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Full text of "Report of the Bureau of Mines of the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania"

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REPORT 



Bureau of Mines 



Department of Internal Affairs of 
Pennsylvania. 



1900. 



WM. STANLEY RAY, 

STATE PRINTER OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

1901. 



Official Document, No. 11. 



REPORT 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



COMMUNICATION, 



Department of Internal Affairs, 
Harrisburg, May 1, 1901. 
To His Excellency, William A. Stone, Governor of Pennsylvania: 

Sir: In compliance with the requirements of the act of June 2, 
1891, and that of May 15, 1893, relative to the Mine Inspectors' Re- 
ports of the Anthracite and Bituminous coal regions, I have the 
honor to present to you for transmission to the General Assembly 
the Report of the Bureau of Mines for the year 1900. 

Very Respectfully, 

JAMES W. LATTA, 
Secretarv of Internal Affairs. 



A— 11— 1900 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Bureau of Mines, 
April 31, 1901. 
Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In accordance with Section 5 of an act establishing a Bureau 
of Mines in the Department of Internal Affairs, approved July 15, 
1897, I Lave the honor to herewith submit the Report of the Bureau 
of Mines for the year ending December .*>"!, 1900, together with the 
reports of the Anthracite and Bituminous Inspectors. 
Wry respectfully, 

JAMES E. RODERICK, 
Chief of Bureau of Mines. 



(iii) 




(iv) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



CONTENTS, 



ANTHRACITE DISTRICTS. 

Page. 

Report of the Inspector of the First District 1 

Report of the Inspector of the Second District, 31 

Report of the Inspector of the Third District, 67 

Report of the Inspector of the Fourth District 105 

Report of the Inspector of the Fifth District 153 

Report of the Inspector of the Sixth District, 203 

Report of the Inspector of the Seventh District 231 

Report of the Inspector of the Eighth District, 253 



BITUMINOUS DISTRICTS. 

Report of the Inspector of the First District 291 

Report of the Inspector of the Second District, 339 

Report of the Inspector of the Third District, 393 

Report of the Inspector of the Fourth District 433 

Report of the Inspector of the Fifth District 473 

Report of the Inspector of the Sixth District, 519 

Report of the Inspector of the Seventh District 561 

Report of the Inspector of the Eighth District 589 

Report of the Inspector of the Ninth District, 629 

Report of the Inspector of the Tenth District 659 



(v) 




(vi) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



REPORT 



BUREAU OF MINES 



INTRODUCTION. 



The year 1900 has been a prosperous one for all connected with the 
mining and transportation of coal, and particularly so to the opera- 
tors who were prepared to meet all demands for an increased pro- 
duction. The demand for coal, both anthracite and bituminous, also 
for coke, has been unusually active during the past two years, but 
the mines were equal to the demand. 

There has been no unusual friction between capital and labor in 
the Bituminous region, and the same can be said of the Anthracite 
region, except the unfortunate strike which commenced during the 
latter part of September and continued during October. This strike 
was the cause of the decrease in the production of anthracite coal 
from 54,034,224 tons in 1899, to 51,217,318 tons in 1900. Had the 
strike not occurred during the busy season, it would be fair to as- 
sume that the production of anthracite coal would have reached 56,- 
000,000 tons. 

The brisk demand for bituminous coal increased the production 
in 1900, which was 79,318,362 ton© as against 73,066,943 in 1899, an 
increase of 6,251,419 tons. 

The combined production of anthracite and bituminous coal reach- 
ed a grand total of 130,535, 6SI) tons, an increase over that of 1899 
of 3,434,408. The production of coke during 1900 was 12,185,112 tons; 
for 1899 it was 12,192,570 tons, showing for L900 a decrease of 7,458 
tons. The combined production of anthracite and bituminous coal 
for 1900 was the largest ever made in this State, and it indicates that 
the Keystone State can meet any demand that it is likely to be made 
for the next twenty-five years at least. 

(vii) 



viii ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

While the area of anthracite coal is somewhat limited, the mines 
will be equal to a proportionate increase for years to come, but the 
production of bituminous coal is limited only by the demand and the 
capital invested. 

In the production of 51,217.318 tons of anthracite coal, 411 lives 
were lost in and about the mines, and 1,057 persons were injured. 
This loss of life made 230 wives widows, and 525 children orphans. 

The production of anthracite coal per life lost was 124,600 tons, 
while the production per non-fatal accident was 48,455 tons. The 
production of anthracite coal per life lost in 1899 was 117,211 tons, 
which shows an increase of production in favor of 1900 of 6,780 tons 
per life lost. 

The number of employes in and about anthracite mines during 1900 
was 143,826, and the number of fatalities per 1,000 persons employed 
was 2.86. 

The number of employes in and about these mines during 1899 was 
140,583 which shows an increase for 1900 of 3,243. 

The number of fatalities for every 1,000 persons employed in 1899, 
was 3.28, which is a reduction per fatal accident of .42 per 1,000 em- 
ploy/d in favor of 1900. In other words, if the ratio of 1899 were 
applied to 1900 the number of fatalities would have been 472 in- 
stead of 411, which shows that the record of lives lost in 1900 was, 
proportionately, 61 lives better than that of 1899. This proves that 
1900 shows the best results in this respect of any year since the 
records have been kept in the anthracite region. 

In the production of 79,318,362 tons of bituminous coal, 265 persons 
lost their lives and 584 were injured. This loss of life caused 145 
wives to become widows and made 297 children orphans. 

For each life lost in the bituminous mines 299,300 tons of coal 
were produced, and for each non-fatal accident there were 135,786 
tons. The production of coal per life lost during 1899 was 283,167 
tons, which shows an increase of 16,133 tons per fatal accident, in 
1900. 

The number of employes in and about the bituminous mines in 1900 
was 109,018, an increase of 17,578 over that of 1899. 

The number of fatal accidents per 1,000 employes in 1899 was 2.82, 
while in 1900 the ratio per fatal accident for each 1,000 employes 
was 2.43, which shows a reduction of .39 per 1,000 employed. While 
this reduction seems to be slight, it indicates that the saving of life 
in the bituminous region was 42 in 1900 as compared with 1899. 

In my opinion all concerned can be congratulated on the good 
results in both the Anthracite and Bituminous regions, as the record 
of the Anthracite region shows the saving of 61 lives and of the 
Bituminous region 42, a total reduction in fatalities of 103, as com- 
pared with 1899. 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. ix 

Iii the Anthracite districts there were 9 accidents from explosions 
of gas, by which 25 lives were lost; 6 by falls of rock, by which 12 
lives were lost; 1 in a shaft, by which 1 lost their lives; 2 by mine 
cars in which 5 persons were killed; 1 by fumes from a mine hie, by 
which 3 persons perished. There were accidents by a "rush of coal," 
by "premature explosion of a blast," and by "explosion of powder," by 
which 6 persons lost their lives. These 22 accidents were the cause 
of the loss of 55 lives. 

In the Bituminous mines there were 4 accidents from explosions of 
gas by which persons lost their lives; from falls of rock, etc., which 
caused the death of L3 persons; 2 in shafts by which 5 persons lost 
their lives, and 1 by mine cars in which 2 persons lost their lives. 
These 13 accidents caused the death of 2!) persons. 
29 persons. 

The total number of employes in and about the mines in this State 
during 1900 was 252,844; the total production of coal was 130,535,680 
tons, which shows an average production per employe of 516 tons, a 
much higher average for the year than can be shown in any Euro- 
pean country in which coal is mined. 

While this great army of toilers was engaged in the mining and 
preparation of the coal for market, 676 of them met their deaths in 
various ways, which made widows of 375 wives and orphans of S22 
children, to be dependent upon friends or the charity of the public. 

For every 1,001) persons employed 2.67 lost their lives and 6.48 were 
injured. After a careful examination of the reports of all the acci- 
dents in and about the mines, I have no hesitancy in asserting that at 
least 50 per cent, of them could have been averted had the victims 
and their fellow workmen taken necesssary precautions. 



MINE INSPECTIONS. 

The inspections of the mines have been conducted in a thorough 
manner as shown by the records of this office, and on the whole their 
condition is satisfactory with respect to tin 1 health and safety of 
the employes, and the mining of coal is conducted in a satisfactory 
manner with a view both to the safety of the employes and of 
the best possible yield per acre. In my opinion, the condition of 
the mines in this State will compare favorably with that of any 
in the world which are similarly situated. 

While accidents in and about the Anthracite mines appear to be 
numerous, this can be attributed to the increased risk and danger 
connected with the mining of coal. The mines in the Bituminous 
region of this State are, all things considered, as free from acci- 
dents as any mines in this or any other country. 

There were 1,310 inspections made of the antharacite mines, and 



x ANNUAL, REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

investigations were made of all the fatal and the serious non-fatal 
accidents. There were 1,720 inspections made of the Bituminous 
mines, and all of the fatal and serious non-fatal accidents were 
investigated, showing that the inspectors were diligent in the dis 
charge of their duties. 

• Some of the mines were inspected as frequently as once a month, 
while others were inspected but once during the year, but all were 
inspected according to their needs. It is possible that in isolated 
cases men were not supplied with a sufficient volume of air, but these 
cases were few as compared with the majority of the employes, who 
were supplied with adequate ventilation; this must be carefully 
looked after, as at least 85 per cent, of the persons employed in the 
Anthracite, and about 70 per cent, of those in the Bituminous mines 
are employed in mines generating explosive gas, consequently ven- 
tilation must be ample and properly conducted, otherwise the mines 
could not be worked. 

Together with inspecting mines, investigating accidents, attend- 
ing inquests, attending court in cases of violations of the mine laws, 
there are other details to be looked after, which are known only to 
those directly interested. 

Under the provisions of the act of Assembly, approved May 2, 1899, 
the Department of Internal Affairs is allotted each year 2,000 copies 
of the reports of the Bureau of Mines. In the anthracite coal region 
there are 82 general and assistant superintendents, and 1,634 mine 
foremen and assistants. In the Bituminous region there are 598 
general and assistant superintendents, and 1,170 mine foremen and 
assistants, making an aggregate of 3,484 persons directly in charge 
of mining operations in the coal fields of Pennsylvania. In addition 
to this large number there are mining engineers in charge of col- 
lieries, and all of these, together with the superintendents and fore- 
men, should be supplied with reports of the Bureau of Mines each 
year. It seems to be eminently proper that the operators should 
also receive copies, and there are many thousands of intelligent 
miners who would appreciate being supplied with these reports. 
The demand from libraries and institutions that have schools of min- 
ing engineering connected with them, is very great, and requests are 
constantly being received from the chiefs of the mining departments 
of other states and other countries for these reports. England, Scot- 
land, Wales, France, Germany, Belgium, and even far away Australia 
and New Zealand have made requests. The newspapers of the 
State also make frequent applications, so that the 2,000 copies now 
received are entirely inadequate to supply the demand, and I most 
respectfully urge that the allotment be increased to 5,000. 

Under the act of February 20, 1895, provision was made that the 
laws relating to the mining of coal should be printed annually in 
the report of the Bureau of Mines, but as frequent applications are 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xi 

received from persons who desire copies of the laws pertaining to 
the Anthracite region who do not care for those relating to the 
Bituminous region, or visa versa, and as there are other requests 
from persons who wish the report merely for the statistical matter 
it contains, it would be better in my opinion, and more economical, 
to have the laws relating to the mining of coal printed in a separate 
pamphlet. The expense would be exceedingly small, and the de- 
crease in the cost of printing and binding the report, with the laws 
omitted, would almost cover the cost of 3,000 additional copies of 
the report. If the Legislature should not deem it advisable to have 
the laws published separately in pamphlet form, I would respect- 
fully recommended that the report be published in two volumes, the 
Anthracite report with the laws pertaining thereto in one volume, 
and the Bituminous report with the laws pertaining thereto in 
another, as the report as now published is very cumbersome and un- 
wieldly. 

Section 2 of Article 8 of the Anthracite Mine Law, approved June 
2, 1891, provides as follows: 

"Certificates of qualification to mine foremen and assistant mine 
foremen shall be granted by the Secretary of Internal Affairs to 
every applicant who may be reported by the examiners, as herein- 
after provided, as having passed a satisfactory examination and as 
having given satisfactory evidence of at least five year's practical 
experience as a miner, and of good conduct, capability and sobriety. 
The certificate shall be in manner and form as shall be prescribed 
by the Secretary of Internal Affairs, and a record of all certificates 
issued shall be kept in his Department." 

Section 2 of Article 15 of the Bituminous Mine Law 7 referring to the 
same subject reads as follows: 

"The said Board shall be empowered to grant certificates of com- 
petency of two grades, namely, certificates of the first grade to per- 
sons who have had experience in mines generating explosive gases, 
and who shall have the necessary qualification to fulfill the duties of 
mine foremen in such mines; and certificates of second grade to per- 
sons who give satisfactory evidence of their ability to act as mine 
foremem in mines not generating explosive gases." 

I would most urgently recommend (hat the foregoing section of the 
Bituminous law be amended so as to conform with the Anthracite 
law regarding the issuance of certificates of qualification to mine 
foremen from I Ik- office of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, as fre- 
quent applications are made to this Bureau for duplicate certificates 
by persons who have been granted certificates of qualification as mine 
foremen in the Bituminous region, which have been losi or mislaid, 
but we are nimble to furnish them as there are no records kept in this 
office of the Bituminous certificates as there are of the Anthracite 
2 



xii ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc 

ones. Examining boards are frequently changed, and by reason of 
deaths, removal®, etc., of the Inspectors, there have never been any 
connected records kept of the certificates issued to mine foremen in 
the bituminous region. 

I would respectfully recommend that the "Act establishing a Bu- 
reau of Mines in the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania, 
defining its purpose and authority, providing for the appointment of 
a Chief of said Bureau and Assistant, and fixing their salaries and 
expenses/' approved July 15, 1897, should be amended as follows 
in Sections 7 and 9: 

Section 7, which provides that "The Chief of the Bureau of Mines 
shall at all times be accountable to the Secretary of Internal Affairs 
for the faithful discharge of the duties imposed on him by law, in 
the administration of his office, and the rules and regulations per- 
taining to said Bureau shall be subjected to the approval of the 
Secretary of Internal Affairs, who is hereby empowered to appoint 
an assistant to the Chief of the Bureau," should, after the word 
Bureau, be amended to read, "who shall have knowledge of mining 
engineering, at a salary of eighteen hundred dollars per annum, two 
clerks, at a salary of fourteen hundred dollars each per annum, a 
stenographer and typewriter, at a salary of one thousand dollars 
per annum, and a. messenger at a salary of three hundred dollars 
per annum; and provided further, that the salaries of the Chief of 
the Bureau of Mines, his assistants, clerk, stenographer and mes- 
senger shall be paid out of the State Treasury in like manner as 
other employes of the Department of Internal Affairs are now paid." 

According to Section 7, the Bureau of Mines is entitled to the ser- 
vices of only one assistant and messenger; yet the fact is that the 
Bureau has been compelled to have more help to keep up with the 
work, and an additional clerk and stenograper have been supplied 
by the Department of Internal Affairs, which in fact is without any 
authority of law. 

Section 9 provides "That the Mine Inspectors of each district in 
this State shall within six months after the final passage and ap- 
proval of this act deposit in the Bureau of Mines an accurate map or 
plan of such coal mine, which may be on tracing muslin or sun print, 
drawn to a prescribed scale, which map or plan shall show the actual 
location of all openings, excavations, shafts, tunnels, slopes, planes, 
main headings, cross headings and rooms or working places in each 
strata operated; pumps, fans or other ventilation apparatus, the 
entice course and direction of air currents, the relation and proximity 
of the workings of such coal mines to all other adjoining mines or 
coal lands, and the relative elevation of all tunnels and headings, 
and of the face of working places near to or approaching boundary 
lines of adjacent mines; and on or before the close of each calendar 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xiii 

year transmit to the Chief of the Bureau of .Mines a supplemental 
map or plan showing all excavations, changes and additions made 
in such mine during the year, drawn to the scale as the first men- 
tioned map or plan. All such maps or plans to be and remain in the 
Bureau of Mines as a pari of the records of said office." 

I would respectfully ask thai this section be amended to read: 
"At the written request of (he Chief of the Bureau of Mines the In- 
spector of each district shall deposit with him within thirty days 
from date of demand an accurate map or plan of any coal mine or col- 
liery required, which must be no tracing- cloth drawn to a scale of not 
more than one hundred Tee), and not less than four hundred feet to the 
inch, said map or plan shall accurately show the tidal elevations of 
the mouths of all shafts, tunnels, slopes, planes, main headings or 
gangways, cross headings, rooms or breasts in each strata operated, 
or that has been operated; all the sumps, pumps and fans, or other 
ventilating appliances, the course and direction of main air currents, 
the relation and proximity of the workings of such coal mines to all 
adjoining coal mines or coal lands, and it must also show 7 the tidal 
elevations of the bottom of all shafts and slopes, the main headings 
or gangways, and at the face of each working place near to or ap- 
proaching boundary lines of adjacent mines or coal lands; and on or 
before the close of each calendar year transmit to the Chief of the 
Bureau of Mines a supplemental map or plan, showing all excava- 
tions changes and additions made in each mine during the year, 
all the tidal elevations as required in preceding part of section. All 
drawn to the same scale as the first mentioned map or plan, giving 
such maps or plans to be and remain in the Bureau of Mines as a 
part of the records of said office." 

I would respectfully ask for the foregoing amendment, as said 
original section of the law creating the Bureau of Mines provides 
that copies of the maps of all the coal mines in this State shall be 
deposited in this office, and as there are several thousand of such 
maps in this State, the greater number of which would be of no use 
to the Bureau, even if there were loom to store them, and enough 
money appropriated to have copies made. To comply with this 
section the Inspectors would be either obliged to make tracings 
themselves or pay for having them made, which evidently was not 
the intention of the act. If the Inspectors were lo do this work 
themselves, they would have little or no time to attend to the mos! 
important part of their duty, viz: making inspections. Aj9 il is, the 
Bureau of Mines has not been furnished with the maps and informa- 
tion as contemplated by the act. The assistant asked for in Section 
7 should, besides being a mining engineer, be also a draughtsman, 
who could copy maps and supplemental maps from the ones de- 
posited in this office by the district inspectors. The necessity for 



xi v ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

having complete and accurate maps and plans of abandoned 
mines, and those about to be abandoned, is too well known to mining 
men to require more than mention here. Suffice it to say that having 
this data within easy reach might be the means of saving life and 
property in the future. As an example of the foregoing, let me say 
that in the southern Anthracite coal fields there are to-day no less 
than two hundred worked out or abandoned mines below water level. 
Of many of these the records are meagre and no accurate or even 
fairly accurate maps of them are in existence. Had good maps been 
in existence there would have been no accidents such as those at the 
Lytle, Kaska William, Jeansville, Laurel Hill and Hacklebarney 
collieries, wherein a large number of lives were lost through floods of 
water. The time for getting more information in regard to the old 
abandoned workings has gone by and those who operated and 
worked in them have passed away, and the information they had has 
passed with them. 

In many cases no data is obtainable from which to determine the 
depths of shafts, length of slopes, the number and length of their 
gangways. Mining operation in consequence of the non-existence of 
accurate maps of these places, especially in the southern coal field, 
will be attended with greater danger to human life, and increased 
cost of mining coal. 

In my report as Inspector of Mines for the Fifth Anthracite Dis- 
trict for the year 1895, I called attention to the wide difference be- 
tween the old maps of the Buck Mountain Coal Company and the 
recent map made by the engineers of the Cross Creek Coal Company, 
under the direction of Edgar Kudlich, M. E., some years after when 
the property had changed hands and became a part of the Coxe pro- 
perty. The latter surveys and test drill holes demonstrated that 
the shape of the basins had formerly been entirely mistaken, and a 
large body of coal existed where none was supposed to be. The 
later survey also demonstrated practically the total inaccuracy of 
the original maps. The gangways approaching each other had been 
stopped through fear that they were getting too close, whereas in 
reality the faces were a great distance from each other. Hundreds 
of thousands of tons have already been mined, and I am informed 
that a million more tons will be mined before the basins are ex- 
hausted, which would have been lost had not the genius and skill 
of the late Eckley B. Coxe and his knowledge of the topography of 
the country convinced him that valuable deposits of coal were still 
there. He at once ordered test drill holes, and a resurvey to be made 
and was amply rewarded by the results. 

I would therefore suggest that the following be added to the act 
Creating the Bureau of Mines: 

"Where any Anthracite or Bituminous coal mine or colliery is 
temporarily abondoned, worked out, or about to be finally aban- 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xv 

doned, the owner or operator of such coal mine or colliery shall have 
the maps and plans thereof extended to include all excavations as 
far as practicable, and such portions thereof as have been worked 
to or near the boundary lines of adjoining properties; or any part of 
the workings which is intended to be allowed to fill with water 
must be surveyed in duplicate, and such surveys must practically 
agree, and certified copies of the same made on tracing cloth shall 
be filed with the Chief of the Bureau of Mines, which tracing shall 
be a part of the records of said Bureau. The map or plan shall be 
drawn to a scale of not more than one hundred feet or not less than 
four hundred feet to the inch, and shall exhibit all the workings and 
excavations in each and every seam of coal, and the tunnels and pas- 
sages connecting with such workings or excavations. There shall 
also be shown on each map the general inclination of the strata, with 
any material deflection therein in said workings or excavations, and 
shall also have the tidal elevation of the top and bottom of each 
shaft and slope, of tunnels, planes and gangways or main headings, 
and of any other point in the mine or on the surface, when such 
shall be deemed necessary by the Chief of the Bureau of Mines. The 
map or plan shall show the number of the last survey station and the 
date of each survey in all gangways or main headings and in the 
most advanced workings. It shall also accurately show the boun- 
dary lines of the lands of said coal mine or colliery, and the proxi- 
mity of the workings thereto; and in case any mine contains water 
dammed up in any part thereof, it shall be the duty of the owner, 
operator or superintendent to cause the true location of said dam 
to be accurately marked on the said map or plan, together with the 
tidal elevation, inclination of the strata and area of said workings 
containing water. If it should be shown that the owner, operator 
or superintendent has neglected or failed to comply with the fore- 
going section, the party thus offending shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding twenty-five hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceed- 
ing three months, or both at the discretion of the court. 

"Or, if it shall be shown that the owner, operator, superintendent, 
engineer or surveyor who lias knowingly or designedly caused or 
allowed such map or plan of any Anthracite or Bituminous mine, 
abandoned for any cause, when furnished to the Bureau of Mines, 
to be inaccurate or false, such owner, operator, superintendent, en- 
gineer or surveyor thus offending shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 
five thousand dollars, or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or 
both, at the discretion of the court. 



xvi ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

OVERWINDING DEVICE FOR HOISTING ENGINES. 



The many accidents which have occurred from overwinding in 
hoisting shafts and slopes has demonstrated the necessity for at- 
taching some simple and efficient overwinding device to hoisting- 
engines, and many such have been invented, practically all of which 
have failed from want of quickness of action. The one illustrated, 
patented by Messrs. Morris Williams and F. H. Kohlbraker, is being 
quite extensively used by the Pennsylvania and Reading Companies. 
It is operated on the general principal of putting on the brake and 
cutting off the steam supply at the cylinders (not at the throttle) 
by the release of a weighted lever operated by a positive tripping- 
arm attached to the shaft guides and released by the cage rising- 
above a predetermined height. The method of operation is clearly 
shown by the diagram, in which Figure 1 -shows the device set with 
the cage at its regular landing position, and Figure 2 the device in 
operation with the steam cut off and the brake put on. "A" is a 
tripping lever with its arm extending over the guide in position to be 
raised by the cage when the latter is raised ab<>ve its proper height, 
the raising of "A" releases the catch yoke "B" by moving the roller 
"C" off the end of its track, "B'' dropping forward slackens the wire 
connection and permits the weighted lever "D" to drop back, re- 
leasing the weighted lever "E" which is normally supported by its 
end resting on a roller on "D," this lever "E" in dropping closes the 
valve "G" located in the steam pipe as close as possible to the 
cylinder, by moving the arm "F," the action being accelerated by 
the steam pressure acting against "G" and by the same motion 
through the arm "H" pulls the brake lever "I" and puts on the brake, 
stopping the engine promptly; where a steam brake is in use the arm 
"H" moves the valve and puts on the brakes in a similar manner. 

Tests with this device at the Luke Fidler shaft of the Mineral Rail- 
road and Mining Co., Shamokin, Ra., showed that it is capable of 
stopping a pair of 32"x48" engines from full speed of 75 revolutions 
per minute in 1| revolutions or 1.2-10 seconds, and on starting up 
from the top, which is the way 95 per cent, of the over-hoists occur 
(viz. by the engineer forgetting to reverse his engine), the cage was 
stopped within less than two feet above the tripping lever, the 
action of the apparatus being practically instantaneous. 

The efficiency of the apparatus is in a large measure due to the 
provision for cutting off the steam close to the cylinders, eliminating 
the effect of the steam contained in the bow pipes between the 
throttle and the cylinders, which is often sufficient in volume to move 
the engines two or three revolutions. 

Besides its automatic feature, the apparatus can be put into 
action by the engineer pulling on lever "D" in case of accident to the 
throttle or link connections. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



xvii 



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xviii ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

By referring to Table A, it will be seen that 2,867 persons lost their 
lives inside and 335 outside of the Anthracite mines during the ten 
years ending December 31, 1890. In other words, 89.54 per cent, 
lost their lives inside, while 10.46 per cent, lost their lives outside 
the mines. 

Those who lost their lives inside were employed as follows: Fore- 
men and fire bosses 47, or 1.60 per cent.; miners 1,419, or 49.50 per 
cent.; miners' laborers 746, or 26.02 per cent.; drivers and runners 
309, or 10.77 per cent.; door boys 101, or 3.52 per cent.; and all other 
employes 245, or 8.55 per cent. 

The persons who lost their lives on the surface were employed as 
follows: Foremen, 6, or 1.79 per cent.; blacksmiths and carpenters 
37, or 11.04 per cent.; engineers and firemen 61, or 18.21 per cent.; 
slate pickers 101, or. 30.15 per cent.; all other employes 130, or 38.80 
per cent. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



xix 






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xx ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

By referring to Table B for the period from 1891 to 1900, it will be 
seen that 3,864 persons lost their lives inside and 510 outside of the 
Anthracite mines. The percentage of lives lost inside was 88.34, 
and outside 11.60. 

The number, occupations and percentage of those who lost their 
lives inside were as follows: Foremen and fire bosses 54, or 1.39 per 
cent.; miners, 1,935, or 50.78 per cent.; miners' laborers 1,119, or 28.96 
per cent.; drivers and runners 372, or 9.62 per cent.; door boys 85, or 
2.19 per cent.; all other employes 299, or 7.74 per cent. 

Those on the surface were as follows: Foremen 4, or .8 per cent.; 
blacksmiths and carpenters 19, or 3.73 per cent.; engineers and fire- 
men 33, or 6.47 per cent.; slate pickers 104, or 20.39 per cent.; all 
other employes 350, or 68.60 per cent. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



xxi 



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ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



It will be seen by referring to Table C that 1,794 persons lost their 
lives inside the Bituminous mines and 38 on the surface in the ten 
years from 1891 to 1900. The occupations and percentage of those 
who lost their lives inside the mines were as follows: Mine foremen 
8, or 1 per cent.; miners 1,500, or 83.61 per cent.; company men 133, 
or 7.97 per cent.; drivers and runners 128, or 7.73 per cent.; door boys 
15, or 1 per cent. The total loss of life inside the Bituminous mines 
was 97.92 per cent., while on the surface it was 2.08 per cent. 

To make an intelligent comparison of the percentages of the occu- 
pations of persons who lost their lives inside of the Anthracite and 
Bituminous mines, the following table is here inserted: 









s 

CD 
C 

a 

3 
U 

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1.39 
1.00 

1 


79.74 
83.61 


9.62 

7.73 


2.19 
1.00 


7.74 




7.97 







A comparison of the death rate outside of the mines shows that 
510, or 11.66 per cent, lost their lives outside the anthracite mines, 
while only 38, or 2.08 per cent, of fatalities occurred on the surface 
at the Bituminous mines. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



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2327 
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No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xxv 

By referring to Table D, it will be seen that during the year 1881, 
the total number of employes inside the Anthracite mines was 45,619, 
of which 39,535, or 86.66 per cent, were miners and miners' laborers. 

The same table shows that by 1890 the total number of employes 
inside the mines had increased to 76,613. Of this number 47,550, or 
02.07 per cent, were miners and miners' laborers. 

The same table also shows that during the year 1900 there were 
84,140 employes inside the mines. Of this number there were 61,445, 
or 73.05 per cent, miners and their laborers. 

The average number of inside employes for each year from 1881 to 
L890 was 63,510, of which 44,906, or 70.71 per cent, were miners and 
miners' laborers. The average number of inside employes for the 
decade 1891 to 19(10 was 88,019, of which 58,206, or 00.13 per cent, 
were miners and miners' laborers. 

The increase in the number of inside employes from 1891 to 1900, 
over that from 1SS1 to L890 was 21. 500, or 38.59 per cent. It will be 
seen that the increase in the number of miners and miners' laborers 
has not kept pace proportionately with the increase of other inside 
employes, as if it had, the average number of miners and miners' 
laborers for the years from 189,1 to 1900 would have been 62,238 in- 
stead of 58,206, which shows a loss of 1,032. This decrease in miners 
and miners laborers, the actual producers of coal, indicates that the 
4,032 have been added to the army of men who perform what is 
termed "dead work." 

Table D also shows that the average number of tons of coal pro- 
duced per life lost inside the mines for the year 1890 was 125,907, 
while the average number of tons produced per life lost inside during 
1900 was 139,246, an average increase of 13,339 tons per life lost 
inside. This increased production per life lost inside the mines is a 
better indication than anything I can say, as any person connected 
with tin 1 mining of coal is aware, that the dangers pertaining to that 
work are increasing each year. 

By referring to Table D it will also be seen that the production of 
anthracite coal per average number of days worked by the breakers, 
varied from L34,696 in 1881 to 312,219 tons for 1898, which year 
shows the largest production per day of any year to date. The aver- 
age daily production by breakers for the ten years ending December 
31, 1890 was 169,394 tons, while the average production per day for 
the ten years ending December .".1, L900, was 269,960 tons, an aver- 
age increase of 100,500 tons per day worked in the last decade. 

This groat increase in the production of coal per day worked by 
breakers is phenomenal, but it can be explained by the concentration 
in the methods of preparation, improved machinery, (loser super- 
vision and inspection in the method of preparation, the economical 
handling of coal while in process of preparation, and the great re- 
duction in the percentage of coal which formerly went to the dirt 



xxvi ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

bank, for possibly the greatest increase comes from the utilization of 
the smaller size of coal in recent years. 

The average production of coal per year for each inside employe, 
during the first period was 554 tons, while in the second period it was 
549 tons, an average decrease of 5 tons per employe inside per year. 
The average production per miner and miners' laborer per year for 
the first period was 763 tons, while the average production per year 
in the second period was 825 tons, an increase of about 62 tons for 
each miner and miners' laborer each year. 

Miners and their laborers are the only ones who actually produce 
coal, all other employes inside are employed at "dead work," and 
those outside simply prepare the coal to meet the demands of trade. 



IV/LL1AMS AUTOMATIC OVERWINDING DEVICE 
FOR HOISTINQ ENGINES. 





Sf Ca ^ 



Fid\jre 1. 
De.v\ce sef", ready -For<?percif'»an. 




Ocvf'ce fn operation. 



RV hi. I 12.0I. 



ERRATA. 

On page xxvii, English speaking people should be 2,198; 
non-English speaking people should be 2,183. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



01 to 

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xxviii ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

By referring to Table E it will be seen that 4,381 persons lost their 
lives in and about the anthracite mines from 1891 to 1900. An 
effort was made during the past year to ascertain the actual number 
of each nationality at work in and about the coal mines of this 
State, which was only partially successful. 

Reports from 232 Anthracite mines showed that the employes num- 
bered 96,077, of which 55,126 were of the English speaking races and 
40,651 were of the non-English or Continental races. The 96,077 re- 
ported equal about 66.8 per cent, of the total number employed. 

The same table shows that 2,198, or 50.17 per cent, of those who 
lost their lives in and about the mines during the past ten years were 
people who spoke the English language, while the loss of life among 
the people from the Continent was 2,183, or 49.83 per cent, of the 
total number. 

By the above figures it will be seen that the non-English speaking 
people who comprise 42.31 per cent, of the total number of employes, 
sustained a loss of life in and about the mines equal to 49.83 per cent, 
of the total fatalities. 

Taking the percentage of accidents among the English speaking 
people as a basis, the accidents in and about the Anthracite mines, 
if all employes were of the English speaking races, during the past 
ten years would have been 3,711 as against the actual number, 4,381, 
or a reduction of 670 in the number of fatal accidents. 

These figures are theoretical of course, and are so presented that 
they cannot be sustained by. facts, but I am sure that as the people 
of the continental races become familiar with the English language, 
the death rate amongst them will be greatly reduced. 



ERRATA. 

On page xxix, the figures 211 at the bottom of the table indi- 
cates English speaking people; 312, in same line, indicates 
non-English speaking people. 



No II 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



xxix 



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xxx ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Following is the same line of inquiry in the Bituminous region, 
namely to ascertain the nationalities of employes in and about the 
mines in 1900, but the result was not crowned with complete suc- 
cess, as returns were received from only 439 of more than 800 mines 
in that region, which gave the number of English speaking people 
employed as 31,154, and of non-English speaking races as 36,371, a 
total of G7,525, which equals 61.94 per cent, of the total number of 
employes as reported by the Mine Inspectors in their annual report 
for 1900. 

Taking the above percentage as a fair ratio, it will be seen that 
the English speaking people were 46.13 per cent, of the total, and the 
non-English races 53.87 per cent. 

The fatal accidents that happened to the English speaking people 
were 40.35 per cent, and to the non-English speaking people 59.65 
per cent, of the total number. 

If the ratio as received from the returns would hold good as to 
all the employes, the number of English speaking people would be 
50,390 and non-English speaking 58,628, which equals the total of 
109,018 employed in 1900 in the Bituminous region. If the employes 
were all of the English speaking races, the number of fatal acci- 
dents would have been 456 in place of 523, the actual number for 1899 
and 1900, a reduction of 67, or 13 per cent., in the two years. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



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xxxii ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

A reference to Table F will show that 2,860 lives, or 86.83 per cent, 
were lost inside of the Anthracite mines in the ten years from 1881 
to 1890. Of this number 1,333, or 46.93 per cent, perished from falls 
of coal, slate or roof; 509 or 17.78 per cent, by having been run over 
or injured in various ways by cars; 202, or 6.39 per cent, by explosions 
of gas; 275 or 9.26 per cent, by explosions of powder, dynamite and 
blasts; 148 or 5.17 per cent, by falling down shafts, slopes, etc., and 
210 or 7.33 per cent, from miscellaneous causes. There were 434 
lives lost outside the mines for the same period, which was 13.17 per 
cent, of the whole number, of which 184 or 42.39 per cent, were by 
cars, 116 or 26.72 per cent, by boiler explosions, and 96 or 22.12 per 
cent, from miscellaneous causes. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



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xxxiv ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Table G shows that during the ten years from 1891 to 1900, 3,861 
or 88.21 per cent, of the total number of fatal accidents in the 
Anthracite region occurred inside of the mines, of which 1,985 or 
51.41 per cent, were from falls of coal, slate or roof; 539 or 13.96 per 
cent, by mine cars; 377 or 9.77 per cent, by explosions of hydrogen 
gas; 293 or 7.58 per cent, by explosions of blasts and powder; 171 or 
4.45 per cent, by falling down shafts, slopes, etc.; 125 or 3.23 per 
cent, by suffocation; 44 or 1.14 per cent, were killed by mules; 185 
or 4.79 per cent, were from miscellaneous causes. 

About the outside workings of the mines 516 or 11.79 per cent, of 
the total number lost their lives, of which 202 or 39.15 per cent, were 
killed by being run over or otherwise injured by cars; 128 or 24.82 per 
cent, by machinery; 37 or 7.17 per cent, by suffocation; 29 or 5.71 
per cent, by explosions of boilers, and 120 or 23.25 per cent, from 
miscellaneous causes. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



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1900 





ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



During the ten years from 1891 to 1900 1,785 lives were lost in and 
about the Bituminous mines, of which 1,740 or 97.45 per cent, oc- 
curred inside and 45 or 2.55 per cent., outside. 

Of the fatalities that occurred inside the mines, 1,139 or 63.81 per 
cent, were by falls of coal, slate, roof, etc.; 276 or 15.46 per cent, by 
mine cars; 182 or 10.19 per cent, by explosions of gas; 43 or 2.41 per- 
cent, by explosions of powder and blasts; 18 or 1.01 per cent, by 
falling into shafts; 17 or 1 per cent, by suffocation, and 34 or 1.34 
per cent, were from miscellaneous causes. 

There were 45 fatalities outside the mines, of which 22 or 48.88 
per cent, were by cars in various ways; 8 or 17.78 per cent, by ma- 
chinery; 7 or 15.55 per cent, by explosions of boilers, and 8 or 17.88 
per cent, from miscellaneous causes. 

The following is a brief table of comparison of accidents in both 
regions : 






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No. n. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



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Fourth, . 
Fifth, ... 
Sixth. ... 
Seventh. 
Eighth, . 
Ninth, .. 






No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xli 



EXPORT OF AMERICAN COAL. 



Mr. Stanley Jevons, "who is so often quoted in connection with the 
coal statistics of England, wrote about twenty-five years ago: "While 
the export of coal is a vast and growing branch of our trade, a rever- 
sal of trade and a future return current of coal is a commercial im- 
possibility and absurdity." Mr. Jevons did not have the clearness 
of vision of the future that he imagined, and could he see the coal 
statistics for the past two years, he would find that coal has been 
carried from America to London, as well as to a number of Euro- 
pean countries. 

The subject of the export of American coal has attracted a great 
deal of attention and interest from numerous writers and very many 
ridiculous prophecies and forecasts have been made upon the sub- 
ject. Prophesying is unprofitable business at the best, and the quot- 
ing of statistics is of but little use as a basis for forecasting future 
results. Most people agree with the great D'Israeli's assertion that 
there are three stages of falsification, "lies, damned lies and statis- 
tics." There are. however, some figures that show the trend of 
events, even if they cannot be used as a basis for estimating future 
results. It may- be well, therefore, to consider the facts of the case. 
There has been an enormous increase in the world's output of coal in 
recent years, 85,500,000 tons more having been mined in 1899 than 
in 1897. This shows that the demand is increasing at a rapid rate, 
and the United States seems to be the only country that is likely to 
meet this increasing demand. 

Within the past thirty years Great Britain has doubled her output 
of coal. Germany has doubled hers in twenty years; America has 
increased her output, and her consumption more than six fold, and 
she now ranks as the world's leading coal producer, with enormous 
reserves back of the mines that are now producing. 

With a rapidly widening market for coal, and as the Tinted States 
seems to be the only country likely to increase its output to keep 
pace with this increasing demand, it would seem to be the natural 
conclusion that America must in time, and that not far distant, be- 
come the world's coal toiler, as she is now its granary. When that 
lime shall be, depends upon economic conditions. The fact that 
some cargoes of coal have been shipped to London from America 
within the past year or two. is interesting as refuting statements 
made by Jevons and others, that this never could be done, but it has 
little commercial significance, as it will probably be a number of 
years, if ever, before we can hope for much of a trade with England. 



xlii ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. DoC. 

British industries have been extremely active for several years past, 
and the mining industry has shared in the general prosperity, so 
that the price of coal has recently been higher than at any time in 
the history of the coal industry, except during certain strike periods. 
This has enabled small cargoes to be landed on British soil with 
advantage, but the English coal trade will not permit this to be 
come an established industry without a very hard fight, and the 
profits now being received for English coal are probably such that 
the price can be materially reduced if necessary to offset American 
competition. Furthermore, it must be remembered that so many 
other industries depend for their life upon the coal industry that 
it will be a long and bitter commercial warfare before the English 
market is won. With the continental markets, however, this is en- 
tirely different. These countries have consumed the export coal 
of England, and although Great Britain may be able to hold her 
home market against competition, when it comes to other European 
markets the case presents a very different aspect. The 50,000,000 
tons at present exported yearly from Great Britain are distributed 
approximately as follows: France, 19 per cent.; Germany, 13 per 
cent.; Italy, 12 per cent.; Russia, 8 per cent.; Sweden, 6 per cent.; 
Spain, 5 per cent.; Holland, 4 per cent.; Egypt, 4 per cent.; Denmark, 
4 per cent.; Norway, 3 per cent.; Brazil, 2 per cent.; Portugal, 2 per 
cent.; the East Indies, Malta, Gibralter and Turkey, each, 1 per cent.; 
all other countries 14 per cent. While many of the countries thus 
listed are coal producers, and some of them even exporters to a small 
extent, this export is largely local with surrounding and neighboring 
countries, and cannot be classed in the same category as the exports 
from Great Britain. Many of the countries in this list are great 
manufacturing centers in which the demand for coal is rapidly and 
steadily growing, and the reports from the consular agents of the 
United States during the past two year from all over Europe indicate 
a practical coal famine, with high prices prevailing almost univer- 
sally. As far as can be seen these conditions will continue, and will 
even become more aggravated, and while Great Britain may attempt 
to meet the demand, it is not at all probable that she can do so, even 
should the export of coal not be cut off as is proposed by many in 
England at the present time. It would, therefore, be wise for 
American coal men to study the conditions in the countries which 
now consume the greater part of the coal exported from Great 
Britain. 

Since the market is thus shown to exist, what facilities have we 
in the United States for supplying this market? In the first place 
we have a practically unlimited supply of coal, much of which is 
equal to, if not better, than the best English and Welsh coal. Sec- 
ondly, the coal is more advantageously located for mining, and up to 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xliii 

the present time many of the deposits have merely been skinned. 
There is a large deposit of coal still remaining above water level, 
giving the best possible conditions for economic mining. Thirdly, 
the problem of machine mining has, to a great extent, been solved, 
and an economic use of machines is an assured fact. The average 
output for a miner in America is fully 70 per cent, more than in the 
British mines, not because we have necessarily better miners, for 
until recently the bone and sinew of every coal mining community 
was its English and Welsh miners, but by longer hours, and better 
appliances, the output per man has been greatly increased. Fifth, 
the transportation problem has been solved, and coal is carried now 
from the mines to the seaboard at a rate which is much less than 
prevails in any of the European countries. 

This being the case, the problem hinges upon the transport of coal 
from the Atlantic seaboard to the European ports, and as this same 
problem has been solved for other commodities, it is perfectly reas- 
onable to assume that it will be solved for this commodity as well, 
and that as soon as our business men are assured of a steady foreign 
market, the transportation problem will be solved. 

While at present attention is centered on European markets. 
Mexico. Central and South America must not be forgotten, and the 
trade which has already sprung up with those countries can be 
greatly increased. 

The present conditions in Europe are somewhat abnormal and will 
probably not continue as at present, so that our coal men must not 
base all their estimates on figures secured in the past two or three 
years. 

Although the above reasoning applies to the whole United States, 
it applies equally and with full force to Pennsylvania, which has 
been for many years, and will probably continue to be, the great coal 
storehouse of the United States. 

Briefly stated, the facts are these: There is undoubtedly a market 
for coal in many of the European countries which will probably in- 
crease. This market is now supplied with British coal. The de- 
mand for coal for home consumption in England will probably pre- 
vent the extension of her foreign markets materially and the de- 
crease of the cosi of coal in these markets. The United States has 
plenty of good coal, and wherever sin 1 can undersell the British, the 
market should be hers. 



THE GREAT STRIKE IX THE ANTHRACITE COALMINES. 

The strike in the Anthracite coal regions during the year 1900 
while not specially bearing upon what usually constitutes the basis 
4 



xliv ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

for review in the reports of the Bureau, was so extensive and had 
such a marked effect upon all branches of industry in this State, 
that it is deemed proper to note some of its features here. The pre- 
cipitation of the tie-up, its effects and progress exceeded the ex- 
pectations of operators, and strike leaders, as well as those who 
have made a study of such movements in the past. Preceding strikes 
gave the operators a theory for reasoning that the movement could 
not be made general in the Anthracite fields, while the strike 
leaders themselves knew they were attacking a precedent which 
made such projects ineffective in the past. While it is true that the 
tie-up was not absolutely complete, it was so effective that the few 
collieries which continued at work could have had no material effect 
upon the prostrated market, and this promptly showed the effects 
of a genuine famine, which was so complete that in no other in- 
stance of the checkered history of the Anthracite coal trade had the 
inconvenience of a hard coal famine been more pronouncedly felt. 

The strike movement began on August 13th when the first conven- 
tion of the United Mine Workers of America opened in the city of 
Hazleton. At the meeting the grievances of the workmen were for- 
mulated and a demand for a joint session of Union officials and 
operators to be held on August 27th was issued. Epitomized, these 
grievances were given: First, an unjust dockage system; Second, 
unjust topping on cars; Third and fourth, non-uniform wage scale; 
Fifth, dockage of breaker hands while waiting for coal; Sixth, that 
miners' wages were cut or lowered unjustly by the operators; Sev- 
enth, that operators were ignoring the legal ton pounds; Eighth, 
semi-monthly pay according to law; Ninth, unjust favoritism; Tenth, 
reduction in the price of powder from $2.75 to $1.50 per keg; Elev- 
enth, the abolition of company stores; Twelfth, the abolition of com- 
pany doctors. 

On August 27th the Union delegates re-assembled in Hazleton, 
but no recognition of the call was vouchsafed by the operators, and 
on the 28th the delegates expressed their determination to strike in 
ten days from that date, at the same time referring the matter to the 
National Executive Board for approval. The National Executive 
Board in session in Indianapolis approved the strike declaration on 
September 17th, when the order to quit work was issued, and on 
October 25th the strike was declared off by President Mitchell, and 
work was resumed on the 29th after an idleness of seven weeks. 
During that time the only recognition shown the Union by the opera- 
tors was at a meeting held on September 4th in New York, from 
which a statement was issued on the 5th through the press. This 
statement was a practical recognition of the demands of the Union, 
since it discussed the question at issue. The return to work was on 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xlv 

the basis of an average of ten per cent, advance in wages over the 
September scale; reduction in the price of powder to $1.50 per keg, 
and the abolition of the sliding scale. 

The popular impression is that the seeming difference between the 
market and selling price of powder as maintained by the coal com- 
panies in certain sections of the Anthracite fields, contributed more 
than any other influence to the precipitation of the strike, but this, 
in my opinion, is erroneous. I could not accept this theory as col- 
lect, for any one who has given the subject serious thought will 
admit that general conditions were more responsible than any spe- 
cific reason involving the price of powder. 

The rates paid for powder in the different sections were $1.50 to 
$2.75 respectively per keg. Ordinarily this would appear to show a 
very great difference, and that an imposition was being practiced on 
the miners of certain sections. The fact is, however, that the miners 
paying $1.50 per keg were no better off financially than those paying 
$2.75, as the difference in the price of powder was made up to them 
in other ways. It is not the province of this Bureau to discuss in 
detail the questions thus involved, because there are features em- 
bracing agreements of twenty years' standing. 

When it is considered that the coal worker had been employed for 
about half time only, for several years, we really have the true incen- 
tive for the strike which impressed the country as being extraordi- 
nary in extent. These conditions having prevailed for many con- 
secutive years, practically compelled the strike movement. That at: 
least is the only conclusion that I have arrived at after a careful 
study of the situation. 

In view of the adjustment made, there are features to be consid- 
ered which should receive attention if the general public is to be 
taken into account. We cannot expect labor and capital to be at 
peace unless a satisfactory working basis is to be maintained. One 
of the mediums prescribed for reaching a satisfactory conclusion in 
such cases is arbitration. This sets forth a method, but it fails to 
provide the safeguards that are essential to successful operation. 
The coal companies offer a tangible basis for responsibility, while the 
workmen have, in the ordinary sense, nothing tangible to offer as a 
guarantee of good faith. It therefore resolves itself into a question 
of corporate integrity, and unless the party of the second part can 
show an amount of responsibility equal or nearly so to that of the 
party of the first part, there is a void which will be regarded as fatal 
in the compact. The only way that I can see by which this may be 
overcome is in granting the existence of labor unions, and recognition 
thereof by tin' established corporations. 

My knowledge of the cost of mining coal convinces me that the 

companies cannoi continue to pay the ten per cent, advance granted 



xlvi ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the men, if the price of coal recedes to that which prevailed last 
August. Consequently the companies must agree among them- 
selves to keep up the price of domestic coal to a figure which will 
enable them to pay this rate of wages. 



ARBITRATION. 

I would suggest that as a means of settling labor disputes, a sys- 
tem of arbitration should be introduced into the State by legal en- 
actment and by the creation of a State Board of Arbitration. Such 
boards have existed for some years in the states of New York, Massa- 
chusetts, Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, where they have effected settle- 
ments of labor disputes and brought about results satisfactory to 
both employer and employe. 

Strikes ought to be, under improved economic conditions, the last 
means that should be resorted to to bring about the desired end, 
rather than as it is unfortunately at present, the first. Strikes are 
more wasteful from an economic standpoint than wars. A big strike 
means more than it ever did before, for the organizations of both 
labor and capital are more thorough, and this very thoroughness 
makes the conflict more bitter wherever it is waged. This fact is so 
well recognized both by capital and labor, that the arbitration propo- 
sition is coming into the foreground more and more every day. In 
this connection it is only fair to state that without exception the 
leaders of organized labor, pre-eminently Samuel Gompers, President 
of the American Federation of Labor, John Mitchell, President of the 
United Mine Workers, and D. D. Wilson, Vice President of the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists, have strongly and repeatedly de- 
clared themselves in favor of arbitration. In a recent address before 
the National Arbitration Conference at Chicago, Mr. Wilson made 
these significant remarks in the course of a lengthy address on the 
subject of arbitration, which I consider worthy of reproduction here. 
Mr. Wilson said: 

"It is only when the employer denies the right of the employe to 
have a voice in the conditions under which he shall work, and the 
wages he shall be paid ; a strike only occurs when the employer uses 
the stereotyped and notorious argument, 'There is nothing to arbi- 
trate.' If there wasn't anything to arbitrate there would be no 
strike. If the employe did not think he had a just grievance, he 
would not be so anxious to leave its adjustment to a court of arbi- 
tration. This being the case, organized labor is anxious and willing 
that all matters of discord between employer and employe shall be 
adjusted by concilation and arbitration. This is the way out; this 
is the fundamental principle for which labor is organized. Give us 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. xlvii 

a court of arbitration before which we can submit our grievances, and 
disastrous industrial warfare will cease, but we must have a voice in 
the choice of arbitrators. This course has been tried by the organi- 
zation to which I belong, and the result for good has gone beyond my 
expectations. It has proven more than satisfactory, and during the 
six 111011(118' operation of the plan it has run more smoothly than any 
new piece of social machinery has ever run before. 

It is worthy of note that the International Association of Ma- 
chinists has had no occasion to call a strike to adjust a grievance in 
any shop controlled by the National Metal Trades Association since 
the signing of the New York Agreement. Any trouble that came up. 
with rare exceptions, has been adjusted by the executive officials of 
both bodies without recourse to the higher court, the Board of Ar- 
bitration. It would be unfair to say that there has been no friction, 
but it has been the friction of individuals and not of the organiza- 
tions, for it would be folly to think that perfection was reached and 
that this new venture was perfect in every detail. It has accom- 
plished much, imperfect as it is, and it will accomplish more as its 
possibilities are appreciated. 

The International Association of Machinists has pointed the way. 
The rapidity with which other labor organizations will follow is 
purely a matter of education. 

The employer of labor who does not concede the right guaranteed 
by the Board of Arbitration is behind the times, and the employe who 
does not take advantage of the opportunities that arbitration has 
placed within his grasp, is in the same category. The organization, 
be it capital or labor, that still depends on the policy of the bludgeon 
and the gun to adjust grievances, may be successful for a time, but 
it will eventually go under, driven out by an outraged public 
opinion, and before the placid Board of Arbitration. 

The International Association of Machinists points the way out by 
the simple and scientific process of gradual change, so gradual that 
the movement is almost imperceptible, yet it is fraught with more 
benefit to labor in one year than has come to it in many decades. It 
points the way to the new order of things and heralds the time when 
the labor problems will receive the attention of our wisest men. It 
points the way and shows that conciliation and arbitration will prove 
in every way beneficial if peoples' minds are huge and well informed 
enough to receive it. Nothing could be more satisfactory and en- 
couraging than the general revival of thought on the Labor question 
that this practical demonstration of what arbitration can do has 
brought back. It is educational, and presages economics and special 
wisdom. The International Association of Machinists shows the 
way out by initiating peaceful methods of evolution instead of in- 



xlviil ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

dustrial war; by rejecting the barbarous methods of the past; by re- 
specting the rights of all and marching on with the progressive ten- 
dency of events. It points the way and shows that the working 
people, strong in numbers, in reason and rectitude, can achieve their 
emancipation without recourse to any act that will prove repulsive to 
the best instincts of human nature.'' 

During the recent strike in the Anthracite regions arbitration was 
proposed and rejected. In view of that fact, in what way can an- 
other system be brought about? Shall there be a State Board of Ar- 
bitrators, and shall arbitration be made compulsory? 

It is unquestionably true that an act under which one of the parties 
to an industrial dispute has the right to bring all other parties before 
a public tribunal, smacks very much of State regulation of labor. 
This has in effect been brought about in New Zealand, and so far, the 
workings of the arbitration laws in effect there, have not been at- 
tended with very deleterious effects. In the first place if the parties 
to a labor dispute wish to settle their differences in their own way, 
the State does not meddle with them. Then, in the second place, 
had the law proved obnoxious, it would have been abrogated long 
ere this. Speaking of this feature of the law, the author of a recent 
publication explaining very fully the workings of the arbitration 
tribunal in New Zealand says: 

"The only serious adjustment, beyond the theoretical objection to 
state interference in any form which has been brought against this 
law by English writers, has been a statement that it has hampered 
enterprise and checked the growth of manufactures in the colony." 

New Zealanders know this to be quite baseless, for they know that 
the manufacturers of their colony have fully participated in the 
prosperity of the last five years. For some years past labor in 
almost every trade has been fully employed; the numbers of the work- 
less have fallen progressively; new factories have been opened and 
buildings erected, and the shop keepers with whom the working 
classes deal, admit that business is better and debts fewer than at 
any time in the last twenty years in the colony. The annual report 
of the Chamber of Commerce and the periodical reviews of the trade 
and business published by the New Zealand newspapers of both sides 
in politics tell the same tale. But the briefest and most convincing 
argument for disabusing the minds of any who may favor the idea 
that the New Zealand Arbitration act has hampered industry, is 
found in the following figures, which give the number of hands em- 
ployed in the registered factories of the colony for the past five years. 

It may be explained that the factory, in New Zealand, means every 
workship, small and large, and that registration is universal. 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINKS. 



xlix 







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01 
















o 






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5 

£ 








o 
















-o 


0> 














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29,879 
32,287 


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2,508 




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It may be, and indeed has been stated, that the strength of the law 
cannot be fully tested until sonic powerful organization of labor or 
capital defies the decision of the court and is successfully dealt with. 
English critics lay great stress on this, and are wont to ask tri- 
umphantly what could be done with the members of a large trade 
union without funds to enable them to pay the court penalties for 
disobedience, and at the same time were stubbornly determined not to 
go to work under the conditions laid down by the court. The answer 
to this is surely found in a study of the history of labor disputes. 
These show that it is not unions destitute of funds which carry on 
stubborn and ultimately successful strikes; and if the impecunious 
workers cannot successfully cope with the antagonism of employers 
when resources are, after all, limited, how can they expect to cope 
with the power of a state tribunal whose will is not to be disputed, 
which has no factory to be closed or business to be injured, and 
which is backed by force of law and public opinion? 

To my mind, however, the best recommendation of the New Zea- 
land law is that it has not, so far, led to any desperate trial of 
strength of this kind. By applying the grand old motto that "pre- 
vention is better than cure," it has taken labor disputes in hand be- 
fore they have reached the pitch at which the passions of the dispu- 
tants on both sides are inflamed, which impels them to wild speeches 
and still wilder actions. It gets between labor and capital before 
they have come to the unreasonable stages of their quarrel. It 
frankly accepts their irresistable tendencies in modern terms, the 
first of which is that they will differ, arid the second that they will 
organize in order to settle their differences. There are philanthro- 
pists who think that the remedy for their conflicts is found in urging 
them not to quarrel and not to organize. There are some who would 
sternly forbid them tu organize at all. The New Zealand law, on the 
contrary, frankly encourages organization, admits that they are 
bound to differ, and only insists that if they cannot settle their dif- 
D— 11— 1900 



1 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

ferences in a friendly and peaceable manner, they must go to the 
State, which will provide the machinery for doing so. 

Although so eminent an authority as Samuel Gompers has ex- 
pressed himself as being opposed to compulsory arbitration in these 
vigorous terms: "Arbitration between two parties in dispute im- 
plies their voluntary submission of the controversy to disinterested 
persons. This is invariably organized labor's proposition when 
efforts at conciliation have failed, but it is submitted that the terms 
'arbitration' and 'compulsory' are the very antitheses of each other. 
We have come to advocate arbitration, and many men, yes, and some 
very well meaning men, have used it as a phrase so often that they 
have confounded voluntary action with the desire to enforce compul- 
sion, without understanding its full significance. 'Compulsory ar- 
bitration' as the term is generally understood, implies even more 
than appears upon the surface. If the workers and their employers 
disagree as to the terms and conditions under which labor shall be 
performed, it is presupposed by the term 'compulsory arbitration' 
that both parties shall be summoned before some tribunal created by 
the state for the purpose of hearing and determining the question at 
issue and to make an award. The logical sequence of an award made 
by such tribunal implies its legal enforcement. Let us suppose a 
case not difficult to conceive. If the award is in favor of the workers, 
and the employers to abide thereby, the state would then exert its 
power to legally enforce the award and decree. Would this act not 
in itself be confiscation, or its alternative punishment, imprison- 
ment? On the other hand, if the award should be in favor of the 
employers, and the workers refuse to abide by the decision, would 
they not be compelled by the state to work against their will and 
judgment, under conditions which they regard as unjust and burden- 
some, or suffer incarceration in jail?" 

Still I am inclined to rather favor the views cited of the New 
Zealand political economist. Without expressing myself at all as to 
the value of a State Board of Arbitration in labor disputes, other 
than those in the field of coal mining, I firmly believe that the 
creation of such a Board for a settlement of disputes between opera- 
tors and mine workers would be of incalculable benefit to the State, 
to the business men of the localities affected and to the people in 
general. In the mining of coal as it is carried on at present, ex- 
perience has shown that the manner of compensation of the mine 
workers by their employers, is bound to create differences of opinion 
as to its justice or injustice, and strikes innumerable have been re- 
sorted to by the men in an endeavor to obtain adjustment. 

As it is at present, the results have been arrived at only by the 
respective "staying powers" of the parties in contention, rather than 
by the merits of the question at issue. It will ever be thus, unless an 



No. 11. BUREAU OF MINES. 11 

impartial tribunal is created which will decide such matters, the 
findings of which shall be final. Such a tribunal should, in my 
opinion, be a State Board of Arbitrators, and the sooner it is brought 
into existence the better. 

Following this will be found a series of tables containing in con- 
centrated form much interesting matter pertaining to this report, 
viz: Production of coal, anthracite and bituminous, for ten years; 
production of coke for same period; production of anthracite and bi- 
tuminous coal and coke by counties for ten years, also number of 
employes for ten years by inspection districts and counties; number 
of accidents, fatal and non-fatal, in each inspection district for ten 
years; number and nationalities of persons killed and injured in 
11)00; a recapitulation table for both Anthracite and Bituminous 
regions, and a table showing the number of fatal accidents per 
each 1,000 employes for a series of years in both regions. 

These tables will be of interest to those seeking information of 
various kinds pertaining to the production and preparation of coal. 



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BUREAU OF MINES. 



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BUREAU OF MINES. 



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BUREAU OF MINES. 



lxvii 





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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



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6,053,635.14 
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3,677,589.00 


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No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



Ixix 



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Ixx 



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No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



lxxi 



uoss-uilum.i .in; 30 aaqmriM 



■souiBuXp ou;j3[d jo aaquinx 



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24,062 16 

4.7S6 4 
7.591 12 
16.671 21 
9,950 42 
6,600 31 
6.3S5 10 
8,107 23 
5.302 5 


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59.529 

8,051 
38.080 
28,005 
17,313 

9,741 
20,911 
13.747 

9,812 


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19.357 
5,027 
7.417 
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11,709 
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20,685 

8,915 
14,925 
20,857 
20,650 
14,503 

6.56S 
11,243 

4,620 


eo* 


11,876 
13,334 
7,370 
14,100 
16,671 
11,685 
11,870 
4,843 
8,184 
3,720 


CO 




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3,491 
1,545 

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4,636 
8,965 
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lxxii 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE NO. 16 — Fatal Accidents per each 1,000 employes in and about the An- 
thracite coal mines, and tons of coal mined per each fatal accident from 1870 to 
1900, inclusive. 



Years. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
IS74 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
18S5 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



35,600 

37,488 

44,745 

48,199 

53,402 

69,966 

70,474 

66,842 

63,964 

68,847 

73,373 

76,031 

83,242 

91,411 

101,078 

100,534 

103,034 

106,574 

117,290 

119.007 

109,166 

123,345 

129,797 

138,002 

139,655 

143,610 

149,670 

149,557 

142,420 

140,583 

143,826 



211 
210 
166 
224 
231 
238 
228 
194 
187 
262 
202 
273 
293 
323 
332 
356 
279 
316 
364 
384 
378 
424 
396 
445 
439 
422 
502 
424 
411 
461 
411 



C <v 

■O o 

d c 



a c 



5,929 
5,601 
3,709 
4,647 
4,325 
3,401 
3,235 
2,902 
2,923 
3,805 
2,753 
3,5*91 
3,520 
3,533 
3,284 
3,541 
2,707 
2,965 
3,103 
3,226 
3,463 
3,463 
3,051 
3,224 
3,144 
2,939 
3,354 
2,836 
2,886 
3,271 
2,857 



12,653,575 
13,868,087 
13,899,976 
18,751,358 
17,794,857 
20,895,220 
19,611,071 
22,077,869 
18,661,577 
27,711,250 
24,843,476 
30,210,018 
30,867,301 
33,200,608 
32,561,390 
33,520,941 
34,064,543 
37,137,251 
41.638,426 
30,015,835 
40,080,355 
44,320,967 
45,738,373 
47,179,563 
45,506,179 
51,207,000 
48,074,330 
46,947,354 
47,145,174 
54,034,224 
51,217,318 



"- 1 .e 
°-§ 

p£ ■*-* 

c h c 
C o n 



59,970 

66,838 

83,734 

83,711 

77,034 

87,795 

86,013 

113,803 

99,794 

105,708 

182,987 

110,659 

105,349 

104,336 

98,076 

94,160 

122,095 

117,522 

114,391 

101,604 

106,033 

103,796 

115,500 

106,021 

103,659 

121,344 

95,766 

110,725 

114,708 

117,211 

124,611 



No. 11. 



BUREAU OF MINES. 



lxxiii 



TABLE NO. 17 — Fatal accidents per each 1,000 employes in and about the Bi- 
tuminous coal mines, and tons of coal mined for each fatal accident from 1884 
to 1900, inclusive. 



Years. 



c i 

a; >> 

T3 o 

° c 

at C 



Cfli-I 



u 



a o 



n o <u 



1SS4. 
ins:,, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
lSS't, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895. 
1896, 
1897, 
1S9S, 
1S99, 
1900, 



994 
145 
846 
774 
564 
600 
851 
166 
784 
834 
177 
904 
796 
483 



91,440 
109,018 



105 
72 
81 
103 
89 
105 
146 
236 
133 
131 
124 
155 
179 
149 
198 
258 
265 



2,625 
1,630 
1.562 
1,783 
1 , 445 
1,888 
2,183 
3,182 
1,688 
1,640 
1,441 
1,825 
2,136 
1,723 
2,255 
2,821 
2,430 



20,553,090 
24,030,919 
28,607,173 
33,902,030 
33,832,285 
34,625,449 
40,740,521 
41,831,456 
46,225,552 
43,422,498 
39,800,210 
51,813,112 
50,273,656 
54,674,272 
64,247.635 
72,866,943 
79,318,362 



195,743 
333,763 
353,175 

329,146 
380,138 
329,766 
279,045 
177,252 
347,560 
331,469 
324,194 
334,278 
280,858 
366,941 
323,483 
282,429 
311,311 



•Returns prior to 1SS4 were not reliable, and are therefore not published. 





( Ixxiv) 



LAWS RELATING 



Coal Mining 



( lxxv ) 



4 




( lxxvi) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



LAWS RELATING TO COAL MINING. 



AN ACT 

To protect miners in the bituminous coal region of the Commonwealth. 

Section 1. lie it enacted, &c, That after the period of three months 
from the passage of this act, any miner employed by an individual, 
firm or corporation for the purpose of mining coal shall be entitled 
to receive from his employer, and failing to receive then to collect, 
by due process of law, at such rates as may have been agreed upon 
between the employer and the employed, full and exact wages ac- 
cruing to him for the mining of all sizes of merchantable coal so 
mined by him, whether the same shall exist in the form of nut or 
lump coal; and in the adjudication of such wages seventy-six pounds 
shall be deemed one bushel, and two thousand pounds net, shall be 
deemed one ton of coal: Provided, That nothing contained in this act 
shall be construed to prevent operators and miners contracting for 
any method of measuring and screening the coal mined by such 
miners, as they may contract for. 

Section 2. That at every bituminous coal mine in this Common- 
wealth, where coal is mined by measurement, all cars, tilled by miners 
or their laborers, shall be uniform in capacity at each mine; no on 
branded car or cars shall enter the mine for a longer period than 
three months, without being branded by the mine inspector of the 
district, wherein the mine is situated; and any owner or owners, or 
their agents, violating the provisions of this section, shall be subjeot 
to a fine of not less than one dollar per car for each and every day 
as long as the car is not in conformity with this act, and the mine 
inspector of the district, where (he mine is located, on receiving 
notice from the check-master or any five miners working in the 
mine, that a car or cars are not properly branded, or not uniform 
in capacity according to law. arc used in (he mine where he or they 
are employed, then inside of throe days from the date of receiving 
said notice, it shall be his duty to enforce the provisions of this sec- 
tion, under penally of ten dollars for each and every day he permits 
such car or cars to inter the mine: Provided, That nothing contained 
in this section shall be construed or applied to those mines which do 
not use more than ten cars. 

( lxxvii ) 



Ixxviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 3. That at every bituminous coal mine in this Common- 
wealth, where coal is mined by weight or measure, the miners or a 
majority of those present at a meeting called for that purpose, shall 
have the right to employ a competent person as check-weighman, or 
check-measurer as the case may require, who shall be permitted at 
all times to be present at the weighing or measurement of coal, also 
have power to weigh or measure the same, and during the regular 
working hours to have the privilege to balance and examine the 
scales, or measure the cars: Provided, That all such balancing or ex- 
amination of scales shall only be done in such way, and in such time, 
as in no way to interfere with the regular working of the mines. 
And he shall not be considered a trespasser during working hours 
while attending to the interests of his employers. And in no manner 
shall he be interfered with or intimidated by any person, agent, 
owner or miner. And any person violating these provisions shall be 
held and deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof, he shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty dol- 
lars, and not exceeding one hundred dollars, or imprisonment at the 
discretion of the court. It shall be a further duty of check-weigh- 
man or check-measurer to credit each miner with all merchantable 
coal mined by him, on a proper sheet or book to be kept by him for 
that purpose. When differences arise between the check-weighman 
or check-measurer and the agent or owners of the mine, as to the 
uniformity, capacity or correctness of scales or cars used, the same 
shall be referred to the mine inspector of the district where the mine 
is located, whose duty it shall be to regulate the same at once, and 
in the event of said scales or cars proving to be correct, then the 
party or parties applying for the testing thereof to bear all costs 
and expenses thereof; but if not correct then the owner or owners 
of said mine to pay the cost and charges of making said examination: 
Provided further, That should any weighman or weighmen, agent or 
check-measurer, whether employed by operators or miners, know- 
ingly or willf ully adopt or take more or less pounds for a bushel or 
ton than is provided for in the first section of this act, or willfully 
neglect the balancing or examining of the scales or cars, or know- 
ingly and willfully weigh coal with an incorrect scale, he shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be im- 
prisoned in the county jail for three months. 

Section 4. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent with this act are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 1st day of June, A. D. 1883. 

ROBT. E. PATTISON. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxix 

AN ACT 

To provide payment to the miner for all clean coal mined by him. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That from and after the passage of 
this act all individuals, firms and corporations engaged in mining 
coal in this Commonwealth, who, instead of dumping all the cars 
that come from the mine into a breaker or chutes, shall switch out 
one or more of the cars for the purpose of examining them, and de- 
termining the actual amount of slate or refuse, by removing said 
slate or refuse from the car, and who shall, after so doing, willfully 
neglect to allow the miner in full for all clean coal left after the re- 
fuse, dirt or slate is taken out, at the same rate paid at the mine for 
clean coal less the actual expense of removing said slate or refuse, 
he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Section 2. That any individual, firm or corporation as aforesaid, 
violating the provisions of this act, upon suit being brought and con- 
viction had, shall be sentenced by the court to pay a fine of not more 
than one hundred dollars, and to make restitution by paying to the 
miner the amount to which, under this act, he would be entitled for 
the coal mined by him, and for which he was not paid. 

Approved— The 13th day of June, A. D. 1883. 

ROBT. E. PATTKSON 



AN ACT 

To provide for the recovery of the bodies of workmen enclosed, buried or en- 
tombed in coal mines. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That whenever any workman or work- 
men shall heretofore have been, or shall hereafter be enclosed, en- 
tombed or buried in any coal mine in this Commonwealth, it shall 
be the duty of the court, sitting in equity, in the county wherein 
such workman or workmen are enclosed, entombed or buried, upon 
the petition of any of the relatives of those enclosed, entombed or 
buried, to make an order of court for the petitioner to take testimony 
in order that the court may ascertain whether such workman or 
workmen, or the body or bodies of such workman or workmen, can 
be recovered or taken out of said mine. 

If, after full hearing, it shall appear to the court that such under 
taking is feasible or practicable, said court may forthwith issue a 
peremptory mandamus to the owner or owners, lessee or lessees, 
operator or operators of such coal company, to forthwith proceed to 
work for and recover and take out the body or bodies of such work 



lxxx MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA Off. Doc. 

inan or workmen, and said court shall have full authority to enforce 
such peremptory mandamus in the manner already provided for the 
enforcement of such process. 
Approved---The 9th dav ^ 'lay, A. D. 1889. 

JAMES A. BEAVER. 



AN ACT 

To provide for the health and safety of persons employed in and about the an- 
thracite coal mines of Pennsylvania and for the protection and preservation of 
property connected therewith. 

ARTICLE I. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That this act shall apply to every 
anthracite coal mine or colliery in the Commonwealth, provided the 
said mine or colliery employs more than ten (10) persons. 

ARTICLE II. 

Inspectors and Inspection Districts. 

Section 1. The counties of Susquehanna, Wayne, Luzerne, Lacka- 
wanna, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, Columbia, Lebanon and 
Dauphin, or so much of them as may be included under the provi- 
sions of this act, shall be divided into eight (8) inspection districts as 
follows: 

Section 2. First. All that portion of the Lackawanna coal field ly- 
ing northeast of East and West Market streets in the city of Scran- 
ton, and of Slocum and Drinker streets in the borough of Dunmore, 
including the coal fields of Susquehanna and Wayne counties. 

Second. That portion of the Lackawanna coal field in Lackawanna 
county lying southwest of East and West Market streets in the city 
of Scranton, and west of Slocum and Drinker streets in the borough 
of Dunmore. 

Third. That portion of the Wyoming coal fields situated in Luzerne 
county, east of and including Plains and Kingston townships. 

Fourth. The remaining portion of the Wyoming coal field west of 
Plains and Kingston townships, including the city of Wilkes-Barre 
and the boroughs of Kingston and Edwardsville. 

Fifth. That part of Luzerne county lying south of the Wyoming 
coal field together with Carbon county. 

Sixth. That part of the Schuylkill coal field in Schuylkill county 
lying north of the Broad Mountain and east of a meridian line 
through the centre of the borough of Girardville. 

Seventh. That part of the Schuylkill coal field in Schuylkill county 
lying north of the Broad Mountain and west of a meridian line through 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxxi 

the centre of the borough of Girardville, together with Columbia, 
Northumberland and Dauphin counties. 

Eighth. All that part of the Schuylkill coal held in Schuylkill 
county lying south of the Mahanoy Valley, and the county of Leba- 
non. 

Section 3. In order to till any vacancy that may occur in the office 
of Inspector of Mines by reason of expiration of term, resignation, re- 
moval for cause or from any other reason whatever, the judges of 
the court of Lackawanna county shall appoint an examining board 
for the counties of Susquehanna, Wayne and Lackawanna, and the 
judges of the court of Luzerne county shall appoint an examining 
board for the counties of Sullivan, Carbon and Luzerne, and the 
judges of Schuylkill county shall appoint an examining board for the 
counties of Schuylkill, Northumberland, Lebanon, Columbia and 
Dauphin. 

Section 4. The said Board of Examiners shall be composed of 
three reputable coal miners in actual practice and two reputable 
mining engineers, all of whom shall be appointed at the first term 
of court in each year, to hold their places during the year. Any va- 
cancies that may occur in the Board of Examiners shall be filled by 
the court as they occur. The said Board of Examiners shall be per- 
mitted to engage the services of a clerk, and they, together with the 
clerk, shall each receive the sum of five dollars per day for every day 
they are actuall}' engaged in the discharge of their duties under this 
appointment, and mileage at the rate of six cents per mile from their 
home to the place of meeting and return by the nearest practicable 
railway route. 

Section 5. Whenever candidates for the office of inspector are to 
be examined, the said examiner shall give public notice of the fact 
in not more than five papers published in the inspection district and 
at least two weeks before the meeting, specifying the time and place 
where such meeting shall be held. The said examiners shall be 
sworn to a faithful discharge of their duties, and four of them shall 
agree in their recommendation of all candidates to the Governor 
who have answered ninety per centum of the questions; the names 
of the applicants, the questions asked and answered thereto shall be 
sent to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and published in at 
least two local papers, daily or weekly, and shall recommend only 
such applicants as they find qualified for the office. 

Should the Board of Examiners not be able to agree in their se- 
lection and recommendation of a candidate, the judges of the court of 
common pleas shall dissolve (he said board and appoint a new board 
of like qualifications and powers. 

Upon the recommendation of the Board of Examiners as aforesaid. 
the Governor shall appoint such person or persons to fill the office 

F— 11— 1900 



Ixxxii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

of inspector of mines under this act, and shall issue to him a com- 
mission for the term of five years, subject, however, to removal for 
neglect of duty or malfeasance in office as hereinafter provided for. 

Section 6. The person so appointed must be a citizen of Pennsyl- 
vania and shall have attained the age of thirty years. He must have 
a knowledge of the different systems of working coal mines, and he 
must produce satisfactory evidence to the Board of Examiners of 
having had at least five (5) years' practical experience in anthracite 
coal mines of Pennsylvania. He must have had experience in coal 
mines where noxious and explosive gases are evolved. 

Before entering upon the duties of his office he shall take an oath 
or affirmation before an officer properly qualified to administer the 
same, that he will perform his duties with fidelity and impartiality; 
which oath or affirmation shall be filed in the office of the prothono- 
tary of the county. He shall also provide himself with the most 
modern instruments and appliances for carrying out the intentions 
of this act. 

Section 7. The salary of each of the said inspectors shall be three 
thousand dollars per annum, which salary, together with the expense 
incurred in carrying into effect the provisions of this act, shall be 
paid by the State Treasurer out of the Treasury of the Commonwealth 
upon the warrant of the Auditor General. 

Section 8. In case the inspector becomes incapacitated to perform 
the duties of his office, for a longer period than two weeks, it shall be 
the duty of the judges of the court of common pleas to deputize some 
competent person recommended by the Board of Examiners to fill the 
office of inspector Until the said inspector shall be able to fulfill the 
duties of his office and the person so appointed shall be paid in the 
same manner as is provided for the Inspector of Mines. 

Section 9. Each of the said inspectors shall reside in the district 
for which he is appointed, and shall give his whole time and atten- 
tion to the duties of the office. He shall examine all the collieries in 
his district as often as his duties will permit or as often as the exi- 
gencies of the case or the condition of the mines require it; see that 
every necessary precaution is taken to secure the safety of the work- 
men and that the provisions of this act are observed and obeyed; 
attend every inquest held by the coroner, or his deputy, upon the 
bodies of persons killed in or about the collieries in his district; visit 
the scene of the accident for the purpose of making an examination 
into the particulars of the same whenever loss of life or serious per- 
sonal injury occurs as elsewhere herein provided for, and make an 
annual report of his proceedings to the Secretary of Internal Affairs 
of the Commonwealth at the close of every year, enumerating all the 
accidents in and about the collieries of his district, marking in tabu- 
lar form those accidents causing death or serious personal injury, 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxxiii 

the condition of the workings of the said mines with regard to the 
safety of the workmen therein and the ventilation thereof, and the 
result of his labors generally shall be fully set forth. 

Section 10. The Board of Examiners, each for its respective dis- 
trict as hereinbefore provided for, in order to divide more equitably 
among the several mine inspectors the labor to be performed and the 
territory to be covered by them in the performance of the duties of 
the office, may, at any time when they shall deem it desirable or nec- 
essary, readjust the several districts by the creation of new bound- 
ary lines, thereby adding to or taking from, as the case may be, the 
districts as at present bounded and described, if the court having 
jurisdiction approve the same. 

And in case it shall be deemed desirable or necessary to readjust 
any contiguous district, comprised by more than one judicial dis- 
trict, by the creation of new boundary lines, then in such case the 
examining boards of the territory affected or requiring such adjust- 
ment, shall, in joint session, make such change or readjustment as 
they shall jointly agree upon, if the nearest court having jurisdic- 
tion to the territorj r affected to whom the said joint examining 
boards shall submit the matter, shall approve the same. 

Section 11. The mine inspector shall have the right, and it is 
hereby made his duty to enter, inspect and examine any mine or col- 
liery in his district and the workings and machinery belonging 
thereto, at all reasonable times, either by day or night, but not so as 
to impede or obstruct the working of the colliery, and shall have 
power to take one or more of his fellow inspectors into or around any 
mine or colliery in the district for which he is appointed, for the 
purpose of consultation or examination. 

He shall also have the right and it is hereby made his duty, to 
make inquiry into the condition of such mine or colliery workings, 
machinery, ventilation, drainage, method of lighting or using lights 
and into all matters and things connected with or relating to, as 
well as to make suggestions providing for the health and safety of 
persons employed in or about the same, and especially to make in- 
quiry whether the provisions of this act have been complied with. 

The owner, operator or superintendent of such mine or colliery is 
hereby required to furnish the means necessary for such entry, in- 
spection, examination, inquiry and exit. 

The inspector shall make a record of the visit, noting the time and 
material circumstances of the inspection. 

Section 12. No person who shall act or practice as a land agent or 
as the manager or agent of any coal mine or colliery, who is pe- 
cuniarily interested in operating any coal mine or colliery in his dis- 
trict, shall, at the same time, hold the office of inspector of mines 
under this act. 



Ixxxiv MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 13. Whenever a petition signed by fifteen or more repu- 
table coal operators or miners, or both, setting forth that any in- 
spector of mines neglects his duties, or is incompetent, or is guilty of 
malfeasance in office, it shall be the duty of the court of common 
pleas of the proper county to issue a citation in the name of the 
Commonwealth to the said inspector to appear at not less than five 
days' notice, on a day fixed, before said court and the court shall 
then proceed to inquire into and investigate the allegations ot the 
petitioners. If the court find that said inspector is neglectful of 
his duties or that he is incompetent to perform the duties of the 
office, for any cause that existed previous to his appointment or that 
has arisen since his appointment, or that he is guilty of malfeasance 
in office, the court shall certify the same to the Governor of the 
Commonwealth, who shall declare the office of inspector for the dis- 
trict vacant and proceed, in compliance with the provisions of this act, 
to appoint a properly qualified person to fill the office. 

The cost of said investigation shall be borne by the removed in- 
spector; but if the allegations in the petition are not sustained the 
costs shall be paid by the petitioners. 

►Section 14. The maps and plans of the mines and the records 
thereof, together with all the papers relating thereto, shall be kept 
by the inspector, properly arranged aud preserved, in a convenient 
place in the district for which each inspector has been appointed, 
and shall be transferred by him with any other property of the Com- 
monwealth that may be in his possession, to his successor in office. 

Section 15. The persons who, at the time this act goes into effect, 
are acting as inspectors of mines under the acts hereby repealed shall 
continue to act in the same manner as if they had been appointed 
under this act, and until the term for which they were appointed 
has expired. 

ARTICLE III. 

Surveys, Maps and Plans. 

Section 1. The owner, operator or superintendent of every coal 
mine or colliery shall make, or cause to be made, an accurate map or 
plan of the workings or excavations of such coal mine or colliery, on 
a scale of one hundred feet to the inch, which map or plan shall ex- 
hibit the workings or excavations in each and every seam of coal 
and the tunnels and passages connecting with such workings or ex- 
cavations. It shall state in degrees the general inclination of the 
strata with any material deflection therein in said workings or ex- 
cavations, and shall also state the tidal elevations of the bottom of 
each and every shaft, slope, tunnel and gangway, and of any other 
point in the mine or on the surface where such elevation shall be 
deemed necessary by the inspector. The map or plan shall show the 
number of the last survey station and date of each survey on the 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxxv 

gangways or the most advanced workings. It shall also accurately 
show the boundary lines of the lands of the said coal mine or col- 
liery and the proximity of the workings thereto, and in case any 
mine contains any water dammed up in any part thereof, it shall be 
the duty of the owner, operator or superintendent to cause the true 
location of the said dam to be accurately marked on said map or 
plan, together with the tidal elevation, inclination of strata and area 
of said workings containing water, and whenever any workings or 
excavations is approaching the workings where such dam or water 
is contained or situated, the owner, operator or superintendent shall 
notify the inspector of the same without delay. 

A true copy of which map or plan the said owner, operator or su- 
perintendent shall deposit with the inspector of mines for the district 
in which the said coal mine or colliery is situated, showing the work- 
ings of each seam, if so desired by the inspector, on a separate sheet 
of tracing muslin. One copy of the said map or plan shall be kept at 
the colliery. 

Section 2. The said owner, operator or superintendent shall, as 
often as once in every six months place, or cause to be placed, on the 
said Inspector's map or plan of said coal mine or colliery, the plan of 
the extensions made in such coal mine or colliery during the preced- 
ing six months. The said extensions shall be placed on the inspector's 
map and the map returned to the inspector within two mouths from 
the date of the last survey. 

Section 3. When any coal mine or colliery is worked out prepara- 
tory to being abandoned, or when any lift thereof is about to be 
abandoned, the owner, operator or superintendent of such coal mine 
or colliery shall have the maps or plans thereof extended to include 
all excavations, as far as practicable, and such portions thereof as 
have been worked to the boundary lines of adjoining properties; or 
anv part or parts of the workings of which is intended to be allowed 
to fill with water, must be surveyed in duplicate and such surveys 
must practically agree, and certified copies be filed with the in- 
spector of the district in which the mines are situated. 

Section 4. Whenever the owner, operator or superintendent of any 
coal mine or colliery shall neglect or refuse, or from any cause not 
satisfactory to the inspector, shall fail, for a period of three months, 
to furnish to the inspector the map or plan of said colliery or of the 
extensions thereto, as provided for in this act, the inspector is hereby 
authorized to cause an accurate map or plan of such coal mine or col- 
liery to be made at the expense of the owner thereof, which cost 
shall be recoverable from said owner as other debts are by law re- 
coverable. 

Section 5. If the inspector finds or has reason to believe, that any 
map or plan of any coal mine or colliery, furnished under the provi- 
sions of this act, is materially inaccurate, it shall be his duty to make 



Ixxxvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

application to the court of common pleas of the county in which such 
colliery is situate for an order to have an accurate map or plan of 
said colliery prepared, and if such survey shall prove that the map 
furnished was materially inaccurate or imperfect, such owner, opera- 
tor or superintendent shall be iiable for the expense incurred in mak- 
ing the same. 

Section 6. If it shall be found that the map or plan furnished by 
the owner, operator or superintendent was not materially inaccurate 
or imperfect, the Commonwealth shall be held liable for the expense 
incurred in making such test survey. 

Section 7. If it shall be shown that the said owner, operator or 
superintendent has knowingly or designedly caused or allowed such 
map or plan, when furnished, to be incorrect or false, such owner, 
operator or superintendent thus offending, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not 
exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceeding three 
months, at the discretion of the court. 

Section 8. The maps or plans of the several coal mines or col- 
lieries in each district and which are placed in the custody of the in- 
spector, shall be the property of the Commonwealth, and shall re- 
main in the care of the inspector of the district in which the said 
collieries are situated to be transferred by him to his successor in 
office; and in no case shall a copy of the same be made without the 
consent of the owner, operator or superintendent. 

Section 9. The inspector's map or plan of any particular colliery 
shall be open for inspection, in the presence of the inspector, to any 
miner or miners of that colliery, whenever said miner or miners shall 
have cause to fear that his or their working place or places is becom- 
ing dangerous, by reason of its proximity to other workings which 
may be supposed to contain water or dangerous gases. Said map 
shall also be open to the inspection and examination of any citizen 
interested, during business hours. 

Section 10. It shall be obligatory on the owners of adjoining coal 
properties to leave, or cause to be left, a pillar of coal in each seam 
or vein of coal worked by them, along the line of adjoining property, 
of such width, that taken in connection with the pillar to be left by 
the adjoining property owner, will be a sufficient barrier for the 
safety of the employes of either mine in case the other should be 
abandoned and allowed to fill with water; such width of pillar to be 
determined by the engineers of the adjoining property owners to- 
gether with the inspector of the district in which the mine is situ- 
ated, and the surveys of the face of the workings along such pillar 
shall be made in duplicate and must practically agree. A copy of 
such duplicate surveys, certified to, must be filed with the owners 
of the adjoining properties and with the inspector of the district in 
which the mine or property is situated. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxxvii 

ARTICLE IV. 

Shafts, Slopes, Openings and Outlets. 

Section 1. It shall not be lawful for the owner, operator or super- 
inte»dent of any mine to employ any person or persons in such mine 
or permit any person or persons to be in such mine for the purpose 
of working therein, unless they are in connection with every seam 
or stratum of coal; and from every lift thereof, worked in such 
mine, not less than two openings or outlets, separated by a strata of 
not less than sixty (60) feet in breadth underground, and one hun- 
dred and fifty (150) feet in breadth at the surface, at which openings 
or outlets safe and distinct means of ingress and egress are at all 
times available for the person or persons employed in the said mine, 
but it shall not be necessary for the said two openings to belong to 
the same mine if the persons employed therein have safe, ready and 
available means of ingress and egress by not less than two openings. 
This section shall not apply to opening a new mine or to opening any 
new lift of a mine while being worked for the purpose of making 
communication between said two outlets, so long as not more than 
twenty persons are employed at any one time in such mine or new 
lift of a mine; neither shall it apply to any mine or part of a mine in 
which the second outlet has been rendered unavailable by reason of 
the final robbing of pillars previous to abandonment, so long as not 
more than twenty persons are employed therein at any one time. 
The cage or cages and other means of egress shall, at all times, be 
available for the persons employed where there is no second outlet. 

Section 2. The owner, operator or superintendent of any mine to 
which there is only one shaft, slope or outlet may petition the court 
of common pleas in and for the county in which such mine is 
situated, which said court is hereby empowered to act in the 
premises, setting forth that, in consequence of intervening lands be- 
tween the working of his mine and the most practicable point, or the 
only practicable point, as the case may be, at which to make or 
bring to the surface from the working of his mine, he is unable to 
make an additional shaft, slope or outlet in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this act, whereupon the court may make an order of 
reference and appoint three disinterested persons, residents of the 
county, viewers, one or more of whom shall be a practical mining 
engineer, all of whom, after being sworn to a faithful discharge of 
their duties, shall view and examine the premises and determine as 
to whether the owner shall have the privilege of making an additional 
outlet through or upon any intervening lands, as the case may 
require, and report in writing to the court, which report shall be 
entered and filed of record. If the finding of the viewers, or any 
two of them, is in favor of the owner of such coal mine or colliery, 



lxxxviii FINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

he may make an additional shaft, slope or outlet under, through or 
upon intervening lands, as may be determined upon and provided for 
by the award. If the finding of the viewers is against the owner, or 
if no award be made by reason of any default or neglect on the part 
of the owner, he shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this 
act in the same manner as if this section had not been enacted. In 
case the said owner, operator or superintendent desires to, and 
claims that he ought to make an additional opening under, through 
or upon any adjoining or intervening lands, to meet the require- 
ments of this act, for the ingress and egress of the men employed in 
his or their mine, he or they shall make a statement of the facts in 
the petition, with a survey, setting forth the point of commencement 
and the point of termination of the proposed outlet which he or they, 
their engineers, agents or employes may enter upon said intervening 
lands and survey and mark, as he or they shall find it proper to 
adopt for such additional outlet, doing as little damage as possible 
to the property explored; and the viewers shall state in their re- 
port what damage will be sustained by the owner or owners of the 
intervening lands by the opening, constructing and using of the out- 
let, and if the report is not appealed from, it shall be confirmed or re- 
jected by said court as to right and justice shall appertain, and any 
further and all proceedings in relation thereto shall be in conformity 
with like proceedings as in the case of a lateral railroad across or 
under intervening lands, under the act in relation to lateral rail- 
roads, approved the fifth day of May, Anno Domini one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-two, and the supplements thereto, so far 
as the provisions of the same are applicable hereto; and the notices 
to the owner of intervening lands, of the intention to apply for the 
privilege of making an outlet and meeting of the viewers shall be 
given, and the costs of the case shall be paid as provided in the said 
act of fifth day of May, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-two, and the supplements thereto. 

Section 3. The escapements, shafts or slopes shall be fitted with 
safe and available appliances by which the persons employed in the 
mine may readily escape in case an accident occurs deranging the 
hoisting machinery at the main outlets. 

Section 4. In slopes where the angle of inclination is fifteen de- 
grees or less there must be provided a separate traveling way, which 
shall be maintained in a safe condition for travel and kept free from 
steam and dangerous gases. 

Section 5. No inflammable structure, other than a frame to sus- 
tain pulleys or sheaves, shall be erected over the entrance of any 
opening connecting the surface with the underground workings of 
any mine, and no "breaker" or other inflammable structure for the 
preparation or storage of coal shall be erected nearer than two hun- 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. lxxxix 

died (200) feet to any such opening, but t-his act shall not be con- 
strued to prohibit the erection of a fan drift for the purpose of ven- 
tilation, or of a trestle for the transportation of cars from any slope 
to such breaker or structure, neither shall it apply to any shaft or 
slope until the work of development and shipment of coal has com- 
menced: Provided, That this section shall not apply to breakers that 
are now erected. 

Section G. The top of each shaft and also of each slope, if danger- 
ous, or any intermediate lift thereof, shall be securely fenced off by 
railing or by vertical or flat gates. 

Section 7. Every abandoned slope, shaft, air-hole and drift shall 
be properly fenced around or across its entrance. 

Section 8. All underground entrances to any places not in actual 
' course of working or extension shall be properly fenced across the 
whole width of such entrances, so as to prevent persons from inad- 
vertently entering the same. 

Section 9. The owner, operator or superintendent of any coal mine 
or colliery which is worked by shaft or slope, shall provide and main- 
tain a suitable appliance by or through which conversation can be 
held by and between persons at the bottom and at the top of the 
shaft or slope, and also an efficient means of signaling from the bot- 
tom of such shaft or slope to the engineer in charge of the hoisting 
engine. 

Section 10. Hand rails and efficient safety catches shall be at- 
tached to, and a sufficient cover overhead shall be provided on every 
cage used for lowering or hoisting persons in any shaft. 

Section 11. Wherever practicable, every cage or gun-boat used for 
lowering or hoisting persons in any slope, shall be provided with a 
proper protector, so constructed that persons, while on such cage or 
gunboat, shall not be struck by anything which may fall or roll down 
said slope. 

Section 12. The main link of the chain connecting the rope to the 
cage, gun-boat or car in any shaft or slope, shall be made of the best 
quality of iron; bridle chains made of the same quality of iron shall 
be attached to the main link, rope or rope socket from the cross-head 
of the cage or gun-boat when persons are being lowered or hoisted 
thereon. 

Section 13. The ropes, safety catches, links and chains shall be 
carefully examined every day they are used, by a competent person 
delegated for that purpose and any defects therein found, by which 
life or limb may be endangered, shall be immediately remedied. 

Section 14. An efficient brake shall be attached to every drum 
that is used for lowering or raising persons or material in any 
mine. 

Section 15. Flanges or horns of sufficient dimensions to prevent 
the rope from slipping off the said drum shall be provided and prop- 
erly attached to the drum, and all machines used for lowering or 



xc MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

hoisting persons in mines-shall be provided with an indicator to show 
the position of the cage, car or gun-boat in the shaft or slope. 

Section 16. Over all shafts which are being sunk or shall here- 
after be sunk, a safe and substantial structure shall be erected to 
sustain the sheaves or pulleys, at a height of not less than twenty 
(20) feet above the tipping-place, and the top of such shaft shall be 
arranged in such manner that no material can fall into the shaft while 
the bucket is being emptied. 

Section 17. The said structure shall be erected as soon as a sub- 
stantial foundation is obtained, and in no case shall a shaft be sunk 
to a depth of more than fifty (50) feet without such structure. 

Section 18. If provision is made to land the bucket upon truck, the 
said truck shall be constructed in such manner that material cannot 
fall into the shaft. 

Section 19. All rock and coal from shafts as they are being sunk, 
shall not be raised except in a bucket or on a cage, and such bucket 
or cage must be connected to the rope or chain by a safety hook, clevis 
or other safe attachment. 

Section 20. Such shafts shall be provided with guides and guide 
attachments applied in such manner as to prevent the bucket from 
swinging while descending or ascending therein, and such guides 
and guide attachments shall be maintained at a distance of not more 
than seventy-five (75) feet from th« bottom of such shaft, until its 
sinking shall have been completed, but this section shall not apply 
to shafts one hundred (100) feet or less in depth. 

Section 21. Where the strata are not safe every shaft shall be se- 
curely cased, lined or otherwise made secure. 

Section 22. The following rules shall be observed, as far as practi- 
cable, in every shaft to which this act applies. 

First. After each and every blast the chargeman must see that all 
loose material is swept down from the timbers before the workmen 
descend to their work. 

Second. After a suspension of work, and also after firing a blast 
in a shaft where explosive gases are evolved, the person in charge 
must have the said shaft examined and tested with a safety lamp 
before the workmen are allowed to descend. 

Third. Not more than four persons shall be lowered or hoisted in 
any shaft on a bucket at the same time, and no person shall ride on 
a loaded bucket. 

Fourth. Whenever persons are employed on platforms in shafts 
the person in charge must see that the said platforms are properly 
and safely constructed. 

Fifth. While shafts are being sunk all blasts therein must be ex- 
ploded by an electric battery. 

Sixth. Every person who fails to comply with or who violates the 
provisions of this article shall be guilty of an offense against this act. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. xci 

ARTICLE V. 

Boilers and Connections, Machinery, &c. 

Section 1. All boilers used for generating steam in and about 
mines and collieries shall be kept in good order, and the owner, 
operator or superintendent shall have them examined and inspected 
by a qualified person as often as once in six months, and oftener if 
needed. The result of such examination, under oath, shall be certi- 
fied in writing to the inspector for the district within thirty (30) 
days thereafter. 

Section 2. It shall not be lawful to place any boiler or boilers, for 
the purpose of generating steam, under nor nearer than one hundred 
(100) feet to any coal breaker or other structure in which persons 
are employed in the preparation of coal : Provided, That this section 
shall not apply to boilers or breakers already erected. 

Section 3. Each nest of boilers shall be provided with a safety 
valve of sufficient area for the steam to escape and with weights or 
springs properly adjusted. 

Section 4. Every boiler house shall be provided with a steam 
gauge properly connected with the boilers, to indicate the steam 
pressure, and another steam gauge shall be attached to the steam 
pipe in the engine house and placed in such position that the engineer 
or fireman can readily examine them and see what pressure is carried. 
Such steam gauges shall be kept in good order, tested and ad- 
justed as often as once in every six months and their condition re- 
ported to the inspector in the same manner as the report of boiler 
inspection. 

Section 5. All machinery used in or about the mines and collieries, 
and especially in breakers, such as engines, rollers, wheels, screens, 
shafting and belting shall be protected by covering or railing so as 
to prevent persons from inadvertently walking against or falling 
upon the same. The sides of stairs, trestles and dangerous plank 
walks in and around the collieries shall be provided with hand and 
guard railing to prevent persons from falling over their sides. This 
section shall not forbid the temporary removal of a fence, guard rail 
or covering for the purpose of repairs or other operations, if proper 
precautions are used, and the fence, guard rail or covering is replaced 
immediately thereafter. 

Section 6. A sober and competent person, not under eighteen (18) 
years of age, shall be engaged to run the breaker engine and he shall 
attend to said engine while the machinery is in motion. 

Section 7. A signal apparatus shall be established at important 
points in every breaker so that in case of an accident the engineer 
can be promptly notified to stop the machinery. 

Section 8. No person under fifteen (15) years of age shall be ap- 
pointed to oil the machinery, and no person shall oil dangerous parts 
of such machinery while it is in motion. 
7 



xcii MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA Off. Doc. 

Section 9. No person shall play with, loiter around or interfere 
with any machinery in or about any mine or colliery. 

Section 10. Failure to comply with the provisions of this article 
shall be deemed an offense against this act. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Wash Houses. 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the owner, operator or superin- 
tendent of each mine or colliery, at the request in writing of twenty 
or more men emploj'ed in any of the mines, to provide a suitable 
building, not an engine or boiler house, which shall be convenient to 
the principal entrance of such mine, for the use of the persons em- 
ployed therein for the purpose of washing themselves and changing 
their clothes when entering the mine and returning therefrom. The 
said building shall be maintained in good order, be properly lighted 
and heated, and supplied with pure cold and warm water, and shall 
be provided with facilities for persons to wash. If any person or 
persons shall neglect or fail to comply with the provisions of this 
article, or maliciously injure or destroy, or cause to be injured or 
destroyed, the said building, or any part thereof, or any of the ap 
pliances or fittings used for supplying light, heat and water therein, 
or doing any act tending to the injury or destruction thereof, he or 
they shall be deemed guilty of an offense against this act. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Ambulances and Stretchers. 

Section 1. The owner, operator or superintendent of every mine or 
colliery, except as hereinafter provided, shall provide and keep at 
such mine or colliery an ambulance and also at least two (2) stretchers, 
for the purpose of conveying to their places of abode, any person or 
persons who may be injured while in the discharge of his or their 
work at such mine or colliery. 

Section 2. The said ambulance shall be constructed upon good, 
substantial and easy springs. It shall be covered and closed and 
shall have windows on the sides or ends. It shall be of sufficient 
size to convey at least two (2) injured persons with two (2) attend- 
ants at one time, and shall be provided with spring mattresses or 
other comfortable bedding to be placed on roller frames, together 
with sufficient covering and protection and convenient movement 
of the injured. It shall also be provided with seats for the attend- 
ants. The stretchers shall be constructed of such material and in 
such manner as to afford the greatest ease and comfort in the car- 
riage of the injured person. 

Section 3. Whenever any person or persons employed in or about 
a mine or colliery shall receive such injury by accident or otherwise, 
while so employed, as would render him or them unable to walk to 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. xciii 

his or their place of abode, tbe owner, operator or superintendent of 
such mine or colliery shall immediately cause such person or persons 
to be removed to his or their place of abode or to an hospital as the 
case may require. 

Section 4. It is provided, however, that the owner, operator or su 
perintendent of any mine or colliery shall be excepted from the re- 
quirements of an ambulance, as aforesaid, if the places of abode of 
all the workmen at such mine or colliery be within a radius of a half 
mile from the principal entrance to such mine. 

Section 5. It is provided further, that where two or more mines or 
collieries are located within one mile of each other, or the ambulance 
is located within one mile of each colliery, but one ambulance, as 
aforesaid, shall be required, if the said mines or collieries have ready 
and quick means of communication, one with the other, by telegraph 
or telephone. 

Section 6. An ambulance, as aforesaid, shall not be required at 
any mine or colliery at which less than twenty (20) persons are em- 
ployed. 

Section 7. In case the distance from any mine or colliery to the 
place of abode of the person injured, is such as to permit his convey- 
ance to his home or to an hospital more quickly and conveniently 
by railway, such mode of conveyance shall be permitted, but in such 
case the conveyance must be under cover and the comfort of the in- 
jured person must be provided for. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Certified Mine Foremen. 

Section 1. It shall not be lawful, neither shall it be permitted, for 
any person or persons to act as mine foreman or assistant mine fore- 
man of any coal mines or colliery, unless they are registered as a 
holder of a certificate of qualification or service under this act. 

Section 2. Certificates of qualification to mine foremen and assist- 
ant mine foremen shall be granted by the Secretary of Internal Af- 
fairs to every applicant who may be reported by the examiners, as 
hereinafter provided, as having passed a satisfactory examination 
and as having given satisfactory evidence of at least five years' prac- 
tical experience as a miner, and of good conduct, capability and so- 
briety. 

The certificate shall be in manner and form as shall be prescribed 
by the Secretary of Internal Affairs, and a record of all certificates 
issued shall be kept in his department. 

Section 3. For the purpose of examination of candidates for such 
certificates, a board of examiners shall be appointed in each of the 
inspection districts provided for by this act. The said board shall 
consist of the district inspector of mines, two (2) practical miners 
and one owner, operator or superintendent of a mine. The said in- 
spector shall act ex-officio, and the said engineer and owner, operator 



xciv MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

or superintendent shall be appointed in like manner and at the same 
time as the boards of examiners for candidates for mine inspector- 
ship under this act are now appointed. The said board shall act as 
such for the period of one year from the date of their appointment. 
Meetings of the board may be held at any time, and they may make 
such rules and conduct such examinations as in their judgment may 
seem proper for the purpose of such examinations. The said board 
shall report their action to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, and at 
least three (3) of the members thereof shall certify to the qualification 
of each candidate who has passed such examination. The traveling 
expenses of the members of such board to and from their place of 
meeting, together with the sum of five dollars per day each to the 
said two (2) practical miners and owner, operator or superintendent, 
members of each board, for each day they are actually engaged 
therein, not exceeding ten (10) days in all, during the year, shall be 
paid by the Commonwealth on an order of the Auditor General 
drawn on the State Treasurer upon the certificate of the mine in 
spector, member of such board. 

Section 4. Certificates of qualification to mine foreman and assist- 
ant mine foreman shall be granted by the Secretary of Internal Af- 
fairs to every applicant who may be reported by the examiners, as 
heretofore provided, as having passed a satisfactory examination 
and as having given satisfactory evidence of at least five (5) years' 
practical experience as a miner, and of good conduct, capability and 
sobriety. The certificate shall be in manner and form as shall be 
prescribed by the Secretary of Internal Affairs, and a record of all 
certificates issued shall be kept in the department. Certificates of 
qualification and certificate of service shall contain the full name, 
age and place of birth of the applicant, as also the length and nature 
of his previous service in or about the mines. 

Section 5. Before certificate as aforesaid shall be granted appli- 
cants for same shall pay to the Secretary of Internal Affairs the fol- 
lowing fee, namely: 

For examination, one dollar; for registration of certificate, one dol- 
lar, for certificate, one dollar. All fees so received shall be covered 
into the treasury of the Commonwealth. 

Section G. No mines shall be operated for a. longer period than 
thirty days without the supervision of a mine foreman. In case any 
mine is worked a longer period than thirty (30) days without such 
certified mine foreman, the owner, operator or superintendent 
thereof shall be subject to a penalty of twenty dollars per day for 
each day over the said thirty (30) days during which the said mine is 
operated. 

Section 7. In case of the loss or destruction of a certificate the Sec- 
retary of Internal Affairs may supply a copy thereof to the person 
losing the same upon the payment of the sum of fifty (50) cents : Pro- 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. xcv 

vided, It shall be shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that 
the loss has actually occurred. 

Section 8. If any person or persons shall forge or counterfeit a cer- 
tificate or knowingly make or cause to be made any false statement 
in any certificate under this act, or in any official copy of the same, or 
shall urge others to do so, or shall utter or use any such forged or 
false certificate, or unofficial copy thereof, or shall make, give, utter, 
produce or make use of any false declaration, representation or state- 
ment in any such certificate or copy thereof, or any document con- 
taining the same, he or they shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction thereof, shall be fined two hundred dollars, or im- 
prisoned for a term not exceeding one (1) year, or both, at the discre- 
tion of the court trying the case. 

Section 9. And no person shall be permitted to act as fire boss in 
any coal mine or colliery, except he has had five (5) years' practical 
experience in mines as a miner, three (3) of which he shall have as a 
miner wherein noxious and explosive gases are evolved, and the said 
fire boss shall certify to the same before entering upon his duties, 
before an alderman, justice of the peace or other person authorized 
to administer oaths, and a copy of said deposition shall be filed with 
the district inspector of mines w r herein said person is employed. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Employment of Boys and Females. 

Section 1. No boy under the age of fourteen (14) years, and no wo- 
man or girl of any age, shall be employed or permitted to be in any 
mine for the purpose of employment therein. Nor shall a boy under 
the age of twelve years or a woman or girl of any age, be employed 
or permitted to be in or about the outside structures or workings of 
a colliery for 1he purpose of employment, but it is provided, how- 
ever, that this prohibition shall not affect the employment of a boy 
or female of suitable age in an office or in the performance of clerical 
work at a colliery. 

Section 2. When an employer is in doubt as to the age of any boy 
or youth applying for employment in or about a mine or colliery, he 
snail demand and receive proof of the said lawful employment age of 
such boy or youth, by certificate from the parent or guardian, before 
said boy or youth shall be employed. 

Section 3. If any person or persons contravene or fail to comply 
with the provisions of this aci in respect to the employment of boys, 
young male persons or females, or if he or they shall connive with or 
permit others to contravene or fail to comply with said provisions, 
or if a parent or guardian of a boy or young male person make or 
give a false certificate of the age of such boy or young male person, 
or knowingly do or perform any other act for the purpose of secur- 



xcvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

iiig employment for a boy or young male person under the lawful 
employment age and in contravention of the provisions of this act, 
ho or they shall be guilty of an offense against this act. 

ARTICLE X. 

Ventilation. 

Section 1. The owner, operator or superintendent of every mine 
shall provide and maintain a constant and adequate supply of pure 
air for the same, as hereinafter provided. 

Section 2. It shall not be lawful to use a furnace for the purpose 
of ventilating any mine wherein explosive gases are generated. 

Section 3. The minimum quantity of air thus produced, shall not 
be less than two hundred (200) cubic feet per minute for each and 
every person employed in any mine, and as much more as the cir- 
cumstances may require. 

Section 4. The ventilating currents shall be conducted and cir- 
culated to and along the face of each and every working place 
throughout the entire mine, in sufficient quantities to dilute, render 
harmless and sweep away smoke and noxious or dangerous gases, 
To such an extent that all working places and traveling roads shall 
be in a safe and fit state to work and travel therein. 

Section 5. All worked out or abandoned parts of a mine in opera- 
tion, so far as practicable, shall be kept free of dangerous bodies of 
gases or water, and if found impracticable to keep the entire mine 
free from an accumulation of gases or water, the mine inspector 
must bo immediately notified. 

Section G. Every mine employing more than seventy-five (75) per- 
sons must be divided into two or more districts. Each district shall 
be provided with a separate split of pure air and the ventilation 
shall be so arranged, that not more than seventy-five persons shall 
be employed at the same time in any one current or split of air. 

The inlet and return air passages for any particular district must 
be separated by a pillar of coal or stone, if the thickness and dip of 
the vein will permit, except where it is necessary to cut through said 
dividing pillar for the purposes of ventilation, traffic or drainage. 

Section 7. All air passages shall be of sufficient area to allow the 
free passage of not less than two hundred (200) cubic feet of air per 
minute for every person working therein; and in no case, in mines 
generating explosive gases, shall the velocity exceed four hundred 
and fifty (450) lineal feet per minute, in any opening through which 
the air currents pass, if gauze safety lamps are used, except in the 
main inlet or outlet air ways. 

Section 8. All cross-cuts connecting the main inlet and outlet air 
passages of every district, when it becomes necessary to close them 
permanently, shall be substantially closed with brick or other 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. xcvil 

suitable building material, laid in mortar or cement whenever prac- 
licable, but in no case shall said air stoppings be constructed of 
plunk except fOr temporary purposes. 

Section 9. All doors used in assisting or in any way affecting the 
ventilation shall be so hung and adjusted that they will close au- 
tomatically. 

Section 10. All main doors shall have an attendant whose con- 
stant duty it shall be to open them for transportation and travel and 
prevent them from standing open longer than is necessary for per- 
sons or cars to pass through. 

Section 11. All main doors shall be so placed that when one door 
is open, another, which has the same effect upon the same current, 
shall be and remain closed and thus prevent any temporary stoppage 
of the air current. 

Section 12. An extra main door shall be so placed and kept stand- 
ing open, so as to be out of reach of accident, and so fixed that it can 
bo at once closed in the event of an accident to the doors in use. 

Section 13. The frame work of such main doors shall be substan- 
tially secured in stone or brick, laid in mortar or cement unless other- 
wise permitted in writing by the inspector. 

Section 14. All permanent air bridges shall be substantially built 
of such material and such strength as the circumstances may re- 
quire. 

Section 15. The quantities of air in circulation shall be ascer- 
tained with an anemometer or other efficient instrument; such 
measurements shall be made by the inside foreman or his assistant 
once a week at the inlet and outlet airways, also at or near the 
face of each gangway and at the nearest cross-heading to the face of 
each gangway and at the nearest cross-heading to the face of the in- 
side and outside chamber or breast where men are employed, and 
♦lie headings shall not be driven more than sixty (60) feet from the 
face of each chamber or breast and shall be entered in the colliery 
report book. 

Section 10. A report of these air measurements shall be sent to the 
inspector before the twelfth day of each month, for the preceding 
month, together with a statement of the number of persons employed 
in each district. 

Section 17. All ventilators used at mines shall be provided with re- 
cording instruments by which the speed of the ventilators or the ven- 
tilating pressure shall be registered for each hour, and such data 
snail be preserved at the colliery for future reference, for a period of 
three months. 

Section 18. Any person or persons who shall neglect or fail to 
comply with the provisions of this article, or who shall make any 
false report in regard to air measurements, shall be guilty of an of- 
fense against this act. 
G— 11— 1900 



xcviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

ARTICLE XI. 

Props and Timbers. 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the owner, operator, superinten- 
dent or mine foreman of every mine to furnish to the miners all 
piops, ties, rails and timbers necessary for the safe mining of coal 
and for the protection of the lives of the workmen. Such props, ties, 
rails and timbers shall be suitably prepared and shall be delivered to 
the workmen as near to their working places as they can be conveyed 
in ordinary mine cars, free of charge. 

Section 2. Every workman in want of props, ties, rails or timbers 
shall notify the mine foreman or his assistant of the fact at least one 
day in advance, giving the length of the props or timber required: 
and in case of danger from loose roof or sides, he shall not continue 
to cut or load coal until the said props and timber have been properly 
furnished and the place made secure. 

Section 3. A failure to comply with the provisions of this article 
shall be deemed an offense against this act, and shall be taken to be 
negligence per se on the part of the owner, operator, superintendent 
or mine foreman, as the case may be, of such mine, in action for the 
recovery of damages for accidents resulting from the insufficient prop- 
ping of such mine, through failure to furnish the necessary props or 
timbers. 

ARTICLE XII. 

General Rules. 

The following general rules shall be observed in every mine to 
which this act applies: 

Rule 1. The owner, operator or superintendent of a mine or col- 
liery shall use every precaution to ensure the safety of the workmen 
in all cases, whether provided for in this act or not, and he shall 
place the underground workings thereof, and all that is related to 
the same, under the charge and daily supervision of a competent per- 
son who shall be called "mine foreman." 

Rule 2. Whenever a mine foreman cannot personally carry out the 
provisions of this act so far as they pertain to him, the owner, opera- 
tor or superintendent shall authorize him to employ a sufficient num- 
ber of competent persons to act as his assistants, who shall be subject 
to his orders. 

Rule 3. The mine foreman shall have charge of all matters per- 
taining to ventilation, and the speed of the ventilators shall be par- 
ticularly under his charge and direction; and any superintendent who 
shall cause the mine foreman to disregard the provisions of this act 
shall be amenable in the same manner as the mine foreman. 

Rule 4. All accessible parts of an abandoned portion of a mine in 
which explosive gases have been found, shall be carefully examined 



Nu. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. xcix 

by the mine foreman or his assistants at least once a week, and all 
danger found existing therein shall be immediately removed. A re- 
port of said examination shall be recorded in a book kept at the col- 
liery for that purpose and signed by the person making the same. 

Rule 5. In mines generating explosive gases, the mine foreman or 
his assistant shall make a careful examination every morning of all 
working places and traveling roads and all other places which might 
endanger the safety of the workmen, before the workmen shall enter 
the mine, and such examination shall be made with a safety lamp 
within three (3) hours at most, before time for commencing work, 
and a workman shall not enter the mine or his working place until 
the said mine or part thereof and working place are reported to be 
safe. Every report shall be recorded without delay in a book which 
shall be kept at the colliery for the purpose and shall be signed by 
the person making the examination. 

Kule 6. The person who makes said examination shall establish 
proof of the same by marking plainly the date thereof at the face of 
each working place and all other places examined. 

Rule 7. A station or stations shall be established at the entrance 
to each mine or different parts of each mine, as the case may require, 
and a workman shall not pass beyond any such station until the 
mine or part of the mine beyond the same has been inspected and 
reported to be safe. It shall be the duty of the fire boss to remain 
at the danger station until relieved by some person authorized by 
himself or the mine foreman, who shall stand guard until said mine 
or part of mine shall be reported safe, and he shall not let any person 
pass without permission from the fire boss. 

Rule 8. If at any time it is found by the person for the time being 
in charge of the mine or any part thereof, that by reason of noxious 
gases prevailing in such mine or such part thereof, or of any cause 
whatever the mine or the said part is dangerous, every precaution 
shall be used to ensure the safety of the workmen; and every work- 
man, except such persons as may be required to remove the danger, 
shall be withdrawn from the mine, or such part thereof as is so found 
dangerous, until the said mine or said part thereof is examined by 
a competent person and reported by him to be safe. 

Rule 9. In every working approaching any place where there is 
likely to be accumulation of explosive gases, or in any working in 
which danger is imminent from explosive gases, no light or fire other 
than a locked safety lamp shall be allowed or used. Whenever safety 
lamps are required in any mine they shall be the property of the 
owner of said mine, and a competent person, who shall be appointed 
for the purpose, shall examine every safety lamp immediately before 
it is taken into the workings for use, and ascertain it to be clean, safe 
and securely locked, and safety lamps shall not be used until they 



c MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

have been so examined and found safe, clean and securely locked, 
unless permission be first given by the mine foreman to have the 
lamps used unlocked. 

Rule 10. No one, except a duly authorized person, shall have in 
his possession a key or any other contrivance for the purpose of un- 
locking any safety lamp in any mine where locked lamps are used. 
No lucifer matches or any other apparatus for striking light shall 
be taken into said mine or parts thereof. 

Rule 11. No blast shall be fired in any mine where locked safety 
lamps are used except by permission of the mine foreman or his as- 
sistants, and before a blast is fired, the person in charge must ex- 
amine the place and adjoining places and satisfy himself that it is 
safe to fire such blast before such permission is given. 

Kule 12. The mine foreman or his assistant shall visit and examine 
every working place in the mine at least once every alternate day, 
while the men of such place are or should be at work, and shall di- 
rect that each and every working place is properly secured by props 
or timber, and that safety in all respects is assured by directing that 
all loose coal or rock shall be pulled down or secured, and that no 
person shall be permitted to work in an unsafe place unless it be 
for the purpose of making it secure. 

Kule 13. The mine foreman, or some other competent person or 
persons to be designated by him, shall examine at least once every 
day all slopes, shafts, main roads, traveling ways, signal apparatus, 
pulleys and timbering and see that they are in safe and efficient 
working condition. 

Rule 14. Any person having charge of a working place in any 
mine shall keep the roof and sides thereof properly secured by tim- 
ber or otherwise so as to prevent such roof and sides from falling, 
and he shall not .do any work or permit any work to be done under 
loose or dangerous material except for the purpose of securing the 
same. 

Rule 15. Whenever a place is likely to contain a dangerous ac- 
cumulation of water, the working approaching such place shall not 
not exceed twelve (12) feet in width, and there shall be constantly 
kept, at a distance of not less than twenty (20) feet in advance, at 
least one (1) bore hole near the center of the working and sufficient 
flank bore holes on each side. 

Rule 16. No person shall ride upon or against any loaded car, cage 
or gun-boat in any shaft, slope or plane in or about a mine or colliery. 

Rule 17. Not more than ten (10) persons shall be hoisted or lowered 
at any one time in any shaft or slope, and whenever five persons 
shall arrive at the bottom of any shaft or slope in which persons are 
regularly hoisted or lowered they shall be furnished with an empty 
car or cage and be hoisted, except however, in mines where there is 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ci 

provided a traveling way having an average pitch of fifteen (15) de- 
grees or less and not more than one thousand (1,000) feet in length. 
This, however, shall not prohibit the hoisting or lowering of twenty 
(20) persons at one time on slopes where two (2) or more loaded cars 
are regularly hoisted: Provided, That not less than thirty (30) work- 
men working therein, make such request in writing, to the inspector 
of the district, and if, in his judgment, the hoisting appliances in 
every respect are of sufficient strength, he may comply with the re- 
quest of the workmen. 

Provided, That in any coal mine or colliery where the hoisting ap- 
pliances are not of sufficient strength to hoist or lower the number 
of persons named, he shall have the power to reduce the number 
of persons to be hoisted or lowered. 

Rule 18. An engineer placed in charge of an engine whereby per- 
sons are hoisted or lowered in any mine, shall be a sober and com- 
petent person of not less than twenty-one (21) years of age. 

Rule 19. Every engineer shall work his engine slowly and with 
great care when any person is being lowered or hoisted in a shaft or 
slope and no one shall interfere with or intimidate him while in the 
discharge of his duties. 

Kule 20. An engineer who lias charge of the hoisting machinery 
by which persons are lowered or hoisted in a mine, shall be in con- 
stant attendance for that purpose during the whole time any person 
or persons are below ground, and he shall not allow any person or 
persons, except such as may be deputed by the owner, operator or 
superintendent, to handle or meddle with the engine under his charge 
or any part of its machinery. 

Rule 21. When any person is about to descend or ascend a shaft 
or slope, the headman or footman, as the case may be, shall inform 
the engineer by signal or otherwise of the fact, and the engineer 
shall return a signal before moving or starting the engine. In the 
absence of a headman or footman the person or persons about to 
descend or ascend shall give and receive the signals in the same 
manner. 

Rule 22. The owner, operator or superintendent of a colliery shall 
place a competent person to be called "outside foreman," in charge 
of the breaker and the outside work of such colliery and who shall 
direct, and as far as practicable, see that the provisions of this act 
are complied with in respect to the breaker, outside machinery, ropes, 
cages and all other things pertaining to the outside work, unless 
otherwise provided for in this act. 

Rule 23. In all coal breakers where the coal dust is so dense as to 
be injurious to the health of persons employed therein, the owner, 
operator or superintendent of said breaker shall, upon the request of 
the inspector, immediately adopt measures for the removal of the 
dust, as far as practicable. 



cii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Rule 24. Any miner or other workman who shall discover any- 
thing wrong with the ventilating current or with the condition of 
the roof, side, timber or roadway, or with any other part of the 
mine in general, such as would lead him to suspect danger to him- 
self or his fellow workmen or to the property of his employer, shall 
immediately report the same to the mine foreman or other person, 
for the time being in charge of that portion of the mine. 

Rule 25. Any person or persons who shall knowingly or wilfully 
damage, or without proper authority, remove or render useless any 
fencing, means of signaling, apparatus, instrument or machine, or 
shall throw open or obstruct any airway, or open a ventilating door 
and not have the same closed, or enter a place in or about a mine 
against caution, or carry tire, open lights or matches in places where 
safety lamps are used, or handle without proper authority, or dis- 
turb any machinery or cars, or do any other act or thing whereby 
the lives or health of persons or the security of the property in or 
about a mine or colliery are endangered, shall be guilty of an offense 
against this act. 

Rule 2G. Gunpowder or any other explosive shall not be stored in 
a mine, and a workman shall not have at any time in any one place, 
more than one keg or box containing twenty-five (25) pounds, unless 
more is necessary for a person to accomplish one day's work. 

Rule 27. Every person who has gunpowder or other explosive in a 
mine, shall keep it in a wooden or metallic box securely locked, and 
such box shall be kept at least ten (10) feet from the tracks in all 
cases where room at such a distance is available. 

Rule 28. Whenever a workman shall open a box containing ex- 
plosive or while in any manner handling the same, he shall first place 
his lamp not less than five (5) feet from such explosive and in such a 
position that the air current cannot convey sparks to it, and a work- 
man shall not approach nearer than five (5) feet to an open box con- 
taining powder, with a lamp, lighted pipe or any other thing con- 
taining fire. 

Rule 29. When high explosives other than gunpowder are used in 
any mine, the manner of storing, keeping, moving, charging and fir- 
ing or in any manner using such explosives, shall be in accordance 
with special rules as furnished by the manufacturers of the same. 
The said rules shall be endorsed with his or their official signature 
and shall be approved by the owner, operator or superintendent of 
the mine in which such explosives are used. 

Rule 30. In charging holes for blasting in slate or rock in any 
mine, no iron or steel-pointed needle shall be used, and a tight cart- 
ridge shall not be rammed into a hole in coal, slate or rock with an 
iron or steel tamping bar, unless the end of the tamping bar is tipped 
with at least six (6) inches of copper or other soft metal. 



No. 11. MIXING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ciii 

Rule 31. A charge of powder or any other explosive in slate or 
rock which has missed fire shall not be withdrawn or the hole re- 
opened. 

Rule 32. A miner or other person who is about to explode a blast 
by the use of patent or other squibs or matches, shall not shorten 
the match, nor saturate it with mineral oil, nor turn it down when 
placed in the hole, nor ignite it except at its extreme end, nor do 
anything tending to shorten the time the match will burn. 

Rule 33. When a workman is about to fire a blast he shall be care- 
ful to notify all persons who may be in danger therefrom, and shall 
give sufficient alarm before and after igniting the match so that any 
person or persons who may be approaching shall be warned of the 
dauger. 

Rule 34. Before commencing work and also after the firing of 
every blast, the miner working a breast or any other place in a mine, 
shall enter such breast or place to examine and ascertain its con- 
dition, and his laborer or assistant shall not go to the face oi such 
breast or place until the miner has examined the same and found it 
to be safe. 

Rule 35. No person shall be employed to blast coal or rock unless 
the mine foreman is satisfied that such person is qualified, by ex- 
perience and judgment, to perform the work with ordinary safety. 

Rule 36. A person who is not a practical miner shall not charge or 
fire a blast in the absence of an experienced miner, unless he has 
given satisfactory evidence of his ability to do so with safety, and 
has obtained permission from the mine foreman or person in charge. 

Rule 37. An accumulation of gas in mines shall not be removed 
by brushing where it is practicable to remove it bj T brattice. 

Rule 38. When gases ignited by blast or otherwise, the person 
igniting the same shall immediately extinguish it, if possible, and 
notify the mine foreman or his assistant of the fact, and workmen 
must see that no gas blowers are left burning upon leaving their 
working places. 

Rule 39. Every fireman in charge of a boiler or boilers for the 
generation of steam, shall keep a constant watch of the same. He 
shall see that the steam pressure does not at any time exceed the limit 
allowed by the outside foreman or superintendent. He shall fre- 
quently try the safety valve, and shall not increase the weight on the 
same. He shall maintain a proper depth of water in each boiler, and 
if anything should happen to prevent this, ho shall report the same 
without delay to the foreman, for the time being in charge, and take 
such other action as may under the particular circumstances be nec- 
essary for the protection of life and preservation of property. 

Rule 40. At every shaft or slope in which provision is made in this 
act for lowering and hoisting persons, a headman and footman 



civ MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

shall be designated by the superintendent or foreman to be at their 
proper places from the time that persons begin to descend, until all 
the persons who may be at the bottom of said shaft or slope when 
quitting work shall be hoisted. Such headman and footman shall 
personally attend to the signals and see that the provisions of this 
act, in respect to lowering and hoisting persons in shafts or slopes, 
shall be complied with. 

Rule 41. No person, except the man giving the signal, shall jump 
on a car, cage or gunboat after the signal to start has been given, 
and if any person should enter a car, cage or gunboat in excess of 
the lawful number the headman or footman shall notify him of the 
fact and request him to get off, which request must be immediately 
complied wil li Vny violation of this rule must be reported promptly 
to the mine foreman. 

Rule 42. An empty trip shall be hoisted iu any shaft or slope where 
the engine has been standing idle for an hour or more, before men 
are hoisted or lowered in said shafts or slopes, and no person or per- 
sons shall ascend any shaft or slope when working on the night turn, 
until one trip shall first be hoisted therein. 

Rule 43. Every passage-way used by persons in any mines and 
also used for transportation of coal or other material, shall be made 
of sufficient width to permit persons to pass moving cars with 
safety, but if found impracticable to make any passage-way of suffi- 
cient width, then holes of ample dimensions, and not more than one 
hundred and fifty (150) feet apart, shall be made on one side of said 
passage-way. The said passage-way and safety holes shall be kept 
free from obstructions and shall be well drained; the roof and sides 
of the same shall be made secure. 

Rule 44. When locomotives are used in any mine their speed shall 
not exceed six (6) miles per hour, and an efficient alarm shall be pro- 
vided and attached to the front end of every train of cars pushed by 
a locomotive in anj ? mine or part of a mine. 

Rule 45. Locomotives propelled by steam, if using fire, shall not be 
used in any passage-way which is also used as an intake air-way to 
any mine or part of a mine where persons are employed, unless there 
be a suffiecient quantity of air circulating therein to maintain a 
healthy atmosphere. 

Rule 46. No person shall couple or uncouple loaded or empty cars 
while the same are in motion: Provided however, That this shall not 
apply to the top or bottom men of slopes, planes or shafts. 

Rule 47. When cars are run on gravity roads by breaks or sprags, 
the runner shall only ride on the rear end of the last car, and when 
said cars are run by sprags, a space of not less than two (2) feet from 
the body of the car shall be made on one or both sides of the tracK 
wherever it may be necessary for the runner to pass along the sside 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cv 

of the moving car or ears, and said space or passage-way shall al- 
ways be kept free from obstructions. 

Rule 48. No miner or laborer shall run ears out of any breast or 
chamber or on any gravity road unless he is a suitable person, em- 
ployed by the mine foreman for that particular work; and no per- 
son shall be employed by any mine foreman to perform such work, 
under the age of sixteen (10) years. 

Rule 49. Safety holes shall be made at the bottom of all slopes 
and planes and be kept free from obstruction to enable the footman 
to escape readily in case of danger. 

Rule 50. Safety blocks or some other device for the purpose of 
preventing cars from falling into a shaft or running away on a slope 
or plane, shall be placed at or near the head of every shaft, slope or 
plane, and said safety blocks or other device must be maintained in 
good working order. 

Rule 51. No person shall travel on any gravity train while cars 
are being hoisted or lowered thereon. Whenever ten (10) persons ar- 
rive at the bottom or top of any plane on which it is necessary for 
men to travel, traffic thereon shall be suspended for a period of time 
long enough to permit them to reach the top or bottom of said plane. 

Rule 52. No mine cars shall be used in any mine unless the 
bumpers are of sufficient length and width to keep the bodies of said 
cars separated by not less than twelve (12) inches when the cars 
stand on a straight level road and the bumpers touch each other. 

Rule 53. It shall be the duly of the owner, operator or superinten- 
dent of any or all coal breakers, to have them properly heated in 
order to prevent injury to the health of persons employed therein. 

Rule 54. For the purpose of making known the rules and the pro- 
visions of this act to all persons employed in or about such mine or 
colliery to which this act applies, an abstract of the act and rules 
shall be posted up in legible characters in some conspicuous place 
or places at or near the mine or colliery, where they may be con- 
veniently read by the persons employed, and so often as the same be- 
comes obliterated or destroyed the owner, operator or superintendent 
shall cause them to be renewed with all reasonable dispatch. Any 
person who pulls down, injures or defaces such abstract of the act or 
rules when posted up in pursuance to the provisions of this act, shall 
be guilty of an offense againsl this act. 

Rule 55. No person or persons working in any coal mine or col- 
liery shall cut any props or timbers while the same are in position to 
support the roof or sides. When it becomes necessary to remove 
any of the said props or timbers for the purpose of mining coal that 
may be supported by the same, to dislodge any of the said props or 
timbers, it must be done by blasting. 

Rule 56. It shall not be lawful for any mine foreman or superinten- 
dent of any mine or colliery to employ any person who is not com- 



cvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

petent to understand the regulations of any mine evolving explosive 
gases: Provided, That this rule will not apply to a section of mine, 
free from the said explosive gases. 

Rule 57. Any superintendent or mine foreman who prevents the 
footman from giving an empty car or cage to the number of men 
designated in a former rule, shall, upon information by any person 
engaged in the mines, given the mine inspector, be fined the sum of 
fifty dollars for each offense. 

Rule 58. Every person who fails to comply with any of the fore- 
going rules or any of the provisions of this article, shall be guilty of 
an offense against this act. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

Inquests. 

Section 1. Whenever loss of life to a miner or other employe oc- 
curs in or about a mine or colliery, notice thereof shall be given 
promptly to the inspector of mines for the district in which the ac- 
cident occurred, by the mine foreman or outside foreman or other 
person having immediate charge of the work at the time of the ac- 
cident; and when death results from personal injury such notice 
shall be given promptly after .the knowledge of death comes to 
the said foreman or person in charge. 

Section 2. Whenever loss of life occurs or whenever the lives of 
persons employed in a mine or at a colliery are in danger from any 
accident, the inspector of mines shall visit the scene of the accident 
as soon as possible thereafter and offer such suggestions, as in his 
judgment shall be necessary, to protect the lives and secure the safety 
of the persons employed. In case of death from such accident, and 
after examination he finds it necessary that a coroner's inquest 
shall be held, he shall notify the coroner to hold such inquest 
without delay, and if no such inquest be held by the coroner within 
twenty-four (24) hours after such notice, the inspector shall insti- 
tute a further and fuller examination of such accident, and for 
this purpose he shall have power to compel the attendance of wit- 
nesses at such examination and to administer oaths and affirmations 
to persons testifying thereat. The inspector shall make a record of 
all such investigations and accidents, which record shall be pre- 
served in his office. The costs of such investigation shall be paid 
by the county in which the accident occurred in like manner as 
costs of inquests held by coroners or justices of the peace are now 
paid. 

Section 3. An inquest held by the coroner upon the body of a per- 
son killed by explosion or other accident, shall be adjourned by the 
coroner if the inspector of mines be not present to watch the pro- 
ceedings, and the coroner in such case shall notify the inspector, in 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. evil 

writing, of such adjourned inquest, and the time and place of holding 
the same, at least three (3) days previous thereto. 

Section 4. Due notice of an intended inquest to be held by the 
coroner, shall be given by the coroner to the inspector, and at any 
such inquest the inspector shall have the right to examine witnesses. 

Section 5. If, at any inquest held over the body or bodies of per- 
sons whose death was caused by an accident in or about a mine or 
colliery, the inspector be not present, and it is shown by the evi- 
dence given at the inquest that the accident was caused by neglect 
or by any defect in or about the mine or colliery, which in the judg- 
ment of the jury, requires a remedy, the coroner shall send notice 
in writing to said inspector of such neglect or default. 

Section 6. No person who is interested personally, nor a person 
employed in the mine or at a colliery in or at which loss of life has 
occurred by accident, shall be qualified to serve on a jury empaneled 
on the inquest, and a constable or other officer shall not summons 
such a person so qualified as juror, but the coroner shall empanel a 
majority of the jury from miners who are qualified to judge of the 
nature of the accident; every person who fails to comply with the 
provisions of this article shall be guilty of an offense against this 
act. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

Returns, Notices, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. Notices of death or serious injuries resulting from acci- 
dents in or about mines or collieries, shall be made to the inspector 
of mines, in writng, and shall specify the name, age and occupation 
of the person killed or injured, and also the nature and character 
of the accident and of the injury caused thereby. 

Section 2. The owner, operator or superintendent of a mine or col- 
liery, shall, without delay, give notice to the inspector of the district 
in which said mine or colliery is situated in any or all of the follow- 
ing cases: 

First. Where any working is commenced for the purpose of open- 
ing a new slope or mine to which this act applies. 

Second. Where any mine is abandoned or the workings thereof 
discontinued. 

Third. Where the working of any mine is recommenced after any 
abandonment or discontinuance for a period exceeding three months. 

Fourth. Where any new coal breaker is completed and work com- 
menced therein for the purpose of preparing coal for market. 

Fifth. Where the pillars of a mine are to be removed or robbed. 

Sixth. Where a squeeze <>r crush or any other cause or change 
may seem tn affect the safety of persons employed in any mine, 
or where fire occurs or a dangerous body of gas is found in any 
mine. 

8 



cviii MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section j. On or before the first day of February in each year, the 
owner, operator or superintendent of every mine or colliery, shall 
send to the inspector of the district, a correct report specifying with 
respect to the year ending December thirty-first, previously, the 
name of the operator and officials of the mine, with his postoffice ad- 
dress; the quantity of coal mined, the amount of powder or other ex- 
plosives consumed; the number of persons employed above and below 
ground in or about such colliery, classifying the persons so employed. 
The report shall be in such form as may be from time to time pre- 
scribed by the inspectors of the district. Blank forms for said re- 
ports shall be furnished by the Commonwealth. 

ARTICLE xv. 
Injunctions. 

Section 1. Upon application of the inspector of mines of the proper 
district, acting in behalf of the Commonwealth, any of the courts of 
law or equity having jurisdiction where the mine or colliery pro- 
ceeded against is situated, whether any proceedings have or have 
not been taken, shall prohibit, by injunction or otherwise, the work- 
ing of any mine or colliery in which any person is employed or is per- 
mitted to be for the purpose of working in contravention of the pro- 
visions of this act, and may award such costs in the matter of the in- 
junctions or other proceedings as the court may think just; but this 
section shall be without prejudice to any other remedy permitted by 
law for enforcing the provisions of this act. Written notice of the 
intention to apply for such injunction in respect to any mine or col- 
liery, shall be made to the owner, operator or superintendent of such 
mine or colliery not less than twenty-four (24) hours before the ap- 
plication is made. 

ARTICLE XVI. 

Arbitration. 

Section 1. Whenever an inspector finds any mine or colliery or part 
thereof, or any matter, thing or practice connected with such mine, 
which in any respect thereof is not covered by or provided against 
by any provisions of this act or by any rule, to be dangerous or de- 
fective, or in his judgment tends to bodily injury to a person, he shall 
give notice thereof in writing to the owner, operator or superinten- 
dent of such mine or colliery, stating in such notice the particular 
matter or defect requiring remedy and may demand that the same 
be remedied; but the owner, operator or superintendent of said mine 
or colliery shall have the right to refer the demand of the inspector 
to a board of arbitration, and the matter shall then be arbitrated 
within forty-eight (48) hours of the time such complaint or demand 
' e made. And the party against whom the award is given shall pay 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cix 

all cost attending the case. The said board of arbitration shall be 
composed of three (3) persons, one of whom shall be chosen by the 
inspector, one by the said owner, operator or superintendent and a 
third by the two thus selected, and the decision of a majority of such 
board shall be final and binding in the matter. 

ARTICLE XVII. 

Penalties. 

Section 1. Any judge of the court of quarter sessions of the peace 
of the county in which I he mine or colliery, at which the offense, act 
or omission as hereinafter stated has occurred, is situated, is hereby 
authorized and required, upon the presentation to him of the affi- 
davit of any citizen of the Commonwealth setting forth that the 
owner, operator or superintendent, or any other person employed in 
or about such mine or colliery had been negligently guilty of an of- 
fense against the provisions of this act, whereby a dangerous acci- 
dent had resulted or might have resulted to any person or persons 
employed in such mine or colliery, to issue a warrant to the sheriff 
of said county directing him to cause such person or persons to be 
arrested and brought before said judge, who shall hear and deter- 
mine the guilt or innocence of the person or persons so charged; 
and if convicted he or they shall be sentenced to pay a fine not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars, in all cases not otherwise provided for 
in this act, or an imprisonment in the county jail for a period not ex- 
ceeding three (3) mouths, or both, at the discretion of the court: Pro- 
vided, That any defendant may waive trial before a judge as herein 
provided and at any time, at or before the time of such trial, demand 
a (rial by a jury in the court of quarter sessions, in which case he 
may enter into a recognizance before said judge with such surety or 
sureties and in such sum as said judge may approve, conditioned for 
his appearance at the next court of quarter sessions to answer the 
charge against him and abide (lie orders of the court in the premises, 
meanwhile to be of good behavior and keep the peace, or in default 
of such recognizance to be committed to the county jail to await such 
trial. 

Section 2. If any person shall feed himself aggrieved by such con- 
viction and sentence before a judge as aforesaid, he may appeal 
(herefrom subject to (he following conditions, namely: The appel- 
lant shall, within sever days after the decree has been made, give 
notice to the prosecutor of his intention to appeal, and within the 
same time enter into a recognizance, with such surety or sureties and 
in such sum as shall be approved by said judge, conditioned to ap- 
pear and try such appeal before (he next court of quarter sessions of 
the peace and to abide the judgment of the court thereon and to pay 



ex MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

all such c^sts and penalties as may be there awarded, and upon the 
compliance with such conditions the judge shall release the appel- 
lant from custody pending the appeal. 

Section 3. Nothing in this act shall prevent any person from being 
indicted or liable under any other act, to any higher penalty or pun- 
ishment than is herein provided, and if the court before whom any 
such proceeding is had shall be of the opinion that proceedings 
ought to be taken against such persons under any other act, or other- 
wise, he may adjourn the case to enable such proceedings to be taken. 

Section 4. All offenses under this act are declared to be misde- 
meanors and in default of payment of any penalty or cost by the 
party or parties sentenced to pay the same, he or they may be im- 
prisoned for a period not exceeding three (3) months and not less 
than thirty (30) days. 

Section 5. For any violation of duty by the mine inspector pre- 
scribed by this act, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction, be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than three 
hundred dollars or be imprisoned for a period not exceeding three 
months, or either, or both, at the discretion of the court. 

Section 6. All fines imposed under this act shall be paid into the 
county treasury for the use of the county. 

Section 7. No conviction or acquittal under this act, in any com- 
plaint, shall be received in evidence upon the trial of any action for 
damages arising from the negligence of any owner, operator or su- 
perintendent or employe in any mine or colliery. 

Section 8. That for any injury to person or property occasioned by 
any violation of this act or any failure to comply with its provisions 
by any owner, operator, superintendent, mine foreman or fire boss 
of any coal mine or colliery, a right of action shall accrue to the party 
injured against said owner or operator for any direct damages he 
may have sustained thereby; and in case of loss of life by reason of 
such neglect or failure aforesaid, a right of action shall accrue to 
the widow and lineal heirs of the person whose life shall be lost, for 
like recovery of damages for the injury they shall have sustained. 

ARTICLE XVIII. 

Definition of Terms. 

In this act, unless the context otherwise requires, the term ''coal 
mine or colliery" includes every operation and work, both under 
ground and above ground, used or to be used for the purpose of min- 
ing and preparing coal. 

The term "workings" includes al the excavated parts of a mine, 
those abandoned as well as the places actually at work. 

The term "mine" includes all underground workings and excava- 
tions and shafts, tunnels and other ways and openings; also all such 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. CXl 

shafts, slopes, tunnels and other openings in course of being sunk or 
driven, together with all roads, appliances, machinery and materials 
connected with the same below the surface. 

The term ''shaft" means a vertical opening through the strata and 
which is or may be used for the purpose of ventilation or drainage 
or for hoisting men or material in connection with the mining of 
coal. 

The term "slope" means any inclined way or opening used for the 
same purpose as a shaft. 

The term ''breaker' means the structure containing the machinery 
used for the preparation of coal. 

The term "owners" and "operators" means any person or body cor- 
porate who is the immediate proprietor or lessee or occupier of any 
coal mine or colliery or any part thereof. The term "owner" does 
not include a person or body corporate who merely receives a royalty, 
rent or fine from a coal mine or colliery or part thereof, or is merely 
the proprietor of the mine subject to any lease, grant or license for 
the working or operating thereof, or is merely the owner of the soil 
and not interested in the minerals of the mine or any part thereof. 
But any "contractor" for the working of a mine or colliery or any 
part or district thereof, shall be subject to this act as an operator or 
owner, in like manner as if he were the owner. 

The term "superintendent" means the person who shall have, on 
behalf of the owner, general supervision of one or more mines or col- 
lieries. 

ARTICLE XIX. 

All laws or parts of laws inconsistent or in conflict with the pro- 
visions of this act are hereby repealed. 
Approved— The 2d day of June, A. D. 1891. 

ROBT. E. PATTISON. 



AN ACT 

Relating to bituminous coal mines and providing for the lives, health, safety and 
welfare of persons employed therein. 

ARTICLE I. 

Survey — Maps and Plans. 

Section t. Be it enacted, &c, That the operator or superintendent 
of every bituminous coal mine shall make, or cause to be made by a 
competent mining engineer or surveyor, an accurate map or plan of 
such coal mine, not smaller than on a scale of two hundred feet to 
an inch, which map shall show as follows: 



cxii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

First. All measurements of said mine in feet or decimal parts 
thereof. 

Second. All the openings, excavations, shafts, tunnels, slopes, planes, 
main-entries, cross-entries, rooms, et cetera, in proper numerical order 
in each opened strata of coal in said mine. 

Third. By darts or arrows made thereon by a pen or pencil the di- 
rection of air currents in said mine. 

Fourth. An accurate delineation of the boundary lines between 
said coal mine and all adjoining mines or coal lands, whether owned 
or operated by the same operator or other operator, and the relation 
and proximity of the workings of said mine to every other adjoining 
mine or coal lands. 

Fifth. The elevation above mean tide at Sandy Hook of all tunnels, 
and entries, and of the face of working places adjacent to boundary 
lines at points not exceeding three hundred feet apart. 

Sixth. The bearings and lengths of each tunnel or entry, and of the 
boundary or property lines. The said map or plan, or a true copy 
thereof, shall be kept in the general mine office by the said operator 
or superintendent for use of the mine inspectors and for the inspec- 
tion of any person or persons working in said mine whenever said 
person or persons shall have cause to fear that any working place is 
becoming dangerous by reason of its proximity to other workings 
that may contain water or dangerous gas. 

Section 2. At least once in every six months, or oftener if neces- 
sary, the operator or superintendent of each mine shall cause to be 
shown accurately on the map or plan said coal mine, all the excava- 
tions made therein during the time elapsing since such excavations 
were last shown upon said map or plan; and all parts of said mine 
which were worked out or abandoned during said elapsed period of 
time shall be clearly indicated by colorings on said map or plan, and 
whenever any of the workings or excavations of said coal mine have 
been driven to their destination, a correct measurement of all such 
workings or excavations shall be made promptly and recorded in a 
survey book prior to the removal of the pillars or any part of the 
same from such workings or excavations. 

Section 3. The operator or superintendent of every coal mine shall, 
within six months after the passage of this act, furnish the mine in- 
spector of the district in which said mine is located with a correct 
copy on tracing muslin or sun print, of the map or plan of said mine 
hereinbefore provided for. And the inspector of the district shall, 
at the end of each year or twice a year if he requires it, forward said 
map or plan to the proper person at any particular mine, whose duty 
it shall be to place or cause to be placed on said map or plan all ex- 
tensions and worked out or abandoned parts of the mine during the 
preceding six or twelve months, as the case may be, and return Ihe 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxiii 

same to the mine inspector within thirty days from the time of re- 
ceiving' it. The copies of the maps or plans of l lie several coal mines 
of each district as hereinbefore required to be furnished to the 
mine inspector shall remain in the care of the inspector of the dis- 
trict in which the said mines are situated, as official records, to be 
transferred by him to his successor in office; but it is provided that 
in no case shall any copy of the same be made without the consent 
of (he operator or his agent. 

Section 4. If any superintendent or operator of mines shall neglect 
or fail to furnish to the mine inspector any copies of maps or plans 
as hereinbefore required by this act, or if the mine inspector shall 
believe that any map or plan of any coal mine made or furnished in 
pursuance of the provisions of this act is materially inaccurate or 
imperfect, then, in either case, the mine inspector is hereby au- 
thorized to cause a correct survey and map or plan of said coal mine 
to be made at the expense of the operator thereof, the cost of which 
shall be recoverable from said operator as other debts are recover- 
able by law: Provided, however, That if the map or plan which may 
be claimed by the mine inspector to be inaccurate shall prove to be 
correct, then the Commonwealth shall be liable for the expense in- 
curred by the mine inspector in causing to be made said test survey 
and map, and the cost thereof, ascertained by the Auditor General by 
proper vouchers and satisfactory proof, shall be paid by the State 
Treasurer upon warrants which the said Auditor General is hereby 
directed to draw for the same. 

ARTICLE II. 

Section 1. It shall not be lawful for the operator, superintendent 
or mine foreman of any bituminous coal mine to employ more than 
twenty persons within said coal mine, or permit more than twenty 
persons to be employed therein at any one time unless they are in 
communication with at least two available openings to the surface 
from each seam or stratum of coal worked in such mine, exclusive of 
the furnace upcast shaft or slope: But provided, That in any mine 
operated by shaft or slope and ventilated by a fan, if the air shaft 
shall be divided into two compartments, one of them may be used for 
an air-way and the other for the purpose of egress and ingress from 
and into said mine by the persons therein employed and the same 
shall be considered a compliance with (he provisions of this section 
hereinbefore set forth. And there shall be cut out or around the 
side (if every hoisting shaft, or driven through the solid strata at the 
bo((om thereof, a (raveling way not less than five feet high and 
(luce feet wide to enable persons to pass the shaft in going from one 
side of it to the other without passing over or under the cage or other 
hoisting apparatus. 

II— 11— 1000 



cxiv MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 2. The shaft or outlet, other than the main shatt or outlet 
shall be separated from the main outlet and from the furnace shaft 
bj natural strata at all points by a distance of not less than one hun- 
dred and fifty feet (except in all mines opened prior to June thirtieth, 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five, where such distances 
may be less, if in the judgment of the mine inspector one hundred 
and fifty feet is impracticable). If the mine be worked by drift, two 
openings exclusive of the furnace upcast shaft and not less than 
thiity feet apart, shall be required (except in drift mines opened prior 
to June thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five, where 
the mine inspector of the district shall deem the same impracticable). 
Where the two openings shall not have been provided as required 
hereinbefore by this act, the mine inspector shall cause the second 
to be made without delay; and in no case shall furnace ventilation 
be used where there is only one opening into the mine. 

Section 3. Unless the mine inspector shall deem it impracticable, 
all mines shall have at least two entries or other passage ways, one 
of which shall lead from the main entrance and the other from the 
opening into the body of the mine, and said two passageways shall 
be kept well drained and in a safe condition for persons to travel 
therein, throughout their whole length so as to obtain, in cases of 
emergency, a second way for egress from the workings. No part of 
said workings shall at any time be driven more than three hundred 
feet in advance of the aforesaid passageways, except entries, air- 
ways or other narrow work, but should an opening to the surface be 
provided from the interior of the mine, the passageways aforesaid 
may be made and maintained therefrom into the working part of 
the mine, and this shall be deemed sufficient compliance with the 
provisions of this act relative thereto; said two passageways shall 
be separated by pillars of coal or other strata of sufficient strength 
and width. 

Section 4. Where necessary to secure access to the two passage- 
ways required in section three of article two of this act in any slope 
mine where the coal seam inclines and has workings on both sides 
of said slope, there shall be provided an overcast for the use of per- 
sons working therein, the dimensions of which shall not be less than 
four feet wide and five feet high. Said overcast shall connect the 
workings on both sides of said slope and the intervening strata be- 
tween the slope and the overcast shall be of sufficient strength and 
thickness at all points for its purpose: Provided, That if said over 
cast be substantially constructed of masonry or other incombustible 
material it shall be deemed sufficient. 

Section 5. When the opening or outlet, other than the main open- 
ing, is made and does not exceed seventy-five feet in vertical depth, 
it shall be set apart exclusively for the purpose of ingress to or egress 
from the mine by any person or persons employed therein it shall be 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxv 

kept in a safe and available condition and free from steam and 
dangerous gases, and all other obstructions, and if such opening is 
a shaft it shall be fitted with safe and convenient stairs with steps of 
an average tread of ten inches and nine inches rise, not less than two 
feet wide and to not exceed an angle of sixty degrees descent with 
landings of not less than eighteen inches wide and four feet long, 
at easy and convenient distances: Provided, That the requirements 
of this section shall not be applicable to stairways in use prior to 
June thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five, when 
in the judgment of the mine inspector, they are sufficiently safe and 
convenient. And water coming from the surface or out of the strata 
in the shaft shall be conducted away by rings, casing or otherwise 
and be prevented from falling upon persons who are ascending or 
descending the stairway of the shaft. 

Section 6. Where any mine is operated by a shaft which exceeds 
seventy-five feet in vertical depth, the persons employed in said mine 
shall be lowered into and raised from said mine by means of ma- 
chinery, and in any such mine the shaft, other than the main shaft, 
shall be supplied with safe and suitable machinery for hoisting and 
lowering persons, or with safe and convenient stairs for use in cases 
of emergency by persons employed in said mine: Provided, That any 
mine operated by two shafts, and where safe and suitable machinery 
is provided at both shafts for hoisting coal or persons, shall have 
sufficiently complied with the requirements of this section. 

Section 7. At any mine, where one of the two openings required 
hereinbefore is a slope and is used as a traveling way, it shall not 
have a greater angle of descent than twenty degrees and may be of 
any depth. 

Section 8. The machinery used for lowering or raising the em- 
ployes into or out of the mine and the stairs used for ingress or 
egress, shall be kept in a safe condition, and inspected once each 
twenty-four hours by a competent person employed for that purpose. 
And such machinery and the method of its inspection shall be ap- 
proved by the mine inspector of the district in which the mine is 
situated. 

ARTICLE III. 

Hcisling Machinery, Safety Catches, Signaling Apparatus, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. The operator or superintendent shall provide and main- 
tain, from (he top to bottom of every shaft where persons are raised 
or lowered, a metal tube suitably adapted to the free passage of 
sound through which conversation may be held between persons at 
tin' top and bottom of said shaft, and also a means of signaling from 
the top to the bottom thereof, and shall provide every cage or gear 
carriage used for hoisting or lowering persons with a sufficient over- 



cxvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

head covering to protect those persons when using the same, and 
shall provide also for each said cage or carriage a safety catch ap- 
proved by the mine inspector. And the said operator or superin- 
tendent shall see that flanges, with a clearance of not less than four 
inches, when the whole of the rope is wound on the drum, are at- 
tached to the sides of the drum of every machine that is used for 
lowering and hoisting persons in and out of the mine, and also that 
adequate brakes are attached to the drum. At all shafts safety 
gales, to be approved by the mine inspector of the district shall be so 
placed as to prevent persons from falling into the shaft. 

Section 2. The main coupling chain attached to the socket of the 
wire rope shall be made of the best quality of iron and shall be 
tested by weights or otherwise to the satisfaction of the mine in- 
spector of the district where the mine is located, and bridle chains 
shall be attached to the main hoisting rope above the socket, from 
the top cross-piece of the carriage or cage, so that no single chain 
shall be used for lowering or hoisting persons into or out of the 
mines. 

Section 3. No greater number of persons shall be lowered or 
hoisted at any one time than may be permitted by the mine inspector 
of the district, and notice of the number so allowed to be lowered or 
hoisted at any one time shall be kept posted up by the operator or 
superintendent in conspicuous places at the top and bottom of the 
shaft, and the aforesaid notice shall be signed by the mine inspectoi 
uf the district. 

Section 4. All machinery about mines from which any accident 
would be liable to occur ■shall be properly fenced off by suitable 
guard railing. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Section 1. The operator or superintendent of every bituminous 
coal mine, whether shaft, slope or d.ift, shall provide and hereafter 
maintain ample means of ventilation for ^he circulation of air through 
thf main-entries, cross-entries and all other working places to an ex- 
tent that will dilute, carry off and render harmless the noxious or 
dangerous gases, generated in the mine, affording not less than one 
hundred cubic feet per minute for each and every person employed 
therein; but in a mine where fire damp has been detected the mini- 
mum shall be one hundred and fifty cubic feet per minute for each 
person employed therein, and as much more in either case as one or 
more of the mine inspectors may deem requisite. 

Section 2. After May thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-four, not more than sixty-five persons shall be permitted to 
work in the same air current: Provided, That a larger number, not 
exceeding one hundred, may be allowed by the mine inspector where, 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxvii 

in his judgment, it is impracticable to comply with the foregoing re 
quirement; and mines where more than ten persons are employed, 
shall be provided with a tan, furnace or other artificial means to pro- 
duce the ventilation, and all stoppings between main intake and re- 
turn air-ways hereinafter built or replaced shall be substantially 
built with suitable material, which shall be approved by the in 
spector of the district. 

Section 3. All ventilating fans shall be kept in operation continu- 
ously night and day, unless operations are indefinitely suspended, ex- 
cept written permission is given by the mine inspector of the district 
to stop the same, and the said written permission shall state the par- 
ticular hours the said fan may not be in operation, and the mine in 
spector shall have power to withdraw or modify such permission as 
he may deem best, but in all cases the fan shall be started two hours 
before the time to begin work. When the fan may be stopped by 
permission of the mine inspector a notice printed in the various 
languages used by persons employed in the mine, stating at what 
hour or hours the fan will be stopped, shall be posted by the mine 
foreman in a conspicuous place at the entrance or entrances to the 
mine. 

Said printed notices shall be furnished by the mine inspector and 
the cost thereof borne by the State: Provided, That should it at any 
time become necessary to stop the fan on account of accident or 
needed repairs to any part of the machinery connected therewith, or 
by reason of any other unavoidable cause, it shall then be the duty 
of the mine foreman or any other officials in charge, after first hav- 
ing provided, as far as possible for the safety of the persons em- 
ployed in the mine, to order said fan to be stopped so as to make the 
necessary repairs or to remove any other difficulty that may have 
been the cause of its stoppage. And all ventilating furnaces in 
mines shall, for two hours before the appointed time to begin work 
and during working hours, be properly attended by a person em- 
ployed for that purpose. In mines generating fire-damp in sufficient 
quantities to be detected by ordinary safety lamps, all main air 
bridges or overcasts made after the passage of this act shall be built 
of masonry or other incombustible material of ample strength or be 
driven through the solid strata. 

In nil mines (he doors used in guiding and directing the ventila- 
tion of the mine shall be so hung and adjusted that they will close 
themselves, or be supplied with spring or pulleys so that they cannot 
be left si muling open, and an attendant shall be employed at all 
principal doors through which cars are hauled, for the purpose ot 
opening and closing said doors when trips of cars are passing to and 
from the workings, unless an improved self-acting door is used, 
which principal doors shall be determined by the mine inspector or 



cxviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

mine foreman. A hole for shelter shall be provided at each door so 
as to protect said attendant from being run over by the cars while 
attending to his duties, and persons employed for this purpose shall 
at all times remain at their post of duty during working hours: 
Provided, That the same person may attend two doors where the dis- 
tance between them is not more than one hundred feet. On every 
inclined plane or road in any mine where haulage is done by ma- 
chinery and where a door is used, an extra door shall be provided 
to be used in case of necessity. 

ARTICLE V. 

Safety Lamps, Fire Bosses, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. All mines generating fire-damp shall be kept free of 
standing gas in all working places and roadways. No accumulation 
of explosive gas shall be allowed to exist in the worked out or aban- 
doned parts of any mine when it is practicable to remove it, and the 
entrance or entrances to said worked out and abandoned places shall 
be properly fenced off, and cautionary notices shall be posted upon 
said fencing to warn persons of danger. 

Section 2. In all mines wherein explosive gas has been generated 
within the period of six months next preceding the passage of this 
act, and also in all mines where fire-damp shall be generated, after 
the passage of this act, in sufficient quantities to be detected by the 
ordinary safety lamp, every working place without exception and 
all road ways shall be carefully examined immediately before each 
shift by competent person or persons appointed by the superinten- 
dent and mine foreman for that purpose. The person or persons 
making such examination shall have received a fire boss certificate 
of competency required by this act, and shall use no light other than 
that enclosed in a safety lamp while making said examination. In 
all cases said examination shall be begun within three hours prior 
to the appointed time of each shift commencing to work, and it shall 
be the duty of the said fire boss at each examination to leave at the 
face and side of every place so examined, evidence of his presence. 
And he shall also, at each examination, inspect the entrance or en- 
trances to the worked out or abandoned parts which are adjacent 
to the roadways and working places of the mine where fire-damp is 
likely to accumulate, and where danger is found to exist he shall 
place a danger signal at the entrances to such places, which shall be 
sufficient warning for persons not to enter said place. 

Section 3. In any place that is being driven towards or in danger- 
ous proximity to an abandoned mine or part of a mine suspected of 
containing inflammable gases, or which may be inundated with 
water, bore holes shall be kept not less than twelve feet in advance 
of the face, and on the sides of such working places, said side holes 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxix 

to be drilled diagonally not more than eight feet apart, and any 
place driven to tap water or gas shall not be more than ten feet wide, 
and no water or gas from an abandoned mine or part of a mine and 
no bore holes from the surface, shall be tapptd until the employes, 
except those engaged at such work, are out of the mine, and such 
work to be done under the immediate instruction of the mine fore- 
man. 

Section 4. The fire boss shall at each entrance to the mine or in 
the main intake air-way near to the mine entrance, prepare a per- 
manent station with the proper danger signal designated by suitable 
letters and colors placed thereon, and it shall not be lawful for any 
person or persons, except the mine officials in cases of necessity, and 
such other persons as may be designated by them, to pass beyond said 
danger station until the mine has been examined by the fire boss as 
aforesaid and the same, or certain parts thereof, reported by him to 
be safe, and in all mines where operations are temporarily suspended 
the superintendent and mine foreman shall see that a danger signal 
be placed at the mine entrance or entrances, which shall be a suffi- 
cient warning to persons not to enter the mine, and if the ordinary 
circulation of air through the mine be stopped each entrance to said 
mine shall be securely fenced off and a danger sigual shall be dis 
played upon said fence and any workman or other person, (except 
those persons hereinbefore provided for,) passing by any danger 
signal into the mine before it has been examined and reported to be 
safe as aforesaid, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and it 
shall be the duty of the fire boss, mine foreman, superintendent or 
any employe to forthwith notify the mine inspector, who shall enter 
proceedings against such person or persons as provided for in sec- 
tion two of article twenty-one of this act. 

Section 5. All entries, tunnels, air ways, traveling ways and other 
working places of a mine where explosive gas is being generated in 
such quantities as can be detected by the ordinary safety lamp, and 
pillar workings and other working places in any mine where a sud 
den inflow of said explosive gas is likely to be encountered, (by reason 
of the subsidence of the overlying strata or from any other causes), 
shall be worked exclusively with locked safety lamps. The use of 
open lights is also prohibited in all working places, roadways or 
other parts of the mine through which fire-damp might be carried 
in the air current in dangerous quantities. In all mines or parts of 
mines worked with locked safety lamps the use of electric wires and 
electric currents is positively prohibited, unless said wires and ma- 
chinery and all other mechanical devices attached thereto and con- 
nected therewith are constructed and protected in such a manner as 
to secure freedom from the emission of sparks or flame therefrom 
into the atmosphere of the mine. 



cxx MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 6. After January first, one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-four, the use of the common Davy safety lamp for general 
work on any bituminous coal mine is hereby prohibited, neither shall 
the Clanny lamp be so used unless its gauze is thoroughly protected 
by a metallic shield, but this act does not prohibit the use of the 
Davy and Clanny lamps by the mine officials for the purpose of ex- 
amining the workings for gas. 

Section 7. All safety lamps used for examining mines or for work- 
ing therein shall be the property of the operator, and shall be in the 
care of the mine foreman, his assistant or fire boss, or other com- 
petent person, who shall clean, fill, trim, examine and deliver the 
same, locked, in a safe condition to the men when entering the mine 
before each shift, and shall receive the same from the men at the end 
of each shift, for which service a charge not exceeding cost of labor 
and material may be made by the operator. A sufficient number of 
safety lamps, but not less than twenty-five per centum of those in 
use, shall be kept at each mine where gas has at any time been gen- 
erated in sufficient quantities to be detected by an ordinary safety 
lamp, for use in case of emergency. It shall be the duty of every 
person who knows his safety lamp to be injured or defective, to 
promptly report such fact to the party authorized herein to receive 
and care for said lamps, and it shall be the duty of that party to 
promptly report such fact to the mine foreman. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Mine Foreman and His Duties. 

Section 1. In order to better secure the proper ventilation of the 
bituminous coal mines and promote the health and safety of the 
persons employed therein, the operator or superintendent shall em- 
ploy a competent and practical inside overseer for each and every 
mine, to be called mine foreman; said mine foreman shall have 
passed an examination and obtained a certificate of competency or 
of service as required by this act and shall be a citizen of the United 
States and an experienced cqal miner, and said mine foreman shall 
devote the whole of his time ft> his duties at the mine when in opera- 
tion, or in case of his necessary absence, an assistant, chosen by him 
and shall keep a careful watch over the ventilating apparatus, and 
the air ways, traveling ways, pump and pump timbers and drainage, 
and shall often instruct, and as far as possible, see that as the 
miners advance their excavations all dangerous coal, slate and rock 
overhead are taken down or carefully secured against falling therein, 
or on the traveling and hauling ways, and that sufficient props, caps 
and timbers of suitable size are sent into the mine when required, 
and all props shall be cut square at both ends, and as near as prae- 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxi 

ticable to a proper length for the places where they are to be used, 
and such props, caps and timbers shall be delivered in the working 
places of the mine. 

Section 2. Every workman in want of props or timbers and cap 
pieces shall notify the mine foreman or his assistant of the fact at 
least one day in advance, giving the length and number of props or 
timbers and cap pieces required, but in cases of emergency the tim- 
bers may be ordered immediately upon the discovery of any danger. 
(The place and manner of leaving the orders for the timber shall be 
designated and specified in the rules of the mine.) And if, from any 
cause, the timbers cannot be supplied when required, he shall in- 
struct the persons to vacate all said working places until supplied 
with the timber needed, and shall see that all water be drained or 
hauled out of all working places before the miner enters and as far 
as practicable kept dry while the miner is at work. 

Section 3. It shall be the duty of the mine foreman to see that 
proper cut-throughs are made in all the room pillars at such dis- 
tances apart as in the judgment of the mine inspector may be deemed 
requisite, not more than thirty-five nor less than sixteen yards each, 
for the purpose of ventilation, and the ventilation shall be conducted 
through said cut-through into rooms by means of check doors made 
of canvas or other suitable material, placed on the entries, or in 
other suitable places, and he shall not permit any room to be opened 
in advance of the ventilating current. Should the mine inspector 
discover any room, entry, air-way or other working places being 
driven in advance of the air current contrary to the requirements of 
this section, he shall order the workmen working in such places 
to cease work at once until the law is complied with. 

Section 4. In all hauling roads, on which hauling is done by animal 
power, and whereon men have to pass to and from their work, holes 
for shelter, which shall be kept clear of obstruction, shall be made 
at least every thirty yards and be kept whitewashed, but shelter 
holes shall not be required in entries from which rooms are driven 
at regular intervals not exceeding fifty feet, where there is a space 
four feet between (he wagon and rib, it shall be deemed sufficient for 
shelter. On all hauling roads whereon hauling is done by ma- 
chinery, and all gravity or inclined planes inside mines upon which 
the persons employed in the mine must travel on foot to and from 
their work, such shelter holes shall be cut not less than two feet six 
inches into the strata and not more than fifteen yards apart, unless 
there is a space of at least six feet from the side of the car to the 
side of the roadway, which space shall be deemed sufficient for 
shelter: Provided, That this requirement shall not apply to any parts 
of mines which parts were opened prior to the passage of this act if 
deemed impracticable by the mine inspector. 



cxxii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 5. The mine foreman shall measure the air current at least 
once a week at the inlet and outlet and at or near the faces of the 
entries, and shall keep a record of such measurements. An ane- 
mometer shall be provided for this purpose by the operator of the 
mine. It shall be the further duty of the mine foreman to require 
the workmen to use locked safety lamps when and where required 
by this act. 

Section 6. The mine foreman shall give prompt attention to the re- 
moval of all dangers reported to him by the fire boss or any other 
person working in the mine, and in mines where a fire boss is not 
employed, the said mine foreman or his assistant shall visit and ex- 
amine every working place therein at least once every alternate daj 
while the miners of such place are or should be at work, and shall 
direct that each and every working place be properly secured by 
props or timbers, and that no person shall be directed or permitted 
to work in an unsafe place unless it be for the purpose of making it 
safe: Provided, That if the owner or operator of any mine employing 
a fire boss shall require the mine foreman to examine every working 
place every alternate day, then it shall be the duty of the mine fore- 
man to do so. 

Section 7. When the mine foreman is unable personally to carry 
out all the requirements of this act as pertaining to his duties, he 
shall employ a competent person or persons, not objectionable to the 
operator, to act as his assistant or assistants, who shall act under 
his instructions, and in all mines where fire-damp is generated the 
said assistant or assitants shall possess a certificate of competency 
as mine foreman or fire boss. 

Section 8. A suitable record book, with printed head lines, pre- 
pared by and approved by the mine inspector, the same to be pro- 
vided at the expense of the Commonwealth, shall be kept at each 
mine generating explosive gases, and immediately after each ex- 
amination of the mine made by the fire boss or fire bosses, a record 
of the same shall be entered in said book, signed by the person or 
persons making such examinations, which shall clearly state the na- 
ture and location of any danger which he or they may have dis- 
covered, and the fire boss or fire bosses shall immediately report such 
danger and the location of the same to the mine foreman, whose 
duty it shall be to remove the danger, or to cause the same to be done 
forthwith as far as practicable, and the mine foreman shall also each 
day countersign all reports entered by the fire boss or fire bosses. At 
all mines the mine foreman shall enter in a book provided as above 
by the mine inspector, a report of the condition of the mine, signed 
by himself, which shall clearly state any danger that may have come 
under his observation during the day, and shall also state whether 
he has a proper supply of material on hand for the safe working of 
the mine, and whether all requirements of the law are strictly com- 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxiil 

plied with. He shall, once each week, enter or cause to be entered, 
plainly, with ink, in said book, a true record of all air measurements 
required by this act, and such books shall at all times, be kept at the 
mine office for examination by the mine inspector of the district and 
any other person working in the mines. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Timber and Other Mine Supplies, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. It shall be the duly of the superintendent, on behalf and 
at the expense of the operator to keep on hand at the mines at all 
times, a full supply of all materials and supplies required to preserve 
the health and safety of the employes as ordered by the mine fore- 
man and required by this act. He shall at least once a week, examine 
and countersign — (which countersignature of the superintendent shall 
b<-. held, under this act to have no further bearing than the evidence 
of the fact that the mine superintendent has read the matter entered 
on the book) — all reports entered in the mine record book, and if 
he finds that the law is being violated in any particular, he shall 
order the mine foreman to comply with its provisions forthwith. 
If from any cause he cannot procure the necessary supplies or ma- 
terials as aforesaid, he shall notify the mine foreman, whose duty it 
shall be to withdraw the men from the mine or part of mine until 
such supplies or materials are received. 

Section 2. The superintendent of the mine shall not obstruct the 
mine foreman or other officials in their fulfillment of any of the 
duties required by this act. At mines where superintendents are not 
employed, the duties that are herein prescribed for the superintendent 
shall devolve upon the mine foreman. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Steam Boilers, Stables, Regulations for the Use of Oil, Powder, Et 

Cetera. 

Section 1. After the passage of this act it shall be unlawful to 
place a main or principal ventilating fan shed inside of any bituminous 
coal mine wherein explosive gas has been detected or in which the 
air current is contaminated with coal dust. No stationery steam 
boiler shall be placed in any bituminous coal mine, unless said steam 
boiler be placed within fifty feet from the bottom of an up-cast shaft, 
which shaft shall not be less than twenty-five square feet in area, 
and after May thirtieth, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, 
no stationary steam boiler shall be permitted to remain in any bi- 
tuminous coal mine, only as aforesaid. 

Section 2. II shall not be lawful after (he passage of (his act to 
provide any horse or mule stables inside of bituminous coal mines, 
unless said stables are excavated in the solid strata or coal seams, and 
9 



cxxiv MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

no wood or other combustible material shall be used excessively 
in the construction of said stables, unless surrounded by or incased 
by some incombustible material. The air current used for ventilating 
said stable shall not be intermixed with the air current used for 
ventilating the working parts of the mine, but shall be conveyed di- 
rectly to the return air current, and no open light shall be permitted 
to be used in any stable in any mine. 

Section 3. No hay or straw shall be taken into any mine, unless 
pressed and made up into compact bales, and all hay or straw taken 
into the mines as aforesaid, shall be stored in a storehouse exca- 
vated in the solid strata or built in masonry for that purpose. After 
January first, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, no horse 
or mule stable or storehouse, only as aforesaid, shall be permitted 
in any bituminous coal mine. 

Section 4. No explosive oil shall be used or taken into bituminous 
coal mines for lighting purposes, and oil shall not be stored or taken 
into the mines in quantities exceeding five gallons. The oiling or 
greasing of cars inside of the mines is strictly forbidden unless the 
place where said oil or grease is used is thoroughly cleaned at least 
once every day to prevent the accumulation of waste oil or grease on 
the roads or in the drains at that point. Not more than one barrel 
of lubricating oil shall be permitted in the mine at any one time. 
Only a pure animal or pure cotton-seed oil or oils, that shall be as free 
from smoke as pure animal or pure cotton-seed oil, shall be used 
for illuminating purposes in any bituminous mine. Any person 
found knowingly using explosive or impure oil, contrary to this sec- 
tion, shall be prosecuted as provided for in section two of article 
twenty-one of this act. 

Section 5. No powder or high explosive shall be stored in any 
mine, and no more of either article shall be taken into the mine at 
any one time than is required in any one shift, unless the quantity 
be less than five pounds, and in all working places where locked 
safety lamps are used blasting shall only be done by the consent 
and in the presence of the mine foreman, his assistant or fire boss, 
or any competent party designated by the mine foreman for that pur- 
pose; whenever the mine inspector discovers that the air in any mine 
is becoming vitiated by the unnecessary blasting of the coal, he 
shall have the power to regulate the use of the same and to desig- 
nate at what hour of the day blasting may be permitted. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Opening for Drainage, Et Cetera, on Other Lands. 

Section 1. If any person, firm or corporation is or shall hereafter 
be seized in his or their own right of coal lands, or shall hold such 
lands under lease and shall have opened or shall desire to open a 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxv 

coal mine on said land, and it shall not be practicable to drain or 
ventilate such mines or to comply with the requirements of this act 
a* to ways of ingress and egress or traveling ways by means of 
openings on lands owned or held under lease by him, them or it, and 
the same can be done by means of openings on adjacent lands, he, 
they or it may apply by petition to the court of quarter sessions of 
the proper county, after ten days' notice to the owner or owners, 
their agents or attorney, setting forth the facts under oath or affirma- 
tion particularly describing the place or places where such opening 
or openings can be made, and the pillars of coal or other material 
necessary for the support of such passageway and such right of way 
to any public road as may be needed in connection with such open- 
ing, and that he or they cannot agree with the owner or owners of the 
land as to the amount to be paid for the privilege of making such open- 
ing or openings, whereupon the said court shall appoint three disinter- 
es(ed and competent citizens of the county to view the ground desig- 
nated and lay out from the point or points mentioned in such peti- 
tion, a passage or passages not more than eighty feet area by either 
drift, shaft or slope, or by a combination of any of said methods by 
any practicable and convenient route to the coal of such person, firm 
or corporation, preferring in all cases an opening through the coal 
srrata where the same is practicable. The said viewers shall, at the 
same time, assess the damages to be paid by the petitioner or peti- 
tioners to the owner or owners of such lands for the coal and other 
valuable material to be removed in the excavation and construction 
of said passage, also for such coal or other valuable material neces- 
sary to support the said passage, as well as for a right of way not 
exceeding fifteen feet in width from any such opening to any public 
road, to enable persons to gain entrance to the mine through such 
opening or to provide therefrom, upon the surface, a water course of 
suitable dimensions to a natural stream to enable the operator to 
discharge the water from said mine if such right of way shall be 
desired by the petitioner or petitioners, which damages shall be fully 
paid before such opening is made. The proceedings shall be recorded 
in the road docket of the proper county, and the pay of viewers 
shall be the same as in road cases; if exceptions be filed they shall 
be disposed of by the court as speedily as possible, and both par- 
ties; to have the right to take depositions as in road cases. If, how- 
ever, the petitioner desires to make such openings or roads or 
waterways before the final disposition of such exceptions, he shall 
have the right to do so by giving bond, to be aprpoved by the court 
securing the damages as provided by law in the case of lateral rail- 
roads. 

Section 2. It shall be compulsory upon the part of the mine owner 
or operator to exercise the powers granted by the provisions of the 



cxxvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

last preceding section for the procuring of a right of way on the 
surface from the opening of a coal mine to a public road or public 
roads, upon the request in writing of fifty miners employed in the 
mine or mines of such owner or operator: Provided however, That 
with such request satisfactory security be deposited with the mine 
owner or operator by said petitioners, being coal miners, to fully and 
sufficiently pay all costs, damages and expenses caused by such pro- 
ceedings and in paying for such right of way. 

Section 3. In any mine or mines, or parts thereof, wherein water 
may have been allowed to accumulate in large and dangerous quan- 
tities, putting in danger the adjoining or adjacent mines and the 
lives of the miners working therein, and when such can be tapped 
and set free and flow by its own gravity to any point of drainage, it 
shall be lawful for any operator or person having mines so en- 
dangered, with the approval of the inspector of the district, to pro- 
ceed and remove the said danger by driving a drift or drifts pro- 
tected by bore holes as provided by this act, and in removing said 
danger it shall be lawful to drive across property lines if needful. 

And it shall be unlawful for any person to dam or in any way ob- 
struct the flow of any water from said mine or parts thereof, when 
so set free on any part of its passage to point of drainage. 

Section 4. No operator shall be permitted to mine coal within 
fifty feet of any abandoned mine containing a dangerous accumula- 
tion of water, until said danger has been removed by driving a pas- 
sage way so as to tap and drain off said water as provided for in this 
act: Provided, That the thickness of the barrier pillars shall be 
greater and shall be in proportion of one foot of pillar thickness to 
each one and one-quarter foot of waterhead if, in the judgment of 
the engineer of the property and that of the district mine inspector, 
it is necessary for the safety of the persons working in the mine. 

Section 5. All operators of bituminous coal mines shall keep 
posted in a conspicuous place at their mines the general and special 
rules embodied in and made part of this act, defining the duties of 
all persons employed in or about said mine, which said rules shall 
be printed in the English language, and shall also be printed in such 
other language or languages as are used by any ten persons working 
therein. It shall be the duty of the mine inspector to furnish to the 
operator printed copies of such rules and such translations thereof 
as are required by this section, and to certify their correctness over 
his signature. The cost thereof shall be borne by the State. 

article x. 

Inspectors, Examining Boards, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. The board of examiners appointed to examine candi- 
dates for the office of mine inspectors under the provisions of the act 



No. LI. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. exxvii 

to which this is a supplement, shall exercise all the powers granted, 
and perform all the duties required by I his supplementary act, and at 
the expiration of their term of office, and every four years thereafter, 
the Governor shall appoint, as hereinafter provided, during the 
month of January, two mining engineers of good repute and three 
oilier persons, who shall have passed successful examinations quali- 
fying them to act as mine inspectors or mine foremen in mines gene- 
rating fire-damp, who shall be citizens of this Commonwealth and 
shall have attained the age of thirty years and shall have had at 
least five years of practical experience in the bituminous mines of 
Pennsylvania, and who shall not be serving at that time in any of- 
ficial capacity at mines, which five persons shall constitute a board 
of examiners whose duty it shall be to inquire into the character and 
qualification of candidates for the office of inspector of mines under 
the provisions of this act. 

Section 2. The examining board, so constituted shall meet on the 
first Tuesday of March following their appointment, in the city of 
Pittsburgh, to examine applicants for the office of mine inspector: 
Provided, however, The examining board shall meet two weeks pre- 
vious to the aforesaid time for the purpose of preparing questions, 
(I celera, and when called together by the Governor on extra oc- 
casions at such time and place as he may designate, and after be- 
ing duly organized and having taken and subscribed before any of- 
ficer authorized to administer the same the following oath, namely, 
"We, the undersigned, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that we will per- 
form the duties of examiners of applicants for the appointment as 
inspectors of bituminous coal mines to the best of our abilities, and 
that in recommending or rejecting said applicant, we will be gov- 
erned by the evidence of the qualifications to fill the position under 
the law creating the same, and not by any consideration of political 
or persona] favor;* and that we will certify all whom we may find 
qualified according to the true intent and meaning of the act and 
none others." 

Section 3. The general examination shall be in writing and the 
manuscript and other papers of all applicants, together with the 
tally sheets and the solution of each question as given by the ex- 
amining board, shall be filed with (he Secretary of Internal Affairs 
as public documents, bu1 each applicant shall undergo an oral ex- 
amination pertaining to explosive gases and safety lamps, and the 
examining board shall certify to the Governor the names of all such 
applicants which they shall find competent to fill this office under the 
provisions of this act, which names, with the certificates and their 
percentages and the oaths <<f the examiners, shall be mailed to the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth and he filed in his office. No per- 
son shall be certified as competent whose percentage shall be lfss 



cxxviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

than ninety per centum, and such certificate shall be valid only when 
signed by four of the members of the examining board. 

Section 4. The qualification of candidates for said office of in- 
spectors of mines to be inquired into and certified by said examiners, 
shall be as follows, namely: They shall be citizens of Pennsylvania, 
of temperate habits, of good repute as men of personal integrity, and 
shall have attained the age of thirty years, and shall have had at 
least five years of practical experience in working of or in the work- 
ings of the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania immediately preced- 
ing their examination, and shall have had practical experience with 
tire-damp inside the mines of this country, and upon examination 
shall give evidence of such theoretical as well as practical know- 
ledge and general intelligence respecting mines and mining and 
the working and ventliation thereof, and all noxious mine gases, 
and will satisfy the examiners of their capability and fitness for the 
duties imposed upon inspectors of mines by the provisions of this 
act. And the examining board shall immediately after the examina- 
tion, furnish to each person who came before it to be examined, a 
copy of all questions whether oral or written, which were given at 
the examination on printed slips of paper and to be marked solved, 
right, imperfect or wrong, as the case may be, together with a cer- 
tificate of competency to each candidate who shall have made at 
least ninety per centum. 

Section 5. The board of examiners may, also at their meeting, or 
when at any time called by the Governor together for an extra meet- 
ing, divide the bituminous coal regions of the State into inspection 
districts, no district to contain less than sixty nor more than eighty 
mines, and as nearly as possible equalizing the labor to be per- 
formed by each inspector, and at any subsequent calling of the board 
of examiners this division may be revised as experience may prove 
to be advisable. 

Section 6. The board of examiners shall each receive ten dollars 
per day for each day actually employed, and all necessary expenses, 
to be paid out of the State Treasury. Upon the filing of the certi- 
ficate of the examining board in the office of the Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, the Governor shall, from the names so certified, 
commission one person to be inspector of mines for each district as 
fixed by the examiners in pursuance of this supplementary act, 
whose commission shall be for a full term of four years from the 
fifteenth day of May following: Always provided however, The high- 
est candidate or candidates in percentage shall have priority to be 
commissioned for a full term or unexpired term before those candi- 
dates of lower percentage, and in case of a tie percentage the oldest 
candidate shall be commissioned. 

Section 7. As often as vacancies occur in said office of inspectors 
of mines, the Governor shall commission for the unexpired term 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. cxxix 

from the names on file, the highest percentage in the office of the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, until the number shall be exhausted, 
and whenever this may occur, the Governor shall cause the afore- 
said board of examiners to meet, and they shall examine persons 
who may present themselves for the vacant office of mine inspec- 
tor as herein provided, and the board of examiners shall certify to 
the Governor all persons who shall have made ninety per centum 
in said examination, one of whom to be commissioned by him accord- 
ing to the provisions of this act for the office of mine inspector for 
(he unexpired term, and any vacancy that may occur in the exam- 
ining board shall be filled by the Governor of this Commonwealth. 

Section 8. Each inspector of mines shall receive for his services 
an annual salary of three thousand dollars and actual traveling ex- 
penses, to be paid quarterly by the State Treasurer upon warrant 
of the Auditor General, and each mine inspector shall keep an office 
in the district for which he is commissioned and he shall be per- 
mitted to keep said office at his place of residence: Provided, A 
suitable apartment or room be set off for that purpose. Each mine 
inspector is hereby authorized to procure such instruments, chemi- 
cal tests and stationery and to incur such expenses of communica- 
tion from time to time, as may be necessary to the proper discharge 
of his duties under this act at the cost of the State, which shall be 
paid by the State Treasurer upon accounts duly certified by him and 
audited by the proper department of the State. 

Section 9. All instruments, plans, books, memoranda, notes and 
other material pertaining to the office shall be the property of the 
State, and shall be delivered to their successors in office. In addi- 
tion to the expenses now allowed by law to the mine inspectors in 
erforcing the several provisions of this act, they shall be allowed all 
necessary expenses by them incurred in enforcing the several pro- 
visions of said law in the respective courts of the Commonwealth, 
the same to be paid by the State Treasurer on warrants drawn by 
the Auditor General after auditing the same; all such accounts pre- 
sented by the mine inspector to the Auditor General shall be item- 
ized and first approved by the court before which the proceedings 
were instituted. 

Section 10. Each mine inspector of bituminous coal mines shall, 
before entering upon the discharge of his duties, give bond in the 
sum of five thousand dollars, with sureties to be approved by the 
president judge of the district in which he resides, conditional for 
(he faithful discharge of his duties, and take an oath or affirmation to 
discharge his duties impartially and with fidelity to the best of his 
knowledge and ability. But no person who shall act as manager or 
agent of any coal mine, or as mining engineer or is interested in op- 
erating any coal mine, shall, at the same time act as mine inspector of 
coal mines under this act. 
1—11—1900 



cxxx MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 11. Each inspector of bituminous coal mines shall devote 
the whole of his time to the duties of his office. It shall be his 
duty to examine each mine in his district as often as possible, but a 
longer period of time than three months shall not elapse between 
said examination, to see that all the provisions of this act are ob- 
served and strictly carried out, and he shall make a record of all 
examinations of mines, showing the condition in which he finds them, 
especially with reference to ventilation and drainage, the number of 
persons employed in each mine, the extent to which the law is 
obeyed and progress made in the improvement of mines, the num- 
ber of serious accidents and the nature thereof, the number of 
deaths resulting from injuries received in or about the mines with 
the cause of such accident or death, which record completed to the 
thirty-first day of December of each and every year, shall, on or be- 
fore the fifteenth day of March following, be filed in the office of the 
Secretary of Internal Affairs, to be by him recorded and included 
in the annual report of his department. 

Section 12. It shall be the duty of the mine inspector on examina- 
tion of any mine, to make out a written, or partly written and partly 
printed report of the condition in which he finds such mine and 
post the same in the office of the mine or other conspicuous place. 
The said report shall give the date of the visit, the number of cubic 
feet of air in circulation and where measured, and that he has 
measured the air at the cut through one or more rooms in each 
heading or entry, and such other information as he shall deem nec- 
essary, and the said report shall remain posted in the office or con- 
spicuous place for one year and may be examined by any person 
employed in or about the mine. 

Section 13. In case the inspector becomes incapacitated to perform 
the duties of his office or receives a leave of absence from the same 
from the Governor, it shall be the duty of the judge of the court of 
common pleas of his district to appoint, upon said mine inspector's 
application or that five miners or five operators of said inspector's 
district, some competent person, recommended by the board of ex- 
aminers to fill the office of inspector until the said inspector shall 
be able to resume the duties of his office, and the person so ap- 
pointed shall be paid in the same manner as is hereinbefore pro- 
vided for the inspector of mines. 

ARTICLE XL 

Inspectors' Powers, Et Cetera. 
Section 1. That the mine inspectors may be enabled to perform 
the duties herein imposed upon them, they shall have the right at all 
times to enter any bituminous coal mine to make examinations or 
obtain information, and upon the discovery of any violation of this 
act, they shall institute proceedings against the person or persons at 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxxi 

fault under the provisions of section two of article twenty-one of this 
act. In case, however, where, in the judgment of the mine inspector 
of the district, any mine or part of mine is in such dangerous condi- 
tion as to jeopardize life or health, he shall at once notify two of the 
mine inspectors of the other districts, whereupon they shall at once 
proceed to the mine where the danger exists and examine into the 
matter, and if, after full investigation thereof, they shall agree in 
the opinion that there is immediate danger, they shall instruct the 
superintendent of the mine in writing to remove such condition 
forthwith, and in case said superintendent shall fail to do so, then 
they shall apply, in the name of the Commonwealth, to the court of 
common pleas of the county, or in case the court shall not be in ses- 
sion, to a judge of the said court in chambers in which the mine 
ma}' be located for an injunction to suspend all work in and about 
said mine, whereupon said court or judge shall at once proceed to 
hear, and determine speedily the same, and if the cause appear to 
be sufficient after hearing the parties and their evidences, as in like 
cases, shall issue its writ to restrain the working of said mine until 
ail cause of danger is removed, and the cost of said proceedings shall 
be borne by the owner, lessee or agent of the mine: Provided, That 
if said court shall find the cause not sufficient, then the case shall 
be dismissed and the costs shall be borne by the county wherein 
said mine is located. 

ARTICLE XII. 

Inquests, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. Whenever, by reason of any explosion or other acci- 
dents in any bituminous coal mine or the machinery connected there- 
with, loss of life or serious personal injury shall occur, it shall be the 
duty of the person having charge of such mine to give notice thereof 
forthwith to the mine inspector of the district and also to the 
coroner of the county, if any person is killed. 

Section 2. If the coroner shall determine to hold an inquest, he 
shall notify the mine inspector of the district of time and place of 
holding the same, who shall offer such testimony as he may deem 
necessary to thoroughly inform the said inquest of the cause of the 
death, and the said mine inspector shall have authority at any time 
to appear before such coroner and jury and question or cross-ques- 
tion any witness, and in choosing a jury for the purpose of holding 
such inquest it shall be the duty of the coroner to empanel a jury, 
no one of which shall be directly or indirectly interested. 

Section 3. It shall be the duty of the mine inspector, upon being 
notified of any fatal accident as herein provided, to immediately re- 
pair to the scene of the accident and make such suggestions as may 
appear necessary to secure the safety of any persons who may be en- 



cxxxii MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

dangered, and if the results of the accident do not require an in- 
vestigation by the coroner the said mine inspector shall proceed to 
investigate and ascertain the cause of the accident and make a 
record thereof, which he shall file as provided for, and to enable him 
to make the investigation he shall have power to compel the attend- 
ance of persons to testify, and to administer oaths or affirmations, 
and if it is found upon investigation that the accident is due to the 
violation of any provisions of this act by any person, other than those 
who may be deceased, the mine inspector may institute proceedings 
against such person or persons as provided for in section two of arti- 
cle twenty-one of this act. 

Section 4. The cost of such investigation shall be paid by the county 
in which the accident occurred in the same manner as costs of inquests 
held by coroners or justices of the peace are paid. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

Neglect or Incompetence of Inspectors. 

Section 1. The court of common pleas in any county or district, 
upon a petition signed by not less than fifteen reputable citizens, who 
shall be miners or operators of mines, and with the affidavit of one or 
more of said petitioners attached setting forth that any inspector of 
mines neglects his duties or is incompetent, or that he is guilty of a 
malfeasance in office, shall issue a citation in the name of the Com- 
monwealth to the said mine inspector to appear on not less than fif- 
teen days' notice, upon a day fixed, before said court, at which time 
the court shall proceed to inquire into and investigate the allegations 
of the said petitioners: 

Section 2. If the court find that the said mine inspector is neglect- 
ful of his duties or incompetent to perform the duties of his office 
or that he is guilty of malfeasance in office, the court shall certify the 
same to the Governor, who shall declare the office of said mine in- 
spector vacant and proceed in compliance with the provisions of this 
act to supply the vacancy; and the costs of said investigation shall, 
if the charges are sustained, be imposed upon the mine inspector, but 
if the charges are not sustained, they shall be imposed upon the 
petitioners. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

Discretionary Powers of Inspectors, Arbitration, Et Cetera. 

Section 1. The mine inspectors shall exercise a sound discretion in 
the enforcement of the provisions of this act, and if the operator, 
owner, miners, superintendent, mine foreman or other persons em- 
ployed in or about the mine as aforesaid shall not be satisfied with 
any decision the mine inspector may arrive at in the discharge of his 
duties under this act, which said decision shall be in writing signed 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxxiii 

by the mine inspector, the said owner, operator, superintendent, mine 
foreman or other person specified above shall either promptly com- 
ply therewith or within seven days from date thereof appeal from 
such decision to the court of quarter sessions of the county wherein 
the mine is located, and said court shall speedily determine the ques- 
tion involved in said decision and appeal and the decision of said 
court shall be binding and conclusive. 

Section 2. The court or the judge of said court in chambers may 
in its discretion, appoint three practical, reputable, competent and 
disinterested persons whose duty it shall be, under instructions of 
the said court, to forthwith examine such mine or other cause of 
complaint and report under oath, the facts as they exist or may have 
been, together with their opinions thereon within thirty days after 
their appointment. The report of said board shall become absolute 
unless exceptions thereto shall be filed within ten days after the 
notice of the filing thereof by the owner, operator, mine superinten- 
dent, mine foreman, mine inspector and other persons, as aforesaid, 
and if exceptions are filed the court shall at once hear and determine 
the same and the decision shall be final and conclusive. 

Section 3. If the court shall finally sustain the decision of the 
mine inspector, then the appellant shall pay all costs of such pro- 
ceedings, and if the court shall not sustain the decision of the mine 
inspector then such costs shall be paid by the county: Provided, 
That no appeal from any decision made by any mine inspector which 
can be immediately complied with shall work as a supersedeas to 
such decisions during the pendency of such appeal, but all decisions 
shall be in force until reversed or modified by the proper court. 

ARTICLE xv. 

Examinations of Mine Foremen and Fire Bosses. 

Section 1. On the petition of the mine inspector the court of com- 
mon pleas in any county in said district shall appoint an examining 
board of three persons, consisting of a mine inspector, a miner and 
an operator or superintendent, which said miner shall have received 
a certificate of competency as mine foreman in mines generating ex- 
plosive gases, and the members of said examining board shall be 
citizens of this Commonwealth, and the persons so appointed shall 
after being duly organized take and subscribe before an officer au- 
thorized to administer the same, the following oath, namely: "We, 
the undersigned, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that we will perform 
the duties of examiners of applicants for the position of mine fore- 
men and fire bosses of bituminous coal mines to the best of our 
abilities, and that in certifying or rejecting said applicants we will 
be governed by the evidence of the qualifications to fill the position 



cxxxiv MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

under the law creating the same and not by any consideration of 
personal favor; that we will certify all whom we may find qualified 
and none others." 

Section 2. The examining board shall examine any person apply- 
ing thereto as to his competency and qualifications to discharge the 
duties of mine foreman or fire boss. 

Applicants for mine foreman or fire boss certificates shall be at 
least twenty-three years of age, and shall have had at least five years' 
practical experience, after fifteen years of age, as miners, superinten- 
dent at or inside of the bituminous mines of Pennsylvania and shall 
be citizens of this Commonwealth and men of good moral character 
and of known temperate habits. 

The said board shall be empowered to grant certificates of com- 
petency of two grades, namely: certificates of first grade, to persons 
who have had experience in mines generating explosive gases and 
who shall have the necessary qualifications to fulfil the duties of 
mine foreman in such mines; and certificates of second grade, to per- 
sons who give satisfactory evidence of their ability to act as mine 
foreman in mines not generating explosive gases. 

Section 3. The said board of examiners shall meet at the call of 
the mine inspector and shall grant certificates to all persons whose 
examination shall disclose their fitness for the duties of mine fore- 
man as above classified, or fire boss, and such certificates shall be 
sufficient evidence of the holder's competency for the duties of said 
position so far as relates to the purposes of this act: Provided, That 
all persons holding certificates of competency granted under the 
provisions of the act to which this is a supplement shall continue to 
act under this act: And provided further, That any person acting as 
mine foreman upon a certificate of service under the act to which 
this is a supplement may continue to act in the same capacity at any 
mine where the general conditions affecting the health and safety 
of the persons employed do not differ materially froin those at the 
mine in which he was acting when said certificate was granted: 
Provided, however, That if such a mine foreman leaves his present 
employer and secures employment elsewhere at any mine where in 
the judgment of the mine inspector of the district the conditions af- 
fecting the health and safety of the persons employed do differ ma- 
terially from those at the mine at which he was employed when his 
certificate was granted, it shall then be the duty of the mine inspec- 
tor of the district in which he has secured employment to serve 
written protest against such mine foreman's employment to the 
operator of said mine. 

Section 4. The examining board shall hold their office for a period 
of four years from the date from their appointment and shall receive 
five dollars per day for each day necessarily employed and mileage 



No. 11. MINIXt; LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxxv 

at the rate of three cents per mile for each mile necessarily traveled, 
and all other necessary expenses connected with the examination 
shall be paid by the Commonwealth. Each applicant before being 
examined shall pay the examining board the sum of one dollar, and 
one dollar additional for each certificate granted, which shall be for 
the use of the Commonwealth. The foregoing examination shall be 
held annually in each inspection district. 

ARTICLE XVI. 

Suspension of Certificates of Mine Foreman and Fire Bosses. 

Section 1. No person shall act as fire boss in any bituminous coal 
mines, unless granted a certificate of competency by any one of the 
several examining boards. All applicants applying to any of the ex- 
amining boards for fire boss certificates shall undergo an oral ex 
animation in the presence of explosive gas, and such certificate shall 
only be granted to men of good moral character and of known tem- 
perate habits, and it shall be unlawful for any operator or superin- 
tendent to employ any person as fire boss who has not obtained such 
certificate of competency as required by this act. 

Section 2. if (he mine foreman or fire boss shall neglect his duties 
or has incapacitated himself by drunkenness, or has been incapa- 
citated by any other cause for the proper performance of said duties, 
and the same shall be brought to the knowledge of the operator or 
superintendent it shall be the duty of such operator or superin- 
tendent to discharge such delinquent at once and notify the inspec- 
tor of the district of such action, whereupon it shall be the duty of 
said inspector to inform the court of common pleas of the county 
who shall issue a citation in the name of the Commonwealth to the 
said operator, superintendent, mine foreman or fire boss to appear 
at not less than fifteen days' notice upon a day fixed before said 
court, at which time the court shall proceed to inquire into and in- 
vestigate the allegations. If the court finds that the allegations are 
true, it shall notify I lie examining board of such finding and instruct 
the said board to withdraw the certificate of such delinquent during 
any period of time that said court may deem sufficient, and at the 
expiral ion of such I ime he shall be entitled to a re-examination. 

ARTICLE XVII. 

Employment of Boys and Females. 
Section 1. No boy under (he age of twelve years, or any woman or 
girl of any ;i»'c, shall be employed or permitted to be iu the workings 
of any bituminous coal mine for (lie purpose of employment, or for 
any other purpose; and no boy under the age of sixteen shall be 
permitted to mine or load coal in any room, entry or other working 
place, unless in company with a person over sixteen years of age. If 



cxxxvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

the mine inspector or mine foreman has reason to doubt the fact of 
any particular boy being as old as this act requires for the service 
which said boy is performing at any mine, it shall be the duty of said 
mine inspector or mine foreman to report the fact to the superinten- 
dent, giving the name of said boy, and the said superintendent shall 
at once discharge the said boy. 

ARTICLE XVIII. 

Stretchers. 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of operators or superintendents to 
keep at the mouth of the drift, shaft, or slope, or at such other place 
about the mine as shall be designated by the mine inspector, a 
stretcher properly constructed, and a woolen and a waterproof 
blanket in good condition for use in carrying away any person who 
may be injured at the mine: Provided, That where more than two 
hundred persons are employed two stretchers and two woolen and 
two waterproof blankets shall be kept. And in mines generating 
fire-damp a sufficient quantity of linseed or olive oil, bandages and 
linen shall be kept in store at the mines for use in emergencies, and 
bandages shall be kept at all mines. 

ARTICLE XIX. 

Annual Reports. 

Section 1. On or before the twenty-fifth day of January in each 
year the operator or superintendent of every bituminous coal mine 
shall send to the mine inspector of the district in which said mine is 
located a correct report, specifying with respect to the year ending 
the thirty-first day of December preceding, the name of the operator 
and officers of the mine and the quantity of coal mined. The report 
shall be in such form and give such information regarding said mines 
as may be from time to time required and prescribed by the mine 
inspector of the district. Blank forms for such reports shall be fur- 
nished by the Commonwealth. 

ARTICLE XX. 

Additional Duties of Mine Foreman. 

Section 1. Rule 1. The mine foreman shall attend personally to his 
duties in the mine and carry out all the instructions set forth in this 
act and see that the regulations prescribed for each class of work- 
men under his charge are carried out in the strictest manner pos- 
sible, and see that any deviation from or infringements of any of 
them are promptly adjusted. 

Rule 2. He shall cause all stoppings along the airways to be properly 
built. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. cxxxvii 

Kule 3. He shall see that the entries at such places where road 
grades necessitate sprags or brakes to be applied or removed shall 
have a clear level width of not less than two and one-half feet, be- 
tween the side of car and the rib to allow the driver to pass his trip 
safely and keep clear of the cars there. 

Rule 4. He shall direct that all miners undermine the coal prop- 
erly before blasting it and that blasting shall be done at only such 
hours as he shall direct and shall order the miners to set sprags under 
the coal, when necessary for safety while undermining at distances 
not exceeding seven feet apart, and he shall not allow the improper 
drawing of pillars. 

Kule 5. In mines where fire damp is generated when the furnace 
fire has been put out it shall not be relighted, except in his presence, 
or that of his assistant under his instructions. 

Rule 6. In case of accident to a ventilating fan or its machinery, 
or the fan itself, whereby the ventilation of the mine would be 
seriously interrupted, it shall be his duty to order the men to im- 
mediately withdraw from the mine and not allow their return to 
their work until the ventilation has been restored and the mine has 
been thoroughly examined by him or his assistant and reported to be 
safe. 

Rule 7. He shall see that all dangerous places are properly fenced 
off and proper danger signal boards so hung on such fencing, that 
they may be plainly seen; he shall also travel all air roads and ex- 
amine all the accessible openings to old workings as often as is nec- 
essary to insure their safety. 

Rule 8. He shall provide a book or sheet to be put in some con- 
venient place, or places, upon which shall be made a place for the 
numbers used by the miners with space sufficient to each number, 
so that the miners can write plainly the quantity of props, their ap- 
proximate length and the number of caps and other timbers which 
they require, together with the date of the order. Said book or 
sheets shall be preserved for thirty days from their date. 

Duties of Fire Boss. 

Rule 9. He shall enter the mine before the men have entered it, 
and before proceeding to examine the same, he shall see that the air 
current is traveling in its proper course, and if all seems right, he 
shall proceed to examine the workings. 

Rule 10. He shall not allow any person, except those duly au- 
thorized to enter or remain in any part of the mine through which 
a dangerous accumulation of gas is being passed in the ventilating 
current from any oilier part of the mine. 

Rule 11. He shall frequently examine the edge and accessible parts 
of new falls and old gobs and air courses, and he shall report at once 
any violation of this act to the mine foreman. 



cxxxviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Duties of Miners. 

Rule 12. He shall examine his working place before beginning 
work and take down all dangerous slate, or otherwise make it safe 
by properly timbering the same before commencing to dig or load 
coal, and In mines where fire bosses are employed, he shall examine 
his place to see whether the fire boss has left the proper marks in- 
dicating his examination thereof, and he shall at all times be very 
careful to keep his working place in a safe condition during working 
hours. 

Rule 13. Should he at any time find his place becoming dangerous 
either from gas or roof, or from any unusual condition which may 
have arisen, he shall at once cease working, and inform the mine 
foreman or his assistant of such danger, and before leaving such 
place he shall place some plain warning at the entrance thereto to 
warn others from entering into the danger. 

Rule 14. It shall be the duty of every miner to mine his coal prop- 
erly and to set sprags under the coal while undermining to secure it 
from falling and, after each blast, he shall exercise great care in ex- 
amining the roof and coal and shall secure them safely before begin- 
ning work. 

Rule 15. When places are liable to generate sudden volumes of 
fire damp, or where locked safety lamps are used, no miner shall be 
allowed to fire shots except under the supervision and with the con- 
sent of the mine foreman, or his assistant, or other competent person 
designated by the mine foreman for that purpose. 

Duties of Drivers. 

Rule 16. When a driver has occasion to leave his trip he must be 
careful to see that it is left, when possible, in a safe place, secure 
from cars or other dangers, or from endangering drivers of trip fol- 
lowing. 

Rule 17. The driver must take great care while taking his trips 
down grades to have the brakes or sprags so adjusted that he can 
keep the cars under control and prevent them from running onto 
himself or others. 

Rule 18. He shall not leave any cars standing where they may 
materially obstruct the ventilating current, except in case of accident 
to the trip. 

Duties of Trip Riders or Runners. 

Rule 19. He shall exercise great care in seeing that all hitchings 
are safe for use and see that all the trip is coupled before starting, 
and should he at any time see any material defect in the rope, link 
or chain, he shall immediately remedy such defect or, if unable to do 
so, he shall detain the trip and report the matter to the mine fore- 
man. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxxxix 

Duties of Engineer. 

Rule 20. It shall be the duty of the engineer to keep a careful 
watch over his engine and all machinery under his charge and see 
that the boilers are properly supplied with water, cleaned and in- 
spected at proper intervals, and that the steam pressure does not ex- 
ceed at any time the limit allowed by the superintendent. 

Rule 21. He shall make himself acquainted with the signal codes 
provided for in this act. 

Rule 22. He shall not allow any unauthorized person to enter the 
engine house, neither shall he allow any person to handle or run the 
engine, without the permission of the superintendent. 

Rule 2o. When workmen are being raised or lowered he shall take 
special precautions to keep the engine well under control. 

Rule 24. The locomotive engineer must keep a sharp lookout 
ahead of his engine and sound the whistle or alarm bell frequently 
when coming near the partings or landings; he must not exceed the 
speed allowed by the mine foreman or superintendent. He must 
not allow any person except his attendants, to ride on the engine or 
on the full cars. 

Duties of Firemen. 

Rule 25. Every fireman and other person in charge of a boiler or 
boilers for the generation of steam shall keep a careful watch of the 
same; he shall see that the steam pressure does not at any time ex- 
ceed the limit allowed by the superintendent; he shall frequently try 
the safety-valve and shall not increase the weight on the same; he 
shall maintain a proper depth of water in each boiler, and if any- 
thing should happen to prevent this, he shall report the same with- 
out delay to the superintendent, or other person designated by the 
superintendent, and take such other action as may, under the par- 
ticular circumstances, be necessary for the protection of life and the 
preservation of property. 

Duties of Fan Engineer. 

Rule 26. The engineer in charge .of any ventilating fan must keep 
it running at such speed as the mine foreman directs in writing. In 
case of accident to the boiler or fan machinery, not requiring the im- 
mediate withdrawal of the men from the mine by reason of serious 
interruption of the ventilation, lie shall invariably notify the mine 
foreman. If ordinary repairs of the fan or machinery becomes nec- 
essary, he must give timely notice to the mine foreman and await his 
instructions before stopping it. Tie shall also examine at the 
beginning of each shift all (lie fan bearings, slays and other parts, 
and see that they are kept in proper working order. Should it be- 
come impossible to run the fan or necessary to stop it to prevea' 

10 



cxl MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

destruction, he shall then at once stop it and notify the mine fore- 
man immediately and give immediate warning to persons in the 
mine. 

Duties of Furnacemen. 

Rule 27. The furnace man must attend to his duties with regu- 
larity, and in case he should be likely to be off work for any reason 
whatever, he must give timely notice to the mine foreman. 

Rule 28. The furnace man must at all times keep a clear, brisk 
fire and the fire must not be smothered with coal or slack during 
working hours, nor shall he allow ashes to accumulate excessively 
on or under the bars, or in the approaches to the furnace, and ashes 
shall be cooled before being removed. 

Rule 29. The furnace man must promptly obey the instructions of 
the mine foreman. 

SHAFTS AND SLOPES. 

Duties of Hookers-On. 

Rule 30. The kookers-on at the bottom of any slope shall be verv 
careful to see that the cars are properly coupled to a rope or chain 
and that the safety-catch or other device is properly attached to the 
car before giving the signal to the engineer. 

Duties of Cagers. 

Rule 31. The eager at the bottom of any shaft shall not attempt to 
withdraw the car until the cage comes to rest, and when putting the 
full car on the cage he must be very careful to see that the springs 
or catches are properly adjusted so as to keep the car in its proper 
place before giving the signal to the engineer. 

Rule 32. At every shaft or slope mine in which provision is made 
in this act for lowering and hoisting persons, a headman and footman 
shall be designated by the superintendent or mine foreman, who 
shall be at their proper places from the time that persons begin to 
descend until all the persons who may be at the bottom of said shaft 
or slope, wlien quitting work, shall be hoisted; such headman and 
footman shall personally attend to the signals and see that the pro- 
visions .of this act in respect to lowering or hoisting persons in shafts 
or slopes. 611311 be complied with. 

Rule 33. He shall n/)t allow any tools to be placed on the same cage 
with men or boys, nor on either cage when persons are being hoisted 
out of the mine, or being lowered into the mine, except when for the 
purpose of repairing the shaft or machinery therein. The men shall 
place their tools in cars provided for that purpose which car, or cars, 
shall be hoisted or lowered before and after the men have been 
hoisted or lowered. And he shall immediately inform the mine fore 
man of anv violation of this rule. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxli 

Rule 34. He shall also see that no driver, or other person, ascends 
the shaft with any horse or mule, unless the said horse or mule is se- 
cured in a suitable box, or safely penned, and only the driver in 
charge of said horse or mule shall accompany it in any case. 

Duties of Top Man. 

Rule 35. The top man of auy slope, or incline plane, shall be very 
careful to close the safety block, or other device, as soon as the cars 
have reached the landing so as to prevent any loose or runaway cars 
from descending the slope, or incline plane, and in no case shall such 
safety block, or other device, be withdrawn until the cars are coupled 
to the rope or chain and the proper signal given. He shall carefully 
inspect daily all the machinery in and about the check house, and the 
rope used for lowering the coal and promptly report any defect dis- 
covered to the superintendent, and shall use great care in attaching 
securely the wagons or cars to the rope and carefully lower the same 
down the incline. He shall ring the alarm bell in case of accident, 
and when necessary immediately set free to act, the drop logs or 
safety switch. 

Rule 36. The top man of any shaft shall see that the springs or 
keeps for the cage to rest upon are kept in good working order, and 
when taking the full car off he must be careful that no coal or other 
material is allowed to fall down the shaft. 

Rule 37. He shall be at his proper place from the time that persons 
begin to descend until all the persons who may be at the bottom of 
said shaft or slope when quitting work shall be hoisted. Such head- 
man and footman shall personally attend to the signals, and see that 
the provisions of this act in respect to lowering and hoisting persons 
in shafts or slopes shall be complied with. 

Rule 38. He shall not allow any tools to be placed on the same 
cage with men or boys, nor on either cage when persons are being 
lowered into the mine, except when for the purpose of repairing the 
shaft or the machinery therein. The men shall place their tools in 
cars provided for that purpose, which car or cars shall be lowered 
before and after the men have been lowered. 

Rule 39. He shall also see that no driver, or other person, descends 
the shaft with any horse or mule, unless the said horse or mule is se- 
cured in a suitable box or safely penned, and only the driver in 
charge of said horse or mule shall accompany it in any case. 

General Rules. 

Rule 40. If any person shall receive any injury in or about the 
mine and the same shall come within the knowledge of the mine 
foreman, and if he shall be of the opinion that the injured person 



cxli MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

requires medical or surgical treatment, he shall see that said injured 
person receives the same, and in case of inability of such injured 
person to pay therefor the same shall be borne by the county. The 
mine foreman shall report monthly to the mine inspector of the dis- 
trict on blanks furnished by said inspector for that purpose, all ac- 
cidents resulting in personal injury. 

Eule 41. No unauthorized person shall enter the mine without per- 
mission from the superintendent or mine foreman. 

Rule 42. No person in a state of intoxication shall be allowed to go 
into or loiter about the mine. 

Rule 43. All employes shall inform the mine foreman or his as- 
sistant of the unsafe condition of any working place, hauling roads 
or traveling ways, or of damage to doors, brattices or stoppings, or of 
obstructions in the air passages when known to them. 

Rule 44. No person shall be employed to blast coal, rock or slate, 
unless the mine foreman is satisfied that such a person is qualified by 
experience to perform the work with ordinary care. 

Rule 45. The mine superintendent or mine foreman shall cause to 
be constructed safety blocks or some other device for the purpose of 
preventing cars from falling into the shaft, or running away on 
slopes or incline planes; and safety switches, drop logs or other de- 
vice shall be used on all slopes and incline planes; and said safety 
blocks, safety switches or other device must be maintained in good 
working order. 

Rule 46. Every workman employed in the mine shall examine his 
working place before commencing work, and after any stoppage of 
work during the shift he shall repeat such examination. 

Rule 47. No person shall be allowed to travel on foot to or from 
his work on any incline plane, dilly or locomotive roads, when other 
good roads are provided for that purpose. 

Rule 48. Any employe or other person who shall wilfully deface, 
pull down or destroy any notice board, danger signal, general or 
special rules or mining laws, shall be prosecuted as provided for in 
section two, article twenty-one of this act. 

Rule 49. No powder or high explosive shall be taken into the min.; 
in greater quantities than required for use in one shift, unless such 
quantity be less than five pounds, and all powder shall be carried into 
the mine in metallic canisters. 

Rule 50. Powder in quantities exceeding twenty-five pounds, or 
other explosives in quantities exceeding ten pounds, shall not be 
stored in an} tipple or any weighing office, nor where workmen have 
business to visit, and no naked lights shall be used while weighing 
and giving out powder. 

Rule 51. All persons except those duly authorized, are forbidden 
to meddle or tamper in any way with any electric or signal wires in or 
about the mines. 



No. 11. ■ MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxlii 

Rule 52. No greater number of persons shall be hoisted or lowered 
at any one time in any shaft than is permitted by the mine inspec- 
tor, and whenever said number of persons shall arrive at the bottom 
of the shaft in which persons are regularly hoisted or lowered, they 
shall be furnished with an empty cage and be. hoisted, and in cases 
of emergency a less number shall be promptly hoisted. Any per- 
son or persons crowding or pushing to get on or off the cages shall 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Kule 58. Each workman, when engaged shall have his attention di- 
rected to the general and special rules by the person employing him. 

Rule 54. Workmen and all other persons are expressly forbidden 
to commit any nuisance or throw into, deposit, or leave coals or dirt, 
stones or other rubbish in the air way or road so as to interfere with, 
pollute, or hinder the air passing into and through the mine. 

Rule 55. No one, except a person duly authorized by the mine 
foreman, shall have in his possession a key or other instrument for 
the purpose of unlocking any safety lamp in any mine where locked 
safety lamps are used. 

Rule 5G. Every abandoned slope, shaft, air hole or drift shall be 
properly fenced around or across its entrance. 

Rule 57. No safety lamps shall be entrusted to any person for use 
in mines until he has given satisfactory evidence to the mine fore- 
man that he understands the proper use thereof and danger of tam- 
pering with the same. 

Rule 58. No person shall ride upon or against any loaded car or 
cage in any shaft or slope in or about any bituminous coal mine; 
no person other than the trip runner shall be permitted to ride on 
empty trips on any slope, inclined plane or dilly road, when the 
speed of the cars exceeds six miles per hour. The transportation of 
tools in and out of the mines shall be under the direction of the mine 
foreman. 

Rule 59. No persons other than the drivers or trip runners shall 
be permitted to ride on the full cars. 

Rule 60. In mines where coal dust has accumulated to a dangerous 
extent, care shall be exercised to prevent said dust from floating in 
the atmosphere by sprinkling it with water, or otherwise, as far as 
practicable. 

Rule 61. In cutting of clay veins, spars or faults in entries, or 
other narrow workings going into the solid coal in mines where ex- 
plosive gases are generated in dangerous quantities, a bore hole shall 
be kept not less than three feet in advance of the face of the work, 
or an advance of any shot hole drilled for a blast to be fired therein. 

Rule 62. The engineer placed in charge of an engine whereby per- 
sons are hoisted out of or lowered into any mine shall be a sober 
competent person, and not less than twenty-one years of age. 



cxliv MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Rule 63. When a workman is about to fire a blast he shall be care- 
ful to notify all persons who might be endangered thereby, and shall 
give sufficient alarm so that any person or persons approaching shall 
be warned of the danger. 

Rule 64. In every shaft or slope where persons are hoisted or 
lowered by machinery, as provided by this act, a topman and eager 
shall be appointed by the superintendent or mine foreman. 

Rule 65. Whenever a workman shall open a box containing pow- 
der or other explosives, or while in any manner handling the same, 
he shall first place his lamp not less than five feet from such ex- 
plosive and in such a position that the air current cannot convey 
sparks to it, and he shall not smoke while handling explosives. 

Rule 66. An accumulation of gas in mines shall not be removed 
by brushing. 

Rule 67. When gas is ignited by blast or otherwise, the person 
having charge of the place where the said gas is ignited, shall im- 
mediately extinguish it if possible, and if unable to do so shall im- 
mediately notify the mine foreman or his assistants of the fact. 
Workmen must see that no gas blowers are left burning upon leaving 
their working places. 

Rule 68. All ventilating fans used at mines shall be provided with 
recording instruments b}' which the number of revolutions or the 
effective ventilating pressure of the fan shall be registered and the 
registration with its date for each and every day shall be kept in 
the office of the mine for future reference for one year from its dare. 

Rule 69. Where the clothing or wearing apparel of employes be- 
comes wet by reason of working in wet places in the mines, it shall 
be the duty of the operator or superintendent of each mine, at the re- 
quest in writing of the mine inspector, who shall make such request 
upon the petition of any five miners of any one mine in the district 
working in the aforesaid wet places, to provide a suitable building 
which shall be convenient to the principal entrances of such mine 
for the use of the persons employed in wet places therein for the 
purpose of washing themselves and changing their clothes when 
entering the mine and returning therefrom. The said building shall 
be maintained in good order and be properly lighted and heated 
and shall be provided with facilities for persons to wash. If any 
person or persons shall neglect or fail to comply with the provisions 
of this article or maliciously injure or destroy, or cause to be in- 
jured or destroyed, the said building or any part thereof, or any of 
the appliances or fittings used for supplying light and heat therein, 
or doing any act tending to the injury or destruction thereof, he or 
they shall be deemed guilty of an offense against this act. 

Rule 70. In all shafts and slopes where persons, coal or other 
materials are hoisted by machinery the following code of signals shall 
be used: 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxlv 

One rap or whistle to hoist coal or other material. 

One rap or whistle to stop cage or car when in motion. 

Two raps or whistles to lower cage or car. 

Three raps or whistles when persons are to be hoisted, and for 
engineer to signal back ready when persons are to be hoisted, after 
which persons shall get on the cage or car, then one rap shall be given 
to hoist. 

Four raps or whistles, to turn on steam to the pumps. 

But a variation from the above code of signals may be used by per- 
mission of the mine inspector: Provided, That in any such case such 
changed code shall be printed and posted. 

Rule 71. No person or persons shall go into any old shaft or aban- 
doned part of the mine or into any other place which is not in actual 
course of working without permission from the mine foreman, nor 
shall they travel to and from their work except by the traveling way 
assigned for that purpose. 

Rule 72. No steam pipes through which high pressure steam is 
comeyed for the purpose of driving pumps or other machinery, shall 
be permitted on traveling or haulage ways, unless they are encased 
in asbestos, or some other suitable non-conducting material, or are 
so placed that the radiation of heat into the atmosphere of the mine 
w ill be prevented as far as possible. 

Rule 73. Where a locomotive is used for the purpose of hauling 
coal out of a mine, the tunnel or tunnels through which the locomo- 
tive passes shall be properly ventilated and kept free as far as 
practicable of noxious gases, and a ventilating apparatus shall be 
provided by the operator to produce such ventilation when deemed 
necessary and practicable to do so by the mine inspector. 

Rule 74. No inexperienced person shall be employed to mine out 
pillars unless in company with one or more experienced miners, and 
by their consent. 

ARTICLE XXI. 

Penalties. 
Section 1. Any person or persons whomsoever, who shall inten- 
tionally or carelessly injure any shaft, safety lamp, instrument, air- 
course or brattice, or obstruct or throw open air ways, or take 
matches for any purpose, or pipes or other smokers' articles beyond 
any station inside of which locked safety lamps are used, or injure 
any part of the machinery, or open a door in the mine and not close 
it again immediately or open any door which opening is forbidden, 
or disobey any order given in carrying out the provisions of this act, 
()!• do any other act whatsoever whereby the lives or the health of 
persons or the security of the miners or the machinery is endangered, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and may be punished in a 
manner provided for in this article. 



cxlvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 2. The neglect or refusal to perform the duties required to 
be performed by any section of this act by the parties therein re- 
quired to perform them, or the violation of any of the provisions or 
requirements hereof, shall be deemed a misdemeanor and shall upon 
conviction thereof in the court of quarter sessions of the county 
wherein the misdemeanor was committed, be punishable by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisonment in the county 
jail for a period not exceeding six months, or both, at the discretion 
of the court. 

Section 3. That for any injury to person or property occasioned 
by any violation of this act, or any failure to comply with its pro- 
visions by any owner, operator or superintendent of any coal mine 
or colliery, a right of action shall accrue to the party injured against 
said owner or operator for any direct damages he may have sus- 
tained thereby, and in case of loss of life by reason of such neglect 
or failure aforesaid, a right of action shall accrue to the widow and 
lineal heirs of the person whose life shall be lost for like recovery of 
damages for the injury they shall have sustained. 

ARTICLE XXII. 

Definition. 

Section 1. Coal Mine. In this act the term "coal mine" includes 
the shafts, slopes, adits, drifts or inclined planes connected with ex- 
cavations penetrating coal stratum or strata, which excavations are 
ventilated by one general air current or divisions thereof and con- 
nected by one general system of mine railroads over which coal may 
be delivered to one or more common points outside the mine, when 
such is operated by one operator. 

Excavations and Workings. The term "excavations and workings" 
includes all the excavated parts of a mine, those abandoned as well 
as the places actually being worked, also all underground workings 
and shafts, tunnels and other ways and openings, all such shafts, 
slopes, tunnels and other openings in the course of being sunk or 
driven, together with all roads, appliances, machinery and material 
connected with the same below the surface. 

Shaft. The term "shaft" means a vertical opening through the 
strata, and which is or may be used for the purpose of ventilation 
or drainage or for hoisting men or material or both in connection 
with the mining of coal. 

Slope. The term "slope" means an incline way or opening used for 
the same purpose as a shaft. 

Operator. The term "operator" means any firm, corporation or in- 
dividual operating any roal mine or part thereof. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxlvii 

Superintendent. The term "superintendent" means the person 
who shall have, on behalf of the operator, immediate supervision of 
one or more mines. 

Bituminous Mines. The term "bituminous" coal mines shall in- 
clude all coal mines in the State not now included in the anthracite 
boundaries. 

The provisions of this act shall not apply to any mine employing 
less than ten persons in any one period of twenty-four hours. 

ARTICLE XXIII. 

Section 1. That all acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith be 
and the same are hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 15th day of May, A. D. 1893. 

ROBT. E. PATTISON. 



AN ACT 

Equalizing and fixing the compensation and mileage of the members of the sev- 
eral boards appointed under the provisions of the act approved June second, 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, to examine candidates for appoint- 
ment as Inspectors, foremen and fire bosses, respectively, in the anthracite 
coal mines, and providing for the employment and compensation and mileage 
of a clerk to each of said boards. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That from and after the passage of 
this act the members of the several boards appointed under the pro- 
visions of the act approved June second, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety-one, to examine candidates for appointment respec- 
tively as inspectors and foremen of anthracite coal mines, shall re- 
ceive in lieu of all compensation, mileage, expenses, emoluments or 
allowances heretofore paid them, as follows: Six dollars per day for 
each day during which the said members shall be actually in at- 
tendance on the sessions of the board, and mileage at the rate of 
five cents for each mile actually traveled going from the home of the 
member to the place of meeting of the board and returning from said 
place to his said home by the shortest practicable railway route: 
Provided, That mileage shall be paid but once for each continuous 
session of the board, and by a continuous session shall be meant a 
session during the course of which no adjournment for a longer 
period than forty-eight hours shall take place. 

Section 2. Each of the boards enumerated or described in the first 
section of this act shall be and the same is hereby authorized to em- 
ploy a clerk, whose compensation and mileage shall be the same as 
that of a member of the board. So much of section four of the act 



cxlviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

of June second, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, as au- 
thorizes the boards of examiners of candidates for inspectors of 
anthracite coal mines to engage the services of a clerk is hereby re- 
pealed, and all clerks hereafter appointed by the several boards here- 
inbefore mentioned shall be appointed under the provisions of this 
act. 

Section 3. The members of the said boards shall, on the final ad- 
journment of each session of their respective boards, submit to the 
Auditor General sworn statements approved by the president or 
chairman of their respective boards, setting forth the number of 
days during which each member shall have been actually in attend- 
ance on the sessions of the board of which he is a member during 
said session, as well as the distance from the home of the member 
to the place of meeting of his board as aforesaid, by the nearest 
practicable railway route, and the number of miles actually traveled 
by him; and the clerks of said boards shall submit like statements, 
and the Auditor General shall, upon the receipt of such sworn state- 
ments draw his warrant upon the State Treasurer in favor of each 
of such members and clerks for such sums as shall appear to be 
properly due each. 

Section 4. All acts and parts of acts or supplements thereto in 
conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 26th day of June, A. D. 1895. 

DANIEL H. HASTINGS. 



AN ACT 

For the better protection of employes in and about the coal mines by preventing 
mine superintendent, mine foremen and assistants from receiving or solicit- 
ing any sums of money or other valuable consideration from men while in their 
employ, and providing a penalty for violation of the same. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That on and after the passage of this 
act any mine superintendent, mine foreman or assistant foreman, 
or any other person or persons who shall receive or solicit any sum of 
money or other valuable consideration, from any of his or their em- 
ployes for the purpose of continuing in his or their employ, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be subject to a fine 
not less than fifty dollars, nor more than three hundred dollars, and 
undergo an imprisonment of not less than six months, or both, at the 
discretion of the court. 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cxlix 

Section 2. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith be and 
the same are hereby repealed. 
Approved— The 15th day of June, A. D. 1897. 

DANIEL H. HASTINGS. 



AN ACT 

Establishing a Bureau of Mines in the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsyl- 
vania, denning its purposes and authority, providing for the appointment of a 
chief of said bureau and assistants, and fixing their salaries and expenses. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That there is hereby established in 
the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania a bureau to be 
known as the Bureau of Mines, which shall be charged with the 
supervision of the execution of the mining laws of this Common- 
wealth, and the care and publication of the annual reports of the 
inspectors of coal mines. 

Section 2. The chief officer of the bureau shall be denominated 
Chief of the Bureau of Mines, and shall be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, within 
thirty days after the final passage of this act, and every four years 
thereafter, who shall be commissioned by the Governor to serve a 
term of four years from the date of his appointment, and until 
his successor is duly qualified, and shall receive an annual salary of 
three thousand dollars and traveling expenses; and in case of a 
vacancy in the office of Chief of said Bureau, by reason of death, 
resignation or otherwise, the Governor shall appoint a qualified per- 
son to fill such vacancy for the unexpired balance of the term. 

Section 3. The Chief of the Bureau of Mines shall be a competent 
person having had at least ten years practical experience in the 
working and ventilation of coal mines of this State, and a practical 
and scientific knowledge of all noxious and dangerous gases found 
in such mines. The said Chief of the Bureau of Mines so appointed 
shall, before entering upon the duties of his office, take and sub- 
scribe to the oath of office prescribed by the Constitution, the same 
to be filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and 
give to the Commonwealth a bond in the penal sum of ten thousand 
dollars, with surety to be approved by the Governor and Secretary 
of Internal Affairs, conditioned for the faithful discharge of the 
duties of his office. . 

Section 4. It shall be the duty of the Chief of the Bureau to de 
vote the whole of his time to the duties of his office, and to see that 
the mining laws of this State are faithfully executed; and for this 



cl MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

purpose he is hereby invested with the same power and authority 
as the mine inspectors to enter, inspect and examine any mine or 
colliery within the State, and the works and machinery connected 
therewith, and to give such aid and instruction to the mine in- 
spectors from time to time as he may deem best calculated to pro- 
tect the health and promote the safety of all persons employed 
in and about the mines, and the said Chief of the Bureau of Mines 
shall have the power to suspend any mine inspector for any neglect 
of duty, but such suspended mine inspector shall have the right to 
appeal to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, who shall be empowered 
to approve of such suspension or restore such suspended mine 
inspector to duty, after investigating the causes which led to such 
suspension. Should the Chief of the Bureau of Mines receive in- 
information by petition, signed by ten or more miners, or one or more 
operators, setting forth that any of the mine inspectors are neglectful 
of their duty, or are incompetent to perform the duties of their 
office, or are guilty of malfeasance in office, he shall at once investi- 
gate the matter, and if he shall be satisfied that the charge or 
charges are well founded, he shall then petition the court of common 
pleas, or the judge in chambers, in any county within or partly 
within the inspection district of the said mine inspector; which 
court, upon receipt of said petition and a report of the character of 
the charges and testimony produced, shall at once issue a citation 
in the name of the Commonwealth to the said inspector, to appear 
on not less than fifteen days' notice, on a fixed day before said court, 
at which time the court shall proceed to inquire into the allegations 
of the petitioners, and may require the attendance of such witnesses 
on the subpoena issued and served by the proper officer or officers, as 
the judge of the court and the Chief of said Bureau may deem neces- 
sary in the case; the inspector under investigation shall also have 
similar power and authority to compel the attendance of witnesses 
in his behalf. If the court shall find by said investigation that the 
said mine inspector is guilty of neglecting his official duties, or is 
incompetent to perform the duties of his office, or is guilty of mal 
feasance in office, the said court shall certify the same to the Gov- 
ernor, who shall declare the office vacant, and shall proceed to sup- 
ply the vacancy as provided for by the mining laws of this State. 
The cost of said investigation shall, if the charges are sustained, 
be imposed upon the mine inspector, but if the charges are not sus- 
tained the cost shall be paid out of the State Treasury, upon voucher 
or vouchers duly certified as to correctness by the judge or proper 
officer of the court where such proceedings are held. To enable the 
said Chief of the Bureau of Mines to conduct more effectually his 
examinations and investigations of the charges and complaints which 
may be made by petitioners against any of the* mine inspectors as 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cli 

Ik rein provided, he shall have power to administer oaths and take 
affidavits and depositions in form and manner provided by law: 
Provided however, That nothing in this section shall be construed 
as to repeal section thirteen of article two of the act of Assembly 
approved the second day of June, Anno Domini one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-one, entitled "An act to provide for the health 
and safety of persons employed in and about the anthracite coai 
mines of Pennsylvania, and for the protection and preservation of 
property connected therewith," and also articles thirteen and four- 
teen of an act of Assembly approved the fifteenth day of May, Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, entitled "An 
act relating to bituminous coal mines, and providing for the lives, 
health, safety and welfare of persons employed therein." 

Section 5. It shall be the duty of the Chief of the Bureau of 
Mines to take charge of and preserve in his office the annual reports 
of the mine inspectors, and transmit a copy of them, together with 
such other statistical data compiled therefrom and other matter 
relating to the work of the Bureau as may be of public interest, 
properly addressed to the Secretary of Internal Affairs for transmis- 
sion to the Governor and the General Assembly of this Common- 
wealth,- on or before the first day of March in each year. It shall 
also be the duty of the Chief of the Bureau of Mines to see that 
said reports, or copy of them, are placed in the hands of the Public 
Printer for publication at the same date; the same to be published 
under direction of the Secretary of Internal Affairs as other report* 
of his Department are now required by law to be published, and 
in order that the Chief of said Bureau may be able to prepare, 
compile and transmit his annual report to the Secretary of Internal 
Affairs within the time herein specified, the mine inspectors are 
herein' required to deliver their annual reports to the Secretary of 
Internal Affairs on or before the fifteenth day of February in each 
year. In addition to the annual reports herein required of the mine 
inspectors, the said mine inspectors shall furnish the Chief of the 
Bureau of Mines, monthly and also such special reports or informa- 
tion on any subject regarding mine accidents or other matters per- 
taining to mining interests, or the safety of persons employed in 
mines as he at any time may require or may deem necessary in the 
proper and lawful discharge of his official duties. The Chief of the 
Bureau of Mines shall also establish as far as may be practicable a 
uniform style and size of blanks for the annual, monthly and 
special reports of the mine inspectors, and prescribe the form and 
character of subject mailer to be embraced in I lie text and the 
tabulated statements of their reports. The Chief of the Bureau of 
Mines is hereby authorized to make such examinations and inves- 
tigations as may enable him to report upon the various systems of 



clii MINING LAWS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

coal mining practiced in the State, method of mining, ventilation, 
machinery employed, structure and character of the several coal 
seams operated, and of the associated strata, the circumstances and 
responsibility of mine accidents, economy of coal production, coal 
waste, area and exhaustion of coal territory, and such other mat- 
ters as may pertain to the general welfare of coal miners and others 
connected with coal mining, and the interests of coal mine owners 
and operators in this Commonwealth. 

Section 6. The Chief of the Bureau of Mines shall keep in his 
office a journal or record of all examinations made and work done 
under his administration, and copies of all official communications, 
and is hereby authorized to procure such books, instruments and 
chemical or other tests as may be found necessary to the proper dis- 
charge of his duties under this act, at the expense of the State. All 
instruments, plans, books and records pertaining to the office shall 
be the property of the State, and shall be delivered to his successor 
in office. 

Section 7. The Chief of the Bureau of Mines shall at all times 
be accountable to the Secretary of Internal Affairs for the faith- 
ful discharge of the duties imposed upon him by law, and the ad- 
ministration of his office and the rules and regulations pertaining 
to said Bureau shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary 
of Internal Affairs, who is hereby empowered to appoint an as- 
sistant to the Chief of the Bureau, at a salary of fourteen hundred 
dollars per annum, and a messenger at a salary of three hundred 
dollars per annum: And provided further, That the salaries of 
the Chief of the Bureau of Mines, his assistant and the messenger, 
shall be paid out of the State Treasury in the manner as other em- 
ployes of the Department of Internal Affairs are now paid. Pro- 
vided, That the Chief of said Bureau of Mines may be removed or 
suspended at any time by the Secretary of Internal Affairs, when 
in the opinion of said Secretary there has been a neglect of duty or a 
failure to comply with the law, or the instructions of the Secretary 
of Internal Affairs. 

Section 8. No person who is acting as a land agent, or as man- 
ager, viewer or agent of any mine or colliery, or who is interested 
in operating any mine or colliery, shall at the same time serve as 
Chief of the Bureau of Mines under the provisions of this act. 

Section 9. That the mine inspectors of each district of this State 
shall, within six months after the final passage and approval of 
this act, deposit in the Bureau of Mines an accurate map or plan of 
such coal mine, which may be on tracing muslin or sun print, drawn 
to a prescribed scale; which map or plan shall show the actual loca- 
tion of all openings, excavations, shafts, tunnels, slopes, planes, main 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. cliii 

headings, cross headings, and rooms or working places in each strata 
operated; pump, fans or other ventilation apparatus, the entire 
course and direction of air currents, the relation and proximity of 
the workings of such coal mines to all other adjoining mines or coal 
lands, and the relative elevation of all tunnels and headings, and 
of the face of working places near to or approaching boundary 
lines or adjacent mines; and on or before the close of each calendar 
year transmit to the Chief of the Bureau of Mines a supplemental 
map or plan showing all excavations, changes and additions made 
tioned map or plan. All such maps or plans to be and remain in the 
in such mine during the year, drawn to the scale as the first men- 
Bureau of Mines as a part of the records of that office. 

Section 10. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent with this act be 
and the same are hereby repealed. 

Approved— The loth day of July, A. D. 1897. 

DANIEL H. HASTINGS. 



AN ACT 



Requiring the weighing of bituminous coal before screening, and providing a pen- 
alty for the violation thereof. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That it shall be unlawful for any 
mine owner, lessee or operator of any bituminous coal mine in this 
Commonwealth, employing miners at bushel or ton rates, or other 
quantity, to pass the output of coal mined by said miners over any 
screen or other device which shall take any part from the weight, 
value or quantity thereof, before the same shall have been weighed 
and duly credited to the employe sending the same to the surface and 
accounted for at the legal rate of weight fixed by laws of this Com- 
monwealth. 

Section 2. Any owner, lessee or operator of any bituminous coal 
mine, violating the provisions of this act, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction, for each and every such 
offense be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred ($100) 
dollars nor more than five hundred ($500) dollars, or by imprison- 
ment in the county jail for a period not to exceed ninety days, or 
by both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court; 
proceedings to be instituted in any court of competent jurisdiction. 



Cliv MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 3. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith be and 
the same are hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 15th day of July, A. D. 1897. 

DANIEL H. HASTINGS. 



AN ACT 

To protect the lives and limbs of miners from the dangers resulting from incom- 
petent miners working in the anthracite coal mines of this Commonwealth, and 
to provide for the examination of persons seeking employment as miners in the 
anthracite region, and to prevent the employment of incompetent persons as 
miners in anthracite coal mines, and providing penalties for a violation of the 
same. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That hereafter no person whom- 
soever shall be employed or engaged in the anthracite coal region 
of this Commonwealth, as a miner in any anthracite coal mine, with- 
out having obtained a certificate of competency and qualification 
so to do from the "Miners' Examining Board" of the proper district, 
and having been duly registered as herein provided. 

Section 2. That there shall be established in each of the eight 
inspection districts in the anthracite coal region, a board to be 

styled the "Miners' Examining Board" of the district, 

to consist of nine miners who shall be appointed in the same manner 
as the boards to examine mine inspectors are now appointed from 
among the most skillful miners actually engaged in said business in 
their respective districts, and who must have had five years' practical 
experience in the same. The said persons so appointed shall each 
serve for a term of two years from the date on which their appoint- 
ment takes effect, and they shall be appointed upon or before the ex- 
piration of the term of the present members of the "Miners' Exam- 
ining Board," and they shall be and constitute the "Miners' Exam- 
ining Board" for their respective districts, and shall hold the office 
for the term for which they were appointed, or until their successors 
are duly appointed and qualified, and shall receive as compensation 
for their services three dollars per day for each day actually engaged 
in this service, and all legitimate and necessary expenses incurred 
in attending the meetings of said board under the provisions of this 
act, and no part of the salary of said board or expenses thereof shall 
be paid out of the State Treasury. 

Each of said boards shall organize by electing one of their mem 
bers president, and one member as secretary, and by dividing them- 



No. 11. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. civ 

selves in to three subcommittees for the more convenient discharge 
of their duties, each of said committees shall have all powers here- 
inafter conferred upon the board; and whenever in this act the words 
''Examining Board" are used, they shall be taken to include any of 
the committees thereof. 

Every member of said board shall, within ten days of their ap- 
pointment or being apprised of the same, take and subscribe an oath 
or affirmation before a properly qualified officer of the county in 
which they reside, that they will faithfully and impartially discharge 
the duties of their office. 

Any vacancies occurring in said board shall be filled in the manner 
hereinbefore provided from among such only as are eligible for 
original appointment. 

Section 3. Each of said examining boards shall designate some 
convergent place within their districts for the meeting of the several 
committees thereof, and of which due notice shall be given by adver- 
tisement 'n two or more newspapers of the proper county, and so 
divided as to reach as nearly as practicable all the mining districts 
therein; but in no case shall such meeting be held in a building where 
any intoxicating liquors are sold. 

Each of said committee shall open at the designated place of 
meeting a book of registration, in which shall be registered the 
name and address of each and every person duly qualified under thi.s 
act to oe employed as a miner in an anthracite coal mine. And it 
shall be the duty of all persons employed as miners to be properly 
registered, and in case of a remova\ from the district in which a 
miner is registered, it shall be his duty to be registered in the dis- 
trict to which he removes. 

Application for registration only may be sent by mail to the board, 
after being properly attested before any person authorized to ad- 
minister an oath or affirmation in the county in which the applicant 
resides. The form of application shall be subject to such regula- 
tion as may be prescribed by the boards, but in no case shall any 
applicant be put to any unnecessary expense in order to secure regis- 
tration. 

Section 4. Each applicant for examination and registration and 
for the certificate hereinafter provided, shall pay a fee of one dollar 
to the said board, and a fee of twenty-five cents shall be charged 
for registering any person who shall have been examined and regis- 
tered by any other board, and the amount derived from this source 
shall be held by said boards and applied to the expenses and salaries 
herein provided and such as may arise under the provisions of this 
act; and the said boards shall report annually, to the court of- com- 
mon pleas of their respective counties and the Bureau of Mines and 
Mining all moneys received and disbursed under the provisions of 

11 



dvi MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doe. 

this act, together with the number of miners examined and registered 
under this act and the number who failed to pass the required ex- 
amination. 

Section 5. That it shall be the duty of each of the said boards 
to meet once every month and not oftener, and said meeting shall be 
public, and if necessary, the meeting shall be continued to cover 
whatever portion may be required of a period of three days in suc- 
cession, and examine under oath all persons who shall desire to be 
employed as miners in their respective districts; and said board shall 
grant such persons as may be qualified, certificates of competency 
or qualification which shall entitle the holder thereof to be employed 
as and to do the work of miners as may be expressed in said certifi- 
cate, and such certificates shall be good and sufficient evidence of 
registration and compentency under this act; and the holder thereof 
shall be entitled to be registered without an examination in any 
other of the anthracite districts upon the payment of the fee herein 
provided. 

All persons applying for a certificate of competency, or to entitle 
them to be employed as miners, must produce satisfactory evidence 
of having had not less than two years practical experience as a 
miner, or as a mine laborer in the mines of this Commonwealth, and 
in no case shall an applicant be deemed competent unless he appear 
in person before the said board and answer intelligently and cor- 
rectly at least twelve questions in the English language pertaining 
to the requirements of a practical miner, and be perfectly identified 
under oath, as a mine laborer by at least one practical miner holding 
miners' certificates. The said board shall keep an accurate record of 
the proceedings of all its meetings, and in said record shall show a 
correct detailed account of the examination of each applicant, with 
the questions asked and their answer, and at each of its meetings 
the board shall keep said record open for public inspection. Any 
miner's certificate granted under the provisions of this act, and the 
hereinafter mentioned act approved the ninth day of May, Anno 
Domini oue thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine, shall not be 
transferable to any person or persons whatsoever, and any transfer 
of the same shall be deemed a violation of this act. Certificates 
shall be issued only at meetings of said board, and said certificates 
shall not be legal unless then and there signed in person by at least 
three members of said board. 

Section 6. That no person shall hereafter engage as a miner in 
any anthracite coal mine without having obtained such certificate 
as aforesaid. And no person shall employ any person as a miner 
who does not hold such certificate as aforesaid, and no mine foreman 
or superintendent shall permit or suffer any person to be employed 



No. 10. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. civil 

under him, or in the mines under his charge and supervision 
as a miner, who does not hold such certificates. Any per- 
son or persons who shall violate or fail to comply witli 
the provisions of this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and on conviction thereof shall be sentenced to pay a fine not less 
than one hundred dollars and not to exceed five hundred dollars, or 
shall undergo imprisonment for a term not less than thirty days and 
not to exceed six months, or either, or both, at the discretion of 
the court. 

Section 7. The persons who are now serving as members of the 
Miners' Examining Board as created by the act approved the ninth 
day of May, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
nine, entitled "An act to provide for the examination of miners in 
the anthracite region of this Commonwealth, and to prevent the 
employment of incompetent persons as miners in anthracite coal 
mines," shall continue under the provisions of this act to serve as 
members of the "Miners' Examining Board" until the terms for 
which they were appointed under the provisions of the said act ap- 
proved the ninth day of May, Anno Domini one thousand eight hun- 
dred and eighty-nine, shall have expired, and in the performance 
of the duties of their office they shall be subject to the provisions and 
requirements of this act. 

Section 8. Nothing in this act shall be construed to in any way, 
excepting as herein provided, effect miners' certificates which have 
been lawfully issued under the provisions of the herein mentioned 
act, approved the ninth day of May, Anno Domini one thousand eight 
hundred and eighty-nine. 

Section 9. It shall be the duty of the several Miners' Examining 
Boards to investigate all complaints or charges of non compliance or 
violation of the provisions of this act, and to prosecute all persons so 
offending; and upon their failure so to do, then it shall become the 
duty of the district attorney of the county wherein the complaints 
or charges are made to investigate the same and prosecute all per- 
sons so offending, and it shall at all times be the duty of the district 
attorney to prosecute such members of the Miners' Examining Board 
as have failed to perform their duty under the provisions of this 
act; but nothing herein contained shall prevent any citizen, a resident 
of this Commonwealth, from prosecuting any person or persons vio- 
lating this act, with power to employ private counsel to assist in the 
prosecution of the same; upon conviction of any member of the 
Miners' Examining Board for any violation of this act, in addition 
to the penalties herein provided, his office shall be declared vacant, 
and he shall be deemed ineligible to act as a member of the said 
board. 



elviii MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. Off. Doc. 

Section 10. For the purposes of this act the members of the said 
"Miners' Board" shall have power to administer oaths. 

Section 11. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 15th day of July, A. D. 1897. 

DANIEL H. HASTINGS. 



AN ACT 

To amend the tenth section of article ten of an act, entitled "An act to provide 
for the health and safety of persons employed in and about the anthracite 
coal mines of Pennsylvania, and for the protection and preservation of pro- 
perty connected therewith," approved the second day of June, Anno Domini 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, providing that self-acting doors 
are used. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That the tenth section of article ten 
of an act, entitled "An act to provide for the health and safety of 
persons employed in and about the anthracite coal mines of Penn- 
sylvania, and for the protection and preservation of property con- 
nected therewith," approved the second day of June, Anno Domini 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, which reads as follows: 

"All main doors shall have an attendant whose constant duty it 
shall be to open them for transportation and travel and prevent them 
from standing open longer than is necessary for persons or cars to 
pass through," be and the same is hereby amended to read as follows: 

All main doors shall have an attendant, whose constant duty it 
shall be to open them for transportation and travel and prevent them 
from standing open longer than is necessary for persons or cars to 
pass through, unless a self-acting door is used which is approved by 
the inspector of the district. 

Approved— The 20th day of April, A. D. 1S99. 

WILLIAM A. STONE. 



AN ACT 

To amend section four of article eight of an act, entitled "An act relating to 
bituminous coal mines and providing for the lives, health, safety and welfare 
of persons employed therein," approved the fifteenth day of May, Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three permitting the use of 
mineral oils in bituminous mines when used in approved safety lamps. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c, That section four of article eight of 
an act, entitled "An act relating to bituminous coal mines and pro- 
viding for the lives, health, safety and welfare of persons employed 



No. 10. MINING LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA. clix 

therein," approved the fifteenth day of May, Anno Domini one thou- 
sand eight hundred and ninety-three, which reads as follows: 

"Section 4. No explosive oil shall be used or taken into bituminous 
coal mines for lighting purposes and oil shall not be stored or taken 
into the mines in quantities exceeding five gallons. The oiling or 
greasing of cars inside of the mines is strictly forbidden unless the 
place where said oil or grease is used is thoroughly cleaned at 
least once every day to prevent the accumulation of waste oil or 
grease on the roads or in the drains at that point. Not more than 
one barrel of lubricating oil shall be permitted in the mine at any one 
time. Only a pure animal or pure cotton-seed oil or oils that shall be 
as free from smoke as pure animal or pure cotton-seed oil shall be 
used for illuminating purposes in any bituminous mine. Any person 
found knowingly using explosive or impure oil contrary to this sec- 
tion shall be prosecuted as provided for in section two of article 
twenty-one of this act," be and the same is hereby amended to read 
as follows: 

Section 4. No explosive oil shall be used or taken into bituminous 
coal mines for lighting purposes except when used in approved safety 
lamps and oil shall not be stored or taken into the mines in quanti- 
ties exceeding five gallons. The oiling or greasing of cars inside 
of the mines is strictly forbidden unless the place where said oil 
or grease is used is thoroughly cleaned at least once every day to 
prevent the accumulation of waste oil or grease on the roads or in 
the drains at that point. Not more than one barrel of lubricating 
oil shall be permitted in the mine at any one time. Only a pure ani- 
mal oil or pure cotton-seed oil or oils that shall be as free from smoke 
as pure animal or pure cotton-seed oil shall be used for illuminating 
purposes in any bituminous mine. Any person found knowingly 
using explosive or impure oil contrary to this section shall be prose- 
cuted as provided for in section two of article twenty-one of this aci. 

Approved— The 28th day of April, A. D. 1899. 

WILLIAM A. STONE. 



( clx ) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



First Anthracite District. 



LACKAWANNA. 

Scranton, Pa., February 28, 1901. 
Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Sir: I now have the honor of herewith transmitting to you my 
report as Inspector of Mines for the First Anthracite District for the 
year 1900. 

The total production of coal was 0,363,948 tons, which is a decrease 
of 1,005,023 tons from that of 1899. This was owing to the general 
strike, which continued six weeks, and another of nine months at 
one of the best producing collieries of the district. 

The average number of days worked was 161.5, or 12.7 days less 
than in 1899. There were 17,285 persons employed, during the year, 
an increase of 142 over the number employed the previous year. 

The total number employed inside of mines was 12,844, and out- 
side, and outside 4,441, one of whom lost his life; 39 were killed inside, 
leaving 27 wives widows and 50 orphans under 14 years of age. 

The number of tons per fatal accident was 154,223.7, or an in- 
crease of 45,774.2 tons per fatal accident over that of the previous 
year, when there were 68 deaths, while the number last year was 40. 

The total number of accidents was 158, and the number of tons 
mined for each one was 40,309.8, an increase of 230.8 tons over 
that of 1899. The number of tons produced per person employed was 
368.5. There were 204,359 kegs of powder consumed, which is 40,507 
less than for the preceding year. There were 31 tons of coal produced 
per keg of powder used. 

Of the 15S persons killed and injured, 97 were citizens and 61 aliens. 

Of those who met witli accidents. 111 were from among the English 
speawing nations, namely, Americans, Irish. English, Welsh and 
Scotch; while the remaining 67 were of the German, Polish, Slavish, 
Hungarian, Russian, Italian and Austrian nations. The percentage 
of both classes employed is about equal. 

(l) 



2 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The general conditions in and about the mines are good. Where 
the ventilation is somewhat deficient, it is the fault of those directly 
in charge, and not, as a rule, the fault of the general management, 
for at all mines there are ample means- for producing ventilation, 
but, quite frequently, from a lack of tact on the part of the mine 
foreman, the air courses and cross-cuts are neglected from day 
to day until they discover that the "air at the faces" is poor, and 
when they endeavor to improve it, they find that the task is more 
than they expected, then a little improvement is made from time 
to time, so as not to increase the cost per ton too suddenly. 

In the meantime, in such cases, which, however, are few, the 
miners and laborers suffer considerably for a time, and all, simply, 
because of a false sense of economy, or a want of proper business 
ability on the part of the mine foreman to economically manage the 
mine and at the same time keep all sections of it in a satisfactorily 
safe, healthful and neat condition. 

Several new fans were installed during the year, in a few cases to 
replace old ones, and others at new openings, and in no case is means 
of producing a strong current of air at any time deficient, and the 
ventilation at the faces of all workings ought to be good at all times, 
and, in most cases, from personal observation, I am able to say it is; 
the only places where I find it poor are where the mine foremen are 
lax in their methods, and this exists in a few mines where there 
is no explosive gas evolved, and at no other ones. 

The absence of gas removes the possibility of an explosion, and 
this tends to make some of mine foremen indifferent to the chief 
object of ventilation, namely, that of keeping the mine healthful 
at all points for persons to work in. 

This indifference leads to neglect, as already stated, the most es- 
sential thing for the benefit of all concerned, the miner first, and the 
operator from a point of economic mining, and it would be well for 
the superintendents to periodically insist upon a strict compliance, 
on the part of the mine foremen, with all the requirements of the 
mine law pertaining to ventilation. 

The superintendents, in addition to providing means of producing 
an ample air current, should also see that a proper distribution of it 
is made to the workmen at the faces of all working places, as this 
keeps them in good spirits and enables them to mine and clean the 
coal better. 

In last year's report, in regard with accidents, it was shown that 
most of them occurred at or close to the faces of working places, and 
a suggestion as to the means of partially reducing their number was 
made. 

Of the forty fatalities last year, twenty-five, or 65 per cent, hap- 
pened near or at the face of gangways or chambers. 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 3 

This fact alone establishes the fact that here the greatest care 
should be taken, both by the miners and those in charge of them. 
And I may say. in this connection, that if one-half of the care were 
exercised 1>.\ the miners themselves, that is exercised by the fore- 
men and (heir assistants over them, the accidents at the face would 
be much fewer. I 

But, becoming indifferent to danger by long familiarity with it, 
they become reckless and impatient, and, oftentimes, after having 
tried for some time to pry down a piece of rock until it is about to 
fall which fact, however, is not known to them, they cease their 
efforts and go to work under it, and in a short time it falls and 
kills them. 

Then again, how many each year are killed by working too far 
under "top coal;" they fire a shot in the bottom bench which fails 
to do the work expected of it, and, on reaching the face, at once begin 
to mine out, regardless of the condition of the coal overhead, until, 
suddenly, it falls on them. 

These, then, are the irregularities that should be prevented, and to 
prevent them, persons properly qualified, such as a practical miner 
in whose judgment the miners have confidence, should be employed 
to oversee the methods of mining, and prevent them from taking reck- 
less and unnecessary risks. 

This person could soon adopt the best method of mining or working 
a vein, and as he would have but a certain number of places, he would 
soon learn the peculiarities of the vein and roof, and govern himself 
and the miners accordingly. 

Being a practical miner, he would know how props should be 
placed, so as not to be easily displaced by shots, unless broken; 
he would know when it was advisable to put up a set of timber, and 
whether a slab of rock should be "propped'' or taken down. 

As an assistant, and a practical miner, he could see to the cleaning 
and loading of coal; see that no coal was wasted by being thrown 
on the "gob," could see that the cross-cuts were kept clean for the 
free passage of the air current, also that the roads were kept clean 
and safe; in fact, have general charge, under the foreman, of one 
section of a mine, instead of being held responsible for what might 
occur in any section of it. 

This is now in practice to a considerable extent, and with very 
satisfactory results in sections of mines where the pillars are being 
removed previous to abandonment, and there are thirty-five openings 
in this district in which more or less of this work is being done, and 
in a few, this is the chief source of production. 

Notwithstanding this, however, and from the fact that over a 
million and a half tons of coal were produced from pillars in remote 
sections of many of the mines, and that the work is extremely dan- 



4 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

gerous, not one accident occurred by the roof caving, which neces- 
sarily must, and does occur, as the work progresses, and as v T ery 
few occurred by small pieces falling while the men were engaged 
barring down rock or coal, as the case might be, goes to show that 
careful and systematic working, under the immediate direction of a 
qualified person, is productive of very much good, and would apply 
with equal force to "live workings" as well as to "pillar robbing," 
and this constant supervision of the miners' methods of working 
seems to me to be the most necessary thing to prevent the frequent 
occurrence of accidents by falls of rock and coal at the faces of work- 
nig places; hence, I would recommend the system be given a trial. 

The report contains the usual statistics, a description of the fatal 
accidents, and of a few of the improvements, together with a report 
of the mine foremen's examination. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

EDWARD RODERICK, 

Inspector. 



Table A — Total Production in Tons During the Year 1900. 

Delaware and Hudson Company, 2,408,744 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company, 738,415 

Temple Iron Company, 797,551 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, 556,985 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 426,165 

Johnson Coal Company, 368,889 

Pennsylvania Coal Company, 281,543 

Riverside Coal Company, 100,747 

Murray Coal Company, 58,140 

Clark Tunnel Coal Company, 20,399 

Dolph Coal Company, 160,049 

Mt. Jessup Coal Company 74,0S6 

Moosic Mountain Coal Company, 108,369 

Price Pancoast Coal Company, 241,914 

Kingsley Coal Company 19,520 

Black Diamond Coal Company, 2,555 

W. L. Barton Coal Co., 4,877 

Total, 6.368,948 



No. 11. FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 5 

The total production was made up as follows: 

►Shipments by railroad to market, 5,841,064 

Sold at mines for local use, 87,870 

Consumed to generate steam, 440,014 

Total, 6,368,948 



TABLE B— Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced Per Accident. 



Names of Companies. 



o 




O 










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3 cs 


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Delaware and Hudson Coal Company 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 

Temple Iron Company 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 

Johnson Coal Company 

Pennsylvania Coal Company, 

Murray Coal Company, 

Moosic Mountain Coal Company 

Price Pancoast Coal Company 

Total 



15 


160,583 


3 


246,138 


4 


199,388 


4 


139.246 


2 


213, ns2 


5 


73,778 


3 


93.S4S 


1 


58,140 


1 


10S.369 


2 


120,957 


40 


154,223 



TABLE C— Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Pro- 
duced Per Accident. 





■ 






e 


CO 




01 






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o 


c 


Names of Companies. 




8 




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55 


H 



Delaware and Hudson Coal Company, 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 

Temple Iron Company 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company 

Johnson Coal Company 

Pannsylvar.la Coal Company. 

Murray Coal Company 

MoobIc Mountain Coal Company 

Price Pancoast Coal Company 

Miscellaneous coal companies 

Total 




S3. 527 
56,801 
49,847 
38,783 

no. 741 
is 769 
5S 140 
36,123 

12.7. 2 
127.411 

10.309 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE D— Showing- Occupation's of Persons Killed or Injured. 





a 








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1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


65 

46 






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Total 


40 


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TABLE E— Classification of Accidents. 





c 








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By falls of rock 

By cars (inside) 

By explosion of gas 

By explosion of powder, ... 

By falls of coal, , 

By cars (outside) 

By flying coal from blasts. 

By premaure blast, , 

By kicks from mules 

By machinery, 

By bursting air pipe 

By falling prop 

Struck by board 

Caught by revolving shaft, 
By falling shaft tower 



Total, 



No. 11. 



FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



TABLE F — Nationalities of Persons Killed or Injured. 



Nationalities. 


•6 


•6 


T. 






D 


a 






C 


o 




M 


H 



Pole 

American, 

Irish 

English, 

Welsh 

Slavs 

Italian 

Austrian, 
Hungarian, 
Russian, 
German, 
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6 


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30 




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5 


17 


22 




6 


14 


20 




2 


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15 




2 


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11 




3 


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9 




2 


4 


6 




2 


4 


6 




4 


1 


5 




2 


2 


4 






2 


2 








40 


118 


158 



Improvements at Collieries. 



Delaware and Hudson Company's Improvements. 

At Clinton a new air shaft 10x12 feet and 240 feet deep was sunk 
for ventilating purposes, and a new fan was installed to ventilate the 
East Side tunnel. 

At Coal Brook a rock plane 300 feet long was driven from bottom 
to top vein, and an air shaft sunk. !A new air compressor was in- 
stalled and three new air motors added for haulage. A new drift was 
opened on East Mountain; and an air shaft sunk. 

At Jermyn No. 1 a new 22-foot fan was installed, to replace the old 
one. A rock plane GOO feet long, driven to shorten transportation, 
and improve ventilation, was made. 

Grassy Island. — The rock vein was opened aud air connections 
made. 

At Eddy Creek a slope was sunk from surface to rock vein to im- 
prove ventilation on Mills tract workings. 



Hillside Coal and Iron Company. 

A new breaker was built at Forest City to replace the old one, 
which was destroyed by (ire in early part of the year. 

The Price Pancoast Coal Company has sunk the main shaft to Dun- 
more veins; also, installed a now fan ."..1 foot in diameter. 

The Johnson Coal Company has driven a 1, 000-foot tunnel from 
prove ventilation on mills tract workings. 



8 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Several other improvements, such as driving tunnels, sinking slopes 
and installing motor and rope haulage system have been made in 
many of the mines. 

The annual examination of applicants for mine foremen certificates 
of qualification was held at Carbondale on the 16th and 17th of 
August. 

The following were recommended for mine foremen certificates: 
Thomas Rumford, Peckville; Thos. C. Hodgson, David Evans, Alex. 
Frew, Walter Knight, Morgan L. Watkins and John Reese, Oly- 
phant; Ben Milton, of Vandling; Milton Hoodmacher, Marchwood, 
and James Johnson, Priceburg. 

Assistant mine foremen: William H. Himmelreich, Jermyn; David 
D. Lewis, Scranton; John J. Barbour, Mayfield; John Elvidge, Oly- 
phant; Evan Gabriel, Scranton; Charles Robinson, Peckville; Ed- 
ward Lewis, Scranton; Michael C. Moran, and P. A. Walsh, Car- 
bondale; John E. Powell, Scranton; Milton J. Thomas, Scranton, and 
Seward Button, Vandling. 

The board consisted of Charles P. Ford, superintendent; James E. 
Morrison and Joseph T. Roberts, miners, and Edward Roderick, In- 
spector. 



No. 11. 



FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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15 



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17 



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18 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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FIRST ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



19 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Second Anthracite District, 

LACKAWANNA COUNTY. 



Scranton, Pa., February 18, 1901. 

Hon. .James \V. Latta, Secretary of Internal [Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Sir: I have the honor of presenting my report as Inspector of 
Mines for the Second Anthracite District for the year 1900, as re- 
quired by section 9, article 2, anthracite mine law, 1891, etc. It 
contains the usual statistics, with accounts of the accidents which 
occurred in the district during the year in tabulated forms, followed 
by remarks and a suggestion. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. O. PRYTHERCH, 

Inspector. 



Table A — Production of Coal in Tons During 1900. 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, :U 72,800 

Austin Coal Company 64,437 

Delaware and Hudson Company 402,098 

Scranton Coal Company 618,735 

Mount Pleasant ( JoaJ < lompany, 172,141 

( ireen Ridge Coal Company 126,230 

Pennsylvania Coal Company 341,998 

William Council & Co 107,679 

The Connell Coal Co., 216.154 

Greenwood Coal Company 193,210 

Brooks Coal Co 31,150 

John & J. .1. Jermyn L70,916 

Elliott CcClure & Co L36,957 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company !><;.344 

A. I). & P. M. Spencer 71.1(59 

Nay Aug Coal Company 98.592 

< lihbons Coal Co 15.904 

North American Coal Company 269,514 

(31) 



32 



REPORT OP THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Bowen Coal Company, 

Bull's Heal Coal Company, . . 

Carbon Coal Company, 

People's Coal Company, . . . 
Spring Brook Coal Company, 

Total 



32,834 

23,791 

44,101 

4,150 

18,202 



6,429,112 



The total production is made up as follows: 

Shipped by railroad to market, 5,870,752 

Sold at mines for local use, 204,952 

Consumed to generate steam, 353,408 

Total, 6,429,112 



TABLE B — Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced per Life Lost. 















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Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, 

Austin Coal Company, 

Delaware and Hudson Coal Company, 

Scranton Coal Company 

Mount Pleasant Coal Company 

Green Ridge Coal Company 

Pennsylvania Coal Company 

William Connell and Company 

The Connell Coal Company 

Greenwood Coal Company, 

Brooks Coal Company, 

John and J. J. Jermyn 

Elliott, MeClure and Company, 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company, 

A. D. and F. M. Spencer 

Nay Aug Coal Company, 

Gibbons Coal Company 

North American Coal Company 

Bowen Coal Company, 

Bull's Head Coal Company 

Carbon Coal Company 

People's Coal Company, 

Spring Brook Coal Company 



151,086 
64,437 
50,262 

123.747 
34,428 
63,115 

341,998 

107,679 
72,051 
64,403 
31,150 

170,916 

136,957 
96,344 
71,169 
98,592 
15,904 

269,514 
32,834 
23,791 
44. Kl 
4.150 
18,202 



Total and average, 



116,891 



No. 11. 



SKO >NI) ANTHUAC1TE DISTRICT. 



TABLE C— Showing the Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and the 
Number of Tons of Coal Produced per Accident. 









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Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, 

Austin Coal Company, 

Delaware and Hudson Company 

Scranton Coal Company 

Mount Pleasant Coal Company 

Green Ridge Coal Company 

Pennsylvania Coal Company 

William Connell and Company 

The Connell Coal Company, 

Greenwood Coal Company 

Brooks Coal Company 

John and J. J. Jermyn 

Elliott, McClure and Company, 

Elk Hill Coal and Iron Company 

A. D. and F. M. Spencer 

Nay Aug Coal Company 

Ciblions Coal Company 

North American Coal Company 

Bowen Coal Company 

Carbon Coal Company 

People's Coal Company 

Spring Brook Coal Company 

Bull's Head Coal Company, 



Total and average, 



34,487 
64,437 
40,209 
32.565 
9,061 
42, 076 
34,199 
15,382 
27,019 

16. 100 
31. 150 
14.243 
34.239 
48,172 
17,792 
49,296 
15,904 

269,514 
32,834 

44. 101 
4,150 

18,202 
23,791 



31.058 



TABLE D— Classification of Accidents. 





Classification of Accidents. 


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ed 










Killed or 
Jured. 


Injured. 






Palls of roof and coal, 

Explosion of gas 

Explosions of blast, 
Mules 



«'ars inside 

Cars outside, 

Falling down shaft, .. 
Breaker machinery. 
Miscellaneous, inside. 
Miscellaneous, outside, 

Total 



54 


84 


16 


17 


17 


20 


4 


4 


39 


47 


5 


7 


1 


8 


S 


6 


fi 


6 


6 


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a— li— 1900 



34 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE E— Occupations of Persons Killed and Injured. 





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Miners, 25 

Laborers, 14 

Doorboys 2 

Drivers 7 

Outside laborers 2 

Company men, inside 2 

Headmen 

Footmen, 

Pumpmen, 1 

Fire bosses, 1 

Runners, 

Slate pickers 1 

Surveyors 

Total, 55 




67 
51 

10 
32 
8 
11 
1 
6 
1 
2 
4 
S 
3 

207 



TABLE F— Nationalities of Persons Killed and Injured. 









































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Killed. .. 
Injured, . 

Total 



9 


2 


2 


11 


14 


1 


6 


2 


2 


4 




2 




55 


2S 


12 


2 


36 


30 


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24 




11 


5 


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152 


37 


14 


4 


47 


44 


2 


30 


2 


13 


9 


1 


3 


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207 



Accidents of 1900. 

The following remarks on the accidents are justified by the figures 
of the several tables: 

The injured are divided as follows: Citizens, 86; aliens, 66; mar- 
ried, 72; single, 80. 

The killed as follows: Citizens, 31; aliens, 24; married, 32; single, 23. 
There are 32 widows and 80 orphans left without support as the result 
of the fatal accidents in the district during the year 1900. 

The following percentages also hold good: 



No. 11. 



SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



35 





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Causes of Accidents. 


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3.6 

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40.5 
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9.6 
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22.7 
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2.9 
2.9 
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Occupations of Victims. 


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Miners 45.5 32.3 

Laborers 25.5 24.6 

Door boys 3.6 4.8 

Drivers, 12.8 15.5 

Outside laborers 3.6 3.9 

Company men, inside, 3.6 6.8 

Headmen .4 

Footmen, 2.9 

Pumpmen 1.9 .4 

Fire bosses .9 

Runners, 1.9 1.9 

Slate pickers 3.8 

Surveyors 1.4 











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Nationalities of Victims. 




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Welsh 16.4 

English, 3.6 

Scotch 3.6 

Irisli 20.0 

Poles, .- 25.5 

Slavs 1.9 

Americans 9.1 

Hungarians 3.6 

Italians, 3.6 

Germans, 7.3 

Russians 

LIthunlans, 3.6 

Greeks 



17.9 
6.7 
1.9 

22.7 

21.2 
0.9 

14.0 
o.9 
6.3 
-1.4 
0.4 
1.4 
0.4 



36 REPORT OF THE, BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

1890 and 1900 Compared. 

In 1809 the following list of accidents was returned: Fatal, 49; 
non-fatal, 159; total, 208. 

The tables which accompany and form a part of this report show 
the following to be the list for 1900: Fatal, 55; non-fatal, 152; total, 
207. 

By comparison" there is for 1900, an increase of 6 fatal accidents, 
a decrease of 7 non-fatal accidents, and a decrease of 1 in the list 
of total accidents. It is worthy of remark that during 1899 one 
accident only occurred by which two lives were lost at the same time, 
while in 1900 one accident, resulting in the loss of four lives, and 
two by which two lives each were lost occurred. Perhaps this will 
partly exp" lin the inci .ase in the fatal list, as it will be seen that the 
number of fatal accidents in the years under comparison are the 
some, but those of the latter, claim six more victims. 

The total production of coal for 1900 shows a decrease of 345,346 
tons, as compared with 1899, and an increase of 1,368 in the total 
number of persoj s employed m and about the mines. 

The decrease iu uie production was caused by the general strike 
and numerous other minor disagreements between employers and 
employes in the district during the year. 



Remarks on Accidents. 

It will be seen that in addition to the tables which have always 
accompanied these reports, tables of percentages have been prepared 
in order to show in a more conspicuous manner the causes which 
result in the greater number of accidents, as well as the classes of 
employes which contribute to the list of victims. 

An "explosion of gas" in a mine resulting in the loss of a number 
of lives at the same time, attracts wide attention, while the every day 
accidents from "falls of roof and coal" occur almost unnoticed. The 
tables referred to, show "falls of roof and coal" to be responsible 
for 55 per cent, of the fatal accidents, and 41 per cent, of the total 
number of accidents in the district during 1900, and "explosions of 
gas" are responsible for 4 per cent, of the fatal and 8 per cent, of 
the total accidents. 

Following the tables of percentages further, it will be seen that 
miners make up 46 per cent, of the victims of fatal accidents and 32 
per cent, of the total number of accidents. 

Laborers, 26 per cent, of the fatal and 25 per cent, of the total 
number of accidents. 

These two classes of workmen work in close contact, in fact they 



No. 11. SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. S7 

work together, and if our interpretation of the provision of the mine 
law be correct, the miner is to a great extent responsible for the 
safety of his laborer. 

These two classes together make up 72 per cent, of the victims of 
fatal accidents, and 57 per cent, of the total number of accidents. 

Inasmuch as "falls of roof and coal'" are responsible for 55 per 
cent, of the fatal and 41 per cent, of the total number of accidents, I 
feel that the provisions of Hie anthracite mine law of L891 guarding 
particularly again s1 this class of accidents should be quoted: 

Article 12, Rule 11. "Any person having charge of a working place 
in any mine shall keep the roof and sides thereof properly secured by 
timber or otherwise, so as to prevent such roof and sides from fall- 
ing, and he shall not do any work or permit any work to be done 
under loose or dangerous material except for the purpose of securing 
the same." 

Again Article 12, Rule 34: "Before commencing work, and also 
after the tiring of every blast, the miner working a breast or any other 
place in a mine, shall enter such breast or place to ascertain its con- 
dition, and his laborer or assistant shall not go to the face of such 
breast or place until the miner has examined the same and found it 
to be safe." 

The rules quoted are to guard particularly against accidents from 
"falls of roof and coal," and if those whose safety is to be guarded 
respected their provisions, accidents from this cause would lie ma- 
terially reduced. 

This matter has received much attention during the inspections 
made of the mines of the district in 1900, and from many observa- 
tions. I have concluded that a very large number of miners are un- 
aware of these provisions or are careless in observing them. 

The fact that eighty-four of the total number of accidents are 
(hissed under the heading of "falls of coal and roof" fully justifies 
me in calling attention to this subject, and it is my object to secure 
cooperation on the parts of all concerned, namely, miners, as- 
sist. ml foremen, mine foremen and superintendents so guard dili- 
gently against accidents from this source, thai by so doing the num- 
ber of accidents mav be reduced. 



A Suggestion. 

If, in addition to the extracts of the mine law which are now posted 
about the mines, the sections of the law which apply to the duties 
of the several classes of persons employed in and about the collieries. 
were printed on separate sheets, and liberally distributed, it would, 
in my opinion, have a beneficial effect. The miner, driver, runner. 
etc., would learn at a glance the provision of the law regarding his 



3S REPORT CF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Do.c. 

own particular duties, which would save them the necessity of read- 
ing the whole document in order to learn the portions which apply 
to them. 

The result of the work performed by this office during the year 
has been forwarded to the Bureau of Mines, in narrative reports, from 
month to month. These reports also set forth the conditions of the 
several mines at the time of the several inspections and the investiga- 
tions of fatal and serious accidents. 



Mine Foreman's Examination. 

The annual mine foreman's examination for the district w T as held 
on May 11th and 12th, 1900, in the City Hall, Scranton. 

The following persons were recommended by the board of exam- 
iners to receive foreman's certificates: Richard R. Hughes, H. J. 
Da vies, Mathias Clemons and Thomas Edwards, and nineteen persons 
were recommended to receive certificates as assistant foremen. 



No. 11 



SECOND ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 





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torn bench. He w 
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elowsky was f 
injured by a bias 
result of a 
workman giving 
flcient alarm. H 
July 2d. 

oukus was fatal 
jured by an exp 
of gas in old 
ings; died May 3 
Hara was kilk 
9.30 A. M. by a 
of coal falling on 
'as engaged exan 
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corps of engi 
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66 



REPORT OP THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Third Anthracite District, 

LUZERNE AND SULLIVAN COUNTIES. 



Pittston, February 21, L901. 
Hon. James VV. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Sir: I have the honor of herewith submitting - for your considera- 
tion my annual report as Inspector of Coal Mines for the Third 
Anthracite District for the year 1900. 

There were 6,296,931 tons of coal produced, being 557.780 tons 
less than the production of the preceding year. Fifty-nine fatal acci- 
dents occurred, which is a decrease of three from those of the year 
L899. 

The number of non fatal accidents was 139, being a decrease of 
To from L899. 

Thirty-three wives were made widows by the fatal accidents, and 
82 children under 1-1 years of age were left fatherless. 

The average number of days worked was 154.10, against 100.03 in 
1899. 

The production per day was 40,889 tons, and 100,727 tons were 
produced per fatal and 45,302 tons per non-fatal accident. 

Very respectfully, 

h. Mcdonald, 

Inspector of Mines. 



Total Production of Coal in Tons During the Year L900. 

Pennsylvania Coal Company 1,597,726.10 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company L,142,348.01 

Butler .Mine Company, Limited 12s.00it.10 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany 393,428.06 

Temple Iron Company 530,582.15 

Seneca < Joal ( lompany 200. 772. 06 

Delaware and Hudson Coal Company 10S.149.0S 

( C7) 



68 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Kaub Coai Company, 168,437.10 

John C. Haddock, 111,070.07 

Clear Spring Coal Company, 212,857.17 

Florence Coal Company, Limited, 72,897.1!) 

W. G. Payne & Co., - 187,419.11 

Traders' Coal Company, 29,500.00 

Avoca Coal Company, 44,205.05 

Langcliffe Coal Company, 120,718.11 

Lafiin Coal Company, 52,078.00 

Robertson & Law 73,205.00 

Algonquin Coal Company, 225,174.00 

Laurel Run Coal Company, 123,742.00 

State Line and Sullivan Railroad Company, 181,510.07 

W. JJ. Gunton 28,400.10 

Old Forge Coal Company, 50,402.02 

Stevens Coal Company, 107,953.02 

Wyoming Coal and Land Company, 118,005.01 

Gardner Creek Coal Company, 37,749.11 

Crescent Coal Company, 15,122.00 

North American Coal Company, 59,540.17 

Brookside Coal Company, 80,338.19 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company, 21,551.00 

Total, 0,290,931.03 



The above production was made up as follows: 

Shipped to market by railroad 5,058.947.11 

Sold at the mine for local use, 12G,7G3.()9 

Consumed to generate steam (estimated), 511,220.03 

Total, 0,290,931.03 



Annual Examination for Mine Foremens' Certificates. 

The annual examination of applicants for certificates of qualifica- 
tion for mine foreman and assistant mine foreman was held at the 
Butler Hill school building, Pittston, June 14th, 15th and 10th, 1900. 
The board of examiners was H. McDonald, Inspector of Mines; David 
W. Evans, superintendent; M. W. Tigue and J. J. Morahan, miners. 

The following named persons were recommended to have mine 
foreman certificates issued to them: Allan Alexander, John J. Moran, 
John J. Walsh, Frank J. Mcllale and David Laird Pittston; Patrick 
Conlon, Thos. H. Morahan, Thomas J. Fitzsimmons, Peter Boylan, 



No. 11. 



THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



fi3 



Frank McCarty and James II. Ryder, Avoca; George L. Walker, John 
Duddy, Plainsville; John J. 'Morris, Forty Fort; John S. Hammonds, 
Wilkes-Barre; Michael J. MeHale, Dupont; James Mitchell, Inker- 
nian. 

Twenty-four persons were recommended for certificates of qualifi- 
cation as assistant mine foreman. 



TABLE A — Showing the number of lives lost, tons of coal produced per life lost 
and per person injured, number of employes and number of employes per life 
lost and per person injured in the year 1900. 



Names of Operators. 







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Pennsylvania Coal Company 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

Butler Mine Company, Limited 

Delaware, Laca. & Western R. R. Co., 

Tempi-; Iron Company 

Seneca Coal Company 

( tld Forge Coal Company 

Delaware and Hudson Company 

John C. Haddock, 

Clear Spring Coal Company 

Florence Coal Company, Limited 

W. <;. Payne and Company 

Traders' Coal Company 

Avoct Coal Company 

Langcliffe Coal Company, 

Lailin Coal Company, 

Robertson and Law 

Raub Coal Company. Limited 

Algonquin Coal Company 

Laurel Run Coal Company, 

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Gardner Creek Coal Company 

Civsc.-nt Coal Company 

Wyoming Coal ami Land Company, 

State Liue and Sullivan Railroad Co.. . 

W. B. Gunton 

North American Coal Company 

Hillside Coal and Iron Company 

Brookside Coal Company, 



133.144 

35,195 
42.889 
393, 42S 
88,430 
34,462 



55,838 
106,428 



62.4S3 



44, 265 
120,718 



84.218 
75.05S 



59.332 
181,516 

14,203 



Total, 



69.466 
45.694 
25.734 
43,714 
29.476 
17,231 



108,149 
27,919 

212,857 
24.299 
26,778 
29.506 



20,119 



56.145 
45.C35 

24.74S 
27.992 



59,332 
!M«S 



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1.S30 

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68 
361 
235 
658 
182 
504 
316 
245 
348 
204 
190 
552 
61S 
454 
306 
lis 

87 
211 
397 
124 

24 
195 

22 



421 


220 


236 


113 


271 


162 


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113 


306 


102 


102 


51 




361 


117 


59 


329 


658 




60 


168 


72 




316 



245 




348 


58 






276 


184 


2 6 


123 




91 




51 






109 


109 


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62 


41 



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THIRD ANTKUAC1TK DISTRICT. 



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72 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

General Remarks. 

The condition of the mines so far as ventilation and safety are con- 
cerned, is fairly good, and they are well attended to, as every year 
adds more open territory to be taken care of and kept in a safe 
and secure condition for transportation and ventilation. 

On December 13th, 1900, a Are was discovered in the old workings 
of the Cooper, or top split of the Baltimore seam of the Delaware 
shaft, operated by the Delaware and Hudson Company, which gave 
considerable trouble and anxiety to those in charge to subdue, which, 
at this writing, they have failed to accomplish, which necessitated 
the closing down of Laurel Run colliery with the Delaware, as they 
are opened into one another throughout the Baltimore vein, on 
account of the fire. 

The usual improvements pertaining to the mining of coal in and 
about the collieries have gone on as in former years, so that there 
is nothing new or special to report. 

The Butler and Fernwood collieries, which were operated by the 
Butler Mine Company, Limited, passed into the possession of the 
Hillside Coal and Iron Company December 1st, 1900, and are now 
operated by that company. 

I desire to make a short statement in regard to accidents caused 
by premature explosions of blasts and by careless handling of powder. 
In this district for the year 191)0, as shown by report, there were 9 
fatal and 22 non-fatal accidents from the above cause, which might 
have been averted by ordinary care on the parts of the victims. 
So much has been written regarding accidents and their causes in 
previous reports, that I shall not attempt to go over the subject 
again at this time. But the above requires a few remarks. In 
investigating accidents as above referred to, I found that the victim 
was either instantly killed or fatally injured, or seriously cut and 
bruised from the following causes: By forcing the cartridge into the 
hole with the butt end of their drills, cutting the match on the 
squib so short that they could not get to a place of safety in time 
before the blast exploded or handling powder with their lamps on 
their caps. Now, as to the first mentioned method, no sensible man 
who regards his own safety would be guilty of such an practice, 
yet such is the case, I am sorry to say. As to the second violation 
of the mine law above mentioned, in my opinion, it is the most preva- 
lent. There are two kinds of matches used for blasting, one called 
the saltpetre and the other the sulphur match. The first is used 
principally where open lights are forbidden on account of explosive 
gas; the other is used where an open light may be used to ignite it. 
Both those matches are twisted and dipped into a solution of the 
above and are from two to two and a half inches long, and will 



No. 11. THIRD ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 73 

burn from three to four minutes before the powder iu the squib 
becomes ignited. The miner being in a hurry or knowing that he 
can get to a place of safety, either cuts the match or untwists it to 
cause it to burn faster, and in doing so, the powder in the squib 
runs down on the match and when the light comes in contact with 
it, the explosion takes place and the miner is very fortunate indeed 
if he escapes with his life. 

in one instance in investigating a fatal accident from a prema- 
ture bias; and on inquiring of the laborer who worked with the 
man is he saw him cut the squib, he, in a positive manner, said 
he did not cut it. as he seen him put the squib in the needle hole 
before he left. I was at a loss to understand how the match 
burned so quickly and I seemed the box that the squibs were kept 
in and discovered that all the matches had been saturated with kero- 
sene. Is there any wonder that he failed to get from in front of the 
blast when he ignited the squib? 



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REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Fourth Anthracite District. 



LUZERNE COUNTY. 



Office of Inspector of Mines, 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., February 27, 1901. 

Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.. 

Sir: I have the honor of presenting herewith my annual report as 
Mine Inspector of the Fourth Anthracite District for the year 1900. 
It contains the usual tabular statements of mine accidents, the 
number of each class of employes, quantity of coal produced and other 
useful memoranda. Comparing these with the records for IS!*!), 
the result is as follows: 

Production of coal in 1899 was (tons), 8,648,152.06 

Production of coal in 1900 was (tons), 8,585,741.05 

Being a reduction of production of (tons), 02,411.01 



Number of employes in 1899 was 23,668 

Number of employes in 1900 was, 23,067 

A reduct ion in number of, 601 



Average number of days work in 1899 was, 168.61 

Average number of days worked in 1900 was 161.96 

Being 6.65 days less than in 1899. 

Number of fatal accidents in 1899 was 81 

Number of fatal accidents in 1900 was 71 

Number of non-fatal accidents in 1899 was, 188 

Number of non-fatal accidents in 1900 was 244 

An increase of non-fatal accidents in 1900 of 56 

(105) 



106 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Number of widows in 1899 was 44; orphans, 109. 
Number of widows iu 1900 was 36; orphans, 75. 

Tons of coal mined per life lost in 1899 was, 10G,7G7 

Tons of coal mined per life lost in 1900 was, 120,925 



An increase of production per life lost of (tons), 14,158 



Quantity of coal produced per person seriously injured in 1899 was 
46,000 tons. In the year 1900 it was 35,187. 

All the collieries except the West End were idle on strike from 
Monday, September 17th, to Saturday, October 27th, 1900. During 
the strike the mines were greatly damaged by falls of roof at many 
points, and it took the labor of several months to repair them. The 
falls were so high in some of the rock tunnels that the work of clear- 
ing the rock and securing the roof was very dangerous, but it was 
accomplished in each case without accident. The mines are now all 
working full handed, are well ventilated and generally in good, safe 
condition. i 

Yours very respectfully, 

G. M. WILLIAMS, 
Mine Inspector. 



Production of Coal in Tons for the Year 1900 by the Several Com- 
panies. 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 2,641,484.18 

Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 1,363,997.00 

Susquehanna Coal Company, . 1,047,295.09 

Kingston Coal Company 912,569.17 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany 799,515.15 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 327,196.07 

Red Ash Coal Company, 174,987.12 

Parrish Coal Company 502,226.01 

A Men Coal Company 210,218.15 

West End Coal Company 196,480.00 

Warrior Run Coal Company 160,236.11 

Crescent Coal Mining Company, 53,294.09 

Hillman Vein Coal Company, 32,992.03 

Melville Coal Company, 71,326.11 



No 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 107 

Plymou I li < Joal Company, 7.744.17 

A vers & Brothers (Chauncey), 50,175.00 

Sterling Coal Company Washery, 34,000.00 



Total, 8,585,741.05 

The above production was made up as follows: 

Tons. 

Shipped to market by railroad 7,501.774.10 

Sold at mines for local use 242,991.15 

Consumed i<» generate steam a1 mines 780.075. on 



Total, 8,585,741.05 



18 



108 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



109 



Classification of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents. 













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By explosions* of fire damp 

By falls of roof and coal 

By mine cars in the mines 

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Total, 




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In addition to the above, 98 slight accidents were reported, which 
were not included as serious accidents. 

William Williams committed suicide by crawling through a win- 
dow and falling a depth of 80 feet to the ground at the Buttonwood 
breaker, August 3, 1900. This was not recorded as a mining acci- 
dent. 

John Kelley, who di<xl suddenly of heart failure at the Nottingham 
mine, June 26th. 1900, was not recorded as a mining accident. 



110 



REPORT OF THE EUREAU OF MINES. 



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112 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 



Accidents by Fire-Damp Explosions. 

As shown in the foregoing table, 12 fatal and 57 non-fatal accidents 
occurred in this district in the year 1900, by explosions of fire-damp, 
being nearly 22 per cent, of the whole number of accidents. Nearly 
all occurred through the careless use of "naked lights," where safety 
lamps only should have been used. If the use of naked lights were 
prohibited to all classes of employes at the working faces in gaseous 
mines, the number of accidents from explosions of gas and the risk 
of causing mine fires would be greatly reduced. 

Sometimes explosions of gas take place from mine fires ignited 
by blasts, but these are only a small number as compared with 
those«caused by the careless use of naked lights. 

A mine fire most invariably produces an atmosphere of non-com- 
bustible gases around itself, affording a high degree of security 
against explosions of fire damp if the air current is directed to convey 
the fire damp away from contact with the fire, but the unprotected 
flame of a lamp does not provide such security. It is safer even when 
fighting fires to use safety lamps only. 

Compliance with the following rules would prevent many accidents 
from explosions of fire damp: 

1. Have no naked lights used in places where there are gas feeders 
issuing, nor in any other placf where a body of gas may accumulate 
when the air current is reduced through the opening of a door or 
otherwise. 

2. When examining a mine with a safety lamp, the person doing 
so should have a clean safe lamp, and as far as practicable he should 
walk with the air current, and should, if possible, avoid walking 
against the air current at any time. The reason for this is obvious. 
If a man unexpectedly enters a body of gas when walking with the 
jrir current and loses his light, he can retreat to a point where he 
knows that it is safe to relight it, but if he should enter a body of 
gas when walking against the current, it would be dangerous because 
the gas would be moving with him in his retreat, and he could not 
determine where it would be safe to strike a light. 

3. In fighting a fire, the burning timber and coal should be ex- 
tinguished first and the burning gas feeders last. As long as the 
gas feeders are permitted to burn there is less cause to expect an 
accumulation of fire damp, and to prevent an accumulation, the 
water should be frequently played against the top so as to dissipate 
the gas. 

4. Brattices should be extended invariably before a body of gas 
can accumulate. It is the prevailing practice and a bad one to wait 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 113 

for the appearance of gas before the brattice is extended, for it is 
at all times dangerous to remove even a small body of it, and the 
majority of the miners now employed cannot be trusted to do so. 



Accidents by Falls of Hoof and Coal. 

Twenty-two fatal and 73 serious non-fatal accidents occurred in the 
year L900 from falls of roof and coal, being 30 per cent, of the whole 
number of accidents from all causes. Every year, as the records 
show, this is the cause of the greatest number of accidents. The 
records show also that the greatest number of these occur owing 
to the inexperience and carelessness of the victims of such acci- 
dents. The writer has worked in the anthracite mines of this 
Commonwealth for forty-two years and is perhaps familiar with a 
greater number of mines than any other person now living, and 
he can state truly that there never has be#n a time when there 
was such a large proportion of the miners employed in the mines 
so incompetent as they are at present. Considering this, one is 
surprised that the number of accidents is not greater. A large pro- 
portion of the accidents from falls of roof and coal occur when the 
miner is barring loose rock or coal down. He stands to do so in 
such a position that the rock or coal in falling, falls against or upon, 
him. Accidents from falls of roof and coal frequently occur when 
the miner returns to the face too soon after a blast is fired. It 
takes a few minutes sometimes for a piece of coal or roof to fall 
after its support is taken away by a blast, and if any one approaches 
the face heroic this happens he is likely to be caught under wheD 
it falls, and this is the manner in which a large number of the acci 
dents by falls of roof and coal occurred in the year 1900. 

A huge number of miners not knowing how to fasten a prop to ad- 
vantage, and not knowing the amount of powder to charge a hole 
with, discharge the props by blasting, and on returning to replace 
the prop the roof falls upon them. 

It is impossible to reduce this class of accidents by any system 
of mine inspection, for the cause does not arise from the condi- 
tion of mines, but rather from the conduct of the men who are 
the victims of the accidents. 

Accidents by Mine Cars in the Mines. 

The number of accidents caused in various ways by mine can 
was 1.8 fatal and 42 non-fatal. Runners, drivers and door-tenders 
furnish the greater number of victims in this class of mine acci- 
dents, but a number of miners or laborers were among them. A 

8—11—1000 



114 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

number were hurt by standing in dangerous positions to block a 
car or to pull a block from before the wheel of a car. Some were 
hurt by turning to a narrow side to let a trip of cars pass and 
were crushed between cars and side of gangways. Drivers, runners 
and door-tenders were hurt by falling off when riding between or 
on the front end of cars, by falling under when running along 
side and by being crushed between when coupling or uncoupling 
cars while they were in motion. 

To prevent this class of accidents it is obviously needed that men 
and boys who are employed in moving mine cars should take care 
of themselves. Those in charge of young boys should caution them 
and try to stop their recklessness. A strict discipline would perhaps 
prevent a number of all classes of mine accidents . 



Accidents by Explosions of Powder and Blasts. 

Five fatal and 20 non-fatal occurred from this cause during the 
year 1900. The largest number of these occur because the miner 
cuts the match shorter than it is made by the squib manufacturer. 
By untwisting the match to cut it, the powder falls back into the 
match from the squib, and when the match is ignited, the blasts 
explode before the miner can get out of the way. Sometimes a 
blast is fired sooner than expected owing to the issuance of gas 
from the hole, but these are very few. 

Firing two holes together is very dangerous when it is done by 
squibs, and it should never be practiced. It is rare that an acci- 
dent occurs from blasts, that cannot be justly attributed to some 
kind of carelessness on the part of the man who fires the blast. 

There is ready means always at hand for testing whether or not 
a feeder of gas is issuing, and the necessary precaution should never 
be neglected, and the squibs or matches should never be tampered 
with. 



Accidents from Miscellaneous Causes Inside and on Surface at Mines. 

It has been stated many times in the Mine Inspector's reports of 
past years that nearly all the victims of mine accidents have con- 
tributed more or less to their cause. There is no more than about 
one-fourth that occur where it can be truthfully stated that the 
sufferer was blameless. 

Three were killed last year and one injured by falling down 
shafts. One stepped off the cage on wrong side and back into the 
shaft at night. Another had stepped off the bucket to a bunton and 
fell off, while the other fell down the shaft from an ascending cage. 



No. 11. FnTRTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 115 

Three fatal and .".1 non-fatal accidents took place In the mines 
and 8 fatal and 20 non-fatal on the surface. These occurred in divers 
ways which could not be classed with the others. Some struck them- 
selves while using axes. Some were struck by pieces of ice falling 
down the shafts from the sides. Some were caught in machinery, etc. 

This class of accidents can he reduced only by a rigid discipline 
on the part of officials, and a greater care for their own safety by 
the men themselves. 

Fires in Mines. 

The year 11)00 was remarkably free from mine fires of any magni- 
tude. The Empire mine fire, reported last year, and the Maxwell 
mine fire are still sealed in, so that they cannot be examined, but 
there is no discernible evidence of the existence of fire in either 
mine. 

Abandonment of the Hillman Vein Colliery. 

The coal of the Hillman Vein colliery of the Hillman Vein Coal 
Company having become exhausted, the mine was abandoned oij Au- 
gust 16, 1900. This colliery started to prepare and ship coal on Sep- 
tember 28, 1883, and produced, including the coal used at the colliery 
for steam purposes, 1,244,972 tons. The Hillman, Kidney and Abbott 
seams were mined out. 

The size of the hoisting shaft was 16x11 feet, sunk to the Five Foot 
seam, a depth of 280 feet. 



The Uodson Colliery of the Plymouth Coal Company. 

The damage done to this colliery by the burning of the breaker 
July L3, IS!)!), has been nearly all repaired. Nearly every yard 
of the gangways and airways was closed by falls of roof caused by 
destructive explosions of gas and the Hooding of the workings with 
water. The airways having been closed the workings were filled 
with explosive gases, and it has been a slow and tedious work to 
reopen the mine, but, by working entirely with safety lamps the work 
was accomplished without accident. A new breaker is being con- 
structed which will be ready to prepare coal about the middle of 
March. 1901. 

Examination of Mine Foremen. 

The annual examination of applicants for certificates of qualifica- 
tion for mine foreman and assistant mine foreman was held in this 
district on the 14th, l.*>th and 10th of June, L900, at the council room, 
city hall, Wilkes-Barre. 



116 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The board of examiners was G. M. Williams, Mine Inspector; 
Edward Mackin, superintendent, and Frank Mills and David L. 
John, miners. Seventeen applicants for mine foreman certificates 
were examined, and the following named were recommended to have 
certificates: William T. Davies, Charles A. Brown, Harry Gaughan 
and Thomas E. Edwards, of Wilkes-Barre; William S. Davies and 
Oliver Rhydderch, of Edwardsdale; James Wilson and Gomer Evans, 
of Plymouth; John Rousing and James Stirling, of Westmore. 

The following named persons received certificates of qualification 
for assistant mine foreman: James Coughline, Luzerne; Peter Tully, 
John Dietz, John C. Parry, Lewis Lewis, William E. Thomas, Ed- 
ward H. Williams, Thomas W Jones and Ivor Davies, of Wilkes- 
Barre; Michael Nork and Tk^ua* Morgans, Glen Lyon; David Morris 
and James H. Davy, Wanamic; William Newland, Alden Station; 
John P. Evans, Illtyd Evans, William H. Faust, Benjamin A. Waters, 
Arthur D. Evans, Lewis B. Lewis, William E. Bowen, Llewelyn Wil- 
liams and Ivor T. Phillips, of Nanticoke; John Whittington and David 
Roberts, Sugar Notch; John Abrahamson, William A. Roberts and 
John Boyer, of Parsons. 



Improvements by the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company in 

the Year 1900. 

Hollenbach Colliery. — Tunnel from bottom to top split Red Ash, 49 
yards. Return airway in rock, 19 yards. 

South Wilkes-Barre Colliery — Bore hole to drain water from Kid 
ney to Hillman Vein. Tunnel Hillman to Stanton, 159 yards. No. 
4 tunnel extended 50 yards. Tunnel Baltimore to Five-Foot, 63 
yards. Fuel conveyor breaker to boiler house. 

Stanton Colliery — Rock plane Hillman to Kidney vein, 60 yards. 
One pear 24x48-inck first motion engines erected at Stanton air 
shaft for operation of No. 4 rock plane. One thousand horse power. 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers to replace cylinder boilers at breaker 
plant. Additional 6-inch steam line from breaker plant to air shaft. 

Sugar Notch — Tunnel from bottom to top split, Baltimore vein. 
Tunnel from Ross to Red Ash vein, TO yards. 

Lance Colliery — Tunnel Five-Foot to Hillman, 189 yards, partly 
finished. Tunnel bottom split to top split, Baltimore, 57 yards. An- 
nex to breaker to prepare buckwheat coal. 

Nottingham Colliery — One pair 24x48-inch first motion engines for 
operation of new slope in Ross vein. An 8-inch bore hole, 280 feet 
long, to conduct rope from surface to head of slope. 

Reynolds Colliery. — Rock plane Red Ash to Ross, 50 yards. Partly 
finished. 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 117 

VVanamie Colliery. — Tunnel' top to bottom split, Baltimore, 44 
yards. Tunnel Bed Ash to Ross, 85 yards. 

Maxwell Colliery. — Opening Bed Ash vein in deep shaft. Two 
tunnels from bottom to top split Red Ash vein, each 30 yards. Re- 
modelled portion of breaker and installed jigs. Two hundred and 
fifty horse-power Babcock & Wilcox boilers installed. 



Improvements by the Delaware and Hudson Company During the 

Year 1900. 

Baltimore Slope — Sinking No. 5 shaft, which is the old Meadow 
shaft, enlarged from 9 feet 6 inches x 19 feet to 12x28 feet from 
surface to Baltimore vein, 385 feet. This shaft will be continued in 
solid, same size to Red Ash vein. 

Baltimore No. 2. — No. 6 slope, in Red Ash vein, sunk 700 feet, 
operated by 10x12 inch engines, with air, only temporary. 

\\ Tashery relieving breaker and saving small sizes. Refuse is 
taken down a new 10-inch bore hole 530 feet deep to Red Ash vein. 

Baltimore Tunnel. — No. 6 slope, Red Ash vein, extended 800 feet, 
with a total depth of 1,400 feet. 

No. 10 plane completed 3,300 feet, and is operated by pair of 16x36 
inch engines, the rope running through bore hole 132 feet deep. 
New engine house, brick, 20x40 feet, for No. 10 plane engines. 

Conyngham. — No. 6 plane, in Abbott vein, now up 1,450 feet. 

No. 2 slope, in Baltimore vein, down 000 feet, completed. 

Rope haulage operating No. 6 Abbott and No. 7 Kidney planes and 
delivering coal to foot of No. 1 Hillman slope. Operated by 14x30 
inch engines, located on surface, ropes running through 8-inch bore 
hole, 477 feet deep, to Hillman vein. Haulage is 4,750 feet long. 

Plymouth No. 1. — This shaft is completed to the Bennett vein. 
Plymouth pumping plant. 

Another pump room, 22x54 feet, stone side walls and brick arch, is 
completed. 

A compound pump Steam cylinder, one 26-inch and two 38-inch, 
with three plungers 11x4s inches, built by the Dickson Manufactur- 
ing Co., has been set up, and will soon be in running order. This 
pump has a capacity of 3,000 gallons per minute. 

New fan 10x28 feet, brick house 48x48 feet . 

Fan driven by two engines, L6x36 inches, to ventilate Plymouth 
No. 2, Bed Ash vein. 

Plymouth No. 2. — New set hoisting engines, 26x48 inches, with 
half cone drums. Engine house brick, 42x38 feet. 

Washery, relieving breaker and saving small sizes; refuse 1 is- taken 
flown a new 10-inch bore hole, 600 feet long, to Bennett vein. No. 13 
tunnel to top split in 200 feet; still driving. 



118 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Plymouth No. 3. — Foot in Red Ash vein has been opened out, and 
is now connected with slope sunk from Boston vein. This slope 
is now an engine plane for No. 3. 

No. 9 tunnel to Stanton vein completed 563 feet. 

New fan, 10x28 feet, in brick engine house 48x48 feet, ventilating 
Red Ash vein, running since July. 

Plymouth No. 4. — No. 2 Ross slope down 2,200 feet; still driving. 

No. 1 Red Ash slope down 2,250 feet, still driving. 

No. 7 plane, in Red Ash up GOO feet; still driving. 

Plymouth No. 5. — No. 5 plane, in Red Ash, top split, up 500 feet; 
still driving. 

Boston. — No. 4 plane, top split, Red Ash, completed up 1,400 feet. 

Improvements by the Susquehanna Coal Company During the Year 

1900. 

Stearns.— No. 4 shaft, sunk 205 feet to 651 feet total depth. 

No. 4 air shaft sunk. 553 feet to 663 feet, total depth. 

No. 5 shaft, sunk 172 feet to 220 feet, total depth. The sinking of 
these three shafts is now completed. 

Rock foot No. 4 shaft driven 80 feet. 

Nanticoke. — No. 14 slope, Lee seam, Nanticoke, rock work for head 
completed. 

. No. 12 rock plane, from Lee toward Ross, driven on 20-degree pitch 
100 feet. 

No. 13 rock plane, 7x14 feet, 20-degree pitch, driven up 100 feet 
from No. 21 tunnel, completed. 

Outside Improvement — New narrow gauge railroad, three miles, 
from Nanticoke to Stearns. 

New compressor plant for No. 14. Slope engines, Nanticoke, Pa. 
Engines to be inside at head of slope, and compressed air to pass 
through bore hole. 

One thousand horse power new Babcock & Wilcox boilers, No. 5 
breaker, Nanticoke. 

One thousand horse power new Babcock & Wilcox boilers, No. 1 
shaft, Nanticoke. 



Improvements by Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Company 
During the Year 1900. 

Woodward. — One 500-horse power engine directly connected with 
one G. E. 330 K. W. Multipolar Electric Generator. 
One 80-horse power electric hoist in the Cooper seam. 
One 120-horse power electric hoist in the Red Ash seam. 
One 7x8-inch Triplex electric pump, 20-horse power motor. 



No. 11. FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 119 

lAvondale. — One 300-hoise power McEven engine to one C. \Y. 200 
K. W. Multipolar electric generator. 

Bliss. — One 200-horse power McEven engine, directly connected 
wilh one Bullock 150 K. \Y. Multipolar electric generator. 

One rock tunnel, Txlii feet, from Forge to the Red Ash seam, 
050 feet long. 



Improvements by the Kingston Coal Company. 

At the Nos. 1 and 4 shafts electric haulage was installed during 
the year L900. The length of haul in each shaft is 3,500 feet. The 
motors are ten Ions each in weight, 25 horse power, constructed by 
the Genera] Electric Company. Each does the work of 12 mules 
and hauls 20 ear trips on level road. The generator is located on 
surface. A McEven engine 22x24i inches, 350 horse power. Multi- 
polar generator operated by belt gearing. Voltage, 250. Full load, 
275 volts. Speed, 450. Amperes, 727. 



120 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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Ful'I.TIi ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



147 




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FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT 1 . 



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FOURTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



151 



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152 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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Official Document, No 11. 



Fifth Anthracite District. 

LUZERNE AND CARBON COUNTIES. 



Hazleton, Pa., February 18th, 1901. 
lion. James \Y. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my fifth annual report 
as Inspector of Mines for the Fifth Anthracite District for the year 
ending December 31, 1900. 

I take pleasure in stating thai with but few exceptions I have 
received courteous treatment, and the co-operation of both operators 
and miners in the discharge of my duties during the year, for which 
1 desire to publicly extend my sincere thanks. There has been no 
lack of diligence in the execution of my duties where it has been 
possible. Every mine has been visited and inspected as often as the 
exigencies of the case and the condition of the mines required, or 
my limited time would permit. When I have had occasion to call 
attention to defects in ventilation or other matters requiring atten- 
tion, I am pleased to state that my orders have been ((implied with, 
within a reasonable time, so that in no case have I been compelled to 
invoke the aid of the law. 

There is no question but that the mines of this district will com- 
pare favorably with those of any other district in the State in all 
matters pertaining to general safety ami sanitary condition. 

The report contains the usual tables of useful statistics relative 
to the several operations of the district. A perusal will show that 
the total number of accidents during the year in and about the mines 
was 116, by which 40 persons lost their lives, leaving 17 widows and 
44 orphans to mourn the loss of husband and father. 

of these 10 fatal accidents, 23, or 57.5 per cent., occurred in the 
mines, while IT, or 42.5 per cent., occurred on the surface, in the 
stripping or about the breakers. I have given a detailed description 
of these from personal investigation, giving the cause and fixing 
the responsibility for each accident. The quantity of coal produced 
pe^ life lost was 154,269 tons, against 1 1"..'.'!! tons in the previous 
year. 

( L53 ) 



154 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The total quantity of coal produced in this district for the year 
1900 was 0,170,784 tons, which was a decrease of 20,243 tons from that 
of 1S99, which was due entirely to a suspension of operations at 
several of the collieries, owing to the unsettled condition of affairs 
in the adjoining anthracite districts, brought about by what was 
intended to be a general strike during the month of October. 

The total shipments, including local sales, were 5,457,861 tons. 
To accomplish this work, 15,111 persons were emplo3 T ed on an average 
of 195 days; 980,811 pounds of dynamite and 2,098,575 pounds of soda 
powder were used in the mines and on the stripping operations. 

The report also contains a brief description of the important im- 
provements made at some of the collieries during the year; also a 
complete report of the mine foreman's examining board for the 
year, showing the number of applicants examined. Those who were 
successful were recommended to the Department aud received their 
certificates. 

In conclusion, I am pleased to state that a goodly number of the 
successful candidates have secured positions as mine foreman or 
assistant mine foreman. 

Yours very truly, 

W. H. DAVIES, 
Inspector of Mines. 



Tons of Coal Mined During the Year 1900. 

A. Pardee & Co., 365,565.10 

Coxe Bro.'s & Co., Incorporated 976,069.12 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 1,079,401.01 

G. B. Markle & Co., 1,030,628.00 

The Lehigh Valley Coal Company 870,366.05 

Calvin Pardee & Co., 624,466.13 

Estate of A. S. Van Wickle, 516,893.00 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company, 222,685.01 

O. M. Dodson & Co., 174,520.00 

J. S. Wentz & Co., 113,700.00 

M. S. Kemmerer & Co., 96,278.01 

Audenried Coal Company (washery) 60,043.16 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 20,808.08 

Miscellaneous operations, 11,867.00 

Total, 6,170,784.00 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 

The total production was made up as follows: 



155 



Shipped by raihoad to market, 5,343,291.19 

Sold at mines to local trade 114,570.10 

Coal consumed to generate steam and heat (estimate), . 712. 1)21.11 



Total, 6,170,784.00 



Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined Per Life Lost. 







•o 












c 






£ 




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Names of Operators. 


- 


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A. Pardee and Company 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company 

G. B. Markle and Company 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 

i of A. S. Van "Wickle 

Calvin Pardee and Company, 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company, 

Total and average 




Number of Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined per Persons Injured. 





w 












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£ 3 




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o 


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A Pardee and Company 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated, 

i.'ii ''ii Coal ami Navigation Company 

13 1 1 .Markle and Company, 

i li Valley Coal Company 

Estate of a s. Van Wickle, 

Calvin Pardee and Company 

Lehigh and ■\Yiikes-Rarre Coal Company, .. 

Upper I. thigh Coal Company, 

C. M. Onrlsnn and ("iimpany 

M. P. Kemmerer and Company 

J. S. YVentz and Company 

Andi-nreld Coal Company, 

Total and average 




lL'l.s:,-, 
H7,Ki:fi 

359,800 
54,243 

108,920 
43,074 
69,407 
20, SOS 

111.342 
58,173 
24,(169 

59,520 

81.195 



21 



156 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Mined per Accident. 



Names of Operators. 




o a 



A. Pardee and Company, 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company 

G. B. Markle and Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

Estate of A. S. Van Wickle 

Calvin Pardee and Company, 

Upper Lehigh Coal Company 

M. S. Kemmerer and Company, 

C. M. Dodson and Company 

J. S. Wentz and Company 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 
Audenreid Coal Company, 

Total and average 



73,113 

61,004 
154,200 
33,246 
72,530 
27,204 
48,051 
74,22f 
24,061, 
58,173 
113,700 
20,808 
59,520 

53,197 



Comparative Statement Showing the Number of Tons of Coal Produced, Number 
of Fatalities, Tons of Coal Produced per Fatal Accident, Number of Persons 
Employed per Life Lost, and the Number of Deaths per Thousand Employed 
each Year for the Past Ten Years. 











tn 


to 0) 


t- m 










a 


na 


S c 








o 


o 


OS 


ft o 






cd 


3 






CO u 








<u 








o 


3 




ft 


p-Sj 


3 ft 




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a <J 




a 








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Years. 




<M 


ts o 


°v 


°* 


V,"°V 




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o . 






s ° 
■So 


<D O 


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I s 


g s g 


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o a 






3^4) 




dn 


£ 


EH 


B 


z 


£ 


1891 


5,803,964 

5,842,721 
6,239,068 
6.132,627 
6,590,966 
5,872,427 
5,4S7,550 
5,555,850 
6,191,027 
6,170,784 


53 

48 
58 
58 
52 
42 
33 
32 
43 
40 


109,509 
121.725 
107,570 
105,735 
126,750 
139,819 
166,289 
173,620 
143,977 
154,269 


14,961 
16,277 
17,540 
IS, 361 
18,467 
17.56S 
17,119 
14,649 
14,293 
16,111 


277.33 

2S2.28 
339.19 
302.48 
316.57 
355.13 
418.28 
457.78 
322.39 
377.75 


2.949 


1892 


3.307 




3.103 




3.461 




3.470 


1S96 


1.941 




2.184 


1898 


3.014 




3,606 




2.666 







Nationalities of Persons Fatally and Non-Fatally Injured. 



Fatal accidents, ... 
Non-fatal accidents 

Total, , 



a 



2 


1 


6 


9 


7 


2 


7 


2 





16 


23 


6 


3 


7 


4 


6 


22 


32 


13 


5 


14 



No. 11. 



FiFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



157 



Table of Comparison Showing the Number of Different Causes of Fatal Accidents 
in the Fifth Anthracite District During the Past Ten Years. 



Causes of Accidents. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


Total. 




6 












5 








11 

7 

179 

50 

115 

29 
5 

54 






1 

18 

11 
15 
4 


1 
21 

15 
3 


1 
24 

7 

13 

.2 
1 

4 






2 
18 

2 

9 

2 


2 
14 

4 

13 

1 


By falls of coal, rock and clay, 
By premature blasts and ex- 


16 

4 

6 

5 
■ 1 

6 


25 
2 

15 
3 


18 
2 

11 

4 
3 

4 


9 
2 
10 
2 


16 
1 
8 
3 


By mill- and railroad cars in 
By machinery in and about 




From miscellaneous causes 
inside and on the surface, 


3 


9 


3 


i 


4 


in 


6 




44 


48 


58 


58 


52 


42 


33 


32 


43 


40 


450 



158 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



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27.5 
7.5 
7.5 
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12.5 
15.0 
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7.5 


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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



159 



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160 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Widow and Orphans' Belief Fund. 

A very important subject in the mining settlements of this district 
is the question of how to provide for the relief of the widows and or- 
phans of men who have been so unfortunate as to be killed in or 
about the collieries. Very true, some miners have been able to 
provide for their families in case of death, but this is only true of the 
few, while from information received it may be truthfully said that 
the majority of the miners of to-day are not so situated, but leave 
their families, in case of accident, in destitute circumstances. 

I am pleased to state that many of the larger companies throughout 
the district have beneficial funds, which have been established since 
1883, and continued to the present time. Still, the individual operat- 
ors, for some reason or another, have given little or no attention to 
this matter. The plan adopted between the Upper Lehigh Coal 
Company and their employes is one that deserves the commendation 
of all persons interested in mining. This would practically do away 
with the unpleasant task of collections on the old plan where the 
tax was usually met by the few, while under the new plan the tax 
would be a general one and not so burdensome. Through the kind- 
ness of A. C. Leisenring, superintendent of the Upper Lehigh Coal 
Company, I herewith present a copy of resolutions adopted by the 
employes of that company, which I take great pleasure in approving 
and recommending to the several individual operators and employes 
who have not already adopted some plan or method of relief for the 
widows and orphans. 

Resolutions. 

Passed by the employes of the Upper Lehigh Coal Company October 
28th, 1898, concerning the fatal injury of any employe at the Upper 
Lehigh collieries, viz: One half a day's wages shall be contributed 
by each and every employe at said collieries, the company agreeing 
to contribute fifty dollars. 

Resolved, That in case any person, man or boy shall receive in- 
juries which shall prove fatal within six months of the accident, 
the company wlil contribute fifty dollars, and there shall be con- 
tributed, or paid by every man or boy employed by the Upper Le- 
high Coal Company, at the Upper Lehigh collieries, one half day's 
wages, the same to be collected through the office, and paid to the 
nearest relative, but not going beyond widow or child, father, mother, 
brother or sister. 

Resolved, That in case a man or boy shall be killed, we shall, in 
order to fulfill the requirements of the first obligation, continue 
operations until the day of the funeral, devoting one half of that day 
to attend the funeral. 



No 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 161 

Resolved, That this agreement shall be binding on both parties, if 
the employe of the company is killed in or about the works, but no 
employe is to derive any benefit while off on pleasure, such as fishing, 
gunning, etc., or through malicious conduct. 

Resolved, That in case any employe of the company is injured and 
loses a limb, arm or leg, two eyes, or is otherwise disabled so as to 
unfit him for work, for the period of one year, by approval of the 
colliery physician, same amount shall be contributed. 

Resolved, Providing there are no relatives as above stated, the 
funeral expenses shall be paid, pro rata, out of a collection from the 
employes and the company. 

Resolved, That the standing committee, Patrick McLaughlin, 
•James Rhoda, Fred. Lesser, John Mattie and A. C. Leisenring shall 
adjust all matters pertaining to the burial of deceased persons, and 
see that all money collected be paid to the proper person, and all 
bills contracted be paid, within the limit of the amount collected. 

Resolved, That after all matters have been settled, there shall be 
a statement posted at the office. 

Resolved, That it shall be the duty of the standing committee to 
regulate all matters not included in the above resolutions, and call 
a public meeting when necessary. 
Attest: PATRICK McLAUGHLIN, 

Fred. Lesser, Secretary. Chairman. 



Examination of Applicants for Mine Foreman and Assistant Mine 
Foreman's Certificates. 

The annual examination of applicants for certificates of qualifica- 
tion for mine foreman and assistants was held in the Pine Street 
school building, at Hazleton, June 28 and 29, 1900. 

The board of examiners was \Y. II. Davies, Inspector; A. W. 
Drake, superintendent; Robert Munroe and Patrick Kelley, miners. 

Twenty applicants appeared before the board for examination. Of 
this number two failed, and the following eighteen passed satisfactory 
examinations and were recommended and received certificates: 



Mine Foreman. 

John Aubrey, Summit Hill; Morgan West, Lansford; Thomas F. 
.Jenkins, Nesquehoning; .James Kennedy, Drifton; Patrick Green, 
Jeddo; Manus McFadden, Eckley. 

11—11—1900 



162 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Assistant Foreman. 

Neal Gallagher, Peter McMonigal, Edw. Win wood, and James 
Thomas, Jeddo; William Fry, Rock Glen; Hugh Gallagher, Sandy 
Run; Jeremiah Moy, Lattimer; James Powell, Summit Hill; Patrick 
Conaghan, Henry Polgrean and Adam Cluck, Hazleton; Peter Dough- 
erty, Harwood. 

Mine Improvements. 

The improvements made at the several collieries of the district 
during the year 1900 were as follows: 

Coxe Bros. & Co., Incorporated. 

At Drif ton Slope No. 1 two tunnels were driven at the east to prove 
the Wharton vein on the south side of basin, and gangways were 
remodeled and some narrow work driven with the intention of em- 
ploying air haulage at that slope. 

At Drifton Slope No. 2 another air compressor has been in- 
stalled, gangway® remodeled and two planes completed on west 
side. An air motor has been received, of the same pattern as the 
one described in last year's report. Drifton, Slope No. 2, worked 
an aggregate of about two months during 1900. The breaker was 
run principal!}- on Mammoth vein, which is supplied from Drifton, 
Slope No. 1, and worked on Buck Mountain vein only about two days 
a week, except during the period of the strike, when it was running 
on Buck Mountain vein daily up to October 10th, the date of the 
Oneida riot, when all collieries under control of this company 
shut down absolutely until more peaceful times. 

At Eckley — Buck Mountain, work was continued on the same basis 
as during the previous years, with the exception tbat strippings fur- 
nished about 50 per cent, of the output, against 30 per cent, in 1899. 

Stockton Colliery continued as during 1899, except that the effect of 
the water accumulating in the old workings proved itself more seri- 
ous, and new workings to the dip had to be abandoned on account 
of the intervening strata showing the effects of the weight of the 
water lying in the abandoned workings of the East Sugar Loaf Coal 
Company. An attempt to fill the old workings with black dirt along 
the boundary line wdiere the principal influx of the water from the 
old workings occurred, and by it shut the water off proved to be a 
decided failure, but was very interesting. * A brick dam in an air way 
and a crib dam on the gangw r ay had been constructed several years 
ago, which held the water well, but the pillar was not considered 
strong enough to withstand the water pressure, and it was decided 
to fill the workings west of the pillar with dirt. A hole was drilled 



No. 11. FIFTfl ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 163 

from tin- surface to run the breaker wash water in* the dirl had filled 
the opening, which was from 15 to 90 feet wide to a height of 
about 90 feel perpendicular, and while this was being done, the water 
on the opposite side (east side Of I he pillar), w;is allowed to rise. 

When the black dirt had filled to the elevation of the highest cross- 
cut and proved to be perfectly solid, pumping was commenced. The 
water so far had assisted the pillar to withstand the pressure from 
the old workings, but after ii had been pumped down to an eleva- 
tion of 40 feet above the gangway level, black dirt appeared 
at the valve through which the water was drawn, indicating that 
either the dam or the pillar had given away. Aftor the water had 
all been pumped out it w r as found that the water had burst through 
between top of dam and pillar, and opened a hole about twelve 
inches square. The black dirt filled an opening about 3D feet in 
length and 90 feet in height perpendicularly with the dirt, having 
formed solidly on top, which can only be explained by the black 
dirl not having formed solidly in the bottom but continued in a 
slushy condition, therefore not offering any resistance to the water, 
alter the counter pressure of the water on the other side of the pillar 
became gradually reduced as the water was lowered. The break in 
the dam was repaired and they again commenced to run breaker wash 
water in. Black dirt filled the opening w r est of the dam pillar com- 
pactly, and the water percolating from the old workings ran out 
through a cross heading about 90 feet above gangway level. The 
black dirt was allowed to run through this heading and formed 
a bank on the east side of the pillar, when it assumed its natural slope 
and filled the workings east of the pillar 300 feet to a check battery 
put in on the gangway. Black dirt w'as allowed to run until it filled 
the opening east of the pillar solid to the cross-cut level for about 
90 feet perpendicular; after this had been done the opening in 
the cross-cut was closed tightly with only an opening left to drain 
off the water to allow' the dirt to settle perfectly, and when black 
dirt commenced to run through this little opening, this was also 
closed; but dirt continued to run in until it blocked the bore hole, 
indicating that the openings underground were filled. The influx 
of the water into the Cross Creek portion of the mine at that time 
had practically ceased, and the water was rising fast in the East 
Sugar Loaf workings: this continued for about five days, when a 
heavier influx of water, and the dirty condition of it. showed that 
something had given way again, and it was found that the water 
had forced its way along the east rib of the pillar againsl the solid 
Qiass of black dirt lying against the pillar, which proved that we 
could not successfully dam the water back with black dirt under the 
local conditions without blocking the old Mammoth vein workings 
entirely. 



164 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

At Beaver Meadow the new breaker mentioned in last year's 
report was completed. The drainage tunnel continued and air com- 
pressor, with two air motors, installed at Slope No. 2. Contracts 
were let to Cuyle Brothers to extend No. 8 stripping westward and 
start the stripping of the Greenfield basin in extension of the old 
east spoon end strippings. 

Tomhicken was continued on the same principles as it was worked 
during 1899, viz: hauling the coal in mine cars or flat cars to Der- 
inger for preparation. 

At Derringer and Go wen, the rock plane mentioned in last year's 
report, developing and draining overlying veins west of Gowen 
colliery, has been completed. An air compressor has been installed 
at Derringer to furnish motive power for hoisting engine and pump 
underground. The air will be furnished at 90 pounds pressure. An- 
other air compressor will be installed to furnish air for haulage 
on the same basis as the Beaver Meadow and Oneida plant. A 
hoisting engine and pump are to be used on a new slope to open 
lower levels in the northern basin of Gowen, Slope No. 4, which 
is the extension of the Derringer deep basin westward, as two proving 
slopes had been sunk, which developed a large area. Mechanical 
contrivances were necessary to develop this territory; hence, the 
installation of compressed air plant. 

G. B. Markle & Co. 

Ebervale Colliery. — Tunnel about 150 feet long, driven from east 
gangway "A," Primrose vein, to basin north in same vein. 

Traveling way from Primrose vein to surface completed. 

Jeddo No. 4. — Tunnel 350 feet long driven from Big vein to Big 
vein, cutting Wharton vein twice. 

Two hundred and fifty horse power Babcock & Wilcox boiler in- 
stalled; two 100 horse power Erie City boilers removed; two Rice 
coal shakers installed. Locomotive road constructed to south out- 
crop to convey material to fill crop holes. 

Highland No. 5 Colliery. — Slope from second lift, Pink Ash to 
bottom of Buck Mountain basin completed. Gangways opened east 
and west and second outlet driven. One motor added to compressed 
air haulage plant; two Rice coal shakers installed; 8,000,000-gallon 
reservoir constructed; 250 horse power Babcock & Wilcox boiler in- 
stalled. 

Highland No. 2 Colliery. — Tunnel 150 feet long driven from Buck 
Mountain to Buck Mountain vein, through point of saddle to decrease 
haulage; also, 50,000 gallon circular railroad tank erected. 

Highland No. 1. — Two million gallon reservoir constructed and 
pneumatic pumping system installed. 



No 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 165 

Jeddo No. 4 Colliery. — One 100 horse power Erie City boiler added 
to water works plaut. Warren & Webster heater installed, also 
water works plant. New machine shop and blacksmith shop erected; 
also, new machines added to machine shop. 



Lehigh Valley Coal Company, Lehigh Region. 

Hazleton No. 1 Colliery. — The third lift tunnel, No. 8 district, was 
extended southward from the Gamma to the Buck Mountain vein, 
thus uniting the Buck Mountain on both sides of the basin by con- 
tinuous tunnel. 

The fifth lift tunnel was also completed, uniting same veins on that 
level. 

Second outlets have been completed on the different veins cut 
in these tunnels and the mine is well supplied with outlets, travel- 
ing ways, etc. 

A tunnel was driven from Wharton to Buck Mountain vein, in 
the local or overturn dip on north side of basin, seventh lift. 

Completed stripping the block of Mammoth vein coal adjacent to 
No. 1 slope 1 . The clay and rock from this stripping were used to 
grade a new location of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Hazleton No. 
1 Branch, at the western end of the property, and thus free the 
coal tied up under present location of the railroad crossing the out- 
crop of Mammoth vein. 

Hazleton No. 2 Colliery. — The fire in the old Stockton culm banks 
continued to burn within the confined limits during the year. iAs a 
furl her preventive to the spread of the fire westward, the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Company silted with culm all the cracks and cave-ins 
on their property west of the burning banks. 

Hazleton. No. 3 Colliery. — Two tunnels were driven during the year 
— on the second lift from Wharton to Mammoth vein — to re-work the 
lift of Mammoth coal lying between this level and the south edge 
of the stripping. 

A tunnel was driven from Primrose to Orchard and thence ex- 
tended to Diamond vein, on second lift. 

A funnel was also driven on third lift from Primrose to Orchard. 

Preparations are being made to strip the Mammoth vein pillars 
adjacent to the No. 3 slope. 

Hazleton No. 5 Colliery. — A tunnel was driven from Wharton to 
Buck Mountain on third level. 

New second outlel completed to surface on Buck Mountain vein. 

Eazleton Shaft Colliery.- Tin- Buck .Mountain vein is now con- 
nected from north to south side of the basin by a tunnel 2,630 feci 
long on first level and 2,050 feet long on second level, tunnels cutting 
intermediate veins between Buck Mountain and Tracy veins. 



166 REPORT OP THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The work of developing and opening out of gangways, airways, 
second outlets and traveling ways has been pushed with vigor during 
the year. 

Adequate pillars have been left on each side of the main tunnel and 
shaft, and all work has been done with a view of permanency and 
safety, as well as economy. 

The water from the shaft workings is drained through bore holes 
to the main pumping plant, the sump of which is the Hazleton basin. 

Spring Mountain Colliery. — A number of local changes and im- 
provements were made to the breaker in the early part of the year. 

By an agreement with adjoining operators — Estate of A. S. Van 
Wickle — the water from Spring Mountain was pumped at the latter 
place until they were in position to cope with this. 

Spring Brook Colliery. — Three tunnels were completed to the 
Lykens Valley vein in the No. 2 slope district. 

A tunnel was driven from the Buck Mountain vein to the Lykens 
Valley No. 1 district. 

Completed stripping the surface in the No. 10 basin, west of the 
breaker. 

The inside slope, Buck Mountain vein, No. 2 district, extended 
through the fault and is now being sunk in the trough of the No. 6 
basin. 

A portion of the breaker was renewed and the structure strength- 
ened throughout. 



Calvin Pardee & Co. Improvements. 

Lattimer Colliery. — A system of drainage has been applied, involv- 
ing considerable work, which effectually dispenses with four large 
mine pumps which had been kept constantly at work, discharging the 
immense accumulation of water at this colliery, which, owing to 
the large stripping operations, was delivered directly into the mine, 
straining the pumps to their full capacity at each rainfall of any 
consequence. 

The Jeddo tunnel, which empties into the Nescopeck Creek in 
Butler township, which was driven to drain G. B. Markle & Co.'s 
collieries in the Big Black Creek basin, passes obliquely through 
the Lattimer tract at an elevation considerably below the lowest 
workable coal bed, to facilitate the driving of which, a slope was sunk 
on the Lattimer tract on the north side of the basin, continuing from 
the surface to the level of the tunnel, which is known as Slope B. 
A tunnel was started in the west No. 2 gamma gangway and driven 
north 190 feet, tapping Slope B, forming a connection between 
Lattimer colliery and Jeddo tunnel, leaving an open waterway from 
the Lattimer colliery to the Nescopeck creek. In driving the Latti- 



No. 11. FIFTH -ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 167 

mer tuuiiel or waterway to Slope B, the two splits of the Buck Moun- 
tain veiu were cut. A deep ditch was cut along the east rib of the 
tunnel, and at the point where the ditch cut the upper split of the 
Buck Mountain vein, a deep hole was sunk in the vein to arrest any 
fine dirt or debris that might be carried by the water. Still another 
receptacfe for the same purpose has been provided at the south end 
of the tunnel in the Gramma vein. The ditches have been enlarged 
and graded for the entire length of the west gangway (which was 
originally driven level), the east gangway driven on a slight ascend- 
ing grade affords a natural drainage for the entire length of th.^ 
workings. I 

At a point in the east gangway, 1,500 feet from the tunnel dividing 
the east and west Gamma gangway, which is about 000 feet east 
of the old slopes Nos. 1 and 2 in the Mammoth vein, a tunnel has 
been driven south to the Mammoth vein, a distance of 30 feet, where 
a gangway was driven across the basin, draining the workings east 
of slopes Nos. 1 and 2; the Mammoth workings west of said slopes 
have a natural drainage to the main waterway in Gamma gangway 
(with the exception of a gangway in the Mammoth vein in the center 
of the basin at a lower elevation than the present working), complet- 
ing a natural drainage for the entire colliery. The water passing 
through No. 2 gamma gangways (which forms the main waterway), 
enters the tunnel to Slope B, depositing any sediment that may 
be carried along in the receptacle provided for the purposes in the 
Gamma vein at the entrance to the tunnel. In the event of this 
receptacle lilling up (which could arise from excessive rains), the 
surplus sediment would be arrested in the second receptacle or that 
provided in the upper split of the Buck Mountain vein. After pass- 
ing this point, a gate has been built across the ditch with slats 
one-quarter inch apart, to prevent anything entering the pipe which 
might float down the ditch. The water enters a wooden tank 
4x4x8 feet deep, set iu Slope I>. the to]t of which is on a level with the 
bottom of the ditch. A 12-inch column pipe has been connected to 
the bottom of the tank and extended down Slope B connecting to 
a 16-inch pipe set in the dam built by the Jeddo Tunnel Company 
which empties into the tunnel. 

With a view to centralization, a slope was driven to the surface 
in the Gamma vein al a point near the center of the basin and on 
the south side of the main basin, coming to the surface through the 
rock owing t<i the local anticlinal. At the surface line the slope has 
a pitch of ::i degrees, increasing in steepness as il descends until at 
the bottom it attains a maximum pitch of so degrees, owing to the 
irregular contour of the rock it has been decided to adopt a 
gun boat for use on the slope. To avoid the inconvenience of at- 
tempting to clean the coal in the mines on a pitch ranging from 
30 degrees to a vertical, the material will be loaded promiscuously 



168 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

into the gun boat — hoisted to the top of the slope and dumped 
into a chute provided for that purpose — carried along a traveling plat- 
form where the process of separating the slate from the coal will 
be carried out, after which it will be reloaded and sent to the breaker, 
the slate going to the culm bank. 

A pair of hoisting engines 18x36 inches, geared 5 to 1, will be 
installed as soon as conditions warrant the same. The work of 
grading that part of the slope driven through the rock to the 
surface is progressing as rapidly as the conditions and weather 
will permit, after which three rows of props will be placed in line 
throughout the entire length of the slope and the tracks laid, when 
it will be ready for operation, which will, in due time, handle the 
entire output of the colliery with the exception of the Mammoth vein 
s trippings. A tunnel has been driven south 320 feet long from the 
west gangway, slope No. 2, Mammoth vein, cutting the Gamma vein 
directly in line with the slope and will be driven north from west No. 
2 Mammoth gangway to the south dip Gamma vein, connecting the 
north and south sides of the basin with the new slope. 

Lattimer Breaker. — Has been enlarged by extensive additions and 
has been entirely remodeled, new and improved machinery installed 
and shaking screens substituted for the former revolving screens, 
additional jigs were put in and the plant in general has been mod- 
ernized. An electric light plant has been installed, which lights the 
breaker and its surroundings with incandescent and arc lights. 
The building is heated by steam. 

A new frame building, 30x65 feet, has been erected as a machine 
shop and equipped throughout with the most modern appliances. 
Also, a frame building, 32x65 feet, has been erected as a blacksmith 
shop. In addition to the necessary requirements for three fires, it 
has been equipped with a No. 2 Hilles & Jones double punch shears. 
An 800-pound steam hammer is on hand ready to be set in place. A 
frame building, 30x65 feet, two stories high, has been built as a car- 
penter shop. A fan house and a 16-foot fan has been erected over the 
top of Slope B, to ventilate the No. 2 Gamma workings, the slope 
being used as an upcast. 

Harwood Colliery. — In the West Buck Mountain gangway, Slope 
No. 2, a slope has been driven 1,150 feet to the surface across the 
pitch, at a vertical angle ranging from 5 degrees to 13 degrees, coming 
to the surface at a point convenient to the conveyor pit from which 
the coal is carried up into the breaker. The original proposition 
being to continue the slope downward in the Buck Mountain vein to 
a point near the eastern boundary line, terminating in the center 
of the basin, and to eventually concentrate the entire output of 
slopes Nos. 5, 4 and 2 to this slope, which means the abandonment of 
those plants. In prosecuting the work in. West No. 2 Buck Mountain 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 169 

gangway downwards, the vein w.is discovered to be in fault. After 
extensive provings in the lower levels it was considered impracticable 
to continue the work in the Buck .Mountain vein, and it was, there- 
fore, decided to begin in the lower No. 5 level in the Gamma vein 
and to continue to the basin on the same line; the Gamma portion 
of the slope is at present down to 900 feet and st ill working. In order 
to connect the Gamma and Buck Mountain sections of the slope it 
was necessary to drive a rock slope 500 feel in length, and on a pitch 
of from six to seven degrees. Work was continued from both 
ends, and at this writing it has been connected, making a continuous 
slope of 2,770 feet, which includes 220 feet from the top of the 
Gamma portion of the slope to the entrance of the rock or tunnel 
slope. 

In No. 4 level, Slope No. 5, a tunnel has been driven through 
an anticlinal from one of the West Buck Mountain gangways 2G0 
feet in length, terminating in the Buck Mountain vein, slightly 
below the workings of Slope No. 4, which will eventually be used in 
transferring the output of Slope No. 4 to the new slope. 

Garwood Back Basin. — In a local basin south of Harwood basin 
proper, Slope No. 15 has been sunk in the Buck Mountain vein 250 
feet on a pitch varying from 15 to 30 degrees to the bottom of the 
basin at this point and, as the basin is dipping eastward 12 degrees, 
an inside trial slope has been sunk in the center of the basin for 
a distance of 300 feet which will be continued as long as conditions 
warrant the same. Two thousand feet of gangway lias been driven, 
the coal proving in a good condition. 

A slope has also been sunk in the Gamma vein over Slope No. 
15, and in the same line (using the same hoisting appliances for both 
slopes), for a distance of 90 feet on a pitch of 12 to 30 degrees to the 
center of the basin in this vein. 

A new breaker has been erected at this colliery and has been in 
successful operation since the spring of 1898. The old, revolving 
or cylindrical screens have been replaced entirely by shaker screens, 
twelve in number. There are 20 jigs, all of the Lattimer pattern; 7 
sets of rolls, 1 elevator 05 feel high. 1 elevator 75 feet high and 3 con- 
veyor lines for handling bony coal. The coal is conveyed to the 
top of the breaker by means of a conveyor line of 400 feet centers, 
the head end about 100 feet above the loading end. It is com- 
posed of a double strand of Harwood bushed chain, with L2x48-inch 
flights and has a capacity of 4.(1(11) tons of run of-inine coal per 
day, driven at discharge end (which is heavily back geared), by 
means of a Dodge rope drive. There are fifteen separate rope drives 

scattered throughout the whole breaker — all of the Dodge American 
system. 

The engines are a pair of 20x30 inch, running 90 revolutions 



170 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

per minute, and when steam was supplied from old boiler plant 
pressure was 65 pounds. The following were taken from indicator 
tests made under the foregoing circumstances with the breaker 
running empty and the run-of-mine conveyor thrown in. The en- 
gines developed 150 horse power, and the speed of the run-of-mine 
conveyor was 17 flights, or 68 feet per minute. With eight cars of 
coal in the drag, the breaker preparing two cars per minute, the 
engines developed 236 horse power. 

The breaker is heated by steam and supplied with incandescent and 
enclosed arc electric lights throughout. 

The steam plant, which furnishes not only the steam required to 
operate the breaker, but also the various hoisting engines, pumps, 
fans, etc., scattered all over the property, consists of a frame build- 
ing 50x106 feet, equipped with ten horizontal return tubular 
boilers, 72 inches x 18 feet, made by the Vulcan Iron Works, Wilkes- 
llarre, Pa., with 76 4-inch tubes, each boiler representing 150 horse 
power, or a total of 1,500 horse power. The boilers are set in pairs 
and are connected to a 16-inch steam line, and operated by forced 
draft, a 6x9-foot right-hand, down-discharge Sturtevant fan deliver- 
ing the air to a conduit which carries it under and back of the 
ash pits. A large space running the entire length of the boiler room, 
under the floor and between the wall at the front of the boilers and 
another wall parallel to the same, permits the loading of ashes 
directly into the cars, where it is run to the entrance, or side, of 
the boiler room and hoisted directly to the ash dump. An annex, 
29x20 feet, at the rear of the boiler room has been provided for 
the Sturtevant fan. A Warren, Webster & Co. 1,500-korse power 
feed water heater and purifier, a fan engine and two Jeanesville 
feed pumps are also stationed in this annex. The water for the 
colliery is obtained from a well on the southern part of the tract, 
a distance of more than 4,000 feet, and across a ridge, and is pumped 
from the well to a reservoir located on top of the ridge 101 feet, 
vertical height, above the well from which it is delivered to the 
boilers by gravity, by a Halsey pneumatic pump, with a cylinder 
24x28 inches, with a capacity of 150 gallons per minute. The air 
is carried from the compressor, which is operated near the boiler 
room, through 2^-inch pipes to the pump, which requires no attend- 
ant, starting and stopping as the compressor is started and stopped 
at the boiler plant. The water is pumped and run to the boilers 
through a 5-inch pipe, which also supplies the village on the prop- 
erty. 

Steam pipe lines have been erected and extended to the various 
hoisting engines, pumps, etc., on the property, from this boiler 
plant, of a total length of 16,338 feet, from 10 inches to 2 inches in 
diameter, and which is, with the exception of a very small portion 
connecting pumps, etc., carried on posts over the surface. 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 171 

Remarks on Fatal Accidents. 

There were 40 fatal and 7<; non-fatal accidents recorded in this 
district during the year ending with December 31, 1900. A large 
percentage of these fatalities were clearly attributable to neglect, 
and ordinary care would have prevented their occurrence. While 
it is generally conceded that the conditions under which all miners 
work are hazardous, the law contemplates and the Inspector en- 
forces the removal of the causes of the dangers which are pre- 
ventable, but I And by experience that there are accidents which 
neither t he law nor the Inspector can reach. Moreover, i hese deaths 
are the result of accidents caused by a moment's inadvertence on 
the part of the victim. Very true, the safety of a breast or chamber 
devolves to a great extent upon the care that the miner or work- 
man himself exercises, and a careful observation in examining his 
working place and in sounding and testing the roof of his chamber 
before commencing work in the morning or after tiring a blast. 
This would bean effective safeguard and tend materially to reducing 
the Dumber of accidents due to falls of coal and rock. 

The pernicious practice of men and boys who work in and about 
a colliery, of jumping on moving mine cars, has been a fruitful 
and prolific cause of accidents during the past year, and most of 
them can be traced to the carelessness of the vict ims themselves. 

It is the opinion of the writer that entirely too much freedom is 
given to the miners and other employs about a colliery, who be 
(<»ine daring, venturesome and mischievous, and unless prevented 
will often take fearful risks, which are entirely unnecessary. The 
enforcement of strict discipline, together with a careful supervision 
on the part of the foreman or his assistants in charge of the mine 
is of utmost importance, and while it does* not relieve the miner, 
laborer or driver from responsibility, and the urgent necessity of 
constant watchfulness on their part, \i'i. the too frequent ex- 
amples of carelessness, recklessness and neglect, mighl properly 
be averted by proper discipline, and this is the only method whereby 
these sad occurrences may be reduced to a minimum. To enforce 
this discipline it might be necessary for the foreman to insist on 
Hie colliery rules being carried out to the letter by enforcing the 
punishment of suspension for a time upon the violator of the rules, 
ami for the second offense the offender should be immediately dio- 
charged from the colliery. A rule of this kind, properly enforced, 
would do more to reduce accidents from these causes than anything 
else, and there is no reason why it should not be enforced at all the 
collieries in the district. 

A careful perusal of this record will show that 23, or 57£ per cent. 
of the fatal accidents of the district occurred inside the mines; 11, 
22 



172 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

or 27-J per cent., were due to falls of clod or coal in breasts, while 
17 men, or the remaining 32-J per cent, of the total fatalities occurred 
on the surface, on the stripping and about the breakers from causes 
enumerated in the tables. Following will be found a brief descrip- 
tion of the fatal accidents, their causes, and how they might have 
been averted. 

No. 1. Chas. Cunningham, a laborer employed temporarily as 
brakeman on the railway between Spring Tunnel workings and 
No. 9 colliery, was instantly killed on January 3d by falling under 
a trip of loaded cars while attempting to cut the engine loose from 
the cars, to make a flying switch to the turnout near the breaker 
while the cars are run down to the siding by brakes. John Mc- 
Keevor, engineer, testified that the last he saw of the victim alive was' 
when he went out to uncouple the engine from the cars. 

A careful examination of the scene, together with the testimony 
of the engineer and fireman showed plainly that the victim had un- 
coupled the engine from the train of cars, and, while in the act of 
picking up the coupling hook, slipped and fell to the track with the 
result as stated. This was an unavoidable accident, which might 
have happened to the most expert brakeman. 

No. 2. On January 3, Nicholas Rubeline, an outside laborer, em- 
ployed at Milnesville colliery, was instantly killed by a railroad car 
near the breaker. He was employed cleaning railroad cars pre- 
paratory to loading them, and assisting the loaders about the chutes 
or pockets. 

'A careful investigation of this accident showed that the deceased 
was alone responsible, for he made a^ practice of leaving his work 
to call on a friend, who was in charge of a drag-line in the south- 
west corner of the breaker. I can only surmise that he remained 
away from his regular work longer than he expected, thus neces- 
sitating his running back. The board petition prevented him from 
seeing the car coming out from under the breaker until he was 
knocked down and crushed. With ordinary precaution this accident 
could have been avoided. 

No. 3. Philip Guitman, a steam driller and powderman, employed 
by contractors Crawford & Dugan, was instantly killed on January 
8th by the premature explosion of dynamite on a stripping at Beaver 
Meadow, while springing some holes preparatory to finally loading 
or charging them. 

Clem Wisemiller, a laborer employed as helper, testified that they 
had sprung this hole twice when accident occurred, but one or more 
sticks of dynamite did not reach the bottom of the hole, so Guitman 
dropped a hot coal into the hole and burned the powder out. He 
then told Wisemiller to put twenty sticks of dynamite into another 
hole. Not having that much powder he went for more, and while 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 173 

away the explosion occurred. He hurried back and found Guitinan 
lying dead, showing that he was leaning over the hole forcing down 
the tamping stick, when explosion occurred, causing the accident 
by which one of the most experienced men on stripping work in the 
district recklessly threw away his life regardless of rule or law. 

No. 4. Joseph Coxe, a miner, was fatally injured at Lattimer 
No. 2 east coal stripping on January 9th ? and succumbed to his 
injuries in the ambulance while on the way to the hospital. I 
made a careful investigation of the accident and found that the 
deceased was engaged in tamping a charge of black powder into a 
hole in the coal. He had placed a dirt cartridge in the hole after 
the powder and was tamping that with a coal drill, when the charge 
exploded. He had been warned against using the drill and told 
that he had better use the tamping furnished by the foreman for 
the purpose, but he insisted on using the drill, thereby violating 
article 12, rule 30, of the anthracite mine law, besides recklessly 
throwing away his own life and injuring three of his fellow work- 
men. 

No. 5. Frank Maroni, a laborer employed at Coleraine stripping No. 
2, was fatally injured on January 13 and died at the Hazleton hos- 
pital. He was sent to the road to warn persons that might be 
passing that they were about to fire a blast on the stripping. On 
teaching the mine railroad track, he stood in conversation with the 
timber-man, paying no further attention to the blast or anything 
else. A locomotive came along, pushing a trip of empty cars towards 
the slope on which the deceased was standing. The engineer saw 
the man on the track, but had no control of the cars, the engine being 
en i from them. He blew the whistle, but the victim never moved 
from the track until he was knocked down by the train. The in- 
vestigation of this accident showed that it could have been avoided 
had the victim been attending to his business. 

The writer is of the opinion that had the engineer proper control 
of his train, the accident might have been averted. According to his 
testimony, he could have stopped the train had his engine been 
coupled to it. He was alone responsible for not being in lull control 
of his train at the time. 

No. 0. On January 13th, Daniel Dougherty, a patclior .employed 
on an air motor in the mines at Highland Xo. 5 colliery, was instantly 
killed, by having been crushed between a moving motor and an 
automatic door on the gangway. The colliery being idle, the regular 
crews on this run, were repairing the motors at the repair 
pit. This being the only motor available at the time, the crew was 
called to take empty cars from the bottom of the slope, inside, to a 
point in the gangway known as "Lookout." This was the first 
time for the crew to run over this route, therefore, they should have 



174 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

been more cautious. Dougherty was sitting on the front bumpers 
of the motor to warn the engineer of any approaching draft of cars, 
while the driver boss rode on the rear end of the trip of eight cars. 
On nearing the automatic door on the gangway, in some maimer the 
door failed to clear the motor, by which the deceased was thrown 
to the track and was found underneath the derailed motor. I made 
a careful examination of the place and took testimony of the wit- 
nesses, which was so conflicting and unsatisfactory that the case was 
referred to a coroner's jury for fuller investigation; an inquest was 
held, and the jury rendered the following verdict: 

"That Daniel Dougherty came to his death by reason of a collision 
between an air motor and an automatic mine door in the Highland 
No. 5 mine, on January 13th, 1900, and we do further find that 
from the circumstances of the case and the evidence offered, the 
collision was caused by reason of the motor having been run at a 
speed incompatible with the safe operation of the door and greater 
than is allowed by the anthracite mine law. 

No. 7. William Krapf, outside laborer employed on the Coleraine 
breaker, was smothered in a slate pocket on January 17th. There 
was no eye-witness to this accident; therefore, it can only be sur- 
mised that he, while shoveling the slate back from the chute into 
the pocket, fell, and was unable to help himself. 

No. 8. James McAlearney, a miner employed on the 'Milnesville 
No. 7 stripping, was fatally injured on January 18th, by a piece of 
rock flying from a blast. He succumbed to his injuries at the 
Hazleton hospital. He and John Stratton were mining coal on the 
stripping, and received word that the men at the shovels were about 
to fire a round of shots. An examination of the scene, together witk 
the testimony of the witnesses, showed that the deceased was re- 
sponsible for not adhering to the rule of the colliery, and the common 
everyday practice of retiring to a place of safety with the rest of the 
workmen when shots were being fired. 

No. 9. William Dilinski, a laborer employed in Ebervale colliery, 
was fatally injured on January 20th, and died at the Hazleton hos- 
pital three days later. The deceased went up the ladder to finish 
drilling a hole the miner had commenced before he should return 
with the .powder, but while thus engaged he thought he heard some 
pieces falling at the face of the breast. Becoming somewhat ex- 
cited, he turned to come down the ladder, when he slipped and fell 
a vertical height of eighteen feet, sustaining injuries resulting as 
stated. 

No. 10. George Martlos, a laborer employed in Jeddo No. 4 col- 
liery, was fatally injured on January 31st by a fall of coal, and 
died at the Hazleton hospital. The miner had fired a shot in 
the bottom bench at the face of the breast and found that it did 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 175 

not do its work, bo he tools a bar to work it out, while the Laborer 
shoveled back the loose coal. While the miner was thus engaged, 
the laborer knowing that hie was stronger than the miner, insisted 
upon taking the bar, declaring that he would work out the balance 
of the bench. Be had been barring bu1 a short lime when a 
piece of (he top bench Eel! upon him, the accident finally resulting as 
stated. This was an unavoidable accident, due to an invisible slip 
in the coal, which could have deceived the most expert miner. 

Nos. 1 I and L2. Carman Papa and John Tribes. Italians, miner and 
laborer, employed in Jeddo colliery No. 1. were instantly killed on 
February 5th by a rush of mud and water in the gangway. The 
miner and two laborers were working in the section of the mine 
known as "Long Run Road" which had been closed by a rush of 
mud and water from the upper workings. Two shifts had been work- 
ing about two weeks cleaning tins gangway, which as far as could 
be examined was safe, until about 3 o'clock A. M. on February 5th, 
when there was a second rush of mud, rock and water which broke 
a battery of 15-inch round timber near the gangway, which had 
newly been put in place. 

Angelo Duries, a laborer, who was working at the face with the 
two unfortunate men when the second rush came, testified that he 
was shovelling mud into the car when he heard a crack and rumbling 
noise. lie immediately dropped the shovel and ran out of the gang- 
way. It was certainly a race for life, and he made good his escape 
by a very close margin. Papa and Tribes were entombed foi live 
days before their bodies were recovered. A careful examination of 
these workings indicated that every precaution had been taken by 
the officials of the colliery to secure this section of the mine. As it 
was being reopened, batteries were constructed across the entrance 
of every breast leading to the gangway, of sufficient strength to resist 
the pressure for all practical purposes. The first rush of mud came 
down from the upper lift and through the old workings, completely 
closing this section of the "Long Run" gangway on January 20th. 
An inquest was held on Papa, and the jury rendered the following 
verdict: 

"That Carman Papa came to his death by being caught beneath 
a rush of mud and water in the Jeddo No. 4 mine, operated by Gr. 
B. Markle & (V)., on February 5th, 1900, and we do fun her say that 
from the circumstances of the < ase and the evidence offered. 1h< acci- 
dent was unavoidable." 

No. 1.".. Anthony I'ash. a miner employed in AN est Gamma counter. 
Xo. 1 slope, Ilarwood. Pa., was fatally injured by a fall of coal 
at the face of his breast on February 9th, and died about ten minutes 
later. An examination of the place showed that the deceased had 
fired a shot, which failed to dislodge the coal, but broke it up. and 



176 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

it could only be removed by barring. While barring, a piece of 
the top bench fell upon him, inflicting a lacerated wound which re- 
sulted in his death. When I entered the breast to investigate the 
accident, I could scarcely realize how a miner of his experience 
could have been injured in such a place. I found that he had about 
three tons of loose coal near the face, which prevented him from 
escaping. He should not have attempted to bar until he had first 
removed the loose coal. 

No. 14. George Chenitch, a laborer employed at Go wan colliery, 
Nos. 1 and 3, was instantly killed on February 15th, by a fall of coal. 
I made a careful examination of the place. He was working with a 
miner in No. 2 west counter gangway, on the night shift. The miner 
found the bench of clod loose, and tried to pull it down with a bar, 
but failing, he drilled a hole in the bench and fired it. Upon return- 
ing to the face, the miner told the laborer to stand back while he 
would take down the overhanging loose coal, but unheeding the 
warning; the deceased insisted upon walking under the dangerous 
bench, which fell upon him with the aforesaid result. He was alone 
responsible. 

Nos. 15 and 16. Oliver Longenberger and George Rudolph, miners, 
employed at Gowan slope No. 4, were on February 20th, instantly 
killed by an explosion of gas. These men were working company 
work with Edward Fisher and David Singley, putting up batteries 
in breasts Nos. 31 and 32, east No. 8 gangway. Fisher and Singley 
seated themselves along the brattice to eat their dinners, while 
Longenberger and Rudolph started off eastward from breasts Nos. 
31 and 32. They had hardly gone five minutes, according to the 
testimony of Fisher and Singley, when the explosion took place, 
destroying the brattice along the gangway, thus cutting off all 
means of ventilation. All men inside of breast No. 20 were tossed 
about by the explosion and left in darkness to find their way out of 
the mine. It is remarkable that all the men (with the exception 
of Fisher and Singley, who were only slightly injured), made their 
escape over the debris and through clouds of after-damp uninjured. 
Fiie Boss James Abraham reached the scene shortly after the ex- 
plosion, and found that two men were missing. He then organized 
a rescuing party, which started out to search for the missing men. 
After they had made several unsuccessful attempts, he started the 
men to restoring the brattice, and at 7.30 P. M. the rescuing party 
made another attempt to make their way into the gangway, and 
pushed in until they reached breast No. 21, where they found Longen- 
berger's body on the lower side of the gangway. Another party, 
headed by competent men, was formed, who explored the gangway 
in seach of Rudolph, but failed to find him. They felt satisfied that 
he was no longer alive and it was found impossible to remove the 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 177 

debris until ventilation was restored. On February 21st, the Mine 
Inspector visited the scene of the explosion, accompanied by ex-In- 
spector J. M. Lewis, General Mine Foreman Daniel Sachs and Mine 
Foreman Houser, who explored the gangway nearly to the face, 
but failed to find any trace of the victim. They returned out the 
gangway to breast No. 21, where the Inspector suggested that the 
debris be removed, when the body of Rudolph was found lying across 
the gangway. A careful examination of the place, together with 
the testimony of those working in the vicinity of the explosion, 
showed that the gas was ignited by the naked lamp used by either 
Longenberger or Rudolph, causing the explosion by which both of 
them lost their lives. It appeared from the testimony taken that 
while there is no doubt that the gas was fired in breast No. 21, yet 
this was the first time that gas had been found in breasts 21, 22, 23 
and 24 of this section of working. Still those breasts had been 
suspended for some time and were not examined daily, which might 
not have been known to the victims. Foreman Houser testified that 
he had told the men on Tuesday morning that when they had com- 
pleted the work of constructing batteries in breasts Nos. 31 and 32, 
they could have one or two, or a new one (breast), from the gangway, 
and they replied that they would finish breast No. 23, which would 
not go up much further than sixty feet. Why they left their place 
of work to go alone through those breasts cannot be determined, from 
the fact that their actions were in direct violation of the anthracite 
mine law, which specifically states that no person shall enter a 
breast or chamber in gaseous mines, until the same has been ex- 
amined by the mine foreman or his assistant and declared safe. 

No. 17. Robert Morris, a driver employed outside at Jeddo No. 4 
colliery, was fatally injured on February 23, and died at the Hazleton 
hospital. He was engaged as driver between the breaker plane 
bridge and timber bank, and in attempting to jump on the car 
he slipped and fell under it. After a careful examination, together 
with the testimony of those who were on the scene. T was convinced 
that this was an unavoidable accident. 

No. 18. Joseph Kishko, laborer, employed in a breast at Harwood 
No. 5 colliery, was instantly killed on February 28th by a fall of clod. 
He was employed in an airway breast. The clod was parted in 
three benches, six inches of slate, four inches of coal and four inches 
of slate. This clod was down in all the breast except along the 
west rib. The chute is run up the center of the breast, with a row 
of props on both sides, the regulation distance apart. The clod 
that fell, causing this accident, was not in the face of the breast. 
but back from the face fully twelve feet, along the west rib of breast. 
The gob or loose rock was thrown to that side. Deceased commenced 
to gather up loose coal near the end of the gob, when the overhanging 
12—11—1900 



ITS REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

clod, which had been purposely left hanging as a death trap by the 
miner and approved by the mine foreman when measuring the 
breast, fell upon him. The fire boss admitted, in the presence of 
the foreman, that he never traveled on that side of the breast. A 
careful examination, together with the testimony of witnesses, proved 
conclusively that the miner and mine foreman were responsible 
for this accident. The miner for wilfully neglecting to take down 
the clod, and the foreman because he did not se« that the miner 
either secured the clod with props or blasted it down, as directed 
by the anthracite mine law. 

No. 19. Frank Ward, a miner, employed at the Hazleton shaft col- 
liery stripping, was fatally injured by the explosion of dynamite 
on March 12th, and died while being taken to the hospital. He was 
working as a miner on the coal. He had drilled a hole, while 
another miner, went down to the tool house for powder. It being 
a very cold morning, the dynamite was somewhat frozen, and 
unfit for use in that condition. McGeehan, knowing this, commenced 
to thaw it by placing it upon the red hot stove. He, had placed 
the powder upon the stove when Ward entered the tool house and 
appeared to be in no way disturbed at the thawing method in vogue, 
but in a short time the roasting dynamite exploded, whereby Frank 

Ward was killed and Edward McGeehan and Marchard were 

seriously injured. An inquest was held, and the jury rendered the 
following verdict : 

"That Frank Ward came to his death by an explosion of dynamite 
at Hazleton shaft colliery stripping No. .3, operated by the Lehigh 
Valley Coal Company, Hazleton, Pa., on March 12th, 1900. And 
we do farther say that the explosion was due to the placing of 
frozen dynamite on a hot stove in order to thaw it, by one Edward 
McGeehan, contrary to all rules governing the handling of dynamite, 
and which fact he (McGeehan) admitted before the jury." 

No. 20. Mike Krayczervincg, a laborer, employed on the No. 6 
stripping, operated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, at 
Lansford, Pa., was instantly killed on April 3d, by a fall of frozen 
earth. He was engaged at the time of the accident undercutting 
the bank on the stripping. He had been told by the foreman and 
several of the workmen that he should be careful, as the bank was 
becoming dangerous and that he had better leave it alone, but 
unheeding the warning, he persisted in picking until finally crushed 
beneath the falling clay. An examination of the scene showed that 
he could have escaped, had he moved back when ordered to do so 
by the foreman, but he stood looking at the falling bank until he 
was caught and crushed. Therefore, had the victim taken the proper 
precautions, the accident could have been averted. 

Nos. 21 and 22. Adam Yulaski and John Sulack, miner and laborer, 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 179 

respectively, employed on the No. 7 stripping at Milnesville, Pa. 
The former was instantly killed, while the latter was fatally injured 
on April 25th, by a fall of rock. Sulack died at the Hazleton hos- 
pital. These men, with others, were working out coal on the 
saddle, underlying a ledge of rock, when, without a moment's warn- 
ing, a portion of the overhanging ledge fell, with the aforesaid resnlt. 
Yulaski was picked up out of the shaley coal, where he met death by 
suffocation, while Sulack, the laborer, was struck by a piece of the 
falling rock while trying to escape. I found, upon examination 
of the scene, together with the testimony of eye witnesses, that the 
usual precautions had been taken to examine and sound the over- 
hanging rock, both by the foreman and the miners, before the men 
commenced to work, feeling satisfied that there was no danger, but 
the investigation proved that the ledge of rock fell from an old 
fracture, which was not at the time visible, and which, no doubt, 
was the real cause of the accident. Therefore, the accident might 
fairly be considered unavoidable. It would be better at all tines, 
where it is impossible to offer any support to such overhanging 
benches in coal or rock, to blast them down, as required by the 
miue law, which should be the foreman's duty in every instance. 

No. 23. .Mike Greshko, a jig runner and repair man, employed on 
the Highland No. 5 breaker, was instantly killed on May 21st, by 
machinery. I can only surmise, in the absence of witnesses, that the 
deceased went back to the broken coal screen and commenced to 
replace a washer on pedestal bolt while the machinery was in motion, 
and in some way his clothing caught in the revolving shaft. He was 
alone responsible, for if there was anything wrong with the ma- 
chinery he should have signalled the engineer to stop, as required 
by the anthracite mine law and the colliery rules, and this accident 
might have been averted. 

No. 24. John Fellin, a miner, employed at slope No. 4, Gowan, 
was fatally injured on May 23d, and died a few hours later at his 
home. lie was sinking a trial slope in east No. !) gangway. He 
scut his laborer to the top of the slope, which was about 210 feet 
in length, to bring down the buggy. With the help of a driver, he 
placed the buggy on the track, and gave the rope sonic slack to 
push it over the apex. The rope in some way became unhitched from 
the staple of the buggy, causing it to go down without the rope. 
An investigation of this accident showed that Fellin, who was at the 
bottom of slope, was struck by the bumping pole (which he had 
placed across the Hack), on the right side above the hip. He also 
received a lacerated wound on the head. The responsibility for this 
accident rested with the laborer, for it was his .duty to see that 
the hook was properly attached to the car or buggy before reaching 
the apex, when the accident would have been averted. 



180 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

No. 25. August Mattes, jig boss, employed at Highland No. 2 col- 
liery, was fatally injured on July 10th, and died at the Hazleton hos- 
pital. On investigating this accident, I found that the steamboat 
rollers were blocked, and the breaker stopped. The screen, roller 
and platform bosses were taking the coal out of the rollers, passing it 
to each other. The screen boss, Michael Nolin, handed a lump of 
bony coal weighing about fifty pounds out of the rolls to John 
McLaughlin, when he slipped, lost his balance and fell, and the coal 
dropped out of his hand© and rolled down a flight of stairs leading 
from the screen floor, striking the deceased, who was going up the 
stairs, causing a fracture of the skull, resulting as stated. While 
these men were in no way responsible for the accident, it shauld be 
a warning that they can never be too cautious while doing such work. 
This was an unavoidable accident. 

No. 26. Andrew Shiner, slate picker, employed at the Eckley 
breaker, was instantly killed July 23d, by having been crushed 
between a railroad car and the breaker timber. He was standing 
between the timbers, and according to the testimony of the men 
who witnessed the accident, the boy had no business there whatever. 
When the loader was coming down the track with the car the boy 
was looking down the track from between the timbers when the 
corner of the car caught him on the back of the head, crushing 
him against the upright timber, so that when the car passed he 
dropped to the ground, dead. Had this boy remained at his place 
of work this accident would not have occurred. 

No. 27. John R. Cunning, Italian, laborer, employed at Highland 
colliery No. 1, was instantly killed July 23d by falling under a car 
coming out of the gangway. He was on his way home and he saw 
the driver preparing to take a car out to the bottom of the slope and 
jumped on the front of the moving car. Joseph Houstin testified 
as follows: "We went out the gangway until we came to the curve, 
within 100 yards of the siding near the bottom of the slope, when 
Cunning fell from the front of the car onto the spreader and rolled 
off to the side." Deceased was certainly responsible, it being against 
the colliery rules, as that is the driver's position on the car, and it 
is only a miracle when falling off the car that the victim did not pull 
the driver with him . 

No. 28. Martin McNovish, a laborer, employed at Highland No. 5 
colliery was instantly killed on August 10th,' by a fall of coal in a 
breast. His miner had fired a shot which failed to bring down the 
coal. He then took down all that he could reach with a bar, and when 
a car reached the face he got on top of it in order to take down 
the balance of the overhanging coal with a bar. When Baker, 
who stood upon the car with his back towards the laborers, found 
that the coal was about to fall, he called out to warn his laborers. 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 181 

In the meantime McNovish had walked around to where Baker 
was barring without being noticed by him. He did not heed the 
warning, but was reaching for his shovel when the coal fell, crushing 
him to the ground. His miner did not know that he had passed to 
that side of the car. 

No. 29. David R. Davis, employed at robbing pillars at No. 4 
colliery, Upper Lehigh, was instantly killed on August 22d, by a 
fall of top rock. He was engaged in robbing a pillar on the west rib 
of the slope. Deceased had been working in this particular mine 
for twenty four years, therefore, he was thoroughly familiar with the 
work. I made an examination of the place and found that the work 
was conducted in a very practical manner. It appeared that on the 
morning of the accident, before starting to w r ork, Davis drilled a 
hole in the coal on top bench and fired it. He fired the second one, 
but neither of these did much work other than to agitate the over- 
hanging rock. While thus engaged, the men on the east side of the 
slope discovered a creeping in the rock, and immediately notified 
Davis who, in turn, dropped his tools and ordered his laborers to 
withdraw to a place of safety. They ran out and made their escape, 
but the miner, whom was unable to run, was crushed beneath the 
falling rock. He was entombed for fourteen hours, when his body 
was recovered. John Wargo testified that after he gave the alarm 
that there was scarcely three minutes until the rock fell. An ex- 
amination, together with the testimony of the witnesses, showed 
that there was little or no warning given, which was due to a water 
crack in the rock, which ran across the slope and both pillars. He 
certainly made a great mistake in not taking the warning of his 
son and the two laborers, who realized what might happen when 
he removed the last support. 

No. 30. John Wandow, a miner, employed at Cranberry No. 4 col- 
liery, was. on August 29th, fatally injured by a fall of roof, and died 
at the Hazleton hospital five days later. He was engaged in robbing 
pillars in the Parlor vein, and while thus engaged a portion of the 
six-inch bench, which he had neglected to take down, fell, striking 
him and knocking him down backwards and rolling upon him. This 
accident was caused by the carelessness of the victim himself. 

NO. .".1. Anthony Stramitas, a miner, employed at Cranberry No. 4 
colliery, was fatally injured on September 7th by a fall of clod, and 
died at the hospital. An examination of the place, together with 
the testimony of his partner, proved beyond doubt that this was 
an unavoidable accident, inasmuch as it was di ntirely to an un- 
foreseen slip in the clod. 

No. 32. Andrew Verry, a miner, employed in a breast at Lansford 
No. 4 colliery, was instantly killed on November L6th by a shale 



182 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

of coal and slate falling upon him in the man way. Upon examination 
of the place I found that the miner had not taken the proper precau- 
tion to dress off the rib after breaking through with the cross-head- 
iug, leaving the shale which fell upon him, breaking his neck. This 
accident, therefore, was one that could have been averted had the 
miner who drove the cross-heading properly trimmed the loose coal 
off the rib, a® he should have done. 

No. 33. 'Adam Kuehnhold, a patcher, employed in the mines at 
Jeddo No. 4 colliery, was, on November 17th, fatally injured and died 
at the hospital. He was standing beside the track while a trip 
of loaded cars was passing out the gangway. It was his duty to 
couple the trip on the siding for the driver, who naturally thought 
that he had, as usual, coupled up three cars, so that when the third 
car passed he turned backward to jump on the rear car, when he 
was caught, knocked down and dragged by the fourth car of the 
trip, which he had coupled up by mistake. He was taken to the 
Hazleton hospital, where it was found necessary to amputate his leg, 
and he died from gangrene. This was an unavoidable accident. 

No. 34. Stephen Stett, a miner, employed at Hazleton No. 3 col- 
liery, was fatally injured by a fall of roof on November 20th, and 
died at the Hazleton hospital. He had fired a shot in the top 
bench, but found that the shot did not bring it down. An examina- 
tion of the place, together with the testimony of his partner, proved 
that this accident could have been averted, had the victim taken the 
precaution to blast down the bench, as required by the mine law, 
when he found it dangerous, instead of going under it to work out 
the bottom bench in such a reckless manner. He was alone re- 
sponsible for the accident. 

No. 35. Paul Paoloski, laborer, employed at Hazleton colliery No. 
1, was instantly killed November 29th, by a fall of coal and slate. 
The miner had examined the place in the morning and found it safe. 
He then called the laborer up, and started to drill a hole and then 
left the laborer to finish drilling the hole, while he went to drill a 
hole in the other chute near the face of the gangway. About the 
time he got properly started he heard a fall and immediately dropped 
the drill, ran back to the laborer and called him, but received no 
answer. On going up the chute he found him dead, buried beneath 
a fall of slate and coal. An examination of the place showed that 
the heading was driven in twenty-one feet, and that the miner was 
in a great measure responsible, having neglected to timber either 
the chute or cross-heading, because they had found the coal in fault 
and becoming very shaly and treacherous, which would have pre- 
vented the accident. 

No. 36. Nacio Colinear, Italian, brakeman, employed on the surface 
near the No. 3 breaker at Lattimer, Pa., was fatally injured No- 



No. 11. FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 183 

veniber 28th, by being squeezed between a locomotive and a railroad 
gondola, and died ar Bazleton hospital next day. The locomotive 
was on the main track, pushing the gondola off the switch with a 
pole or piece of T rail. They moved the car a short distance, when 
the rail was too long. He then undertook to reach the car by 
using the coupling rod attached to the engine. He placed the end 
of this against the drawhead of the car and told the engineer to come 
back. He then placed his back againsl the car and walked back- 
wards, with the moving car, when suddenly the coupling bar slipped, 
and the cars came together. The victim, instead of stepping out of 
the way, evidently became confused, made a misstep and w r as squeezed 
between the engine and the car bumpers. This was an accident that 
could have been averted by ordinary precaution . 

No. 37. Michael Stelmak, a laborer employed on the culm bank at 
Jeddo No. 4 colliery, was fatally injured by cars on December 8th, 
and died before leaving the colliery. He had been working on the 
culm bank until he received an order from Edward Kennedy to go 
to the lower bank in the swamp for the purpose of assisting to dump 
rock into the "mine caves." He started to walk down the locomo- 
tive track, which was unnecessary, there being plenty of room to walk 
on either side. The engineer saw a man walking down the track 
and signalled him to get off. He certainly knew the locomotive 
would follow him down; still he. remained on the track until he was 
knocked down by the cars with above result. 

No. 38. John Haggerty, a miner, employed at Hazleton colliery No. 
1, was instantly killed on December 8th by a premature blast. He 
was engaged in breast No. 40, East Buck Mountain, fifth lift gang- 
way. He was notified by Assistant Foreman Gonaghan in the morn- 
ing before going to his place of work that there was a bench of rock 
in bell shape, which he should blast down, before doing any more 
work at the face of the breast. Deceased replied that he would 
do so. On reaching the breast, he and hi."* partner started 
at once to remove props, drilled a hole in the hanging bench and 
(barged it with powder, and placed the squib and was ready to 
fire. His partner suggested that he would light the squib, but 
deceased replied that he could fire it. He called fire and lighted 
the squib, but before he reached the heading the shot exploded and 
he was caught beneath t he falling top. This accident was due entirely 
to a defective or improperly lighted ^quib, as the hole being in the 
top, if required the greatest care for fear of short lighting. This 
was the first shot the victim had fired since working in the breast, 
his partner, Joseph Nesmitt, having done all the firing before, and it 
is possible that there was a mistake in lighting the match too short. 

Xo. 39. James McAndrews, a laborer, employed at the Evans col 
liery, was- fatally injured December L8th by having been crushed 



18 1 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

between cars and succumbed to his injuries at the Hazleton hospital. 
He was employed driving team in the absence of the regular driver, 
in No. 4 slope, and was at the time of the accident taking a car 
off the siding into a back gangway. He started the team, and 
neglecting to properly set the latches for the gangway, the car 
came back on the siding and he was crushed between the cars. 
His failure to properly set the latches for the back gangway, where 
he intended taking the car, was responsible for the accident. 

No. 40. Richard Clemens, locomotive engineer, employed at No. 
9 colliery, Lansford, Pa., was instantly killed December 31st, by fall- 
ing, the locomotive and three loaded mine cars passing over his body. 
The fireman was in charge of the engine coming out of the gangway 
until near the tunnel entrance, when deceased saw a beer keg that 
he had used to stand upon to open a valve to water the engine before 
starting in with the trip, in the middle of the track. He jumped 
off the engine to remove the obstacle, when he fell and the engine 
and three cars passed over his body before the trip could be stopped. 
He permitted the fireman to run a trip in the forenoon and one in 
the afternoon each day. It was when the fireman was running the fore- 
noon trip that the accident occurred, but it was not through any 
error of the engine runner, but was an accident which was unavoid- 
able under the circumstances. Deceased had forgotten to remove 
the keg before going in with the trip, and he was the first to notice 
it on coming out. He was considered by those about the colliery 
to be a .reliable, careful and clever engineer. He brought the coal 
from inside the tunnel to the breaker, twenty cars per trip. 



No. 11. 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



191 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



193 






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194 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



195 



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No. 11. 



FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



197 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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200 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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FIFTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



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(202) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



Sixth Anthracite District. 

SCHUYLKILL COUNTY. 



Shenandoah, Pa,, February 23d, 1901. 

lion. James \Y. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, 

Penna. : 

Sir: 1 have, the honor of herewith presenting my sixteenth annual 
report as Inspector of Mines for the Sixth Anthracite Coal District. 
It contains the usual tables furnished by your Department and 
gives the mining statistics relative to the mines for the year 1900; 
also, a description of the mine fire at Primrose colliery, and of the 
explosion of gas at Buck Mountain colliery. 

The report shows Unit 65 fatal and 130 non-fatal accidents oc- 
curred; 44 of the non-fatal accidents were not very serious. There 
were 72 fatal and 99 non-fatal accidents during the year 1899. 

The number of tons of coal produced per life lost was 108,009, 
against 104,561 tons in 1899. 

The total production of coal for the year 1900 was 7,020,571 tons. 
while for the year 1899 it was 7,538,404 tons, or 517,833 tons less in 
1 !)<m than in 1899. The production in 1900 would have exceeded that 
of L899 had the strike in October, not occurred. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM STEIN. 
Mine Inspector. 



( 203 ) 

24 



204 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE A— Showing Production of Coal, Number of Persons Employed by Each 
Company During- the Year 1900, and the Average Number of Tons Produced 
Per Employe. 



Names of Companies. 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company 

Lehib'h Valley Coal Company 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company, 

Mill Creek Coal Company 

Lentz and Company, 

Silver Brook Coal Company 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated 

Susquehanna Coal Company 

Thomas Coal Company 

Lawrence Coal Company, 

Cambridge Coal Company 

Furnace Coal Company 

Stoddart Coal Company 

Brookwood Coal Company 

Girardville Coal Company 

Carson Coa! Company 

North American Coal Company, 

Total, 




So 

3 4) 



4,173,714.13 


12,242 


646.3S7.07 


2,002 


417,535.05 


1,390 


350, 839 


742 


317,959 


770 


149,257 


468 


270, 547 


612 


230,243 


821 


82,632 


2S6 


102.543 


350 


44,161 


135 


42.4S0 


109 


51,094 


71 


43,271 


35 


66,517 


66 


26,625 


127 


4,766 


52 


7,020,571.05 


20,278 



Average number of tons produced per employe, 346.2. 



TABLE B— Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced Per Life Lost. 













ri™ 










o 












d 


ofc 




cd 


m « 








Names of Companies. 


o 


2-a 






^2 










si 


3 0.5 




so 




z 


fc 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company 

Mill Creek Coal Company 

Lentz and Company 

Silver Brook Ccal Company 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated 

Susquehanna Coal Company, 

Thomas Coal Company 

Lawrence Coal Company 

Cambridge Coal Company 

Furnace Coal Company 

Stoddart Coal Company 

Brookwood Coal Company 

Girardville Coal Company 

Carson Coal Company, 

North American Coal Company 



Total and average, 



139,123.80 
107,731.16 
104, 3S5 

31.S94.50 
158,979.50 
149,257 
270,547 

57,560.75 

S2.632 

25,635.75 

44,161 

42.4SO 

51,094 

43,271 

66,517 

26,625 
4,766 



108,009 



No. 11. 



SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



205 



TABLE C— Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and the Number of Tons 
of Coal Produced Per Accident. 













go 








c 


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o 


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Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company 

Mill Creek Coal Company, 

Lentz and Company 

Silver Brook Coal Company 

Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated 

Susquehanna Coal Company, 

Thomas Coal Company 

Lawrence Coal Company, 

Cambridge (Val Company, 

Furnace Coal Company, 

Stoddart Coal Company', 

Brookwood Coal Company 

Girardville Coal Company, 

Carson Coal Company, 

North American Coal Company 



Total and average, 



102 

19 
9 

25 
9 
1 
6 

13 
3 



40.818 
3 l,i '20+ 
20,923 
14,033.50 
35.32S.50 
149,257 
45,091 
17,711 
27,547.75 
17,090.50 
44,161 
42,480 
51,094 
43,271 
66.517 
26.625 
4,766 

36.002+ 



TABLE D— Classification of Accidents. 



( llassi float ion. 






9 
6 
4 


33 
6 
2 
3 


















1 
3 

25 
6 

1 
3 






4 
47 
20 
























1 






2 

1 












8 
6 






4 








Total 


65 


130 


195 





206 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 

TABLE E — Occupations of Persons Killed and Injured. 



Off. Doc. 





c 








•~ 








>> 
























ci 
















cd 






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o 








■a'S 

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gj 
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3 

o 



Fire bosses (inside), .. 

Miners (inside), 

Laborers (inside) 

Drivers (inside) 

Starters (inside) 

Loader boss (inside), . 

Door boy (inside), 

Patcher (inside) 

Roadman (inside) 

Repairman (inside), 
Plane tender (inside), . 
Carpenter (outside), 
Watchman (outside), .. 
Car loader (outside), :. 
Engineer (cutside), — 

Driver (outside) 

Laborer (outside), 

Fireman (outside), .... 

Footman (outside) 

Machinist (outside), ... 
Car runner (outside), .. 

Tipman (outside), 

Pulley man (outside), . 
Screen tender (outside), 

Dift man (outside) 

Slate picker (outside), 
Scraper boy, 



Total. 



TABLE F — Nationalities of Persons Killed and Injured. 





12 
34 

46 


3 
4 

7 


4 
2 

6 


2 
3 

5 


5 
12 

17 


21 
52 

73 


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1 
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1 


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9 


1 
1 


65 




1:0 




195 







Table Showing the Quantiy of Coal Produced and Shipped During- the Years 

1899 and 1900. 





Tear. 




1899. 


190C. 




7,538,404 


7.020.571.05 




6,556,088 6,053,635.14 







pf 

L 



,.,-,-. 



• 




No. 1L SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 207 

Summary Sixth Anthracite District, 1900. 

Total production of coal, in tons, 7,020,571.05 

CTsed for steam and heat, 870,188.05 

Sold to local trade and employes, 96,747.06 

Shipped by railroad, 6,053,635.14 

Number of tons produced from washeries, which is in- 
cluded in total production, 192,273 

Average number days worked, 160+ 

Number of persons employed, 20,278 

Number fatal accidents, 65 

Number non-fatal accidents 130 

Number fatal accidents, inside, 52 

Number of non-fatal accidents, inside 107 

Number of fatal accidents, outside, 13 

Number of non-fatal accidents, outside, 23 

Number of wives left widows, 43 

Number of children left fatherless 91 

Number of kegs of powder used 141,682 

Number of pounds of dynamite used, 499,060 

Number of horses and mules, 2,009 

Number of cylindrical steam boilers 550 

Number of tubular steam boilers, 281 

Total horse power of boilers, 57,074 

Number of pumps, 140 

Capacity in gallons per minute 59,847 

Number of steam engines of all classen 515 

Total horse power, 34,570 

Number of electric dynamos, 2 

Number of air compressors 28 



Report of Explosion of Fire Damp at Buck Mountain Colliery, 
Operated by the Mill Creek Coal Company. 

About eight o'clock on the morning of the 9th of November, 
an explosion of gas occurred in the west fourth lift Buck Mountain 
gangway, killing James Griffiths and fatally injuring six others. 
Eight were more or less burned or bruised, but have since recovered. 
Being unable to investigate the cause of the explosion personally, 
because of indisposition, I had Messrs. Brennan and Maguiro investi- 
gate it, who reported that the volume of air traveling in the fourth 
lift gangway was sufficient for all purposes. 



208 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

The intake air current was from the crop falls, coming down 
through the first, second and third lifts, and coming down to No. 
100 breast, connecting with the third and fourth lifts, crossing the 
fourth lift gangway to Dog Hole, by means of an over-cast, and west 
to last cross-hole connecting with gangway, returning through the 
breasts as shown by the arrows on accompanying tracing. A door 
was in position between breasts 106 and 107 to force the air current 
up in the breasts; another between No. 85 and No. 86 breasts, 
and between Nos. 72 and 73 breasts, which, if kept closed, would 
keep the air current circulating through all the breasts from Nos. 
72 to 110. A few weeks before the accident occurred, John 
Stevens, the assistant foreman, changed the course of the air cur- 
rent, making a split in No. 100 breast, part passing over the over- 
cast to Dog Hole and west to face of gangway, returning through 
breasts coming down No. 101 breast to gangway, and east under 
over-cast, part going east through regulator put in place at reserva- 
tion pillar, forming the position of No. 98 breast, passing up No. 97 
breast and through the breasts to No. 88. This change, Stevens 
claimed, was only temporary until a tubing was built across No. 
100 breast, connecting with the stump heading on either side of 
breast. 

The gas was ignited in No. 97 breast by Edward Gallagher, a 
repairman, going up for a plank to block up the road-bed. William 
Moses, the fire boss, swore that he made an examination of all the 
living breasts on the morning of the 9th November; found no gas and 
reported to the men that all was clear. He also made his 
weekly examination of the abandoned breasts on the 3d of No- 
vember and found no gas, a record of which he made in a book kept 
at the colliery for that purpose, according to law. If we are to 
believe Moses, the gas must have accumulated in No. 97 and neigh- 
boring abandoned breasts, between the dates of the 3d and 9th of 
November, and must have accumulated there by reason of the gang- 
way doors being kept open. This colliery is ventilated by a 16-foot 
exhaust fan; speed, 90 revolutions, producing 65,000 cubic feet of air 
per minute; water gauge, 13-10 inches. About 210 men and boys 
are employed inside at this colliery, and all but 40 or 50 of that 
number are supplied with ample natural ventilation, which gives 
the remainder of the men more than 300 cubic feet of air each, 
which is produced by the fan. I made four visits to this colliery 
during the year; the last was in July, and always found the volume 
of air circulating very satisfactorily. Gas was seldom found in 
any of the workings, unless when the fire boss failed to keep the 
brattice close enough to the working face, when he would find a 
little gas in making his morning examination. I have always re- 
garded Buck Mountain colliery as one of the best kept and safest in 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 209 

the anthracite coal fields, and will bear inspection by the best 
expert miners in the country. The law prescribes thai all accessible 
abandoned workings shall be kept free from standing gas, but 
through the neglect of those attending to keeping gangway doors 
shut, thereby shutting off the air current from circulating through 
both the living and abandoned workings, causes gas to accumulate, 
and in the meantime, if a man enters an abandoned breast with a 
naked lamp and ignites a body of gas, as Edward Gallagher did, no 
system of inspection can prevent accidents occurring from such 
causes unless the workmen themselves regard the law. 

The explosion was caused by John Stevens making a change in 
the air current, together with doors being kept open, and Edward 
Gallagher going up No. 97 abandoned breast, although forbidden 
to do so by the foreman, Benjamin Evans, unless in company with a 
fire boss. 

That the accumulation of gas in No. 97 breast was caused by 
Stevens making the change in the return air current is true beyond 
a question of doubt, and the fact of his making the temporary 
change instead of permanently constructing the return across No. 
100 breast, shows a lack of knowledge of how to ventilate a col- 
liery. If he had built a return under-cast across the bottom of 
No. 100 breast, it would have cost less and would have kept the 
current of air up in the abandoned breasts, thus preventing gas 
from accumulating. Had this been done, there would have been 
seven fewer fatal accidents to report. 

Mine Fire. 

On the night of the 17th August, a fire was discovered in the 
diagonal subterranean slope. Buck Mountain seam. Primrose col- 
liery, causing loss of the lives of William Plomkus, Enoch Plomkus 
and Charles Gostiius. who were smothered by smoke. These three 
men were working a double shift, robbing pillars in west counter 
gangway, east and south 5,400 feet from bottom of slope. After 
quitting work, they traveled out west to tunnel driven south from 
bottom of the slope, where they encountered the smoke from the 
lire, and attempted to travel through this tunnel, but succumbed 
to the effects of the smoke. The circle with the cross inside on trac- 
ing shows where their bodies were found. 

No intelligent miner would have attempted to travel through 
the smoke, but would have retreated lo the outlet to surface, which 
was only 2,500 feet from where they worked to the outcrop, as shown 
by the red arrow on tracing. 



14—11—1000 



210 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Do'j. 

How this lire originated remains a mystery, as no signs of fire or 
smoke were discovered up to the time that work ceased in the col- 
liery. The alarm of fire was given by the night pumping engineer. 
When it was discovered that the three men had not arrived home, 
a. patty of men, under the leadership of James O'Donnell, mine fore- 
man, entered the mine at the outlet, traveled westward along the 
gangway to a door a few feet east of where the men were found, 
which showed that the men did not meet with any smoke or gas until 
they opened the door. It was the opinion of some that the lamp 
of a driver, riding up the slope on his mule, might have touched some 
of the dry timber, which has been the cause of a few mine fires in 
this district. 

The slope, which is over 500 feet deep, was a complete mass of 
tire, and is permanently destroyed. The fire was sealed up by erect- 
ing batteries east of top of slope from gangway to face of breasts, 
and water raised to a height east of bottom of slope, so as to ex- 
clude the air from the fire. 



Improvements at Collieries. 

Packer No. 2. 

A tunnel has been driven from the second west level gangway, 
Mammoth seam, to the Buck Mountain seam; distance, 250 feet. 
Also, a tunnel from the fourth vest level gangway. Mammoth seam, 
to the Buck Mountain seam; distance, 284 feet. The Buck Mountain 
seam is about eight feet thick. 

Packer No. 3. 

The seven-foot slope has been sunk about 200 feet to the ninth 
level, and the Buck Mountain slope has been sunk 300 feet to the 
ninth level. An air shaft was sunk 42 feet from surface to Mammoth 
seam to ventilate the west counters, and 1,100 feet of speaking tube 
put in place. A split of air has been taken from the fourth level 
Mammoth seam, through the tunnel, and down the Buck Mountain 
slope, which has nearly doubled the volume of air. 

Packer No. 4. 

This colliery was not in operation during the year. The old 
breaker was taken down and a large breaker is now nearing com- 
pletion, the capacity of w r hich will be 3,000 tons daily. A new 
tubular boiler plant has been erected, having 2,500 horse power. A 




^* * Point u/^cfts ffje 3 /««//cj ^u*rc found 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 211 

I 

mine locomotive track has been built from the breaker to Packer 
No. 3, a distance of 2,000 feet; also, a track 2,500 feet to Packer No. 2, 
over which the coal mined ai Nos. 2 anil 3 will be hauled and prepared 
at Packer No. 4 new breaker, when the old breakers, Nos. 2 and 3, 
will be permanently abandoned. 



Primrose Colliery. 

A slope has been sunk in the basin of the Buck Mountain seam, a 
distance of 800 feel. From the surface to the top of slope, a bore 
hole has been put down a distance of 400 feet, through which the 
hoisting rope and signal wire will pass. 



West Shenandoah. 

No coal has been shipped from this colliery since the strike. The 
old bleaker was taken down and a large breaker is nearing com- 
pletion. When finished, all the coal mined from Turkey Run and 
Kohinoor collieries, together with the coal mined from West Shenan- 
doah colliery, will be prepared at the new breaker, which will have 
a capacity of 2,500 tons daily. 

These collieries, being consolidated, will insure more safety in 
i lie final robbing of the different seams, and more coal will be 
secured from this class of work than if the three breakers were in 
operation. 

Mahanoy City Colliery. 

A tunnel has been driven from bottom to top split. Mammoth 
seam, cutting these I wo members in the basin north and south dip; 
length of tunnel, 250 feet. 



' North Mahanoy Colliery. 

A tunnel has been driven to Skidniore seam from Seven foot seam, 
and another from bottom splil to Skidmore, Yatesville basin; length. 
50 feet; vein. 12 feel thick, all coal. 

An air tunnel has been driven from bottom to top split. Mam- 
moth seam, at right angles to seams in Yatesville basin; distance. (!<> 
feet. 

Tunnel Ridge Colliery. 

. A tunnel has been driven across the basin from south to north dip. 
connecting the top members of the .Mammoth seam on either side 
of basin; distance. 160 *feet. Also, a tunnel from top split to Buck 
Mountain seam, south dip; length, about 260 feet. 



212 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

From second to third lift, a traveling-way for men and mules 
has been constructed in bottom split of Mammoth seam, a distance 
of 800 feet, crossing sectionally and diagonally across the angle of 
dip so as to form a pitch of 25 degrees. 



Boston Run Colliery. 

A new tender and pump slope, double track, is being sunk and 
is now down 150 feet; collar, 19 feet, and 8 feet of coal. 

A tunnel has been driven from bottom to top split, north dip, third 
level; distance, 160 feet. Also, a tunnel from bottom split to Buck 
Mountain seam, north dip; distance, 200 feet. 

The Gunboat slope has been sunk from second to third lift; dis- 
tance, 300 feet. I 

Airways from third to second lift in top and bottom splits and 
Seven-foot seam to connect main air hole to fan. 

A traveling-way was made across the angle of dip from third to 
second lift for men and mules, a distance of 650 feet. 



St. Nicholas Colliery. 

A tunnel has been driven across the basin from bottom split, south 
dip, to Buck Mountain seam, north dip; distance, 475 feet. At this 
point, the top split is cut right in the basin. The middle and bottom 
members of the Mammoth vein, north dip, are cut by this tunnel; 
the Seven-foot is not workable. 



Draper Colliery. 

A tunnel has been driven from bottom split of Mammoth to Holmes 
seam, fourth level, a distance of 250 feet. 



Bear Ridge Colliery. 

A tunnel has been driven 254 feet south to cut the Mammoth seam, 
but this iseam evidently has not come down low enough, and a slant 
tunnel will be driven to cut it in the basin. 



Shenandoah City Colliery. 

A tunnel 118 feet long has been driven from the Buck Mountain 
seam to the Seven-foot in east gangway, first lift, subterraneous slope. 



No. 11. SIXTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 213 

Examination of Candidates for Mine Foreman's Certificates. 

The annual examination for mine foreman's certificates was held 
in the court house, Pottsville, on the 7th, 8th, 13th and lGth of June. 

The examiners were William Stein, Mine Inspector; Robert M. 
Quin, superintendent; Michael J. Brennan and Michael McCarthy, 
miners'. 

The following are the successful candidates who were granted 
certificates for mine foreman: Morgan Bevan, Gilberton; Archi- 
bald Lamb, William Cooper, Benjamin James, Shenandoah; 
James Alexander, Shenandoah (Brownsville); J. M. Coombs, Mahanoy 
City; G. D. Kreitzer, Buck Mountain; Thomas E. Davies, Audenreid. 

Names of those granted a certificate for assistant mine foreman: 
J. C. James, Shenandoah; G. Oliver, St. Nicholas. 



214 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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229 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Seventh Anthracite District. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. COLUMBIA, SCHUYLKILL AND DAUPHIN 

COUNTIES. 



Shainokin, Pa., February 25th, 1901. 
lloii. James YV. Latta, Secretary Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Sir: 1 have the honor of herewith submitting to you my annual re- 
port as Inspector of Coal Mines for the Seventh Anthracite District 
for the year 1900. 

There were 6,070,701 tons of coal produced, as against 6,308,334 
tons in 1809, being 237,633 tons less than the production of preceding 
year. 

The shipments, including the local sales, were 5,380,796 tons, a 
decrease of 197,416 tons. The falling off was due to the strike, which 
occurred during the months of September and October, which was 
the cause of the decrease in the total production. 

The number of fatal accidents was 49, a decrease of 3 from year 
IS!)!), leaving 29 widows and 67 orphans. 

There were 91 non-fatal accidents, an increase of 1 over last year. 

The number of tons of coal produced per each fatal accident 
amounts to 123,892 tons. 

The number of tons mined per each employe was 293.9 tons. 
Yours very respectfully , 

EDWARD BREXXAX. 

Inspector of Mines. 



Casualties. 

There wen- four deaths from being smothered by gas, two of which 
were purely accidental and the other | wo were caused by lack of judg- 
ment and violation of the law on pari of victims. 

There were three killed by explosions of blasts, which were also 
due to carelessness, four by cars inside and three by cars outside, 
which were directly due to carelessness. 

(231) 



232 REPORT OP THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Non-Fatal Accidents. 

Jn referring' to the nonfatal accidents, there were 17 burned by 
gas; 15 of these were due to carelessness on the part of the men 
themselves, and the other two were due to negligence on part of 
th tire boss*. 

There were 21 injured by mine cars, which were all due to careless- 
ness on the part of the men themselves. 

1 merely call attention to the above accidents to show that the 
majority of them could have been prevented, if proper care and judg- 
ment had been used bv the victims themselves. 



Improvements. 

During the past year the usual improvements, such as sinking 
shafts and slopes, driving tunnels, erecting airways, enlargement 
and improvements of breakers and machinery, have gone on. 

The general conditions, of the collieries are good. 

One new colliery has been opened by the Greenough Red Ash Coal 
Company. A shaft was sunk 220 feet to the Buck Mountain, or No. 
4 vein, and a tunned driven from the No. 4 vein to Skidmore, or No. 
C> vein; also, a breaker was erected with a capacity of 400 tons per 
day. 

The Buck Ridge collier j. operated by the Philadelphia and Read- 
ing Coal and Iron Company, and the Neilson colliery, operated by J. 
Langdon & Co., were abandoned. 

The annual examination for mine foreman and assistant mine 
foreman certificates was held at Pottsville in June, 1900. 

The following constituted the board of examiners: Edward Bren- 
nan, Mine Inspector, Shamokin; Andrew Robertson, coal operator, 
Pottsville; James Corbe, miner, Ashland, and Jacob Fleming, miner, 
Excelsior. 

The following were recommended for mine foreman's certificates: 
August Corbe, Ashland: John T. Ashton, Frank McHugh, Wm. 
Startzel, Mt. Carmel; Wm. C. Bateman, Natalie; Dennis T. McAuliff, 
Lykens; James Gordon, Locust Gap; Chas. A. Herr, Benj. Morgan, 
Anth. Reidinger, Shamokin; Patrick Laughlin, Mt. Carmel. 

For assistant mine foreman's certificates: George W. Stein, David 
Jenkins, William E. Jones, David Stein, Nicholas Brokenshire, Mt. 
Carmel; Peter Bodman, Henry Perong, Ashland; Peter Nalor, Trever- 
ton; Thomas Joyce, Locust Gap. 



No. 11. SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 233 

Production of Coal, in Tons, During the Year l!)(il). 

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company 2,296,093.05 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 152,676.07 

The Union Coal Company, 874,38:!. 1 7 

Mineral Railroad and Milling Company 615,616.15 

Summit Branch and Lykens Valley Coal Companies,.. 695,656.06 

Excelsior Coal Company, 136,263.15 

T. .M. [tighter & Co., 173,858.16 

Shaniokin ( Joal < Jompany 279,725.00 

Enterprise < toal < Company 163,687. on 

Shipman Koal ( Company 73,180.10 

Girard Coal Company, 71,462.01 

White & White 36,313.17 

Royal Oak ( !oal Company, 43,520.00 

T. Langdon & Co., Incorporated, 93,298.00 

Midvalley Coal Company 364,965.17 

Total, 6,070,701.06 



The total production was made up as follows: 

Shipped by railroad to market 5,264,553.05 

Sold to local trade and used by employes 110,243.02 

Used for steam and heat at collieries 6S9,904.19 



Total 6,070,701.00 



234 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE A — Showing Production of Coal, Number of Persons Employed by each 
Company During the Year 1900, and the Average Number of Tons Pro- 
duced Per Employe. 



Names of Companies. 




It 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 

The Union Coal Company 

Mineral Railroad and Mining Company 

Summit Branch and Lykens Valley Coal Companies 

Excelsior Coal Company 

T. M. Righter and Company 

Shamokin Coal Company, 

Enterprise Coal Company 

Shipman Koal Company 

Girard Coa! Company, 

Whita and White 

Royal Oak Coal Company, 

J. Langdon and Company, Incorporated 

Midvalley Coal Company 

Total , 



2,296,093.05 


7.31S 


152,676.07 


622 


S74.3S3.17 


3,593 


615,616.15 


2,175 


695,656.06 


!i,577 


136,263.15 


440 


173, 80S. 16 


341 


279,725.00 


891 


163.6S7.00 


491 


73, ISO. in 


3: 7 


71,462.01 


374 


36,313.17 


204 


43,520.00 


167 


93,298.00 


430 


364,965.17 


692 


6.070,701.06 


20,665 



Average number of tons produced per employe, 293.90. 



TABLE B— Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced Per Life Lost. 













4> 




cd 


ft 




d 


TO 










CO 


*> 






& 


Names of Companies. 





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3 


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Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company 13 

Lehigh Valley Coal Company 2 

The Union Coal Company. 7 

Mineral Railroad and Mining Company 

Summit Branch and Lykens Valley Coal Companies 

Excelsior Coal Company 3 

T. M. Righter and Company ^ 

Shamokin Coal Company 

Enterprise Coal Company, 

Shipman Koal Company 1 

Girard Coal Company, t 

White and White. , •• 

Royal Oak Coal Company 1 

J. Langdon and Company, Incorporated. 1 

Midvalley Coal Company <^ 

Total and average. 




No. 11. 



SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



235 



TABLE C — Showing the Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents, 
Number of Tons of Coal Produced Per Accident. 



and the 











c 


O i> 

a 




0) 


















o 






a 


3 


Names of Companies. 


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R 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh valley Coal Company 

The Union Coal Company, 

Mineral Kailroad and Mining Company 

Summit Branch and Lykens Valley Coal Companies, 

Excelsior Coal Company 

T. M. Righter and Company 

Shamokln Coal Company 

Enterprise Coal Company, 

Rhipman Koal Company, 

Glrard Coal Company 

White and White 

Royal Oak Coal Company 

J. Langdon and Company, Incorporated 

Midvalley Coal Company 



Total and average, 




56,0(12 
25,446 
32,384 
41,041 
28,985 
45,421 
43,465 
39,961 
54,562 

71,462 
36,313 
43,520 
46,649 
91,241 

43,362 



TABLE D— Classification of Accidents. 





c 








■~ 








>> 
























a 
















0) 






Occupations. 










^■o 


-o 






= 3 


* 


ej 




*T 


c 


o 



Falls of coal, rock and roof 

Smothered by gas 

Explosions of gas 

Explosions of blasts 

Falling down manways, breasts and slopes, 

Cars, inside 

Cars, outside 

Caught In rolls 

Falling timber 

Miscellaneous, Inside 

Miscellaneous, outside, 



Total, 



33 


53 


17 


19 


4 


7 


1 


6 


20 


24 


1 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


8 


16 


5 


6 


91 


140 



26 



236 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE E— Occupation of Persons Killed and Injured. 



c 






"* 






>> 


















d 




















<w 








L. 








o 










■O 






O" u, 

~ 3 


3 


"3 




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H 



Miners, 

Laborers 

Drivers 

Loader bosses 

Repairmen, 

Topman, 

Locomotive conductors, 
Locomotive engineer, .. 

Slate pickers 

Fire bosses, 

Pumpman, 

Assistant bosses 

Loader, 

Spraggers, 

Rockman , 

Jigman 

Car loader, 



Total, 



1 
140 



TABLE F— Nationalities of Persons Killed and Injured. 































































C 










a 








B 






a 

d 


.5 


EG 


G 


to 

G 


'S 




03 

c 
d 






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w 


E 


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> 


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c 

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d 


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to 


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3 


"3 






< 


H 


h* 





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VI 


* 


K 


M 


W 


« 


J 





CM 


H 




18 

48 


1 
3 


1 
3 


2 
3 


1 

2 


18 


"2 


2 


1 

1 


1 


4 


3 
1 


1 


1 


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49 




91 




66 


4 


4 


5 


3 


40 


2 


2 


2 


1 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


140 







Coal Production for Past Five Years in Seventh District. 







13 








c 








a 








DO 








O) 










•3 




13 


01 







ft 
ft 









2 


d^ 


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4,975,827 
4,377,761 
4,331,093 
5,456,091 
5,264,553 


618, S22 
731,187 
743,741 
852,243 
806, 14S 


5,594,649 




5,108,948 




5,074,834 




6.308,334 




6,070,701 




24,405,325 


3,752,141 


28,157,466 




4,881,065 


750,428 


5,631,493 







No. 11. 



SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



237 



Accidents for Past Five Years in Seventh District. 

















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as 


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1896 

LS97 

1S98 

1899 

1900, 

Total, .. 

Average, 



106 


182 


119 


it;:, 


112 


158 


90 


142 


91 


140 


51S 


787 


104 


158 



238 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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SEVENTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



245 



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Official Document, No. 11. 



Eighth Anthracite District, 



SCHUYLKILL COUNTY. 



Pottsville, Pa., February 19, 1 ( J01. 
Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Sir: I have Hie honor to present herewith my annual report 
as Inspector of Mines of the Eighth Anthracite District for the year 
ending December 31st, 1900. 

The total production of coal for the year was 4,274,258 tons, which 
is 70,039 tons less than for 1899. 

The number of fatal accidents during the year was 32, which is 
two less than in 1899. Twenty-four of the fatal accidents occurred 
inside of the mines, eight of which were caused by mine cars; eight 
fatal accidents occurred outside of the mines, three of which were 
caused by railroad cars. A description of the fatal accidents, also 
of some of the principal improvements that have been made at 
the collieries during the year is given. 

During the year there was a strike of the miners of the entire 
anthracite region, which was to have commenced on September 17th. 
However, the majority of the collieries in this district worked until 
about the first of October, when all were stopped except those of 
I he Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. The strike was declared 
off on October 25th and work was resumed on the 29th. 

Very respectfully, 

JOHN MAGUIRE, 
Inspector of Mines. 



(253) 



254 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



Production of Coal, in Tons, for 1900. 
• 
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, . . 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 

Dodson Coal Company, 

Truman M. Dodson Coal Co., 

St. Clair Coal Company, 

Beddall Bros., 

Mitchell & Shepp, 

Dunkleberger & Young, 

Leisenring & Co., 

Lytle Coal Company, 

Albright Coal Co., 

Silverton Coal Company, 

Davis Bros., 

E. C. White & Co., 

Mt. Hope Coal Company 

Williams Coal Co., 

East Ridge Coal Company, 

Pine Hill Coal Company, 

Loseh, Moore & Co., 

Gorman & Campion, 

Slattery Bros., 

Joseph H. Denning 

Whims & Hepner, 

Woodside Coal Company, 

Stoddard Coal Co., 

Middleport Coal Company, 

Smith, Meyers & Co 

Total 

The total production was made up as follows: 

Shipped by railroad to market, 

Sold at the mines for local use, 

Consumed to generate steam, 

Total, 



1,809,472 

902,545 

192,156 

108,969 

194,827 

93,173 

5,856 

23,233 

203,964 

270,911 

1,790 

42,506 

34,518 

16,925 

54,2!>0 

22,997 

62,360 

65,125 

39,822 

19,001 

13,203 

7,913 

2,366 

1,702 

56.742 

24,738 

3,424 

4,274,528 



3,677,589 

74,638 

522,301 

4,274,528 



No. 11. 



EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



255 



TABLE A — Showing Production of Coal, Number of Persons Employed by Each 
Company During the STear and Average Number of Tons Produced Per Em- 
ploye. 



Names of Companies. 



0) T3 


s° 


,Q <U 


* a 


ES 


££ 


p« 


3 41 


z 


fc 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. 

Dodson Coal Company 

Truman M. Dodson Coal Company, 

St. Clair Coal Company, 

Beddall Brothers 

Mitchell and Shepp 

Dunkleberger and Young 

Leisenring and Company 

Lytle Coal Company 

Albright Coal Ci nip.niy 

Silverton Coal Company 

Davis Brothers, 

E. C. White and Company 

Mt. Hope Coal Company 

Williaims Coal Company 

East Ridge Coal Company, 

Pine Hill Coal Company 

Losch, Moore and Company, 

Gorman and Campion 

Slattery Brothers, 

Joseph H. Denning 

Whims and Hepner 

\\ h i.lside Coal Company, 

Stoddard Coal Company 

Middleport Coal Company 

Smith, Meyers and Company, 

Total 



1,809,472 


5,867 


902,545 


1,731 


192, 156 


555 


108,969 


352 


194,827 


436 


93,173 


183 


5,856 


23 


23,233 


66 


203,964 


T19 


270,911 


761 


1.790 
42,5(J6 




157 


34,518 


78 


16,925 


92 


54,2 


124 


22,997 


2^8 


62,360 


256 


65,125 


254 


39,822 


107 


19,001 


71 


13,203 


41 


7.913 


27 


2,366 


17 


1,702 
56,742 




40 


24,738 


£3 


3,424 


£3 


4, 274.52S 


12,041 



Number of tons produced per employe, 355. 



256 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE B— Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced Per Life Lost. 









w '-. 






o 


o (a 

a 






a 


(0 






^ 


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a 


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ei 




Names of 


Companies. 




IH-O 






o 


Qui 








t. O 






<D W 








•° C 


J= — 






& 01 


E o<2 






p-O 


3 OS 






Z 


» 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company 

Dodson Coal Company 

Truman M. Dodson Coal Company, 

St. Clair Coal Company 

Beddall Brothers, 

Mitchell and Shepp 

Dunkelberger and Young, 

Leisenring and Company 

Lytle Coal Company, 

Albright Coal Company, 

Silverton Coal Company, 

Davis Brothers 

E. C. White and Company 

Mt. Hope Coal Company, 

Williams Coal Company, 

East Ridge Coal Company, 

Pine Hill Coal Company 

Lesch, Moore and Company, 

Gorman and Campion, 

Slattery Brothers, 

Joseph H. Denning, 

Whims and Hepner 

Woodside Coal Company 

Stoddard Coal Company 

Middleport Coal Company 

Smith, Meyers and Company 



Total and average, 



100,526 

451,272 

192,156 

108,969 

194,827 

93,173 

5,856 

23,233 

203,964 

90,303 

1,790 

42,506 

34,518 

16,925 

54,290 

22,997 

62.360 

32,562 

19,911 

19,001 

13,203 

7,913 

2,366 

1,702 

56,742 

24,738 

3,424 

133,579 



No. 11. 



EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 



257 



TABLE C- 



-Nuniber of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and Number of Tons of 
Coal Produced Per Accident. 



Names of Companies. 



Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company 

Dodson Coal Company , 

Truman M. Dodson Coal Company 

St. Clair Coal Company, 

Beddall Brothers 

Mitchell and Shepp 

Dunkleberger and Young, 

Leisenring and Company 

Lytle Coal Company 

Albright Coal Company 

Silverton Coal Company, 

Davia Brothers, m 

E. C. White and'Company, 

Wt. Hope Coal Company, 

Williams Coal Company _ 

East Ridge Coal Company, 

Pine Hill Coal Company, 

Losch, Moore and Company 

Gorman and Campion 

Slattery Brothers 

Joseph H. Denning 

Whims and Hepner 

Woodside Coal Company 

Stii], lard Coal Company, 

Mlddleport Coal Company 

Smith, Meyers and Company 



Total and average. 



2 v 
*^ o 

3 
o o . 

.8 -2 

Ed o 
_ o o 

3o« 



20.331 
12*, 03.j 
48,039 
18,116 
21,647 
31,057 
5,856 
23,233 
50,991 
38,701 
1,790 
42,f.06 
31,518 
18,926 
5 1 29i i 
22,997 
62,360 
16.281 
13,274 
1D.I01 
13,203 
7,913 
2,366 
1,702 
56,742 
24.738 
3,424 

30,752 



TABLE D— Classification of Accidents. 



Falls of coal and roof 

Explosions of gas 

Explosions of blasts, 

Falling down slope 

Explosion of dynamite 

Runaway car on slope 

Run over by cars on slopes 

Mine cars and dumpers. 

Piece of rock falling down shaft, 

Shot blowing through pillar, 

Injured by mules 

Timber falling, 

i:,i llroad ears 

Sinking bucket' on rock bank, ., 

Dumping pole mi rock bank 

Breaker machinery 

Miscellaneous 



Total. 



= 3 

3'" 



41 
15 
9 
1 
3 
2 
3 
33 
1 
1 
2 
8 
4 
1 
1 
6 
8 

1-9 



17—11—1000 



258 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE E— Occupations of Persons Killed and Injured. 





a 








•"■* 








>> 
























Cd 
















cd 
















u 








o 








Killed 
jured. 


T3 
*- 

p 

c 


"3 

o 
H 



Miners 

Laborers, inside, 

Laborers, outside, 

Fire bosses 

Loader bosses, 

Loaders, 

Drivers, inside 

Drivers, outside 

Timber men 

Track layer, 

Tunnel men 

Switch tender, inside 

Fan boy 

Door boy, 

Bottom men, 

Pump engineers, inside, 

Headmen, outside 

Car loaders and helpers, outside, 

Spraggers, outside, 

Engineers, outside 

Carpenters, outside 

Car oilers, outside, 

Slate pickers, outside 

Attending scraper line, outside, . 



Total, 



49 


59 


11 


17 


2 


6 


5 


5 


1 


2 


5 


5 


10 


14 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 




1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


4 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


107 


139 



TABLE F— Nationalities of Persons Killed or Injured. 

















00 




















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c 










c 














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s 




Cd 
V 






00 


c 


"C 




C 






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.d 


CO 


£ 
u 


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to 
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cd 

3 


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s 




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3 






cd 


cd 


3 


3 


«i 




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O 


IE 


Oh 


J 


cfi 


M 


< 


K 



Killed, ... 
Injured, . . 

Total, 







2 
5 


1 
7 


6 

15 


2 
3 


3 


1 
1 






52 10 4 


5 


1 


1 


69 13 J 4 


5 


7 


8 


21 


5 


3 


2 


1 


1 



107 
139 



Descriptions of Fatal Accidents. 

John Voleski, an outside laborer, was fatally injured at Eagle 
Hill colliery, on January 8th. He was assisting at cutting timber 
for the mine, and got up on a pile of logs to roll one of them down, 
when he slipped and fell between them. One of the logs rolled on 
his head, injuring him so that he died January 15th. 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 2r,9 

.lames A. Watts, a boss loader, was fatally Injured at Otto col- 
liery on January 31st. He was assisting the bottom man to throw 
the chains oil'. He missed throwing his chain oil', and the ear being 
on a curve, was thrown oil' the track by the recoil of the rope. The 
engineer began to pull up the slack rope, which pulled the car againsl 
a prop, to which the bell wire was attached, knocking it out, which, 
in falling, rang the bell and the engineer began to hoist, pulling tin- 
wagon with one side chain attached up the slope. Watts ran up the 
Slope ahead of the car, trying to get to the bell wire to give the 
signal to stop, but was caught by the wagon and so severely injured 
that he died a! the Pottsville hospital same evening. 

Frank Dominick and Anthony Morris, miners, were burned by an 
explosion of gas at Silver Creek colliery, on February 12th. Back 
from the face a few feet the top slate went up on a heavier pitch, 
then came down abruptly, which made a cavity in which some gas 
collected. (A pipe had been inn up in this hole to keep the gas out, 
but it had been broken, which caused the gas to collect again. The 
men fired a shot near the face of the breast and retreated to the 
lower heading. The shot fired the gas, which burned both men 
while in the heading. Morris died from his burns on February 13th, 
and Dominick died on February 17th. On investigating, I found 
that the gas had been in this hole, when the men started to work 
that morning, and that the fire boss was to blame for allowing the 
men to fire shots before the gas had been removed. 

Joseph Steickinnis, a gangway laborer, was killed at the Lytic 
colliery on February 13th, by falling down the inside slope, a dis- 
tance of about 850 feet on dip from 58 to 63 degrees. The colliery 
was idle on that day. At noon, he and his partner went up the slope 
from the fifth lift, on which they were working, as they had filled all 
the cars they had. On the fourth lift they met the fire boss-, who 
sent them back, telling them that he would get more cars. They 
got inside of the car and went down the slope again. The bottom 
men at the fifth lift stopped the car a few feet from the landing, 
telling the men to stay in the car until they lowered the gate, which 
they had raised to hoist water from the bottom of the slope. In- 
stead, the men climbed over I he side of the car, and in doing so, 
Steickinnis slipped and fell to the bottom of the slope and was 
instantly killed, lie had only been two weeks in the country and 
had worked four days at the colliery. 

.Matthew Syncavage, a miner, was injured at Lytic colliery on Feb- 
ruary 14th. lie was working in a breast and was about firing 
a shot, which exploded before he got away from it. because he had 
shortened the match. He died at the Miners' hospital on February 
Kith. 



260 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Raymond Fenstermacher, an outside laborer, was fatally injured 
at Greenwood colliery on March 12th. At quitting time, on passing 
the breaker, he leaned against a car near one of the brace posts 
of the breaker. The car loader moved the car down, and one of 
its side posts caught Fenstermacher and dragged him between the 
brace and car, injuring him so that he died the next day. 

John S. Foley was fatally injured at Lincoln Colliery on March 
14th. He was working as a laborer in the new water shaft, which 
was being sunk and was down 510 feet below the surface. Some 
men had gone up in the bucket, as they were about changing shifts 
in the morning. About the time the men arrived at the top, some 
small pieces of rock fell down the shaft. There were several men 
at the bottom, who ran towards the sides, but Foley, who was near the 
center of the shaft, was struck on the back and injured so that he 
died on March 15th. 

John Cleary was injured at Glendower colliery on March 2'8th. 
He was working in the new Buck Mountain vein slope as a driver 
and loader from the gangway and the chutes and headings. He 
was taking an empty car in to the east gangway and had not more 
than twenty yards to go, but got on the front end of the car and was 
caught by a chute. He died on April 23d. 

Frank Carl, a miner, was instantly killed at Williams' colliery 
by a fall of coal on April 10th. He and his partner had fired a shot 
in the east corner in the bottom coal the evening before, which left 
some of the top coal hanging. They tried to bar it down, but failed. 
The next morning, Carl began to shovel coal into the chute from 
under the top coal, when it fell, killing him instantly. 

Joseph Martin, a gangway laborer, was killed at Pine Hill colliery 
on May 14th. He was working in the West Buck Mountain gang- 
way on water level. A piece of slate about five inches thick was 
hanging about eleven feet back from the face. A hole had been 
drilled over it to blast it down, but he wanted to load a car first. 
While doing so, a piece of the slate fell on him, and he died shortly 
after. 

Richard Willing, a driver, was fatally injured at No. 10 colliery, 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, on June 14th. He had 
started with a trip of loaded cars and got on the front end of the 
car. There was a chute about twenty feet outside, which he evi- 
dently forgot, which caught his head. His skull was fractured and 
he died during the night. 

Otto F. Schneider, a miner, was instantly killed at West Brook- 
side colliery, by an explosion of dynamite on June 23d. The fire 
boss, Oliver Machimer, had borrowed his blasting battery some 
time before the accident to fire a shot in another place. Machimer 
returned the battery and told Schneider that it had failed to fire 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 261 

the shot. Schneider said the battery was all right, and to [trove 
it, attached an exploder and fired it at the lower heading. 11<' 
had a quantity of dynamite near, which he had. evidently forgotten, 
which exploded when he fired the exploder and killed him instantly 
and severely injured the fire boss, Machimer. 

Joseph Hubbard, a head-man, at the sinking shaft, Lincoln colliery. 
was killed .June 27th. Just as a bucket of rock was being taken 
out to the rock dump, he jumped on the front end of the truck, 
which went about 200 feet, when it left the track, at a set of latches, 
and the bucket of rock toppled over on him, injuring him so severely 
that he died at 7.30 same morning. 

Win. Dunn was fatally injured at Otto colliery on June 30th. He 
was working with a party of men by night, timbering the Holmes 
vein; they went to the top of the slope for timber, which they trans- 
ferred from a truck that was on the top, to the truck they were 
using on the slope. They started to go down the slope again, but 
left the top truck where they had been using it and also left the 
safety block open. The rope caught the truck and pulled it over the 
knuckle and it followed them down the slope, catching them about 
seventy feet from the top, injuring Dunn so severely that he died at 
G A . M. 

Mich Cauley, helper to car loader, was fatally injured at Richard- 
son colliery, on June 30th. He was employed to attend to loading 
gates, when box cars were being loaded. At the time of the acci- 
dent, there were two empty cars standing under the breaker and one 
of the car loaders ran two more empties down, bumping the first 
cars. After the cars had bumped, the superintendent, who was 
near by, saw Cawley creeping between the tracks and in getting to 
him. found that he had been under one of the cars, when they bumped, 
and the wheels had run over his legs. He died at the Miners' Hospital 
on July 1st. 

Wm. Wagner, a driver, was killed at West Brookside colliery on 
night of July 0th. On the day before, the inside foreman had 
stopped the place and ordered the men further back, on account of 
the roof being bad. During the evening Wagner had gone inside 
of whore the men were working and they told him to keep out, as 
the place was working. At the time of the accident the men were 
loading a car, when they heard a piece of rock fall. They went in 
and found Wagner lying dead beside a large piece of rock that had 
fallen out between the props. 

Martin Dembroski. a miner, was fatally injured at Oak TTill colliery 
on July 23d. He was waiting at the lower landing at about 6.45 
A. M. to go down. While the empty cars were coming down from the 
top landing, he attempted to cross the track in front of them, and 
was caught by the cars and so s-everely injured that he died in the 
afternoon. 



262 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Harry Leonard, a switch tender, was fatally injured at West 
Brookside colliery on August 1st. He was employed at attending 
switches on turnout at bottom of No. 4 slope. One of the drivers 
was about to pull a trip of loaded cars down the turnout, and Leonard 
had led the lead mule up to the trip, and when the trip started he 
attempted to get on them and slipped and the last car ran over his 
leg. He was sent to the Pottsville Hospital and died shortly after 
reaching it. 

William Szalasavicz, a miner, was killed at Pine Hill colliery 
on August 2d. At about sixty feet above lower heading, a heading 
had been driven in pillar toward No. 22 breast, the heading being 
in seventeen feet, work on which had been stopped about a week 
before the accident. At the time of the accident, the men in No. 
22 fired, but by reason of the shot being so far away from the rib 
of the breast, they did not warn the men in No. 21 that they were 
about to fire. The back end of the hole blew through into the 
heading, which Szalasavicz was in at the time, and he was blown 
into the chute and fell to the bottom, about sixty feet on pitch of forty 
degrees, breaking his neck. 

William Schock, miner, and Henry Albert Neal, laborer, were kiLled 
at Lorberry colliery on August 8th. They were working on the 
night shift and about 11 P. M. the top began to work and the other 
men got out from under it. Schock and Neal remained, when the 
slate fell, killing them instantly. 

William Hubler, a slate picker, was instantly killed at the Lytle 
colliery on August 14th. He had gone away from his place in the 
breaker and on returning, instead of going the usual way, he went 
a round about way through the breaker, until he came to the scraper 
line and it seems stooped to pick up some of the coal that was drop- 
ping into the line, when he fell headforemost into the scrapers and 
was pulled through under the end wheel and up to the end of the 
line, before the breaker could be stopped. 

Andrew Teslunac, a miner, was instantly killed at Eagle Hifl 
colliery on September 10th. He was skipping a pillar, the vein being 
eight feet thick, on a pitch of twenty-five degrees, and had under- 
mined a piece of the top bench and was shoveling the loose coal 
from under it, when a large piece of the top coal fell on him. 

Wm. Chisnell, a driver on slate bank was fatally injured at No. 
11 colliery, Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, on the morning 
of September 24. He was taking a dumper out in the morning, 
and when about 100 feet from the end of bank he drove the mule up 
to give the dump headway. While unhitching the mule, he slipped 
and fell under the dumper, receiving injuries from which he died 
in the afternoon. 

elohn Miller, a laborer, was killed at Lincoln collierv on Nevember 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 2C:J 

5th. The slate above the vein, being full of joints and slips, fell 
as the coal was mined from under it, leaving very little of it over- 
hanging the coal and it fell on Miller, ills' brother, the miner, went 
to li i in al once and found him dead. Upon making an investigation, 
f found three small pieces of slate that had fallen, the heaviest of 
which was not over fifteen or twenty pounds in weight and could not 
have fallen more than about fifteen inches before striking him. 

Joseph Cook, an outside laborer, was fatally injured at Wades 
ville colliery, on November 6th. A heavy lever, hung on a frame, is 
used for raising the hack end of the car so that the rock will run 
out. A pin is used in the frame to hold the long end of the lever 
up, when not in use. After dumping a car, his partner failed to get 
the pin in to hold the lever up and it fell, striking Cook on the head. 
He did not appear to be seriously injured and walked home. The 
accident occurred at 11.30 !A. M. and he died at 5.30 P. M. His 
physician said a blood vessel had been ruptured in the head, which 
••aused apoplexy. 

•James Schoffstall was killed at Silverton colliery on November 
10th. lie started to drive at the bottom of the Black Mine slope 
that morning at about 8.20. The track on the turn-out was filled 
with empty cars. As he could not pass with loaded cars, until 
I he empties were taken away, he sat down with the bottom men 
for a few minutes, then started with the loaded cars. The front end 
of Loaded car was knocked off the track, when it struck the empties 
and ran against the lower rib of the gangway. Schoffstall was caught 
between the car and the rib and killed instantly. 

Joseph .Muskalavitz, a miner, was instantly killed at Otto colliery 
on November 23d. The vein was 7 feet 4 inches thick, on pitch of 10 
degrees, ;ind I he deceased and another man had started to drive 
;i heading towards No. 12 breast, and fired a shot to form the upper 
corner. They thought the shot had missed and went back to it. 
About the time Muskalavitz got to the hole, it went off and killed 
him instantly. His partner, Stacknavitz, was back about forty feet 
and was severely injured by the flying coal, but did not know whether 
Muskalavitz had relighted the match that had partly burned, or 
whether the shot exploded before he got quite to it. 

Timothy Brady, a pump engineer, was fatally injured at St Clair 
colliery on November 28th. Ho was employed near the bottom of the 
I'.uck .Mountain vein slope, which is a single track slope, with from 
four to five feet from between the rail and side of the slope. In 
this space, t wo column pipes, one four-inch and one live inch diameter, 
were laid along the bottom. There was a leak on the four-inch line 
about forty live yards above the pump, the pitch being from 15 to 
2(1 degrees. Timothy went up the slope to get a short piece of pipe 
to repair the leak, and brought it down and started to work at it. 



264 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

The inside foreman, who was at the pump house with George Brady, 
told him to go and toll Timothy not to work at it while the cars 
Mere running on the slope, but to wait until the trip was hoisted, 
when they would stop hoisting until the pipe was put in. George 
had just got to where the victim was, when an empty car coming 
down the slope left the track and caught Timothy between it and 
the rib, injuring him very severely; he died while being taken to the 
Miners' Hospital. 

Charles FJisenacher, laborer, was fatally injured at West Brook- 
side colliery on December 3d. On the day of the accident, while pull- 
ing the last wagon for the day to the dump, he ran along between the 
wagon and the upper side of the gangway and raising his head it 
was caught between the top of the car and a gangway leg, receiving 
injuries from which he died on December 4th. 

Fred. Gunder, an outside laborer, was killed at Eagle Hill colliery, 
on December 14th, by being ran over by railroad cars, below the 
breaker. He was working with another man, cleaning up between 
the breaker and the slush tanks. As there was some water dropping, 
he told his partner he would go and see the foreman and get an oil- 
cloth coat. A few minutes later he was found lying on the railroad 
track about ninety feet below where he would have to cross the 
track, having been run over by two loaded cars that were being 
run from the breaker. The car loader was between the cars, while 
running them down, and did not see him. He died a few minutes 
after being found. 

Improvements Made at Collieries During 1900. 

West Brookside Colliery. — An opening has been made from the 
surface to the rock, foundation walls have been built and the head 
frame is being erected, for the purpose of sinking a new shaft be- 
tween the top of the East Brookside No. 5 Lykens Valley vein slope 
and the hoisting engine house. This slope has a north dip, and the 
shaft is being started south of the top of it in the red shale measures 
underlying the lowest coal bed, viz: the No. G Lykens Valley. The 
shaft will be 28x12 feet 8 inches inside of the timber and will be 
divided into four compartments, the two middle ones for hoisting coal. 
The two end compartments will each be sub-divided by an eight-inch 
bunton, making two compartments each of six feet square for hoisting 
water. This shaft will be more than 1,800 feet deep to the level of 
the lowest slope gangway, from which a tunnel about 1,200 feet 
long will be driven south through the strata underlying the coal 
measures to connect with the bottom of the shaft. 

A pair of new hoisting engines have been installed to hoist from the 
East Brookside No. 4 vein Lykens Valley slope, which is of the 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 265 

same depth as the No. 5 vein slope; they were built at the Phila- 
delphia and Beading Coal and Iron Company's Pottsville shops, and 
are iitted up with the latest improvements, having steam reverse 
and both steam and hand brakes mi the drum. The cylinders are 
tO indies in diameter, with 60-inch stroke. Drum is 18 feet G inches 
in diameter, steel wire rope If inches in diameter. They were put 
into service on September 1(1. 1 900. The No. 4 basin slope has been 
sunk 235 yards and is still going deeper. 

Lincoln Colliery. — The new water shaft was completed on October 
l.'Sth. and is 908 feet deep from the surface to the bottom. A tunnel 
30 feet long, driven south, connects the shaft to sump gangway, on 
small seam called No. H vein. 39 feel above the bottom of the shaft. 
A gangway driven east on the No. 1£ vein 100 feet, connects with 
the sixth lift tunnel in the No. 1 vein slope with the shaft. Another 
connection is also made on the No. 1 vein, fourth lift, with the shaft. 

( rood Spring Colliery. — The new slope called the No. 3 slope, which 
is about 1^ miles east of the breaker, has* been sunk to a depth 
of 338 feet from the surface, on an average dip of about 45 de- 
grees, and gangways have been opened on the top bench, which is 
about 8 feet thick. Tunnels have been driven on each side to the 
middle bench, which is 5| feet thick, and to the bottom bench, 
which is (i.l feet thick, and a tunnel is being driven from the bottom 
bench to the Skidmore and Buck Mountain veins. An air hole has 
been driven to the surface, on which a 15-foot diameter fan has been 
placed. A pair of first-motion engines, with 28-inch cylinders, 48- 
inch stroke, and with drum 10 feet 8 inches in diameter, which were 
built at the company's shops, were put in service in November. 

Otto Colliery. — The old breaker was stopped on April 28th and 
torn down and a new breaker erected, a short distance north of 
the old site, which has been fitted with the most modern appliances 
for the preparation of coal. It was started on August 16th, an 
interval of ninety-three working days elapsing from the time the 
old breaker was stopped until the new one was started. In the 
underground slope, from the water level on the White Ash, on the 
liKt lift, a tunnel has been driven from the top to the bottom bench, 
68 feet long, and from the bottom bench to the Skidmore vein, 78 
feel long, the bottom bench being 9 feet thick, dip 25 degrees north, 
and the Skidmore 6 feet thick, dip 58 degrees north. An air hole 
has been driven on the Skidmore vein 212 yards to Ihe top of an anti- 
clinal and a shaft 20 feet deep connects it with the surface. A tunnel 
is also In ing driven from the bottom bench, on the the water level. 
to the Skidmore vein. These are the lirst openings that have been 
made on the Skidmore vein a1 this colliery. 

Wadesville Colliery. — The south tunnel has been continued, cutting 
the Primrose vein 8 feet thick, dip 36* degrees south, at about 950 



;;6G REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

feet from the Seven-foot vein, the Orchard vein 4 feet thick, on dip 
of 34 degrees south, 187 feet from the Primrose, and the Little Or- 
chard 4 feet thick on 34 degrees south dip, 27 feet from the Big 
Orchard vein, making the tunnel nearly 1,300 feet long from the 
Seven-foot vein to the Little Orchard vein. An overhead return air 
tunnel is being driven from the Primrose north to the Holmes, and 
south from the Primrose to the Orchard. /An air shaft 10 feet square 
is being sunk from the surface, about 825 feet south of the new water 
shaft, to ventilate the veins south of the Seven-foot. It was down 
274 feet on December 31st. 

Morea Colliery. — This colliery was idle from June 9th until Sep 
tember 4th, during which time the principal part of the breaker was 
rebuilt, over 400,000 feet of new lumber having been used. Most of 
the old machinery was taken out and replaced by more modern ap- 
pliances, which has improved the preparation and increased the 
capacity of the breaker. A tunnel has been driven on the slope level, 
west of the shaft, 182 feet long from the north dip to the south dip 
of the Mammoth vein, at the north end of which a plane is being 
made to the surface. It is intended to strip the cover across the 
basin west of this tunnel, taking the rock through the tunnel and 
hoisting it up the plane to the surface. The Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company is building a new railroad across the valley from the 
Morea Station to a point a short distance west of the breaker so 
that the coal under the present railroad can be mined. A tunnel 
has been driven north from the north dip of the Mammoth, on the 
slope level east of the main tunnel 288 feet long, cutting the Skid- 
more, Seven-foot and Buck Mountain veins on the north dip. A 
tunnel has also been driven on the shaft Seven-foot level, north from 
the Seven-foot vein north, dip 91 feet long, cutting the Skidmore and 
Mammoth veins on the north dip. 

Kaska William Colliery. — A tunnel has been driven south from the 
Seven-foot vein opposite the bottom of the inside slope, cutting the 
Holmes and Primrose veins on the south dip and the Primrose on 
the north dip at the face of the tunnel. There is an interval of 188 
feet between the south dip and north dip of the Primrose vein; in 
this interval a diamond drill hole has been bored, cutting the 
Orchard vein in the basin about 70 feet above the top of the tunnel. 
The tunnel is 617 feet long from the Seven-foot vein, on the south 
dip, to the Primrose vein, on the north dip. A tunnel 400 feet long 
has been driven from the top bench gangway east of the top of the 
inside slope to the Holmes vein on the shaft level for a return airway 
for the slope to a new airway driven on the Holmes vein from the 
shaft level 73G feet long to the bottom of an air shaft 05 feet deep 
sunk from the surface. A 16-foot diameter fan was installed on 
this new air shaft and the 24-foot diameter fan was moved from the 
old airway and placed on the new air shaft. This fan is now being 



No. 11. EIGHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 267 

nsvtl only io ventilate the workings smith of the shaft, while the 
other is kepi in readiness to starl in case of accident. An air hole 
500 feel long has also been driven ol the Primrose vein from the 
shall level to the level of the first lift of the <H<1 Orchard vein slope, 
where connection has been made through tunnel to the main air 
hole on the Holmes vein. This arrangemenl has made a decided 
improvement in the ventilation. In the Northdale basin, shaft level, 
an air hole .~»7o feel long has been driven on the Skidmore vein to the 
level of the old Northdale slope, where it is connected by a tunnel 
8s5 feci long to the bottom bench gangway of the old Northdale 
slope. 

The inside slope west top and west bottom bench gangways, which 
were closed l>.\ water breaking in during May. 1898, have been re- 
opened to the lace, and work in them, also in the east bottom bench 
gangway, has been resumed. Some of the bones of the last victim of 
thai disaster, supposed to be those of Peter Durkin, were found in 
cleaning up the inside slope, west top bench gangway, about L,05G 
feel from the slope. The bones were found scattered along the gang- 
way, the body having evidently been torn to pieces by the fearful 
rash of water and debris which carried it nearly two thousand feet 
from where he was supposed to have been when the accident oc- 
curred. One of the wagons driven in from the foot of the slope 
was found inside of where the bones were found, which was badly 
broken. Nothing further has been done towards reopening the inside 
slope, east top bench gangway. 

Pine Hill Colliery. — The neAV breaker was started in March. The 
new shall was completed in April and is 322 feet deep from the 
surface to the tunnel level. 

Howard Colliery. — The water has been pumped out of the old 
^Yosle l v slope, on the south dip of the Primrose vein for about 500 
feet, which is near the bottom of the slope. It has been reopened and 
enlarged for 320 feet down, where a gangway has been started east- 
ward. The vein is about ten feet thick of very good coal, dipping 
from 18 to 2.") degrees south. This slope had been abandoned for 
many years and was full of water. 

Lorberry Colliery. — A trial slope has been sunk on the south 
dip of the Primrose vein, about 700 feet east of the breaker. The 
slope is down 270 feet Io the basin on dip varying from 38 to 20 
degrees, the basin dropping eastward about 10 degrees. The trial 
slope which was being sunk by the Lykens Valley Coal Company, 
oji the No. 5 Lykens Valley vein east of Kellers, in IS!)!), was con- 
tinued to a depth of 296 feet, and gangways were driven east and 
west 30 and 2o feet, respectively, and stopped and allowed to fill 
with water. The slope has an average dip of 62 degrees, the vein 
in the gangways being about 5 feet thick, dipping C>.~ degrees north. 

28 



268 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Lytle Colliery. — A tunnel has been driven from the Primrose vein, 
en the fifth lift, 450 feet to the Diamond vein and connection made 
in that vein to the new shaft at tide level, or 1,034 feet below the 
surface, and 466 feet above the bottom of the shaft. A tunnel has 
also been driven from the Orchard vein, at the bottom of the shaft, 
326 feet to the bottom of the Four-foot vein slope. The water from 
the colliery is now being hoisted in tanks up the shaft, the pumps 
having all been taken out of the Kear and Forestville slopes. A 
pair of engines with 36-inch cylinders, 60-inch stroke, with drum 
tapering from 10 feet to 16 feet in diameter, direct acting, have been 
installed to hoist the water. Another pair of engines of the same 
size have been installed to hoist coal from two of the compartments. 
A pair of engines of the same size have been installed at the No. 2 
slope, taking the place of a pair of engines 30x48 inches, with 8-foot 
drum, which has been removed to the new shaft and are being used 
for hoisting from the other two compartments. A large breaker is 
being erected to prepare coal from the new shaft. 

No. 12 Colliery. — This colliery, which is operated by the Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company, has been idle since April, 1898. The 
old breaker has been torn down and a new and more modern one 
is being erected on its site. A new pair of hoisting engines, with 
34-inch cylinders, 60-inch stroke, with 12-foot diameter drum, direct 
acting, have been installed to take the place of the old ones. The 
breaker engine has been rebuilt and four batteries of "Sterling" 
boilers added to the steam plant. A railroad has been built to the 
breaker, doing away with the plane by which the coal was let down 
from the breaker to the main tracks. It is expected that the im- 
provements will be completed and work at the colliery resumed 
about the middle of February, 1901. 

The Albright Coal Company stopped their Albright colliery on 
January 10th, 1900. It was purchased by the Silverton Coal Com- 
pany in March. The breaker was repaired and the colliery started 
on April 30th, the name being changed to Silverton colliery. 

A new washery has been erected by Smith, Meyers & Co., about 
two and one-half miles south of Tamaqua, in Walker township, on 
the line of the Little Schuylkill branch of the Philadelphia and 
Heading Railway, to prepare coal from some old dirt banks that 
s\ ere hauled to that point from the collieries that were worked in the 
borough of Tamaqua, many years ago. It is fitted up with the most 
modern improvements for the handling and preparation of coal. 

Collieries Abandoned. 

The Woodside Colliery, operated by the Woodside Coal Company, 
which built a new breaker and took the water out of the old Rohrers- 
ville colliery in 1899, was stopped in January, 1900, and is now again 
filled with water. 



No. 11. KICHTH ANTHRACITE DISTRICT. 269 

.Marion Colliery.— The pumps at this colliery were stopped on Janu- 
ary 27th, L900, and it has since been filling with water. The colliery 
had been idle since February, 1809. 

Young's Landing. — This small colliery was stopped early in Janu- 
ary. J!)l)(), and is now filled with water. 

The examination of candidates for certificates as mine foreman and 
assistant mine foreman for the Eighth Anthracite District was held 
at Pottsville in June, 1 ( J00. 

The examining board was composed of Thomas Dover, superin- 
tendent; David Leicker and Frank Larkin, miners, and John Ma 
guiie. Mine Inspector. 

The following were recommended to the Secretary of Internal Af- 
fairs for certificates of qualification for mine foreman: William D. 
Davis, Morea; Michael J. White, Good Spring; Josiah W. Davis, 
Lansford; David B. Davis, Lansford. 

Assistant mine foreman: James Filer, Coaldale; Lawrence Finn, 
Miners ville; Simon W. Rumberger, GVluir. 



270 



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Cft tH IM 



BITUMINOUS MINE DISTRICTS. 



19— 11— 1000 



( 289) 




(290) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



First Bituminous District. 

ALLEGHENY, FAYETTE, GREENE, WASHINGTON AND WESTMORE- 
MORELAND COUNTIES. 



Monongahela, Pa., February 28, 1901. 
Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: In compliance with an act of the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, entitled "An act relating to bituminous coal mines and 
providing for the lives, health, safety and welfare of persons em- 
ployed therein," approved May 15, 1893, I hereby present my annual 
report as Inspector of Mines for the First Bituminous coal district 
for the year ending December 31, 1900. 

The total number of accidents reported as having occurred in the 
district was 182, of which 38 were fatal. 

The number wives left widows was 20, and of orphans 40. 

Decrease in the number of fatal accidents as compared with that 
of 1899, six. Increase of non-fatal accidents over that of the pre- 
vious year, thirty. Quite a number of these, as will be seen by Table 
5, were not of a serious character. 

Total production of coal during 1899, tons, 9,295,646 

Total production of coal during 1900, tons, 8,654,376 



Decrease for 1900 from that of 1899, tons, 641,270 



The cause of the decreased coal production was, in a great measure, 
due to the low stage of water which prevailed in the Monongahela 
river during the months of July, August, September, October, No- 
vember and December, which prevented some of the mines located 
along that stream from being worked to their full capacity. 

In order to have uniformity in the make-up of the permanent 
Danger Signals and at the same time to prevent any person passing 
the same through ignorance of their nature, I issued the following 
circular to the mine foremen, the directions of which, I am pleased 
to state, are being complied with: 

(291) 



292 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. First Bituminous Inspection 
District. Henry Louttit, Inspector. 

Monongahela, Pa., September 10, 1900. 

To the Mine Foremen of the First Bituminous District: 

Dear Sirs: Being desirous of having uniformity in the make-up of 
the permanent Danger Signals and at the same time to remove, as far 
as possible, any excuse on the plea of ignorance for passing the same; 
to reach this end, I would recommend, that a board not less than 12 
inches wide, extending the full width of the entry, except a space 
sufficient to allow it to swing — this board to be 3 feet above the 
bottom; said board to be painted a deep red, with the words "STOP! 
DANGER!'' in white letters; the letters to be the full width of 
board. The reverse side being painted white, and the word "SAFE" 
to be in black letters. 

I would also suggest that a post be placed on either side of entry, 
one of them on which to place hinges — the other so adjusted that the 
Danger Board can be locked in place. 

Yours truly, 

HENRY LOUTTIT, 
Inspector of Min^s. 



Another matter which gives me much concern, is the filling up 
of the entrances to the exhausted and abandoned workings of some 
of the mines in this district, with slate and other refuse in such a 
manner as to preclude the possibility of an examination of them 
being made, and it is evident, beyond a reasonable doubt, that to 
make conditions such as to prevent inspections being made is a dan- 
gerous practice as well as a violation of the bituminous mining act 
as it requires that worked out and abondoned places adjacent to 
traveling ways, etc., be examined before each shift, and the other 
places frequently. Such places would, if sealed up as stated, be 
a reservoir for fire-damp to accumulate in, which by its presence 
would be a standing menace to the safety of the mine. 

To prevent, if possible, danger from this source, I sent a copy 
of the following letter to each operator in the district. 

Monongahela, Pa., July 31, 1900. 

Dear Sirs: I wish to call your attention to a matter of great im- 
portance in the operation of your mine. I have reference to the 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 293 

filling up of the entrance to the worked out and abandoned workings 
of the mine, with slate and other debris. In disposing of the slate, 
etc., in this manner, I am of the opinion that it is adding a menace 
to the safety of the mine, for the reason, that it is practically im- 
possible to examine beyond such places for dangerous gases that 
may accumulate. Now with due regard for your welfare ami the 
health and safety of persons employed in your mine, I would offer 
as a suggestion, that if the slate and other refuse of the mine is 
to be kept in the mine, that sufficient room be left in each place for 
the purpose of examination and to furnish an opening for removal, 
as far as practicable, of any gas that may accumulate on the falls 
and other places. 

Hoping that you will give the subject matter of this letter your 
earnest attention and also notify those in immediate charge of the 
mine of the danger and the suggestions made in relation thereto, 
1 am 

Respectfully yours, 

HENRY LOUTTIT, 
Inspector of Mines. 



The above letter was the cause of much controversy in this district, 
as it was claimed by some that the filling up of the places that were 
worked out and abandoned decreased the danger instead of increas- 
ing it, but as I could not see my way clear to accept this statement, 
I insisted on my suggestions being complied with. 

Among the improvements made in the district during the year, 
was the installation of one individual electric plant at the Crow T thers 
mine and three Central electric plants, by the Monongahela River 
Consolidated Coal and Coke Company; the Central ones being lo- 
cated at Lock No. 4, Gastonville and Dravosburg respectively. 

The Lock No. 4 plant consists of four tubular boilers, 72 inches 
in diameter, 18 feet long, of 150 horse pow y er each, three Russell auto- 
matic engines of 250 horse power each and three Westinghouse 150 
K. W. generators, direct connected. Black Diamond, Ivill and Cats- 
burg mines are operated from this plant. 

The Castonville plant consists of nine 2 flue boilers of 80 horse 
power each, three 20x20 automatic Skinner engines of 250 horse 
power each and three Morgan-Gardner 150 K. W. slow speed gen- 
erators. The generators and engines are connected by belt. Cin- 
cinnati and Coal Rluff mines are operated from this plant. 

The Dravosburg plant consists of three tubular boilers, 72 inches 
in diameter, is feet long, of 150 horse power each, two 4-valve auto- 
matic Russell engines of 250 horse power each, and two 150 K. W. 
slow speed Morgan-Gardner generators. Amity mine is operated 
from this plant. 



294 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OP MINES. Off. Doc. 

All three of these Central power plants are fitted with Smith- Vaile 
boiler feed pumps and feed water heaters with double the capacity 
of the boilers. In addition, each battery of boilers is connected with 
an injector to be used in case of emergency. 

The Crowthers plant consists of three 2-flue boilers of 80 horse 
power each, one automatic McCuwen engine of 250 horse power and 
one 150 K. W. generator of the Thompson-Houston type. 

During the year five persons lost their lives by explosions of fire- 
damp in Ellsworth No. 1 mine. For a more extended account see 
description of the mine in another part of this report. 

As a result of this explosion, which occurred on June 10th, I made 
an information against Alexander Patrick, mine foreman, and Frank 
Booth, carpenter, as follows 

Alexander Patrick, mine foreman of Ellsworth No. 1 mine, a 
bituminous coal mine located in the First bituminous coal district, 
did neglect to keep a careful watch over the ventilating apparatus 
or to secure the proper ventilation of Ellsworth Mine No. 1, on June 
10, 1900; he also allowed persons to work in an unsafe place other 
than for the purpose of making it safe. For neglecting to remove 
dangers after they had been reported to him by the fire boss. 

Frank Booth, carpenter, for interfering with the ventilating ap- 
paratus. For doing an act whereby the lives and health of persons 
employed in the mine were endangered. 

The above persons plead guilty and the court imposed a fine of 
$5.00 and cost of prosecution; the court being of the opinion that 
there was a mitigating circumstance connected with the case. 

On investigating a fatal accident at the Tremont mine, where 
William Watkins was employed as mine foreman, I found no posts 
in the place where the accident occurred, or post sheet up so that 
they could have been ordered. I entered suit against the mine fore- 
man for not seeing that the proper supplies were furnished; on the 
case coming to trial, the verdict of the jury was "Not guilty, county 
for the costs." The defense claimed that he had ordered the place 
to be vacated as he could not get supplies. This was questioned, 
hence the suit. 

Taking into consideration all the circumstances connected with 
the mines of this district, they are in a much better condition than 
they were at the time of my last report. 

A brief description of all the mines in the district will be found 
in the body of the report, as well as that of the fatal accidents. The 
usual tables also accompany the report. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

HENRY LOUTTIT, 
Inspector of Mines. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 295 

Mining Statistics. 

Number of mines in the district, 90 

Number of mines in operation during 1900, 82 

Number of tons of coal produced, 8,654,281 

Number of tons shipped, 8,542,165 

Number of tons used for steam at mines, 87,962 

Number of tons sold to employes and others, 24,154 

Number of persons employed inside the mines, 9,802 

Number of persons employed outside the mines, 1,140 

Number of fatal accidents, 38 

Number of tons of coal produced per fatal accident, . . 227,746 

Number of persons employed per fatal accident, .... 287 

Number of non-fatal accidents, 144 

Number of tons of coal produced per non-fatal acci- 
dent, 60,09!) 

Number of persons employed per non-fatal accident, 75 

Number of wives made widows by accidents, 20 

Number of orphans by accidents, 40 

Number of kegs of powder used, 34,302 

Number of pounds of dynamite used, 6,375 

Number of days worked, 14,030^ 

Number of cylindrical boilers, 65 

Number of tubular boilers, 114 

Number of steam locomotives, 1 

Number of air locomotives, 2 

Number of electric locomotives, 16 

Number of new mines opened, 10 



296 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE A— Showing the Production of Coal, Number of Persons Employed by 
each Company During the year 19C0, and the Average Number of Tons Pro- 
duced Per Employe. 



Name of Company. 







Monongahela River C, C. & C. Co. 

Pittsburg Coal Company 

J. W. Ellsworth & Company 

Vesta Coal Company 

P. J. Forsythe & Company 

Ella Coal Company 

Shoenberger Coal Compnay 

Bunola Mining Company 

Charleroi Coal Works 

Clyde Coal Company 

People's Coal Company 

Hazel-Kirk Coal Company 

P. M. Pfeil Coal Company 

Henderson Coal Company 

A. R. Budd, 

Star Coal Company, 

Morris & Bailey Coal Company. .. 

B. Braznell & Son 

Stookdale Coal Company 



Total, 8, 654,376 



,290,473 

,286,818 

35,297 

788,678 

16S.677 

195,459 

160, 818 

147,278 

210, 130 

6,726 

437 

740 

825 

95 

273 

1,050 

2,274 

37,870 

310,458 



6,290 

2,482 

132 

662 

174 

200 

193 

143 

189 

41 

32 

19 

29 

23 

26 

28 

15 

50 

214 



10,942 



Number of tons produced per employe, 790.9. 



TABLE B— Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced Per Life Lost. 





■ 






o 


O 






W~ 




d 


















<w 




Name of Company. 


O 


■w U 

o <u 










oi in 






ES 


£* 




s -a 


3<0 




fc 


% 



Monongahela River C, C. & C. Company, 

Pittsburg Coal Company 

J. W. Ellsworth & Company 

Vesta Coal Company, 

P. J. Forsythe & Company 

Ella Coal Company 

Shoenberger Coal Company 

Bunola Mining Company 

Charleroi Coal Works, 

Clyde Coal Company 

People's Coal Company 

Hazel-Kirk- Coal Company 

P. M. Pfeil Coal Company, 

Henderson Coal Company 

A. R. Budd 

Star Coal Company 

Morris & Bailey Coal Company 

B. Braznell & Son, 

Stockdale Coal Company 



Total and average, 



214,523 
459,363 

5.SS2 

394,339 

16S.677 

195,459 

160.818 

147,278 

210, 130 

6,726 

437 

740 

825 

95 

273 

1,050 

2,274 

37,870 

310,458 



227,746 



No. 11 



FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



297 



TABLE C— Showing the Number of Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents and the 
Number of Tons of Coal Produced Per Accident. 

















c 


a. 




0) 






2 
"5 


°-2 




a 


3 


Name of Company. 


,_, 


V.T3 




o 












A 


2LS 




& 


Egg 




a 


3 U ID 




Z 


2 



Monong-ahela River C. . C. & C. Company, 

Pittsburg Coal Company 

J. W. Ellsworth & Company, 

Vesta Coal Company 

P. J. Forsythe & Company 

Ella Coal Company 

Shoenberger Coal Company , 

Bunola Mining Company 

Charleroi Coal Works 

Clyde Coal Company 

People's Coal Company 

Ilazel-Kirke Coal Company 

P. M. Pfeil Coal Company '. , 

Henderson Coal Company, 

A. R. Budd 

Star Coal Company 

Morris & Bailey Coal Company 

B. Braznell & Son 

Stookdale Coal Company 



Total and average. 



43,338 

54,686 

3,529 

112,668 

168,677 

27,922 

32,163 

49,092 

52,532 

6,726 

437 

740 

825 

95 

273 

1,050 

2,274 

18,935 

155, 2-29 



47,551 



TABLE D- Classification of Accidents. 





a 








>> 






Classification of Accidents. 


O 








— 3 


•o 

3 

a 






Falls of slate. 

Hy cars, 

By being caught between car and rib 

Pall of coal 

By Dilly trip 

Fall of coal and slate 

Struck by falling post 

By mining machine 

By blast through rib 

By Dilly line 

By an explosion of fire damp 

Pall Of roof coal 

By Motor car 

Fall of rock 

Hy locomotive 

By falling down shaft 

Suffocated by after-damp 

By an explosion of oil 

By fall of roof 

By descending rage 

Fall of roof and side 

By concussion, caused by explosion of fire damp, 

Bj being caught between car and pest 

Miscellaneous. 



Total. 



298 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OP MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE E — Occupations of Persons Killed and Injured. 





a 
















>> 
























d 
















0} 






Occupations. 


u 
o 








■dig 


•a 
a> 

h 

3 

"a 

M 


Total. 



Mine foreman, ... 

Miners 

Drivers, 

Dilly rider 

Day hand 

Loaders, 

Helpers, 

Oiler 

Machine runners, 
Motor brakemen, 

Roadman 

Carpenter 

Snapper 

Laborer 

Machine boss, 



Total, 



1 
117 
22 
1 
1 
19 
2 
1 
9 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 



TABLE F — Nationality of Persons Killed or Injured. 



Nationality. 



American, . 

Scotch 

English, ... 

Italian 

Slavs 

French 

German, ... 

Irish 

Belgians, .. 

Welsh 

Hungarian, 
Austrian, .. 

Poles 

Swedes 

Tryoleans, . 
Lithuanians, 

Fins 

Bavarian, .. 
Russian, ... 



Total, 



No. 1L FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 299 

Production of Coal in Tons during the Year 1900. 

Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Co., 4,290,473 

Pittsburgh Coal Company, 2,296,813 

J. \Y. Ellsworth and Company, 35,297 

Vesta Coal Company, 788,678 

P. J. Forsythe and Company, 168,677 

Ella Coal Company, 195,459 

Shoenberger Coal Company, 160,818 

Bunola Mining Company, 147,278 

Charleroi Coal Works, 210,130 

Clyde Coal Company, 6,726 

People's Coal Company 437 

Hazel-Kirke Coal Company, 740 

P. M. Pfeil Coal Company, 825 

Henderson Coal Company, 95 

A. R. Budd, 273 

Star Coal Company, 1,050 

Morris and Bailey Coal Company, 2,274 

B. Braznell and Son, 37,870 

Stockdale Coal Company, 310,458 



Total, 8,654,376 



The total production was made up as follows: 

Shipped by railroad and river to market, 8,542,165 

Sold at the mines for local use, 24,154 

Consumed to generate steam, 87,962 

Held at mines (in stock), 95 



Total 8,654,376 



Mines on the Belle Vernon Division of the Pittsburg and Lake Erie 

Railroad. 

Belle Vernon. — A new drift opening located near Somers No. 3 
mine. This property was originally owned by the Belle Vernon 
Coal Company, which intended to make it a first class plant, but 
after doing some work, in this direction, they sold it. Nothing in 
the nature of development has been made by the present owners. 

Henderson. — This is a new opening located near the East Char- 
leroi Station. The workings are not sufficiently advanced for a 
general description. 
30 



300 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Marine. — This is another new opening. This mine is located near 
Fayette City and opened as a drift. The mining will be done by 
electric mining machines, the machinery is now being installed for 
that purpose. The method of working the mine will be on the double 
entry' system. A furnace will be used to produce ventilation for the 
present, the intention being to erect a ventilating fan at no distant 
day. 

Sheppler. — This mine was operated only a short time during the 
early part of the year. It appears to be abandoned, if not perma- 
nently, at least for awhile as the machinery has been removed to 
other mines of the same company. While I am not officially in- 
formed, I take it that the coal remaining in this mine will be taken 
out through Soniers No. 4. The former mine has always been a 
great source of trouble on account of water, and the facilities for 
removing it being inadequate was a source of annoyance to all 
concerneu. Un my last examination of the mine the ventilation 
was unsatisfactory a® was also the drainage. 

Arnold No. 1. — Mine not in operation on my last visit. The work- 
ings were in a general way, in fair condition; however, I am of the 
opinion that had the mine been in active operation the ventilation 
would have been inadequate in parts of the workings. The venti- 
lating fau was running at the usual speed, but as it was producing 
air for part of Arnold No. 3 mine, there was not sufficient power 
in the air to ventilate both mines in such a manner as to comply 
with the law. I suggested that the connection between the two 
mines, so far as it related to a common ventilator being used, be 
discontinued. 

Arnold No. 3. — On my last examination of this mine the ventila 
tion and drainage required improvement in parts of the mine. In 
entry known as No. 3, East, the velocity of the air was so low as 
to hardly deflect the flame of an open light; in examining the cause 
for this I found that an effort was being made to force the whole 
current of air for this entry through a regulator entirely too small 
for the condition of the workings and to make matters worse, a room 
was opened in advance of the last break-through, which was driven 
quite a distance and as no means of ventilation were employed, I 
ordered the place to be vacated forthwith and to remain so until 
properly ventilated. I noticed an absence of cut-throughs in a 
great many of the rooms, these I suggested should be stopped until 
the act was complied with in regard to this requirement. 

Arnold No. 2. — The ventilation was, in a general way, satisfactory, 
but the drainage, in parts, was not up to the standard required by 
law. Owing to the presence of fire damp on one of the falls I ordered 
the entry vacated until it was removed. This mine is also connected 
with Arnold No. 3 mine, and while I am not, in a general way, in 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 301 

favor of one ventilator doing- the work for two mines, J am of 
opinion that, with proper adjustments, the ventilating fan at this 
mine can make a marked improvement in the ventilation of the 
former and at the same time not materially lessen the quantity 
of air required for the latter if the conditions remain the same. 

Equitable. — On the date of my last examination of this mine 1 
found the air current continuous, one hundred and fourteen persons 
being at work in it. I called the attention of the management 
to the condition of the mine in regard to the air current, and re- 
quested them, without delay, to put the same in a legal condition. 

North Webster. — General condition of mine, fair. 

Bunola. — On my last visit to this mine the ventilation, in a gen- 
eral way. was fair. The drainage was in parts of the mine unsatis- 
factory. 

Somers No. 4. — General condition satisfactory. 

Soiners No. 3. — On an examination of this mine I found the ven- 
tilation and drainage in parts of the same not in conformity with 
the act relating to bituminous coal mines. 

Manown. — General condition of mine, fair. They have abandoned 
the greater part of the left side of mine; this shortened the air route 
and as a consequence the air current shows a much larger volume 
in other parts of the workings. Owing to the proximity of buildings 
made of combustible material, and the possibility of them catching- 
fire. I requested, in the interests of safety, the former operators of 
the mine to make an additional opening to be used in cases of emer- 
gency, which they refused on the plea that they had the legal means 
of exit; no question was raised relative to this, but being of the 
opinion that they were a standing menace to the safety of the 
persons employed in the mine I asked for this additional opening. 
On the new company taking charge of the mine I renewed my re- 
quest, which was granted. 

Somers No. 2. — On my last examination of this mine the general 
condition was fair. 

Cleveland. — .Mine in fair condition on date of last visit. 



Mine on the Peters Creek Branch of the Monongahela Division 
of (he Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Peters Creek. — A new drift opening located about two miles from 
Peters Creek Station. The ventilation of this mine has not been 
satisfactory at all times, the cause being that nature was relied on 
to produce it. On my last visit I called the at tent ion of the company 
operating that it was necessary to comply with the law in regard to 
the use of some artificial means to produce the ventilation required 
for mines. 



302 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Mines on the Monongahela Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Fidelity. — This mine ha© not been operated for some time previous 
to the close of the year, and it seems that there will be no work here 
for some time to come. On the date of my last inspection of the 
mine it was in fair condition as far as related to ventilation, but 
drainage required improvement. 

Courtney. — Cubic feet of air at inlet, eighteen thousand. Persons 
employed, fifty-one. General condition of mine, fair. A short time 
previous to my last visit there was trouble with one of the entries, 
which subsequently caved in, causing not only a loss of coal, but also 
cut off the second means of egress from part of the mine, the venti- 
lation was also somewhat interfered with. 

Banner. — For some time past, some of the passage ways leading to 
the second means of egress have been in a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition, the other part near the active workings being practically 
non-existent. I have repeatedly asked those in immediate charge 
of the mine to remedy the matter complained of, but my request 
was unheeded. On a visit to the mine on the 20th of August I 
found no material improvement in the part where the greatest 
danger existed on account of the absence of the legal passage ways. 
It was evident that extreme method® would have to be resorted to 
to have the law complied with, as all others had failed. With this 
in view I gave the superintendent of the mine, James Parnham, a 
peremptory notice to put the mine in a legal condition forthwith. I 
visited the mine again on the 30th of August to inform myself if 
the notice of the 20th had been complied with; the result of this 
examination was that suit was entered against the superintendent 
and mine foreman, Joseph W. Hunt, he having received the same 
notice as the superintendent, for violation of section one, article two, 
of the act of May 15, 1893, relating to bituminous coal mines. At 
the preliminary hearing strenuous efforts were made to stop pro- 
ceedings before going to court, but I positively refused to consider 
any proposition of the kind. While not vindictively or personally 
opposed to these persons I saw that the ends of justice and the 
vindication of the law could not be met by any such disposition of 
the case, owing to the circumstances under which the suit was en- 
tered. When the case was called for trial they plead guilty, the 
court then sentenced each to pay a fine of one hundred dollars and 
costs of prosecution. Since the case has been disposed of, a great 
amount of work has been done to get the passage ways in the condi- 
tion required by law. 

Cliff. — Idle the entire year. 

Buffalo. — Not in operation during the year 1900. 

Allen. — General condition of mine, fair. Cubic feet of air at inlet, 
twelve thousand five hundred. Persons employed, forty-two. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 303 

Acme. — On my last examination of this mine I found the ventila- 
tion in parts of the workings somewhat inadequate. General con- 
dition of drainage, fair. 

Shoenberger. — The ventilation of this mine was not, in some parts, 
up to the legal requirements when last examined. A new ventilat- 
ing fan Hi feel in diameter has been installed and I am informed that 
it is giving general satisfaction. 

Blyth. — While, when last inspected, the ventilation and drainage 
were very unsatisfactory in parts of the mine, I have been informed 
that the air current is now in conformity with the law; the drainage 
is also improved. 

Charleroi. — Ventilation and drainage require improvement in parts 
of the mine. Since my visit I am informed that the causes of com 
plaint have been removed. 

Star. — A new drift opening located about one-half mile south of 
Courtney. The coal at this point lays only a few feet above the 
railroad tracks and as a consequence it was necessary to use either a 
vertical lift to get tipple height or an incline; the latter method 
will be used. The intention is to employ the endless rope system 
of haulage. An electric plant has been installed at the mine, and 
it will be opened on the double entry system ; other matters are not 
sufficiently developed for a specific description. 

Mines Located on the Pittsburg and Wheeling Division of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

Gastonville Nos. 1 and 2, and Hackett not in operation during the 
year, but quite an amount of work was done on the latter to put it 
in condition for future operations. 

Nottingham. — Mines not in operation when last examined. The 
means of egress are in a much more satisfactory condition than on a 
former visit. 

Eclipse. — Ventilation fair. Drainage requires improvements in 
parts of the mine. 

Anderson. — In operation 144 days during the year. Did not visit 
the mine while it was working. 

Germania. — Ventilation and drainage required improvement when 
last visited. 

Snowden. — Now abandoned and the rolling stock and machinery 
taken to other mines. 

Mines Located on the Monongahela and Washington Division of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Ellsworth No. 1. — This is a new shaft opening located about twelve 
miles south of Monongahela City. The shaft is 269 feet in depth. 



304 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Since commencing to produce coal it has been very unfortunate, 
two explosions of fire damp having occurred which resulted in the 
loss of five lives. About 7 o'clock in the morning of June 10th the 
night ishift ceased work, and in order to make some improvement in 
the shaft, it was necessary to stop the ventilating fan but so as 
to not leave the mine without some means for producing a current 
of air for the workings, the exhaust steam from a pump was turned 
into the hoisting shaft. The mine foreman, Alexander Patrick, and 
the boss driver, Thomas Forsyth, entered the mine on the morniug 
of the above date for the purpose of moving the track from the cut- 
through marked X on the plan which accompanies this report to 
the cut-through marked A, so as to allow the building of a stopping 
in the former cut-through, the object of this work was to improve 
the ventilation in the connecting entries. About 9 A. M. the car- 
penters working in the shaft noticed that the pump was "running 
wild" owing to the lack of water. In response to a request, Frank 
Booth, a carpenter, who was on top shut off the steam from the 
pump. A short time after this, the mine foreman visited the pump 
and found it stopped, but being of the opinion that it was only tem- 
porarily, and that it would be started again in a short time, he 
gave it no further attention, but returned to where he and Forsyth 
had been working. Some time between 11 and 12 o'clock Ardo 
Miller, a day hand, descended the shaft, oiled and started the pump. 
At 12.30 P. M., as near as can be ascertained, the explosion occurred. 
At the time of the explosion Walter C. Haise and W. N. Rogers were 
in a bucket suspended at the top of the saft preparatory to descend- 
ing it to their work and the force of the explosion so agitated 
the bucket that both men were thrown out; the former landed 
clear of the shaft and was saved, but unfortunately the latter went 
down the shaft, resulting in instant death. As quickly as possible 
after the explosion a rescue party consisting of John Simpson, 
superintendent; Edward Halpin, mine foreman of Ellsworth No. 2 
mine; Joseph Jones and Frank McKee, miners, descended the shaft, 
and on reaching the point marked "B" they found Forsyth dead and 
Patrick unconscious, having made their way to this point from the 
cut-through named above, here they were overcome by after-damp 
and could get no further. The mine foreman says that they saw 
no flame, light or other evidence of an explosion while at work, 
except that of concussion, neither did the persons who were in the 
shaft. From the testimony of all the witnesses it seemed that the 
manner in which the gas ignited is shrouded in mystery. The state- 
ment of the shot firer was to the effect, that all shots fired by him 
was prior to 1.30 A. M. and that he examined each place after firing 
the shots. A second examination of the mine was made by the night 
mine foreman near the hour of 6 A. M., neither of which discovered 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 305 

any fire existing. In my examination of the mine, after the explo- 
sion, i could find nothing of a conclusive nature that would show 
that the gas ignited from burning coal as the proof was not present. 
It has been suggested that a cap belonging to the battery had been 
left on a ledge of coal somewhere and a piece of the roof fell and 
struck it. causing a flame. It is remarkable that no person was burn- 
ed in the explosion. Patrick's injuries were confined to having been 
st ruck by living debris and breathing the after-damp. 

The second explosion occurred about 11.20 A. M. of the 20th of 
November, which resulted in the loss of three lives, viz: Joseph 
Novack, John Capitch and Silas Lear, two others. John Stich and 
Emilio Cici, received serious injuries. These persons were working 
in the following places: John Stich and John Capitch in F East 
cross cut at the poinl marked "E." Joseph Novack in cut-through at 
a point marked •<!." and Emilio Cici at the face of the North wesi 
crosscut which is driven direct from the bottom of the shaft. Silas 
Lear being the machine boss, his work necessitated his visiting 
every part of the mine where machines were at work. Some time 
previous to the explosion Capitch and Stich had their place cut by 
the compressed air mining machine, and after drilling a hole they 
asked the shot firer to fire their shot, but on examination he found too 
much gas present in the entry; he then turned the air on, from the 
compressed air line, for the purpose of diluting the gas. at the same 
time telling them that it was not safe to fire the shot and for them 
not to touch anything until he returned. While away he fired shots 
in other parts of the mine and on going back to the former place 
he found that some one had shut off the air while he was absent. 
All blasting at this mine is entirely by the use of a battery, and 
when the shot firer examined the above place the second time he 
had the battery with him but finding that it was yet unsafe to fire 
the shot gave the battery into the care of two men with the injunc- 
tion not to let any one have it until he came back from moving a 
machine that was located some distance from where they were at 
the time and while moving the machine the explosion occurred. 
It was in evidence that after the shot firer left the entry the 
second time. .Joseph Novack, one of the dead, told the entrymen 
that they need not wait on the shot firer as he understood how to 
work the battery and he would fire the shot for them. Novack tired 
a shot but not the one that the shot firer refused to fire. It seemed 
that they misunderstood the cause relative to the shot as they, after 
the shot tirer left, drilled another hole, which was the one that 
Novack tiled; this hole was on the "solid," or it seemed so at least, 
and it blew out the tamping and the explosion immediately followed. 
At this time the mine foreman. James McGuire, was near the bottom 

20—11—1000 



306 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

of the shaft, and immediately started for the scene of the explosion 
and brought four of the injured men out, namely, Joseph Novack, 
John Capiteh, John Stich and Emilio Cici. He found them all on 
the air course at the point marked "D." Silas Lear was going 
through a door at point marked "C" when the explosion occurred, 
the force of the explosion being such as to throw him against the 
coal pillar in such manner as to cause death some eight hours after- 
wards. On December 15th a shot was fired at a place marked 
"H" on plan by which some feeders of gas were ignited which in 
turn set fire to some brattice cloth and before it could be extin- 
guished it had gained such headway as to necessitate the immediate 
vacation of the mine in order to save the lives of the persons em- 
ployed therein. The fire traveled with great rapidity toward the 
shaft and in a short time everything of a combustible nature 
in the latter was on fire. To prevent, as far as possible, the fire 
from reaching No. 2 shaft, the ventilating fan of the latter was 
kept running. The mines have since been flooded with water 
for the purpose of drowning the fire out, and in connection there- 
with to relieve the compressed air, drill holes were put down at 
the head of "F" East cross-cut and Zero entries. On my visit to the 
mine on the 26th of December, a great quantity of gas was escaping 
through the drill hole on Zero, the hole having just been drilled 
through that morning. There was nothing escaping from the other 
hole, a self-registering thermometer was used in both holes, in the 
former it showed 55 degrees and the latter 60. A strong odor of 
burning coal was coming from the hole on Zero, also gas in such 
quantities that it could be ignited by a safety lamp some distance 
from the hole. Inquests were held on the above victims and a ver- 
dict of accidental death rendered in each case. The finding of the 
jury relative to the death of August Torch who was struck by a 
descending cage was of the same nature; for a more extended ac- 
count of this accident see another part of this report. From the 
time the coal was reached at this mine, fire -damp has been gen- 
erated in greater or lesser quantities. On my examination of the 
workings on April 19th and August 31st I found them in fair condi- 
tion as regard® ventilation, the inlet air measurements showing 
] 9,000 and 30,200 cubic feet respectively, the number of persons 
in the mine at any one time did not exceed twenty. 

Ellsworth No. 2. — This is also a new shaft opening and located 
a short distance from Elsworth No. 1. A passageway joins the 
two mines; it was through this connecting entry that persons em- 
ployed in the latter mine at the time of fire, passed on their way to 
the shaft bottom of No. 2, from which they were hoisted to the 
surface. On my last examination I found the ventilation in fair con- 
dition. Drainage in parts of the mine required improvement. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 307 

Hazel Kirk. — A new shaft opening located about three mies from 
Monongahela City. When I examined the mine on the 17th of 
December I found nine persons at work inside; a night shift was also 
employed which was of sufficient number to be subject to the pro 
visions of the act of May 15, 181)3, relative to bituminous coal mines. 
No ventilation was visible owing to there being no "return." The 
lowering and hoisting was done by engine, line, bucket and swinging 
derrick. Another shaft, to be used as a second opening, etc., was 
in the same condition in regard to the ventilation and hoisting appa- 
ratus. I notified the management to comply with the law without 
delay. I have since been informed that the shafts have been con- 
nected and a marked improvement has been made in the sanitary 
condition of the shafts. A stairway has been erected in the latter 
shaft for the purpose of an escape way. 



Mines on the Monongahela River. 

Beumont. — In fair condition as regards ventilation and drainage. 

Sanford. — A new drift opening located near Fredricktown. "When 
visited the mine was not opened sufficiently for a specific description 
of the method of working. 

Climax. — General condition of ventilation, fair. Drainage unsat- 
isfactory in parts of the mine. 

Camden. — Not in operation when examined last. 

Mongah. — Is in satisfactory condition as far as relates to venti- 
lation and drainage. The passageway leading to the second means 
of egress required some attention. A night shift was employed at 
this mine at the time of my visit but it seemed that the provisions 
of the law relating to the examination by a fire boss was not strictly 
complied with. I called the attention of those in charge to the 
above complaints and I was informed that they would be attended to. 

Apollo. — I found this mine in fair condition. 

Budd. — A new drift opening located near North Webster Station 
P. & L. E. R. R. The mine will be worked on the double entry 
system. The main entry is being driven of sufficient width to allow 
the use of two tracks, the object being to put in an endless line 
whenever the distance of haulage makes it necessary. Mining is 
being done by electric machines. A ventilating fan twenty feet in 
diameter is used for producing the air current for the mine which 
should be ample for some time to come provided it is properly dis- 
tributed. 

Umpire. — Not in operation when last visited. 

Old Eagle. — General condition of mine, fair. 

Eclipse. — While the general condition of the mine was fair, there 



308 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

was some places that the ventilation could have been increased to 
an advantage. The passageways to the second means of egress were 
not such as to meet the requirements of the law in all particulars; 
these and other matters pertaining to the health and welfare of the 
persons employed in the mine received my attention. 

Little Redstone. — Mine in fair condition when last examined. 

Little Alps. — On the date of my last inspection was in a. very [Sat- 
isfactory condition as regards ventilation, drainage and the 
passageway to the second means of egress. I gave positive orders 
for the mine to be put in such condition as to comply with the law. 
I have since been informed that an improvement has been made. 

Rock Run. — Mines not in operation on my last examination. Ven- 
tilation and drainage fair. 

Rostraver. — Ventilation and drainage require improvement in 
parts of the mine. The passageway to the second meas of egress 
was in a very unsatisfactory condition owing to accumulated water. 
The evidence is not wanting to show that the above named part is 
always neglected until the active portion of the workings is attended 
to. I notified the mine foreman and superintendent that the means 
of egress must be kept in a legal condition at all times, and at the 
same time the other matters should receive immediate attention. 

Bakewell. — A new drift opening located on the east side of the 
river opposite Monongahela City. While the mining is at present 
done by pick, electric mining machines will be used as soon as the 
plant can be installed. The ventilation was not in conformity with 
the law, the air current that was moving was by natural means. 
The company intends to erect a ventilating fan in the near future, 
but for the present will use a "fire grate" to ventilate the mine. 

New Eagle and Abe Hays. — Idle during the entire year. 

Stony Hill. — On one of my visits to this mine during the year I 
found part of the mine being worked without being in communica- 
tion with two openings as required by law. I called the attention to 
those in immediate charge of the mine to the matter, the result being 
that the part complained of was vacated. 

Crescent. — In fair condition on the date of my last visit. 

Snow Hill. — General condition of mine as regards ventilation and 
drainage, fair. 

Clipper. — On my last visit I found ventilation very unsatisfactory. 
On some of the entries I could not get the instrument to register. 
Owing to the custom of making, to a great extent, the stoppings 
from the refuse of the mine, it is a somewhat difficult matter to 
carry the air to the face of the workings, unless there is a very large 
volume produced by the ventilator. I requested that some other 
material be used in building the stoppings hereafter, and that the 
law be complied with in reference to openings. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 309 

Champion. — Ventilation require improvement in parts of the mine. 
The production of the Caledonia mine passes over the former's mine 
tipple and the workings form part of the former also. 

Amity. — In fair condition as to ventilation and drainage. 

Fayette City. — On my last visit it was in lair condition. Pre- 
vious to this examination I was notified by the mine foreman, 
Thomas Smith, that lire damp had accumulated on a fall and was 
giving trouble, as it could not be removed by the means employed. 
On examining the place I found fire damp present in such "quantities 
as to be detected by an ordinary safety lamp," it was also on an- 
other fall on the same entry. This entry was being worked with 
open lights, and persons were permitted to pass the places where 
the gas was 011 falls with open ones. Being of the opinion that this 
was a violation of the act of May 15, 1893, relating to bituminous 
coal mines I ordered the entry to be vacated until the gas was re- 
moved. A short time afterwards I entered proceedings against 
the mine foreman for violation of the act above mentioned as far 
as it related to the presence of fire damp on the falls and the use of 
open lights near where it had accumulated. The hearing was held 
before -I. A. O'Neil, justice of the peace of Fayette City, who dis- 
missed the case and placed the costs on the county. On being ques- 
tioned in regard to this finding, he said that it was "for the lack of 
evidence that the gas was in dangerous quantities." 1 take it that 
the justice erred, as the law defines the measure of danger. 

( Jrothers, Fox and Riverville. — 'Mines not in operation when visited. 

Anchor. — In fair condition on my last examination. 

Black Diamond. — In working one of the rooms on an entry known 
as Xo. 48, ii holed into a part of abandoned excavations of the Ivill 
mine from which fire damp made its appearance. A short time after- 
wards the lire bosses, Thomas Matthews and Jonathan Cothrey, vis- 
iied the place and while there the escaping gas ignited from an open 
lighl carried by one of them, but fortunately the flame did not pass 
i In- a (Kit me made between the two mines. The condition of the 
abandoned part into which the conned ion was made being, to a great 
extent, unknown, orders were given to vacate the mine immediately, 
which was followed by the officials of the Ivill mine being notified 
of the matter and they also withdrew their workmen. Opon the 
mines being vacated the mine foreman, Joseph Nevens, concluded to 
examine, if ;it all possible, the place of holing and on reaching the 
vicinity of the same he found that the flame had been extinguished 
by some means not fully determined, but supposed to be through the 
absence of sufficient air to sustain combustion. On my examination, 
the gas was still present, not only in the abandoned pari of the Ivill 
mine as far as could be examined, but extending quite a distance 
from face of room toward the entry from which the room was 



310 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

turned. Owing to the presence of the gas and its location, I sug- 
gested that neither mine be worked until some provision were made 
for the safety of the mines, and not seeing my way clear for a final 
disposition of the case I notified Inspectors Adams, Connor and 
Ross to examine the mine with me and after due deliberation we con- 
cluded to recommend the following, viz: That the source of danger be 
removed forthwith, and while it is being removed, no person or 
persons shall be permitted in either mine except those em- 
ployed in the removal of the danger. It was further suggested that 
a bore hole be put down from the surface to connect with the 
excavated part of the Ivill mine and in proximity to the place where 
the mines were connected. This bore hole was afterwards drilled, 
and as soon as it penetrated the opening, gas enterd the bore hole 
and passed into the outer air. Subsequently I measured the 
gas leaving the mine through this bore hole and found it to be 
255 cubic feet per minute. To isolate the active workings from the 
bore hole, brick walls have been built, with iron doors in their 
centres, for the purpose of allowing an examination to be made 
whenever necessary. 

Chamouni. — Not in operation on my last visit. 

'Albany. — This mine was in fair condition. 

Iron City. — Has not been operated since the year 1883. In 1884 
high water carried the tipple away, and the incline through the 
ravages of time, was soon beyond repair. The property has lately 
passed into the hands of another company which intends to build 
new abutments, tipple, incline and such other improvements as to 
make it a first class plant. 

Coal Centre. — Condition of drainage fair. Ventilation requires 
improvement in parts of the mine. 

Ella. — In fair condition as regards drainage. The air current 
is not satisfactory in all respects. 

Washington. — Mines not in operation on my last visit. On exam- 
ination of the workings I found them in fair condition. 

Vigilant. — Ventilation and drainage in parts of the mine, unsatis- 
factory. 

Knob. — Mine in fair condition. 

Catsburg. — On my last examination I found the ventilation very 
unsatisfactory; this was owing, to some extent, through the im- 
proper distribution of the air current. In one portion of the work- 
ings the volume of air which was passing, allowed 777 cubic feet for 
each person employed; in another, only 86. 

Vesta No. 3. — While the general condition of this mine is fair, the 
ventilation could be increased to advantage in parts of the same. 

Christinia. — Idle when last visited. 

Gallatin. — Among the improvements made at this mine during 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 811 

the year is the erection of a ventilating fan twenty feet in diameter, 
which, with proper attention, should furnish sufficient air for the 
workings for some time to come. 

Walton, Upper and Lower. — In fair condition on the date of my 
last inspection. 

Tremont. — Ventilation in a general way, fair. Drainage does not 
come up to requirements of the law in all particulars. 

Milesville. — The passageways to the second means of egress are 
not in good condition, neither is the ventilation in some parts of 
the mine. I am informed, since my examination, that a marked 
improvement has been made in the matters complained of. 

Cincinnati. — In operation 170 days during the year; as a whole the 
mine is in fair condition. 

Coal Bluff. — At each examination of this mine during the year 
I was obliged to call the attention of the persons in charge to the 
venutilation and the matter of the air splits. A new ventilating 
fan, nine feet in diameter, of the Capell type, has been installed, 
but the interior of the mine is such that the air produced by it does 
not reach all of the working faces in a satisfactory manner; how- 
ever an improvement is being made so as to relieve, to a certain 
extent, the difficulties now encountered in coursing the air current. 

Hilldale. — Not in operation when last visited. 

Vesta No's 1 and 2. — While the general condition of the mines is 
fair, there are some parts where ventilation and drainage could be 
very much improved. Owing to persistent rumors having been 
circulated that a large body of gas had accumulated in the old and 
abandoned parts of the mines, I, while I was convinced that the 
rumors had no foundation, notified Inspectors Blick and Connor and 
also requested a committee of miners, to examine, as far as possible, 
with me the part of the excavations named. After making a pretty 
thorough examination, we failed to find any gas. except a small 
trace on one of the room falls located a long distance from any 
active workings, but in our examination of a few falls on an entry 
in active operation we found gas in such quantities as to ask that 
the entry be vacated until it was removed. In questioning those in 
charge of the mine in regard to the condition of the falls, it was 
stated that they did not know it was there, as no examination had 
been made since morning, and at that time it was clear of fire damp. 

Ivill. — Mine not in operation when last inspected. Relative to 
the connection that was made between this mine and the Black 
Diamond the reader is referred to the description of the latter. 

Allequippa. — While the drainage, in a general way. Avas satis- 
factory when last inspected, the ventilation was not up to the 
standard. 



312 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Alice. — On my last visit to this mine I found ventilation and 
drainage in parts of the mine unsatisfactory. 

Stonesburg. — It seems from present indications that this mine 
has been practically abandoned. 



Fatal Accidents. 

John Paul, miner, was instantly killed in Catsburg mine January 
11th, by a fall of slate. At the time of the accident the deceased 
was loading a car of coal. The slate showed, after it fell, numerous 
slips, and it seemed that if a careful examination had been made 
previous to its falling, the dangerous character of the same could 
have been detected. 

Peter Weiseman, miner, was instantly killed in Snow Hill mine 
January 30th, by being struck by a post which was dislodged by 
falling slate. The deceased and Thomas Wright were together, 
and previous to the accident they had been taking out posts from 
under the slate; one of the posts was in such a position as to be 
somewhat difficult to remove, and the latter requested the deceased 
who at the time was trying to get it out, to allow him to do the 
work, as he was much younger and more likely to avoid the slate 
or post catching him, but he refused. 

Alexander Williams, miner, was fatally injured in Charleroi mine 
February 21st, by a fall of slate. The deceased had fired a shot in 
the tight which failed to throw the coal; he then started to take it 
down with a pick and while doing this work, coal and slate fell, 
a piece of the latter caught him in such a manner as to cause death 
seven days afterwards. 

Micheal Popovish, miner, was injured by a fall of slate in Gallatin 
mine March 10th. Died March 15th. 

Micheal Ververke, a miner, was instantly killed in Alice mine 
March 21st, by a fall of slate. It is not known what the deceased 
was doing at the time of the accident, as his partner John Bohacik 
was moving a piece of slate a short distance away, but it is sup- 
posed that he was sounding slate. His partner informed me that 
he spoke to the deceased about the slate but he, the deceased, said 
"it was all right, and after he loaded the car which was in the place 
he would put a post under it." 

James Moore, miner, was fatally injured in Blyth mine March 
22d, by a fall of slate. At the time of the accident the deceased 
was loading a car. On subsequent examination of the place I found 
that the slate had fallen out between the posts and room rib, and 
showed numerous slips with the angle of fracture against safety; 
one was running parallel with the rib and another at right angles 
making a very dangerous piece to work under, but this was not 
known by deceased or his father who worked with him. 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 313 

Bartolo Orler, miner, was -instantly killed by a fall of coal in 
Little Alps mine March 28th. The deceased and his partner Louis 
Cerise, was bearing in on a butt, the former on the end next to the 
road head and the latter near the rib. Previous to the accident 
they had fired a shot in the middle of room, this shot had "jumped" 
for quite a distance back of the butt making it somewhat dangerous; 
this they realized, for they took some of it down, but not sufficient, 
for when they loosened it up some,, in the bearing in, it fell. 

Robert B. Jones, driver, was killed instantly by coal cars in 
Manown mine April 20th. The deceased was on his way out toward 
the double parling with a trip of five cars, and when he arrived 
near a door, which is located at entry No. <>, he stepped on the 
bumpers of the first car of the trip, but slipped off, and before he 
could recover himself the cars caught him with the above result. 

John I). Lonenzo, miner, was fatally injured at Walton's mine 
April 20th, by being run over by the locomotive that hauls the full 
cars from near the mine entrance to the river tipple, and returns 
with the empty ones. Immediately preceding the accident the de- 
ceased was sitting on the front foot board of the engine smoking a 
pipe, and while the tobacco in the pipe was yet afire he put it in 
his pocket, a few minutes after this he discovered smoke issuing 
from hi® pocket, he then became excited and jumped from the loco- 
motive, but in doing so he slipped and fell in front of it, and one 
of the driving wheels ran over him in such a manner as to cause 
death the same evening. 

John Emery, loader, was instantly killed in Somers No. 4 mine by 
a fall of double slate April 30th. The deceased and John Sickles 
worked together and at the time of the accident they were working 
at the face of the room and under the slate that afterwards fell. 
1 made an examination of the place subsequently and found that 
a slip, the angle of fracture being against safety, was running at 
right angles to the face, another showed itself running parallel to 
it. The place was somewhat difficult to work owing to the double 
slate and the numerous slips that appeared in it. 

Frederick Klein, miner, was instantly killed in Vesta No. 1 mine 
May 25th, by being caught between a car and coal pillar. The de- 
ceased was moving a car through a chute. The track had a slight 
grade toward the main entry to which he was moving the car, the 
position of the body when found, would indicate that he was trying 
to put a sprag in one of the wheels of the car. 

William N. Rogers and Thomas Forsyth, carpenter and driver 
respectively, lost their lives in Ellsworth No. 1 mine, June 10th. 
For a more extended account see description of the mine in another 
part of this report. 



314 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

John Batton, brakeman on electric, motor, was fatally injured 
June 11 at Arnold No. 3, by an explosion of oil while filling his 
lamp from a can containing explosive oil. 

Mechech Haywood, miner, was almost instantly killed in Mongah 
mine June 28th, by a fall of roof from some cause unknown, but it 
is supposed that he was after roof coal. The deceased was drawing 
a rib at the above mine. 

William Ferguson, miner, was instantly killed in Alice mine July 
3d, by a fall of slate. The deceased and his brother were working 
together and previous to the accident had fired a middle shot and 
loaded some sixty bushel® out of it. The brother informed me that 
he could not get a post under the slate owing to its being flush with 
the face of the room. They sounded the slate a few minutes before 
it fell and considered it safe. I 

Dennis Burns, loader, was fatally injured in Tremont mine July 
23d, by a fall of slate while throwing coal from under it. A brother 
worked with the deceased and he informed me that they sounded 
the slate about fifteen minutes before it fell and considered it safe. 

Andrew Sweetny, miner, was instantly killed in Chamouni mine 
July 23d, by a fall of slate. The deceased and John Majuriah 
worked together in entry 19. They had some 14 feet of slate up, 
previous to the accident, and concluded to take it down and for 
this purpose they drilled a hole in it, but before putting the powder 
in the hole the deceased commenced to throw some coal back from 
under the slate and while thus engaged it fell, resulting as above 
stated. 

August Torch, laborer, was instantly killed at the Ellsworth No. 
1 shaft August 16th, by being struck by a descending cage. Torch 
was employed on the shaft hoist, and at the time of the accident 
was assisting to put a board on that was to form part of the floor 
of hoist; this board extended over the outside timbers of the hoist 
and the deceased was at work trying to get it back far enough to 
be flush with another board that was in the platform, and instead 
of using some other means to move it he took a sledge, at the same 
time having part of his body over the shaft in such a manner as to 
be in the way of the descending cage. One of the carpenters saw 
the danger that Torch was in and called for him to get out of the 
way, but it was too late. 

Joseph Tood, miner, was injured July 31st in Climax mine, by a 
fall of slate. Died August 21st. 

Leonard Guest, miner, was injured in Coal Bluff mine August 27th, 
by a fall of coal. Died September 2d. 

Gorge Lacauta, miner, was injured October 8th in Knob mine by 
a fall of slate. Died January 13, 1901. 

Albert Lauderback, driver, was fatally injured in Shoenberger 



No. 11. FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. S15 

mine Octiber 11th by being caught between a car and post. The 
deceased was on his way out of the mine with a trip of loaded cars, 
and when near the entrance the front car left the track, the deceased 
being on the front of the first car, tried to unhitch the mule, and be- 
fore he could get out of the way the car caught him. as stated 
above. 

Benjamin Simcoe, miner, was instantly killed in Gallatin mine 
November 5, by a fall of roof and side. The deceased and John 
Ouchie was on their way out of the mine, and on reaching a point 
near an entry known as ''Old No. 17." a fall occurred which meas- 
ured 74 feet long, 16 feet wide and about 5 feet in depth. The mine 
officials say that the place was examined in the morning of the acci- 
dent and no unusual danger discovered. An inquest was held and 
verdict of accidental death rendered. 

Michael G. Santo, miner, was fatally injured in Coal Bluff mine, 
November 7th, by a fall of slate. 

James Paskerella, miner, was instantly killed in Manown mine, 
November 9th, by a fall of roof. Subsequent investigation showed 
that there had been two posts set under the roof, but they had 
been broken by the roof falling. It seemed that the roof must 
have given signs of its dangerous character previous to giving away 
had a proper examination been made by Paskerella and his partner 
Frank Bevetta before it fell. 

John Hurra, miner, was instantly killed in Vigilant mine Novem- 
ber loth, by a fall of slate. At the time of the accident the deceased 
was "blocking" his "bearing in." The slate fell out in the form 
of a "pot." On examination of the place I am of opinion that this 
accident was unavoidable. 

Silas Lear, Joseph Novak and John Capritch lost their lives in an 
explosion of fire damp in Ellsw T orth Mine No. 1. For a more ex- 
tended account see description of the mine in another part of this 
report. 

Leopold Bastian, miner, was instantly killed in Vesta No. 1 mine 
November 21st, by a fall of roof. The deceased was running a 
mining machine at the time of the accident. The roof w T as sounded 
a few minutes before it fell and was considered safe. 

Frank Markella, miner, was instantly killed in Rostraver mine 
November 23d, by a fall of slate. The deceased was loading a car 
;it the time of the accident. There was a great deal of trouble in 
the room where the accident occurred by "pots" and rolls, and as 
a consequence it was necessary to use caution in working it. It 
was in evidence that the slate had not been examined or sounded 
for some time before it fell. 

Joseph Rutoskey, loader, was fatally injured in Bunola mine De- 
cember 3d, by a fall of slate. lie was loading a car at the time of 
31 



316 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

the accident. I was informed by the partner of the deceased that 
they sounded the slate a few minutes before it fell and considered 
it safe. 

Micheal Eignito, miner, was fatally injured in Acme mine Decem- 
ber 4th, by a fall of coal. The deceased was bearing in at the time 
of the accident. The place was very badly squeezed and the part- 
ner of the deceased suggested that they put a sprag under the 
coal, but the latter said he thought it was safe. 

John Rogan, miner, was instantly killed by a fall of coal and slate 
in Allen mine December 14th. The deceased and his partner were 
bearing in at the time of the accident, the former on the end of the 
butt and the latter next to the rib. A middle tight shot had shat- 
tered the butt and made it dangerous to work on but, this was not 
known by the deceased and his partner. 

John Hoodak, miner, was fatally injured in Vigilant mine Decem- 
ber 18th, by a fall of coal and slate. The deceased, at the time of 
the accident was drilling a hole for a blast; a clay vein passed 
nearby which was in part undermined, which fell off and caught 
the deceased, resulting as stated. 

Thomas Sabo, Hungarian, loader, was instantly killed by a fall of 
slate in Catsburg mine December 22d. At the time of the accident 
he was knocking coal from under some slate. Subsequent examina- 
tion of the place showed that the deceased had shown very little 
practical judgment in the working of their room. 



No. 11. 



FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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325 



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FIRST BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



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( 338 ) 



Official Document, No. 11. 



Second Bituminous District, 

(ALLEGHENY, INDIANA AND WESTMORELAND COUNTIES.) 



Greensburg, Pa., March 8, 1901. 
Hon. James W. Latta, Secretary of Internal Affairs: 

Sir: I have the honor to herewith submit my report as Inspector 
of Mines for the Second Bituminous District, for the year ending 
December 31, 1900, in compliance with section II of article 10 of 
the bituminous mining act, approved the loth day of May, 1893. 

The coal and coke business in this district is still on the increase. 
In 1899 the total production was 12,077,460 tons of coal and 4,075,- 
822 tons of coke, while in 1900 the production was 13,468,199 tons 
of coal and 4,280,354 tons of coke, an increase of 1,570,739 tons of 
coal and 204,532 tons of coke over the output of 1899. 

There has also been an increase in the number of persons em- 
ployed. In 1899 the number was 14,758. In 1900 it was 17,552, an 
increase of 2,794. 

I regret, however, to report fifty-six fatal accidents, an increase of 
twenty over the number in 1899, whereby thirty wives were made 
widows and fifty-three children fatherless. 

The number of non-fatal accidents was fifty-six, showing an in- 
crease of fourteen, there having been a total of forty-two in 1899. 

Dining the year one mine, Strickler, was worked out and aban- 
doned. Twenty-two new mines were opened and two old ones re- 
opened, making a total of twenty-four additional mines. 

I am pleased to report that, with but few exceptions, the condi- 
tion of the mines lias improved in comparison with last year. This 
is true especially in regard to ventilation. Several fans and fur- 
naces have been put in operation, all of which are now giving very 
satisfactory results. 

The report contains the usual tables and statistics, with a brief 
description of the mines, together witli the most important im- 
provements made at them; also a description of the fatal accidents. 

A copy of the decree of the court of quarter sessions of Westmore- 
land county, in re appeal of A. N. Humphrey, general superintend- 

( 339 ) 



340 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OB" MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



ent of the Westmoreland Coal Company, from my decision with 
reference to the amount of air necessary for the proper ventilation 
of the Export mine, as per section I, article 4 of the act of May 15, 
1893, is also made a part of this report. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

C. B. KOSS, 
Mine Inspector. 



Summary of Statistics, 1900. 

Number of mines in the district, 100 

Number of mines in operation during 1900 93 

Number of tons of coal produced, 13,648,199 

Number of tons shipped, 6,912,243 

Number of tons used for steam at mines, 247,477 

Number of tons sold to employes and others, 161,137 

Number of coke ovens, 9,462 

Number of tons of coke produced, 4,280,354 

Number of persons employed inside the mines 12,808 

Number of persons employed outside, 4,744 

Number of fatal accidents, 56 

Number of tons of coal produced per fatal accident, 243,717.8 

Number of non-fatal accidents 56 

Number of tons of coal produced per non-fatal acci- 
dent, 243,717.8 

Number of persons employed per fatal accident 313.4 

Number of persons employed per non-fatal accident, 313.4 

Number of wives made widows by accidents, 30 

Number of children orphaned by accidents 53 

Number of kegs of powder used, 4,070 

Number of pounds of dynamite used 10,725 

Number of cylindrical boiler® in use, 117 

Number of tubular boilers 197 

Number of steam locomotives, 36 

Number of compressed air locomotives 5 

Number of electric locomotives, 6 

Number of new mines opened 22 

Number of old mines re-opened 2 

Number of old mines abandoned, 1 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 341 

Production of Coal in Tone During the Year 1900. 

II. c. Fiick Coke Company 2,245,000 

S. \V. Connellsville Coke Company L,381,793 

New York and Cleveland Gas Coal Company 1,447,849 

Westmoreland Coal Company L,270,766 

Penn ( las Coal ( Jompany 687,391 

The Heckla < Joke < Jompany 507,018 

Eostetter < Jonnellsville Coke Company 455,000 

Loyal-Hanna Coal and Coke Company 419,784 

Bessemer Coke Company, 325,109 

( Jreensburg < Joal ( Jonipany 273,537 

.Jamison Coal and Coke Company L95,500 

Atlantic Crushed Coke Company 92,187 

American Coke Company 451). Oil) 

Standard Connellsville Coke Company 240,044 

( >cean < Joal ( Jompany 202,748 

The Ligonier Coal Company 46,000 

Burrell Coal Company 112,307 

Maher Coal and ( Joke ( Jompany 42,077 

Mc( Jreary Coke Company, Ltd 85,830 

Sewickley Gas Coal Company 200,108 

Aroma Gas Coal Company 242,710 

Madison Gas Coal Company 88,100 

( Jarbon < Joal Company 209,921 

Alexandria Coal Company 232,764 

American Steel Hoop Company 150,032 

Derry Coal and Coke Company 279,020 

Hempfield Coal Company 192,490 

Latrobe Coal Company 243,110 

Claridge Gas Coal Company 171.714 

Manor Gas Coal Company 215.110 

Millwood Coal and Coke Company 114,917 

•I. A. Strickler Coke Company, Ltd 52.000 

spring Hill Gas Coal Company 1 17.051 

M. Saxman, Jr., and < Jompany 82,114 

Blairsville Coke ( Jompany, Ltd 59,645 

Boberl Smith 70.409 

Braeburn Steel Company 14,381 

Indiana Coal Company, 11.137 

Bolivar Coal and Coke Company 13,418 

Penn .Manor Shaft Company 01.790 

Weinman Bros 8,670 

( ;. Vogele 7,089 

\V. J. Rainey 79,500 



342 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Donohoe Coal and Coke Company, 100,212 

Painter and Fogg, 9,21G 

Keece-Haminond Fire Brick Company, 23,000 

Salem Coal Company, 8,180 

Graft' Coal Company, 1,550 

Superior Coal and Coke Company, 10,037 

W. B. Skelly, 5,750 

Ben Franklin Coal Company, . 1,100 

Hamilton Coal Mining Company, 15,808 

Ray Coal Company, 4,649 



The total production was made up as follows: 



Total, 13,648,199 



Tons. 



Skipped by railroad to market, 6,912,243 

Sold at the mines for local use, 161,137 

Consumed to generate steam, 247,477 

Used in manufacturing bricks, 23,000 

Manufactured into coke, 6,304,432 



Total, 13,648,199 



No. 11. 



SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



343 



TABLE A— Showing the Production of Coal, Number of Persons Employed by 
each Company, Number of Tons Produced per Person Employed During the 
Year 1900, and the Average Number of Tons Produced Per Employe. 































1_ 01 










o 






c 


a) 

c. 


sf 






o 




o E 














Name of Companies. 


o 


o 


C <l> 






cj»o 


*"0 


u 








■S* 


,Q O 






Es 


£° 


£ = 






s-o 


a a 


3-0 






Z 


Z 


2 



H. C. Frick Coke Company, ] 2,245,000 

y. W. Connellsville Coke Company, 1.3SL793 

New York and Cleveland Gas Coal Company, 1,447,S49 

Westmoreland Coal Company, '. 1,270,766 

Penn Gas Coal Company, 68?] 391 

The Hecla Coke Company, 507^018 

Hosletter Connelleville Coke Company 455^000 

Loyal-Hanna Coal and Coke < !< m] any 419,78* 

Bessemer Coke Company o25,109 

Greeusburg Coal Company 273,537 

Jamison Coal and Coke Company 195,600 

Atlantic Crushed Coke Company 92,187 

American Coke Company 459,010 

Standard Connellsville Coke Company 240^644 

Ocean Coal Company, 2u2,74S 

The Llgonier Coal Company 46,060 

Burrell Coal Company 112,367 

Maher Coal and Coke Company 42^077 

McCreary Coke Company, Limited, 85,830 

Sewickley Gas Coal Company, 200,108 

Arona Gas Coal Company, 242,710 

Madison Gas Coal Company, 88,100 

Carbon Coal Company, 209, S21 

Alexandria Coal Company 232,764 

American Steel Hoop Company 150,632 

Derry Coal and Coke Company 279,626 

Hempfield Coal Company, 192,490 

Latrobe Coal Company .' 243,110 

Claridge Gas Coal Company 171,714 

Manor Gas Coal Company, 215,116 

Millwood Coal and Coke Company 114,917 

J. A. Strickler Coke Company. Limited 52,000 

Spring Hill Gas Coal Company 117.651 

M. Saxman, Jr., and Company, 82,114 

Blalrsville Coke Company, Limited 59,645 

Robert Smith 70,409 

Braeburn Steel Company, 14,381 

In. liana Coal Company 11,137 

Bolivar Coal and Coke Company, 13 41S 

TVnn Manor Shaft Company 61.796 

Weinman Brothers S.670 

6. Vogele. i 7, US!) 

W. J. Rainey, i. 79,! 500 

Donohoe Coal and Coke Company inn, 212 

Painter and Fogg. 9.216 

Reece, Hammond Fire Brick Company 23,000 

Salemn Coal Company s 180 

Graff Coal Company 

Superior Coal and Coke Company, 10,037 

W. B. Skelley, 5,759 

Ben Franklin Coal Company, 1.100 

Hamilton Coal Mining Company 15.808 

Ray Coal Company, 4.649 

Total and average, 13.468,199 



2,946 

1,442 

1,648 

1,274 

1,037 

683 

626 

501 

510 

254 

392 

178 

744 

489 

271 

37 

96 

62 

340 

246 

302 

169 

272 

318 

203 

300 

179 

301 

248 

247 

147 

53 

176 

91 

38 

72 

20 

30 

30 

146 

15 

14 

211 

260 

49 

21 

77 

21 

56 

19 

15 

27 

26 

17,552 



762.0 
958.3 
878.1 
997.5 
662.9 
742.4 
726.8 
837.9 
637.5 

1,076.9 
498.7 
517.9 
616 9 
492.1 
748.1 

1.244.S 

1,170.5 
809.1 
252.4 
813.5 
803.7 
521.3 
992.7 
731.9 
742.0 
932.0 

1,075.4 
!>07.6 
692.4 
871.3 
7-1.7 
9SI.1 
668.4 
902.4 

1,569.4 
977.9 
719.0 
371.2 
447 3 
423.3 
578.0 
506.3 
376.7 
385.4 
188.0 

1.195.2 
II 6 2 
77.1 
179.2 
803.1 
73.3 
585.4 
178.4 



767.3 



344 



Kl'lORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



Off. Doc. 



TABLE B — Showing the Number of Fatal Accidents and Tons of Coal Produced 
Per Life Lost, the Number of Accidents, and the Number of Tons of Coal 
Produced Per Accident, Fatal and Non-Fatal. 







<M t. 


















o 


D, 


C 


D, 




sj 












C T3 


"3 


§"8 








o 








3 


CS 


3 


Name of Companies. 






«M 


%-< '3 




o 


Cm 








u ■ 




















■° c 


•^n . 


,Q 


,£2 — -2 




£ a; 


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E 


Coo 




3 is 


3 or 


3 


3 o S 




fc 


£ 


B 


B 



H. C. Frick Coke Company, 

S. W. Connellsville Coke Company 

New York and Cleveland Gas Coal Company. 

Westmoreland Coal Company 

Penn Gas Coal Company, 

The Hecla Coke Company 

Hostetter Connellsville Coke Company, 

Loyal-Hanna Coal and Coke Company, 

Bessemer Coke Company, 

Greensburg Coal Company, 

Jamison Coal and Coke Company, 

Atlantic Crushed Coke Company, 

American Coke Company 

Standard Connellsville Coke Company, 

Ocean Coal Company 

The Ligonier Coal Company 

Burrell Coal Company, 

Maher Coal and Coke Company 

McCreary Coke Company, limited 

Sewickley Gas Coal Company 

Arona Gas Coal Company, 

Madison Gas Coal Company 

Carbon Coal Company 

Alexandria Coal Company 

American Steel Hoop Company 

Derry Coal and Coke Company, 

Hempfield Coal Company 

Latrobe Coal Company 

Claridge Gas Coft.1 Company 

Manor Gas Coal Company, 

Millwood Coal and Coke Company 

J. A. Strickler Coke Company, Limited 

Spring Hill Gas Coal Company, 

M. Saxman, Jr., and Company. 

Blairsville Coke Company, Limited 

Robert Smith, 

Braeburn Steel Company 

Indiana Coal Company, 

Bolivar Coal and Coke Company 

Penn Manor Shaft Company 

Weinman Brothers 

G. Vocele, 

W. J. Rainey 

Donohoe Coal and Coke Company 

Painter and Fogg 

Reece. Hammond Fire Brick Company 

Salemn Coal Company, 

Graff Coal Company. 

Superior Coal and Coke Company 

W. B. Skelley 

Ben Franklin Coal Company. 

Hamilton Coal Mining Company 

Ray Coal Company, 



Total and average. 



561,230.0 
27G,35S.6 
3ol,962.2 
181,538.0 
171,847.7 
507.018.0 
113,750.0 
419,784.0 
10S,36J.6 
273,537.0 
195,500.0 



229.505.0 
240.644.0 



46,060.0 



85,830.0 
110,054.0 
242,710.0 



116,3S2.0 



57.23S.0. 
107.53S.O 
114,917.0 



117.651.0 
82.114.0 



79,500.0 
100,212.0 



56 243,717.8 



172,6.2 3 
125,617.5 
289,569.8 
15\S4.,.7 

68.739.1 
507,018.0 

7.,,833.3 
1U4, 946.0 
108,319.6 

91, i79.0 
195,500.0 

92. <87 
153,003.3 
120.c22.0 

67.5S2.6 

23,030.0 

112,367.0 



85,830.0 
100,054.0 
121,155.0 



134.960.5 
116,382.0 



131), 813.0 
93,2:5.0 



34.342.8 

107,558.0 
38,305.6 
52.000.0 
58.825.5 
82,111.0 



79,500.0 

20,0:2.4 



S, 180.0 



120.251.7 



No. 11. 



SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 



345 



TABLE C— Classification of Accidents. 





or fatally in- 
















7 S 














— 3 


a 


c 
E- 







8 
IS 
10 
14 


8 
14 

6 
19 

1 


16 
32 
16 
33 
1 
2 
2 
1 
5 
4 


By falls of slate 










2 






2 






1 
1 
2 






4 
2 










Total 


56 


56 


112 





TABLE D — Occupations of Persons Killed and Injured. 



Miners 

Drivers 

Oilers and runners 

Machine runner 

Machine scraper, 

Machine loaders 

Door boys, 

Rope rider, 

Engineer 

Fireman 

Machinist 

Company men, inside. 
Company men, outside, 



Total, 



5 
112 



TABLE E— Nationalities of Persons Killed or Injured. 

















oi 


03 

a 


03' 

c 










a 

c 








si 












d 


u 


m 


03 

<u 
•a 
<u 
■f 
to 


c 


c 


cd 






S3 

01 


u- 

C 

s 


a 

o 

o 
a 
to 


si 

03 

~c 


»° 

HI 

"c 


01 

> 

B 
CO 


03 


91 

E 


to 

a 

3 


d 
« 


cd 

£ 

u 
11 
C 


01 
01 

« 


E 

4) 

A 
: 


"5 



Eh 


Killed 


1 


3 


1 


2 


7 


9 


■: 


If! 


1 


7 


1 


2 




3 


",'', 






6 




? 


•> 


6 




21 




6 


3 
4 


5 

7 


1 

1 


1 

4 


56 
112 


Total 


1 


!> 


1 


T 


9 


15 


6 


37 


1 


13 






1 



346 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

Description of Mines and Mine Improvement. 
Mines on and Near the River Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Lucesco. — Has been idle for a number of years. During the past 
year it was purchased by the Lucesco Company, which near the 
close of the year began the erection of a new tipple and incline. 
A few men were put to work inside the mine to repair roads, im- 
prove drainage, etc., with the intention of resuming operations at 
an early date. 

Metcalf. — Is a new drift opening into the Upper Freeport seam, 
located at Metcalf Station on the line of the River Division of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. It was in favorable condition when visited. 

Braeburn. — Condition of mine and ventilation was found good on 
each visit during the year. 

Crag Dell. — Is a drift opening in the Upper Freeport seam, lo- 
cated at Crag Dell station on the line of the River Division of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. While this mine has been in operation for 
several years it has not employed a sufficient number of persons 
inside to come under the law, but during the past year it passed 
into the hands of the Hamilton Coal Mining Company and I am 
informed that the present owner contemplates considerable improve- 
ment in and about the mine. 

Owing to the increased demand for coal, the company increased 
the number of persons employed inside until it now comes under 
the law. It was in a favorable condition on each visit. 

Plum Creek. — On each visit this mine was in a favorable condi- 
tion, both as to ventilation and drainage. 

Sandy Creek. — The general condition of this mine has been fairly 
good during the year. 

Oak Hill No. 5. — Is located four miles north of Turtle Creek, on 
the line of the P., B. & L. E. R. R. It was in good condition on each 
visit. 



Mines on and Near the Pittsburg Division of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad. 

Weinman. — Is a small mine employing, at last inspection, fifteen 
persons. The product supplies local trade. It was in fair condi- 
tion. 

Ocean. — Was in fair condition when last inspected and employs 
ten persons inside. The product goes to supply local trade. 

Hampton. — Idle the entire year. 

Duquesne. — Its condition has been very favorable during the 
vear. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 347 

Spring Bill. — The general condition and ventilation have been 
considerably improved during the year. 

Oak Bill No. 4. — This mine was in good condition, both as to ven- 
tilation and drainage. 

Larimer No. 4. — The ventilation of this mine has been greatly im- 
proved during the year. On my two last visits all parts of the 
mine were supplied with plenty of pure air. 

Penn Gas Coal Run. — This mine has been in fair condition both 
as to drainage and ventilation. 

Penn Gas No. 1. — Has been found reasonably good on each visit 
during the year. 

Westmoreland Shaft. — Was in good condition on each visit during 
the year, both as to ventilation and drainage. 

Pleasant Valley. — The condition has been favorable during the 
year. A new ventilating furnace has been erected with the area of 
grate of 90 square feet, which has improved the ventilation. 

Penn Gas No. 5. — Is a slope opening, w r hich after having been 
abandoned for years has been reopened and is now in operation. 

The improvements consist of a new tipple and the installation 
of new machinery, both inside and outside. All machinery is driven 
by electricity. The power is furnished by the Irwin Electric Light 
and Power Company, w 7 hose plant is located near Manor Station 
on the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, about one and one-half 
miles distant from the mine. 

The new machinery consists of three electric motors, a ventilating 
fan 13^ feet diameter, with single inlet, of the Cappell type, and a 
mine pump. Two of the motors are used for driving the haulage 
rope, w r hich delivers coal from the mine to the tipple, and the other 
for driving the fan. The. mine pump is also operated by electricity. 
Mining machines have also been introduced for undercutting the 
coal, two of the Morgan Gardner and three of the Jeffries Chain 
Cutter type, all driven by electricity. The above machinery is all 
in operation at the present time and appears to be giving entire 
satisfaction. The mine at present is practically in it® infancy and 
the time is not far distant when it is expected to be among the 
largest producers in the Irwin district. 

Radebaugh. — Is a new slope opening into the Pittsburg seam and 
is located near Radebaugh station on the line of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. It was in a favorable condition when visited. 

The main opening is at the west side entrance of the old tunnel 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The tunnel has been abandoned, and 
is supplanted by a new one which straightens the road for a con- 
siderable distance at this point. The tipple erected extends from 
kink to hank of the approaching cut to the tunnel. The mine work- 
ings have been connected with the tunnel by means of an entry 
33 



348 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

which was driven and connected with a man or shelter hole in the 
tunnel. This makes the second opening to this mine, and what 
was once a busy thoroughfare for all trains leaving Pittsburg over 
the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad for probably the last fifty 
years, is now a traveling way for employes. 

Hempfield. — The condition has been very favorable during the 
year. On the forenoon of July 2d water from a portion of old 
abandoned workings broke through into the active workings of this 
mine and serious injuries to the employes and probable loss of life 
was averted only by the coolness and calmness of those who ,were 
present at the occurrence. 

JoWn Morgan and John Fightner, two miners, were at work as 
usual in room 30 off No. 3 "Butt," Jamison entry. Morgan was 
undercutting the coal in the "tight" or low side of the room when 
suddenly his pick went through to an opening beyond, and water 
began to come through. He informed Fightner that in his opinion 
he had cut through to a body of water. Just then there was a 
sudden rush of water. Morgan sprang to the upper side of the room, 
where Fightner was standing. The water struck a loaded wagon 
standing in the room, causing the water to rebound, making a 
terrific spray over the entire face of the room, which extinguished 
their lights. They then stood firmly upright, bracing their heads 
and hands against the roof and clinging to posts, until the main 
body of water had passed off, which occupied about two and one- 
half hours, after which they were rescued by their fellow work- 
men. No time was lost in reaching them and also rescuing several 
miners who worked near by, by means of a rope which men made 
secure at different points by boldly fording the rushing waters 
in numbers sufficient to overcome its force, and fastening the rope 
at different points. Several of the miners passed out through the 
water to a place of safety by clinging to the rope which prevented 
them from being swept away by the current. 

Morgan and Fightner undoubtedly owe their lives to their cool- 
ness. 

The water lodged in the dip workings, where no one was at work 
at the time, and raised up in the pumping shaft a distance of about 
forty-five feet. It required almost four weeks to remove it by 
pumps. The rise workings continued to be operated, as the water 
did not affect them. 

I w T as not aware of this accumulation of water in the abandoned 
workings. The entrance or entrances to these workings were blocked 
by falls of roof and pools of water until they could not be traveled. 
1 had made careful inquiry on former visits to this mine with refer- 
ence to dangerous accumulations of water, and was informed that 



No. 11. SI'X'OND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 1149 

there were none It \v;is known by those in charge thai there was 
water in these workings, but it was not supposed to be in a danger- 
ous quantity. 

Monastery. — The condition of this mine was satisfactory on each 
visii during the year. 

hat robe. — ^Yas found in fairly good condition on each visit during 
the year. On my last visit a new ventilating fan of the (iuibal type. 
twenty feet in diameter, and to be driven by an engine L6x24 inches 
coupled direct to the fan, was being erected. I have since been 
informed by the management that the fan has been put in operation 
and is giving great satisfaction. 

M. Saxnian. — Its condition has been favorable during the year. 
The ventilation has been improved by the erection of a new venti- 
lating fan of the Brazil type, twelve feet in diameter. 

Loval-IIanna Nos. 1 and 2. — The condition of these mines was 
found fairly good on each visit. 

Pandora. — The condition of this mine was reasonably good on 
each visit. 

Superior No. 1. — This is a new sixty foot shaft opening to the 
Pittsburg seam, located east of Latrobe and to the left of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and is operated by the Superior Coal and Coke 
( 'oinpany. 

November 23d last I found twenty-eight persons employed inside, 
eighteen of whom were on the day turn and ten on the night turn. 

A number of coke ovens were in course of construction and part 
of the product of the mine will he manufactured into coke. All 
equipment necessary for the successful operation of the plant was 
well under way, except mechanical means to produce the ventila- 
tion, which had not received the attention it should have. The 
management assured me that the matter of ventilation would receive 
prompt attent ion. 

Deny Shaft. — Its general condition has been fair, but the venti- 
lating current was rather weak in parts of the workings. The atten- 
tion of those in charge was called to this and they promised to have 
the ventilating current increased at places where it was weak. 

Atlantic No. 1. — Operations are confined to the extraction of 
pillars ami stumps. Its condition was fairly good, considering the 
difficulties that are encountered in finishing a mine. 

Atlantic No. 2. — Its condition was very fair on each visit; venti- 
lation has been improved by the erection of a new fun of the Capell 
type. Diameter six feet. Double inlet. 

Saint ('lair. — Was in fair condition, both as to ventilation and 
drainage. 

Ligonier No. 2.— This is a new drift opening in the Pittsburg seam 



350 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

of coal and is located about one mile north of Derry Station on the 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and when visited was only being 
opened. 

Millwood. — The general condition has been fairly good during the 
year. I am pleased to say that the ventilation has been improved 
by the erection of a powerful ventilating fan of the Capell type; 
diameter of fan is 13^ feet, with double inlet and is so constructed 
that the air current can be reversed. 

Indiana. — Is a new opening in the Lower Freeport seam of coal 
and is located at Bolivar Station on the line of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. The product is used principally at a large brick works 
located nearby and is operated by the Reece-Hammond Fire Brick 
Company. 

Lockport. — Was in fair condition when last visited. 



'Mines on and Near the Turtle Creek Branch of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad. 

Export. — On a visit to this mine on January 8th I found the venti- 
lation very unsatisfactory, so that I deemed it best to call other 
Inspectors for consultation, as I had already taken this matter up 
with Mr. A. N. Humphreys, the general superintendent, who in 
reply to a letter complaining of the ventilation, near the close of 
the year 1899, informed me that the matter would receive prompt 
attention. 

On my visit on January 8th I found that nothing had been 
done to improve the ventilation. Whereupon I notified Messrs. 
Louttit and Blick, Inspectors of the First and Seventh districts 
respectively, to come at once and make an examination of the mine 
with me, to determine what action should be taken. We made an 
examination on January 11th and wrote the following notice, which 
was mailed to the general superintendent: 

Greensburg, Pa., January 11, 1901. 

Mr. A. N. Humphreys, General Superintendent Westmoreland Coal 
Company, Irwin, Penna. : 

Dear Sir: We have this day examined your Export mine and 
find that the ventilation is far below sanitary and legal require 
ments. Immediate action is absolutely necessary with a view to 
permanent improvement. We are of the opinion that the condition 
of the mine demands that at least one hundred and fifty thousand 
cubic feet of air per minute should be constantly circulated through 
the mine, in order to insure the health and safety of the persons 



No. 11 SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 351 

employed therein, and we consider it our duty to make a decision in 
accordance with the opinion a» stated above, which decision is 
rendered under articles 4 and 14 of the act of Assembly approved 
May 15, 1893. In order to comply with the law, ventilation much 
more powerful than that now in use should be provided. We also 
deem it advisable to remind you that the number of persons em- 
ployed in the mine should be reduced until the matter complained of 
is remedied. riease take action on this decision at once and oblige, 

Yours respectfully, 

C. B. ROSS, 
Inspector Second District. 

HENRY LOUTTIT, 

Inspector First District. 

JAMES BLICK, 

Inspector Seventh District. 

Mr. Humphrey appealed from this decision to the court of quarter 
sessions, and the court after hearing the evidence and arguments 
of counsel, entered the following decree, viz: "And now, April 28th," 
the court after hearing the evidence of the witnesses, offered on 
behalf of the Mine Inspector® and the Westmoreland Coal Company, 
and after due consideration of the same, do now order and decree 
that the Mine Inspectors had just cause for rendering a decision 
against the Westmoreland Coal Company, because of the insuffi- 
cient distribution of air through its mines at Export. But the 
court does not sustain the decision of the Mine Inspectors as made, 
and from which said decision the said Westmoreland Coal Com- 
pany has appealed, in which they require at least 150,000 cubic feet 
of air to be circulated throughout the said entire mine per minute, 
and in which they decide that the said Westmoreland Coal Company 
must provide more powerful machinery for the purpose of causing 
proper ventilation, and the court now decides and decrees that the 
said Westmoreland Coal Company shall without unnecessary delay, 
adopt and use proper methods and appliances for the purpose of 
drawing out of said mine at the fan 150,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute, so that GO per cent, of said volume of air may be circulated 
through the mine at -its different workings, allowing 60,000 cubic 
feet of air per minute for waste, and the purpose of this decree, with 
respect to said maximum volume of air, is only to obtain said mini- 
mum volume for circulation through the mine® and in the event of 
a reduction of waste of said 60,000 cubic feet of air, then a cones 
ponding reduction in the maximum volume may be permitted; saving 
and keeping, however, the said volume of 90,000 cubic feet per 
minute for circulation at all the workings throughout the mine. 



352 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

And it is further ordered that the said Mine Inspectors, appellee, 
shall pay the stenographer's costs, in accordance with their agree- 
ment to do so, the testimony being taken at their request, and the 
said Westmoreland Coal Company, appellant, shall pay the balance 
of the costs. 

Attest: Chester D. Sensenich, Clerk. 

By the Court. 

Elizabeth. — This is a new drift, opening iuto the Pittsburg seam, 
and was in favorable condition when inspected. 

Mines on and Near the Youghiogheiiy Railroad, which runs from 
Irwin on the Pennsylvania Railroad to Sewickley, on the Haiti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. 

Penn Gas No. 2. — Its condition has been favorable on each visit 
during the year. An air shaft has been sunk near face of workings 
and a powerful ventilating fan of the Capell type is in course of 
erection, which when completed will no doubt furnish an abundance 
of pure air for the mine. 

Penn Gas No. 3. — This is a new slope opening which is being sunk 
to the Pittsburg seam. 

Penn Gas No. t. — Was in fairly good condition during the year. 
The ventilation is produced by a fan and furnace. 

Ayers Hollow. — Is a new opening in connection with Penn Gas 
No 4 mine and is located about midway between Scott Haven and 
Suter stations on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. A 
new tipple has been erected and machinery of the latest improved 
type is being placed in position to haul coal from the mine workings 
to the surface. 

Mines on and Near the Manor Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Claridge. — The condition of this mine has been reasonably good 
on each visit. 

Denmark. — The ventilation of the entire mine has been consider- 
ably improved during the year. On my last visit good volumes of 
air were measured near face of workings. 

Penn Manor. — Was in favorable condition on each visit. 

Mines on and Near the Alexandria Branch of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad. 

Alexandria. — Was found in fairly good condition. 

Jamison Nos. 1 and 2. — Were in favorable condition during the 
year, except the ventilation at No. 2, which was neglected. A new 
ventilating fan has been erected at No. 2, which is now in operation 
and I have been informed the ventilation has been improved. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. T;53 

Jamison No. •">. — Is a new shaft, opening to the Pittsburg scam. 
The coke ovens and other improvements arc now in course of con- 
struction, and will be of the most improved type. 

Donohoe. Is a new drift opening in the Pittsburg scam. The out- 
side improvements consists of ll!» coke ovens, a coal crusher and 
washer. A large ventilating fan of the Capell type is being erected 
to furnish ventilation necessary tor the operation of the mine. 

Salem. Is a mw drift opening in the Pittsburg scam and when 
visited was in a favorable condition. A new tipple of the latest 
improved type was in course of construction, .ts were also a number 
of coke os ens. 

Mines on and Near the Unity Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Dorothy. — Is a new shaft opening to the Pittsburg seam. The in- 
side workings were in good condition, both in regard to ventila- 
tion and drainage. The outside improvements consist of a num- 
ber of coke ovens, together with the necessary railroad sidings 
and the latest improved machinery for the operation of the entire 
plant. 

Puritan. — Has been in good condition on each visit, both in regard 
to ventilation and drainage. 

Hostetter and Whitney. — Were in good condition each visit, both 
as to ventilation and drainage. 

S. II. Smith. — Is a small mine located on the Ligonier Valley Kail 
road near Latrobe, and it has been in fairly good condition during 
t he year. 

Mines on and Near the Indiana Branch of the Western Pennsylvania 
Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Isabella. — This mine was in fairly good condition throughout the 
year. A sudden cave-in occurred on December 1st, about L.30 1'. M. 
An area of about forty acres, principally old workings, was affected. 
Small stumps of coal had been left in this part of the mine to sup 
port the surface and prevent a cave-in which proved to be insuffi- 
cient, but no accident to human life or serious injury to property 
resulted therefrom. Explosive j;;is was discovered in this mine dur- 
ing the year. 

Burrell Nos. 1 and 2. — Were in good condition. Ventilation and 
drainage good. 

Graff. — Its condition was fairly good., except ventilation, which 
had not received the attention it should with reference to the distri- 
bution of air throughout the workings. 

Mahcr No. 'J —The condition of this mine was found favorable on 

l*:;— li— 1900 



354 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

each visit during the year. It is being rapidly exhausted. The 
work at present is confined to the extraction of the main entry 
pillars. 

Maher No. 3. — Is a new drift opening in the Pittsburg seam, lo- 
cated near Blairsville on the Westmoreland county side of the 
Kiskiminetas river. The tipple is erected just across the river on 
the Indiana county side. The mine and tipple are connected by an 
incline, a fine steel structure, which spans the river at this point. 
The condition of the mine was good. 

Smith. — Has been in good condition, both as to ventilation and 
drainage. 

Blacklick. — Is a new drift opening in the Pittsburg seam, located 
near Blacklick station, and was in good condition. 

Graceton No. 1. — This mine had been abandoned for several years, 
but during the present year it was reopened and is now in operation. 
Mining machines of the Puncher type have been installed which are 
driven by compressed air. The general condition of the mine was 
fairly good. The outside improvements consist of a. new tipple, 
boiler house, coal crusher, washer and a ventilating fan. 

Graceton No. 2. — Was found in a favorable condition on each visit. 

Mitchell. — Was in good condition, both as to ventilation and 
drainage. 

Ray. — Is a new drift opening in the Pittsburg seam, located east 
of Blairsville on the line of the Bolivar branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and was in favorable condition when visited. 

An incline several hundred feet in length and of the latest im- 
proved construction has been built and is now in use for lowering 
coal from the mine to the tipple below. 



Mines on and Near the Southwest Branch of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad. 

Greensburg No. 1. — In good condition. 

Central. — The condition of this mine was good. 

Ruff. — This is a new slope opening in the Pittsburg seam, located 
near Tarr's station, and was in good condition. 

Empire. — The condition of this mine has been fairly good. 

Acme. — Was in good condition, both as regards ventilation and 
drainage. 

No. 1 "A," No. 1 "B" and Nos. 2, 3 and 4. — These mines were in 
good condition throughout. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 355 

Mince Situated Near the Terminus of the Scottdale Branch of the 
Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad and the Mt. Pleasant Branch of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

Standard Shaft and Slope. — Were in good condition on each visit. 
During the year one 300 horse power Sterling Water Tube Boiler. 
which was equipped with two American stokers, was installed at 
the shat'i mine. Four tubular boilers were also equipped with 
American stokers. 



Mines on and Near the Sewickley Branch of the Southwest Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

Mammoth Shaft and Slope. — Were in good condition, both as to 
ventilation and drainage. During the year there was installed a 
tail rope haulage for the slope division of the mine, located near the 
shaft landing. Size of engine 16x32, first motion; diameter of drum 
five feet. The engines were manufactured by Kenny & Co., of Scott 
dale, Pa. 

The maximum grade of the road is three per cent, adverse; size 
of trip hauled, twenty-five loaded wagons of forty bushels capacity 
each. Length of haulage road 4,000 feet. 

Mutual Nos. 2 and 3. — The condition of these mines was satis- 
factory. 

United. — Was found in good condition on each visit. 

Strickler. — Is now abandoned, all the coal having been taken out. 

Hecla No. 1. — On the evening of July 26th water broke into this 
mine by way of the Strickler mine. The abandoned pillar workings 
of the two mines are connected. A creek flows over the workings 
of the Strickler mine and the surface overlying the coal in places 
near the outcrop is very shallow. Falls had occurred in places, 
forming openings to the surface near the creek. On the evening 
above mentioned, a very heavy rain came, which raised the water in 
the creek until its banks overflowed (which was never known to 
have occurred before), the water reaching the surface openings to 
the mine flowed in at a rapid rate. A large fall, caused by drawing 
the pillars between the two mines, held the water in check for about 
twelve hours, after which it passed over and through the fall into 
the workings of the Hecla No. 1 mine below. The body of water was 
ccrl a inly large, as it raised in the shaft a distance of about forty 
feet, completely flooding the entire workings to the dip and also 
a part of the rise workings. Pumps were at once placed in the shaft 
;iikI pu1 in operation. This was kept up until October 22d, when the 
bottom was reached. Work was at once commenced in clearing the 
road and airways in the rise workings, and operations were re- 



356 r;EPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

sumed iii that part of the mine on October 24th, two days after the 
bottom was reached, after which the water was removed from the 
dip workings. This certainly was an enormous quantity of water 
to remove in that period of time, but having plenty of power ac- 
counts for its speedy removal, and shows what determination and 
well directed energy can accomplish. The general condition of the 
mine was good on each visit. 

Hecla No. 2. — Was in good condition, both as to ventilation and 
drainage. 

Humphreys. — On the evening of December 18th I was requested 
by the officials of this mine to make an examination of it, as the air 
current in a part of the mine near the abandoned pillar workings 
was so impure that persons could not work in that part of the mine. 

Early on the morning of the 19th I made an examination and soon 
discovered the cause of the impure air. There was evidence of fire in 
the abandoned pillar workings, from which poisonous gases were be- 
ing given off, which when mixed with the air current, which was 
rather weak in that part of the mine, rendered it unfit to breathe. I 
suggested that every precaution possible should be taken to insure 
the safety of the workmen and the mine, and that a ventilating fan be 
placed in position to furnish sufficient air for the proper ventilation 
of what is known as the hill workings, as the fan which was in opera- 
tion was near the lower workings and the air produced by it could 
not reach the hill workings on account of the falls of roof between. 
The hill workings being above or to the rise of the fire, allowed 
the poisonous gases given off to ascend to the higher workings. In 
order to prevent this, I suggested that walls of masonry be built in 
each opening between the workings, and thus separate them, and 
that the new fan be used exclusively for ventilating the hill work- 
ings. 'At this writing the fan and walls of masonry are in course of 
erection. 

The fire originated in the lower abandoned pillar workings near 
solid coal, and was a clear case of spontaneous combustion. 

The general condition of the mine was favorable on each visit 
during the year. 

Marguerite No. 1. — Was in good condition generally. 

Marguerite No. 2. — This is a new slope opening in the Pittsburg 
seam, and is located near No. 1 mine. The product is made into 
coke. Quite a number of coke ovens have been erected. The out- 
side improvements are all of the latest type. The workings of the 
mine were in a favorable condition on each visit. 

Hester. — Is a new opening in the Pittsburg seam, near Rover Run 
intersection, and was in favorable condition when visited. 

Calumet. — Was in good condition on each visit. Endless rope 
haulage was installed during the vear. The engines were manu 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 357 

factured by the Robinson Machine Company, of Monongahela City, 
Pa. Si/.c of engine L2xl4. Length of road, 8,500 feet. Maximum 
grade, two per cent, adverse. The head frame was also remodeled 
and self dumping cages <vere installed. One new battery, 300 horse 
power, Sterling Water Tube Boilers, was also added to the plant. 



Mines on and Near Hempfield Branch of the Southwest Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. 

Greensburg No. 2. — Was in good condition on each visit. 

Carbon. — Was in good <• lit ion. both as regards ventilation and 

drainage. 

Arona. — Was in good condition on each visit during the year. 

.Madison. — is a new drill opening into the Pittsburg seam, near 
Madison station, and was in favorable condition when inspected. 

Pittsburg Xo. 1. — Is a new opening in the Pittsburg seam, near 
Adamsburg, and is just being opened. 

Ocean Xo. 1. — Was in good condition both as to ventilation and 
drainage. 

Ocean Xo. '2. — Is a new drift opening about one mile north of 
Xo. 1 mine and is just being opened. 

Sewickley. — During the early part of the year the ventilation was 
not up to the requirements, but it has been considerably improved. 
The ventilation fan was moved closer to the workings, thereby re- 
ducing the distance for the air to travel. I have been informed by 
the officials that a much larger fan will soon be erected. 

No explosive gas had ever been detected until May 5th, when a large 
accumulation, over one-half acre in extent, was discovered on pillar 
falls between 14 and L5 entries in the lower workings. This ac- 
cumulation was removed, but it is still being generated at different 
points. The mine is now worked with locked safety lamps. 



Description of Fatal Accidents which Occurred During the Year. 

George* Scott was instantly killed January 11th in Claridge mine 
by a fall of slate. George Thomas, a driver, on making inquiry of 
William Marionwalt. who worked in an adjoining room, as to whether 
or not he had seen Scott, was informed by him thai he had heard 
Scot I working. The two men then proceeded to the place and re- 
moved the fall and found Scott's body thereunder. 

George Brecko was instantly killed January Ifith by a fall of 
slate in the Pleasanl Valley niiu". He was at his regular work in 
loom :'.'_' off !• entry. Me failed I arrive at his boarding house al 
the usual time and a Bearch was made and he was found under (he 



358 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

fall. The slate in this part of the mine is full of slips and dampness 
which causes it to be very dangerous. Brecko was aware of this, 
he having worked in the mine about three and one-half years. 

John Jeffries was so seriously injured January 25th in Westmore- 
land shaft mine by a wagon passing over his left thigh that death 
resulted the following day. Jeffries was coming down an entry with 
a trip of five loaded wagons; on nearing 19 room he spragged the 
trip as usual, after which he ran ahead to get between the first and 
second wagon, where he always rode. In making the attempt to 
get on the wagon he fell and a wagon passed over his thigh, causing 
death. 

Isaac Emburg was so seriously injured January 31st in Penn Gas 
No. 2 mine by a fall of coal and slate that death resulted in about 
twenty minutes. He was at work at the face of room and was in 
a stooping position, engaged in loading a car, when the fall occurred. 

James Kuhns was instantly killed February 2d by a fall of roof 
coal and slate. The accident occurred at face of No. 6 room pillar 
off 3 entry (Dip.) Kuhns was in a stooping position at the time, 
undercutting coal. The distances across the face of pillar was 18 
feet and the distance from face of pillar to last row of post was 
from four to five feet. The roof coal which fell was one foot thick 
and the slate about four inches thick. 

Henry G. Theobold was so seriously injured February 7th at. 
Greensburg No. 2 mine, by a descending trip of mine cars running 
over him, that death resulted in about five hours. He was en- 
gaged in opening and closing the door for the trips to pass through 
in the slope, also to signal the man in charge of the trip when to 
lower it. In this instance, as in many others, the trip was standing 
above the door awaiting the signal from the boy that the loaded trip 
was ready on the landing in the Boyd entry below the door. When 
the trip was made up Theobold opened the door and gave the usual 
signal to the man in charge to lower the trip. As the trip rounded 
the curve near the landing, about sixty-five yards below the door 
it left the track. The boy was not to be seen, but on making search 
he was found beneath the trip. 

William Weister was killed on February 9th by a fall of slate. 
The accident occurred at face of room 51. Weister was found by the 
driver, who went into the room to get his wagon. After hooking the 
mule to the wagon and making ready to start the driver noticed 
that the rear end of the wagon was not fully loaded. On looking 
around the room he saw Weister's dinner pail; this caused the driver 
to think that something was wrong. On going back of the wagon 
to the face of the room he found Weister's body with the head 
crushed by the slate which had fallen. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 359 

George Grove was so badly injured March 5th in Jamison mine 
No. 1 by a fall of coal, that death resulted in about one and one-half 
hours. 

John Oartland was so seriously injured March 8th by being caught 
between a wagon and coal pillar that death resulted some twenty-six 
hours after. He was coming into the shaft bottom with a trip of 
two wagons, riding on the front end as usual. Albert Reece, eager, 
signalled him to come on as the road was clear, but for some un- 
known reason he stepped off the trip in a narrow place and was 
caught. 

Joseph Wall was so seriously injured March 15th by a fall of slate 
that he died the -following day. The accident occurred at the time 
Wall was pulling coal down from the face of the roof. 'A piece in 
falling struck a slate post, knocking it out and allowing the slate 
to fall on him. 

Martin Mikulik was instantly killed March 27th by falling down 
the Loyalhanna No. 1 shaft. He was assisting in loading timber 
and sending it down the shaft. A wagon loaded with posts was 
taken near the shaft and stopped uutil the cage was placed on the 
landers, so that the wagon could be placed on the cage. The cage 
was brought up the shaft and came to a standstill eight or ten feet 
above the landers. Pratto placed the landers in position and 
stepped back to signal the engineer to lower the cage. Mikulik at 
the same time started the wagon toward the shaft, walking in front 
of it. Pratto called to him to stop until the cage was placed on 
the landers. He paid no attention to the call. Pratto called several 
times but Mikulik did not obey. He continued walking in front of 
the wagon and drawing it after him, presumably to get the wagon 
as near as possible to the shaft when the cage was finally lowered, 
in order to make time, and in so doing lost his balance and fell down 
the shaft. 

Henry Wagner was so seriously injured on April 9th by being 

, caught between a wagon and coal pillar that death resulted while 

he was being taken home. He was leading a new horse and while 

coming down the entry on the narrow side he accidentally slipped 

and fell and was caught. 

John Durkin was so seriously injured May 2d, in Alexandria mine, 
by a fall of slate that death resulted some eight days after. Durkin 
was engaged in setting a post under the slate when it fell ami crushed 
him. 

Andrew Shadneck was instantly killed on the morning of .May 
5th, about four o'clock, in Dorothy mine, by being caught between 
an empty mine car and coal pillar. 

Shadneck was at work on the night turn in No. 2 entry left. He 
went back through a chute to No. 1 entry left, and securing an empty 



360 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

wagon started to return through the chute with it. He placed him- 
self on the front end of the wagon near the brake and while going 
around the curve at end of chute he was caught between the car 
and pillar. I was informed that he has been frequently warned 
not to attempt to run wagons into his place. 

John Brady was so seriously injured on May 9th by his foot being 
crushed between two mine cars that death resulted thirteen days 
after. A loaded wagon was standing in the entry near the mouth 
of Brady's room. Just as he stepped out into the entry to put his 
picks on the wagon, loaded wagons in charge of a driver ran against 
the one on which he was about to place his picks, and Brady was 
caught between the wagons. The driver did not have time to stop 
the wagons after Brady stepped out of his room. 

Nick Moore engaged in coupling and oiling mine cars was so 
seriously injured by a grip car passing over his leg that death re- 
sulted two day after. While coupling cars he accidentally slipped 
and fell and the car passed over his leg. 

William Cole was so badly injured by a fall of slate on May 12th 
that death resulted sixteen days after. He was at work with Samuel 
Hudspath, who was at work on the light side. Cole was back on 
the ''Butts-' and had been trimming the pillar. It is supposed that 
he had just finished loading a wagon which only required a small 
quantity of coal, when the slate fell. The entry was eight feet wide 
and the distance from face of coal to edge of slate was five feet, 
making an area of forty square feet, which is entirely too much 
space without a post under to make it secure. 

Robert Goodman was so seriously injured on May 16th by being 
run over by a mine car that death resulted in two hours. He w T as 
coming down the entry with a trip of two cars and was riding on 
front of the trip when he fell off and the front wagon passed over 
him and the rear one stopped on him. A few minutes after he 
was found by a miner who was working near by. 

Antonio Martinelli was instantly killed on May 24th in the Oak 
Hill No. 4 mine. While he was lowering a car partly loaded with 
posts below the parting, preparatory to pushing it into his room, he 
fell and the car ran on him. 

Stephen Hladek was so seriously injured on May 28th by a fall 
of coal that he died five days after. The accident occurred in room 
17 off 2(1 entry, where he was undercutting coal near a clay vein, 
when it fell. He had failed to sprag the coal. 

Simon Deemer was instantly killed June 2d by a loaded wagon 
running on him. The accident occurred in the main entry. Just 
how he came to get under the wagon is not known as no one was 
present. When found his body was underneath the front wagon. 

John Carmack was instantly killed June 4th bv falling down a 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 361 

shaft. Be wenl to oil the ventilating fan (which is an exhaust) as 
usual and in order to reach the fan journal he had to pass through 

two doors; between the doors there is a small room, dust how In- 
came !<> fall i« not known, hut it is supposed that as he passed 
through the door on his way to or from the journal it suddenly shut, 
striking him and knocking him down on the gangway, which caused 
him to fall Off below the handrail, as the door was found closed 
after the accident was discovered. This being the case he had failed 
to secure it to the wall by the fastenings provided for that purpose. 

Henry Ridley was instantly killed dune 5th by a fall of coal. The 
accident occurred at face of entry pillar. He was undercutting the 
coal when it fell. 

Mike Peruski was so seriously injured on June 5th by being 
thrown from a railroad car which was standing on the yard siding, 
the car passing over him, that death resulted in one hour. lie was 
on a moving car applying the brake, when it ran against another 
car, causing him to fall to the track, the car passing over his arm 
and leg. 

John Whorhola was fatally injured on dune 6th by a fall of roof. 
John Dobrotski was at work with Whorhola. The driver, William 
Struble, took two wagons into the place; one was left at a cut- 
through, some distance from the face of the pillar and the two men 
pushed the other wagon around the curve to face of pillar. The 
driver started out of the place and on reaching the entry he heard 
the fall and thinking it had caughl both Dobrotski and Whorhola, he 
called for help, which was near by. Whorhola's injuries resulted 
in death, while Dobrotski escaped with a broken jaw. scalp wound 
and some bruises about the body. 

Thomas Valick was fatally injured dune L'lsl by a fall of slate. 
lie was on his way to work in the afternoon, being employed on the 
nighl turn. While passing down No. 8 side track a piece of slate 
fell, crushing him. 

John Mclntyre, employed on the main haulage road in No. 1 "B" 
mine for the purpose of repairing and oiling the sheaves and rollers, 
was instantly killed dune L'lst by being struck by a trip of loaded 
cars. 

Barto Marco was instantly killed duly 1(1 by electric shock, lie 
was coming down is entry parallel and in passing between the coal 
pillar and a wagon which was standing on the roadway, a machine 
jack which he carried on his* shoulders came in contad with the 
overhead wire. There was more room on the opposite of the wagon 
for him to pass and no wires to come in contact with. 

George P. Wallace was instantly killed July LOth by a fall of roof. 
He was at work with S. C. Henry, machine runner, in room 20 off 
1 "Butt," 4 face right. Wtiwy stated at the investigation that Wal- 



362 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Doc. 

lace was examining the roof and was under the part that was safe 
at the time, when the roof that he was examining suddenly fell and 
it is supposed that he attempted to get farther away and in so doing 
his head was caught beneath the edge of the fall. 

Joseph Yedlieska was so seriously injured July 10th by a fall of 
slate that death resulted nine hours after. The accident occurred 
in room 37 and it is supposed that he was pulling coal from the face 
at the time, as a pick was found near him. 

Luigi Peretto was instantly killed July 17th by a fall of "horse- 
back" slate. The accident occurred while Peretto was lying down 
undercutting coal. 

William Weible was fatally injured July 17th at his door in Lari- 
mer mine by being caught between a trip of mine cars and a coal 
pillar; death resulted in an hour. 

The boy was engaged in trapping a door located between 62 and 
63 rooms on 7 entry west. A driver was coming down the entry 
with a trip of four wagons as usual, and failing to see the boy's 
light on coming near the door, called to him to open it. The grade 
at this point appeared to be such that he could not stop the trip 
before he reached the door, and it crashed through, pushing the 
mule in front of it; this caused the trip to leave the track. The 
boy was found between the second wagon and the coal pillar, about 
two feet above the door frame. 

John Saranko, a miner in United mine, was instantly killed 
July 20th by a fall of slate. He was turning a new entry off of 18 
entry when the accident occurred. 

William Schrader and Peter Kallop were instantly killed July 
21st by a fall of slate while at work on room pillar 8 off 3 "Butt." 
No. 2 right face. 1 was informed that they were in a great hurry 
to finish their day's work by eleven o'clock A. M. A close examina- 
tion of the place indicated that such was the case, as no post had 
been set to secure the slate. A small stump of coal had been left 
to support the slate and the supposition is that they had commenced 
to take this out preparatory to letting the slate fall. A few posts 
set under the slate would undoubtedly have prevented the accident. 
A post ready for use was found near by. 

Mike Colombo was instantly killed July 27th by a fall of "horse- 
back" slate. The accident occurred near face of room No. 6 pillar 
off 29 entry, and at the time Colombo was engaged in shoveling 
coal into a wagon. The place was well posted, but the fall, owing 
to a smooth slip in the roof, swung the post from under it. 

Michael Sipti, Jr., was fatally injured July 28th by a fall of slate, 
and death resulted in seven hours. The unfortunate boy was at 
work in room 19 off 11 entry west in company with his father at 
the time. The father was engaged in loading a wagon and the 
boy was picking coal down from the face. 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 3ti3 

Francis Barko was so seriously injured August 3d by a fall of 
slate that death resulted two day® afterwards. The accident oc- 
curred at face of room where he was engaged at his regular work. 

Samuel Cook was so seriously injured on August 6th by a fall of 
slate thai death resulted four days alter. Cook was in a stooping 
posit ion and engaged in undercutting coal when the slate fell. His 
brother was at work with him at the time and stated that they had 
tried to take the slate down a whorl time before the accident occurred, 
but could not. 

Angelo Vallanna was instantly killed August 13th by a fall of 
roof. The accident occurred at face of room pillar 11, off 7 Butt 
entry lower level, while he was engaged in mining out a small stump 
of coal which had been left to assist in supporting the roof, until 
he was ready to draw the timber which he was preparing to do at 
the time of the accident. 

Andy Okula while at work in No. 1 "A" Southwest mine, was in- 
stantly killed on August 13th by a fall of roof at face of pillar 
workings. 

Thomas Stevenson, an oiler at St. Clair mine, was fatally injured 
on August '2 1st by his skull having been crushed between two mine 
wagons; death resulted six hours after. 

This accident occurred outside of the mine and near the foot of 
tipple, where he was engaged in oiling mine cars, also in assisting 
to couple and uncouple the trips. A trip of several wagons had 
been pulled to the foot of the tipple, and as only six or seven are 
hoisted upon the tipple at one time, it was necessary that this 
number be cut off. Stevenson was standing on the inside of curve 
when the trip was stopped for the purpose of cutting off the regular 
number for the tipple trip. While reaching in between two of the 
wagons to remove the coupling, by some means the wagons in front, 
which were standing on a grade, moved back and his head was 
caught between them. 

William Campfield was fatally injured September 10th by a fall 
of slate, and death resulted in three hours. The accident occurred 
at face of room in which he was working. 

William Burns was instantly killed September 29th by a fall of 
slate at face of entry pillar, where he was at work. 

George W. Altman was fatally injured on October 4th by a fall 
of coal at face of room, ami death resulted while he was being taken 
home. 

John Shedlock was instantly killed October LOth by a fall of roof. 
lie was drawing timber in pillar workings when (he accident oc- 
curred. 

Nicholas Dabato was finally injured October 29th by being caught 

34 



3C4 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. Off. Dor. 

between a mine car and a coal pillar. He was removed to the West- 
moreland hospital at Greensbnrg, where death resulted five days 
after. 

As the distance from the entrance to the inside workings of this 
mine is considerable, the miners are taken in each morning on a 
trip of empty mine cars, which inns at a low rate of speed and is 
stopped at the different station® by the man in charge to allow the 
men to get off. It was on one of these trips that the accident oc- 
curred. As the trip was approaching No. 10 East and West entries, 
where Dabato was to get off, William Aukerman, who was in charge 
of the trip, noticed that Dabato was making preparations to> get off 
before the trip stopped. He called to him to remain on until it was 
stopped, but he apparently being in a hurry, paid no attention to 
the warning but stepped off in a cut-through and was caught. Thirty- 
two wagons are used on this trip, so that all may have plenty of room. 

Frederick Slagle was so seriously injured October 30th by being 
struck on the head by a post while drawing timber in pillar workings 
that death resulted four days after. 

Eli Rubetch was instantly killed November 3d by a fall of slate, 
while pulling down coal from face of room after he had fired a blast. 

Stephen McGosh was so seriously injured December 1st by being- 
struck by a small piece of slate which fell from the roof that death 
resulted eight days after. This accident was not considered serious, 
as he was able to walk some distance from the face of his room, 
where it occurred. He also got into a wagon without assistance 
and was taken out of the mine. 

Salvania Carere was instantly killed December 1th by a fall of 
coal at face of room 11 off No. 3 entry. 

Guy Weltner, an engineer, in charge of a compressed air loco- 
motive in United Mine, was instantly killed December 7th by a 
loaded runaway mine car colliding with the locomotive on tin 1 
main haulage road. The wagon started from a point near room 
No. 10 on 22 Butt off face entry, and ran a distance of about 5,000 
feet, passing around different curves on its journey, to where it 
collided with the engine. The engine was coming up the main 
haulage road with a trip of empty cars. 

Joserdi Palula. was so seriously injured December 8th by a fall 
of roof in the pillar workings that death resulted in four days. He 
placed himself on the end of a mine car, which he was loading, and 
began to pull down some loose roof, which was directly overhead. 
Suddenly the roof gave way, crushing him against the end of the 
car. Had he remained at face of pillar where he was shoveling coal 
he would have been perfectly safe. 

Stephen Kranack was instantly killed December 19th by a fall 
of "horseback" roof. This accident occurred in pillar workings, and 



No. 11. SECOND BITUMINOUS DISTRICT. 365 

iii ;i place where least expected, as the roof appeared to be firm ;md 
solid. A smooth slip in the roof, which could qoI be seen or de- 
tected until after the fall, was the cause of ili«' accident. 

John Mozer was insantly killed December 2ls1 by a fall of coal at 
face of his room. A clay vein was undoubtedly the can.se of the 
accident. He was mining when the coal broke over the solid, 
ahoui one fool back of his mining to iliis clay vein, and fell upon 
him. 

.Joseph ("ashnia was instantly killed December 22d by a fall of 
roof in pillar workings. The fall was a large one, as it required 
several men about eighteen hours lo recover Ihe body. 



366 



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF MINES. 



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