are not yet matured. The fixation 
of nitrogen is vital to the pi'Ogress of civilised humanity. Other dis- 
coveries minister to our increased intellectual comfort, luxury, or con- 
venience ; they serve to make life easier, to hasten the acquisition of 
wealth, or to save time, health, or worry. The fixation of nitrogen is a 
question of the not far distant future; Unless we can class it among 
certainties to come the great Caucasian race will cease to be foremost in 
the world, and will be squeezed out of existence by races to whom wheaten 
bread is not the staff of life. 

Let me see if it is not possible even now to solve the momentous 
problem. As far back as 1892 I exhibited, at one of the Soirees of the 
Boyal Society, an experiment on ' The Flame of Burning Nitrogen.' I 
showed that nitrogen is a combustible gas, and the reason why when once 
ignited the flame does not spread through the atmosphere and deluge the 
world in a sea of nitric acid is that its igniting point is higher than the 
temperature of its flame — not, therefore, hot enough to set fire to the 
adjacent mixture. But by passing a strong induction current between 
terminals the air takes fire and continues to burn with a powerful flame, 
producing nitrous and nitric acids. This inconsiderable experiment may 
not unlikely lead to the development of a mighty industry destined to 
solve the great food problem. With the object of burning out nitrogen 
from air so as to leave argon behind, Lord Rayleigh fitted up apparatus 
for performing the operation on a larger scale, and succeeded in effecting 
the union of 29 '4 grammes of mixed nitrogen and oxygen at an expendi- 
ture of one horse-power. Following these figures it would require one 
Board of Trade unit to form 74 grammes of nitrate of soda, and therefore 
14,000 units to form one ton. To generate electricity in the ordinary 
way with steam engines and dynamos, it is now possible with a steady 
load night and day, and engines working at maximum efl&ciency, to pro- 
duce current at a cost of one-third of a penny per Board of Trade unit. 
At this rate one ton of nitrate of soda would cost 261. But electricity 
from coal and steam engines is too costly for large industrial purposes ', 
at Niagara, where water power is used, electricity can be sold at a profit 
for one-seventeenth of a penny per Board of Trade unit. At this rate 
nitrate of soda would cost not more than 51. per ton. But the limit of 
cost is not yet reached, and it must be remembered that the initial data 
are derived from small scale experiments, in which the object was not 
economy, but rather to demonstrate the practicability of the combustion 
method, and to utilise it for isolating argon. Even now electric nitrate 
at 51. a ton compares favourably with Chili nitrate at 71. 10s. a ton ; and 



ADDIIESS. 10 

all experience shows that when the road has been pointed out by a small 
laboratory experiment, the industrial operations that may follow arc 
always conducted at a cost considerably lower than could be anticipated 
from the laboratory figures. 

Before we decide that electric nitrate is a commercial possibility, a 
final question must be mooted. We are dealing with wholesale figures 
and must take care that we are not simply shifting difiBculties a littk- 
further back without really diminishing them. We start with a shortage 
of wheat, and the natural remedy is to put more land under cultivation. 
As the land cannot be stretched, and there is so much of it and no more, 
the object is to render the available area more productive by a dressing 
with nitrate of soda. But nitrate of soda is limited in quantity, and will 
soon be exhausted. Human ingenuity can contend even with these 
apparently hopeless difficulties. Nitrate can be produced artificially by 
the combustion of the atmosphere. Here we come to finality in one 
direction ; our stores are inexhaustible. But how about electricity 1 Can 
we generate enough energy to produce 12,000,000 tons of nitrate of soda 
annually 1 A preliminary calculation shows that there need be no fear 
on that score ; Niagara alone is capable of supplying the required electric 
•energy without much lessening its mighty flow. 

The future can take care of itself. The artificial production of nitrate 
is clearly within view, and by its aid the land devoted to wheat can be 
brought up to the 30 bushels per acre standard. In days to come, when 
the demand may again overtake supply, we may safely leave our suc- 
cessors to grapple with the stupendous food problem. 

And, in the next generation, instead of trusting mainly to food-stuflTs 
which flourish in temperate climates, we probably shall trust more and 
more to the exuberant food-stuffs of the tropics, where, instead of one 
yearly sober harvest, jeopardised by any shrinkage of the scanty days of 
summer weather, or of the few steady inches of rainfall, Nature annually 
supplies heat and water enough to ripen two or three successive crops of 
food- stuffs in extraordinary abundance. To mention one plant alone, 
Humboldt — from what precise statistics I know not — computed that, 
acre for acre, the food-productiveness of the banana is 133 times that of 
wheat — the unripe banana, before its starch is converted into sugar, is 
said to make excellent bread. 

Considerations like these must in the end determine the range and 
avenues of commerce, perhaps the fate of continents. We must develop 
and guide Nature's latent energies, we must utilise her inmost workshops, 
we must call into commercial existence Central Africa and Brazil to 
redress the balance of Odessa and Chicago. 

Having kept you for the last half-hour rigorously chained to earth, 
disclosing dreary possibilities, it will be a relief to soar to the heights of 
pure science and to discuss a point or two touching its latest achievements 



20 REroRT— 1898. 

and aspirations. Tlie low temperature researches whicli bring such 
renown to Professor Dewar and to his hiboratory in the Royal Institution 
have been crowned during the present year by the conquest of one of 
Nature's most defiant strongholds. On the 10th of last INlay Professor 
Dewar wrote to me these simple but victorious words : ' This evening I have 
succeeded in liquefying both hydrogen and helium. The second stage of 
low temperature work has begun.' Static hydrogen boils at a temperature 
of 238° C. at ordinary pressure, and at S-jO' C. in a vacuum, thus enabling 
us to get within 23'' C. of absolute zero. The density of liquid hydrogen 
is only one-fourteenth that of water, yet in spite of such a low density it 
collects well, drops easily, and has a well-defined meniscus. With proper 
isolation it will be as easy to manipulate liquid hydrogen as liquid air. 

The investigation of the properties of Ijodies brought near the absolute 
zero of temperature is certain to give results of extraordinary importance. 
Already platinum resistance thei-mometers are becoming useless, as the 
temperature of boiling hydrogen is but a few degrees from the point 
where the resistance of platinum would l)e practically nothing, or the 
conductivity infinite. 

Several years ago I pondered on the constitution of matter in what I 
ventured to call the fourth state. I endeavoured to probe the tormenting 
mystery of the atom. What is the atom ? Is a single atom in space 
solid, liquid, or gaseous. Each of these states involves ideas which can 
only pertain to vast collections of atoms. AYhether, like Newton, we try 
to visualise an atom as a hard, spherical body, or, with Boscovitch and 
Faraday, to regard it as a centre of force, or accept the vortex atom theoiy 
of Lord Kelvin, an isolated atom is an unknown entity diflicult to conceive. 
The properties of matter — solid, liquid, gaseous — are due to molecules 
in a state of motion. Therefore, matter as we know it involves essentially 
a mode of motion ; and the atom itself — intangible, invisible, and incon- 
ceivable — is its material basis, and may, indeed, be styled the only true 
matter. The space involved in the motions of atoms has no more preten- 
sion to be called matter than the sphere of influence of a body of riflemen 
— the sphere filled Mith flying leaden missiles — has to be called lead. 
Since what we call matter essentially involves a mode of mction, and 
since at the temperatui-e of absolute zero all atomic motions would stop, 
it follows that matter as we know it would at that paralysing temperature 
probably entirely change its properties. Although a discussion of the 
ultimate absolute properties of matter is purely speculative, it can hardly 
be barren, considering that in our laboratories we are now within moderate 
distance of the absolute zero of temperature. 

I have dwelt on the value and importance of nitrogen, but I must not 
omit to bring to your notice those little known and curiously related 
elements which during the past twelve months have been discovered and 
partly described by Professor Ramsay and Dr. Travers. For many years 
my own work has been among what I may call the waste heaps of the 



AUDKKSS. 21 

mineral elements. Professor Ramsay is dealing with vagrant atoms of 
an astral nature. During the course of the present year he has announced 
the existence of no fewer than three new gases— krypton, neon, and 
metargon. Whether these gases, chiefly known by their spectra, 
are true unalterable elements, or whether they are compounded of other 
known or unknown bodies, has yet to be proved. Fellow workers 
freely pay tribute to the painstaking zeal with which Professor Eamsay 
has conducted a difficult research, and to the philosophic subtlety brought 
to bear on his investigations. But, like most discoverers, he has not 
escaped the flail of severe criticism. 

There is still another claimant for celestial honours. Professor Nasini 
tells us he has discovered, in some volcanic gases at Pozzuoli, that liypo- 
thetical element Coronium, supposed to cause the bright line 531 GO in 
the spectrum of the sun's corona. Analogy points to its being lighter and 
more diffusible than hydrogen, and a study of its properties cannot fail to 
yield striking results. Still awaiting discovery by the fortunate specti'o- 
scopist are the unknown celestial elements Aurorium, with a characteristic 
line at 5570-7 — and Nebulum, having two bright lines at 500705 and 
4959-02. 

The fundamental discovery by Hertz, of the electro-magnetic waves 
predicted more than thirty years ago by Clerk Maxwell, seems likely to 
develop in the direction of a practical application which excites keen 
interest — I mean, the application to electric signalling aci'oss moderate 
distances without connecting wires. The feasibility of this method of 
signalling has been demonstrated by several experimenters at more than 
one meeting of the British Association, though most elaborately and with 
many optical refinements by Oliver Lodge at the Oxford meeting in 1894. 
But not until Signor Marconi induced the British Post-Otfice and 
Foreign Governments to try large scale experiments did wireless signalling 
become generally and popularly known or practically developed as a 
special kind of telegraphy. Its feasibility depends on the discovery of a 
singulai'ly sensitive detector for Hertz Avaves — a detector whose sensitive- 
ness in some cases seems almost to compare with that of the eye itself. 
The fact noticed by Oliver Lodge in 1889, that an infinitesimal metallic 
gap subjected to an electric jerk became conducting, so as to complete an 
electric circuit, was rediscovered soon afterwards in a more tangible and 
definite form and applied to the detection of Hertz waves by M. E. 
Branly. Oliver Lodge then continued the work, and produced the 
vacuum fil'mg-tuhe coherers with automatic tapper-back, which are of 
acknowledged practical service. It is this varying continuity of contact 
under the influence of extremely feeble electric stimulus alternating with 
mechanical tremor, which, in combination with the mode of producing 
the waves revealed by Hertz, constitutes the essential and fundamental 
feature of 'wireless telegraphy.' There is a curious and widely spread 
misapprehension about coherers, to the effect that to make a coherer work 



22 REPORT— 1898. 

the wave must fall upon it. Oliver Lodge has disproved this fallacy, 
r^et the wave fall on a suitable receiver, such as a metallic wire or, better 
still, on an arrangement of metal wings resembling a Hertz sender, and 
1 he waves set up oscillating currents which may be led by wires (enclosed 
in metal pipes) to the coherer. The coherer acts apparently by a species 
< )f end-impact of the oscillatoiy current, and does not need to be attacked 
in the flank by the waves tliemselves. This interesting method of 
signalling — already developing in Marconi's hands into a successful 
practical system which inevitably will be largely used in lighthouse and 
marine work — presents more analogy to optical signals by flash-light than 
to what is usually understood as electric telegraphy ; notwithstanding the 
fact that an ordinary Morse instrument at one end responds to the move- 
ments of a key at the other, or, as arranged by Alexander Muirhead, a 
siphon recorder responds to an automatic transmitter at about the rate of 
slow cable telegraphy. But although no apparent optical apparatus is 
employed, it remains true that the impulse travels from sender to receiver 
by essentially the same process as that which enables a flash of magnesium 
powder to excite a distant eye. 

The phenomenon discovered by Zeeman, that a source of radiation is 
afiected by a strong magnetic field in such a way that light of one re- 
f rangibility becomes divided usually into three components, two of which 
are displaced by diflraction analysis on either side of the mean position 
and are oppositely polarised to the third or residual constituent, has been 
examined by many observers in all countries. The phenomenon has been 
subjected to photography Avith conspicuously successful results by Professor 
T. Preston in Dublin and by Professor Michelson and Dr. Ames and 
others in America. 

It appears that the difierent lines in the spectrum are differently 
affected, some of them being tripled with different grades of relative 
intensity, some douliled, some quadrupled, some sextupled, and some left 
unchanged. Even the two components of the D lines are not similarly 
influenced. Moreover, whereas the polarisation is usually such as to 
indicate that motions of a negative ion or electron constitute the source 
of light, a few lines are stated by the observers at Baltimore, who used 
what they call the ' small ' grating of 5 inches width ruled with 65,000 
lines, to be polarised in the reverse way. 

Further prosecution of these researches must lead to deeper insight 
into molecular processes and the mode in which they affect the ether ; 
indeed already valuable theoretic views have been promulgated by 
H. A. Lorenz, J. Larmor, and G. F. Fitzgerald, on tlie lines of the 
radiation theory of Dr. Johnstone Stoney ; and the connection of the 
.new phenomena with the old magnetic rotation of Faraday is under 
discussion. It is interesting to note that Faraday and a number of more 
recent experimenters were led by theoretical considerations to look for 
some such effiect ; and though the inadequate means at their disposal did 



ADDKESS. 23 

not lead to success, nevertheless a first dim glimpse of the phenomenon was 
obtained by M. Fievez, of the Royal Observatory at Brussels, in 1885. 

It would be imjiroper to pass without at least brief mention the 
remarkable series of theoretic papers by Dr. J. Larmor, published by the 
Royal Society, on the relationship between ether and matter. By the 
time these researches become generally intelligible they may be found to 
constitute a considerable step towards the further mathematical analysis 
and interpretation of the physical universe on the lines initiated by 
Xewton. 

In the mechanical construction of Rontgen ray tubes I can record a 
few advances : the most successful being the adoption of Professor Silvanus 
P. Thompson's suggestion of using for the anti-cathode a metal of high 
atomic weight. Osmium and iridium have been used with advantage, 
and osmium anti-cathode tubes are now a regular article of manufacture. 
As long ago as June 1896, X-ray tubes with metallic ui'anium anti- 
cathodes were made in my own laboratory, 3.nd were found to work better 
than those with platinum. The difficulty of procuring metallic uranium 
prevented these experiments from being continued. Thorium anti- 
cathodes have also been tried. 

Rontgen has drawn fresh attention to a fact very early observed by 
English experimenters — that of the non-homogeneity of the rays and the 
dependence of their penetrating power on the degree of vacuum ; rays 
generated in high vacua have more penetrative power than when the 
vacuum is less high. These facts are familiar to all wlio liave exhausted 
focus tubes on their own pumps. Rontgen suggests a convenient phrase- 
ology ; he calls a low vacuum tube, which does not emit the highly 
penetrating rays, a ' soft ' tube, and a tube in which the exhaustion has 
been pushed to an extreme degree, in which highly penetrating rays pre- 
dominate, a 'hard' tube. Using a 'hard' tube he took a photograph of a 
double-barrelled rifle, and showed not only the leaden bullets within the 
steel barrels but even the wads and the charges. 

Benoit has re-examined the alleged relation between density and 
opacity to the rays, and finds certain discrepancies. Thus, the opacity of 
equal thicknesses of palladium and platinum are nearly equal whilst their 
densities and atomic weights are very difterent, those of palladium being 
about half those of platinum. 

At the last meeting of the British Association visitors saw — at the 
McGill University — Professors Cox and Callendar's apparatus for measur- 
ing the velocity of Rontgen rays. They found it to be certainly greater 
than 200 kilometres per second. Majorana has made an independent 
determination, and finds the velocity to be 600 kilometres per second with 
an inferior limit certainly of not less than 150 kilometres per second. It 
may be remembered that J. J. Thomson has found for cathode rays a 
velocity of more than 10,000 kilometres per second, and it is extremely 
unlikely that the velocity of Rontgen rays will prove to be less. 



24 REPORT — 1898. 

Trowbridge has verified the fact, pre\ iously announced by Professor 
iS. P. Thompson, that fluor-spar, which by jn-olonged heating has lost its 
power of luminescing when re-heated, regains the power of thermo-lumi- 
nescence when exposed to Rontgen rays. He finds that this restoration 
is also effected by exposure to the electric glow discharge, but not by expos- 
sure to ultra-violet light. The difference is suggestive. 

As for the action of Rontgen rays on bacteiia, often asserted and often 
denied, the latest statement by Dr. H. Rieder, of Munich, is to the effect 
that bacteria are killed by the discharge from ' hard ' tubes. "Whether 
the observation will lead to results of pathologic importance remains 
to be seen. The circumstance that the normal retina of the eye is 
slightly sensiti\e to the rays is confirmed by Dorn and by Rontgen 
himself. 

The essential wave-nature of the Rontgen rays appears to be con- 
firmed by the fact ascertained by several of our great mathematical 
physicists, that light of excessively short wave-length would be but 
slightly absorbed by ordinary material media, and would not in the 
ordinary sense be refracted at all. In fact a theoretic basis for a comj^re- 
hension of the Rontgen rays had been propounded before the rays were 
discovered. At the Liverpool meeting of the British Association, several 
speakers, headed by Sir George Stokes, expressed their conviction that the 
disturbed electric field caused by the sudden stoppage of the motion of an 
electrically charged atom yielded the true explanation of the phenomena 
extraneous to the Crookes high vacuum tubes — phenomena so excellently 
elaborated by Lenard and by Rontgen. More recently, Sir George Stokes 
has re-stated his 'pulse' theory, and fortified it with arguments which 
have an important bearing on the whole theory of the refraction of light. 
He still holds to their essentially transverse nature, in spite of the absence 
of polarisation, an absence once more confirmed by the careful experi- 
ments of Dr. L. Graetz. The details of this theory are in process of 
elaboration by Professor J. J. Thomson. 

Meantime, while the general opinion of physicists seems to be settling 
towards a wave or ether theory for the Rontgen rays, an opposite drift is 
apparent with respect to the physical nature of the cathode rays ; it be- 
comes more and more clear that cathode rays consist of electrified atoms 
or ions in rapid progressive motion. INIy idea of a fourth state of matter, 
propounded in 1881, • and at first opposed at home and abroad, is now be- 
coming accepted. It is supported by Professor J. J. Thomson :- Dr. 
Larmor's theory'' likewise involves the idea of an ionic substratum of 
matter ; the view is also confirmed by Zeeman's phenomenon. In Ger- 
many — where the term cathode ray was invented almost as a protest 
against the theory of molecular streams propounded by me at the Sheflield 
meeting of the British Association in 1879 — additional proofs have been 

' Phil. Trans., Part 2, 1881, pp. 433-4. 

■-• PMl. Mag., October 1897, p. 312. ' Ibid., December 1897, p. 506. 



ADDRESS. 25 

produced in favour of the doctrine that the essential fact in the pheno- 
menon is electrified Radiant Matter. 

The speed of these molecular streams has been approximately measured, 
chiefly by aid of my own discovery nearly twenty years ago, that their 
path is curved in a magnetic field, and that they produce phosphorescence 
where they impinge on an obstacle. The two unknown quantities, the 
charge and the speed of each atom, are measurable from the amount of 
curvature and by means of one other independent experiment. 

It cannot be said that a complete and conclusive theory of these rays 
has yet been formulated. It is generally accepted that collisions among 
particles, especially the violent collisions due to their impact on a massive 
target placed in their path, give rise to the interesting kind of extremely 
high frequency radiation discovered by Rontgen. It has, indeed, for some 
time been known that whereas a charged body in motion constitutes an 
electric current, the sudden stoppage, or any violent acceleration of such 
a body, must cause an alternating electric disturbance, which, though so 
rapidly decaying in intensity as to be practically ' dead beat,' yet must 
give rise to an ethereal wave or pulse travelling with the speed of light, 
but of a length comparable to the size of the body whose sudden change 
of motion caused the disturbance. The emission of a high-pitched musical 
sound from the jolting of a dustman's cart (with a spring bell hung on it) 
has been suggested as an illustration of the way in which the molecules of 
any solid not at absolute zero may possibly emit such rays. 

If the target on to which the electrically-charged atoms impinge is so 
constituted that some of its minute parts can thereby be set into rhyth- 
mical vibration, the energy thus absorbed reappears in the form of light, 
and the body is said to phosphoresce. The eflicient action of the phos- 
phorescent target appears to depend as much on its physical and mole- 
cular as on its chemical constitution. The best known phosphor! belong 
to certain well-defined classes, such as the sulphides of the alkaline-earthy 
metals, and some of the so-called rare earths ; but the phosphorescent 
properties of each of these groups are profoundly modified by an admix- 
ture of foreign bodies — witness the effect on the lines in the phosphor- 
escent spectrum of yttrium and samarium produced by traces of calcium 
or lead. The persistence of the samarium spectrum in presence of over- 
whelming quantities of other metals, is almost unexampled in spectro- 
scopy : thus one part of samaria can easily be seen when mixed with three 
million parts of lime. 

Without stating it as a general rule, it seems as if with a non- 
phosphorescing target the energy of molecular impact reappears as pulses 
so abrupt and irregular that, when resolved, they furnish a copious supply 
of waves of excessively short wave-length, in fact, the now well-known 
Rontgen rays. The phosphorescence so excited may last only a small 
fraction of a second, as with the constituents of yttria, where the duration 
of the different lines varies between the 0-003 and the 0'0009 second; 



26 REPORT — 1898. 

or it may linger for hours, as in the case of some of the yttria earths, and 
especially with the earthy sulphides, where the glow lasts bright enough 
to be commercially useful. Excessively phosphorescent bodies can be 
excited by light waves, but most of them require the stimulus of electrical 
excitement. 

It now appears that some bodies, even without special stimulation, 
are capable of giving out rays closely allied, if not in some cases identical, 
with those of Professor Rontgen. Uranium and thorium compounds are 
of this character, and it would almost seem from the important researches 
of Dr. Piussell, that this ray-emitting power may be a general property of 
matter, for he has shown that nearly every substance is capable of 
affecting the photographic plate if exposed in darkness for sufficient 
time. 

No other source for Rontgen rays but the Crookes tube has yet been 
discovered, but rays of kindred sorts are recognised. The Becquerel rays, 
emitted by uranium and its compounds, have now found their companions 
in rays — discovered almost simultaneously by Curie and Schmidt — emitted 
by thorium and its compounds. The thorium rays affect photographic 
plates through screens of paper or aluminium, and are absorbed by metals 
and other dense bodies. They ionise the air, making it an electrical 
conductor; and they can be refracted and probably reflected, at least 
diffusively. Unlike uranium rays, they are not polarised by transmission 
through tourmaline, therefore resembling in this respect the Rontgen rays. 
I Quite recently M. and Mme. Curie have announced a discovery 
which, if confirmed, cannot fail to assist the investigation of this obscure 
branch of physics. They have brought to notice a new constituent of 
the uranium mineral pitchblende, which in a 400-fold degree possesses 
uranium's mysterious power of emitting a form of energy capable of im- 
pressing a photographic plate and of discharging electricity by rendering 
air a conductor. It also appears that the radiant activity of the new 
body, to which the discoverers have given the name of Polonium, needs 
neither the excitation of light nor the stimulus of electricity ; like 
uranium, it draws its energy from some constantly regenerating and 
hitherto unsuspected store, exhaustless in amount. 

It has long been to me a haunting problem how to reconcile this 
apparently boundless outpour of energy with accepted canons. But as 
Dr. Johnstone Stoney reminds me, the resources of molecular movements 
are far from exhausted. There are many stores of energy in nature that 
may be drawn on by properly constituted bodies without very obvious 
cause. Some time since I di'ew attention to the enormous amount of 
locked up energy in the ether ; nearer our experimental gi-asp are the 
motions of the atoms and molecules, and it is not difficult mentally so to 
modify Maxwell's demons as to reduce them to the level of an inflexible 
law and thus bring them within the ken of a philosopher in search of a 
new tool. It is possible to conceive a target capable of mechanically 



ADDRESS. 27 

sifting from tlio molecules of the surrounding air the quick from the slow 
movers. This sifting of the swift moving molecules is effected in liquids 
whenever they evaporate, and in the case of the constituents of the 
atmosphere, wherever it contains constituents light enough to drift away 
molecule by molecule. In my mind's eye I see such a target as a piece of 
metal cooler than the surrounding air acquiring the energy that gradually 
raises its temperature from the outstanding effect of all its encounters 
with the molecules of the air about it ; I see another target of such a 
structure that it throws off the slow moving molecules with little exchange 
of energy, but is so influenced by the quick moving missiles that it 
appropriates to itself some of their energy. Let uranium or polonium, 
bodies of densest atoms, have a structure that enables them to throw off 
the slow moving molecules of the atmosphere, while the quick moving 
molecules, smashing on to the surface, have their energy reduced and that 
of the target correspondingly increased. The energy thus gained seems 
to be employed partly in dissociating some of the molecules of the gas (or 
in inducing some other condition which has the effect of rendering the 
neighbouring air in some degree a conductor of electricity) and partly in 
originating an undulation through the ethei*, which, as it takes its rise in 
phenomena so disconnected as the impacts of the molecules of the air, 
must furnish a large contingent of light waves of short wave-length. The 
shortness in the case of these Becquerel rays appears to approach without 
attaining the extreme shortness of ordinary Rontgen rays. The reduction 
of the speed of the quick moving molecules would cool the layer of air to 
which they belong ; but this cooling would rapidly be compensated by 
radiation and conduction from the surrounding atmosphere ; under ordi- 
nary circumstances the difference of temperature would scarcely be per- 
ceptible, and the uranium would thus appear to perpetually emit rays of 
energy with no apparent means of restoration. 

The total energy of both the translational and internal motions of the 
molecules locked up in quiescent air at ordinary pressure and temperature 
is about 140,000 foot-pounds in each cubic yard of air. Accordingly the 
quiet air within a room 12 feet high, 18 feet wide, and 22 feet long 
contains energy enough to propel a one-horse engine for more than twelve 
hours. The store drawn upon naturally by uranium and other heavy 
atoms only awaits the touch of the magic wand of Science to enable 
the Twentieth Centuiy to cast into the shade the marvels of the 
iN'ineteenth. 

Whilst placing before you the labours and achievements of my com- 
rades in Science I seize this chance of telling you of engrossing work of 
my own on the fractionation of yttria to which for the last eighteen years 
I have given ceaseless attention. In 1883, under the title of 'Radiant 
Matter Spectroscopy,' I described a new series of spectra produced by 
passing the phosphorescent glow of yttria, under molecular bombardment 
in vacuo, through a train of prisms. The visible spectra in time gave up 



28 REPORT— 1898. 

their secrets, and were duly embalmed in the riiUosophical Transactions. 
At the Birmingham meeting of the British Association in 188G I brought 
the subject before the Chemical Section, of which I had the honour to be 
President. The results led to many speculations on the probable origin 
of all the elementary bodies — speculations that for the moment I must 
waive in favour of exj^erimental facts. 

There still remained for spectroscopic examination a long tempting 
stretch of unknown ultra-violet light, of which the exploration gave me no 
rest. But I will not now enter into details of the quest of unknown lines. 
Large quartz prisms, lenses, and condensers, specially sensitised photo- 
graphic iilms capable of dealing with the necessary small amount of radia- 
tion given by feebly phosphorescing substances,' and above all tireless 
patience in collating and interpreting results, have all played their part. 
Although the research is incomplete I am able to announce that among 
the gi'oups of rare earths giving phosphorescent spectra in the visible 
region there are others giving well defined groups of bands whicli can only 
be recorded photographically. I have detected and mapped no less than 
six such groups extending to \ 3060. 

Without enlarging on difficulties, I will give a brief outline of tlie in- 
vestigation. Starting with a large quantity of a group of the rare earths 
in a state of considerable ^Durity, a particular method of fractionation is 
applied, splitting the earths into a series of fractions differing but slightly 
from each other. Each of these fractions, phosphorescing i)i vacuo, is 
arranged in the spectrograph, and a record of its spectrum photographed 
upon a specially prepared sensitive film. 

In this way, with different groups of rare earths, the several invisible 
bands were recorded — some moderately strong, others exceedingly faint. 
Selecting a portion giving a definite set of bands, new methods of frac- 
tionation were applied, constantly photographing and measuring the 
spectrum of each fraction. Sometimes many weeks of hard experiment 
failed to produce any .separation, and then a new method of splitting up 
was devised and applied. By unremitting work — the solvent of most 
difficulties — eventually it was possible to split up the series of bands into 
various groups. Then, taking a group which seemed to offer possibilities 
of reasonably quick result, one method after another of chemical attack 
was adopted, with the ultimate result of freeing the group from its accom- 
panying fellows and increasing its intensity and detail. 

As I have said, my researches are far from complete, but about one of 
the bodies I may .speak definitely. High up in the ultra-violet, like a 
faint nebula in the distant heavens, a group of lines was detected, at first 
feeble and only remarkable on account of their isolation. On further puri- 
fication these lines grew stronger. Their great refrangibility cut them off 

' In tliis direction I am glad to acknowleilge my indebtedness to Dr. Schuiiian, of 
Leipzig, for valuable suggestions and dot;ul of his own apparatus, by means of which 
he has produced some unique records of metallic and gaseous spectra of lines of short 
wave-length. 



ADDRESS. 29 

from other groups. Special processes were employed to isolate tJic earth, 
and using these lines as a test, and appealing at every step to the spectro- 
graph, it was pleasant to see how each week the group stood out stronger 
and stronger, while the other lines of yttrium, samarium, ytterbium, tl-c, 
became fainter, and at last, practically vanishing, left the sought-for group 
strong and solitary. Finally, within the last few weeks, hopefulness has 
emerged into certainty, and I have absolute evidence that another member 
of the rare earth groups has been added to the list. Simultaneously with 
the chemical and spectrographic attack, atomic weight determinations 
were constantly performed. 

As the group of lines which betrayed its existence stand alone, almost 
at the extreme end of the ultra-violet spectrum, I propose to name the 
newest of the elements Monium, from the Greek /(dro?, alone. Although 
caught by the searching rays of the spectrum, Monium offers a direct 
contrast to the recently discovered gaseous elements, by having a strongly 
marked individuality ; but although so young and wilful, it is willing to 
enter into any number of chemical alliances. 

Until my material is in a greater state of purity I hesitate to commit 
myself to figures ; but I may say that the wave-lengths of the principal 
lines are 3120 and 3117. Other fainter lines are at 3219, 3064, and 
3060. The atomic weight of the element, based on the assumption of 
RoOj, is not far from 118— greater than that accepted for yttrium and 
less than that for lanthanum. 

I ought almost to apologise for adding to the already too long list of ele- 
ments of the rare earth class — the asteroids of the terrestrial family. But 
as the host of celestial asteroids, unimportant individually, become of high 
interest when once the idea is grasped that they may be incompletely 
coagulated remains of the original nebula, so do these elusive and insig- 
nificant rare elements rise to supreme importance when we regard them 
in the light of component parts of a dominant element, frozen in embryo, 
and an-ested in the act of coalescing from the original protyle into one 
of the ordinary and law-abiding family for whom Newlands and Mende- 
leeff have prepared pigeon-holes. The new element has anotlier claim to 
notice. Not only is it new in itself, but to discover it a new tool had to 
be forged for spectroscopic research. 

Further details I will reserve for that tribunal before whom every 
aspirant for a place in the elemental hierarchy has to substantiate his 
claim. 

These, then, are some of the subjects, weighty and far-reaching, on 
which my own attention has been chiefly concentrated. Upon one other 
interest I have not yet touched — to me the weightiest and the farthest 
reaching of all. 

No incident in my scientific career is more widely known than the 
part I took many years ago in certain psychic researches. Thirty years 



30 REPORT— 1 898. 

liave passed since I published an account of experiments tending to sliow 
that outside our scientific knowledge there exists a Force exercised by 
intelligence differing from the ordinary intelligence common to mortals. 
This fact in my life is of course well understood by those who honoured 
me with the invitation to become your President. Perhaps among my 
audience some may feel curious as to whether I shall speak out or bo 
.silent. I elect to speak, although briefly. To enter at length on a still 
debatable subject would be unduly to insist on a topic which — as Wallace, 
Lodge, and Barrett have already shown — though not unfitted for dis- 
cussion at these meetings, does not yet enlist the interest of the majority 
of my scientific brethren. To ignore the subject would be an act of 
cowardice — an act of cowardice I feel no temptation to commit. 

To stop short in any research that bids fair to widen the gates of 
knowledge, to recoil from fear of difficulty or adverse criticism, is to bring 
reproach on Science. There is nothing for the investigator to do but to 
go straight on, 'to explore up and down, inch by inch, with the taper his 
reason ' ; to follow the light wherever it maj-^ lead, even should it at times 
resemble a will-o'-the-wisp. I have nothing to retract. I adhere to my 
already published statements. Indeed, I might add much thereto. I 
regret only a certain crudity in those early expositions which, no doubt 
justly, militated against their acceptance by the scientific world. My 
own knowledge at that time scarcely extended beyond the fact that 
certain phenomena new to science had assuredly occurred, and were 
attested by my own sober senses, and better still, by automatic record. 
I was like some two-dimensional being who might stand at the singular 
point of a Riemann's surface, and thus find himself in infinitesimal and 
inexplicable contact with a plane of existence not his own. 

I think I see a little farther now. I have glimpses of something like 
coherence among the strange elusive phenomena ; of something like con- 
tinuity between those unexplained forces and laws already known. This 
advance is largely due to the labours of another Association of Avhich I 
have also this year the honour to be President — the Society for Psychical 
Research. And were I now introducing for the first time these inquiries 
to the world of science I should choose a starting-point different 
from that of old. It would be well to begin with tclcpatliy ; with the 
fundamental law, as I believe it to be, that thoughts and images may 
be transferred from one mind to another without the agency of 
the recognised organs of sense — that knowledge may enter the human 
mind without being communicated in any hitherto known or recognised 
ways. 

Although the inquiry has elicited important facts with reference to the 
Mind, it has not yet reached the scientific stage of certainty which would 
entitle it to be usefully brought before one of our Sections. I will there- 
fore confine myself to pointing out the direction in which scientific 
investigation can legitimately advance. If telepathy take place we have 



ADDRESS. 31 

two physical facts — the physical change in the brain of A, the suggestei-, 
and the analogous physical change in the brain of B, the recipient of the 
suggestion. Between these two physical events there must exist a train 
of physical causes. Whenever the connecting sequence of intermediate 
causes begins to be revealed the inquiry will then come within the range of 
one of the Sections of the British Association. Such a sequence can only 
occur through an intervening medium. All the plienomena of the universe 
are presumably in some way continuous, and it is unscientific to call in the 
aid of mysterious agencies when with every fresh advance in knowledge 
it is shown that ether vibrations have powers and attributes abundantly 
equal to any demand — even to the transmission of thought. It is sup- 
posed by some pliysiologists that the essential cells of nerves do not 
actually touch, but are separated by a narrow gap which widens in sleep 
while it narrows almost to extinction during mental activity. This con- 
dition is so singularly like that of a Branly or Lodge coherer as to suggest 
a further analogy. The structure of brain and nerve being similar, it is 
conceivable there may be present masses of such nerve coherers in tlie 
brain whose special function it may be to receive impulses brought from 
without through the connecting sequence of ether waves of appropriate 
order of magnitude. Rontgen has familiarised us with an order of vibra- 
tions of extreme minuteness compared with the smallest waves with which 
we have hitherto been acquainted, and of dimensions comparable with the 
distances between the centres of the atoms of which the material universe 
is built up ; and there is no reason to suppose that we have here reached 
the limit of frequency. It is known that the action of thought is accom- 
panied by certain molecular movements in the brain, and here we have 
physical vibrations capable from their extreme minuteness of acting direct 
on individual molecules, while their rapidity approaches that of the internal 
and external movements of the atoms themselves. 

Confirmation of telepathic phenomena is aSbrded by many converging 
experiments, and by many spontaneous occurrences only thus intelligible. 
The most varied proof, perhaps, is drawn from analysis of the sub-conscious 
workings of the mind, when these, whether by accident or design, are 
brought into conscious survey. Evidence of a region, below the threshold 
of consciousness, has been presented, since its first inception, in the 
Proceeding ti of the Society for Psychical Research ; and its various aspects 
are being interpreted and welded into a comprehensive whole by the perti- 
nacious gein'us of F. W. H. Myers. Concurrently, our knowledge of the 
facts in this obscure region has received valuable additions at the hands 
of labourers in other countries. To mention a few names out of many, 
the observations of Richet, Pierre Janet, and Binet (in France), of Breuer 
and Freud (in Austria), of William James (in America) have strikingly 
illustrated the extent to which patient experimentation can probe sub- 
liminal processes, and can thus learn the lessons of alternating personali- 
ties, and abnormal states. Whilst it is clear that our knowledge of 



32 KEPORT— 1898. 

subconscious mentation is still to be developed, we must beware of 
rashly assuming tiiat all variations from the normal waking condition are 
necessarily morbid. The human race has reached no fixed or changeless 
ideal ; in every direction there is evolution as well as disintegration. It 
would be hard to find instances of more rapid progress, moral and physical, 
than in certain important cases of cure by suggestion — again to cite a few 
names out of many — by Liebeault, Bernheim, the late Auguste Voisin, 
Berillon (in France), Schrenck-Notzing (in Germany), Forel (in Switzer- 
land), van Eeden (in Holland), Wetterstrand (in Sweden), Milne-Bramwell 
and Lloyd Tuckey (in England). This is not the place for details, but the 
vis medicatrix thus evoked, as it were, from the depths of the organism, is 
of good omen for the upward evolution of mankind. 

A formidable range of phenomena must be scientifically sifted before 
we effectually grasp a faculty so strange, so bewildering, and for ages so 
inscrutable, as the direct action of mind on mind. This delicate task 
needs a rigorous employment of the method of exclusion— a constant 
setting aside of irrelevant phenomena that could be explained by known 
causes, including those far too familiar causes, conscious and unconscious 
fraud. The inquiry unites the difficulties inherent in all experimentation 
connected with mind, with tangled human temperaments and with obser- 
vations dependent less on automatic record than on personal testimony. 
But difficulties are things to be overcome even in the elusory branch of 
research known as Experimental Psychology. It has been characteristic 
of the leaders among the group of inquirers constituting the Society for 
Psychical Research to combine critical and negative work with work 
leading to positive discovery. To the penetration and scrupulous fair- 
mindedness of Professor Henry Sidgwick and of the late Edmund Gurney 
is largely due the establishment of canons of evidence in psychical research, 
which strengthen while they narrow the path of subsequent explorers. 
To the detective genius of Dr. Richard Hodgson we owe a convincing 
demonstration of the narrow limits of human continuous observation. 

It has been said that ' Nothing worth the proving can be proved, nor 
yet disproved.' True though this may have been in the past, it is true 
no longer. The science of our century has forged weapons of observation 
and analysis by which the veriest tyro may profit. Science has trained 
and fashioned the average mind into habits of exactitude and disciplined 
perception, and in so doing has fortified itself for tasks higher, wider, and 
incomparably more wonderful than even the wisest among our ancestors 
imagined. Like the souls in Plato's myth that follow the chariot of Zeus, 
it has ascended to a point of vision far above the earth. It is, henceforth, 
open to science to transcend all we now think we know of matter, and to 
gain new glimpses of a profounder scheme of Cosmic Law. 

An eminent predecessor in this chair declared that ' by an intellectual 
necessity he crossed the boundary of experimental evidence, and discerned 
in that matter, which we in our ignorance of its latent powers, and not- 
withstanding our professed reverence for its Creator, liave hitherto covered 



ADDRESS. 33 

with opprobrium, the potency and promise of all terrestrial life.' I should 
prefer to reverse the apophthegm, and to say that in life I see the promise 
and potency of all forms of matter. 

In old Egyptian days a well-known inscription was cawed over the 
portal of the temple of Isis : — ' I am whatever hath been, is, or ever will 
be ; and my veil no man hath yet lifted.' Not thus do modern seeker.y 
after truth confront Nature — the word that stands for the baffling 
mysteries of the universe. Steadily, unflinchingly, we strive to pierce the 
inmost heart of Nature, from what she is to re-construct what she has 
been, and to prophesy what she yet shall be. Veil after veil we have 
lifted, and her face grows more beautiful, august, and wonderful, with 
every barrier that is withdrawn. 

APPENDIX. 
In preparing the part of this Address dealing with the world's supply 
and demand for wheat, and the conclusions based thereon, I have been 
materially assisted by Mr. C. Wood Davis, of Kansas, U.S.A. Apart 
from information obtained from Mr. Davis's articles in ' The Forum,' the 
' North- Western Miller,' the ' New York Sun,' and other papers, I am 
indebted to him for valuable manuscript information on matters of detail. 
Mr. Davis appears to be the only person dealing with this problem in a- 
manner to determine such essential factors as average acre yields for long 
periods, unit requirements for each of the primary food staples of the 
temperate zones, and the ratios existing during different recent periods 
between the consuming element and acres employed in the production of 
■each of such primary food staples. His scientific method enables him to 
ascertain the acreage requirements of the separate national populations, 
and of the ' bread-eating ' world as a whole. Information has also been 
obtained from the ' Agricultural Returns of the United Kingdom,' the 
official ' Reports on Agricultural Depression,' and the Annual Reports of 
the United States Secretary of Agriculture ; likewise from papers and 
articles by Sir John Lawes, Sir H. Gilbert, Major Craigie, Mr. W. E. 
Bear, Mr. Warington, Professor E. M. Shelton, Mr. R. F. Crawford, 
Dr. Newton, and Mr. W. Walgrave Chapman. The 'Journal of the 
Royal Agricultural Society,' the 'Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,' 
the 'Journal of the Roard of Agriculture,' and other periodicals have also 
been laid under contribution. I am also indebted to the various official 
publications of the Government of Canada, the Department of Agricul- 
ture, Queensland, and to friends all over the world. 

A. 

Last year there were under corn crops in the United Kingdom : — 
Wheat . . . 3,025 sq. miles, producing 50,296,000 bushels. 
Barley . . . 3,447 
Oats "... 6,580 

Total . . 13,062 

1898. » 



31. 



REPORT — 1898. 



There is now about .as much area under mixed cereals as would have 
to be devoted solely to wheat to make our country self -supporting. 
B.—rke World's Wheat Croj) of 1897-98 fro7n Contribitton/ Area.<.' 



United States 

France 

Russia and Poland 

Anstria-Hungary 

Germany , 

Spain . 

Italy . 

Trans-Caucasia and Siberia 

Argentina . 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Roumania . 

Caucasia (Northern) 

Australasia 

Bulgaria 

Turkey in Europe 

r)elgium 

Chili . 



Tablf shoiving the T 



Bushels 

.-.10,000,000 

240,000,000 

230,000,000 

135,000,000 

105,000,000 

06,000,000 

82,000,000 

64,000,000 

60,000,000 

56,000,000 

55,000,000 

43,000,000 

40,000,000 

38,000,000 

30,000,000 

22,000,000 

16,000,000 

15,000,000 



Uruguay, Brazil, &c. 

Portugal 

Servia 

Holland 

Denmark . 

Sweden and Norway 

Greece 

Switzerland 

Bosnia, Montenegro, 

prus, &c. 
South Africa . 



Cv 



Add imports from Asia 
and North Africa . 

Tot.-vl available wheat 
supply . 



Busliels 

0,000,000 

7.000,000 

6,000,000 

5,000,000 

5,000,000 

5,000,000 

4,000,000 

4,000,000 

4,000,000 
4,000,000 

1,800,000,000 

31,000,000 

1,921,000,000 



Variations in the Bread-eating Populations and the Arailahle 
Supphj of Wheat in. the Five Yearly Periods from 1878 to 1807, in Millions of 
Bushels, and Annual Averages. 



Years 



1877-81 
1882-86 
1887-01 
1802-06 
1897-98 



Bread- 
eating 
Popula- 
tions 



407-0 
432-8 
460-8 
490-9 
510-0 



Wlieat 
grown by 
' Contribu- 
tory areas ' 



1707-0 
1037-6 
2043-5 
2100-2 
1800-0 



Imports 


Remain- 


from Asia 


ders from 


and North 


former 


Africa 


harvest 


13-8 


174-4 


41-4 


294-0 


43-2 


260-2 


23-6 


265-4 


310 


3000 



Total 

available 

supply 



1085-2 
2273-0 
23469 
2488-2 
2221-0 



Required 
for seed 
aud food 



1812-8 
1046-0 
2102-0 
2233-8 
2310-0 



Supply 

in excess 

of year's 

needs 



172-4 
327-0 
244-9 
254-4 
Deficit 
890 



C. 

The ' world's demand ' for Avheat is as follows : 

Bushels 
180,000,000 
24,000,000 
35,000,000 
13,000,000 
13,500,000 
40,000,000 
4,000,000 



United Kingdom, about 

Belgium 

Germany . 

Holland 

Switzerland 

France 

Sweden 



Spain 

Portug.al 

Greece 

Islands and tropical landi^ 

Total 



Bushels ' 

10,000,00{> 

4,000,000 

4,500,000 

28,000,000 

356,000,00a 



D. 



Between 1882 and 1897 tlie wheat crops were so abundant that over 
1,-200 million bushels were added to our stores, beside large accumulations of 
rye. During this time of golden harvests, the exports from Russia increased, 

' Outside the better known areas of wheat supply a certain proportion of wlieat 
comes from India, Persia, Syria, Anatolia and North Africa. But it is impossible to 
get accurate figures as to acreage and yield from these countries ; as bread-eaters 
derive less than one per cent, of their supplies from these outlying sources, it is con- 
venient to call the ordinary areas ' contributory areas,' and to deal with the external 
areas no further than to show the volume of imports yielded from year to year. 



ADDRESS. 



35 



in consequence of the Russian decline in unit consumption of 13-o per cent. 
These reserves have been gradually drawn upon, but enough still re- 
mained to obscure the fact that the 1895-6 harvest was 75,000,000 bushels, 
and the 1896-7 harvest was 138,000,000 bushels below current needs. 

The following table' has been compiled from statistics carefully collected 
by Mr. Davis and other observers. The prophetic figures are on the 
assumption that population, unit consumption, and steady development 
will increase during the next forty-three years as they have increased 
since 1871 :— 



Date 


Bread-eaters 


Food and Seed* 
required 
per unit. 
Bushels 


Requiring 
bushels 
of wheat 


With yields 
averaging 12'7 

bushels acreage j 
required j 

1 


1871 
1881 
1891 
1898 
1901 
1911 
1921 
1931 
1941 


371,000,000 
416,000,000 
472,600,000 
516,500,000 
536,100,000 
603,700,000 
674,000,000 
746,100,000 
819,200,000 


415 

4-38 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 


1,540,000,000 
1,822,000,000 
2,127,000,000 
2,324,000,000 
2,412,000,000 
2,717,000,000 
3,033,000,000 
3,357,000,000 
3,686,000,000 


121,000,000 
143,000,000 
167,000,000 
183,000,000 
190,000,000 
214,000,000 
239,000,000 
264,000,000 
290.000,000 



To supply these bread- eaters, the world inhabited by bread-eating 
populations grew the following quantities of wheat in each of the desig- 
nated five-year periods : — 



Years 


Bushels — Annual average 


Acres — Annual average 


1871-75 
1876-80 
1881-85 
188G-90 
1891-95 


1,580,000,000, grown on 

1,746,000,000 

1,926,000,000 

1,987,000,000 

2,201,000,000 


131,000,000 
143,000,000 
152,000,000 
154,000,000 
159,000,000 



' I have taken the unit consumption including seed at 45 bushels and the yield 
per acre at 12-7 bushels per annum, this being the average of the whole world. The 
exact yield varies with the country in which wheat is grown, as shown Ijv the 
following table :— 

Average Yield of Wheat 2>er Acre in — 



Denmark 






I 


Jushels 
41-8 


United Kingdom . 




29-1 


New Zealand . 






25-5 


Norway . 
Germany 
Belgium . 
Holland . 








251 
23-2 
21-5 
21-5 


France . 








19-4 


Hungary 
Roumania 








18-6 
18-5 


Austria . 








16-3 



Poland . 

Canada . 

Argentina 

Italy 

United States (mean) 

India 

Russia in Europe . 

Algeria . 

South Australia 

Australasia . 



Bushels 

16-2 

15-5 

Kid 

121 

120 

'.1-2 

s-(; 

I '•> 

70 

0-8 



- The seed quota is kept constant at 0-6 bushel per unit per annum, but the unit 
food requirements are found to increase in each five-yearly period. There has Leen a 
steady increase of unit wheat requirements by reason of the decrease of unit con- 
sumption of rye, maslin, spelt, and buckwheat. 

11 2 



36 



REPORT — 1898. 



Within tlie same periods wheat was imported from Asia and North 
Africa by the ' bread-eating ' countries as follows : — 



Years 


Bushels — Annual average 


Acres — Annual average 


1871-75 

1876-80 
1881-85 
1886-90 
1891-93 


8,000,000, the net product of 
12,000,000 
36,000,000 
30,000,000 
34,000,000 


750,000 
1,120,000 
3,360,000 
3,640,000 
3,200,000 



Broadly speaking, 2,000 million bushels are now consumed in the 
countries where they are grown, either as food or for seed, while the 
balance is exported. 



E. 



At the present time the disproportion is even higher, owing to unit 
consumption gradually increasing from year to year, accompanied by slow 



shrinkage in the wheat area. 





1871 


1884 


1897 


Per cent, of Increase 

or Decrease in 

Twenty-six Years 


Popnlation 
Wheat acres . 
Eye acres 


371,000,000 
125,800,000 
111,000,000 


432,800,000 
154,300,000 
110,300,000 


510,000,000 
158,000,000 
106,500,000 


37*5 increase. 

25'6 increase. 

4'1 decrease. 



The area planted with the two great bread-making grains is actually 
less now than thirteen years ago, despite enormous additions to the 
population. The area under all the bread-making grains is absolutely 2*2 
per cent, less than thirteen years ago, notwithstanding an increase of one- 
fifth in requirements for bread. 

r. 

Notwithstanding this expansion the supplies of wheat were hardly 
sufficient for the food demands of the world. As the area under wheat 
has increased that under rye has diminished, with the result that scarcely 
an acre has been added to the world's wheat and rye since 1890 ; and 
there was in 1897 a deficit in the two principal bread-making grains of 
more than 000,000,000 bushels. 

G. 

Stocks of wheat and flour in the United States were, relatively to 
population, probably never smaller, if so small as now. The following 
table (from Jiradstreet) shows the visible supply of wheat in the States on 
June 1 since 1893: — 

Bushels 
. 71,300,000 
. 39,200,000 
. 32,500,000 





Bushels 




1893 


. 93,700,000 


1896 


1894 


. 80,500,000 


1897 


1895 


. 72,800,000 


1896 



ADDRESS. 



H. 



37 



In 1896 the area under wheat in the Governments of Russia and 
Poland was 36,000,000 acres. But the yearly consumption of wheat per 
head during the last ten years has declined 1 4 per cent., and the consump- 
tion of bread is quite 30 per cent, less than is required to keep the popu- 
lation in health. The grain reserved for seed has likewise decreased — the 
peasantry limiting their sowing with the rise of taxation. The reduction 
of 1-i per cent, in the unit consumption of bread in Russia has added, 
during the last eighteen years, 1,360,000,000 bushels to the general wheat 
supply. This factitious excess temporarily staved off scarcity in Europe. 

I. 

In the year 1897 there wei'e 2,371,441 acres under cultivation in 
Manitoba, out of a total of 13,051,375 acres. The total area includes 
water courses, lakes, forests, towns, and farms, land unsuitable for wheat- 
growing, and land required for other crops. 



The moat trustworthy estimates give Canada a wheat area of not more 
than six millions of acres in the next twelve years, increasing to a maxi- 
mum of twelve millions of acres in twenty-five years. The development 
of this promising area necessarily must be slow, since prairie land cannot 
be laid under wheat in advance of a population sufficient to supply the 
needful labour at seed time and harvest. As population increases so do 
home demands for wheat. 



Acreage, Crop, and Exports of Wheat from Canada from 1891 to 189G. 



Year 


Population 


Acres 


Total bushels 


Bushels exported 


1891 . 


4,833,000 


2,690,000 


62,600,000 


."5,000,000 


1892 . 


4,885,000 


2,910,000 


49,700,000 


10,200,000 


1893 . 


4,936,000 


2,800,000 


42,700,000 


11,000,000 


1894 . 


4.986,000 


2,550,000 


44,600,000 


11,000,000 


1895 . 


5,040,000 


2,560,000 


57,500,000 


9,200,000 


1896 . 


5,090,000 


2,700,000 


40,800,000 


10,400,000 


1897 . 


5,140,000 


2,900,000 


56,600,000 


8,000,000 



The net exports average 8,970,000 bushels yearly, being 24-3 per cent, 
of the net product. 

K. 

The land under wheat in Austro-Hungary, according to the latest 
official figures, is eleven million acres. The 1897-8 crop, including that 
of Croatia- Slavonia, is fifty-five million bushels below that of 1896-7, and 
as exports during the last five years have averaged less than 4,000,000 
bushels per annum, the imports of wheat are expected to be large. 



38 REPORT— 1898. 

L. 

So long ago as April 16, 1891, the following statement by a leading 
Indian economist appeared in the ' Daily Englishman ' of Calcutta: — - 
' People do not realise the fact that all the wheat India produces is 
required for home consumption, and that this fact is not likely to be 
realised until a serious disaster occurs, and that even now less than 
9 per cent is exported. It is a self-evident fact that a slight expansion 
of consumption, or a partial failure of crops of other food grains, will be 
sufficient to absorb the small proportion now exported. Besides, we have 
a steady increase of consumption, in consequence of the natural growth 
of the population, as well as in the gradual impros^ement of the condition 
of a considerable part of the people in the cities. I believe that, com- 
paratively speaking, India will in a few years cease to export wheat, and 
soon thereafter become an importing country.' 

M. 

An average wheat crop on the 1897-8 acreage would be 2,070,000,000 
bushels. Adding to this 1,270,000,000 bushels, makes a grand total of 
3,340,000,000 bushels. But the estimate in Appendix D shows that in 
the year 1931 the bread-eaters will require 3,357,000,000 bushels. Thus 
there will be in 1931 a deficiency of 17,000,000 bushels, unless the 
average yield per acre be increased. 

N. 
Sir Andi'ew Noble informs me that a first-class battleship would carry 
about sixty-three tons of cordite, and we may suppose that in a general 
action forty tons of this would be expended. Now at Trafalgar, Nelson 
had twenty-seven line- of -battle ships, and the allied forces thirty-three. 
If we suppose a similar number of modern battleships and first-class 
cruisers to be engaged, and each to expend forty tons of cordite, the total 
volume of nitrogen set free would be 302,400 cubic metres, or about 380 
tons, equivalent to 2,300 tons of nitrate of soda. 



EEPOETS 



ox THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor K. Meldola (Chairman), Mr. T. V. Holmes 
(Secretary), Mr. P'rancis Galton, Sir Douglas Gtalton, Dr. J. Gr. 
GrAESON, Sir J. Evans, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
Mr. Gr. J. Symons, Professor T. Gr. Bonney, Mr. Cuthbert Peek, 
Mr. Horace T. Brown, Kev. J. 0. Bevan, and Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association 
beg leave to submit to the General Committee the following Report of 
the proceedings of the Conference held at Bristol. 

The Council nominated Mr. "W. Whitaker, F.R.S., Chairman, and 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, Secretary to the Bristol Conference. These nomina- 
tions were confirmed by the General Committee at a meeting held at 
Bristol on Wednesday, September 7. The meetings of the Conference 
were held at University College on Thursday, September 8, and Tuesday, 
September 13, at 3 p.m. The following Corresponding Societies nominated 
as delegates to represent them at the Bristol meeting : — 

Andersonian Naturalists' Society . . Professor M. Laurie, D.Sc. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. . . William Gray, M.R.I. A, 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Alexander Tate, M.Inst.C.E. 

Society 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . . G. P. Hughes, .J. P. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philoso- Alfred Browett. 

phical Society. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society . . . F. W. Stoddart. 

Buchan Field Club John Gray, B.Sc. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Philip B. Mason, F.L.S. 

Archffiological Society. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club . Professor W. W. Watts, F.G.S. 

CardiEE Naturalists' Society . . . J. T. Thompson, M.B. 

Chesterfield and Midland Couuties Insti- M. H. Mills, M Inst.C.E. 

tution of Engineers 



42 



REPORT — 1898. 



Croydou Microscopical and 

History Club. 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 

Field Club. 
East Kent Natural History Society . 

Essex Field Club 

Federated Institution of Mining Engineers 
Glasgow Geological Society 
Glasgow Natural History Society 
Hampshire Field Club .... 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society 
Holmesdale Natural History Club 
Ireland, Statistical and Social Inquiry 

Society of 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society 
Leeds Naturalists' Club .... 
Liverpool Engineering Society . 

Liverpool Geographical Society 

Liverpool Geological Society 

Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society. 

Manchester Geographical Society , 
Manchester Geological Society . 
Manchester Microscopical Society 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society 
North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club 
North of England Institute of Mining 

Engineers 
Northamptonshire Natural History Society 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science 
Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society 
Scotland, Mining Institute of . 

Somersetshire Archffiological and Natural 
Historj' Societ}'. 

South Eastern Union of Scientific Societies 
Toronto Astronomical and Physical Society 
Tyneside Geographical Society . 
Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archajo- 
logists' Field Club. 

Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 
Society. 

Yorkstirc Naturalists' Union , . 



Natural W. F. Stanley, F.G.S. 



Dr. H. CoUey March. 

Mrs. Edith Abbott. 
T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 
M. H. Mills, M.Inst.C.E. 
J. B. Murdoch. 
G. F. Scott-Elliott, M.A. 
T. W. Shore, F.G.S. 
J. Hopkinson, F.L.S. 
Miss Ethel Sargant. 
Professor Bastable, M.A. 

P. M. C. Kermode. 

Harold Wager, F.L.S. 
Professor H. S. Hele - Shaw, 
M.In.st.C.E. 

Professor Gonner, M.A. 
Professor Herdman, F.E.S. 
M. B. Slater, F.L.S. 

Eli Sowerbutts, F.K.G.S. 
Mark StiiTup, F.G.S. 

F. W. Hembry. 
Clement Reid, F.G.S. 

Dr. Wheelton Hind, F.G.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst. C.E. 

Beeby Thomson, F.G.S. 

Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.S.E. 

J. R. Ashworth, B.Sc. 

James Barrowman. 

Lieut.-Col. J. R. Bramble, F.S.A. 

Dr. G. Abbott. 

W. F. Denning, F.R A.S. 

G. E. Smithson. 
William Andrews, F.G.S. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, JI.A. 
William Cash, F.G.S. 

Harold Wager, F.L.S. 



i 



i 



First Conference, Bristol, Septeviber 8, 1898. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Mr. W. 
Whitaker (Chairman of the Conference), Dr. Garson, Mr. Hopkinson, 
Professor Meldola, Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary). 

The following Report, a copy of which was in the hands of every 
delegate pi'esent, was taken as read : — 



i 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 43 

The Corresponding Societies Committee of the British Association beg 
leave to submit to the Genei-al Committee the following report. 

The Committee observe with satisfaction that the corresponding societies 
steadily increase in number, and that the total number of the members 
composing them also increases. For example, in the British Association 
Report of the Bath Meeting in 1888 there is a list of 55 con-esponding 
societies, having a total of 18,950 members. The Toronto Report of last 
vear shows 69 corresponding societies, having a total of 22,395 members. 
On the other hand, the average number of members in each society- 
appears to have slightly decreased, having been between 344 and 345 in 
1888, and between 324 and 325 in 1897. But this is accounted for by 
the collapse of the two federations — the Midland Union and the Cumber- 
laud and Westmoreland Association— and the withdrawal of the Royal 
Scottish Geographical Society between the two periods. For in 1888 
these three associations numbered among them 4,006 members, as many 
as would be found in eleven or twelve average societies. 

The Committee are also pleased to know that as the great majority of 
the societies, the main purpose of whose existence is local scientific inves- 
tigation, are now on the list of corresponding societies, the index of their 
more important papers approximates to completeness more and more each 
year as a record of local work. But they nevertheless regret the absence 
from their index of papers read before certain societies of more or less 
importance which from various causes are not on their list. Primarily by 
the term 'local' the British Association implies that a society so classed 
has its headquarters out of London. But it can hardly be expected that 
societies which have long flourished in cities such as Edinburgh and 
Dublin will feel that they are ' local,' as they might be justified in doing 
if their headquarters were at Aberdeen or Belfast, Leeds or Birmingham, 
or as if they recognised some county as their sphere of action. Then, 
many societies have been formed for the study and advancement of some 
science or group of sciences in various parts of the country, with little 
reference to local phenomena, which societies appeal to their members 
rather as being conveniently near than in any other way. 

But though societies such as have just been alluded to may be little 
more ' local ' in feeling and in the nature of their work than London 
societies it must sometimes happen that papers devoted to local scientific 
investigations are published by them. The Committee therefore regret 
the absence from their list of papers of local interest which have been 
published by such societies as the following : — 

The Royal Irish Academy, Royal Dublin Society, Institution of Civil 
Engineers of Ireland, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Botanical Society of 
Edinburgh, Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, Liverpool Biological 
Society, Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club, Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society. 

Fortunately, in most cases, information as to the titles and authors of 
papers read before local societies which are not corresponding societies 
of the Association may be obtained from the ' Oflicial Year-book of the 
Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland,' C. Grifiin 
ik Co., London. The ' Year-book ' appears every spring, and contains lists 
of papers read in the previous year. It will be found that the ' Year-book ' 
and the British Association ' Index ' combined leave little to be desired by 
the inquirer after papers on any locality in the British Isles. 



44 REPORT— 1898. 

The following Societies have been added to the list of the Corresponding 
Societies : — 

The Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto. 

The Hull Geological Society. 

The South-Eastern Union of Naturalists' Societies. 

The Chairman, Mr. Whitaker, then opened the proceedings. He said 
that it had become usual to bring some special subject for discussion 
before the first meeting of the Conference. On that occasion he wished 
to draw their attention to that of Coast Erosion. All persons were 
interested in the scenery of our shores, whether living in counties border- 
ing the sea or wholly inland. Moreover, some counties having a coast 
line had few or no local scientific societies, and might need help from 
others farther from the sea. It was now possible to obtain maps on the 
scale of six inches to the mile for all localities, and on these measure- 
ments could be made from the edge of the cliflfs, at any given time, to the 
nearest roads, footpaths, hedges, cottages or other objects, and the 
amount of land lost since the map w^as made could be accurately ascer- 
tained. Of course, all such measurements should be dated. Very good 
work had been done in the past with old one-inch maps, but many pre- 
cautions were necessary in using them which were needless with six-inch 
maps. In illustration of the loss which has been sustained in certain 
places, he might mention Sheppey. The Geologists' Association had 
made three excursions there. On their first visit the church and church- 
yard of Warden were untouched. Some years later the churchyard was 
found to have been partly destroyed, and coffins were seen sticking out 
from the edge of the clifi". This year neither church nor churchyard 
could be seen. There was another form of encroachment by the sea 
which had been well displayed during a recent visit of the Geologists' 
Association to Aldeburgh in Sufiblk. There they found many cottages, 
sheds, and gardens more or less injured, or even destroyed by the heaping 
up of masses of shingle in or against them, the result of a storm in Novem- 
ber 1897, which had caused much damage over many miles of our coast. 
Much injury to land adjoining the sea was often done by blown sand, which 
here and there had been driven to considerable heights, and covered areas 
of some breadth, as he had recently seen on the northern coast of Cornwall. 
The help of the photographer was extremely valuable in giving an unas- 
sailable record of a past state of things; the damage done by natural forces 
being often greatly obscured in a comparatively short period of time. The 
photo-theodolite might often be found useful in this matter. Turning to 
the economical aspect of the question, Mr. Whitaker remarked that 
there were two things especially worthy of attention, (1) the removal of 
shingle from the shore, (2) the quarrying of stone on the faces of sea 
cliffs. There were certainly some places at which the removal of shingle 
from the shore should never be allowed ; nowhere should it be permitted 
without some thought as to the probable result. And the quarrying of 
stone on the face of a sea cliff often had a powerful influence in aid- 
ing the erosive agencies of Nature. Archteologists would be interested 
in noting spots where old British camps had been partly destroyed 
by the sea ; examples of which he (Mr. Whitaker) had noticed on the 
Chalk of Dorset, and on the much harder rocks which form the cliffs 
of northern Cornwall. Observations of this kind were not only cal- 
culated to make us realise the differences between the outlines of the 



CORRESrONDLNG SOCIETIES. 45 

coast now and in prehistoric times, but they also led us to try and imagine 
the probable changes of the future. His remarks were intended simply 
to start a discussion on a subject in which he had always taken great 
interest. 

Mr. T. V. Holmes said that, as secretary of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee, he had been requested to write to three gentlemen, 
known as having taken much interest in Coast Erosion, to ask them if 
they would be good enough to take part in this discussion. One of these 
gentlemen, Captain McDakin, regretted liis inability to attend, the other 
two, Mr. W. H. Wheeler and Mr. A. T. Walmisley, were, he believed, 
present. The Chairman had also asked Prof. Armstrong, Mr. Cornish, 
and Mr. Spiller to attend. 

Mr. W. H. Wheeler had a paper to read on this subject on Monday, 
which embodied the results of his observations on Coast Erosion. In his 
opinion the movement of shingle along the shore was due to the action 
of the tides and not of the winds. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong recommended the taking of photographs 
by means of the photo-theodolite instead of in the ordinary way. 

Mr. Gray said, that the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club had already 
noted a great many points with regard to Coast Erosion in their 
district, and were going to issue a special report on the subject next 
year. 

Mr. A. T. Walmisley had always advocated the protection of the 
f(jreshore by means of groynes. Sea-walls were very useful in the pro- 
tection of cliffs when placed not close to, but a short distance in front of, 
the cliff to be protected. Waves then might rush up the face of the 
wall without touching the cliff. 

Mr. Vaughan Cornish had come to the conclusion that the protection 
of one part of the shore was a bad thing for the rest of the district. 
Considering how restricted was the area with which lords of manors, 
corporations, and local authorities of all kinds concerned themselves, he 
thought that no local woi'k of shore protection should be begun till it 
had been sanctioned by a Government Board. In any study of the 
results of Coast Erosion, the Coastguard would be able to render most 
valuable assistance. They were always tramping along the shore, they 
were to a considerable extent trained observers, and they might be 
simultaneously at work all round the British Isles, if the consent of the 
Admiralty could be obtained to their co-operation in the study of Coast 
Erosion. 

Mr. G. J. Symons mentioned, in illustration of the danger of allow- 
ing people to do as they pleased on the shore, that his grandfather at 
the beginning of this century was building martello towers on the 
southern shores of England. One day he observed some men in a boat 
off Bognor taking stones to the mainland, and with them building a 
house. His grandfather warned them that the sea would reclaim the 
stones some day. And recently he had learned that the people there 
had been put to much trouble in endeavouring to restrain the inroads of 
the sea. 

Mr. Clement Reid referred to the waste of land along the west coast ; 
and said that it was most necessary in that district to have the new 
ordnance survey maps. 

Mr. J. Spiller gave details as to the encroachments of the sea at 
Southwold in Suffolk. Quite recently masses of shingle had been thrown 



46 REPORT— 1898. 

on the land so as to cover a whole pasture field. Nothing liad hitherto 
been done to check these inroads beyond the provision of groynes. Many 
old landmarks had disappeared, and the gun-battery was a thing of tl)(; 
past. He thought Government intervention desirable, and that it would 
be a good thing to obtain the co-operation of the Coastguard in noting 
the changes on our shores. 

Mr. Tate said that the amount of Coast Erosion differed very much 
in different districts. In some quarters there seemed to be a feeling in 
favour of restrictions on the protective measures allowable in any giveii 
case. It would, however, be difficult to obtain Government regulation 
unless it should appear that there was a manifest public need for it. 

Mr. Wheeler thought that the retention of a considerable mass of 
shingle in front of a place would furnish a better protection than a sea 
wall. He greatly approved of an attempt to obtain the services of the 
Coastguard in making a survey of the coast, as at present he had found 
it very difficult to get trustworthy evidence, the most opposite stories 
being told in almost every case. People did not know because they did 
not really observe, while the occupation of a Coastguardsman neces- 
sarily made him observant. He did not approve, however, of general 
Government regulations. 

Mr. Scott-Elliot thought that it would be a very good thing to obtain 
the co-operation of the Coastguard. 

Professor Meldola remarked that the general opinion certainly ap- 
peared to be in favour of an attempt to obtain the appraval of the 
Admiralty for their wish to secure the co-operation of the Coastguard, 
and the Conference would be acting within its powers in sending up a 
recommendation on the subject. He would therefore move :^ 

'That the Council of the British Association be requested to bring 
under the notice of the Admiralty, the importance of securing systematic 
observations upon the erosion of the sea coasts of tiie United Kingdom, 
and that the co-operation of the Coastguard might be profitably secured 
for this purpose.' 

Mr. Wheeler asked whether the matter should not be referred to the 
Coast Erosion Committee of the British Association. 

The Chairman reminded the last speaker that the labours of that 
Committee were ended. He thought that the Coastguard were perfectly 
capable of doing the work proposed, and that they would be pleased to 
do it. 

Discussion then ensued on various points of detail, among others on 
the question where specimens of shingle collected at certain spots in order 
to note its movements along our shores should be stored. In this Messrs. 
Wheeler, Shore, Symons, and Gray took part. 

Professor Meldola remarked that the resolution did nut commit 
either the Admiralty or themselves to any particular line. Should the 
Admiralty ask how it was suggested that the Coastguard should make 
observations, then it might be for that Conference to draw up rules for 
their adoption. 

Mr. Gray seconded the resolution, and after some remarks from 
Mr. Sowerbutts, Professor Meldola, the Chairman, and Mr. Hopkinson, 
it was put to the meeting and carried. 

Professor Meldola then announced that he had just received the 
following letter from Professor Watts : — 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 47 

Corndon, Worcester Road, Sutton, Surrey : September 7, 1898. 
Dear Sir, — It might be as well to report to the Conference of Dele- 
gates that the B. A. Geological Photographs Committee has formed a 
collection of duplicate photographs and slides, which can be sent during 
the winter to any local scientific society desiring to make use of them. 

It consists of about 250 prints in two albums, and about 100 lantern 
slides. 

Faithfully yours, 

W. W. Watts. 

Dr. Abbott wished to know if there would be any opportunity of 
discussing the subject of the Federation of Local Societies at that meeting 
of the British Association. The Chairman thought that it might be 
brought forward at the next meeting of the Conference. 



Second Meeting of the Conference, Septennber 13. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee were represented by Professor 
Meldola, Mr. Whitaker, Dr. Garson, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Mr. Hopkinson, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, and Mr. T. V. Holmes (Secretary). 

The Chairman (Mr. Whitaker) announced that action had been taken 
with regard to the Resolution on Coast Erosion passed at their last 
meeting. It had been submitted to the Committees of the Geological and 
of the Geographical Sections, both of which unanimously supported the 
recommendations contained in it. 

Dr. Garson then took the chair, Mr. Whitaker being obliged to leave. 

Uniformity of Size of Pagies of Scientifc Societies' Publicatio7is. 

Professor S. P. Thompson said that he had been asked to bring before 
the Conference a matter on which a Committee of the British Association 
had already made one Report, and still continued to exist, with the 
intention of making another. This question was the importance of 
adopting one or two uniform standard sizes for the pages of scientific 
publications. All who were engaged in any kind of scientific investigation 
were greatly indebted to the reprinted papers on the subjects in which 
they were interested which were sent to them by their fellow workers. 
And all recognised the great advantage given by uniformity in the size 
of their pages, which permitted them to be bound together and per- 
manently preserved. The great desirability of promoting uniformity in 
size of page had caused Section A some four years ago to promote the 
formation of a Committee whose object was to prescribe the adoption of 
certain standard octavo and quarto sizes. The Report of this Committee 
would be found in the Ipswich Report of the British Association, pp. 77- 
79 (1895). 

The standard octavo size recommended was : Paper demy, the pages 
measuring 14 cm. x22 cm., or, when uncut, 5|in. xSJin. The width, 
measured from the stitching to the outer edge of the printed matter, to be 
12 cm., or 4f in., and the height of the printed portion, including the 
running headline, to be 18 cm., or 7 in. 



48 REPORT — 1898. 

The standard quarto size : Paper demy, the pages measuring, when 
uncut, 22 cm. x 28-5 cm., or 8-| in. wide x \\\ in. high. Letter-press not 
to exceed the measurements of 1\ in. by 9 in. 

It was also desirable that each article should begin a page, and that, 
if possible, it .should begin on a right-hand page. It is then practicable 
to bind that article with others without binding up with it the last page 
of another. Many otlier details dealing with what is desirable in scientific 
publications may be found, with illustrations, in the Report of the 
Committee in the Ipswich volume. A method of splitting printed pages, 
useful in separating successive articles in a journal, for collections of 
pamphlets, was incidentally described.' 

The Chairman (Dr. Garson) remarked that they were greatly in- 
debted to Professor Thompson, who had raised a question of much 
practical importance. 

Professor Meldola thought that they were much indebted to Professor 
Thompson for bringing this matter forward. To endeavour to promote 
the uniformity of size which had just been advocated was one of the 
original functions of these Conferences, and he hoped that the suggestions 
of Professor Thompson might bear fruit. It was the duty of the Corre- 
sponding Societies Committee to collect the publications of the Correspond- 
ing Societies at Burlington House, but, on gazing at the shelves on whicli 
they lay, a great want of uniformity in size became manifest. Some 
societies also did themselves injustice as regards paper and printing. 

Mr. Tate was glad that the matter had been brought forward, on 
account of the great advantage arising from being able to bind together 
papers and pamphlets issued by various societies. He would bring the 
.subject before the Society he represented. 

Mr. Clement Reid suggested that the original paging should be pre- 
served in reprints. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan hoped that when the matter was brought before 
the Corresponding Societies by the delegates the general interest in 
uniformity might be dwelt upon, as many societies might otherwise feel 
indifferent towards it. 

Mr. Gray said that as most papers on local subjects were reprinted, 
these suggestions would probably determine the form of the reprints. 

Mr. Abbott thought that it would be well if the secretaries of societies 
issuing publications irregular in size and form had their attention drawn 
to the subject. 

Mr. Hopkinson was acquainted with the publications of most of the 
local societies, and thought that the number which were irregular in 
size and form was very small indeed. The chief offenders were socie- 
ties which, from want of sufficient funds, published reprints from local 
newspapers. He thought each paper should begin at the top of a 

' At the request of the Chairman of the Committee, the following note is added 
on the method of splitting a page of printed matter described verbally to the Com- 
mittee : — Gum to each face of the page that is to be split a rather larger leaf of 
paper of a thin tough quality — resembling bank-note paper. The projecting edges 
should not be gummed. Let them become quite dry. Procure two small wooden 
rollers, about 7 inches (or more) long and | inch (or less) in diameter. Then put 
the edges of the prepared page between the rollers, and, grasping them in the hands, 
fio roll the respective edges of the two leaves around the rollers as to peel them or 
tear them away from one another. The use of the rollers is to prevent the page 
from tearing irregularly. Finall}^ soak off the two leaves in water. Not every kind 
of printed paper can be split without tearing S. P. T. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 49 

page; but the suggestion tli:it each paper should begin on the right- 
hand page could not always be adopted on account of the loss of space 
which would sometimes occur thereby where there were many short 
papers. The present discussion would probably be of moi'e service in 
guiding new societies than in causing alterations in the publications of 
old ones, which would spoil the uniformity of a set of volumes. 

The Chairman, Dr. Garson, thought that they should give their best 
thanks to Professor Thompson for bringing this matter before them. The 
time also was opportune, as we were nearly at the close of the nineteenth 
century, and the beginning of another century would be an excellent 
period for the commencement of a new series in cases where it was 
desirable in the interests of uniformity. The suggestion that reprints 
might be of one uniform size, even if the original publication were not so, 
was one of great importance. It might be worth while to take up the 
question of publications next year as a special subject, and it would be a 
good thing if the delegates would consider the matter during the winter 
and consult their societies upon it, so as to be able to discuss it with 
authority upon another occasion. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan suggested that they might ask the Corresponding 
Societies to come to some conclusion upon this question, and forward it to 
the secretary of the Committee. 

Professor Meldola said that they would be quite prepared next year to 
name those societies which were offenders with respect to uniformity. 
Mr. Hopkinson had pointed out that they were few in number. 

Mrs. Abbott suggested that it would be a good thing to offer 
information on the subject to as many societies as possible. 

Lieut.-Col. Bramble asked what was to be done in the case of societies 
which had no delegates present. 

The Chairman replied that the report cf the Conference was sent to 
every society on their list. And any information applied for by other 
societies would be given. 



Section A. 

Mr. G. J. Symons, representing Section A, said that there was only 
one matter to which he wished to draw attention. Professor Milne, as 
most of them knew, was making some highly important observations on 
earthquake tremors. But he was then working in a house in the Isle of 
Wight, which was in so bad a sanitary state that many fears were enter- 
tained with regard to his health. It had been suggested that tliere were 
houses in Richmond Park well suited to be the scene of Professor Milne's 
labours, and that it might be well to approach the Government to see 
whether one of them could be obtained for him. If not, perhaps some 
rich man, on being made acquainted with the case, might lend a house for 
a few years. Nothing sumptuous was asked for, only quarters which 
were water-tight and healthy. 



Section C. 

Mr. Beeby Thompson said that a fine specimen of a Dinosaur had 
recently been discovered near Northampton. It would, however, be a very 
expensive task to uncover it carefully, and it was necessary that the work 

1S98. E 



50 KEPORT— 1898. 

should be proceeded with without delay. He wished therefore either to 
obtain a grant from the British Association, or to induce any rich people 
who might hear of the case and be interested therein, to assist in pro- 
viding the necessary funds. 

The Chairman (Dr. (Jarson) thought that an effort should be made to 
bring the matter before the scientitic societies of Northampton. 

Mr. Gray stated that the Society he represented was second to none in 
its efforts to collect geological photographs. He thought much more 
might be done by other societies in that work. 



Section H. 

The Chairman wished to draw the attention of the Conference to the 
Ethnographical Survey, an investigation in which few local societies were 
co-operating. Full directions for guidance in the various departments of 
the work might be obtained from the papers issued by the Ethnographical 
Survey Committee. The amateur photographer would find a wide field of 
action in noting physical characteristics. The important point was to get 
a common standard of size, a very convenient one being one-seventh of 
the natural size. Another department was that of the ancient monuments 
and general archeology of a district. Then came the collection of its 
folklore, and the noting of local names and dialects. 

Mr. Gray said that the Society he represented had much sympathy 
with the objects of the Ethnographical Survey Committee, especially as 
regards the cataloguing of antiquities. He had a list of all the Holy 
Wells of Antrim and Down, together with photograj^hs of them. He 
much wished to obtain the co-operation of the Royal Society of Anti- 
quaries of Ireland in order that a complete survey of Irish antiquities 
might be made. 

The Chairman remarked that full instructions on all matters connected 
with the Ethnographical Survey could be obtained on application to the 
Secretary of the Committee, and it was resolved that the Secretary should 
be asked to write to the Royal Society of Antiquai-ies of Ireland pointing 
out the plans and objects of the Ethnographical Survey. 

Mr. Browett said that he was much impressed by the importance and 
interest of the Survey, and would have much pleasure in mentioning it to 
the Council of his Society on his return. He thought, however, that it 
was desirable that one general plan should be sent to all the Correspond- 
ing Societies that the work might be done everywhere on the same lines. 

Mr. Hartland, the Secretary of the Ethnographical Survey Committee, 
said that it would greatly help his Committee if each of the Corresponding 
Societies could see its way to take up one or more branches of this 
inquiry. He had explained at previous Conferences that it was by no 
means necessary that all branches should be taken up everywhere. The 
Committee would be thankful for local help in any department of their 
work. He would be happy to send to the Corresponding Societies all the 
information they might require as to the nature of the work and the way 
in which the Committee wished it to be carried on. 

The Chairman hoped that the delegates would give some account to 
their respective Societies of the discussions which had taken place. The 
proceedings then terminated. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



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REPOjn- — 1 898. 



Index of the more important Papertt, and especiall// those referring to Local 
,'^cientific Investigations, puhlished hg named /Societies during the year 
ending June 1, 1898. 

*^* This catalogue contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or 
parts of the iDublications of the Correspondence sent to the Secretary of the 
Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Alston, Gakwood. Comparison of Evaporation Results in New South 
Wales and South Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 8-19, 
1897. 

Andson, Eev. Wm. The Meteorology of Dumfries for 1896. ' Trans. 
Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 18, 83-38, 1898. 

Beattie, Dr. J. C, and S. de Smolan. Experiments with Eontgen 
Eaj's, Ultra-Violet Light and Uranium. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' 
xxviii. 284-291, 1897. 

Campbell-Bayard, F. Eeport of the Meteorological Sub-Committee for 
189G. 'Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C 189(i-97, 235-240 and Ap- 
pendices, 1897. 

Caeadoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Meteorological Notes, 1897. 
' Eecord of Bare Facts,' No. 7, 28-33, 1898. 

Cole, W. The Great Storm of Midsummer Day, 1897. ' Essex Natura- 
list,' X. 112-129, 1897. 

The High Tide of November 29, 1897. Ibid. 277-283, 1898. 

Craw, H. Hewat. Eatnfall and Temperature at West Foulden and at 

Rawburn during 1895. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 378, 
1897. 
Crawford, Lawrence. The Tides. ' Proc. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' 

X. 102-112, 1897. 

Cresswell, Alfred. Eecords of Meteorological Observations taken at 
the Observatory of the Birmingham and jMidland Institute. Ibid. 

XI. 2G pp., 1898. 

Grossman, Major-Gen. Sir Wm. Meteorological Observations at Cheswick, 

1895. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 880, 1897. 
De Grave, L. W. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) Photographs of Flashes 

of Electric Detonators. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 203-206, 

1898. 
De Eance, C. E. The Earthquake of December 17, 1896. ' Trans. N. 

Staff. F. C XXXI. 159-173, 1897. 
Eaton, H. S. Dorset Monthly Eainfall, 1856-95. 'Proc. Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C XVIII. 153-168, 1897. 

Returns of Eainfall, &c., in Dorset in 1896. Ibid. 196-206, 

1897. 

Ellacombe, Rev. Canon. The Great Drought of 1896. 'Proc. Bath 

N. H. A. F. C VIII. 293-306, 1897. 
Evans, Franklen G. The Meteorology and Kindred Phenomena of 1896. 

' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. 18-43, 1897. 
Everett, Prof. J. D. Recent Advances in Electricity (Inaugural Address). 

' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc 1896-97,' 17-30, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING socn-rriES. 55 

FiNNEGAN, John. The History and Properties of the Eoutgen Rays. 

Ibid. 55-59. 
FoRDHAM, H. G. The Earthquake of December 17, 1896, as it affected 

the County of Hertford. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 183-208, 

1897. 
FouRCADE, H. G. Note on the Three-Point, or Pothenot's, Problem. 

' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 51-53, 1898. 
Gray, P. L. ' Grey-Glow ' and ' Red-Glow ' (Abstract of a Paper by 0. 

Lummer). ' Journ. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' ii. 144-148, 1897. 
Herbert, J. H. The Solar Eclipse of August 9, 1896, ' Report Nott. 

Nat. Soc. 1896-7,' 13-35, 1897. 
HoPKiNSON, John. Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the Year 

1896. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 139-147, 1897. 
Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. Albans, 

during the Year 1896. Ibid. 175-182. 
■ The Climate of St. Albans, deduced from Meteorological Observa- 



tions taken during the Ten Years 1887-1896. Ibid. 215-228. 



-■to 



Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the Y'ear 

1896. Ibid. 241-244. 

HoRSLEY, S. (E. Kent N. H. Soc.) Rainfall in India. ' South-Eastern 

Naturalist,' ii. 21-28, 1897. 
Howard, Albert. Coal Dust Explosions. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. 

Vail. F. C II. 83-87, 1898. 
Hurnard, S. F., and others. Rainfall and Temperature in Essex in 

1897. ' Essex NaturaUst,' x. 237-240, 1898. 

LoMAs, J. The Earthquake of December 17, 1896. ' Proc Liverpool 

Geol. Soc' VIII. 91-98, 1897. 
Macintyre, Dr. John. A Demonstration on the ' X ' Rays : a Resume of 

Experiments since his former Demonstration before the Society. 

' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxviii. 267-283, 1897. 
M'Kendrick, Prof. J. G. Sound and Speech Waves as revealed by the 

Phonograph (The Science Lecture for 1896). ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. 

Soc' xxviii. 201-235, 1897. 
Mansell, Thos. The Rontgen or ' X ' Rays. ' Trans. Herts N. H. 

Soc' IX. 135-138, 1897. 
Markham, C. a. Meteorological Report. ' Journal N'ton. N. H. Soc' 

IX. 196-202, 237-244, 1897. 
Markham, C. A., and F. Coventry. Meteorological Report. Ibid. 

273-280, 283-293. 
Mawley, Edward. Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in 

Hertfordshire during the year 1896. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 

229-237, 1897. 
Meyrick, E. Summary of Meteorological Observations, 1897. 'Report 

Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 46, 89-108, 1898. 
Moore, A. W. Report of the Meteorological Section. ' Yn Lioar Manni- 

nagh,' III. 296, 1898. 
Nelson, Edward M. Microscopic Vision. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' 

VIII. 141-166, 1897. 
Newsholme, Arthur. Meteorological Report for the Y''ear ending June 

1897. ' Rep. Brighton N. H. Phil. Soc,' 1896-97, 34-38. 
NiCHOLL, Wm. The Electric Cinematograph. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. 

Phil. Soc 1896-97,' 62-65, 1897. 
Percy, J. B., W. Pye, and J. C. Philips. Sectional Report on Meteoro- 
logy. « Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxi. 150-152, 1897. 



5G _ REPORT— 1898. 

Pkeston, a. W. Meteorological Notes, 189G. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soc' VI. 27B-279, 1897. 
Egberts, A. W. 1. S. Velorum ; 2. Light Curve of S. Velorum ; 3. 
• Graphical Determination of the Orhit of an Algol Variable. ' Trans. 

S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 23-30, 1897. 

Variation of Laeaille 5861. Ibid. 42-45, 1897. 

Latitude of Lovedale. Ibid. 4G-47. 

Smithson, T. S. High Temperature of September 1895. 'Trans. 

Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' v. 1-2, 1897. 
Ward, Edwaed. The New Light and the New Photography. ' Trans. 

Manch. Mic. Soc. 1896,' 72-77, 1897. 
Wells, J. G., and T. Gibbs. The Weather of 1896. ' Trans. Burt. 

N. H. Arch. Soc' iir. 265-268, 1897. 
Whiteley, J. Meteorological Table for the Year 1897 (Halifax). 

' Halifax Naturalist,' ii. 118-119, 1898. 



Sect ion B. — Chemistry. 

Austin, Dr. Wji. L. (N. Eng. Inst.) Pyritic Smelting. ' Trans. Fed. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xr/c 111-130, 1897. 
Bedson, Dr. P. P. (N. Eng. List.) Shaw Gas-tester. Ibid. xiii. 350- 

352, 1897. 
Bedson, Dr. P. P., and J. Cooper (N. Eng. Inst.) Experiments with the 

Shaw Gas-tester. Ibid. xiv. 361-365, 1898. 
BoNSER, Harold (Midland Inst. Eng.) Recovery of Cyanogen and other 

Eesidual Products from the Waste Gases of Coke Ovens. Ibid. 

xiii. 335-340, 1897. 
Hargreaves, a. F. High Grade Gunpowder. ' Trans. Mining Inst. 

Scot.' XIX. 2-13, 1897. 
Orsman, W. J. Some Defects in Gunpowder as a Blasting Agent. 

Ibid. 57-61. 
Stuart, D. ]M. D. The Chemistry of Colliery Explosions due to Gas 

Derived from Coal Dust. ' Proc. Bristol 'Xat. Soc' viii. 109-130, 

1897. 

Section C. — Geology. 

Abbott, W. J. L. History of the Weald, with special reference to the 
Age of the Plateau Deposit. ' Trans. S. E. Union,' ii. 26-28, 1897. 

Andrews, W. On Piecent Boreholes in Warwickshire. ' Proc. Warw. 
N. A. F. C 42, 31-34, 1897. 

Barke, F. The Physical Geography of the British Islands during the 
Carboniferous Epoch. (Annual Address.) 'Trans. N. Staff. F. C 
XXXI. 19-38, 1897. 

Sectional Eeport : Geology. Ibid. 124-126. 

Barnes, J., and W. F. Holroyd. On some of the Eocks and Minerals of 
North Staffordshire. Ibid. 134-140. 

Bedford, J. E. Geologj' of the Eocks of the Ilfracombe District of 
Devonshire. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part X. 35-36, 1897. 

Belinfante, L. L. Eeport of the Delegate to the International Geo- 
logical Congress. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 1-4, 1898. 

Bell, Alfred. On the Pliocene Shell-beds at St. Erth. 'Trans. 
Comw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 111-166, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 57 ■ 

Berteand, M. Note on Extensions of the Coal-field of tlie North of 
France. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 583-584, 1897. 

BiNNS, G. J. Notes on Borings at Netherseal, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
Leicestershire. Ibid. 595-597. 

Bolton, Herbebt. The Nomenclature of the Seams of the Lancashire 
Lower Coal Measures. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 428-4G7, 1898. 

BouLTON, W. S. Notes on the Microscopic Characters of some Rocks 
occurring as Erratics in the Lichfield District. ' Proc. Birm. N. H. 
Phil. Soc' X. 73-80, 1897. ^^ ,, ^ / 

Boyle, J. E. The Erosion of the Holderness Coast. ' Trans. Hull Geol. 
Soc.' III. 16-17, 1897. ^ ^ ^.,. . ^^ 

Brodie, Eev. P. B. Sketch of the Labyrinthodontia and Reptilia ui the 
Trias, chiefly with reference to those in the British New Red Sandstone, 
and more especially in Warwickshire. ' Proc. Warw. N. A. F. C 42 
92-97 1897. 

Brown, Campbell. On the Occurrence of Gasteropods {PlatyostomeUa 
Scotohurdigalcnsis) in a Lepidodendron from Craigleith Quarry, Edin- 
burgh. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vn. 244-251, 1897. 

BucKMAN, S. S., and E. Wilson. The Geological Structure of the Upper 
Portion of Dundry Hill. ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 188-231, 

1 897 

Burton," F. M. The Past History of the Trent. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc. 

III. 15-16, 1897. 
. Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 183-138, 

1 898 

Caddick, Miss. The Volcanoes of Java. ' Journ. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' 

II. 106-109, 1897. 
Cadell, H. M. Note on the Occurrence of Vivianite m an Old Lake 

Bed at Cauldhame, near Linhthgow. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 

173, 1897. 
Some Geological Features of the Coast of Western Australia. Ibid. 

174-182. 
A Visit to the New Zealand Volcanic Zone. Ibid. 183-200. 



Caldwell, Geo. Notes on Hematite found in the Maypole Sinking Pits. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 393, 1898. 
Callaway, Dr. C. A Criticism on the Chemical E\-idence for the Exist- 
ence of Organisms in the Oldest Rocks. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' 

VIII. 98-103, 1897. 
Carter, Eev. W. L. Ancient British Volcanoes. (Presidential Address.) 

' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 5-8, 1897. 

Geology and Scenery. (Presidential Address.) Ibid. 39. 

Cash, W. The Fossil Flora of the Hahfax Hard Bed. Ibid. 43-44. 
Coates, Henry. Annual Address (The Origin of Soils, with Special 

reference to the Soils of Perthshire). ' Proc. Perths. Soc. N. Sci.' n. 

cxl.-cxlvii. 1897. 
CoATES, H., and P. Macnair. On a Banded Hornblende Schist at 

Balhoulan Quarry, Pitlochry. Ibid. 154-16G. 
CoBBOLD, E. S. Origin of Volcanoes. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail. F. 

C ' II 20-24 1898 
Cole, Rev. E. M. St. Austin's Stone. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' iii. 

24-25, 1897. 
Cole, W. Report on Boring in Search of Coal m Essex. ' Essex 

Naturahst,' x. 136-139, 1897. 



58 REPORT— 1898. 

Cooke, John H. Lincolnsliire Boulders. ' The Naturalist for 1897,' 
283-284, 1897 ; for 1898, 17-20, 85-87, 1898. 

The Glacial Deposits of Cleethorpes and District. ' The Naturalist 

for 1897,' 277-281, 1897. 

Cope, Thos. H. The Igneous Rocks of Aran Mowddwy. ' Proc. 
Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 66-90, 1897. 

CouLTAS, F. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Geology of Deepcar and its Sur- 
rounding Hills. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 341-346, 1897. 

CuKiiiE, James, jun. The Minerals of the Tertiary Eruptive Eocks of 
Ben More, Mull. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 223-229, 1897. 

On Apophyllite from Cape Colony. Ibid. 252-253. 

CuTTRiss, S. W. Minmg Experiences in Cornwall and Cheshire. ' Trans. 

Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part .x. 12-14, 1897. 

■ From Fort William to John o'Groat's. Ibid. 41-42. 

Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd. Recent Additions to the Manchester Museum. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 421-424, 1898. 
Dickson, E., and P. Holland. On some of the Geological Features of 

the Neighbourhood of the Varange Fjord, Arctic Norway, with 

Analyses of Terrace Deposits, Glacial ^Yaters, &c. ' Proc. Liverpool 

Geol. Soc' VIII. 130-150, 1897. 
Douglas, T. Notes on the Southern Highlands of Scotland. ' Trans. 

Croydon M. N. H. C. 1896-97,' 218-219, 1897. 
Drake, H. C. Geological Rambles. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' 

IV. 467-474, 1898. 
DuRNFOKD, H. St. J. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Notes on the Change in 

the Character of the Barnsley Coal- Seam, between Rotherham and 

Pontefract. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 589-594, 1898. 
Dymond, T. S. a Manganiferous Conglomerate in Essex. ' Essex 

Naturahst,' x. 210-212, 1898. 
Dyjiond, T. S., and F. W. Maeyon. ' Freshwater Chalk ' at Halstead, 

Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' Ibid. 213-515. 
East Kent Natural History Society. Report of Committee on Coast 

Erosion, 1896-7. ' South Eastern Naturahst,' ii. 5-6, 1897. 
Enys, J. D. Anniversary Address. ' Trans. Cornw. E. Geol. Soc,' xii. 

79-90, 1898. 
Flett, John S. A Hypersthene Andesite from Dumyat (Ochils). 

' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 290-297, 1H97. 
Forsyth, Dr. D. The Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. ' Trans. Leeds 

Geol. Assoc' Part x. 27-35, 1897. 
Fox, Howard. On a Nodule of Flint containing Liquid. ' Trans. 

Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 177-178, 1898. 

Notes on Veryan and other Limestones associated with Radio- 

larian Cherts in South Cornwall. Ibid. 179-184. 

Fox-Strangw.\ys, C. Notes on the Stratigraphy of the Newer Eocks of 
the Netherseal Borings. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 598-599, 
1897. 

Fryak, Wm. (N. Eng. Inst.) The Mineral Eesourccs of the Colony of 
Queensland. Ibid. xiii. 356-371, 1897. 

Gascoyne, E. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Transvaal Coal-fields. Ibid. 414- 
429. 

Goodchild, J. G. Some of the Modes of Origin of Oil Shales, with 
remarks upon the Geoloirical History of some other Hydrocarbon 
Compounds. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 121-131, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 59 

GooDcniLD, J. G. Notes on the Minerals of the Ililderston Silver Mines, 
Linlithgow. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. See' vii. 201-202. 

Desert Conditions in Britain (Opening Address). Ibid. vii. 203- 

222, 1897 ; and ' Trans. Glasg. Geol. Soc' xi. 71-104, 1898. 

Remarks upon a recent Boring for "Water at North Berwick. 

' Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc' vii. 236-240, 1897. 

. Notes on a Borehole through the Eocks of the Oalton Hill. Ihid. 

259-2G4. 
Geological Notes on the Excavations at the Leith Dock Extension, 



1897. Ibid. 312-316. 
Greenly, Edward. On the Occurrence of Sillimanite Gneisses in 
Anglesey. Ibid. 230, 1897. 

Incipient Metamorphism in the Harlech Grits. Ibid. 254-258. 



Gkeenwell, J. C. On the Correlation of the Dover and Somersetshire 

Coal-fields. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 378-391, 1898. 
Groom, Theo. T. Fossil Birds. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 20- 

22 1897. 
Gunn! Wm." Obituary Notice of Hugh Miller, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., of H.M. 

Geological Survey of Scotland, with list of his papers. 'History 

Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 322-324, 1897. 

Notes on the Geology of the Isle of Arran. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. 

Soc' VII. 268-276, 1897. 

Haldee, Albert H. Mining in Rhodesia. 'Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XIII. 609-611, 1897. 
Hallimond, W. T. (N. Eng. Inst.) Notes on the Coal-seams of the 

Transvaal, and Description of a Modern Pit-head Plant. Ibid. 372- 

380. 
Halse, Edward. Observations on some Gold-bearing Veins of the 

Coolgardie, Yilgarn, and Murchison Gold-fields, Western Australia. 

Ibid. XIV. 289-311, 1898. 
Harrison, W. Jerome, jun. The Minerals of Warwickshire. * Jourh. 

Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' ii. 111-113, 1897. 
Hawkins, C. E. Occurrence of Iron Ores and Iron Manufacture in the 

Weald. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 605-608, 1897. 
Heddle, Professor M. F. On Analcime with New Forms. ' Trans. 

Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 241-243, 1897. 

On the CrystaUine Forms of Riebeckite. Ibid. 265-267. 

Henderson, John. On the Calton Hill and its relation to the Rocks iri 

the Neighbourhood. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 139-144, 1897. 

H'NDE, Dr. G. J. Notes on the Gravels of Croydon and its Neighbour- 
hood. ' Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C. 1896-97,' 219-233, 1897. 

Holgate, B. a Geological Study of the Horsforth Valley. 'Trans. 
Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 49-50, 1897. 

Holmes, W. Murton. Some Forms of Sihca. ' Trans. Croydon M. N. 
H. C. 1896-97,' 213-218, 1897. 

HoRNE, John. Obituary Notice of Hugh Miller. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. 
Soc' VII. 132-138, 1897. 

On the Relation of Valley Moraines to Underlying Strata m 

Couhn Forest, Ross-shire. Ibid. 145-147. 

A New Feature in the Glaciation of Sutherland. ' Trans. Inver- 
ness Sci. Soc' IV. 27-29, 1898. 

• A Bone Cave in Sutherland. Ibid. 118-119. 

Geological Discoveries in North-West Highlands. Ibid. 151-157. 



CO REPORT— 1898. 

HoRNE, John. An Igneous Eock in Assynt. ' Trans. Inverness Sci. See.'' 

IV. 157-158. 
-^ The Ice-Shed in the North-West Highlands. Ibid. 212-213. - 

Volcanic Necks in Applecross. Ibid. 250-253. ' 

Howard, F. T. Notes on the Base of the Ehaetic Series at Lavernock 

Point. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. C4-G6, 1897. 
Howard, F. T., and E. W. Small. Further Notes on the Geology of 

Skomer Island. Ibid. G2-63. 
Howarth, J H. The Constituents of Granite. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. 

Assoc' Part x. 11, 1897. 
Howe, J. Allen. On the Pockets of Sand and Clay in the Limestone 

of Derbyshire and Staffordshire. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxi. 143- 

149, 1897. 
IIoYLE, W. E. Minerals from the Niclcel Mines of Sudbury, Ontario. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 42G-427, 1898. 
Hull Geological Society. Eeport of the East Eiding Boulder Com-' 

mittee. September 1, 189G. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' iii. G-9, 1897. 

Humphrey, Eobert. On the Occurrence of supposed Calcareous .Tufa 

. in the Interglacial Deposits of Blackpool. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' 

xxv. 494-497, 1898. 
Johnstone, John T. Note on the Occurrence of Limestone Nodules 

containing Cementstone Fossils in Glacial Deposits near Moffat. 
. . ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vn. 233-235, 1897. 

Jukes-Browne, A. J. The Origin of the Vale of Marshwood and of the 
' G'reensand Hills of West Dorset. ' Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xviii, 
- 174-184, 1897. 
Kayser, H. W. F. Tin-mining- in Tasmania. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. 

• Eng.' XIII. 570-582, 1897. ' " 

Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Eocks of Patterdale (UUswater). ' The Natu- 
ralist ' for 1898. 5-10, 1898. 

Kendall, Percy F. The Glacial Phenomena of the Alps. ' Trans. 
Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 14-20, 1897 

With Hammer and Camera in th6 Alps. Ibid. 40. 

Kennard, a. S., and B. B. Woodward. . The Post-Pliocene Non- 
■ Marine MoUusca of Essex. - ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 87-109, 1897. 

Notes on the Mollusca (Post-Pliocene and Eecent) of Felstead, 

Essex. Ibid. 185-187. 

On a Manuscript of the late John Brown, F.G.S., of Stanway. 

Ibid. 288-290, 1898. 

KiDSTON, E. On the Fossil Flora of the Potteries Coal Field — Addi- 
tional Species. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxi. 127-133, 1897. 

The Yorkshire Carboniferous Flora. ' Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union,' 

Part 21, 145-176, 1898. 

Landon, Jos. The Grey- Wethers or Sarsen Stones of Stanmer Park. 

' Proc. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' x. 81-91, 1897. 
Lapworth, Prof. C. Note on Cambrian Hyolithes Sandstones from 

Nuneaton. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vn. 231-232, 1897. 
Lloyd, Herbert. On the Mineral Eesources of the Middelburg District, 

Transvaal, South Africa. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 474-480, 

• 1898. 

Mackie, Dr. Wm. The Sands and Sandstones of Eastern Moray. 
' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 148-172, 1897. 

On the Laws that Govern the Bounding of Particles of Sand. 

Ibid. 298-811, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. .61 

Macnaie, p. Receut Advances in the Study of the Rocks of Highland 

Perthshire. ' Trans. Perths. Soc. N. Sci.' n. 166-190, 1897. 
M\NTLE, H. O. The Glacial Boulders East of Cannock Chase. 'Proc. 

Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' x. 33-72, 1897. 
Marshall, J. W. D. Notes on the British Jurassic Brachiopoda. 

Part IL ' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 232-257, 1897. 
Mathews, D. H. F, An Improved Appliance for Drawing Timber in 

Mines. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 414-418, 1898. 
M\TLEY, Chvkles A. On the Geology of part of North-East Pembroke- 
shire. ' Proc. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' x. 92-101, 1897. 
Meacham, F. G. Further Notes on Irruptions of Coal into the ' Thick 

Goal ' Workings at Hamstead Colliery, ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' 

xxv. 398-400, 1898. 
Merivale, Walter (N. Eng. Inst.). Occurrences and Mnimg of 

Manjak in Barbados, West Indies. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Mm. Eng.' 

XIV. 539-546, 1898. 
Meeritt, Wm. H. Occurrence of Cinnabar in British Columbia, 

Canada. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xin. 592-594, 1897. 
Metcalfe, A. T. The Physical Features of Scotland. ' Report Nott. 

Nat. Soc,' 1896-7 ; 57-59, 1897. 
MiLLETT, F. W. Additions to the List of Foraminifera from the St. 

Erth Clay. ' Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 174-176, 1898. 
Mitchell, D. J. The Greensand Fossils from Drift-Beds at Moreseat, 

Cruden, E. Aberdeenshire. 'Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vii. 277- 

285, 1897. 
Morton, G. H. The Carboniferous Limestone of the Vale of Clywd. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 32-65, 1897. 
Newton, R. B. An Account of the Albian Fossils lately discovered at 

Okeford Fitzpaine, Dorset. 'Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xviii. 

66-99, 1897. 
Parsons, Dr. H. Franklin. Geological Notes on a Recent Sewer 

Section at Park Hill Rise, Croydon. ' Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C. 

1896-97,' 207-218, 1897. 
Pattebson. G. D. a Visit to the Foxdale Mine, Isle of Man. ' Trans. 

Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 11-12, 1897. 
Pawson, a. H. The Lake Country. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 1-4, 

1898. 
Pearson, H, W. A Few Observations on Local Surface and Under- 
ground Springs and their Surrounding Strata. ' Proc. Bristol Nat, 

Soc' VIII. 167-175, 1897. 
Phillips, Wm. B. (N. Eng. Inst.) The Gold Regions of Alabama, 

U.S.A. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 93-97, 1897. 
Pkaeger, R. L. (Dublin N. F. C.) Bog Bursts, with Special Reference 

to the Recent Disaster in co. Kerry. ' Irish Naturalist,' vi. 141-162, 

. 1897. 

A Bog Burst Seven Years After. Ibid. 201-203. 

Reade, T. Mellard. The Present Aspects of Glacial Geology. (Presi- 
dential Address.) 'Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc' viii. 13-31, 1897. 

Geological Observations in Ayrshire. Ibid. 104-129. 

Reed,- Frank (N. Eng. Inst.) Hydrothermal Gold Deposits at Peak 
Hill, Western Australia, ' Trans. Fed, Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 89-92, 
1897,- ' 

Reid, Clement. Paradoxocarpus carinatus, Nehring. ' Trans. Norf. 
Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 328, 1897. 



62 REPORT— 1898. 

Eeid, J., W. Graham, and P. Macnair. Parka decipicns : its Origin, 

Affinities, and Distribution. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xi. 105-121, 

1898. 
EiCHARDSON, Ralph. Obituary Notice of James Melvin, F.S.A. Scot., 

formerly a Vice-President of the Society. ' Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc' 

vii. 286-289, 1897. 
Kidyard, John. Presidential Address : The Utility of Association for 

the Promotion of Science, and of its Applications. ' Trans. Manch. 

Geol. Soc' XXV. 863-375, 1898. 
RoBARTS, N. F. On the Occurrence of Mammalian Remains near Purley. 

' Trans. Croydon M. N. H. C. 1896-97,' 233-235, 1897. 
Ross, Dr. Alex. Asbestos near Loch Duich. ' Trans. Inverness Sci. 

Soc' IV. 49-53, 1898. 

lona Geology. Ibid. 230-233. 

Sawyer, A. R. The South Rand Coalfield, and its Connection with the 

Witwatersrand Banket Formation. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XIV. 312-327, 1898. 
Seelet, Prof. H. G. Current Bedding in Clay (Wealden). ' Trans. 

S. E. Union.' ii. 21-22, 1897. 
Sheppard, T. Geological Bibliography, 1895. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' 

III. 25-27, 1897. 
Simpson, Wm. The Structure and Composition of the Rocks in the 

Parish of Halifax. ' Halifax Naturalist,' ii. 70-76, 1897. 

The Genesis of the Rocks in the Parish of Halifax. Ibid. 81-88, 

1897. 

The Millstone Grit. 'Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc' Part x. 23-26, 



1897. 

Smith, John. On a Section of Carboniferous Strata in a Cutting of the 
Caledonian Railway at Lissens, three miles north-east of Kilwinning, 
Ayrshire. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xi. 122-127, 1898. 

On a Globular Structure in a Patch of Shale enclosed in the 

' Deil's Dyke,' near Greenan Castle, Ayrshire. Ibid. 128-129. 

' Coal Apples ' from Lugton Water. Ibid. 130. 

Shale Sockets of Cement Nodules from Thornliebank. Ibid. 131. 

The Drift or Glacial Deposits of Ayrshire. Ibid. Supplement, 



1-134, 1898. 
■ — — On the Grasping Power of Carboniferous Crinoid ' Fingers ' or 

' Branches.' ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 58-61, 1897. 
SoMERVAiL, Alex. On the Probable Causes of the Seeming Absence of 

Palfeolithic Man from Cornwall. ' Trans. Cornw. R. Geol. Soc' xii. 

167-173, 1898. 
Spencer, Jas. The Belle Vue Museum : The Geological Collections. 

' Hahfax NaturaKst,' ii. 41-43, 1897. 

Local Fossils and Where to Find Them. Ibid. iii. 6-8, 1898. 

Stather, J. W. The Speeton Clay and Some Correlative Beds. 

' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' in. 17-24, 1897. 
Stirrup, Mark. Report on the Recent International Geological Con- 
gress at St. Petersburg, with Sketch of the Geology of Finland. 

' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 501-507, 1898. 
Sutton, J. E. An Inquiry into the Origin of the Mud Rushes in the 

De Beers Mine, Kimberley, 1894-1896 (with Charts of the Mine and 

of Temperature, &c.). ' Trans. S. Afiican Phil. Soc' ix. 54-68, 

1898. 



CORRESPOXDIXG SOCIETIES. 63 

Tatlok, Henry. Notes on the Geology of the Island of Eigg. ' Trans. 

Glasgow Geol. Soc' xi. 32-40, 1898. 
Thompson, Beeby. The Junction Beds of the Upper Lias and Inferior 

Oolite in Northamptonshire. ' Journal Northampton N. H. Soc' 

IX. 169-186, 212-223, 245-261, 1897. 
Thomson, James. On the Occurrence of Species of the Genus Palastrcea 
' of McCoy in the Lower Carboniferous Strata of Scotland, with a 

Description of some New Species and Varieties. ' Trans. Glasgow 

Geol. Soc' XI. 1-11, 1898. 
On the Stratified Kocks of the Shore-Line from Clachland Point 

to the Code of Arran. Ibid. 12-31. 

On the Genus Philipsastrcea. Ibid. 51-70. 

Tbaquaie, Dr. E. H. On Gladodus Ncilsonl from the Carboniferous 

Limestone of East Kilbride. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xi. 41-50, 

1898. 
Tucker, W. T. On some Human Remains found in the Gravel Pit near 

the Eailway Station at New Hunstanton. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. 

Phil. Soc' IV. 521-526, 1898. 
Turner, H. E. The Search for Coal in the South-East of England. 

' Trans. S. E. Union.' ii. 22-25, 1897. 
Walton, Dr. F. F. The Lias of Yorkshire. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc' 

Part X. 44-49, 1897. 
Ward, Thomas. On the Eock Salt Deposits of Northwich, Cheshire, 

and the Eesult of their Exploitation. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc' 

XXV. 274-298 ; 530-555, 1897 and 1898. 
Waedingley, Charles. The Geological History of the Cephalopoda. 

' Trans. Eochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' v. 77-88, 1897. 
Warren, Harold. Water-Levels in the Chalk near Rovston. ' Trans. 

Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 209-214, 1897. 
Watts, W. W. Note on some Eock Specimens from the Borings at 

Netherseal. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 599-601, 1897. 
Wauchope, J. A. The Goldfields of the Hauraki District, New Zealand. 

' Trans. Mining Inst. Scotland,' xix. 19-45, 1897. 
W^iLSON, T. Hay. Note on Sections in the Lea Valley at South Totten- 
ham. ' Essex Naturahst,' x. 110-111, 1897. 
WiNCHELL, Horace V. The Lake Superior Iron-ore Region. ' Trans. 

Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 493-562, 1897. 
WiNwooD, Eev. H. H. On a Ehfctic Exposure at Boyce Hill. ' Proc 

Bath N. H. A. F. C viii. 306-316, 1897. 
Woodward, A. S. On a New Specimen Mesozoic Ganoid Fish, PhoJi- 

dophonis, from the Oxford Clay at Wepnouth. ' Proc Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C xviii. 150-152, 1897. 
Woodward, H. B. A Memoir of Thomas Beesley, J.P., F.C.S. ' Proc. 

Warw. N. A. F. C 42, 15-26, 1897. 
Wright, Joseph. Boulder Cla}' — a Marine Deposit, with Special 

Reference to the 'Till' of Scotland. 'Proc Belfast N. H. Phil. 

Soc, 1896-97,' 52-53, 1897. 

Section D. — Zoology. 

Armitt, Miss M. L. Walls and Wall-Nesters. 'The Naturalist for 

1897,' 243-252, 1897. 
Backhouse, J. Notes on the Sandwich Tern. ' The Naturalist for 

1898,' 73-74, 1898. 



;64 KEroRT— 1898. 

.Barrett, C. G., J. E. Harting, and G. S. Boulger. Conference on 

the Protection of Animals and Plants in Essex. ' Esses Naturalist,' 

X. 179-184, 1897. 
Beckfoed, F. J. B. On the Fish of Dorset : their Habits, Mode of 

Capture, &c. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xviir. 1-43, 1897. 
BEiiL, Richard. Emu and Ostrich Farming in the Highlands of Dum- 
friesshire. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Boc' No. 13, 46-GG, 1898. 
Benoni, Gregory 0. Natural History Notes : what to Note and how to 

make Notes. ' The Naturalist for 1897,' 209-212, 1897. 
BiNNiE, Francis G. (Yorks. Nat. Union.) Neuroptera-Planipennia and 

Trichoptera observed near Tadcaster. ' The Naturalist for 1897,' 

349-851, 1897. 
Birkenhead, G. A. Note on Mole Cricket (Gryllotalpa vidgaris) found 

on Ely Common, 1896. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. G7-68, 

1897. 
Black, R. S. Observations on the Morphology and Conditions of Growth 

of a Fungus Parasitic on Locusts in South Africa. ' Trans. S. African 

Phil. Soc' IX. 68-81, 1898. 
Blackburn, William. The Lace-work Sponge {Temperella Schulzei). 

'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc, 1896,' 57-61, 1897. 
BoiLEAu, Sir F. G. M. Presidential Address. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soc' VI. 231-239, 1897. 
BoCAM, George. Rarer Lepidoptera, with several additions to the 

Fauna of Northumberland and Berwickshire. ' History Berwicksh. 

Nat. Club,' XV. 297-306, 1897. 
Boulger, Professor G. S. Plant Companionship (Symbiosis) in the 

Forest. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 170-173, 1897. 
Bouskell, F. Parthenogenesis in Insects. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. 

Soc' IV. 418-427, 1897. 
Boyd, D. A. In Memoriam — David Robertson, LL.D., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 18-42, 1897. 
Caradog and Severn Valley Field Club. Ornithological Notes 

1897. ' Record of Bare Facts,' No. 7, 22-24, 1898. 

Entomological Notes, 1897. Ibid. 25-27. 

Carpenter, G. H. (Dubhn N. F. C.) The CoUembola of Mitchelstown 
Cave. ' Irish NaturaUst,' vi. 225-233, 257-258, 1897. 

Carr, Professor J. W. Fishes of the Nottinghamshire Trent in 1622, 
with Notes on their present occurrence. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 
33-36, 1898. 

Trent Fishes not mentioned in Drayton's ' Poly-Olbion.' Ibid. 

80. • 

Clarke, H. S. Notes on the Life History of PoUa Nigrocincta {Xantho- 
mista). ' Yn Lioar Manninagh,' iii. 246-248, 1897. 

Report of the Entomological Section. Ibid. 291-294, 1898. 

Clarke, W. G. List of Vertebrate Animals in the Neighbourhood of 

Thetford. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 300-327, 1897. 
Cole, W. The Protection of Wild Birds in Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' 
X. 133-136, 1897, 274-277, 1898. 

Notes on the Conference of Delegates of the Corresponding 

Societies of the British Association, Toronto, 1897. Ibid. 284-288, 
1898. 

Coles, Dr. Charles. The Animal Parasites of Malarial Fever. ' Trans. 
Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' iv. 365-370, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 65 

CoKDEAUx, John. Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union. ' The Naturalist ' for 1897, 193-208, 1897. 

Bird Notes from the Humber District. Ibid. 237-240, 1897, 

21-26, 1898. 

Ckabtree, Aethuk. The Bell Vue Museum. ' Halifax Naturalist,' ii. 

26-29 1897. 

Fish in the Eivers and Brooks of Halifax. Ibid. 119-120, 1898. 

Crellin, J. C. Eeport of the Zoological Section. ' Yn Lioar Manninagh,' 

III. 288-291, 1898. 
Ckossman, Alan F. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during 

the year 1896. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc.,' ix. 148-162, 1897. 
Crowthee, J. E. The Pond Snails (LimnaBfe) of the Parish of Halifax. 

' Halifax NaturaUst,' ii. 91-94, 1897. 
CuTHBEET, H. K. G. (Dublin N. F. C.) A Mysterious Irish Wasp, Vespa 

austriaca, Panz. {arborea, Smith). ' Irish NaturaUst,' vi. 285-287, 

1897. 

An Entomologist at Ballybunion, co. Kerry. Ibid. vii. 65-68, 

1898. 

Daltey, Eev. T. W. Sectional Eeport : Entomology. • Trans. N. Staff. 

F. C xxxi. 55-58, 1897. 
Dixon, G. B. Supposed Causes of Variation. * Trans. Leicester Lit. 

Phil. Soc' IV. 374-385, 1897. 
Deane, E. Inaugural Address. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. 

1-8, 1897. 

Stray Notes on Natural History. Ibid. 76-79. 

Deessee, H. E. Pallas's Willow Warbler and some other Eare Euro- 
pean Warblers. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 280-290, 
1897. 

DuTHiE, Col. W. H. M. The Wild Birds' Protection Act of 1894, and 
the Future of British Oology. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 
43-47, 1897. 

The British Abode of the Crested Titmouse. ' Trans. Perths. 

Soc. N. Sci.' II. 149-154, 1897. 

Edwaeds, Thos. Notes on British Conchology. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. 
Phil. Soc' IV. 371-373, 1897. 

Feilden, Col. H. W. Vertebrate and Plant Life on Ben Nevis. ' Trans. 
Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 245-247, 1897. 

Feiend, Eev. Hildeeic. White Worms as Plant Pests. 'The Natu- 
raUst for 1897,' 257-260, 1897. 

Eesearches among Annelids. ' The Naturalist for 1898,' 81-83, 

1898. 

GiLLANDERS, A. T. The Entomology of the Oak. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. 

Soc' 1896, 78-88, 1897. 
Geabham, Oxley. The Food of the Merlin. ' The NaturaUst for 1897,' 
241-242, 1897. 

Eggs of Stone Curlew. Ibid. 273-274. 

Gbay, W. G. (E. Kent N. H. Soc). On Birds that Breed on the Shingle. 

' South-Eastern Naturalist,' ii. part 1, 7-12, 1897. 
Geifpiths, G. C. On some Lepidopterous Larvte : their Habits and 

Means of Protection. ' Proc Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 73-93, 1897. 
•Geimshaw, p. H. Lincolnshire Diptera : a Preliminary List. ' The 

Naturalist ' for 1898, 157-160, 1898. 

Nottinghamshire Diptera : a Preliminary List. Ibid. 89-103. 

1898. i- 



66 ' EEPORT— 1898. 

GuRNEY, J. H. On the Tendency in Birds to Resemble other Species. 
• Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' xi. 240-244, 1897. 

On the Ornithology of Switzerland, Ibid. 255-262. 

Guthrie, William Grant. Lepidoptera of the Hawick District. ' His- 
tory Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 332-345, 1897. 

Hanna, H. Notes on the Fauna of the Antrim Coast. ' Proc. Belfast 
Nat. F.C IV. 425-426, 1898. 

Hardy, Dr. J. Bottle-nosed Whale, Hijperoodon rostratus (Chemnitz), 
stranded at Reaheugh shore, on the Berwickshire coast, November 1, 
1895. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 293-296, 1897. 

Another rare Cetacean, Dolphinus albirostris (White-beaked Dol- 
phin). Ibid. 296. 

Harris, G. H. The Herring Fishery of 1896. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. 

Nat. Soc' VI. 269-272, 1897. 
Harris, W. H. Note on the Teeth of Diptera. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. 

Soc' XXIX. 59-61, 1897. 
Harting, J. E. Hawking in Norfolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' 

VI. 248-254, 1897. 
Hawell, Eev. John. The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Staithes. 

'The Naturalist' for 1898, 105-111, 1898. 
HiCKSON, Prof. S. J. The Distribution of the Fresh-water Fauna. 

' Trans. Manch. Mic Soc. 1896,' 88-99, 1897. 
HiNDMARSH, Wm. T. Bare Foreign Quadrupeds and Birds assembled by 

J. C. Leyland, Esq., at Haggerston Castle. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. 

Club,' XV. 235-238, 1897. 
HoDSON, Eev. J. H. A List of Yorkshire Earthworms. ' Halifax Natu- 
ralist,' II. 53-55, 1897. 
Hogg, Charles. On Bipalium ketvense, Moseley. ' Trans. Glasgow 

N. H. Soc' V. 53-54, 1897. 
HoPKiNsoN, John. Report on the Conferences of Delegates to the British 

Association, at Ipswich in 1895. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 

x.-xvii., 1898. 
Howard, David. The Work of the Essex Field Club during the past year 

[1897]. (Presidential Address.) 'Essex Naturalist,' x. 241-246, 1898. 
Lane-Claypon, J. C. List of Lepidoptera taken at Wyberton, near 

Boston. ' The Naturalist ' for 1897, 361-366. 1897. 
Layer, Henry. The Mammals, Reptiles, and Fishes of Essex. ' Essex 

Field Club Special Memoirs,' iii. 138 pp. 1898. 
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C. The Physics and Biology of the Sea. (Presi- 
dential Address.) ' Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xviii. lix.-lxxvi. 1897. 
Martin, W. M. J., and G. C. F. Robinson. Ornithological Notes. 

' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 46, 77-78, 1898. 
Masefield, J. R. B. Sectional Report : Zoology. ' Trans. N. Staff. 

F. C xxxi. 48-54, 1897. 

Aculeate Hymenoptera taken at Cheadle in 1896. Ibid. 59. 

Mason, J. E. Some Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the Isle of Man. ' The 

Naturahst for 1898,' 139-140, 1898. 
Mason, P. B. The Struggle for Life within the Animal Body. ' Trans. 
Burt. N. H. Arch. Soc' in. 205-225, 1897. 

Note on Bos loncjifrons. Ibid. 259-260. 

Meyrick, E. Entomological Notes. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 
No. 46, 51-64, 1898. 

Ornithological Notes. Ibid. 70-74 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 67 

Mitchell, Archibald. The Pine-Wood Wasp (Sirex juvencus) and its 

occurrence at Dunraven. 'Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. 69-73, 

1897. 
NxJKN, Jos. P. Notes on the Birds of North Hertfordshire. ' Trans. 

Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 163-166, 1897. 
Okd, Geo. W. The Constancy of the Bee. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' 

V. 85-88, 1897. 
Pateeson, John. The Distribution of the Chiff-chaff {Phylloscopus 

Tjiftis, Bechst.) in the Clyde area. Ibid. 48-52. 
Patterson, A. Natural History Notes from Yarmouth. ' Trans. Norf. 

Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 291-295, 1897. 
Pearson, Chas. E. The Natural History of Kolguev (island N. of 

Lapland). ' Eeport Nott. Nat. Soc. 1896-7,' 37-45, 1897. 
Peringuey, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of South Africa. 

Part in. Family Paussida^. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' x. 3-42, 

1897. 
Petty, S. L. Polyzoa and Hydrozoa at Filey. ' The Naturalist for 

1897,' 275-276, 1897. 
Pick.\rd-Cambeidge, Eev. 0. British Arachnida observed and captured 

in 1896. ' Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xviii. 108-115, 1897. 
Praeger, E. Ll. (Dublin N. F. C). Notes on an Expedition to Eockall. 

' Irish Naturalist,' vi. 309-323, 1897. 
Raffray, a. Occurrence of Blind Insects in South Africa. ' Trans. S. 

African Phil. Soc' ix. 20-22, 1897. 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of South Africa. Part IV. 

Family Pselaphidse. Ibid. 43-130. 

Ealfe, p. The Birds of Lonan, Isle of Man. ' The Naturalist for 1897,' 

221-226, 1897. 
Eawson, F. G. S. The Spotted Fly-catcher {Musicapa grisola). ' Hahfax 

Naturalist,' ii. 37, 1897. 

Some Birds of the Eyburn Valley. Ibid. ii. 51-52, 1897 ; 116-117, 

1898. 

EiCHARDSON, N. M. Dorset Clothes-moths and their Habits. ' Proc. Dorset 
N. H. A. F. C XVIII. 138-149, 1897. 

Eeport on Observations of the First Appearances of Birds, Insects, 

&c., and the First Flowering of Plants in Dorset during 1896. Ibid. 
185-195. 

Eoebuck, W. Denison. Bibliography : Mammalia, 1892. ' The Natura- 
list for 1898,' 61-71, 1898, 
Eowley, F. E. Inaugural Address to the Entomological Section. 

' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc' iv. 386-399, 1897. 
Schaeff, Dr. E. F. (Dublin N. F. C.) The Land MoUusca of the Great 

Skellig. 'Irish Naturalist,' vii. 9-11, 1898. 
Schonland, Dr. S. Nesting Habits of Tockus melanoleucics, Licht. 

' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 1-7, 1897. 
Scott, E. J. H. The Bezoar Stone. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C vin. 

347-349, 1897. 
Scourfield, D. J. The Entomostraca of Epping Forest, with some 

General Eemarks on the Group. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 193-210, 259- 

274, 1898. 
Slater, Eev. H. H. Notes on the Birds of Northamptonshire and 

Neighbourhood for 1896. 'Journal N'ton N. H. Soc' ix. 165-167 

1897. 

f2 



68 iiEPORT— 1898. 

Smith, Joseph. The Structure and Development of Hydrozoa. ' Trans. 

Manch. Mic. Soc. 189G,' 39-57, 1897. 
Smith, Theodoba. Ant Neighbours. ' Halifax Naturalist,' iii. 1-5, 1898. 
SoKBY, Dr. H. C. General Kemarks on the Marine Natural History of 

the Colne Estuary. 'Essex Naturalist,' 166-169, 1897. 

Notes on the Food of Oysters in Essex. Ibid. 169. 

Southwell, Thos. The Eeproduction of the Common Eel [Anguilla 

vulgaris). ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 262-268, 1897. 

Some Additions to the Norwich Castle Museum in 1896. Ibid. 

296-300. 

Spencek, S. H. Notes on Lepidoptera observed in the Neighbourhood 

of Watford in the Year 1896. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' ix. 236-240, 

1897. 
Staffobd, Wm. Some Account of the Electric Fishes. (Presidential 

Address.) 'Keport Nott. Nat. Soc. 1896-7,' 1-11, 1897. 
Steele-Elliott, J. Stray Notes, Neighbourhood of Birmingham 

(January to June, 1897). ' Proc. Birm. N. H. Phil. Soc' ii. 126-131 ; 

138-140, 1897. 
Stuabt, Dr. Chables. Birds in the Eastern Borders, 1895. ' History 

Berwicksh. Nat. Chib,' xv. 825-331, 1897. 
SwATNE, S. H. The Homologies of the Horn- Structures in the Ungulata. 

' Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc' viii. 131-140, 1897. 
Thew, Edwabd, jun. List of Birds in the Parish of Warkworth. 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 307-308, 1897. 
Thew, Mrs. Edwabd. List of Shells found on the Shore between 

Alnmouth and Amble Pier. Ibid. 309-312. 
Thompson, M. Lawson. Notes on Coleoptera of the Family Staphylinidae 

in N.E. Yorkshire. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 141-144, 1898. 
Thobnley, Eev. A. Aculeate Hymenoptera of Nottinghamshire. A 

Preliminary List. Ibid. 13-16. 
Tibbits, J. B. M. The Mammals of Northamptonshire, &c. ' Journal 

N'ton. N. H. Soc' ix. 168, 1897. 
Tuck, W. H. Aculeate Hymenoptera at Tostock, near Bury St. 

Edmunds. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' vi. 328-330, 1897. 
TuBNBULL, John, and William Geant Guthbie. On Stenopteryx 

hirunclinis, L. ; a parasite of the Swallow observed at Lauder. ' His- 
tory Berwicksh. Nat. Club.' xv. 353-354, 1897. 
TuTT, J. W. The Scientific Aspects of Entomology. ' Trans. Leicester 

Lit. Phil. Soc' iv. 527-539, 1898. 
Ushee, Andbew. Introduction of Loch Leven Trout, North American 

Loch Trout and Eainbow Trout to Coldingham Loch. ' History 

Berwicksh. Nat. Club.' xv. 219-220, 1897. 
Vachell, Dr. 0. T. Note on the Occurrence of Sirex juvencus in the 

Society's District. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxix. 69, 1897. 
Vebey, a. S. Notes on the Observations of Swallows. ' Trans. Herts 

N. H. Soc' IX. 126-128, 1897. 
Vice, W. A. On the Genus Eristalis as represented in Britain. ' Trans. 

Leicester Lit. and Phil. Soc" iv. 428-431, 1897. 
Walkee, J. J. A List of the Coleoptera of the Rochester District. 

' Eochester Naturahst,' ii. 441-468, 475-484, 1897 and 1898. 
Wallis, H. M. On the Growth of Hair upon the Human Ear, and its 

Testimony to the Shape, Size and Position of the Organ in past times. 

« Eep. Brighton N. H. PhU. Soc. 1896-97,' 19-27, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. C9 

Waterwoeth, H. Birds of the Liiddenden Valley. The Cuckoo. 

' Halifax Naturalist,' ii. 32-34, 1897. 
Webb, W. M. The Non-Marine Molluscs of Essex (conclusion). ' Essex 

Naturalist,' 65-81, 1897. 
Welch, R. Land Shell Pockets : Ancient and Modern. ' Proc. Belfast 

Nat. F. C IV. 427, 1898. 
WiLKiNS, H., and others. Pond Life in Nottinghamshire. ' Kep. Nott. 

Nat. Soc. 1896-7,' 60-62, 1897. 
Willis, H. G. The Defensive Devices of Lepidopterous Larvas. ' Trans. 

Manch. Mic. Soc. 1896,' 61-72, 1897. 
Wood, F. H. The Protection of Rare and Local Lepidoptera. ' Journal 

N'ton. N. H. Soc' ix. 207-211, 1897. 
Wood, the late James. Earthworm tier s-zis Beetle. ' History Berwicksh. 

Nat. Club.' XV. 346-347, 1897. 
WooDFORDE, F. C. Protective Mimicry in Insects. ' Trans. Car. and 

Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 2-7, 1898. 
Woodbuffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A. Lincolnshire Naturalists in the 

Gainsborough Neighbourhood. ' The Naturalist,' 253-256, 1897. 
The Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union at Holbeck, Somersby, and 

Tetford. Ibid. 317-324. 

Lincolnshire Naturalists at Frampton and Wyburton Fitties. 



Ibid. 355-360. 

Lincolnshire Naturalists at Linwood Warren. ' The Naturalist 



for 1898,' 49-51, 1898. 
Wright, C. E. Conchological Notes. ' Journal N'ton. N. H. Soc' ix. 
187, 1897. 

Section ^.—Geography. 

Adamson, D. B. Yquitos. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc' vi. 73-75, 1898. 

AucHTERLONiE, T. B., and Jas. Pinnock. The City of Benin : the 
Country, Customs and Inhabitants. Ibid. 5-16. 

Blake, J. C. The Northern Capitals of Europe. ' Journal Manch. 
Geog. Soc' XII. 293-313, 1897. 

Bowes, Aid. J. The Danube and the Opening of the Iron Gates. Ibid, 
xin. 107-114, 1897. 

Brice, a. M. The Jackson-Harmsworth Polar Expedition. Ibid. 
73-80. 

BuRMESTER, Capt. A. C. The Hill and Ruins of Sigari, Ceylon. ' Proc. 
Bath N. H. A. F. C viii. 349-353, 1887. 

Carnegie, Hon. D. W. Explorations in the Interior of Western Aus- 
tralia. ' Journal Tyneside Geog. Soc' iv. 132-154, 1898. 

DiosY, Arthur. Turkey : the Subjects of the Sultan. Ibid. 52-55, 
1897. 

DowKER, G. (E . Kent N. H. Soc.) On the Mouth of the Stour. ' South- 
Eastern Naturalist,' ii. 13-20, 1897. 

Evans, W. A. Western Norway in Winter. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. 
Soc. ' IV. 475-482, 1898. 

Gregory, Dr. J. W. Across Spitsbergen. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. 
Soc' VI. 41-58, 1898. 

Hedin, Dr. SvEN. Four Years' Travel in Central Asia. ' Journal Tyne- 
side Geog. Soc' IV. 107-131, 1898. 

Jackson, F.G. Three Years in the Arctic. Ibid. 13-20 1897 



70 REPORT— 1898. 

Lancastee, Wm., jun. Notes of a Short Visit to the Island of Skye. 

' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xiii. 101-105, 1897. 
Mellor, E. W. The Cruise of the Dolphin in Dutch Waters, 1896. 

Ibid. 1-46. 
Nansen, Dr. F. The Furthest North. Ibid. 47-72. 
Oeam, Dr. and Mrs. Notes of a Tour in the Eastern Mediterranean. 

Ibid. 350-360. 
Peaky, Lieut. E. E. Journeys in North Greenland. ' Journal Tyneside 

Geog. Soc. ' IV. 83-106, 1898. 
Playne, H. C. Some Wanderings in the North of Finland. ' Proc. 

Bristol Nat. Soc. ' viii. 94-108, 1897. 
Smithson, G. E. T. Tenth Anniversary of the Society. 'Journal Tyne- 
side Geog. Soc. ' IV. 7-9, 1897. 
Sowekbutts, Eli. Bibliography of Arctic Eesearch. ' Journal Manch. 

Geog. Soc. ' xiii. 97-100, 1897. 
Thomson, J. P. Queensland. ' Journal Tyneside Geog. Soc. ' iv. 21-51, 

1897. 
Weir, Thomas. Within the Arctic Circle -ndth the Eclipse Expedition. 

' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc. ' xiii. 81-96, 1897. 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Baerowman, Jas. Slavery in the Coal-mines of Scotland. ' Trans. 
Fed. Inst. Min. Eng. ' xiv. 267-276, 1898. 

Mining Mortality. 'Trans. Mining Inst. Scot.' xix. 218-227, 

1898. 

Bradley, Nathaniel. The Manchester Sewage Problem, with Sugges- 
tions for its Solution, and Suggested Amendment of the Rivers 
Pollution Act. ' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc. 1896-97,' 131-158, 1897. 

Daly, E. D. The Struggle between the State and the Drunkard, 
' Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' x. 268-292, 1897. 

Crime, and How Best to Attack it. Ibid. 338-339. 

Dawson, Chas. The Valuation of the City of Dublin. Ibid. 320-325. 
Dick, G. H. Some Aspects of Political Economy from a Commercial 

Point of View. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc. ' xxviii. 122-142, 1897. 
FiNLAY, Eev. T. A. The Progress of Co-operation. ' Journal Stat. Soc. 

Ireland,' x. 229-237, 1897. 
Fletcher, A. W. The Economic Eesults of the Ship Canal in Man- 
chester and the Surrounding Districts. ' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc, 

1896-97,' 83-108, 1897. 
Flux, A. W. Compensation for Industrial Accidents. Ibid. 1897-98, 

267-306, 1898. 
Galloway, J. E. The Municipalities of Manchester and Hamburg. 

Ibid. 1897-98, 33-63, 1898. 
Glaister, Prof. John. The Pollution of Scottish Elvers. 'Proc. 

Glasgow Phil. Soc. ' xxviii. 50-95, 1897. 
Graves, H. G. (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.). Irish Legislation on Mining and 

Coal up to the Year 1800. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng. ' xiv. 

179-189, 1898. 
Geeig, Jas. E. Sugar Bounties. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc. ' xxviii. 

185-200, 1897. 
Hooker, E. H. Is the Birth-rate still Falling ? ' Trans. Manch. Stat. 

Soc, 1897-98,' 101-126, 1898. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 71 

HouLDSWORTH, Sir. W. H. Index Numbers and the Course of Prices as 

indicated by them during the last Fifty Years. Ibid. 1896-97, 

109-130, 1897. 

■ Bimetallism. Ibid. 1897-98, 307-320, 1898. 

Keee, John G. Educational Experiments. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' 

XXVIII. 143-160, 1897. 
Leech, Sir Bosdin T. Tramways and their Municipalisation. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1897-98/ 127-152, 1898. 
Lennox, James. History of the Dumfries Savings Bank. ' Trans. Dum. 

Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 70-74, 1898. 
Louis, Professor H. Technical Education in Mining. 'Trans. Fed. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' 5-18, 1898. 
McDouGALii, Aid. A. The English Poor Law, with Special Pieference 

to Progress in its Administration during the Queen's Eeign. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1897-98,' 9-31, 1898. 
M'Vail, Dr. J. C. The Vaccination Commission's Report : a Plea for 

Ee-vaccination. * Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxviii. 236-245, 1897. 
Mercer, Eev. J. E. The Conditions of Life in Angel Meadow. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1896-97," 159-180, 1897. 
Mining Institute op Scotland. Eeport on the Home Secretary's 

' Explosives in Coal-Mines Order, 1896.' ' Trans. Mining Inst. Scot.' 

XVIII. 89-92, 1897. 
Philips, Herbert. Open Spaces for Eecreation in Manchester. ' Trans. 

Manch. Stat. Soc. 1896-97,' 49-64, 1897. 
Pierce, Ernest W. Principles of the Law of Eating as affecting 

Engineering Works. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 121-135, 1897. 
Pownall, Geo. Some Aspects of Local Government. Ibid. 1-48. 
Samuels, A. W. Private Bill Legislation for Ireland. ' Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland,' x. 238-250, 1897. 

The Financial Eelations between England and Ireland. The 

Expenditure Account. Ibid. 292-320. 

Sexton, Professor A. H. The Andersonian : a Centenary Sketch. 

'Proc Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxviii. 161-171, 1897. 
Synnott, N. J. Some Features of the Over-Taxation of Ireland. 

' Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' x. 251-268, 1897. 
Webb, Alfred. The Sherborn Massachusetts Eeformatory Prison for 

Women. Ibid. 326-333, 1897. 
Welton, Thos. a. On the English Mortality from Phthisis in the Years 

1881-90. ' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc' 1896-97, 65-72, 1897. 

On Forty Years' Industrial Changes in England and Wales. Ibid. 

1897-8, 153-243, 1898. 

On the 1891 Census of Occupations of Males in England and 

Wales, so far as relates to the Large Towns and to the Counties after 

the exclusion of such Towns. Ibid. 245-266. 
WiGLEY, J. The Eegistration of Parliamentary and Local Government 

Electors. Ibid. 1896-97, 73-82, 1897. 
Yerburgh, E. a. Agricultural Banks and the Evils of the Money- 

Lending System. Ibid. 1897-98, 65-99, 1898. 

Section G. — Mechanical Science. 

Anderson, J. W. Mechanical Eefrigeration. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' 
xvm. 88-99, 1897. 



72 REPORT— 1898. 

Ayton, Henry. The Ee-opening of Wallsend Colliery. ' Trans. Fed. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 87-92, 1898. 
Bain, H. Foster. Machine Coal-Mining in Iowa, U.S.A. Ibid. xiii. 

478-489, 1897. 
Bannister, M. C. A Description of the Construction of Cold Stores for 

the Preservation of Perishable Human Food. ' Trans. Liverpool E. 

Soc' XVIII. 172-199, 1897. 
Barton, Jas. Irish Channel Tunnel. 'Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XIV. 255-261, 1898. 
Bigg-Wither, H. Notes on Electrical Shot Firing. * Trans. Manch. 

Geol. Soc' XXV. 48-492, 1898. 
Bigley, Thos. M. Electric Tramways to Connect Towns with Neighbour- 
ing Districts. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 105-116, 1897. 
Brodie, Wm. Dock Gates. Ibid. 142-161. 
Burt, Andrew. The Methods of Working Minerals, Secondary Haulage, 

and Ventilation in Fifeshire. * Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 

190-203, 1898. 
Burton, G. L. Water Tube Boilers. 'Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 

37-52, 1897. 
Cadell, H. M. Submarine Coal-mining at Bridgeness, N.B. ' Trans. 

Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 237-253, 1898. 
Cadman, John (N. Eng. Inst.). Notes on Bearer Workings. Ibid. 

392-396. 
Carmichael, Dr. Neil. House Sanitation. ' Proc Glasgow Phil. Soc' 

xxvm. 172-184, 1897. 
Corbett, Jos. Sewage Sludge Removal and Shipment. ' Trans. Liverpool 

E. Soc' XVIII. 208-221, 1897. 
CottrelI;, S. B. Inaugural Address [The Development of Railways]. 

Ibid. 1-16. 
Cremer, Richard. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) Wagner Portable 

Pneumatic Safety-stopping for Mining Purposes. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xv. 219-230, 1898. 
(Midland Inst. Eng.) The Walcher Pneumatophore, and the Em- 
ployment of Oxygen for Life-saving Purposes. Ibid. xiv. 575-585, 

1898. 
Crichton, John. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Comparative Experiments on 

Models of a Capell, a Schiele, and a Crichton Excelsior Fan, under 

the same conditions. Ibid. 466-468. 
Crone, E. W. Telescopic Spout for Sa\ing Breakage of Coal in the 

First Shipment. Ibid. xv. 72-73. 
Dixon, Walter. Latest Developments and the Practical Application of 

Alternating Multiphase Machinery for Electric-Power Transmission. 

Ibid. XIV. 328-336. 
DuBNFORD, H. St. J., and E. Holiday. (Midland Inst. Eng.) The 

Use of Electricity at Ackton Hall CoUiery. Ibid. xiii. 232-239, 1897. 
Farren, Geo. Silting of Small Harbours and the Eifect of a Stream of 

Water. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 226-236, 1897. 
Forster, T. E. Historical Notes on Wallsend Colhery. 'Trans. Fed. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 77-86, 1898. 
Garforth, W. E. Suggested Rules for the Recovery of Coal-mines after 

Explosions. Ibid. xiv. 495-533, 1898. 
Glover, Jas., jun. Some Notes on Current Specifications and Tenders 

for Public Works. ' Trans. Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 66-78, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 73 

KiEKur, Philip. The Manufacture of Fire-clay Goods from the Under- 

clays of Thin Coal-Seams. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xv. 45-61, 

1898. 
Lang, Wm. F. The Brown Hydraulic System for Underground Pumping 

and Haulage. ' Trans. Mining Inst. Scot.' xix. 47-51, 1897. 
Lees, Thomas G. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) Internal Corrosion of 

Wire Ropes. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 400-408, 1898. 

Explosions in Air-Compressors and Receivers. Ibid. 554-573. 

Louis, Prof. Henry. (N. Eng. Inst.) Notes on the Iron Industry of 

the Urals. Ibid. 368-389. 
Maurice, Wm. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) Electric Blasting. Ibid. 

XIV. 142-163, 445-464 ; xv. 189-198, 1897 and 1898. 
Mein, J. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) The Walker Hollow Needle for 

Firing High Explosives. Ibid. xiv. 164-165, 1897. 
MiTTON, A. DuRY. An Underground Fire at Bridgewater CoUiery. Ibid. 

XIII. 466-473, 1897. 

MoNCEiBFF, G. M. Coal-Shipping Plant at Wallsend Colliery. Ibid. xv. 

75-76, 1898. 
MoRisoN, John. Coal-shipping by Belts. Ibid. xv. 67-71, 1898. 
Mungall, Walter H. Screening-Plant at Mossbeath CoUiery. ' Trans. 

Mming Inst. Scot." xviii. 83-86, 1897. 
O'Shba, L. T. (Chesterf. Mid. Count. Inst.) Report on an Explosives 

Testing Station. 'Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' xiv. 411-414, 

1898. 
Memorandum on the Proposed Station for Testing Explosives at 

Woolwich. Ibid. xiv. Part 3, 415-417, 1898. 
Paerington, T. E. (N. Eng. Inst.) Economical Combustion of Coal 

for Steam-raising Purposes. Ibid. xiii. 384-388, 1897. 
Reynolds, Geo. B. (N. Eng. Inst.) A Method of Dealing with Running- 
Sand when met with in Borings. Ibid. xiv. 107-108, 1897. 
Richardson, H. Shipment of Coal. Ibid. xv. 74, 1898. 
Robinson, Leslie S. Light Railways. Ibid. xiii. 445-456, 1897. 
Rowan, F. J. A One-Rail or Trestle System of Light Railway. Ibid. 

XIV. 280-285, 1898. 

Steavenson, a. L. On some Dangers attending the Use of Steam-pipes. 

Ibid. XIII. 563-569, 1897. 
Thirkell, E. W. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Adequate Ventilation, and 

Noxious Gases : with Special Reference to the Recommendations of 

the Enghsh, French, Prussian, and Austrian Fire-damp Commissions. 

Ibid. XIII. 389-405, 1897. 
Thomson, Wm. S. On a Water Heater recently erected at Cadzow 

CoUiery. ' Trans. Mining Inst. Scot.' xix. 258-260, 1898. 
Tonge, Jas. On the Patent Hydraulic Mining Cartridge. ' Trans. 

Manch. Geol. Soc' xxv. 405-409, 1898. 
Walker, G. B., and L. T. O'Shea. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Recent Pro- 
gress in the Recovery of Bye-Products from Coke-Ovens. ' Trans. Fed. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xiii. 302-324, 1897. 
Watkinson, Prof. W. H. The Mechanical Propulsion of Tramway Cars. 

' Proc. Glasgow PhU Soc' xxviii. 292-300, 1897. 
Wilcox, Ernest S. Some Notes on Railway Construction. ' Trans. 

Liverpool E. Soc' xviii. 17-31, 1897. 
Wood, Lindsay. Presidential Address. ' Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XIII. 434-444, 1897. 



74 REPORT — 1898, 



Section H. — Akthropology. 

Anderson, Adam. Prehistoric Camp on Primrose Hill. ' History Ber- 

wicksh. Nat. Club.' xv. 377, 1897. 
Andrews, Miss. Fairies and their Dwelling Places. ' Proc. Belfast. 

Nat. F. C IV. 426-427, 1898. 
Andrews, W. On Ancient Pottery Eemains in Warwickshire. ' Proc. 

Warw. N. A. F. C xlii. 27-30, 1897. 
Arnott, S. Children's Singing Games and Ehymes current in Kirkbean. 

' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 99-113, 1898. 
Barbour, James. The Ancient Burial recently discovered at Lochar- 

briggs. Ibid. 74-75. 
Christison, Dr. David. Prehistoric Camps near Coldingham Loch. 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club.' xv. 218, 1897. 
Coats, Eev. W. W. The Antiquities of Girthon. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. 

N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 75-81, 1898. 
Cooke, John H. Neolithic Life in Lincolnshire. ' The Naturalist for 

1898,' 77-79, 145-148, 1898. 
Corrie, John. Glencairn Folk Eiddles. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. 

Soc' No. 13, 115-122, 1898. 
Crellin, Miss A. M. Eeport of the Anthropological Section. 'Yn 

Lioar Manninagh,' iii. 285-287, 1898. 
Dick, Eev. John C. The Antiquities of Eskdalemuir. ' Trans. Dum. 

GaL N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 13-27, 1898. 
Duncan, Dr. E. The Scottish Eaces : their Ethnology, Growth, and 

Distribution. ' Proc. Glasgow Phil. Soc' xxviii. 1-17, 1897. 
Evans, Sir John. On an Ancient British Coin found near Watford. 

' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' ix. 133-134, 1897. 
On some Eonian Coins found at Brickendonbury, Hertford. Ibid. 

169-174. 
FiSHWiCK, H. Eochdale Place Names. ' Trans. Eochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' 

V. 65-76, 1897. 
Forrest, Eev. J. Buchan Scots Words. ' Trans. Buchan F. C iv. 

76-89, 1897. 
Eraser, Jas. On a Stone Implement Found in Croy. ' Trans. Inverness 

Sci. Soc' IV. 177-180, 1898. 
Grant Bey. Ancient Egyptian Eeligion. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. 

Soc' No. 13, 4-8, 1898" 
GuRNELL, Jas. Aspects of the Celtic Question. ' Trans. Inverness Sci. 

Soc' IV. 9-26, 1898. 
Hardie, John, and E. J. Wilson. Eeports on the Discovery of Ancient 

Graves, Cists, &c. — (1) Dalcove Mains ; (2) Makerstoun ; (3) Eedcoll. 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 358-361, 1897. 
Heape, Chas. Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Picture Writing, and the English 

Alphabet. ' Trans. Eochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' v. 39-62, 1897. 
Holmes, T. V. Notes on Ancient Defensive Earthworks in connection 

with those of Eayleigh 'Castle,' Essex. 'Essex Naturahst,' x. 145- 

158, 1897. 
Horne, John. A Shell Mound at Tongue Ferry. ' Trans. Inverness 

Sci. Soc' IV. 29-35, 1898. 
Horne, Wm. The Early Eaces in Yorkshire. ' Trans. Leeds Geol. 

Assoc' part x. 8-11, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 75 

Hunt, Dr. Thos. Place Names in the Heywood District. ' Trans. Eoch- 

dale Lit. Sci. Soc' v. 3-5, 1897. 
Jeffebson, Dr. A. Men and Manners in Manila. 'Trans. Rochdale 

Lit. Sci. Soc.' V. 6-38, 1897. 
Johnston, Rev. Wm. Some Historical and Antiquarian Notes on the 

Parish of Cummertrees. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 

82-94, 1898. 
Keemode, p. M. C. Report of the Archaeological Section, ' Yn Lioar 

Manninagh,' in. 274-276, 1898. 
KiNGSLEY, Miss H. 11. West Africa from an Ethnologist's Point of View. 

' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc' vi. 58-78, 1898, 
L\w, RoBEKT, Evidences of Prehistoric Man on the Moorlands in and 

around the Parish of Halifax. ' Hahfas Naturalist,' ii, 29-31, 1897. 
Lynn, Fkancis. Bunkle Edge Forts (Prehistoric). ' History Berwicksh. 

Nat. Cluh,' XV, 365-376, 1897. 
Macbain, Alex. The Picts. ' Trans. Inverness Sci. Soc' iv. 66-97, 

1898. 
March, Dr. H. Colley. The Pagan-Christian Overlap of the Wise 

Bird, with Dorset Illustrations. ' Proc Dorset N, H. A. F. C xviii. 

116-137, 1897. 
Meyeick, E, Discovery of Cinerary Urns in the [Marlborough] College 

Grounds, ' Rep. Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 46, 79-80, 1898. 

Anthropometrical Report. Ibid. 110-134. 

MiLLiGAN, Seaton F. Ireland : its Ancient Civilisation and Social 

Customs. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc, 1896-97, 40-52,' 1897, 
Mitchell, H. B, The Parkhouse Circle, ' Trans. Buchan F, C iv, 

92-96, 1897, 
MooEE, A, W. Folk Medicine in the Isle of Man. ' Yn Lioar Man- 
ninagh,' III. 303-314, 1898. 
MoETiMEE, J. R. The Danes' Graves. ' Report Yorks. Phil. Soc. for 

1897,' 1-10, 1898. 
MouLE, H. J. The Assistance of the Sun in Finding Traces of 

Destroyed Earthworks and Buildings. ' Proc Dorset N, H, A, F, C 

XVIII. 169-173, 1897. 
Patterson, W. H. A Recent Discovery of Worked Flints in Submerged 

Peat at Portrush. ' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1896-97,' 32-34, 

1897. 
Phillips, J. G. Prehistoric Graves in Moray, ' Trans, Inverness Sci. 

Soc' IV. 213-218, 1898. 
Egberts, Rev. W. ' Mari Lwyd ' and its Origin. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. 

Soc' XXIX, 80-93, 1897, 
EoTH, H. Ling, Local [Halifax] Folklore, ' Hahfax Naturalist,' ii, 95-96, 

1897, 
SuTCLiFFE, W, H, A NeoHthic Trader's Store of Graphite. ' Trans. 

Rochdale Lit, Sci. Soc' v. 63-64, 1897. 
Tarbet, Rev. R. F. Antiquities of Buittle. ' Trans. Dum. Gal. 

N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 27-29, 1898. 
TocHEE, J. F. Ethnographical Survey of School Children in Buchan. 

1. Introductory Paper, with Summaries. ' Trans. Buchan F. C 

IV. 137-152, 1897. 



76 KEPORT— 1898. 



Section K. — Botany. 



Abbey, Geo. On the Destruction of an Elm Tree by Fungi at St. Albans. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 129-132, 1897. 
AuDLEY, J. A. Sectional Eeport : Botany. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XXXI. 70-73, 1897. 
Black, Dr. S. The Characteristics of the Flora of Scotland. ' Trans. 

Inverness Sci. Soc' iv. 292-294, 1898. 
BoLAM, Geokge. On Blysmus rufus, var. hifolius, a new Plant for the 

District. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club.' xv. 362, 1897. 
Boyd, D. A. In Memoriam — Professor Thonaas King. ' Trans. Glasgow 

N. H. Soc' V. 1-17, 1897. 
Brebnek, Geoege. On the Classification of the Tilopteridaceas. ' Proc. 

Bristol Nat. Soc' vm. 176-187, 1897. 
Bbighton N. H. Phil. Soc. Botanical Report. ' Annual Rep. Brighton 

N. H. Phil. Soc 1896-97,' 31-33. 
Burton-on-Teent N. H. Aech. Soe. (Botanical Section.) The Flora 

of Burton-on-Trent and Neighbourhood. Part ii. ' Trans. Burt. 

N. H. Arch. Soc' in. 269-282, 1897. 
Caeadoc and Severn Valley JField Club. Botanical Notes, 1897. 

Record of Bare Facts,' No. 7, 5-21 [1898]. 
Coates, Heney. Opening Address (on the Work of the Society during 

the Year 1896). ' Proc Perths. Soc. N. Sci.' ii. cxxiii-cxxx, 1897. 
Colgan, N. (Dublin N. F. C.) On the Flora of the Shores of Lough 

Derg. ' Irish Naturahst,' vi. 189-197, 1897. 
Collins, R. T. Notes on the Colour of Leaves. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XXXI. 101-109, 1897. 
CooKE, Dr. M. C. Sixty Years of British Mycology. ' Essex Naturalist,' 

X. 216-223, 1898. 
CoEBETT, H. H. Lathyrus nissolia and other Rare Plants at Sandal, 

near Doncaster. ' The Naturahst for 1897,' 353-354, 1897. 
Ceossland, Charles. Our Wild Violets and Pansies. ' Halifax 

Naturahst,' ii. 35-37, 1897. 

A New British Fungus, Pseitdombroi^liila Pcdrottii, Bresad. 

Ibid. II. 58, 1897. 

The Snowdrop. Ibid. iii. 9, 1898. 

Moulds. Ibid. in. 16-17, 1898. 

Fungus Foray at Barnsley, with List of Species Found. ' The 



Naturalist for 1897,' 341-348, 1897. 

Ceump, W. B. The Flora of the Parish of Halifax. 'HaUfax Natu- 
ralist,' II. and III. (App.) 33-64, 1897 and 1898. 

The Bell Vue Museum. The Botanical Collections. Ibid. ii. 

43-45, 1897. 

Dixon, H. N. Northamptonshire Characese. ' Journal N'ton. N. H. 
Soc' IX. 203-206, 1897. 

Notes on Northamptonshire Plants. Ibid. 262-264. 

Phenological Observations, 1896. Ibid. 265-266. 

Dunn, R. H. List of Plants found at St. Abbs and vicinity in June 
1896. ' History Berwicksh. Nat Club,' xv. 225, 1897. 

Elliot, John. Liddesdale Plants. Ibid. 233-234. 

Faequharson, Rev. Dr. Jas. Corallorhiza innata in Whitmuir Bog. 
Ibid. 363. 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 77 

Fabe, E. H. The Origin of Double Flowers. Rep. Brighton N. H. 

Phil. Soc. 1896-97,' 17-18, 1897. 
FowLEK, Rev. Wm. Notes on ' A List of Herbs used by the Halifax 

Botanic Society.' ' Halifax Naturahst,' ii. 113-115, 1898. 
GoLDiNG, John. The Nitrogen Question. ' Rep. Nott. Nat. Soc. 189G- 

1897,' 47-56, 1897. 
Gossip, Jas. A. Orchids and their Fertilization. ' Trans. Inverness 

Sci. Soc' IV. 5-8, 1898. 
Geindon, Leo H. Ferns, considered as Illustrations of Unity in Variety. 

' Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 1896,' 99-102, 1897. 
GuNN, Rev. Geoege. Plants on the Coast from Goswick to the Mouth 

of the Low. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 239, 1897. 
Halifax S. S. G. F. C. (Botanical Section). Annual Report. ' Halifax 

Naturahst,' ii. 122-124, 1898. 
Hamilton, W. P. The Study of Mosses. ' Trans. Car, and Sev. Vail, 

F. C II. 17-18, 1898. 
Haedy, Dr. James. Further Observations on Excrescences and Diseases 

Occasioned in Plants by Mites. ' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 

354-355, 1897, 

On Lycium Barbarum, L,, and L. EuroiJcsum, L,, and their Local 

Culture, Ibid. 362-363. 

Heney, John. North Lancashire Plants. ' The Naturalist for 1897,' 

339-340, 1897. 
Hepwoeth, J. Flora of our Ten-mile Radius. ' Rochester Naturalist,' 

II. 439-441, 1897. 
Howaed, David. The Past and Present Condition of Epping Forest. 

(Presidential Address.) ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 82-86, 1897. 
Ingham, Wm. Mosses New to Yorkshire, found in 1897. ' The 

Naturahst for 1898,' 27-28, 1898. 
Jackson, B. D. On some Overlooked Records of Hertfordshire Plants. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 121-125, 1897. 
Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Tints and Shades in Autumn Woods. ' The 

Naturahst for 1897,' 337-338, 1897. 
Kermode, Rev. S. A. P. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Yn Lioar 

Manninagh,' in. 287-288, 1898. 
Larder, J. Lincolnshire Mosses : being Part i. of Notes for a Future 

Cryptogamic Flora of Lincolnshire. ' The Naturahst for 1898,' 53- 

60, 1898. 
M'Andeew, Jas. Botanical Researches, 1896. 'Trans. Dum. Gal. N. 

H. A. Soc. No. 13,' 8-13, 1898. 

Botanical Notes from Galloway for 1896. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. 

Soc' V. 72-74, 1897. 

Macvicae, S. M. On some Coll and Tiree Plants. Ibid. 55-57. 
Marquand, E. D. Fresh-water Algae : a Sketch of their Structure, 

Distribution, and Relationships. ' Essex Naturalist,' x. 159-165, 1897. 
Mayor, Professor John E. B. Charles Cardale Babington. — In Memo- 

riam. With List of his Contributions to the Local Fauna and Flora. 

' History Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xv. 313-321, 1897. 
Meieing, Isaac. On some Experiments with the Active Principle of 

Mesemhrianthemum torhcosum, L. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 

48-50, 1897. 
Meyrick, E, Botanical Notes. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc,' 

No. 46, 38-50, 1898. 



78 REPORT— 1898. 

MoTT, F. T. Leicestershire Eoada and Lanes. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. 
Phil. Soc' IV. 413-417, 1897. 

Needham, J. A New Yorkshire Moss. ' Halifax Naturalist,' iii. 18, 1898. 

Nicholson, W. E. Mosses. ' Rep. Brighton N. H. Phil. Soc. 1896-97,' 
13-17. 

Painteb, Eev. W. H. The Botany of Biddulph. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C 
XXXI. 74-100, 1897. 

Petty, Lister. The Constituents of the North Lancashire Flora, 
1597(?)-1893. 'The Naturahst ' for 1897, 229-236, 309-316, 325- 
332, 1897 ; ' The Naturalist ' for 1898, 37-44, 149-156, 1898. 

Peaegek, R. Lloyd. Local Botanical Notes, 1895-97. ' Proc. Belfast 
Nat. F.C IV. 433-437, 1898. 

(Dublin F. N. C.) The Botany of a Railway Journey. ' Irish Natu- 
rahst,' VI. 209-215, 1897. 

On the Position of the Fructification in certain British Ferns 



and Horsetails. Ibid. vii. 109-120, 1898. 
QuAYLE, W., and P. G. Ralfe. Manx Plant Names. * Yn Lioar Man- 

ninagh,' iii. 314-316, 1898. 
Ridge, W. T. B. Plant Galls. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xxxi. 60-69, 

1897. 
Robertson, Dr. David. A List of the Algaj of Lamlash Bay, Arran, 

collected during September 1894. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 

62-71, 1897. 
Roebuck, Wm. Denison. Bibliography : Phanerogamic Botany, 1891. 
• ' The Naturahst for 1897,' 285-297, 1897. 

Bibliography : Ferns, Fern-Allies, and Characeffi, 1890-1893. ' The 

Naturahst for 1898,' 125-132, 1898. 

Saunders, Jas. Notes on some Plants collected in Hertfordshire by 

Miss Maria Ransom, 1838-1840. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' ix. 167- 

168, 1897. 
Scargill, Rev. J. J. What can be done to save our Fauna and Flora 

from Unnecessary Destruction? ' Trans. S. E. Union,' ii. 8-9, 1897. 
Schonland, Dr. S. Morphological and Biological Observations on South 

African Plants. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' ix. 31-41, 1897. 
Scott-Elliot, G. F. The Influence of Habitat on Plant Habit. ' Trans. 

Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' No. 13, 131-138, 1898. 

Preliminary Note on the Shape of Leaves. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. 

Soc' V. 80-84, 1897. 

Sewell, S. a. Floral Aspects of the [Epping] Forest. ' Essex Natu- 
rahst,' X. 174-175, 1897. 
SoppiTT, H. T. A Remarkable Parasite. 'Hahfax Naturahst,' ii. 108- 

113, 1898. 
SouTHAM, S. C. Some Weeds and Wild Flowers of Shakespeare. ' Trans. 

Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C ii. 57-81, 1898. 
Stabler, George. On the Hepaticfe and Musci of Westmorland. 

' The Naturalist for 1897,' 213-220, 261-268, 1897 ; ' The Naturahst 

for 1898,' 117-124, 1898. 
Stewart, Wm. Notes on the Mycology of Kelvingrove Park. ' Trans. 

Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 75-79, 1897. 
Sutherland, Dr. The Saxih-ages of Ross-shire. ' Trans. Inverness 

Sci. Soc' IV. 47-48, 1898. 
Thomas, T-. H. Monstrous Form of Plantago major. ' Trans. Cardiff 

Nat. Soc' XXIX. 58, 1897. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 79 

Thomson, Eobekt. The Rarer Flora of Ardclach. ' Trans. Inverness 

Sci. Soc' IV. 205-212, 1898. 
Turner, Chas. The Method of Eeproduction in Plants. ' Trans. Manch. 

Mic. Soc. 1896,' 31-38, 1897. 
Vachell, Dr. C. T. Notes on the Flora of Wales. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. 

Soc' XXIX. 74-75, 1897. 
Waddell, Rev. C. H. Mosses and Liverworts. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F. C 

IV. 428-429, 1898. 
W.AJiDLE, Sir Thos. The 'Breaking' [due to Algoe] of Copmere. 'Trans. 

N. Staff. F. C xsxi. 110-123, 1897. 
Weiss, Prof. F. E. The Life of a Diatom. 'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 

1896,' 23-30, 1897. 
Whitton, Jas. Meteorological Notes, and Remarks upon the Weather 

during the years 1895 and 1896, with its General Effects upon Vege- 
tation. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' v. 89-118, 1897. 
Wilkinson, H. J. Catalogue of British Plants in the Herbarium of the 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Part 4. ' Rep. Yorks. Phil. Soc. 

for 1897,' 26-38, 1898. 



Meteorological Observatory, Montreal. — Report of the Gommittee for the 
Establishment of a Meteorological Observatory on the Top of Mount 
Royal, Montreal, consisting of Professor H. L. Callendar (^Chair- 
man), Professor C. H. McLeod (Secretary)^ Professor F. Adams, 
and Mr. R. F. Stupart. 

The Committee desire this year to present an interim report, and to ask 
for reappointment, with a fui'ther grant of 50^. The object of the 
establishment of the observatory on the top of the mountain was to obtain 
simultaneous records of temperature, humidity, ifec, for comparison with 
those taken at the College Observatory at the foot. The distance between 
the two stations is rather more than a mile, and the difference of altitude 
nearly 600 feet. A line consisting of four insulated copper wires was 
erected to connect the two observatories. As a preliminary experiment, 
an electrical thermometer was set up on the Avooden tower on the summit 
of the mountain, and connected through the line to a recording instrument 
in the College Observatory. No difficulty was encountered in obtaining 
continuous records of the temperature on the summit in this manner. It 
is hoped that interesting results may be obtained by comparing continuous 
records of temperature at stations differing so considerably in altitude 
within a short distance of each other. The work has not yet progressed 
for a sufficient length of time to enable ths Committee to report any 
general results, but the success of the method has been established, and it 
is intended, if possible, to further extend the method to the recording 
continuously at a distance of wind velocity and direction, barometric 
pressure, and humidity. The iiitensity of sunshine lias been i-ecorded for 
some months at the observatory by means of similar instruments, and it 
is hoped to demonstrate the possibility of obtaining complete and accurate 
records of all necessary meteorological data from a distant observatory in 
a more or less inaccessible situation (such as that on the summit of Ben 
Nevis), without the necessity of employing a special observer to make 
daily visits to the station. 



80 REPORT— 1898. 

Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Ohservations. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. G. Adams (Chairman), Dr. 
C. Chree (Secretary), Lord Kelvev, Professor G. H. Darwin, 
Professor G. Chrystal, Professor A. vSchuster, Captain E. W. 
Creak, the Astronomer Royal, Mr. William Ellis, and Professor 
A. W. Rlcker. 

rAOB 

I. Magnetic Remits at Greenivich and Kent Discussed and Compared, 1889 to 

1896. J3y William Ellis, F.R.S. 80 

II. Account of the Late Professor John CovcJi Adams's Determination of the 

Gaussian Mapnetic Constants. By Professor W. G. Adams, F.R.S. . . 109 

The Committee report that they have received the following two com- 
munications bearing on the comparison and reduction of magnetic 
observations : — ■ 

I. JIagneiic Eesults at Greenwich and Kew, discussed and compared, 
1889 to 1896. Bij William Ellis, F.R.S. 

It is known that, in tabulating the photographic records of magnetic 
declination and horizontal and vertical forces at the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, it has been the custom to include all days, except those of 
occasional extreme disturbance, so that many days of considerable dis- 
turbance become included. It is also known that the diurnal inequality 
so calculated differs from that obtained by the use of methods such as 
those of Sabine and Wild. Theoretically, it is questionable whether it be 
right arbitrarily to reject days of one particular character. The point 
is one that occurs also in meteorology, and it is not usual in meteorological 
tabulations to omit days of abnormal character. In dealing with mag- 
netic records there is, however, this difficulty — that the abnormal variations 
are at times of such magnitude as to defy treatment in the ordinary way. 
And between these occasional outbursts and the days of quiet magnetism 
intermediate degrees of intensity at different times occur. The arbitrary 
exclusion, to any considerable extent, of daj's other than those of 
extreme disturbance necessarily omits a certain portion of the diurnal 
phenomena, since the diurnal movement as a whole is a combination of 
the ordinary diurnal march with disturbance occurring apparently in an 
unexpected or accidental manner that appears to some extent to have also 
a local character. It having, however, become desirable to frame some 
method of comparing together the diurnal inequalities of magnetism at 
the different British magnetic observatories, at some of which it was 
inconvenient to undertake any great amount of tabulation of records, this 
circumstance led to the proposal to tabulate the curves for five days of quiet 
magnetism only in each month, the selection of days being made by the 
Astronomer Royal. This convention excludes entirely the influence of 
seemingly irregular magnetic disturbance. But it furnishes diurnal 
inequalities for the different observatories that are strictly comparable, 
and, depending entirely on days of quiet magnetism, they represent the 
undisturbed local diurnal variation. 

In the Report of the Committee for the year 1895, Dr. Chree discussed 
at some length the results for Kew for the years 1890 to 1894, as found 
from the five selected quiet days in each month. In the same Report he 
drew attention also to an effect which, influencing only to a small 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 81 

extent and producing no real inconvenience in diurnal inequalities de- 
pending on all days of the month, in which also days of different character 
become combined, became very pronounced in the five day results, because 
of the small number of days employed and their restriction to days of one 
kind, those of quiet magnetism. The effect in question is the non-cyclic 
character of the resulting diurnal inequality, which in horizontal force he 
found to be such as to cause the value at the terminating midnight 
to be persistently greater than at the commencing midnight. And 
in the Report for 1896 Dr. Chree discussed the matter at greater 
length. 

My present object may be said to be to discuss to some extent the five 
day results for Greenwich, in order to make comparison with results that 
Dr. Chree has found for Kew, and also to compare for Greenwich alone 
the diurnal inequalities and diurnal ranges as found from the five day 
tabulation with those given by the ordinary Greenwich tabulation, in 
which only days of extreme disturbance are omitted. When the all day 
tabulation is spoken of, it will be understood as implying the omission of 
days of extreme disturbance. The five day tabulation will be indiffer- 
ently distinguished thus, or as the quiet day tabulation. I propose to 
consider first the comparison of Greenwich results. 

To avoid lengthened titles to the various appended tables, I would 
first remark that the Greenwich results are all founded on mean results 
for the individual months of each year, these being combined in the differ- 
ent tables by months (that is, grouping together the same month in 
different years), or in quarters, or years, as necessary. Thus, in Table I. 
the results for each month depend on twenty-five days (five in each of the 
five years combined), and the quarters on seventy-five days, and so on. In 
the tabulation by quarters, first quarter is to be understood as comprising 
the months of January, February and March, and second quarter those of 
April, May, and June, and so on. In the seasonal tabulation, Spring is 
to be understood as including the months of February, March, and April, 
and Summer those of May, June, and July, and so on. 

The values for declination are given in minutes of arc ; those for 
horizontal and vertical force are throughout in c.g.s. measure x 10^, 
excepting in Table V., in which they are in c.g.s. measure x 10\ The 
approximate absolute value of horizontal force at Greenwich for the period 
treated is 0-183 c.g.s. and of vertical force 0-437 cg.s., and nearly the 
same at Kew. To convert declination values in arc into westerly force 
in c.g.s. measure, to make comparison in the various tables with the 
numbers for horizontal and vertical force, multiply the minutes of arc 
by 53, excepting in Table V., for which the factor is 5-3. This it is 
convenient to remember for the ready estimation of the comparative mag- 
nitude of declination and horizontal and vertical force variations.' 

In Tables I., II., and III., the Greenwich results for the years 1890 to 
1894 have been combined to form mean monthly diurnal inequalities of 
declination and horizontal and vertical force, both for the all day tabula- 
tion and the quiet day tabulation, for comparison of the diurnal inequali- 
ties resulting from the two different methods of tabulation. The days 
omitted in the all day tabulation on account of extreme disturbance, 

' When horizontal and vertical force values are hereafter quoted in the text with 
the letters c.g.s. attached, they are to be understood, excepting for Table V., as 
mdicating c.g.s. measure x. 10". 

1898. G 



82 REPORT— 1898. 

adding to the list those of the years 1889, 1895 and 1896, years that 
appear in subsequent tables, are as follows : — 

1889. July 17, November 1. 

1890. November 8. 

1891. April 8, 12; May 14, 15, 16. 

1892. January 4, 5, 6 ; February 13, 14 ; March 6, 12 ; April 25, 26; May 1, 

2,18, 19; June 2, 3, 27; July 12, 13, 14, 16, 17; August 12; No- 
vember 4, 5 ; December 5. 

1893. April 26 ; July 16 : August 7, 18 ; November 2. 

1894. February 23, 24, 25, 28 ; March 30, 31 ; July 20 ; August 20; Septem- 

ber 15 ; November 13. 

1895. None. 

1896. None. 

Regarding the selection of five days in each month for the quiet day 
tabulation, it should be explained that the days selected are really days 
of quiet magnetism, to which, until the end of the year 1893, I can per- 
sonally testify. And further, the selection was made so as to bring the 
mean of days in each individual month as near to the middle of the 
month as possible. Occasionally, on account of the prevalence of mag- 
netic disturbance, this condition could not be quite fulfilled. Still, in 
seventy-eight of the ninety-six individual months here treated, the mean 
of selected days comes within two days of the middle of the month ; 
besides which, in combinations of months grouped together in different 
ways, the influence of deviation in this respect becomes greatly diminished, 
indeetl, usually nearly neutralised or destroyed. Further, whenever quiet 
day values are compared, as the same quiet days are employed the question 
of dissimilarity of epoch disappears. It is only in the comparison of the 
Greenwich all day tabulation with the Greenwich five day tabulation in 
Tables I., II. and III., in the comparison of the Greenwich diurnal range 
of the all day tabulation with that of the quiet day tabulation in Table 
XI. (under columns b-c), and in Table XII., that the slight difference of 
epoch comes in. But the corrections required in these cases are so small, 
as compared with the magnitude of the variations and differences of 
elements exhibited, that it can scarcely be said to be worth attempting 
any correction, remembering further that, excepting in Table V., the 
figures are throughout carried one figure further than that of the actual 
tabulation. The effect on the values of Table XII. is the more important, 
and will be considered when speaking of that table. 

In the quiet day results of Tables I., II., and III. the non-cyclic incre- 
ment — that is, the algebraic excess of the terminal midnight value over that 
of the commencing midnight value — has been in each month eliminated 
by assuming in each element a uniform change through the twenty-four 
hours, and making correction accordingly. For the all day results no 
similar correction was needed. In the further tabulation of the two sets 
of numbers, they have been grouped by seasons in the way before men- 
tioned, which represents more dii-ectly the seasonal effects than does the 
ordinary quarterly grouping, since neither the combination of the first 
three months of the year, nor of the last three months, gives due repre- 
sentation of the midwinter effect, March and October being both months 
having large diurnal inequalities. In declination, the values of hourly excess 
of quiet day value have, in the different seasonal periods, much the same 
character, but the Spring and Autumn numbers are, on the whole, 
numerically the larger. The sums of the twenty-four values of excess, 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



83 



taken without regard to sign, are in Spring and Autumn 13' -92 and 
12' -97 respectively, and in Summer and Winter 7'-54: and 9'-34. The 
larger values thus occur in Spring and Autumn, periods of the year 
at which magnetic disturbance might more actively influence the 
all day values. In horizontal force the values of excess in the difierent 
seasons do not show such similarity as in declination ; indeed, there is 
much discordance. Here the Spring and Autumn sums of excess are 
247 eg s. and 280 c.g.s. i-espectively, and the Summer and Winter sums 
210 c.g.s. and 260 c.g.s. In vertical force there is greater similarity in 
the values of excess at different seasons than in horizontal force : the sums 



Diurnal Inequality at Greenwich : Excess of quiet days ordinate above all days 

ordinate, 1890-1894. 




'20 



-to 




■ ZP 



to 



- ao 



*Z0 




J/ .Force 




of excess of the Spring and Autumn values are 623 c.g.s. and 760 c.g.s. 
respectively, and of the Summer and Winter values 688 c.g.s. and 
408 c.g.s. The differences between the quiet day and all day diurnal 
inequalities for the year are shown in the annexed diagram, in which, 
for better estimation of comparative magnitude, the variations of declina- 
tion are converted into variations of westerly force. It is curious to see 
how in horizontal force the opposite seasonal effects (in part probably 
accidental, rather than real) have tended so to neutralise each other that 
the resulting yearly curve appears to be an insignificant accidental 
residual. 

The years 1890 to 1894 were selected for comparison of the Greenwich 



84 



REPORT — 1898. 



all day and quiet day diurnal inequalities because affording opportunity 
of also comparing the quiet day results with the corresponding Kew 
results for declination and horizontal force given in Tables III. and IV. 
of the 1895 B.A. Report. It seemed unnecessary here to make direct 
comparison of the monthly inequalities, and I have contented myself with 
extracting only the quarterly inequalities for Kew for comparison with 
the corresponding quarterly inequalities for Greenwich, formed by com- 
bining the months in the same way as at Kew. The differences between 
the two sets of quarterly numbers (see Table IV.) are not large ; those of 
horizontal force are, however, the larger (1' declination = 53 of the 
horizontal force unit of table). 

It further seemed to be of interest to make direct comparison of 
diurnal inequality on quiet days for single months of some year at Green- 
wich and Kew. In Table V. this is done for the equinoctial and solstitial 
months of March, June, September, and December of the year 1894, the 
last for which the Greenwich results are published. The values are given 
as derived directly from observation, no correction for non-cyclic variation 
having been applied. Being single month results, depending each on five 
days only, the differences in declination may be considered to be on the 
whole small, excepting in September. In horizontal force and vertical 
force the agreement is not so good, and especially in June for horizontal 
force, and September and December for vertical force, remembering that 
here 1' of declination corresponds to only 5 of the horizontal and vertical 
force unit of the table. The discordance in some months is mainly due 
to difference of the non-cyclic increment at the two places. The values 
in the several months are actually as follows : — 



Non-cyclic Increment, Midnight to Midnight, 1894. 



Month 


Declination 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Excess 
of Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


E.^cess 
of Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Excess 
of Kew 


March 
June. 
September 
December. 


/ 
■fOl 
-1-0 
-0-2 
-0-2 


•fO-1 
-0-6 
-fO-8 
-0-1 


/ 

0-0 
+ 0-4 
-fl-0 
-fO-1 


+2 
+4 
-1 
-1 


+ 1 



+ 3 

+ 1 


-1 
-4 
-1-4 
-^2 


+2 

-2 



-9 



_ o 

+ \i 

+ 2 


- 2 



+ 14 

+ 11 



The horizontal and vertical force values are here in c.g.s. measure x lO*. 

Thus in September in declination, and in September and December in 
vertical force, the difference between the values at the two places is large, 
amounting in vertical force to a considerable proportion of the whole 
diurnal movement. If corrected in these months for the non-cyclic incre- 
ment, as locally observed, the diurnal inequalities would be brought more 
into accord. 

In Table VI. further Greenwich declination and horizontal force quiet 
day results, derived from Tables I., II., and III., are compared with corre- 
sponding Kew results, as given in Table VIII. of the B.A. Report for 1895. 
The sums of the hourly values of diui-nal inequality in declination and 
horizontal force, taken without regard to sign, also the diurnal range 
(difference between the least and greatest values in diurnal inequality). 



13 



OX COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 85 

both as observed and after correction for non-cyclic variation, are the 
elements compared. The sums of hourly inequalities in declination are 
generally greater, and in horizontal force generally smaller at Kew than 
at Greenwich. In the comparison of diurnal range attention may be 
called to the comparatively small magnitude of the values of a — b, in 
declination, and their general similarity in different months at Greenwich 
and Kew. The corresponding values of a — 6 in horizontal force are larger 
at both places, and larger at Greenwich than at Kew, but otherwise do 
not accoT-d altogether badly. The diurnal range in declination as made 
cyclic is, on the whole, greater,(column, K — G) at Kew than at Greenwich, 
on the average by 0''40:=21 of the horizontal force unit of the table, which 
is precisely the amount by which on the average the diurnal range in 
horizontal force, as made cyclic, is less at Kew than at Greenwich (column 
K — G for horizontal force). In this table the monthly sums of inequalities 
and monthly values of diurnal range are, for both places, necessarily 
derived from the I'espective monthly diurnal inequalities, but the quarterly 
and yearly values are formed directly from the monthly values (not from 
the quarterly and yearly values of diurnal inequality), the Kew numbers, 
with which the Greenwich numbers are compared, having been so formed. 
If derived from the quarterly and yearly diurnal inequalities, the numbers 
would have had a diminished value, since the grouping of monthly in- 
equalities, in which the points of maximum and minimum vary somewhat 
in different months, necessarily flattens the curve to some extent. For the 
purpose of making compai'ison, either method would serve, but it must be 
similar at both places. The method adopted is the better one of 
the two. 

Table YII. contains a comparison of the mean non-cyclic increment on 
quiet days, in declination and horizontal and vertical force, at Greenwich 
and Kew, founded on the observations of the six years 1890 to 1895. 
The Kew numbers are those given in Table I. of the 1896 Report. The 
non-cyclic increment in declination and horizontal force is at the two 
places of the same character, both as regards variation of sign in declina- 
tion in different months of the year and in the close correspondence in 
magnitude in horizontal force throughout the year. The individual 
months of positive and negative values are also very similar in number. 
In vertical force there is by no means the same accordance in value at the 
two places : in January the Kew value is 48 c.g.s. less than the Green- 
wich value, and in February 49 c.g.s. greater, and similar discordances 
occur in other months. The months of positive and negative values agree, 
however, in number better than, remarking the differences in value, might 
be expected. It may be here explained, with reference to all the tables that 
deal with the non-cyclic variation. Tables VII. to X., that the Greenwich 
values are not likely to be influenced by any incomplete correction for 
temperature. The diurnal range of temperature in the magnet basement 
(of which an automatic record is kept) is small, and the difference between 
the mean temperature of the successive midnights, or successive noons, 
both in the monthly and yearly grouping, never amounts to more than a 
small fraction of a degree. Further, the persistently large values in hori- 
zontal force in different months at Greenwich (Table VII.) are corroborated 
by the similarly large values observed at Kew. 

It may be further noted that the character of the values of a — b, in 
Table VI., both in declination and horizontal force, is generally such as, 
considering the position of the points of maximum and minimum in the 



86 REPORT — 1898, 

diurnal curve, the values of non-cyclic increment of Table VII. would 
produce. 

Table VIII. gives further information as to the non-cyclic increment on 
quiet days in declination and horizontal and vertical force, as derived for 
Greenwich from the records of the eight years 1889 to 1896, combining 
not only the months of the different years to form mean monthly values, 
but giving also values for the separate years. The mean values for 
months, except in January and February for declination, are on the 
whole very similar to those of Table VII., which includes six of the years 
here employed. The greatest and least mean values of non-cyclic in- 
crement in individual months are here added, both for the monthly group- 
ing and the yearly grouping. The mean of the differences between the 
greatest and least values differs for the mean of months from that for the 
mean of years in each element, since in the two groupings the extreme 
values combine in a diffei-ent way. The mean for years is the larger, but 
this may have no significance, since the monthly differences depend on 
extremes selected from eight months only, whilst the yearly differences 
depend on selection from twelve months. 

Table IX. contains a comparison of the annual values of the non-cyclic 
increment at Greenwich for declination and horizontal and vertical force, 
as appearing in Table VIII., with the corresponding annual values for 
Kew, as given in Table III. of the B.A. Report for 1896. The years 
are those on which the Kew values for months given in Table VII. are 
founded. 

At the conclusion of the Report for the year 1896, Dr. Chree sug- 
gested that considerable light might be thrown on the question of the 
uniformity or variability of the non-cyclic element throughout the day by 
measurement of the curves for the noons preceding and succeeding each 
selected quiet day. As such measurement of the Greenwich curves had 
been made in the ordinary Greenwich tabulation, it appeared to be desir- 
able to employ them for the suggested purpose, for which the Astronomer 
Royal kindly gave me the necessary permission. The grouping of these 
noon values, and, in the case of horizontal and vertical force, their cor- 
rection for temperature, proved, however, to be a much heavier work than 
I had anticipated. An abstract of the results arrived at is given in 
Table X. The succeeding epochs alternately of noon and midnight 
being : — 



midnight noon midnight noon 



P f 

the middle midnight to midnight increment =m in Table X. is that of 
the selected quiet days as appearing in Table VIII. ; 7^= the increment 
from the preceding noon to the middle noon, and/= that from the middle 
noon to the following noon. The last twelve hours of p and the first 
twelve hours of /thus together comprise the middle interval from midnight 
to midnight of the selected quiet day. Care was taken to see that the 
added initial and terminal half days introduced no vitiating element of 
disturbance. For uniform variation of the non- cyclic increment, m would 
be equal to the mean of 2^ and/^w in the table, as, for instance, in decli- 
nation in October. Thus, positive values of m — n indicate excess of the 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 87 

non-cyclic increment in the midnight to midnight interval. There is 
apparently considerable variation of value in each element in different 
months, but, taking the elements separately, a certain order appears. In 
declination there are nine months in which the values of p, m and /suc- 
cessively increase ; these are January to April, June and July, and 
October to December. And the value of p is in ten months of the year 
negative, whilst that of / is in eleven months positive. Thus it would 
appear that the selected quiet days on the whole fall at a time of 
transition from a negative to a positive non-cyclic increment, indicating 
change from a decreasing to an increasing value of declination, represented 
in the general mean by values of jt)= — 0'-26, m= — 0'-02,and/= -F0'-30. 

In horizontal force there are three months in which the values of />, 
m and /successively increase in value; these are April, July and August ; 
and there are four months in which the values successively decrease ; 
these are January, March, May and December. In the remaining five 
months — February, June, September, October and November — the value 
of m is greater than those either of jo or/, which may indicate a turning- 
point in the value of the element. But there is altogether a preponder- 
ance of positive values, showing that the selected quiet days, on the whole, 
distinctly fall at times of increasing horizontal force. 

In vertical force there are three months in which the values of p, m 
and / successively increase — these are March, May and October ; and 
there are two months in which they successively decrease — these are 
February and June. There are five months — January, April, July, 
August and September — in which the value of m is greater than those of 
either j3 or/, and two months — November and December — in which the 
value of in is less than those of either p or/, which again may indicate 
turning-points in the value of the element. There is, however, an entire 
preponderance of negative values, showing that the selected quiet days 
fall altogether at times of decreasing vertical force. 

All this, it will be understood, refers only to Greenwich. Further, 
if the cases of progressive increase and progressive decrease of value, of 
noa-cyclic variation (that is of the values of p, m and /in Table X.) of 
which there are nine months out of twelve in declination, seven months 
out of twelve in horizontal force, and five months out of twelve in vertical 
force, can be taken as representing a real condition of things, and are not 
due to any haphazard circumstances, it would justify to a certain extent 
the custom of making quiet day non-cyclic diurnal inequalities cyclic, by 
assuming uniform increase or decrease of the non-cyclic element through 
the twenty-four hours. 

The values of p, m and /in Table X. for years support generally the 
conclusions derived from the values for months. 

In Table XI. comparison of diurnal range in declination and horizontal 
and vertical force, as variously determined, is made for Greenwich, em- 
ploying the results for the eight years 1889 to 1896. It is compared as 
found from the quiet day results (both as observed and corrected for non- 
cyclic variation) and from the all day results (which require no non-cyclic 
correction). The difierences between the observed and corrected quiet day 
ranges, a — b, are generally small in declination and vertical force, but in 
horizontal force they are larger. As regards declination and horizontal 
force they have much the same order of magnitude as those for Greenwich 
appearing in Table VI. (in the comparison for a smaller number of years 
with Kew). In the comparison of diurnal range found from quiet days 



88 EEi-ORT— 1898. 

made cyclic, and from all days, b-c, the greatest and least monthly values 
are given for each element, both as referred to months and years. As in 
Table VIII., the mean of the differences between the greatest and least 
values differs for the mean for months from that for the mean for years in 
all elements, in regard to which the remarks made in speaking of Table 
VIII. apply also here. 

The mean values of b — c are most marked in declination in winter, and 
in horizontal and vertical force towards or in summer. The deviations 
between values of diurnal range, however determined, whether from quiet 
days as observed, or made cyclic, or from all days, are in a sense small as 
compared with the annual march of each element from its winter value to 
its greatly increased summer value, and back again to winter value. In 
the grouping for years the values oi b — c for vertical force show a progres- 
sion from year to year for which there seems to be no sufficient explana- 
tion. The mean diurnal ranges of this table are throughout combinations 
of the diurnal ranges for individual months, formed from the monthly 
tables of diurnal inequality, not from combinations of diurnal inequalities 
for longer periods. 

Table XII. contains for Greenwich the results of a determination of 
the difference between the absolute values of declination and horizontal 
and vertical force as found from all days and from quiet days in the years 
1889 to 1896, combining the same month in different years for monthly 
differences, and giving also differences for separate years. The quiet day 
mean was found by selecting, for the several quiet days in each month, 
the daily means in declination and horizontal and vertical force from 
Tables I., III., and VII. of the Greenwich annual volumes, and comparing 
the respective monthly means of the same with the monthly means for all 
days taken from the Greenwich Table XI. Our table thus gives differences 
only — the excess of the quiet day value over the all day value. In addition 
to the mean excess of absolute value, there is given for each element also 
the greatest and least monthly values of excess, both for the monthly 
grouping and the yearly grouping. Tlie mean excess in declination shows 
that the quiet day value was slightly greater than the all day value in 
nine months of the year, although the numbers in the column ' Least 
monthly excess ' show that in each month the quiet day value was in some 
years in defect. In horizontal force the mean excess shows that the quiet 
day value was greater than the all day value in all months — in some con- 
siderably so — although in eleven months of the year the quiet day value 
was in some years in defect. In vertical force the mean excess shows that 
the quiet day value was less than the all day value in nine months of the 
year, although in each month the quiet day value was in some years in 
excess. The mean of the monthly numbers in the column ' Difference ' 
is less than that of the yearly numbers, in all elements, as was found under 
similar conditions in Tables VIII. and XI. 

In regard to the circumstance that the mean day of the five selected 
quiet days does not always fall exactly at the middle of the month, and 
the influence that this may have on the quiet day value, and consequently 
on the numbers of Table XII., it is to be remarked that in the monthly 
grouping eight months of different years are combined, and in the yearly 
grouping of course the twelve months of each year. And in neither of 
these groupings does the mean day resulting from the combination of 
months in any case differ by more than one day and a quarter from the 
middle of the month. Taking the annual decrease of declination as 6'0, 



ON COxMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



89 



the increase of horizontal force as 180 c.g.s., and the decrease of vertical 
force as 80 c.g.s., the correction required to reduce the quiet day value to 
the middle of the month, that is the correction to the ' Mean excess ' in 
the respective columns of the table, would thus never exceed about the 
-^^ part of the several annual variations above mentioned, and so may 
be here disregai'ded. Neither would the numbers in the columns of 
greatest and least monthly excess be sensibly affected. 

The following comparison, referring to Greenwich, may be of in 
terest : — 

Declination 



Mean vahie of non-cyclic element ] 
on quiet da3-s. Table X. f 

Mean excess of quiet day absolute 1 
value above the all day absolute ^ 
value. Table XII. J 



-0'-02 
-1 c.g.s. 

+ 0'-08 
-1- 4 c.g-..s. 



Horizontal 
Force 

+ 39 c.g.s. 



+ 33 c.g.s. 



Vertical 
Force 

-17c.g.s. 



9 c.g.s. 



In Sections 4 to G of the B.A. Report for 1896, Dr. Chree gave for the 
various magnetic elements the excess of Wild's normal day absolute value 
above the all day absolute value for St. Petersburg and Pawlowsk as 
taken from Dr. MuUer's paper in Vol. 12 of the ' Repertorium fiir 
Meteorologie ' and from the ' Annals of the Central Physical Observatory ' 
respectively. Wild's normal days correspond generally in character 
with the Greenwich selected quiet days. I have therefore compared the 
results mentioned with the excess of the Greenwich quiet day absolute 
value above the Greenwich all day absolute value, as follows : — ■ 

Excess of Absolute Values of Magnetic Elements on Normal or Quiet Days 
above the Values for All Days. 



Years 


Declination west 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


St. Petersburg 


Green- 
wich 


St. Petersburg 


Green- 
wich 


St. Petersburg 


Green- 
wich 


For years pre- ^ 
ceding 1885 J 
1889-1896 . 

1893 . 

1894 . 


+ 0-25 


1 

+ 0-08 

+ 019 
+ 0-12 


+ 35 


+ 33 

-h36 
+ 53 


-8 


- 9 

-14 
+ 14 


Pawlowsk 


Pawlowsk 


Pawlowsk 


-1-0-3 
-fO-6 


+ 40 
+ 60 


-30 
-10 



The horizontal and vertical force values are in c.g.s. measure x 10'^. 

The agreement in declination and horizontal force is on the whole 
satisfactory, although the -|-0''6 for Pawlowsk in 1894 seems large. In 
vertical force the agreement is not so good ; the — 30 at Pawlowsk in 
1893 seems to diverge as much in the negative direction as does the +14 
at Greenwich in 1894 in the positive direction. 

It appears that in the years 1895 and 1896 the introduction of iron 
in the construction of new buildings at Greenwich affected to some extent 
the determination of absolute values, but the differential results here 
employed would not be sensibly influenced thereby. A new magnet 
pavilion is in course of erection in Greenwich Park, in a position appa- 
rently free from disturbing effect, to which the instruments will be removed. 



90 



REPORT — 1898. 
Table I. — Diurnal Inequality of Declination from 



Hour 


Midn. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Including all days excepting those 


January . 


-1-83 


-rso 


-1-07 


-0-64 


-d-53 


-0-52 


-o'-Gl 


-6-64 


-'0-87 


-0-88 


-d-03 


February. 


-2-25 


-2-OG 


-1-62 


-1-34 


-109 


-1-12 


-1-14 


-102 


-1-15 


-1-16 


-012 


March . 


-2-07 


-1-92 


-1-67 


-1-62 


-1-65 


-1-60 


-1-07 


-2-2G 


-2-97 


-2-64 


-0-69 


April 


-1-42 


-1-41 


-1-38 


-1-51 


-1-79 


-1-90 


-2-57 


-3-60 


-4-41 


-3-79 


-1-44 


May. . 


-1-31 


-1-50 


-167 


-1-86 


-2-34 


-3-29 


-412 


-4G5 


-4-30 


-2-92 


-0-31 


June 


-0-89 


-1-26 


-1-43 


-1-52 


-2-29 


-3-68 


-4-69 


-4-98 


-4-73 


-3-46 


-Ml 


July. . . 


-1-18 


-1-07 


-1-35 


-1-67 


-2-48 


-3-71 


-4-71 


-4-93 


-4-54 


-3-37 


-1-21 


August . 


-1-22 


-1-53 


-1-73 


-1-91 


-2-27 


-3-03 


-3-9G 


-4-43 


-403 


-2-51 


+ 0-15 


September 


-1-73 


-2-06 


-2-22 


-2-38 


-2-26 


-2-32 


-2-75 


-3-12 


-2-86 


-1-54 


+ M2 


October . 


-1-93 


-1-70 


-1-58 


-1-46 


-1-18 


-0-84 


-0-82 


-1-32 


-2-14 


-2.08 


-0-50 


November 


-2-06 


-1-45 


-0 87 


-069 


-0-CO 


-0-69 


-0-59 


-0-55 


-1-00 


-1-17 


-013 


December 


-1-95 


-1-44 


-0-97 


-0-60 


-0-50 


-0-39 


-0-36 


-0-39 


-0-48 


-0-64 


+ 0-01 


Spring . 


-1-91 


-1-80 


-1-56 


-1-49 


-1-51 


-1-54 


-1-79 


— 2"29 


-2-84 


-2-53 


-0-75 


Summer . 


-1-13 


-1-28 


-1-48 


-1-68 


-2-37 


-3-56 


-4-51 


-4-85 


-4-52 


-3-25 


-0-88 


Autumn . 


-1-64 


-1-76 


-1-84 


-1-92 


-1-90 


-2-06 


-2-51 


-2-96 


-3-01 


-2-04 


+0-26 


Winter . 
The Year. 


-1-95 


-1-46 


-0-97 


-0-64 


-0-54 


-9-53 


-0-52 


-0-53 


-0-78 


-0-90 


-005 


-1-6G 


-1-58 


-1-46 


-1-43 


-l-SS 


-1-92 


-2-33 


-2'CC 


-2-79 


-2-18 


-0-36 












Fro 


mfive selected quiet days in each month 


January . 


-1-3G 


-M3 


-0-83 


-0-61 


-0-67 


-0-55 


-0-75 


-0-91 


-1-21 


-1-37 


-0-45 


February . 


-1-57 


-1-52 


-1-33 


-1-20 


-0-96 


-0-99 


-1-02 


-117 


-1-50 


-1-66 


-0-81 


March 


-1-07 


-0-90 


-0-74 


-1-01 


-1-20 


-1-12 


-1-57 


-2-48 


-3-64 


-3-31 


-1-52 


April 


-0-69 


-0-67 


-0-79 


-1-05 


-1-17 


-1-49 


-2-29 


-3-63 


-4-71 


-4-27 


-2-35 


May. . . 


-0-83 


-0-90 


-1-10 


-1-41 


-2-12 


-318 


-4-27 


-5-00 


-4-66 


-3-31 


-0-48 


June 


-0-49 


-0-72 


-0-92 


-1-16 


-1-97 


-3-32 


-4-72 


-5-12 


-5-03 


-3-74 


-1-52 


July. . 


-0-65 


-0-82 


-1-16 


-1-34 


-2-00 


-3-40 


-4-53 


-4-74 


-4-84 


-3-86 


-1-66 


August . 


-0-92 


-1-15 


-1-28 


-1-67 


-2-00 


-2-93 


-3-98. 


-4-71 


-4-44 


-3-01 


-0-22 


September 


-1-16 


-1-27 


-1-47 


-1-99 


-2-22 


-2-49 


-3-13 


-3-79 


-3-C6 


-2-31 


+ 0-35 


October . 


-1-51 


-116 


-1-11 


-}-02 


-0-94 


-1-19 


-1-38 


-1-93 


-2-90 


-3-02 


-1-55 


November 


-1-21 


-0-82 


-0-75 


-0-68 


-0-53 


-072 


-0-97 


-1-20 


-1-75 


-1-90 


-0-77 


December 


-1-17 


-0-80 


-0-46 


-0-31 


-0-36 


-0-52 


-0-77 


-0-80 


-0-92 


-1-09 


-0-30 


Spring . 


-Ml 


-1-03 


-0-95 


-1-09 


-1-11 


-1-20 


-1-63 


-2-43 


-3-28 


-3-08 


-1-56 


Summer . 


-0-66 


-0-81 


-1-06 


-1-30 


-203 


-3-30 


-4-51 


-4-95 


-4-84 


-3-64 


-1-22 


Autumn . 


-1-20 


-1-19 


-1-29 


-1-56 


-1-72 


-2-20 


-2-83 


-3-48 


-367 


-2-78 


-0-47 


Winter . 
The Year. 


-1-25 


-0-92 


-0-68 


-0-53 


-0-52 


-0-60 


-0-83 


-0-97 


-1-29 


-1-45 


-0-51 


-1-05 


-0-99 


-0-99 


-1-12 


-1-35 


-1-82 


-2-45 


-2-96 


-3-27 


-2-74 


-0-94 














Excess of the quiet days value. 


Spring . 


: +0-80 


+0-77 


+0-61 


+ 0-40 


+ 0-40 


+0-34 


+ 016 


-0-14 


-0-44 


-0-65 


-0-81 


Summer . 


+ 0-47 


+0-47 


+ 0-42 


+ 0-38 


+ 0-34 


+ 0-26 


0-00 


-0-10 


-0-32 


-0-39 


-0-3 4 


Autumn . 


+ 0-44 


+0-57 


+0-55 


+0-36 


+ 0-18 


-0-14 


-0-32 


-0-52 


-0-66 


-0-74 


-0-7 3 


Winter . 
The Year. 


+0-70 


+0-54 


+ 0-29 


+0-11 


+0-02 


-0-07 


-0-31 


-0-44 


-0-51 


-0-55 


-0-46 


+061 


+ 0-59 


+0-47 


+ 0-31 


+ 0-23 


+0-10 


-0-12 


-0-30 


-0-48 


-0-56 


-0-58 



ON COMPAKING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 91 

Observations made at the Eoyal Observatory, Greemvich, 1890-1894. 



of extreme magnetic disturbance. 



11 



Noon 



13 



14 



15 



IG 



18 



19 



20 



21 



+ 1-28 


+ 2'-Gl 


+ 3-40 


+ 2'-97 


+ 2'-10 


+ 1-43 


+ 0-92 


+ 0-45 


-o'-12 


-tl-85 


-1-44 


-^■77 


+ 1-78 


+ 3-G1 


+ 4-44 


+ 4-38 


+ 3-22 


+ 1-91 


+ 0-90 


+ 0-32 


-0-10 


-0-77 


-1-46 


-1-92 


+ 2-30 


+ 5-21 


+ 6-42 


+ G-05 


+ 4-68 


+ 2-61 


+ 0-86 


-0-05 


-0-G6 


-1-11 


-1-C2 


-1-85 


+ 1-99 


+ 5-34 


+ 6-93 


+ 6-54 


+4-85 


+ 3-11 


+ 1-44 


+ 0-19 


-0-56 


-0'91 


-1-05 


-1-24 


+ 2-84 


+ 5-37 


+ 6-42 


+ G-03 


+4-82 


+ 3-20 


+ 1-87 


+ 0-68 


-0-05 


-0-40 


-0-66 


-0-81 


+ 1-80 


+ 4-35 


+ 5-70 


+ 5-99 


+ 5-20 


+ 3-79 


+ 2'30 


+ 1-19 


+0-38 


+0-07 


-0-08 


-0-15 


+ 1-83 


+ 4-72 


+ G-13 


+ 6-39 


+ 5-33 


+ 3-76 


+ 2-23 


+ 0-93 


+0-27 


0-00 


-0-27 


-0-41 


+ 3-17 


+ 5-98 


+ 6-93 


+ 6-27 


+ 4-G3 


+ 2-47 


+ 0-79 


-0-lG 


-0-41 


-0-55 


-0-61 


-0-97 


+4-02 


+ 5-95 


+ 6-64 


+ 5-70 


+ 4-00 


+ 2-10 


+ 0-72 


-0-15 


-0-GS 


-1-32 


-1-42 


-1-54 


+ 2-46 


+ 4-92 


+ 5-78 


+5-28 


+ 3-84 


+ 2-18 


+0-82 


-0-06 


-0-72 


-1-60 


-2-30 


-2-56 


+ 1-85 


+ 3-50 


+ 4-13 


+ 3-57 


+ 2-47 


+ 1-48 


+ 0-75 


+ 0-13 


-0-53 


-1-34 


-1-87 


-2-11 


+ 1-32 


+ 2-39 


+ 3-04 


+ 2-89 


+2-30 


+ 1-56 


+ 0-97 


+ 0-4G 


-0-17 


-1-06 


-1-78 


-2-05 


+ 2-02 


+ 4-72 


+ 5-93 


+ 5-66 


+4-25 


+ 2-54 


+1-07 


+ 0-15 


-0-44 


-0-93 


-1-38 


-1-67 


+ 2-16 


+ 4-81 


+ C-08 


+ 6-14 


+ 5-12 


+ 3-58 


+2-13 


+ 0-93 


+0-20 


-0-11 


-0-34 


-0-46 


+ 3-22 


+ 5-G2 


+ G-45 


+ 5-75 


+ 4-16 


+ 2-25 


+0-78 


-0-12 


-O'GO 


-1-16 


-1-44 


-1-69 


+ 1-48 


+ 2-83 


+ 3-52 


+ 3-14 


+ 2-29 


+ 1-49 


+0-88 


+ 0-35 


-0-27 


-1-08 


-1-70 


-1-98 


+ 2-22 


+ 4-50 


+ 5-50 


+ 5-17 


+ 3'95 


+ 2-47 


+ 1-21 


+0-33 


-0-28 


-0-82 


-1-21 


-1-45 



above the all days value. 



-0-69 
-0-29 
-0-60 
— 0'44 



-0'50 



-0-81 
-0-01 
-0-57 
-0-33 



-0-44 



-0-79 
+0-02 
-0-63 
-0-33 



-0-44 



-0-84 
-0-07 
-085 
-0-35 



-0-45 



-0-78 
-0-40 
-0-55 
-0-36 



-0-52 



-0-75 
-0'60 
-0-39 
-0-30 



-0'51 



-0-37 
-0-69 
-0-10 
-0-22 



-0'34 



+0-06 
-0-42 
+0'20 
+0-02 



-0-04 



+0-28 
-0-13 
+ 0-56 
+0-23 



+0-24 



+0-55 
+0-11 
+ 0-82 
+ 0-54 



+0-79 
+0-34 
+ 0-89 
+ 0-74 



+0-50 +0-68 



+0-88 
+0-49 
+ 1-01 
+ 0-73 



+0-78 



-1-8G 
-2-24 
-2-08 
-1-41 
-1-04 
-0-50 
-0-C9 
-1-07 
-1-90 
-2-44 
-2-23 
-2-16 

-1-91 
-0-74 
-1-80 
-2-08 



tfter elimination of the non-cyclic increment. 












+0-87 


+ 2-52 


+ 3-37 


+ 2-91 


+ 1-89 


+1-23 


+ 0-83 


+0-49 


+0-01 


-0-59 


-0-97 


-1-31 


+1-18 


+ 2-93 


+ 3-66 


+ 3-75 


+ 2-80 


+ 1-44 


+0-73 


+0-58 


+0-21 


-0-30 


-0-80 


-1-07 


+ 1-70 


+ 4-57 


+ 5-72 


+ 5-22 


+ 3-67 


+ 1-60 


+0-32 


-0-09 


-0-48 


-0-G4 


-0-91 


-1-02 


+1-11 


+ 4-23 


+ 6-05 


+ 5-49 


+ 3-93 


+ 2-33 


+1-05 


+ 0-15 


-0-21 


-0-19 


-0-05 


-0-27 


+2-86 


+ 5-75 


+ 6-62 


+ G-08 


+ 4'27 


+ 2-40 


+ 0-98 


+0-05 


-0-30 


-0-44 


-0-41 


-0-22 


+ 1-44 


+ 4-31 


+ 5-64 


+ 5-62 


+ 4-58 


+ 3-23 


+1-90 


+1-04 


+0-42 


+0-29 


+0-30 


+ 0-24 


+ 1'30 


+4-33 


+ 6-04 


+ 6-52 


+ 5-32 


+ 3-32 


+1-44 


+0-45 


+0-08 


+0-14 


+0-10 


+ 0-06 


+ 3-07 


+ 5'90 


+ 6-77 


+ 5-96 


+4-27 


+ 2-18 


+ 0-41 


-0-34 


-0'13 


-0-28 


-0-31 


-0-52 


+ 3-41 


+5-38 


+ 5-77 


+ 4-95 


+ 3-13 


+ 1-52 


+0-53 


+0-05 


-0-05 


-0-3G 


-0-31 


-0-27 


+ 1-38 


+ 3-87 


+ 4-92 


+ 4-69 


+ 3-42 


+ 1-88 


+ 1-11 


+0-52 


+0-05 


-0-38 


-1-04 


-1-25 


+1-28 


+ 3-11 


+ 3-68 


+ 3-07 


+ 2-10 


+ 1-29 


+ 0'62 


+0-31 


-0-10 


-0-57 


-1-00 


-1-19 


+0-98 


+ 1-87 


+ 2-52 


+ 2-38 


+1-79 


+ 1-04 


+0-52 


+0-31 


-0-02 


-0-46 


-0-91 


-1-24 


+1-33 


+ 3 91 


+ 5-14 


+4-82 


+3-47 


+ 1-79 


+0-70 


+0-21 


-0-16 


-0-38 


-0-59 


-0-79 


+1-87 


+4-80 


+ 6-10 


+6-07 


+4-72 


+ 2-98 


+ 1-44 


+ 0-51 


+0-07 


0-00 


0-00 


+ 0'03 


+ 2-G2 


+ 5-05 


+ 6-82 


+ 5-20 


+ 3-61 


+ 1-86 


+0-68 


+0-08 


-0-04 


-0-34 


-0-55 


-0-68 


+ 1'04 


+ 2-50 


+3-19 


+ 2-79 


+1-93 


+ 1-19 


+0-66 


+0-37 


-0-04 


-0-54 


-0-96 


-1-25 


+ 1-72 


+ 4'06 


+ 5-06 


+ 4-72 


+ 3-43 


+ 1-96 


+0-87 


+0-29 


-0-04 


-0-32 


-0-53 


-0-67 



-1-64 



-1-41 
-1-38 
-1-10 
-0-51 
-0-38 
-0'30 
-0-10 
-0-67 
-0-61 
-1-46 
-1-30 
-1-28 

-1-00 
-0-26 
-0-91 
-1'33 



-0-87 



+ 0-91 
+0-48 
+ 0-89 
+0-75 



+ 0-77 



92 



REPORT — 1898, 
Table II. — Diurnal Inequality of Horizontal Force from 



Hour 


Midu. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 














Including all days excepting those 


January . 


+ 4 


+ 5 


+ 9 


+ 14 


+ 33 


+ 55 


+ 57 


+ 55 


+ 21 


- 39 


- 96 


February 


+ 3;! 


+ 16 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 15 


+ 40 


+ 64 


+ 45 


+ 7 


- 68 


-117 


March 


+ 45 


+ 31 


+ 32 


+ 33 


+ 28 


+ 35 


+ 36 


+ c 


- 64 


-160 


— 220 


April 


+ 90 


+ 73 


+ 45 


+ 35 


+ 24 


+ 27 


+ 11 


- 35 


-114 


— 222 


-300 


May 


+ G7 


+ 48 


+ 28 


+ 14 


+ 1 


- 25 


-61 


-127 


-198 


-245 


-253 


June 


+ GG 


+ 47 


+ 30 


+ 25 


+ 17 


- 18 


-78 


-155 


-235 


-287 


-290 


July . . 


+ 05 


+ 50 


+ 35 


+ 21 


+ 8 


- 18 


-70 


-141 


—220 


-281 


-303 


August . 


+ 95 


+ 84 


+ 59 


+ 49 


+ 38 


+ . 4 


-54 


-147 


-248 


-319 


-322 


September 


+ 100 


+ 85 


+ 76 


+ 62 


+ 51 


+ 51 


+ 7 


- 61 


-166 


-241 


-274 


October . 


+ 83 


+ 82 


+ 78 


+ 83 


+ 89 


+ 100 


+ 86 


+ 44 


- 47 


-172 


-254 


November 


+ 41 


+ 35 


+ 27 


+ 37 


+ 54 


+ 70 


+ 77 


+ 65 


+ 7 


- 80 


-147 


December 


+ 6 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 17 


+ 35 


+ 58 


+ 73 


+ G7 


+ 51 


- 9 


- 65 


Spring . 


+ 5G 


•+41 


+ 27 


+ 21 


lOO 


+ 34 


+ 34 


+ 5 


- 57 


-150 


— 212 


Summer . 


+ GG 


+ 48 


+ 31 


+ 20 


+ 9 


- 20 


-70 


-141 


-218 


-271 


-282 


Autumn . 


+ 93 


+ 84 


+ 71 


+ 65 


+ 59 


+ 52 


+ 13 


- 55 


-154 


-244 


-283 


Winter . 
The Year 


+ 17 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 23 


+ 41 


+ 61 


+ 69 


+ 62 


+ 26 


- 43 


-103 


+ 58 


+ 47 


+ 35 


+ ?3 


+ 33 


+ 32 


+ 11 


- 32 


-101 


-177 


-220 












Fro' 


n five i 


electea 


I quiet 


daijs in each month 


January . 


+ 12 


+ 15 


+ 17 


+ 18 


+ 40 


+ 53 


+ 55 


+ 47 


+ 17 


- 43 


- 94 


February 


+ 45 


+ 36 


+ 16 


+ 17 


+ 20 


+ 36 


+ 39 


+ 57 


+ 17 


- 59 


-128 


March 


+ C9 


+ 54 


+ 43 


+ 34 


+ 24 


+ 38 


+ 42 


+ 9 


- 61 


-163 


— 212 


April 


+ 8G 


+ 82 


+ G2 


+ 44 


+ 42 


+ 43 


+ 33 


- 4 


- 82 


-195 


-275 


May 


+ 82 


+ G1 


+ 37 


+ 22 





- 19 


-54 


-133 


-220 


-275 


-265 


June 


+ 72 


+ 49 


+ 37 


+ 36 


+ 18 


- 14 


-75 


-151 


—224 


-276 


— 272 


July 


+ 78 


+ G3 


+ 39 


+ 30 


+ 24 





-55 


-110 


-184 


-253 


-288 


August . 


+ 90 


+ 77 


+ 68 


+ 55 


+ 51 


+ 17 


-33 


-130 


-221 


-299 


-308 


September 


+ 101 


+ 77 


+ 64 


+40 


+ 35 


+ 19 


-29 


-101 


-183 


-257 


-263 


October . 


+ 63 


+ 60 


+ 59 


+ 66 


+ 65 


+ 73 


+ 68 


+ 37 


- 35 


-144 


-225 


NoTember 


+ 39 


+ 41 


+37 


+ 38 


+ 5G 


+ 65 


+ 75 


+ 55- 


- 9 


-102 


-173 


December 


- 5 


-11 


-14 


- 6 


+ 9 


+ 25 


+ 46 


+ 44 


+ 29 


- 24 


— 75 


Spring . 


+ G7 


+ 57 


+ 40 


+ 32 


+ 29 


+ 39 


+ 38 


+ 21 


- 42 


-139 


-205 


Summer . 


+ 77 


+ 58 


+ 38 


+29 


+ 14 


- 11 


-61 


-131 


-209 


-268 


-275 


Autumn . 


+ 85 


+ 71 


+ 64 


+ 54 


+ 50 


+ 36 


+ 2 


- 65 


-146 


-233 


-2G5 


Winter . 
The Tear 


+ 15 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 17 


+ 35 


+ 48 


+ 59 


+ 49 


+ 12 


- 56 


-114 


+ CI 


+ 50 


+ 39 


+ 33 


+ 32 


+ 28 


+ 9 


- 32 


- 96 


-174 


-215 
















Exc 


ess oft 


he quiet days value 


Spring . 


+ U 


+ 1G 


+ 13 


+ 8 


+ 7 


+ 5 


+ 4 


+ 16 


+ 15 


+ 11 


+ 7 


Summer . 


+ 11 


+ 10 


+ 7 


+ 9 


+ 5 


+ 9 


+ 9 


+ 10 


+ 9 


+ 3 


+ 7 


Autumn . 


- 8 


-13 


- 7 


-11 


- 9 


- 16 


-11 


- 10 


+ 8 


+ 11 


+ 18 


Winter . 
The Tear 


f) 








- 6 


- 6 


- 13 


-10 


- 13 


- 14 


- 13 


- 11 


+ 3 


+ 3 


+ 4 





- 1 


- 4 


— 2 





+ 5 


+ 3 


+ 5 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCENG MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 93 

Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1890-1894. 



11 


Noon 


13 


14 


15 


10 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


of extre 


me magnetic disturiance. 


















-112 


- 92 


- 41 


- 8 


+ 3 


- 5 


+ 6 


+ 22 


+ 31 


+ 28 


+ 21 


+ 13 


+ 16 


-139 


-109 


- 64 


-20 


+ 15 


+ 36 


+ 36 


+ 35 


+ 37 


+ 42 


+ 39 


+ 27 


+ 33 


-218 


-153 


- 67 


+ 7 


+ 48 


+ 54 


+ 61 


+ 77 


+ 86 


+ 90 


+ 71 


+ 66 


+ 73 


-297 


-209 


-111 


-25 


+ 45 


+ 94 


+ 118 


+ 134 


+ 143 


+ 137 


+ 124 


+ 109 


+ 104 


-218 


-146 


- 77 


- 7 


+ 48 


+ 10G 


+ 1G1 


+ 199 


+ 191 


+ 107 


+ 133 


+ 105 


+ 89 


-245 


-170 


- 84 


+ 1 


+ 79 


+ 128 


+ 178 


+ 210 


+ 220 


+ 194 


+ 154 


+ 118 


+ 95 


-270 


-177 


- 89 


2 


+ 77 


+ 127 


+ 1G9 


+ 210 


+ 216 


+ 199 


+ 159 


+ 129 


+ 106 


-271 


-171 


- 60 


+ 19 


+ 69 


+ 102 


+ 127 


+ 159 


+ 180 


+ 171 


+ 162 


+ 146 


+ 128 


-246 


-133 


- 45 


+ 8 


+ 30 


+ 33 


+ 50 


+ 83 


+ 114 


+ 113 


+ 101 


+ 103 


+ 99 


-260 


-204 


-123 


-57 


—17 


- 5 


+ 24 


+ 58 


+ 72 


+ 84 


+ 88 


+ 86 


+ S2 


-162 


-128 


— 77 


-44 


— 22 


+ 3 


+ 25 


+ 31 


+ 33 


+ 33 


+ 42 


+ 42 


+ 38 


- 97 


- 87 


- 55 


-28 


-18 


- 1 


+ 8 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+ 1 


+ 8 


-218 


-157 


- 81 


-13 


+ 36 


+ 61 


+ 72 


+ 82 


+ 89 


+ 90 


+ 78 


+ 67 


+ 70 


-244 


-164 


- 83 


- 3 


+68 


+120 


+ 169 


+ 206 


+ 209 


+187 


+ 149 


+ 117 


+ 97 


-259 


-169 


— 76 


-10 


+27 


+ 43 


+ 67 


+100 


+ 122 


+123 


+ 117 


+ 112 


+ 103 


-124 


-102 


- 58 


-27 


-12 


- 1 


+ 13 


+ 21 


+ 26 


+ 21 


+ 22 


+ 19 


+ 21 


-211 


-148 


- 74 


-13 


+ 30 


+ 56 


+ 80 


+ 102 


•+111 


+ 105 


+ 91 


+ 79 


+ 73 


after el 


iviinati 


onoft 


'te no>i- 


cyclic 


increir 


ent. 














-132 


-108 


- 60 


-19 


- 6 


_ 2 


+ 19 


+ 35 


+ 42 


+ 41 


+ 26 


+ 14 


+ 13 


-158 


-139 


- 96 


-38 


- 7 


+ 9 


+ 27 


+ 43 


+ 56 


+ 72 


+ 55 


+ 38 


+ 42 


-212 


-161 


- 77 


- 8 


+ 44 


+ 38 


+ 36 


+ 60 


+ 86 


+ 84 


+ 82 


+ 73 


+ 78 


-276 


-217 


-132 


-49 


+26 


+ 66 


+ 89 


+ 116 


+ 129 


+ 120 


+ 107 


+ 95 


+ 90 


-221 


-144 


- 65 


+ 8 


+60 


+ 120 


+ 152 


+ 174 


+ 170 


+ 150 


+ 144 


+ 119 


+ 87 


-243 


-155 


- 80 


+ 11 


+ 94 


+ 113 


+ 146 


+ 181 


+ 201 


+ 178 


+ 142 


+ 118 


+ 94 


-260 


-189 


-103 


-11 


+ 70 


+ 122 


+ 152 


+176 


+ 177 


+ 168 


+ 145 


+ 113 


+ 96 


— 262 


-163 


- 60 


+ 24 


+ 78 


+ 96 


+ 106 


+ 140 


+ 168 


+ 149 


+ 138 


+ 113 


+ 106 


-207 


- 83 


+ 8 


+ 51 


+ 39 


+ 28 


+ 43 


+ 80 


+117 


+ 118 


+ 114 


+ 94 


+ 95 


-238 


-190 


- 99 


-41 


- 8 


+ 5 


+ 36 


+ 70 


+ 81 


+ 81 


+ 72 


+ 69 


+ 75 


-178 


-154 


-106 


-46 


- 5 


+ 23 


+ 47 


+ 58 


+ 67 


+ 61 


+ 49 


+ 32 


+ 30 


- 95 


- 83 


- 47 


-10 





+ 21 


+ 44 


+ 36 


+ 45 


+ 36 


+ 21 


+ 6 


+ 8 


-215 


-172 


-102 


-32 


+ 21 


+ 38 


+ 51 


+ 73 


+ 90 


+ 92 


+ 81 


+ 69 


+ 70 


-241 


-163 


- 83 


+ 3 


+ 75 


+118 


+ 150 


+ 177 


+183 


+ 165 


+ 144 


+117 


+ 96 


-236 


-145 


- 50 


+11 


+ 36 


+ 43 


+ 62 


+ 97 


+122 


+ 116 


+ 108 


+ 92 


+ 92 


-135 


-115 


- 71 


-25 


- 4 


+ 14 


+ 37 


+ 43 


+ 51 


+ 46 


+ 32 


+ 17 


+ 17 


-207 


-149 


- 76 


-11 


+ 32 


+ 53 


+ 75 


+ 97 


+112 


+105 


+ 91 


+ 74 


+ 69 


above t 


he all d 


ays va 


lue. 




















+ 3 


- 15 


- 21 


-19 


-15 


- 23 


- 21 


- 9 


+ 1 


+ 2 


+ 3 


+ 2 





+ 3 


+ 1 





+ 6 


+ 7 


_ 2 


- 19 


- 29 


- 26 


- 22 


- 5 





- 1 


+ 23 


+ 24 


+ 26 


+ 21 


+ 9 





- 5 


- 3 





- 7 


- 9 


- 20 


- 11 


- 11 


- 13 


- 13 


+ 2 


+ 8 


+ 15 


+ 24 


+ 22 


+ 25 


+ 25 


+ 10 


- 2 


— 4 


+ 4 


- 1 


2 


+ 2 


+ 2 


- 3 


- 5 


- 5 


+ 1 








- 5 


- 4 





94 



REPORT — 1898. 
Table III. — Diurnal Inequality of Vertical Force from 



Hour 



Midn. 



10 



January . 

February 

March 

April . 

May 

June 

July 

August . 

September 

October . 

November 

December 

Spring . 
Summer . 
Autumu . 
■\Viuter . 

Tlie Tear 



January . 

February 

March . 

April 

May 

Jime 

July 

August . 

September 

October . 

November 

December 

Spring . 
Summer . 
Autumn . 
Winter . 

The Year 



Spring . 
Summer . 
Autumu . 
Winter . 

The Year 



Including all days excepting those 



--0 j 


-25 ' 


-33 


-34 


-37 


-33 


-27 


-18 


-13 


-22 


- 21 


-15 1 


-31 


-38 


-34 


-29 


-22 


-26 


-25 


-10 


-19 


- 52 


-33 


-45 


-48 


-44 


-41 


-23 


-17 


+ 5 


+ 12 


-23 


- 71 


- 8 


-28 


-34 


-32 


-20 


- 8 


+ 8 


+ 31 


+ 22 


-29 


- 91 


+ 4 


-U 


-18 


-16 


+ 2 


+ 14 


+ 18 


+ 11 


-19 


-78 


-148 


- 5 


-15 


-25 


-21 


- 4 


+ 17 


+ 18 


+13 


-17 


-69 


-120 


-20 


-40 


-46 


-37 


-16 


+ 11 


+20 


+ 17 


o 


-47 


- 93 


-20 


-40 


-43 


-35 


-19 


+ 2 


+ 19 


+ 39 


+28 


-22 


- 78 


-28 


-44 


-55 


-62 


-51 


-45 


-33 


2 


-10 


-48 


- 83 


-23 


-41 


-52 


-55 


-59 


-52 


-42 


-19 


- 1 


-14 


- 47 


-18 


-29 


-42 


-42 


-42 


-41 


-35 


-29 


-20 


-28 


— 44 


-22 


-34 


-39 


-36 


-31 


-20 


-23 


-12 


- 7 


-11 


- 20 


-19 


-35 


-40 


-37 


-30 


-18 


-12 


+ 4 


+ 8 


-24 


- 71 


— 7 


-23 


-30 


-25 


— 6 


+ 14 


+ 19 


+ 14 


-13 


-65 


-120 


-25 


-42 


-50 


-51 


-43 


-32 


-19 


+ 6 


+ 


-28 


- 69 


-20 


-29 


-38 


-37 


-37 


-31 


-28 


-20 


-13 


-20 


- 28 


-18 


-32 


-39 


-37 


-29 


-17 


-10 


+ 1 


- 3 


-34 


- 72 



From Jive selected quiet days in each mo7ith 



-10 


-21 


-31 


-25 


-24 


-22 


-19 


-10 


— 7 


-30 


-35 


-24 


-10 


+ 4 





+ 2 


+ 4 


- 8 


— 3 


2 


+ 5 


+ 19 


+ 19 


+ 42 


+ 9 


+ 9 


- 6 


+ 7 


+ 18 


+ 27 


+ 33 


+ 59 


+ 24 


+ 28 


+23 


+ 28 


+ 43 


+ 50 


+48 


+ 40 


+ 18 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 13 


+ 27 


+ 47 


+44 


+ 39 


+ 17 


+ 11 


+ 4 


+ 10 


+ 30 


+ 55 


+ 51 


+ 51 


-14 


-11 


- 9 


- 3 


+ 7 


+ 34 


+43 


+ 69 


+ 23 


+ 5 


+ 7 


+ 4 


+ 11 


+ 17 


+ 18 


+ 35 


- 8 


-7 


-14 


-19 


-20 


-17 


- 8 


+ 6 


-16 


-19 


-19 


-21 


-10 


- 4 


- 2 


+ 3 


-24 


-25 


-23 


-11 


-11 


+ 6 


- 6 


+ s 


+ 2 


-10 


-16 


- 


+ 4 


+ 17 


+ 17 


+ 34 


+ 20 


+ 16 


+ 14 


+ 17 


+ 33 


+ 51 


+ 48 


+43 





- 4 


- 5 


- 6 


- 1 


+ 11 


+ 18 


+37 


-19 


-22 


-24 


-19 


-17 


— 7 


- 9 


- 1 


+ 1 


- 5 


- 8 


- 4 


+ 5 


+ 18 


+ 18 


+ 28 1 



+ 2 
+ 20 
+ 36 
+ 49 
+ 
+ 6 
+ 21 1 
+ 58 
+ 12 
+ 13 
+ 19 
+ 3 

+ 35 
+ 11 
+28 
+ 8 



+20 



+ 3 
+ 7 
-13 

- 4 
-63 
-57 
-18 

- 4 
-34 

- 4 
+ 12 

- 4 

- 3 
-46 
-14 
+ 4 

-15 



+ 3 

- 22 

- 65 

- C2 
-139 
-103 

- 75 

- 60 

- 89 

- 55 

- 16 

- 15 

- 50 
-106 

- 68 

- 9 



58 



+ 21 


+ 25 


+ 24 


+ 31 


+ 34 


+ 35 


+29 


+ 30 


+ 27 


+21 


+27 


+ 39 


+ 44 


+ 42 


+39 


+ 37 


+29 


+ 29 


+ 24 


+19 


+ 25 


+ 38 


+ 45 


+ 45 


+ 42 


+43 


+ 37 


+ 31 


+ 22 


+ 14 


+ 1 


+ 7 


+ 14 


+ 18 


+ 20 


+24 


+ 19 


+ 19 


+ 21 


+24 


+ 19 


+ 27 


+ 31 


+ 33 


+ 34 


+ 35 


+ 28 


+27 


+ 23 


+ 19 



Excess of the quiet days value 



+ 21 
+ 14 
+ 1 

+ 19 



+ 14 



ON COMPARING AND EEDUCma MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 95 

Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 1890-1894. 



11 Koou 13 I 14 15 



16 



17 



18 13 



20 21 



of extreme magnetic disturbance. 



- IG 

- 61 
-112 
-150 
-198 
-169 
-146 

- 124 
-103 

- 78 

- 45 

- 17 

-108 
-171 
-102 

- 26 



-102 



- 26 

- 59 
-117 
-172 
-198 
-167 

- 153 
-122 
-102 

- 63 

- 28 



- 32 

- 76 
-132 
-137 
-116 
-121 

- 84 

- 51 

- 23 
+ 3 
+ 4 



-116 - 80 



173 


-125 


96 


- 53 


20 





101 


- 64 



+ 27 
+ 7 
+ 11 
-48 
-59 
-48 
-51 
-15 
+ 17 
+ 25 
+ 41 
+ 27 

-17 
-53 
+ 9 
+ 32 



+ 43 
+ 48 
+ 54 
+23 
+ 12 
+ 12 
+ 20 
+ 51 
+ 77 
+ 82 
+ 70 
+ 46 

+ 42 
+ 15 
+ 70 
+ 53 



+ 45 



+ 53 

+ 70 
+101 
+ 78 
+ 73 
+ 75 
+ 77 
+ 95 
+ 119 
+ 110 
+ 82 
+ 52 

+ 83 
+ 75 
+ 108 
+ 62 

+ 82 



+ 53 
+ 75 
+ 121 
+ 118 
+ 124 
+ 118 
+ 128 
+ 109 
+ 131 
+ 107 
+ 74 
+ 47 

+ 105 
+123 
+116 
+ 68 



+ 100 



after eliviination of tlie non-cyclic increment. 

+ 25 +40 
+ 32 
+ 31 



- 7 

- 38 
-123 
-132 
-200 
-168 
-143 
-109 
-128 

- 89 

- 41 

- 11 



-170 
-109 



- 10 

- 42 
-116 
-160 
-213 
-168 
-179 
-120 
-129 

- 82 

- 27 

- 5 



-116 
-187 
-110 
- 20 1 - 14 





- 23 
-109 
-136 
-146 
-123 
-148 

- 93 

- 85 

- 55 

- 4 
+ 9 

- 89 
-139 

- 78 
+ 2 



- 99 I -107 I - 70 



-45 
-59 
-61 
-63 
-74 
-17 

— 37 
-13 
+ 28 
+ 22 

— 35 
-66 
—22 
+ 25 

-25 



+ 6 
- 3 
-10 
-29 
+ 25 
+ 14 
+ 32 
+ 35 
+ 29 

+ 23 
-14 
+ 24 
+ 35 

+17 



+ 38 
+ 40 
+ 70 
+ 41 
+ 54 
+ 39 
+ 31 
+ 49 
+ 40 
+ 63 
+ 32 
+ 37 

+ 50 
+ 41 
+ 51 
+ 36 



+ 45 



+ 30 
+ 38 
+ 69 
+ 60 
+ 93 
+ 71 
+ 76 
+ 59 
+ 49 
+ 61 
+ 35 
+ 31 

+ 56 
+ 80 
+ 56 
+ 32 



+ 50 
+ 74 
+ 112 
+ 133 
+ 156 
+ 136 
+ 144 
+ 105 
+ 122 
+ 92 
+ 68 
+ 42 

+ 106 
+ 145 
+ 106 
+ 63 



+ 103 



+ 28 
+ 29 
+ 63 
+ 66 
+ 106 
+ 91 
+ 88 
+ 56 
+ 50 
+ 62 
+ 21 
+ 17 

+ 53 
+ 95 
+ 53 
+ 22 



+56+56 



+ 47 
+ 69 
+ 103 
+ 120 
+ 153 
+ 134 
+ 131 
+ 82 
+ 107 
+ 84 
+ 58 
+ 32 

+ 97 
+ 139 
+ 91 
+ 46 



+ 93 



+ 37 
+ 58 
+ 78 
+ 95 
+ 126 
+ 109 
+ 99 
+ 56 
+ 85 
+ 61. 
+ 43 
+ 26 

+ 77 
+ 111 
+ 67 
+• 35 



+ 


18 


+ 


18 


+ 


47 


+ 


59 


+ 


91 


+ 


84 


+ 


78 


+ 


32 


+ 


54 


+ 


49 


+ 


10 


+ 


13 


+ 


41 


+ 


84 


+ 


45 


+ 


14 


+ 


46 



73 



+ 15 

+ 18 
+ 45 



+ 


50 


+ 


70 


+ 


77 


+ 


56 


+ 


17 


+ 


55 


+ 


43 


+ 


9 







+ 


38 


+ 


68 


+ 


38 


+ 


8 


+ 


38 



+ 21 
+37 
+58 
+ 70 
+ 95 
+ 76 
+ 63 
+ 29 
+57 
+36 
+ 23 
+ 16 

+ 55 
+ 78 
+41 
+ 20 

+ 48 



- 4 
+13 

+35 
+34 
+55 
+ 46 
+44 
+ 10 
+ 48 
+ 33 



+ 27 
+ 48 
+ 30 
- G 



+ 7 
+ 13 
+ 28 
+40 
+ 64 
+ 45 
+ 45 
+ 5 
+ 17 
+ 2 

+ 1 

+ 27 
+ 51 
+ 8 
+ 3 

+ 22 



23 



- 6 

+ 2 
-11 
+ 14 
+ 33 
+ 23 
+ 17 
-18 
-15 
-25 
-19 
-16 

+ 2 
+ 24 
-19 
-14 



+ 25 I +16 



- 2 



- 8 


- 5 


+ 11 


+ 1 


+ 23 


+ 11 


+ 25 


+ 7 


+ 35 


+31- 


+ 37 


+ 28 


+ 26 


+17 


— 5 


-14 


+ 33 


+ 27 


+ 26 


+13 


- 8 


- 5 


- 8 


-19 


+ 20 


+ 6 


+ 33 


+ 25 


+ 18 


+ 9 


- 8 


-lU 



above the all _ 


days rahie. 


















+ 10 





- 9 


-18 


-19 


- 33 


- 49 


- 53 


- 56 


- 39 


-28 


- 7 


+ 1 


- 14 


- 14 


-13 


-29 


- 34 


- 43 


- 50 


- 55 


- 43 


-30 


-18 


— 7 


- 14 


- 25 


-31 


-4G 


- 57 


- 60 


- 53 


- 46 


- 29 


-11 


+ 10 


+ 6 


+ G 


+ 2 
- 12 


— 7 


-18 
-23 


- 26 


- 26 


- 31 

- 47 


- 32 


- 27 


-26 


-11 


+ 3 


- 6 


-18 


- 37 


- 44 


- 47 


- 35 


-23 


-6 



+ 8 



+ 4 
+ 1 
+ 28 
+ 4 

+ 10 



96 



EEPORT — 1898. 



Table IV. — Diurnal Inequality of Declination and Horizontal 

(^After elinmiation of the 



Hour 


Midn. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




Declination, 






First Quarter . 


/ 
-1-33 


-1-18 


/ 

-0-97 


1 

-0-94 


/ 
-0-94 


/ 

-0-89 


/ 

-1-11 


/ 

-1-52 


-212 


-2-11 


t 
-0'93 


Second Quarter 


-0-67 


-0-76 


-0-94 


-1-21 


-1-75 


-2-66 


-3-76 


-4-58 


-4-80 


-3-77 


-1-45 


Third Quarter. 


-0-91 


-1-08 


-1-30 


-1-67 


-2-07 


-2-94 


-3-88 


-4-41 


-4-31 


-3-06 


-0-51 


Fourth Quarter 
The Year. 


-1-30 


-0-93 


-0-77 


-0-67 


-0-61 


-0-81 


-1-04 


-1-31 


-1-86 


-2-00 


-0-87 


-1-05 


-0-99 


-0-99 


-1-12 


-1-35 


-1-82 


-2-45 


-2-96 


-3-27 


-2-74 


-0'94 




Declination, 






First Quarter . 


-1-28 


-1-18 


-102 


-0-97 


-1-03 


-1-09 


-1-26 


-1-67 


-2-31 


-2-26 


-0-86 


Second Quarter 


-0-66 


-0-78 


-0-97 


-1-23 


-1-84 


-2-89 


-3-88 


-4-74 


-4-93 


-3-84 


-1-25 


Third Quarter. 


-0-99 


-1-11 


-1-34 


-1-67 


-2-18 


-3-04 


-3-95 


-4-53 


-4-48 


-3-04 


-0'29 


Foixrth Quarter 
The Year. 


-1-26 


-0-90 


-0-76 


-0-69 


-0-75 


-0-83 


-1-12 


-1-41 


-1-97 


-2-11 


-0-86 


-1-05 


-1-00 


-1-02 


-1-14 


-1-45 


-1'96 


-2-55 


-3-09 


-3-42 


-2-81 


-0-82 


B 


xcess of Declination 






First Quarter . 


+ 0-05 


0-00 


-0-05 


-0'03 


-0'09 


-0-20 


-0-15 


-0-15 


-0-19 


-0-15 


+ 0'07 


Second Quarter 


+ 0-01 


-0-02 


-0'03 


-0-02 


-0-09 


-0-23 


-0-12 


-0-16 


-0-13 


-0-07 


+ 0-20 


Third Quarter. 


-0-08 


-0-03 


-0-04 


0-00 


-0-11 


-010 


-0-07 


-0-12 


-0-17 


+ 0-02 


+0-22 


Fourth Quarter 
The Year. 


+ 0-04 


+ 0'03 


+0-01 


-0-02 


-0-14 


-0-02 


-0-08 


-0-10 


-0-11 


-0-11 


+ 0-01 


0-00 


-0-01 


-0'03 


-0-02 


-0-10 


-0-14 


-0-10 


-0-13 


-U-15 


-0-07 


+ 0-12 




Horizontal Force, 






First Quarter . 


+ 42 


+ 35 


+ 25 


+ 23 


+ 28 


+ 42 


+ 45 +38 


- 9 


- 88 


-145 


Second Quarter 


+ 80 


+ 64 


+ 45 


+ 34 


+ 20 


+ 3 


- 32 


- 96 


-175 


-249 


-271 


Third Quarter. 


+ 90 


+ 72 


+ 57 


+ 42 


+ 37 


+ 12 


- 39 


-114 


-196 


-270 


-286 


Fourth Quarter 
The Year. 


+ 32 


+ 30 


+ 27 


+ 33 


+ 43 


+ 64 


+ 63 


+ 45 


- 5 


- 90 


-158 


+ Gl 


+ 50 


+ 39 


+ 33 


+ 32 


+ 28 


+ 9 


- 32 


- 9G 


-174 


-215 




Horizontal Force, 






First Quarter . 


+ 34 


+ 26 


+ 25 


+ 26 +36 


+ 56 


+ 59 


+ 55 


+ 12 


- 65 


— 127 


Second Quarter 


+ 74 


+ 66 


+ 53 


+ 52 


+ 43 


+ 34 


- 1 


- 56 


- 139 


-216 


— 258 


Third Quarter. 


+ 75 


+ 74 


+ 59 


+ 57 


+ 49 


+ 30 


- 14 


- 82 


- 166 


-242 


-277 


Fourtli Quarter 
The Year. 


+ 29 


+ 28 


+ 30 


+ 40 


+ 53 


+ 68 


+ 74 


+ 57 


+ 10 


- 70 


-145 


+ 53 


+ 49 


+ 42 


+ 44 


+ 45 


+ 47 


+ 29 


- 6 


- 71 


-148 


-202 


Exce 


ss of Horizontal Fm 


'ce 




First Quarter . 


- 8 


- 9 





+ 3 


+ 8 


+ 14 


+ 14 


+ 17 


+ 21 


+ 23 +18 


Second Quarter 


- G 


+ 2 


+ 8 


+ 18 


+ 23 


+ 31 


+ 31 


+ 40 


+ 36 


+ 33 


+ 13 


Third Quarter. 


- 15 


+ 2 


+ 2 


+ 15 


+ 12 


+ 18 


+ 25 


+ 32 


+ 30 


+ 28 


+ 9 


Fourth Quarter 
The Year. 


- 3 


_ 2 


+ 3 


+ 7 


+ 10 


+ 14 


+ 11 


+ 12 


+ 15 


+ 20 


+ 13 


- 8 


- 1 


+ 3 


+ 11 


+ 13 


+ 19 


+ 20 


+ 26 


+ 25 


+ 26 


+ 13 



OK COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 97 



Force at Greeniuich and Kew on Quiet Days, 1890-1894, compared, 
noti-cyclic increment.') 



11 



Noon 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



drreenrvich. 



+1-25 
+ 1-80 
+2-59 
+1-21 



+ 1-72 



+ 1-29 
+1-95 
+2-84 
+ 1-30 



+3-34 
+4-76 
+ 5-20 
+2-95 

+ 4'0G 



+ 3-43 
+ 4-99 
+5-54 
+ 3-10 



+4-25 
+ 6-10 
+ 6-19 
+ 3-71 



+ 5-06 



+ 4-42 
+ 6-39 
+ 6-62 
+ 3-96 



+ 3-9S 
+ 5-73 
+ 5-81 
+ 3-38 



+2-79 
+4-26 
+ 4-24 
+ 2-44 



+ 4-72 I +3-43 



+ 1-42 
+ 2-65 
+ 2-34 
+ 1-40 



+1-84 +4-27 +5-35 +4-90 



+4-10 
+ 5-94 
+6-07 
+ 3-51 



+2-97 
+4-42 
+4-41 
+ 2-57 



+ 1-96 



+ 1-53 
+ 2-69 
+ 2-34 
+ 1-49 



+0-63 
+1-31 
+0-79 
+0-75 



+0-87 

Ken- 

+0-67 
+1-24 
+0-71 
+0-75 



+0-33 
+0-41 
+0-05 
+0-38 



+0'29 



+0-29 
+0-33 
-0-07 
+0-34 



-0-09 
-003 
-0-03 
-0-02 



+ 3-59 +2-01 +0-84 +0-22 -Oil -0-38 -0-60 -0- 

at Kew. 



-0-04 



-0-08 
-0-11 
-0-19 
-0-06 



-0-51 
-0-11 
-0-17 
-0'47 



-0-32 



-0-48 
-0-18 
-0-31 
-0-56 



-0-89 
-0-05 
-017 
-0-98 



-1-13 
-0-08 
-0'24 
-1-23 



0-53 -0-67 



-0-89 
-013 
-0-28 
-1-08 



-1-10 
-0-U 
-0-41 
-1-31 



■73 



+001 
+ 0-15 
+0-25 
+0'09 



+0'11 
+0-23 
+0-34 
+0-15 



+ 0-17 
+029 
+0-43 

+ 0-25 



+0-12 +0-21 +0-29 +0-18 +0-16 



+0-14 
+0-21 
+0-26 
+0-13 



+0-18 
+ 0-16 
+0-17 
+0-13 



+0-11 

+0-04 

0-00 

+0-09 



+ 0'04 

-0-07 

-0-08 

0-00 



-0'04 
-0-08 
-012 
-0-04 



+ 0-01 
-0-08 
-0-16 
-0-04 



+0-03 
-0-07 
-0-14 
-0-09 



0-00 
-0-08 
-0-11 
-0-10 



+0-03 
-0-03 
-017 
-0-08 



Ken'. 



at Kew. 



-130 

-0-40 
-0-46 
-1-35 



-0-87 



-1-25 

-0-40 
-0-G4 
-1-34 

-0-91 



+0-05 

0-00 

-0-18 

+ 0'01 



+0-05 -0-03 -0-07 -0-07 -0-06 -0-07 -O'CG -0-04 
Crreenwich. 



-1G7 


-13G 


- 78 


_ 


22 


+ 


10 


+ 


15 


+ 27 


+ 46 


+ 61 


+ 6G 


+ 54 


+ 


42 


-247 


-172 


- 92 


_ 


10 


+ 


60 


+ 


100 


+ 129 


+ 157 


+ 167 


+ 149 


+ 131 


+ 


111 


-243 


-145 


- 52 


+ 


21 


+ 


62 


+ 


82 


+ 100 


+ 132 


+ 154 


+ 146 


+ 132 


+ 


107 


-170 


-142 


- 84 


- 


32 


- 


4 


+ 


16 


+ 42 


+ 55 


+ 64 


+ 59 


+ 47 


+ 


36 


-207 


-149 


- 76 


__ 


11 


+ 


32 


+ 


53 


+ 75 


+ 97 


+ 112 


+ 105 


+ 91 


+ 


74 



-155 


-128 


- 74 


- 31 


- 4 


+ 2 


+ 9 


+ :;5 


+ 50 


+ 49 


+ 42 


+ 33 


-244 


-176 


-104 


- 32 


+ 32 


+ 69 


+ 105 


+ 129 


+ 143 


+ 126 


+ 114 


+ 99 


-236 


-148 


- 66 


+ 3 


+ 43 


+ 64 


+ 89 


+ 119 


+ 134 


+ 126 


+ 121 


+ 94 


- 160 


-137 


- 87 


- 44 


- 17 


- 4 


+ 28 


+ 43 


+ 62 


+ 45 


+ 39 


+ 34 


-199 


-147 


- 83 


- 26 


+ 13 


+ 33 


+ 58 


+ 81 


+ 95 


+ 87 


+ 79 


+ 65 



+ 41 

+ 04 

+ 99 

+ 38 



+ 35 

+ 86 

+ 95 

+ 35 



+ 12 


+ 


8 


+ 4 


- 9 


- 14 


- 13 


- 18 


- 11 


- 11 


- 17 


- 12 


- 9 


+ 3 





4 


- 12 


- 22 


- 28 


- 31 


- 24 


- 28 


- 24 


- 23 


- 17 


- 12 


+ 7 


_ 


3 


- 14 


- 18 


- 19 


- 18 


- 11 


- 13 


- 20 


- 19 


- 11 


- 13 


+ 10 


+ 


5 


- 3 


- 12 


- 13 


- 20 


- 14 


- 12 


- 12 


- 14 


- 8 


- 2 


+ 8 


+ 


2 


- 7 


- 15 


- 19 


- 20 


- 17 


- 16 


- 17 


-18 


- 12 


- 9 



1898. 



+ 63 

- 9 

- 8 

- 4 

- 3 

- 6 
U 



98 



REPORT — 1898. 



Table V.- 



-Diurnal Inequalities at Greemvich andKew on quiet days 

(^As oiserved, no correction for non-cyclic 



Hour 



Mian. 


1 


2 


3 


4 



10 



March — 

Greenwich . 

Kew 

Excess of Kew- 
Jnne— 

Greenwich . 

Kew 

Excess of Kew 

September — 
Greenwich . 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

December- 
Greenwich 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 



March — 
Greenwich . 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

June — 
Greenwich 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

September — 
Greeuwicli 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

December — 
Greenwicli 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 



March — 
Greenwich . 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

June — 
Greenwich . 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

September — 
Greenwich 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 

December — 
Greenwich . 
Kew 
Excess of Kew 



Declination. 



-1-3 
-1-2 

+0-1 



-0-3 

-0-3 
U-0 



-1-G 
-2-3 

-0-7 



-0-5 
-0-7 
-0-2 



-M 
-1-0 
+ 0-1 



-0-4 
-0-5 
-0-1 



-1-9 
-2-3 

-0-4 



-0-C 
-0-5 
+ 0-1 



-0-7 
-1-1 
-0-4 



-10 
-0-9 
+ 0-1 



-1-6 

-2-3 
-0-7 



-0.5 

-0-5 

0-0 



-11 
-1-0 
+ 01 



-1-3 

-1-7 
-0-4 



-1-5 
-2-1 
-0-6 



-0-G 
-0-5 
+ 0-1 



-1-G 

-1-e 

0-0 



-2-4 
-2-3 
+ 0-1 



-1-4 
-2-5 
-11 



-0-5 

-0-5 

00 



-1-5 

-1-5 

U-0 



-3-5 
-3-0 
-0-1 



-1-8 
-2-C 
-0-8 



-0-? 

-(1-7 

0-0 



-1-8 
-1-9 

-u-1 



-4-8 
-4-9 
-0-1 



-2-8 

-2-8 

0-0 



-51 
-5-6 
-0-5 



-2-3 i - 
-3-2 I - 
-0-7 - 



-0-8 
-0-9 
-0-1 



-0-9 
-1-0 
-0-1 



— 4-4 

-4-4 
0-0 



-4-9 
-60 
-0-1 



-3-1 
-4-1 
-1-0 



-1-1 

-1-1 

0-0 



IToHzontal Force. 



Vertical Force. 



r 
4-4 


t 

_9 


4-5 


-2 


0-1 


-0 



-3-9 -1-7 

-3-7 -1-G 

+ 0-2 4-0-1 



-2-0 
-2-6 
-0-G 



-1-3 
-1-4 
-0-1 



+ 6 


+ 


4 


+ 


3 


+ 


2 


+ 2 


+ 


3 


+ 


3 


+ 1 


- 7 


-17 


+ 6 


+ 


3 


+ 


3 


+ 


3 


+ 3 


+ 


5 


+ 


6 


+ 4 


- 3 


-13 





— 


1 







+ 


1 


+ 1 


+ 


2 


+ 


3 


+ 3 


+ 4 


+ 4 


+ 6 


+ 


/ 


+ 


6 


+ 


7 


+ 1 




o 




8 


-17 


-25 


-20 


+ 5 


+ 


4 


+ 


5 


+ 


4 


+ 3 


+ 


2 


— 


5 


-12 


-20 


-29 


- 1 


— 


3 


— 


1 


~ 


3 


+ 2 


+ 


4 


+ 


3 


+ 5 


+ 5 





+ 11 


+ 


i 


+ 


5 


+ 


5 


+ 6 


+ 


5 


+ 


1 


- 6 


-18 


-28 


+ 10 


+ 


7 


+ 


G 


+ 


5 


+ 5 


+ 


5 







— Ii 


-18 


-27 


- 1 







+ 


1 







— 1 







— 


1 


(1 





+ 1 


+ 2 


+ 


1 









1 


+ 1 


+ 


2 


+ 


2 


+ 1 


- 1 


_ - 





+ 


1 


— 


1 


— 


1 


+ 1 


+ 


3 


+ 


2 


+ 1 


- 1 


— 4 


- 2 







— 


1 


























+ 3 1 



+ 


1 


- 1 


- 1 


- 3 




3 




1 


+ 


1 


+ 


6 


+ 5 


2 


— 


1 








+ 1 


+ 


2 


+ 


3 


+ 


5 


+ 


7 


+ 5 





' 




+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 4 


+ 


5 


+ 


4 


+ 


4 


+ 


1 





+ 2 


_ 


1 


2 


_ 2 


o 




2 







+ 


3 


+ 


5 


+ 2 


- 1 







- 2 


2 


- 2 


— 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


4 


+ 


5 


+ 1 


(1 


+ 


1 





- 1 





+ 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 







- 1 


+ 1 


+ 


2 





+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 


2 


+ 


1 


-1- 


o 


+ 


4 


+ 2 


- 2 


— 


U 


- 5 


- 4 


- 3 


— 


o 


— 


2 







+ 


2 





— 4 




8 


— 


- 5 


— 4 


— 


4 


— 


3 


— 


o 


— 


2 


- 2 


— 2 


+ 


o 


+ 1 


+ 2 





+ 


1 














(1 





+ 1 


— 


1 


- 1 


- 1 


- 1 


_ 


1 


_ 







2 


_ 


.> 


- 1 


- 2 


— 


■^ 


2 


- 3 


- 1 


— 


2 


— 


2 




' 


— 


2 


- 1 


- 3 



-11 

- 10 

+ 1 



In this Table the Values of Horizontal and 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 



99 



compared, for the Equinoctial and Solstitial Months of the Year 1894. 
incrcvtent being here applied.') 



11 


Noon 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 












Declination. 












/ 
+1-5 
+ 1-1 
-0-4 


/ 

+ 4-0 
+4-6 
+0-6 


/ 
+ 5-9 
+ 6-1 
+ 0-2 


+ 5-5 
+ 5-9 
+ 0-4 


+ 3.8 
+4-2 
+0-4 


1 

+ 2-0 
+ 2-1 
+0-1 


/ 

+ 0-9 

+0-9 

0-0 


1 
+ 0-5 
+ 0-5 
00 


/ 

+0-3 
+0-4 
+0-1 


/ 

-0-2 

00 

+0'2 


/ 
-0-4 
-0-2 
+ 0-2 


1 
-0-7 
-0-4 
+0-3 


/ 
-0-9 
-0-8 
+ 0-1 


+ 1-0 
+ 1-1 
+0-1 


+ 3-8 
+ 4-1 
+0-3 


+ 5-2 
+ 5-9 
+0-7 


+4-9 
+ 50 
+ 0-1 


+4-2 
+4-3 
+0-1 


+3-7 
+3-6 
-0-1 


+2-1 
+2'0 
-0-1 


+1-5 
+ 1-4 
-0-1 


+0-8 
+0-9 
+0-1 


+0-7 
+ 0'C 
-0-1 


+ 0-9 
+ 0-6 
-0-3 


+0-8 
+ 0-6 
-0-2 


-1-0 

-1-0 

0-0 


+ 2-8 
+ 3-6 
+ 0-8 


+ 4-9 
+ 5-9 
+ 1-0 


+ 57 
+ 7-4 
+1-7 


+ 4-8 
+ 60 
+ 1-2 


+3-3 
+3-7 
+0-4 


+2-1 

+2-1 

0-0 


+0-8 
+0-7 
-0-1 


+ 0'4 
+0-3 
-01 


-0-3 

0-0 

+0-3 


-0-5 
-0-4 
+ 0-1 


-0-6 
-0-3 

+ 0-3 


-0-8 
-0-4 
+ 0-4 


-1-2 
-0-9 
+ 0-3 


+0-7 

+0'7 

0-0 


+1-3 
+1-7 
+0-4 


+ 2-2 
+2-6 
+0'4 


+ 2-6 

+ 2-6 

0-0 


+ 2'1 
+2-2 
+0-1 


+1-2 

+1-2 

0-0 


+0-8 
+0-5 
-0-3 


+0-4 
+0-2 
-0-2 


0-0 
-0-1 
-0-1 


-01 
-0-5 
-0-4 


-0-4 
-0-7 
-0-3 


-1-1 
-I'O 

+ 0-1 


-1-2 
-1-0 
+ 0-2 












Horizontal Force 












-25 
-24 
+ 1 


-19 
-18 
+ 1 


- 9 

— 9 





- 3 

- 3 


+ 5 
+ 2 
- 3 


+ 7 
+ 6 
- 1 


+ 8 
+ 4 
- 4 


+ 9 
+ 7 
- 2 


+ 10 
+ 7 
- 3 


+ 11 
+ 8 
- 3 


+ 10 

+ 7 
- 3 


+ 8 
+ 7 
- 1 


+ 10 
+ 9 
- 1 


-33 

-30 
+ 3 


- 25 

- 21 
+ 4 


-20 
-11 
+ 9 


— 9 

— 3 
+ 6 


+ 11 
+ 7 
— 4 


+ 20 
+ 16 
- 4 


+ 20 
+ 18 
- 2 


+ 23 
+ 22 
- 1 


+ 27 
+ 22 
- 5 


+ 23 
+ 18 
- 5 


+ 18 
+ 16 
— 2 


+ 18 
+ 14 
- 4 


+ 14 
+ 9 
— 5 


-25 
-24 
+ 1 


-14 
-16 

- 2 


- 3 

- 5 

- 2 




- 4 

- 4 


+ 2 

- 2 

- 4 


+ 3 



- 3 


+ 6 
+ 4 
- 2 


+ 9 
+ 10 
+ 1 


+ 11 
+ 13 

+ 2 


+ 15 

+ 15 




+ 14 
+ 15 
+ 1 


+ 11 
+ 15 

+ 4 


+ 9 
+ 14 
+ 5 


-13 
-10 
+ 3 


-12 
-10 
+ 2 


- C 

- G 



- 1 

O 

- 2 


+ 1 
- 3 


+ 5 
+ 2 
- 3 


+ 9 
+ 5 
- 4 


+ 8 
+ 7 
- 1 


+ 7 
+ 6 
- 1 


+ 7 
+ G 
- 1 


+ 3 
+ 2 
- 1 



+ 1 
+ 1 


+ 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 












Vertical Force. 












-13 

-13 




-15 
-14 
+ 1 


-11 
- 8 
+ 3 


o 

— 3 

- 1 


+ 5 
+ 3 
- 2 


+ 7 
+ 6 
- 1 


+ 6 

+ 5 

- 1 


+ 6 
+ 3 
- 3 


+ 4 
+ 2 
o 


+ 6 
+ 1 
- 5 


+ 6 



- G 


+ 5 



— 5 


+ 2 


.y 


-14 
-12 
+ 2 


-13 
-11 

+ 2 


-11 
- 8 
+ i 


- G 

- 3 

+ 3 



+ 1 
+ 1 


+ 6 
+ 7 
+ 1 


+ 7 
+ 9 
+ 2 


+ 11 
+ 9 
- 2 


+ 11 

+ 9 

- 2 


+ 8 
+ 7 
- 1 


+ 5 
+ 4 
- 1 


+ 3 
+ 2 

- 1 


- 1 
+ 1 

+ 2 


-17 
-15 
+ 2 


-15 
-11 
+ 4 


-10 
- 6 
+ 4 


- 4 

- 2 
+ 2 


+ 3 

+ 3 




+ 5 
+ 7 
+ 2 


+ 5 
+ 8 
+ 3 


+ 5 
+ 7 
+ 2 


+ 6 
+ 7 
+ 1 


+ 8 
+ 7 
- 1 


+ G 
+ 7 

+ 1 


+ 3 
+ 7 
+ 4 


+ 3 

+ 7 
+ 4 


+ 3 

- 1 

- 4 


+ 3 

- 1 

- 4 


+ 3 



- 3 


+ 3 
+ 2 
- 1 


+ 3 

+ 3 




+ 3 
+ 4 
+ 1 



+ 2 
+ 2 


+ 4 


- 4 



+ 4 


- 5 
+ 1 
+ 6 


- 5 
+ 1 
+ U 


- A 
+ 1 
+ 5 


- 6 

+ 2 
+ . 8 



Vertical Force are in c.g.s, measure x 10*. 



h2 



100 



REPORT — 1898. 



Table VI. — Diurnal Inequalities and Diurnal Range at 





Declination 


Sums of Hourly 
Values of Diurnal 
Inequality (corrected 
for Non-cyclic Incre- 
ment) 


Diurnal Range 


Greenwich 


Kew 




Month or Quarter 








K-G 
as 

made 
Cyclic 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


K-G 


As Ob- 
served 
a 


Cor- 
rected 
for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 


a — h 


As Ob- 
served 
a 


Cor- 
rected 
for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 


a-b 




t 


f 


t 


t 


t 


t 


1 


1 


1 


t 


January 


28-24 


29-52 


+ 1-28 


4-98 


4-78 


+ 0-20 


5-22 


4-99 


+ 0-23 


+ 0-21 


February 


34-56 


35-95 


-hl-39 


5-54 


5-41 


+ 0-13 


5-72 


5-64 


+ 0-08 


+ 0-23 


March . 


45-60 


47-58 


+ 1-98 


.9-44 


9-36 


+ 0-08 


9-78 


9-73 


+ 005 


+ 0-37 


April 


48-68 


51-45 


+ 2-77 


10-78 


10-76 


+ 0-02 


11-30 


11-26 


+ 0-04 


+ 0-60 


May 


58-02 


59-32 


+ 1-30 


11-70 


11-62 


+ 0-08 


12-00 


1193 


+ 0-07 


+ 0-31 


June 


58-02 


59-26 


+ 1-24 


10-76 


10-76 


000 


11-18 


11-25 


-0-07 


+ 0-49 


July . . . 


58-20 


57-46 


-0-74 


11-30 


11-36 


-0-06 


11-18 


11-29* 


-0-11 


-0-07 


August . 


57-12 


60-14 


+ 3-02 


11-38 


11-48 


-0-10 


12-16 


12-23 


-0-07 


+ 0-75 


September 


50-18 


55-04 


+ 4-86 


9-50 


9-56 


-OOG 


10-50 


10-47 


+ 03 


+ 0-91 


October . 


43-68 


45-48 


+ 1-80 


7-94 


7-94 


0-00 


8-54 


8-52 


+ 002 


+ 0-58 


November 


30-92 


32-59 


+ 1-67 


5-60 


5-58 


+ 02 


5-92 


5-88 


+ 004 


+ 0-30 


December 


22-82 


24-03 


+ 1-21 


3-98 


3-80 


+ 018 


4-02 


3-97 


+ 0-05 


+ 0-17 


First Quarter 


36-13 


37-68 


+ 1-55 


6-65 


6-52 


+ 0-13 


6-91 


6-79 


+ 0-12 


+ 0-27 


Second Quarter . 


64-91 


56-68 


+ 1-77 


1108 


11-05 


+ 0-03 


11-49 


11-48 


+ 001 


+ 0-43 


Third Quarter 


5517 


67-55 


+ 2-38 


10-73 


10-80 


-0-07 


11-28 


11-33 


-005 


+ 0-53 


Fourth Quarter 


32-47 


34-03 


+ 1-56 


5-84 


5-77 


+ 0-07 


616 


612 


+ 0-04 


+ 0-35 


Mean . 


44-67 


6-49 


+ 1-82 


8-57 


8-53 


+ 0-04 


8-96 


8-93 +0-03 


+ 0-40 



ON COMrARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 101 



Greenwich and Kew on Quiet Days, 1890-1894, compared. 



Horizontal Force 


1 


Sums of Hourly 
Values of Diurnal 
Inequality (corrected 
for Non-cyclic Incre- 
ment) 


Diurnal Range 


Greenwich 


Kew 














K-G 

as 
made 
Cyclic 


Month or Quarter 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


K-G 


As Ob- 
served 
a 


Cor- 
rected 
for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 


a-h 


As Ob- 
served 
a 


Cor- 
rected 
for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 


a-6 


928 


823 


-105 


197 


187 


-hlO 


172 


180 


-8 


-7 


January 


1250 


1132 


-118 


250 


230 


-f20 


214 


205 


-fO 


-25 


February 


1788 


1689 


-99 


307 


298 


+ 9 


290 


282 


-hS 


-16 


March 


2460 


2371 


-89 


418 


405 


-f 13 


386 


381 


-1-5 


-24 


April 


2792 


2571 


-221 


466 


449 


-f-17 


428 


411 


+ 17 


-38 


May 


2980 


2610 


-370 


488 


477 


-HI 


434 


429 


+ 5 


-48 


June 


2906 


2686 


-220 


471 


465 


■\-& 


444 


436 


+ 8 


-29 


July 


2952 


2632 


-320 


491 


476 


H-15 


450 


433 


+ 17 


-43 


August 


2246 


2113 


-133 


395 


381 


+ U 


386 


372 


4 14 


-9 


September 


1960 


1964 


+ 4 


349 


319 


-^30 


332 


317 


+ 15 


-2 


October 


1546 


1468 


-78 


264 


253 


-hll 


234 


245 


-11 


-8 


November 


740 


664 


-76 


146 


141 


+ 5 


140 


142 


_2 


+ 1 


December 


1322 


1215 


-107 


251 


238 


-H13 


225 


222 


+ 3 


-16 


First Quarter 


2744 


2517 


-227 


457 


444 


-H13 


416 


407 


+ 9 


-37 


Second Quarter 


2701 


2477 


— 224 


452 


441 


+11 


427 


414 


+ 13 


-27 


Third Quarter 


1415 


1365 


-50 


253 


238 


-1-15 


235 


234 


+ 1 


-4 


Fourth Quarter 


2045 


1893 


— 2 


353 


340 


-H3 


326 


319 


+ 7 


-21 


Mean 



102 



REPORT — 1898. 



Table VII. — Non-cyelic Increment at Greenvnch and Kew on Quiet Days, 

1890-1895, compared. 



Month 

or 
Quarter 


Declination 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


Nou-cyclic 
Increment 


Number o{ Indi- 
vidual Months 


Non-cyclic 
Increment 


Number of Indi- 
vidual Months 


Non-cyclic 
Increment 


Number of Indi- 
vidual Months 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


Green- 
wich 


Kew 


January . 
February . 
March 
April 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October . 
NoTember 
December . 

1st Quarter 
2nd Quarter 
3rd Quarter 
4th Quarter 

Mean 

Totals of 
Months . 


/ 
+0-47 
+0-45 
+0-27 
+ 0-17 
+0-13 
+0-05 
-0-15 
-0-35 
-0-33 
-0-20 
+ 0-13 
-0-27 

+0-40 
+ 0-12 
-0-28 
-0-11 

+0-03 


/ 

+0-63 
+ 0-33 
+ 0-18 
+ 0-12 
+ 0-07 
-0-17 
-0-23 
-0-30 
+ 0-12 
+ 0-03 
+0-18 
-0-10 

+ 0-38 
+ 0-01 
-0-14 
+ 0-04 

+0-07 


+ - 
4 2 
4 2 

3 3 

4 1 1 

3 3 

4 2 
2 13 
114 

2 4 
10 5 

3 1 2 
10 5 

32 7 33 


+ — 
6 
4 2 
3 3 
3 1 2 
3 3 
3 3 
3 3 
114 
3 3 

2 13 

3 12 
12 3 

35 6 31 


+ 53 
+ G3 
+ 34 
+45 
+ 39 
+ 27 
+ 31 
+ 34 
+ 38 
+ 69 
+ 60 
+ 23 

+ 50 
+ 37 
+ 34 
+ 51 

+ 43 


+50 

+ 57 
+ 28 
+ 20 
+ 38 
+ 22 
+ 27 
+ 37 
+ 38 
+60 
+ 53 
+ 15 

+ 45 
+ 27 
+ 34 
+ 39 

+ 3G 


+ — 
6 
5 1 
5.0 1 
5 1 
5 1 

5 1 

4 2 

6 

5 1 

6 
5 1 
5 1 

62 10 


+ - 
5 1 
5 10 
5 10 

4 1 1 

5 1 
4 1 1 

4 2 

5 1 

6 
6 
6 
5 1 

60 7 5 


- 4 
-44 
-45 

- 4 

- 4 
-20 
+ 6 

- 9 
-14 
-12 
-44 
-34 

-31 

- 9 

- 6 
-30 

-19 


-52 
+ 5 
+ 13 
-22 
-12 
-28 
-13 

- 8 
+ 30 
+ 5 
-12 

- 6 

-11 
—21 
+ 3 

- 4 

- 8 


+ — 
3 3 

6 
10 5 
2 4 

2 2 2 

1 1 4 

3 3 
12 3 

2 2 2 
2 1 3 
15 
10 5 

18 9 45 


+ - 

6 
3 3 
2 2 2 

2 4 

3 3 

1 5 
10 5 
3 3 
3 12 
3 3 

2 3 
2 3 

25 3 42» 



* The vertical force magnetograph at Kew was out of action in November and December 1890, reducing the 

months from seventy-two to seventy. 



Table IX. — Non-cyclic Increment at Greenwich and Kew on Quiet Days, for 

Years, compared. 



Tear 


Declination 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


Greenwich 


Kew 


Greenwich 


Kew 


Greenwich 


Kew 


1800 
1891 
1832 
1893 
1894 
1895 


t 
-0-23 

+ 0-08 

-0-20 

+ 0-15 

+ 0-24 ■ 

+ 0-15 


-0-36 
+ 0'29 
+ 0-14 
+ 0-26 
+ 0-15 
-0-05 


+ 19 
+ 37 
+67 
+44 
+ 33 
+ 57 


+ 23 
+23 
+ 53 
+ 40 
+ 33 
+44 


-12 

- 8 
-39 
-24 

- 4 
-27 


+15«-' 

-12 

-20 

-26 

+ 12 

-15 


Mean , 


+ 0-03 


+ 0-07 


+43 


+ 36 


-19 


- 8 



* This value depends on ten months only. See note to Table VII. 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 103 



Table VIII —Non-cyclic Increment at Greenwich on Quiet Bays, 

1889—1896. 



Month, 

Quarter, 

or 

Year 


Declination 


Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 


Non-cyclic Increment 




Non-cyclic Increment 


S « 




Non-cyclic Increment 


Is 


IP 

1 
+1-9 


Monthly 
Value 


s 

3 

4-5 


Mean 
+ 0-05 


23 


Greatest 

Monthly 

Value 


p£?« 

-1 o|> 


u 

s 


Mean 


'2^ 

II 

t-t 




Greatest 

Monthly 

Value 




o 

a 

1 

5 


Mean 


h-i 


January . 


-2-G 


+ — 
5 U 3 


-1-113 


-91 


204 


+ 30 


+ 

7 


- 


+ 52 


-74 


126 


- 1 


+ — 

4 4 


February . 


-^2•4 


-0-6 


3-0 


+ 0-25 


4 4 


+WS 


-16 


124 


+58 


7 




-17 


-83 


66 


-48 


8 


March 


+ 1-1 


0-0 


11 


^-0•25 


4 4 


+ 137 


-57 


194 


+42 


7 




+ 22 


-83 


1U5 


-36 


116 


April . 


+ 0-C 


-0-5 


1-1 


-1-0-14 


5 12 


-1-137 


- 5 


142 


+52 


7 




+ 52 


-35 


87 


+ 8 


4 4 


May . . 


+0-9 


-0-3 


1-2 


-)-0-13 


4 1 3 


+ 91 


-53 


144 


+ 48 


7 




+ 31 


-52 


83 


- 3 


3 2 3 


June . 


+ 0-7 


-1-0 


1-7 


-I-0-04 


5 3 


-1- 64 


- 9 


73 


+ 35 


7 




+17 


-44 


61 


-14 


3 14 


July . 


+ 0-i 


-I'O 


1-4 


-0-15 


2 2 4 


-H04 


-11 


115 


+ 34 


6 


2 


+ 35 


-35 


70 





3 14 


August 


-1-0-8 


-0-7 


1-5 


-0-23 


2 1 5 


-t- 93 


+ 5 


88 


+ 32 


8 





+44 


-74 


118 


- 7 


2 2 4 


September . 


+ 0-1 


-1-0 


M 


-0-31 


2 6 


-1- 68 


-18 


86 


+ 32 


6 


2 


+ 22 


-61 


83 


-18 


2 2 4 


October 


+0-9 


-0-7 


1-6 


-0-24 


1 7 


+ 117 


-15 


132 


+ 56 


7 


1 


+ 44 


-83 


127 


-18 




November . 


-fl-1 


-1-4 


2'5 


+o-o« 


3 14 


+ 84 


-22 


106 


+ 41 


5 


3 





-87 


87 


-43 


17 


December . 


+ 0-3 


-0-7 


1-0 


-0-28 


1 7 


+ 51 


-48 


99 


+ 11 


5 1 


2 


+ 26 


-87 


113 


-22 


2 1 5 


1st Quarter 


— 




2-9 


H-0-13 


— 


— 


— 


174 


+ 43 


— 




— 


— 


99 


-28 


• — 


2n(l Quarter 


— 


— 


1-3 


-i-o-io 


— 


— 


— 


120 


+ 45 


— 




— 


— 


77 


- 3 


~ 


3rd Quarter 


— 


— 


1-3 


-0-23 


— 


— 


— 


96 


+ 33 


— 




— 


— 


90 


- 8 


" 


4th Quarter 


— 


— 


1-7 


-0-15 


— 


— 


— 


112 


+ 36 


— 




— 


— 


109 


-28 




Mean 


— 


~ 


1-8 


-0-02 


— 


- 


— 


126 


+ 39 


— 




— 


— 


94 


-17 


— 


1889 . 


+0-8 


-0-5 


1-3 


-0-11 


3 1 8 


+ 62 


-48 


110 


+ 19 


9 


3 


+ 35 


-44 


79 


- 8 


4 2 6 


1800 . . 


+0-2 


-0-7 


0-9 


-0-23 


3 2 7 


+ 84 


-57 


141 


+ 19 


8 


4 


+ 52 


-87 


139 


-12 


5 16 


1891 . 


+0-9 


-1-4 


2-3 


-1-0-08 


7 14 


+ 77 


-16 


93 


+ 37 


11 


1 


+44 


-83 


127 


- 8 


4 2 6 


1893 . 


-t-1-1 


-1-0 


2-1 


-0-20 


3 18 


+ 137 


+ 5 


132 


+67 


12 








-74 


74 


-39 


1 11 


1893 . . 


-H-9 


-0-6 


2-5 


+0-15 


5 16 


+ 113 


- 5 


118 


+ 44 


11 


1 


+ 35 


-74 


109 


-24 


12 9 


1894 . . 


+2-4 


-1-0 


3-4 


+ 0-24 


7 5 


+ 117 


-53 


170 


+ 33 


8 


4 


+ 44 


-87 


131 


- 4 


5 2 5 


1895 . 


-1-0-7 


-0-4 


1-1 


-t-0-15 


7 2 3 


+ 108 


+ 9 


99 


+ 57 


12 





+ 35 


-83 


118 


-27 


3 1 8 


1896 . 


+0-6 


-2'6 


3-2 


-0-27 


3 2 7 


+137 


-91 


228 


+ 38 


8 1 


3 


+ 52 


-70 


122 


-11 


4 2 6 


Mean 


— 


— 


2'1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


136 


— 


— 




— 


— 


112 


— 


— 


Totals of 




















79 1 


16 










26 13 67 


Months 


— 





— 


~~ 


33 10 48 






















104 



REPORT — 1898. 
Table X. — Non-cyclic Increment at Greenwich on Quiet 













Declination 






Month, Quarter, or Year 


Preceding 

Noon to 
Noon 

I> 


Midnight 
to Mid- 
night 

711 


Noon to 

following 

Noon 

/ 


4(P+/) = » 


ni—n 


January 


1 

-004 


f 

+ 005 


t 

+ 016 


+ 006 


1 
-001 


February 






+ 0'05 


+ 0-25 


+ 0-40 


+ 0-22 


+ 003 


Marcli . 






-0-35 


+ 025 


+ 0-47 


+ 006 


+ 019 


April . 






-0-81 


+ 014 


+ 0-60 


-Oil 


+ 0-25 


May . 






+ 019 


+ 013 


+ 0-25 


+ 0-22 


-009 


June . 






-0-28 


+ 0-04 


+ 011 


-0-08 


+ 0-12 


July . 






-0-31 


-015 


+ 0-44 


+ 006 


-0-21 


August . 






-021 


-0-23 


-004 


-013 


-010 


September . 






-012 


-0-31 


+ 011 


-001 


-0-30 


October 






-0-79 


-0-24 


+ 0-31 


-0-24 


0-00 


November . 






-012 


+ 006 


+ 0-21 


+ 004 


+ 002 


December 






-0-31 


-0-28 


+ 0-63 


+ 016 


-044 


First Quarter 


-0-11 


+ 018 


+ 0-34 


+ 011 


+ 0-07 


Second Quarter 




-0-30 


+ 010 


+ 0-32 


+ 001 


+ 009 


Third Quarter 




-0-21 


-023 


+ 017 


-0'02 


-0-21 


Fourth Quarter 




-0-41 


-015 


+ 0-38 


-002 


-013 


Mean 
1889 . 




-026 


-002 


+ 0-30 


+ 002 


+ 004 


-0-22 


-Oil 


+ 006 


-0-08 


-003 


1890 . 






-009 


-0-23 


-002 


-006 


-017 


1891 . 






-0-18 


+ 008 


+ 0-49 


+ 0-15 


-0-07 


1892 






+ 001 


-0-20 


+ 0-45 


+ 0-23 


-0-43 


1893 . 






-012 


+ 015 


+ 0-36 


+ 0-12 


+ 003 


1894 . 






-0-53 


+ 024 


+ 0-24 


-015 


+ 0-39 


1895 . 






-0-48 


+ 0-15 


+ 016 


-0 16 


+ 031 


1896 . 






-0-47 


-0-27 


+ 0-70 


+ 012 


-0-39 



ON COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 
Days, as variously determined, comjxired, 1889-1896. 



105 



Horizontal Force 




Vertical Foi 


ce 




Preced- 
ing Noon 
to Noon 
P 


Midnight 
to Mid- 
night 
m 


Noon to 

fol- 
lowing 
Noon 
/ 


h(P+f) 


m—n 


Preced- 
ing Noon 
to Noon 
P 


Midnight 
to Mid- 
night 

VI 


Noon to 

fol- 
lowing 
Noon 
/ 


UP+f) 
= n 


m-n 


+ Z2 


+ 30 


+ 8 


+ 20 


+ 10 


- 4 


- 1 


-17 


-11 


+ 10 


-^ 4 


+ 58 


+ 50 


+ 27 


+ 31 


-15 


-48 


-49 


-32 


-16 


4 45 


+ 42 


+ 6 


+ 26 


+ 16 


-45 


-36 


-28 


-37 


+ 1 


+ 21 


+ 52 


+ 55 


+ 38 


+ 14 


-27 


+ 8 


— 22 


-25 


+ 33 


+ 61 


+ 48 





+ 30 


+ 18 


-27 


o 
O 


+ 16 


- 6 


+ 3 


-f29 


+ 35 


+ 30 


+ 30 


+ 5 


-12 


-14 


-33 


-23 


+ 9 


- 9 


+ 34 


+ 47 


+ 19 


+ 15 


-20 





-19 


-19 


+ 19 


-20 


+ 32 


+ 47 


+ 13 


+ 19 


-10 


- 7 


-18 


-14 


+ 7 


-his 


+ 32 


- 4 


+ 4 


+ 28 


-46 


-18 


-19 


-32 


+ 14 


-f42 


+ 56 


+ 28 


+ 35 


+ 21 


-34 


-18 


+ 9 


-12 


- 6 


-1-20 


+ 41 


+ 22 


+ 21 


+ 20 


-38 


-43 


-31 


-34 


- 9 


+ U 


+ 11 


-12 


+ 16 


- 5 


-20 


— 22 


- 3 


-11 


-11 


+ 27 


+ 43 


+ 21 


+ 24 


+ 19 


-21 


-28 


-31 


-26 


- 2 


+ 37 


+ 45 


+ 28 


+ 32 


+ 13 


-22 


- 3 


-13 


-17 


+ 14 


- 5 


+ 33 


+ 30 


+ 12 


+ 21 


-25 


- 8 


-19 


-22 


+ 14 


+ 35 


+ 36 


+ 13 


+ 24 


+ 12 


-31 


-28 


- 8 


-20 


- 8 


+ 23 


+ 39 


+ 23 


+ 23 


+ 16 


-25 


-17 


-18 


-21 


+ 4 


+ 12 


+ 19 


+ 14 


+ 13 


+ 6 


-25 


- 8 


- 4 


-14 


+ 6 


+ 17 


+ 19 


+ 5 


+ 11 


+ 8 


-19 


-12 


- 7 


-13 


+ 1 


+ 1 


+ 37 


+ 65 


+ 33 


+ 4 


- 2 


- 8 


-20 


-11 


+ 3 


+ 44 


+ G7 


+ 20 


+ 35 


+ 32 


-47 


-39 


-19 


-33 


- 6 


+ 19 


+ 44 


+ 27 


+ 23 


+ 21 


-53 


-24 


- 7 


-30 


+ 6 


+ 23 


+ 33 


+ 21 


+ 22 


+ 11 


+ 8 


- 4 


-39 


-15 


+ 11 


+ 29 


+ 57 


+ 18 


+ 24 


+ 33 


-26 


-27 


-23 


-24 


- 3 


+ 43 


+ 38 


+ 8 


+ 25 


+ 13 


-31 


-11 


-24 


-29 


+ 18 



106 



REPORT — 1898. 

Table XI. — Diurnal Range at Greenwich as 





Declination 


Horizon- 


Month, 

Quarter, or 

Year 


Quiet Days 






b- 


-c 




Quiet Days 


As 
Ob- 
served 

« 


Cor- 
rected 

for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 

b 


a-b 


All 
Days 

c 


Great- 
est 

Month- 
ly 

Value 


Least 
Month- 

ly 

Value 


DifCer- 
ence 


Mean 


As 
Ob- 
served 

a 


Cor- 
rected 

for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 


a-b 


January 


/ 
5-Ui 


1 

4-81 


1 

-1-0-23 


1 
5.58 


4-0-7 


/ 
-3-3 


/ 
4-0 


-0-77 


188 


179 


+ 9 


February 


6-OG 


5-85 


4-0-21 


7-11 


-0-2 


-3-2 


3-0 


-1-26 


257 


232 


4-25 


March . 


9-03 


8-96 


4-0-07 


9-14 


+-0-5 


-0-8 


1-3 


-0-18 


319 


299 


4-20 


April 


10-80 


10-78 


-I-0-02 


11-15 


4-1-1 


-1-3 


2-4 


-0-37 


442 


423 


4-19 


May 


11-00 


10-97 


-fO-03 


10-72 


4-1-7 


-1-5 


3-2 


4-0-25 


454 


435 


4-19 


June 


10-88 


10-86 


-I-0-02 


10-S5 


4-1-7 


-1-3 


3-0 


4-001 


479 


464 


4-15 


July . . 


10-79 


10-84 


-0-05 


10-95 


4-0-5 


-0-8 


1-3 


-0-11 


456 


444 


4-12 


August . 


10-77 


10-84 


-0-07 


10-69 


4-1-8 


-0-8 


2-G 


4-0-15 


471 


457 


4-14 


September 


9-54 


9-59 


-0-05 


9-40 


4-1-8 


-1-2 


30 


4-0-19 


413 


397 


4-16 


October . 


7-47 


7-49 


-0-02 


8-06 


0-0 


-1-5 


1-5 


-0-57 


353 


329 


4-24 


November 


5-21 


5-12 


-fO-09 


6-28 


-0-1 


-2-8 


2-7 


-1-16 


251 


241 


4-10 


December 


4-09 


4-01 


+ 0-08 


5-19 


-0-3 


-1-0 


1-6 


-1-18 


147 


147 





1st Quarter 


6-71 


G-54 


4-0-17 


7-28 


— 


— 


2-8 


-0-74 


265 


237 


4-18 


2nd Quarter . 


10-89 


10-87 


4-0-02 


10-91 


— 


— 


2-9 


-0-04 


458 


441 


4-17 


3rd Quarter . 


10-37 


10-42 


-0-05 


10-35 


— 


— 


23 


4-0-07 


447 


433 


4-14 


4th Quarter . 


5-59 


5-54 


4-0-05 


G-51 


— 


— 


1-9 


-0-97 


250 


239 


4-11 


Mean . 


8-39 


8-34 


4-0-05 


8-76 





— 


2-5 


-0-42 


352 


337 


4-15 


1889 


G-45 


6-48 


-0-03 


6-67 


4-1-1 


-0-7 


1-8 


-0-19 


261 


252 


4- 9 


1890 


6-78 


6-81 


-0-03 


7-20 


4-0-5 


-1-3 


1-8 


-0-39 


263 


256 


4- 7 


1891 . . 


8-18 


8-08 


4-0-10 


8-46 


4-0-7 


-1-4 


2-1 


-0-38 


350 


338 


4-12 


1892 


9-75 


9-78 


-0-03 


9-62 


4-1-7 


-1-3 


2-9 


4- 0-16 

1 


398 


370 


4-28 


1893 


10-13 


10-OG 


4-0-07 


10-40 


4-1-3 


-1-5 


2-8 


-0-34 


428 


414 


4-14 


1894 


902 


8-89 


4-0-13 


9-45 


4-0-5 


-1-7 


2-2 


-0-56 


414 


403 


4-11 


1895 


8-78 


8-76 


4-0-03 


9G4 


4-1-8 


-3-3 


5-1 


-0-89 


380 


360 


4-20 


1896 


8-01 


7-90 


4-0-11 


8-64 


4-1-8 


-3-2 


50 


-0-74 


32G 


306 


4-20 


Mean . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


"— 


— " 


3-0 


— 


-_ 


— 


— 



ox COMPARING AND REDUCING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS. 
varioushj determined, compared, 1889-1896. 



107 



tal Force 



All 
Days 



163 
200 
313 
447 
449 
496 
496 
470 
393 
338 
212 
150 

225 
464 
453 
233 

344 

248 
263 
323 
402 
413 
411 
370 
331 



b-c 



Great 
est 

Month- 
ly 

"S alue 



-I- 73 

-I- 95 

-I- 59 

+ 33 

-f 64 

-f 68 

- 4 

+ 64 

4- 64 

+ 38 
-1-101 

+ 16 



+ 66 

-f 41 

+ 73 

-I- 64 

+ 90 
-flOl 

•^ 95 

+ 38 



Least 
Month- 
ly 
Talue 


Differ- 
ence 


- 31 


104 


— 5 


100 


- 53 


112 


- 8S 


121 


-117 


181 


-108 


176 


-123 


119 


- 82 


146 


- 51 


115 


- 91 


129 


- 26 


127 


- 37 


53 


— 


105 


— 


159 


- 


127 


— 


103 


— 


124 


- 42 


108 


- 46 


90 


- 55 


128 


-123 


187 


-108 


198 


— 77 


178 


- 66 


161 


-117 


155 


— 


151 



Mean 



-H6 
-t-32 
-14 
-24 
-14 
-32 
-52 
-13 
+ 4 

- 9 
+ 29 

- 3 

-1-12 
-23 
-20 
-f 6 

- 7 

+ 4 
-h 3 
+ \a 
-32 
+ 1 

- 8 
-10 
-25 



Vertical Force 



Quiet Days 



As 
Ob- 
served 



114 
125 
216 
245 
312 
257 
253 
212 
195 
157 
115 
105 

152 
271 
220 
126 

! 192 

I 
I 

i 163 
176 
192 
228 
202 
197 
191 
190 



Cor- 
rected 
for 
Non- 
cyclic 
Incre- 
ment 
b 



100 
131 
221 
243 
309 
253 
252 
210 
194 
157 
114 
96 

151 
268 
219 
122 

190 

163 

170 
189 
231 
199 
192 
187 
190 



a—b 



4-14 

- 6 

- 5 
+ 2 
+ 3 
-I- 4 
-I- 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 



+ 1 

+ 9 

-1- 1 

+ 3 

-1- 1 

+ 4 




+ 6 
+ 3 
- 3 
+ 3 
-I- 5 
+ 4 





All 
Days 



109 
175 
257 
298 
356 
303 
277 
233 
217 
196 
157 
105 

180 
319 
242 
153 

224 

168 
173 
222 
257 
£33 
248 
242 
245 



b-c 



Great- 
est 
Month- 
ly 

Value 



H-22 
-f 22 
+ 13 
-13 
+17 
+ 26 
+ 44 
+ 26 
+ 26 
+ 17 
+ 4 
+ 35 



+ 35 
+ 44 
+ 22 
+ 31 
+ 17 
+ 17 
+ 26 
- 9 



Least 
Month- 
ly 
Value 


Differ- 
ence 


- 44 


66 


-127 


149 


-109 


122 


-162 


149 


-105 


122 


-118 


144 


- 79 


123 


- 70 


96 


-101 


127 


- 61 


78 


-101 


105 


- 44 


79 


— 


112 


— 


138 


— 


115 


— 


87 


— 


113 


- 52 


87 


- 66 


110 


-101 


123 


- 79 


110 


-lis 


135 


-102 


179 


-127 


153 


-109 


100 


— 


125 



Mean 



- 9 

-44 
-36 
-55 
-47 
-50 
-25 
-23 
-23 
-39 
-43 

- 9 

-29 
-51 
-23 
-31 

-34 

- 5 

- 3 

-33 
-26 
-34 
-56 
-55 
—55 



108 



REPORT — 1898. 



Table XII. — Excess of Absolute Vahies of Magnetic Elements on Quiet Days at 
Greenwich above the Values of the All Day Tabulation, 1889-1896. 







Declination 






Horizontal Force 


Vertical Force 1 


Month, 

Quarter, 

or 

Year 














1 


Greatest 
Monthly 
Excess 


Lejist 
Monthly 
Excess 


is 


Mean 
Excess 


ll 


Greatest 
Monthly 
Excess 


Least 
Monthly 
Excess 


a 
1*1 


Mean 

Excess 


5» 
-55 
'> a 


Greatest 
Monthly 
Excess 


Least 
Moutlily 
Excess 


1 

5 


Mean 
Excess 


ii 

II 


January 


/ 
+0-5 


/ 
-0-2 


0-7 


+0-09 


+ 

5 


3 


+132 


- 9 


+ 42 


+ — 
6 3 


+ 109 


-105 


214 


+ 6 


+ ■ 

4 1 


February . 


+ 0-4 


-0-2 


0-6 


+0-20 


6 1 


1 

1 


+106 


-42 


148 


+ 41 


6 2 


+ 9 


- 87 


96 


- 22 


2 1 


March 


+0-6 


-0-1 


0-7 


+0-20 


5 2 


i! 

1 


+ 75 


-20 


95 


+ 34 


6 2 


+ 66 


- 44 


110 


- 15 


1 


April . 


+ 0-2 


-0-4 


0-6 


-0-03 


3 2 


3 


+ 75 


-24 


99 


+ 42 


7 1 


+ 39 


- 96 


136 


-16 


3 1 


May . . 


+ 0-5 


-0-4 


0-9 


+0-10 


5 


3 


+ 57 


-15 


72 


+ 16 


5 3 


+ 4 


- 48 


62 


- 20 


1 ' 


June . 


+0-3 


-0-2 


0-5 


+0-05 


3 3 


2 


+ 48 


-26 


74 


+ 12 


5 3 


+ 35 


- 57 


92 


- 6 


3 1 


July . 


+0-3 


-0-3 


0-6 


-0-03 


3 2 


3 


+ 42 


- 4 


46 


+ 15 


5 12 


+ 31 


- 66 


97 


- 16 


3 


August 


+ 0-2 


-0-2 


0-4 


+0-0G 


5 1 




" 1 


+ 31 


-27 


58 


+ 4 


4 4 


+ 26 


- 48 


74 


- 4 


4 


September . 


+ 0-4 


-0'4 


0-8 


+0-06 


5 


H 


+ 104 


-26 


130 


+ 31 


5 3 


+ 79 


- 48 


127 


+ 7 


5 : 


October 


+ 0-4 


-0-5 


0'9 


+ 0-01 


4 


4 


+ 106 


- 4 


110 


+ 19 


7 1 


+ 87 


-118 


205 


— 22 


3 


November . 


+ 0'6 


-0-1 


0-7 


+0-24 


6 


2 


+ 99 


- 4 


103 


+ 49 


7 1 


+ 61 


- 4^1 


105 


+ 3 


3 : 


December . 


+ 0'3 


-0-2 


0-5 


-002 


2 1 


5 


+ 97 


+ 2 


35 


+ 57 


1 

8 


+ 39 


- 57 


96 


- 7 


3 ; 


1st Quarter 


— 


— 


0-7 


+0-16 


— 




— 


— 


128 


+ 39 


— 


— 





140 


- 11 


__ 


2nd Quarter 


— 


— 


0-7 


+0-04 


— 




— 


— 


82 


+ 23 


— 


— 


— 


93 


- 14 


— 


3rd Quarter 


— 


— 


0-6 


+0-03 


— 




— 


— 


78 


+ 17 


— 


— 


— 


99 


- 4 


— 


4th Quarter 




— 


0-7 


+0-08 


— 




— 


— 


103 


+ 52 


— 


— 


— 


135 


- 9 


— 


Mean 


— 


— 


0-7 


+ 0-08 


— 




— 


— 


98 


+ 33 


— 


— 


— 


117 


- 9 


— 


1889 . 


+0-6 


— 0-2 


0-8 


+ 0-12 


7 2 


3 


+ 84 


-42 


126 


+ 21 


8 13 


+ 52 


- 39 


91 


- 4 


3 1 i 


1890 . 


+0-5 


-0-4 


0-9 


+0-01 


5 2 


5 


+ 46 


-13 


59 


+ 11 


7 6 


+ 66 


-118 


184 


- 8 


5 2 I 


1891 . 


+0-1 


-0-4 


0-5 


-0-12 


3 1 


8 


+ 104 


- 9 


113 


+ 38 


10 2 


+ 109 


- 06 


175 


- 7 


3 1 « 


1892 . 


+0-6 


-0-3 


0-9 


+0-07 


5 1 


6 


+ 75 


-33 


108 


+ 32 


9 3 


+ 26 


-114 


140 


- 26 


4 i 


1893 . 


+0-4 


-0-5 


0-9 


+ 0-19 


10 


2 


+ 106 


-20 


126 


+ 36 


8 4 


+ 39 


- 87 


126 


- 14 


6 ! 


1894 . 


+0-4 


-0-3 


0-7 


+0-12 


9 2 


1 


+ 115 


-24 


139 


+ 53 


11 1 


+ 79 


- 31 


110 


+ 14 


7 ( 


1895 . 


+0-5 


-0-2 


0-7 


+0-11 


G 3 


3 


+ 106 


-26 


132 


+ 34 


9 3 


+ 87 


-105 


192 


- 1 


6 : 


1886 . 


+0-5 


-0-2 


0-7 


+ 0-12 


7 1 


4 


+ 132 


-13 


145 


+ 37 


8 4 


+ 26 


- 67 


83 


- 28 


2 li 


Mean 


— 


— 


0-8 




— 




— 


— 


118 


— 


— 


— 


— 


138 


— 


— 


Totals of 
Months . 


— 


— 




— 


52 12 


32 


- 


— 


— 


_ 


70 1 25 


— 


— 


— 


— 


35 4 61 



DETERMINATION OK THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 109 



An Account of the late Professor Jonx Couch Adams's Determination of 
the Gaussian Magnetic Constants. By Professor W. Grylls Adams. 

I propose to give the Conference a short account of the work done by my 
brother on the theory of terrestrial magnetism, and to give his determina- 
tion of the Gaussian magnetic constants. This work was first taken up by 
the late Professor John Couch Adams just fifty years ago, not long after the 
discovery of the planet Neptune. I find from his papers, which he delivered 
to me before his death, and which he asked me to examine to see if they 
could be brought into form for publication, that the earliest work which he 
did on this subject was begun in the year 1849, and that he was led to it 
by the study of the translation of Gauss's Memoir on the Theory of Terres- 
trial Magnetism given in Taylor's ' Scientific Memoirs ' which was published 
in 1841. Gauss himself says in that memoir that he was stimulated to 
undertake the work on the publication of Sabine's map of the total 
intensity in the seventh Report of the British Association (i.e. in 1837), 
but that the data are very scanty for the accurate determination of the 
masmetic constants. For their accurate determination data should be 
supplied from accurate observations of magnetic declination, horizontal 
intensity, and dip, taken at stations uniformly distributed, as in a net- 
work, over the surface of the Earth. 

Not only fifty years ago, when Gauss wrote, but even to the present 
day, the progress made in the theory of terrestrial magnetism has suffered 
from the lack of data derived from observations, because even now there 
are few magnetic Observatories in existence, and those few are for the 
most part grouped very close together, leaving other parts of the Earth, 
and especially the southern hemisphere, almost entirely wanting in the 
facts of observation without which all theories can be but visionary. 

In his calculations on the magnetic potential of the Earth and on the 
theoretical expression of the magnetic components X, Y and Z, to the 
north, to the west, and vertically downwards respectively, Gauss expressed 
them for any point of the Earth's surface in series consisting of quantities 
to which he gave the name of magnetic constants, with coefficients involving 
Legendre's coefiicients, and which are functions of the colatitude of the 
point. 

From the very imperfect data which he possessed. Gauss determined 
the numerical values of the magnetic constants by his equations up to 
terms of the fourth order — i.e. he determined the values of the first twenty- 
four magnetic constants, three of the first order, five of the second, seven 
of the third, and nine of the fourth order. 

No one could be more conscious of the fact than Gauss himself was 
that his data were so meagre and so insufficient that he could by no means 
rely on the values derived from them, and I fear that even now, at the 
end of the nineteenth century, we must say with him that the observed 
facts are far too scanty and that our stock of observations is still too small 
to enable us to get out trustworthy values of the magnetic potential and 
the magnetic elements for a given epoch. For this purpose the observa- 
tions should be strictly contemporaneous, and we require more Observa- 
tories where continuous records are taken. 

For Gauss's method, which was also the method followed in practice by 



110 REPORT— 1898. 

my brother, it is important for the accuracy and trustworthiness of the 
resulting values of the magnetic constants that the observations shall be 
taken from stations distributed as uniformly as possible over the Earth's 
surface ; whereas we see that in the northern hemisphere the Observatories 
which exist are very unequally distributed, and that in the southern 
hemisphere there are only three first-class magnetic Observatories where 
continuous records are taken, viz. those of Batavia, Mauritius, and 
Melbourne. 

For the more ready development of the theory of terrestrial magnetism, 
Professor J. C. Adams established simple and convenient relations between 
successive Legendre's coefficients and their derived differential coefficients 
regarded as functions of the colatitude = cos"'//.. 

Taking P„ to represent Legendre's «,"' coefficient, he employed the 
notation Ql" to denote the value of 




and found certain simple and useful relations between successive values of 
Q for different values of n and 7n. 

He also employed the symbol G,"' to represent the Gaussian function 

,,»-m_ (w-»^ ) ( n-m-1) „_„^, , 

m 

and found it convenient to employ the symbol H™ as = G™ (1 — /i^)''' • 

He worked out very simple relations between successive values of G for 
different values of n and m, and proceeded to determine the numerical 
values of these functions (1) for every degree of latitude on a sphere, and 
(2) for every degree of the geographical colatitude on a spheroid of 
eccentricity equal to that of the Earth itself. He also obtained very simple 
relations between successive values of H and its differential coefficients for 
different values of n and m, and expressed the magnetic potential V and 
the magnetic forces X, Y and Z in terms of these symbols H™. He also 
determined the values of these functions H™ for belts of latitude 5° apart 
(1) on a sphere, and (2) on a spheroid whose eccentricity equals that of 
the Earth's surface. Two distinct schemes of calculation were employed 
to determine the numerical values of G™ and also of H;;' for different 
values of n and m, including all values of n and m from to 10, and these 
calculations were made by different people and the results of the calcula- 
tions compared to ensure the accuracy of the results. 

In the case of the spheroid, the functions G;;' and Hj^' are regarded as 
functions of the geoyraphical colatitude Q, and /x = cos 0, and the symbols 
G'^ and H'™ are the same functions of the geocentric colatitude & of the 
same point, where ;«,' = cos & . 

A new theorem giving the values of G' — G' for different values of 
n and in is established, by means of which the accuracy of the calculated 
values of G and G' may readily be tested. 

Taking V to represent the magnetic potential at a point of the Earth's 
spheroidal surface where A is the longitude, Q the colatitude, and r the 
distance from the Earth's centre, X, Y and Z the magnetic forces in three 
directions at right angles to one another, X being the force towards the 
north perpendicular to the Earth's radius, Y the force perpendicular to the 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. Ill 

geographical meridian towards the west, and Z the force towards the 
Earth's centre ; also taking cos O^jj., we have 

X = - — = ^^ '^ = fc^- ^ 
rdO r dfi. r dft. 



Y = _ "^ - - (l-/^')^-- (^ 
Z = - 



r sin 6 dX. r d\ ' 

dV 

dr' 



if east longitudes be considered positive. 

There are two systems of values of V corresponding to magnetic forces 
whose origin is situated inside and outside the Earth's surface respectively, 
and by a convenient notation we may readily distinguish these two systems 
of values. 

Making use of the functions denoted by H"' which I have above de- 
fined, and taking gr™ and 7C to represent the Gaussian magnetic constants, 
<7™ and Ajf are coefficients of cos mX and sin mX respectively in the series 
of terms representing the magnetic potential. 

The value of the magnetic potential V for magnetic forces whose 
origin is situated in the interior of the Earth is expressed by a series of 
terms of the form 



^^fiffl' cos mX+h^ sin mX)!. 



Taking g^^ and A,™„ to represent the values of the magnetic constants 
corresponding to this term of the series for forces situated outside the 
Earth's surface, the corresponding term in the magnetic potential wiU be 

r"[H;;'(i^™„ cos mX + h'H:,, sin mX)]. 
Hence 

V=S J-frH,7(^™ cos m\+/C sin mX)1 + S AW;^{ff^!!„ cos 7«X + 7i':!„sinmX)1. 

In the values of X, Y and Z there will be terms arising from each of 
these series of terms for V, and we may conveniently express them by 
modifying the notation in the same sense by using n subscript to refer to 
internal forces, and — n subscript to refer to external magnetic forces, or 
forces whose origin is outside the Earth's surface, i.e. corresponding to 

negative powers of (- J. 

The corresponding terms are 

in the value of X, 

J_(l_/,2)!. ^ (^;. COS mX + K sin mX) 

and r'-^l— ft2)J rf^ (^n',. cos mX+h'\ sin mX) ; 
dfi 



112 REPORT— 1898. 

in the value of Y, 

-JL(1 -/i^)-* m H,7 (g"^ sin m\-A;;' cos m\) 

and ?-"-Xl - /Lt2)-J m H^» (g-™,, sin m\ - A™„ cos to\) ; 
in the value of Z, 

''^^^ H^ (5-^ cos m\+/C sin mX) and - wr"-' H;;' (g'"„ cos m,\ + /i™„ sin to\ 
It is also proved tliat 

and {l-rY ""-^ = I (n-m) H--i-| (n+m) H» ^ ; 

and these relations are often useful in expressing the terms in the value 
of X. 

It is found convenient to employ the notation with n and — n subscript 
more generally to refer to internal and external forces respectively, and in 
this sense the following notation is employed. 
Let 

V™ = ~ H;r and V^-„ = r" H™, 



an 



diet 



be the coefficient of (^™ cos m\ + Jt^ sin mX) in the expression for X, the 
force towards the north, and let X"„ be the corresponding coefficient of 
(g"^„ cos m\ + /t!l„ sin mX) in the expression for X arising from forces outside 
the Earth's surface. 

Then X!!!,, = r"-i [i (n-m) Hlf^i-^ (u + m) H,rl 

Using the notation Y"' and Y'H:^, and also Z,^ and Z!!.'„ in the same way 
for the forces Y and Z, we have the potential 

V=2[V;r« cos m\ + /i™ sin to\)] + 2[V!?„(^::^„ cos mX+h"!,, sin mX)], 
X=2[X'„"(j7^ cos mX+h^ sin mX)] + 2[X!!„(5?™„ cos toX+ A™„ sin ?nX)], 
Y= 2[Y;:"(^;r sin mX - h^ cos mX)] + 2[ Y::?„(^!:?„ sin mX - A!:'„ cos mX)], 
Z = 2[Z;r(5r:« COS m\ + /C sin m\)] + 2[Z!^„(^!!„ cos m\ + /i':'„ sin mX)]. 

Collecting coefficients of cos mX and sin mX in the values of V, X, Y and 
Z respectively : 

The coefficient of cos to,\ in V is ^CV'^gn +^-n9-n), 

X „ 2(X-sr™ + X-,.^™„), 
Y „ 2(Y-7C+Y!!„;i-„), 
Z ^Z:'g^ + Zl„g1„). 






)l 


Jl 


)) 


J) 


)) 


)) 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 113 

The coefficient of sin m\ in V is :S(V;;7(;;' + V™,/t'l'„), 

X„ S(Xr/C + X-„A!.'„), 
Y „ 2(Y;r<y;;'+Y-„i/™„), 
z„ S(z;;vc+Z"_vr„), 

in which n takes all integral values for a given value of m. 

In a portion of his work, in which he treats of the definite integral of 
the product of two Legendre's coefficients, Professor Adams proves the 
well known formulfp, which I believe were first proved by Legendre, that 
when n and n^ are different from one another 

and that when ;? ^= n, 

He also proves that if 

d'"l? 

Hence if n and ?ti are not equal 

J'_ q;:' Qi dfi = 0. 

But if n^-=.n, then 

Hence if 
it follows that 
and, when ?i=?i,, we have 



It is also shown that 



H" - {n-m)\ Q,, 

"~1.3.5...(2«-1)^" 



And therefore, when n and «, are not equal, we have 



1898. 



114 REPORT— 1898. 

and, when »*,=??, we have 

From the above formula; we see that, on a sphere of radius unity, 

x: = {n - m) H;r ^-m;,{i -f^)-'- H;r = (1 -f.J "f ^ 

= mfx{l -^•^)-' H™-(« + m)H;;'-', 
also Y;;' = m{l -fx"-)-' H™ and Z:' = (». + !) H™. 

Hence /iY,T-X™ = {n + m) H"'"', 

and /iY;r + X™ = {n - m)H;r ' \ 

also (1-A'')'^Y;;' = toH™. 

From these formulae we find 

^' '■' -' ,/c^H 



and also 



f (Y:)«.+j_/x:)y,=| (._,=)('-by.,+j__^'^,(Hr).</„ 

ilso 

These definite integrals reduce to 

n{n + l)^[{H:fdfx. 
Hence since Z^=(»i + 1)H™, we have 

\[{x:)%^ + j[(Y':yd^i + j' {Z':;fd^={n + 1) (2«+ i)j' {K':fd,x 

[1.3.5...(2h-1)]^^" + ^^- 
Putting Jij for n in the above equations we get 

MY™-X™ = (u,+m)H;i'-\ 

A.Y™+X™ = (w,-m)H-;', 
and (1 -/)'Y;r. = «iH;r^. 

Combining these formulae we get 

i(^Y;r-x™)(/iY--x-) + i(^Y,7+x;r)(/xY;»+X;;'j + (l-/.^)Y;:%- 

YmVm _L ViV"' 

hence j'_ X»X™c;;u+ j'_ Y-Y»c?y. = 0, 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 115 

since we have seen that for any value of m and different values of n and 
»i, the value of 

[' H™H™c?^t = 0. 
For the same reason 



j z:z:\df, = 0. 



Now let us consider the application of these formulae to the determination 
of the numerical values of the magnetic constants of terrestrial magnetism. 
For a given value of jj. {i.e. for a given latitude) we have a series of terms 
forming the coefficients of cos mX and sin m,X, in the values of the mag- 
netic potential and of the magnetic forces X, Y, and Z, which are of the 
forms 

a„H™ + a„.H«+&C. 

a„X™+c,„,X™+<fec. 
a„Y™-i-a„Y-+<kc. 
a„Zr/+a„. Z™+&C. 

where a,„ a„^, &c., are the magnetic constants to be determined. 

The numerical values of H™, X™, Y™, and Z™ for different values of 
n and m must be calculated, and in any belt of latitude of breadth corre- 
sponding to the numerical value taken for 8fi, these coefficients must be 
equated to the values of the forces as derived from the magnetic observa- 
tions taken in that belt of latitude. 

The values of the magnetic forces X, Y, and Z are derived for every 
10° of longitude and every 5° of latitude from the declination (8), the 
dip (i), and the horizontal force (w), as given in the charts from which the 
observations are obtained. These values of the forces X, Y, and Z are 
analysed for belts of latitude 5° in breadth around the Earth's surface by 
a formula of the type CTq + % cos X + b^ sin X + a., cos 2X -\- h.^ sin 2X -f &c. 

If we take x„^ to represent the coefficient of cos mX in the expansion 
of the value of the force X for a given belt of latitude corresponding to 
the colatitude d = cos~^/x : 

then, o^Xy^+a„^ X™ + a„^X™ -f &c.=a;„, 

where x„^ is derived from the observations. Similar equations, involving 
on one side the magnetic constants a,„ a,, , ifec, and on the other the 
values derived from the observations, must be formed for all the successive 
different belts of latitude f>-om the north pole to the south pole — i.e., for 
all values of fi between 1 and —1. 

The numerical values of X™, X"', &c., as well as the values of H™ (as 
above defined), have been determined for every degree of latitude and 
recorded for future use, but, in the actual determinations of the magnetic 
constants which have been made, belts of latitude 5° in breadth have 
been taken, or 89 has been taken as 5°, and the area of the belt is pro- 
portional to 8/j. 

Supposing the observations equally distributed over the surface of the 
globe, or supposing the weight of any determination proportional to the 
surface of the corresponding element about the point of observation, 
then the weight of each of the above equations is proportional to 8^, 
and multiplying the equation in X for each value of fx by X™, and 

I 2 



116 HEPORT— 1898. 

summing up the separate equations for the whole surface of the Earth, 
we get the final equation — 

«„ r (X;';)H'+"».r xr,x:dfi+&c.=? X';;..v,„diu 

Similarly, the final equation for «„_ is found by multiplying the above 
equations by X;", Y"', and Z[\\ respectively, and we get 

of' x;rx™cz^i +a,{' {X';,\yd^+S:c.= f' x:,\r,„df,. 

In the same Avay, if //„, denote the coefficient of sin m\ or —cos m\ 
in the value of the force Y as derived from observations, we have 

5KY„).= ?/„„ 

and the final equations for finding a„ and a,,^ respectively will be 

a„ r {Y'::y-d^i + a„. T y™ y^. rf^ + .tc. = [' y;;' y,„ d^., 

and o„ r Y;;' Y;;; d,i + a„, P (Y^y d^i + &c. = P Y;;; y„. d^,. 

Combining the final equations for a„ from X and Y together, we have 
a„ r [(X;;-)-^ + (Y;;')^J dfi={' X« x,„ du + [' Y;r y,„ d^., 

since the coefiicients of f>„^ and all the other terms on the left-hand 
side of this equation vanish when the integration is taken all over the 
Earth's surface. 

Hence a„ . n{u + 1 ) f (H;r)- du. = f X™ x-„. djx + f Y;;' y„. d,, ; 

T / , i\ (n — m)\(n + m)': 

"" ^ -"(" + ') [I.3.5.. ii v:^n2n + 1)- 

= rX,Ta;„.c?/x+rY;,"2/„.c?;/. 

Similarly, by putting 7i^ for ti, we may get the value of a,,^. 
In the same way the final equation for finding o„ from the equations 
for Z would give us 

. o„ r (Z;r)2 dfc + aS Z™ Z- c?;* + &c.= [' Z"' -,„ .Z/< ; 
or a„{n + 1 y r (H;r)-' cZ/i = T Z;r ;:,, rf/<, since P Z;; Z;» cZ;* = ; 

" ^ ^ [1. 3. 5. ..(2tc-1)]2(27i+1) J_, " " '^ 

If we take into account separately the parts of the magnetic force at a 
point due to the internal and external centres of magnetic force, the 



DETEKMINATIOX OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGXETIG CONSTANTS. 117 

general terms of the coefficient of cos m\ in the potential function will be 

of the forna f'^^j+ /3„r") H^, 

and the corresponding coefficients in X, Y, and Z will be — 

in X= f ;;;.,+ yS„ 7-"-i j h,{n-m)IL'r' - ],{a + 7n)B.;r' ] ; 
in (\-^^yY=(^^- +/8,.r"-^) m H^ ; 

If then, as before, we put r= 1, we shall have the final equation for 
»„ as follows : 

= r X"' x,„ d^c + r Y;r 2/,„ c?^ + (h + 1 )|' H;r ",„ f/;/, 

where the coefficient of ^,i=0. 

And «„ r r (X;;0^- c^iu + r (Yr)2cf^-«(n+l)|' (H;;')-^ rf^'] 
= r x;;' x„, df^ + r Y;r 2/,, rf/. - J' H™ =;,„ dfi, 

where the coefficient of a„ = 0. 

Hence «„ and /3„ are separately determined from the equations 

. ,, {n-m)\( n + m) ! 
-">+^)[T:3 .5...(2n- l-)F 

= r X;r a;,,, dfi + {' Y,T 2/„ d^ + (n + 1)|' H^,„ d^i 

(n-m) l{n + Tn)l 

= rX-a;„tf;i+rY-2/„.(;/.-7J'H»s„c?u. 

Thus generally from the values of X and Y we derive 

/ -. x-, / i\ (n — m)\(n + m)\ 

(«,.+/3„)2«(n+l) ^A_^J__V^^__^-- 

= (2n + 1) rj X- x„, dfx + fc 2/,„f?/iJ 



118 REPORT— 1898. 

and from the values of Z we derive 

r(n + l)c.„-»i,/3„ J r (H;r)2 dfx = JH;;' z^ d,x 

The above theory assumes that the integration is taken over the whole 
surface of the Earth, and that the observations are uniformly distributed 
over the Earth's surface, otherwise the coefficients of the neglected terms 
on the left-hand side of these equations will not vanish, and each equation 
may have other terms which are too important to be neglected, and so it 
will not be so easy to separate the magnetic constants from one another. 

Let us now take into account the spheroidal figure of the Earth. Let 
r, 6', X be the polar co-ordinates of a point on the spheroidal surface 
referred to the Earth's centre as origin and axis of figure as initial line ; 
let be the geographical colatitude (the- angle which the normal makes 
with the axis), and let /j = cos d and /t' = cos 0', 

The angle of the vertical ij/ = 6' — 6. 

The values of the sines and cosines of these angles for values of 
difiering by 1° from 0° to 90° have been computed, the eccentricity e of 
the elliptic section in the plane of the meridian being derived from 
Bessel's dimensions of the Earth as given in Encke's tables in the ' Berliner 
Jahrbuch,' 1852. 

The expressions for the magnetic potential and for the magnetic forces 
X, Y, and Z, in terms of the Gaussian magnetic constants g^, /t™ will be 
of the same form as those given above (see p. 4). Where X is the total 
force towards the north perpendicular to the Earth's radius, Y the total 
force perpendicular to the geographical meridian towards the west, Z 
the force towards the Earth's centre, or 



dV ^ 1 dY . „ dY 

-— — , Y= , -■ • , , and Z= — --- 

rdti' rsmO' d\ dr 



(east longitudes being considered positive). 

If X' be the horizontal force in the meridian towards the north, 

Y' the horizontal force perpendicular to the meridian towards the 

west, 
Z' the vertical downward force on the spheroidal surface of the Earth, 

then X'=X cos i//--f Z sin )/f 

Y'=Y 
Z' =— X sin ^ + Z cos i|/. 

We may conveniently denote the values of the coefficients of 
g"^ cos mX and /i™ sin in\ in the potential function and in the forces 
X', Y', and Z' by the symbols V™, X';", Y'™, and Z'™ respectively. 

If r be the radius vector, ;w,=cos 6 and /x'=cos 6', 

then V'^= -i- H'™, and V ™„=r" H'Jj;, 

H'^ being the same function of n' that H™ is of //. 

The expressions for the magnetic forces on the spheroidal surface of 
the Earth will be as follows : — 

Taking o„ and /3„ to represent magnetic constants depending on in- 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 119 

ternal and external sources of magnetic force respectively, the coefficient 
of cos m\ in the general term of the potential function V is 

The coefficient of cos »?2X in the general terms of the forces X, Y, and Z are — 

for Y, (^, -f- A. r'^-') '«(1 -t^")-' H';r, 

forZ, (^iB(^)-/3„.,^.r»-l)H'^ 

In the following investigation of the coefficients of cosmA, &c., in 
which m remains the same, whilst n may have different values, it will be 
convenient to denote H;;' by H„, X™ by X,„ <fec. We will denote the 
corresponding quantities on the spheroid by H/,„ X'„, &,c., and regard them 
as functions of ^', 6' being the geocentric colatitude. 

Taking the equatorial radius =1, 8S an element of the Earth's surface 
and e the eccentricity, and taking into account only the terms to the 

order e^, we have — = 1 + eV^ sin (/^=:e7j(l— /j^)- to the order e"^, 
r- 

fi' = cos 0— sin 9 sin 1/^ = ^i— 6^(1— P') -;"^ = 1 — e-(l — S/a^), 
and -f^ = -'i^{\-eY-); 

also -l,^ = 1 + ^^ e>2, and r'-^ = 1 - -~i eV'- 

Regarding H'„ and "■ , kc, as functions of /./, we have by Taylor's 

theorem — 

H'„=H„-eV(l-/^'') ^^ to the order e\ 

djx' d^i ^v A^ ^ (7^2 

from which we derive the value of X„ for the spheroidal surface — 



and ^ -I' = " - ey(l - ^2) 



X„-(l-M } -^^ 

If now we substitute the values of X, Y, and Z in terms of H'„, 

d H' 

'-j-fi ^^-i in the equations — 

X'=X cos i/^ + Z sin ^, 
Y'=Y, 

Z' =-X sin »// + Z cos ^Z', 



120 REPORT— 1898. 

the expressions for the magnetic forces become — 

^'= {":U + ftr ') '^^r (1 -l^'f COS'/' 

4.r("±]]fL" - n ft,/'-'"'] H'„ sin \// + similar terms 

Y' = (";,- + /V""') «iH'„(l-;t2) -5 ^_ similar terms, 

+ pi'Jl^]fL" _ n (iy'-^~\ H'„ cos ./; + similar ter; 



ms. 



In these expressions for the magnetic forces the values of H',„ —j—", 

(J IT 

&c., in terms of H„, ,-", 6:c., are substituted for each belt of latitude, and 

af.1 

these theoretical expressions derived from the potential function for a 
given belt of latitude, and containing the magnetic constants, are equated 
to the corresponding coefficients derived from the magnetic observations 
taken in that belt of latitude. 

In the case of the spheroid, as in the case of the sphere, the values of 
the forces X, Y, and Z derived for every 10° of longitude from the obser- 
vations of declination, inclination, and horizontal force are analysed for 
belts of latitude 5° in breadth around the Earth's surface by a formula of 
the type — 

«o + ai cos \ + bi sin X-f-ff^ cos 2X + b.2 sin 2/\ + 4fec.j 

and the coeflScients of cos vi\, sin viX, in this expansion are equated 
respectively to the coefficients of cos m\, and sin ?>i\ in the expansion in 
terms of the potential function and magnetic constants as given above : 
thus for the force X, if a,„ a„^, a„, <tc., stand for the magnetic constants, 
and if .x',„ be the coefl&cient of cos m\ as derived directly from the obser- 
vations, 

then a„ X';;' + o,„ X'- + u„„_ X',™ 4-i'c., =a-„„ 

and similar equations are obtained from the expressions for the forces Y' 
and Z'. 

The values X',7, Y'ij', and Z'", taken in these equations, are the values 
derived for the spheroidal surface of the Earth from the potential function, 
and these equations not only include the magnetic constants which were 
determined by Gauss, of the class indicated by a in the above equation, 
but they also include magnetic constants which may be spoken of for 
distinction as the /? class, i.e. including those forces which depend upon 
sourc&s outside the surface of the Earth. 

The full values, then, of tlie coefficients of the magnetic constants will 
be of the following form : 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 121 
For the a class — 

X': 



1,(71-, n)ii";r' - M« + '")H';;' 



Y'"' = 
" r"' 

1 



Z'"'= 



sin-^ + 'i>-,?H';rcos;^. 



Tim 
-Hi 



\ 



For the jS class, which may be denoted by X"i',„ Y'!!,„ and Z'- 
X'^',— r"-i[l(7i-?u)H'r ^-^(« + «OH'n"'] cos ./.-nr"-i H',? sin;/., 

Z'!!„ =-r"-'[i(«-m)H",r'-K'i + "i)H'r']sin;;/-nr"-iH';;'cos;/.. 

The numerical values of these expressions for all values of m from to 
10, and for all values of m from 1 to 10 for the spheroidal surface of the 
Earth, have been calculated from the values of n for every 5° of colatitude, 
and form the coefficients of the magnetic constants gl\ JC, and (7™,,, h"l„ of 
the a and ft class respectively in the equations for the determination of 
these constants. 

The number of magnetic constants contained in these equations which 
have been completely formed is thus 120 of each class, or 240 magnetic 
constants in all, in place of the 24 constants of the a class which were 
previously determined by Gauss. 

Regarding the Earth as a spheroid of revolution, the values of /^'=cos 6\ 

where d' is the geocentric colatitude, have been determined for every 
5° of geographical colatitude. Also the values of cos \p, sin \b, -— , G',";*, and 

H'lf have been calculated for every 5° of geographical colatitude (i.e. for 
the above values of /(') for all values of n and m from to 10. 

The weights of the observations of the magnetic elements for these 
belts of latitude have also been determined on the assumption that the 
weight is proportional to the area of the corresponding portion of the 
Earth's surface. 

The values of H'™ as a function of the geocentric colatitude having 
been determined for every 5° of geographical colatitude on the spheroid, 
we next proceed to determine from them the values of X';;', X''i',„ Y',',", Y'!!!„, 
Z'^, andZ"i'„,X'™(=X;;'cos;// + Z;rsin>/.), X"",,, Z'™(=-X;;'sin;// + Z;f cos>|/) 
and Z"^,„ the resolved parts of the expressions for the horizontal and ver- 
tical forces in the plane of the meridian on the spheroid. 

These values are required in the formation of the equations of condition, 
and their numerical values are calculated for every 5° of geographical 
colatitude as well as for the Equator and the Poles. These values of X',7, 
Arc, have been calculated and recorded in tables for all values of h and m 
from to 10, and have been employed as the theoretical coefficients of the 
magnetic constants g'", li^, »kc., in the equations of condition. 

Formation of the Equations of Condition. 

When ii — m is even, the value of X" contains only odd powers of n, 
and the values of Y™ and Z",' only even powers, and similarly when n—ni 
is odd, the value of X;^' contains only even powers of yu, and the values of 



122 REPORT— 1898. 

Y,7 and Z" only odd powers. Hence, if the coefficient of cos m\ in either 
of the quantities X, Y, Z be denoted by a„ and the coefficient of sin mX 
by 6,„ for a given north hititude, and if «'„„ i'„i denote the similar quantities 
for the corresponding south latitude, then we have, when m— m is even, 

iK-«'m)=2(X;r?;r + X"_'„^'!„), andi(6,„-6',„)=2(X™/C + X!:!„A':!„), 
\{K + h',^ =2(y;;y„''+Y™„^'!!„), and -iK + «'™)=2(Y™7C+Y-„7t!l„), 
l(a„ + a'„)=2(Z;X + Z-„ <7™„ ), and \(Jy,„ + 6'„) =2(Z,7A- + Z™„/r„ ), 

and when n—m is odd 

^K + a'„,)=2(X;X + X™„y'::„), and i(6„ + 6',„)=5(X-/C + X™„7^-„), 

l(a„-a',„)=2(Z;;'5r;r + Z-,9»„), and i(6„-6'„)=2(Z:7C + Z-„7i-.). 

Hence the equations for the quantities 7C and 7i!;„ will be found from the 
equations for g'^ and </'!'„, when 7i — ??i is even, by substituting 

\(J^m — i'm) for ^(a„, — «',„) in the equations for X, 

— 5(«„j + «'„,) for ^(&m + &'m) ii'^ tl^e equations for Y, 

and i(6„, + £',„) for 5(a„, + «'m) in the equations for Z. 

And similarly the equations for 7t™ and 7i'"„ will be found from the equations 
for jr^ and rfl,„ when ?i — 7)i is odd, by substituting 

\ibm + b'm) for i(«m + «'m) ii^ tlic cquatious for X, 
— ^(«m — '^'m) for ^(6„— 6'„) in the equations for Y, 
and \{bm — b'm) for ^(«„, — «'„,) in the equations for Z. 

In the first solution of the equations, the absolute terms {i.e. the terms 
derived from the observed values of the magnetic elements) are taken from 
Sabine's magnetic charts for the period about 1845, as published in the 
' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.' In the second solution, 
the observed values of the magnetic elements are taken from the Admiralty 
charts for 1880 prepared by Captain Creak, kindly lent by the Lords of 
the Admiralty. 

The values of X, Y and Z are calculated for every 10° of longitude and 
every 5° of latitude from the declination (S), the dip (t), and the horizontal 
force (w) as given in the charts. Then the values of X, Y and Z are 
analysed for belts of latitude 5° in breadth around the earth by the 
formula 

f^o + rti cos X + 6i sin X+o^ cos 2A+62 sin 2 A + kc. 

The values of these coefficients for the different belts of latitude were 
obtained and tabulated. Then if a,„ and 6,„ denote the values of two of 
these coefficients for a given northern latitude, and «'„, h'^ the correspond- 
ing values for an equal southern latitude, then the values of ^ia^ + a'^), 
\{<^m — «'m), M^m + ^'m)) ^^^ M^"'— ^'m ) ^ud of their logarithms are deter- 
mined. The values of these quantities are determined for each of the 
periods for which the magnetic constants are required. 

Each system of equations of condition will involve a single value of 
m combined with all even values of n, or with all odd values of n. 

There will be one system for the coefficients X™, X"',„ another for the 
coefficients Y'^, Y™„ and a third for the coefficients Z™, Z"l„. 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 123 

Each belt of latitude will contribute an equation to each system. The 
belts, 5° in breadth, are distinguished by the letters (a), (b), (c), <fec., 
starting from 87^° N. latitude. 

Then if P, Q, R be quantities given by observation we shall have 
equations of the form 

X^" g-?^ + X^'^ g]!l + Xf </™ + X ™ gl\ + &c. = P, 
Yr g"^ + Y_"^ g^l + Yf gr + Y ™ g^, + &c. = Q, 
Z^ gf + Zi'a <7 ™ + Zf g'l + Z_™ ^ J'| + &c. = R, 

for even values of n, and similar equations with other quantities P', Q', R', 
given by observation, for odd values of n. 

Thus for latitude 60"', the set (f) will furnish the three following 
equations to the respective systems X, Y, Z, corresponding to m^i, 

' -[9-6479108] i/l- [9-6397698] ^1,- [9-3739435] ^,1-[9-3627519]^i6=P, 
[9-7120302] i/l + [9-7022392] (714 + [9-5314878] ^^ [9-5173452] ^io=Q, 
[9-5118188] ^t-[9-4012092](7i, + [9-4766723]^;!-[9-3934121]^io=R; 

and the three following to the similar systems corresponding to odd values 
of n, 

-[9-5471920] (7|-[9-5374280]^l5-[9-1267947](7^-[9-1145742]^ij=P', 
[9-6499180]^H[9-6379512]^lg + [9-3653414]^^ + [9-3490233]^ij=Q', 
[9-5284778]i7^-[9-4344144]i/i5 + [9-3682450]^^-[9-2923736](/i,=R'. 

These equations of condition are multiplied by the weights ?o„, w^^, &c., of 
the observations for their respective belts of latitude, the weight of each 
equation from the set (s) corresponding to 2^° on each side of the equator 
being \ w^. Then the final equation for each magnetic constant ^™ is 
formed by multiplying each equation so formed by the coefficient of ^,"' in 
the corresponding equation of condition, and adding together the resulting 
coefficients of g™ from the different sets (s), (r), (q), &c. 

To form this final equation for each constant multiply each equation of 
condition by \/ weight and then multiply the resulting equation by the co- 
efficient of that constant g'™ in it which has to be determined. Then 
integrating or adding up the coefficients of the several magnetic constants, 
we get the equation in the form 

2[(X:')-M^] 5r™+2[X™ X-.U.] ^!!„4-&c.=S[X;;,'. to. P], 

with similar equations for Y and Z for even values of n, and with other 
similar equations with P', Q', R', for odd values of n. 

We shall have a separate final equation for each value of n ; thus the 
final equation for f/™ is 

2[X-X:,«;^™ + X"4 X- t«^!!„ + (X„";)2«;5-™ + .fec.]=X- wV, (3) 

for even values of «i, and a similar expression with P' instead of P for 
odd values oi n^. 

Then adding up, for any constant ^", the coefficients in the final 

' Where [9-6479108] is employed to express the number of which 9-647910S is 
the logarithm. 



124 REPORT— 1898. 

equations for all the different belts of latitude we have the final equation 
from the series (X), which may be represented by the form 

2[x;:' x;;;. ^r] < + 2[X"_!„ X". w\fi,, + 2[(x;;;)2 w] <?- + ctc.=2 [x-. lo. P] ( i) 

Equations similar to the above will be derived from the series (Y) and 
from the series (Z). 

These equations may be solved separately, and the values of the 
magnetic constants determined from each series, taking series (X), 
series (Y), and series (Z) separately. 

The series (X) and the series (Y) may also be conveniently combined 
into one equation in the same way as the above equations for different 
latitudes in X have been combined, in which case the coefficient of y" in 
the final equation for p-,™ will be 

2[X-X™.«'] + 2[Y;;'Y;r,H 

and the coefficient of £/™ in the final equation for £?;;' will be 

2(Xr.)2M; + 2(Y;r,)V. 

We have seen above that in the case of a sphere the coefficients of each of 
the magnetic constants in this equation (4), except the coefficient of </™, 
will vanish. 

The corresponding coefficients on the spheroid will be small, depending 
on the value of the square of the eccentricity ; but this will only be the 
case when the summation is taken all over the surface. 

The right-hand side of the equation becomes under these conditions 
2[X;;',. P.w] + 2[Y;;'_.Q.tr] for the equation of (/;i in turn for all values 
of ?^^. Hence when the successive belts are sufficiently near together the 
coefficient of {[/''a+g'-,) in the final equation for g™ is approximately 



«(n-f-l)r (H;;')"rf/t 



w(?z + l) (« — ?u) ! (u + «i) 



■ 9 



2n + l ^ "[1.3.5... (2«-l)p' 
and, as before, the right-hand side of the equation becomes 

rx',r.p.c?^t+r Y;r.Q.f^/,. 

In the present state of our knowledge as to the values of P, Q, R, (fee, 
which are derived from the observations of the magnetic elements, the 
charts giving the values of those elements are exceedingly defective for 
our purpose, and the observations taken in high latitudes are not sufficiently 
numerous and appear to be doubtful — no great reliance can be placed 
upon them. Under these circumstances we propose to solve these equa- 
tions, taking into account the data as derived from magnetic observations 
over the portion of the surface of the Earth between latitudes 67|° N. and 
671° S., taking only the equations of condition for belts between these 
latitudes, and taking only those terms in these equations for values of 
m from to 6 and for values of n from 1 to C inclusive. These equations 
will give values for 48 constants, and no equation will contain more than 
three unknown quantities. 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 125 

The coefficients S[X^,'X;',\.t6-], ikc, on the left-hand side of the above 
equations of condition will be the same for 17"' and for A"', but the right- 
hand sides of the equations 2:;[X;"((; P], <fec., the absolute terms derived 
from the observations, will be diflerent. Hence the equations for solu- 
tion may be conveniently arranged as follows. 

From (X) taken separately 

From the series for (X) combined with the series for (Y) we may also solve 
the equations, of which the type will be as follows : 

{2[X- X-.t(;] + S[Y;r Yl.io\]g^ 
+ {2[(x;;' )-^.r] + --[{Y';ifw]) gl + etc. = {^^'"f^^'^f'''') 
and {S[(X: l^r^w] + 5:[Y™ Y-?o]} A™ 

+ {2[(X';;j..] + ^~[{Yifw\] h:\ + &c. = (''''' fo).^;^™'™) 

the absolute terms being derived in this case from the series for (X) and 
for (Y) combined. In general the values of the same constants derived 
from these equations will differ somewhat from one another, and the ques- 
tion arises which solution will give the truer value. 

Probably in the present state of our knowledge of the magnetic 
elements over the surface of the Earth the equations derived from the 
series for (X), (Y) and (Z) combined, for all latitudes from 67|°S. to 67^° N., 
will give the most trustworthy values of the constants of terrestrial 
magnetism, that we may hope to attain from any magnetic charts derived 
from observations previous to the Admiralty Charts of 1880. 

Let us illustrate the mode of solving these final equations by taking 
the case given above, in which «i=4 and n odd, taking the equations of 
condition up to latitude 77^° inclusive, and combining the equations for X, 
Y and Z, supposing the constant corresponding to negative values of n to 
be non-existent. We will include the terms involving n=7. 

The coefficients for gl and h* being the same, we may take ni to stand 
for either (1) ^5 or (2) hi, taking the absolute term for g* in the first case 
and 14 in the second, and the final equations for gl and hi for the period 
1845 may be written thus ; 

From 

(for gl) (for A1) 

(X) 3-4034960 o^--3898572 c4=-2416593 or --0159063. 
(Y) 9-4158541 a^-}- -4092903 c.^=-0589245 or 4- -3418323. 
(Z) 15-3871472 a^ + -0223528 c.^,=-4657356 or -f -1824818. 

Adding these together, we have 

28-2064973 c,^ + -0417859 <.^=-7663194 or -5084078 («). 
Similarly the final equations for a^ and h* may be written thus : 

(X) --3898572 a.^4--2637326o^ = -0204205 or -0140404. 
(Y) -4092903 «^-l- -3081774 a^=-0454171 or -0373065. 
(Z) -0223528 aH'6536612c.^=-0056358 or -0882180. 



126 REPORT— 1898. 

Adding these together, we have 

(for g^) (for Al) 

•0417859 a^ + 1-2255712 a^=-0714734 or -1395649 (/3). 

Eliminating u\ from the equations (a) and (/3) we have 

1-2255093 a^,=-0703382 or -1388117. 

1 Hence (/<=-0573951, and A^=-1132686. 

Substituting in the first equation, we get 

i7^=-0270832 and 74=-0178567. 

Hence it appears to be important to take g\ and h\ into account, as 
they are larger than gl and h\. 

Similarly in solving the equations with ni=4 and n even, it is found 
that 

^1='0029684, 74=-0217744 
(^^=-0642604, 74=-0603230. 

So that g\ and h^ are more important than g\ and h\. 

The relative importance of magnetic constants of different orders is well 
shown by the solution of the final equations for lif^ hi and /t, for the period 
1880. Keeping in the terms containing lii, the final equations derived 
by combining the equations for X, Y and Z are 

24-1400624 Al- -2579706 Ah--1213933 ;4=-19111, 
— -2579706 A:i + 2-17S4697 7i?--0719819 A— -13841, 
-•1213933 /(;i--0719819 7tl + -1887180 A?=--02852. 
The solution of these equations gives the values 

74=-00794, 7i?=-06041, 74=--12298 British units. - 
Converting these into c.g.s. units we get 

A;:;= -000366, 7i?= -0027855, 7^=- -00567. 

Comparison with the tables shows that the effect of keeping in the 
constant h\ is to make a considerable change in the values of the con- 
stants lii and lil. 

The corresponding equations for gl, g\ and .7^ are 

-14-62295=24-1400624 ^^--2579706 ^^--1213933 g-'i, 
-l-11044=--2579706 ^^2-1784697 ^5--0719819 g":, 
•05785= - -1213933 f7l--0719819 g\ + -1887180 g\, 

and the solution of these equations gives the values 

^:^=- -613670, ,y?=- -592789, (/■^=- -314308 British units, or 
^2= -•028295, r/:^=- -027332, y?=- -014492 c.g.s. units. 

These values of g\ and gl do not differ much from the values previously 
obtained, which are given in the following table. 

Let us fui-ther illustrate the mode of solving these final equations by 
taking the case of m=:0 and n odd. 

Since the observations of magnetic elements in high latitudes appear 
to be doubtful, we will form the equations of condition, taking into 
account the data only up to 67^° N. and S. latitudes. 

' The two extra magnetic constants i^j and h'\ here determined make up the 
number of constants which have been determined to 50. 



DETERMmATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 127 

The formation of the final equations for gl, g°s and gl will then be as 
follows : 
from equations for (X) 

53-575026 = 7-6331952 ^J--1138565 .9",- -0886747^9, 
-2-456S63=--1138565r/? + 2-8880836(/!!- -1765112 (7?, 
-•453S875=--0886747^?--1765112(7°i--3955108^»; 

from equations for (Z) 

85-065860=12-0G36234 ^?-2-1413469 r/«--7000106 gi 
_lfl-292662=-2 1413469 ^; + 2-7856531 ^«--4744250 gl 
-4-6678164=--7000106 £/?--4744250 r/« + -4394974 gt. 

Solving the equations for (X) we get 

ry°=7-01229, (/°= --56367, gl=-17302. 

These values agree almost exactly with those found from the whole of 
the equations for (X) up to latitude 77^°. 
Solving the equations for (Z) we get 

^"=6-951666, </°=--524544, and ^^=--11476. 

These values agree very closely with those found from the whole of the 
equations for (Z) to the same latitude. 

The values of g° and gt agree fairly well with those found from the 
equations for (X), but the values of gl have opposite signs. Probably the 
neglected term in g'^^ may have some influence on this result. 

Takint^ the negative values of n into account, let us find approximately 
what values of g\, gis, gU will bring the two sets of results into harmony. 

This may be done by substituting g°+g-„ for g°, in the (X) equations, 

and ff° \g~u for gl in the (Z) equations. 

n + l 

Hence we get 

,9;=6-971874, ,y%=-040416, ^«=- -541312, ^°_3= - -022358, 
.79 = -01605, and (/%= -15697. 

Hence the constant g".- seems to be of great importance. 
The values found for the two first of the above constants are, in 
in British units, 

by Gauss by Erman 

^;=7-0155 ^"=6-9417 

,/0^_.1430. ^«=--4069. 

The values of these constants, derived from the above series of equa- 
tions for (X), (Y) and (Z), combined for all latitudes from 671° s. to 67^° N., 
are ^?=6-98081 and r/°=— -523986 for the period (1842-45) from Sabine's 
charts. 

The values derived for the above constants from the above equations 
of condition, taking m from to 4 and n from 1 to 4 only and neglecting 
the other terms {i.e. taking those only which were determined by Gauss), 
are (/?=6-9777 and gl= — -5310 for the same period. 

The values of the constants given in the two following tables are 
derived from the combined equations for (X), (Y) and (Z) to equations 
(e) inclusive (i.e. between latitudes 67^° S. and 67|° N.), supposing the 
constants corresponding to negative values of n to be non-existent. 



1: 



REPORT — 1898. 



The second of these tables gives the values of the constants when we 
include in the eriuations only those twenty-four constants which are taken 
into account by Gauss himself. This table also includes the values (in 
British units) of these constants as determined by Gauss, and also by 
Erman. (The sign + is undei'stood when no sign is given.) 



Table of the Valncs of the Magnetic Constants as dericed {Vjfrom Sabine's C'/iart.^ 
in the 'Phil. Trans.' of the Jloi/al Societij (1845), and {2) from the Admiralty 
Charts for 1880, expressed in British Units, and converted into c.y.s. Units. 





1845 


1880 




British 


C.G.S. 


British 


C.G.S. 


ol 


6-98081 


•321871 


6 87176 


•316843 


gl 


- -027.5845 


-•00127187 


•158464 


■0073065 


al 


- -523986 


-•0241595 


- •58113 


- 026795 


91 


- -G7352 


-■0310546 


- ■73195 


-•033749 


h 


■q:a?aQo 


•00236748 


•27987 


■012904 


k 


- -30013 


-•0138385 


- ^07904 


-0036446 


ffl 


-6025C7 


•0277832 


•52644 


•024273 


ffi 


-1-065495 


-•0491279 


-M1386 


-•051358 


U 


-678817 


•0312989 


•91030 


•041972 


ffl 


- -712581 


- •0328558 


- •79880 


-■036831 


ffl 


- •7843i)0 


-•0361666 


- ^61614 


- 028409 


ffl 


- -272348 


-•0125575 


- ^59068 


- -027235 


ffl 


- -007649 


- •0003527 


- •I 1506 


- 0053054 


ffl 


- -607671 


-0280185 


- •61198 


-0282172 


ff'i 


- -331346 


-■0152777 


- -41928 


- -019332 


ffl 


- -661354 


-•0304937 


- ^58220 


-026844 


ffl 


-300535 


•012932 


•15864 


■0073145 


ffl 


- -044994 


-•0020746 


- ^06274 


- -0028928 


gl 


•076635 


•0035335 


12123 


■0055896 


ffl 


- -023517 


- ■0010843 


- ^011915 


- 0005494 


ffl 


•241583 


•011139 


•37369 


■0172301 


fft 


-002980 


•0001374 


- 02346 


-0010818 


fft 


-02713 


•0012508 


•00433 


-0001996 


fft 


-064652 


0029810 


•07682 


-0035421 


ffl 


- -01512 


-•0006970 


- •014.35 


-0006615 


0% 


- -009531 


- 0004394 


- •02154 


- -0009933 


ffl 


•003132 


•0001444 


- ^00047 


- 0000218 


h\ 


-1-254179 


-•0578277 


-1^30780 


- 0602998 


hi 


•039069 


•0018014 


•28051 


•0129335 


n 


297611 


•0137222 


•16224 


•0074808 


K 


- -119841 


- 0055256 


- ^23026 


-010617 


hi. 


•5291705 


•0243990 


•58114 


•026795 


Ji'i 


- •144530 


- '0066640 


- 06162 


-002841 


Ai 


- -254829 


-0116484 


- -27960 


-•0128917 


kt 


- -088692 


-•0040894 


•008G1 


•0003968 


hi 


-214592 


•0098944 


•11316 


•0052175 


^l 


- -025210 


-•0011624 


•06455 


•0029737 


K 


- -069335 


-•0031969 


- •17877 


-•0082428 


h% 


- -146981 


- •0067770 


- -10697 


-•0049321 


K 


•084794 


•0039097 


•09392 


•0043306 


*•? 


•009588 


•0004421 


•02851 


•0013145 


^G 


•123986 


•0057167 


•11457 


•0052826 


ht 


•021780 


-00100425 


•02029 


•0009355 


K 


•01799 


-0008295 


•02489 


■0011477 


h% 


•060462 


•0027878 


•03984 


•0018370 


h% 


- ^00864 


-•0003984 


- ^004 14 


- 0001908 


hi 


- ^049244 


- ^0022705 


- -02920 


-0013465 


hi 


- •005664 


- 0002612 


•00390 


•0001799 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 



129 



Comparison of the Values of the Magnetic Constants in British Units as deter' 
mined (1) by Gauss, (2) bij Ennan, (3) by Adams for 1842-45, (4) by 
Adams for 1880, with their yearly rate of increase from 1845 to 1880. 









Adams 


Yearly rate 


Constants 


Gauss Ei 


■man 


1842-45 1880 


of change 


9l 


7-0155 6 


9417 


6^9777 


6^8558 


- 00325 


9'i 


- -1672 + 


0262 


- ^0124 


+ ^1624 


•00466 


ff^ 


- -1480 


4069 


- •5310 


- -6194 


-•00236 


9l 


- -8249 


5937 


- •6309 


- ^7207 


-•00239 


g\ 


•674G 


6149 


-6145 


•5358 


-•00210 


hi 


-1-3545 -1 


3036 


-1-2622 


-1-3160 


-■00145 


ffl 


-1-0981 


9659 


-1^0598 


-1-1014 


-•00111 


hi 


- -0457 + 


0156 


+ ^0421 


+ -2818 


•00639 


9l 


•0316 


6477 


•7300 


•9505 


•00588 


hi 


•3622 


3567 


•2631 


•1243 


-•00370 


ffl 


-1^15G3 


8330 


- -6904 


- ^7507 


-•00161 


hi 


+ •lass - 


0693 


- •lOSl 


- ^2252 


-00312 


9l 


+ ^0037 + 


0271 


- ^0083 


- -1154 


- ^00286 


Ki 


- -2956 


2741 


- -2547 


- ^2792 


- -00065 


9\ 


- •5546 - 


6664 


- -6006 


- ^6057 


- -00014 


h\ 


- •1725 - 


1347 


- •0884 


4- ^0079 


•00257 


91 


- •3470 


3382 


- ^3376 


- ^4226 


-•00227 


hi 


•322G 


2353 


•2160 


•1169 


- •00264 


9l 


+ •0106 - 


0276 


- ^0450 


- ^0027 


-■00047 


A;l 


- -1421 - 


1572 


- ^1470 


- •1070 


•00107 


9l 


•1498 


1455 


•0764 


•1209 


•00119 


Ki 


- •0013 + 


0654 


+ ^0847 


+ •0938 


•00024 


9% 


+ -0313 + 


0194 


+ •ooso 


- •0234 


-•00070 


hi 


•0241 


0240 


•0218 


•0203 


- ^00004 



The multiplier for the conversion from British units into c.g.s. units is 0^046108. 

It will be seen on examining these tables (1) that p^J and f/°are numerically- 
very much larger than g\, and (2) that the values of gl from the same 
equations differ greatly according as gl is or is not included, the value of 
i^S being —-0276 -when gl is included, and —•0124 -when gl is excluded. 
It also appears from the comparison of the solutions -when the equations 
of condition are included up to 77^° latitude -with the solutions above 
{i.e., stopping at 67i° latitude) that ^2= — -0126 in the first case, and — •0276 
in the second case, and that this arises from the fact that the sum of the 
absolute terms in the final equation for g\ is + -08815 -when we stop at 
latitude 67^°, and --07184 when we proceed to latitude 77^°. Hence a 
wide variation in the value of g\ is to be expected in the two cases, even 
when gl is included in both sets of equations. It also appears from 
the above tables that those constants in the values of which Gauss and 
Erman greatly differ are those which have undergone the greatest apparent 
changes in the interval from 1845 to 1880, and that the values for 1845 
now determined for the most part agree more nearly with those of Erman 
than with those of Gauss.' 

The values of the magnetic constants have been determined from the 

' It should be remembered that before the excellent Admiralty charts of 1880, 
prepared by Captain Creak, the magnetic charts of the world were based on obser- 
vations which were insufficient and not distributed widely or regularly enough over 
the earth's surface to lead us to expect a close agreement between the results of 
Gauss's theory as derived from the earlier observations as compared with the later 
more trustworthy observations. 

1898. K 



130 



REPORT — 1898. 



equations for (X) and (Y) and from the equations for (Z) separately as 
well as from the equations for (X), (Y) and (Z) combined, and their 
values have been compared. Also their values have been determined in 
each case (1) by including all the equations up to (e), i.e. between latitudes 
67^° N. and 67^° S., and (2) by including all the equations up to (c), i.e. 
between latitude's 77|° N. and 77f ° S. 

The following table gives the comparative values of the magnetic 
constants in British units, as deduced from dififerent magnetic elements : — 






1845 


1880 


FromX 


Z 


FromX 


Z 




or X and Y 


or X and Y 


ffl 


7-012 


6-952 


6-869 


6-877 


9l 


- -009 


- -089 


+ -169 


+ -179 


9% 


- -564 


- 525 


- ^578 


- -574 


9% 


- -596 


- -846 


- ■soo 


j - -630 


9% 


+ -173 


- 115 


+ 245 


' + -329 


9% 


- 148 


- -646 


- 056 


- -005 


9\ 


•597 


•605 


■497 


-536 


9l 


-1089 


-1052 


-1097 


i -1-122 


9l 


■682 


•675 


■807 


•973 


9l 


- -704 


- •726 


- -709 


- 873 


9l 


- -858 


- 722 


- -620 


- -643 


9l 


- -260 


- 299 


- -343 


- -842 


9l 


■000 


- •ois 


- -098 


- 126 


9l 


- 096 


- -617 


- -590 


- 628 


9l 


- -353 


- -313 


- -413 


- -423 


9i 


- -678 


- •647 


- -574 


- -586 


9% 


•416 


•206 


■156 


-165 


9l 


- -037 


- •osi 


- ^078 


- -051 


gl 


•093 


•064 


■126 


-117 


9% 


- -028 


- 019 


- 032 


+ -005 


9% 


■221 


■259 


■242 


•483 


9\ 


- -001 


+ -006 


- 018 


- 028 


9% 


•023 


■030 


■029 


- ^016 


9% 


•055 


■073 


■073 


-081 


9l 


- 013 


- 017 


- 013 


- -016 


9l 


- Oil 


- ■oog 


- ^025 


- 019 


9% 


- -002 


+ ■oos 


■001 


- -002 


h\ 


- 1^287 


-1240 


-1273 


-1321 


H 


•043 


•035 


■229 


•309 


111 


•285 


■299 


■190 


•152 


hi 


- -192 


- •063 


- -284 


- 192 


H 


•534 


■503 


•724 


■478 


hi 


- 110 


- 168 


- •366 


+ 223 


hi 


- ^247 


- ■260 


- ^265 


- 289 


hi 


- 095 


- ^083 


- 029 


- 035 


hi 


•176 


•245 


•133 


•100 


hi 


+ •oes 


- •ogs 


+ 037 


+ •078 


hi 


- •on 


- 120 


- 172 


- -176 


h% 


- 150 


- 145 


- 117 


- -099 


hi 


•077 


•091 


•092 


•096 


hi 


+ 029 


- ^007 


•031 


-027 


h% 


•026 


•205 


•135 


-098 


h\ 


•021 


•022 


•030 


•012 


ht 


•025 


•012 


•061 


-003 


ht 


•050 


•070 


•054 


-028 


hi 


- 009 


- 008 


- 006 


- -002 


Ai 


- 041 


- 056 


- -029 


- 029 


ht 


- ^006 


- ^005 


+ •OOS 


+ -004 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 131 

Another method of testing the accuracy of the work of determination 
of the magnetic constants is to substitute their values in the theoretical 
expressions for X, Y and Z, and to compare the results with the values of 
X, Y and Z as taken from the charts. 

For this purpose we have to form for each parallel of latitude the value 
of the expression 

*K+«'m)=x"^!+x«^»+x»9« 

+ (Xlgl + X]g] + Xy,) COS \ + (Xlhl + XJAJ + XJAJ) sin X 

+ (Xtgt+Xlgl) cos 2X + {Xlhl+Xlht) sin 2 \ 

+ (X^H Xlgl) cos 3\ + (Xlhl + Xlhl) sin 3 \ 

+ X^^^ cos 4\ + X^6 cos 5\ + Xihi sin 4\ + X^hl sin 5 X ; 

and also the value of the expression 

i{a^-a'^)=X?^l+Xy,+Xtgl 

+ {X\g\ + Xlgl + X^O cos A + {Xlh\ + Xm + XWo) sin \ 

+ {X'^l+Xy,+Xlgl) cos 2\ + (Xlhl+Xlhl+Xlhl) sin 2X 

+ (Xlgl + Xlgl) cos 3X + {Xlhl + Xlhf) sin 3 X 

+ (Xtgi+Xtgt) cos i\ + {Xihi+Xthi) sin 4 \ 

+ X^^ cos 5X + Xtgl cos 6X + X^A^ sin 5\ + X«A« sin 6 X ; 

and then to form the sum and difference of these expressions for the 
values of X in northern or southern latitudes respectively, which may 
then be directly compared with the charts. 

Similar expressions must be formed in the same way for Y and Z for 
each parallel of latitude, and their sums and differences taken as in the 
case of X. 

When the values of the magnetic constants had been determined, they 
were substituted in the equations of condition for each belt of latitude, 
the terms of which when added up gave the theoretical value of the abso- 
lute term for that latitude. This calculated value of the absolute term 
may then be compared with the value of the corresponding absolute term 
derived from the observation which has been used in the solution of the 
equations. 

The following table gives some of these comparisons between the 
calculated and observed values of the absolute terms of the equations of 
condition for the period 1880, in the values of X and Z for gl\ for 
m = and n odd, and for X, Y and Z for both g'jf and h]'^ for to = 1 and 
n odd. 

The observed values are taken from the Admiralty charts, and are the 
values used in the solution of the equations, and it will be seen by the 
comparison of the calculated and observed values that a chart drawn to 
give the results of the calculations would not differ much from the 
Admiralty charts. 

As a further test of the accuracy of the work in such laborious and 
extensive calculations, it is interesting to compare the values of the 
Gaussian constants as determined by different investigators from the 
observations for different epochs. 



k2 



132 



REPORT — 1898. 



J3 
o 



T? cr. ^ o a> -J CO c» o ^ rH ^ 00 r^ 
Ot--5<?»t— .-ii.'iaooi-«f-"i-«oosoo 

O O <-«.-» ei CI C'l M ec M M JO C-l C4 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



I I 



s 



ft 






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ft 



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.a 
a 



II 

s 



a> .-t -tf- jT -r ■# o eo t^ (?» c~. -^ I - Ti .1 ov -f Tj 

I I 7T7T777T77777777 



I I 






m — ' Tl CI O 00 OT ^ CO lO r-« «a C'l CI O i-« >-'5 

I- :■: o 00 -i" cc CO ■^ o c» 1^ o Tji cr. o i3 r^. 

OS O •-• .-I C4 C) C-) Cl rH O X I - wa rj C< 1— 1 c 



-a 



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I r- O C^ "£3 » O Ct -^ »ft "^ « (p 'O O 

^ ^ ,Z-. ,li CI (Tl CI (f) C-t C* C« <f4 C« 

I II II I I I I I I I I I 



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O-— '"■:f"!-3OlClirS00OCI-Tl«i.'3iOiO«Oi»«p 

A( A" A< C) c» c» CI CI CI c< c» c» 



I I 



I I II II I I I I I I I I I 



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00 

^ 6 s 



, , , , lO I" o CO o 'J' 00 .-4 c* Tji 1^ ^ t^ la 
I I I ] » 30 X 00 00 <;- o ^ »o ^ 77 ^^ <N CI 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



.-*ClC»CI-^COt-<'*'J<r-Cl(S^OOT^OLO 

CO CI CI .-< <r. cc r'; 00 CI u5 I- o CO (a o o CI <— < 

oooo~. c;cvoooDI'':^Ol'^•r-;'r:c■:r3 



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dOO0"-0J»0Q0C0i:D'^dO'*ta<3>C001 
OOCTiOOt^CS'^ClOi-tm't'OO-^eOrH 



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C?i O C* CI -J" -^ C; CJ CI tD ■-}■ ■^ 3 o — ' c» «> "^ 
r-»-}<-_3Ci-Heo'^»noO'*ciOt'i«co.-«.-« 






OOiCOOCDi-^CCr^Oca'Or^NiA 
I I , .i-Hdt--.iOr-S01"#CO»nOC10CIO 
I [ I j^OippiftCi^COC|cpOO.^CICI 

CI c'^ ^ Tp ■ij' tt ic lA o o o T- ('-- t'- 



>i 



oo o-fLi,-ioooeD*ccit-oiooootar-<QO 

•^l-^r-«i-(OaOO>OdQOCr3M3-J*C>QOO^QO 
•pO'Or^^cpptCOOClrJ'COeiOCp-TfCICI 
O fH A< r I C.| c'^ M ■^ ■^ Tf< O O O C3 i ('-»'- (*■- 



1 p-op-^xp CI c^ci—icp^rc [ 
ci-^-^o65C>ooi;*-»«brtciA« 



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•— it^O-*:j>-«OOCO.— itftOCOCC>-"<-">i3CO I 

T-c; i_-^ppP"7'cppcicic».;Hppr3 I 

cc CI c» CI CI •— -^ o o OS do t- fi »b rz c< »-< 



5i 



CO 



OOoOOOOOOOOOOOOoOO 



•SSw3 '^■^ ^'"^ C^-mO S a" "o ft o-'u'' 



OOOOOOOPOOOOOOOOOO 

C000t-r-eDSS»OtO^^«MCTC-|,-<r-t 

-— v-^— ^/-^^-^-^y-^.— V _ -^v -. '«' -"^ ^v --V --^ r-s r-N 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 133 



The following tables give some comparisons. The first of these tables 
"ives the values of the first twenty-four constants (i.e, of those to the 
fourth order) as determined by Gauss for 1830, by Erman and Petersen, 
by Adams (1) from Sabine's charts for the epoch from 1842-45, and (2) 
from the Admiralty charts for 1880, and by Neumayer for 1885, as pub- 
lished in Berghaus' ' Physical Atlas.' 





1829 


1830 


1845 


1880 


1885 


Constants 


Erman- 
Petersen 


Gaus3 


Adams 


Adams 


Neumayer 


Ul 
ffh 
ill 


+ -320074 


+ -323477 


-321871 


•316843 


-315720 


+001210 


-•007708 


- -001272 


-007306 


-007906 


-■018763 


- -006593 


-024159 


- 026795 


- -024363 


-•027377 


- -038035 


-031055 


-033749 


-034395 


+ -0283.53 


+031106 


•027783 


-024273 


-024814 


-044537 


--050635 


-■049128 


-051358 


- -049798 


+ -029863 


+042956 


-031299 


-041972 


-039500 


- -03840.5 


- -053291 


- -032856 


-036831 


- -030597 


- -060109 


- -062456 


- -057828 


-■060300 


- -060258 


*1 

Ak 


+ -000720 


- -002107 


-001801 


-012933 


-012991) 


'*'2 

hi 


+ -01 6446 


+ -016700 


-013722 


-007481 


-007383 


"J 

hi 


- -003 197 


+ -022402 


-■005526 


-010617 


-011877 


"^4 

gl 
ff'i 

hi 


+ -001249 


+ -000172 


- -000353 


- -005305 


- -005667 


- -030728 


--025575 


- -028018 


- -028217 


--{.27857 


--015592 


--OI611OO 


--015278 


-019332 


-019754 


- -012637 


- -013631 


-011648 


-•012892 


-012604 


'"•2 

h\ 


- -006211 


- -007955 


- -004080 


•000397 


-000443 


hi 


+ -010851 


+ -014876 


-009894 


-005217 


-007147 


'"4 

gl 
gl 
hi 


- -001272 


+ -000488 


- -002075 


-■002893 


- -003270 


+ -006708 


+ -006909 


-003533 


-005590 


-006842 


- -007248 


- -006552 


- -006777 


- -004932 


-005492 


'*3 

hi 


+ -003014 


- -000062 


■003910 


-004331 


-005121 


'*4 


+ -000895 


- -001442 


■000137 


- -001082 


- -000849 


+ -001 109 


+ -001109 


•001004 


-000935 


-000968 



If we had expressed the magnetic potential and the magnetic forces, 
X, Y and Z in terms of the functions Q™, Q™, Ac, instead of in terms of 
jjm jjm ^Q -vpe should have obtained another series of magnetic constants 
but the two series are related to one another, and the one series may be 
derived from the other by multiplying each constant in one series by a 
factor depending on the values of n and vi. 

Thus let «™ and 6™ be two magnetic constants derived from the 
function Q,7 (as defined above), and let a„ and /?„ be the corresponding 
Gaussian magnetic constants as derived from the function H™. Then these 
magnetic constants a™ and 6™ are connected with a„ and ^„ by the relations 

A>_Q._l-3.5'---(2«-l) 



On 



H„ 



(n—m) 



for a given value of m ; and similarly 



and in particular 



a„.^A.._Q». _ 1-3.5 • • • • (2n. 



■1) 



and 



''ji=l=^^=9:^= 1-3-5 {2n- 

«,.-2 &«-2 H„_2 {n-m—2) ! 

^rH-2 fin + i^^Qn + i __ 1-3.5 

i. Q AJ. ,, + .> 



-5) 



(2« + 3) 



•-li+a 



{n-m + 2) 



134 REPORT— 1898. 

then we may find the final equations for a„ and 5„ from the final equations 
for a„ and B„ respectively by multiplying the final equations by ^, and then 

substitute the values of a„ and y3„ in terms of a„ and b„ respectively. 

Hence, in the final equations for a„ and /3„, the coefficient of a„ or of fi„ 
will be multiplied by 



(^Yor ( l-3.5----(2.- l)y 
VhJ V (n-m)! ; 



in order to find the coefficients of a„ and 6„ respectively. 

Also the coefficients of a„_2 or of )8„_2 in the same equations will be 
multiplied by 

Q,^:Q^ -r 1.3.5 ••••(2n-l).1.3.5--- -(2^-5) 
H„.H„_2 (n-m) ! ' (n-m-2) ! 

to find the coefficients of a„_c, and 6„_2 respectively. And the coefficients 
of a„^2 and ^,,+2 will be multiplied by 

Q.Qn.2 „^ 1-3.5 • • • • (2n-l).1.3.5- • • •{2n + 3) 
H„H„,2 («-m)! {n-m+2)l 

to find the coefficients of a„+2 ^.nd b„^.„. 

Or generally the coefficients of a„_ and ;8„^ in the final equations for 

a„ and )8„ will be multiplied by ^"' Ji"' to find the coefficients of a„ and 

6„^ in the corresponding final equations. 

Hence the constants a™ and 6" will have to be multiplied by ^'^, i.e. 

by the factor " ^ ^— -, in order to obtain the corresponding 

Gaussian constants n„ and /3„. 

Again, let A„, B„ be two magnetic constants connected with a„ and /3„ 
by the relations 

"j. _/^«_n„_ 1.3.5 .... (2.1-1 ) 
a: B„ H„ [{n-m) ! (n + m) if 

Then the values of the magnetic constants A,„ B,„ <fcc., as determined 
from the function IT,, can be converted into the corresponding Gaussian 
magnetic constants derived by means of the function H„ by multiplying 
each magnetic constant A^ or B™ for each value of 7?i by the factor 

n:;'_i .3.5 • • • •_(2?i - 1) 
H™ [{n—7n)\{n + myY 

In his paper in Vol. I., No. 1 of ' Terrestrial Magnetism,' published 
January, 1896, at the Chicago University Press, Dr. Ad. Schmidt has 
introduced .-i symbol R;;,, which is connected with the symbol IT™ employed 
above by the relation 

R;' = s/(27j + l)en™ 

where £=1 when )/i=0, and €=2 when m >0. 



DETERMINATION OF THE GAUSSIAN MAGNETIC CONSTANTS. 135 



Hence 



H 



t=[1.3.5 . . • • (2n-l)]r( J"+^)-. ^ ■ T 



By means of this factor the magnetic constants determined by Professor 
A. Schmidt for 1885 may be converted into Gaussian magnetic constants, 
for the sake of comparison with the magnetic constants as determined by 
Adams for 1880, and by Neumayer and by Fritsche for the epoch 1885. 

Comparison of the Values of Gaussian Magnetic Constants to the Sivth Order 
in Centimetre-graimne-second Units. 



— 


Adams 


Neumayer 


Schmidt 


Fritsche 


1880 


1885 


1885 


1885 




•316843 


•315720 


•317346 


•31635 


•0073065 


•007906 


•007849 


•00526 


-•026795 


-•024363 


-023415 


-•02556 


'gl 

(1% 
g\ 
g\ 


-033749 


-•034395 


- -034781 


-•04014 


•012904 





•013320 


•01208 


- -003645 





- 003932 


-•01285 


•024273 


•024814 


■023556 


•02414 


-•05] 358 


-•049798 


-•048954 


- -04962 


•041972 


•039560 


•037750 


•03807 


g\ 


-036831 


- 030597 


- -028389 


-03104 


-028409 





- 040125 


- ^03028 


-•027235 


— 


- -004089 


-•01686 


- -005305 


- 005667 


-•005868 


- 00589 


if - 

gl 

gl 


-•028217 


- -027857 


-•027667 


-•02667 


-019332 


-•019754 


- -020192 


-•02128 


gl 


- -026844 


— 


-021920 


-•01961 


gl 


•0073145 


— 


•008082 


•00572 


9% 


- 002893 


-•003270 


-•003158 


- -00368 


if o 

9l 

gl 
gl 


005590 


•006842 


•006463 


•00601 


-•000549 


— 


-•000780 


- ^00272 


•017230 


— 


•015668 


■01602 


gt 
gt 


-•001082 


- -000849 


- -001176 


- -00063 


•000200 


— 


-000147 


•00134 


gt 


•003542 


— 


•00118 


•00200 


gl 
gl 


-•0006615 


— 


— 


- 00064 


-•000993 


— 


— 


- -00032 


gt 


- 000022 


— 


— 


•00029 


hi 


-•060300 


- -060258 


-•059842 


-•05914 


hi 


•0129335 


-012999 


•012432 


•01307 


h\ 


•007481 


•007383 


•009073 


•01005 


h\ 


-•010617 


-•011877 


-•015772 


-01381 


K 


•026795 





■027312 


•03647 


hi 


-•002841 


. 


-•017039 


-•01796 


hi 


- -012892 


-•012604 


-•013342 


-•01230 


hi 


•000397 


-•000443 


-•000512 


•00013 


hi 


•0052175 


•007147 


•006691 


•00652 


h'i 


•002974 


— 


•002549 


•00227 


hi 


-•008243 





-•009699 


-01122 


hi 


- -004932 


-•005492 


- -005396 


-•00555 


^! 


•004331 


•005121 


•004706 


•00525 


h'^ 


•0013145 


— 


•001093 


- 00049 


A;! 


•005283 


— 


•006267 


•00757 


n 


•0009355 


•000968 


•000555 


•00103 


h* 


•001148 





•001692 


•00132 


h't 


•001837 





•001377 


•00346 


fii 


-•000191 


— 


— 


- '00043 


hi 


-•0013465 





— 


- -00186 


f't 


•000180 


— 


— 


•00011 



136 REPORT— 1898. 

The above table gives the values in c.g.s. units of the Gaussian 
magnetic constants, as determined by Adams for the epoch 1880, and by 
Neumayer for 1885, by Schmidt for 1885, and by Fritsche for 1885. 
The last two determinations by Schmidt and by Fritsche were derived 
from the observations employed by Neumayer, and the values of the 
Gaussian constants, corresponding to those published by Schmidt in the 
first number of the journal ' Terrestrial Magnetism,' are obtained by 
multiplying each magnetic constant by the value of the above factor 

^ for that constant. 



Stream-line Motion of a Viscous Film. 

« 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.^ 

(I.) Experimental Investigation of the Motion of a Thin Film of 
Viscous Fluid} By Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw, LL.D. 

At the International Congress of Naval Architects at the Imperial Insti- 
tute in July of last year the author read a paper on the ' Nature of 
Surface Resistance,' and thei'e showed by means of lantern experiments 
that the flow of water round solids of various forms could be made visible 
by injecting air into the flowing water. In response to an invitation from 
the Institute of Naval Architects to read a second paper on the subject, 
he endeavoured to investigate the nature of a very well defined border 
line which existed in all the experiments when air was used, such as by 
employing water under various conditions, injecting coloured fluid into 
the flowing mass on the skin of the bodies in the path of flow. In 
endeavouring to investigate the markedly diSerent condition of flow at 
the surface, instead of using a thick sheet of water of from three-eighths 
to half an inch, a thin sheet of water was employed the thickness of 
which was not greater than that of the abovementioned Ijorder line. 
The result of doing this was to reveal a different state of flow in the 
water, in which, though the air method now failed, colour bands remained 
stable and enabled the behaviour of the water to be clearly seen. 

The hypothesis had been advanced in the first paper that, while the 
general body of the water in the thick sheet was moving with sinuous or 
turbulent motion, the water near the skin (which of course corresponds 
with that of the thin sheet) was in a state of parallel flow. The author, 
by means of a formula which Professor Lamb was good enough to furnish 
him with, found that within reasonable limits of error true stream line 
flow took place under these conditions, and gave a number of illustrations 
of this method of obtaining the form of stream lines round bodies of 
various cross section and in channels of various forms. 

(1.) The Two Lines of Research possible by means of the Method of Thin Sheets. 

It is obvious that there are two lines of research for which this 
method might be employed. The first of these is the investigation of the 
properties of fluids by using sheets of difierent thicknesses and varying 

' The reproduction of the experimental results and diagrams which illustrated 
the reading of this paper are given in Engineering and The Engineer. 



ON STREAM-LINE MOTION OF A VISCOUS FLUID. 137 

conditions of velocity of flow in questions of such importance as dis- 
continuity of fluid motion and viscosity. The second purpose for which 
this might be employed was obviously to investigate the nature of stream 
line forms in many cases in which mathematical investigation was 
impossible, not merely for the case of flowing water, but in applications to 
heat and electricity. 

It was in experimenting with various liquids with the first mentioned 
object in view that much better results were obtained than those given 
with water, and after working out the test case with various fluids 
(including water) under new and more rigorous conditions, these results, 
together with certain new experiments, are brought before the Associa- 
tion. 

(2.) Description of Improved Apparatus. 

In the earlier apparatus the main body of water was supplied in a 
thin sheet by the pressure from the mains, coloured water being intro- 
duced from a small reservoir kept under pressure by means of a hand 
pump. Since exhibiting these experiments in the earlier part of the year 
at the Royal Society, improvements have been made both in the general 
mode of applying the fluid to the lantern apparatus, and also in the 
lantern apparatus itself, thus rendering the appliance suitable for either 
physical or engineering lecture purposes, as well as for actual experi- 
mental work. 

The arrangement consists of a lantern and two vessels, one containing 
clear liquid and the other coloured liquid, connected by two pipes with 
the lantern-slide. A pipe leads to the reservoir of compressed air, which 
is attached to a circular cap, with which the vessels of liquid are con- 
nected. Taps enable the connection between the lantern- slide and 
receiving- vessels to be adjusted, the annular pipe with which the air is 
connected passing down to the bottom of the connecting vessels, whereas 
the taps are so arranged that the pressure of air from the reservoir comes 
upon the surface of the liquid in each vessel. The containing vessels - 
which have been used up to the present are ordinary glass aerated water- 
bottles, capable of sustaining 200 lb. per square inch. At the head of 
the pipe on each containing- vessel a separate pressure gauge can be 
attached, as well as on the reservoir itself, so that the pressures can he 
adjusted accurately for any particular experiment. If different liquids 
are required to be used, they can be connected with the circular head, 
without the necessity of disconnecting the other containing- vessels. 

The chief object with which this arrangement was designed, however, 
was to enable high pressures, such as from 1001b. to 200 lb. per square 
inch, to be employed when very thin sheets of liquid are used, a high 
pressure being necessary under such conditions in order to insure the 
flow. 

With regard to the lantern slide itself, the original apparatus, although 
efiective, was troublesome to make and manipulate, and did not insure 
absolute uniformity of the thin sheet, or lend itself to rapid changes. 
The new device merely consists of a small brass block containing two 
chambers. It has two pipes projecting from it, communicating with the 
chambers, one pipe being connected with the vessel of clear, and the other 
with the vessel of coloured, fluid. The small brass block is merely 
inserted between two plates of glass, together with a third exactly the 
same thickness as itself. By then making in thin cardboard, paper, lead 



138 REPORT— 1898. 

foil, or other materia] a border, together with the required obstacle or 
channel, and clamping the whole together, an effective and simple lantern- 
slide is obtained. 

(3.) Result of using Liquids other than Water, 

The four liquids other than water which were experimented with were 
castor oil, glycerine, alcohol, and mercury, of which glycerine is so entirely 
and surprisingly satisfactory in every respect as to make it undoubtedly 
the best material which the author had hitherto worked with for obtain- 
ing stream-line figures, and the whole results shown at the reading of 
the present paper were obtained by using glycerine. 

Of course after the glycerine has once passed through the lantern 
slide the coloured portion has mixed up with the clear, and it can only be 
employed again for colour bands, but at the same time the thickness of 
the sheet of flow being small, while the velocity with which perfect results 
can be obtained is low, there is no reason why this material should not 
be always employed. 

Alcohol has such a low viscosity that it can be employed in sheets of 
remarkable tenuity ; but these sheets have naturally the disadvantage of 
giving colour bands so thin as to be scarcely capable of photographic 
reproduction, while the volatile nature of this substance makes it not 
altogether desirable in close proximity to an arc lamp. 

Mercury is of course opaque, but its great density compared with its 
viscosity makes it most valuable in connection with some experiments, 
and its lines of flow can be traced if it is not quite pure by marks it leaves 
on the glass. It is, however, troublesome, since it cannot be used in con- 
nection with brass taps or with the brass lantern apparatus. 

Castor oil also proved troublesome to work with. 



(4.) Measurements made to co}npare the Floiv with Water, Glycerine, and 
Alcohol in Test Cases, and Explanation of these Hesults. 

In the test cases above referred to Professor Lamb kindly sought for 
and obtained an equation for the stream lines round a cylinder in a 
parallel channel, and the results of the measurements, although warranting 
the use of water under these conditions, showed that the flow was not in 
absolute agreement with the lines plotted from the formula. The author 
then remarked: — -'Although the differences are appreciable, they are to some 
extent of a nature which must be attributed to the great difficulty, in the 
first place, of making sufficiently accurate mechanical arrangements, and 
also from the fact that it takes some little time to plot down the results ; and 
that, during this time, it is extremely difficult with the present appliances 
to keep a ferfectly steady and uniform pressure both of the colouring 
bands and the main body of the water, when each comes from a separate 
source. Beyond this, however, there is no doubt that the stream lines are 
slightly pushed away from the obstacle at the point of greatest velocity, 
i.e., abreast the mid-section. This may be due to the slight effect of 
viscous resistance parallel to two containing glass boundai-ies.' 

In view of the importance of the matter it seemed worth while 
to attempt a new and more accurate comparison of the experimental 
results with the flow for a perfect fluid. In the previous case the 



■ ON STREAM-LINE MOTION OF A VISCOUS FLUID. 139 

formula used was only an approximation, though used within limits that 
should give a very fair accuracy. Now it was not really necessary to use 
the special formula for a channel at all, since if one of the cases be taken 
in which exactly mathematical results can be obtained for an infinite fluid 
— e.y., a cylinder — it is only necessary to form a border for a given value of 
the stream function, and the test could be made and stream lines suitably 
plotted within the artificial border. Glycerine is capable of being used at 
very low velocities, and is absolutely steady in flow — indeed, owing to its 
viscosity the lantern slide may be actually removed with the pipes dis- 
connected, and after a lapse of even half an hour the stream lines remain 
perfectly clear and distinct. It therefore seemed possible to make an 
absolutely severe and final test, and the case of a cylinder and infinite 
width of fluid were taken, the stream lines being plotted from the well- 
known formula. This plotting was done by Mr. E. Brown, B.Sc, University 
and 1851 Exhibition Scholar, who kindly undertook this particular work 
for the author, besides rendering him valuable assistance with the 
experiments for the present paper. 

On plotting the stream lines on a large scale, it was noticed that at a 
distance from the cylinder corresponding to the distance at which colour 
bands had previously been admitted, the stream lines were by no means 
equally spaced, and moreover they were far from parallel to the direction 
of flow of the fluid at infinity. To overcome this difliculty the stream 
lines were extended to such a distance from the cylinder that they 
became for all practical purposes parallel to the direction of flow at 
infinity. The thin film slide was lengthened by a corresponding amount. 
Further, it was noticed that at that distance the lines on the diagram, 
which represent the theoretical stream lines, have a displacement from 
the lines which correspond to the equal spacing of the stream lines only 
actually attained at infinity. The colour bands were therefore admitted 
to the film by holes which were so spaced as to correspond with the dis- 
placement of the theoretical lines. 

The following three conditions were therefore introduced into the test 
experiment, viz. — ■ 

1. Theoretical stream line as boundary. 

2. Longer film. 

3. Unequal spacing of stream lines. 

It was then found that the actual colour bands were in absolute 
agreement with the theoretical lines. 

It must be remarked that in the previous verifications referred to the 
author had been content to throw the lantern picture so as to most nearly 
approximate with the theoretical diagram, which involved an obvious 
displacement of the section of the cylinder itself, but in the present case 
no such approximation was allowed in the border ; the obstacle in the 
lantern itself was placed in absolutely exact position, so as to coincide with 
the border on the plotted diagram. It need scarcely be said that this 
result was not obtained without much laborious work, and it is highly 
gratifying to know that the correctness of the result has been verified 
mathematically in the accompanying paper by Professor Sir G. G. Stokes, 
the conditions which it there states as necessary — viz., considerable viscosity 
and very thin sheet — being both found necessary in order to obtain the 
theoretically correct result. It should be noted that on the large scale in 
which the comparisons were made by the lantern there is not the slightest 



140 KEPORT— 1898. 

difficulty in Jetecting minute variations, and no hesitation or doubt as to 
when accurate agreement is obtained. 

Both water and alcohol have been tried in a similar test case, although 
the conditions are much more difficult to comply with in these cases, thin 
sheets, such as ^-f,\p^,th of an inch, which have to be used, making the 
experiments much more difficult. 

The results of stream- line flow by this method may therefore be 
received with confidence, and a number of cases of stream lines have been 
obtained by using glycerine. These experiments were made in the first 
case with the view of studying discontinuity under conditions which 
involve a severe test of the stability of the thin film, which was through- 
out of a thickness of viViT^h of an inch, and in all cases forty-one colour 
bands were used within a width of about 3 inches. Without the figures 
themselves, which, as already mentioned, are published elsewhere, it is 
impossible to do more than describe the general results ; but it may be 
said that the difference between using square corners and rounded edges is 
very marked ; indeed, it was a matter of surprise to find the flow main- 
tained so well over the sharp edge at all. It is evident that the liquid 
which actually adheres to the edge of the obstacle enables a definite 
though very minute rounding to take place at the corners, as is visible by 
a close examination of the photographs. This was especially marked in 
one case on one side of an experiment, whereas on the other side, when 
the entering colour band actually touches the edge, the sharp corner takes 
effect upon it, and completely breaks it up, destroying the continuity of 
flow. 

It may be said that in these examples the narrow portion of the orifice 
is so small that it is impossible to detect the separate bands which pass 
through that portion ; these colour bands, nevertlieless, emerge quite 
distinct from each other, and finally assume their original position in the 
wider portion of the channel. One example may specially be mentioned, 
viz., that of a flat plate inclined at 4-5° to the stream. The agreement of 
this case with the theoretical result of Professor Lamb the author has 
previously been able to verify in the case of water, but even with the 
greatest care it was always possible to tell in which direction the stream 
was flowing. With glycerine, however, the colour bands are practically 
identical before and behind the plate ; and if it were not for the point 
being clearly evident at which the central divided band reunites, it would 
l:ie impossible to tell which way the stream is flowing . This point of 
union of the two portions of the central band is extremely interesting, as 
a careful measurement of it verifies the exact position at which the central 
stream line meets the plate, and is found to agree precisely with the 
mathematical solution of the problem. 

(6.) Method of Inrestiyating Effects of Variable Resistance. 

In order not to prolong the present paper beyond reasonable limits, 
the author will only briefly mention a method by which variable resistance 
can be dealt with. If within the thin sheet of flowing liquid an obstacle 
of some transparent material less in thickness than the sheet itself be 
placed, the flow will take place partly over the obstacle and partly round 
it. This effect will correspond to that of an obstacle through which fluid 
can flow, but which opposes resistance greater than the remaining portion 
of the thin sheet. 



ON STREAM-LINE MOTION OF A VISCOUS FLUID. 141 

The converse effect can be produced by making a part of the thin 
sheet rather deeper than the remaining portion. This of course will 
correspond to the flow through an obstacle of similar shape, which opposes 
less resistance than the surrounding space. The effects are obviously the 
same as would be produced in the first case by a dia-magnetic body, and 
in the second case by a para-magnetic body, and by varying the relative 
thickness of the different portions of the sheet it is clear that the effects 
which would be given by the body of any known resistance (i.e., of any 
value of n) can be produced. 

The author at first attempted to produce these results by very thin 
sheets of glass. It was seen that where the stream meets the edge an 
effect corresponding to refraction is produced, but that while in the case 
of the plate touching at both edges, although the velocity must obviously 
be greater over the portion where the plate is partly obstructing the 
channel, that is, makes the channel rather shallower, the width of the 
colour bands remains the same. When, however, the obstacle does not 
touch the edges, the effect is to produce very much wider bands over the 
obstacle itself and narrower bands on either side, these bands giving an 
indication of the great difference of velocity which results from the 
greatly increased resistance over the surface of the obstruction. 

Instead of considering merely the actual width of the bands, it is of 
course possible, and generally more convenient, to consider the number 
of bands in a given space. This method is applied to a circular hole in a 
plate of different cross sections to the film itself, which is placed across 
the entire width of the channel, and the number of bands or stream lines 
in a given space in the hole or well is obviously greater than in the 
surrounding portion — i.e., the bands are close together, and the velocity 
correspondingly greater. This result evidently represents the effect of 
placing in a uniform magnetic field a circular cylinder of soft iron — i.e., 
a para-magnetic body. This sufiiciently indicates the method, but other 
examples may be given, the first two representing para-magnetic and dia- 
magnetic cylinders, which are cases which can be dealt with by means of 
mathematics ; also two other cases of cylinders of rectangular section, 
representing respectively the result with para- and dia-magnetic bodies, 
which are cases it has been hitherto impossible to deal with by mathe- 
matical methods. 

(6.) The Effect of Using a Wedge-shape Section. 

The author attempted to solve the problem of obtaining the flow 
round a solid of revolution by using a wedge-shaped section, the obstruc- 
tion being also represented by a wedge representing a segment of the 
body, the thinnest part of the wedge corresponding to the axis of revo- 
lution. 

Professor Stokes has been good enough to look into this matter, and 
has found that the partial differential equation which the stream-line 
function must satisfy in the case of a slender wedge of viscous fluid is 

dx' dy"^ y dy 

X being measured parallel and y perpendicular to the edge ; whereas, for 
a perfect fluid flowing axially over a solid of revolution, generated by the 



142 REPORT— 1898. 

revolution round the edge of the wedge of the body interrupting the 
flow in the wedge of fluid, the equation is 

dx^ dy^ y dy 

which is not the same as the other, and therefore the stream lines are not 
the same in the two cases. ^ 

If we compare together the case in three dimensions given by Pro- 
fessor Lamb of the flow of a perfect fluid round a sphere and the case 
actually obtained by this method with glycerine, it will be noticed, as 
might have been expected, that the lines round the section of the sphere 
are crowded much more closer together for physical reasons which are 
easily explained ; for it is obvious that, as the whole of these efiects depend 
upon viscosity, the efiect of viscosity diminishes in the thicker portion of 
the wedge in such a way as to make the general velocity of flow greater, 
and hence the stream lines round the obstacle are not deflected from their 
path to the same extent as they would be if they were of uniform flow in 
a parallel portion of the stream. 

One result, however, of great interest was obtained, and that was that 
with less viscous fluids, such as water, the exact point at which the colour 
bands broke up could be traced by this method, and the flow studied side 
by side with stream-line motion. 

This leads the author, in conclusion, to bring forward an experiment 
upon continuity with thick sheets, which it may be interesting to show, 
as indicating clearly the great difference between the flow according as 
the motion is sinuous or otherwise, and particularly as throwing some 
insight into the birth of eddies, at the sharp edges of the body. The 
obstacle itself is of wedge -shape cross section, the edges of the wedge 
being ground as sharply as possible. Coloured liquid is now allowed to 
flow behind the plate by means of a small orifice, and the effect can be 
immediately seen. As long as the water is flowing steadily, the shape of 
the curves formed by the clearly marked border between the dead water 
and the water flowing over the edges of the plate agrees more or less 
with that given by calculation. When, however, the flow, instead of 
being steady, takes place in a series of impulses, the exact character of 
the succession of eddies formed at the sharp edges of the plate is 
clearly seen. 

' Since this paper was read Professor Sir G. G. Stokes has further investigated 
the matter, and has been able to obtain the equation of the stream lines for the case 
of a slender wedge of a viscous fluid interrupted by a wedge forming a section of a 
sphere, which he finds in terms of polar co-ordinates to be as follows : — 



c;-) 



sin* d = constant. 



The two following equations, therefore, may, for convenience, be expressed thus 
Case of flow of perfect fluid round a sphere : 



■* sin' 9 = constant. 



Case of slender wedge with spherical sector : 

(1 — ^ ) r* sin* 8 = constant ; 

and Professor Stokes remarks that the equation shows, even without plotting, the 
general character of the difference between the wedge lines and spherical lines. 



ON STREAM-LINE MOTION OF A VISCOUS FLUID. 143 



(II.) Mathematical Proof of the Identity of the Stream Lines obtained by 
Means of a Viscous Film with those of a Perfect Fluid moving in Tivo 
Dimensions. By Sir G. G. Stokes, F.E.S. 

The beautiful photographs obtained by Professor Hele-Shaw of the 
stream lines in a liquid flowing between two close parallel walls are of 
very great interest, because they afford a complete graphical solution, 
experimentally obtained, of a problem which, from its complexity, baffles 
the mathematician, except in a few simple cases. 

In the experimental arrangement liquid is forced between close 
parallel plane walls past an obstacle of any form, and the conditions 
chosen are such that whether from closeness of the walls, or slowness of 
the motion, or high viscosity of the liquid, or from a combination of these 
circumstances, the flow is regular, and the effects of inertia disappear, the 
viscosity dominating everything. I propose to show that under these 
conditions the stream lines are identical with the theoretical stream lines 
belonging to the steady motion of a perfect (i.e., absolutely inviscid) liquid 
flowing past an infinitely long rod, a section of which is represented by 
the obstacle between the parallel walls which confine the viscous liquid. 

Take first the case of the steady flow of a viscous liquid between close 
parallel walls. Refer the fluid to rectangular axes, the origin being taken 
midway between the confining planes, and the axis of z being perpen- 
dicular to the walls. As the effects of inertia are altogether dominated 
by the viscosity, the terms in the equations of motion which involve 
products of the components of the velocity and their differential coefiicients 
may be neglected. Gravity, again, need not be introduced, as it is balanced 
by the variation of hydrostatic pressure due to it. The equations of 
motion, then, with the usual notation, are simply 

dp /d^u dht, d^it\ 

dx~ ^ \M- W^ di^j' 

with similar equations for y, v and z, w, /x being the coefficient of vis- 
cosity. 

In the present case the flow takes place in a direction parallel to the 

walls, so that w^O, and the third equation of motion gives -^~ = 0, so 

dz 
that p is constant along any line perpendicular to the walls. The velo- 
cities u, V, vanish at the walls, and along any line perpendicular to the 
walls are greatest in the middle. As by hypothesis the distance (2c) 
between the walls is insignificant compared with the lateral dimensions of 
the obstacle, the rates of variation of it and v when x and y vary may be 
neglected compared with their variation consequent on that of z. Hence 
the equations of motion become simply 



dp d'^u dp d^v .... 

di~^ dz^' ~dy~'^'M' ^^> 

which must be combined with 

Over an area in the plane xy, which is small compared with the 
obstacle, though large compared with c^ the whole velocity and each 



144 REPORT— 1898. 

component vary, as we know, as c^ — z^ , so that if m', v^ denote the mean 
components along a line perpendicular to the walls 

and (1) and (2) give 

il = _ h'u\ ^ = - ''^J'v^ ^"i' + '^''' = 0. (3) 

dx c^ ' dy c^ ' dx dy 

If 1^ be the stream-line function, taken, say, with reference to the 
mean velocities it', v^, 

dT^f= u^dy—v^dx, 

and the elimination of p from the first two equations (3) gives 

^ + ^^ = 0. (4) 

dx^ ^ dy"- ^ ' 

The general partial differential equation (4), combined with the condition 
that the boundaries shall be stream lines, serves to determine completely 
the function \^. It may be remarked that the lines of equal pressure are 
the orthogonal trajectories of the stream lines, and can therefore be 
drawn from the photographs. If we suppose the stream lines equally 
spaced out in a part of the fluid where the flow is uniform in parallel 
lines, the velocity at any point will be inversely as the distance between 
consecutive stream lines. This statement is subject to a qualification 
-which will be mentioned presently. 

Let us turn now to the other problem, that of determining the stream 
lines for the irrotational motion in two dimensions of a perfect liquid 
flowing past an infinitely long body, a transverse section of which, by two 
close parallel planes, would form the obstacle in our thin plate of highly 
viscous liquid. In this case the stream line function satisfies the same 
partial differential equation (4) as before, and the conditions at the 
boundaries are the same, namely, that the boundaries shall be stream lines. 
Therefore, notwithstanding the wide difference in the physical conditions, 
the stream lines are just the same in the two cases. In this latter case 
they cannot be almost realised experimentally by means of an almost 
perfect fluid on account of the instability of the motion. The orthogonal 
trajectories of the stream lines are lines of equal velocity- potential, but 
not in this case lines of equal pressure. 

It may be objected that the stream lines cannot be the same in the 
two cases, inasmuch as the perfect liquid glides over the surface of the 
obstacle, whereas in the case of the viscous liquid the motion vanishes at 
the surface of the obstacle. This is perfectly true, and forms the qualifi- 
cation above referred to ; but it does not affect the truth of the propo- 
sition, which applies only to the limiting case of a viscid liquid confined 
between walls which are infinitely close. Any finite thickness of the 
stratum of liquid will entail a departure from the identity of the stream 
lines in the two cases, which, however, will be sensible only to a distance 
from the obstacle comparable with the distance between the walls, and 
therefore capable of being indefinitely reduced by taking the walls closer 
and closer together. 



ON TABLES OF CERTAIN MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS. lib 



Tables of Certain Mathematical Functions:. — Repm-t of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord Kelvin (Chairman), Lieut.-Colonel Allan 
Cunningham (Secretary), Professor B. Price, Dr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher, Professor A. G. Greenhill, Professor W. M. Hicks, 
Major P. A. Macmahon, and Professor A. Lodge, appointed 
for calcidating Tables of certain Mathematical Functions, and, if 
necessary, for tahing steps to carry out the Calculations, and to 
piddish the residts in an accessible form. 

The new ' Canon Arithmeticus ' is a set of tables showing the solutions 
of the congruence of 2'' = R (mod. in) for all prime moduli (■m=p) < 1000, 
and also for all powers of primes as moduli (»n=^j-, p,^ &c.) < 1000. 
The tables are twofold, one showing the value of R to argument x, the 
other showing the value of x to argument R. The tables are on the 
same plan as Jacobi's ' Canon Arithmeticus,' diflfering therefrom only in 
that the same base 2 is used throughout, whereas Jacobi uses a primitive 
root of each prime as base ; these primitive roots (e.g. 967) are often very 
inconvenient for purposes of practical computing. 

The tables are now complete (in MS. 133 foolscap sheets), and ready 
for printing. All the work has been done by two independent computers : 
the work of each has been checked witli that of the other ; all discrepancies 
found have been examined anew and set right. 



Fxperiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor G. Caeey Foster (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretary), Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, 
W. G. Adams, and Oliver J. Lodge, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. A. 
MuiRHEAD, Mr. W. H. Preece, Professors J. D. Everett and A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professors G. F. FitzGerald 
and J. J. ThOxMSON, Mr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. 
T. C. FiTZPATRicK, Professor J. Viriamu Jones, Dr. G. John- 
stone Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Mr. E. 
H. Griffiths, Professor A. W. Rucker, and Professor A. G. 
Webster. 

AITENDIX rAGB 

I. Comparison of the Standard Coils used by Professors J. Viriamu Jones and 
W. E. AyHon in tlieir determination of the absolute resistance of Mercury 
Kith the Standards of the Association. 5y R. T. Glazbbeook, F.R.S. . 147 
II. On the Determination of the Temperature Coefficients of two \0-ohm 
Standard Resistance Coils {Nos. 3873 and 3874) used in the 1897 deter- 
mination of the ohm. By M. Solomon 151 

in. An- Ampere Balance. By Professor W. E. Ayrton and Professor J. V. 

Jones 157 

The work of testing resistance coils has proceeded as usual during the 
year. 

The following is a list of the coils tested and of the values found in 
continuance of the list published in the Report for 1896 : — 

1898. L 



146 



REPORT — 1898. 
Table. 



No. of Coil 



Elliott, 33.^ 
EUiott, :522 
Elliott, 357 
Elliott, 35G 
Elliott, 358 
Nalder, 5329 
Nalder, 5330 
Sci. Inst. Co. 
M airhead, 5271 
Elliott, 339 
Paul, 39 
Paul, 50 
Nalder, 3873 
Nalder, 3874 



* No. 459 
^ No. 4C0 
No. 461 



B.A.U. 7. 



No. 462 
No. 463 
No. 464 
No. 465 
^ No. 466 
^ No. 467 
^No. 469 
No. 470 
No. 471 

No. 367 

^ No. 362 



No. 468 



Resistance of Coil in Ohins' Temperature 



9-9953 

•099G62 
9-9938 
-99921 
100 (1- 00051) 
100 (1- -00049) 
1000 (1- -00083) 
1-00032 
•99722 
•99994 
10-0029 
1000 (1-00048) 
9-9901 
9-9896 

Resistance in B.A. Units 
1-00021 



13-4° 
13-6° 
13-5° 
13-6° 
13-4° 
12-8° 
12-6° 
15.8° 
159° 
15-9° 
166° 
16-7° 
13-9° 
13-9° 



17-1° 



The most interesting of the coils are those numbered |^ 362, 367, 
389,390. (See Appendix I.) 

Of these ^ 367 and ^ 362 are two ten-ohm coils of platinum silver 
and Nos. "^ 389 and ^ 390 are two tenth-ohm coils of manganine ; the 
values of these are given in Appendix I. These were made for Profes- 
sor J. V. Jones' experiments on the value of the standard of resistance, 
and were compared with the standards of the Association in 1893 and 
1894. 

It appears from the further comparisons, an account of which is given 
in the Appendix to this report, that ^367 has changed by possibly three 
or four parts in one hundred thousand, but that no appreciable variation 
has occurred in the other coils. 

The temperature coefficients of the two ten-ohm coils have recently 
been determined with great care by Mr. M. Solomon in Professor Ayrton's 
laboratory. An account of the determination is given in Appendix II. 

Another coil of interest is a British Association unit, one of those 
originally made by Matthiessen in 1862 or 1864, which has been in India 
since that date. This coil was brought home by Professor R. LI. Jones. A 
careful comparison with the standards shows that it is correct at 16 3°. 
According to the stamp on the coil, it -was originally correct at 16-2°. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICATi MEASUREMENTS. 147 

In consequence of his appointment as Treasurer of the Association, 
Professor Carey Foster has resigned the position of Chairman of the 
Committee, which he has held for many years. The Committee in asking 
for reappointment recommend that Lord Rayleigh be the Chairman. 

The standards of the Association have, since the opening of the Caven- 
dish Laboratory, been kept at Cambridge in the custody of the Secretary. 
Mr. Glazebrook has now left Cambridge for Liverpool, and the Committee 
at a meeting in London agreed that Mr. Glazebrook be authorised and 
requested to retain the custody of the standards. In consequence, the 
various standards will in the course of the autumn be installed in the 
Laboratory of University College, Liverpool. 

At the Toronto Meeting the Committee agreed that it was a matter of 
urgent importance that the general question of the absolute measurement 
of electric currents should be investigated, and a grant of 75^. was made 
for the purpose. 

During the year Professors Ayrton and J. V. Jones have concluded 
some preliminary experiments with this object, and have designed a form 
of current weighing apparatus calculated to give results of great accuracy. 
Drawings of the apparatus have been laid before the Committee and the 
details of its working explained to them. The estimated cost of the 
apparatus is 280/. ; to meet this the grant of 751. made last year remains 
in hand. 

After careful consideration and discussion the Committee, at their 
meeting at Bristol, agreed unanimously to the following resolution : — 

The Committee, having heard from Professors Ayrton and J. V. Jones 
an account of their preliminary experiments on the absolute determination 
of the ampere and their plans for the construction of an absolute ampere 
balance, are of opinion that, in view of the importance of the proposed 
experiments, application should be made for leave to retain the unexpended 
balance, 751., of the grant made last year, together with a further grant 
of 225/. 

Accordingly the Committee ask for reappointment and apply for the 
above grant. They recommend that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman, and 
Mr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX L 



Comparison of the Standard Coils used by Professors J. Viriamu Jonss 
and W. E. Ayrton in their determination of the absolute resistance of 
Mercury with the standards of the Association. By R. T. Glaze- 
brook, F.R.S. 

These coils consist of two tenth-ohm standards of manganine, and two 
tenth-ohm standards of platinum silver. 

The method employed in comparing the tenth-ohm standard is de- 
scribed in the Report of the Committee for 1894 (Oxford Meeting) ' Re- 
port,' p. 1 28. In certain of the experiments the same mercury cups were 
used as in 1894 ; in others, the cups used by Professor J. V". Jones in his 
absolute measurements were employed. The Standard Coils made use of 
were the following :— Elliott, No. 269 ; Elliott, No. 270 ; and Nalder, 
3716, the last being a ten-ohm standard, the others units. 

The following values were found : — 

l3 



148 



REPORT — 1898. 



Nalder, 4274. ^ 
R.'J'.G.'s mercury cupsnsed 



J.V.J.'s 
R.T.'g.'s 
J.v!j.'s 



380. 




•loooin 


14-2 


•100051 


14^1 


•100045 


143 


•100030 


134 


•10005J 


157 


•100050 


16-1 


•100030 


13-1 


•100042 


13-7 


•100044 


13-7 


•100042 


14-1 


•100043 


141 



Jlean 

Nalder, 4275. 
E.T.G.'s mercury cups used 



J.V.J.'s 
R.T.G.'s 
J.v'.J.'s 



■100044 



142 



IL 



390. 



100060 


Ui: 


100061 


144 


100057 


14-5 


100040 


134 


1000G3 


15^8 


100056 


161 


100045 


13^1 


100052 


13-7 


100055 


]3'7 


100054 


141 


100055 


14-1 



143 



Mean -100054 

The values found in 1894 were respectively 

•100050 and -100053 

in each case at 15-2°, and the differences are probably within the errors of 
observation. If all the individual observations for both 1894 and 1897 be: 



FiG.l. No. 4274. 



Fig. 2. No. 4275. 



















, 




so 
so 
to 




















so 






+ • 


.■'\ 


''' • 


•^^ 


■^r- — 


■^ 








♦ 


,.-- 
















-*r 


■ 










^ 








- 




" 


■*-» 


• 




fO 




+ 


* 










-*t — 
\ 






Y^ 


*/ 












\ 




















+-^ 


— L 














* 


t000.30 




/ 
















/ 


/ 


• 
















w 
















irr 


9*> 


















y> 


















K 


?• 


1 


r 


/, 


s- 


/ 


S' 


/ 


?• 



Results of observations on the -1 ohm coils used by Professors Ayi-ton and J. V. 
Jones. 

Observations in 1894, thus • 
Observations in 1897, thus + 
The horizontal divisions are 0°1 C. 
The vertical divisions are •000005 ohm. 

plotted, they -will be found to overlap each other, and it is difficult to 
assert that there has been any change. If any exists it is certainly very 
small. 



PRACTICAL STAXDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



149 



This is shown in figs. 1 and 2, in which the observations indicated by- 
dots give the results of the 1894 experiments, those indicated by crosses 
the experiments of 1897. At a glance the observations do not appear very- 
good, but it must be remembered that the vertical ordinates are drawn to 
a very large scale, the division being tive-milliontlis of an ohm. For both 
coils the resistance appears to reach a maximum at about 15-.5° C. 

The ten-ohm coils were compared in the usual manner on the Carey- 
Foster bridge with the Standai-d Coil, Nalder, 371 G. 



The foUowinij are the values found : — 



Nalder, 3873. 



t. 



367. 



Date 


Value 


Temperature 


December 9, 1897 

11 „ . • 
13 „ , . 
28 „ . . 
30 „ . . 

Mean. . ... 


9-9913 
9-9917 
9-9891 
9-9877 
9-9909 


14-3 

14-4 

13-5 

13-15 

14-2 


9-9901 


13-9 


Nald 

December 9, 1897 

11 „ . . 
13 „ . . 
28 „ . . 
30 „ . . 

Mean .... 


«% 3874. ^ 362. 

9-9907 
9-9911 
9-9886 
9-9873 
9-9904 


14-3 
14-3 
13-5 
13-1 
14-05 


9-9896 


13-9 



The values found in 1893 and 1894 were as follows : — 
For 3873, 9-9919 at 14-8°. 

If we take the temperature coefficient as -0028 — the value given by 
Messrs. Nalder — this becomes 9-9894 at 13-9°. Thus the coil appears to 
have risen in value by -0007 ohms ; 

while for 3874, the value found was 9-9926 at 14-9°. 

Messrs. Nalder give the temperature coefficient as -003, and this leads 
to the value, 9-9896 at 13-9°, agreeing exactly with the observations of 
December 1897. 

The results of these observation are shown in figs. 3 and 4. The dots 
refer to the 1893 observations, the crosses to those of 1897. It appears 
that No. 3874 has not changed ; with regard to No. 3873, a change is 
indicated. As to this change, it appears from the note-book that there was 
some doubt as to the temperature of one of the observations in 1893; it 
is recorded as 1 4° ; the observation shows that the temperature must have 
been about 13-7°. Furthermore, the value of the ten-ohm standard used 
for 3873 was not definitely determined in 1893. If allowance is made 



150 



REPORT — 1898. 



for these two facts, the value of 3893 at 13°-9 is raised to 9'9923 ; thus 
the curve shown in iig. 3* is obtained, and the apparent change in value 
is reduced to about "0003 ohms, or three parts in one hundred thousand. 
On the whole, then, I conclude that 3873 has changed since 1893 by about 

Fig. 4. No. 3874. 





Fig. .S 


. No. 


387 


3. 






































// 


/ 


s-sgto 












/ 


/ 














/ 


y 






9-33Z0 










A 


/ 














I 


/ 








3 '3 -$00 






/ 


/y 
















^/ 


' 










9S830 




/ 


/ 














/ 


V 














assso 


^.^ 





























/ 














/ 












/' 












/ 












y 


/ 












/• 












/ 












/ 


( 










J 


/. 












/sa :^ 













Result of observations on the 10-ohm coils, used by Professors Ayrton and J. V. Jones. 

Observations of 1893, thus • 
Observations of 1897, thus + 
The horizontal divisions are 0'1° C. 
The vertical divisions are '0002 ohms. 



Fig. 3*. No. 3873. Revised. 



9 3SZ0 



9-3aoo 



93B80 



9seeo 



















f 




















/ 


















// 


















// 


/ 
















/^ 


'/ 


















^ 


















/ 


• 
















/ 


/ 
















/ 


/ 


















/ 


















// 


/ 
















/< 


'/ 


















// 





















IS 



Observations of 1893, conectei to final value of i 10-ohm standard, shown thus • 
Observations of 1897, thus + 

this amount, while 3874 has remained stationary in value. The dis- 
crepancy between this conclusion and that given by Mr. Solomon in 
Appendix II. depends on the different values employed for the tempera- 
ture coefficients. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 161 

The values of these coefficients obtained over so short a range are not 
of much importance. Still, in view of Mr. Solomon's determination, they 
may be given. They are: For .3873, -000283; and for 3874, -000277. 
These values are relative to the standard coils of the Association. 



APPENDIX II.. 

On the Determination of the Temperature Coefficients of Tivo 10-Ohm 
Standard Resistance Coils {Nos. 3873 and 3874) used in the 1897 
Determination of the Ohm. By M. Solomon. 

In the determination of the ohm made by Professor W. E. Ayrtou 
and Professor J. Viriamu Jones in 1897 (Report, 1897, p. 212), four 
standard resistance coils were used, two of which had a resistance of 10 
ohms each, and two of 0-1 ohm each. Values for the temperature co- 
efficients of these coils had been calculated from four accurate determina- 
tions of their resistance made, two by Mr. Glazebrook in 1894 and 1897, 
and two by the Board of Trade in 1896 and 1897 (' The Electrician,' 
vol. xl., p. 39). The values thus obtained neither agreed with one another 
nor with the coefficients given by the makers, Messrs. Nalder Bros. &, Co, 
It therefore became necessary to make as accurate a determination as 
possible to endeavour to find the correct values for the coefficients. The 
following Paper gives the results of the tests made on the two 10-ohm 
coils (Nos. 3873 and 3874), the tests on the other two coils being not 
yet completed. These two coils are of the B.A. pattern, and are made of 
platinum silver wire. A preliminary series of tests made on one of the 
coils showed that to attain the required accuracy special precautions 
would have to be taken to keep the coils at steady temperatures. Each 
coil was therefore placed in an oil bath, the temperature of which was 
automatically regulated. In making the determination of the tempera- 
ture coefficient of one coil, the other was used as a standard, and was 
kept at a constant temperature throughout the whole series of tests. 
The coil under test was maintained at a steady temperature for some 
time, and a measurement of the difference of resistance between it and 
the standard was then made by means of a Carey Foster bridge. The 
temperature of the coil being tested was then altered and a fresh measure- 
ment taken, this being repeated for several temperatures. 

The apparatus used in the measurements was ari-anged in the following 
manner. The standard coil was placed in an oil bath with two vessels, in 
the inner of which the coil itself and a carefully standardised thermometer 
were immersed. In the outer bath was the bulb of an alcohol thermo- 
meter, the mercury index of which, when the temperature rose too high, 
completed the circuit of an electromagnet and battery, and caused 
the gas which heated the bath to be put out. On the bath then cooling 
the circuit of the electromagnet was broken, and the gas turned on and re- 
lighted by a bypass. This thermostat was very sensitive, the temperature 
of the inner bath rarely varying so much as 0-0-5° C. in a day, and in a 
run of ten days undergoing a maximum variation of 0"3° C. The ther- 
mostat in which the coil under test was placed was not so sensitive, but 
was designed to work over a greater range of temperature. The coil and 
thermometer were placed in an inner bath, and in the outer bath was a 
large brass bulb filled with alcohol. The expanding alcohol either passed 
into a small reservoir, or, when the passage to this was closed by 



152 REPORT— 1898. 

shutting a stop-cock, it expanded into one arm of a glass U tube, 
thereby forcing a mercury index at the bottom up the other arm ; this 
index cut off the gas supply by closing the aperture of the inlet tube. 
On cooling the index sank ; the gas was turned on and relighted by a 
bypass. Regulation of the temperature accordingly did not take place 
until the path leading to the reservoir was closed, so that regulation at 
any desired temperature could be obtained by leaving the stop-cock open 
until that temperature had been reached. In this case, as also in the 
other thermostat, the bath was not heated directly by the gas jet, but a 
baffle plate was interposed. The daily variation of temperature with this 
apparatus was about 0-2° C, but the changes were so slight and so slow 
that the probable error introduced would be less than that caused by 
error in reading the thermometer. The Ijath was always kept at a constant 
temperature for some hours before readings were taken. With these 
arrangements it was safe to assume that the temperature of the coil was 
the same as that read off from the thermometer. The terminals of the coil 
dipped into mercury cups in one end of a pair of stout copper rods, half 
an inch in diameter, the other ends of which rested in mercury cups on a 
Carey Foster bridge. The leads from each of the coils were of very 
small and approximately equal resistance, so that no appreciable error 
could be introduced by alteration in their resistance with change of 
atmospheric temperature. Also, as a part of each lead was inside the 
thermostat, heat lost by conduction along tlie leads would be withdrawn 
from this part and not from the coil itself. 

The measurements were made with a Carey Foster bridge, the platinum 
silver slide wire of which had been previously calibrated. This wire was 
50 centimetres long, and had a resistance of 0-001859 ohms per half 
centimetre at 13-5° C, and was graduated in lialf millimetres. Correction 
was made for alteration in the resistance of the wire due to change in its 
temperature, an increase of 1° C. producing au increase of 0-000011 ohms 
in the resistance of half a centimetre. Determinations of the difference 
of resistance between the two coils were made at intervals of about an 
hour, and if two or three quite consistent readings could be taken these 
were considered as correct, but where discrepancies occurred the mean of 
.several results was taken. The slight changes in the temperature of the 
standard were easily allowed for, since it could be assumed that for such 
small changes the two coils had the same temperature coefficients. So if 
the standard, instead of being at the tempei'ature t, were at the tempera- 
ture t + Z, and if the coil under test were at the temperature t', it was 
assumed that the standard was at temperature t, and the coil under test 
at the temperature t' — 8. 

There are four principal sources by which error can be introduced — 
viz., error in obtaining the correct position of balance, error in the value 
of the temperature coefficient of the slide- wire, error in reading the 
temperature of the standard coil, and error in reading the temperature of 
the coil under test. As regards the first of these, the sensibility of the 
arrangement was such that a change of half a millimetre in the position 
of the slider produced a deflection of about a centimetre on the galvano- 
meter scale, so that balance could easily be obtained correct to 0-05mm. 
The error due to not knowing the temperature coefficient of the slide- wire 
with certainty will not be great, as all the measurements were made at 
temperatures near to 13-5° C, at which temperature its resistance was 
known. The greatest error is introduced in reading the thei'mometers 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL ilEASURExMENTS. 



153 



which -were graduated in tenths of a degree, each division being about 
0-6mm. in length, so that the temperatures could not be read -with cer- 
tainty to less than 0-02° C. If all these errors should be made in one 
direction in making one determination of difference of resistance, and all 
in the opposite direction in making a second, there is a possible maximum 
error of about 3 per cent, in the value of the temperature coefficient 
calculated from these two determinations. This is, however, highly im- 
probable, and, moreover, makes no allowance for taking the mean of 
several readings. The error in the temperature coefficient is probably 
not greater than 1 per cent., if as great. 

The following summarises the results of the experiments : — 



Te7i-0hm Standard Coil, No. 3873. 

A series of tests was made on this coil in the manner above described, 
lasting from March 22 to April 1, 1898. Determinations were obtained 
of the difference between the resistance of No. 3873 at six different 
temperatures, and the resistance of No. 3874 at 16-70° C, with the 
following results : — 



Temperatuxe of No. 3873 


Excess resist, in ohms of Change of 
No. 3873, above No. 3874, resist, per 
at 16-70° C. 1° C. 


(a) 16-31° C. 

(b) 19-33° C. 
(e) 22-10° C. 
id) 22-43° C. 
(«) 25-43° C. 
(/) 26-22° C. 


-0-001896 ^^ 0-00307 

+ 007380 --'-£--' - := - 0-00291 \ 
+ 01545 -c-' r-- 0-00291 J 
+ 0-01639 -^'-^'=~:r> 0-002781 
+ 02470 -.^-rr^-.^- 0-00277/ 
+ 0-02678 rr-=_ 0-00274 



From readings a, b, c, and e, and from the measurement of the resist- 
ance of the coil made by Mr. Glazebrook in December, 1897, giving 
Rj3.3c,=9-9901 ohms, we get 

R,=9-9398 (1 + 0-000397« - 0-000002(4)<2). 

After testing this coil the other coil (No. 3874) was tested, and then 
three check tests were made on this coil with the following results : — 



Temperature of 
No. 3873 


Excess resistance in ohms above No. 3874, 
at 16-70° C. 


(f/) 19-62° C. 
(h) 15-95° C. 
(k) 18-13° C. 


+ 0008398 

-0-003074 

1 + 0-003704 



These points lie well on the curve obtained in the former tests (see 
fig. 5). From the formula given above the coil will have the correct 
resistance of 10 ohms at 17-0° C. 

To compare the temperature coefficient here obtained with those 



154 



REPORT 1898. 



previously determined we have four measurements of resistance, as 
follows: — 



A. Mr. Glazebrook in March, 1894. 

B. Board of Trade in Nov., 1896. 

C. Board of Trade in Aug., 1897. 

D. Mr. Glazebrook in Dec, 1897. 



Resistance = 9-9923 ohms at 14-8° C. 
= 9-992994 „ 1486° C. 

= 1000712 „ 19-3° C. 

= 9-9901 „ 13-9° C. 



These furnish data for calculating the temperature coefficient, and we 
have also the value given by the makers, Messrs. Nalder Bros. & Co. : — 



Observer 


Range of 
Temperature 


Temperature 
coefficient per 

1"C. 


Coefficient from 

these tests for 

same range 


Messrs. Nalder Bros. &; Co. 
Tests A and C . 

„ B and C . . . 
D ... 

„ DandC . 


17-0° -22-0° C. 
14-8° -19-.3°C. 
14-86°- 19-3° C. 
13-15°- 14-4° C. 
13-9^ -19-3° C. 


0000276 
0000331 
0000320 
0-000299 
0-000317 


0-000303 
0-000315 
0-000315 
0-000330 
0-000317 



This table shows that the coefficients calculated from tests B and C 

Fig. 5. 

Excess res /staff ce in ofims 



016 






















'?'A 


9rii 


K 








COI 


NP 


3aii 








J 


■"A 


9rc, 


Ve 




021 
020 






















/ 
























t 


/ 
























/ 








•0/6 


















A 


.30 


'»0a 


-c/. 




















/ 


'c. 


>st* 


Mar 


•A 




on 

■0/0 

008 
006 
■00* 
■002 

■002 
00* 














/ 


/ 
























/ 
























/ 


1 Mil 


et 


'<^ 


















f 


^0 


V« 


Marc 


A 


















/ 
























/ 


^/t.. 


one 


»*» 




















/ 
























Jo, Itar 


t/iZ 


%th 


















G 


JUf. 


tar 


1 



















/* /S /S /7 /B /$ 20 V 22 13 2* 2i 26 27 

TemfiergCurei/> 'C 

Curve showing change of resistance of 10-ohm standard coil, No. 3873, with change 
of temperature. Ordinates give excess of resistance of 3873 above 3874 at 16-70° C. 

and from tests D and C are both in very close agreement with those I 
obtain for the same range of temperature. 

Ten-Ohm Standard CoU, No. 3874. 
A series of tests on coil No. 3874, lasting from May 19 to May 31, 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



15: 



1898, -were made, and in addition -we have one result from the tests on 
coil No. 3873. Altogether we have the following : — 



Temperature of No. 3874 


Excess resist, in oluns of Change of 
No. 3874, above No. 387S, resist, per 
at 17-25° C. 1° C. 


(a) 16-70° C. 
(J) 17-46° C. 

(c) 18-08° C. 

(d) 19-09° C. 

(e) 21-37° C. 
(/) 22-22° C. 
Iff) 24-46° C. 


+ 0-00303 — -- _ _ 000323 

+ 0-00689-= -:rzr_ n-onw 

■^f!Srir'-'-''--:-'0-SS 



From readings a, c, e and g, and Mr. Glazebrook's determination of 
the resistance in December, 1897, which gave Ris90=9'989G ohms, we get 

R,=9-9313 (1 + 0-000481<-0-000004(2)«2). 

Check tests were made on this coil after those on coil No. 3873 had 
been made, and gave the following results : — 



Temperature of 
No. 3874 


Excess resistance in ohms above No. 3,873 
at 17-25° C. 


(A) 18-77° C. 
(A) 20-15° C. 


+ 0-00583 
+ 0-01040 



All the nine points lie on a smooth curve (see fig. 6) . These tests 
make the coil correct at 16-9° C. 



■0Z4 
Oil 
■ozo 

■Ofg 
■OIS 

■oit 
■ on 
■010 
-00s 
•00s 
■00* 

■002 

o 

~97t 



Fig. 6. 

£xcess res/Stance //? ohms. 







Cof/ 


//PS 


Bit- 








IHa^ 


■ZS^ 


"m 




















/ 




















t 


/ 




















A 


lay. 


•0^ 
















/ 




















/ 


^' 


ifay 


f3^* 




* 












A 


Ju/> 


e ff 


A 














/ 




















J 


u 


fay 


r 
















(\ 


i.yc 


ie S 


^ 














/ 


h , 


*ay. 


*M 










% 






/. 


Maj 


Z7t 


t 














^i 


t.o 


ro/n, 


etts 


«,C 


<//3i 


73) 







!• A* /6 /7 10 'S Iff 21 22 23- z* 25 

Curve showing change of resistance of 10-ohm standard coil, No. 3874, -mth change 
of temperature. Ordinates give excess of resistance of 3874 above 3873 at 17-25° C. 

For purposes of comparison we have a similar set of data to those used 



156 



EEPORT — 



for the other coil, 
results : — 



The four measurements of resistance gave the following 



A. Mr. Glazebrook in March, 1894. 

B. Board of Trade in Nov., 1896. 

C. Board of Trade in Aug., 1897. 

D. Mr. Glazebrook in Dec, 1897. 



Resistance = 99926 ohms at 149° C. 
= 9-993213 „ 14-91° C, 
= 1000775 „ 19 3° C. 

= 9-9896 „ 13-9° C. 



From these we get the following values for the temperature coetti- 
cient : — 



Observer 


Range of 
Temperature 


Temp. coefE. per 
1"C. 


Coeff. from these 

tests for same 

range 


Messrs. Nalder Bros. &; Co. 
Tests A and . 

„ B and C . 

D ... 

„ DandC . 


17 0° -22-0° C. 
14-9° -19-3? C. 
14-91°-19-3° C. 
13-1° -14 3° C. 
13-9° -19-3° C, 


0000300 
0000346 
0000333 
0-000279 
0-000338 


0000316 
0-000336 
0-000336 
0000365 
0-000341 



Here again the same two sets of tests, viz., tests B and C, and tests 
D and C, give values for the temperature coefficient very nearly equal to 
those I obtain for the same range of temperatures. 

Since for both coils the temperature coefficients that I obtain agree 
with those calculated from the three last measurements of resistance — 
namely, the two measurements by the Board of Trade and Mr. Glaze- 
brook's last test — these experiments seem to show that the coils have not 
changed since 1896, but that the resistances as measured in ISO-t were a 
little lower than those that would now be obtained at the same tempera- 
tures. 

This conclusion may be better illustrated by calculating what would 
be the resistances at the temperatures of the various tests, on the assump- 
tion that the coefficients I obtain are correct, and that Mr. Glazebrook's 
last test (in December, 1S97) is correct. We then get the following : — 



Temperature of test 



Coil No. 3,873 



Coil No. 3,874 



14-8° C. 
14-86° C. 
19-3° C. 
13-9° C. 
14-9° C. 
14-91° C. 
19-3° C. 
13-9° C. 





Resistance as measured 


Resistance as calcu- 




in ohms 


lated in ohms 


(A) 


9-9923 


9-9930 


(B) 


9-9930 


9-9931 


(C) 


10-0071 


10-0071 


(D) 


9-99U1 


9-9901 


(A) 


9-9926 


9-9932 


(B) 


9-9932 


9-9932 


(C) 


10-00775 


10-0079 


(D) 


9-9896 


9-9896 



Thus we see that the 1894 measurements (A) are too low by as much 
as 7 parts in 100,000 in the case of coil No. 3873, and 6 parts in 100,000 
in the case of No. 3874. In the case of the other two measurements the 
calculated results only differ from the observed results by 1 or 1*5 parts 
in 100,000. 

These experiments were carried out in the laboratory of the Central 
Technical College, South Kensington, and I am much indebted to Pro- 
fessor Ayrton and Mr. T. Mather for their valuable guidance and advice. 



PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 157 

APPENDIX III. 

An Ain2Jere Balance. By Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., and 
Professor J. Viriamu Jones, F.R.S. 

The Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards for 1897 ended 
with the following paragraph : — ' It thus appears to be a matter of urgent 
importance that a redetermination of the electrochemical equivalent of 
silver should be made and that the general question of the absolute 
measurement of electric currents should be investigated. . . .' This work 
we were asked by the Committee to carry out, and a grant of Ibl. was 
voted in its aid. We were thus led to examine into the methods which 
liad been employed by Lord Rayleigh, Professor Mascart, and others, for 
determining the absolute value of a current, as well as to consider some 
other methods which have not, as far as we know, been hitherto used. 

After much consideration we decided to adopt a form of apparatus 
which, while generally resembling the type employed by some previous 
experimenters, possessed certain important differences, and, before 
expending any part of the grant of 75^., to construct, without expense to 
the British Association, the following preliminary Ampere Balance. 

On a vertical cylinder about 17 inches high and 6 '8 inches in diameter 
we wound two coils, about 5 inches in height, separated by an axial distance 
of 5 inches. The coils consisted each of a single layer of about 170 convo- 
lutions of wire and were wound in opposite directions. Fi-om the beam of 
a balance there was suspended, inside this cylinder, a light bobbin about 4 
inches in diameter, on which was wound a coil about 10 inches long consist- 
ing of a single layer of 360 convolutions, and the whole apparatus was so 
adjusted that when the beam of the balance was horizontal the inner and 
outer coils were coaxial and the top and bottom of the inner suspended 
coil were respectively in the mean planes of the outer stationary coils. 

This arrangement was adopted because with coils consisting of only 
one layer the geometrical dimensions could be accurately determined, and 
because the shapes of the coils lent themselves to the use of the con- 
venient formula, readily expressible in elliptic integrals, for the force, F,. 
between a uniform cylindrical current sheet and a coaxial helix, viz. : — 

F=yy,(Mi-M,) 

where y is the current per unit length of the current sheet, y,, the current 
in the helix, and Mi and Mj the coefficients of mutual induction of the 
helix and the circular' ends of the current sheet. ' 

The value of a particular current of about 6 3 ampere having been 
determined absolutely by means of this apparatus, the rate at which it 
would deposit silver under specified conditions was ascertained indirectly, 
by observing its silver value on a Kelvin balance which had been kept 
screwed down in a fixed position for several years past and which had 
been calibrated many times during that period by reference to the silver 
voltameter. 

The result of this preliminary investigation showed that the silver 
value of the true ampere was so nearly equal to the reputed value, viz. 1-118 
milligramme per second, as to require the use of an apparatus still more 

' See Proceedings of the Boyal Society, vol. 63 : 'On the Calculation of the Coeffi- 
cient of Mutual Induction of a Circle and a Coaxial Helix, and of the Electro- 
maprnetic Force between a Coaxial Current and a Uniform Coaxial Circular 
Cylindrical Current Sheet.' By Professor J. V. Jones. 



158 REPORT— 1898. 

perfectly constructed, iind therefore of a much more expensive character, 
to enable the error, if any, in this value to be ascertained with accuracy. 

We, therefore, started on the design of the instrument, of which we 
now submit the working drawings, and for the future construction of 
which we would ask for a grant of 300?. including the unexpended grant 
of 751. voted last year. And we anticipate that this new piece of appa- 
ratus may prove worthy of constituting a national Ampere Balance, the 
counterpoise weight for which will be determined purely by calculation 
based on the dimensions of the instrument, the number of convolutions 
of wire in the three coils, and the value of the acceleration of gravity at 
the place where the instrument may be permanently set up. In this par- 
ticular it will differ entirely from the ' Board of Trade Ampere Standard 
Verified 1894,' which has had its counterpoise weight adjusted so that the 
beam is horizontal when a current passes through the instrument, which 
will deposit exactly 1-118 milligramme of silver per second under specified 
conditions. In fact, the proposed Ampere Balance and the existing 
Ampere Standard will differ exactly in the same way as do a Lorenz 
apparatus and the 'Board of Trade Ohm Standard Verified, 1894.' 

We have to express our thanks to Mr. Mather for taking charge of 
the construction and use of the preliminary apparatus, for checking all 
the calculations in connection with the determination of the electroche- 
mical equivalent of silver that was made with it, as well as for superinten- 
ding the making of the working drawings of the new Ampere Balance. 
We have also to thank Messrs. W. H. Derriman and W. N. Wilson, two 
of the students of the City and Guilds Central Technical College, for their 
cordial assistance in carrying out the work. 



Mectrolysis and Medro-chemistry. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. "W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. H. Griffiths, 
Eev. T. "O. FiTZPATRiCK, Mr. W. C. D. Whetham (Secretary), on the 
present state of our Imowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry. 

The grant of 35?. made last year has been expended in improving the 
apparatus for experiments on the electrical properties of solutions. 
Measurements have been obtained by Mr. Whetham of the electrical 
conductivity at 0° C. of dilute solutions of potassium chloride, barium 
chloride, potassium ferricyanide, potassium bichromate, and sulphuric 
acid. The freezing points of identical solutions have been observed by 
Mr. E. H. Griffiths. The measurements are sufficient to indicate that 
important and unexpected results will be obtained. The reduction of the 
observations is not yet completed, and, in consequence, the account of the 
experiments is not ready for publication. 

The apparatus is now in working order, and it is hoped that measure- 
ments may be obtained for other salts. Unfortunately the room in Mr. 
Griffiths's laboratory where the experiments have been carried out is no 
longer available, and some considerable expense must be incurred in 
reconstituting the arrangement in a different situation. To meet this 
and the additional expenses incidental to the continuance of the observa- 
tions it is estimated that at least 25/. will be required. 

The Committee accordingly ask for reappointment, with the addition 
of the name of Mr. S. Skinner, one of the Demonstrators at the Cavendish 
Laboratory, and with a grant of 251. 



Oy THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES, 159 



Otb the Use of Loqanthmic Coordinates. 
By J. H. Vincent, I).8c., A.B.G.Sc. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extemo.'] 
PLATES L-III. 

SECT. 
INTBODUCTION 1-3 

Definition and (in example of a translatant ....... 4-G 

CONSTBUCTION OF AX IMPEDANCE CHAET 

The eqnation represents a translatant ........ 7 

Tlw resistance line . ........... 8 

The self- induct 1071. line 9 

The complete impedance curve . . . . . . . . .10 

Mechanical device for drawing above 11 

Scale lines 12, 13 

Horn to use the chart 14 

Discussion op a Non-tbanslatant 15, 16 

CONSTEUCTION OP A CHAET FOE WAVES ON A FEOZEN SEA 

Sliort ware gravity and elasticity lines 17 

Short wave curve 18 

Above to he made general . . . . , . . . . .19 

The scale lines 20-23 

Recapitulation . . 24 

Anothbb Method of treating the same Non-tbanslatant 

The long wave elasticity line .......... 25 

Slwrt wave elasticity line 26 

Complete elasticity curve 27 

The two gravity lines and complete gravity curve 28 

The two complete curves are translatants ....... 29 

Translation of the elasticity and gravity curves 30, 31 

Scale lines for the two complete curves . 32 

Scale lines for thickness .......... 33 

0?i several outstanding matters connected with the chaH . . . 34-37 

The Use op Logarithmic Coordinates to find an Appeoximate 

Equation connecting a Series op Experimental Results . . 38 

Tbi-dimensional Logarithmic Coobdinates 39 

Semi-logarithmic Coobdinates 40 

The Gbaphical Computation op the Hypebbolic Functions . 41-49 
The meaning of a straight line on the chart ....... 42 

The eu line 43 

Other lines ............. 44 

Semi-logarithmic graph of sink u . . . . . . . . .45 

Of cosh u 46 

Of cosech u and seeh u 47 

Of tanh u and coth u 48 

Points in the geometry of these curves 51-54 

Conclusion . 55 

Introduction. 

1. In discussing experiments upon the passage of gases through porous 
plates Professor Osborne Reynolds employed a method of plotting curves, ' 
in which the logarithms of two variables are used to find the points on a 
new curve. This new curve Professor Reynolds calls the logarithmic 
homologue of the one from which it is derived, and pointed out the 

' Sir John Herschel used the logarithmic chart in reducing photometric observa- 
tions. Art. 285, Cape of Good Hope Observations. 



160 REPORT— 1898. 

following useful property possessed by the homologues. (We may omit 
the adjective when no ambiguity is likely to arise.) 

' If for two curves (1) and (2) 3;.2=^'^i ^^id 2/2=^^1) then a;J=a;} + log a 
and 2/2=2/1 + ^^a ^ > 01' ^h® logarithmic homologues will all be similar 
curves, but differentlyplaced with regard to the axes, such that the one curve 
may be brought into coincidence with the other by a shift of which the 
coordinates are log a and log b.' ^ 

It should be noticed that this shift of the homologue is one of pure 
translation. 

The graphic method of homologues was again used by Professor 
Reynolds in discussing experiments on the flow of water. - 

2. Mr. Human has since patented the manufacture of sheets of paper 
ruled logarithmically.^ A short account of the use of logarithmic 
coordinates may be found in GreenhiU's ' Differential and Integral 
Calculus,' 1896 edition; directions for the use of the ruled sheets, with a 
number of easy examples, are supplied by the publishers of the ruled 
paper, and the valuable aid to computation which this method gives may 
now be considered well known. 

3. The power of readily moving homologues on the logarithmic paper 
to represent changes in the original equation was greatly facilitated by 
the invention of scale lines by Mr. Boys.'* To explain the use and method 
of construction of scale lines Mr. Boys drew a chart of wave and ripple 
velocities, which by its wonderful generality was calculated to emphasise 
the power of the new method of discussing curves by means of their 
homologues. 

Definition and an Example of a ' Translatant.' 

4. Let us consider the equation 

*> — ^ + ) 

2t \p ' 

which is the equation that Mr. Boys took to illustrate the method. It is 
of the form 

v^ = a\+-. 
\ 

Let a, b, v, and X become a', b', v \/ —r ^"^^ ^ A / ~7 " ^^® equation 

remains unaltered ; thus, if g, r, and p all change, it is possible, by merely 
shifting the homologue, to represent the new equation. The homologue 
of this equation possesses the property of translation. 

5. It is of great service in any subject to have a definite nomenclature, 
and a cihrve whose homologue possesses this property with respect to any 
particular quantity might be called a ' translatant ' with respect to that 
quantity. The term translatant can also be applied without risk of 
confusion to the homologue. 

6. Definition. — A curve or its homologue is a translatant with respect 
to any quantity when an arbitrary change in that quantity is equivalent 

' PUl. Irani., 1879, Part II., p. 753. 

"^ Ibid., 1883, Part III., p. 947. 

' Published by Beaves and Stephenson, 8 Princes Street, Westminster. 

< Nature, July 18, 1895, p. 272. 



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ItluilTiitinii Dr. J. II. Vineent'i Paper on the Utt of Loijarithmic CoordimUs. 



ON THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 161 

to the transformation x = axi, y=^hy^, where a and h are some deter- 
minate constants. 

Many curves which occur in physics are translatants with respect to 
all the quantities which are found in the equation; such curves are 
particularly suitable for treatment by logarithmic coordinates. 

Construction op an Impedance Chart. 

7. As a second example of a translatant, let us take the equation 

which gives the impedance of a circuit whose resistance is R, self-induction 
L, and subject to a periodic electro-motive force of frequency n, all 
expressed in some consistent system of units. 

Regarding n as the independent variable, a chart may readily be 
constructed giving the value of I for any values of R, L, and n ; that is, 
we can in a few minutes produce what amounts to a complete table of the 
impedance of all circuits subject to a periodic electro-motive force of any 
frequency. 

The equation represents a translatant,' for if R and L become R' and 
L' respectively, the equation remains unaltered if n and I be also changed 

R'T R' 

into =^^ ,n and - I. The first step is to draw the homologue for arbitrary 
RLi R 

values of R and L. Let R:= 2 and L = "002, these numbers being such 

as might occur in practice, when L and R are expressed in henrys and 

ohms. 

8. The Resistance Line. — If I depended only on the value of R, this 
would be represented on the chart by a straight line 1 = 2. The line is 
marked 'Resistance Line ' (see %. 1). 

9. The Self-induction Line. — If I were a function of L and n only, 
then the value of I would be given by I = 'Inhn. The homologue of this 
equation is a straight line, making an angle of 4-5°, with the increasing 
direction of the axis of n. To draw it in the proper position of the chart 
some one point on it must be found; thus, if n = 100, I =: 1-256. The 
line is marked ' Self-induction Line ' on the chart. 

10. The Complete Lmpedance Curve. — The actual impedance is due to 
both effects, and the curvfe showing the relation of I to the other quanti- 
ties concerned runs above the resistance and self-induction lines ; it is 
most distant from either line at their point of intersection, and approaches 
them asymptotically. The curve very soon, however, becomes practically 
coincident with the straight lines. The curved portion of the homologue 
may be drawn by the arithmetical computation of a series of points on the 
curve; it may, however, be drawn with facility by the following device. 

1 1 . Mechanical Device for Drawing the Curved Portion of the Homo- 
logue. — For any value of n read off on the chart the value of I due to 
each effect. (In this case the value due to R is constant. It should be 
noted that when the separate effects are represented by straight lines it is 
only necessary to read off values through the range m to 10 n, all otiier 
values being given at once by appropriately shifting the decimal place.) 

' The homologue of any equation of the form y' = aar'"±5fl!" is a translatant. For 
if a, hx,7jt become a', h\ '"!"/-,*/ • ar, "* T/?^ . y' , the equation is unaltered. 
1898. H 



162 REPORT— 1898. 

Take a millimetre scale and a sheet of squared paper ruled in millimetres. 
Mark off OP and OQ at right angles, these lines being taken to represent 
the magnitude of the two effects. PQ is the length required, being the 
root of the sum of the squares of the two separate effects. 

12. It must next be shown how to adapt the homologue for any 
values of E, and L. This is done by means of scale lines. 

A scale line is a line drawn on the chart and graduated by the 
logaritlnnic rulings of the paper. It is so placed as to read directly the 
particular value of the quantity to which it refers, such reading being 
the indication of the position of the homologue on the paper, and is the 
magnitude of the quantity in the equation which the homologue represents 
in its present position. 

13. Scale Line for R. — If H, n, and I be all multij^lied by the same 
quantity the equation is unaltered ; thus when R becomes mR the homo- 
logue is to be moved a distance log m to the right, and log in upwards. 
The direction of translation is along the self-induction line, which could 
be used as a scale line ; in fact any line not parallel to the axis of n 
could in this case be used as a scale line, the numbers of the graduations 
being identical with the impedance. In the chart a line at 45° to the 
axes is drawn and marked ' Scale Line for Resistance.' The direction of 
motion of the homologue is, in this case, parallel to the scale line. 

Scale Line for L. — If L and n vary inversely the value of I is 
unchanged. If L become mL the homologue must be moved to the left 
through a distance log m. The scale line must then be parallel to the 
axis of impedance ; when the homologue moves any distance to the left 
the point of intersection of the self-induction and scale lines will then 
move upwards by the same amount. To avoid specially graduating the 
scale line it is drawn through a point on the self-induction line where 
the impedance reading has the same significant figures as the value of L, 
for which the self-induction line is drawn. The scale line on the chart is 
drawn through the point of intersection of 1=2 with the self-induction 
line. 

14. To find the proper position of the homologue for any value of R 
and L, move the whole curve with its attendant resistance and self-induc- 
tion lines by a motion of pure translation until the resistance and self- 
induction lines cut their respective scale lines at the appropriate readings 
for R and L. 

Discussion op a Non-translatant. 

15. Even in the case of some curves which are not translatants the 
labour of plotting their equations may be greatly reduced by the use of 
this method. To illustrate this let us take an equation which does not 
represent a translatant curve. 

Professor Greenhill has given the theory of waves on a frozen sea in 
his article ' Wave Motion in Hydrodynamics.' ' By retaining a term for 
the density of the solid in this investigation we have the velocity of pro- 
pagation and the wave-length connected by the equation 

r/t s 2tre\ 



H^-'^^/H'^-'- 



• Avterican Journal of Mathematics, vol. is. No. 1. 



I 



ON THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 163 

where li, A, g have their usual significance, and 

e= thickness of the solid assumed uniform 
E=Young's modulus for the solid 
p^ density of the liquid 

s= density (not superficial density) of the ice 
/(.^uniform depth of the liquid, 

all expressed in some consistent system of units throughout this discus- 
sion. 

16. Fundamental Assumption. — Let us assume that h is large enough 

compared with -- for us to write 

coth- — = 1 
\ 

without appreciable error. The equation now becomes 

^ IttVE 



> 



which is of the form 



1+^ 



u-= . 

1+- 



This is a non-translatant ; if we regard \ and u as the independent and 
dependent variables, and change a, h, and c into a', b', and c', it is impos- 
sible to find two numbers n and vi such that the equation 

a'mX + 



1+^ 

ni\ 
is identical with the preceding. 

Construction op a Chart for Waves on a Frozen Sea. 

17. Short Wave Gravity and Elasticity Lines. — When X is sufficiently 

small for unity to be negligible compared with - the equation becomes 

A, 



where 



and 



n'^=aX'^ + ^, 



a = -1^-, 
47r2es' 



^ ^ TT^e^E 



39 

Mi' 



164 KEPORT— 1898. 

For o, P, X, and yu write 

The equation is unaltered ; this shows that it is a translatant. If the 
first term only in the right-hand member had to be considered, the homo- 
logue would be a straight line, making an angle of 45° with the increas- 
ing direction of the axis of A, on the chart ; if the second term only were 
present this also would be represented by a straight line sloping in the 
opposite direction and to the same extent. To put these lines in the chart 
it is only necessary to calculate one point on each, and to draw through 
this point the line in the proper direction. 

These lines are drawn on the chart for the case when £'=6x10'", 
</ = 981, e=100, p=s=l. They are marked 'Short Wave Gravity and 
Elasticity Lines.' (See fig. 2.) 

18. Short Wave Curve. — To represent the united eflfect of gravity and 
elasticity these two lines must be joined by a curve. The whole will then 
be the homologue of the equation 

The curve is asymptotic to the short wave lines ; it very soon becomes 
practically identical with them. It is symmetrical about a line parallel 
to the axis of u drawn through the point of intersection of the straight 
lines ; only half need be computed, the other half being put in by geo- 
metry. The curve may conveniently be drawn by the method of § 11. 

19. It must next be shown how to adapt this curve to any values of a 
and /?. It has been already shown that it is a translatant, and thus the 
curve will not have to be redrawn, but merely shifted about. 

' Most of the experimental investigations into the physics of ice have been con- 
cerned with the viscosity and not the elasticity. Professor Greenliill, in the paper 
already cited, remarks that ' ice was the first substance for which an experimental 
determination of E was attempted, as described in Young's Lectures on Natural 
Philosophy' Morgan {Natvre, May 7, 1885) points out that the value quoted in 
Thomson and Tait's ISat. Phil., Art. 686, is ten times too great. McConnel {Proc. 
Hoy. Soc, March 1891, p. 343) gives the following values for E : — 

92,700 kilos per sq. cm. (Moseley), Phil. Trans., 1871 
23,632 „ (Reusch), Nature, xxi. 504 

60,000 „ (Sevan) 

The last value is, presumably, computed from Bevan, Phil. Trans., 182C, Part ?, 
Paper 21. Turning these values into c.g.s. units we obtain, to the nearest sing'e 
significant figure — 

9 X lO'o (Moseley) 
2 X lO" (Reusch) 
6 X lO'" (Bevan) 

McConnel considers Moseley's value too great, and implies that Reusch's method 
was unreliable. By recomputing Bevan 's value I obtain 5 x 10'°. 

From this it seems that the value of E for ice is somewhere about 6 x 10'° in c.g.s. 
units ; in drawing the first short wave elasticity line on the chart it appeared unne- 
cessary from a physical standpoint to allow for the density of ice and water when 
the value of E was so uncertain. 



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Via. 9.— Chut or (li« Virloelir o! WoToa en a Ptomo Bob. 
Illutlrafing Pr. J. 11. rinrcnf* I'aptr ..;. thi Ut' of Lugantlmir CiiordiiiaUt. 



ox THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 1G5 

20. The Scale Lines. — A change in o or ft is equivalent to a definite 
shift of one of the short wave lines, keeping it parallel to itself. This 
shift might obviously by proper graduations be measured along any line 
not parallel to the line shifted. By giving the line, along which we wish 
to measure either of these translations, a proper inclination we can make 
the lines already on the chart divide this line with the proper logarithmic 
graduations for a or ft, as the case may be. 

21. Scale Line for a. — This scale line will show how to move the short 
wave gravity line and the curved portion so as to adapt the chart to new 
values of gravity, density of liquid and solid, and thickness. The short wave 
gravity line is the homologue of 



u- 



-a\-. 



If a become na and X become — ^ the value of u is unchanged. 

Therefore a shift to the left of h log n must be made when a becomes n a ; 
a point on the short wave gravity line must move one large square to the 
left when the point of intersection on scale moves through two large 
squares. The scale line will then make an angle tan~i 2 with axis of A. 
It must be graduated so that its readings increase as we move upwards on 
the scale line ; the point in which it cuts the short wave gravity line 
must read the o appropriate to values of g, E, e, s, and p in § 17. But 
the graduation of the u axis must be utilised to save regraduating the 
scale line. Thus, look for the value of a on the it line ; or 10±"a where n 
is a whole number ; a parallel to axis of \ through this point cuts the 
short wave gravity line in a point through which the scale line may con- 
veniently be drawn. The graduations are then those of the axis of ?(■ 
multiplied or divided by some positive integral power of 10. 

The scale line is inserted on the chart and marked ' Scale Line for a.' 
22. Scale Line for ft. — This scale line shows how to move the short 
wave elasticity line and the curved portion so as to allow for changes in 
the values of the density, elasticity, and thickness of the solid. (The short 
wave elasticity line is not affected by a change in the density of the liquid.) 
The short wave elasticity line is the homologue of 






If ft becomes nft and \ becomes \/n\, u is unchanged. 

A scale line for ft is inserted on the chart. 

To use the scale lines, move the figure consisting of the two short wave 
lines and the curve derived from them, without rotation until each of the 
short wave lines cuts the corresponding scale line in the proper point. The 
whole operation can easily be accomplished by the use of tracing paper. 
This translation will obviously move the curve to the correct new 
position. 

23. Comjylete Curve obtained from Short Wave Curve.— There is now 
on the chart a curve and two scale lines which enable that curve to be 
shifted so as to represent 



166 REPORT— 1898. 

for any values of g, p, e, s, and E. The complete curve to represent 

h 



u 



must now be drawn. The above equation can be written 

where a, p, and c have been previously defined. 

When the short wave curve has been placed in its proper position on 
the chart, calculate c from the equation . 

27res 



From each value of u, as read on the chart, the length 

I [log(\ + c)-logc} 

has to be subtracted. The slide rule is an instrument specially designed 
for the purpose of adding and subtracting logarithms ; the operation of 
drawing the complete curve can l^e performed by one setting of a slide 
rule, without other numerical computation. The top scale on Davis's 
10-inch slide rule is the same size as the scale of Human's paper ; to find 
a point on the complete homologue set the right hand 1 on the top scale 
of the sliding piece under the appropriate value of c on the right hand top 
scale of the rule ; the rule as thus set is a table of division of all numbers 
by c. Add any desired value of \ to c ; look for X + c on the top scale 

and take ofi" distance from the middle ' 1 ' of top slide (if is less than 

c 
10) to X + c on top scale. This length is log (X + c)— log c. Take ofi" this 
distance on a pair of proportional compasses set to reduce to one-half. 
This is the length by which the point on the short wave curve must be 
dropped to become a point on the complete homologue. 

Without resetting the rule repeat the operation with other values of X.i 
In this way the complete homologue may be drawn without much trouble, 
and with only so much mental labour as is involved in adding the chosen 
value of X to the appropriate value of c. 

24. Recapitulation. — We have now upon the chart a curve which is 
the homologue of the complete equation for waves on a solid covering 

liquid of sufficient depth for coth t^' to be taken equal to unity. The 

X 

case where g, E, e, p, and s have the values given in sect. 1 7 is represented 

on the chart by a thick curved line running beneath the short wave curve. 

The arithmetical operations necessary to get a curve to represent the 

' If the scale of rule have any size other than that of chart the same method may 
be used by setting the proportional compasses properly. 

The whole operation can be performed without a slide-rule on the chart. Draw 
a straight line through left hand bottom corner of the paper at an angle tan-' 2 with 
the horizontal. Use the projection of the left hand coordinates as the one on which 
to read A + c and c ; use the horizontal scale to read off length i{ log (A + c) -log e] . 



ON THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 107 

equation for any values of the quantities involved consist merely in the 
computation of o, /3, and c. 

Thus it is possible to obtain by means of logarithmic coordinates a 
curve "iving ^o for any value of A, without a single operation of the nature 
of substituting arbitrary values for a variable in the equation. 

If it had been merely desired to draw such a curve the task might be 
regarded as completed ; but the equation under discussion may be made to 
yield many interesting illustrations of the method of homologues. Some 
of these will now be dealt with. 

Another Method of Treating the same Non translatant. 
25. Long Wave Elasticity Line.—li the motion were controlled by 
elasticity alone the equation would be 

h 

and if X were so large that ~ could be neglected with respect to unity, the 
above becomes 

The straight line on the chart mai'ked ' Long Wave Elasticity Line ' is 
the homologue of this equation. It makes an angle tan - with the 

decreasing direction of the axis of X, and in the diagram is placed for 
the case when e, E, and ^ have the values above quoted. 

26. — Short Wave Elasticity Line.— This is the homologue of «'-=-— ^ 

and is already on the chart, for the case when the quantities concerned 
have the values already taken. 

27 .—Cornplete Elasticity Curve.— li the waves were governed by 
elasticity alone, the homologue showing the value of u for a given value 
of X would be coincident with the short wave elasticity line when X was 
small, with the long wave elasticity line when X was great, and would run 
beneath both lines and leave them to the greatest extent where they 
cross. To draw the complete elasticity curve we have only to multiply 

each « by ^ / ^ , which can be done by one setting of the slide rule as 

V X-f-c 
previously shown. 

28. Tlie Two Gravity Lines and Complete Gravity Curve.— By exactly 
similar methods the two gravity lines and the complete gravity curve can 
be inserted on the chart. The long wave gravity line is the homologue of 

u~^a\., 
The short wave gravity equation is 

%''=- X-, 

C 

and the complete gravity curve is got by mechanical computation, by the 



168 REPORT— 1898. 

same setting of tlie slide rule as used for the complete elasticity curve, 
from equation ' 

V C V k + G 

29. The Two Com2)lete Curves are Translatants. — If in the gravity 
equation 

u-=z 

a, c, A, and u are written «', c', ^, u f. / -, the equation is unaltered. 

c \; ac 

Therefore it is a translatant with respect to a and c. 

Similarly the elasticity equation 

in 

is a translatant. 

Subsequently it will be shown how to shift the elasticity and gravity 
curves to allow for changes in e, E, g, p, and s ; but in whatever position 
the two curves may be on the chart the complete homologue of the equa- 
tion in which both eflects ajipear is found by the method explained in 

30. Translation of tJie Elasticity Curve. — I. New values for e. In the 
elasticity equation it is seen that if e becomes ne and \, n\ : u remains 
unaltered. Thus to find new position of elasticity curve move it to the 
right through a distance log n. 

II. New ^•alues for E. If E becomes tcE andw becomes usjn equation 

is unaltered. Thus to shift the elasticity curve move it through - log n 

upwards. 

III. New values for s. When s becomes ns, \ becomes n\ and u 
becomes tm-i, the equation being unaltered. Thus to adapt to new 

values of s move curve log n to right, and - log ii downwards. 

' It is perhaps worth noting that the complete elasticity curve could have been 
computed from 

„ h K 

u- = — . ■ 

A^ \ + C 

and the long wave elasticity line. Also the complete gravity curve could have been 
obtained from 

^ A. 



A + c 



and the long wave gravity line. But in the fraction A. both numerator and 

\ + c 
denominator change, and a separate setting of the slide rule would be necessary for 
every new point found on the complete curve. 



ox THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 169 

IV. New values for p. If p changes to np then u and X must become 
nu and -. 

31. Translation of the Gravity Curve. — New values for e. If e, \. and 
u are changed to ne, n\, and \/un the gravity equation is unaltered. 
Thus if e becomes ne move the complete gravity curve log n to the right 

and - log n upwards. 

It is unnecessary to show that similar translations may be found for 
changes in (/, p, and s. 

32. Scales Lines for Complete Gravity and Elasticity Curves. — Two 
scale lines would be needed for each curve to permit of complete generality. 
Thus the gravity curve would have scale lines for changes in y and in 

; the elasticity curve, scale lines for — and — . These scale lines would 
f P P 

all be put in on the same principles as those in the former part of this 
paper. 

33. Scale Lines for Thickness. — Two scale lines are inserted on the 
chart marked ' Elasticity Scale Line for Thickness ' and ' Gravity Scale Line 
for Thickness.' The first of these lines will be understood at once from 
paragraph 30, I. 

From paragraph 31 the direction of motion of the gravity curve in order 

to adapt it to new values of e must make an angle tan with the in- 

creasing direction of the ordinate of A. Any line drawn on the chart in 
this direction can be made use of as a scale line. It is convenient, how- 
ever, to have the scale line placed in a position so that it cuts the complete 
gravity curve or its attendant short and long wave gravity lines on the 
chart. The scale line has been drawn at the appropriate inclination 
through a point on the short wave gravity line where /\= 10000. Now the 
thickness of ice is here 100 ; if the scale line be marked 100 at this point 
it must be graduated in either direction, so that when the curve (and its 
attendant lines) is moved along the direction of the scale line, the point of 
intersection of the short wave gravity line and the scale line shall read 
the thickness on the latter. The scale line must be graduated by a loga- 
rithmic scale, so that the readings increase ten-fold for every large 
square moved through to the right : this is done at once by the graduations 
on the paper without making a special logarithmic scale. 

The complete curve for the case when the values of g, p, s, E are the 
same as before and e = l is inserted on the chart. It cuts the elasticity 
scale line for e at graduation 1 . 

If it were only desired to make the chart give at once all values for ic 
and /\ when one other quantity such as e was varied the second method of 
treating the original equation would be the better ; but it would become 
somewhat confusing to use a succession of scale lines in order to adapt the 
chart to changes in a number of the quantities concerned. If more than 
one of these has to be altered it would be more convenient to employ the 
former method. 

It must be noted that the complete curve is calculated from the 
position of the gravity and elasticity curves by the method of § 11. A 
small portion only joining the two branches has to be drawn, as the 



& 



170 EEPORT— 1898. 

complete curve soon becomes indistinguishable fi-om the two component 
curves. 

On Several Outstanding Matters in Connection with the Chart. 

34. The long wave lines of the chart may be joined by a curved portion 
to represent the complete long wave curve, which is the homologue of 

u-:=ak4- ^ . 

This may be obtained by using the method of the root of the sum of two 
squares ; or it may be got by one setting of the slide rule from the short 
wave gravity curve, this latter curve being the homologue of 

c c\2 



(--!») 



= [aX+y^ 
c 



In this case the A being read directly from the chart no thought is 
necessary in the operation, the lengths being simply transferred by the 
proportional compasses. On the chart when p, s, p, E have the quoted 
values and e=100 the complete homologue to the original equation is 
practically coincident with the long wave curve in the curved portion of 
the latter. 

35. It is interesting to compare one of the homologues of the original 
equation with the wave and ripple curve of Mr. Boys. In the latter on 
the left we have the capillary ripples where the curve is straight, then the 
curved portion as far as the point of minimum velocity represents ripples, 
in the propagation of which gravity has an increasing influence : this is 
followed by a curved portion in which the surface tension eflfect is waning, 
and the gravity influence waxing ; finally we have the straight portion 
which represents waves in which the influence of capillarity is negligible. 

The shape of the curve on the chart varies as the quantities ff, e, E, p, 
and s alter, as has already been seen. The elasticity and gravity branches 
always become coincident with the short wave elasticity and long wave 
gravity branches as we pass to the left and right respectively through a 
sufiicient range. 

Consider now the complete curve on the chart representing approxi- 
mately the facts when the solid is ice and the liquid water and e=l. 
Waves whose length is less than about 420 correspond to ripples ; when 
the wave length falls below about 80 we have the analogues of capillary 
ripples. 

36. The value of X for which u is a minimum is a solution of the 
equation 

X^' + 2c\^-^lx-^=o 
a a 

obtained by diflerentiating the original equation and putting ^- =o. The 

ctX 

ordinary practical way of solving this equation (by numerical compu- 
tation) is by Horner's method. It has only one real root which is approxi- 
mately 419 with e=l. This root is at once given approximately by the 



ON THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 171 

chart, and also the minimum value of u is obtained at once by inspection 

without the trouble of substituting X=419 in the original equation. 

Logarithmic coordinates may be of use to find the roots of equations of 

high orders. 

37. The Homologues of Equations representing the Relation of u to\ 

e 
en -=som( 
\ 

tion becomes 



when ~:=some constant — In the original equation let (=1* The equa- 



9^ 



2- 



^^^ 



9^ 



For all values of \ included in the chart ^ may be neglected with 

respect to S • the homologue is a straight line identical with the elas- 

P 
ticity scale line for thickness (if we take E, n, s as before). In the same 

way horizontal lines drawn through the points of intersection of lines A. 
=2, X=3, <tc. with the elasticity curve for ice 1 unit thick give the velocity 

of propagation of waves on ice which is always ^, ^j '^^- thick. The size of 

the waves makes no difference so long as we confine ourselves within themaxi- 
mum range of X on the chart. This process cannot, however, be continued 

indefinitely ; even when e becomes - the line becomes slightly bent 

upwards as A approaches 10^ ; when «:=-—_- or less the relation is 

expressed by the long wave gravity line already on the chart. 

A horizontal line ■?; = 245000 gives the velocity of propagation of 
waves when e=A/l-61 ; no matter what E may be, the velocity of waves 
whose length is 1*61 times the thickness of the ice (when p=s=\) is 
equal to the velocity of propagation of sound in the ice. The line is 
marked ' Sound Line ' on the chart. 

The Use of Losahithmic Cooedinates to pixd an Approximate Equation 

CONNECTING A SeEIES OF EXPEEIMENTAL EeSULTS. 

38. In practical science this arithmetical problem often arises. If the 
numbers are merely to be recorded graphically it is always better to plot 
them logarithmically, as the sensitiveness of the record is independent of 
the distance of a point from the origin. 

If the law which governs the numbers is a straight line law, as is often 
the case, of course ordinary section paper should be employed. But if on 
plotting the curve on squared paper it seems to follow some other law, 
recourse should be had to logarithmic plotting. If the observer com- 
mences by trying to find an equation of the form 

by arithmetic he will probably restrict his trial to simple values of a and 
k. By the use of logarithmic paper he avoids the trouble of looking up 
the logarithms (as Herschel had to do) and gains in accuracy. 



172 



REPORT — 1808. 



As an example we will find equations connecting tM'o series o£ 
experimental numbers (kindly furnished by Mr. Bruce Wade, of Trinity 
College, Cambridge). 

In fig. 3 these two curves are plotted logarithmically. They are each 
represented very nearly by straight lines, and the equations may be ob- 



FlG. 

















1 


















L'- 


1 'I 
















) 


















1 >'i 1 ,■ 














F^ 


















,yr 1 1 














> 




1 1 
















y- 














J- 






1 














^ 






















/ 














,/ 








, 

y 


A 


>^ 


:1 


w 




^ 


> 

> 








■X-^ 


^ 


1 


b 






_4_ . 


-r^ 


— 










"~T 








,^ 


T~1 




- 






- 


-n 






















/■ 
































y 


y 




























/ 


r 


^ 
































/ 




,' 






















* 








'0 


/ 


1 










' 






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1 . 






tained from the figure at once, the power of y being a tangent and the 
coeflBcient of x a reciprocal of an intercept. 

(a) y^-'^'^lSx. 

(b) 2/i'^=29.x-. 

When the equation connecting the values is of the form 

yP:=axf-+bx'^±&c. 
the same method could be employed. 



Tri-dimensional Logarithmic Coordinates. 

39. The construction of a surface to represent the mutual algebraic 
relationships of three variables is in general a matter of great labour, 
involving the computation of a series of curves which have then to be 
placed at appropriate distances apart, and the surface constructed so as to 
pass through all the curves. Many equations in physics lend themselves 
very readily to discussion by nteans of tridimensional logarithmic coordi- 
nates. Writing down a few which occur, we have 

pv='Rd, c=-, Q=c)', T=27r V 1-. 
R '^ g 

As one of the simplest of such equations we may take V'=gh, which is 
the equation of seismic ocean waves. 

Regarding v, g, h all as variables, the surface representing the equa- 
tion in logarithmic coordinates is drawn in fig. 4. This figure is a tri- 
metric projection of a model of the logarithmically ruled planes and the 
homologue of the surface v'^—gh. 

It is obvious that scale lines could be used to represent changes in the 
quantities occurring in equations involving more variables. 



ON THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 



173 




174 REPORT— 1898. 



Semi-logarithmic Coordinates. 

40. For some purposes it would be an advantage to plot the logarithm 
of one variable against the real value of the other. For instance, suppose 
it were desired to find the logarithmic decrement of an amplitude which 
we Avere investigating. This could be done by setting out the logarithms 
of swings against the number of the vibration. If the logarithmic decre- 
ment did not vary the curve would be a straight line, and the logarithmic 
decrement would be proportional to the tangent of the angle which this 
line makes with the decreasing direction of the axis of the number of the 
swing. If, however, the logarithmic decrement varied with the time, the 
tangent to the curve at any point would give the logarithmic decrement 
at that instant. This example is only onfe of many which suggest them- 
selves ; the usefulness of the method in practical work would chiefly 
depend on the fact that it is easier to ' smooth out ' a sei'ies of points 
which should be in a straight line than it would be to draw a logarithmic 
curve with an elastic rod, as would have to be done if the results were 
plotted on ordinary square paper. 

The Graphical Computation of the Hyperbolic Functions. 

41. By the use of semi-logarithmic coordinates it is easy to construct 
a chart which shall give the values of the six usually used hyperbolic 
functions for a given value of the independent variable. I have drawn a 
diagram of this sort which has an accuracy of about one in two hundred, 
and hope to be able to publish one on a larger scale which shall have a 
greater accuracy. 

For the sake of clearness let the logarithmic scale be regarded as the 
vertical one and the scale of equal parts as horizontal ; further, let the 
component logarithmic scales in the vertical scale be equal to a unit of 
length on the horizontal scale. 

42. The Meaning of a Straight Line on the Chart. — If a straight line 
be drawn arbitrarily on such a chart (see fig. 5) it gives a series of values 
for %v andysuch that — 

/=10™"c=A;"c, 

where /is the reading on the logarithmic scale and ?t that on the horizontal 
scale ; c is the reading on the logarithmic scale of the point of intersection 
of the line with the vertical line u — o ; k is the tangent of the angle which 
the line makes with the increasing direction of the axis of ?(. 
Thus any curve having an exponential equation of the form 

is traced at once by drawing a straight line on the semi-logarithmic chart. 
No numerical computation is necessary ; the value of c is mg-rked on the 
vertical scale when u=o ; if k be then marked on the vertical line 
through tt=l, a line joining this last point to the point /=1, m=o (which 
may be called the origin) gives us the graph of 

f=h\ 

A line parallel to this through the first marked point gives the 
graph of 

f=ch\ 









Plate 3 


4 


^ X J 




nm 


1 ! t 




1 T 






1 










j_j---j J--. 








t 










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• 




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^' 




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1 1 


r J 




• 


it'" 


i 

1 

J _L 














__L 




' 'itit xLI' "' ' X ' 








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Y 












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1 1 

1 










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H't ■ 




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i 


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p- 


■U 






T 


1 ! 




"f 


--i_ 




1...1 li. 


1 


■■[> 










»vS 




4 



6*« RtpoTt Brie. Allot. 1 



n ,-^^-,.- ^ 


1 ■""■■, 


^^^ B, 




co^." '-■ 




Via. S.— Buai-Logullhnilo ObKl of tba nni«rbolIo FoaoUoni, 
tUiutratitifi Dr. ,1. II. Vincent't Paper on tlie Uie nf lAyarithmie Coordinate*. 



ox THE USE OF LOGARITHMIC COORDINATES. 175 

A line through the origin and the point f^\0, ii=.\, gives 

/=10", 

and this line (which is at 45° to axis of m, since log 10^1 by hypo- 
thesis) is a table of common logarithms ; the readings of the u scale are 
the logarithms of the readings of the _/ scale. 
For a line representing 

the ti is in any case the logarithmic of f to the base k, so that the semi- 
logarithmic chart constitutes an infinite series of logarithmic tables to 
any base. 

43. To draw a line representing e". This line passes through the 
origin and the point f=^e, i(,^=\. The e" line is a table of natural 
logarithms, .u being the natural logarithmic of f. 

The accuracy with which such graphic tabulation may be performed 
is limited by the size and accuracy of the graduations. The size of the 
16 graduations is a matter of choice, as semi-logarithmic charts have to 
be made and cannot be bought. The logarithmic scales are only obtain- 
able in one size on the ruled paper, but other logarithmic scales can be 
obtained from slide rules. 

Semi-logarithmic charts are free from the defect of ordinary squared 
paper (as regaixls the proportionate accuracy of plotting) in the vertical 
direction. The percentage accuracy of the horizontal scale varies as the 
distance from zero of the abscissa. 

44. To proceed to compute the hyperbolic functions other straight 
lines must be ruled on the chart. These are inserted without computa- 
tion. The line representing 

(■"■ 

f= 

' 2 

is parallel to the e" line, and is drawn through the point f=-'b, u=0. 
The reflexions of these lines in the liney=l give us the e"" and 2e~" lines, 
while a line drawn through y='5, ic=0, parallel to the last two, gives 
. e-" 
•^ 2 

45. The Semi-lorfarithmic Graph of Sinh u. — Any point on this curve 

is found by reading off the values of — and — from the appropriate lines 

for a chosen value of n. Subtract the latter from the former numerically 
and mark the result on the vertical scale through u. In this way the 
curve can be readily drawn. 

46. The Cosh u Curve. — This is conveniently drawn at the same time 

as the sinh v, curve, the values being added. Both curves are asymptotic 

e" 
to the — line. 

47. The Graphs of Cosech u and Sech u. — These functions being the 
reciprocals of those just traced, we have only to make the diagram 
symmetrical about the line /— 1 to obtain the two new curves. They 
are asymptotic to the line 2e"". 

48. Tlie Grajihs of Tanh u and Coth u. — These are drawn in from the 
sinh 10 and cosh iv curves ; the vertical distances between these curves 



176 



REPORT — 1898. 



when set out above f=\ give the coth tt curve, and when set out below, 
the tanh ?t curve.' 

49. A figure constructed thus forms a check on more elaborate 
numerical computation. It should be noticed that it can be drawn almost 
entirely by graphical methods, the only numerical value required being 
the number e. 

It is obvious that the semi-logarithmic chart provides a short and easy 
method of calculating the cooi-dinates of catenaries of which cosh u (on 
squared paper) is one. 

On some Points in the Geometry of the Semi-logai-ithmic Graphs of the 

Hyperbolic Functions. 

50. If we write down the other hyperbolic functions of m when 
sinh M=rt we find that the values of the six functions are identical with 



Fig. G. 




those of u', whei'e it' is defined by sinh %'=-. The six equations thus 

a 

obtained may be expressed by saying that any function of a is equal to that 

function of a' which stands opposite to it in the table — 

sinh cosech 

cosh coth 

tanh sech. 

Thus (see fig. 6) if a straight line such as AA' be drawn perpendicular 
to the axis of u and C be the intersection of this line with any of the six 
curves (in the figure with coth u) ; then if a straight line be drawn 
parallel to the axis of u to cut the curve indicated in above table at the 
point c (in this case cosh ?t) a vertical straight line through c will cut all 

When u is small, put tanh u=u and coth u = . 

u 



ON THE USE OF LOGAKITHMIC COORDINATES. 177 

the curves in values for / which are equal, each to each, to the inter- 
sections on the first straight line. 

Thus on the diagram the figure Aa' is a rectangle whose sides AA', 
aa' are bisected by the axis of %(,, and the lines «A, 6B, cC, a' A', h'W, 
c'C are all equal and parallel. 

This property would be of great value in the origination or verification 
of tables of these functions. 

If D be the intersection of the sinh and coth curves, it follows that 
'D'D'd'd is a rectangle whose sides are parallel and perpendicular to the 

axis of u. 

If Q be the intersection of sinh to and cosech m, Q must lie on the 
axis of u. It follows at once that EQE' is a straight line perpendicular 
to the axis of n. 

51. For the point E we have 



whence e"=l + N/2, 

e-"=N/"2-l. 
Thus when u has the value given by 

MM = l0g 10 (1 + V 2) 

(m= -88 approximately), 

sinh ?6= cosech 'M=1 
cosh M=coth i(,^=\/'2i 

sech M=tanh ?4=^— -. 

The lines «=2 and u=\ are inserted in fig. 6. RR' is divided into 
four equal parts by E, Q, E'. 

52. The value of u which makes cosh ^^=cosech u is given by 

sinh 2m =2, 

whence e2"=V5 + 2, 

e-"-»=v'5— 2. 

The value of « is given by 

2MM=logio(^/5 + 2), 

and is approximately 0*72. 

The value of cosh u is given by 

2 cosh^ M=cosh 2m + 1 
= v/'5 + l. 



Thus 



cosech 16= cosh u 

sinh M=sech u 
tanh M= 




1898. N 



178 REPORT— 1898. 

n/5 + 1 
coth u=z2l — 2_. 

2 
53 When sinh u=2 

and cosh u=.<J ^ 
cosech u-=z\ 

vo 

2 
tanh ■2t= — ^— 
n/5 

and coth ?t='^_ 
2 

Sinh w'=| has the same values for the functions accordine to the 
table in § 50. o " 

On the figure we have 

FK= v/5, i.e., the vertical reading at F is \/5. 
GK=2 



The lines FG, HK, KH', G'F' are equal. 

54. To find u when sinh M=coth tt, we have 

M=sinh~^ %!, 
= loge (sinh M + V sinh2?( + l) ; 

whence 

M=1'06 approximately. 

Conclusion. 

55. It may be noticed that just as some equations are more suited to 
plotting by means of semi-logarithmic coordinates than by logarithmic 
coordinates, so advantage may be gained by having only one, or two, of 
the axes in three dimensions graduated logarithmically. 

The more frequent use of logarithmic geometry would tend to simplify 
many theoretical investigations, and, apart from theory, the aid which the 
method gives in computation seemed to be sufficient justification for the 
publication of this paper. 

In conclusion I wish to thank Professor J. J. Thomson for several 
valuable suggestions. 

Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 179 



Seismological Investigations. — Tliird Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. G. J. Symons (GJiairman), Dr. C. Davison cmd 
Mr. John Milne (Secretaries), Lord Kelvin, Professor W. G. 
Adams, Professor T. G. Bonney, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Mr. 
0. V. Boys, Sir F. J. Bramwell, Mr. M. Walton Brown, Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Dr. G, M. Dawson, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Professor 0. G. Knott, Professor G. A. Lebour, Professor E. 
Meldola, Professor J. Perry, Professor J. H. Poynting, Dr. 
Isaac Eoberts, and Professor H. H. Turner. Draivn up by 
Secretary, John Milne. 

Contents. 

PAGE 

I. Progress made inwards the Estahlishment of Eartliqualie-olsening 

Stations round the World, ^y John Milne 179 

II. Notes on Special Earthqxiahes. By John Milne 185 

III. Catalofjiie of Earthqualxs recorded in Toldo, Beceiriber 17, 1896, to 

Dec'emher 16, 1897 189 

IV. Earthquahes recorded at Shide {Isle of Wight), Edinhurgh, Eidstone, and 

certain Stations in Europe, roith Discussion on the same. By John 

Milne 191 

V. On Certain Characteristics of Earthqualte Motion. -By John Milne .218 

VI. Magnetometer Disturbances and EarthquaJies. By John Milne . . 226 

VII. Suboceanic Changes in Relation to Earthqualtes. By John Milne . . 251 

VIII. A Time Indicator. By John Milne 255 

IX. On tlie Civil Time employed Throughout the World. By John Milne . 255 

X. Great Circle Distances and Chords of the Earth. By John Milne , , 256 

XI. Certain Small Fractions of an Hour. By Shinobu Hieota . . . 257 

XII. Earthquake Observations in Italy and Europe. By John Milne . . 258 

XIII. Preliminary Examination of Photograms obtained with the Seismometer 

in the Liverpool Observatory. By W. E. Plummee .... 272 
XIV. A List of Reports relating to Earthquakes, j^ublished by the British 

Association 276 

I. Progress made toivards the Establishment of Earthquake-observing 
Stations in various Parts of the World. 

In the report for 1897 there will be found a copy of a circular inviting 
cooperation in the establishment of a seismic survey of the world, which, 
with the kind assistance of the Foreign, Colonial, and India Offices, was 
forwarded to many countries and colonies. The result of these communi- 
cations, together with private correspondence, has been to establish or 
arrange for the establishment of instruments at twenty-two stations. 

The following notes indicate the position we hold in regard to these 
stations, and the direction in which further co-operation may be expected. 

The instruments at Shide, in the Isle of Wight, are indicated as Nos. 1 
and 2, but it is only No. 1 that is of the type recommended by this com- 
mittee. No. 2 consists of a pair of horizontal pendulums writing on 
smoked paper. Both were purchased by Government grants from the 
Royal Society. 

n2 



180 REPORT— 1898. 

1. Canada: Toronto. Meteorological Observatory. 
rrofessor R. F. SiurAKT, Director. 

The instrument (No. 3) reached this station during the meeting of the 
British Association in August, 1897, when arrangements were made for 
its installation in a small building outside the Magnetic Observatory. It 
has already yielded several good seismograms, the most important being 
that of a West Indian earthquake on December 29. This and other 
disturbances were also recorded in the Isle of Wight, and are described in 
this rejDort. Much trouble was occasioned by the frequency and magni- 
tude of ' tremor ' storms, especially on frosty nights. Although the 
marked character of these was reduced by copious ventilation, Professor 
Stupart writes me that with the hope of getting rid of them altogether 
he intends to move the instrument inside the main building of the 
observatory. 

This instrument was provided by the Meteorological Observatory, 
Toronto. 

2. U.S.A. : Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University. — Professor E. C. Pickeeing. 

This instrument (No. 4) was shipped from London in September, 
1897. On April 13, 1898, Professor Pickering wrote that the instrument, 
which was purchased by the Harvard University, is to be shipped to their 
observatory in Peru. 

3. India : Madras. Nungumbaukum. The Astronomical Observatory. 

l)r. MicHiE Smith. 

This instrument (No. 5), after being tested in the Isle of Wight, was 
delivered at the India Stores in October, 1897. It is now in Madras. 
It was provided by the Indian Government. 

' 4. Sjjaiii : Cadiz. San Fernando. Instituto y Observatorio de Marina, 

Captain J. Viniegea. 

For this instrument (No. 6) the thanks of our committee are due to 
Mr. R. K. Gray, at whose expense it was constructed. It was shipped in 
December, 1897, and Captain Viniegra has sent a sample of its records, 
together with a plan of the observatory, showing the position in which it 
is installed. 

5. U.S.A. : Philadelphia, Penn. Strathmore College. 
Professor S. J. Cunningham. 

This instrument (No. 7) was constructed at the expense of Mr. Joseph 
Wharton, 206 Philadelphia Bank Building, Philadelphia, and presented 
by him to the above institution. 

It was shipped from here in November, 1897. 

Mr. Wharton very kindly offers further co-operation in the work of 
this committee. 

Professor Cunningham has written describing the installation. 

6. Japan : Tokio. Imperial University. — Dr. F. Omoei. 

In a despatch, dated November 22, 1897, Her Majesty's Minister, Sir 
Ernest Satow, has the honour to inform Lord Salisbury that he communicated 
with the Japanese Government respecting our circular to which a reply 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 181 

was received from Baron Nishi to the effect that the authorities concerned 
have decided to co-operate with the British Association. 
The instrument (No. 8) was shipped in February, 1897. 

7. Eiif/land: Surrey. Richmond, Kew Observatory. — Dr. Charles CHKEE,i^.i2,<S', 

The instrument (No. 9) was delivered on March 8, 1898, It was pur- 
chased by the Kew Committee, and is now in operation. 

8. Canada : British Columbia, Victoria. — E. Baynes Rebd. 

The instrument (No. 10) was sent on March 21, 1898, to the care of 
Professor Stupart, who will see to its installation. It was paid for by 
means of the British Association grant given in Toronto, 1897. 

9. Java : Batavia. Magnetisch en Meteorolgisch Observatorium. 
J. P. VAN DER Stok, Director. 

This instrument (No. 11) was shipped May 1, 1897. It was purchased 
by the Dutch Government. 

10. Africa: Ca^ye Toion. The Observatory. — D. Gli,L, F.R.S., Director. 

On March 19, 1897, Dr. Gill placed our circular before the Admiralty 
recommending that co-operation be granted. He also pointed out to the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that the British Association 
Committee undertook the labour and cost of discussing results. The 
instrument (No. 21) was purchased by Her Majesty's Government. 

11. South America : Argentina. Cordova. The Observatory. 
W. G. Davis, Director. 

In November last, after showing Mr. Davis seismograms, he visited Mr. 
Munro's workshop, where he ordered an instrument. This instrument 
(No. 14) was shipped from London on May 13, 1898. 

12. India : Bombay. Colaba, The Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory. 

N. A. F. Moos, Director. 

The orders for instruments to be established at Bombay and Calcutta 
originated through a letter of recommendation from the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, dated October 7, 1897, 
addressed to Her Majesty's Secretary of State for India. 

13. India : Calcutta. Alipore. Meteorological Observatory. 
(See Note relating to the Bombay Instrument.) 

These instruments (Nos. 12 and 13), which were pui'chased by the 
Indian Government, were delivered at the India Stores on April 27, 1898. 

14. Mauritius : Royal Alfred Observatory. — T. F. Claxton", Director. 

On April 29, 1897, Mr. Claxton wrote that if our committee were 
prepared to grant 25/. towards an instrument he might spare 25/. from the 
Government Grant for 1898. Mr. Claxton's offer was accepted, and the 
instrument (No. 17) was despatched in July, 1898. 



182 REPORT— 1898. 

15. New Zealand: Wellington. — Sir James Hector, F.R.S. 

Sir James Hector referred our circular to the New Zealand Govern- 
ment, who agreed to ask Parliament for the necessary grant to purchase 
instruments. On July 30, 1897, Sir James ordered two instruments 
(Nos. 16 and 20). The former of these was despatched in June, and the 
latter was despatched on August 31, 1898. 

16. E(jypt: Cairo. Abbasich. The Observatory. 

Mr. W. J. Wilson, Inspector-General of Irrigation for Upper Egypt, 
forwarded to the Ministry of Public Instruction our circular, with the 
result that H.E. Yacoub Artin Pasha, Under-Secretary of State for 
Public Instruction, directed that an instrument should be supplied to the 
above observatory. This (No. 22) will be despatched in September, 1898. 

17. Scotland, Paisley. The Coats Observatory. 

The Rev. Andrew Henderson, Chairman of the Coats Observatory 
Committee, kindly brought our circular to the notice of that body, with 
the result that an instrument (No. 18) was ordered on February 21, 1898. 
It was sent to Paisley in July. 

18. Mexico. 

On May 25 C. Romero, Esq., Acting Charge d'Aflfaires at the Mexican 
Legation, 87 Cromwell Road, London, wrote the Chairman of our com- 
mittee that he was carrying out instructions received from the Minister 
of Encouragement (Fomento) of the Mexican Government to purchase 
a horizontal pendulum. This instrument (No. 19) was despatchecl on 
August 15. 

19. Syria : Beyroiit. Protestant Collcyc. — Professor R. II. West, Director. 

On the recommendation of Professor R. H. West an instrument 
(No. 15) was ordered for the observatory at the above college. It was 
despatched in June, 1898. Professor West says that all records will be 
at our disjDosal. 

20. U.S.A.: Washington, D.C. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
W. W. Dui'FiELD, Superintendent. 

Mr. Duffield wrote on July 16, 1897, that to take up the work proposed 
would need special authorisation and consequent provision of means. He 
would send copies of our circular to the United States Naval Observatory, 
Dr. J. G. Porter, Director of the Cincinnati Observatory, and to the 
Director of the Lick Observatory. 

21. U.S.A.: Washington, D.C. U.S. Naval Observatory. 
Professor Wm. Haekness. 

On July 19, 1897, Professor Harkness wrote saying that he hoped in 
the not distant future conditions may present themselves enabling him to 
co-operate. 

22. S.A. : Colombia, Bogota. 

A despatch, dated August 12, 1897, from Montagu Villiers, Esq., 
British Vice-Consul at Bogota, to the Marquis of Salisbury stated that 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 183 

the Director of the National Observatory at Bogota hoped before long to 
purchase the necessary instrument and co-operate in the work of our 
committee. 

23. Australia : Sydney. The Observatory.— E.. 0. Russell, F.R.S., Director. 

Mr. Russell regretted that, owing to want of funds, he was unable to 
take a share in the work. He will let us know whether his own pendulum 
is of any use. 

24. China : Sha7iykai. Zikawei Observatory. — L. Feoc, S.J. 

On April 5, 1897, Father Froc wrote regretting that he had neither 
the means nor the facility to establish an instrument at Zikawei, at which 
place, he states, the most severe shocks originating in Japan are not 
experienced. 

25. Malta : Gozo. The College.— R&\. James Scoles, S.J. 

Father Scoles, writing from Beaumont College, Old Windsor, said : 
' No doubt some interesting results would be obtained in Malta, but in the 
College there no one has sufficient leisure to attend to such a work, nor 
are there any funds available. 

26. S2}ain: Cadiz.— W. G. Foestee. 

Mr. Forster would like an instrument were he at a more favourably 
placed station, but not where he is. 

27. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. The Observatory. — The Dieectoe. 

On April 20, 1897, the Director of this observatory wrote that he had 
received through Her Majesty's Minister, Sir Edmund Constantino 
Henry, the circular issued by this committee. Last June a similar pro- 
posal had been received from Dr. Gerland, of Strassburg, to which he had 
replied favourably. Because nothing further had been heard from Dr. 
Gerland, the observatory at Rio was prepared to undertake the observa- 
tions we proposed. The letter concludes with instructions respecting 
payment for the instrument. 

On Jan. 20, 1898, the Foreign Office forwarded to me the translation 
of a note which Her Majesty's Minister at Rio de Janeiro had received 
from the Brazilian Government, from which it appears that they are not 
disposed to co-operate in the scientific observations indicated by this 
committee. 

28. Haivaii: Honolulu. — W. J. KE^'^N^, Her Majesty s Acting Commissioner and 

Consul- General. 

Shortly after the death of Commissioner Hawes, Mr. T. R. Walker, 
Acting British Consul-General, placed our circular before Professor W. D. 
Alexander, who wrote on July 16, 1897, that the proposed station would 
have to be established in connection with the Hawaiian weather service 
or at Oahu College, but at present he did not think that the necessary 
funds were available. The subject should be taken into consideration by 
the next legislature. 

On December 27 Commissioner W. J. Kenny wrote suggesting that 
seismological investigations be taken up in Hawaii, and if I could send a 
seismograph he v/ould see to its installation and working. 



184 . REPORT— 1898. 

29. Physikalisches Central Observatorium. — Admiral Rykatcheff. Wass.-Ostr., 
23 Linci Haus No. 2, 12/24, February, 1898. ;S'^, Petersbury. 

The Russian Meteorological OfBce think of establishing two instru- 
ments of the type recommended by the Seismological Committee of the 
British Association. It would, however, he first necessary to obtain the 
opinion of the directors of observatories where the instruments might 
be installed. Copies of instructions respecting the working of the instru- 
ments were required. 

Three copies of instructions were forwarded to St. Petersburg on 
March 3, 1898. 

30. Kaiser liclte Akadnnie der Wissenschaften, Wien. March 5, 1898. 

The earthquake commission of the above Academy inquii'ed respecting 
the cost of a seismometer. 

I replied stating the price of instrument and its accessories, gave the 
address of the maker, and sent the Toronto Report for 1897. 

31. Australia: Melbourne. The Observatory. — P, Baracchi, Esq. 

The Director of the above observatory wrote on February 1, 1898, in 
reply to the circular issued by our committee that he had applied to the 
Victorian Government to take part in our work, and had laid the matter 
before Section A of the Australian Association for the Advancement of 
Science. It is hoped that co-operation may be extended to us in the 
early future. 

The following abstract of a report of the Seismological Committee, of 
the Australian Society for the Advancement of Science is taken from 
'Symons' Monthly Meteorological Magazine,' March 1898, p. 2G :— 

' Seismological Committee. 

' This report was presented by the Secretary, Mr. George Hoglsen, M. A., 
of Timaru, New Zealand, and stated that the most interesting result of 
the labours of the observers was the fact, based upon rough calculations, 
that the great South Australian earthquake of May 10, 1897, proceeded 
from a line parallel to the coast near Beachport and Kingston, and 
was possibly due to a sliding of one part of the crust upon another, such 
as forms what is called in geology a " fault." This was probably deep, but 
the later and slighter shocks were surface ones, caused by readjustments 
of the immediate crust. The subject was still under investigation by the 
Secretary. But IMr. Hogben pointed out that it was as part of a world- 
system of seismological observations that the work of the Committee might 
be most useful. An international seismological committee had been set 
up, embracing all the ablest workers in every part of the world, and in 
co-operation with that committee were committees of the British Associa- 
tion and of the Royal Society. They desire especially to be able to track 
the microseismic vibrations or minute earthquake waves, which travelled 
from the sources of disturbance all round the earth's surface, or it might 
be right through the solid mass of our world (if it is solid). The speed 
of these finer waves was many times greater than that of the larger waves 
felt by us, reaching a velocity as great as 12 miles per second, or even 
more. For the purpose of observing them the international committee 
had agreed upon a certain type of instrument — the horizontal pendulum — 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 185 

to be used by all stations alike, as it was important that instruments of 
the same kind and of the same degree of sensitiveness should be employed 
for purposes of comparison.' 

32. Norioay : Hammerfe&t. 

Dr. F. Nansen very kindly offered his co-operation in an endeavour to 
establish the station ' farthest north.' 

33. Ireland : iJuhlin. 

Professor W. F. Barrett is actively endeavouring to establish a station 
in Ireland, towards which I understand that Lord Ardilaun has given 
substantial support. 

It is interesting to note that this co-operation, and that referred to in 
notes (4) and (5), followed lectures bearing on a seismic survey of the 
world. 



II. Notes on Special Earthquakes. 
34. Foreign, Colonial, and Indian Offices. 

I was able to inform the Foreign and Colonial Offices that the official 
notification stating that there had been interruption of two West Indian 
cables connecting us with Venezuela on December 31 probably referred 
to the effects of a submarine earthquake, which happened at 11. .30 a.m. on 
December 29 (see p. 214). I received letters of thanks for the information, 
the correctness of which was not confirmed until March 1. 

From the Foreign, Colonial, and Indian Offices I have received many 
communications relating to the establishment of instruments abroad and 
other matters connected with the work of this committee. These are 
referred to under other sections. 



35. Correspondence respecting EartJiqicakes in the West Indies. 

Mr. Secretary Chamberlain directed that the following two despatches 
should be sent to me, adding that if I were disposed to interest myself in 
the matter he would take steps to obtain information on points about 
Avhich it might be deemed worth while to make inquiry. The first 
despatch is from the Governor of the Leeward Islands, and the second 
from the Administrator of Montserrat :— 

Springfield House, .St. Kitts : 
February 28, 1898. 

Sir,— I have the honour to transmit to you the duplicate of a despatch 
from the Commissioner of Montserrat reporting that several severe shocks 
of earthquake have recently occurred in that island, which have caused 
considerable damage to buildings, although it does not appear that any 
lives have been sacrificed. 

2. Mr. Baynes remarks in paragraph 5 of his despatch that these 
shocks of earthquake have been of frequent occurrence since the floods of 
November, 1896 ; a fact to which I have had occasion to refer in previous 
correspondence. 



186 REPORT— 1898. 

3. What has caused this to be the case I am not prepared to say ; but 
I agree with Mr. Baynes that the subject is one of peculiar interest, and 
I should be glad if it could form the subject of scientific investigation. 

I have, &c., 

F. Fleming. 
The Eight Hon. Joseph Chambeelain, M.P., P.C. 

Commissioner's OflBce, Montserrat : 
Februarj' 21, 1898. 

SiE, — On Tuesday, the 15th instant, severe shocks of earthquake 
occurred in this island, which have since been followed by shocks of 
nearly equal severity, and have caused considerable damage to buildings. 

2. The principal shock was at ll.lG a.m. on Tuesday, and was the 
most severe I have ever experienced. This was followed by shocks so 
numerous as to seem almost continuous until 3.45 p.m., when there was 
one of equal severity but shorter duration ; and during the rest of the day 
and the following night numerous shocks continued to be felt. On Friday, 
at 7 A.M. and 4.25 p.m., and on Sunday, at 9.20 a.m., very severe shocks 
occurred, and in the intervals minor shocks have been of constant 
occurrence. 

3. The windmill tower at Gage's Estate has been seriously damaged, 
and the chimneys on the Grove, Dagenham's, Weeke's, Gage's, Paradise, 
and White's Estates have sustained injury. One house at Gage's has 
been so much damaged as to be made uninhabitable, and several houses 
in various localities have been injured. St. George's Church and St. 
Anthony's Church and Rectory have also sustained some damage. 

4. The only serious damage to any Government building has been at 
the Poor House, where the walls of a small detached building have been 
so seriously damaged that it has been necessary to remove the inmates. 
There are cracks in the walls of the Court House and Treasury, but these 
appear to be superficial. On the public roads, especially those of recent 
construction, large quantities of earth and boulders have been shaken 
from the cliffs on to the roadway, but no further damage is reported. 
Several breaks in the water pipes supplying the town occurred through 
landslips in the ravines through which the pipe track passes, but these 
injuries were at once repaired. 

5. These shocks of earthquake have been of frequent occuiTence since 
the flood of November, 1896, and in my letter of May 3 last I gave some 
account of them up to that date. Of late they have greatly increased iii 
severity. Some months ago a number of shocks occurred in Guadeloupe, 
but I have no recent information from that island. With this exception 
they have not been felt in the neighbouring islands. They would there- 
fore appear to be of local origin, and some disturbance of the volcanic 
springs in Gage's Mountain has evidently taken place. The subject is one 
of peculiar interest, and seems to be well deserving of scientific investi- 
gation. 

I have, &c., 

Edward Baynes, 

Commissioner. 
His Excellency Sir F. Fleming, K.C.M.G. 

The following two letters bearing on the same subject are also of 
interest : — 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 187 



Richmond Hill, Montserrat, West Indies : 
March 2, 1898. 

Dear Sir, — I beg to inform you that since the flood of November 29, 
1896, which caused great injury to life and property in this island, 
innumerable shocks of earthquake have been experienced. 

There are in this island several craters and sulphur springs, and there 
are also a few hot-water springs, all of which go to prove that the 
volcanoes here are by no means extinct, and it is thought by some per- 
sons that the mouth of one of the numerous craters has been filled up by 
a landslip caused by the above-mentioned flood, on the night of which 
there were several shocks of earthquake — the first experienced in Mont- 
seri'at for a great number of years. It is possible that the filling up of 
this crater has been the cause of all the earthquakes we have been feeling 
here lately. 

Since November 1896 there have been experienced at least one 
thousand shocks of earthquake. 

The most severe shocks took place on the following dates : — November 
29, 1896 ; April 22, 24, 25 and 29, 1897 ; July 28, 1897 ; December 4, 
1897 ; February 15, 18 and 20, 1898. Those on February 15 exceeded 
all the others in point of severity. Some persons state that there were 
eighty-one shocks that day, of which forty-one were felt in three hours. 

The shock on April 29, 1897, though one of the longest, was felt 
throughout this portion of the West Indies, but was of slight force, and, 
notwithstanding its very long duration, did no injury here, though a great 
deal of damage was done at Pointe-a-Pitre, in the neighbouring French 
island of Guadeloupe. 

All the other earthquakes have been entirely local, having not even 
been noticed at Antigua, an island about thirty miles away, though those 
in April were felt at the isolated rock of Redonda, a few miles ofl" the 
north coast of this island. 

Only the most severe earthquakes have been mentioned above ; but 
scarcely a day passes without our feeling a few shocks, and excluding 
February 1 5 as many as thirty shocks have been felt in one day. 

During the last month or two the smell of sulphur from the craters 
has been very strong and disagreeable, silver tarnishing in town very 
easily. 

All the earthquakes seem to have had the same direction, viz., from 
' Gage's ' Mountain, where the Soufriere is located (see Admiralty Chart 
of Montserrat), with the exception of that of April 29, which appeared to 
come from the direction of Guadeloupe, viz., the south. 

I am thankful to say that the shocks are usually of very short 
duration, averaging four or five seconds. 

Some of the oldest inhabitants of the island affirm that the worst 
shock, on February 15 (11.16 a.m.), was just as severe as the great earth- 
quake of 1843, but being of shorter duration did not do so much damage. 

Several buildings have been very badly damaged. Innumerable 
cracks have appeared in nearly every stone building in the island, 
including the Court Hall and the churches. 

These shocks of earthquake, which have been continually felt for the 
last sixteen months (i.e. since November 1896), are causing great anxiety 
among the inhabitants, and it is not known but that they may culminate 
either in a volcanic eruption or the numerous stone buildings, weakened 



188 REPORT— 1898. 

as they already are by these continual shocks, must in course of time be 
thrown to the ground unless the earthquakes cease. 

The whole subject seems Avell deserving of scientific investigation. 
The Government of the island is in a very bad financial state, and could 
not afford any pecuniary aid to an investigation, though it would doubt- 
less give as much encouragement as possible to the investigators ; but 
probably in the interests of science your committee or some other scien- 
tific society would bear the expense of making a scientific investigation 
which would be most interesting to science in general. 

Official reports in connection with the recent earthquakes have 
doubtless been sent to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and I 
would suggest your communicating with the Colonial Office in considering 
the question ; but if your Society cannot send out a scientist I should be 
glad if the substance of this letter could be published in the English 
newspapers, and perhaps some scientist would take the matter up. 

I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

H. DE CouRCY Hamilton, 
Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. 

John Milxe, Esq., Secretary, Seismological Investigation Committee, London. 

Extract from Letter of Joseph Stlirge, Esq.. Wheeley's Road, Birmingham, 

dated February 3,' 1898. 

' I think you maj' be glad to know of a somewhat curious phenomenon 
that has taken place in a small island in the West Indies, Montserrat, 
with which I am connected. 

' The island is the tip of a submarine mountain : it is 12 miles long by 
7 wide, and 3,000 feet high. The sea is 2,000 fathoms deep all round 
the island. There are sulphureous springs of hot water which emit 
vapour, but no more active volcanic action, and for forty years there have 
been no serious earthquakes and very few noticeable ones. 

'On November 29, 1896, there was an extraordinary rain-storm, 20 
inches of rain falling in the centre of the island in about twelve hours. 
Since that time the island has been subject to constantly recurring slight 
shocks of earthquake. They come almost every day, and sometimes 
several in a day. They do not do much harm, but keep people more or 
less in a state of alarm, and the curious problem is what happened on the 
day of the rain-storm that set the earthquakes going. 

' The sulphur springs have emitted a much more copious volume of gas 
since the change, so that silver now goes black three miles ofl'. 

' It may be worth while to mention that in 1880 there was a similar 
flood in the neighbouring island of St. Kitts, and that tlie same night 
there was a volcanic disturbance in Dominica (150 miles from St. Kitts), 
and a boiling lake came into existence among the mountains there.' 

On April 15 Mr. Sturge writes that the earthquakes increased in 
frequency and violence until the end of February. Almost all stone 
buildings were more or less injured. Since then there has been a great 
drought, coincidently with wliich the shocks ha\'e almost entirely ceased. 
Is this a in'O'pter hoc or only a yost hoc 1 



ON SEI3M0L0GICAL INVESTIGATION, 



189 



III. — Catalogue of EartlinuaTies recorded by a Gray-Milne Seismograph at the Central 
Meteorological OMervatory, Tokio, Decemher 17, 1897, to January 27, 1898. 
{Continiiation of Catalogue commencing in the British Association Report, 1886. 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 












a 




Amplitude of 


\mplitude of 






.^ 






o 




Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 


So. 


1 


Day 


Time 


a 


Direction 


Motion 


Motion 


Sliock 






















sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 












1896. 














H. jr. s. 


\t. s. 














1,S16 


XII. 


17 


1 17 25 A.M. 


3 47 


S.S.E., N.N.W. 


0-2 


1-9 


0-2 


0-4 


quiclc 


1,817 




17 


6 14 06 r.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,818 


1, 


20 


5 03 38 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,819 


)) 1 


29 


7 06 06 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1) 










1897. 








1,820 


I. 


8 


5 57 25 A.M. 





_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sUglit 


1,821 


11 


9 


9 27 18 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)1 


1,822 


IT 


13 


6 39 39 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)1 


1.823 




16 


10 58 52 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,824 


)» 


17 


49 28 A.M. 


3 32 


N.E., s.^y. 


0-7 


4-0 


0-2 


0-3 


clocks stopped, 
slow 


1,825 


M 


17 


5 36 36 A.M. 


— 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,826 


It 


18 


9 27 03 P.M. 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)* 


1,827 




20 


10 46 22 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,828 


jj 


23 


2 12 42 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,829 


n 


25 


1 48 55 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,830 




27 


3 46 38 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i» 


1,831 


li. 


1 


10 33 35 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,832 


)) 


4 


2 13 46 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,833 


" 


4 


3 51 56 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


„ 


1,834 




7 


4 38 33 P.M. 


5 47 


N.W., S.E. 


0-7 


1-7 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,835 


»> 


8 


5 25 17 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,836 


n 


8 


8 07 51 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i> 


1,837 


)> 


9 


10 1 35 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,838 


J} 


U 


52 18 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»i 


1,839 


)» 


11 


7 24 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


1,840 


)) 


13 


2 19 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


1,841 


11 


17 


9 13 56 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)1 


1,842 


») 


18 


8 11 30 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


»» 


1,843 


»j 


20 


9 52 28 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1, 


1,844 




21 


04 17 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,845 


J, 


28 


1 14 58 A.M. 


2 22 


N.N.W., S.S.E. 


1-4 


3-1 


0-4 


0-2 


»> 


1,846 


III. 


5 


1 14 20 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,847 


}> 


5 


5 27 41 P.M. 


37 


S.W., N.E. 


0-2 


0-6 


0-1 


0-1 


quick 


1,848 


It 


6 


5 36 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,849 




7 


3 22 46 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i» 


1,850 


» 


13 


10 14 55 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i» 


1,851 


a 


14 


2 06 25 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,852 


}* 


17 


6 13 58 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,853 


»» 


20 


5 32 34 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


1,854 


)i 


26 


2 11 57 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,855 


)i 


27 


7 49 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,856 




30 


9 16 41 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,857 


IV. 


3 


8 30 45 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,858 


„ 


4 


3 32 38 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,859 


i» 


13 


3 47 52 A.M. 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i» 


1,860 




16 


13 37 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,861 


*i 


16 


3 42 08 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,862 




24 


9 48 49 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,863 


)» 


27 


10 31 54 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1.864 




30 


4 03 06 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,865 


V. 


3 


4 42 59 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,866 


ji 


3 


6 29 39 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,867 


„ 


4 


11 36 47 P.M. 


. — 


, — 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


„ 


1,868 


,, 


5 


8 67 21 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,^ 


1,869 


»» 


6 


6 46 35 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 


1,870 




6 


7 34 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,871 


„ 


6 


9 40 51 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,872 


„ 


6 


7 53 43 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i» 


1,873 


,1 


7 


2 59 15 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


1,874 


}i 


9 


11 01 09 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 



190 



REPOKT — 1898. 
Catalogue of Eabthquakes— co«<M»<crf. 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 






5 






a 




Amplitude ol 


Amplitude of 










S 




Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 
Shock 


Ko. 



O 


Day 


Time 




Direction 


Motion 


Motion 


sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 








n. M. s. 


.M.8 














1,876 


V. 


12 


3 30 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,876 


n 


12 


6 19 36 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,877 


»» 


13 


2 28 59 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


quick 


1.878 


ff 


18 


10 09 49 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,879 


11 


19 


6 25 13 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,880 


Tl 


23 


9 23 P.M. 


3 40 


N.W., S.E. 


1-7 


1-7 


— 


— 


slow 


1,881 




27 


10 25 32 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,882 


vi. 


11 


9 69 31 A.M. 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,883 


» 


13 


11 24 14 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,884 


ti 


18 


1 23 40 :-.M. 


— 


— . 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,885 


>» 


19 


2 03 43 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,886 


»» 


22 


1 22 18 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


„ 


1,887 




27 


5 48 23 A.M. 


1 12 


S.E., N.W. 


sli 


gilt 


sli 


gilt 


quick 


1,888 


vi'i. 


8 


11 33 44 P.M. 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,889 


»» 


21 


10 12 52 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,890 




22 


9 54 S3 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


•~- 


„ 


1,891 


,j 


22 


6 31 44 P.M. 


4 34 


W.S.W.,E.X.E. 


1-3 


7-3 


0-2 


0-3 


slow, weak 


1,892 


n 


22 


6 50 57 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,893 


1* 


28 


3 30 50 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,894 


» 


29 


6 34 59 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,895 


}* 


29 


6 57 46 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,896 


»» 


29 


10 31 54 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


yt 


1,897 


)) 


29 


10 44 60 P.M. 


1 50 


N.N.W., S.S.E. 


0-7 


0-7 


sli 


ght 


n 


1,898 


i» 


31 


6 51 30 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,899 


VIII. 


2 


2 02 47 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,900 


" 


4 


10 19 22 P.M. 


abt. 


— 


— 


— 


~~' 


— 


» 


1,901 


i> 


5 


9 12 23 A.M. 


7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slow, weak 


1,902 


11 


5 


9 29 22 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,903 


)i 


5 


9 45 51 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»j 


1,904 


)t 


6 


10 21 09 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


?> 


1,905 


)i 


5 


10 44 23 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


>» 


1,906 


It 


5 


11 31 04 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,907 


a 


5 


4 20 40 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,908 


ij 


5 


6 64 42 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,909 


11 


6 


3 59 30 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,910 


11 


6 


4 15 39 A..M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,911 


n 


6 


8 48 57 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,912 


n 


8 


4 37 09 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,913 


It 


8 


11 55 36 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,914 


It 


8 


6 28 46 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,915 


It 


12 


10 61 04 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


», 


1,916 




16 


11 48 01 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,917 


^[ 


16 


4 53 33 P.M. 


3 


N.N.W., E.S.E. 


1-0 


3 


— 


— 


slow, weak 


1,918 


"^ 


16 


5 36 25 P.M. 


— 


o_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,919 


j^ 


16 


6 11 35 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)) 


1,920 


j^ 


18 


11 55 27 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


1,921 


11 


21 


28 16 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


M 


1,922 




21 


6 29 28 A.M. 


— 


.— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I» 


1,923 


^j 


22 


23 58 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,924 


j^ 


25 


5 14 33 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,925 


)i 


27 


1 08 46 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,926 


)i 


27 


6 19 20 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,927 




27 


8 46 19 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,928 




28 


4 02 P.M. 


— . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


., 


1,929 


IX. 


8 


11 44 36 A.M. 


1 15 


N.N.E., S.S.W. 


0-8 


0-6 


slig 


lit 


quick, weak 


1,930 


11 


11 


1 40 13 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,931 


11 


21 


9 02 12 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Jl 


1,932 


11 


23 


6 27 03 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»1 


1,933 




26 


9 59 18 P.M. 


_ 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


1,934 


X. 


2 


9 45 19 P.M. 


? 25 


W.S.W., E.N.E. 


1 


1-8 


0-4 


0-2 


quick, weak 


1,935 


ti 


7 


1 40 02 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


^ 


slight 


1,936 


11 


13 


5 16 57 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


It 


1,937 


It 


15 


10 57 47 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t» 


1,938 




17 


7 54 05 I'.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 " 


1,939 


" 


20 


3 01 18 P.M. 


2 


S.E., N.TT. 


0-3 


1-0 


0-2 


0-3 


weak, quick 


1,940 




25 


10 11 10 A.M. 1 


) 50 


N.N.W., S.S.E. 


0-2 


0-5 


— 


— 


quick 


1,941 


„ 


26 


10 18 39 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,942 


XI. 


2 


1 42 26 A.M. 1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ' 


__^ 1 


' 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION, 



191 



Catalogue op Eabthquakes — continued. 















Maximum 


Maximum 
















Period and 


Period and 






.a 

-*3 






d 




Amplitude of 


Amplitude of 










'.,.1 




Horizontal 


Vertical 


Nature of 


No. 


1 


Day 


Time 


2 

-M.S. 


Direction 


Motion. 


Motion 


Shock 


sees. 


mm. 


sees. 


mm. 








n. M. s. 














1,943 


XI. 


5 


6 44 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sUght 


1,944 




9 


9 39 28 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,945 


'^ 


11 


5 29 53 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,946 


'^ 


13 


3 06 36 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


J> 


1,947 


,, 


13 


6 16 24 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»l 


1,948 


,, 


14 


9 13 43 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,949 




15 


6 06 39 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,950 


1, 


16 


8 03 16 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,951 




19 


10 16 22 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,952 




20 


3 05 01 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)» 


1,953 


,) 


22 


10 04 36 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,954 




23 


5 56 54 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»t 


1,955 


)» 


24 


9 06 54 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,956 




27 


12 56 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t» 


1,957 


xii. 


2 


11 23 15 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,958 




3 


9 24 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t) 


1,959 


" 


4 


9 18 10 A.M. 


1 14 


S.S.W., N.N.E. 


0-8 


0-5 


— 


— 


quick 


1,960 


jj 


5 


8 08 21 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 


1,961 




6 


2 03 45 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


>» 


1,962 


^ 


7 


5 25 31 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5» 


1,963 


j^ 


8 


5 23 11 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


y> 


1,964 


,j 


10 


8 04 42 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)i 


1,965 


J, 


12 


G 40 49 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»t 


1,966 


1, 


13 


10 67 57 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t> 


1,967 


„ 


16 


8 47 43 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,968 




17 


9 26 19 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)t 


1,969 


J, 


19 


3 16 26 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


;» 


1,970 


„ 


19 


1 21 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)> 


1,971 


jj 


21 


5 14 41 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,972 


„ 


23 


3 36 11 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


1,973 




23 


8 45 53 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»> 


1,974 


,j 


23 


26 04 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


51 


1,975 


jj 


23 


11 03 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,, 


1,976 


" 


24 


3 36 26 P.M. 


— 


— 


. — . 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


1,977 




26 


4 41 25 P.M. 


,3 20 


S.E., N.W. 


1-2 


1-4 


— 


— 


weak, slow 


1,978 


' n 


31 


11 52 14 P.M. 


1 — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


slight 










1898. 








1,979 


I. 


5 


5 21 01 P.M. 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


« 


1,980 


i» 


13 


8 16 22 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,981 


„ 


14 


2 30 06 A.M. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


1,982 


5» 


27 


10 43 27 P.M. 


— 


— 


"~" 




~ 


~ 


>» 



IV. — Earthquakes eecoeded at Shide, and also at other Stations. 

Earthquakes recorded with a Milne Horizontal Pendulum at Shide, Isle of Wight, 
1897-98. The time used is Greemvich mean {civil) titne. Midnight = 24 or 
hours. P.T.s= preliminary tremors. Duration means the interval of time over 
which movements continued. 

An asterisk (*) indicates Earthquakes which are discussed separately, or of which 

seismograins are reproduced. 



No. 


Date 


Time of Com- 
mencement 


Remarks 


96* 
97* 
98* 


Mar. 23 

May 5 




H. M. s. 

16 19 12 

22 44 20 

23 50 38 


1897. 

Small. 

Large. Exact commencement lost, 
least 3m. Duration 47m. 


P.T.s at 



192 



REPORT — 1898. 



Earthquakes Recorded at Shide, etc.— contiii'Md. 



No. 


Date 


Time of Com- 
mencement 


Remarks. 


99* 


May 


13 


12 16 24 


Moderate. P.T.s 6m. Duration 36m. 




100* 


»t 


23 


13 15 20 


Small. 




101* 


11 


24 


18 59 


Moderate. 




102* 


»» 


24 


1 48 19 


Small. 




103" 


}* 


24 


4 30 59 


If 




101* 


Jane 




9 57 18 


Large. P.T.s 17m. Duration 2h. 




105* 


n 


12 


11 29 10 


Large. Exact commencement lost, 
large waves 15s. Range 10mm. 
Assam. P.T.s exceed 10m. 


Period of 
Origin, 


106* 


»» 


12 


19 53 19 


Small. Duration 10m. 




107* 


t» 


13 


7 39 33 


7m. 




108* 


T* 


13 


10 51 33 


„ „ 10m. Three maxima. | 


109 


)t 


20 


20 58 40 


10m. 




110 


»1 


21 


20 14 43 


, ,. 8m. 




Ul 


1* 


22 


14 11 40 


8m. 




112* 


1» 


24 


19 34 53 


Ends 20h. 43m. 15s. Large. Origin, 


A.lbania. 


113* 


>T 


30 


4 39 33 


Small. 




114* 


»1 


30 


15 2 


Slight. Origin, Epirus. 




115* 


July 


17 


7 57 9 


Small. 




116* 


i» 


21 


13 33 32 


"Very large. P.T.s 7m. Two large maxima. | 


117* 




22 


11 20 


Moderate. Commencement lost. 




118* 


Aug. 


2 


15 46 39 


Small. 




119* 


»i 


5 


22 35 


Very large. P.T.s 30m. Duration 
Origin, Japan. 


over 3h. 


120* 


*» 


16 


8 6 29 


Slight. Ends 8h. 56m. 22s. 




121 


»» 


17 


6 41 17 


Small. 




122* 


»i 


26 


17 1 41 


i) 




123* 


)1 


26 


21 40 30 


)? 


* 


124* 


») 


26 


22 13 14 


Moderate. P.T.s 2m. 44s. 




125 


») 


29 


6 16 17 


„ 4m. 




126 


)» 


31 


15 4 19 


Small. 




127 


Sept. 


1 


18 29 41 


u 




128 


11 


5 


1 21 59 


*J 




129 


»» 


5 


1 36 50 






130 


11 


12 


22 54 18 


1» 




131* 


11 


17 


15 59 58 


Large. P.T.s 8m. Duration 40m. 




132* 


11 


17 


17 69 58 


„ 8m. „ 38m. 




133* 


ti 


20 


19 24 47 


„ 40m. „ 2h. 56m. 
E. of Borneo. 


Origin, 


134* 


M 


21 


5 28 51 


Large. P.T.s 43m. Duration 2h. 56m 
E. of Borneo. 


Origin, 


135* 


11 


21 


11 36 44 


Slight. Ends 13h. 20m. 20s. 




136 


)» 


24 


23 58 56 


SmaU. 




137 


'1 


25 


18 3 39 


»> 




138* 


Oct. 


2 


13 36 39 


Moderate. Duration 27m. 




139* 


11 


3 


15 7 9 


Small. 




140* 


M 


19 


6 52 


Large. P.T.s 41m. Duration 2h. 30m. 




141* 


)• 


20 


14 43 29 


„ 42m. „ 2h. 33m. 




142* 


»» 


23 


3 19 


Slight. Ends 3h. 28m. 29s. 




143 


»' 


23 


17 49 56 


Small. 




144 


1> 


31 


2 


About this time. Small. 




145 


1» 


31 


17 


„ „ Large. 




146* 


Nov. 


14 


14 53 35 


Small. Duration 22m. 




147 


>> 


17 


3 28 47 


»» 




148 


tf 


20 


17 33 21 






149 


11 


22 


8or9 48 45 


It 




150 


H 


23 


4 56 44 


»> 




151 




23 


9 34 22 


i» 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Eaethquakes Eecokded at Shidjs, etc.— continued. 



193 



No. 


Date 


Time of Com- 
mencement 


Remarks 


152* 


Nov. 


25 


10 1 48 


Large. Ends 12h. 


153* 


Dec. 


11 


10 4 31 


Small. Duration 45m. 


154 


" 


17 


10 20 58 


Moderate. 


155* 




17 


18 30 


Slight. Ends 10m. 30s. on ISth. 


156* 


i» 


28 


20 54 21 


Moderate. P.T.s 8m. Duration 24m. Observed 
in Toronto at 20h. 24m. 37s. 


157* 


)j 


29 


11 40 48 


Large. P.T.s 19m. Duration Ih. 22m. 28s. 
Origin, N. of Hayti. Observed in Toronto 
llh. 32m. 29s. 


158* 








Dec. 29 to Jan. 1, slight tremors. 
1898. 


159 


Jan. 


3 


14 41 2 


Small. 


160 




3 


15 7 15 


" 


161* 


ji 


24 


23 45 49 


Large. P.T.s 16m. Duration 33m. On smoked 
paper, NS component, 8m. 34s. Toronto, 
13m. 30s. on the 25th. 


162* 




29 


13 44 8 


Small. P.T.s 5m. 47s. Duration 13m. Is. 


163* 




29 


15 5 25 


Large. P.T.s 9m. 30s. Duration Ih. Im. Smoked 
paper, NS component, 15h. 5m. 26s. 


164* 


Feb. 


5 


8 36 13 


End 9h. 19m. 28s. Record on smoked paper. 


165 


1> 


7 


23 35 20 


Small. 


166 


)> 


8 


1 47 32 


IT 


167 




8 


23 5 47 


)) 


168 




9 


22 57 36 


„ Duration 15m. 


169 


>» 


16 


17 9 8 


„ and three others within 54m. 



Note.— On February 5, about 9 A.M., when there were slight disturbances in 
Catania, Catanzaro (Calabria), Rome, and Livorno, and February 18, between 
16h. 30m. and 17h. 30m., when there were feeble movements recorded at Catania, 
Ischia, Rocca di Papa, and Rome. The clock driving the photographic film at Shide 
had stopped. On the 5th it will be observed that a record was obtained on smoked 
paper. 

Note on the Edinburgh Bifilar, Extracted frrnn, a Letter received from Mr. 
Thomas 'Heath, of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. 

An inspection of the photograph shows but little trace of the diurnal 
wave. Measurements of the change of position of the light spot for every 
four hours throughout the month of March 1898 results in an irregular 
curve, which apparently indicates a slight movement to the north from 
noon to midnight, and to the south from midnight to noon. Maximum 
and minimum thermometers are being established in the bifilar room. 

The mean of daily measurements between February 28 and April 2 
indicate that the new movement of the light spot corresponds to a tilt of 
l"-74 of the frame. The photographs have not been subjected to the 
examination necessary to show whether there is a lunar effect. 

The instrument was first mounted in March 1894, at Carlton Hill, 
and removed to its present site, on Blackford Hill, in October 1895. It 
was mounted with photo-recording apparatus in August 1896. A second 
pendulum purchased out of grant from the Scientific Research Committee 
of the Royal Society was mounted in May 1898. 

1898. 



194 



REPORT — 1898. 



Movements recorded bi/ a Darwin Bijilar Tenduhim at the Royal Observatory, 
Ediuburyh. Director, Dr. R. Copeland. 

The instrument was presented to the Observatory by the late 
M. Antoine d'Abbadie in 1894. 



No. 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 



Shide 

No. 



104 
105 
JL6 

119 

131 

132 

133 



134 
139 
140 

141 

146 
163 



Date 



June 3 

.., 12 

„ 21 

Aug. 5 

Sept. 17 

„ 17 

„ 20 



„ 21 

Oct. 3 

„ 19 

„ 20 

Nov. 14 

Jan. 29 



Time, 
G.M.T. 



H. U. S. 

10 57 

U 18 

13 40 

1 2 30 

15 55 

18 2 

19 56 



C 7 30 

14 58 
28 

15 20 

15 29 
15 15 



Remarks 



Slight osoillations and widening of line. 

Ends at 13h. 12m. 

Fine oscillatory disturbance until 14h. 

4m. 
Fine oscillatory disturbance until Ih. 

40m, 30s. 
Small oscillatory disturbance until 

16h. 5m. 
Small oscillatory disturbance until 

18h. 12m. 
Small oscillatory disturbance until 

20h. 28m. Smaller oscillations 20h. 

17m. to 20h. 28m. 
Like preceding until Gh. 38m. 30s. 
Very slight tilt to N. 
Small oscillatory disturbance until 

50m. 
Small oscillatory 

15h. 33m. 
Tilt to N. 
Small oscillatory 

15h. 25m. 



disturbance until 



disturbance until 



Observations at Rocca di Papa. By Dr. A. Cancani. 
Instruments described on pp. 264-2G6. 



No. 


Sbide 
No. 


1 


100 


2 


104 


3 


105 


4 


116 


5 


117 


6 


119 


7 


122 


8 


124 


9 


131 


10 


132 


11 


133 


12 


134 


13 


140 


14 


141 


15 


157 


16 


161 


17 


162 


18 


163 


— 


— 



Date 


Commence- 
ment 


1897 


H. 


M. S. 


May 


23 




— 


June 


3 


9 


54 30 


»> 


12 


11 


18 


July 


21 




— 


)» 


22 




— 


Aug. 


5 





32 40 


»» 


26 


16 


46 30 


)» 


26 


22 


8 30 


Sept. 


17 


15 


50 


>» 


17 


17 


48 


>» 


20 


19 


25 


>f 


21 


5 


32 8 


Oct. 


19 





5 30 


»> 


20 


15 





Dec. 


29 


11 


56 


1896 








Jan. 


24 


23 


49 




29 


13 


39 






13 


40 


Jan. 


29 


15 


5 15 


— 






— 



Maximum 



H. M. s. 
13 17 10 

10 34 

11 47 10 
13 50 
11 26 

1 8 30 

17 
22 15 30 
15 55 

18 6 

19 40 
5 46 
51 

15 30 
12 









30 



15 15 
13 39 17 



15 11 

15 11 45 
15 13 30 



Remarks 



Small undulation. 
End at lOh. 40m. Period 24s. 
At llh. 36m. Period 16s. 
At 13h. 45m. Period 10s. 

End 2q. 12m. 
Period 18s. 
End 22h. 30m. 
Period 18s. 

Period 18s, End 21h. 5m. 

End 7h. 

Period 32s. At 25m. End Ih. 15m. 

End 17h. Period 16s. 

End 12h. 23m. E.W. component 

large. N.S. small. 
End 45m., January 25 
End 13h. 45m. E.W. component. 
End 13h. 40m. 30s. N.S.com]Donent 

small. 
Max. in P.Ts. 15h. 9m. 503. Waves 

commence 15h. 10m. 45s. 
End 15h. 40m. for E.W. 
N.S. component not so distinct. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



195 



Records from W. E. Plummer, Esq., Liverpool Observatory, Bidstone, Birkenhead. 
Instrument a Danuin Bifilar Pendulum, provided by the British Association. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


Date 


Time 


Kemarks 










1897. 












H. M. H. M. 




1 


— 


Sept. 


6 


12 20 to 12 25 


Small. 


2 


132 


}} 


17 


18 10 „ 18 19 


Very small. 


3 


— 


Jl 


19 


7 22 „ 7 30 


Small. September 20 to 22 records 
not taken. 


4 







23 


12 4 „ 12 20 


Motion 0"-008. 


6 


— 


1» 


24 


15 3 


Small. September 28 to October 1 
records not taken. 


6 


139 


Oct. 


3 


16 50 „ 16 55 


Small. October 24 to 26, records 
imperfect. 


7 




11 


27 


17 55 „ 18 30 


Slight disturbance. October 29 to 
November 21 instrument dis- 
mounted. 


8 


— 


Nov. 


24 


11 21 „ 11 31 


Displacement 0"-12. 


9 


— 


»» 


26 


15 30 „ 16 40 


Slight and irregular. 


10 


— 


»j 


27 


14 „ 19 


»t )) »» 


11 


— 


Dec. 


5 


14 30 „ 15 10 


Slight. 


12 


153 


») 


11 


9 50 „ 11 10 


»» 


13 


— 


*» 


14 


10 30 „ 14 30 


Displacement 0"'l. 


14 


157? 


»i 


29 


8 30 „ 9 


Slight disturbance. 










1898. 1 


15 


— 


Jan. 


7 


2 „ 2 10 


Very slight. January 20 to 22 clock 
stopped. 


16 


— _ 


»* 


24 


14 


Uncertain and very slight. 


17 


— 


Feb. 


2 


9 50 „ 11 30 


Moderate. 


18 


— 


>» 


6 


18 4 „ 18 10 


Slight. 


19 


— 


*9 


7 


13 „ 15 


„ movement. 


20 


169 


»l 


16 


17 30 


» >> 


21 


— 


11 


18 


15 25 „ 16 30 


11 »t 


22 


— 


»» 


20 


3 „ 8 


Most considerable disturbance. Mo- 
tion 0"17. 


23 


— 


1» 


20 


18 30 


Disturbance. 


24 


— 


)» 


24 


14 22 „ 14 40 


Slight. 


25 


— 


Mar. 


2 


11 „ 30 


Moderate. On 15th no record. 


26 


— 


»i 


7 


14 „ 18 


Trace irregular. 


27 


— 


If 


8 


4 „ 8 


*» ji 


28 


— 


»» 


11 


17 About 


Slight. 


29 


— 


» 


12 


2 „ 4 


Slight 


30 


— 


f» 


24 


8 20 „ 15 


Trace irregular. 


31 


— 


)j 


27 


5 „ Noon 


»> i» 


32 


— 


»» 


27 


20 50 „ 21 23 


Slight. 


33 


1 


»» 


28 


12 „ 12 40 


Moderate. 



o2 



196 



REPORT — 1898. 



Records received fro^n Professor Kortazzi, Nicolaiew. The recordhit/ instrument 
was a von Rebeiir-Paschtdtz Horizontal Pendulum. Max = maxinimn. 
Uur = duration. 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 



6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 

14 
15 

16 
17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 
25 



Shide 
No. 



97 

99 

100 

101 



113 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 

122 
123 
131 

132 
133 

134 
138 

140 

141 

153 

156 

157 

161 

162 
163 



Date 



1897 
May 5 
„ 13 
» 23 
„ 24 



June 30 

July 17 

„ 21 

„ 22 

2 



Aug. 



„ 26 

„ 26 

Sept. 17 

,. 17 

„ 20 



Oct. 



21 

2 



„ 19 

„ 20 

Dec. 11 

„ 28 

„ 29 

1898 

Jan. 24 

„ 29 

„ 29 



Commence- 
ment 
G.M.T. 



H. M. 

22 12 
12 2 
12 48 

23 57 



3 50 

7 48 

13 43 

9 52 

15 29 



Remarks 






17 





16 


32 





21 


40 





15 


40 





18 








19 


23 


30 


4 


57 





12 


56 


30 





13 





14 


49 





10 


9 





20 


53 





11 


47 





23 


49 


30 


13 


33 





15 


4 






Max. 22h. 27m. Dur. Ih. 
Very large. P.T.s 18m. Dur. 2h. 8m. 
Moderate. Max. 13h. !)m. Dur. 59m. 
Large. P.T.s 9m. Max. 20m. Dur. 

Ih. 4m. 
No observations from June 3 to 29. 
Moderate. Max. 41i. Kim. Dur. 44m. 
Small. Max. 7h. 50m. 5s. Dur. 26m. 
Large. Dur. 35m. P.T.s 4m. 
,, ,, 67m. .. lira. 

Small. „ 10m. 
Very large. Max. 31m. Dur. 3b. 

35m. 
Small. Max. 16h. 4Gm. Dur. 45m. 
„ 21h. 57m. .. 42m. 
Very large. Max. luh. 45m. Dur. 44m. 

Origin, Tashkent. 
Small. Details lost. ' 

Very large. Max. 19h. 29m. 5s. Dur. 

4h. 
Very large. Max. 5h. 7m. The end lost. 
„ „ Max. 13h. 30m. Dur. 

Ih. 36m. 
Very large. Max. 42m. Dur. 3h. 

im. P.T.s 7m. 
Very large. Max. 15h. 37m. Dur. 

3h. 4m. P.T.s 11m. 
Moderate. Mas. lOh. 28m. Dar. 

Ih. 10m. 
Small. Max. 21h. 4m. 30s. Dur. 

29m. 
Small. Max. llh. 55m. and 12h. 7m. 

Dur. 2h. om. 



Very large 

5s. 
Small. Dur. ]9m. 
Very large. Max 

58m. 



Max. 5m. Dur. 37m. 



151i. 10m. Dur. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



197 



Earthquakes recorded at Shide and also at Distant Localities. 

For a collective statement regarding earthquakes recorded in Italy I 
am indebted to Professor P. Tacchini, Director of the R. UfScio Centrale 
di Meteorologia e di Geodinamica al CoUegio Romano, Via del Caravita 
N° 7, Roma. He wi-ites me that records from Padua have not been 
received since August 1897. 

Professor Stupart's records from the Meteorological Observatory, 
Toronto, date from December 28, 1897. 



S2 


0) 

a 

o 


la 


c5 


<» 

a 
a 
2 


.2 


.3 

o 

M 


h-l 13 
SO 


.3 

3 

o 


O 

o 

O 

H 


3 

a 
W 


o 
M 


.2 
S 


97 



























99 
100 
101 






























z 
























. . 


102 
lOi 
10.5 


— 



















































112 


— 


























113 



























114 



























115 



























116 




















— 






117 




— 













— ■ 








— 


118 
























— 


119 
120 
122 
123 
12i 
131 
132 














— 






— 




— 


— 


— 








— 












— 


— 
















— 




— 




— 


133 
134 
135 












— 





= 




= 




= 


138 


— 


























139 
140 























— 




141 
142 


— 


— 













— 












146 



























152 



























153 





























156 

























. 


157 



























. 


161 


























, 


162 




























163 





























164 


— 














— 











198 



KEPORT — 1898, 



Observations at the li. Osservatorio di Catania e delV Etna. 
By Dr. A. Eiccb. 1897-1898. 

Instrument a long pendulum, p. 259. 



No. 


Shide 
No. 


1 


100 


2 


101 


3 


104 


4 


105 


5 


116 


6 


117 


7 


118 


8 


119 


9 


131 


10 


133 


11 


134 


12 


188 


13 


140 


14 


141 


15 


153 


16 


157 


17 


162 



Date 



Mar. 23 

"^4 

June 3 

.. 12 



July 21 
Au 



22 
2 
5 



Sept. 17 

„ 20 

,. 21 

Oct. 2 

„ 19 

„ 20 

Dec. 11 

„ 29 

Jan. 29 



Commence- 

raenf 

G.M.T. 



H. M. 

13 20 
51 



s. 
6 
46 



9 53 42 
11 17 22 



13 39 4 

9 4 53 

15 17 

24 35 

15 15 50 

19 25 2 

5 29 32 

13 31 51 

6 36 

14 49 26 
9 51 28 

11 29 10 

14 4 41 



Eemarks 



Small 

Small. Also Ih. Om. 2s. and Ih. 5m. 49s. 

„ Duration Ih. 35m. 37s. 
Very large. Duration 4h. 51m. 38s. 

Max. range 32mm. Period of large 

waves lis. 
Moderate. P.Ts. Im. 23s. Duration 

Ih. 15m. 29s. 
Small. Exact commencement lost 

Moderate. P.Ts. 10m. 29s. Duration 
2h. 40m. 53s. 

Small. Duration 2h. 36m. 47s. 

„ Period of large waves ll'5s. 
Duration 2h. 10m. 45s. 

Small 

Small. Period of large waves lis. Du- 
ration 32m. lis. 

Small. Period of large waves 12s. Du- 
ration 52m. 42s. 

Small 

Small. P.Ts. 14m. 21s. Duration Ih. 
20m. 54s. 

Small. Period of large waves 23s. Du- 
ration Ih. 30m. 50s. 

Large. P.Ts. Ih. 2m. 19s. Eange 18 mm. 
Duration Ih. 33m. 51s. 



Deductions based on the Preceding Records. 

In order to determine the areas over which each of the earthquakes 
recorded at Shide had been perceptible a list of these (see p. 191) was 
sent to observatories at the following places : — 

Edinburgh,* Bidstone,* Strassburg, Padua, Rome,* Rocca di Papa,* 
Catania,* Ischia, Nicolaiew,* Charkow, Potsdam,* Toronto.* 

Replies have been received from those stations marked with an asterisk. 
Dr. P. Tacchini, Director of the Ufficio Centrale di Meteorologia e di 
Geodinamica at Rome, in replying, called my attention to several earth- 
quakes which hud been well recorded in Italy, but which did not appear 
on my list. A re-examination of my seismograms led to the discovery of 
certain of these, and the numbers on the Shide list were increased from 
160 to 169. 

Records which ought to be strictly comparable are those from Shide, 
Toronto, and other stations at which the free horizontal pendulums adopted 
by this committee have been established. 

The records from Strassburg, Nicolaiew, Potsdam, and from stations 
at which there are free horizontal pendulums of the von Rebeur-Paschwitz 
or Ehlert types, provided that these instruments have been adjusted with 
like degrees of sensibility, should also be comparable amongst themselves. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INV'ESTIGATION. 199 

If, however, certain of these instruments have been so arranged that their 
stability is feeble, or, in other words, so that their free period is large as 
compared with that of others, they can hardly be expected, even when 
placed side by side, to yield similar seismograms. A small horizontal 
pendulum with a period of, say, 50 seconds and a lai'ge multiplication may 
be continuously in movement over a considei-able period of time. This 
being the case, it may often happen that the exact commencement of an 
earthquake may not be determinable. In the Strassburg records, for 
example, we find commencements of movement given so many minutes in 
advance of other stations in Europe that for the present, at least, we are 
inclined to accept the conclusions to which they lead with some reserve 
(see Earthquake No. 83). 

In Italy there is a great variety of instruments which, for the most 
part, record with ink upon the surface of paper, or by means of indices 
writing on smoked paper. 

The ordinary pendulums vary in length from a few metres up to 
25 metres in length. In Catania, for example, there is a pendulum 
25 metres in length, carrying a bob of 300 kgs., and with writing indices 
multiplying its movements 12'5 times. It appears that these exceedingly 
long pendulums are sometimes affected by the action of the wind upon 
the building in which they are suspended. When this occurs it becomes 
difficult to determine with exactness the time at which an earthquake has 
its commencement. 

The horizontal pendulums are also characterised by their great size. 
The horizontal booms of such instruments at Ptocca di Papa, which carry 
25 kgs. near their outer end, are 2-7 metres in length, the tie running to 
a point 5"25 metres above the foot of each boom. They write with ink on 
a band of paper moving at a rate of GO cm., or 2 feet, per hour. The open 
diagrams obtained from both types of instrument are excellent (see 
p. 207). Unfortunately, the enormous dimensions of these instruments 
preclude any extensive adoption by private observers. When these 
dimensions are reduced, as, for example, with the ordinary pendulums, 
the smaller of these, not having suflicieut multiplication or inertia to over- 
come the frictional resistance of writing indices, fail in a gi'eater or lesser 
degree to record the small preliminary tremors, with the result that the 
time at which an earthquake commences is apparently retarded. 

It is probably sometimes this which explains the great difference in 
the recorded times at which earthquakes originating at great distances 
have announced themselves at different recording stations in Italy and 
Europe. 

For description of instruments in Italy and at Strassburg see 
pp. 258-272. 

Since writing the Report for 1897 I have obtained a list of records 
from Japan and the catalogue issued from time to time by Professor 
Pietro Tacchini in the ' BoUettino della Societa Sismologica Italiana.' Mate- 
rials extracted from these sources enable me to throw further light upon 
records published in 1897. 

No. 1, June 15, 1896. (B.A. Keport, 1897.) 

This is the disastrous shock the sea waves accompanying which occa- 
sioned the loss of nearly 30,000 lives on the N.E. coast of Japan, a 
description of which will be found in the Report for 1897. 



200 



REPORT — 1898. 



Velocity of Fropagation of EaHh-waves. 





H. 


M. 


s. 




Time at origin . 


10 


31 







Padua . 


. 10 


46 


57 


Time to travel. 


Ischia . 


10 


50 


29 


» n »» 


Rocca di Papa 


. 10 


56 


18 


It »» ») 


Catania (about) 


. 11 








»» n t» • 


Rome . 


. 11 


19 


20 


j» »> *> 



15 


57 


19 


29 


25 


18 


29 





48 


20 





Distance on 
arc kms. 


Distance on 
chord kms. 


Velocity on 
arc km. 
per sec. 

9-9 
8-4 
6-5 
6-7 
3-4 


Velocity on 

chord icm. 

per sec. 


Padua .... 
Ischia .... 
Rocca di Papa . 
Catania .... 
Rome .... 


9490 
9879 
9879 
9990 
9879 


8592 
8910 
8910 
•8993 
8910 


8-9 
7-6 
5-8 
51 
30 



Padua 



Ischia 

Rocca di Pajja . 
Catania . 
Rome 



Instruments employed. 

Microseismograph (Vicentini) Pendulum, I'S m. Bob, 50 
kgs. Free period, 2-4 sees. Multiplication bv indices, 
70 to 80. 

Horizontal Pendulum. Bob, 12 kgs. Free period, 11 sees. 

Pendulum, 15 m. Bob, 200 kgs. 

Pendulum, 253 m. Bob, 300 kgs. 

Pendulum, 8 m. Bob, 100 kgs. . 



No. 83, February 7, 1897. (B.A. Report, 1897). 

H. M. s. Pts. 2Cmin. 40 sees. Duration, Ihr. 6 mins. 

Horizontal pendulum and photo record. 
Bifilar pendulum and photo record. 
Pendulum (Vicentini). 
Horizontal pendulum, 12 kgs. 
Horizontal pendulum and photo record. 



Pendulum, 15 m., 250 kgs. 
Pendulum, 25 m., .300 kgs. 
Pendulum, 16 m., 200 kgs. 
Duration by seismograph, 5-47. Slow movement. 



vStrassburg 


7 


45 


4 


Edinburgh 


7 


49 


7 


Padua 


7 


49 


30 


Ischia 


7 


50 


6 


Potsdam . 


7 


55 





Nicolaiew 


7 


57 


1 


Shide . 


7 


59 


3 


Rocca di Papa . 


8 


20 





Catania . 


8 


22 


43 


Rome 


8 


25 





Tokio 


7 


38 


33 



At Ischia the period of the large waves reached 18-5 sees. The natural 
period of the pendulums in the meridian and at right angles was 12-9 sees, 
and 16 '4 sees. 

At Rocca di Papa there were also two horizontal pendulums carrying 
30 kgs., and with periods of 20 sees. The N.S. component commenced at 
8hrs. 25 mins., and the E.W. component at 8 hrs. 23 mins. 40 sees. 

At Catania the N.W.-S.E. component commenced at 8 hrs. 22 mina. 
43 sees. ; N.E.-S.W. component commenced at 8 hrs. 27 mins. 49 sees. 

Velocity of Propagation. — For reasons similar to those given for Earth- 
quake No. lOO, I shall assume that this disturbance had the same origin 
as No. 100, and that it occurred at least 2 mins. 30 sees, earlier than it was 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



201 



noted in Tokio. The time at which it originated is therefore 7 hrs. 36 mins. 
On this assumption the following table has been calculated : — 





Time to 
travel 


Distance on 

arc in degrees 

and kms. 


Distance on 
chord in kms. 


Velocity on 
arc km. 
per sec. 


Velocity on 

chord km. 

per sec. 


Strassburg 

Edinburgh 

Padua 

Ischia 

Potsdam . 

Nicolaiew . 

Shide 

Eocca di Papa 

Catania . 

Rome 




M. S. 

9 4 
13 7 

13 30 

14 6 
19 
21 1 
23 3 
44 
46 43 
49 


o 
85-2 = 9457 
85-0 = 9435 
85-5 = 9490 
89-0 = 9879 
79-7 = 8846 
77-5 = 8658 
86-5 = 9601 
89-0 = 9879 
900 = 9990 
89-0=9879 


8592 
8592 
8592 
8910 
8172 
8000 
8700 
8904 
8993 
8910 


170 

120 

11-7 

11-6 

7-7 

6-8 

7-0 

3-7 

3-5 

3-3 


15-0 

10-9 

10 6 

10-5 

7-1 

6-3 

6-3 

3-3 

3-2 

3-0 



No. 84, February 7, 1897. (B.A. Report, 1897.) 

H. M. S. 

Shide 23 54 50 (Corrected) 

Potsdam' 23 52 

No. 85, February 13, 1897. (B.A. Eeport, 1897.) 

H. M. S. 

Shide 2 8 11 

Potsdam 250 

Rome , ■ . 2 5 50 

Nicolaiew 2 (i 1 

Edinburgh 2 3 12 

Strassburg 2 31 54 

Not recorded at Catania, Ischia, and Rocca di Papa. 



No. 86, February 13, 1897. (B.A. Report, 1897.) 



Shide . 
Potsdam 



H. M. s. 

15 23 36 Duration 
15 18 



M. S. 

9 20 



No. 87, February 15, 1897. (B.A. Report, 1897.) 

H. 

Nicolaiew .......... 22 



M. 

12 





Edinburgh 22 17 

Potsdam 22 20 

At Shide on the night of the 15th-16th there were intermittent 
switchings of the boom. 

February 19, 1897. 
At Shide instrument not working. 



Padua . 
Verona 
Rome . 
Ischia . 
Catania 



Rocca di Papa 



H. M. S. 

20 51 23 

20 58 Pendulum (Vicentini) 

20 59 50 

21 1 25 Period reached, 22-6 sees. 

21 5 25 N.E.-S.W. component. Period reached, 32 sees. 

21 6 42 S.E.-N.W. 

21 11 



202 



REPORT — 1898. 



Pavia • 

Nicolaiew 

Potsdam 

Strassburg 

Edinburgh 
Japan . 



H. M. s 

21 42 12 Pendulum, 4im. 40 kgs. 

20 52 1 

21 2 (about) 

21 11 39 S.W.-N.E. component 

22 25 E.-W. 
21 30 

20 41 Not recorded in Tokio 



No. 88, February 20, 1897. (B.A. Eeport, 1897.) 



Shide 

Rocca di Papa 

Verona . 

Padua . 

Ischia . 

Rome 

Catania . 

Pavia 

Strassburg 

Kicolaiew 

Potsdam 

Edinburgh 



H. M. s. H. M. s. 

17 47 Four separate maxima ending 1 16 27 

23 55 On the 19th 

12 

15 

15 35 Period reached, 29 sees. 

15 40 

15 47 

16 30 

11 

13 

17 

32 



15 
1 





S.W.-N.E. pendulum 



At nearly all the above stations several distinct maxima were 
observed. 

No. 91, March 2, 1897. (B.A. Eeport, 1897.) 

H. M. S. 

Shide ... 21 48 11 

Ischia . . . 21 25 22 E. and W. horizontal pendulum, 12 kgs. 

Nicolaiew . . 21 14 1 

Potsdam . . 21 22 (about) ' 

March 7, 1897. 

At Shide record hidden by small tremors. 

B. :tr. B. 

Rocca di Papa 4 510 (about) 

Tokio 6 24 46 



No. 93, March 16, 1897. (B.A. Eeport, 1897.) 



Shide . 
Nicolaiew 



H. 

7 
6 



M. 

36 
31 



s. 

27 Duration. 
1 



K. 

29 



No. 96, March 23, 1897. 

On this day the following cables were reported as having been inter- 
rupted : — Tenedo-Dardanelles, Malta-Alexandria, Emden-Vigo (Bay of 
Biscay), and the Aden-Zanzibar. A shock was also reported from 
Montreal. 

A small disturbance was noted at Shide at 4 hrs. 19 mins. 12 sees, p.m., 
but it is not likely that it was connected with any of the above events. 

No. 97, May 5, 1897. 

Small 

With maximum at 22 hrs. 27 mins., 
which probably corresponds with 
the Shide record 
Not recorded in Italy. 









H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


• 


. 


. 22 


44 


20 


Nicolaiev 


? . 


. 


. 22 


12 






ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



203 



No. 98, May 9, 1897. 
It is remarkable that this earthquake, with two maxima and a 
motion of 6 mm., does not appear to have been recorded in 
Europe. I should be inclined to place its origin west of Great Britain. 



range of 



No. 99, May 13, 1897. 



Shide 
Nicolaiew 



H. 


M. 


s. 


12 


16 


24 Moderate 


12 


2 


Very large 



Apparently not recorded in Italy, 
east of Russia (see No. 97). 



It most likely originated to the 



In 
12 hrs 
12 hrs 



No. 100, May 23, 1897. 
on the above date, a Ion 



g,, slow earthquake was felt 



at 



Tokio, 

23 mins. G.M.T. In Hakodate and Sendai the times given are. 

20 mius. and 12 hrs. The time records render it probable that 
the origin was nearer to Sendai than to the other places ; whilst the 
character of the motion recorded in Tokio and Hakodate makes it probable 
that the focus of the disturbance would be 200 or 300 miles from those 
places. 

With this assumption the time at the origin, which is likely to be in 
the Tuscarora Deep, would be about 2 mins. 30 sees, earlier than the Tokio 
record. The time registers are therefore as follows : — 





H. 


M. 


s. 


Time of origin 


. 12 


20 


30 


Nicolaiew . 


. 12 


48 





Ischia 


. 13 


7 


9 


Shide 


. 13 


15 


20 


Rocca di Papa . 


. 13 


17 


10 


Catania 


. 13 


20 


6 



Time to travel 


76 


27 


30 


») » )» 


89 


36 


39 


»i >» »» 


86 


54 


50 


)» »i »» 


89 


56 


40 




91 


69 


36 



It will be observed that the times taken to travel from the origin, 
with one exception, increase with the distance of the same to the four 
observing stations. 

From the magnitude of these intervals it is not unlikely that only the 
maxima phases of motion have been recorded, the preliminary tremors 
having been so small that they are not shown upon the seismograms. 

Velocity Table. 





Arc 


Chord 


Velocity in km. per 
sec. on 


Arc 


Chord 


Nicolaiew 

Ischia .... 

Shide .... 

Rocca di Papa . 

Catania .... 


76° = 8436 km. 
89°= 9879 „ 
86°= 9546 „ 
89°= 9879 „ 
91° = 10101 „ 


7829 km. 
8910 „ 
8668 „ 
8910 „ 
9069 „ 


51 

4-5 

2-8 
2-9 
2-8 


4-7 

4 

26 

2-6 

2-5 



No. 101, May 24, 1897. 



Nicolaiew (23rd) 
Shide . 
Catania 



E. 


M. 


s. 


23 


57 


Large 





18 


59 Moderate 





51 


46 Small 



Also recorded at other stations in Italy. 



204 REPORT— 1898. 

No. 104, June 3, 1897. 

H. M. 8. 

Catania 9 53 42 

Rocca di Papa 9 54 30 

Shide 9 57 18 

Edinburgh 10 57 

Nicolaiew not -working. Also recorded at other stations in Italy. At 
Shide there are three maxima phases of movement. 

iVb. 105, June 12, 1897. 

This earthquake is one which created so much destruction in Assam 
that it is intimated, in order to repair roads and buildings of the Public 
"Works Department only, more than thirty-five lakhs of rupees will be 
required. The total cost of the earthquake is probably many times this 
sum. To meet the expenditure for the restoration of roads, &c., appli- 
cation has been made for a grant from the Imperial revenues, and we 
have here an illustration, which is repeated yearly, of the manner in 
which an earthquake in a distant country may affect directly or indirectly 
the finances of people in this country. To mitigate the effects of these 
disasters it is necessary that the ordinary practice of the engineer and 
builder should be modified, and to this end I am glad to say that this 
Association has lent support by the publication of several reports bearing 
upon construction in earthquake countries. The more important of these 
were issued in 1889 and 1891, and the substance of them has been most 
carefully considered in connection with the reconstruction of railways and 
other works now in progress in North-eastern India. 

This earthquake, which had its origin in a well-known seismic district, 
is probably the most severe and disastrous which, during historical times, 
has been experienced in this region. One evidence of this is the snapping 
and overturning of a number of ancient monoliths in the Khasi Hills. 
J. C. Arbuthnott, Deputy Commissioner of this district, who describes 
these stones, says : — ' It would possibly give people in England an idea of 
the severity of the shock were the Druidical stones at Stonehenge and 
Stennis, in Orkney, similarly overthrown or broken in two.' Similar 
evidence is found in the destruction of a stone bridge in the Kamriip 
district of very great antiquity. 

Records. — In the Isle of Wight, strange to say, the movements of the 
ground commenced whilst the photographic film was being renewed, an 
operation that only happens once a week. The time record, therefore, 
only refers to maxima phases of motion and those which followed. 

The greatest range of motion was 15 mm., corresponding to a change 
in slope of about five seconds. 

A horizontal pendulum recording N.-S. motion on smoked paper indi- 
cated a maximum range of motion of 10 mm. and a period of 15 
seconds. The following are the time records : — 

I 

Shide . . . 11 29 10 Max. The preliminary tremors exceed 

10 minutes ; therefore the commence- 
mftnt may have been 11 hrs. 19 mins. 

Catania 

Rocca di Papa 

Edinburgh . 

Strassburg . 

Batavia . . . 11 16 40 By electrometer disturbance. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


29 


10 




17 


22 




18 







18 







18 


32 




16 


40 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX, 



205 



Velocity of Propagation : 
Time at origin, 11 hrs. 5 mins. 1 sec. 











Velocity 


Velocitv 










on arc. 


on chord 






M. 


s. 


Km. 


Km. 


Time to reach Catania . 


6i° 


12 


21 


9-5 


90 


Kocca di Papa 


G5° 


13 


59 


8-C 


8-1 


Edinburgh . 


71° 


13 


69 


9-3 


8-8 


Strassburg 


GG° 


13 


31 


9-0 


8-5 


Shido 


72° 


11 


59 


8-8 


8-2 



The maximum angular tilting, as indicated on the photographic film, 
would be about five seconds of arc. 

Since writing the above several papers bearing on this earthquake 
have been received. From one, by Dr. G. Agamennone,^ I have combined 
two tables giving the velocities of propagation on arcs of the preliminary- 
tremors (P.T.s) and the long waves (L.W.s), and added notes respecting 
the character of the instruments yielding the records on which these 
determinations were made. 



Dis- 


















tance 
from 
Epi- 
centre 


Observing 
Station 


( 


Time 
2t.M.T. 


Velocity of 
P.T.s. 


Velocity of 
L.W.s. 


Instrument 
H.P. = Horizontal 


of P.T 


.8 


Kms. per sec. 


Kms. per sec. 


Pendulum 


Km. 






















H. 


M. 


S. 














11 


4 
or 


6 










400 


Calcutta . 


71 


7 





— — 











5980 


Petersburg 


1) 


17 





80 or 9-3 


2-59 or 


2-78 


H.P. photo- 
graphic 


7020 


Potsdam . 


11 


17 


a 


8-9 „ 110 








H.P. photo- 
graphic 


7150 


Catania . 


)) 


17 


4 


8-8 „ 10-8 


2-51 „ 


2-65 


Long pendulum 
writing 


7150 


Portici 


1) 


17 


9 


8-5 „ 10-3 


2-55 „ 


2G9 





7170 


Mineo 


)) 


16 





9-9 „ 12-5 










7170 


Ischia 


»1 


17 


2 


90 „ 11-1 


2-63 „ 


2-78 


H.P. writing 


7220 


Spinea 


11 


18 


6 


81 „ 9-8 




— 


— 


7240 


Padua 


11 


17 





9-2 , 11-4 


2C6 „ 


2-81 


Pendulum writ- 


7250 


Velletri . 


11 


17 





9-2 „ 11-4 


_ , 


_ 


ing 


7250 


Rocca di Papa . 


11 


17 


5 


8-9 „ 10-9 


2-66 „ 


2-82 


H.P. writing 


7260 


Rome 


11 


17 


1 


9-2 „ 11-3 


2-67 „ 


2-82 


Long pendulum 
writing 


7310 


Florence . 


11 


18 





8-6 „ 105 











7330 


Wilhelmshaven. 


11 


18 


9 


8-1 „ 9-7 


2-52 „ 


2-66 


H.P. photo- 
graphic 


7390 


Livorno . 


11 


17 





9-4 „ 11-6 


— 








7440 


Pavia 


11 


18 


2 


8-6 „ 10-5 


2-73 „ 


2-90 





7500 


Utrecht . 


11 


17 





9-6 „ 119 


2-37 „ 


2-49 


Magnetometer 


7700 


Grenoble . 


11 


19 


1 


8-4 „ 10-1 


- — 


. 





7840 


Paris 


11 


27 


6 


5-4 „ 60 


— 





Magnetometer 


7970 


Edinburgh 


11 


18 





9-4 „ 11-5 


2-78 „ 


2-93 


Bifilar pendulum 



















photographic 




Mean 


8-3 or 10-6 


2-61 or 


2-76 





Jlend. della Jl. Accad. del Lincei, vol. vii. 1889, pp. 265-271. 



206 , REPORT— 1898. 

It is worthy of note that we have here instances where higher velo- 
cities have been obtained from the records of instruments with frictional 
writing indices than from those where the records have been photogi'aphic, 
from which it must be inferred that the former indicated earlier phases 
of motion than the latter. 

At Rome the long waves had a period of 10 seconds and a maximum 
amplitude of 12". The complete length of these waves, as computed from 
the above data, would be 54 kms., and the height of their crests about 
half a metre. 

When in Italy (see last section of this report) I saw the original 
seismograms of this earthquake at nearly all the stations I visited. 

The preliminary tremors and the greater portion of the succeeding heavy 
motion, as given by two different instruments, are reproduced (figs. 1, 2 and 
3) from the ' BoUettino della Societa Sismologica Italiana,' vol. iii. No. 9. 
They are appended to a paper by Dr. Cancani, describing his horizontal 
pendulums and the Assam earthquake. The upper figures show the 
E.-W. and the N.-S. motion as recorded by the large horizontal pendu- 
lums (for a description of which see p. 265). The lower figure gives the 
corresponding motion, as obtained from an ordinary pendulum of 250 kgs. 
and 15 m. in length, the movements of which are multiplied 12-5 times. 
The original diagrams are about two-and-a-half times greater than the 
present reproduction. 

The horizontal pendulums when writing have a complete period of 
22 seconds. With the Indian earthquake the maximum range of motion 
was for the N.-S. component 5-5 cm., and for the E.-W. component 
4 cm. 

The maximum change in the vertical for the N.-S. component was 13". 
The 15 m. pendulum showed a change of 12", whilst with a third instru- 
ment, a simple pendulum, 7 m. in length, it was 10" . For the large 
waves the complete period was 18 seconds. For these waves, with a 
velocity of 27 kms. per sec, their length becomes 48-6 kms. 

If ^=length of wave, and a=the maximum angle of tilting, then 

height of a wave = - — tan a = 45 cm. 

No. 106, June 12, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

Shide . . . . 19 53 19 Duration 10 mins. 

Strassburg . . . 19 23 27 to 8 hrs. 35 min. 7 sees, with maxi- 
mum at 7 hrs. 51 mins. 33 sees. 
and 8 hrs. min. 31 sees. 

Not recorded in Italy or Russia. 

JVo. 107, June 13, 1897. 

H. M. S. If. 

Shide 7 39 33 Duration 7 

Strassburg 7 28 55 

Not recorded in Italy or Russia. 

No. 112, June 24, 1897. 

A disturbance was recorded in Ischia, Padua, and Rome, but it com- 
menced about 20 hrs. 30 mins,, and not at 19 hrs. 34 mins. 53 sees., as 
noted at Shide. 






a 
o 



a 

o 

a 

es 
O 
o 

o 



03 

00 



o 

d 

3 

3 

CI 



o 
a 



bo 

a 



1^ 

05 



o 

C! 
bn 

a 



(X, 



P4 



O 

u 

o 






0> 



o 

a 



.2 
a 



B 



'a 
o 

O 

B 

u 

o 

H 

I 






-a 
o 

bo 
o 

u 

o 

a 









eg 
u 

o 
o 






208 



REPORT — 1898. 



No. 113, June 30, 1897. 



Shide .4 

Nicolaiew 3 



H. M. 

39 

GO 



Not recorded in Italy. 



No. 114, Juue 30, 1897. 

n. 

Shide 15 

In Italy about 14 



M. 



50 



Origin Epirus. 



No. 115, July 17, 1897. 



Sliide . 
Nicolaiew 



H. 

7 
7 



M. 

57 

48 



s. 

:;3 





Not recorded in Italy. 



JVo. 116, July 21,1897. 





H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide . 


. 13 


33 


32 Prelimir 


Nicolaiew 


. 13 


43 





Catania 


. 13 


39 


4 


Rocca di Papa 


. 13 


50 


(maximum) 


Edinburgh . 


. 13 


40 






M. 


s. 


7 





4 





1 


23 



•A-lso noted at other stations in Italy. 

No. 117, July 22, 1897. 



Origin Japan : 

Shide before 
Rocca di Papa 
Catania 
Nicolaiew 
Tokio 



H. M. S. 

11 20 

11 26 (maximum) 

9 4 58 (exact commencement lost) 

9 52 

9 31 44 Duration 4 mins. 34 sees. 

No. 118, August 2, 1897, 



Slow movement. 



Shide 
Catania . 
Nicolaiew 



H. 

15 
15 
15 



M. 

46 



29 



39 ] All small, and it is likely that 
1 7 I the records refer to difi erent 
J shocks. 



No. 119, August 5, 1897. 

This earthquake was felt over the whole of Japan, from Nemuro, in the 
north-east, to Nagasaki, more than 1,000 geographical mUes distant, in 
the south-west. The following notes taken from the ' Japan "Weekly Mail ' 
of Saturday, August 7, give the times at which movements were observed 
at different towns lying between the above-mentioned places. These times- 
are expressed as Japan mean time, which is exactly nine hours in advance 
of Greenwich mean time. 

The earthquake of Thursday morning was of very long duration, but 
fortunately, owing to its gentleness, no damage was done. Starting at 
9 hrs. 11 mins. 56 sees. A.M., the motion continued for 7 mins. 59 sees., 
the vibrations moving from E. to W. Four minor shocks were felt at 
9.23, 10, and 11.31 o'clock the same morning. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



209 



Hakone, 9 A.M. (August 5). 

A strong earthquake was felt here this morning at about 9.20 o'clock 
It lasted for several minutes, but -was quite regular (horizontal) in its 
movement. The Japanese say that they seldom have such a long or 
strong earthquake here, and they rushed out of their houses very 
quickly. 

ShizuoJca (August 5). 
A slight earthquake was felt here at 9.20 a.m. 

Sendai (August 6). 
A strong earthquake occurred here this morning at 9 o'clock. 

Mito (August 5). 

A strong gale swept over the locality last night, and this morning a 
sharp earthquake was felt here. 

Mayehashi (August 5). 
An earthquake occurred here this morning at half -past 9 o'clock. 

Uyeda, Shinshu (August •!?). 

An earthquake was felt here this morning at half-past 9 o'clock. 
The earthquake is also reported from : — 



frifu, 7.57 A.M., slight. 
Nagasaki, 8.06 A.M., slight. 
Kumagaya, 9.07 A.M., strong. 
Ishinomald, 9.10 A.M., strong. 
Mito, 9.10 A.M., strong. 
Aomori, 9.11 A.M., strong. 
Yaviagata, 9.11 A.M., strong. 
Atayebashi, 9.11 A.M., strong. 
Niigata, 9.12 A.M., strong. 
Kofu, 9.12 A.M., strong. 
Fuliushima, 9.10 A.M., feeble. 
Nagano, 9.11 a.m., feeble. 



Glfu, 9.11 A.M., feeble. 
Utsxinomiya, 9.12 A.M., feeble. 
ToUo, 9.12 A.M., feeble. 
YoJiosuka, 9.12 A.M., feeble. 
JVagoya, 9.13 A.M., feeble. 
A/iita, 9.20 A.M., feeble. 
ChosM, 9.12 A.M., slight. 
Numam, 9.12 A.M., slight. 
JVemvro, 9.12 A.M., slight. 
Xushiro, 9.13 A.M., slight. 
Hachihi, 9.15 A.M., s'ight. 



By reference to the catalogue of earthquakes recorded at the Central 
Meteorological Observatory in Tokio, p. 190 (Nos. 1901 to 1908), it will be 
seen that on the 5th the first disturbance was followed by seven smaller 
disturbances. 

From these reports, and from private correspondence with Japan, we 
learn that the movements were slow. This means that the period of the 
earth waves would be about three seconds. This being so, experience 
teaches us that places like Tokio were at a distance of 200 or 300 miles 
from the origin of the disturbance. 

The fact that movements commenced at and near to Tokio at about 
the same time they commenced at and near to Nemuro, whilst at Ishino- 
maki, Mito, Aomori, Yamagata, and other places lying between Tokio 
and Nemuro, movements commenced one or two minutes earlier, leads to 
the conclusion that the origin was off the east coast of Japan. 

From the time observations generally, the locus sought for may be placed 
near to the centre of a circle which would approximately pass through Tokio, 

1898. P 



210 



REPORT — 1898. 



Niigata, and Nemuro. This would lie about 150 miles east of Sendai, 
at a depth of 4,000 fathoms, exactly at the bottom of the Nippon slope of 
the Tuscarora Deep. This is practically the same origin as that given for 
the shock of June 15, 1896,' as it is for many other disturbances which 
have shaken the whole of the Japanese islands. Facts to be noticed about 
this particular group of earthquakes are that they are the largest, that 
they originate along the base of the steepest slope, and that it is only 
occasionally that they are accompanied by sea waves. The disturbance of 
June 15, 1896, was accompanied by waves which resulted in the loss of 
nearly 30,000 lives, whilst the shaking of the ground was barely percep- 
tible at Tokio. The earthquake about which I now write as a producer of 
earth waves which could be felt was much more marked than that of 
June 15, and yet sea waves were not recorded. The inference is that the 
earthquake of August 5 was not accompanied by any marked displace- 
ment of large bodies of material at the bottom of the ocean, and its origin 
was practically beneath the sub-oceanic crust. It is therefore possible 
that we have in the Tuscarora earthquakes examples of disturbances due 
to accelerations in the secular flow of a quasi-rigid subterranean material 
under the influence of continental load. If this is the case we should 
expect to find records of local magnetic perturbation. 

Velocity of Propagation of Barth, Waves. 

Assuming the origin of the earthquake to have been 250 geographical 
miles to the north-east of Tokio, and the wave to have been propagated 
to that place at a rate of about 8,000 feet per second, then the time at 
"which the earthquake originated in G.M.T. was August 5, 9 mins. 23 sees. 



G.M. T. — Times at which Freliminary Tremors commenced in Europe. 





H. M. S. 




Shide . 


. 22 35 


Time to travel 


Eocca di Papa 


. 32 40 


>t 1) 


Catania 


. 24 35 




Nicolaiew . 


. 17 


If ft 


Edinburgh . 


. 1 2 30 


ff »f 



(Large waves ?) 63 



M. S. 

13 12 
23 17 
15 12 
37 
7 



Apparent Velocity of Preliminary Tremors. 





Distance 


Velocity in km. per sec. 


On Arc 


On Chord 


On Arc 


On Chord 


Nicolaiew .... 
Shide .... 
Rocca di Papa . 
Catania .... 


76°= 8436 km 
86°= 9546 „ 
89°= 9879 „ 
91° = 10101 „ 


7829 
86G8 
8910 
9069 


18? 
11 

7 
11 


17? 

10 
6-3 
9-9 



Shide . 
Italy about . 
Tokio . 



No. 120, August 16, 1897. 



n. M. s. 



8 6 29 

8 15 at Catania, Ischia, Rome, Eocca di Papa. 

7 53 33 Duration 3 mins. Slow movement. 



' Also see British Association Report, 1896, p. 153. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



211 



M. 


s. 


1 


41 


32 





46 


30 


8 


40 



No. 122, August 26, 1897. 

H. 

Shide 17 

Nicolaiew 16 

Kocca di Papa 14 

Tokio 16 

^^o. 123, August 2G, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

Shide 21 40 30 

Nicolaiew 21 40 

And at several places in Italy. 

Tokio . . 21 19 20 

iVo. 124, August 26, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

Shide 22 13 14 

EoccadiPapa 22 8 30 



And other stations in Italy. 



Shide 
Catania 
Edinburgh . 
Nicolaiew . 
Eocca di Papa 

And other Italian stations. 
Origin probably Tashkent 



Ko. 131, September 17, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

1.5 59 58 

15 15 50 

15 55 

15 40 

15 50 



Preliminary tremors. 
Small 



Shide 
Edinburgh 
Nicolaiew . 
Kocca di Papa 



JVo. 132, September 17, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

. 17 59 58 
. 18 2 
, 18 



Preliminary tremors. 8 
Details lost 



17 48 



And other Italian stations 



The similarity of the Shide seismograms for Nos. 131 and 132 suggests 
that they originated at or near the same place. 



No. 133, September 20, 1897 



Shide 
Edinburgh 
Catania . 
Kocca di Papa 
Nicolaiew 

Also at other stations in Italy. 
Batavia 



H. 

19 
19 
19 
19 
19 



24 47 Large. Preliminary tremors. 
56 

25 2 Small 
25 

23 30 Very large 



M. 

40 



H. M. S. 

19 14 20 by disturbance of an electrometer 



Shide . 
Edinburgh 
Catania . 
Kocca di Papa 
Nicolaiew 



No. 134, September 21, 1897. 

H. M. S. 

5 28 51 Large. 

6 7 30 
5 29 32 Small 
5 32 8 
4 57 Very large 



Preliminary tremors. 



M. 

43 



Also at other Italian stations. 



212 REPORT— 1898. 

The above earthquake evidently refers to one of two shocks which were 
felt in Sandakan, on the north coast of Borneo, at 1.10 p.m. local time 
(about 5.20 a.m. G.M.T.) on September 21. It was sufficiently severe to 
crack a house and stop the town clock. 

These and other shocks accompanied the throwing up of a volcanic 
island in E.L. 115° and N.L. 5° 14', about which on October 25 the 'Times' 
writes as follows : — 

'A New Volcanic Island. — The 'Straits Times' of September 29 
states that, according to telegraphic advices from British North Borneo, 
an earthquake was felt at Kudat on September 21, as also a slight tremor 
at several places along the coast. About the same time a new island was 
thrown up from the sea between Mempakul and Lambeidan, 50 yards from 
the mainland, opposite Labuan. The island is of clay and rocks, and 
measures 200 yards long by 150 yards broad and GO feet high. The island 
appears to be increasing in size, and emits inflammable gas in several 
places, with a strong smell of petroleum gas. The earthquake was not 
felt at Labuan.' 

Comparing this disturbance 134 with 133, both which are large at 
Shide and Nicolaiew but small in Italy, we have an example of earthquakes 
apparently from the same origin, and as measured by the distance to 
which they propagated their vibrations of equal intensity, but which had 
very different effects locally. The former only slightly disturbed a magneto- 
graph in Batavia, 13° or 1,400 kms. distant, whilst the second created 
marked disturbances in such instruments at Batavia and other places, 
p. 243. Also the second was felt severely in Kudat and Sandakan (but 
not at Labuan), and is reported in the newspapers, whilst the first is passed 
without notice. ' 

The similarity of the Shide seismograms for 133 and 134 also suggests 
that these shocks originated at or near the same locality. 



No. 135, September 21, 1897. 



Shide 



H. 


M. 


S. H. 


M. 


s. 


11 


36 


44 to 13 


20 


20 



About 1 3 hours in Central Italy there was a violent earthquake, which 
was recorded at all the observatories in Italy. It is hardly likely that 
this is represented by the latter portion of the slight disturbances at 
Shide. 









No. 138, October 2, 1897. 










Shide 
Catania . 
Nicolaiew . 


H. 

13 
13 

12 


M. 

36 
31 
56 


s. 

39 Moderate Duration . 
51 „ . 
30 Very large 




H. 




1 


M. 

27 
33 
36 


s. 



11 




Also at Rome. 
















Tokio 


12 


45 


No. 133, October 3, 1897. 







3 


25 by seism 


Shide 
Edinburgh 






H. M. 

• 15 7 
. 14 58 


s. 
9 





Slii 


jht tilt to N, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



213 



iVo. 140, October 19, 1897. 





H. 


M. 


s. 




M. 




H. 


M. 


B. 


Shide 





6 


52 


Preliminary tremors. 


41 


Duration 


2 


30 





Edinburgh 





28 









)) 





32 





Catania . 





6 


3C 


Small 




)» 





62 


42 


Rocca di Papa . 





5 


30 






1) 


1 


9 


30 


Nicolaiew 





13 





Very large. P.T.s 


7 


»? 


3 


1 






Also at Rome and Ischia. 



Ko. 141, October 20, 1897. 





H. 


M. 


s. 




M. 




n. 


M 


s. 


Shide 


14 


43 


29 


Preliminary tremors. 


42 


Duration 


2 


33 





Edinburgh 


15 


20 









j> 





13 





Catania . 


14 


49 


26 


Small 












Rocca di Papa . 


15 












n 


2 








Nicolaiew 


14 


49 





Very large. P.T.s 


11 


5» 


3 


4 






Also at Rome and Ischia. 

The similarity of the Isle of Wight seismograms foi" Nos. 140 and 141 
together, that in each case the Nicolaiew instrument commenced its records 
6 or 7 minutes after the Isle of Wight, indicate that these earthquakes 
had a similar origin. 

No. 142, October 23, 1897. 

a disturbance was noted at Catania, Ischia, and Rome. 
Ko. 14G, Xovember 14, 1807. 



Shide 
Edinburah 





H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide 


3 


19 





At about . 


3 


15 






H. 


M. 


s. 




M. 


14 


53 


35 


Duration 


22 


15 


29 





Tilt to N. 





Not recorded in Europe. 



Ko. 152, November 25, 1897. 



Shide 
Catania 



H. M. 

10 1 
10 19 



s. 

48 

3 



Duration 



H. 

2 
1 



M. 


23 



Shide 
Catania . 
Nicolaiew 
Tokio 



Shide 



H. 

10 
9 

10 
9 



Ko. 153, December 11, 1897. 

M. S. 

4 31 Small Duration 

51 28 P.T.s 14h. 21m. small 

9 Moderate „ 

40 49 Slight 

Ko. 155, December 17, 1897. 



H. 

18 



M. 

30 



Italy, a strong shock, Dec. 18 about 7.30 a.m. 



H. M. 

45 



20 
10 



Up to Dec. 18 10 30 Slight 



B. 


54 





Ko. 15G, December 28, 1897. 





H. 


M. 


s. 






M. 


s. 




11. 


Shide 


. 20 


54 


21 


Moderate. 


P.T.s 


8 


u 


Duration 


. 24 


Nicolaiew 


. 20 


53 





Small 








,1 


. 29 


Toronto . 


. 20 


24 


37 


i» 


P.T.s 


7 


10 


n 


. 35 



214 REPORT — 1898. 

It will be observed that we have here the records from three instru- 
ments not controlled by the friction of writing pointers, and therefore 
fairly comparable. 

No. 157, December 29, 1897. 

H. M. S. M. S. H. M. S. 

Shide . . 11 40 48 Large P.T.s 19 49 Duration . 1 22 28 

Catania .. 11 29 10 „ . 1 30 50 

EoccadiPapa. 11 56 „ . 27 

Nicolaiew. . 11 47 Small „ .250 

Toronto . . 11 32 29 No preliminary tremors „ . 1 10 

Port-au-Prince . 11 22 7 Near tlie origin 

Also at other stations in Italy. 

In connection with this earthquake Professor R. F. Stupart, of 
Toronto, sends me the following note taken from the ' U.S. Monthly 
Weather Review,' January 1898 : — • 

' December 2dth. 6hrs. 32mins. 43 sees. a.m., Port-au-Prince, Hayti, "W.I. 

' Professor T. Scherer reports as follows : — " A severe earthquake was 
experienced at Port-au-Prince, lasting 1 minute and 31 seconds. The 
following are the conclusions to be drawn from the curves traced by the 
Secchi seismograph at the meteorological observatory of the College of 
St. Martial : — 

' '' The entire phenomenon consisted of five consecutive shocks, the total 
duration of which was 48 seconds, and of a series of feeble move- 
ments very perceptible to an attentive observer. The first shock lasted 
8 seconds : it began from east-north-east and from west-soutji-west. 
The vertical component was quite strong at about the fifth second. The 
movement immediately began with more force in the horizontal direction 
and less in the vertical : this lasted 11 seconds, and the direction from 
which it came was more toward the east. The third shock lasted 
3 seconds, and was characterised by a very regular oscillatory movement. 
The first shock was the strongest, lasted 10 seconds, began from the 
north-east, and died away in the south-west, with a vertical component 
that was scarcely appreciable. All the other movements, after the forty- 
eighth second, were feeble with the same horizontal direction. During 
all this time the seismic pendulum described ellipses in the sand whose 
major axes varied from north-east through the south to south-west. The 
Bertelli microseismometer was for a long time agitated, and finally main- 
tained a north-south direction. 

' " The same earthquake was felt in the neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince 
and with the same features. It seems to have been very violent in the 
interior on the island of Dominica." ' 

This earthquake had a submarine origin, and interrupted the Cape 
Haytien-Puerto Plata and Puerto Plata-Martinique cables, together 
with the Dominican land lines. 

No. 158, December 29, 1897, to January 1, 1898. 

During this interval slight tremors were recorded at Shide. In Italy, 
on December 29, between 11 hrs. SOmins. and 13 hrs., perturbations were 
recorded in several observations. On December 31, at about 17 hrs., a 
slight disturbance at Ischia and Florence was noted. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 215 

No. 161, January 24, 1898. 





H. 


M. 


s. 








H. 


M. 


s. 


Shide 


23 


45 


49 


Large P.T.s 16 mins. Duration 


• 





33 





Rocca di Papa . 


23 


49 





)» 




. 





56 





Nicolaiew . 


23 


49 


30 


Very large „ 




. 





37 


30 


Toronto (25tli) . 





13 


30 

No. 


P.T.s 13 mins. 30 sees. 
162, January 29, 1898. 














H. 


M. 


s. 








H. 


Mt. 


s. 


Shide 


13 


44 


8 


Small P.T.s 5 mins. 47secs. 


Duration 





13 


1 


Catania 


14 


4 


41 


Large P.T.s 1 h. 2 m. 19 s. 




)) 


1 


33 


51 


Rocca di Papa . 


13 


39 









») 





5 





Nicolaiew . 


13 


33 





Small 




j» 





19 






Also at other stations in Italy. 

No. 163, January 29, 1898. 



Shide 


H. 

15 


M. 

5 


s. 
25 


Large P.T.s 


Edinburgh 


15 


15 







Rocca di Papa , 


, 15 


5 


15 




Nicolaiew . 


. 15 


4 





Very large 


Laibach . 


. 15 


1 


7 







H. 


M. 


s. 


Duration 


1 


1 










10 










35 










58 










49 






At Shide the period of the large waves was 10 sees. 
The records evidently indicate the severe earthquake in Asia Minor, re- 
specting which London papers published the following Reuter telegram : — 

* Constantinople, February 3, 1898. 

' The earthquakes in Asia Minor continued at intervals from Saturday 
till Monday. At Balikesri, the military prison, two minarets and fifteen 
houses were totally destroyed, and every house in the town was more or 
less damaged. Twenty persons were killed and fifty injured. 

' Considerable damage was done also at Bighadidj, Inegeul, and other 
villages, though with what loss of life is unknown.' 

No. 164, February 5, 1898. 

H. M. s. n. M. s. 

Shide . . . 8 36 13 to 9 19 28 Record on smoked paper 
About 9 hrs. perturbations were observed in Catania, Rome, Livorne, ikc. 

From the preceding lists and notes it appears that between March 23, 
1897, and February 16; 1898, 74 earthquakes were recorded at Shide, 
38 of which were also recorded in Europe or America. 

The following are sketches of Seismograms obtained at Shide, Pots- 
dam, and Toronto. 

The times given are for the commencement of movements. Other 
phases of movement may be calculated on the assumption that for 

ShUe, Nos. 85 to 138, 45 mm.=l hour ; Nos. 140 to 157, 60 mm. = l hour. 
Potsdam, 20 min.=l hour. 
Torouto, 60 mm.=l hour. 

2.8.11 A.M. . 16 . 24 P.M. 



•*. 



No. 85.— Shide, Feb. 13, 1897. No. 99.— Shide, May 13, 1897. 



21G 



. 32 . 51 r.M. 



9.57.18 A.M. 



REPORT — 1898. 
No. 104.— Shide, June 3, 1807. 




No. 105.— Shidc, June 12, 1S07. 
1 . 33 . 32 P.M. 




No. lie— Sliide, July 21, 1897. 




No. 116.— rotsa.im. 



. 22 . 35 A.M. 






No. 19.— Shide, Aug. 6, 1897. 
10 . 13 . 14 P.M. 



No. 124.— Shidc, Aug. 20, 1897. 



"Hi W 



No. 124.— Potsdam. 



I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 217 

3.59.58p.m. 5.69.58 P.m. 



Nos. 131 and 132.— Shide, Sept. 17, 1897. 




Nos. 131 and 132.— Potsdam. 



7 . 24 . 47 r.M. 




Ko. 133.— Shidc, Sept. 20, 1897. 



1IIII!j5ECHlIJE]nCJO-"«x»^ 



6 . 28 . 51 A.M. 



-^f4y '■ ■;t 



No. 133. — Potsdam. 




No. 134.— Shide, Sept. 21, 1898. 



1 . 36 . 39 r.M. 

— ||)IMHlli[ili>iiiI> «ciiTi ■! 



•iW' 



m 



,.r:, 1W»-- 



No. 134.— Potsdam. 



No. 138.— Shide, Oct. 2, 1897. 



No. 138.— Potsdam. 



. 6 . 62 A.M. 




No. 140.— Shide, Oct. 18, 1897. 



218 REPORT— 1898. 




2 . 43 . 29 r.M. 



11 . 40 . 48 A.M. 



No. 140.— Potsdam. 



No. 141.— Shide, Oct. 20, 1897. 



^4ii»i 



No. 141. — Potsdam, 
8.54.21 P.M. 



No. loC— Shide, Dec. 28, 1807. 
8.24.39 p.m. 



No. 15C.— Toronto. 

No. 157.— Shide, Dec. 20, 1S07. 
11 . 32 . 20 A.M. 




No. 157. — Toronto. 



V. On Certain Characteristics of Earthquake Motion. 

1. The Character of Earth Waves near to their Orirjin. 

From the feelings of those who reside in earthquake districts, and 
more definitely from seismograms, we have learned that the movements 
of the ground constituting an earthquake of moderate intensity, which 
in an epifocal area may shake badly constructed chimneys and loosen 
tiles upon a roof, as observed at distances of approximately 20 or 100 
miles from its origin, consist of preliminary vibrations, a shock or shocks 
separated by more or less irregular waves, and a series of concluding 
vibrations. At distances of from 100 to 200 or 300 miles the pre- 
liminary vibrations may not be felt, or even recorded, on an ordinary 
seismograph, and instead of a shock or shocks we obtain a record of 
a series of long-period but irregularly recurring waves. These movements 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 219 

give r-ise to a sensation not unlike that felt upon a floating stage rising 
and falling upon a swell. The movement of hanging pictures and that of 
seismographs indicate that an intermittent tilting is taking place. The 
heavy masses of metal in bracket seismographs, conical pendulums, and 
other instruments, no longer act as steady points, but swing fitfully with 
varying amplitudes from side to side, and, rather than giving records of 
horizontal displacement, they are roughly recording the maximum slopes 
of the earth waves which tilt the supporting piers. 

Beyond the 300-mile limit nothing is felt, and it is seldom that an 
ordinary seismograph, writing with frictional indices, gives a record. 
Now and then, where the friction of writing pointers has been exceedingly 
low, records of unfelt earthquakes have been obtained from ordinary 
seismographs. It was the magnitude of these diagrams obtained by the 
writer, coupled with numerous observations made by astronomers on 
the movement of the bubbles in levels, the tilting of water in ponds, 
and kindred observations, which enabled him, in 1883, to venture the 
opinion that with suitable instruments the movement of all large earth- 
quakes might be recorded in any portion of the world (see ' Earthquakes 
and other Earth Movements,' Int. Sci. Series, pp. 226 and 342). The 
ample manner in which this has been confirmed is known to all seismo- 
logists. 

Preliminary Tremors. — The period of these, as recorded on seismo- 
graphs with frictional indices, has varied between \ and 4^ of a second. 
Along paths of from 1 to 4 geographical degrees (111 to 444 kms.) the 
velocity is apparently about 2 kms. per second. This, however, is the 
velocity of the larger waves, which the preliminary tremors most certainly 
outrace. Strange to say, we know less about the difierence in rate of 
propagation of these small movements and their larger followers over 
short ranges than we do over long ranges. As a working hypothesis, 
founded on the interval of time that elapses between the screaming of 
pheasants and the arrival of sensible motion and the records of seismo- 
grams, I anticipate that this interval will be found to be about 10 seconds 
for about every 100 kms. of travel ; that is, if a shock originates at a dis- 
tance of, say, 200 kms., these preliminary tremors may be noticed 20 seconds 
before the arrival of pronounced motion. If this is so, then the velocity 
of propagation for preliminary tremors over short ranges will be about 
2-5 kms. per second. 

If, for the time being, we accept this factor, then if I is the length of 
a wave, t its period, and v its velocity, because 

l=.vt 

with a period of -'y second, the length of a wave is about -125 km. 
(410 feet). 

Their amplitudes, as shown on seismograms, are exceedingly small, 
say -j'^ mm. 

Large Waves. — The large waves have periods of from 1 to 2-5 seconds, 
which, with velocities of 2 kms. per second, would indicate lengths of 
2 to 5 kms. (6,560 to 16,400 feet). The maximum amplitudes of these, 
which represent shocks which will shatter ill-constructed chimneys, lie 
between 20 and 70 mm. 

Concluding Vibrations. — Seismogi-ams clearly show waves having 
periods of from 3 to 5 seconds, the lengths of which may therefore reach 
as much as 10 kms. (32,800 feet). 



220 



REPORT — 1898. 



Figures like the above, representing the length of seismic waves, 
although especially for the large waves we can rely upon the data for 
velocity and period, must yet be accepted with great caution. For the 
earthquake of October 28, 1891, as recorded in Tokio, it would appear 
that seismographs were tilted through an angle of about one-third of a 
degree, whilst the actual height of the waves was about 10 mm. If these 
measurements, referred to symmetrically, formed wave-surfaces, the con- 
clusion is that the lengths of the waves did not exceed 20 or 40 feet ; the 
difference between which and, say, 1,600 feet is so great that all confidence 
in the determination of wave-lengths is apparently destroyed within an 
epifocal area, or, to be more precise, within five or six miles of an origin. 
Where waves can be seen rolling down a sti'eet, we are here at least cer- 
tain that the distance from crest to crest of an earth-wave is measured by 
10 or 20 feet rather than by hundreds or thousands of feet. 



2. On the Velocity of Propagation of Large Waves. 

From the table on p. 221, where we find the length of arc along which 
motion may have travelled, the velocity of the preliminary tremors along 
such a path and the duration of their movements, which is the interval of 
time by which they outraced the succeeding large waves, it is easy to 
calculate the velocity with which these waves were propagated. The 
results of such calculations, together with results obtained from somewhat 
different data by von Rebeur-Paschwitz and Dr. A. Cancani, are given 
in the following table : — 

Velocities of Large Waves in Km. per sec. 



Arc 


Along arc 


Along chord 


Von Rebeur 
along chord 


Cancani 
along chord 


o 

20 

60 

80 

110 


21 
2-8 
2-9 
3-3 


21 
2-7 
2-7 
2-8 


1 to 2-5 
3 to 3-5 


2-5 
2-7 

31 



3. On the Character of Earth-xcaves after having travelled Great Distances. 

The following remarks are based on records of earthquakes obtained 
at distances from their origin so great that movement of the ground could not 
be felt, whilst ordinary seismographs failed to indicate any movement of the 
piers on which they rested. Many of them, for example, refer to seismo- 
grams obtained in Europe or England of earthquakes which originated at 
places so far distant as Japan. 

Fi-eliminanj Tremors. 

Velocity.— In the Report for 1897 (p. 173) a table is given of the 
highest apparent velocities with which the preliminary tremors of about 
seventy disturbances have been propagated over or across arcs of great 
circles on the earth's surface. These arcs have varied in length from 
about 2° to 156°. The observations on arcs of from 2° to 18° and from 
70° to 85° have been fairly numerous. For arcs of intermediate length 
the observations were only three or four, but inasmuch as these take up 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



221 



their proper position on a curve of velocities, it may be assumed that they 
are the result of fairly accurate observations. This also applies to the 
two or three records on wave paths exceeding the 85° limit. In the 
original diagram (' Report ' for 1897, p. 174) those observations which by 
reference to orginal records are found untrustworthy are surrounded 
by circles. 

The general results arrived at are easily remembered. If it is assumed 
that motion is propagated round the earth, then the velocities over arcs 
of 20°, 30°, 40° up to about 100°, which have lengths of 2,200, 3,300, 
4,000, and 11,100 kilometres, are about 2, 3, 4, and 11 kilometres per 
second. Along wave paths less than 20° the velocity of 2 kilometres per 
second remains constant. For arcs greater than 100° the velocity 
apparently increases at a rate somewhat less than the rate at which the 
length of the arc increases. 

With the hypothesis that the vibrations travel along paths approxi- 
mating to chords through the earth, then the above velocities must 
be reduced. The actual velocities obtained as mean values from a 
number of observations are given in columns 9 and 10 of the following 
table : — 

Table shoiving the Helationskip hefAoeen the Apparent Velocities with ivJnch 
Preliminary Treynors are propagated round or through the Earth, and dimen- 
sions of the same, S)-c. The first four Velocities are deiived from Observations. 
The last two are inferred} 



De- 
grees 
of 
Arc 


Length 
of Arc 

in Kms. 

1° = 111 
Kms. 


Length 
of Chord 
in Kms. 
Radius = 
6,360 Kms. 


Diff. in 
Length 

of Arc 
and 

Chord 
iu Kms. 


Max. 
Depth of 

Cliord 
in Kms. 


Average 

Depth of 

Chord 

in Kms. 


,/Max. 

Depth Of 

Chord 


VAver- 

age 

Depth of 

Chord 


Velocity 
Of P.T.s 
in Kms. 
per sec. 
on Arc 


Velocity 
of P.T.s 
in Kms. 
per sec. 
on Chord 


Duration 
of P.T.s 
in mins. 


20° 


2220 


2208 


12 


97 


67 


9'7 


8-18 


2-75 


2-75 


Oto4 


60° 


6660 


6360 


300 


853 


608 


29-20 


24-6 


6 


5-7 


20 


80° 


8880 


8175 


707 


1487 


1053 


38-8 


32-4 


8-2 


7-5 


30 to 34 


110° 


12210 


10419 


1791 


2712 


1977 


52 


44-4 


11 


9-3 


41 to 43 


140° 


15540 


11952 


3588 


4197 


3149 


64-8 


56 


13-8? 


9-9 


unknowa 


180° 


19980 


12720 


7260 


6360 


5097 


79-6 


71 


17-4? 


11-1 


»» 



It will be observed that the quantities given in the eighth column are 
approximately four times those in the ninth column. 

In questions relating to the direction taken by a wave in passing 
through the earth, it must be remembered that this may not necessarily 
be along a chord, but in consequence of refraction follow a path that is 
curved. 



Apparent Duration of Freliminary Tremois. 

The following table gives the time intervals by which preliminary 
tremors have outraced the longer period and larger waves constituting 
the main portion of various earthquake disturbances. Beneath these 
time records, inclosed in brackets, the distances of the various observing 
stations from epifocal areas are given in geographical degrees or kilo- 
metres : — 

' See British A'sociation Report, 1897, p. 174. 



222 



REPORT — 1898. 



Apparent 


Duration of Preliminary Tremm'i. 


(m 


= minutes ; 


s = seconds.) 




1 


o 


.2 
'5 

_o 
Y, 

19m. 
(102°) 

18m. 
(71°) 

27m. 
(71°) 

14m. 
(71°) 

24m. 

(78°) 

21m. 
r78°-9) 

33m. 
(71°-2) 

27m. 
(71°) 

23m. 

Om. 

12m. 
(12°) 

7m. 

7m. 

10m. 


a 


1 


o 
M 
u 

03 
O 




g 
1 


.3 
1 

32m. 
(88°) 

26m. 
(85°) 

3m. or 

7m. 
(16°) 

7m. 
(30°) 

5m. 
(23°) 

21m. 


S 
'5 
S. 

O 


CO 

C3 

03 




M 

r 


1 




S.A., 
Santiago 

Mexico 

Merida, 

Venezuela 
Japan, 

N.E. coast 
Japan, 1 

Tokio ) 

)» \ 
Japan, l 

Sakata ) 
Japan, 1 

Tokio J 

Philippines } 

Luzon 

Japan, I 
Tokio i 

Quetta [ 

Asia Minor, I 
Amed. J 

Patras j 
Thebes ; 
Bucharest J 

Naples J 

Mount 
Gasgano, 
Italy > 

Cyprus 

Iceland / 
Tiflis \ 

Japan 

Assam ) 
Japan j 
N. Borneo f 

Haj-ti r 


f Oct. 27, 
1 1894 
j Nov. 2, 
t 1894 
( Apr. 28 
I 1894 
f June 15, 
\ 1895 
( Oct. 18, 
1 1892 
J Nov. 4, 
1 1892 
( Oct. 31, 
1 1896 
1 Apr. 17, 
I 1889 
f Mar. 16, 
1892 

. May 11, 

1892 
. Nov. 4, 

1892 
. Jan. 18, 

1895 
. Dec. 20, 

1892 
. Feb. 13, 
, 1893 
. Apr.lG, 

1896 
. Aug. 25, 

1896 
. May 23, 

1893 
. Oct. 14, 

1892 
Jan. 25, 
: 1893 

■ Aug. 10, 

1893 

■ June 29, 

1896 

■ Aug. 26. 

1896 

■ Sept.21. 
: 189G 

J Feb. 19, 
i 1897 

Junel2. 
1897 

■ Aug. 4, 

1897 

l' Sept.20, 

1897 

\ Dec. 29, 
i 1897 


48m. 
(104°) 

24m. 

4m. 
(17°) 

10m. 
(28°) 

4m. 
(20°) 

20m. 


40m. 
(104°) 


15m. 
(95°) 


27m. 
(86°) 

31m. 
(86°) 

4m. 
(18°) 

10m. 

5m. 
(21°) 

26m. 


30m. 

(84°) 

7m. 

6m. 

(19°) 


29m. 
(88°) 

Im. 
(15°) 

14m. 
(33°) 

6m. 
(23°) 
13m. 

or 
19m. 


14m. 
(86°) 

25m. 
(8G°) 

13m. 
(82°) 

27m.? 
24m. 

15m. 
(45°-7) 

4m. 
(45°-7) 

Om. 

Om. 
(13°) 

Om. 
(9°) 

Om. 
(9 ) 

5m. 

(21^) 

8m.? 


34m. 
(83°) 

2m. 

(16°) 

10m.? 

30m. 

40m. & 
43m. 
19m. 
49s. 

(64°) 


34m. 
(83°) 


33m. 

(80°) 

* 

Om. 
(15°) 

11m. 


21m. 
(81°) 

Om. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



223 



Apparent Duration of Preliminary Tremors. 





2 


a 


(9 


Charkow 






1 


.2 
'3 

1 


bo 

m 

d 

in 








i 

o 




o 


Persian Gulf, 

Kisliim, Jan. 

10, 1897 
Umbria, Jan. [ 

19, 1897 J 
Sicily, Calabria, 

Feb. 11-12, 

1897 

Romana, Apr. 
3, 1897 

Bomana, Apr. 
3, 1897 


7m. 
1 

i 


35s. 

5m. 

10s. 
(35 
km.) 
10s. 
(35 
km.) 


"" 


— 




13m. 


15m.? 
2m. 


13m. 




— 


— 


~ 


— 


Sm. 



These time intervals and their corresponding distances are shown 
graphically in the following figure, in which the free curve indicates the 
general result towards which the observations point : — 



Fig. 4. 









e 


















\ 


















* \ 




















\ • 
\ * ' 
\ • 


1 
















• * 

• 


• 






tes. 








1 


• 








•5 








4 




• ^ 
















• 
• 


• 




• 


e 
















\ 


• 








Oegress 


/*• - 


/// Ac/n. 


• 


« 





CO 



60 



CO 



20 



10 



ISO 160 140 no 100 eo eo 40 lo 

Intervals by which Preliminary Tremors have outraced Long-period Waves. 



224 REPORT— 1898. 

Inasmuch as these records have been obtained from different types of 
instruments which have had different degrees of sensibiUty, it is clear 
that they cannot be regarded as individually comparable ; but when 
plotted on squared paper and taken in groups, it is evident that these 
time intervals increase with the length or depth of the wave-path over or 
at which a disturbance has travelled. In a few instances, as for example 
in the case of disturbances originating near Japan, Borneo, and Hayti, 
which have been recorded by the same or similar instruments in the Isle 
of Wight and Toronto, such observations are comparable, and they take up 
expected positions on the average curve of duration drawn through the 
groups of observations which are not so strictly comparable. 

The expectation from this is that this curve will, by future observa- 
tions, be found to be approximately correct. 

An inspection of the same shows that the preliminary ti'emors up to 
distances of 12° or 15° only outrace the succeeding waves by intervals 
seldom reaching a minute. On paths between 20° and 85° the intervals 
ai-e proportional to the length of the arc, but beyond this range it seems 
that they may increase at a somewhat higher rate. 

Between Europe and Japan, or a distance of 85°, observations have 
shown that the interval by which the larger waves are outraced varies 
from 30 to 34 minutes. If we take 32 minutes as an average, then it is 
easy to compare what should be expected, and what has been observed on 
ranges lying between 20° and about 100°. This is done in the following 
table : — , 

Japan to Shide, 85° Observation, 32 minutes. 
Borneo to Shide, 112°, 42 min. expected. „ 40 to 43 „ 

Haj'ti to Shide, 62°, 23 „ „ „ 20 

Hayti to Toronto, 20°, 7 „ „ „ about 4 „ 

Although these observations indicate a working rule, enabling us to 
determine the distance of an origin from an observing station which, with 
a knowledge of the surface configuration of our globe and localities where 
seismic activity is frequent often, are the means of locating an epicentre, 
the last of the series suggests that the duration of the preliminary tremors 
are more directly connected with the depth of a wave-path rather than its 
length, as represented by the arc of a great circle. 

Trial, however, shows that the duration of preliminary tremors is not 
proportional to the length of the chord along which it may be supposed 
the movements travelled, or to its maximum or average depth. 

The table on p. 221, which is derived from fig. 4, shows that the dura- 
tion of preliminary tremors in minutes is, for the given ranges, nearly 
equal to the square root of the average depth of the chord expressed in 
kilometres. 

On the Period of Earthquake Waves at Great Distances from their Origin. 

All that we know about the period of earthquake waves after they 
have travelled great distances is derived from the open diagrams of the 
Italian workers, a few records obtained in the Isle of Wight, and a single 
but exceedingly valuable record obtained by Dr. F. Omori when in Pots- 
dam. The Italian and Isle of Wight records were obtained from simple 
or horizontal pendulums writing on smoked paper. The Potsdam record, 
which refers to an earthquake originating in Japan on February 19, 1897, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESriGATION. 



99 f. 



is photogi-npliic, and shows the movements of a pair of von Rebeur pen- 
dulums. It has yet to be described. 

In the following few examples of records referring to period the fol- 
lowing abbreviations are used : — 

Pt. = Preliminary tremors, the periods of which arc expressed in seconds. 

Lw. = Large waves, „ „ ., ,> 

P. = Simple pendulum, the length of which is given in metres. These 

pendulums have multiplying indices. 
H.P. = Horizontal pendulums. 
G.L.^Geodynamic level (see p. 263, also ' B.A. Eeport,' 1896, p. 227). 



The first name refers to the place at which a given earthquake 



originated. 



1895. 



Jan. 18. 
July 8. 
Aug. 9. 



189G. June 15. Japan. 



Aug. 31. Japan. 



Sept. 6. Iceland. 



Jap.Tn. At Rome P. 16m. gave for Lw. 16-4s. 

Caspian Sea. „ IschiaG.L. „ „ „ 22s. 

E. Italy. „ Rome P. 16m. „ „ „ 8-8s. and Pt. -IGs. 

Rocca di Papa P. 7m. gave for Lw. 7s. 
Padua P. gave for Lw. 40s. 
Ischia H.P. (with a natural period of lis) 
gave Pt. 6s. to 12s., and Lw. 20s. to 50s. 
„ Catania gave Pt. 3s., Lw. 15-5s. 
„ Rome P. 8m. gave 21s.. P. 16m. 14s. to 20s. 
1896. June 29. Cyprus. ,, Ischia H.P. gave Pts. 4s., Lw. 10s. 

„ Rocca di Papa P. gave Pt. 4s., Lw. 6s. 
„ Aug. 26. Iceland. „ Rome P. ICm. gave liW. 10s., P. 8m. gave 

Lw. 10s. 
„ Rocca di Papa P. 15m. gave Lw. 14s., P. 7m. 

gave Lw. 14s. 
,, Ischia H.P. gave Lw. 18s. 

Ischia H.P. gave Lw. 60s. down to 1 3s. 
Rocca di Papa H.P. Lw. 30s. to 14s., P. m 

gave Lw. 14s., P. 15m. 30s. and 14s. 
Rome P. 16m. 8s. to 13s. 
Catania P. Lw. 48s. to 72s., Pt. 14s. to 2Ss. 
Rome P. 16m. gave ll'Ss. 
Catania Lw. 15s. to 18s. ; also 8s. to 16s. 
Rocca di Papa P. 15m. gave 14s., H.P. gave 

16s., P. 7m. gave 16s. 
Ischia H.P. 2 2s. to 17s. 
Ischia H.P. gave Pt. 2-5s., Lw. 19s. 
Rocca di Papa H.P. gave about 17s. 
Rocca di Papa H.P. gave 18s. 
Ischia H.P. 6s. to 25s. 

1897. Jan. 10. Persian Gulf. „ Padua P. gave 35s. to 16s., Ischia H.P. gave 

25s. to 12s. 

Catania P. 25m. gave 6s. to 18s. 
Shide H.P. gave 15s. 

When reading the above records it must be remembered that they 
refer to the shortest and longest periods which were observed, or to waves 
with the smallest and largest amplitudes. Near to an origin, after a 
shock, a disturbance dies out with an increasing period, but at a great 
distance from an origin the maximum movements which probably corre- 
spond to a shock or shocks are those which have the longest period. 

Also the fact must not be overlooked that the records refer to seismo- 
grams obtained from different instruments, located at different stations, 
and that it is not certain that comparisons are made between similar 
phases of motion. The following table is therefore tentative, and when 

1898. Q 



Sept. 22. 


Tiais. 


Nov. 1. 


Tashkent. 


Jan. 10. 


Persian Gulf. 


June 12. 


N.E. India. 



226 



REroRT— 1898. 



■we are in possession of records more strictly comparable it may be sub- 
ject to considerable alteration : — 



Distance from Origin in 
Degrees 


Period in Seconds 


Preliminary Tremors 


Large Waves 


to 3 
8 to 10 
23 to 28 
35 to 40 

85 


•05 to -2 
47 
2-2 
6? 

3 to 8 


1 to 4 
10 
19 
35 

20 to 60 



All that this table tells us is that both preliminary tremors and large 
waves exhibit a marked increase in period as they travel, and, whatever 
the period of a given wave may be in the vicinity of its origin when it has 
travelled a distance represented by a quarter of the circumference of the 
earth, its period has increased twentyfold. 

VI. On Certain Disturbances in the Records of Magnetometers and the 
Occurrence of Earthquakes. By John Milne. 

Although we are aware that the records from certain magnetic obser- 
vatories rarely, and then only slightly, show that the magnetographs have 
been disturbed at or about the time of large earthquakes, it is certain that 
at other observatoi-ies these movements of the ground are accompanied 
and possibly preceded by perturbations as shown upon magnetograms of 
a very marked character. In some instances these disturbances have 
evidently resulted from the mechanical shaking to which the magnetic 
needles have been subjected, but there are other cases where such an 
explanation is not so clear. 

To determine how far these movements may be attributed to mechani- 
cal action, whether there is any reason to suppose that certain of them 
may be the result of magnetic influences, to explain the observation that 
what are apparently similar earthquakes with like origins are accompanied 
by diffei'cnt results at the same observatory, and generally with the object 
of throwing additional light upon a class of phenomena which at present 
are not well understood, I have collected the materials contained in the 
following notes. 

In addition to sending the list of ' Earthquakes recorded at Shide, 
1897-98' (see p. 191), to vai-ious earthquake observatories, the same was 
forwarded to magnetic observatories at the following places : Kew, Stony- 
hurst, Greenwich, Falmouth, Potsdam, and Bombay. Accompanying 
the list there was a request that the same might be returned with 
notes respecting any magnetometer perturbations which might have 
been noted at about the times of the earthquakes which were more pro- 
nounced. 

Some time later I drew up a second list of earthquakes which had been 
recorded in Italy, Germany, and England, the greater number of whicli 
had orif^inated at great distances from these countries, and appended to 
the same a request similar to that attached to the Shide list. On April .3 
this was forwarded to magnetic observatories at the following places : — 

Pawlowsk (Odessa), Kasan and Tiflis^ (Russia), Irkutsk (Siberia), 
Pra^'ue, Vienna, and Pola (Austria), O-Gyalla (Hungary), Utrecht 
(Holland), Nice and Perpignan (France), Copenhagen (Denmark), Madrid 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



227 



(Spain), Coimbra (Portugal), Kew, Greenwich, and Stonyhurst (England), 
Zi-ka-wei and Hong Kong (China), Manila (Philippine Islands), Batavia 
(Java), Mauritius, Melbourne (Australia), Loanda(West Africa), Havana 
(Cuba), Toronto (Canada), Washington (United States), Bombay (India), 
Tokio (Japan). 

Harthqiuihcs recorded in Germany, Italy, and Englarid, many of mldch originated at 
great distances from these Countries. 

The time employed is Greenwich Mean Time. 



No. 


Date 


Hour 


Origin 


Magnetometer Disturbances 




o 


P 


a 


'o 


ti 


g 

s 

.♦J 


CO 

2 a 
s > 


(Jl 

1 


3 


■sil 









t 




U 




> 




« 


C 


^" 


c3 

Ph 


•A 


N 2 

;c5 




H. M. 










1889. 




























1 


Apr. 18 


5 21 a 


Japan 


























2 


July 11 


10 22 p 


Quetta 




— 








— 














3 


„ 28 


3 30 p 


Japan 

























4 


»» 1' 


6 p 


j» 

























6 


Aug. 25 
1891. 


7 37 p 


Greece . . 



















1 





— 


6 


Oct. 27 
1892. 


9 38 p 


Japan . . 




— 



















— , 


7 


Mar. 16 


1 22 p 


Manila . . 


























8 


)» 11 


5 22 p 


«» 

























9 


Apr. 19 


11 30 a 


CaliJiornia . 




— 




















10 


May 12 


5 43 a 


Japan . . 





— 






— 












_ 


11 


Oct. 19 


4 21 a 


5> - • 


























12 


Nov. 4 


5 24 p 


?» • • 


























13 


„ 27 


5 57 p 


California . 






















_ 


14 


Dec. 9 


1 19 a 


Japan . . 























j 


15 


„ 20 
1893. 


34 a 


Quetta . . 






















1 


16 


Jan. 28 


11 46 p 


Italy . . 





— 






















17 


„ 31 


4 19 a 


Zante . . 
























18 


Feb. 1 


39 a 


»1 • • 
























19 


,, 6 


5 7 p 


Japan . . 

























20 


»> »l 


7 4 p 


»» 






















i 


21 


,, 9 


6 13 p 


Turkey . . 











— 
















22 


11 »« 


9 40 p 


Japan . . 












— 













23 


• » 1» 


11 p 


»> • 
























24 


„ 13 


5 p 


Quetta . . 

























25 


„ 16 


5 17 a 


Japan . , 


























26 


)» »» 


4 p 


j> 




— 




















27 


„ 21 


7 13 a 


1} * • 
























28 


I» »» 


2 18 p 


)i • • 
























29 


„ 22 


11 16 p 


J) • • 
























30 


Mar. 2 


11 6 p 


Turkey . . 





— 


— 

















~~ 


31 


„ 14 


6 20 a 


Italy . . 























_l 


32 


„ 20 


5 10 p 


Zante . . 
























33 


„ 23 


8 43 p 


Japan . . 




. — 




















34 


Apr. 8 


1 51 p 


S.W. Ger- 






























many 





— 


— 


— 

















35 


., 17 


6 48 a 


Zante . . 
























36 


„ 23 


1 32 p 


Italy . . 

























37 


„ 29 


6 2p 


ji ' 

























228 



REPORT — 1898. 



Earthquakes recorded in Geemanv, 


Italy, 


AND ENGLAND- 


—emit In 


ued. 




No. 
38 


Date 


Hour 


Origin 


Magnetometer Disturbances 




Kew 

Utrecht 


1 


C 
13 
• S 
> 




13 

s 


1 


S tf 


-3 


CO 


'S 


a 


May 2 


9 58 a 


J» 






39 


„ 18 


2 39 p 


J> 



























40 


„ 19 


13a 


J1 • • 

























41 


„ 23 


8 38 p 


Greece . . 


— 




















_j 


42 


June 3 


4 25 p 


Unknown . 


— . 

















— 




j 


43 


,. 7 


10 10 p 


Italy . , 






















1 


44 


„ 11 


9 9 p 


» 




. 


















. 


_J 


45 


„ 13 


11 5 a 


»i • • 


























46 


„ 14 


6 47 a 


Greece . . 


























47 


July 3 


10 5 a 


99 • 



























48 


., 5 


11 24 a 


Italy . . 


























49 


„ 10 


14 p 


li • 


























50 


Aug. 2 


1 43 a 


»i • • 




— 






















51 


,, 4 


52 a 


)» • 



























52 


„ 6 


7 42 p 


») • . 





















— 


— 




53 


„ 10 


9 9 p 


»> • 
























— 


54 


1894. 


7 48 p 


>» 










— 














— 


55 


Mar. 22 


10 37 a 


Japan . . 


— 


— 






— 










— 


— 


— 


56 


Apr. 20 


5 42 p 


Greece . . ' 
























1 


57 


„ 27 


7 55 p 


»» • • 





























58 


„ 29 


3 25 a 


Venezuela . 




















— 






59 


June 20 


5 45 a 


Japan . . 




















— 


— 


— 


60 


July 10 


10 30 a 


Constanti- 
nople 
























_ 


61 


„ 12 


2 17 p 


u • 






— 




— 
















62 


Oct. 7 


11 40 a 


Japan . . 




















— 


— 


— 


63 


,, 22 


9 0a 


»» 


— 


— 




















^1 


64 


„ 27 
1895. 


9 8 p 


Argentina . 


— 


— 




















— 


65 


Jan. 18 


2 37 p 


Japan . . 










— 










— 


— 


— 


66 


July 8 


10 43 p 


Caspian Sea 




— . 


— 









— 


— 





— 


— 





67 


Ang. 9 


5 38 p 


B. Italy . 





















— 


— 


— 


68 


Nov. 13 
1896. 


9 31 p 


W. Asia Mi- 
nor , . 




















— 




— 


69 


June 15 


11 46 a 


Japan . . 























— 




— 


70 


„ 29 


9 2 p 


Cyprus . . 




















— 




, — 


71 


Aug. 26 


11 22 p 


Iceland . . 




— 










— 


— ■ 








— 


72 


„ 31 


8 23 a 


Japan . . 












— 




— 




— 




— 


73 


Sept. 6 


2a 


Iceland . . 













— 


— 












74 


„ 14 


10 30 a 


N.W. Asia 
Mioor 


























75 


„ 23 


4 53 a 


Tiflis . . 

















— 




— 




— 


76 


Nov. 1 

1897. 
Jan. 10 


5 18 a 
9 18 p 


Tashkent . 
Persian Gulf 




























June 12 


11 21) a 


N.E.India. 


— 


— 


— 






— 




— 





— 








Aug. 5 


22 a 


Japan . . 





























Sept. 20 


7 24 p 


1 E. Borneo . 




















— 








''I 


5 28 a 


•7 























— 








Dec. 28 


8 5t p 


W. Indies . 








•■ 




















„ 29 


11 40 M 


.. 










" 














• 



ox SEI3MOL0GICAL INVESTIGATION. 229 

The cliief feature in this list is that with one exception it refers to 
earthquakes of whicli we know the origin. The exception is No. 42, and 
it is here included because it refei-s to an earthquake which pro'S^ably dis- 
turbed the whole of the globe, and had a duration greater than any yet 
recorded. In Japan I recorded it as having a duration of 5 hrs. 24 mins. 
In Strassburg it continued 11 or 12 hours. 

In the columns for magnetometer disturbances, especially for Kew and 
Mauritius, it must not be inferred that the marks necessarily indicate any- 
thing more than that slight magnetic perturbations have occurred at about 
the times specified. The Potsdam, Wilhelmshaven, and Pawlowsk records 
date from 1895. 

Further information has been obtained fro:n the earthquake catalogues 
published from time to time by Professor Pietro Tacchini in the ' Bollettino 
della Societa Sismologica Italiana.' 

These records date only from 1895, and refer to Utrecht, Potsdam, 
Wilhelmshaven, and Pawlowsk. 

What has been gathered from these lists, together with that from 
replies to circulars, more of which may yet be expected, is tabulated in a 
uniform manner in the following lists : — 

0, as, for example, ' Potsdam = 0,' means tbat the magnetograpbs at Potsdam were 
not disturbed. 

D means Declinometer or the unifilar record. 

H means Horizontal Force record. 

V means the Vertical Force, or Lloyd's balance record. 

The times are given in hours and minutes G.M.T. 

Beplies relating to the List on f. 191. 
{^Earthquakes recorded at Shide, Isle of Wight, 1897-98.) 

1. Records from the Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey. 
Superintendent, Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S. 

Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S. , superintendent of the above observatory, 
tells me that he and Mr. Baker have looked at the curves, chiefly for 
horizontal force, at the times of the large movements in the Shide list, 
and he points out that near these times — as near any other set of arbitrary 
times — there are movements of the ordinary magnetic small wave type. 
vSuch movements go on for hours, if not for days ; and by some the view 
is held that they are always, or jiearly always, existent, and might be 
seen if we had only delicate enough instruments and an open time scale. 
When earth movements have affected the trace there is a 'burr,' but such 
a • burr ' might be equally well caused by an assistant entering the room 
with keys or a knife in his pocket. In only one case — No. 104, June 3 — ■ 
■\vas there evidence of a movement not due to natural magnetic causes, 
excepting one on October 20, No. 141, which might more naturally be 
assigned to human creation. The June 3 movement would pass for an 
earthquake, but it took place at an hour when there are frequent move- 
ments in the building, as absolute meteorological observations are taken 
then. Traces free from small movements, excepting the vertical force, are 
rare. On a moderately disturbed day the movements are in dozens, or 
rather hundreds. In the following list the numbers refer to those on the 
Shide list, and if these are followed by =• this means that at the corre- 
sponding dates the magnetometers were not disturbed: 98 = 0. 104. At 



230 



REPORT— 1898. 



10 A.M. a slight movement, apparently not magnetic. 116=0. 119=0. 

131 = 0. 132 = 0. 133 probably = 0. 131=0. U0 = 0. 141. At 

2.58 P.M. movements probably due to an assistant. 145=0. 157 = 0. 
163. A slight movement, about 2.50 p.m., of a doubtful kind. 



Mecoi'ds from tho. Hoyal Observatori/, Greenwich. 

Through the kindness of the Astronomer Royal, the following note 
relating to the Shide register, p. 191, wei-e di-awn up by Mr. Nash : — 



Shide No, 

98* 

09 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104* 
105 
106 
107* 
108 
110 
111 
115 
116* 
118* 
120 
123 
123 
125* 
130 
131 
132* 
134 
136 
137* 
142 
143 
144 
147* 
155 
156 
ICO 



Movements noted at Greenwich. 
Small movement in H and D at 23h. 30m. 

about 12h. 20m. 
„ „ „ at 13h. 15m. 

Veiy small movements in H and D. 

Small movements in H and D at 4Ii. 45m. 
Small wave in H and D at 9h. 50m. 



Very small movement 
Small „ 



„ wave 

„ movement 

„ wave 

„ movement 

Very small fluctuations in H and D. 
,, ,, movement 



nDat llh. 45m. 
n D at 191i. 55m. 
n H and D at 7h. 
n H at lOh. 55m. 
n H at 20h. 15m. 
n H at llh. 15m. 



„ ., wave 
Small decrease 

„ wave 
Very small movement 
Small movement 

„ wave 

,, movement 
'\Vave 
Small movement 

1) »» 

,, wave 
., movement 

Active movements 

Small „ 

Very small ,, 

Small „ 



AVe have here 33 instances where 



iOm. 



n D at 15h. 40m. 

n D and H, 6h. lOm. to 61i, 45m. 

n H and D at 21h. 45m. 

nD. 

n H and D at 15h. 10m. 

n H and D at Ih. 20m. 

n H about lOh. 28m. 

nH. 

n H and D at 23h. 50m. 

n H and D at 13h. 40m. ± 

n H and D at Oh. 15m. 

n H at 14h. 40m. 

n H and D 3h. 30m. 

nD. 

n n at 9h. 4Sm. 

n H and D, commencing a 4h. 

n H and D. 

nD. 

nH, again in D & H, 17h. 40m. to 17h. 45m. 

t is possible that a connection may 



exist between earthquake movements and the movements of magnetic 
needles. In the cases marked with an asterisk the movements of the 
needles preceded those of the ground. 



ox SELSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



231 



Mejjlies relating to the List on p. 227. 

Magnetometer Movements noted at the Keio Observatory, Richmond, Surrey, 
England. Superintendent, Dr. Charles Chree, F.R.S. 



No. 



No. on 
List Blontli 
p. 227 


Day 



Time of 
Earthquake 



Magnetometer Disturbances 



IV. 



VIII. 



18 



10 


Y. 


12 


11 


X. 


19 


12 


XI 


4 


14 


XII. 


9 



21 


II. 


9 


30 


III. 


2 


31 


III. 


14 



1889 

n. 51. I 

5 21 A.M. 



7 37 r.M. 



D and II no trace of earthquake. The 
previous two days were very quiet 
except for some small movements on 
the 17th— 1 to 3 P.M. and 5 to 7 P.M. 

On D some very small, apparently 
ordinary, magnetic movements about 
7.37. On H small movements — all 
say on 25th— the large.st between 
4 and 6 P.M., but no trace of earth- 
quake. The 24th distinctly quiet, 
but for slow moderate movements of 
D about 10 P.M. 



1892. 



5 43 A.M. 



4 21 A.M. 



5 24 P.M. 



1 19 A.M. 



D trifling movements, but they look 
magnetic. H shows no trace of 
earthquake. On the 1 Itli very quiet. 
H shows lots of small movements, 
the largest (not big) shortly before 
midnight. 

D and H no earthquake movement. 
Noon 17th and 10 p.m. on 19th many 
varied movements. The fastest large 
change of H on the 18th about 5 and 
8 p.m. Sharp change of D on 18th 
between 5 and 5.30 P.M. 

D many small movements, but no 
certain earthquake. No trace of 
earthquake on H. Many small dis- 
turbances on the 4th up to 4.30 p.m. ; 
pretty sudden commencement on the 
4th about 2.29 a.m. 

D and H no trace of earthquake. On 
the 8th many smallish movements 
from 8 A.m. to 11 P.M. Largest ou 
D about noon. 



1893. 



6 13 P.M. 



11 G P.M. 



G 20 A.M. 



Certain small movements might he 
earthquake effect, but there are 
several not dissimilar at no great time 
interval. The 9th, but for many 
small vibratory movements, was 
quiet. The 8th was generally quiet. 
A small slow movement of H at 10.40 
to 11.20 P.M. 

No trace of earthquake on D. Some 
movements but apparently magnetic, 
on H. The 2nd was generally quiet. 
On the 1st two well-marked move- 
ments last 7.20 to 8.30 P.M. 

No trace of earthquake on D and H. 
13th and 14th, on the whole, quiet ; 
on 13th some slow waves en H 
between 1.45 and 8 P M., also on D 
about 12.30 to 2 p.m. and about 6 P.M. 



232 



REPORT — 1898. 



Magnetometer Movenehts— continued. 





No. on 




1 


No. 


List 
r. 227 


Month 


Day 


10 


31 


IV. 


8 


11 


42 


VI. 


3 


12 


45 


VI. 


13 



Time 


of 


Earthquake 


H. 


M, 




1 


51 


P.M. 


4 


25 


P.M. 


11 


5 


A.M. 



Magnetometer Disturbances 



No trace of earthquake of E or H. 
D a little irregular, but notliing 
special, at 1 51. The 8th and 7th 
generally quiet, but many small 
vibrations on D on 7th and early on 
the 8th. 

Some slight movements, apparently 
magnetic. The 3rd and 2nd gene- 
rally quiet. A few small movements 
on D on the 2nd and early on the 3rd. 

No trace of earthquake on H or D. 
On the 12th H shows a slight hump 
from to 1 A.M., otherwise very 
quiet ; D shows a lot of very small 
movements, a noticeably sharp one 
about 6.15 A.M., and a hump on curve 
from midnight to 1 A.M. 



Magnetometer Movements noted at the JRoyal Obsij'vatory, Greemcich,from 1889 
to 189G. Drmvn %ip bxj Mr. P. H. Cowell. 

[For a more detailed description see the Greenwich volumes.] 



No. 


No. on 

List 


Month 


Day 


Time of 


Beginning of Magnetometer 




p. 227 




Earthquake 


Disturbances 










1889. 










H. M. 




1 


1 


IV. 


18 


5 21 A.M. 


Very small, from 17a. 9h. A.M. to 6h. p.m. 


2 


2 


vir. 


11 


10 22 P.M. 


2h. p.m. 


3 


5 


VIII. 


25 


7 37 P.M. 


From noon. 










1891. 


4 


c 1 


X. 1 


27 


9 38 P.M. 1 „ 4h. 13m. p.m. 
1892. 


5 


7 


III. 


16 


1 22 P.M. 


From 15d. 8h. P.M. to IGd. 3h. A.M. 


<; 


10 


IV. 


12 


5 43 A.M. 


Small disturbance from 1 Id.llh. 30m. P.M. 


7 


11 


X. 


19 


4 21 A.M. 


Storm from 17d. noon. 


8 


12 


XI. 


4 


5 24 P.M. 


4d. 2h. A.M. 





13 


iy 


27 


5 57 P.M. 


From 26d. 2h. 30m. a.m. to 5h. A.M. 


10 


14 


XII. 


9 


1 19 A.M. 


Disturbance from 8d. 2h. A.m. to mid- 
night. 


11 


15 


»» 


20 


34 A M. 


From I9d. lOh. 30m. p M. 










1893. 


12 


16 


I. 


28 


11 46 P.M. 


From Oh. 30m. A.M. 


13 


17 


*» 


31 


4 19 A.M. 


„ Ih. 30m. A.M. 


14 


19 


II. 


G 


o 7 P.M. 


"1 Storm from 4d. noon to 6d. noon. Sub- 
/ sequently a large disturbance. 


15 


20 


Jt 


,, 


7 4 P.M. 


16 


21 


»» 


9 


6 13 P.M. 


From 9d. 6h. p.m. 


17 


22 


»J 


,j 


9 40 P.M. 




18 


23 


1> 


»7 


11 P.M. 




19 


25 


»i 


16 


5 17 A.M. 


1^ Considerable disturbance from 15d. 
J Ih. p.m. 


20 


26 


1* 


»» 


4 P.M. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 






Magnetometer Movements — continued. 



No. 



21 

23 

24 
2r. 
2G 

27 

28 

29 
30 
31 



33 
34 

33 
36 
37 
38 
3!) 
40 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 



50 
51 
52 
53 



54 
55 
56 

57 

58 



No. on 

List 

p. 227 



27 
28 
29 

30 
31 
33 
34 

35 

38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 

44 
47 
51 
52 
53 
54 



Month! Day 



21 



Time of 
Earthquake 



1» 


22 


III. 


2 




14 




23 


IV. 


8 


tl 


17 


V. 


2 


>» 


18 


»» 


19 


1» 


23 


VI. 


3 


>» 


7 




11 


VII. 


3 


VIII. 


4 


»» 


6 


1» 


10 


»» 


14 



H. M. 

7 13 A.M. 
2 18 P.M. 

11 16 P.M. 

11 C. P.M. 

6 20 A.M. 

8 43 P.M. 

1 51 P.M. 

5 48 A.M. 

9 58 A.M. 

2 39 P.M. 
13 A.M. 

8 38 P.M. 
4 
10 



Beginning of Magnetometer 
Disturbances 



25 P.M. 
10 P.M. 



9 9 P.M. 
10 5 A M. 
52 A.M. 
7 42 P.M. 
9 9 P.M. 
7 48 P.M. 



Disturbance from 20d. 5h. p.m. to lOh. p.m. 
„ „ 21d. noon. 

Slight ., „ 22d. noon — princi- 
pally at 8 p.m. 

From lOh. 30m. P.M. 
„ 3h. a.m. 

Very small disturbance from 6b. p.m. 

Ih- to 
lOh. A.M. 

Disturbances from 16d. 3h. P.M. Small 
distiirbance 17d. 4h. A.M. 

A small, sharp disturbance Id. lOh. p.m. 

Disturbance at noon. 

Small at 18d. 8h. p.m., and a smaller at 
19d. Ih. A.M. 

At 6h. P.M. 

Register interrupted for Visitation Day. 

A great disturbance Gd. 9h. p.m. Fluc- 
tuations subsequently. 

Disturbance from lOd. 7h. p.m. 

Very small disturbancesince2d. llh. A.M. 

From 3d. 7h. p.m. 

Storm beginning Gd. 4h. A.M. 

From 3h. P.M. 

Very small disturbance 5h. 30m. p.m. 



189ft. 



55 


III. 


22 


56 


IV. 


20 


57 




27 


58 


Ji 


29 


59 


VI. 


20 


60 


VII. 


10 


62 


X. 


7 


63 


)» 


22 


i 64 


)) 


27 



10 


37 A.M 


5 


42 P.M 


7 


55 P.M 


3 


25 A.M 


5 


45 A.M 


10 


30 A.M 


11 


40 A.M 


9 


A.M 


9 


8 P.M 



65 


I. 


18 


66 


vir. 


8 


67 


VIII. 


9 


68 


XI. 


13 



Storm commences 21d. noon. 

Fluctuations from 6h. A.M. 

Slight irregularity at 3h. A.M. 

From Ih. a.m. 

Moderate disturbance for some time 

past. Wave at 4h. A.M. 
From 9d. 8h. p.m. 

„ 6h. a.m. 

„ Oh. A.M. 
5h. P.M. 



1895. 

p M. From 17d. noon. 



10 43 P.M. 
5 38 p.m. 
9 31 P.M. 



6h. A.M. and Ih. p.m. 
8h. A.M. 
7h. P.M. 



1896. 



69 


VI. 


15 


70 


»» 


29 


71 


VIII. 


26 


72 


») 


31 


73 


IX. 


6 



11 46 A.M. 

9 2 P.M. 

11 22 P.M. 

8 23 A.M. 

2 A.M. 



From 14d. 2h. A.M. t-> 15d. 3h. A.M. 

Sharp waves 14d. 3h. .30m. to 6h. P.M. 
From 3h. p.m. to midnight. Waves 

6h. 30m. to 9h. 30m. P.M. 
Almost continuous from 23d. 2h. P.M. 

to 25d. 9h. P.M. 
From 29d. noon to 30d. noon. Marked 

at 29d. 4h. p.m. 
From 4d. noon to 5d. lOh. P.M. Marked 

on 5d. 8h. 30in. to lOh. A.M. 



234 



REroKT — 1898. 



It will be observed that these records, unlike those in the next i-egister 
for Utrecht, do not refer to 'burr '-like markings produced at the time 
of earthquakes, but to magnetic movements which have had a considerable 
duration, and which commenced some hours before the occurrence of the 
earthquakes to which they are in juxtaposition. 

For fourteen earthquakes it will be noticed that there is no corre- 
sponding magnetic disturbance, but, singularly enough, at least ten of 
these earthquakes were small, originating, for example, in Italy, the 
mechanical movements accompanying which were not recordable even at 
so short a distance as England. Appai'ently, therefore, the greater 
number of perturbations recorded at Greenwich have only preceded 
very large eai'thquakes representing internal adjustments of the earth's 
crust. Something analogous to this will be found in the Zikawei 
register, p. 245. 

Magnetometer Disturbances recorded at the Moyul Meteorological Institute of the 
Netherlands, Utrecht. Director, Dr. M. Snellen. 



No. 



1 No. on 
I List 
! p. 227 



Month Day 



Time of 
Eax'tliquake 



Magnetometer Disturbances 



1889. 



VII. 



11 



H. M. 

10 22 P.M. 



D lOh. 42m. mas. at lOh. 50m.. and 
llh. Im. H lOh. 39m.. with max. 
at lOh. 41m., lOh. 52m., llli. 2m., and 
13h. 20m. 



1891. 



9 
10 



X. 



IV. 
V. 



27 



19 
12 



9 38 P.M. 



D 9h. Om. Ss. ; 9h. 28m. ; 9h. 44m. 50s. ; 
lOh. 2m. ; lOh. 8m. ; lOh. 32in. H. =0. 



1892. 



8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 



15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



IG 


I. 


28 


26 


II. 


IC 


30 


III. 


2 


33 




23 


34 


IV. 


8 


36 




23 


38 


V. 


2 


40 





19 


41 


— 


23 


50 


VIII. 


2 



11 80 a.m. 
5 43 A.M. 

18 

11 46 P.M. 

O 4 P.M. 



D and H llh. 33m. 
D and H 7h. 14m. ? 



93. 

D 



11 6 

8 43 
1 51 

1 32 

9 58 

1 3 
8 38 
1 43 



P.M. 
P.M. 
P.M. 

P.M. 
A.M. 

A.M. 
P.M. 
A.M. 



9h. 24m.; lOh. Om. ; llh. 2m. H 

9h. 26m.; lOh. Om. 
D lOh. 46m.; llh. 34m.; llh. 5Cm. 

H lOh. 48m.; llh. 24m.; 12h 4m. 
D llh. 56m. H llh. 56m. 
D 81i. 54m. H not registering 
D Ih. 42m.; Ih. 56m. Hlh. 40m. ; 

Ih. 57m. 
D 2h. 40m. 
D 9h. olm 

9h. 5Sm. 
D Ih. l!)m. 
D 7h. 36m. 
Auff. 1,D llh. 20m. r 

H llh. 36m. P.M. 



11 2h. 40m. 
9h. 58m. 

11= 0. 
H 8h. 20m. 
M. ; 



H 9h. 51m.; 



llh. 36m. P.M. 



1894. 



55 


III. 


22 


57 


IV. 


27 


59 






60 


VII. 


10 


63 


X. 


22 


64 


— 


27 



10 37 A.M. 

7 55 P.M. 

10 30 A.M. 
9 A.M. 
9 8 P.M. 



D lOh. 27m. ; 19h. 26m., &c. H lOh. 

27m.; llh. 21m., kc. 
D 7h. 57m. H 7h. 57m. 
Not registering: 

D lOh. 28m. H lOh. Im. ; lOh. 32m. 
D 7h. 51m. H 9h. Om. 
D 9h. Om. ; H 91i. 8m. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 
Magxetometee DisTUBBAXCEs — cont'uiued. 



235 



No. 


No. on 
List 
p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Time of Magnetometer Disturbances 
Earthquake ° 










1S95. 


21 


6G 


1 VII. 


8 


10 r.i P.M. 1 D lOh. 27ni. 11 10b. 26m. 
1896. 


22 


69 


VI. 


15 


1146 A.M. D llh. 2.-5m. H llh. 26m. 


23 


71 


VIII. 


26 


1122 p.m. D llh. ;!0m. Hllh2Sm. 


24 


71! 


IX. 


(! 


2 A.M. D 12h. 7m. H 12b. 8m. 


25 


76 


XI. 


1 


5 18 D 5b. 31m. H 5b. 2im. 
aS97. 


26 


78 


VI. 


12 


11 29 A.M. 


D llh. 18m.: lib. 58m. H llh. 56m. 
(See records from Bombay.) 


27 


79 


VIII. 


.? 


22 A.M. 


D lb. 4m. H Oh. 59m. 


28 


81 


IX. 


21 


5 28 A.M. 


D 6h. 24m. H 6b. 20m. 



To the above is added 1896, August 27, D, lOh. 54m., H, lOli. Som., 
■which agrees with an earthquake recorded in Europe, as, for example, at 
Catania at 10.52. 

Out of the Utrecht records there are apparently thirteen instances, viz., 
Nos. 2, 5, 9, 11, 13, U, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 2G, in which the 
magnetometer perturbations have preceded the records of the seismographs 
by intervals varying between a few minutes and two hours. 

The disturbances' due to earthquakes are usually easily distinguished 
from ordinary magnetic disturbances and from those produced artihcially, 
as for example by the approach and removal of masses of iron. 

A copy of these disturbances was forwarded to Dr. Charles Chree, who 
very kindly compared the same with his own records obtained at Kew. 
The results were as follows : — 

Xo. 2. Notbmg special at the times specified. For several days about this date 

innumerable small movements occurred from time to time. 
„ 5. D, a little movement about 11.25, but not at times stated. H, small 

movement at 10, but various similar movements both before and after. 
„ 9. D, no movement at 1.42, 1.51, or 1.56. H, a small movement at 1.57. 
,, 11. D, nothing at the time stated. H, nothing at 9.51 or 9.58. 
„ 13. D, numerous very small tremors for some hours before and after time 

stated. H, nothing at 8.20. 
„ 14. D, nothing at 11.20 or 11.34, or 1.34 A.M. on the 2nd. H, nothing at 

11.36 P.M. on tlie 1st. 
„ 15. D, curve disturbed this and previous day. Hundreds of movemeirts. 

H „ „ „ ,, 7, :r " 

„ 18. D, nothing at 10.28 specially. Very small tremors 10.25 to 11.30. H, 

nothing at 10.1 ; burr on curve at 10.35. 
„ 19. D, microscopic tremors about 7.4S and later. H, nothing at 9.0. 
„ 20. D, considerable magnetic movement 6 to 10 p.m. Nothing special at 

9 P.M. H, ditto. 
„ 21. D, nothing at 10.27 or 10.43. H, nothing at 10.36 or 10.4.3. 
„ 22. D, nothing at 11.23 or 11.46 A.M. H, lot of tiny tremors 10 A.M. to 

1 P.M. ; nothing special at 11.26. 
„ 26. D, nothing at 11.18, 11.29, or 58 ; but at 11.38 somewhat abnormal jerk, 

and small movement at 11.50. H, nothing at 11.29. Movement that 

might well be an earthquake from 11.47 to 12.10. This is certainly 

not a normal magnetic movement. 

Referring to the Utrecht times given for the above thirteen cases. 
Dr. Chree says that in some cases there was in progress either a moderately 



23G 



REPOUT — 1808. 



developed magnetic storm, or a series of vibrations such as are every 
now and then conspicuous for some time — hours or days. At such times 
fifty or a hundred tiny wobbles may be observed within a comparatively 
small time, and it would be almo.st impossible, in fact, not to have one within 
a minute or so of any specified time. 

Maf/netic Disturbances recorded at Det Danske Meteorolor/iske Insiitut, 
Copenhagen. Director, Dr. Adam Paulsex. 



No. 


No. on 
List 
p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Time of 
Earthquake 


Magnetic Disturbances 










1893. 


1 
2 


30 
34 


III. 
IV. 


2 

8 


H. M. 

11 Op.m. 
1 51 p.m. 


Very weak traces in H F at 1 Ih. 3m. p.m. 

Shocks in D and H at 2h. 3m. to 
2h. 13m. P.M. 










189ft. 


3 
4 

5 


57 
60 

61 


IV. 

vn. 

VII. 


27 
10 

12 


7 55 P.M. 
10 30 a.m. 

2 17 P.M. 


Disturbances by details not received 
(J. M.) 

Commenced lOh. 36m. a.m. At lOh. 
39m. severe shock, succeeded by 
several shocks until lOh. 52m. A.H. 

Between 2h. 15m. and 2h. 21m. p.m. 










1895. 


G 


06 


VII. 


8 


10 43 P.M. 


Between lOh. 47m. p.m. and llh. 12m 
P.M. Severe shocks iJarticularly in 
HF. 










1896. 


7 


76 


XI. 


1 


5 18 a.m. ' Traces of earthquakes bet ween 5h. 22m. 
i and 5h. 28m. 

1897. 


8 


78 


VI. 


12 


11 29 A.M. 


Severe shocks between llh. 18m. and 
llh. 57m. A.M. 



Mof/netojneter Disfi/rbatK-es recorded at the K. K. Anstalt fiir Meteorologie laid 
Erdmugnetismus, Wien, Oesterreich. Director, Dr. J. M. Peknxee. 



No. 


No. on 
List 
p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Time of 
Earthquake 


1 

Magnetometer Disturbances 










1893. 


1 
2 

3 


34 
42 
52 


IV. 

VL 

VIII. 


8 
3 
6 


H. M. 
1 51 P.M. 

4 23 P.M. 
7 42 P.M. 


Apparently strong movement 
Strong swinging 
Much disturbed 










1896. 


4 


69 


VI. 


7 


11 46 A.M. 


On the 16th much disturbed 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



237 



To the above is added the disturbance caused by the Laibach earth- 
quake, April li, 1895, at 10.18 a.m. 

The origin of No. 1 was South-west Germany ; that of No. 2, which is 
one of the largest and longest earthquakes yet recorded, is unknown ; 
No. 52 was in Italy ; while 69 was in Japan. 

The magnetographs are but rarely disturbed, and then, with one 
exception, only by local shocks. 

Magnetometer Disturbances recorded at the K. iindK. Ilijdrof/retphiscltes Amt. Tula. 

The Director. 



No. 


No. on 

List 

p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Time of 
Earthquake 


Magnetometer Disturbances 










1893. 


1 
2 
3 


10 
21 
54 


XL 
VIII. 


1 

9 

14 


H. M. 

39 A.M. 

6 13 P.M. 

7 48 P.M. 


lOh. 45m. P.M. (?) 

3h. 35m. P.M. and 51i. 5m. p.m. 

4h. 37m. P.M. 










189ft. 


4 
5 


55 
Gl 


III. 
VII. 


22 
12 


10 37 A.M. lOh. A.M. 

2 17 P.M. lb. 10m. P.M. 
1895. 


6 

7 


6.-. 
C7 


I. 
VIII. 


IS 
9 


2 37 P.M. 55m. P.M. 
5 38 P.M. Ih. om. p.m. 

1897. 


8 
9 


77 
18 


I- 
IX. 


10 
21 


9 18 P.M. 
6 28 A.M. 


8h. 35m. P.M. 
Ih. 10m. P.M. 



To the above is added a magnetometer disturbance, April 14, 1895, 
10 hrs. 22 mins. p.m., which probably corresponds to an earthquake felt 
and recorded throughout many parts of Italy, April 14, at 10 hrs. 18 mins. 
(in Rome). The origin of this was near Laibach, in Austria. 

For the earthquakes recorded but <iot felt in Europe, the Pola dis- 
turbances, with one exception, are from one to four hours in advance of 
the seismograph records. 

Meteorolofjicnl Office, Toronto, Canada. Director, Professor II. F. Sttjpaet. 
Professor Stupart writes me that he has oompared the list of earth- 
quakes with the magnetometer traces prior to their disturbance by the 
electric trams, and does not find upon them any irregularities at the 
specified times. 

Magnetometer Disturbances recoi-ded at Bombay Government Observatory. 
N. A. F. Moos, Director. 

In the list on p. 238 the earthquakes referred to are those which were 
recorded in Europe. Several of these had submarine origins the positions 
of which are unknown (see List, p. 227). 

The peculiarity of the movements of the magnets, the fact that they 
are disturbed^ by movements which are not perceptible, that the same 
movements originated at great distances, and that in some instances they 



238 



KEPORT — 1898. 



of 

o 
o 



^ 



J" 








sits _■ 
S if: 


o 


-i^ fi ' 




« o S 






a 
a 


Us 



5 a 



= =• w 



8 

^ 



a 

K 



t-t *^ .— I o 

g 2 -; -I 

s -s ^ s 
s «S a 

^ S 00 . 



" ^ -5 — ■ ?o 









^■-f 


^ 


« 


a s . 
















ft) 


2 




52 


13 


r 






■b^ 


-^ 


s.s 


Oi 


t- 


tt-r ~' 




,v 








^ 




t^ C 


'C 


9: 




s 


f^ 


H ^' _ 












c" 




c ~ 






- • 








/^ ^ 






>— ^ 






— Tj U 








>.'"' 


^ 


d. 


5,0 












f^ 












^ 








hn 


t^ a 


:=! c5 — 


3 






'a 

a 










« 3 



> 


-ie o<-:^ 






o 






.^ 




rf 


en 
.'J 




•^ ^t to 


U 




.2r— OJr- 


n 














rt 





s -■ 5 ,= ^ 

C j= " tt = 



So 
"So 

: *j 



"c "—■s^s-'^ — r.ss-='S^' 






1^ a .^ "v^ 



_• a C 1; ^ ^'^ 
'rt O Sj k "rt .^' 

a"" ^ E i- ' 



^ ,r s = ►;; 



" d £ 



^ 2 5 "• S 



ill 






15 5< 






j; 2 o ^ 

r' CC fa -^ 



hob 




CO t* t* 



t-2 S. ii 



6h 



S ^ •?= 



X r^ ?^ CO 







u:i -^ 






rr- 








.« 




C 












i 


'" a 














CO 









to 
-5 


5-^ 


:= 









•^ 














rt.C'S 










a 


c 


s-^s 


C r 


ttr 


C/J 


CQ 02 





CI ro t;- -£ ^ O r^^ O 

c o 5 3 o o o 2' 



iC O O C?> O CO ut CI 

:; >— CI o c-1 e> :^ -« 

=0=^5 o 00 

■552-00 O cro 



o o 00^0 



CO O ift CD t* 

-H 0000 

o 0000 

o 0000 

O O O 3 O 



ic ■-• r^ -t« » 



00000 .-« 000-^-^ o 

00000 o 00000 o 

00000 o 00000 o 

00000 o 00000 o 



00 ^ — 



o 00 



o o Or-00 -- 0000 <o o 

~ ~000 O ^000 1^^ f"" 

000 o 0000 



»o "^ r^ i-o ic 

o o o o <~ 
0000c 



O O 0000 O w300 o 



+ 



+ + + + 4- 



+ 



,1, r-. ^ ^ 



+ + -f 



P 

4- 



::::^SaW^ K-;::p:;SJ, 



o o — 

B ti' .•: -^ * "5 

c o - 
o 



~A . - 



■ CI ri '-3 C-- zr. 1^5 t-, — . « I-: r~ ci -r t-- o irs b- o 



1— — t— CI--i.'2C»C*COC»C1PQ:OC»CO-H 



O CJ CJ wf 



^-f'^ ClC0r^ccCit--Xi«u^O'^iJ'O^^^^-^ Oi-HkAOJ 



!= " -^ X 3 



S! a 



= ^ ^ 



>< •< 3 ►? r^. O 1-5 



o ><; 



P s 



a 



- ;C> I * 



•OK 
-puods.ij.inf) 



'.OogifAjasqo 

^iiannu.iAo;) 

51! -iiv 



CI T o -J I.- cc ff-. ^ — : 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



239 



were but feoblv pronounced near to their origins, inclines Mr. Moos to the 
opinion that the disturbances are at least partly magnetic. 

Fig. G. 

No. 2, July 12, 1889. 



No. 3, Aug. 7, 1889. 



I 



Ko. 12, .Tuuc S, 1891. 




Ko. 13, M:\y IC, 1892. 



No. IS, J.1U. 11,1893. 



No. IS, Nov. 5, 1893. 



No. 31, Sept. 21, 1897. 



Usual type. 

Sketches of Magnetometer Disturbances recorded at Bombay. N. A. F. Moos. 

Fig. 7. 




Eombay, June 12, 1897. Disturbance of Declination Xecdlc. Multiplication, 

2A times. N. A. F. Moos. 

In the Bombay Magnetic and Meteorological Observations Mr. Moos 



210 



REPORT — 1S98. 



describes in some detail the disturbances he noted in connection with the 
Assam earthquake o£ June 12, 1897. 

Dines' Pressure Tube Anemometer Chart did not show any trace of 
atmospheric disturbance. The barograph trace was, liowever, disturbed, 
the maximum effect being about 1 min. later than the maximum disturb- 
ances in the declination and vertical force magnetograms. These instru- 
ments are of the Kew pattern. The needle of the declinometer has a 
period of 5-33 seconds, and the disturbance it suffered is here shown 
enlarged about 2^ times. The time of vibration of the needle of the 
horizontal force magnetograph, which shows an equally large disturbance, 
is 8 seconds. The disturbance in the vertical force magnetograph, which 
is also pronounced, continued over three minutes. There are fourteen 
fairly regular waves in 29 mins.; that is, the magnet which, if mechani- 
cally disturbed and allowed to return to rest, would do so in double 
swings of 5'33 sees, came to rest with periodic movements, each of which 
had a duration of two minutes. In Europe the earth-waves from the 
earthquake had periods of from 10 to 15 sees., and it is likely that when 
they passed Bombay their periods would be about five seconds. It is 
difficult to understand how a movement of this description would result 
in the displacements recorded; and, as Mr. Moos points out, it is equally 
difficult to see why earth- waves could mechanically cause a change in the 
scale reading of this type of instrument. His conclusion is that the 
seismic convulsion was in some way the cause of a magnetic action, every 
seismic wave having its companion effect in a magnetic wave. • 

The following is a summary of disturbances of magnetic needles at 
various observatories by the shock of June 12, 1897 (see Earthquake No. 
105, p. 204) : — -Time at origin, about 11 hrs. 4 mins. a.m. ; arrival of pre- 
liminary tremors in Europe, about 11 hrs. 17 mins.; arrival of large 
waves in Europe, about 11 hrs. 47 mins. 



Place 


D 


H 


V 


Remarks 




H. 


M. H. 


M. 


H. 


M. H. M. 


H. M. H. M. 




Bombay . 


11 


14-11 


16 


11 


11-11 14 


11 14-11 19 


1st Shock 




11 


17-11 


43 max. 


11 


45 End 


11 19-11 23 


2n(l Shock 


Batavia . 


11 


£2 




11 
11 


23,11 34, 
37,11 54 


11 29 max. 


4 Shocks for H 


Utrecht . 


11 


17-11 


19 max. 


11 


4.5-12 20 




D has two max. 




11 


45-12 


30 


12 


35- 1 30 




of 10 & 15 mm., 
which for H aie 
10 & 7 mm. 


Wilhelms- 


11 


19-11 


25 


11 


18-11 .^50 


11 20-11 59 




haven 


11 


44-12 













Pawlowsk 








11 
U 


17-11 25 
19-11 42 




Max. of H at 
Tlh. 22m. 


Para Saint 


11 


27 




11 


27 




Small 


Maur 
















Kew . . 














Smalli doubtful | 


Copen- 
















hagen 














Disturbed 



Magnetographs at Lyons, Perpignan, Pola, Vienna, Uccle, and Lisbon 
were not disturbed. 

The barograph disturbance at Bombay was at 11 hrs. 14 mins. to 
11 hrs. 21 mins., with max. at 11 hrs. 13 mins. ; the electrometer dis- 
turbance at Batavia was at 11 hrs. 16 mins. (exact). 



ON SEIS.MOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



241 



Magnetometer Disturbances recorded at the Hoyal Alfred Observatory, Maurittun. 
Disturbances are indicated as : s = small ; rs = reri/ small ; a = abrupt : 
ra — very abrupt ; sa = small abrujit. Director, T. F. Claxton, Esq. 



No. 



No. on 

list 
p. 227 



Month 



Day 



Time of 
Earthquake 



Magnetic Disturbances 



IV. 
VII. 
VII. 

VIII 



X. 



1898 



18 

11 

28 



27 



1889 



5 21 A.M. 

10 22 
30 



P.M. 



( 3 dU 

1 C 
7 37 



P.M. 
P.M. 



P.M. 



H 7h. 35m. A.M._8h. 10m. vs, 9h. 45m.- 

lOh. Om, vs, llh. 10m. -13h. 10m. 
H 3h. 40m. P.M.-4h. 40m. vs, 5h. 30m.- 

Gh. s, 7m. vs. V 3h. 40m.-6h. 10m. vs 
H 5h. 50m. P.M.-6h. 30m. vs, 7h. 10m.- 

9h. 10m. vs, lOh. 10m. to 2 A.M. on 

29th, vs 
H 3h. 40m. P.M.-.5h. 20m. vs, 5h. !)0m.- 

6h. 40m., 7h. 37m.-yh. 10m. vs. V 

4h. 10m.-8h. 10m. vs 



1891 



9 38 P.M. 



H 4h. 40m. P.M.-5h. 40m., 7h. 30m.- 
8h. 10m. s. D 4h. 46in. vs-7h. 35m. vs 



1892 



7 & 8 


III. 


IG 


U 


X. 


19 


12 


XL 


4 


14 


XII. 


9 



f 1 22 P.M. I 
t 5 22 P.M. i 

4 21 A.M. 



5 24 P.M. 



1 19 A.M. 



H 15d. 8h. 40m. P.M.-9h. 20m. V 

9h. 10m.-9h. 20m. a 
H7h.0m. A.M.-7h.40m. vs. D 4h. 10m.- 

5h. 40m. vs. V 4h. 40m.-5h. 10m., 

7h. Om.-7h. 40m. vs 
H 2h. 28m. A.M.-5h. 40m. vs. D, like 

H, also on the 5th. Y, like H, also 

on the 5th, sa 
H 8cl. 8h. 10m. A.M. and llh. lOm.- 

5h. 10m. P.M. s. D like H, but vs. 

V 8h. lOm.-lh. 10m. p.m. 



1893 



10 


IG 


I. 


28 


11 

12 

1 '' 


19 
21 
22 


II. 


G 
9 
9 


14 


24 


— 


13 


15 

i 


25 


— 


16 


IC 


30 


III. 


2 


17 
■ 18 
' IS) 

i 


31 
33 
34 


IV. 


14 
23 

8 


\ 20 


1 35 


— 


17 



11 46 P.M. 



5 7 P.M. 

6 13 P.M. 
9 40 P.M. 



5 P.M. 
5 17 A.M. 

11 6 A.M. 

G 20 A.M. 
8 43 P.M. 
1 51 P.M. 

5 48 A.M. 



H 7h. 25m. r.M.-llh. 10m. vs, 29d. 

9h. 10m. a. V 7h. 38m. P.M.-7h. 43m., 

8h. 10m.-8h. 20m. 
H Ih. 10m. p.M.-7d. 9h. 10m. A.M. vs 
H 6h. 10m, P.M -7h. 10m. vs, a wave 
H lOh. lOra. P.M. -lOh. 40m. vs, 

lOd. Oh. 10m. A.M. vs, Ih. 40m. vs. 

D lOd. 4h. 10m. a-5h. 10m. vs 
H 4h. 10m. p.M.-5h. 10m. vs. D 

llh. 50m. A.M. -12h. Om. vs 
D 15d. 4h. 10m. A.M. s-8h. 40m. vs, 

9d. 40m. P.M.-llh. 40m. vs, 16d. 

Ihr. 10m. A.M.-5h. 10m. s. V 15d. 

9h. 40m. P.M.-lOh. 40. H, a small 

m agneti c disturbance, February 1 4 - 1 8 
H llh. Om. P.M. -Oh. lOm. a.m. shallow 

wave 
H 5h. 50m. .4..M.-lh. 11m. p.m. 
H 5h. 40m. P.M. s 
H 5h. 10m. A.M. -llh. 10m. s. D like 

H but faint 
D 4h. 40m. a.m. vs 



242 



BEPORT — 1898. 



Magnetometkr Disturbances recorded at the Royal Alfred 
Observatory, Mauritius — cuntinued. 



No. 



21 



23 
21 
25 
26 

27 
28 



29 



30 
31 



32 



34 
35 



No. on I 

list 
p. 227 I 



Month 



37 


_ 


39 


V. 


41 


— 


42 


VI. 


44 


— 


C2 


VIII. 



07 
68 



Co I 



66 i VII. 



Day 



29 

18 



23 



VIII. 
Xl. 



IS 



Time of 
Earthquake 



Magnetic Disturbances 



6 2 P.M. 
2 39 P.M. 



8 38 P.M. 



3 


4 25 P.M 


1 


9 9 P.M 


() 


7 -12 P.M 



H 6h. 40m. P.M. vs 

H 9h. 40m. A.M. s-lh. 10m. P.M. vs, 

2h. 40m.-3h. 25m. s. D Ih. 10m. P.M.- 

4h. 10m. P.M. vs 
H lOh. 25m. p.M.-llh. 10m. s wave. 

D same as H, but vs wave 
H 2d. lOh. 10m. p.m.-3d. Oh. 10m. a.m. 

vs, Oh. 40m. A.M.-2h. lOm. vs 
H- 8h. 10m. p.M.-lOh. 10m. s wave. D 

same as H, but vs wave 
H 4h. 4,om. A.M., 7h. 40m._8b. 10m. va, 

and movements until 4h. 11m. p.m. 

D like H, but not abrupt 



1894: 



55 


III. 


22 


58 


IV. 


29 


59 


VI. 


20 


02 


IX. 


7 


04 


— 


27 



10 r,7 A.M. 



3 25 A.m. 



5 45 A.M. 



11 
9 



40 A.M. 
8 P.M. 



H small movements all day. Active 
from 8h. 10m. A.M.-9h. lOh., but vs. 
D same as H 

H 28d. 4h. 10m. p.M.-5h. 10m. p.m. s, 
29d. 8h. 10m. A.M-lOh. 10m. a.m., 
llh. lOm.-Oh. 10m. p.m. vs, Oh. 30m. 
P.M.-2h. 10m. vs, 6h. 50m. 8h. 10m. 
D 29d. 8h. 10m. A.M.-lOh. 10m. vs, 
6h. 50m. P.xM.-8h. 10m. vs. V occa- 
sional small movements, 29d. 8h. 10m. 
A.M.-3h. 10m. P.M. 

H 19d. 4h. 10m. p.m. sa,21d. Ih. Om. A.M. 
D 20d. 4h. 10m. A.M.-8h. 10m. s. 
V 20d. 7h. 40m. A.M. vs 

H llh. 40m. vs 

H 8h. 15m. p.M.-llh. 40m. s wave. D 
like H. V like H, but vs 



1895 



iit P.M. 



8 10 43 P.M. 



5 .'!8 P M. 



i) .-51 



P.M. 



H ith. 10m. .\.M. - Ih. 25m. P.M. vs 
tremors, 4h. 10m. P.M.-6h. 10m. P.M. 
wave, 8h. 10m. P.M.-9h. 10m. p.m. 
D 2h. 10m. A.M.-4h. lOra. A.M. vs, V 
8h. ]0m. P.M.-Uh. 10m. P.M. s wave 

H 9d. 4h. 10m. A.M.-7h. 40m., 9h. 10m.- 
4h. 10m. P.M., 51i. 10m. P.M.-7h. 25m., 
8h. 25m. -lOh. 2om. vs tremors 

H 5h. 10m. p.M.-7h. 10m. vs, 9h. 25m. 
P.M.-Oh. 25m. A.M. vs 

H 7h. 40m. P.M.-8h. 40m. P.M. wave, 
lOh. 10m. to midnight occasional s 
tremors. D 7h. 40m. P.M.-8h. 40m. 
P.M. s wave. V like D 



1896 



36 


09 


VI. 


IG 


11 46 A.M. 


37 


70 


VI. 


29 


9 2 P.M. 


38 


72 


VIII. 


31 


8 23 A.M. 


39 


75 


IX. 


22 


4 53 A.M. 



H 7h. 40m. A.M.-IOh. 10m. P.M., a small 
disturbance. D and V like H 

H 12h. 10m. P.M.-30d. Ih. 10m. A.M., 
slight movements 

V 29d. llh. 10m. P.M.-30d. Oh. 10m. A.M., 
8h. 10m. A.M.-9h. 10m. A.M. 

V 4h. lOra. A.M.-5h. 10m. vs 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL IX\'KSTIGATION. 



243 



Magnetometer Disturbances eeoobdhd at the Royal Alfred 
Observatory, MAVRiTius—continued. 



No. 



No. on 
List 
p. 227 



Month 



Day 



Time of 
Earthquake 



Magnetic Disturbances 



1897 



40 

41 
42 
43 

44 



77 


I. 


10 


78 


VI. 


13 


80 


IX. 


20 


81 


IX. 


21 


83 


XII. 


29 



9 18 P.M. 

11 29 A.M. 
7 24 P.M. 
5 28 A.M. 

11 40 A.M. 



H 4h. 40m. P.M. va, small distance after 

until midnight. V like H 
H 2h. 10m. P.M. a 
D 4h. 10m. A.M.-5h. 10m. vs 
H uh. 40m. A.M.-lOh, 10m. vs 
H small disturbance all day, sharp at 

4h. 15m. P.M.-4h. 35m "V like H, 

only very small 



An examination of the above table, for which I am indebted to Mr. 
T. F. Claxton, the Director of the Royal Alfred Observatory, shows the 
following results : — 

Cases in whicJi magnetic needles have been disturbed at intervals 
varying between a few minutes and 30 hours before an earthquake, 32. 

Cases in which magnetic needles have been disturbed at intervals 
varying between a few minutes and 6 hours after an earthquake, 11. 

Case in which the disturbances of magnetic needles have accompanied 
an earthquake, 1. 

Observations at the Magnetic and Meteorological Observatorg, Batavia. 
By Dr. J. P. van der Stok. 

June 12, 1897 (Assam Earthquake) (.see Earthquake No. 105). 

G.M.T. 











H. 


M. 


s. 


Horizontal Force, first .shock 


* • • 




, 




23 


40 A M. 


„ ,, second „ 


r • 




, 




34 


40 


„ „ third „ 


, 




• 




37 


40 


„ last 


, , 




, 




54 


40 


Declination, mid. of motion . 


, , 




, 




22 


40 


Vertical Force, maximum 


, 




, 




29 


40 


Electrometer (Mascart), exact com 


mcncemcut 




« 




10 


40 


Sej)tember 20, 1897 ( 


see Earthqua 


H. 


No. 


133). 

s. 






Horizontal Force . 




7 


IG 


20 P.M. verv small. 


Electrometer 


• • 


7 


14 


20 


lai 


ge. 



Tlic declinometer and balance were not disturbed. 



September 21, 1897 (see Earthquake No. 134) 
Horizontal Force . , 



Declination at , 
Vertical Force 
Electrometer 



H. 

5 
5 
5 
.5 
5 
5 



M. 

19 
25 
39 
26 
23 
21 



S. H. 

20 A.M. 5 
20 5 

20 and 5 



M. 

24 
30 
42 



s. 
20 
20 
20 



20 



20 A.M. slight. 

20 (maximum). Duration 20 mins. 

20 A.M. (commencement). 



The distance from Batavia to the origin of these last two disturbances 
is 1,500 kni.s. The last of them also disturbed magnetometers in tlie 
Mauritius, Bombay, Pola, and Utrecht. 



2U 



KEPORT — 1898. 
Fig. 8. 



BiSlar, Sept 20. Eike. 133. 




Electrometer, Sept. 20. Eqkc. 1S3 





Electrometer, Sept. 21. Eqkc. 134. 




liifilar, Jane 12. Eqkc. 105. 



Bifilar, Sept. 21. Eqkc. 134. Verticil Force, June 12. Eqke. 105. 

Magnetometer and Electrometer disturbances. Batavia, 1897. 



Magnetometer Disturbances noted at the Magiietisch en Mcteorologisch 
Obsei • va tor hem , Ba ta via. 



No. 



No. on 

List Month 
p. 227 



Day 



Hour 



Magnetometer Disturbances 



1892 



1 I 15 1 XII. I 20 I 34 A.M., Dec. lit, llh. 3m. P.M. Very slight. 



1893 



2 I 21 1 II. 



!) I C 13 r.M. ] Gh. H»m. p.m. Pretty distinct. 



1895 



3 I Go I I. I 18 

4 GG VII. 8 



2 37 P.M. I 2h. 14m. p.m. Faint (?). 
10 43 r.M. 1 Ih. 5m. p.m. to 4h. 11m. P.M. Clear (?). 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 245 

Magnetometer Disturbances noted at Batavia — continued. 



No. 


No. ou 
List 
p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Hour 


Magnetometer Disturbances 


5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


71 

76 

78 
80 
81 


VIII. 
XL 

VI. 
IX. 
IX. 


2G 

1 

12 
20 
21 


1896 

11 22 p.m. 2h. 45m. r.M. and 2h. 49m. p.m. 
5 18 A.M. Nov. 2, llh. 58m. A M. to Oh. 8m. P.M. (?) 

1897 

11 29 A.M. llh. 25m. A.M. to llh. 50m. A.M. Strong. 
7 24 p.m. 7h. 17m. p.M.to7h.33m.p.M. Notstrong. 
5 28 A.M. 5h. 24m. A.M. to 5h. 45m. A.M. Strong. 



Magnetometer 


Distur 


bances noted at the Observatory, Zikaxoei, China. 




No. on 










No. 


List 
p. 227 


Month 


Day 


Hour 


Magnetometer Disturbances 










1889 










H. M. 




1 


1 


IV. 


18 


6 21 A.M. 


21i. 54m. and 4h. 24m. Small serrations. 


2 


4 


VII. 


28 


6 P.M. 


4h. 49m. to Ih. 54m. Small notched 
movements. 










1891 


3 


6 


X. 


27 


9 38 p.m. 1 9h. 3Pm. A remarkable mechanical dis- 












turbance. See 'La Nature,' 1892, 












No. 975, p. 149. 










1892 


4 


7 


III. 


16 


1 1 22 P.M. 


Ih. 54m. to 5h. 54m. Slight agitation. 


6 


11 


X. 


19 


9 41 A.M. 


Pertmrbations the day before and after. 
On the 4th, perturbations from 2h. 
9m. A.M. 










1893 


6 


19 


n. 


6 


5 7 P.M. 


3h. 54m., trepidations. Large pertur- 
bations at 5h. 27m. 


7 


24 


II. 


13 


5 P.M. 


4h. 14m. to 5h. 4m. Slight undulations. 


8 


25 


II. 


16 


C 17 A.M. 


All day on the 16th and 17th a great per- 
turbation, but nothing exceptional at 
the time of the earthquake. 


9 


44 


VL 


11 


9 9 P.M. 


3h. 54m. to 9h. 9m. Light undulations. 


10 


53 


VIII. 


10 


9 9 P.M. 1 3h. 54m. to 7h. 54m. Small serrations. 
1894 


11 


55 


III. 


22 


10 37 AM. 


Great perturbations on the 22nd and 
23rd, but nothing special at the time 
of the earthquake. 


12 


59 


VI. 


20 


5 45 A.M. 


Two days of remarkable perturbations, 
but nothing remarkable at the time 
of the earthquake. 


13 


62 


X. 


7 


11 40 A.M. 


9h. 54m. A.M. to 3h. 54m. p.m. Slight 
serrations. 


14 


64 


X. 


27 


9 8 P.M. 


3h. 54m. to 9h. 54m. Marked oscillations. 










1895 


15 


65 


I. 


18 


2 37 p.m. llh. 54m. to Ih. 54m. ScTcral insigni- 












ficant movements. 


16 


G7 


VIII. 


9 


5 38 P.M. 


At 3h. 54m. a disturbance lasting two 
days began. 



24G 



REPORT — 1898. 



Father Chevalier, who kindly sent me the above notes, remarks that 
the most striking feature of the comparison appears to be that there is no 
relation between earthquakes and magnetic disturbances. A slight earth- 
quake which was felt at Zikawei on June 4, 1898, was, however, recorded 
by a mechanical motion of the magnetic needles. In the sixteen cases 
where something has been noted at or about the time of large earthquakes, 
it must be observed that eleven of these refer to disturbances which 
oi'iginated in Japan or Manila, and in nine of these eleven cases perturba- 
tions preceded the occurrence of the earthquakes. We have here some- 
thing analogous to what has been observed in Japan. If we omit the 
three instances (nine, ten, and sixteen) where there have been slight move- 
ments of the magnetic needles at about the time when small shocks were 
recorded in Italy, it hardly appears to be a mere coincidence that the 
Zikawei register is practically confined to records of earthquakes which 
have originated in localities not far removed from that observatory. If it 
were a coincidence, then we should expect to find similar perturbations 
preceding at least a few of the remaining sixty-seven earthquakes on our 
list. Inasmuch as certain of these earthquakes, as, for example, those 
originating in Borneo and N.E. India, in every probability gave rise to as 
much mechanical movement at Zikawei as those originating in Japan, it 
seems that the instruments at that station are but very rarely disturbed 
by the mere movement of the ground. 

Extracts from the ' Bollcttino delta Societa Siimolor/ica Italiana,^ 1895,, 

189G, 1897. 





spond- 
ose in 
227 


1 




Eartliquiikc 






J^o. 


2:5 ft 

to tiOl-^ 

c 










Magnetograpli Disturbances 


Month 


Day 


Hour 


Place of 
Observation 








1895 












H. -s\. 




Place 


1 




III. 


6 


9 28 A.M. 


Rome 


Potsdam = 0. 


2 




VI. 


15 


4 20 P.M. 


j» 


rtrecht. Magnetographs dis- 
turbed 4b. 5m. P.M. 

No disturbances at Pola, Pots- 
dam, Pawlowsk, Wilhelms- 
haven, Toronto, Stonyhurst, 
and Vienna. 


3 


GC 


VII. 


8 


10 43 P.M. 


Padua 


Pawlowsk. D and H dis- 
turbed. 

Potsdam. D, lOh. 44m. H, 
lOh. 50m. V, lOh. 50m. 

Wilhelmshaven. D, lOh. 47m. 
HF, lOh. 49m. V, lOh. 
40m. 

Utrecht. D, lOh. 27m. H. 
lOh. 26m. 

Pola. D, lOh. 52m. 

Toronto, Stonyhurst, and 
Vienna = 0. 


i 




XI. 


2 


25 A.M. 


Eomc 


Potsdam. V, 32m. to 35m. 
Amplitude 1'. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



247 



Extracts from the 'Boi.lettixo della Societa SiSMor.ocacA Italiana,' 

1 895-7 — continued. 



No. 



r^ 


^ 










C 


X 

o 


5 


01 


.^ 


■ 














o 


n 




u 


■*^ 






t»oi-l 1 


o 






^ 


• ■-H 


1 



Earthquake 



Month 



Day 



Hour 



Place of 
Observation 



Magnetograph Disturbances 



8 

9 

10 

11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 





I. 


9 




III. 


4 




IV. 


10 


69 


V. 
VI. 


2 

3 

5 

15 


71 


VIII. 


2G 

27 


72 




31 


73 


IX. 


6 

12 



12 14 P.M. 
4 33 A.M. 

9 28 A.M. 

1 21 P.M. 

2 55 P.M. 
11 39 P.M. 
11 19 A.M. 

11 23 P.M. 



11 Oa.M. 



8 21 A.M. 



2 A.M. 



8 24 A.M. 



1896 

Kome 



rotadam. V, 2h. 8m., 2h. 13m., 

and 2h. 18m. 
Potsdam. D, 2h. 52m. to 5h. 

9m. H, 4h. 43m. to 5h. 2m. 

V, 4h. 50m. to 4h. 56m. 
Utrecht. D slight. H, 4hr. 

55m. to 5h. 23m. 
Potsdam. V, 9h. 38m. to 9h. 

42m. Amplitude about 0'-5. 
Potsdam and Utrecht = 0. 



Utrecht. D, lib. 23m. to llh. 

46m. H, llh. 26m. to 12h. 

16m. 
Wilhelmshaven. D, llh. 28m. 

to llh. 31m. H, llh. 29m. 

to llh. 32m. V, llh. 25m. 

to llh. 44m. 
Utrecht. D, llh. 29m. to llh. 

49m. H, llh. 27m. to llh. 

55m. 
Potsdam. D. llh. 31m. to llh. 

59m. Amplitude 2''5. 
Potsdam. H, llh. 29m. to 

llh. 40m. Amplitude 1'. 
Potsdam. V, llh. 35m. to 

1 Ih. 37m. the maximum. 
Wiihelmshaven. All three in- 
struments disturbed at lOh. 

57m., llh.. and llh. Im. 
Utrecht. D, lOh. 53m. to llh. 

6m. H, lOh. 54m. to llh. 

3m. 
Potsdam. D. llh. 2m. to llh. 

35m. H, llh. 7m. V, llh. 

5m. 
Wilhelmshaven. D, 8h. 54m. 

to 9h. 2m. H, 8h. 56m. to 

9h. 9m. V, 8h. .30m. 
Potsdam and Utrecht no dis- 
turbance. 
Wilhelmshaven. D, 29m. to 

13m. H, 7m. tolOm. V, 4m. 

to 29m. 
Utrecht. D, 6m. to 19m. H, 

7m. to 31m. 
Potsdam. D, 12m. to 21m. 

H, 11m. to 24m. Amp. 2'. 

V, 12m. to 20m. 
Wilhelmshaven. D. 8h 51m. 

to Sh. 54m. H =0. V, 8h. 

30m. to 9h. Im. 
Pot.sdam and Utrecht = 0. 



248 



REPORT — 1898. 



Extract kkom the 'Bollettino della Societa Sismologica Italiana,* 

1895-7 — CO iitinued. 



No. 



17 



18 



19 



20 



O m ! 
tn o * 



Earthquake 



gM^j Month Day Hour 



xr. 



Place of 
Observation 



4 53 A.M. 



23 I 11 52 P.M. 



10 



21 




II 


7 ! 


22 






15 


23 






19 


24 






20 



5 7 A..M. 



10 43 A.M. 



7 


59 


A.M. 


10 


20 


P.M. 


8 


59 


P.M. 





18 A.M. 



1897 

Shide 

Potsdam 

Rome 

Shide 



Magnetograph Disturbances 



Wilhelmshaven. D and H = 0. 

V, 5h. 3m. to 5h. 12m. 
Potsdam. D, 5h. 4m. to 51i. 

20m. n, 5h. 5m. Y, 5h. 

7m. (?). 
Utrecht = 0. 
Wilhelmshaven. D, 3m. to 4m. 

H = 0. V, 11 h. 58m. to 

17m. 
Potsdam. D, 4m. to 14m. H, 

9m. to 13m. V (?) 
Utrecht = 0. 
Wilhelmshaven. D, 5h. 27m. 

to 5h. 28m. V, 5h. 22m. to 

5h. 38m. 
Potsdam. D, 5h. 21m. to 5h. 

41m. n, 5h. 50m. to 5h. 

35m. V, 5h. 2Gm. to. 5h. 

35m. 
Utrecht. D, 5h. 30m. to oh. 

4(5m. H, 5h. 27m. to 5h. 

53m. 
Wilhelmshaven, Potsdam, 

Utrecht = 0. 



Utrecht = 0. 

Potsdam. ' V, <ih. 41 ra. to 9h. 

44m. Amplitude 1'. 
Utrecht = 0. 



Until magnetograpli records have been obtained from other observa- 
tories, and until .special experiments have been made, a.s, for example, to 
determine the effect of artificially produced earthquake-like motion upon 
magnetic needle.« and the effect of actual earthquakes upon non-magnetic 
bars so suspended that their periodic movements are identical with those 
of magnetic needles upon the same supporting pier, we cannot say with 
certainty whether earthquake waves are or are not accompanied by 
magnetic waves. 

In discussing the records brought together, which refer to the move- 
ments of magnetic needles at tlie time of earthquakes, it is important to 
consider the mechanical movements which occurred at the time of their 
production. 

When a great earthquake has originated, as, for example, in Japan, 
seismographic records indicate that about 16 mins. later Europe has 
been swept with a flood of motion, and it might be imagined that one 
observatory has practically been subjected to as much movement as any 
other. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 24& 

The effects on magnetic needles at various observatories have, however, 
been very different. 

At magnetic observatories in England, Pola, Vienna, Copenhagen, 
Toronto, and other observatories only the slightest perturbations are 
noted, and these only rarely. On the contrary, at Utrecht, Potsdam, 
and Wilhelmshaven movements of magnetic needles and the occurrence of 
seismic waves are comparatively of frequent occurrence. 

One explanation for this marked difference in the behaviour of mag- 
netic needles at different stations rests on the fact that these three latter 
stations stand on the vast plain of alluvial drift which stretches from 
Holland eastwards across Northern Germany into Russia, and it may be 
assumed that the seismic waves on this ocean-like expanse of soft materials 
are slower and larger than those exhibited in the harder materials on or 
near to which other observatories are situated. Exceptions to such an 
explanation are, however, found in the records from Copenhagen and 
Zikawei, and before we can say with certainty that there are great 
differences in the character of the mechanical movements at different 
stations, seismometric records must be obtained from the same. 

Other reasons which may be adduced to explain why at one set of 
stations magnetic needles are disturbed, whilst at another set they are 
practically quiescent may be as follows : — 

First, we may assume that at one set of stations the needles have 
periodic movements which more neai'ly synchronise with the period of the 
earth waves than those of needles at stations where magnetometer 
disturbances are rare. 

The only notes hitherto collected which bear on this point are con- 
tained in the following table, in which the times given are the intervals 
in seconds taken to complete a double or back-and-forth circular vibration 
of declination (unifilar) and horizontal force (bifilar) magnetometers : — 

Unifilar, Bifilar. 

s. s. 

Stonyhurst H-30 13-20 

IJombav 5-33 S'OO 

Greenwich 50-00 42-00 

There is also an upper declination magnet 

(for eye observations), with a period for 

double swing of 61" approximately. 

Vienna S-S.-S 15-3G 

Pola 7-98 

Potsdam 1000 800 

Wilhelmshaven 15 9 16-7 

Kew 105 13-6 

Falmouth 170 18-8 

Antwerp ....... 11-4: 18-6 

Copenhagen 71 4-9 

The magnet for horizontal force at Antwerp is kept at right angles to 
the meridian by deflection magnets. 

From the table it will be noted that the periods given for Kew, where 
disturbances at the time of earthquakes are rare, are not very different 
for those given for Potsdam, where disturbances are frequent. 

A very much more important point, however, is that all large earth- 
quakes commence with a series of short-period waves. Five-second 
periods are marked. These are followed with others having periods of 
10 sees., whilst later there may be waves with periods of 20 and even 



250 REPORT— 1898. 

GO sees. From this it may be assumed that at all observatories, 
whatever be the period of the magnets, each of them for a considerable 
interval of time is subjected to identical or nearly identical periodic 
movements of their supports. 

From this we should expect to find that large earthquakes would 
disturb magnetometers at all stations. 

Sometimes the magnetic needles appear to be disturbed by the short- 
period preliminary vibrations, and at other times by the succeeding long- 
period earth waves ; and the question arises, whether the mechanical 
movement these represent is likely to establish a rotational movement in 
a suspended magnet. 

If we regard a magnet and its suspension as an ordinary pendulum, then 
at all stations we should expect to find that the preliminary tremors of 
an earthquake would establish a swing accompanied by more or less 
rotation. When, however, we have rotational movements of magnetic 
needles accompanying the larger eartli waves the explanation of this is 
not so clear. The tilting which such waves represent may, as an illus- 
tration, be taken at 10 sees, of arc. For such a tilt a magnet with a 
suspension of 12 ins. would be displaced through a distance of about 
one hundredth of a millimetre, and because the movement would be 
extremely slow, taking from 5 to 10 sees, of time in 07ie direction, it is 
likely that the magnet would closely follow its point of support. 

When movements of this character take place the resultant move- 
ment recorded in the photogi'aphic film is a displacement having a 
range of from 2 to 15 mm., indicating that the magnetic needle has 
rotated through an arc of from 1 to 7 minutes. 

To determine whether tilting so slight and so slow results in so much 
rotation is obviously a matter which without great difficulty may be 
solved by experiment, 

The second assumptioji to account for the disturbance of magneto- 
graphs at certain stations only, is the hypothesis that with regard to the 
surface of the earth there is an unequal distribution of a subjacent 
magnetic matei'ial the movements of which influence magnets in its 
vicinity. 

On the surface these movements are apparently represented by waves 
20 to 50 km. in length and 20 to 50 cm. in height. 

To explain the fact that magnetic storms and perturbations so often 
precede large earthquakes and but seldom appear to precede small ones 
(see Registers for Greenwich, Utrecht, Mauritius, Zikawei, &c.), we may 
assume that the earthquake is preceded by chemical, physical, or mecha- 
nical changes in the constitution of the materials where it originates. All 
that we are certain about is that with many earthquakes there have been 
enormous mechanical displacements of material sufficiently large to dis- 
turb the Pacific Ocean for a period of twenty-four hours. 

Other earthquakes from submarine centres which have not disturbed 
oceans, but have created equally large earth waves, indicate equally large 
subterranean reliefs in stnain and material readjustments. 

These large earthquakes, originating beneath the bottom of the steeper 
slopes of the earth's surface, suggest that at such places a secular flow in 
subterranean material may be in progress, accelerations in which result 
in violent shaking, which as it radiates is transformed into slow earth 
waves. 

Near to the scene of such subterranean changes, prior to and at the 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 251 

time of the same, magnetic perturbations should be observable. In Japan 
such appears to have been the case. 

The large sudden subterranean adjustments may not occur on the 
average more than twenty times per year ; but if we attribute the smaller 
earthquakes to similar activities, one of these may, on the average, take 
place every half-hour ; and although none of these latter is likely to 
produce an appreciable magnetic effect on the surface of our earth, their 
cumulative effect after a sufficient interval of time, as representing a re- 
arrangement and new condition of magnetic materials, might possibly 
result in measurable changes in magnetic elements. 

VII. Sub-oceanic Changes. 

In Section 9 of the Report for 1897 (p. 181) it was stated that off' coast 
lines there was a tendency for sediments and detritus derived from the 
land accumulating under the influence of gravity to assume unstable 
contours. That such contours had an existence was shown by reference to 
soundings. By excessive deposition of sediments, the sub-oceanic escape 
of waters from subterranean sources, the sudden release of waters backed 
up in bays by gales, changes in the magnitude and direction of ocean 
currents, and by sub-oceanic seismic and volcanic action, sudden and 
extensive yieldings might take place along the faces of slopes in a critical 
condition. That such sub-oceanic landslides had often taken place was 
proved by an appeal to the experience of cable engineers, who often found 
that cable interruptions were the result of their burial along lengths of 
several miles, the materials covering the lost section;! having fallen from 
the faces of slopes along the base of which the cables had been laid. 
In a few instances it was noted that there had been a considerable 
increase in the depth of the ocean along a line of slip. Many examples 
were given where cable interruption accompanied an earthquake which 
had a submarine origin, and therefore it may be presumed that it was the 
earthquake which caused the landslide beneath the ocean, in the same 
manner that severe earthquakes result in similar displacements of what are 
probably much more stable surfaces on the land. 

It is believed that most of the deep-water cable interruptions on the 
west side of South America are attributable to sub-oceanic activities of 
this description, and it was shown that in the Mediterranean, off' the coast 
of Java, and in other parts of the globe, we had from time to time evidences 
of a very close relationship between seismic activity and the failure of 
cables. 

The fact that earthquakes originating in deep water, as, for example, 
at a depth of 4,000 fathoms off' the N.E. coast of Japan, have been 
accompanied by a series of sea waves which may agitate an ocean for 
24 hours tells us that there must have been a sudden sub-oceanic displace- 
ment of a very large body of material, accompanying some form of brady- 
seismical adjustment. 

Although the earthquakes which result from these sudden movements 
may not be felt or be recordable on a coast at a distance of 200 or 300 
miles from their origin, they may often be noted in the records obtained 
from instruments which are capable of registering the slower movements 
of the earth's surface at distances of many thousands of miles from their 
origin. The object of the following table, the materials for which were 
almost entirely gathered together by my friend Mr. INI. H. Gray, of 
Silvertown, is to indicate the frequency of sub-oceanic disturbance, but by 
no means to attribute more than a fractional portion of the same to 



252 



REPORT — 1898. 



seismic action. The hours at which unfelt earthquakes the origins of 
which have been at great distances from the stations where they were 
recorded are given with some accuracy, but the times at which cable 
interruptions have been notified arc some time after the interruptions 
actually occurred. Only those who are in a position to correct these latter 
dates, and know the circumstances attending the various failures, can 
determine which of them are likely to have originated from seismic 
disturbances. 

In order to extend our knowledge of sub-oceanic changes, and throwing 
more certain light upon operations leading to cable interruption, I shall 
regard it as a great favour if officers of cable companies who may read this 
report will send me an exact statement of the times at which failures took 
place, which we know to have happened at ahotit the same time as unfelt 
earthquakes have been recorded, addressing the same to me at the British 
Association Rooms, Burlington House, London, W., England. 



Approximate Time of Cable Failures, and exact Greenwich Tiine of Unfelt 

Earthquakes. 





Approximate 




Exact time of Earthquakes 


No. 








Name of Cable 
















Month 


Day 


Time 




Day 


Hour, G.M.T., & Remarks 










1897. 








H. M. 






J 


1 


I. 


5 


4 20 P.M. 


Hong Kong-Macao 


4 


lib. 22m. A.M., & lOh. 
52m. P.M. 


2 


II. 


4 


9 15 A.M. 


Grenada-Trinidad . . 


5 


7h. 52m. A.M. 


3 








Maranham-Ceara . . 


>T 


If 


4 








Ceara-Pernambuco 


J^ 


f» 


fi 




6 


9 5 A.M. 


Jamaica-Colon . . . 


*» 









10 


2 55 P.M. 


Emden-Vigo .... 


7 


7h. 59m. 3s. A.M. 


7 




23 




Tenedos-Dardanelles . 


r2o 

I 21 


Oh. 17m. 47s. a.m. ■[ 
3h. 22m. Os. A.M. J 


8 




20 


3 20 p.m. 


Assab-Massowah . . 


91 


„ 


9 


III. 


23 




Tenedos-Dardanelles . 




Due to ship's anchor. 


10 








Malta-Alexandria . . 




— 


11 




24 




Emden-Vigo .... 
(see ' Electrician,' 
April 2, ISilT) 


23 


4h. 19m. 12s. P.M. 


12 


IV. 


14 




Benguela-Mossamedes 




• — 


13 




1!) 


C :'>0 P.M. 


Chio-Syra 


17 


lOh. 43m. P.M. ? 


14 




20 


3 P.M. 


Hong Kong-Macao 


19 


12h. 45m. P.M. ? 


15 




25 


10 20 A.M. 


Assab-Massowah . . 




— 


IG 




28 




Konekry-Sierra Leone. 




— 




V. 


3 


2 .">5 P.M. 


Hong Kong-Macao . . 


1 


7h. 15m. A.M. 






5 


3 20 P.M. 


Para-JIaranham . . 




— 






8 


8 40 a.m. 


Perim-Assab .... 


8 


Ih. 52m. 30.S. P.M. ? 






21 


8 20 A.M. 


Assab-Massowah . . 




— 






29 


8 30 a.m. 


Loureni^o Marques- "[ 
Durban ... .1 


23 
24 


Ih. 15m. 20s. P.M. 

Oh. 18m. 59s. A.M., Ih. 
48m. 19s. A.M., & 
4h. 30m. 59s. A.M. 




VI. 


2 


9 25 a.m. 


Grenada-Trinidad . . 
Puerto Plata - Mar- 
tinique 


3 

41 


9h. 57m. 18s. A.M. ? 






24 




Shanghai-Foochow 
Shanghai-Hong Kong . 


20 
21 
22 


8h.58m. 40s. p.m. 
8h. 14m. 43s. P.M. 
2h 11m 40s P.M. 






25 


5 45 A.M. 


Bonny-Cameroon . . 


24 


7h. 34m. 53s. p.m. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. 



0-r> 







Approximate 


TiMK OP Cable Failures- 


-continued. 




Approximate 




Exact Time of Earthquake 


No. 






Name of Cable 




Month 


Day 


Time 


Day 


Hour, G.M.T. & Remarks 


VII. 


4- 


8 20 A.M. 


Emden-Vigo .... 








13 




Zanzibar-Mombassa . 











15 


5 50 P.M. 


Accra-Kotonou * (or 1 
Porto Novo) . . j 




Shock at Laibach. Not 












recorded at Shide. 






19 


2 35 P.M. 


Cape Town - Mo.ssa- 
medes 


17 


7h. 57m. 9s. A.M. 






21 




Cayenne- Para . . . 


(21 
122 


lh.33m.32s. P.M. Large, 
llh. 20m. A.M. Mode- 
rate. 






23 


8 20 A.M. 


Chypre-Lattique. . . 


»1 


»» 






28 


8 10 a.m. 


Aden-Zanzibar . . . 









VIII. 


7 


2 30 P.M. 


Cape Town - Mossa- 

medes .... 

Syrar-Chio 


5 

)1 


Oh. 22m. 35s. A.M. 




IX. 


lor2 
4 


4 10 P.M. 


St. Vincent-St. Jago . 

Mozambique- Louren^o 

JVlarques .... 


1 

5 


6h.29m.41s.P.M. Small. 

Ih. 21m. 59s. p.m. ? 
Small, but long. 






13 


3 30 P.M. 


Boulama-Bissao . . 


12 


lOh. 54m. 18s. P.M. 
Small. 






28 


2 30 


Hong Kong-Macao . . 


25 


6h. 3m. 39s. P.M. Small. 






29 




Cayenne-Pinheiro . . 








X. 


5 


3 10 P.M. 


Zanzibar-Seychelles . 


I 3 


Ih. 36m. 39s. P.M. 
3h. 7m. 9s. p.m. 






11 


2 35 P.M. 


Otranto-Vallona . . 




— 






18 


2 20 P.M. 


Mozambique-Lourenco 
Marques .... 


19 


Oh. 6m. 52s. A.M. Large. 






23 


3 20 P.M. 


Amazon beyond Santa 
Vem 


20 


2h.43m.59s.p.M. Large. 






25 


5 30 P.M. 


Paramaribo-Cayenne . 


23 


3h. 19m. Os. A.M. & 
5h. 49m. 56s. P.M. 






26 


3 20 P.M. 


Cadiz-Teneriffc . . . 


23 


3h. 19m. Os. AM. & 
5h. 49m. 56s. p.m. 






29 


8 45 A.M. 


Santiago de Cuba- 
Guantanamo . . . 










7 




St. "Vincent - Pernam- 


/ 2 
3 


Ih. 36m. 39s. 










buco 


3h. 7m. 9s. 










No. 1 Cable ('Elec- 














trician,' 29.10.97) 








XI. 


4 

8 


11 50 A.M. 

2 30 P.M. 


Bundaberg-New Cale- 
donia 

St. Thome-Loanda . . 
Cayenne-Para . . . 
Amazon-Manaos . . 










22 


9 Oa.m. 


Ceara-Pernambuco . . 


r2o 

122 


5h. 33m. 21s. p.m. 
9h. 48m. 45s. A.M. 






27 


9 15 a.m. 


Vigo-Borkum . . . 


25 


lOh. Im. 48s A.M. 




XII. 


3 

6 

13 


8 25 A.M. 
3 40 P.M. 
2 25 P.M. 


San Thom6-Loanda . 
Sitia-Rhodes .... 
San Thome-Loanda . 










20 


4 10 


Saigon, Thunauf Cable 


17 


6h. 30m. p.m. 






23 


5 40 P.M. 


Ceara-Maranham . . 










29 


9 40 A.M. 


Grenada- Trinidad . . 


28 


8h. 54m. 21s. p.m. 






31 


4 20 P.M. 


CapeHaytien, Puerto 
Plata, and Puerto 
Plata-Martinique. 


29 


llh. 40m. 48s. A.M. This 
earthquake known 
cause of failure. 



254 REPORT— 1898. 

Appeoximatb Time of Cable FAii.vuES—conti)iMd. 



No. 



Approximate 



Month 



Day 



Time 



Name of Cable 



Exact Time of Eavtliquake 



Day 



Hour, G.M.T. & Remarks 



I. 


3 




5 




6 




13 




23 




2G 




27 




28 


n. 


7 




10 




14 




10 




28 


III. 


C 




17 




19 




19 




24 




28 




28 


IV. 


4 




9 




14 




17 




20 



8 50 A.M. 
G 5 P.M. 

9 15 a.m. 
G Op.M. 
Oa.m. 


3 30 P.M. 
2 45 P.M. 


8 35 A.M. 


5 


55 P.M. 


4 


Op.M. 


3 45 P.M. 
2 Op.M. 
2 5 P.M. 


8 45 A.M. 
8 25 A.M. 


8 20 A.M. 
8 45 A.M. 
2 40 P.M. 
5 P.M. 


8 


40 P.M. 
Op.M. 



2 


15 A.M. 

30 P.M. 



1898. 

Para-Maranham 
Curagao-La Guayra. 
Saigon-Hong Kong 
Para Camela Cable 
Para-Maranham 
Puerto Plata-C. Haiti 
Paramaribo- Cay enne 
Bolama-Bissao . . . 

Emden-Vigo . . . 

Lattique-Chypre . 

Bolama-Bissao . . 



Bolama-Bissao . . . 

Aden-Zanzibar . . . 

Amazon cable be- 
yond Obidos . . 

San Thome-Loanda 

Gibraltar-Tangier . . 

Lourengo Marques- 
Durban .... 

Cayenne-Pinheiro . . 

Havre-Waterville . . 

Odessa-Constantinople 

Amazon Cable beyond 
Gurupa 

Sierra Leone-Accra 

Cape Town - Mossa- 
meJes 

Maranham-Para . . 

Benguela-Mossamedes 



24 



r 5 

1 7 

8 

9 

IG 

18 

19 



2h. 41m. 2s. p.m. &; 
3h. 7m. ]5s. Z'.M. 



llh. 45iu. 40s. P.M. 



8h. 3Gm. 1.3s. a.m. 
llh. 35m. 20s. P.M. 
llh. 5ra. 47s. p.m. 
lOh. 57m. 3Cs. P.M. 
5h. 9m. 8s. P.M. 
5h.0m.0s. P.M. Toronto 
record. 

Owing to repairs. 



To effect repairs. 



* Kotanu ; is also called 
Novo, a few miles inland.) 
t Thunau, also called Hue. 



Porto Novo sometimes. (Kotanu is on the coast, Porto 



The earthquake records are not continued beyond February 19, 1898. 

The three breaks which took place in November and December, 1897, 
on the San Thome-Loanda line did so at the same place about 150 miles 
off the north of the Congo, where there is a depth of some 1,300 fathoms. 

Mr. R. Kaye Gray points out that here we have a liver bed extending 
seawards as a deep guUey the walls of which are 2,000 feet in height. 
In 1,550 fathoms a strong under-current renders it difficult to obtain 
soundings. In the mouth of the Congo there is a depth of only ten 
fathoms, and it does not seem likely that the rivers flowing over this 
shallow would dive down to produce the under-tow observed at a distance 
of 150 miles off the coast. ^Ir. Gray's idea is that we have here a case of 
subterranean water bursting out in the bed of the ocean, moving heavy 
detritus across the calile to cause interruption, whilst lighter particles rise 
to the surface to discolour the ocean. There is no evidence suijjrcsting 
that these failures were any way connected with seismic phenomena. 



ON SEISMOLOtUCAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



:oo 



VIII. A Time Indicator. 

A slight moditication in the method of obtaining time marks on the 
photogi'aphic him connected with the Milne Horizontal Pendulum is 
shown in the accompanying sketch : — ■ 

Fig. 9. 




The watch, with its eclipse liand (see Report, 1897, p. 138), is replaced 
by 'a small electromagnet whicli every hour, by a current lasting about 
20 seconds, holds an eclipse plate over one end of the slit in the lid of the 
box containing the clock driving the bromide him. The two wires con- 
nect with two brass studs in the lower edge of the upper part of the film- 
box, which tit into brass sockets in the upper edge of the lower half of the 
.same box. From these sockets wires connect with the wheels on the two 
sides of the box, the rails on wliich these run leading to a clock giving 
the required length of contact. 

To get this length of contact the Shide arrangement is to prolong the 
minute hand of a regulator with about ;| inch of platinum wire, which 
every hour passes through a globule of mercury about the size of a pea, 
standing iq) in a small insulated iron cup fitted in the brass frame which 
carries the glass covering the clock face. The only advantage of this 
arrangement is that it saves a little time in winding and comparing the 
watch. Two platinum contacts rather than a platinum mercury contact 
would be preferable. 

IX. On the Civil 'J'iine employed throur/Uout the World. 

With the kind assistance of the Foreign Office, the Colonial Office, and 
the India Office, copies of the following letter have been circulated 
thi-oughout the world. The text of the circular explains the object in 
view. Numerous replies have been received from our Colonies, India 
and its dependencies, but mitil these have been supplemented by replies 
from many foreign countries the general report which it is desired to 
draw up cannot be made. It is lioped that the necessary tabulation may 
be undertaken for the Eeport for 18!)?. 



25G ' EEPORT— 1808. 



Beitisii Assoctation for the Advancement of Science : 

Burlington House, 

London, W. 

Sir, — It is, I think, remarkable that there appears to be no publica- 
tion which shows the corresponding value in Greenwich mean time of 
the local time employed throughout the world. 

Such a table is indispensable in order to determine accurately the 
instant of occurrence of earthquakes, sea waves, magnetic phenomena, the 
despatch of telegrams, and many other events, the sequence of which in 
absolute time has to be determined. 

Although application has been made to the Eoyal Observatory at 
Greenwich, to the Royal Geographical Society, to the Central Telegraph 
Office in London, to the offices of cable companies, and to other possible 
sources of information, very little has been obtained. 

As a Secretary of the British Association Committee whose names 
are appended, T desire to publish in their forthcoming Report a table 
showing the differences between Greenwich mean time as used in England 
and Scotland and that of the civil times used in various parts of the 
world. 

By civil time I mean the time used by railways, telegraphs, and for 
ordinary public affairs. 

If different times are used in various parts of your country, 1 trust 
that you will be able to give information relating to the same. 

Feeling assured of the value of the table it is intended to compile, I 
sincerely trust that you will favour me with a full and explicit statement 
of the time generally employed in your country. If it is mean time, state 
the meridian ; the observatory, or the place to which this refers ; and 
also, as a check against any misunderstanding, please state distinctly the 
equivalent of December 1, 9 a.m. G.M.T. in the local time, or times adopted 
in your own country. 

I have the honour to remain, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

John Milne. 

X. Great Circle Distances and Chords of the Earth} 

The highest velocity which can be calculated for the transmission of 
an earthquake wave is that which is determined when we assume that its 
path from its origiti to an observing station has followed a great circle over 
the surface of the earth, whilst a lower velocity is obtained on the hypo- 
thesis that the movement has passed along a chord through the earth. 

Inasmuch as an earthquake origin, especially if submarine, cannot be I 
determined with any degree of accuracy, whilst the origin itself may have 
dimensions measured by several tens of miles, a simple and sufficiently 
accurate method of determining great circle distances is to measure the 
same with a flat steel tape or a piece of thread upon the surface of a | 
globe. 

' A table giving the lengths in kilometres of .iics and chords of the earth has been ' 
drawn up by Mr. James Arnott, and the same may be had on application to Mr. J.j 
Milne, a secretary of this committee. 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOX. 



257 



XI. Tables of Certain Small Fractions of an Hour. 

The film used with the Milne Horizontal Pendulum is supposed to be 
driven at the rate of 60 mm. per liour. In consequence of changes in 
temperature, varying resistances in the unrolling of the film, and for other 
reasons, measurement between the time marks will sometimes slightly 
vary. The result of this is that the observer when determining the exact 
commencement of a disturbance finds he has to work out certain fractions 
of an hour. For example, he may i-equire to know the value of j?-^ of an 
hour, or T^trV" ^^ ^"^ hour, which ai-e respectively 31 mins. 31 '5 sees., and 
31 mins. 07 "7 sec. 

Such results are shown in the following table drawn up by my assistant, 
Shinobu Hirota. 

Inasmuch as measurements less than O'l mm. cannot be made on the 
time scale, it is evident that for all ordinary computations the decimals in 
the following table are not required (see British Association Report, 
189G, p. 183). 



Distance 
from 

Time Mark 
to soaie 

Piiase of a 
Disturb- 
ance 



MM. 

0-25 

0-50 

0-75 

1 

2 

S 

4 

6 

6 

7 

K 


10 
It 
12 
K! 
14 
15 
Ifi 
17 
18 

la 

20 
21 
22 
2» 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
21) 
SO 
SI 

:v> 
:« 

S4 
X5 

s«; 

S7 
S.S 
39 
41) 
41 
42 
4:t 
44 



Intervals betwekn* Time Marks ox a Film 



MM. 

6H-U 

l.er 

1 lioiir 



MM. 

5S-25 

per 

1 hour 



M. 





1 

o 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 
13 
U 
15 
15 
17 
18 
10 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2G 
27 
28 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
33 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

189S. 



15-51 
31-(I3 
4G-55 
02-07 
Oi-14 
OG-20 
OS-27 
10-34 
12-41 
14-48 
lG-55 
18-G2 
20-G9 
22-76 
24-83 
2G-90 
28-96 
31-03 
33-10 
35-17 
37-24 
39-31 
41-38 
43-45 
45-51 
47-58 
49-G5 
51-72 
53-79 
55-86 
57-93 
00-00 
02 -U7 
04-14 
06-20 
(18-27 
10-34 
12-41 
14-48 
16-55 
18-62 
20-G9 
22-76 
24-83 
2G-90 
28-97 
31-03 



15-45 
30-90 

46-35 

1 01-80 

2 03-60 

3 05-41 

4 07-21 

5 09-01 
G 10-81 

7 12 61 

8 14-42 

9 16-22 

10 18-02 

11 19-82 

12 21-63 

13 23-43 

14 25-23 

15 27-03 

16 28-84 

17 30-64 

18 32-44 

19 ,34-25 

20 36-05 

21 37-85 

22 39-65 

23 41-46 

24 43-26 

25 45-06 

26 46-86 

27 48-67 

28 50-47 

29 52-27 

30 54-07 

31 55-88 

32 57-68 

33 59-48 

35 01-28 

36 03-09 

37 04 89 

38 06-69 

39 08-49 

40 10-30 

41 12-10 

42 13-90 

43 15-71 

44 17-51 

45 19-31 



MM. 

53-50 

per 

1 hour 



M. s. 
15-38 
30-77 

46-15 

1 01-53 

2 03-07 

3 04-61 

4 06-15 

5 07-69 

6 09-23 

7 10-77 

8 1-2-31 

9 13-84 

10 15-38 

11 16-92 

12 18-46 

13 20-00 

14 21-53 

15 23-07 

16 24-61 

17 26-15 

18 27-69 

19 29-23 

20 30-77 

21 32-31 

22 33-84 

23 35-38 

24 36-92 

25 38-46 

26 40-00 

27 41-53 

28 43-07 

29 44-61 

30 46-15 

31 47-69 

32 49-23 

33 50-77 

34 52-31 

35 53-84 

36 55-38 

37 56-92 

38 58-46 

40 00-00 

41 01-53 

42 03-07 

43 04-61 

44 06-15 

45 07-G7 



MM. 

58-75 

Iier 

1 hour 



M. .s. 
15-31 
30-63 

45-95 

1 01-27 

2 02-55 

3 03-83 

4 05-10 
6 06-38 

6 07-66 

7 08-93 

8 10-21 

9 11-49 
10 12-76 
U 14-04 

12 15-31 

13 16-59 

14 17-87 

15 19-16 

16 20-42 

17 21-70 

18 22-97 

19 24-25 

20 25-53 

21 26-80 

22 28-03 

23 29-36 

24 30-63 

25 31-91 

26 33-19 

27 34-46 
23 35-74 

29 37-02 

30 38-29 

31 39-57 

32 40-85 

33 42-12 

34 43-40 

35 44-68 

36 45-95 

37 47-23 

38 48-51 

39 49-78 

40 51-06 

41 52-34 

42 53-61 

43 51-89 

44 6G-17 



MM. 

69-0 

pnr 

1 hour 



II. .'^. 
15-23 
30-50 

45-75 

1 01-01 
02-03 
03-05 
04-06 
05-08 
06-10 
07-11 

8 08-13 

9 09-15 

10 10-16 

11 11-18 

12 12-20 

13 13-22 

14 14-23 

15 15-25 

16 16-27 

17 17-28 

18 18-30 

19 19-32 

20 20-33 

21 21-35 

22 22-37 

23 23-39 

24 24-40 

25 25-42 

26 26-44 

27 27-45 

28 28-47 

29 29-49 

30 30-50 

31 31-52 

32 32-54 

33 33-55 

34 34-57 

35 35-59 

36 36-60 

37 37-62 

38 38-64 

39 39-66 

40 40-67 

41 41-69 

42 42-71 

43 43-72 
41 44-74 



MM. 


MM. 


59-25 


59-50 


per 


per 


1 hour 


1 hour 


M. B. 


M. s. 


1-5-19 


15-12 


30-38 


30-25 


45-57 


45-37 


1 00-76 


1 00-50 


2 01-51 


2 01-00 


3 02-27 


3 01-50 


4 03-03 


4 02-01 


5 03-79 


5 02-52 


6 04-55 


6 03-02 


7 05-31 


7 03-52 


8 06-07 


8 04-03 


9 06-83 


9 04-53 


10 07-59 


10 05-04 


11 08-35 


11 05-54 


12 09-11 


12 OG-05 


13 09-87 


13 06-55 


14 10-63 


14 07-05 


15 11-39 


15 07-56 


16 12-15 


16 08-06 


17 12-91 


17 03-57 


18 13-67 


18 09-07 


19 14-43 


19 09-58 


20 15-19 


20 10-03 


21 15-95 


21 10-58 


22 16-70 


22 11-09 


23 17-4G 


23 11-59 


24 18-22 


24 12-10 


25 18-98 


25 12-60 


26 19-74 


26 13-11 


27 20-50 


27 13-61 


28 21-26 


28 14-11 


29 22-02 


29 14-62 


30 22-78 


30 15-12 


31 23-54 


31 15-63 


32 24-30 


32 16-13 


33 25-Oli 


33 16-64 


34 25-82 


34 17-14 


35 26-58 


35 17-65 


36 27-34 


36 18-15 


37 28-10 


37 18-65 


38 28-86 


38 19-15 


39 29-62 


39 19-66 


40 30-38 


40 20-16 


41 31-14 


41 20-67 


42 31-90 


42 21-17 


43 32-66 


43 21-67 


44 33-42 


44 22-18 



MM. 

59-75 

per 

1 hour 



M. .s. 
15-06 
3U-12 

45-18 

1 00-25 

2 00-50 

3 00-75 

4 01-00 
6 01-25 

6 01-50 

7 01-75 

8 02-01 

9 02-26 

10 02-51 

11 02-76 

12 03-01 

13 03-26 

14 03-51 

15 03-76 

16 04-01 

17 04-26 

18 04-51 

19 04-77 

20 05-02 

21 05-27 

22 05-52 

23 05-77 
2t 06-02 

25 06-27 

26 06-52 

27 01-77 

28 07-03 

29 07-23 

30 07-53 

31 07-73 

32 08-03 

33 08-28 

34 08-53 

35 08-78 

36 09-03 

37 09-29 

38 09-54 

39 09-79 

40 10-04 

41 10-29 

42 10-54 

43 10-79 

44 11-04 





MM. 


60-0 


per 


1 hour 


M. s. 


15 


30 


45 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


23 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 



258 



REroRT — 1898. 



Distance 
from 








INTKIIVALS BKT^VKES Tl.\li; MARKS OX 


A. I'lLU 






Time Mark 

1 to some 






















MM. 


MM. 




MM. 


M.M. 


MM. 


MM. 


MM. 


M.M. 


MM. 


Pliase of a 


5K-0 


58-25 




58-50 


58-75 


59-0 


59-25 


69-50 


59-75 


GO-0 


Disturb- 


JKT 


lier 




Iter 


per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


jicr 


ance 


1 lionr 


1 lidur 


1 liour 


1 hour 


1 lioiir 


1 liour 


1 hour 


1 hour 


1 hour 


MM. 


M. s. 


M. .s. 


M. 


P. 


M. R. 


M. P. 


M.S. 


M. s. 


M. S. 


M. s. 


45 


4(; s;j-io 


4(; 21-11 


41i 


09-23 


45 57-41 


45 45-7G 


45 34-18 


45 22-08 


45 11-29 


45 


46 


■17 a5-17 


47 2-2-92 


47 


10-77 


4(1 58-72 


40 40-78 


40 34-94 


40 23-19 


40 11-54 


4G 


47 


48 37-24 


48 21-72 


48 


12-31 


48 00-0(1 


47 47-79 


47 35-70 


47 23-09 


47 11-79 


47 


48 


49 39-31 


49 2(1-52 


49 


13-84 


49 01-27 


48 48-81 


48 30-45 


48 24-20 


48 12-05 


48 (1 


49 


50 41-38 


.10 28-32 


.•iO 


15-38 


5(1 02-55 


49 49-82 


49 37-21 


49 24-70 


49 12-30 


49 


50 


51 43-45 


51 311-13 


51 


1(1-92 


51 03-83 


50 50-84 


50 37-97 


,50 25-21 


.50 12-55 


60 


51 


52 45-51 


52 31-93 


52 


18-4(i 


52 05-10 


61 51-80 


51 38-73 


51 25-71 


51 12-80 


51 


62 


53 47-5K 


53 33-73 


53 


20-()(» 


53 0(;-38 


52 52-88 


52 39-49 


52 26-22 


62 13-05 


52 


53 


54 49-05 


51 35-53 


51 


21-53 


54 07-U« 


53 53-89 


53 40-25 


53 20-72 


53 13-30 


53 


04 


55 51-72 


55 37-34 


55 


23-07 


55 08-93 


.54 54-91 


1)4 41-01 


54 27-22 


54 13-55 


54 


55 


51! 53-711 


Mi 39-14 


5tl 


24-C,l 


60 10-21 


55 65-93 


.55 41-77 


55 27-73 


55 13-80 


55 


56 


57 55-8(1 


57 40-94 


57 


2G-15 


57 11-49 


50 50-94 


50 42-53 


50 28-23 


50 14-06 


50 


57 


58 57-93 


58 42-74 


58 


27-ti9 


58 12-70 


57 57-9G 


57 43-29 


57 28-74 


57 14-31 


57 


58 


GO 00-00 


59 44-55 


59 


29-23 


59 14-04 


58 58-98 


58 44-06 


58 29-24 


58 14-56 


58 


58-25 


— 


l!0 00-00 


(JO 


(10-00 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


58 15 


58-50 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


68 30 


68-75 


— 


— 




— 


GO 00-00 


— 


— 





— 


58 45 


69-00 


— 


_ 




— 


— 


CO 0(1-00 


.59 41-81 


59 29-75 


59 14-81 


59 


59-25 


— 


— 




— 


— 




GO 00-00 


— 


~ 


59 15 


69-50 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— . 


— 


GO 00-00 




59 30 


59-75 


— 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


GO 00-00 


59 15 


60 


— ■ 


— 




■ — 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


GO 00 



XIT. Notes on a Visit to Eartliqiiake Observatories in Italy and at 
Strasshurg. By John Milne. . , 

With the object of more clearly understanding the nature of certain 
forms of seismographic a^jparatus referred to or described in various pub- 
lications, to see instruments and experimental apparatus descriptions of 
which have yet to be published, to learn something respecting their various 
degrees of sensibility and their installation, to see the manner in wliicli 
they are manipulated — which in many instances it is difficult to express in 
words — and, above all, to make myself acquainted with certain European 
organisations for the study of movements of the earth's crust, in May of 
this year I visited seismological observatories and offices at Catania, 
Cassamicciola, Rome, Rocca di Papa, Padua, and Strassburg. 

At these particular stations there exist types of all the most important 
seismometers, seismographs, and seismoscopes which are at present employed 
in Europe, and it was for that reason that they were visited. 

In the following few notes it is not my intention to describe all that 
I saw— inasmuch as that would be a repetition of much that is published — - 
but only to say a few words respecting that which was .striking and to 
record general imi^ressions. 

Cataxi.v. — (rli 0-^>!rrraf(>n'i di Cafaitiit e dcIVEtiut. 
Director, Professor \. liicco. 

For a detailed description of these observatories see ' Memorie della 
Societa degli Spettroscopisti Italiaui,' vol. xxvi. 1897. 

In 1669 a great part of Catania was destroyed, and 27,000 lives were 
lost, by an eruption from one of the many parasitic craters which flank 
the mound-like mass which with its central peak constitutes Etna. One 
feature of the eruption was a flow of lava which passed over and throuff!; 
the city, and only stopped wlien it entered tlie sea. This stream is now 
patched over with yellow liclien, and along the sides of the railway which 
passes through it as it enters the city from the north many cuttings in 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL IXVESTIGATIOX. 259 

Tock and scoria gi\-e a good idea of the chai-acter of the materials on which 
Catania and its observatory are founded. 

The observatory, which overlooks the city and the sea, stands on the 
top of one of the steps indicating the contour of the country now buried by 
the molten flood of 1669. 

The buildings are rugged, large, and massive, and apparently form 
portion of an uncompleted church ; and it is in the spacious vaults of this 
church (Convento dei Benedettini) beneath the astrophysical observatory 
that the Seismological Laboratory is established. 

The foundations of these buildings, like those of many of the buildings 
in Catania, follow the very irregular contour of the lava bed from which 
they rise. 

The Iiidrumeiits. 

The entrance to the Physical Observatory on the north side is a hall 
at the end of which stone stairs lead to upper storeys. In the open space 
between these there is a thin metal tube reaching from the roof above, and 
passing downwards through the floor into the vaults beneath. This tube, 
which is steadied by horizontal wire ties, protects the supporting wire of 
the great pendulum, which is about 25-3 metres (83 feet) in length. At 
its upper end it is supported from a double T-iron beam, and at its lower 
end it carries a cylindrical mass of metal weighing 300 kilos. The bob 
hangs freely in a case standing on the floor of a special chamber in the 
crypt- like vaults below. 

The movements of the pendulum or of the ground relatively to the 
same are recorded by pens charged with glycerine ink, somewhat similar 
to the pens employed in the Richard meteorological instruments, upon a 
band of paper moving at a rate of one cm. per minute. These pens, 
which are balanced so that they barely touch the recording surface, 
are attached to the ends of aluminium levers which multiply the relative 
motion of the pendulum and the ground 12-5 times. The shorter arms of 
these levers (a c and b c) are slotted, and embrace the wire of the pendulum, 
which is 6 mm. thick, just above the bob (fig. 10). 

The motion is recorded by suitable levers. At each hour, by means of 
an electro-magnet in connection with a chronograph, the pens are gently 
raised from the paper for a period of about six seconds. In this manner 
time intervals are obtained. 

Fig. 10. 




Inasmuch as the period of the pendulum relatively to that of local earth- 
quakes is long, it acts as a steady point, and a record of the movements of 
the ground magnified about 12-5 times is obtained upon the moving band 
of paper. Two such shocks were recorded on the morning of my arrival in 
Catania. 

With the long-period earthquakes originating at great distances it is 
assumed that the pendulum follows the slowly tilting ground. 

s2 



260 REPORT— 1898. 

If this is the case, then 1 mm. deflection of the writing indices corre- 
sponds to 0'6 sec. of arc. 

When the pendulum has given to it a swing with a range of motion as 
shown by the writing indices of 3-5 cm. after nine complete swings, it 
comes to rest in 1 min. 42 sees. 

The shortness of this interval indicates that in the recording apparatus, 
especially perhaps with the pens, there is considerable frictional resistance ; 
a feature in the apparatus which I understood Professor E,icco has the 
intention of improving. 

High winds and waves beating on the coast result in a tremulous 
movement of the writing indices, so that if an earthquake occurred at such 
a time I presume the rapid movements at its commencement might be 
eclipsed. 

In the centre of a spacious chamber adjoining that in which the large 
pendulum is installed there is a massive column in the form of a truncated 
cone, the greatest visible diameter of which is 5 metres. It rises from the 
floor in the form of a solid circular wall, to the centre of the annular space 
which this incloses there is an opening. Instruments standing on this 
can be examined either by walking round the outside or round the inside 
of this horseshoe-formed pedestal. 

At the time of my visit there were standing upon it eight or ten seis- 
moscopes, the microseismoscope of Guzzanti and the seismograph of 
Brassart. 

Amongst the seismoscopes I noted a light spiral spring carrying a 
weight with a style : if this moved slightly downwards — say less than 
•5 mm. — it came in contact with a surface of mercury and closed an electric 
circuit the time of which might be noted in various manners. The 
essential feature in two other seismoscopes was a small column standing 
upon an exceedingly small base. In one instance the column stands freely. 
To place the column in such a position directly by hand would for many 
people be almost an impossibility. It is therefore suspended by a collar 
to hang freely in a tube. When the tube is lowered between guides the 
bottom of the column comes down upon its base and it remains standing 
upright. 

In another instance the column is Ijrought to a practically upright 
position by leaning it against a support which by means of a screw is 
gradually advanced until the column is on the verge of falling. In both 
cases the columns are in an extremely unstable condition, and, should they 
fall either by their weight or by making an electric contact, they start a 
clock or actuate other apparatus which gives the times at which they were 
disturbed. 

The apparatus employed to yield open diagrams of local shocks is a 
Brassart seismograph. This consists of a pendulum, 3 metres in length, 
carrying as a bob a ring of metal weighing 2G-4 kilos. Embracing a style 
which projects from the bob downwards are two levers arranged as in the 
large seismograph. These multiply motion relatively to the pendulum ten 
times, and their outer ends rest side by side on the surface of smoked glass 
plate which at the time of an earthquake is set free by electric contact from 
one of the seismoscopes to run at a rate of about 445 mm. per minute. 

The vertical component of motion is obtained either by making a 
portion of the suspension of the pendulum a spiral spring and treating the 
heavy bob of the pendulum as a steady point, or from a spring lever 
seismograph attached to the frame carrying the ordinary pendulum. By 



ON SEISM0L0G1CAI> INVESTIGATION. 261 

a system of levers from the bob of the latter, or from the weighted 
extremity of the spring lever, a third pointer writes the vertical com- 
ponent of motion side by side with the horizontal components. 

I particularly wish to draw attention to this type of instrument, 
because I found it at several observatories, and it is a type that has 
evidently found favour in the Italian Peninsula. 

For disturbances of short period it has no doubt been found effective, 
but for the long rolling movements produced by earthquakes originating 
at distances of 100 or 200 kilometres, when we have periods of from one 
to foUr seconds, my own experience is that with such pendulums a more 
or less violent swinging is established. 

The microseismoscope of (luzzanti consists of three inverted pendulums 
of different periods arranged to make electric contacts. Should they be 
set in a state of A'ibration, these contacts are recorded by an electric 
magnet actuating a pen upon a moving band of paper. 

The Cecchi seismograph at Catania, as at other stations I visited, was 
not in working adjustment, the reason for this being, I presume, that the 
records from a Brassart type of instrument were found more satisfactory. 

Hanging against the wall of the same chamber with the large column 
is a Bertelli-Rossi tromometer. This consists of a pendulum several 
metres in length, a style from the bob or plummet of which is viewed by 
a microscope with a micrometer scale. 

Another tromometer is that of Dr. Agamennone. This consists of an 
ordinary pendulum with a multiplying lever, which actuates two small 
mirrors, the movement of rays of light reflected from which are recorded 
on a moving photographic surface. 

A very useful apparatus which I found here and at other observatories 
is the photochronograph of Dr. Cancani, 

In a box attached to the wall is a chronometer, above which there is 
a camera containing a plate and a small electric lamp. At the time of an 
earthquake one or other of the seismoscopes on the great column make an 
electric contact, which actuating an electric magnet turns on a current 
for a second or so to the electric lamp. The result is that the face of the 
chromometer is photographed. The last piece of apparatus to which ray 
attention was drawn was a tide gauge-like recorder for a well. The 
bottom of this well is, I understand, in the Pliocene strata beneath the 
lava on which the observatory is founded. The depth is 32 metres, and is 
9'5 metres above sea level. At the time of large earthquakes the puteo- 
metric record shows that the water at that depth has been disturbed. 

Island of Isckla 

Until this year en