Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 1868"

See other formats





/ <^ 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

NCSU Libraries 





THE YEA.Il 1868 







Report of the Commissiouer, Horace Caproii 1 

Report of the Architect, Adolph Chiss 15 

Report of the Statistician, J. R. Dodge 16 

Report of the Chemist, Thomas Antisell 59 

Report of the Entomologist, ToMTieud Glover 78 

Report of the Superintendent of the Garden and Grounds, "William Saunders . . . 118 

Report of the Superintendent of the See<l Division, Seneca Dean 125 

Report on Agricultural Education in Europe, by Josehp H. McChesney 127 

Report on beet-sugar in Europe, by Theodore Gennert 158 

Report upon the agricultural resources of Alaska, by William H. DaU 172 

Report of the Editor, J. R. Dodge 190 

Including papers as follows : 

Department building and grounds 191 

Hints in horticulture 19-1 

Grape culture 207 

Cultivation of the peanut 220 

The potato 225 

Osage hedges 245 

The esparto grass 260 

The niiu of Yucatan '-^68 

Statistics of bee-keeping - - - - 272 

Silk cultTire 282 

Practical entomology for farmers' sons 305 

Recent j)rogress in fish cultiue 319 

Country roads and road laws 348 

Mineral fertilizers of the Atlantic States 367 

The marl region of Virginia 389 

Concentrated fertilizers in the southern States 396 

Experiments with field seeds 405 

Recent farm experiments 412 

Current facts in agriculture -" 435 

The public domain 454 

The State reports of agriculture 472 

Foreign exchanges 530 

Oui- industrial colleges 541 

Recent agricultural books 555 

American works on agriculture and rural economy 597 

Agricultural and horticultural periodicals 608 

Meteorology of 1868 612 

Index 656 


Plate*. Page. 

I. Department building and grounds Frontispiece. 

II. Plan of tirst floor of Department building 191 

III. Plan of second floor of Department building 19-2 

IV. Characteristic vegetation of the banks of the Youkou River, Alaska.. . 172 
V. Characteristic vegetation of the Aleutian district, Alaska 178 

VI. Characteristic vi-getatiou of the Sitkan district. Alaska 133 

VII. Osage hedge planting 247 

VIII. Implements nsed in hedge growing 253 

EX. Brook trout, (Sabno fonihtalk) -. 320 

X. Apparatus used in lish culture 330 

XI. Trout dale lish ponds and hatching house 335 

XII. Meredith Village work.s 336 

XIII. Black bii-ss, {Micro2)terous achigan ) 338 

XIV. Oyster house 341 

XV. Oyster fishing 342 

XVI. Oysters and oyster-fishing implements 344 

XVII. WUkinson's improved rut-scraper and grading macliine 361 

XVIII. Map illustrating mincnil fertilizers of the Atlantic States 369 

XIX. Massachusetts Agricultural College 54s 

E E P R T 

gojimissioner of agriculture. 


Washington, D. C, yorcmhcr 30, 1868. 
Sm: I have the honor to submit the seventh amiiiiil report of the 
Commissioner of Agiicultiu-e. The interests con£^detl to this depart- 
ment are those of an industrial class more numerous than any other, 
and upon whose labors, under the guidance and v.ith the blessing of a 
Po"^er that rules the year, depend the -weU-being and the very existence 
of the human family. The sphere of its operations is a tenitory unsur- 
passed for fertility of soil, and a climate favorable to the health and 
comfort of the husbandman, and the fruitfulness of his toil. Its mar- 
vellous breadth of area invites the toiling millions of the world, offering 
to each family a farm and ii home, with the added boon of citizenship, 
and ashing in payment only a guarantee of improvement, and a share in 
the i^roduction of the bread of a nation. It is the function of this 
department to aid this gTcat foundation interest in ail legislation affect- 
ing it, in the difTusion of practical information concerning it, and in the 
dissemination and testing of rare and untried plants of other countries, 
that promise to enrich its store of ijroductiou. This work involves a 
famiharity with the latest discoveries of the natural sciences and a 
knowledge of the technicalities of many arts, with a fund of practical 
knowledge and sturdy sense that intuitively judges aright in all the 
actuahties of eveiy-day life. It* its true object and jiroper function are 
understood, a work of great magnitade and importance is opened, 
rcquirmg a variety of skilled official labor, and si)ecial training, in 
preparation for it. A beginning has been made, small it may be, but 
foreshadowing, it is believed, a future fraught with a good to agriculture 
and to the ccuntiy. DifQculties have been encountered, and discourage- 
ments met, but the obstacles are disappearing and shadows lightening, 
and the way is open for rapid progress and a successful career. 


The industrial colleges now springing into being throughout the north- 
era and western States, though various in character and aims, and at 
present in the weakness and inefiiciency of their infancy, are destined 


to be powerful coadjutors in the legitimate work of this department. 
Already has the discussion attendant upon their org-anization elicited 
inquiry, coixected prejudices, diffused information, and aroused enthu- 
siiisni for a pi-actical education, which cannot fail to accomplish good 
results. They are calling forth from the ranks of the professions, and 
of educiited. practical farmers, earuest men of enlargetl \iews, and tTnin- 
ing them for the position of teachers in these institutions, thus opening 
si>heres of usefulness to which schoolmen have hitherto been strangers, 
and eventually making a new era in the education of the world. The 
material for these professorships is yet in the rough, and must be litted 
and polished in the institutions themselves; and as this is a progressive 
work, the country must be patient, not expecting the culmination of a 
century of progix-ss in a moment of time. 


Hitherto this country has been characterized by random farming, for 
immedLite results, with no reference to future advantages, and no i>er- 
sistent follo\nug of any prescribed course. It has been a si>eculat{ve 
business, with a constant endeavor to overreach the soil, even at the risk 
of its bankruptcy. Cotton, wheat, wool, hops, and other products have 
been, either periodically or locally, the innocent canses of nnnatnral 
excitements, and it may be long ere cool reason shall hold undisturbed 
sway among our husbandmen ; but there are evidences that more stable 
views and more systematic practices are beginning to prevail. In the 
central settlements of the west, farm animals, the basis of systematic 
farming, are held in higher esteem than formerly, and a preparation at 
least is made for some simple rotation of crops. More stability exists, 
under adversity, as in the case of wool-growers, many of whom, far- 
seeing and wise, are confident of future profit in the midst of present 
discouragement. There is a disposition in the south to produce their 
own bread and meat, and hold their cotton as a surplus, bearing a 
better price when the quantity does not suffice to glut the market. 
These and many other signs of thoughtl'ulness and growing wisdom are 


It is gratifying to observe the evidences of A-italit^- in southern agri- 
culture, which is progressively and successfully marsh;illing the forces 
of recui)enition, and gradually disix*IIing the despondency resulting 
from the losses of civil war, the change in the labor system, the disrup- 
tion of families and the impoverishment of estates. This despondency, 
together with political disappointments, led to chimerical plans for 
settlements in Brazil, in Central America, in Mexico, and even in the 
northern and northwestern States. I have regretted and combatted, in 
I)ersonal intercourse and corresiwndence, this morbid tendency to expa- 
triation, or to distant removal, as an aggravation of the evils of poverty 


and discontent, rather than theii* cni'e. It is a self-evident proi)Osition 
that forced sales of remnants of property, mostly real estate, at a place 
and time in which few pnrchasers have disposition or ability to mate 
investments, are not favorable to a conservation of rednced estates; 
and the expenses of removal would leave emigrants in a condition of 
more abject poverty, among strangers, and surrounded by unfamiliar 
circumstances and occupations. There is abundant evidence of gradual 
tranquillization of discordant social and business elements, and an 
increasiug hopefulness and energy in iadustrial effort. An impetus has 
been given to business by the iatroduction of northern capital ; and in 
the future more rapid progress may be expected from the same cause. 
Money, population, and skill in special industries, are the requisites for 
success in developing the resources and extending and perfecting the 
agricidture of the South. 

In view of all the cii'cumstances affecting cotton culture, it may be 
deemed a remarkable fact that the yield has attained an equality with 
that of 1850, and is half as great as the excessive product of 1859 and 
1860, which glutted the markets of the world, and would have caused a 
discouraging depression in prices but for the cessation of cotton produc- 
tion in the years that followed. The cash receipts for the crop of 1867 
were larger than those of 1859, though of less actual value as reckoned 
in a depreciated currency. 

The sugar interest is rapidly attaining prominence, the product having 
doubled in the last two years. The total product of rice is also 


The farmers of the country, while enduring the uecessarj- burden of 
internal revenue taxation, and submitting cheerfully to imposts rqjon aU 
foreign products consumed by them, will enter a vigorous protest against 
any proposition for the renewal of the abrog-ated reciprocity treaty, or 
any arrangement admitting untaxed and low-priced Canadian produc- 
tions customs free, or at a lower rate of duty than is provided in existing 
laws regulating the taiiff upon similar imports from other nationalities. 
They justly demand equality in taxation and in exemption from its bur- 
dens ; they ask no favors for a class pre-eminent in numbers that they 
would not accord to one of the smallest in the nation, and projierly 
regard with jealousy any assumption of chiims for special jirivileges lor 
the few at the expense of the many. They cannot see the justice of 
subjecting farmers to a direct .and ruinous competition in wheat, beef, 
wool, and aU products of the farm, along a line of thousands of miles ia 
extent, for the benefit of foreigners who bear none of our burdens, and 
for the enrichment of a few of our citizens who stand in a necessary yet 
unproductive position between the producer and consumer. Such 
treaty of reciprocity would bear with peculiar hardship upon the wool 
growing interest, and espeeially upon the production of combtng-wool^ 


the long \vool of Cauada, a fiber iu gTOvring demand, wliicli our farm- 
ers can readily supply, and at the same time famisli the markets ^rith 
mutton of superior quality, if no unjust discrimination is permitted in 
tlie practical Trorking of the wool tariff. "Wliatever settlement, of ques- 
tions of navigation or fisheries may be desii'abie, it is hoped that no 
advantages may be secured by concessions prejudicial to the farming 


A system of international agTicultuivil exchanges has been established 
with many of the governments of Eui'ope, Asia, and South America, 
already including Austria, Prussia, China, Japan, India, Guatemala 
and British Honduras. Ai-raugements huve also been made for valuable 
exchanges of rare seeds, plants, trees, and various products of agricul- 
ture, Tvith the botanical gardens of Ke^v, in England, and ITelbourne, in 
Australia; the India museum, in London; the Cape of Good Hope Agri- 
cidtural Society; the botanical department of the British museum; the 
commissioner of patents of the Argentine Eepublic, and the Central 
Agronomical Sccietj- of the Grand Duchy of Posen. Correspondence, 
in initiating this measure, has elicited expressions of the utmost cor- 
diality and a cheerful readiness for zealous co-operation. The arrange 
ment with Doctor Forbes, of the India museum in London, contem 
plates a general exchange of the agTicuitural products of the United 
States for those of India. He proposes that similar specimens shaU 
bear the same numbers, in the India museum, in London, in that of 
tliis department, and iu the local museums of India, for the purpose of 
facilitating reference at London, India, or in the United States, or any 
other country to which similar collections may be sent. Among the 
samples are neai'ly one thousand specimens of the textile fibers of India. 
It is my design to extend and complete this system of exchange, which 
promises valuable results to agriculture, and incidentally to manufactures 
and commerce. 


The prevalence of fatal maladies among all varieties of farm animals, 
resulting iu the annual loss of not less than fifty million dollars, demands 
the prompt attention of this department, the vigilance of the agricultural 
associations, and national and State legislation. The past year has not 
been one of peculiar misfortune in this respect, except in the dissemi- 
nation of the splenic fever, communicated by Texa^s cattle ; yet, horses, 
mules, sheep, and swine have all sufiered from the local prevalence of 
malignant forms of disease, against which little veterinary skiU is 
opposed, and little more than empuicism and superstitious folly is prac- 
ticed. A disease may suddenly decimate the cattle or horses of a neigh- 
borhood, the only popular knowledge of which is the statement that it is 
a murrain or distemper. A disease exists locally in several of the south- 


em States, by ^Vilicll the total loss of a plantation's stock of liorses aud 
mules not unfrequently occurs, "^tli scarcely an effort or licpe for a cure. 
The annual losses in swine cannot be less tlian ten or fifteen million 
dollars by the disease commonly known as "hog cholera," for which no 
remedy has been found; and prevention has i)roved difaciilt and 

On the breaking- out of the splenic fever at the halting places of Texas 
cattle during the past summer, I commissioned Professor John Gamgee, 
of the Albert Veterinary College of London, to investigate its character 
and causes and the means for its prevention. The labor was undertaken 
at once and continued with zeal and activity in several western States, 
including the Texas cattle stations of Western Kansas. Post mortem 
examinations, not only of diseased native stock but of the cattle fi-om 
Texas, were repeatedly made, and their results carefully recorded, all 
tending to connect the migrating herds of the Gulf coast unmistakably 
with the existence and spread of the disease. The report of this investi- 
gation, enriched with valuable material collected by the statistical divi- 
sion of this department for a history of the outbreak, will be presented 
to CongTess at an early day, together with a statement of the previous 
history of this disease in this country, and chromo-lithrograT)hs of internal 
organs of animals dj-ing from the disease. The dex)artment has-been 
cramped for means to conduct this investigation, having no fund from 
which to defray its expenses, except that for statistic-al purposes, which 
is quite too meagre for the absolutely indispensable demands upon it, 
and congressional aid will therefore be requisite for the comrdetion of 
the work undertaken and for the proper publication of the report upon it. 

While it is deemed important to investigate the cattle diseases preva- 
lent,* and to obtain the best professional aid in seeking to diminish the 
extent of their ravages, it is evident that effort directed toward the cure 
of any di^sease which is well developed in any section of the country 
must be very unsatisfactory and ineffectual. Many of the diseases oi' 
cattle, as of men, have their origin and distribution in the unnatural and 
unhealthy conditions of their gTowth and management, naturally result- 
ing from what is termed our civilization. These diseases belong to the 
class of ailmeuts which are preventable. Their causes are known, and 
means of prevention arc at our disposal ; and if an enlightened state cf 
liubiic o]3inion leads to the formation of societies for the prevention of 
cruelty to animals, a higher appreciation of the dependence of domestic 
animals upon us, not only for food but for care and protection from disease, 
should lead to the formation of establishments for the study of cattle in 
health and disease, and the training of a class of practitioners who would 
bring the highest medical skill to the treatment of our domestic animals. 
If motives of humanity should fail to influence, self-interest, in view of 
the annual losses of millions of dollars in valuable property, should be a 
potential inducement to prompt action in this direction. The formation 
of veterinary colleges — not for the treatment of animals, but for the 


education of a class of practitioners of skill and science, ^vho might 
become beacons, ^Tal■uiug the proprietors of stock of the approach of 
disease, and pointing out the means of prevention— has been adopted in 
many European States, from which much benefit to the community has 
been derived. 1 consider it eminently the duty of this department not 
only to point out the want of such an institution but to initiate its 
establishment; and I earnestly hope that Congress may authorize at an 
early day the creation of a division of veterinaiy surgery for the investi- 
gation and prevention of diseases of domestic animals, and for the 
advancement and difiiisiou of veterinary science and for its most efiicient 
and beneficent practical operation. 

GKAPES A^^) yriNE. 

The production of grapes for table use and for wine making has become 
an interest of great importance. The introduction of new and improved 
varieties is rapidly cultivating a discriminatingtaste in the general public, 
which must be gratifjiug to those who have labored long and faithfully 
in its dissemination. The difficulties to be encountered, and the con- 
ditions most favorable to success, are now pretty well understood, and 
such as still remain in doubt cannot long escape the investigations of 
the many intelligent cultivators now engaged in solving these practical 

For many years this interest was gi'eatly depressed from a general 
behef that our native grapes were incapable of improvement, or that the 
foreign wine grapes were of so superior a quality as to supersede the 
fruits produced from American species. Vast sums of money, and much 
valuable time and labor, have been expended in the endeavor to make 
the foreign grape a success, but without exception it has proved a failure 
in open air culture. These failures, however, have had a salutary effect 
in directing attention to the improvement of our indigenous species, and 
the progress of amelioration is both marked and rapid, and must certainly 
at an early day succeed (if it has not already succeeded) in producing 
varieties of equal merit to those famed for their excellence in Europe. 
Kotwithstanding these well ascertained facts, communications are fre- 
quently received from gentlemen of large European exi^erienee in making 
wine, who have come to this coimtry for the purjiose of entering upon 
grape cidture, urging very strenuously the importation of the foreign 
varieties, and expending their own means in this futile effort. It is to 
be regretted that the hard-earned experience of others is not taken as a 
guide, but the fact will be learned, sooner or later, that east of the range 
of the Eocky Mountains no climate has yet been found suitable for the 
continued healtby growth of the foreign grape. On the Pacific coast the 
plant seems to find a perfectly congenial cUmate. 


Considerable attention is now being directed to the introduction and 
culture of tropical and sub-tropical fruits in the southern States. The 


climate of Florida is especially favorable to these productioiis. Tlie 
department has for some time past been collecting fi-uits of this descrip- 
tion for the purpose of introducing them into the most favorable reg:ions, 
and is in the possession of much information with regard to the climate, 
and its suitableness for these useful products. 


Among the "new and valuable plants" which the organic law of the 
department requii-es it to propagate, cultivate, and disti-ibute among 
agiiculturists, there may be included not merely those useful as food 
stuffs, or for industrial aits and manufactures, but also those which 
subserve the sanitaiy interests of the people. European governments, 
possessing intertropical colonies, have already taken the lead in the intro- 
duction and acclimatization of medicinal plants within their own limits. 
I would especially call attention to the necessity which has arisen within 
the last few years for the initiation of prompt measures by the govern- 
ment to obviate the results of the extinction of the cinchona forests on 
the Andes, which is caused by the negligence of the governments of 
Peru. Ecuador, and more northern Andean states. The experiments of 
England, Holland, and other countries, have shown how readily new 
plantations of cinchona trees may be established in suitable localities, 
how rapidly the species becomes acclimated, and how early it yields sat- 
isfactory returns, and how easily such enterprises are popularized and 
rendered profitable. The supply of quinine has become a necessity of 
existence, not merely as a cure, but as a prophylactic agent. During 
the late war many thousand lives were saved by its use alone. In view 
of the approaching extinction of the cinchona species, (unless intelligent 
governments introduce the cultivation within their own teiTitories,) I 
would earnestly recommend that an appropriation be made by congress 
to introduce it, and to propagate and establish a cinchona plantation 
under the care of this department. The attention of the public has 
already been called to this subject in the annual report for 1S66, and the 
present is a fitting time for caiTying into eflect the plan there recom- 


The operations of the statistical division include the collection of the 
facts of agriculture in its widest range, fi-om all the States and Territories 
of this countiy, and the gleaning of similar data, for purjioses of com- 
parison and instruction, from European records of experimeutal science, 
the transactions of societies, and official bulletins and pubHcations. It 
involves the tabulation and systematic arrangement of this matter, and 
the iHiblishiug of condensations or deductions fi'om it in a monthly 
report. The com])ilation, composition, revision, and publication of the 
annual volume is also intrusted to this di\'ision. The importance of this 
work will readily be acknowledged, and it is to be regretted that it has 


of late beon cramped ibr means to cany out plans lor its improvement 
and prompt issue. While the cost of publishing the last volume was 
about $100,000, the appropriation for its preparation, together with the 
matter for the monthly, the statistical data on file for reference, and all 
special statistical investigations whatever, was last year but 810,000. 
It is in no sense commensurate with the objects to be accomplished, and 
would inevitably fail of realizing any valuable results but for the untir- 
ing industry and perseverance of those engaged in the work. 

The crop statistics of the present year indicate a more than average 
condition of agi'icultural prosperity. The wheat crop is somewhat larger 
than last year, the increase being about equal to that of the population, 
and may be estimated at not less than two hundred and twenty million 
bushels. The corn crop is much larger than last year, but may not be 
placed, on completion of the tabulation, at more than nine hundred 
mdlion bushels. The cotton crop, although of slightly reduced acreage, 
would have been excessive but for the damage from army and boll 
worms, yet the result will exceed two million three hundred thousand 
bales. For details of crop reports, and nimibers and condition of farm 
stock, reference is made to the rei)ort of the statistician. 


During the spring and early summer of this year, the laboratory has 
been engaged in analyses of samples which had been forwarded by 
coiTCspondents fi-om various parts of the United States. In great part 
these examinations were directly in the interest of farmers, or of those 
whose avocations are connected with agricultui-e. The variety of work 
has been similar to that of preceding years, embracing the examination 
of minerals, ores, earths, products from various manufactures, special 
investigations in technical branches of industry, and analyses of field 
products. The amount of work which flows in upon the laboratory is 
necessarily large, from the gi*eat extent of territory whence it is derived, 
and the number of our correspondents. In former reports the numerous 
instances in which parties seek to use the laboratory to further private 
interests have been alluded to, and I take occasion to repeat with em- 
phasis that the proper aims of an agTicultural laboratory cannot be sub- 
served uiidor a practice which admits of a constant and desultory occu- 
liation of the time of the chemists. A large force of practical analysts, 
with copyists and clerks, would be required to dispose of all the scientiiic 
work which lias thus accumulated under the former interpretation of the 
duties of this division. In the future the increase of this species of ser- 
vice will not be deemed advisable, for, although it yields much informa- 
tion which is beneficial to localities, it absorbs attention which might 
otherwise be devoted to work of more general utility. From the month 
of July to the present time, but little analytic work has been dene, owing 
to the transfer of the laboratory' from the Fatent Office building, and 
the necessarily slow performance of the work of refitting. 


lu coinpliauce ^yitil circulars from tliis office addressed to various 
State agricultural societies, requesting samples of average quality of tlie 
cereal crops of this year, for tlie purposes of chemical analysis to deter 
mine their relative ricLuGss iu food elements, returns are being received. 
TVhen the number is complete, so as to represent the production of the 
■whole country, this extensive investigation -will be undertaken, and 
will form the burden of the vrork of the laboratory for the coming year. 
It is by means of such experiments, which no individual society or insti- 
tution could successfully prosecute, that the department may be made 
most useful to the country. 

The appropriation destined for the laboratory has been nearly expended 
in the general fitting up of the laboratory with new cases, shelving, 
tables, and in the renovation of the old work. 

Through the couitesy of the Smithsonian Institution, the department 
has been enabled to purchase to advantage in Europe chemical apparatus 
and materials, which have been forwarded with care and have arrived in 
safety. The purchase was made in the most judicious manner, consid- 
ering the sum which remained for use after the necessary expenditure in 
fitting up the cabinet, &:c. The laboratory wiU be in a few Yveeks, when 
all shall have been i)ut in place, in good working order, and well adapted 
for the general ai^plications of chemistry to analytic jjurposes. As so 
much of the current appropriation has been expended on wood- work, 
the chemist has been unable to obtain all of the fine chemicals and 
chemico-physicai apparatus which a government laboratory needs in 
order to be prepared for that variety and amount of general or special 
work to which such an institution should be devoted. It is proposed 
that the approi^.riation of the coming year be allocated to this purpose. 

The necessity of connecting a chemical laboratory with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has been admitted ; but it may be affirmed that the 
directiori In which it should be employed is hardly yet appreciated. It 
is only by reviewing the work done in European laboratories, which are 
fostered by the several governments, that the right application of an 
agTicuitiu-al laboratory is rendered apjoarent. That chemical science may 
be brought in more immediate connection with agTicultural experiences, 
there should be established an experimental garden as a portion of the 
general farm, having for its special object the cultivation of plants or 
crops, under certain specified conditions, in which every element of growth 
may be under observation. It is by such co operation of garden and 
laboratory that those researches of Payen, Boussingault, Yiile, Hoffman, 
Corenwinder, and others, have been carried out ; and I would therefore 
recommend that an appropriation be made for this purpose. 

As an integial part of this division there has been commenced the 
formation of an economic mineralogical cabinet, which will serve not 
only to illustrate the relation of soils to the parent rock, but will also 
form the nucleus of an industrial collection, illustrating the Kthological 
riches of the country which are available for architectural and other art 



The labors of tbe entomological division bare greatly increased during 
the i)ast year. Letters of inquiry in regard to insects destmetive to the 
crops have been far more numerous than formerly. The ravages of the 
cotton army- worm at the south, and of the potato-bug and locust at the 
west, have aroused the attention of farmers and cultivators generally, 
and excited an unusual degree of interest in the subject of practical ento- 

As lands are brought under cultivation, insects which formerly preyed 
upon iutligenous weeds, finding cultivated plants more atti-active and 
congenial food, have multiplied so rapidly as to alarm the farmer and 
stimulate inquiry into theii- habits and the means for their destruction. 
Letters on these subjects are daily received, many containing specimens 
of the insects either known or supposed to be injiu'ious, with details of 
the damage done, the means used to prevent their depredations, and the 
success or failure attending them. This correspondence is filed as a 
record of the progress of entomology. All the insects thus received, if 
new or hitherto undescribed, have been figured by Professor Glover, and 
copies of the plates, twenty to thiity in number, have been added to the 
large collection in the museimi, now comprising about one hundred and 
eighty plates, containing from twenty to fifty figures each. These insect 
illustrations, accompanied as they are by names and references to habits 
and means of destniction, form one of the most useful and instructive 
features of the museum of which they are a part. 


In removing from the Patent Oflice to the new building of the depart- 
ment it was found that many of the specimens of natural history were so 
much injured by dampness and consequent mold as to be unfit for the 
uses of the collection ; these were destroyed, and it will be necessary to 
replace them with new and better tyjie^. It is also deemed important to 
procure tyi^e specimens of purebred domestic fowls, and some of the 
smaller farm animals. 

Now that adequate accommodations are furnished for the museum, it 
is hoped that greater interest will be shown by agricultural and horticul- 
tural societies of the dilierent States, and that samples of grain, fruits, 
&c., will be more freely contributed than heretofore, so that each may 
be fully represented at the capital of our national government. It is 
designed as soon as possible to duplicate this collection, for the purpose 
of aiding the several States to establish museums of their own, in which 
the agriculture and natural liistory of the various sections may be cor- 
rectly represented. 

There are already collected about fifteen hundred samples of foreign 
cereals and vegetable seeds, which for want of room and proper conve- 
niences have never been exhibited; and about the same quantity of 
native gi-ains, seeds. &c., a portion of which were shown in the old rooms. 
It sjiould be understood that this is not intended to be a mere collection 


of beautiful, unique, or curious specimens, but a cabinet of reference, 
"svliere the merits of eacli group maj' be sliowu, together \rith their uses, 
habits, and adaptability to various sections of the country. It has been 
planned with a design entirely utilitarian by the entomologist and natu- 
ralist of the department, under whose special charge it is, and who has 
here created a substantial foimdation for a great national agiicultural 
and economic repository of useful knowledge. A glance at what has 
aheady been done, and a consideration of the scope and bearings of the 
plan, cannot fail to recommend it to popular favor and insure its i^erma- 
nence as a most desirable adjunct of the department, worthy of the fos- 
tering care of the government. 


The distribution of plants from the garden during the past year em- 
braced thiity thousand plants. Many thousands of scions and cuttings 
of fruit trees have also been disseminated. Great care is taken to pre- 
serve the nomenclature, to guard against errors in the numerous varie- 
ties cultivated. The utility of the garden is not confined to the propa- 
gation and distribution of useful plants. The information derived from 
observation of their growth is of gTeat benefit to the department in its 
correspondence. Questions relative to frait trees, medical, and other 
useful plants, are daily considered, which could not be satisfactorily an- 
swered without the aid of the garden. The progress of horticulture has 
never been so rapid in the country as it is at the present time ; and the 
great increase of new fruits and plants demands vigilant attention and 
considerable means to maintain and complete the collection, since the 
knowledge derived from experiments with new varieties to be useful 
must be prompt. 

It is necessary that the legitimate operations of the garden should be 
kept in view. It cannot be either useful or expedient for the depart- 
ment to propagate or disseminate plants indiscriminately, a supposition 
that seems prevalent, judging fi'om its correspondence. Orders are 
received for almost every description of plant, entailing a vast amount 
of unnecessary correspondence, since all such orders are entirely out of 
place, and utterly- beyond the means and inconsistent with the objects 
of the dex)artment. 


The grounds connected with the new building are being rapidly im- 
proved. The adoption of a well-matured plan, before commencing active 
operations, has tended to facilitate the execution of the work at those 
points more immediately pressing. The roads and walks in close prox- 
imity to the building have been constructed as far as practicable with 
the time and means at command. A jiortion of the main road has been 
finished with a concrete siuiace, which has proved even more satisfac- 
tory than was anticipated. This road, while it is no more ex|)ensive 
than one of granite properly macadamized, has many and great advan- 


tages over one coiistnieted iu tljat mode. It at once presents a sniootli, 
bard sui-face, %vliicU it constantly maintains, and its entire freedom from 
vegetation, sucli as mosses and other weeds, will be an annual sa\dng ot 
man}' liundreds of dollars, with the additional advantage that there is 
no probability of any necessity for repairs. 

The main feature of the plan is the arboretum. This it is proposed to 
make as perfect and complete in species and varieties as the climate vrill 
admit, and will prove of great benefit in the workings of the department. 
With a strictly botanical arrangement the idea of landscape effect is 
happily* combined; and -n designing the roads the ultimate connection 
of the contiguous reservation has been kept in view, admitting of a uni- 
form style of improvement with the surrounding grounds iu the highest 
order of landscape gardening. This, in addition to the intrinsic utili- 
tarian value of the collection, cannot fail in giving great attraction to 
these grounds. 

The department is constantly engaged in procuring specimens of rare, 
plants for practical uses. The most important of these are collections of 
both hardy and exotic plants used in medicine, the fine arts, dyeing, 
and in manufactures. In the arboretum will be found all that arc suf- 
ficiently hardy to stand unprotectetl in this climate ; but the most valua- 
ble will require protection — some constantly, others only daring the pro- 
gress of acclimatization. A commodious range of glass structures should 
therefore be pro\-ided at once for these purposes. A design with detailed 
plans of siutable buildings is in com-se of preparation, and will be sub- 
mitted for consideration when completed. 


While all these improvements will be highly utilitari:\n iu tiieir aim, 
the love of rural life is worthy of the most careful culture. In this con- 
nection it is proper to observe that one of the most certain means ol" 
encouraging a taste for rural pursuits, both in agriculture and horticul- 
ture, and of instilling a desire for the study of botany and vegetable 
physiology, is that of i^roper embellishment of school-house and college 
grounds. SiuTound these seats of learning with an extensive variety of 
trees and shrubs, v/ith the name of each conspicuously attached, arranged 
with artistic discrimination, and the minds of students will necessarily 
be drawn to the study of the vegetable kingdom. To know how to 
plant and cultivate a tree should certainly be a knowledge possessed by 
every person, whatever his proposed iirofession or aim in life. This is 
obvious to every reflecting mind ; yet there is a total v/ant of tills 
variety of external attractions in these institutions, for wliicli there is no 
possible excuse. 


The seeds contracted for by my predecessor, (with the exception of the 
wheat, wliich was inj]>orl('d by myself,) undci" the very liberal appropri- 
ation of the. i)ast fiscal year, have been distributed extensively, and as 


jiKliciously as the nature of the case "^onld admit. Among" tlie thousands 
of ;rpplicants for these favors from every ijortiou of the United States it 
ha:s been difacult always to discriminate, but great care has been taken 
ta i)Iace them in the hands of those appreciating most fully the object of 
tl;e government in the appropriation^ and their obligation to the depart- 
UK- nt to make the most intelligent and careful test, to disseminate the pro- 
Tiuct throughout the community in yrhich they reside, and to report to the 
department the results of exx)eriments. While many recipients give lit 
tic attention to the invariable request going forth V\"ith every package 
of seeds and i)lants, it is gTatifying and encoiu'aging to note the reports 
of many successful experiments, especially upon the staple cereal pro- 
ducts. The result of a single importation of vrheat has alone been worth 
more than an annual appropriation for the whole department. 

Our floral wealth has been enriched by the introduction of new and 
rare varieties of seeds and plants. Much attention has also been given 
to the extension of our knowledge of pharmaceutical plants, and their 
adaptation and acclimatization in various portions of our widely extended 
domain. The same may be said of the fiber-producing x)lants. The cul- 
tivation of the citrus family, and other sub-tropical productions, and 
their introduction into Florida and other portions of oiu' country favor- 
able to theu' growth, has received earnest attention. 

From every i^ortion of the globe seeds and plants, and information as 
to their culture, have been successfully obtained, and the results promul- 
gated through the annual and monthly reports. The care bestowed upon 
this work, in reforming the former pernicious sj'stem has been onerous 
and difficult, but I trust will ultimately be properly appreciated even by 
those whose individual interests may have been affected, and approved 
by enlightened agTicultui'ists of the comitry as one more worthy of the 

Every day's experience develops the importance of a more liberal 
appropriation for this particular branch than was given it for the present 
fiscal year, which was less than a third of the appropriation of the 
previous year. ISTew objects in this connection have been developed 
demanding special attention. The arrangements for an extended 
exchange with foreign countries of our valuable cereal and forest tree 
seeds properly come under this head, and will draw heavily upon this 
limited appropriation; but it is viewed as one of paramount importance, 
and destined to add greatly to om* national wealth. 

The economy of a judicious distribution of seeds by the national gov- 
ernment is scarcely understood or appreciated. An illustration or two 
v.iU prove suggestive in investigating its benefits. At a low estimate 
our wheat yield is reduced six bushels per acre by cultivation of new 
lands for ten years. If one bushel per acre only is accredited to seed 
deterioration that might be remedied by a proper wheat distribution, 
the aggregate will be eighteen million bushels, worth 830,000,000. Oats 
degenerate more rapidly than wheat, and it is perfectly practicable to 
increase the vnbio of tho prop ten per centum by change of seed, and this 


increase sliould at least be equivalent to 815.000.0(X). And so the bene- 
fit might be aggregated till it represented more millions than the seed 
distribution of this department has ever cost in thousands in any year 
of its existence. If nine-tenths of the seed distributed are sheer waste, 
and a single tenth is judiciously used, the advantage to the country may 
be tenfold greater than the annual appropriations for agriculture. This 
is fully shown by the records of the department. 

The following statement exhibits the disposition made of the seeds un- 
der the appropriation from the 1st December, 1867, to 1st December, 1S6S: 

Total number of packages and papers distributed, 592.398, which 
includes 32.127 sacks of winter wheat importod by the present Commis 
sioner, as follows: To members of Congress, 223,072 ; to agricultural 
and horticultural societies, 98,861; to statistical correspondents, SG,391; 
to individuals on applications, 183,474: ; total, 592,398. 


In presenring for your consideration the financial condition of the 
department, it is gratifying to have it in my power to state that the 
expenditures under each appropriation have come within the sums 

There has been exi)ended since December 4. 1867 — the date of my 
entry upon the duties of Commissioner — $217,400, leaving a balance 
unexpended of $103,600 for the remainder of the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1869. 

The report of Mr. Cluss, the architect employed to superintend the 
erection of the building, and the necessary fitting and furnishing, shows 
the completion of the whole in a substantial and workmanlike manner, 
embracing the laboratory with its new and complet« chemical apparatus, 
and the museum with its convenient and tasteful arrangement of cases, 
and the library, at a total cost of about $140,000. 

The balances under each head are deemed sufficient to meet all futare 
demands of the present fiscal year. 

In view of the completion of the building in all its internal arrange- 
ments, the sphere for the operations of the department has been mate- 
rially enlarged, and it is now prepared to assume its proper rank as the 
representiitive department of a largely predominating class. 

The work of each division, with its modtts operandi^ has been outlined 
in this report, and new ideas suggested by the working of the depart- 
ment have been advanced for your consideration as worthy the encour- 
agement of Congress as a part of the whole system, and in fact indispen- 
sable to its successful operation. My estimates for the next fiscal year 
are based ui>on these important measures for the enlargement and diver- 
sification of the industrial interests of the countiy, and I trust they may 
be nn't in a liberal and justly appreciative spmt. 

HORACE CAPEOX, Commmioner, 

His Excellency Axdbew Jokn'son, 


Washington, N'ovemher 20, 186S. 

Sm : I have the honor to report the completion of the work under the 
contract for erecting, fitting up, and furnishing the new building for tlie 
accommodation of the department under your charge. ' AU the vrork 
enumerated in the estimate has been done within the limits of the appro- 
priations made by Congress. 

In executing the work a strict compliance with the letter and spirit of 
the appropriation bills was adhered to throughout. The appropriation 
for all the work, jjroperly within the province of the budder, being under 
one head, it was advertised for according to law, and given out in toto 
to the lowest responsible bidder. The appropriations subsequently 
made for fitting out and furnishing the building being under separate 
heads, were given out directly to mechanics and business men of highest 
reputation in their different branches. Superior quality of work and 
material have thus been obtained at very moderate rates. 

The isolated position of the building has involved a considerable outlay 
for the connections with the gas-works and water-works of the city, as 
also for sewerage leading to the Washington city canal. 

The building is now finished, with the exception of a few rooms in the 
basement and the attic story, which were not included in the estimates. 
An abundant supply of gas has been provided for, since it forms the heat- 
ing power for the operations in the laboratory. Aside from the supply of 
water for the accommodation of the ofiice rooms, laboratory, closets, and 
boilers, pipes of extra size have been carried up, feeding fireplugs in the 
several stories. A steam heating apparatus is in successful operation ; 
the boilers being of sufficient vsizetoheat also the attic story when finished. 

All the principal rooms and coiTidors of the building have been hiid 
off in chaste panels, painted in encaustic oil colors, the ceiling being 
frescoed. The vestibule and main staircase have received a strictly artis- 
tic finish. The large hall in the second story, appropriated to the museiun 
of agi*, has been frescoed with due regard to its national import- 
ance, the coat of arms of the United States, surrounded by the escutcheons 
of the thirty-seven States of the Union, taking a prominent part in the 

The American wood-hanging, that ingenious new patent which makes 
the products of the forest in their i)rimeval beauty directly subservient 
to the highest efforts of the decorator, appeared peculiarly fitting, and 
has been applied for the finish of the suite of rooms occui)ied by the 

Candelabras and massive chandeliers have been put up at all places 
where there was an immediate necessity for them. 

All the ofiice rooms of the building have been furnished with substan- 
tial carpets, and the desks, fui"niture, and cases, have been replenished 
to the full extent of the means at command. The laboratory has also 
been fitted out of the appropriation for the building with a fine set 
of new instruments and apparatus, which was imperatively required for 
the transaction of the chemist's operations. 

The museum has been partly filled with absolutely dust-proof cases 
of solid walnut shaped in the best style of the art, each case being glazed 
with three hundred square feet of pure white glass, and provided with 


the most :ti>i)ruved bronzed locks and lasteningK. The insufiicieiK'.y of the 
appropriadou conld not have been construed to renuirc a full supply of 
indiflercnt material and workmansliip. 

The sum total of all the appropriations expended, inclusive of sewerage, 
furniture, carpets, and scientilic apparatus for laboratory, is 61-1:0,420, 
and the building contains live hundred find sixty-five thousand cubic 
feet of available space. The cost is, therefore, but twenty-four and three- 
quarter cents per cubic foot, which compares most tavorably with any 
similar edifice erected by government or private individuals. 

ADOLPH CLUSS, Architect 

non. Horace Capron, 

Com m issmicr of Agriculture. 


Sir : I have the satisfaction of reporting another year of agricultural 
prosperity, in which garners have been full, and food i>roducts for tho 
sustenance of forty millions of human beings have been abundant, and 
within the means of the humblest, while prices have been moderately 
remunerative to the producer. 

The tendency of po])ulation to the cities and to unproductive and 
speculative employments is less marked than heretofore; the young man, 
looking for a career of business, now turns to agriculture as an industry 
worthy of his education and aspiration. The capitalist, unlike the specu- 
lator holding as a desert thousands of fertile acres, now, sometimes, 
enters the arena of agricultm'e, and shows the farmer, doubtful of the 
prolit of his business, that a man of brains and means can legitimately 
hold and thoroughly and profitably cultivate ten thousand acres. The 
defeated Avarrior in a cause forever lost is patiently and cheerfully fol- 
lowing a war-horse that is now a plow-horse ; and the freedman, unused 
as he is to self-control and proverbially unmindful of his coming wants, 
is more faithful and efficient as a free laborer than he was in previous 
years. Invention and mechanical skill were never more active and benefi- 
cent in their gifts to productive industry. All these favorable indica- 
tions point to increased abundance iti the future to meet the requirements 
of a rapidly increasing population, and a more ample and luxurious style 
of living. 

The approaching completion of the Pacific railroad is already opening 
to cultivation the fertile plains that were formerly held as deserts, and 
the valleys of the Rocky Mountains, enlarging our field for the collection 
of agTicuitural statistics, and furnishing home supplies to the miners and 
railroad builders of the new west. 

The extent and coustantly changing condition of our vast territory 
render atteuq)ts at detailed estimates oi" production somewhat hazardous ; 
yet, so far as opportunity has been afforded for verification, the results 
have been (piiio satisfactory. As to theneAv and rapidly growiug settle- 
jiieuts of the West which were scarcely commenced at the date of the 
last census, it is simply impossible to attain a high degree of accuracy 
without a careful census annually. 


The usual tabulations of estimates are preceded by more comprehen- 
sive statements concerning the i^rincipal crops of tlie coimtry. 


A disposition to increase tlie breadtli of Vneat-planting Avas evident 
early in tlie season, and in all parts of tbe country-. Xew England felt 
the impulse slightly in the spring sowing, though the eastern crop 
scarceh' affects the grand aggregate. The increase was mainly in win- 
ter wheat, except in Minnesota, Iowa, .and Xebraska. Texas failed to 
attain tlie acreage of the previous year, and Kentucky and Wisconsin 
scarcely equalled their area in 1SG8. 

The early reports of condition were generally favorable, and noted by 
the absence of winter-killing, except to a very limited extent, princi- 
pally in Kentucky and Tennessee. Eust was i^revalent only in small 
areas, and to a slight extent ; and was more frequently reported in the 
States between Maryland and Georgia, and in Kentuckj', than else- 

In June the i^rospect was unusually cheering, i)roniising a better yield 
than in any season since 18G3, and with a larger acreage than ever 
before, rendering probable an aggregate production of nearly a bushel 
per capita more than the supi)ly of the previous year. The excessive 
heat in the latter part of June and the month of July, which served to 
perfect the grain in deep, well drained soils, wrought decided injury in 
checking the full growth of the stalk and shriveling the ripening ker- 
nels, in loose prairie sods, and in undrained, surface-scratched fields, so 
numerous in the defective cultivation of the present day. There was 
little comj^Jaint of insect attacks, and quite as little loss from blight and 
rust, or casualties of any Idnd, yet the loss to production by this unsuit- 
ableness of lemperature to \50il and cultivation was probably not less 
than twenty millions of bushels. 

The estimated increase over the previous crop (of 212,000,000) was 
about 18,000,000, the aggregate production of 1SG3 being estimated in 
round numbers at 230,000,000 l>ushcls. This increase was obtained west 
of the Mississippi, tlie older Slates failing to furnish the quantity per 
capita produced in 1867 — failnig to advance vrith increase of popidation. 

Progress of icheat-groicin^ iccsttcard. — The progress of wheat-growing 
westward is a significant feature of our agriculture. In nine years, 
since 1850, it has been out of all proportion to the increase of population 
in the same section. West of the Mississippi, in 1850, the quantity har- 
vested was about 25,000,000 bushels; in 1867 it had increased to 
65,000,000 bushels ; and in I80S the product was 70,000,000 bushels. Nine 
years ago the i)roportion produced was but fourteen x^er cent. ; now it is 
thirty per cent, of the total i^roduct. At this rate of increase more than 
half of the wheat of the country, ere many yeai\s shall elapse, will be 
grown west of the 3Iississippi — probably before this western section 
shall have half the population of the area east of it. 

A comparison of the movement of wheat i^roduction in some of the 
principal wheat-gTowing States will illustrate this state of facts : 


1849. ! 




l.-lOl ' 


17,303 1 

14,487,351 1 

6,214.456 ; 

9,414,575 ! 

9, lSfi.?03 
10, 449, 4'.)-.', 

.=>. 928. 470 
23, 837, 12 1 

14, 500, 000 

Iowa ... 

20 300 000 




17, 550, Ct;0 

28, 56;), 000 



The -^heat production of the three States first named, as shown above, 
is mainly the ^rowtli of the past twenty years; that of Illinois, so rapidly 
profxressive between 1840 and 185!), has made a slow advance since, 
whiTe the product of Ohio and Indiana, as compared with the advance 
of population, is an actual reduction, notwithstanding- the fact that there 
are millions of acree in the former State yet in original forest, and in the 
latter a still larger area, both in forest and prairie, not yet subdued by 
the i>low. 

The following statement, furnished by J. M. Shaffer, secretary of the 
Iowa Agi'icultural Society, shows the rapidly increasing quantity of sui^- 
plus wheat shipped (by rail only) from Iowa: 

Bnsbels. il Bushels. 

1865 3, 331, 7G9 1807 G, 530, G2S 

18GG 4, 740, 440J1SG8 8, 843, 1G2 

The reason for this tendency is obvious. The pioneer upon the prai- 
ries is a wheat-grower, because wheat is a cash crop, and demands a 
small outlay of labor; he depends upon its proceeds, not only for a liv- 
ing, but for farm improvements, the purchase of stock and farm imi)le- 
ments, and for the erection of a farm-house in place of the log sliauty, 
and for barns and shelters instead of stiaw-covered sheds and straw 
stacks. lie knows there is danger of reducing the productive value of 
his land, but its original cost was an insigniticant fraction of its intrin- 
sic value, which is more than repaid by the net jjroceeds of a single 
crop. lie cares little for a small diminution of i)roductive capacity, 
while he can feiice and stock his farm, and place money in bank, from the 
sale of successive crops of wheat, and then srll the naked laud for tenfold 
its original cost. Immediate returns, with 'the labor and capital, 
are the object of the pioneer. As an expedient, for a poor man, the pres- 
ent practice may be tolerated; as a regular system of farm manage- 
ment, it is reprehensible and ruinous. It will doubtless continue in vogue 
till our virgin wheat lands are run over by pioneers, who will ultimately 
be succeeded by siMcntific farmers who will i)ractice rotation, draining, 
irrigatiiui, in cert.iin sections, and fertilization from home resources, 
when the yield will be gi^eatly increased and crops will be surer. 

The lelative area of wheat must therefore continue its decrease east- 
ward, and its increase westward, till our agriculture changes from its 
chry.salis state to its developnient as a complete system. At present 
our agi-iculture sutlers from want of balance between exhaustive and 
restorative crojts; from an undue prei)on(lerance of bread crops, cotton, 
tobaeco, aiul o her jtroducts consumed away from the farm ami never 
in ;yiy of thei elements returned to the soil. Koot crops and hay, fed 
upon the farm, tend to increase the producing cai)acity and market value 
of land, ami may i»r()])erly be regarded as restorative cro'ps. Corn, when 
fed to hogs and' cattle on the farm, may perhaps be placed in that cate- 
gory, but a laige projjortion of the crops sent to domestic or foreign mar- 
kets, whether I'or human food or feed for horses or other animals, is 
utterly lost as a fei-tilizing agency upon the farm. 

Tlic careful observer will lind, upon a survey of the statistics of pro- 
duction in dilferent countries, that wherever the balance is in favor of 
restorative ciop.s, the yield per acre is highest, and rice I'ersa. He will 
almost be inclined to regard I he yield as necessarily in proi)ortion to the 
percentage of area in such crops. The following tabulation presents a 
fair view of the relative percentage of area in restorative and exhaust- 



ive crops in the countries named, and also tlie average yield of wheat 
per acre in each of those countries : 



lYieH of wheat 
I per acre. 




United States 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 


The English colonies on the Pacific, where land is cheap, follow the 
exhaustive practice of the United States, rather than the restorative 
system of the mother country, and the result is shown in a yield of 
cereals not exceeding our own rate of production. 

The influence of the Department of Agriculture has been strongly 
directed to the conservation and recuperation of all the elements of fer- 
tility in our soils, and to the encom^agement of restorative processes and 
systems of cropping. If wheat plantations may still predominate 
beyond the Mississippi and Missouri, there is no excuse for failing to 
inaugurate a complete system of American agricultiu'e in Illinois and 
more eastern States, which shall be self-sustaining and tending con- 
stantly to increase of i^roduction and profit. 

The e\'il tendency of slip-shod culture and neglect has often been 
shown in the rapid decrease of yield and reduction in quahty. It is not 
winter wheat alone that is decreasing in value. The deterioration oi 
spring wheat is shown conspicuously by the inspection returns of Mil- 
waukee, iiom which it api)ears that four-tenths of the receipts of the 
past four years have been marked ''Number 2;" in 18GG but one-tenth 
was "Number 1," and more than a fourth "Number 3;" and less than 

one-half in the four years has been accepted as "Number 1. 
statement is as follows : 


Crop of— 


No. 1. 

No. 2. 1 No. 3. 




15 6 





7 4 



The fault is not inherent either in soil or climate. It is fully accounted 
for by deficient preparation of the seed bed, rank growth of grass or 
weeds, and neglect of that systematic variety in cropping necessary for 
the preservation of a proper equilibrium in the elements entering into 
the production of wheat. 

Quantity required for consumption. — The consumption of wheat is 
increasing in this country. Formerly, somewhat less than a barrel of 
flour yearly j}€r capita would supply the bread consumption. "Eye and 
Indian" or "brown bread" in the east, and corn bread in the south, were 
far more generally used than at present, and constituted the real "stafl 
of life." A barrel of flour at Christmas was the entire wheat sui)ply of 
the year for a large class of soutbern white families, while of course the 
negroes had no flour bread, except a casual cnimb from tbe ]»lauter's 
kitchen. Kailroads have had a wonderful influence in equalizing con- 
sumption. WhilCa in 1860, the west produced nine and three-fourths 


busbels to each iuliabitiinr, Xevr England Aieldod but eleven quarts to 
eacb individual: and yet the traditional brown bread has nearly disap- 
peared from eastern tables, and no difficulty is experienced in obtaining 
full supplies of flour, since the building of the network of railways con- 
necting nearly every village. Even the larger cities, crowded with tens 
of thousands of laboring poor, show little if any diniinurion in con- 
sumption of flour duiing the past three years of high prices. There is 
another reason for increased consumption in the enlarged fticilities for 
production, by means of machinery, v»hich has superseded at least half 
of the manual labor formerly required in cultivating, harvesting, and 

In 1S39 the crop was 8^,823,272 bushels, or 4.70 to each inhabitant; 
in 1849, 100.4So,914, or 4.33 to each individual; in 1S59, 173,104,924 
bushels, or o.oO per capita ; in 18GS, by estimates of this department, 
230,OU0,O0<^> bushels, including Oregon and the territories, which are not 
found in the tables. As the increase of population was thirty-live per 
cent, from 1840 to ISoO, and also from 1850 to 18G0, a similar pro rata 
increase fi'om 1860 to ISG-S would make our population 39,000,000. If 
the same ratio of increase could be expected through this decade, viz., 
thirty-tive per cent, in iwpulation, and twenty-live per cent." in the wheat 
yield in proportion to population, the crop of 1809 would be 202,000,000 
bushels, and that of 1807 shonUl have been more than 200,000,000 bush- 
els. Though fiir better than the two preceding crops — a fair yield upon 
a broad area — it probably did not exceed our estimate, 224,036,000 
bushels, exclusive of that produced by Oregon and the Territories. Of 
course there is no exiiectation of permanency in the rate of increase of 
the last decade; yet with the prodigality and wastefulness of food for 
which our people are noted, there is no reason to doubt that we shall 
attain a consumption at least as large per capita as that of Great Brit- 
ain, viz., six bushels, in addition to the com which must always consti- 
tute an item in our subsistence. The rapid dissemination of reapers 
and threshers, and the increasing facilities for a general distribution of 
wheat, are circumstances favoring a lower price and a further advance 
of the individual rate of consumption. The present increase of wheat - 
growing in the south is the commencement of a movement which will 
add materially to the aggregate of future crops; a conlident expectation 
of a home supply of *!iat section is held, but it is neither probable nor 
desirable that exportation of southern wheat should ever be a promi- 
nent interest, other crops, of less bulk and gi-eater value, promising far 
greater returns. With all this stimulus to enlarged production — the 
food requirements of a prosperous people, the larger use of flour by the 
'poorer classes, extended facilities for its distribution through districts 
yielding wheat very sparingly, the gi'eater economy of production by 
the employment of farm machinery, and the more general growth of this 
cereal in the distant west, the soiith, and on the Pacific coast, it would 
be a short wheat crop in 1809 that should not aggregate 270.000,000 

A dispcsiiioii was jnanii.^ted to obtain a large planting of corn in the, 
spring of 1807. The South was anxious to be independent in feed for 
farm stock and supplies of bread, and put in more of the staple grain 
than usual. Prices vrcre high in the ^Yest, a large meat ])roduction was 
wanted, and farmers were therefore desirous of extending their fields of 
maize, but their labors encountered many impediments, the principal 
being a spring so wet as to retard the operations of the plow, and a 
scarcity of farm laborers. 



The cold raias also cansed slow growth, and an uupromisihg appear- 
ance until the summer was somewhat advanced, when a serious drought 
set in, which continued until the season of ripening, resulting in a loss 
01 one-third of the exiiected croi> in the principal corn-gTowing section 
of the Union — the Ohio valley. The aggregate yield of the year was 
less by 250,000,000 bushels than shoidd have been reasonably expected 
as a g-ood crop ; the revised estimates showing but 708,000,000 bushels, 
against 838,000,000 in 1859. when 1,000,000,000 are required for con- 
sumption, cxiDort, and a reserved stock. 

In 1868, the necessity for a determined effort to make good the defi- 
ciency of corn was apparent to all. Eeuirns of estimates of acreage 
showed an increase of more than two millions of acres, or about seven 
per cent. A large proportion of this advance was in the southern States, 
indicative of an apparent intention to make that section self-supporting, 
audits cotton strictly a surplus product. The following is a statement 
of the estimated increase or decrease of acreage in the several States : 








4 245 



Kew York 









825. 096 
1T9. .555 
262, 279 






94, 121 


52, 31 

187, SX) 
149, 015 




The high temperature of July was favorable to the gTowth of cor:i, 
which is generally gTown upon deep, rich bottoms ; and the pro.spect was 
good for a thousand million bushels until August, when unseasonably 
cool, and, in some localities, wet weather set in, followed by early fronts. 
The result was a sudden and an injurious check at the critical i)eriod of 
eariug, residting in late ripening, smut, and other evidences of abnor- 
mal conditions. 

While the early summer was excessively warm, few localities suffered 
from drought ; showers were sufficiently frequent, as a rrJe, and the 
heated term was not of long continuance. In August the rain-fall be- 
came injurious, and much damage to corn was reported in southern Indi- 


ana, southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. The injury from 
early frosts was heavy in northern Indiana, northern Illinois, and Iowa. 
Many local reports contained estimates of forty per cent, of soft com in 

These causes reduced the aggregate yield at least one hundred mil- 
lions. The final estimate is in round numbers nine hundred millions of 


A reduction in the acreage of cotton is noted in every State except 
Texas, in which the increase appears to be about thiity per ceut. The de- 
crease, as compared with the previous year, is estimated at twenty-four 
per cent, in Louisiana, eighteen in Mississippi, thirteen in Arkansas, 
twenty in Tennessee, twelve in Georgia, eighteen in South Caroliua, and 
thirty-two in Xoith Carolina. The returns of diminished acreage in 
early summer did not excite apprehensions of a decrease in the crop of 
the year. On the contrary, a reasonable exi)ectation was held of a return 
at least equal to that of 1SG7. This confidence grew out of the fact that 
cleaner and better culture was attained, and in the Atlantic States a 
larger amount of fertilizers was used, while a steady improvement in the 
quality of labor was realized. 

A lack of rain in the Gulf States gave rise to apprehensions of loss, 
and a pretty severe drought prevailed in Tennessee ; but the cotton 
plant, if in good soil, thoroughly cidtivated, can only be injured by 
excessive drought, and it may well be doubted whether the high tem- 
])erature and continued sunshine accomplished as much of injury as they 
effected develoi)ment aud perfection of the bolls, and ultimate increase 
of the crop. 

Fewer drawbacks than usual were reported. In jtarts of Georgia the 
continued dry weather (for ten weeks in ^lay. June, aud July) was to 
some extent prejudicial. The cotton caterpillar destroyed a porrton of 
the sea-island cotton. The boll worm appeared in some places to a lim- 
ited extent. 

The autumn Avas remarkably favorable, both for ripening and picking; 
frosts came late, and the weather as a ride continued diy aud pleasant. 
The mean temperature of Mississippi was 64° in October aud ol- in No- 
vember ; in Texas, 09° in October and 37° in ^^STovember. The aggre 
gate crop of the year was estimated in October at two million three hun- 
dred and eighty Thousand bales. 

The most egi'egious misstatements are regularly made by the bulls and 
bears of the cotton markets, prior to the season of picking, concerning 
the probable yield of the year. Estimates will inevitably appear in 
business letters aud circulars, and in the news journals of the day : and 
it is of the utmost importance that judicious estimates should be made 
and published loug before the actual receipts can be footed up. The 
Department of Agincidture, baring the best facilities for an accurate 
estimate of the coming crop, has issued, each October for three years 
past, at the very commencement of the cotton harvest, bulletins esti- 
mating the probable pnxluction. The first estimate was of the crop of 
ISGG: and while another department of the government, coinciding 
witli the views of the planters themselves, placed it at 1,200,000 bales, 
our tigures were 1,835,000 bales. The actual receipts up to the following 
September showed that the crop of 1SG6, after deducting the cotton of 
previous years, brought forth from the hiding places of the war, was 



about 1,900,000 bales. The estimates of 1867 and 1868 were respec- 
tively 2,340,000 bales and 2,380,000 bales. In every instance the 
estimate has come within 50,000 to 150,000 bales of the result as known 
ten months afterwards.* 

The mauufactui-e of cotton in the United States is steadily increasing. 
The rate of its increase is indicated by the following figures : 


Cotton manufactured in 1791 5,C00,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1801 9,000,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1811 17,000,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1821 .• 50,000,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1831 77,500,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1841 97,500,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1850 245,250,000 

Cotton manufactured in 1860 -. 422,704,975 

Eeturns made to the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers 
and Planters, to the date January 30, 1869, place the consumption of 
seven huncked and fifty mills at 417,367,771 pounds. The eighty-one 
known mills not reporting are estimated to require 27,060,000 pounds. 
With 21,672,229 pounds used for textile fabrics and batting, the aggi-egat^ 
required per annum is 470,000,000. Allowing for possible exaggeration, 
the total consumption is assumed to be 450,000,000 pounds. Of the 
seven hundred and fifty mills reported, eighty-six are in the southern 
States, running 225,063 spindles, consuming 31,415,750 pounds. The 
following table presents, in condensed form, the substance of these 
returns : 





Cotton spun. 

Average per 





















443, SCO 

734, 460 



1, 082, 376 

545, 528 

437, 482 

175, 042 

384, 828 

48, 892 

45, 502 

22, 834 

lU, 800 



28, 638, 608 

48, 089, 439 

1,281, 125 




22, 097, 044 

10, 767, 6 .0 

34, 806, .531 

3, £88, 28:J 

7, 972, 896 

3, 170, 000 

1, 493, C6i 





Rhode Island 



New York 







13a 82 


13, 436 


24. 249 




8, 752 







2, 475. 000 
4, 010, 000 

3, 537, 000 
4,174, IOJ 

2, 820. 596 
1, 457, OOO 
1, 372, 104 
258, 400 
1, 847, 200 
1, 075, 000 

184. 21 

111. 18 

14.5. 85 


155. 70 



TfXa-i .. ... . 

16:). 90 

A rkansaa 

134. 00 

171. 62 

* The supplementary report of the honorary commissioner at the Paris Expositiou 
recently issued by the' State Department nses the following language: 

" It is much to be desired that the Statistical Bureau, established at "U'ashington, 
shall prepare and publish, periodically, full and reliable statistics concei-ning all the 
important branches of bu.siues9 in this country, similai- to those issued by the British 
Board of Trade: aud it is equally to be desired, for the credit and business interests of 
the country, that the Agricultural Bureau shall issue accurate statistics in place of its 
estimates of the cotton crop, vrhich, from their supposed official character, have obtained 
credence, while erroneous beyond excuse, to the extent of about 300,000 bales in the 
statement of production of each of the last three crops." 

As the estimate of this department for the last of the "last three" crops was 2.380,000 



The iucroase in the mamiiacture of cottou in Eiu"ope has also been 
steady. From 1S35 to 1840 the quautity used in Great Britain was less 
l^er annum than for a similar period couimeuciuft: with 1802, the year of 
greatest scarcity, not reaching a million bales, while the annual average 
for the latter i>eriod of live years was 1,2'JS,417 bales of 400 poimds 
each. The average for the i^eriod of five years commencing with 185G, 
the era of unexampled production of cotton goods, was 2,307,647 bales, 
or 939,058,800 pounds. The falling off in consumption of raw cotton, 
therefore, dui'ing the scarcity of American cotton was forty-five per 
cent. The present requiicments of the manufacture are fully up to the 
average of 18oG-'01, or about 2,400,000 bal(?s of 400 pounds each, while 
the continent of Europe and the United States recjuire 2,000,000, or 
5,000,000 bales iu tdl. Of this supply of the spindles of Eiuope and 
America this country takes one-fifth, the jiropoition attained prior to 
1800, and very nearly the same quantity. Were iirices of cotton lower, 
a still larger quantity might safely be placed upon the markets of the 
world, as the consumption of cotton goods tends constantly to increase. 

The following table presents a condensed view of the exports of 
American cotton during the past fori3--three years. It makes an aggre- 
gate of 20,404,000,000 of pounds, and the exports prior to 1825 would 
bring the total contribution of u.\jiierica to the factories of Europe up to 
about 28,500,000,000 pounds. 

Statement showing the actual exports of cotton, as officially reported, from J826 to 1863, 


Sea Island cotton. { Upland cotton. 

Value of cotton — 
! expong. 

Value of cotton 
— mannfactureg 

Five years ending IfcXJO 

Five years ending 1835 

Five yearg ending 1640 

Fire yeers ending 1 845 

Five years ending 16o<"i 

Fire years ending 1655 

Total, 30 years 

1856 : 













Total, 13 yearg 

Total, 43 vears 

53, 3S2, 541 
44, 036, 795 
35, 004, 803 
36 495. yxi 
43, 612, .376 
54, 747, 909 

1, 651, 933, 614 
3, 4Cf7, 262, 371 
3, 507, 423, 941 
5, 0r3, 547, &Sfr 





169. 517 

15, 370, 602 
16, 543, 492 
23, 013, 762 
35, 065, 947 

Vu, 279, 727 I 17. 445, 873, 173 

1, TOe. 507, 4.'» 

105, 712, 284 

12,797,225 | 
12,940,725 I 
12, 101, 058 I 
13,713,536 i 
15,5!>8,6&b i 
66,443 1 
527, 747 

132. r,n 

4,998,315 I 

1, 338, 634, 476 


1, 106. 522, 954 


1, 752, 087, 640 

301, 345, 778 


10, 857, 239 

11, 860, 390 

6, 276, 582 

643, 288, 356 

654. 731, 274 




131, 3?S. 661 

161, 434, 923 


34, 051, 483 


6, 652, 405 

9, 895, 854 

.5, 750, .=49 



l.';2, 820, 733 

6, 115, 177 
8. 316, 222 
16, 957, 038 
2, 937, 464 
4, 6 », 217 

93. 403, 980 

9,019,464,684 1 1,437.763,132 

76, 8:13, 850 

360, 663, 707 j 26, 464, 339, 057 


lc2, 546, 134 

liales. and a.^ pcam-ly half had hoen delivered at the date of thi.'; report, the a.sswim>- 
tionof an x::ulii estimate of 30(t.0u0 bales -was as un-warrar.table as it has proved 
eiToneoiL«i. 1 he est uiiate of 1867 -was 2,^40,000, -while the Conimi.^siouer places the viehl 
at 2,o£»y,241, -wiiKh is a greater error than the estimate. He declares tlie crop of 
1H65 to have l>eeu 2,:i4-J.llG, when every one at all acquainted with the historv of 
that crop is well aware that a large proportion of this aggregate of receipts was grown 
in previous years, and that the planting season in the vcrv of the expiriii" throes 
of the war was generally disregarded or utterly ignored, ' His error mainly consists in 
not discriniiiiatiiig between the crop of a given year and the cotton movement of the com- 
mercial year. He takes no account of the old cottou in the hands of planters. His 
attenUon xs rf^pccffnVy called to a single instance— a sale of COO bales, the present war, aroicn 
during the var ! •> ' ^ s t n 




Tabic shoicmg the rnnonnt in bushels. Sfc, of each principal crop of the several SteU^s named, l.'te 
i/Lld per cert, the total acreage, tlieareruge pries in each State,andtlie value of each crop for Ih&i. 


Indian com bushels.. 

Wheat do 

Rye do 

Oats do 

Barley do 

Buckwheat da 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pcaads. . 

Hay tons.. I 1,228,000 


1, 8(3-2, -jOJ 



5.% 335 

$1 38 

2 40 

1 61 


1 26 



1, 203, 9-21 i 12 00 


1, 460, 597 


Indian com bushels.. 1,511,000; 33 

ANTieat do....' -257,000 1 11.7 

Rve do , 13o,C00 I 12.8 

Oats do.-..: 1,23-2,000 26.5 

Barlev do ; 80.000 1 21.6 

Buckwheat do : 73,000 £0 

Potatoes do i 3,930,000 132 

Tobacco pounds.. 

Hay tons..; 917,000 1 

43, 171 

$143 I 

2 42 ; 

1 58 I 
76 I 

1 47 ! 
93 ' 

917, 000 I 13 50 


1.0:5, 77S 


Indian corn bc-heb. 

Wheat do 

Rve do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat. .• do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds 

Hay tons 


1, 672, 000 
714,000 I 
141,000 I 

4,035,000 i 

91,009 I 

168,000 I 

4,800,0>A) ■ 






43,4-23 , 

9,527 , 
135, 166 I 

3,956 , 
12,000 I 
35,533 : 

|1 34 1 

2 26 ; 

1 43 


1 44 




Indian com bnshels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats .• do 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hav tons. 

2, 292, 000 



4, 050. f 00 
4,161,000 ;1300 
1,207. ! 00 '• 1.-37 

15. 5 






.% 5S0 



831, Kl 

§1 32 

2 40 

1 63 


1 58 

1 (K 



18 37 


?2, 194. 200 
1, 326, 840 

14, 736, 000 

24, 4-23, 370 

$2, 160, 730 
214, 880 
117. 600 

1-2. 379, 500 

19, 308, 010 

$2, -240, 430 

1, 613, 640 






1, 010, OGO ' 

1.02 1 


14 30 ; 

14. 645, 000 

]. 274, 453 

24 Q14 320 

$3, 0-25, 440 

3<>3, 400 

738, 7fO 

1, 134, 900 

215, 280 

78, 840 

3, 766, 500 


2-2, 17-2, 590 

3-2, 437, 660 


Indian com bushels.. 

Wheat do 

Rye do 

Oats do 

Bariey Jo 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pounds.. 

Hay tons . . 

47.". COO 




3, lO'J 




17,592 I 

601 ' 

1,867 I 

7, 142 ' 

2,173 j 


Si 65 
2 20 
1 85 

1 60 
1 17 
1 07 


18, 9-2t 



80. OS.K) 

3. 6-27 



63, 392 I 20 00 

1. 4-20, 000 


99, 879 

3, 2e5, 647 


Jridian com bnshels . . 

Wheat do 

Rye do 

Oats do 

Harley do ■ 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do I 



73, OCO 

15. 5 

337, i\i 1 

14.5 1 

2. 7;'.5. (...i: 

27. 7 

17, 000 




1, 750. 000 

117 1 

f^.. 294 
57, 724 
14, 937 

?1 35 

2 00 ; 

1 48 I 

32 I 

1 26 

1 20 I 

91 ! 




2, 218, 100 

21, 420 




TabU shoicing tlie amount in bushels, SfC, of each principal crop, SfC. — Continued. 



c u 

COSXECTIcrx — Continued. 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 

T, 063,000 
883, OciO 


1. 1: 


$0 25 
17 25 


1. 0->2, 873 


Indinn com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rve do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do. . . 

Tobsicco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


8, 497, 000 
4, 845. 000 

25, 000, OOJ 
3, 84 1, 000 
5, 836, OOO 

25, 340, 000 

12, 000. o:o 

4, 510, UOO 



Indian com bui^hcls. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

OaU do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potat<x-s do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


1, 432. 000 

1,358, (W 


26, 0(0 

ava, 000 

3, 67D. 000 


€53, 437 
320, 860 
179, 4 J9 
298, 781 
4, 500, 000 

$1 12 

2 06 

1 37 


1 78 

1 01 



15 OS 

T, 78U, C15 

270, 426 








347, 14-2 

$3 99 

2 11 

1 50 


1 55 

1 28 



19 00 


1, 153. 024 


Indian com boshels . 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oatd do... 

Barley do. . . 

Bcck\\heut do 

Potatoes do . . . 

Tobacco ". pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oat* do... 

Biirlcy do 

Buckuheiit do... 

P*^ tfttoes do. . . 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bu thels . 

Wlieat do... 

Rye do... 

Oat* do .. 

Barley do. . . 

Buck w h eat do . . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco ...poni:ds. 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

<>at« do... 

Barley do . . . 

Bnck»vbeat do... 

Potatot>s do 

31, 979, Ot^O 
15, 300, C!00 

6, 558, UOO 

55, 108, (00 

590, OtX) 

8, 224, 000 


2, 448, (.00 



913, 685 



1, 982, 302 


498, 424 

134, 661 

5, .596 

1, 813, 333 

$1 00 

1 98 

1 32 


1 64 

1 09 



16 00 

, 067, 721 

3, 27.i, 000 



1, 436, 000 


22, too 

345, 000 


33, COO 


















$0 85 

1 9^) 

1 40 


1 22 

: 25 

1 00 


20 00 






19, 969, 000 


76 '. Oifl 



157. CO I 








4u5. 187 



338, 6i.6 






$0 87 

2 09 

1 35 


1 22 

1 20 



16 77 

1, 609, 6.^*4 

1, 034, 063 






18, 243 

$0 76 

1 90 

1 18 


1 00 




Table shoicirig the amount in bushels, SfC, of each principal crop, ifc. — Contimied. 





a o 






o ^ 

~ o 


o = 










ViKGLviA — Continued. 



93, COO, COO 



$0 9.5 







13 00 



2. -68, 351 

45, 944. 040 


Indian corn bushels. 

W heat do... 

Eye do... 

Oati< do... 

Barley do... 

Bnckwheat do 

Potato»»s do 

Tobacco pcnndi. 

Hsy toes. 

23, 3G6, 000 

2, 971, 000 

3^9, CO J 

3, 479, too 

3. 10<J 

2.3, 000 

838, IKM 


186, COO 









1. 6P^. 9t6 

503, c:-59 






6J. 4->9 

14S, 800 

$0 78 

2 OJ 

1 £9 


1 25 




15 OJ 

fie, 225, 480 

5, 942, 000 


2, 261, 350 



745, 820 

6, 849. 673 

2, 790, 000 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do. . . 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 





629, COO 


2, 681. 654 

, 339. 097 



150, COO 101 
102.000 500 
86. OOJ 0.95 








90, 526 

$1 00 

2 25 

1 58 


1 90 

1 55 


17 00 

$9. 870, 000 






17. 340 

1. 462. 000 

1.264,364 I. 

13. SJ9. 120 


Indi.tncom bu^hcl3 

Wheat do.. 

Rye do.. 

Oats do.. 

Barlpy do.. 

Bui: k wheat do 

Potatoes do - 

Tobacco pounds 

Hay tons 

$24. 83-;, 540 

4, 030, 400 


894, 280 




Indian com bushels 

Wheat do. . 

Ky e do.. 

Oats do . . 

Barley do.. 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do.. 

Tobacco pounds 

Hay tons 



Inditin com bushels 

Wheat do.. 

Rye. do.. 

Oats do.. 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pounds 

Hav tons 

513. 400 




0. I4t, 847 


Indian com btishela. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do . . . 


Potatoes do... 

35. 519, 000 

242, OW 


110, OCO 




2", 593 


7, 189 


442,000 I 63 I 


31..^34. 730 

$0 74 
2 !9 
1 97 
1 CI 
I 40 

$26, 284. 060 
529, 980 

111, ICO 


1 45 I 




T*Mc shouias ^'C amount t/t LusUeh, Sfc, of each princ:pal crop, A"c. — Continaed. 

0«ts do. 

Barley io 

Baek-wbeat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Totwcco ..pounds. 

Uay loru. 



Indian com btuheli. 

Wheal do... 




POUtOM ... 

2, er, j, 000 

477, Oii'j 



2. 100. 000 



e0 47 


1 66 


1 22 




1 67 


1 23 



$27, 347, 690 

5, 301, 000 


2, 634, eeo 





Table showinir tJic amount in bushels, ^'c, of each principal crop, iVc — Continued. 

5 a 

— "2 


c- ^ 

KJESTUCKY — Continued. 

Tobacco pounds . 

Hay tons. 

•16, 400, OCO 705 

1-'^, 000 ! 1. L'' 


lOU, 737 

$0 12.7 
13 2o 1 

$5, 893, 800 
1, CiW, 000 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do. . . 

Rye do — 

Oats do. . . 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


45, 324. CC8 

60, 9G7, COO 

5, 357, 000 


4, 509; 000 

106, 000 



10, 957, 000 




Indian coi^ bushels. 

■Wheat do . . . 

Rye do. . . 

Oats ". do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco potinds. 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bushels. 

^Vheat do . . . 

Rye do... 


Barley do — 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do — 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tous. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do. . . 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do — 

Potatoes do — 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do . . . 

Rye do. . . 

Oat.s do... 

Barley do — 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds . 

Hay tons. 

134, 363, OCO 

28, 5G0, OuO 

645, 000 

32, 479, OCO 


11)8, 000 

3, 800, OCO 

15, 160, 000 

2, 667, 000 


3-2. 9 


332, C42 






13, 765 

465, 714 

€-0 57 

1 49 



1 74 

1 ttJ 



11 OO 

$34, 751, 190 


258, 240 

1, 947, 470 

£88, 840 

65, 920 

936, 0. fl 


7, 172, 000 

3, 048, 545 

.1 54,639,731 



3, 938, 742 

2, 483, 478 

1, 018. 150 
37. 829 
53, 521 
20. f.-^fi 

1, 905, OUO 

eo 43 

1 20 



1 36 

1 07 



l:; 00 

$57, 776, 030 

34, 272, COO 

599, 850 

12, 666, 810 



3, 078, 000 


26, 670, 000 

9, 498, 487 

90, 832, 000 

17, 366, 000 


11, 285, 000 


370, OuO 

3, 10!', 000 

7, 237, OOO 

1, 280, 000 


20. 5 

74, 040, 000 
17, 050, OOO 

1, 104, 000 
24, 227, 000 

2, 343, 000 
992. 000 

7, 200, 000 

2, 030, 000 

18, 815, OOO 

16, 012, 000 

6U6, OCO 

7, 562, OOJ 

430, OCO 


.■), 6.50, 000 

3, 430, OOO 

1, 473, 000 





2, 671, 529 



425, 849 


19, 170 



948, 148 

5, 705, 453 

2, 177, 647 


81, 176 




91, 139 



6, 233, 4.38 

to 52 

1 50 

1 06 


1 57 




11 09 

137, PSl. 530 

$47, 232, 640 

26, 049, OCO 

448, 380 


52.5, 950 


2, 325. 000 

759, 885 

14. 195, 200 

97, 078, 655 

$0 60 

1 65 

1 14 


1 47 

1 07 



13 8J 

044, 424, COO 

28, 132, 500 





6, 048, 000 

836, 0"0 

28, 014. OCO 

570, 151 

1, 280, 960 

3:), 480 

251, 229 








Indian com bushels . 

Wheat do... 

Rve CO 

Oats do. . 

Barley do. . 

Buckwheat do.. 

Potatoes do. . 


22, CSO, 000 


18, 753; 000 



3, 900, 000 








.380, 757 
54, 731 
586, 031 
50, 649 

S0 7Q 

1 64 

1 09 


1 56 




15 00 

$0 .58 
1 00 
1 35 
72 j 

125, 332, 210 


26, 259, 68U 

660. 540 

3, 781,tXJO 

67;i, 80 > 


3, 164. 000 

720 3^0 

22, 095, 000 

72. 689, 660 


23, 660, mJO 

916, 200 


1, 194.7.-)0 

46. 170 



Table shovnng die amount in bushels, Sfc, of eacJi principal crop, &-c.— Continuecl. 


Id per 











e = 

3 C 








WISCOSSIS— Continued. 

Tohacco... pounds.. 

76, coo 



$0 20 


Uay tons.. 




11 CO 



3, 1U6, 907 


Inrlian com busbek. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Back do. - . 

Potatoes do — 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons . 



14. 5'X), 000 

505, OCO 












246, 417 








415, 714 

$0 64 




1 14 

1 03 



7 OO 

1, fS9, 171 

Indian corn bushels. 

■Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oata do. . . 

Barley do. . • 

Bucktrbeat do. . . 

Potatoes do — 

Tobiicco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


20, 300, 000 
577, too 
3,37(1,000] 96 
374. 00 I 775 
1, 4W); 000 j 1. 50 



1, 765, 729 
1, 400, OoO 
472, 727 
35,104 I 


$0 37 




1 24 

1 05 



6 50 

4, e05, 95 

Indian com btt>hsls. 

^Theat do... 

Rye do. . . 

Oat« do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco ponn'is . 

Hay tons. 



Indian com bushels . 

Wheat do . . . 



Oatg do 

Burley do. . . 

Buckwheat do 

Potato<-8 do 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


fi, 487, 000 

l,«7,C0O ' 

3,900 ; 

247, cop I 

5.700 ] 

23.000 I 

S50,000 I 


1x8,000 I 




$0 99 


1 35 


1 03 






1 27 






8 16 

.■icj. i-;o I 

3, 185, 000 






300,000 66 
2!,(!00 ' 525 
35, 7.0 I 1. 87 








$0 09 

1 00 

1 41 

1 03 


5 40 

217, 485 


Indian com bushels . 

Wheat do. . . 

Rve do... 

Oat« do... 

Barley - do... 

Buckwheat do 

Pot.-itoes do 

Tob:icco pounds. 

Hay tons. 


1, 220, 0':t) I 
•JI, I (1(1 ty.M, 

1.,:. . . 










$1 00 
1 03 
1 40 

1 03 
1 00 


338, 345 15 00 
1.879,794 i 

42. 986. 520 



rr" -r — " x" f-* x' r^* r^" x' Tr r-r :c* 

;1 71 c< r» I* -c c — ;c X o — 

"": — . X r: — (^ rv r'i : 

- - - " ' ■ ■ —1 " C( — O I! o 

; ; :- L- — ^ O 

::" — ' r-' cT r*' r— " xT 

«5 ^) ;> r: .= 7J -^ r-. — t~ i- — .c £ -r £ ■>» = J) X r: X o t^ -^ — X i» X — X -.c X o T< 
tc » I.-; -,= X (- X U-; X r- o t- is X — ~. t~ 3 X X =i X TJ -r ir: X .-: — -w r- r- ;^ _ -, .^ 

^ "" u ~ o ?5 2 ?. ' 5 c; L- — ^ — - t- ■* ci ~ ^ f-^ S SI X r: L-: li ~ 

r: " -^ 

^^ — '^'*xxr:t--I"of^r: * "'" " "' " dt ■fl-fi'^-^ — 5 — OiO 

— rj — — ■-< r; II u CI n — 1-. CJ 

03 c^ w r^ 5 f^ r: i r^ o rr — o o — — C-- ^' x X — X 55 - j w -^ o L-t H — '3 o t/i -n^ o 
^- CI -^^ — < X — r. o r^ ci a ri ri ^ ^ "^ ^ ^ L' r^ C; ^ -^ "^ ::: ? T^ '5 — ^' " ^ 

x'— o" u-:';!!!" — " —"■-;';! jf ox" f-"K.i':»«r =:"—" — T 

— II — — — :i — CI ;i 

S K -^ -r- i» Ti ri X 2 f^ 'c -^ TT S t^ t-: ^ 2 (-^ r: £ 7< ^i x — I.' i o ^ i~ 5i X — 'o 5 

<-. i^ ^ "'■ X ^ — — ?*' X -r ?^ "' f^ n o ^ x TT */ *r r^ f^ ^ 1-: t"^ rt fi r; X X ?^ :7i r^ CI 
— — CI c; t» =! ^ — c~. f~ I CI X X — X CI c; CI •«■ X i~ r: f~ I- ci •^ Ti 71 CI — T — CI 

■?»'«" cfn oi re o"— ■ci'c'o'x"c{''r-"V-^"-^"rfr;"="-^"irfi--"'? c--'r-"— "■5-"Ko-5-"-o'ci"-^^ 
e» (N -. n — -. — II CI CI — — u CI ii — i-i -"t •» — ci 

t- — X ■--; 71 -7- r- .c o o C! r: ,c r- re CI CI — ri o r~ x c; c ~. ( f~ i^ — x ;i — 

k^ f^ -I ■ r: :n .- ~i X c; — — X — rr L-; r. r: 1^ X c: - i-- c* -?■ o c; — 7» x x — 

re — -^ n o CI -^ -^ "-^ ;^ x — C-. — — ~ o — f^ -r" c; —. X -^ — f^ uc :i; — c^ -^ 1^ r; o — 

in V T^ :5 — o o f- ^ re T^ ^ H '-C ^ X ^. 1:^ ?. ie "^ .^ ^" 5^ ~ T • I-- 1^ K Gc -* — *3 r: CI 

^ — f^ c: t^ 4h — — c^ i-^ 
m in ;c CI V — c. CI c; CI 

o X te CI 
■^" x' CI x' 

5 5 3 j^ 


> p — 

__j>j: = x5 

I- 2 3 - S^-'is— = - - 





oj "■ X' -^ "T* — '-:: '•^' *j ^ — :o ci 

£ IT, 11 (X «0 O X O — O O CiJ o 
i O CI C< — ' 

I- i: 1- 

& " 


■^ c^ cc £^ o 00 1': c» CJ ou o c:< 
C5 -" cicxjo^ai r^'— 

C-J "» ts r:/ ;c o 'r -^ t^ c» I ■; « 
o r; :» c 00 LT>r C-. — CO 00 CI 

-r* L-" —'• ^" —"—"—' oc" cc" «■■ s-r cT 

n IJ r: o o at 

LO CK^ Cl *( f^ -^ O 00 O T- — ' 

ooocj^oooo o o o 

A- -: — ii c. f^ i-. -^3 o T^ 1- ii 



O — r; -• 00 CI ir: -^ VJ Cl r-i Cl r-i r-. 

fi -H r- CI OO O 

00 c; i^ cc ro -^ cc o — ' o ir; -^ o 00 f^ rj 


— x'l-'L-f.x'ocT t-'LT''^'"o''"3<''rrL'j"irrcrirr 

t- Clou — OOCJ fTf— < t~C-. O cri ^ 

CI Gi CO L'w TT o F— -^ ra CO 

-h" £-;- ,-," ,-r o" 

ct n tc i.'3 1-3 o o L'; o X 00 r> CO (M — ' 0-. c( o 
00 o o cc t^ lO n r^ t^ o 1^ rt cr: CI o -^ ci ^ 

t- £~ C-. 00 — 00 "J- " O C» Ci C^ r-i CO i- CI t- CO 


- rj* CO -J* 00 o 

O M 00 V CI o 

c2 CO r: f^ -— o v.* ^ - ^ ^ -■ ^^ w 

O Ci O (O CO OO CO C5 ■-I «^ CO CI CI CI CI o 


o o c: o,o cocooc;c;—<-<rcoc:Ot-i 

c" o" --" CD =* I--" o" -o" cT L-f CO LO'co t-." — r CO oo" 00 
toauciCOOi-'-*'Cic; a rn 


ooc:ooc;w00c::oc:c voc^ 

co'-rcrr^'o-ic" tc"o"co"c;"io'"oirrirf'j--"c''" 

CO r-iTr-^'sOI^CO-^COOOCiCI o 

: o o o o o o o t 

= o o 

-ccKSciS CI o^ob 


— CO --I CI CO : 

O O C i~ 00 O C~. -J3 O 

• CO — I.; o CI CI o t^ t^ o 

■"" co" — ' rT — ~ 00*" 1 rf — ' cT co" o" 
,... -- '^ c. — no ou cc CO -^ ci CO 
• r; 00 OO a; Ci ^ ^ — 1^ ^ co tt ^ Ci co 

crA-"cfi-o'':rco"c''~rLo" i-r 


CO o^ CO CI -T LO CO ^ :c o CO CO — ■v CO CD w 00 cr o •— (^ no o »o o -^ 1-H CI CO t.o 01 00 c^ CO 
(OTTr-co — couococoiocor-coooLOCJ'Tr-.cocoioi.o — ■<rcc — aoTrcJOt-t-oooDCO 

M-" CO I o" cf t'-" r-~ --■" oT c r c-r ao' r-^ t-"' M'" o" r-T otT c*" ^o' o r err 1 o"—" oo' ^*'" oc7 »o" lo" —" cc" ■<s'" of cT ^* cj" 
— — CO r-. CO c- CO CO — CI CO lo CO cr. ^-- ri co 

Go^coih c:^cocooor-cocc<o'0 0- 
Ci CI cr; ^ CO -^ CI 

r-i 01 r 

:■ 00 CIO I-; ■* 

o tr; 

c o 





to CO Q O C — C^ CO C. 1^ r^ 71 ri ^^. CO ^ O S CO 00 I'O 5 CI r-^ 00 CI CO to -^ S -r ■ 
O CI CI f^ O CO — < -V O CO -r CO ^ O ri a^ -^^ JL i'- Ci UO ^r CI CI 1.0 t^ O CO CI I 



CO -^ CI —I 1-1 




K r: i — rr ii o ii — -3 v= ii p; ^ ':-. — 


; £r ^ '-2 ~ S i^ E: ~ ;:; i d: Cr = — i"- « '^ 

=iS — i — ii; — H^£c^0Do5Kr!;cSSi:-'.cxSt~S — S^lit^Hi^jj-j; 

c#c;5:jC'"t-^or:ao*rH^-.^-^~' '••-- x,~_,^: 

•-•" "'^" -^'~ c<" ci— "cf— "-." rf- 

tc S ^ S f^ 

—""—<"" r-' t- -^ 

ac o cj o c< o -"T c< = =1 -o 1-1 " ci £ Si 5 

rH OJ — O 

>-. ^. -r^. '^^ ~> T ~ o :» O ri r-i — -.J. CJ 

o £ — ■ 


— o -r 

ci QQ X t^ c^ o i> o o ro — c; £^ ii -c* 

3 i2 H X"5 "J i5 i^C; o"x"l-"x"— "95 ^rrfoi-rTcr 

« r; rr -«• ^ L-^ — . 





A general summary, shoteing the estimated gu/ir.tities. number of acres, and aggregaic zaltu. 
of the prinripcl crops of Uu farm in 1868. 


Ko. of b&Ebelg. 

No. of acreK. 


Indiim com. 







Tobacco ponads. 

Hay 1 one . 

Cotton bales. 


906, ST. 000 

2-:;4, (:36, 600 
22, 504. 800 

254, 960. 800 
22, K>6, 100 
19. 66,1, TOO 

106, 090, 000 

1. 556, 879, 000 


26, 141, 900 


34, e?T, 246 
16, 400, 132 
9, 665, 736 
1, 131, 552 

67, B46, 478 


21, 541, 573 

7, 000, 000 

96, 816, 240 

8£6!», 512, 460 
319, 195,290 
2a 683, 6T7 
29, eop, 931 
20, 814, 315 
84, 150, 040 


40, 081, M8 

1, 6U, 671, 495 

Table shoicing the average yield and cash value of farm producis per acre for Hit year 1866. 


Indian com basbels.. 

Wbeat do 

Rye do 

OiitH do 

Barley do 

Bnckvrbeat do 





|16 32 
17 29 

17 37 
14 74 
31 79 

18 68 


Potatoes busbels.. 

Tobacco ponnds.. 

Hay tons.. 

Cotton ponnds.. 

Sugar do 




16a 7 



$74 as 

93 es 

16 33 
32 14 

Tabic shoicing the average yield of farm products per axrtfor tke year 18C.S. 



New Dampihire 


MaSftachcBetts . . 
Rhode Kland... 


Ktw York 

New Jersey 





North Carolina . 
South Carolina . 









West Virginia . . 









































































































24. 1 





21. C 































































- 7i»0 

































Table showing the average cash value cf farm products per acre for the year 1868. 


New Hampshire ... 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 




Maryland 24 


Nonh Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 









"West Virginia 













$24 <X) 
£8 31 

36 16 

37 20 
31 46 
31 00 
30 36 
29 30 
25 34 
22 80 
21 31 
15 96 

11 80 

12 60 
12 32 
24 75 

12 07 

19 92 
18 25 

13 50 
27 00 

12 40 

20 11 

15 81 

20 86 

13 80 

16 80 

21 45 

20 50 
13 00 

12 45 

13 77 

21 06 

14 88 
20 60 


$24 15 

20 22 

21 16 
26 72 
30 71 
21 46 
20 63 
20 25 
17 43 

9 38 

16 33 
9 79 
9 54 
7 90 

11 73 

17 SO 
9 80 

20 68 

21 85 

18 76 
14 C9 
11 25 

16 59 

14 03 

17 76 

15 06 
15 79 

15 50 

19 72 

16 74 
14 00 
16 15 
21 42 

18 30 

19 60 

$18 04 

20 14 
22 50 

21 69 

21 56 

22 71 
19 24 
15 45 

17 79 
4 80 

11 52 
9 61 
8 45 

8 24 

9 87 

11 50 
10 29 
15 45 
24 00 

23 94 

18 00 
10 96 

12 59 

10 56 
14 14 
12 44 
12 19 

14 50 

15 05 

15 68 
17 28 

11 55 
14 25 

16 41 
21 00 

^ 28 
31 75 
33 12 
31 35 
36 80 
25 20 
38 09 
35 49 
35 09 
29 28 
28 67 
15 00 
19 50 

17 10 
33 32 
28 60 

18 48 
14 00 


$22 08 

18 60 

13 44 

14 25 

19 80 
21 84 
19 80 

21 37 

17 98 
25 00 

22 44 

18 03 
12 94 

23 76 

23 10 

26 16 

13 79 

31 99 

• 22 01 

26 72 

18 45 

42 10 

17 81 

35 08 

17 76 

32 18 

18 33 

33 07 

18 51 

36 34 

15 90 

32 40 

14 98 

28 50 

19 98 

32 24 

18 06 

22 54 

22 '.!2 

35 25 

14 12 

28 84 

18 00 

$101 40 

93 72 

81 ai 

t 107 88 

! 108 07 

106 47 

71 44 

94 09 
81 84 
75 00 
87 42 
54 76 
67 64 

156 55 
150 96 
187 CO 
92 11 
94 25 
283 50 

91 50 
83 16 

54 75 
62 10 
53 60 
81 00 
57 51 
66 00 
66 36 
52 64 

55 44 

92 11 
60 48 
79 90 
69 30 
50 40 

i§299 CO 

362 50 
109 CO 

73 50 
66 CO 
54 CO 

60 48 
66 55 

109 71 

85 00 

175 50 

148 40 
158 48 
260 73 
210 CO 

149 12 
1C4 40 
133 66 
104 48 

89 53 
89 94 
68 88 

74 02 

61 86 
231 00 

150 00 
140 00 
178 25 
143 CO 
115 50 

$12 24 

13 50 

14 79 

20 16 
22 40 

19 83 

15 00 
26 60 

21 60 
25 00 
21 46 

15 86 

18 75 

16 15 
21 90 
21 00 
32 00 
21 25 

20 00 

12 50 
20 00 

19 37 
18 75 

16 82 
15 40 
14 00 
14 97 

17 94 

18 75 

13 20 
9 80 
9 75 

11 83 
10 09 

19 95 

Table showing the total average cash value of the above products per acre for the year 1668. 


New Hampshire 


Rhode Island... 


New York 

New Jersey 





North Carolina . 
South Carolina . 





$16 72 

18 03 

19 54 
29 96 
32 7D 
24 79 
21 49 
28 46 
23 58 

14 91 
21 16 
16 59 
13 92 
10 93 

12 13 

15 50 
9 97 

13 17 





West Virginia 













$17 30 

16 11 
20 18 
14 48 
22 19 

17 20 
17 92 
14 52 

17 01 

20 10 

21 00 
14 84 
14 62 
13 28 

18 62 
16 35 

22 86 


The mildness of the present "winter has been favorable to health and 
condition of all kinds of farm stock. In the more northern States there 
have been fev,- sudden changes of temperatra-e, few alternations from one 
extreme to another, and very little weather of much severity or discomfort 
to the denizens of the bam and stock-yard. The reported losses from 


diseases of all kiuds are less than for any year since this record has 
been systematically kept, showing conclusively that all cattle diseases 
are far less the result of climatic causes, or of feeding upon injurious 
plants and unwholesome fodder, than the c-ffect of starvation, exposure, 
and neglect. 

The condition of cattle, as compared with their status last year, is 
improved, except in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi. Kansas, and Xebraska. 
Cases of pleuro-pneumonia are reported in the vicinity of the cities of 
New York, PhiladeliJuia, Baltimore, and Washington. The S]>anish 
fever, communicated by southern cattle, caused a brief season of panic, 
and occasioned heaA-y local losses at points of reshipment in Kansas, 
Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and to a smaller extent eastward to 
the Atlantic coast. Abortion has been somewhat prevalent on dairy 
farms of the middle and eastern States. Black tongue, black leg, hollow 
hom. and a variety of '-distempers," '-murrains,^ and other undefined 
forms of disease are reported, but not to the usual extent. Less than 
one county in ten of the entire number reported the prevalence of dis- 
ease, further than the slight ailments which rarely prove fatal. Kot a 
county in Ohio or ^iichigan ftu-nishes e\idence of the existence of unusual 
disease among cattle. 

Those States in which winter shelter is not provided are marked by a 
lower condition of farm stock, and a higher rate of mortality, than Maine 
or Minnesota. The southern States, the best portion of the country for 
stock-gi'owing. have almost literally no provision either for feed or shel- 
ter in any poition of the year. As a business, stock production there is 
little more than an appropriation of spontaneous gi'owth,costing neither 
money nor labor, except in the in-gathering or harvest. 

The reports relative to sheep are not so favorable. The wool business 
has been comparatively unprofitable of late, and the inevitable result is 
neglect, short commoas, a supply of moldy hay, and the roughest treat- 
ment, in too many instances resulting in leanness, weakness, and the 
insidious approaches of disease. Where they have been suitably cared 
for they are healthy, and as Merinoes are in present disfavor, disease is 
mainly among flocks of that breed. Were it not for the culling process, 
by which several millions of the poorest (sixty thousand in some cases 
in a single county) have been remorselessly slaughtered fc«' their pelts 
and the small modicum of fat that could be drained by hydraidic pressure 
from their juiceless carcasses, the ravages of disease would have proved 
far greater. This weeding out of the victims of poverty will residt bene- 
ficially in elevating the average of health and condition. Wool-gTowers 
whose fears have overcome their judgment and caused the depreciation 
of their flocks or the abandonment of their business, will ere long regret 
their hasty action. Already a reaction has commenced ; prices of wool 
are stiffening, and the value of sheep is slightly advancing. If there is 
no legislative interference with the growth or manufactui-e of wool, a 
better day will soon dawn, and the time will prove auspicious for enlarging 
rather than abandoning the production of wool. 

The States in which the comparison, in point of condition, is unfavor- 
able with last spring, are Maine, Xew Hampshire, Vermont, Alabama, 
Jlississippi, West Virginia, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, and Kansas. The losses from disease, dogs, wolves, 
and freedmen and other plunderers in the South, together with the depre- 
ciation from slaughtering for pelts, present an unfavorable comparison 
with the previous year in almost every State in the Union, and represent 
n total reduction in iiiuubers of not less than 4,000,000. Yet ali these 
losses exclusive of the voluntary destruction of sheep for Mieir vrool, sliin.;, 


and fiit, make an aggregate of loss no greater tliau that of tiio previous 

Horses, being valuable, are generally well fed and stabled, and appear to 
have been remarkably exempt from disease the past year. Glanders, 
which became so prevalent in the territory swept by the ravages of war, 
is a disease yet dreaded, though far less common than in 186G and 1867. 
Blind staggers is yet common, especially in miasmatic localities; char- 
bon is fatal in Arkansas and elsewhere in the southwest ; lung fever and 
other diseases are occasionally reported. 

The following notes, furnishing briefs of the most noticeable data 
received, will give an idea of the extent and character of the diseases of 
farm animals during the past year, though the returns are necessarily 
deficient in veterinary accuracy : 


For several years i>ast there has been some loss of cattle in mountain 
pastures of Xew Hampshire, from some unknown form of disease. The 
cattle are generally found dead before any appearance of sickness has 
been observed. A few cattle in Massachusetts have died from eating 
"smut corn." Pleuro-pneumonia has been very fatal for the past twelve 
or fifteen years in King's County, Xew York. Since vaccination has 
been practiced, the loss lias been diminished greatly. 

A new disease prevails among milch cows in Erie County, Xew York. 
Symptoms: watery eyes, yellow matter running from nostrils, breath- 
ing heavy, blood i)assing from the intestines, cramps, residting in death 
in eight to twelve hours. A few cases have been saved by giving calo- 
mel in doses of twenty to thirty grains, in cold water, once in three or 
four hours. 

It is remarked in Pennsylvania that disease among horned cattle, so 
destructive during the last few years, has almost entirely disappeared. 
The principal remedy applied appears to have been simply a comjilete 
renovation of barns and stalls, ventilation and free use of lime, and 
a regular, healtliy diet. 

Pleuro-pneimionia has prevailed considerably in Delaware Comity, 
Pennsylvania, proving fatal to animals first attacked, but becoming 
milder, so as to admit of treatment in subsequent cases. 

Our correspondent hi Baltimore County, Maryland, says: 

We have had the xiieuro-pneuraouia hi our county amouf;; cattle durinej the past three 
years. The malady lias been very destructive, some individuals losing almost their 
entire herds. The disease is of a highly contagious character, and the most skillful 
cattle surgeons are unable to control it. The losses have been much Ughter dimug the 
past year. Sistee]i valuable Ayi'shire cows perished in one stable ; a lew other losses, 
varying from five to fifteen, occurred. Inmost of the stables where the disease prevailed 
with great vinilence the previous year it has subsided, owing to a strict quarantine. 
The careful isolation of the infected herds had the desired effect in reducing the mal- 
ady to a much smaller scale. 

Pleuro-pneumonia attacked one herd in Prince George County, Mary- 
land, and foiu- or five died. The remainder were fient to Washington for 
beef, and the disease did not spread. 

In Lawrence County, Indiana, there has been considerable mortality 
among calves weaned in the foil, dying during the winter with bloody 
diarrhoea. After death there was found underneath the skin a quan- 
tity of yellow serum; and even before death this yellow serum would 
collect in dependent portions of the body, where there was loose skin, 
as under the jaw. About half of the calves that were attacked died. 

The inhumanity disclosed in reports of losses from " want of shelter," 
from "starvation," and fi'om "small quantity of food," is sickening 


and disgnstin^ to any one possessed of a singrle kindly impnlse. There 
is no portion of the country where shelter and feeding are not requisite 
at times. In Texas, \rh8re cattle grow and thrive by millions, are places 
where, during the present season at least. " fully twenty per cent, die in 
the latter part of the winter and early spring from iwverty.^ It is grarl- 
fsing to remark, amid the general neglect of this latitude, that in one 
county in Georgia " those that hare been housed look weD." and that 
in another ** they are better than usual from being cared for.'' 


The ravages of the Spanish or splenic fever were gi-eater last season 
than evL-r lK;fore. The mode of transi'ortation. by steam eastward from 
the fix)ntier railway stations, and up the Mississippi river in steamboats, 
brought the contagion into the heart of the country and disseminated 
it from the Mississippi to the Atlantic. Formerly it was confined 
to the frontiers, the length of time elapsing in travel on foot sufficing 
to eliminate the \irus of the disease £ix)m the systems of the emigrat- 
ing cattle before their arrival on the banks of the ^Mississippi. 

A few cases are reix)rted in the eastern States — in Xew York, Xew 
Jersey, and in Lancaster Comity. Pennsylvania. 

In Ohio, slight losses were suffered in Hamilton County: six head, 
among two car loads, in Wyandot ; a few cases in Greene, Mercer, and 

In Indiana, from four to six hundred case.s in Benton County ; two 
droves were destroyed in Jasper County: one hundred deaths are 
reported in Marion, and losses are given in White, Xewton, and Hen- 

In Illinois, among other reports, are losses; in Ford County of five hun- 
dred head ; one hundred in Gnindy : Ijirge numbers in Champaign, 
(valued at $150,000 at least:) forty in Douglas; nineteen in Clinton; 
and small losses in liiassac. Pulaski, ESingham, Cook. Iroquois, Macon, 
Pope. Morgan. Alexander, St. Clair, and Du Page. 

In 3Iissouri heavy losses occurred ; in St, Louis there were one thou- 
sand four hundred cases of cows and three hundred of heifers : in Newton 
the loss numbered three hundred. In many other sections of the State 
the disease was more or less prevalent, as in McDonald. Butler, Clark. 
Polk, Bates. Cass, Henry, Montgomery, Benton, Mississiijpi, Cedar. 
DadcN and Hickoiy; but the details of these returns, together with 
those of other States, are reserved for a more complete history of the 

Five western cattle died of Spanish fever at !Millerton. Dutoli-^ss 
CountA", Xew York, where they were quarantined. The iufection did uvi 

A large number of Texas and Indiana cattle were brought into the 
cattle >-artls and abattoirs in Hudson County. Xew Jersey, last Augusr. 
sick with Spanish fever. The State AgriciUtural Society forbade any 
more being brought into the State. Those sick were' quarantined, 
and after a thorough examination were put into rendering vats and the 
yartls and pens disinfected with carbolic aci(L 2^^o disease afterward 
api>eared. Tliree inspectors were appointed by the State society, who 
quarantined all the suspected cattle on arrival: and when it proved 
sickness from any infectious disease they were kdled and put in the ren- 
dering \"ats. 

A lot of western cattle were driven through Westmoreland County. 
Pennsylvania, last summer, stopping orer night on a farm three miles 


south of Greensbiu'g. Eiglit or teu head «took sick during the night, 
and were left with the former to be killed. The symptoms were said 
to be those of Spanish fever. 

Eeports of the existence of this disease have come from Georgia, but 
the symptoms are not sufiQciently defined for its absokite identihcation. 

Our Lamar County (Texas) correspondent states, as the result of his 
observations in Texas and other States, including Illinois at the time of 
the greatest \'irulence of the disease there, that there is no such disease 
in Texas, or south of the latitude of middle Tennessee or Arkansas. He 
mentions the fact that hundreds were herded for months on Grand 
Prairie, Arkansas, at the season of the highest excitement in Illinois, 
without disease among either Texas or Arkansas stock. The following 
points are indicated as the result of his observations: 

1. That it tlid not show itself until the very hot weather that \isited 
that section, although Texas cattle had come in nearly two mouths 

2. That Texas cattle were free from any signs of disease, and improved 
rai)idly on arrival. 

3. That, although healthy, they left disease behind them; and ail 
home cattle feeding upon the same pastures or drinking at the same 
fountains were in danger of the contagion. 

4. That removal to new pastures and clean water would stay the pro- 
gress of the disease among those not yet afiected by it. 

5. That native cattle would not take the disease from running on new 
pasture with other native cattle, although the latter might be suffering 
and dying with the disease. 

6. That the disease, its mode of action and of communication, and the 
remedies, were mysterious. 

It is reported from Fayette County, Texas, that Spanish fever only 
prevails among unacclimated animals. A teaspoouful each, of spmts of 
turpentine, copperas, and sulphur, is claimed there to be a certain cure it 
given in time. 

The following exti^acts, from detailed reports pubUshed in the ]Monthly, 
give an indication of its i)revalence in the centi^al portions of the west : 

Xewton County. — Prevailed during the sunn-iier aud fall. Los3 not over tkree liundred 

McDonald County. — Five jier cent, of all native cattle have been lost. Texas cattle 
do not saiier unless there is an adniisture of more than one-half native blood. Eeme- 
dies prove unavailing. 

C2ark County. — Has visited some portions of the county. 

Butler County. — Three cases reported. TJemedy used: a drench made Ly mixing hall 
a poimd of Epsom salts vrith a strong decoction of peach-tree leaves — one quart of the 

Folk Coutity. — In the eastern jiart of the county, in August, from the passage of Texas 
cattle tlirough that section. 

St. Louts County. — Fourteen hundred milch cows and two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred heifers and steers lost by this disease. 

Bates County. — To some extent, but less than in years past. 

Cass County. — Few losses this year, as diligent vratch has been kept against droves. 

Henry County. — Loss t"wo hundred to three hundred head. 

Montgomery County. — Forty-five head lost last autumn. Only three of those attacked 

Benton County. — A few isolated cases. 

Mississijjpi County. — Slightly ; brought in fi'om Cairo, Illinois, by Texas cattle. Loss 
forty head. 

Cedar County. — A few cases imported with southern cattle. 

Dade County. — During the summer and fall, along the highways where Texas cattle 
stopped to graze ; the loss was twenty-five pex cent. 

Hickory County. — To some extent, but no new facts noted. 


Champaiffii Counti/. — Our correspoudcnt says: "Spanish fever has prevailed in this 
county, coiiimeuciug on the 27th tlay of July, 1S68, and cattle have continued to die of 
the same disease up to January 1, 1539. In this to^vnship the loss is ninety iier cent. ; 
intire county, seventy-five per cent. It is a Llood disease ; the blood under a powerful 
;5la8s proves* this. It has been argued, and tried to be jiroven, that it is a disease not 
easily taken. I now have in my possession a large amount of evidence liom good men, 
showing it to be a disease very easily given. A number of cases can be given where 
the only exi>osuie was by tlriving a short distance over the road where the Texas cattle 
liad passed from tame pasture to bam lot.s, tlie natives being kept up all the time only 
when in transit from lots to pasture. Blood examined in the earliest stages of the dis- 
ease shows a diseased condition of the same. As the disease progresses from day to 
day the blood, examined by a good glass, shows the gradual destruction of vitality, and 
at dissolution is a mass of i>tftridity." 

Clinton County. — Spanish fever among the cattle ; loss nineteen head. 

Douglas Countji. — Forty head lost from Spanish fever in one neighborhootl through 
which Texas cf.ttle passed. 

Iroqvois County. — Spanish fever has prevailed. 

ZTacon County. — ^No cases except those that came in contact with one lot of Texas 

Massac County. — A few cases, supposed to be Spanish fever. 

Pope County. — Spanish fever in one locality for a short time. 

Morgan County. — A few drove cattle died, but more from ill usage than Spanish 

Alexander County. — Spanish fever prevailed in Cairo, but did not get into the country. 

Cook County. — Some Spanish fever in the south part of the county, from contact with 
cattle shipped to Chicago. 

Effingham County. — Spanish fever kUled a few cattle in one neighborhood, where some 
Texas cattle were herded for a short time. Loss small. 

Ford County. — Loss about five hundred head; a majority of them cows. 

Grundy County. — SpanLsh fever in one town ; loss about one hundred head. 

Pulaski County. — A few deaths irom the passing of Texas cattle. 

St. Clair County. — ^A few head have died from supposed Spanish fever. 

Du Page County. — One man Inst eighteen head by Spanish fever. 

Marlon County. — ^About one hundred head died of Spanish fever. 

White County. — Some loss from Spanish fever. 

Benton County. — From four hundred to six hundred head of native cattle have died 
rrom Spanish fever. In a neighboring county a herd of diseased cattle were driven 
about eight miles along a road, and, the wind bein-r from the sonth, cattle alon^ on the 
north side of the road took the disease, without either being driven along the road 
traveled by the Texas cattle or drinking water that had been exposed in any manner. 
These facts induce the belief that the disease was communicated by the wind. The 
Texas cattle were taken right ofl'the cars and driven along the road. ' 

Hendricks County. — Spanish fever in a few places. Comparatively little loss. 

Xcicfon County. — Eight to ten head died of Spanish fever, taken from a drove of Texas 
cattle driven along the road. 

Laicrence County. — Considerable los.s from Spanish fever along a road traveled by a 
flrove of Texas cattle. 

Hamilton County. — ^^'e^y slight, and only among the cattle that have come in contact 
with foreign stock. 

Wyandot County. — Loss six head, in two car-loads brought from Chicago. 

Greene County.— T<ri u> -■ v-ri ve native cattle died. Disease taken from Texas cattle. 


Dickinson County. — Spanish fever has prevailed to a great extent. Loss over sis thou- 
sand dollars. 

llcpuhlic County.— Ten head of oxen died of Spanish fever last fall, after feeding on the 
track of Texas herds. A few cases recovered. 

Butler County. — Cases last summer and fall. Many of the Texas cattle have died 
here during the winter. 

Wyandot County. — Six fatal cases in the liill; contact with Texas cattle. 



Horses liave been comparatively free from disease during the year. 
Glanders, so prevalent after the close of the "war, is no^ scarcely to be 
found. Pneumonia has caused some loss in Xew York, Pennsylvania, 
Elincis, and jMissouri. Blind staggers has been somewhat fatal in the 
south and west. Less fatality is reiiorted in the southwest from '• char 
bon' than for several previous years. In Clinton Coimty, Illinois, forty 
or fifty abortions occm-red among mares. Other diseases are mentioned 
in various Iccahties, as diphtheria, imtrid sore-throat, inllammation of the 
iiver, the "loin disease,'' and other diseases Imown only by reported 


The losses Irom "hog cholera," though less than last year, are very 
heavy in the south and west. In x> ew England and Xew York it only 
appears among western di'oves. Pennsylvania has been nearly exempt. 

In Virginia it has prevailed in a few coimties, and in the Carolinas 
jiretty extensively, in some counties the loss reaehmg thirty per cent. 
Similar reports come froui portions of all the Gulf States. In Kentucky 
;Tnd Tennessee, where corn, Iiogs, and distilleries abound, it is still worse. 

The details have liOGii annually presented cd natiseam, and we i^ropose 
to omit those of the present year, giving only an idea of the extent ot 
the loss in the districts most infected. 

In nuieteen counties in Tennessee, in which were C4:1,CS0 hogs in 1860, 
the loss in 18G8 was about 1-10,000, according to the percentages of loss 
returned from the several counties ; in tvrelve counties in Kentucky a 
loss of thirteen per cent., or 44,000; in nine counties of Indiana a loss 
of fifteen per cent., or 47,000 — an aggregate loss of 231,000 swine in 
forty counties, averaging to each comity 5,775. 


Foot-rot, scab, and rot are reported in all sections of the country to 
a greater or less extent, causing a small percentage of mortality, vary- 
ing in i^rcporticn to the degTee of neglect suffered. 

The reduction of numbers during the winter, in the general slaughter 
of culls for pelts and tallow, relieved the llocks of the country of the old, 
weak, and diseased sheep, and left those remaining in better condition, 
;md with a better prospect of health and needful attention. 

In Kennebec County, Maine, a fatal disease of the head and throat 
iqipeared. It was attended with loss of appetite, the liesh and skin 
became a dull green, and death ensued in a few days; decomposition was 
^pid, and the odor "fearfully fetid." Scanty pastiu-e in the faU, and 
poor condition, were assumed to be predisposing causes. Merinoes were 
principally affected. 

In parts of 2sew IIami>6hiro great fatahty among sheep has 'been 
reported, A disease called "wafer garget*' has been slightly prevalent 
in MeiTimaek County. 

It is stated that in Hampden County, Massachusetts, three-tenths oi 
the lambs have died from want of natural food, many of the mothers 
having little milk. 

A flock of one hundred and fifty lambs in Winnebago Comity, Ill in ois, 
<lropped in May, did weU until a few days after the hot term in July, 
when many of them were taken with severe purging, as in cholera; a 
few, without pui'ging, vraudered around in a small circle, nibbling grass 
and dirt. All of the latter and most, of the fii-st cases died in a few 


honrs after being: attacked. They coiDinence<l dying at the rate of tvro 
or three a day the first week, increasing to four or live a day in the third 
week, when they were taken from the ewes. Eighty weix? tkiven to 
another pasture; the remaining twenty-four, affected with the appear- 
ance of dysentery, were put inthe sheep-biirn and treated for that dis- 
order. Of the hatter nine died: of the former, but one. Xone of the 
sheep were aflected. 

A gi-eat many himbs died in Monroe County, Ohio, many of them 
api>arently in good order. The mortality was greatest when the drought 
was most severe Last summer, and the gi\isshop]>ers most abundant, and 
many think the excrements from the hitter on the grass were i>cisouous. 

In a Hock in Houston County, Minnesota, occuiTed several cases of 
sores under the shoulder, in one or two instances invohing face and 
legs, emitting waters' matter and a noisome odor. One died after suf- 
fering two yeai*s. Sulphiu- proved to be a partial remedy. 


Letters fi'om correspondents ia eveiy section of the countiy lament the 
ravages of dogs, the many losses incurred by the killing and maiming of 
sheep, ajul especially the tar greater loss in the repression of wool-growing 
and the prevention of efforts for its extension into regions peculiarly 
adapted to the business. Millions of aci^es of herbage, suited to the wants 
of line-wool sheep in all portions of the United States, are annually depas- 
tured pai'tially, or not at all, and left to decay and waste, for want of ani- 
mals to consume the abundant spontaneous gi'owth. Millions of dollars 
are thus annually lost to the production of the countiy. The followiug 
quotations ai-e merely samples of statements fi^om every quarter : 

Hartford County, Conn. — ''Formerly every farm kept fi-om twenty to 
three hundi-ed sheep: now there are very few, the dogs having driven 
them aU out." 

Baltimore County, 21d. — "Many sheep are annually lost by the ravages 
of dogs." 

Monroe County, West Va. — ''Loss by wolves and dogs ten per cent, 

Burle County, X. C. — "Were it not for the dogs, sheep-raising could be 
carried on with very little cost and trouble in this section of our State." 
Oranm County. — "A gi'eat many sheep killed by dogs. We wish Con- 
gress would impose a tax on all dogs.'' Stanly County. — "Sheep-raising 
woidd be profitable but for the depredations of dogs." 

St€2co)-t County, Ga. — "Not raised on account of dogs; twenty dogs to 
one sheep here.*' 

Putnam County. Fla. — "The raising of sheep here is impracticable 
fix)m the fact that nearly every negro and many whites keep a lot of 
hall'-starred cms, which they call "hunting dogs," but all the evidence 
of their hunting qualities that 1 have yet seen is that they will destroy 
a flock of sheep in about twenty minutes." 

Giles County, Tcnn. — "The dogs, 'curs of low degree,' have played 
havoc with the sheep. O for a dog law! A neighbor of mine lost 
thirty-five fine Southdowns in one night, among them two bucks worth 
one hundred dollars each, either one worth more than all the dogs in the 
county." Perry County. — "Dogs kept in a stai'viug condition i>revent 
success with sheep. Otherwise wool-gi-owiug might be profitable.'' 

Lirin<jston County., Ey. — "Wool-growing would be profitable if it were 
not for ravenous dogs." 

Monroe County. Ohio. — "Dogs have been very bad on sheep. One 
farmer lost sixty iu one night," 



Harrison County, Ind. — "The to^msbip trustee of Corrdoii lias paid 
Out to farmers, for loss of sbeep by dogs for the year ending March 1, 
three hundred and ninety-eight dollars, at the rate of tvro dollars per 
head. The amounts paid out by the other townships would probably 
make a total of one thousand dollars for the county." Spenctr County. — 
"Lost one thousand sheep by dogs — more than ever before." 

Douglas County, III. — "Lost two hundred sheep by dogs." 

Stearns County, Minn. — " The most serious obstacle to successful sheep- 
raising is the midtitude of worthless dogs, which threaten to exterminate 
the sheep." 

Lee County., loica. — "Without legislative protection from dogs, wool 
in our State cannot be made ]>rofitable at present j^rices." 

Atchison County, Kansas. — "Some of cur farmers have disposed of their 
flocks mainly in consequence of the destruction by dogs and prairie 
wolvCvS. Dogs are quite numerous and the gTcatest nuisance, and 1 think 
our legislature should tax them heavily." 

The following statement represents the losses from dogs in Ohio dur- 
ing ten years, so far a.s they were returned by assessors: 


killed or injured. 








40, 786 
30, 716 
27, 175 

$109, 661 
77, 170 
166, 607 
130, 069 
89, 797 

36. 441 
24, 972 
22, 657 
17, 128 
19,416 1 

$37, 097 


24, 842 




30, 000* 




39, 419 








34, 141 

92, 713 

31, 114 


357, 154 L 1, (^, 698 

233, 745 



Thus the average for this period is 35,715 killed per annum, and 
23,37-4: injured; the annual average losses, respectively $102,969 and 
634,050— total, 8137,019. In Iowa, in 186G the loss sustained, so far 
a» reported by assessors, was $82,G1G from sheep killed, the total stock 
of the State being 1,598,226. The same ratio would make the loss in 
the United States $2,080,000, without counting the damage trom 

The loss of Xew York, in 1862, as estimated by Secretary Johnson of 
the State AgTicultural Society, was 50,000 sheep, worth $175,000. On 
this basis the loss in the United States would amount to $2,000,000. 

Eeturns made by correspondents of this department in 1866 from five 
hundred and thuty-nine counties give an aggTegate of 130,427 sheep 
lolled, or an average of 212 in each comity. On this basis the number 
killed in all the States would be about half a million. 

Similar returns, in 1867, from three hundred and eightj'-nine counties, 
report a total of 78,375 sheep killed, an average per county of 201. The 
proportion of loss is greatest in the southern States, where the business 
of wool-growing needs most encouragement and promises the most suc- 
cessful results. The average numbers kiEed per county in the counties 
reported are greatest in the following States : In Mississippi, 509 per 
county ; Texas, 372 per county; Tennessee, 331 per county; Xew Jersey, 
287 per county; Ohio, 263 per county; Iowa, 261 per county; Missouri, 
253 per comity ; Indiana, 252 per county. 



The Ohio average is for twenty-two couuties, and is less than the 
average lor the ciJtire State, which was 383 i)er county by the assessors' 
returns for 1SC7. 

A careful analysis of these facts, and of other data of similar purport, 
justifies the estimates previously made in these reports of an annual loss 
of two millions of dollars in sheep killed, and nearly a million in injimes. 
The loss is equivalent to the value of six millions of pounds of wool. It 
is a tax of two per cent. ui)on the total sum invested in sheep — a tax 
fjreater than the average levied upon t^irmers by the assessors for county, 
State, and national purposes combined. Such a bitrden is intolerable — 
a drain upon the profits of industry that should speedily be checked. 

There are not less than six millions of dogs in the country, of which five are 
utterly worthless, destroying food worth many millions of dollars, commit 
ting serious depredations upon farm property, and repressing and depress- 
ing wool industry to the injury of business and the loss of national wealth. 

Will not our national legislators heed the call from every State in the 
Union for the levy of a national tax upon dogs ■? Great Britain has for 
a long period levied and collected such a tax; other countries include it 
i!i their tax lists. There is no nation in which a greater necessity exists 
for such taxation. A uniform tax of not less than two dollars per head 
should be required. Its influence would be in every way salutary. 
Losses of wool-gTowers would decrease, and the business be extended 
into localities where it is now uniDrofltable. Mongrel curs too worthless 
to be claimed by owners would be sacrificed, useful dogs vfould be pro- 
tected, and canine tribes would experience an improvement gratifying 
to all who appreciate the desirable qualities of the race, and a nuisance 
would be abated to the benefit of all and the injury of none. 

Talilc shotcing the total value of live stock in the following States in 1860, February 1, 1868 

and February 1, 1869. 



February 1, 1868. Febniary 1, 1869. 


New Hamp«hi."e 


MasKachusetts .. 
Rhode Island ... 


New York...... 

New Jersey 





North Carolina . 
South Carolina . 









We^t Virginia . . 






















437, 533 
924, 627 
737, 744 
042, 044 
656, 296 
672, 726 
144, 706 
667, 853 
420, 369 
130, 805 
934, 465 
372, 734 
553, 356 
891,692 I 
546, 940 
825, 447 
096, 977 
382, 680 
mS, 237 
693, 673 
501, 225 
85.5, 539 
807, 375 
476, 293 
.332, 450 
585, 017 

1, 075, 940, 902 

$19, 974, 800 
20, 418, 9.02 

18, 699, 012 
166, 557, 969 
25, 502, 769 

4, 263, 973 
18, 992, 336 
3.5, 148, 572 
20, 052, 456 
26, 463, 675 

4, 190,484 
21, 126, 8.32 

8, 492, 468 
33, 606, 563 
38, 708, 702 
40, 491, 619 
50, 728, 286 
109, 798, 764 
72, 79(), 080 
16, 301, 354 


0, 169, 536 

15, 113,113 
22, 807, 568 
3, 786, 043 

182, 766, 369 
32, 595, 638 


4, 445, 632 
22, 178, 887 
37, 705, 568 
24, 434, 747 
34, 692, 001 

5, 007, 939 
27, 255, 962 
28, 545, 453 
15, 162, 289 
20, 360, 380 
53, 136, 552 
17, 088, 568 
49, 189, 403 

79, 728, 231! 

55, 507, 096 
95, 109, 517 
12, 902, 830 
7, 1 86, 454 


1, 527, 704, 029 



o F* iH b r: t^ rt ?i ?; r- rt X r; ?- r^ --c 5i r^ L" t^ X Ti S ^ ;:; ?. ^ L- 
r — " f~ Cr" ?" ~" i" ~" ~" ~" ~" '~"" ~ *;" £" — " 'jf C"" Cf S" ~' ~-" t" — " S" f;" i-if ~" 
— IJ Ci — H — i( i< " S ~ c! 5; j-: >S £ ^ t^ 

:0 7i'rr Z: ::; TT -r c^. 7? r3 — X X 

•r T ?~ x' ■-c' t-f rT rf 

' ci <^ C-. :c f^ X rt i- r; X c: t^ rj -r X c: T^ o T? o r: f^ r^ i- ?> ^ 
' c <?> — L' ^ X o L-; T* TT o o TT '^ ■<3' uT t^ :c c^ o — rt ^/ r^ t^ TT 
' cro"x"tr'rr-^'Tfcr'i--rt^''x"?f cfo jf t^'rf '^"rf rf-^'x"— rTi-'— TtT 

■ o j^ X ■;£ X ■T' X r; X t^ Tj — — — r? -r — C-. r- t~ C) X c. — -i X 

• c; 75 o r; o — r- c< o o o •<r' ci ?* o t- r-» '^ cc t^ o -* rt ^ x ^< r^ t^ 

." X tc 

~. ci 

• OC QO CD L~ OJ OJ t^ <?? ^ 31 L-S ~3 O — to =-. r? ; 


c? r^ 1^ o X 

oo — , — — c: 55 - 

■ X en ^' *^ lO ci -^ uo o r^ "^ — ^ L* o X c? :c ^' ^ L^ s rS — ih t-i r; ?- -vi 

) L-5 o> — X rj c> ms o •»• t~ a: ;:» o ph c^ LT - 
rH i-> c) rt n'-o Qu I- irt -o o t- « c~ « 

: r-, li — X ;< r- -• 

Cf ?. L- - ~ 
(M-,r t- r 

ocT— ' ?>"* 

m L-^ o (■ _ 

CO <?» lO o o 

; £■ E: S y X — ;^ I 2 r; 9 J) :r- — — i_; ^ — — t; X = £ -^ X -^ X t^ X 
— K r; i^. X — . (^ t- X — X J5 rj X ? X X -i ^ o — iT; — T) x 5; -^ ii So 

> — c:^<Ct^o^-o^iht^t^i-^ooxot-^r7abi?30Trr55S — -^'Ooodi 

Cl I— U rp ~ O --. li 

L'7'vao'^X)Oxr3:c:o" — o^^CJO(^JtoQo^^50'7»o^^^5(nl.'oco^. cxr^'rjro- 
oca— <0(?lCT'^r:coc^-3'0— 'CioaoriOTCs-^— '«t~coc^coc^OQO— '^OTJro' 

O O -i O C ^ .C '; 7'< S X O X •.T •?! O T"' 7* — — t'l O ?r :^ :^ ?i — . i-^ O r- ^ — X S S ~ 

ci — N^xocu-^'.rcoir^c-n'rX^ — t^;o3iQDC^t£7i"Jt^r;jic:'r"Trr^t^i-':r5;o 

r^'s" rTeT-^" ;="—■— "x"^•"'■■^x" x"c^^T?•"^^^^"x"-T"T!■"c■^^^"■«•" —"err-" "r"3x"—^-"■^^ 
- „ . jp g _, ^ ^ _,-... „ . _ _ 

1.- X 3 — x- x ; 

Ci .— o ^ t~ :) 

I — — L-: X Lo o — c! 

— - 2"^ 

3 S 
o "o 



i« c i^ it r- c .- — X h- I r. ; r; I 

7^ '-xi ?. T Z i'~ c 1-: i o X ;?; ^ ^ ' 

— ;-XCJ;=9C 

^ ii i. V X rt r^ £ : 

r: f^ a cc — c< '-i — : 

'^ — ^T'rtx — x-' — -i Ix 

— -- _ ^j — I- c» " * it -^ ~ r: :c 1" — r* — '* i-" C f- o r: X s> t^ rr ;; »» X — ?* c; c» 


t;.tJC — ^■^ — 

c^r^oei — £ — 
2 C"" 3fr i" — f" '— 5 

;} 5: X X i R X x^ X c :* r; S. r; 5 — ir. — — c: £ - T- x x 

-■ ;»■ — ■ c <■ X =" ^' rj" t -~ — " ^" S '"" = S" if t ~ S' — ■£ ~' ^ f~ 


— CJCJ— :j — — — ejs»r-ic»c»« 

r: r x x l-. — r: • 

r: X I- :i: x — »-. r-. ■ 
c t- - X t- c .-: — . 

A — . X X f^ = <c f- 5 x' r: ? — . — i' i- = r: — — :v X c ?■ 
z/ -S — " if V :J r-' t~ -S -r — " zj x" — " ~ ? J^ =" r: £.' — " ;^r f-" ^r o" 

f = c<o 

c' r ■ -i' =■ x' =■ ^-■ r '(-":;■ i< —■ t~' -■ c i" :=■ j» —\r;' x =r t-\r< c' "i" -"—"—■ x" >;■£-" ^ 

— tc — X c — r: c: ^- r* cv r: *'i o — rv — x — x — — ^ -^ x r; -^ r^ -^ x -^ t/ x 

^-•ettc«^:c«d.';c^t» — cnwiwsoL — ■^(=x«r; — =i — «; — cxx:ir;t»j- 


•w oi s; — Si ». O - 

■ a&*Ts«SF-r;r: — jssjowiscc 


icr-cc-^^c — 0":rx — rt'^er-: — xni-irrrr-j — — x=CJ»n^:^;^~~ — 
r;oc;^==c— ia^c■<^■f-^-x^;c^:c■. w— f-ocJ-S'C*— ■^o— Hi.'t— «or; 

— lC^f-C«-!^Cf-C«X.Orte»«— C»C5C» — X)~'-C — ODtOrS-^t-X'tCO— o 



■ -c -^ I*. X 1-. I c 1-. ■? — c c — r: r: — . o o c ci — ' o «o r: cj X c> — X 
• ■« ^ r: r; X t*. cr. — ti ?* o — *t * — 'C ^ i" -e f- •— LT rt rr -^ -?• -^ t* — 
: X =: r. — J- c< i."; r: c; — =. X -r o i ~. ~. X •»■ t; — 5< -^ xr I* T — s r; 

— " — ' = ?r — ?:" ^' x rf x' = =: c" =' rr — " CI x" ij — " p" rr ^' i^^ 

~ i< . -: — •=■ = "^ c» 

P-. X X r: cv : 

: SJ — t~-T'r 7* 

c = 

_ c tt 




The receipts from the export of cereals are of equal importance with 
those from the same value of cotton or cheese; and though they maybe 
small in amount, they are not to be despised; yet the policy of growing 
grain for exportation, except as a pioneer expedient in opening and im- 
proving farms, is not to be commended. No material portion of our 
exports can ever be made up of breadstuffs, nor is it desirable that they 
should be. Grain exportation as a settled policy would soon so reduce 
the yield of cereals that there would be no surplus to export. The price 
of wheat in the distant west has been remunerative from the influx of 
settlers to be fed until the ripening of another crop, and from the mar- 
kets opened among the miners of the mountains, rather than from 
exportation. It is the policy of this country, and its destiny, to bring con- 
sumers into the very iields of production, and to export surplus products 
of industry not in the bulky and burdensome form of raw material, but 
in products enhanced in value by the expenditure of labor, with a reduc- 
tion to a minimum of the relative expenses of transportation. 

That the comparative unimportance of the grain export may be seen 
at a glance the following tabulations have been prepared, showing the 
number of bushels of wheat and barrels of flour shipped to foreign ports 
since 1825, a period of forty-three years. In the first table the quantities 
are condensed into aggregates for periods of five years each : 

Statement showing the quantity ofivheat and flour exported from 1826 to 1855, inclusive. 


Five years ending 1S30 
Five years ending 1835 
Five years ending 1840 
Five year» ending 1845 
Five years ending 1850 
Five years ending 1855 

Total in 3 J yeai-s 

Wheat, bushels. 

125, 547 



2, 946, 861 


16, 446, 955 

32, 160, 994 

Flour, barrels. 

4, 651, 940 
4, 092, 9.32 
6, 274, 697 
12, 284, 828 
13, 149, 518 

45, 695, 879 

Total wheat and 
fiour, in bushely. 

23, 385, 247 
26, 823, 965 
22, 307, 501 
82, 194, 545 

260, 640, 389 

Statement showing the quantity of tcheat and flour exported from 1856 to 1868. 


Wheat, bushels. 

Flour, barrels. 

Total wheat and 
fiour, in bushels. 


8, 154, 877 


8,926, 196 

3, 002, 016 

4, 155, 1.53 


37, 289, 572 

36, 160,414 


9, 937, 152 



15, 940, 899 

4, 323, 756 
4, 882, 033 
3, 557, 347 
2, 604, .542 
2, 1 83, 050 
2, 076, 423 

25, 708, 007 
33, 130, 596 
52, 856, 837 
22, 959, 862 

26, 323, 014 














204, 781, 893 



Total for 43 years 

236, 942, 887 


670, 900, 182 



Statanent showing the value of hreadsiuffs exported from 182C to 1S55, inclusive. 

years. "Wheat. 


All breadstaffs. 

Five years ending 1830 ^iJH' 7" 

$24, 708. 090 
29, 347, (J49 
69,3'; ."•.74) 
75. 775, 22J 

48, 095, 352 

Five ynani CDdiug 184 J 1,817,007 


Five vcars cndiD" 1851 ]2,80i,093 



Total in SOyearH 1 40,053, 8i6 

257, 494, 608 

405, 692, 863 

Statement shoicing the value of breadstuffs exj>ortedfrom IfGG to 1858, inclusive. 














Total in 13 years 

Total in 43 years 

All breadstuffs. 



240, 857 
849, 192 
076^ 7..'4 
573, 295 
754, 195 
432, 133 
397, 197 
842, 749 
882, 555 
247, 632 


275, 148 
BB-J, 316 
328. 834 
433, 591 
448, 507 
64.5, 849 
.534, 677 
588, 249 
222. C3l 
603, 775 
867, 798 

277,787,293 | 289,613,580 


547, 306, 368 

559. 010, 219 
23,562, 169 
26. 989. 709 
73. 534, 544 
84, 340, 053 
89, 26:{, 736 
63. 46.!. 3."'3 
53, 502. -.!! 
40. b--, 5!': 

4i,!J>:;. ,i-- 

79. 046, lt7 

727. 862, 863 


A di\ision of these results into decades makes the quantity and value 
of wheat and floiu- as follows: 


Five years ending 1S30 . 
Ten years ending 1840. . 
Tod years ending 1850. . 
Ten years endiug 1860.. 
Eight years ending 1668 

Total bushels 




23, .365, 247 




292, 559, 68J 

59, ]34,03.'> 
25.5, 172, 346 
409, 888, 514 

670, 900, 182 

665, 149, 512 

Statement showinj the export price of wheat and flour. 



Ten years to 1^40 
Ten years to IfoT 
Ten years to 1660 

In 1£61 

In 1862 

In 1863 

In 1864 

In 1865 

In 1666 

In 1867 

In 1866 -• 

Thus in forty-three years our total exijoiis of wheat have been 
230,942,887 bushels, and of Horn- 80,791,450 baiTels, making an equivalen: 
in wheat and Hour of 070,000,182 bushels of wheat, valued at $805,149,512, 
an average of $1 29 per bushel. 



For thirty years the average export was 8,683,012 bushels; for tlie last 
thirteen years, 31.558,445 bushels; for the whole period of forty-thi-ee 
years, I5',G02,329 bushels; for eight years since 18G0, 36,569,985, sold 
at an average of 81 -10 per bushel, or 851,236,064. The receipts for these 
eight years have been 8409,888,514, while the value of the exports of 
thirty-live years pre\ious was but 8455,260,998; the number of bushels 
sent abroad in eight years 202,550,880, against 378,340,302 in the prior 
period of thirty-five years. While the total ex])orts bear a small propor- 
tion to the total amount produced, it is a significant fact that in a period 
of distraction and war, during a part of which a million of men were 
withdrawn from industry, as nuich wheat was sei:t abroad as in a pre- 
ceding period of four-fold duration. 


The ex|)orts of corn, the gTeat cereal of the country, and the dis- 
tinguishing cro]) of the western world, present a meager showing, which 
will serve to illustrate the impolicy of reliance i\i)on the foreign demand 
for maize as an aid to national industry. 

Statement shoicing the quantity and value of ervurts cf cum itiid corn meal. 


Five years ending lS:3!.i... 
Five year.H ending 1835... 
Five years ending 1840... 
Five years ending 1845... 
Five years ending 1850... 
Five years ending 1855 

Total in 00 years 


Total in 13 years 

Euihels. I Dollars. 


3, 5.^0, 710 
!>, .=68, 946 
1, 184,973 
3, 474, 109 
43, 8-2-2. 1.53 
ii3, 905, 198 

78, 486, 087 

Total in 43 year-i 198, 249, 975 



2, 019.0Q6 


873, 104 

1,7.55, 60-.> 

31,277, 9-JO 

17, 712, 699 


BaiTcls. Dollars. 

783, 408 
643, 930 

1, 132,749 

2. 493, 700 
1, 121,456 

2, 404, 371 

2, 731, 077 

3, 037, 021 
8, 984, 252 

4, 147,318 

55, 443, 962 ' 7, U).', 626 j 24, 775, 254 

622, 565 
259, 039 
323, 103 
399, 8U3 
8P0, 865 
387, 383 
592, 704 
3.53, 280 
679, 133 
070, 395 
094, 036 

293, 607 
267, 5 4 
237, G37 
258. 885 
233, 709 
253, 570 
257. 948 
262, 357 
237, 275 
336, 5U8 

1, 17.5, 688 
9.')7, 791 
877, 692 
994, J69 
912, 075 
692, 003 
778, 344 


1, 349, 765 
1, 555, 585 

2, 068, 430 

93, 728, 069 3, 326, 013 14, 994, 284 


10, 518, 639 i 39, 769, 538 



4, 424, 297 
4. 535, 788 
4, 792, 6.'3 
40, 262, 172 
21, 860, 017 


8, 798, 253 
6, 142, 457 

4, 136,731 
7, 582, 868 

11, 165, 727 

4, 703, 045 

5, 169,019 

12, 199, 879 
16, 426, 677 
1.5, 162, 466 

108, 722, 353 

188, 941, 569 

Statement showing the export of corn and corn meal in decennial periods. 


Five ye;irs, ending 1830. 
Tea years, ending 1840. 
Ten yearj*, ending 18-50. 
Ten years, ending 1860. 
KIgbi years, ending 1868 



3, 530,710 
47, 296, 262 
92, 165, 992 

198, 249, 975 

Corn meal. 

783, 408 
3, 626, 449 
-', 034, 671 



The values of these exports in the decades named were as follows : 

Fire years, ending 1830.— Corn di*. 019. 920 

Com meal 2.401,371 

:ir"^ 81.421,297 

Ten veai-s. eDding 1S40. — Corn 2. G77, 815 

Corn n^eal *>. 202, 292 

^. *s(», 107 

Ten rears, ending 1850.^Corn 33, 033, 522 

Cor;; meal 12. 021. 273 

4-5. 054, 795 

Ten rears, ending 1860.— Corn 37. 501. 880 

Corn meal 0. 0(>4. 833 

40. 566, 713 

Eight rears, ending 1868.— Corn 73. 93S. SS.S 

Com meal lu, 07G. 7G9 

84. 015, 657 

Total ralue, com and com meal, exported in 43 years 18S. 941. 589 

The arc-rage erport prices of com for periods of ten years hare been 

as follovrs : 

Period. j Per bn&heL . Per barrel 


Period ending 1S40 ^'' 'H ^ T3 

Period eniUng 18:>0 ^j 3 31 

Period ending ld60 j 72| j 3 76 

The prices since 1800 hare been as follo^vs : 

Yt rirs. 

Per bnsheL 



$0 G4i 

1 30 1 
82 1 

1 17i 

$3 40 
3 07 



3 93 

Isd4 i 

5 14 


7 47 

1856....: ' 

4 76 


5 47 


6 15 

Conrerting com meal to com at fonr bnshels to the barrel, the total 
amount of com exix)rts during forty -three years is two hundred and 
thirty millions bushels, or one-fourth of the crop of last year : and all 
the corn erer exijorted from this country could be replaced by one-third 
of that crop. For thirteen years past the annual arerage has been but 
ton millions of bnshels annually, and for forty-three years fire and a 
half millions, or one-eightieth part; of the crop. Diu'ing the entire i>eriod 
since 1825 an arerage of one bushel has been exix)rted for erery hundred 

The tanner who has han-ested one thousand bushels has been depend- 



ent upon the foreign demand to the extent of ten bushels, for which he 
may have received two dollars, while the price of thirty bushels lias been 
expended in shipping it from the prakies to the markets of Europe. 
This is a very meager showing, bnt an export of ten times the amount 
would be worse, as a herald of the exhaustion and poverty that must 
result when so exhausting a crop is sent abroad at so gTcat expense and 
little profit, and nothing returned to the depleted soil. An export of 
corn is therefore undesirable and unwise. 


The following is a statement of the imports of wool during the year 
ended June 30, 18C8, as reported by the statistical bureau of the 
Treasury Department : 




Wool, at 12 cents or loss per pound 

Wool, value over 12 ci-nts per pound. 

Clothing wools, class No. 1, value 32 cents or less per ponnd 

Clothing wools, class No. 1, value over 32 cents per pound 

Combir.g wools, class No. 2, 32 cents or less per pound. 

Combine wools, class No. 2, over 32 cents per pound 

Sheepskins, raw or unmanufactured, with the wool on, washed or unwashed . 
Woolen rags, waste, shoddy, mungo, and flocks 


e, 907, 864 

10, 001, 697 



2, 109, •28i) 


5.%, 414 

$972, 204 

1. 882, 482 

454, 204 




237, 589 

49, 619 

24, 681, 217 I 4, 079, 894 

The imports of woolens for the same period are as follows : 

Quantity. Value. 

Clothri , poundis . 

Shawls pounds. 

All manufactures, VFholly or in part of wool, not otherwise provided for. .pounds. 

Flannels >.. .pounds.. 

Blankets pounds . . 

Hats of wool pounds.. 

Knit goods — h "81617 pounds.. 

Knit goods — shirts, drawers, &c pounds. - 

Balmorals pounds.. 

Woolen and worsted yams pounds.. 

Manufacturi s composed wholly or in part of worsted pounds.. 

Clothing and wearing apparel of every description, composed wholly or in p.irt of 
wool or worsted pouiids. . 

Ready made , pounds.. 

Articlns of wear pounds. . 

Webbingfi, beltings, bindi.'ijrs, braids, galloons, &c., of wool, worsted, or mohair, 
or of which either is a component material pounds.. 


Women's and children's dress goods, and real or imitation Italian cloths, wholly or 
in part of wool or worsted sq. yards.. 

Kndless belts or felts for paper or printing machines 

Carpets, A ubusson and Axminster, and carpets woven whole for rooms 

Cr.rpets, Siixony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet, wrought by the Jacquard ma- 
chine sq. yards. . 

Carpets, Brussels, wrought by the Jacquard machioe sq. yards.. 

Carpets, patent velvet and tapestry velvet sq yards.. 

Carpets, tapestry Brussf Is sq. yards.. 

Carpets, treble ingrain, three-ply, and worsited chain Venetian sq. yards. . 

Yarn, Venetian, and two-ply ingrain sq. jards.. 

Druggets and bockings, printed, colored, or otherwise sq. yards.. 

Carpets of wool not otherwise specified 


4, 801, 9^5 
158, 896 

74, 58H 
84, 593 

2;;0, :156 
79, 200 

407, 416 

59, 596 

357, 371 

60, 238, 332 
104, 907 

69, 513 

26, 832 
74, 2!.5 
03, 977 

526, 272 
750, 558 
.*:■•:?, 037 
35, 561 
483, 186 
103, 605 
4G1, 4)7 


71.1, 415 

15, 449, 787 
100 070 
277, 485 

11.3, 193 

720, 343 
389, 163 
25, 703 
53, 084 





Statement of the exports of agricultural products of the United States, 
icith their immediate manufacturer, for the year ended June 30, 1SG8. 

Products and manafactores. 


JC. liSi 

43, GJD, OTA 
6i, Sw, 46-2 
•J7H, 432 
i:*, 522 
02, CtfJ, 531 

Animals living— hcg-s nv.mber. . 

Horned caiile ncmber. . 

Horses cumber. . 

Mules Duiuber.. 

Sbeep number . . 

All other, and fowls ctunher.. 

Animal matter — guts, fehinF, bladders, &c j 

Pork pounds.. 

Ham3 and bacoa pounds. . 

Lard pounds . . 

La.'doU gallons.. 

Ncat's-foot and other animal oils gullocs.. 

Beef pounds.. | 

Poturry '. 1 

Preierved meats — 

Tallow poundis.. C2,CS2,412 

Hair, utunannfactured j 

Hair, laanufacinred i 

Butier pounds..] t:, 071, 873 

Ch^-e^e ponuds. . | 5;, 097, 2-)3 

Eggs doz!-u8..l 19,6fM 

Candles, tallow, ice ponnd.-i..j 2,975,517 

Soap, perfajned ! 

Soap, other pounds.. 

Glue poucds. . 

Stearine pounds . . 

Wax ponuds.- 

Leatber pounds.. 

Leather, morf^cco and other, fine 

Leathern boots and ^!;oes pairs.. 

Leathern saddli-ry and harness - --j . 

Leathern mantiiactiires not specified 

Wool pounds.. 556,435 

Manufectures of wool not specified ] 

Furs and ^kius 


]»:, 8r>4 

207, 7( 
820, 687 


Bone< and bone dast c?rt.. 6, 172 

■R-ine-black, ivory -black, &c pounds. . 185, 358 

Breadrttiffi — Indian com btL-hels. . 11, 147, 490 

Indian meal barrels..] 336, 5l8 

Wheat bushels..! 15,940,899 

Wheat flour ». barrels. . I •-', C7fi, 423 

Bye bushels. .j 50), 349 

Bye flour barrels. . ; 10, 592 

Barley bushels.-] i>,Si0 

Other small grain au'i pul»e ■ 

Rice pounds . . 3, (-79, C43 

BreaJ and biscuit pounds..! 8,294,224 

ilaccaroDi. vermiceili. and all other preparations from breadstufls ].. 

Cotton, 8ea-i-4land pounds..] 4,998,313 

Cotton, other kinds pounds..! 779.705,318 

Cotron manufactures, colored yards. . I 2, 979, 275 

Cotton QBDUfiictures, uncolored yards..] 10, SJ9, 177 

•i.r.-*, all other 

•urcsof wood — boards, planks, and scantling 31 feel.. 131,673 

O'.tton 1 


for barrels and bogsbeat>s . 

31, 160 

•Is, (empl V ) number . . I 

^* - M.l 



^ of wood not spccjfi,^ 

Ashco, pu! und pearl cwt.. 

Rosin and turpeniicc barrels. . 

Tar and pitch barrels . . 

Apples, green or ripe bnsbeU.. 

Apples, dried bushels. . 

Fniit, green, ripe, or dried, not specified 

Potatoen bushels.. 

Onions bushels.. 

443, 501 
20, 751 


60, 849 



143. 521 



9, 540 

48. 205 

3, 2(T7, &J2 

5, 476, 998 

9, 427, 831 

3:K), 179 

23, 433 

2, 696, Oil 


7.5, 226 


79, 642 


582, 7^5 

7, 010. 424 

5, ^65 



C21, 823 




eOl, 175 

5, 93(1 

578, 650 

97, 39,i 


191, 119 




12, (31 

13, 094, 036 

2 068, 4:ki 

30, 217, «! 2 

20, 887, 71(8 

836, 838 

91, 95M 

10, 981 

989, C(i5 

17(^ 357 

649, 492 

43, (KiC 

3, 02;i, 334 
149, 797, Xrj 

2, 788, 046 


84-5, 49;» 
12, 437 


1, 397. 261^ 

3, 393, 884 
680, 137 

2, 377, 7!'2 

288, on 


1, 199, ICO 
2.56, .330 

2, 028, 514 

Statement of tlie exports of agricultural products. iVc — Contiuued. 


Products and manafacrsiros. 



Pickles and sauces I 

Vegetables, prepared or preserved j 

Ve^tftbles, uot specified 

Clover seed bushels.. 

Flax seed bushels.. 

Liaseed oil gallons..' 

Castor oil gallous.-l 

Essential oi! -.1 

Oil cake ponads..! 

Hemp, nnmanulactared cwi. . j 

Manufactures of hemp — bags 

Cables and cordage cwt..| 

Hemp cloth l 

All other manufactures of hemp ! 

Hops pounds . . j 

''''' tons. . i 




6, Wo 

115, 503. 9T7 

15, 491 


Ginseng pounds. 

Salt bushels. 

Beer, ale, porter, and cider, in bottles dozens. 

Beer, ale. porter, and cider, in casks gallons. 

Spirits, distilled from molasses gallons. 

Spirits, distilled from graia gallons. 

Spirits, distilled from other materials gallons. 

Spirits of turpentine gallons. 

■VViue gallons. 

Molasses gallons . 

Vinegar g;U!or.s . 

Sugar, brown - pounds. 

Sugar, refined pounds. 

Candy and confectionery 

Cigars I M- 

Snnff rionuds . 

Tobacco, manufactured pounds . 

Leaf tobacco, unmanufactured 







1, 140, 553 








2. 214, 207 



10, 470, 0^ 

206, 020, 504 









2, 913, 448 






2frl, 129 

118, 443 

















3, 100, 084 

22, 898, 623 


Animal production . 

: $37,626,063 

Cy, 089, 249 

Cotton acd its manufactures 157, 691, 767 

Wood and iis products 1~. ~6] , 755 

iUscellaneous 35, 52i'>, 924 

Total 317, 669, 778 


Since tlie organization of our government, eighty years ago, a people 
of three millions, of European extraction, have become forty, not 
altogether by natural but iu part by immigration, in a rippling 
stream at lirst, which has gathered volume uutil its ciuvent is equiva- 
lent to a third of a inillion annually, and its total aggi^^gation eight 
millions. It is one of the marvels of the eveutfrJ nine years since 1860, 
that one-fourth of all the immigTants who have ever sought our shores 
have come during the frightful civil war or since its close. Two milhons 
of haman beings, two-thirds as many as fought the war of the revolu- 
tion, have tlius been added, to our numbers since the taking of the last 

The records of immigTation from 1820 to ISGO present an aggregate 
of 5,459,421 passengers arrived. From 1700 to 1820 about 200,000 arri- 
vals were reported or estimated. About one-seventh of these retiu-ned, 
and perhaps as many were received through Canada. Of all these nrnn- 
bers, three-fifths were males, and one-half were in the vigor of youth, 
between the ages of fifteen and tiiiity. 

Of the numbers alri^ing between 1820 and ISGO, 2,750,874 were from 
Great Britain, of whom 967,3GG were from Ireland ; and 1,480,044 came 



from Germany. Thus the same Auglo-Saxon elements, constituting the 
bulk of our original ])opulation, enter in nearly the same proportions into 
the accretions gained by annual immic^ration. 

More than a million of these immigrants were children ; the numbers 
■with occupations not noted -vrere 2,978,599 ; th^e were 764,837 farmers, 
and 872,317 laborers, many of whom either immediately or ultimately 
became farm laborers or farmers. It is evident that more than half of 
all these immigrants became cultivators of the soil. 

Diu-iug the past nine vears the arrivals of immigrants make an aggre- 
gate of 2,141,403—880,545 from Great Britain, (Ireland, 390,032;) Ger- 
many, G1U,2G8 ; British America, 87,602 ; China, 40,081. Every quarter 
of the globe has been represented, even Africa and the isles of the 
Pacilic. Among the African countries couti'ibuting are Abyssinia, 
Egypt, Liberia, and South Africa ; among the islands of the Pacific, 
New Zealand, Australia, the Society and Sandwich islands ; and the 
immigration from Iceland includes eleven souls. 

The German immigi'ation has been large since the war, amounting 
to 343,183, and the total for four years past exceeds the aggregate num- 
bers of the nine previous years. The largest influx from Great Britain 
was in ISGG — 131,029 immigrants; and the largest from Ireland was 
69,977, in 1807. The gi'eatest movement from Germany was also in 
1807, numbering 121,240. In the last ten years the total numbers, in 
he order of theii' magnitude, were as follows : 1866, 359,943 ; 1807, 
333,627 ; 1868, 326,232 ; 1865, 287,399 ; 1804, 221,535 ; 1863, 199,811 ; 
1860, 179,691; 1859, 155,509; 1862, 114,463; 1861, 112,702. 

The following statement of the occupations of immigrants of the past 
thirteen years, from 1850 to 1808 inclusive, is obtained from the Treasury 
Bureau of Statistics : 

Occupations of immigrants. 












Seiuutitrosiie:! and miliiccrs 




Weavers and gpionera 











Tai liters 



All other occupations i 

Occujiations not specified 13l', 

Aggregate . 

:*»M, ^ya 

Occupations of immigrants — Continued. 










46, 198 

12, 349 


























48, 041 


14, 156 



























106, 657 

45, 245 

20, 012 


12, 676 



























58, 629 

30, 302 

23, 939 

15, 834 



2, 687 

2, 731 






















202, 442 

55, 443 


25, 966 


7, 2:)5 

6; 367 

2, 501 























192, 222 


19, 804 

17, 29S 

8, 393 





















515, 2ir 

264, 949 


138, 214 



20, 988 





Seamstresses and milliners 

3, 736 


3, 322 

2, 8G6 



1, 942 













191, 493 











359, 943 

339, 627 




Louisiana continues to be the main source of sugar production in tlie 
United States, tliough the Gulf coast, from Florida to Texas, is 
beginning to be dotted with sugar plantations, from vrhich little income 
lias, as yet, been derived. At the present time the business stands 
high in popular appreciation. 

In Louisiana, production has been -vronderfully stimulated by the 
high price of the product. The severe frost on the 29th of January 
everywhere injured the rattoons very severely, though the se«d cane 
escaped ; and with favorable weather, producing an extraordinary 
growth, a large croj) was anticipated, untd October 2, when the cane 
was prostrated by a sevore storm of wind; bad weather intervened, 
delay in obtaining fuel occurred, frosts injured the outlyiag cane, elec- 
tion excitements interfered with labor, a series of unusual misfortunes 
combined to diminish the total production of the year ; yet an aggregate 
of 84,256 hogsheads was reached, or 95,051,225 pounds, and 0,081,907 
gallons of molasses, against 37,0-17 hogsheads in 1807. This result was 
attained, notwithstanding the loss of 8,000 acres of cane totally lost. 

A local census of this important crop, made by Mr. L. Bouchcrean, 
the facts of which he has communicated to this Department, affords 
abundant evidence of energy and progress in this branch of agTicultural 

The acreage in cane was about 03,199, and the average ;>ield 1,504 
pounds of sugar and 80 gallons of molasses. A larger proportion of mo- 
lasses than usual is due to the injiu^y of the crop by the weather, which 
rendered its use for sugar impracticable. The total number of sugar- 
growers was 747 ; sugar-houses iu operation, 073 ; portable mills. 8 ; 
steam-power, 540 ; horse-i)0\ver sugar-housCvS, 133 ; open 
kettles, 507; open pans, GO; vacuum pans, 40; board aud slate sugar- 


houses. 85 ; board and shingle sugar-bouses, 231. The following is a 
revised statement of production since 1SC2 and 18G3, of wbicb years no 
report is made, sho\ring tbe rate of recuperation since tbe var : 


1SC4 C,G6S 

18G.3 15, 500 

18GG 41, 000 

18G7 37, 047 

1SC8 : 84,256 



The following table exhibits the receipts of live stock at Xew York in 
the years 1S66-'G7-'G8. 











^C'-. ?:-' 


5,S&2 ; 


1. COO, 621 
], 174, 154 
1, €00, 623 

1, 102, 643 
976,511 j 

2, 643, 939 

The weekly average of 1868 is as follows: beeves, 5,637; calves, 1,595 ; 
sheep, 26,935 — an increase of 2.000 over the average of the previous 
year : swine. 18,179. The following are the average prices for the year : 
beef, 15f ctfuts per pound ; sheep 6 cents : hogs, 9^ cents. In beeves 
an average advance is shown over the previous year of one-foiuth to one- 
half cent i)er pound. In sheep, a slight diminution of price, owing to 
large increase in supply. There was a considerable decrease in the sup- 
ply of hogs which ruled two to three cents per pound higher than m 
18G7, the advance being cjuitc three cents at the of the year. The 
decrease in numlM?r amounts to 126,000 head for the year. The follow- 
ing is an exhibit of sources of supply of beef cattle : Illinois, 165,668 : 
Xew York, 28,757; Ohio, 27,303: Kentucky, 19,372; Indiana, 14,6.55; 
Texas, 11.300: Missouri, 9,781; Pennsylvania, 3.455: Canada, 3,068; 
Iowa, 2,950 ; Connecticut, 2,705 : Michigan, 1.506 ; West Yirginia, 1,046; 
Kansas, 818 ; Nebraska, 263 ; Massachusetts, 249 ; Xew Jersey, 200. 

There has been but little variation in the average price of beeves for 
the last three years. In 186S they brought the highest price in Ai)ril, 
running up to an average of eighteen cents in the early part of the 
mouth, and were at their lowest in October and Xovemljer, reaching an 
average of thirteen and a half cents. In January, the prices of the 
difi'erent qualities ranged fiom eleven to twenty cents : in December, 
from eight to twenty cents. Sheep brought the highest prices in April, 
at an average of eight cents for the month ; and the lowest price in 
October, when the receipts averaged nearly 45,000 head per week. At 
the last of the month prices ranged from three and a half to five 


The numbers of live stock sold in the Boston markets during 1868 are 
as follows : cattle. 110,010 ; calves, 13,700 ; sheep. 492,735 : hogs, 127,544 : 
pigs, 10,443. The sources of supply of cattle are as follows: Mainel 



10,574 ; Xew Hainpshiro, 7,209 ; Vermont, 1S,-42G ; Massnclinsetts, 2,780 ; 
^ew York, 4,327 ; Western States, 01,080 ; Canada, 5,00o. Sources of 
supply of sheep : Maine, 0,174; New Hampshire, 41.903; Vermont, 
173,802; Massaclinsetts, 18.300; Xew York, 39,083; Western States, 
107.410 ; Canada, 42,401. 

The number of cattle for 1808 v\'as somewhat greater than that of 
1807, but less by about 8,000 head than the exhibits of 1805 and 1800. 
Comparison of sales of sheep during the six years from 1803 to 1808 
shows a greater amount for the last named than for any of the five 
previous years. The excess of 1808 over 1807 was 70,795 head. 

The best beef brought thirteen and a half to fourteen and a half cents 
dimng January. During the subsequent months, fifteen to sixteen cents. 
From June, prices declined till the first of September, after which they 
ranged, Ibr the most part, from twelve and a half to thirteen and a half 
cents. The lower grades varied much more in price. During the fall, 
grass-fed cattle were sold at seven to nine cents per pound, while during 
the spring and early summer there were several weeks when sc-arcely 
any animals were to be bought short of twelve to tliirteeu cents per 
pound. 4 


Source of supply. 


Illinois Central R.iilroad 

Rock Island R.iilroad 

Michigan Central Railroad 

Pittsburg and Fort Wayne Railroad 

Great Eatitcrn R.iilroad 

Alton and St. Louis Railroad 

Burlington and Quincy Railroad 

Northwestern Railroad , 

Slichigan Southern Railroad 

Driven in 


fio, om 

58, 882 

35, 616 







1, 347 

64, 9=12 

54, 143 

108, 9JI 


4G, 7C8 

50, 189 


I, 050 



324, 524 { 334, 138 

Of the receipts of 1808, one-third, or 108,901, were transported by the 
Burlington and Quincy road, which runs through a fine cattle region, 
and connects with the railroads of iSTorthern Missouri. The Alton and 
St. Louis, pissing in the same du-ection through the State, and also 
leading to Missouri, brought the next largest number, 04,952; the Illinois 
Central contributed 00,902; the Northwestern, (through Wisconsin,) 
40,758; and the Eock Island, 35,610. 

The receipts of Texas cattle in Chicago, during 18G7, was about 35,000 
head ; duiing 1808, about 55,000 head. The price in xiugust averaged 

83 72 per 100 pounds ; in September, when they were sold with diiUculty, 
generally by the head, at 824 to 832 each; in ^November, 83 93 per 100 
pounds. At the same time Texas cattle wintered at the north realized 

84 25 to 80 50 per 100 pounds. 

Prices of hecf cattle and live hogs. — The prices obtained averaged as 
follows: iBest fat shipping cattle, 87 20 to 87 98 per 100 pounds; 
steers in good flesh, weighing 1,150 to 1,250 pounds, 80 14 to 80 05; 
steers weighing 850 to 950 poiinds, 84 48 to B^ 08 ; stock cattle, $3 S3 to 
84 32 ; cows and heifers, Bo 78 to 85 78. 

The receipts of live hogs in 1808 were 1,705,433, according to Mr. 
Griiieth's register, and the shipments 1,020,329. The total of weekly 
sales was 1,780,075, averaging 223 pounds. 

The mean annual range of prices of beef cattle and of live hogs, as 



jratbered from the review of the Chicago stock trade in the Live Stock 
Kcpoiter, for the past six years, are as follows : 



la correaoy. 

1863 $C 33 to $4 80 

1864 2 5C to 7 52 

1865 2 94 to 8 45 

1866 3 53 to 7 72 

1867 3 52 to 8 02 

1S68 3 44 to 8 10 

In gold. 

$1 GV to $3 28 
1 26 to 3 C4 

1 90 to 

2 49 to 
2 55 to 
2 45 to 

S 49 I 
5 46 
5 81 
5 79 


la carreacy. 

la gold. 

$3 11 to $5 00 

5 94 to 9 80 
8 81 to 11 55 
7 87 to 9 47 
4 76 to 7 01 

6 72 to 9 40 

$2 16 to $3 44 

2 87 to 4 74 
5 66 to 
5 5e to 

3 44 to 

4 60 to 

7 40 
6 80 

5 06 

6 72 


The following averages of prices, at the dates named, show the great 
decline in breadstuffs duiing the year 18GS : 

j April 2.1, 1869. Ai.ra25,186a 

Flotir — superfine pcrbbl.. 

est ra .State do \ 

shipping. Ohio do ' 

extra western, common to gofd do | 

double extra we.stem and St. Louis do ' 

eontheru siiperfinfs do ! 

sontlicra extra and family do ! 

California do \ 

Rye flour do ' 

Com meal do ' 

Wheal — eprinp per bushel. -i 

red winter do I 

amber wljter do I 

white do j 

Com — western mixed do | 

yellow do i 

while do I 

Ryo do j 

Oata — ^western do 

«5 45 

$9 70 

5 95 

10 60 

6 15 

10 70 


10 33 

8 95 

13 88 

6 45 

10 78 

9 13 

13 25 

8 50 

13 63 

5 73 

8 88 

4 48 

6 00 

I 33 

2 58 

1 53 

2 85 

I 71 

2 95 

1 83 

3 20 


1 18 


1 23 


1 15 

1 33 

2 15 



The results of statistical researches upon special subjects, are pre- 
sented in other pages of this volume, and a variety of important matter, 
not yet sufficiently full or comjjlcte, is withheld for use in futiu'e publica- 

J. Jl. CODGE. 
Hon. H. Capeon, 



Sm : In makiug a report of tlie ^rork done in the laboratory during 
the past year, it is proper to mention that tlie removal of tlie depart- 
ment to its present location necessarily led to the suspension of ehemi- 
Ciil work for tvro months as regards most analyses, and for a much 
longer period on dry methods, owing to delay in completing the arrange- 
ment of the fnmi^are of the laboratory apartments. The necessary prep- 
arations for removal also forbade entering on any extended course ot 
analyses : hence the laboratory has been chiefly occnj)ied. during the 
year, with the performance of analyses of agricultural substances used 
as maniu'e, and in satisfying immediate demands for information made 
by correspondents. The total analytical work in the laboratory for the 
year embraces the following classes, viz : 

1. Marls, including varieties both recent and fossil. 

2. Earths, clays, slates, and sods. 

3. Ores of gold, silver, iron, manganese, tin, nickel. &c. 

4. Wines iiom diHerent States. 

5. Mineral waters. 

G. Pharmaceutical preparations. 

7. Cases of suspected criminal jioisouiDg requiring analysis. 

8. Artificial fertilizers. 

9. ;Many mineral determinations. 

10. Proximate analyses of plants for technical purposes. 

The work has been contined very strictly to sui^plying the demands 
of practical agTiculture, consisting rjriricipally of analyses of marls, 
soils, and vegetables ; and to tha examination of deposits newly opened 
which i^romise to be sources of local wealth. In carrying out the latter, 
it is foimd dilScidt to avoid subserving private interest while seeking 
public good. The opinion being somewhat prevalent that this depart- 
ment should constitute itself the official examiner of all manures in the 
market, both natural and artificial, samples of fertilizers suspected of 
adulteration, obtained n-om merchants and traders, have been forwarded 
for analysis. Such correspondents have been informed that the labora- 
tory of this department is devoted to the analysis of soils, waters, and 
natui-al manirres, such as peat, marls, &:c., and other matters of State or 
public interest. It does not make analyses of commercial manures, as 
gimno, bones, superphosphates, &c., either for the farmer or the manu- 
facturer. The department does not pertorm any work which has for its 
object the establishment of works or manufactures of private enter- 

A chemical laboratory is necessarily incomplete, for the purposes of 
industrial analysis of materials useful to the farm or to commerce, 
without a museum of tyiiical specimens embraced within the scope of 
worlc of this division, and it is deemed desirable that such should be 
formed. Already, through the con-espondeuts of the departments, valu- 
able specimens of geological strata, buikling materials, limestones, 
and other illustrations of the economic wealth of the country, have been 
collected, and more might readily be obtained through the same agcn 
cies. These S])ecin]ens v.ill form, when catalogued and displayed, a vt^' 
valuable and interesting collection, not represented in other museums, 
and having for its object the exposition of the industi'iid :md the techno- 


logical value of the mineral vrealtli of the country rather rhau purely 
scientLfic relations. To carry out this plan would involve some expeud- 
itnre for the fitting np of necessary shelving, &:c., for the specimens. 


Of the mineral analyses performed during the year those of marls 
much exceeded all others. These marls were not those of the alluvial, 
or, as it is sometimes called, quaternary formation, as the name might 
imply; but were derived either from the cretaceous or the tertiary; 
and,*as many greensand marls from Maryland and Virginia were among 
the number, some remarks concerning them, as regards their peculari- 
ties and contrast with other beds of same age further north, may not be 
out of place. 


The greensand beds of the Atlantic States are a very important geo- 
logical formation, whether we consider them as occupying a large tract 
of country or as affording a valuable amendment to the soil which they 
underlie. ' Extending in a gentle and continuous ciu've along the sea- 
coast, they are found in every coast State li'om the Hudson River to the 
Mississippi. The beds have a very general ti'end north-northeast and 
south-southvrest, and a similar dip, being about twenty feet to a mile in 
2^ew Jersey, and almost precisely the same in Mississippi : showing a 
great unifi)rmiti' in the causes v.hich led to their deposition and eleva- 
tion, and in the conditions governing them. OccuiTing at the close of 
the cretaceous period, owing to the absence of cementing material orig- 
inally present, or subsequently percolating, they have never consolida- 
ted, and are still beds of sand, (clayey and calcareous sand,) differing in 
no physical respect from the alluvial and later beds, which cover them 
to the depth of several feet 

Although the lithological character of the beds is not the same in the 
northern and the southern exti'emity of the deposits exposed, yet their 
identity can be at all times recognized by the fossil shells most abund- 
antly present, and vrhich are by far the most uniform in occurrence. 
Wlien the manner of de^wsition of this sand over so large a tract of 
country is examined, it is tbund that the amount of material varies con- 
siderably in thickness, generally diminishing the further south it is ex- 

In New Jersey these marl beds occupy a very narrow belt of land 
from four to sixteen miles vdde, from the ocean shore near Sandy Hook 
(New York Bay) to Salem, on the Delaware. A sandy soil, destitute of 
diluvium, covers the region, which has a stiike south 55^ west, and a dip 
southeast about twenty feet per mile. This formation is composed of 
six beds, three of which are true greensand layers, and three arc beds 
of marine sand separating the others. In Maryland and Virginia it is 
probable that these three beds or their equivalents may exist, but they 
have not been accurately distinguished ; and in Xorth Carolina but two 
of the three have been recognized, the lower bed being formed at Black 
llock,and the upper bed at Tarborough, on Tar Eiver, at Colonel Clark's. 
In the latter place the shell bed, containing pecten, exogyra, belemnites, 
lignite, and p\Tites, is found immediately over the stratum of gi-eensand, 
which is conlined to one bed, or at most to two. In Mississippi but 
one bed is found as the rejiresentative of the three of Xew Jersey ; nor 
docs this single bed exceed in thickness a single bed of the Xew Jersey' 


So much has been already ^.n^itteu about the gTeensa-nd beds of ]S"e\^ 
Jersey that but little is ueeded to be inserted here, lieiug the iirsi 
deposits of this character used as a fertilizer for the soil, and the demand 
increasing- more than the yield, it has for some years b;ick beeu an arti- 
cle of marketable tr<>usport ou railways, aud is acknowledged to be sec- 
ond to uo other mineral fertilizer when it is considered how long is 
dressing of it is felt upon the land. In that State the greensaud is ir. 
places, as in Biu'lington Couuty, mixed with a dark chocolate-colored 
clay; iu jlonmouth County generally with a lighter clay and some shells. 
In 'beds more to the south the sand increases in amount, v^-hile in a few 
beds here and there the marl appears to have undergone but little mix- 
ture with clay or sand, but is almost wholly coiui)osed of the green 
grains which have given the name of greeusaud to the whole formation. 
Until lately the great value of this fertiliz-er was attributed to its con- 
stituent potash ; "but it is now admitted that its value is not due to thi.-. 
source alone, and that it must be shared with phosphoric acid and other 
constituents. As the piuT gi-eensand grains (glauconite) are valuable 
portions of this manure, efforts have been made, both in this laboratory 
and elsev. here, to ascertain then- exact chemical composition. The vari- 
able results are not owing to any intrinsic difficulty in analysis, but to 
the extreme difficulty of procuring samples sufficiently clean and free 
from foreign matters for operating upon. By washing aud sifting, even 
though performed many times, it is almost impossible to obtain the 
green grains perfectly free fi'om admixture with sand and sulphate and 
also phosphate of lime. This difficulty is mentioned in the final report 
of the Geological Survey of ]Srew Jersey, (1SG8.) in which appear several 
examples ofaualysis oi' these marls, apparently performed with care, 
industry, and chemical skill. On page 1*81 of that report the foliovriug 
occurs as one of the averages of the composition of glauconite : 

Silica 50.923 

Peroxide of iron 19.353 

Alumina -' - - 7.503 

Protoxide of iron 3.909 

Magnesia 2.916 

Potash 7.505 

Water lost at 212^ ) - ^^ 

Water lost at above 212o | ''"^-^ 


The potash in other analyses \ aried, running from 7.2o2 to 9.087 per 
cent. The analyses excludes all the lime, salts, and the silica in the marl 
from the constitution of tlie glauconite, the chief agTicultural value oi' 
vrhich had been estimated to lie in its potash constituent. The iron 
exists in both states of oxidation as protoxide aud peroxide, llie 
amount of greensaiid gi-ains present in the various marls of Xew Jersey 
ranged from IG per cent, to 90 — fi'om 25 to 33 per cent, being the avei-- 
age of many. It is worthy of remark hov^' small an amount of glau- 
conite gives a blue tint to clay or sandy chiy — less th:in 4 per cent, giving 
a very decided shade of blue. 

The foregoing, however, does not represent the true composition or 
the actual value of the gi'eensand of Xew Jersey as it is used, in the 
second annual report of the Geological Survey of that Stiite, 1850, pp. 
85-91, several analyses of the greensand marls are given, in all of 
which tv»o ingredieuts, additional to those described as entering into 


glancouite, me set dowu — sulphuric and also phosphoric acid — the latter 
of which exists in notable proportion. 

Squaukum marl yields of phosphoric acid 4.54 per cent. 

Pembcrton, (Xo. 1) 1.6S '• " 

Pemberton, (Xo. 2) U.30 " " 

Clenicntou 2.64 " " 

Freehold 1.03 " " 

Xev.-Egrypt 1.5S " " 

Black woodtoAvu • 3.66 " " 

Woodstowu 2.65 " " 

Marlborough 1.14 " « 

SheUtown 0.17 " " 

The last named is from the cla\- vs-hich underlies the marl, and vrhich, 
though green in color, contains but lew green gTains. This phosphoric 
acid in some specimens exists as phosphate of lime : in others, as j^hoa- 
phate of ii-on. The latter probably was its original combination. The 
presence of pyrites and vegetable matter results in the formation of sul- 
phuric acid, which, acting in the iron phosphate and on the lime car- 
bonate of the shelly portion, liberates the phosphoric acid of the first 
and unites witli the lime of the second ; the free phosphoric acid then 
acts on some lime carbonate to form ^jhosphate of lime. Thus both sul- 
Tjhate and phosphate of lime are introduced into the marl. But whence 
is the origin of the phosphate of ii'on ? The glauconite does not appear 
to furnish sufficient to account for the amount given above ; indeed, the 
usual analyses of pure glauconite do not mention phosjjhoric acid as a 
constituent. It is assumed by Professor Cook that the phosphate of 
lime of these sands is a foreign ingredient, and no necessary part of 
glauconite. " In fact,'' he states, "• the phosphate of lime can easily be 
distingTiished by the eye from the greensand grains with which it is 
mixed. It does not form any necessary part of the mineral, and may be 
rejected ti-om the analysis." 

The fact of the universal presence of phosphate of lime in the green 
sand is certainly no proof of its origin in the glauconite: but that the 
phosphate of lime may be detected by the eye in the mass of the marl 
as distinct from the green sand has not been verified in the examination 
of marls in this laboratory. Indeed, the reverse has generally been 
demonstrated. From a carefully conducted chemical analysis, made in 
this laboratorj- by the assistant chemist, Dr. Tilden, upon a sample of 
greensand marl from Upper Marlborough, ^Maryland, which contained 
on an avi/rage 50 per cent, of fine angular quartz sand as its only visible 
admixture, there vrere found in one hnntU^ed i)arts 1.53 parts of anhy- 
drous phosi)horic acid, equivalent to 7.44 i)er cent, of the probable feV- 
roso-ferric phosphate. The phosphoric acid had not been united with 
lime in the marl, and must have existed as a phosphate of iron : and, if 
not a constituent of the glauccmite, was present ns a ])hosphatie earth 
commonly found in this geological formation, and is the parent of the 
vi\ianite occasionally found in the stratum. 

In the State of Delaware the greensand beds are found crossing its 
northern border in their course from New Jersey into Maryland. Kepe- 
titions of the beds occur in the ravines of St. Geor: ,''s Creek, where the 
chemical composition is carbonate of lime, greensiud, and white silici- 
ous sand. Along the line of the canal west of St. George's the bed has 
yellow clay and micaceous clay mixed with the gieensand, gi%ing dif- 
ferent shades of color to the bed. The southern liuiit is near Cantwell's 
Bridge, where the marl is found to be mixed wi:.: yellow clay, and is 



much more ferrnginous than elsevfhere. In St. George's Hundred a bed 
of Wuish green sand is met with, which is described by Professor Booth, 
who is the authority here quoted, as being nearly piure glauconite, and 
yielding, on an analysis : 

Silica ^-^-TT 

Potassa 9.00 

Lime and magnesia --30 

Protoxide of iron - "^i" * *^ 

Alumina 3.12 

Water 8.50 


The presence of the lime and magnesia shows that calcareous detritus 
has crept into this specimen. The bright green sandy marl of Draw- 
yer's Creek furnishes, on analysis, a nearer approach to the giauconite 
composition : 

Sihca 56.35 

Potassa 8.113 

Protoxide of iron 22.25 

Alumina 6.00 

Water "-11 


Classing the Delaware greensand in two deposits, the calcareous and 
the glauconitic, which are separated by a bed of yellow sand or sandy 
clay, it is found that these beds occasionally merge together and sepa- 
rate again. This has been observed in sections of the canal in Dela- 
ware. The same occurrence is met with in river cuts in Xorth Carolina. 
The chemical composition of the beds of com'se varies in 7)roportiou as 
either the calcareous or glauconitic element jireponderates. This is well 
seen in the analyses of the ui)per and the lower gTcensand deposit of 
Delaware, made by Professor Booth, in which the lime may be taken as 
the varying substance. 

Greensand of Ddaicare.- 

-(■Booth. J 

Dpper Bedi. 


! Xo. 1. 


Xo. 2. 

No. 3. 

Xo. 4. 






3-'. 00 









100. 13 

ICO. 00 

Lower Beda. 

Xo. 3. 

No. 6.* 

Xo. 7. 














100. C9 

Ccntained shark's teeth. 


The average thickness in Dehiware is about twenty-one feet, increas- 
ing in the soutli to twenty-live leet. The highest aaiouut of carl)onate 
of lime which has been Ibund in the calcareous greensand of this State 
is twenty-tive per cent. These beds enter Maryland irom Delaware at 
the head" of Ai)poquiuomink Creek, or near the head of the Sassafras in 
Kent County, v.hence it crosses the Cliesa])eake into Aiiue Arundel 
County and Prince George's. In the latter it ap])roaches the line ot 
the District of Columbia, occurring at IMarlborough in beds ten to twelve 
feet thick ; thence it passes south through Charles Couufy below Chico- 
mosen Creek, and enters Virginia at Aquia Creek, in Stafford County. 
The marls in Maryhmd and Virginia may ])roperly be considered in this 
place, as, although not presenting the characters of the true greensaud 
beds, yet they bear a close relation to those found in New Jersey and Dela- 
v/are. From the samples of all of these marls forwarded from these two 
Statics to the department for examination, it would appear that, excepting 
the beds near upper Marlborough, the strata belong to the lovrer eocene, 
•AH is shown by the fossils occurring through them. They resemble the 
Delaware maris in the large amomitof carbonate of lime which they con- 
tain, clearly showing their geological ])ositiou to be in the cretaceous or 
chalk formation. This carbonate of lime it not always evident as whole 
shells or fragmentary portions; but, even when not distinct to the 
naked eye, constitutes a portion of the mass as a linely coherent pow- 
der, so that every stratum of these groensands may be roughly stated 
as made up of — 

1. Chalk powder. 

2. (Ireensand grains, or glaucoiiltc. 

3. Whitish quartzose sand. 

Of these the latter element is the most constant ; for though it may 
be found that the bed of one locality differs from the same bed in 
another in containing less glancouite, yet there is not therefore present 
more chalk or carbonate of lime. It is then usually found to be more 
sandy, vrhile sometimes, instead of the whitish quartz grains increasing, a 
gi-eenish or bluish micaceous sand takes its place. The amount of the 
glauconite varies, but rarely ever approaches one-third of the whole. 
More frequently it is less than ten i^cr cent., and in most of those in 
Prince George's Connty and Charles's it seldom exceeds three per cent., 
as shown by elutriation. When this mineral is in so small amount, of 
course the marl does not pay for its distant transportation; but it is 
still a benefit to the neighborhood, and it is to be regretted that the 
State of Maryland and also of Virginia do not awake to the value ot 
these sources of wealth, thus profusely scattered in the very positions 
where they can be made so highly beneficial. In the localities of the 
miocene and the upper tertiary beds, and the strata of drift, gravel, 
and sands, and the quaternary layers which skirt the borders of the 
ocean — the banks of the large embouchm^es or bays, as the Delavrare 
and the Chesapeake, the Potomac and other rivers, where a sandy clay 
constitutes the chief surface soil, and where fertility is to be assured 
only by the utmost and continued eftbrts of labor and by manures, the 
latter being often unattainable or of high price — the marls described 
would prove very valuable, converting sandy and pine deserts into 
regions of agricultural wealth rivaling any market garden on alluvial 
clay. Where exposures are met with, the "beds should be cleaned out, 
examined by some competent person, and the value chemically ascer- 
tained. Private enterprise will never take the initiative in this pro- 


ceeding. An esploration, conducted under the auspices of the State 
gOYernments. would return tenfold the amount expended, not merely in 
the value of the marl lands, but in the increased productions of the land 
enriched by them, in the altered cultivation which must necessarily 
ensue, and' in bringing' the shore counties of Maryland and Virginia 
into close connection with the food markets of Baltimore, Washing-ton, 
Philadelphia, and Xew York. A siu^vey, under a competent superin- 
tendent and staif of assistants, could accomplish the work in one sea- 
son, at a cost of a few thousand dollars — a sum almost every year 
squandered in useless or harmfid legislation. 

The marls of Maryland and Yirginia, as already stated, resemble 
those of Delaware ; and, viewed in their geological relations, are superim- 
posed on the sandy marl and the clayey greensand beds of New Jersey, 
which are the subdivisions of the cretaceous formation in that State. 
The lower divisions of the tertiary series contain the shell layers of cal- 
careous sand, so abundant in Stafford County, Virginia, and elsewhere. 
The lower beds of the cretaceous series of New Jersey are met with in 
the following order, as given in the late survey by Professor G. H. 
Cook : top earth ; micaceous clay; marl with clay, sand, and shells ; 
lower marl bed; sand marl; laminated sand. Above these lie the beds 
of greensand proper, as alluded to, and above these again are the 
eocene beds which, except that of Marlborough, are the only deposits 
exposed in Maryland and Virginia. This difference of geological position 
is thus dwelt upon here, as there is some confusion on the subject; and 
there exists a general belief that the Virginia beds are of the true cre- 
taceous series. 

The fossils occasionally found in some of the specimens of marl for- 
warded are shells of Fi/cnodG7ita {vesmdaris f J and Terebrattda plicata, 
v.hich fact perhaps places them in the lower group of beds. No traces 
of amber or vivianite, (phosi)haie of iron,) which have been met with 
in more or less abundance in New Jersey, have been forwarded, alone or 
in samples, to this department. Many of the marls forwarded from North 
Carolina, as well as from Virginia, appear to belong to the tertiary, 
either eocene or mioceno marls in position, and neither pond marls nor 
greensand formations ; the basis being quartz sand, with a sprinkling 
of ferruginous clay. The black clay and marls, which are occasionally 
acid, contain free sulphuric acid, with moderate amounts of organic 
matter, potash, phosphate, sulphate of lime, and carbonates of lime 
and magnesia. They may be used as top dressing from five to twenty 
tons per acre, either composted or alone. In the growth of potatoes 
these marls are of much, value. The following are the results of the 
chemical analysis of some of the Potomac marls : 

21arls from Prince George's County, Potomac shore, 7iear Oxen Run, 

cpiwsitc Alexandria. 



Shells and carbonate of lime.. 
Greensand grains 

Fine colorless angular quartz. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 


10.50 I £'3. H. 

32. 28. 33. 

57.50 I 49. j 00. 

100. t 100. I 100. 


Marls from Prince George's County^ Potomac shore — Coutiiiued. 


Xo. 1. Ko. 2. Xo 


Silica aad in^clnble silicates. . 
AlDinina and pproxide of iron 

PbospbaTe of iron 

Carbonate of lime 

Carhooate of magnei-ia 

Soluble i»aline uatler 


Snlpburic acid 





8. -28 











. 22 



! ica 


Ko. 1. Lifht-greepipb cMor, and .^tbouiiding in shells. 

Ko. 2. Light-preenisb color more gheily. aad containing flae calcareous powder. 

Ko. 3. Browi^Jij color more shelly, aad containing calcareous powder. 

Grreensand marl from Aquia Creel; Stafford County, Virginia, one and 
one-MIf mile above the landing— from A. T. C. Dodge's. 

Moisture 4^.00 

Alumina and peroxide of irou 5.00 

Carbonate of lime 42.40 

Carbonate of majrnesia 1.00 

Saline matter soluble in water, containing alkaline sulphates 

and clilorides 0.50 

Potash 0.10 

Silica and insoluble silicates of lime and iron 46.80 

This marl contained three to four per cent, of glauconite. 

Marl from Prince George's County, Maryland— from L. F. Bingham. 

Dark green granules and fine sand 45. 79 

Shell marl, (lime, ferruginous clay, iS:c.) 54. 21 

10. 000 

The shell marl contained — 

Carbonate of lime 45. OS 

Carbonate of magnesia 1. 13 

Oxide of iron and alumina 2. 3S 

Phosphoric acid trace 

Organic matters 3. 80 

Water and loss 1-82 


Marl from St. Mary's County, Maryland— from Colonel Wilson. 

Insoluble silicates and fine sand 58. 50 

Alumina and jieroxide of iron 0. 20 

Carbonate of lime 17. 20 

Magnesia 0. 20 

Soluble salt5 containing three-fourths of one per cent, of potash . 3. 00 

Moisture and loss 11. 90 

10. 000 


2farlfrom Pye's Landing, Charles County, Maryland, 

Insoluble silicates and fine sand 64. 60 

Alumina and peroxide of iron, with traces of pliosplioric acid 2. 60 

Carbonate of lime 23, 00 

Sulphate of lime ' 1. 41 

Soluble alkaline salts 0. 55 

Moisture and loss 7. 84 

100. 00 

The foregoing-, selected out of many analyses made in this laboratory, 
show the general chemical composition of these marls as they occur in 
these two States. Of many samples forwai'ded no certain information 
concerning their relative position as to the accompanying beds of sand 
could be obtained ; so that, fi-om an accoimt of their stratification, it is 
not possible to state to which bed they belong. Indeed, it is questiona- 
ble whether the true cretaceous beds have yet been anywhere exiiosed or 
utilized in Virginia. In making the analyses alluded to, the sti'ictly 
chemical examination was not always adhered to, the test by washing 
often sufficed to give the information needed. In the case of marls, 
which are composed of mineral ingTcdients the specific gravity of which 
differ, the method of elutriation, or separation by water into layers, 
may often be adopted, by which a tolerably exact appreciation of the 
difterent proportions may be obtained ; thus, carbonate of Lime, quartz 
sand, clay, and glauconite being the four constituents, by placing a pul- 
verized sample of marl in a taU cylindiical glass jar graduated to a 
uniform scale, filling the vessel up with water, and agitating the whole 
by a rapid rotary motion until thoroughly mixed, then allowing to settle, 
it will be found that these four constituents separate to some extent, 
and are deposited in layers at the bottom of the jar, in accordance with 
their different gravities. The glauconite, being the heavier, wiU settle 
at the bottom, then the quartz, above that the clay, and at the top the 
carbonate of lime in shell or fine powder. By a little care and prepara- 
tion before hand this mode of examination may be made tolerably ex- 
act. Another method of elutriation consists in stirring the marl in water, 
pouring off' the muddy water, and leaving the washed gTaius of marl 
with the sand and gTavel. The clay is thus separated, and may be col- 
lected and di-ied after it has settled. The washed marl may he then 
dried, the gravel and sand picked out, and each dried and weighed. 
This plan has been used in the geological survey of Xew Jersey. Look- 
ing upon the glauconite as the chief source both of the potash and the 
phosphoric acid, whether existing as phosj^hate of iron in the more glau- 
conitic marls, or in the calcareous and the pyiitiferous marls, as phos- 
phate of lime, the determination of the amoimt of glauconite by some 
ready and easy method becomes a matter of practical importance. ' There 
is no plan for this object which can be more readily adopted than this 
one of elutriation. In the dry specimen the eye may be deceived as to 
the amount of green grains ; but when the whole has been made to de- 
posit slowly, or has been washed off' by moving water, the separation is 
tolerably perfect, and may be completed by picking out the green grains. 
From this approximate estimation of glauconite a calculation of both 
potash and phosphoric acid may be made. The greensand marls of 
North CaroLiua have the characters of those tertiary beds of Maryland 
and Virginia, already described, with perhaps larger admixture of worth- 



less matters. They are very sandy, the silicious eleineut of fine quartz 
sand constituting: 'sometimes nine-tenths of the whole ; and they con- 
tam much k^ss potash, and more lime carbonate, than those of Xctv 
Jersey. The exposm-es of greensand are not frequent, although these 
beds are classed as true cretaceous beds in that State. The heavy cov- 
ering of detritus and sand, and the slight elevation of the section of 
country underlaid by these marls, have caused little denudation, so 
that it is only along the larger rivers that exposures occur, as is in- 
stanced at the Cape Fear River, the Xeuse, and the Tar. The beds, also, 
from their slight elevation, rarely appear above the river bottoms, and 
cannot be followed to any extent downward. Professor Emmons, in 
his report of the geological siu'vey of this State, says that in no place in 
North Carolina has he ever found the potash to equal what exists in 
ZSTew Jersey. A few analyses of the Xorth Carolina marls, made by Pro- 
fessor Emmons, are here appended, to illustrate their chemical compo- 

Silex and sand 

Peroxide of iron and alumina. 

Carbonate of lime 

Phosphate of peroxide of iron. 

Soluble Hilica 



No. 1. Ko. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. 


3.3. 40 



Snlphr.ric acid 

Organic mattera j 1. 60 

Water I 1-80 

100. 30 






100. 43 99. 39 99. 20 







No. 1. Lowest stratum at Black Rock, oa Cape Fear River. 

No. 2. Upper bed r.t Black Rock, on Cape Fear River. 

No. 3. From Kingston, on the Neuse River. 

No. 4. From Colonel Clark'n, Tarborough. 

No. 5. From banks of Tar River, three miles from Tarborough. 

With the exception of Xos. 1 and 2, these beds are almost destitute 
of lime, yet they contain but little potash or soda. They ;\ield on an 
average fi'om nine to .seventeen per cent, of fertilizing matters, and are 
no doubt valuable applications on the soils coutigiious to the pits. In- 
dividual owners should always fertilize their lands with such marls. 
Wlien silica exi.sts to the amount sho^A"n in Xos. o, 4, and o, named above, 
transportation is out of the question. "When silica is more than seventy 
per cent., unless verv rich in potash and soda, it does not pay to transport 
marl beyond a few miles. The shell marls of the eocene formation, which 
contain from forty to seventy per cent, of lime carbonate, do not pay 
for ti'ansportation more tlian two to four miles, according to Professor 
Emmons; while the marl of Black Rock (No. 1) will be profitable at 
greater distances. The amount of potash in this marl is equal to thirty- 
one and a half pounds per ton. The professor \'iews the phosphate of 
lime, which is always present in these marls, as one of their very valu- 
able constituents. Sulphuric acid is always present, sometimes in the 
free state, but frequently as sulphate of lime, (g\-psum,) which is the 
origin of the fi'ee acid ; and thus the gyjisum in every marl is prob- 
ably to be traced to the pyrites which, by oxidation of its sulphur, 
forms sulphuric acid. The cretaceous beds occupy about one-tenth of 
the State of Mississijjpi, situated in its northeastern portion. Of this 
region the equivalents of the greensand beds are found only in the 
eastern parts of Tippah County, Pontotoc, and part of Chickasaw, 



embraciug a belt not more than ten miles Tvide. The glauconitic layer 
is found mixed with disintegrated shell, highly sandy, and a poor repre- 
sentative of the northern series as it appears in JMoumouth County, New 
Jersey ; there being but one bed from one foot to three feet thick, and 
not averaging more than live to seven parts of potash in every thousand 
of marl. The chemical constitution of this series in Mississippi is shown 
by the following analysis from the State Geological Eeport, made hy 
Professor E. W. Hilgard, State geologist. 

lusoluble sand and clay 

Potash : 


No. 1. 

No. 2. 




Brown oxide 

Peroxide of iron 


Phosphoric acid 

Carbonic acid, water, and Joss 


99. 99-2 

7. 952 
0. 100 



No, 1. Wilhitc's Taarl, Tippah County. 

No. 2. Marl from O. Davis's well, Ripley County. 

The glauconite in these marls does not exceed one to two per cent., 
and, sandy and poor as they are, they yet have been used with good 
effect ; that of Eipley County has been laid on clay lands at the rate of 
four hundred to six hundred bushels to an acre. It is remarkable that 
the sand marls of the rotten limestone group of this State, which lies 
immediately below the glauconitic layers, contain fully as much potash, 
seven parts in a thousand, which perhaps is to be accounted for by the 
mineral origin of the sand, it being derived from the debris of a mica- 
ceous rock. Almost all the marls of Mississippi contain phosphoric 
acid, the average amount of which varies from two to three parts per 
thousand. This accoimts, in a measure, for the value of even the sandy 
marls of the State. 


The action of these marls depends on the influence of tiie predominat- 
ing elements, which are lime carbonate, potash, oxide of iron, and phos- 
phoric acid. The action of carbonate of lime in a marl is too well known 
to need elucidation in a report like this. Valuable as this form of lime 
is as a food of plants, and a necessary constituent supplying lime to their 
frame-work, its importance as an amendment of soil in a marl or manure 
is yet but secondary. Those substances which are constantly undergoia g 
change of condition by oxidation are those which are the essential 
constituents of a manure; under this head the oxides of iron, and the 
salts of iron reducible to oxides, must occupy the first position. AVe 
cannot greatly err by estimating very highly the action of the protoxide 
and the peroxide of iron. This metal holds its oxygen with but a medium 
lorce, yielding it up to other bodies which have stronger affinities for it, 
and in turn taking oxygen from substances which hold it but loosely, 
t'nd passing from the condition of protoxide to that of peroxide. Iron 
llius becomes a storehouse of oxygen for the soil and for the use of 
growing plants; and it is this moving oxygen which is continually 
entering into compounds and leaving themwlnch contributes to build 
up the tissues and the juices of growing vegetation. Although not 


entering to any notable extent into tlie actnal composition of plants, 
yet iron is one of the most important elements of soils in aiding plants 
to grow. It shares this function with organic matter. They ai-e both 
stimulants, inci-easing the nuti'itiou by the supply of oxygen which they 
yield to other proximate principles of vegetation. The Ifou of a soil is 
generally reported in an analysis as existing in the state of peroxide: 
but. strictly speaking, no soil contains iron in state of peroxide alone. 
Some of it is in the form of protoxide, brought to this condition by 
organic matter, which has robbed the peroxide of some of its oxygen. 
In this double state it exists in gi-eeusaud. The organic matter of a 
sod, by contact with oxide of iron becoming oxidized, is changed into 
vegetable acids which are soluble, and unite with the lime and magnesia 
to form soluble salts of those earths, which then enter the rootlets of the 
plant and aid in forming tissue in the sap. Perhaps the fertility of 
basaltic soils is as much due to their oxides of ii^on as to the lime which 
they contain. 

This reaction of ii'on oxides and organic matter upon each other 
occurs only in the presence of moisture and sunlight, (heat:) and moist- 
ure itself, with heat, is at times a fertile cause of oxidation, and of the 
nutrition of plants. Away from the influence of these forces of nature 
the action of protoxide of' iron is only injurious to vegetation. Under 
solar influence and contact of protoxide of ii'on, water itself is decom- 
posed, its oxygen a]ipropriated by the iron to peroxidize it. and the hy- 
di'ogeu liberated. Tbe latter, coming into contact with the nitrogen of 
the air, forms ammonia, which is seized by carbonic and other organic 
acids, rendered soluble ui water, and lit to enter the plant. Thus, iron 
is the medium between the water, the organic matter, and the atmos- 

These remarks are made to illustrate the action of greensand marls 
upon vegetation as far as their iron element is concerned. In these 
marls it exists chiefly in the state of peroxide, which, upon mixture with 
vegetable matters, is reduced to protoxide by contact with the moist 
humus; then, being i^stored to the condition of peroxide by contact 
with moistuie, the consequent liberation of hydrogen forms ammonia 
secondarily. lion thus aids in forming soluble organic matter, as or- 
ganic acids, and also ammonia, two important principles of fertility. We 
shoidd, therefore, err if we estimated the value of a gieensand by taking 
into account only its lime, its ijotash, or its phosphoric acid. We should 
consider the oxide of iron as a valuable constituent in promoting fertility. 

The presence of potash in these marls gives them their distinctive 
character as fertilizers, and adds one of the most important elements 
necessary for plants. The large amount of potash found in glaucon- 
ite renders it at once the cheapest source for agiicultui-al use from which 
this mineral element can be supplicnl. The action of potash is twofold : 
first, upon the insoluble organic matter of a sod, bringing it into a sol 
uble form ; and, secondly, supplying to certain food plants the special 
alkaline food which they require. By the coustiiut action of alkalies, 
(and of this class potash is the most efficient.) the insoluble organic 
matter, humus is converted into humic acid, and carbonic acid is also 
produced. Both of these acids tdtimately unite with the potash and 
form carbonates of that base, which salts, when formed, enter the 
rootlets of the plants in a Ikuited degree, remain for a short period 
in the vegetable organization, and are then ejected — i>erhaps not 
wholly. Under this influence the woody tissues of plants are formed 
In the development of leaf and tuber potash seems essential. It is 
chiefly aggregated in the leaves of most plants, as it is in the muscidar 


juices of animals, forming: not less tlian twenty and sometimes more 
than fifty ptT cent, of the leaf u eight — the latter amount being found in 
the roots and tubers. The straw and chatf of cereals also contain it 
in variable proportion. Perhaps nowhere is the selecting power of 
plants for special mineral salts better shown than in the distribution of 
potassa. Dr. Anderson illustrates this by the case of the poppy, which 
contains only twelve per cent, of this alkali in its seed, while the leaves 
yield upward of thirty-seven per cent. 

Sufiicient has already been written concerning the value of phosphoric 
acid and phosphate of lime to render any statement unnecessary here. 
All cretaceous marls contain phosphoric acid, whether combined with 
iron or lime f and phosphate of lime is, perhaps, more valuable than lime 
as a fertilizing agent. The form in which potassa exists in these marls 
is as a silicate, and it is slowly decomposed under mere atmospheric 
exposure. On soils which contain lime or much humus, the decomposi- 
tion proceeds at a more rapid rate, owing to the evolution of carbonic 
acid ; and in this way this alkali is slowly evolved for the benefit of veg- 
etation. The long-continued beneficial action of gieensand on gi'ounds 
may in part be explained by the gradual nature of this decomposition. 

In I^ew Jersey, along the line of the Earitan and Delaware Bay rail- 
road, where it is sold at eight cents a bushel, it is applied at the rate of 
one hundred bushels per acre ; and on these light soils i)roduces a better 
effect than the usual dressing with stable manure, especially for small 
fruits and market-garden vegetables. In Delaware, from three hundred 
to five huntlied bushels have been applied per acre for wheat, oats, and 
other cereals, with sometimes a fomfold return. A decided benefit, but 
not to the same extent, is exi)erienced on grass. Generally, it may be 
said that land has increased by its use from fifty to one hundred per 
cent, in value. The value of marling south of IS'ew Jersey is the com- 
bined value of the carbonate and the phosphate of lime, and of the po- 
tassa. When the marls are more calcareous, they become amendments 
to the soil rather than fertilizers to the crops, and much larger dress- 
ings are therefore necessary ; while, at the same time, more discrimi- 
nation is required as to the land which will be mainly benefited by 
the apx)lication. The lime being in predominant quantity in the green- 
sand marls south of Delaware, the action is chiefly upon the organic 
matter of the soil, combining with it and rendering it more soluble. 
Hence, to poor and light soils it would be imnecessary to apply heavy 
dressings ; for these, fifty to eighty bushels per acre might be sufficient. 
On stiff, clayey soils, the textui-e of which may be lightened advanta- 
geously, ii-om. one huutked to three hundied bushels per acre may be 
applied. In these clay soils there is generally more insoluble organic 
matter to be acted upon, and in such cases so large a quantity as five 
hundred bushels per acre acts beneficially. In general terms, then, it 
may be stated that the calcareous gxeensand marls act more eliectively 
in proportion as there is organic matter present, and in proportion as 
the clay is a heavy one. 

It is not easy to determine exactly the value of a compoimd manure 
like this. The question is a commercial one, and woidd not properly be 
discussed here were not the value in a great degTce dependent upon the 
chemical analysis. Were the fertilizer composed of but one ingredient, 
it would be easy to determine its value by ascertaining the market price 
of the pure and commercial article, and then determining how much of 
such ingxedient existed in the manure. Thus, if phosphoric acid in a 
soluble state is worth commercially fifteen cents per pound, and the 


fertiKzer coutaiiis oue himdred pounds in a ton. it is evideutly wortb 
lifteen dollars i>er ton ^vhen delivered. 

When a manure has a complex constitution, the real value becomes a 
difficult problem to state exactly, for the a^icultural and the commei- 
ei;il value do not always ag:ree. The former is fixed and invariable, 
dependent on the necessities of the plant and the soil : the latter is liable 
to fluctuation from the unsteadiness of the supply and demand. The 
following estimate is approximately correct. The value of i)hos])horie 
acid in the soluble form may be set down at fifteen or sixteen cents per 
pound: phosphoric acid in insoluble form, six cents per pound: potash ia 
the soluble fonn. seven cents per pound: jwtash in the insoluble form, 
two cents per pound: sulphuric acid, one cent per pound; carbonate of 
lime, half a cent per pound. If we calculate the value of one of the 
inferior greensaud marls of Maryland, as Xo. 3, from Prince George's 
County, we obtain : 

320 pounds carbonate of lime, at ^ cent $1 CO 

G pounds soda salts, at 1 cent 06 

2 pounds phosphoric acid, insoluble, at 6 cents 12 

1^% pounds potash, soluble, at 7 cents 11 

20 pounds sulphuric acid, at 1 cent 20 

2 15 

This estimate is .<^mewLat below the real value of the compound, since 
it estimates each article singly, and tates no account of the effect of the 
diSerent ingredients of the mass upon one another in rendering them 
more readily soluble, more stimulating to and more fit for appropria- 
tion by the plant- The general method of calculating values, however, 
may be of interest to many who desire to know how estimates should be 

What we have just stated — ^tkat the value of a compound manure is 
greater than the sum of the values of its separate constituents — needs 
some remark: otherwise, and with justice, the farmer might say: "Why 
should I dig and haul so bulky a material as this marl, containing as it 
does not more than five positively useful ingredients, amounting to ten 
per cent, of the whole weight, when I can buy these several salts from 
the wholesale druggist, and then dihite them afterward on the ground f 
Would it not be actually cheaper to buy the chemicals and make my 
own compost, rather than to take the bulky form in which nature sup- 
plies them?" The answer to these questions lies in the following con- 
siderations: Admitting that both the a^rtificial salts and the natural 
marl have an equal mauiu-ial value and action, still the farmer should 
rememlxT that he is often richer in cattle and human labor than in ready 
money; that in idle seasons he can haul and spread his native marl, (if 
it is a month or two sooner than it is actually needed, it sufiers but little 
from exposure.) while, as regards the purchased salts, they must Ix^ 
bought only when required, as they waste and lose by exi)0sure to the 
air and moisture. They can be applied only at a certain period for the 
benefit of the gi-owing crop, because they readily dissolve in water. 
They act readily on the crop, and are eflective during the particular 
season in which they are applied ; but their action, while immediate, is 
also transitory. It is felt less the next year, very much less the follow- 
ing year, and subsequently cannot l>e recognized except, perhaps, by a 
diminished productiveness of soil. On the other hand, in 'the case of 
natural marls, the elements are but sparingly soluble, and consequently 


given out only by little at a time, as the plant needs and has ability to 
appropriate. 'Hence then- action, while slow, is of a permanent charac- 
ter, and can be ascertained after many years. In Xew Jersey one of 
the first applications of gTeensaud, over sixty years ag:o, so enriched 
the field that it was recognizable as improved thirty years after the 
application ; and in Xorth Carolina the allmial lands which have been 
manured with these marls have retained their superiority over uumarled 
lands for over fifty years without a second dressing. AVhen this increased 
and permanent fertility has been experienced, it is not wonderful that 
the natural should be pi-eferred to the artificial compounds, or tliat over 
one milhon bushels of gTeensaud marl should have been dug and sold 
in Xew Jersey in 1868. 


Dimug the year, samples of mineral fi'om the newly discovered phos- 
phatic beds of Charleston, South Carolina, were forwarded for analysis. 
These beds have received great attention lately, owing to their contain- 
ing a large amount of phosphate of lime ; and much has been communi- 
cated to the public concerning them, by Drs. Pratt and Holmes, and 
Professor C. U. Shepard, jr., 'M. D., of Charleston. Their geological 
position as strata had long been known and described, but it has been 
only withm the past few years that their extreme richness in phosphate 
of lime at once classed them as one of the most valuable mineral beds 
of South Carolina. 

The strata containing phosphate of lime rang-e in position, in South 
Carolina, from the early miocene to the middle bed of the post pliocene 
formation. It was diu-ing the early tertiary period that the greater por- 
tion of the shore land of the Carolinas, and south by Tilobile Eiver to tbe 
western limits of Louisiana, Avas formed by deposition and subsequent 
extensive, slow, and uniform elevation. The Claiborne marls and shell 
sands of Alabama are the lowest beds of this series, with the more solid 
buhr-stone and the vrhite limestone marls of the Santee Eiver. Above 
these, in the same group, occur the gTay marls of the Ashley and the 
Cooper Elvers, aboiuiding in rhizopods. These are miocene beds, and 
ui)on them lie, unconformably, the post pliocene sands and marls, one 
of which embraces tbe material now so much sought after for its a^i- 
cidtural value. 

All of these strata contain phosphate of lime in marked quantity. 
The marl beds of Charleston are of wide extent, embracing, accorduig 
to Dr. Tuomey, an area of seventy-five miles In* sixty, from the Santee 
Eiver on the east to the Ashepoo on the west, and lying- between the 
Atlantic Ocean on the south and east and the buhr-stone formation of 
the eocene beds on the north. They are beds of white limestone marl 
and greensaud, dipping- gently to the south, and underlying the newer 
beds of marl of the Ashley and Cooper Elvers, the former of which 
constitutes the uppermost sti-atum of the eocene. The thickness of the 
Santee beds is between six hundred and seven hundred feet, and has 
been recognized as underlying the whole neighborhood of Charleston. 
Dr. Smith and Professor Shepard found what was deemed an unusual 
amount of phosi)hato of lime, ranging from two to nine per cent, of that 
mineral. This amount, while constituting a rich soil, did not justify its 
use or transportation as a marl, the value of which is to be estimated by 
the amount of lime phosphate it contains. The quantity of carbonate 
of lime is very great, varAlng from fifty to eighty per cent., and the value 
had hitherto been estimated according to the amount of this ingredient. 



Tlie fisli-beds of the Ashley River yielded to Professor Shepard the fol 
lowinir ooustitueiits : 

Silica ^-... 

Carbonate of lime and mngneda ... 
PhoRpbate of lime- and oiiie of iron 



No. 1. 

Ko. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 


2D. 08 




















94. 86 92. 40 

No. 1. from Mr. J. P. Clements, west cf A.chley River; No. 2, from Kev. Dr. Hankels. bank of Ashley 
River ; No. 3, from Drayton Hall, beak of Ashley 'River ; No. 4, from Wilmington, North Carolina. 

The first three analyses give the average coiupo-sition of this stratum 
about Charleston. !N^o. 4 gives the constitution further north, showing 
that it bcLomes more pm-ely calcareous as it passes northward, until it 
finally thins out and di.sappears before it reaches New Jersey. 

Above this bed of calcareous marl is a layer of blue sand, in which 
are found hard masses of p-ayish or bluish-white rock, which break 
readily into fragments, and have been called nodules. These constitute 
the material now so much sought after, and are described by Dr. Tuomey, 
in his siu-vey of South Carolina, as scattered over the surface, so as, in 
some places, to ofier obstruction to the cultivation of the land, and there- 
fore have been gathered in beaps from the land of the plantations near 
the A.shley River, in order to render cultivation jiossible. 

Professor Shepard, jr.. in an article in the Massachusetts Plough- 
man on these phosphatic beds, describes their appearances as follows: 
"The chief beds were discovered on the Ashley River, extending fi'om 
about seven miles above Charleston ui) the river for ten to fifteen miles. 
The land is not level but rolls in low blufls, generally twenty to forty 
feet high, at right angles to the course of the river. Between these 
bluffs there are swamp lands, most of which have canals through them, 
and were once thoroughly drained for the culture of cotton. In these 
low lands the rich top soil is about four to six inches in depth; there fol- 
lows a bght sandy stratum sometimes eighteen inches thick, generally 
less; and, underneath, the stratum of nodular pho.><phates, packed close 
together with hardly any soil between them." Professor Holmes had, as 
far back as 1S44, described the occurrence of a conglomerate layer, con- 
sisting of nodules imbedded in a blue sandy clay, about twelve inches 
thick, overlying the marl beds the composition of which has just been 
given. They require the use of the pick to remove them, and are locally 
called marl-stones. Tlie remains of marine and of terrestrial animals are 
foimd in this bed, and casts of fossils common to the marl bed below, 
(Holmes.) It is remarkable that these nodules and fossil remains were 
looked upon as pseudomorj^hs in which the carbonate of lime has dis- 
appeared, to be rei)laced by silica ; the phosphate of lime having escaped 
recognition until its real composition was declared by Dr. X. A. Pratt, 
from examination of several of the nodules in August, 18G7, which 
revealed the fact of a large i)crcentage of ])hosi>hate of lime, instead cf 
silica, in them. According to a statement made in a pamphlet entitled 
"A.shley River Phosphates," and i»rinted in Philadelphia at the close of 
1868, Dr. P. found in these nodules as much as 34, 55, and 60 per 
cent, respectively; in foct they were true bone pho.sphates, in some 
samples of which the amount of ])hosphate exceeds that found in bones 
of living mammals. This di.scovery led to the formation of a company, 
residing in Philadelphia, to raise and export the material. The works 


of the company engaged in bringing this fertilizer to market are exten- 
sive, and located on the Ashley liiver, about ten miles above Gharieston. 
Their wharf is on a blufi", and is accessible to any vessel -which can cross 
the bar below the city. The land approach is by the Dorchester road. 
At the close of the year 1808 the export trade in this substance was 
extensive, the Charleston papers announcing daily the loading of eight 
to ten vessels on the Ashley Eiver. These vessels are chartered either 
for Baltimore or more eastern markets, where the crude material is 
manipulated, and mixed with ammonia salts, to form phospliatic guano, 
or else merely crushed to form the gTouud of phosphate of lime. The 
domestic manipulation of this pulverized phosphate is i^racticed, to a 
considerable extent, by the farmers of northern Maryland and the border 
counties of Pennsylvania. Some mix the phosphate with farm manure, 
while others buy crude ammonia from the druggist, and mix them 

Dr. Pratt describes this phosphatic bed as "varying from four to 
eighteen inches in thickness, sometimes, though rarely, increasing to 
two or three feet, and in some places thinning out to a few scattering 
nodules on or near the surface. It consists essentially of indui-ated, 
iiregularly-rounded nodules, buried in an adhesive and tenacious blue 
clay and sand; sometimes, however, it exists in continuous beds, or 
large lumps, or conglomerates of soft chalky consistency, as if it were 
originally a soft pasty mass of phosphatic mud that has since become 
semi-consolidated. Associated with these is a most wonderful assort- 
ment of animal remains, among which bones of marine animals are so 
abundant as to have induced Professor L. Agassiz, twenty years ago, to 
call it the 'fish bed' of the Charleston Basin." 

The nodules he describes as rough, irregular in form, water- worn, and 
rounded, perforated by boring moUusks, though generally only the 
casts of them remain; under the microscope they exhibit the unmistak- 
able characters of bone, are easily soluble even in dilute acids, free from 
phosphate of iron and alumina, with a very low j)ercentage of car- 
lionate of lime. From one specimen of a mastodon bone Dr. Pratfstates 
that he obtained 85.62 jier cent, of pure bone phosphate, and the nodules 
contain on an average from 57 to 67 per cent, of bone phosphate. 

Professor C. TJ. Shepard, jr., of Charleston, who, as far back as 1860, 
appreciated the value of tliis bed, and urged upon the Agricultural Soci- 
ety of South Carolina the importance of utilizing it, describes, in the 
paper above referred to, the size of the nocluies as being from that of a 
boy's fist up to a man's head, some of a light color, and easily crushed in 
the fingers, and yielding the following residts. A soft nodular i)hos- 
phate between the Cooper and the Ashley Eiver : 

Moisture driven off at 212° E 3. 05 

Water and organic matter 6. 03 

Sand and sesquioxide of iron 12. 83 

Carbonate of lime 8. 06 

Sulphate of lime 2. 20 

Phosijhate of Ume and iron 69. 00 

101. 17 

The phosphate of iron rarely exceeded 5 per cent, and was much less 
in the light-colored i)hosphates. Dr. Shepard states that when freshly 
dug and fractured, the fresh surfaces give off a very strong organic 
odor, so characteristic as to be made the means of detecting the phos- 


phates thronohout the repon of tlie deposit. This odor is also found in 
the dry specimens, -whether hard or soft; the amount of nitrogenous 
matter is small, not exceeding 0.5 per cent, of ammonia. Under this 
bed a phosphatic marl occurs, reaching to the depth of four hundred 
feet, as ascertained by boring, and containing, according to Professor 
Shepard. 14 i)er cent.' of phosphate of lime. The nodules lie so close 
that an acre of the deposit has Nielded thirteen hundred tons of nodides, 
even alter rejecting small sampler. These, when clean and dry. have 
brought occasionally as high as fifteen dollars per ton. ]\Iuch of the 
land, between the rivers and overlying the stratum, is covered with 
dense forest. The phosphate is obtained by digging a ti-ench one or two 
feet wide, cutting through the phosphatic stratum, and cleaning out the 
flitch ; the laborer then stands in the trench, and with a shovel uncovers 
the surface clay and sand. la\'ing bare the layer of nodules. Then, 
with a few blows of the pick.' the latter are loosened, and the nodules 
picked out with the hand and thi'own into heaps, which are then drawn 
on the tramway, in carts, to the washers, or long troughs with horizon- 
tal shafts inside, furnished with paddles, and worked with a strong 
stream of water from a force pump. When the washing is completed, 
the ncdides, free from clay and sand, are delivered out through a vent, 
and sold on the wharf. 

The following analyses of these phosphates, samples of which were 
forwarded by L. Sangston. esq., president of the Maryland Fertilizing 
and Manufactiuing Company of Baltimore, have been made in this Lab- 
oratory, !No. 1 representing the nodules, and Xo. 2 the fossil bone : 

No. 1. 

Mobtnre and organic matter 2-50 LPO 

iDsolnUe fcilicatcs and sand ly. 40 ! 9.20 

Phosphate of iron and aloimna I"i20 j 6.W 

Phosphate of lime SaOO 64.10 

Carboaate of lime S. (W 17. 4'J 

Ma^esia Trace. Trace. 

Alkalite salts, chlorides, and sulphateji 1- e<-' 1- I'J 

99. 90 p 99.90 

The composition of ^o. 1 shows what alteration it has undergone by 
the clayey admixture which has crept in, and by the loss of almost all 
its organic matter. TVe place here lor comparison the composition of 
recent bone of the ox as given by Fremy, (Watts's Dictionary of Chem- 
istry.) when deprived of its organic matter, which generally is 33 per 
cent. : 

Per cent, of 3. 17 

Phosphate of hme G2. oO 

Phosphate of magnesia 2. 70 

Carbonate of lime 7. DO 

This includes the ash of the organic matter, or ostein, burned off. 

It may be observed that, in the fossil bone, the magnesia salt has 
disappeared, and is replaced by some alkaline salt, introduced by per- 
colation; that the organic matter is almost wholly replaced by the tine 
clay deposited in its stmctme: and that the whole mass has been 
cemented by a solution of carbonate of lime, contained in waters running 
through the beds under pressui'e. As regards the amoimt of bone phos- 
phate, these fossils are as rich as the recent bone, and much richer than 
Swan Island, Xavassa, or Bolivian guano. The uodidar bed i^o. 1 


resembles, more nearly than ZSTo. 2, the coprolites of England, as analyzed 
by Herepath, but gives much less lime carbonate. An analysis of tossil 
bone, from the greensand beds of Virginia, is here apjiended: 

r.Ioistiire and organic matter 1, 50 

Insoluble silicates and sand 17. -iO 

Phosphate of iron and alumina 10. 94 

Phosphate of lime ^55. 20 

Cai'bonate of lime 12. GO 

Magnesia trace 

Soluble salts, chiefly chlorides 2. 30 

09. 04 

The bones ^vere found in the Potomac Eiver when raking oysters 
belo^v Aqtiia Creek. By soaking in brackish ^vater, and by deposit, they 
have undergone some alteration, even from those found in the gTeen- 
sand beds. 

It is still interesting to observe hoTv large an amount of lime phos- 
phate is preserved after so long-continued solvent action of the vreak 
saHne Tvater of the Potomac Pdver at that point. 

TH031AS A^^LISELL, .If. D. 

Hon. HoEACE Capson. Commissioner. 


The foUowinjr suggjestioiis are submtted, partly from personal obser- 
vation, and partly from tlie best authentic soui-ees, both American and 
foreign, for the use of young entcmolopsts, or persons who ^sh to study 
and identify the vimous beetles injurious or beneficial to vegetable anil 
to animal substances. 

The first part will contain the latest scientific name, as also the com- 
mon or vidgar appellation by which the insect is generally known, 
wherever it is jiossible to give it, T\-itli reference to some of the various 
authors who have described the insect, and a very brief history of its 
habits tu the larva, pupa, or perfect state, together with the various 
vegetable cr animal substances upon which it is found or feeds. Each 
iusect, specially named, will be distinguished by a number in brackets, 
so as to be reaclily referred to by persons seekiug information. 

The second part Avill contain an alphabetical list of the plants and other 
substances upon which certain species of beetles feed, with the number 
in brackets before alluded to attached to it, as referring to the first part 
where the insects themselves are mentioned. The American works re- 
ferred to in this sketch are those of Dr. Lecoute, of Say, Harris, Fitch, 
the ''American Entomologist,"' &:c. The descriptions of the habits of the 
various families are taken chiefly from Dr. Leconte, or AVestwood, an 
English entomologist, who, ia his valuable work on the " Classification 
of Insects,'' gives the most lucid and brief descriptions, which will apply 
to the insects of the United States as well as to those of England, and 
in many cases throw much light ujion the food and habits of many spe- 
cies Lu Vuis country which have hitherto been unknown. The German 
work of Leunis also gives some very interesting details about the food 
and habits of several European insects, which also will be quoted. It is 
much to be regretted that many of our young entomologists merely col- 
lect, classify, and aiTange insects in their cabinets for exhibition, without 
ever troubling themselves to asceitain anything about their previous 
existence as larva or pupa, or the plants upon which they feed when in 
the larva state, or the various ti'ansformations they undergo before they 
appear as perfect beetles. Were this subject made a more especial study, 
there is no doubt that farmers would learn much, and be better pre- 
pared to suggest methods of destroying them, than is the case at 


The first family of coleoptera (beetles'), Cicindelidw, contains many spe- 
cies. These insects are generally of medium size, of swift motions, and 
frequently of bright metallic green, bronze, or brown colors, ha\-ing their 
wing cases ornamented with cream-colored spots or stripes, from which, 
and their great voracity, they have derived the common name of tiger 
beetles. The larvae are fleshy, curved grubs, of a yellowish white color, 
with large and powerful jaws, and hooks or spines on their backs. They 
biuTOw cylindrical holes in the ground, in which they lie in wait for any 
passing iusect. They lie at the mouth of this burrow, having their head 
and thorax closing the opening, so as to be ready to seize any other in- 



sect, wbicli, when caught, is immediately dragged to the bottom of their 
burrow, and devoured at leisiu-e. The pupa is also formed in the same 
hole, and the perfect tiger beetle may be seen, any line day in summer 
or autumn, flying on hot, sandy roads in the sunshine, but generally 
alighting again at a short, distance, with its head turned toward the 
intruder, so as to be able to make another flight if necessary. As these 
tiger beetles, in both the larva and the perfect state, destroy all other 
insects they can overcome, they may be considered beneficial, and will be 
classed under the head of " Predaceous" in the list of vegetable or ani- 
mal substances destroyed by beetles. Cicindela vulgaris (1.) 
(Say, 2, pp. 422 and 522) is a very common species, and 
is of a bronze color, with cream-colored marks on the 
wing cases. 

The second family, Carabidce^ or ground beetles, vary 
very much in size, form, and color; their bodies are of a 
firm consistence, whereby they are enabled to creep under 
stones, bark, &c. Most of the species are eminently in- 
sectivorous, prowling about on the surface of the ground, 
under stones, or beneath the bark of trees or moss, in 
search of their prey, which consists of other insects. Some of the Eu- 
ropean species, however, are said to attack grain, and the larva of our 
^>=-^^-^ native Omophron Jahiatum^ (2) (Say, 2, p. 495), a small beetle of a 
^>SC black color, margined or bordered with a brownish yellow, is 
y^^r\ said to be very destructive to young maize in the southern States. 
2- ■ One of our finest beetles of thisfamilyis Calosomacalidum^ (3)Fafc. 
(Say, 2, pp. 491 and 527). This insect is very 
common in Maryland and Virginia, and the 
larva was taken in the act of devouring cater- 
pillars of the common army worm (Leiicania 
extranea, GiienJ, in an oat field, near Wash- 
ington. Great numbers of the larvre of the 
beetle were observed running about in the 
midst of the army worms, seizing and destroy- 
ing all that crossed their path ; some of them 
were indeed so voracious as to become bloated 
with food, and almost unable to move. When 
this was the case, the full-fed and inactive 3. 

giuttous almost invariably became the prey of their more meager and 
nimble brethren. The perfect beetle is of a dark coppery color, beauti- 
fully dotted with several rovrs of metallic golden spots on the wing cases. 
Calosoma scrutator (4) Fab. (Say, 2, p. 491) is much larger in size, and of a 
most beautiful metallic golden- green color; in the perfect state it also 
feeds upon caterpillars and insects, even ascending trees to obtain its 
favorite food. One of thefamilj, BracJiinus ftimans, (5) (Say, 2, 
p. 439), is rather common under stones, and is mentioned here 
as having the singular habit, when either alarmed or irritated, 
of discharging from the posterior extremity of its body a caus- 
tic fluid; this discharge is remarkable for an audible detona- 
tion with its accompanying cloud of smoke as in the discharge 
of a gun ; hence its common name of Bombardier beetle. West- 
wood states that the vapor, which is of a very pungent odor, 
is also emitted when chased by other insects, in order to enable it to 
escape from its enemies. The wing-cases of this beetle are of a dark 
color, whilst the head, thorax, and legs are of a yeUow brown. 



The Lehicc constitute a siib-gi'onp, aud are small, active bee- 
tles, Korae of tbeiii vers' beautifully marked. ]Maiiy of this spe- 
cies are found ou flowers. [Numbers of the Lcbia fjyandis, (6) a 
small beetle with wing covers aud also thorax blackish, legs and 
head of a yellowish or ochi-e color, were takeu feeding on the 
6- larvjE of the ten-lined spearman f Donjphora 10-UneataJ, so inju- 
rious to the potato in the western States, in the mouth of July. Some 
of the tribe Pterostichini are stated, by European authors, to injure 
grain. Calath us Jatiis, (7) ("Westwood, 1, p G3), a European insect, is said to 
injure young wheat. The larva of ZahnisgihbKS. (8) also European, is said 
by Leunis to. feed on the roots and shoots of grain, while the perfect 
beetle itself consumes the grain or seed of barley, wheat, and rye in 
Germany. Westwood, 1. p. 01, also mentions a similar fact; it would 
therefore be well for some of our entomologists to determine whether 
we have not some allied species in tliis country, injuring our gTiiin crops. 
Some of the species of xlmara (0) are also said to destroy grain in 

Kaqyalus fPangusJ Caligi)iotj}AS{lij) (Say, 2, p. -io-l) is a me- 
dium sized beetle, of a brov»iiish black color, which 
If-^ dLffuses a very pungent odor, like that of vinegar, when 
disturbed ; it has been taken in great numbers in Mary- 
land, under Avheat stacks, and is commonly sui)posed by 
the faiTiiers to feed upon the grain of wheat; it is proba- 
ble, however, that these insects have collected together 
in such situations for shelter, or to feed upon other insects 
usually found in such situations. It must, however, be 
confessed that this beetle has been taken under very sus- 
picious circumstances in an open field on timothy grass stalks, appa- 
rently feeding on the seeds, when no other insect was visible to the naked 
eye, which might have been selected as its food. 

Of the third family, A7nj}kizoidce, Dr. Leconte states that nothing is 
known about their habits. 

The fourth family, J)ijtiscid(r, have the autenuie long aud slender; 
their form is oval, elliptic, or rounded ; and their hind legs are formed 
for swimming. These insects inhabit stagnant water, aud are very 
voracious, feeding not only upon other aquatic insects, but also devour- 
ing fish-spawn or very small fish. Some of them occasionally fly by 
night from pond to pond, and are said to be attracted by a light. 

One of the largest species, (11) Dyti-sciis hibri 
.^dus, (Lee), was captured on the fiat roof of a building 
' in Maryland, at least four stories in height, where it 
had doubtless fallen during its noctuinal flight, and 
was unable to rise again. During the winter season 
the Jji/tiscidcc remain in the water, or bury them- 
selves in the mud, where some of them remain in a 
torjjid state, v.hile others retain their vitalitj- and 
acti\ity even under the ice. 

The fifth family, Gyrinida\ comprises those oval 
water-beetles usually knovrn by the name of ''whirli- 
gigs" or apple-bugs; the former local name being 
derived from theii' habit of swimming in large num- 
bers in ch'cles, or labyrinthine curves, on the surface of the water ; and 
the latter name from the pecuUar api)le or calycanthus-like odor which 
they emit when taken in the hand. The European species deposits her 
small, cyhndrical eggs, which are placed end to end in ptirallel rows^ 
upon the leaves of aquatic plants ; the larvag are said to hatch out in 


about eigiit days, aud to bear some reseiublauce to a Toimg centipede. 
Wlieu they liave attained their full size, they creep out of the water, up 
the stems of rushes or other aquatic plants, \rhere they inclose them- 
selves in oval cocoons, composed of a substance spun out of their own 
bodies. (Westwood, 1, p. 109). The perfect insect, if closely examined, 
presents the cimous appearance of possessing four eyes, the organs of 
sight beiug- di\-ided by the side of the head. These insects are pre- 
daceous, and feed upon insects on the siu'face of the ^vater. One of our 
most common species, Dincutes (Gyrinus) Amcricaniis, (12) 
(Say, 2, p. ol9), may be seen at all times, excepting in -winter, 
circling around on the still pools of water, feeding on living or 
dead insects which float upon the surface. 

The perfect beetles of the sixth family, Rydro^yliiJidcc, (13) live 
upon decomposing vegetable matter, although their larvoe are 
j)redaceous and quite voracious. The majority of them are 
aquatic, and are distingiiished from other Vater-beetles by their club- 
formed antennte; their bodies are usually of an oval form, and the 
hinder legs are ciliated or fi-inged with bristles, aud formed for swim- 
ming, or rather for paddling, in the majority. These insects do not swim 
with the agility of the Dytiscidcr, already mentioned ; they generally 
keep in the water by day, but during the evening sometimes come 
abroad and take wing. The European species, IlydropJiilus piceus, (13) 
feeds chiefly upon aquatic plants, although they also devour with avidity 
dead larvae and aquatic molluscie. The female spins a g-mnmy envelope 
for her eggs, which amount to about titYy or sixty in number, and are 
disposed symmetrically in an upright position in their receptacle, which 
has somewhat the appearance of a smaU tiu'uip. being nearly an inch 
broad, aud which is attached to some plant until the larvse are hatched, 
when it floats upon the siuface of the water. The larvse escape at the 
lower part of the cocoon, which is merely closed by a few threads. As 
larvie they undergo three moultings, and feed upon aquatic mollusks 
and insects inhabiting the water. 

EydropMlus triangularis (11) (Say, 2. p. 12S) is a rather 
common species, and is foimd in"^ ponds and ditches ; 
the insect is of a shining black color. The fifth ti'ibe, 
Sp1ia:ridiida:, (15) are terrestrial in their habits, of small 
size, and feed upon putrescent vegetable matter which 
has passed through the bodies of herbivorous animals, 

The seventh family, Silpliideu, (16) feed on carrion, dead 
fish, snails, &c., &:c., and are in some degTee beneficial, 
inasmuch as they remove from the surface of the earth = 
animal matter in a state of putridity, which would 
otherwise taint the air aud become injurious to health. 
They are constantly found in carrion and the carcasses 
of animals. Some of the European species frequent 
trees, where they probably devour caterpillars. Both larva and pupa 
of Siljiha hcvigata (IC) of Eiu-ope feed voraciously on live snails. Some 
of the larger species are commonly called sexton or burning beetles, 
from then- habit of bm-ying the carcasses of small animals, birds, •S:c., 
for the purpose of depositing their eggs in the bimed body, where the 
larvoe, when hatched, find a sufficiency "of food until they become pupte. 
These insects eflect their purpose of burying small aiiimals by iinder- 
minmg the carcass, imtil it gradually descends into the grotmd, and then 
covering it Avith earth. One of our best known species is the (17) 
Xccrophoru.i inargiiiafus, (Fab.), which may be found at any time during 



tlie sumraer or autumn, in carrion. The inseet is of a 
black color, barred with chestnut or reddish brown. 
Necrophoras Amerkanus (18) (Leo.) is a much larger 
species, also feedin*:^ on carrion, but is especially 
found in dead snakes. The Necrophori are- usually 
U^rge, stout beetles, of a black color, barred with 
light brown on the wing cases. They exhale a very 
disagreeable carrion-like odor, and are frequently in- 
fested with a species of Gamasus, or mite. 

Necrophilapeltafa{l9) (Lee.) Americana, 
Melsheimer's catalogue, is a large, flat- 
tened beetle, with rugose, black wing 
cases, and thorax of a yellowish brown color, having a 
black mark in the middle ; this insect feeds also on car- 
rion. (20) Adelops hirtus, (Lee), a very small 
brown beetle without eyes, belongs also to 
this ftimily, and is merely incidentally men- 
tioned as being found on bones, accidentally 
left in the mammoth cave, in Kentucky. The 
eighth family, Scydmacnida;, (21) consists of very small insects, 
some of which are taken in ants' nests, but contain no spe- 
cies of interest to the farmer. This may also be said of the 
-0- ninth family, PselapMdce, (22) which consists of very small 
insects, many of Avhich fly during the twilight; their habits are various, 
some being found in ants' nests, while others occur under bark and stones. 
Leunis states that the European species, Clarifjer foreolatus, (23) is found 
in the nests of the yellow ant, which treat them with great care, occa- 
sionally taking them up in its jaws, when the^^ would escape. Westwood 
considers it not improbable that the Claviger secretes a fluid analogous 
to that of the Aphides, or plant lice, from the sets^ or bristles at the 
extremity of the abdomen. IMiiller also adds the curious fact that the 
ants in return feed the Claviger s from their own mouth. Many speci- 
mens of (42) Bryaxis were beaten off of swamp gTass, in 
May, near a pond, by I\Ir. J. W. Wilson, of New York. 
The tenth family, StaphyHnidcc, or rove beetles, contains a 
/TiR\ great number of species, almost all of them, however, more or 
r i^^^s^ less distinguished by their long, narrow, depressed form, and 
by their very short elytra, or wing cases, which cover only a 
, small portion of their abdomen, thus leaving many of the seg- 
ments visible. 

Many of the larger species emit a very unx^leasant odor when handled. 
They run and fly with equal agility, the wings, when unemployed in 
flight, being closely packed under the short wing covers. These insects 
are very voracious, and prey upon decaying animal and also vegetable 
substances, esjjccially fimgi. Several of the smaller species are very 
numerous on flowers, or under bark and moss. Westwood (1, p. 167) 
^v-^ states that a small larva, (25) probably of this species, in Europe 
^ is said to hij are wheat by eating the young plant about an 
inch below the surface, and devoimng the central part, thus 
occasioning much damage. The eggs of the Staphylinidcv are 
'of large size, and the larviie bear considerable resemblance to 
the perfect insect in structure and habits. A very common 
native species, CreophiJus villosus (20) (Lee), was taken in 
great numbers, in October, Irom the body of a dead horse. 
This family, however, not being particularly injurious to the farmer, will 
be passed over. 



The eleventh family, Sisteridw, (27) consists of insects of small size, 
square or oblong quadrate form, and of a shining black color. These insects 
possess the power of contracting their limbs and counterfeiting death ; 
hence .their common name of mimic beetles. The word "hister" is evi- 
dently derived from the Latin Mistrio, a stage mimic. They feed upon 
both decaying vegetable and animal substances, and are found in abund- 
ance, in spring, upon the excrements of horses and cows. Other species, 
with flattened bodies, reside under the bark of trees, and some of the 
minute species are stated by TTestwood to reside in the nests of ants. 
One of the sub-family, Murmidiidce, (28) is stated by European writers to 
live in old rice. 

Family twelfth, Scapliidiidce., thirteenth, Trklioiiterygidw, and four- 
teenth, PhaJacridw, are ijassed over, as being of no importance to the 

The fifteenth family, Mtidulidw, (29) are usually small beetles of an oval, 
depressed, or slightly convex form ; sometimes, however, they are almost 
globular or elongate; they live on decomposing substances, "both animal 
and vegetable. The second tribe of this family, Carpophilini, are usu- 
ually flattened in form, and have the last two or three dorsal segments 
of the abdomen uncovered by the somewhat short wing cases, 
resembling in this respect the Staph yllnidce. Colastus semitectus, (30) 
a small brown beetle, is found abundantly in the flowers, or decay- 
ing bolls of the cotton, and the decayed ears of maize in the field 
where they probably feed upon minute fungi. Car- 
popMlus liemipterns^ (31) a very small brownish-black beetle 
having four light spots on its short wing covers, is also 
found in similar situations. Tribe 3, Kitidiilini, (32) consists 
mostly of small insects, with boclies oval sub-depressed, 

thorax margined, and their bodies covered by the ^ 
wing cases; some of them live on flowers, under ' 
bark, in fungi, or on dried animal matter. The 
larviE of one of the species, Stelidota geminata, (33) 
(Lee), is stated by Dr. Walsh (1st liep. lUin., 
1868, p. 18), to feed upon decaying vegetable and 
also animal substances, and to breed in the holes 31. 

made in grapes by CosUodes inceqiiaUs, a species of curculio. 
Ips qiiadrisignatus (31) (Say, 2, p. 611), a small black beetle with four ^:^ 
yellow spots or marks.on the wing covers, is stated in the Practical -"^^ 
Entomologist, volume 2, page 56, to burrow into sweet corn ; most ^ 
of the other species are found under the bark of trees. 

The sixteenth family, Monotomidce, contains no insects at present known 
to be of any interest to the farmer. 

The seventeenth family, Trogositidcc, consists of insects having the 
body more or less depressed, with short club-shaped antennfe; some of 
the species live under bark, while others injure grain. The larva of Tro- 
gosita {carahoides Fab.) (35) Mauritanica (Oliv.), a beetle of a brown color, 
is termed by the French Cadelle, and is very destructive to grain in gran- 
aries; it also destroys bread, and is found under the bark of trees. 
Trogosita dubia, (36) (Lee), a very nearly allied beetle, was found in beech 
nuts ; it also destroys wheat, maize, and other grains, in Mary- 

The eighteenth family, Colydiidw, (37) consists of small insects, 
usually of an elongate or cylindrical form, living under the bark ^,. 
of trees, in fungi, or in the earth. A^doniian fColydiumJ / 
paraleUwipediim (38) (Say, 2, p. 321) was foimd in great numbers 
on pine trees, apparently eating passages under the bark. 




The ninetecntli family, Ehjssodidoe, is of no general interest to tlie 
agTicultiirist, and will, therefore, be passed over. 

The twentieth family, Cucvjidw, consists of small insects, 
almost always of a depressed, and usually of an elongate, 
form. Sylvanus Surinamcnsis, (39) a very minute beetle of a 
chestnut-brown color, and having several teeth or spines on 
the outer edges of the thorax, is found in wheat and maize; 
and several were taken out of passages or tunnels eaten in 
dried leaf tobacco. These insects may also be found 
dead in sugar, or floating in tea and coffee. Syl- 
ranus bidentatus, (4:0) so-called from the two project- 
ing teeth or spines on the front part of the outer edge of the 
thorax, is rather larger than the <S'. Siirinamensis, and is also 
of a chestnut-brown color. Its larvae are found under chestnut 
bark, where they probably feed upon the substance. Sylvanus 
qiiadricoUis (41) resembles the others in gen- 
eral appearance, but has a quadrate or square thorax. 
The egg is deposited in maize, near the germ ; the larva 
feeds upon the substance of the grain ; it also 
has been found in rotted cotton bolls, and in this 
situation feeds upon the exposed seeds, in the 
month of August and of September. NauniMus 
A A f^y^^^'^^'^^^J dentatus (42) (Say, 2, p. 325) is also 
/vL/\ found under bark and in sugar. Lccmopliloeus 
(Cucujus) modestus (43) (Say, 2, p. 327), a very min- 
ute chestnut-brown beetle belonging to the same 
family, was taken in hemp-seed, the interior of which had been entirely 
eaten out, and only the husk left. 

Family twenty-one, Cryptophagidce (44); twenty- two, Berodoniidce ; 
twenty-three, Lathridiido) ; twenty-four, Othiildcc; and twenty-five, ilfi/ce- 
topJiagidce, will be passed over, as they contain no insects at present known 
to be injurious to the crops, living principally on fungi, under bark, or 
in rotting vegetable substances. 

The twenty-sixth family, Bermestidcv, (45) consists of small oval insects, 
some of which are found in dried animal remains, others on plants only, 
and many of them are A'ery destructive to objects of natiu'al history, 
skins, bones, fur, feathers, books, &c. Leunis states that the European 
species, Byturus tomentosm, (4G) is in the habit of frequenting flowers, and 
that the larva feeds, in June or July, on the fruit of the raspberry, and, 
from its habits, is called in Germany Himbeer-made, or the raspberrj- 
maggot. Kirby and Spence state that the perfect insect eats through 
the footstalk of the blossom of the raspberry, so as sometimes 
to i:)rove fatal to the whole crop. Blackberries are also attacked 
in a similar manner. Byturus unicolor (47) (Say, 2, p. 12G), 
of this country, is a small insect of a light brown color, 
fomid frequently in flowers. Benncstcs Tul])inus, (48) a 
small beetle of a blackish-brown color, is found in almost 
■47.' every country, and at one time was so injurious to the large 
skin warehouses in London that a reward of £20,000 was ofl'ered for an 
available remedy, without, however, any beiug discovered. This insect 
is also injurious to cork, and sometimes very destructive in collections 
of natural history, entomology, &c. Bcrmcstes lardarius (49) is of a 
yellow and bluish-black color, and destroys furs, meats, &c., and 
also is very injurious to collections of natural history. The larva 
sheds its skin several times, and is covered with bristly hairs; it 
usually creeps on the surface of the meat, preferring the fat parts, 



and does not burv itself in its food until about the time of assuming the 
pupa state, in wliicli state it remains from tliree or four days to a week, 
according to the warmth of the locality (Horn). Anthrcmis 
f destructor, (50) Mels.) varius (Fab.) is a very pretty insect 
when examined with a magnifying- glass, being beautifully 
marbled or variegated with black and gray. The beetle 
frequents flowers ; a gTcat number were taken, May 23, on 
the flowers of a spii-rea; and they are veyr common on 
umbelliferous plants. Westwood states that they are nearly 
a year in attaining their full size ; but Dr. Horn says that, 
the egg being deposited in any fissure, the larva state requires only about 
two weeks and the pupa only four or five days. They shed their skins 
as larvse several times, and it is during the warm weather that their rav- 
ages are most extreme. The larva, when changed into a pupa, retains the 
last skin of the larva, which serves as a cocoon, a slit having first been 
made down the back, out of which the perfect beetle makes its escape. 
Westwood recommends that, when collections of insects are attacked, 
these pests may be destroyed by putting them in tin cases, which may 
then be immersed in boiling water, whereby both the larvoe and eggs are 
at once destroyed. He also states that they appear to be insensible to 
the effects of cami)hor, and he actually found them harbored under lumps 
of that material in his drawers. These insects, also, are very destructive 
to dried skins, and collections of natural history in general. 

The twenty-seventh family, Byrrhidce, consists of small insects, having 
their body short, oval, or rounded, very convex. These small beetles, 
at the slightest appearance of danger, fold up their antennae and legs, so 
that these members are entirely concealed, and cause the insect to 
appear like an oval seed or pill, at the same time counterfeiting death, 
as a means of defense ; hence their common name in England of pill- 
beetles. They are not known, however, to do any injury to our crops. 

Family twenty-eight, Georyssidce ; twenty-nine, Parnidcc ; and thirty, 
Heteroceridce, generally live in or near water, and are of no consequence 
to the farmer. 

The thirty-fii'st family, Liicanidcc, comprises several very large beetles, 
the males of some of wliich are distinguished by the great size of their 
mandibles or jaws, which have the appearance of a stag; hence their 
common name of stag-beetles. The jaws of the female are much smaller. 
The eggs are oval, and the larvse are large fleshy grubs, having the 
extremity of the body curved towards the breast, so 
as not to allow the insect to creep on a level sur- \ 
face, but compelling it to lie on its side. Their legs 
are six in number, and very weak ; the larva feeds 
on wood; and, on arriving at its full size, it forms a 
cocoon of the chips or dust it has gnawed ; and in 
this cocoon the pupa is formed, the male having the 
large jaws folded on the breast and belly, protecting 
the antenna} and legs ; it is supposed that this in- 
sect remains several years in the larva state, one of 
the European species, according to Eozel, not ap- 
pearing as a perfect stag-beetle until a lai^se of six 
years. The larva of our native species, Lucanns 
dama, (51) commonly known as the horn-bug, or stag- 
beetle, (Harris, p. 44, Fitch, 3d Eep., 185G, p. 329, 
and 5th Eep., p. 794), is foimd in old decaying trunks and roots of trees, 
where it feeds upon the wood ; the pupa is formed in large pods of 
cocoons made of the loose dust and dirt of the tree, and the perfect 




beetle appears from June to Aii^st, aud feeds upon tbe street 
sap of trees. <S:c.; it is also said sometimes to be predaceous, 
and to destroy soft-bodied insects for the sake of their juices. 
The trees principally attacked by the larva are the apple, 
cherry, oak, and willow. Flatycerus quercus (52) is a much smaller 

insect of the same family, of a blackish color, and is 
fotmd in the rotten wood of oak. Passalus cornutus, 
(Lee). (53) is a large black beetle, and is very common in 
Maryland ; in old oak stumps and logs, in the spring. 
The thiity-second family, Scaraha-idw, contains in- 
sects, the hind legs of which are placed so near the 
extremity of the body as to give the beetle a most 
extraordinaiy appearance when walking; this pecu- 
liar formation is ueveitheless particularly ser\iceable 
in rolling the balls of excrementitious matter in which 
they inclose their eggs. These bails are at first iiTeg- 
ular aud soft; but, by degrees, and during the process 
of rolling along, become round and harder: they are propelled by means 
of the hind legs, the insects occasionally mounting to the top when they 
find a diffictilty in urging them along, probably to de- 
stroy their equilibrium : sometimes in rolling these balls 
the beetles stand almost on their hea ;ls with their heads 
turned from the ball. These maneuvers have for their 
object the burying of the balls in holes, which the insects 
have previously dug in the earth for their reception, and 
\ it is upon the dung, of which the balls are composed and 
thus deposited, that the larvie feed when hatched out ; the 
^ males as well as the females assist in rolling these balls. 
^- The tyjie of this family is the Scarabaus, or sacred beetle 

of the Egyptians, Ateudais ^gyptiorum of Latreille. The best known 
and most common beetle of this family in this cotmtry is the Can- 
ton l(Evis, (54) usually termed the tumble-bug. These 
insects may be seen almost any fine summer day on the 
public roads in the country, employed in rolling balls of 
manure, formed from the excrements of horses and cattle 
in the highway. Another well-known insect in the 
middle or more southern State is the Phanccus carni- 
fex [oo) (Lee): this beetle is of the most beautiful metal- 
lic green, purjile, and gold colors, but of a very disgust- 
ing odor when handled. The males of this species are 
furnished with a long, recurved horn on the head, the use of 
which is unknown. This insect feeds also on mantire and excre- 
ments in the larva state. The Aphodiini [oQ) are small beetles of 
an oblong or oval form, of obscure black and brown colors, and may 
\ be found swarming, during the spring months, in or about the dung 
of herbivorous animals or about manure. Aphodius fimetarius (50) 
is a well-known beetle of this tribe, which Doctor Lecoute says '• has been 
J introduced from Europe, but now is perfectly naturalized, 
'J especially in the northern parts of this countiy.-' The tribe 
Geotrupini are beetles of a rounded form, li^ing in excre- 
ments and manure. Our native insect, Geot rapes splen- 
fV 'lidus. (57), is a beetle of moderately large size, and is 

,. V ,"r.^5 remarkable for its beautiful green and golden metallic 

\\ J] colors ; it is found also in manure aud excrements. ' 

I \ The ti'ibe Trogini (5S) consists of oblong, convex 

57. insects, frequently with very rough or rugose wing- 



cases ; tliey live in dried decomposing* animal matter, and when dis- 
turbed have the faculty of counterfeiting death : they are able also to 
produce a creaking noise by alternately rubbing the front part 
of the mesothorax against the prothoracic cavity, or more pro- 
bably the extremity of the body against the elytra or wing- K 
cases. Trox terrestris, {oS) (Say, 2, p. 295) is an exami^le of this 
tribe. The insect is of a blackish color. The sub-family Melolon- { 
iliidce feed exclusively on vegetable matter. Hoplia debiUs^ 
(59) (Lee. Jour. Acad. 2d, p. 285), a small dark-colored beetle, was 
found very abundant on the foliage, and especially on the flowers of the 
pear in Maryland, in the spring. Westwood states that the 
European Hoplia^ when disturbed, counterfeit death by extend- 
ing their legs in a stiffened manner, and in different directions. 
JOichelonycha {hexapona) elongatula (GO) (Lee.),' or elongated, 
fork claw, (Fitch, 3d Rep., 1856, p. 474), is a small, hairy beetle 
of a somewhat elongate square form, and of a brown metallic 
color ; and is said to feed upon the foliage of the hazel. Two other 
species, D. subviftata (Fitch, 3d Rep., 185G, p. 475) and D. linearis 
(Fitch, 3d Rep., 185G, p. 475), or " linear fork-claw," are said also 
to destroy the foliage of the hazel; while D. albicoUis, (Gl) or 
white necked pine beetle, (Fitch, 4th Rep., 1857, ]>. 747), is said to 
feed upon the foliage of the white pine. Comptorluna OmaJopUa)^ 
vespertina (G2) (Harris, p. 33) feeds on the foliage of the sweet briar 
and rose. Serica {Omalaplia) sericea^ (G3) (Harris, p. 33; Say, 2, 
p. 144), a small chestnut-brown beetle, feeds also during the evening in 
summer on the foliage of the sweet briar and rose ; while Serica iricolor 
(G4) (Say, 2, p. 145) destroys the foliage of the pear and apple. Say states 
that this species abounds in hilly and mountainous situations in the month 
of May, and may be seen flying about among whortleberry bushes in 
such profusion that, in a very short time, any number desired may be 
collected ; he also says that whenever a female alights on the ground 
she is immediately siu-rounded by a number of males. 

The much-dreaded rose-bug, Macrodactyhis siibspi}iostis (05) 
(Harris, p. 37 ; Fitch, 1st Rep., p. 245, &c.), belongs to the 
same sub-family. The female deposits her eggs, to the number 
of about thirty, in the groimd in June or July ; the larvie feed 
upon tender roots, and attain their full growth in autumn ; , 
they then descend to pass the winter in a semi-torpid state, 
below the reach of frost. The pupa is formed in IMay, in a cell 
of an oval shape, imder gromid. The perfect beetle appears in 65. 
May and June, assembling in great nimibers on roses and the flowers ot 
elder, ox-eye daisy, &c., and feeds upon the foliage and flowers of fi'uit 
and forest trees. The apple, grape, cherry, plimi, peach, oak, and 
rose, vegetables, maize, grass, &c., do not escape their attacks ; and, 
indeed, these beetles are almost omnivorous. In Maryland they are 
especially destructive to roses and grape-vines. Their whole transforma- 
tion, from the egg to the perfect beetle, is completed within the space of 
one year. 

DiplGtaxis (meJolontlia) sordida {66) (Say, 2, p. 299), a small, 
stoutly built beetle of an oblong, slightly convex form, and of 
a color from pale chestnut to dark brown, is found in consider- 
able numbers in spring, in Maryland, on the flowers of the 
pear. The beetles generally known as May-beetles, June- ' 
bugs, &c., which are so abundant in certain localities, and do 
so much injury to the leaves of forest and of fruit trees, 
belong to this sub-family. These beetles are of a medium size, and gener- 



ally of a browu color ; there are several species differing but slightly from 
one another in size, form, or color. 

Lachnosternafusca (Lee). (C7) (Phyllopliaga quercinaj (Har- 
ris, p. 30; Fitch. 3(1 Ecp.,lS5(3,p.3G8) is one of our most com- 
mon species. The larvae are fat, fleshy grubs, and feed 
upon roots of grass, &c., under the earth, and are fre- 
quently very destructive to meadows and pastures. The 
pupa3 are formed in a smooth cell or cavity under gi'ound. 
The insects are nocturnal in their habits, appearing in May 
and June, and feed upon the foliage of the apple, elm, 
maple, oak, cheny, i^lum, and fruit and forest trees in 
general. The principal species are Laclinosternn (PhyUo- 
^~- lyhagaj micans. {OS) L.hirticida (G9) (Harris, p. 33), Ho/o^ree/j fa 

crenulaia (70) (Harris, p. 32), and Trichestes (pilosicolUs) tristis{ll) (Harris, 
p. 33.) These beetles are all of the same habits, and feed upon 
the foliage of all the fruit and the forest trees mentioned above. 
Leunis gives the history of a somewhat allied Em'opean beetle, 
Mololo7itha vidr/aris, or cock-chafler, which may throw some 
light on our native species. He states that the female, about 
24 hours after pairing, creeps into the earth to deposit her eggs, 
from which, after aperiod of fourto six weeks, the young larvae 
hatch, and feed upon roots under ground. These larva; in four 
years attain their full size, so that every four years (consequently every 
fifth summer) they appear in the greatest numbers. Eatzeburg considers 
it four years, but the Swiss and the Rhine people, on the contrary, think 
it only a three-years' generation, considering the fourth year an excep- 
tion (Leunis, p. 457). KoUar, however, states that the female lays 80 
to 90 eggs in a heap about six inches under ground ; the larxse appear 
in about 14 days, and the complete transformation occupies a space of 
five years ; or, if its transformation is retarded by food or weather, some- 
times even six years elapse. 

Poh/phylla fMeloJonthaJ variolosa, (72) or the scarred 
melolontiia (Harris, p. 33), a large chestnut-colored 
beetle with lighter marks or scars on the wing cases, 
is nocturnal in its habits, and feeds on the foliage of 
elm, maple, oak, apple, cherry, plum, and other forest 
trees, and fruit trees in general. An insect of the 
first gToup, Anomalcr, which consists of beetles of 
small size, is rather common in Maryland. This 
beetle, Ano7nala varians (73) (Harris, p. 34), appears 
during the summer months, and feeds upon the foliage 
of sumach, and both wild and cultivated grape vines. 
Thirty specimens of this species were taken from the 
"2- stomach of a king biixl. or t\Tant fly-catcher (Tijraiuixis 

CaroUnensisJ, which had been shot by a Maryland farmer under the mis- 
taken idea that the bird was catching his bees. Another species, Spilota 
{Anomala) lucicola (74) (Fitch, 1857, p. 403). a small chesnut-brown 
beetle, also feeds upon the foliage of the grape, while a variety of 
the sameinsect,J..jj)i;a'co/« (75) (Fitch, 1857, p.747),issaidtodestroy 
the foliage of the southern pine. Group 2, Hutelcc, contains 
the spotted pelidnota, Pelidnota imnctata (70) (Harris, p. 25; 
Fitch, 1850, 1). 403). This insect is a large, livid, chesnut- 
yellow beetle, with three black spots on each wing cover, and two 
upon the thorax; it is diurnal in habits, and feeds upon the foliage of 
both wild and cultivated gi\ipes ; it is also accused by some grape- 
growers of cutting ofi" the bunches, thus injuring the smaller side 



bunches, and causing the clusters to ripen, unequally. The larva is 
found in rotten wood. 

CotaJpa (Areoda) lanigera, {17) the "woolly areoda," or 
goldsmith's beetle, is a large insect of a beautiful golden 
or metallic luster, which, during the day-time, hides under 
the foliage of trees, and liills to tlie ground when disturbed. 
At twilight, however, it feeds upon the tbliage of the elm, 
hickory, poplar, oak, willow, and other forest trees, o 
The larva probably lives in the earth, and feeds upon M '■ 
roots of plants. The second tribe, Bynastini, immhevsi j 
among its foreign members many very large beetles ; some 
of the genera arc remarkable for the size and form of the 
horns on the thorax and head of the males. The larva? 
generally are found in rich vegetable mold, or decaying " 

wood. Our native species Xylonjctessatyrus (Lee), (78) a large beetle of a 
black color, was taken at the root of an ash tree, and 

also of a sweet gnm. 
Stratcgus antccus (79) 
(Lee.) burrows in sandy 
fields (Xew Jersey), de- 
scending to a depth of 
from one inch to a foot, 
the females always goingf ■ 
deeper than the males. 
By searching for them 
early in the morning, 
they can be captured "^• 

with greater ease, as the earth around the 
holes is fresh (Cresson). The beetle is 
of a brown color. The sub-tribe, Dynas- 
tidce^ contains one of our largest and 
finest beetles, Dynasfes tityriis{SO) (Say, 1, p. 
9; Fitch, 185(5. p. 
307), the males 
of which are disting-uished by singiilar pro- 
tuberances or horns rising from the head and 
thorax ; they are of a dirty, gTcenish cream 
color, having the wing cases mottled or 
spotted with irregidar black blotches. Two 
perfect males were taken in Washington in 
a yard containing an old, decaying cheny 
tree. They were also found by Say in an old 
cherry tree accidentally blown down near 
Philadelphia. Mr. Peale states he has also 
found them in old willows, and 3Ir. Eidings 
took many of them from the hmbs of an ash 
in Yii'ginia. The larva, doubtless, feeds 
upon decaying wood. Tribe 3, Cctoniini, 
consists principally of insects of an oblong, 
oval, or depressed form, with the wing cases 
not reaching to the extremity of the abdo- 
men. In regard to this tribe, IMr. Walsh 
remarks that in coleoptera (beetles), the ely- 
tra or wing cases are not, as far as is known, 
used at all in fiight, and some of them, e. (/., 
Cetonia and its'allies, do not even lift them off their backs when thej 



fly. (Walsli, Proi-eea. Eut. Soc. Pbil., vol. G, p. 121). Westwood states 
that tlie beetles frequent Bowers, on :lie juice of wbicli they subsist, the 
stnicture of their maxillary lobes enabling them to lap up the sweets. 
Other siieoies are found on trunks of trees, particularly such as are 
\\oiuided, and from which the sap Hows. A Eui'opeau species, Cctonia 
hirta, (81 ) is accused of doiug much damage to the tlowers of the apricot, by 
eating oti the nectary. One of our most common species in ]\Iarylaud is 
AUorhina (L'otinis) nitida (82) (Lee.) This insect is a large 
beetle, of a velvety green color, with a light cream -colore<^l 
border or edge. Great numbers of it were taken in Wash- 
ington from the trunk of a maple which had been wounded 
accidentally, and fi'om which the sweet juices were tlow- 
ing ; the beetles clustering around the cut like bees, and 
[all busily engaged in lapping up the sap. They also are 
said to injiu^e the ripe fniit of the beech, by eating holes 
in the nuts, and in some of the southern States are so 
very destructive to ripe figs as to have acquired the local 
name of tig-eaters. Euryomux ( Euphoria J melanchoUca (83) 
IS a much smaller beetle, which feeds upon the sap from diseased or 
injured cotton bolls; it is also found in the tlowers. Euryomia (Erir- 
4 1i ii)isJIiida,{S4:){Sa\. 2, p. 141 ; and Harris, p. 40) is a very com- 
^ mon beetle of a brown color, checkered or mottled with a 
darker tint : this insect also feeds upon the sap of trees, &:c. 
The first brood appears in April and May ; and, as they 
fly slowly and with a loud humming noise near the ground, 
"may at the hrst glance be readily mistaken for large hum- 
ble bees. A second brood appears in the airtumu, and pro- 
bably passes the winter in a torpid state. The larvie pro- 
bably feed upon the roots of herbaceous plants. The 
insects themselves fiequent the flowers of the golden-rod, {^Solidar/o), and 
feed upon the sap of cotton bolls, maize, locust, &c.; and m the autumn 
sometimes do considerable damage to the ripe peaches, pumpldns, and 
figs. Osmodcnna scahra, (85) or lough Osmoderma, 
(Harris, p. 43 ; Fitch, 1850, p. 329), is a large, some- 
what flattened, black beetle, the larv® of which 
feed upon wood in old and decaying trees; the pupa 
is formed in a cell made of the fragments of wood 
cemented together ; and the perfect beetle appears 
in summer, ajid is found on the foliage of apple, oak, 
and other fruits, and also forest trees. These 
Insects when handled emit an odor like that of 
Eussia leather, hence their name Osmodermo, from 
the Greek words signifying scent or odor, and leather. 
Osmoderma eremicoki, (8G) or smooth Us'iV.oderma, 
^^- (Harris, p. 41 : Fitch, 185G, p. 329), is very similar 

ro xho foregoing in form and color, but may readily be recognized by its 
smoother appearance. The beetle feeds upon the sap of trees, apple, 
cherry, &c. 

Trkhius ( TrlgmiopeltastesJ delta (SI) (Fab.) isa much smaller 
beetle, having a very distinct triangular mark of yellow on 
its black thorax, like the Greek letter delta ; the wing-cases 
are brown, marked with black spots. This insect was found 
in August and September, feeding on the sweet litjuid w ^ 
at the base of the flowers, or on the extravasiited sap -^ 
from injured bolls of cotton. Valgus (seticolUs) squami-^ 
ger, (88) (Lee. ; Fitch, 1857, p. 095), a small beetle of a as. 



blackish color, was found in great numbers in tlie montb of January, 
in JMaryland, under the bark and in the rotten wood of an old pine 
stuui]) f the larvoe are fleshy grubs resembling somewhat those of the 

The thirty-third famOy, Buprestidcc, contains several species, many of 
them decorated with the most brilliant metallic tints, and sometimes 
present the beautiful contrast of yellow spots on a highly polished blue 
and green ground ; these beetles are in general of elongate form. The 
larviie usually are fleshy grubs, having the head and first segments of the 
body very m\ich enlarged or flattened out : they perforate the stems of 
living plants and trees. The perfect beetles creep but slowly, but are 
very active when on the wing. They are found partly in flowers or on 
trees and logs, where they appear to be sunning themselves during the 
hotter seasons of the year ; when disturbed they fold up their legs and 
antenna?, and fall to the ground. The female has a retractile, horny plate 
at the end of the abdomen, which she uses for the purpose of depositing her 
eggs in the chinks of the bark of trees, within which the larva? reside. 
Chalcophora fvirginicaj Yirginiensis (89) ( Harris, p. 48 ; 
Fitch, 1857, p. 090), is a rather common species in Mary- 
land ; the larvte burrow in the wood of the pine. Eatze- 
burg states, of an allied European species, that the larva- 
state lasts two years ; Perris, on the contrary, says only 
one. This insect is one of the largest species ; it is of a 
dark brassy bronze color, with a bright galden metallic 
luster; the wing-covers and thorax are beautifidly sculp- 
tured or indented with deep furrows or lines. A very 
similar beetle, Chalcophora Uberta (90) (Fitch, 1852, p. 192,) 
is also injurious to the wood of pine trees, and may be found on the trunk 
of pines in summer and autumn. The second group, Buprestes^ contains 
species of moderate size, and usually of elongate form. Diccrca in gen- 
eral is of a didl bronze color, and is remarkable for the tips of the elytra, 
or wing-covers, being more or less prolonged, forming a kind of tail. 
Dicerca divaricata (91) (Harris, p. 49 ; Fitch, 1856, p. 330, «S:c.), 
is found from June to August on the trunks and limbs of trees 
of apple, beech, cherry, and peach, where the larvge reside, and 
mine into and destroy the sap-wood under the bark. Dicerca 
liirida (92) (Harris, p. 49; Fitch, 185G, p. 441), injures the 
hickory in a similar manner, while the larva of Bicerca pmictu- 
lata (Fitch, 1857, p. 706) feeds principally on the wood of the 
pitch-i)ine. A beetle answering to Buprestis (Ancylochira) 
lineata, or orange-lined Buprestis of Fitch (4th Eep. 1857, p. 105), was 
found very plentiful in Washington early in spring. The insect is of a 
dark bronze color, with three distinct lines of an orange color on each 
wing-case ; in the perfect, or imago state, it feeds upon the tender shoots. 
Ancylochira striata, (95) (Fitch, 1857, p. 703), a beetle of a most 
beautiful golden metallic lustre, with longitudinally striped 
wing-covers, is found in summer on the spruce and pine ; 
the larva appears to prefer the dead wood of stumps and 
logs, and the i)erfect insect probably feeds on the tender 
leaves and buds. The insects in group 3, Anthaxicc, are gen- 
erally of small size, and usually flattened, rarely of linear form. 
MclanophUu f Chrij.whoihrisjfulvognttata (96) (Lee.) and Harris, p. 51), Tra- 
chyptcris (Fitch, 1857, p. 706), in the larva state probably feeds on the 
wood of the white pine. Group 4, Chrysohothris, contains species 
of rather broad and flattened form, having on their wing-cases^ im- 
pressed bands or spots, and are sometimes of brilliant metallic colors. 




Chrysohothris femorata, (97) or thick-legged Buiwestis (Harris, 50 ; 
Fitch, 1st Eep., p. 25, &c.), in the larva state bores into the 
"solid wood of the apple, peach, and oak ; and the perfect beetle 
appears from May to July, on the trunks and limbs of the trees, 
'■i'. in the sunshine. Fitch states that its original food consisted of the 
oak. The larvoe are subject to be destroyed by the larva3 of some hymen- 
opterous fly. The larvte of Chrysohothris Harrissii (98) (Fitch, 1857, 
p. 703) bores into the small limbs and saplings of the white pine. Gliry- 
sohothris calcarata (99) (Harris, 50), in the larva state is said to bore holes 
in the trunks of white oak and peach. Chrysohothris dentipes (100) (Hanis, 
p. 49; Fitch, 1858, p. 793), or ''tooth-legged Buprestis," in the larvte state 
feed also on wood, boring holes in the trunk of the oak, or form long, 
slender, winding passages or serpent-like tracks between the bark and 
wood of felled timber. The perfect beetle makes its appearance from 
May to August. Tiibe 5, Agrilini, are usually slender beetles, but some- 
times the body is very broad and flat ; in both these cases, however, it 
narrowed behind. Agrilus ruficollis (101) (Say, 2, p. 595) is a small 
beetle of a narrow form, and in the larva state is said to feed on the 
l)ith of the raspberry. Leunis states that the larva? of some of the 
101. European species (102) are injurious to the beech and oak. The 
larvai begin their galleries in the one to two inch thick beeches, under the 
bark, and feed from two to three years ; the tree thus attacked withers 
and dries up. A European species is also mentioned by Westwood as 
burrowing in the wood of the i)ear. One of our native species 
Agrilus egenus (103) (Lee.) was found in great numbers in Virginia, 
feeding upon the foliage of the locust, (Eohiniapseudacacia)^ the 
|h " leaves attacked being literally riddled with the holes made by 
1 i\ these beetles. The insect is very small in size, narrow in form, 
V and of a metallic or bronzed, dark greenish color. The second 

1 1 group, Braches, Dr. Leconte states are almost identical with the 

103. European Traches, and have the body rarely elongated, but 
usually broad and ovate. Our native species, jBrac/i?/s termin- 
ans, (104) (Lee), is merely mentioned, as its food is not known, 
from the fact that it is a European species. Trachys mimita ^. 
(105) is said by Westwood to be found on the hazel, upon the ^^ 
leaves of which it is said to feed. Some of our native species 
may most probably be found in similar situations. 

The tliirty-fourth family, Throscida', contains only a few 
small species ; they are found in flowers, and have been classed io4. 
with the Bucnemidcc by some recent authors, but do not possess the 
power of leapiug like most species of the next family, (Lee). Westwood 
states that a European species inhabits the wood of the oak. 

The thirty-fifth family, Elateridm, is very extensive; a few of the first 
sub-family, Eiicnemidcc, and the majority of the third sub-family, Elate- 
ridcc, possess the singular power of springing into the air when placed 
on their backs. All are vegetable feeders ; the larva? of some live in 
the earth, others in rotten wood, while others prey on living plants. 
The first sub-family, Eucnemidw, is generally comi)osed of small slender 
■ beetles, having their autenufe inserted in grooves. Eucnemis 
amccnicornis (100) (Say, 2, p. G28) is found on leaves or under 
bark; the perfect insects possess a slight leaping power. 
Some of this sub-family in Europe are found in decaying 
oak trees. Dr. Horn found Fornax in old oak stumps in a 
state of decay. Sub-family 3, Elaterida', have their antennte 
luG.' widely separated, and when placed upon their backs possess 
the power of recovering their natural position by leaping into the air. 




Dr. Leconte states that, after folding their legs and antennce closely 
together, they extend the prothorax so as to bring the prosternal spine, 
on the under part of the body, to the anterior part of the mesosternal 
cavity, then suddenly relaxing the muscles, so that the spine suddenly 
descends violently into the canity, the force given by this sudden move- 
ment causes the base of the elytra or wing-covers to strike the support- 
ing surface, and by their elasticity the whole body is propelled upwards. 
This movement, however, can be better observed than described, by any 
person procimng a large living Elater and placing it on its back on any 
flat surface. From this habit of suddenly springing into the air, these 
insects are known in Europe by the common name of "skip-jacks," or 
"spring beetles," and in America as "snapping beetles," and erroneously 
"snapping bugs." Alans occidatus, (107) or big-eyed 
snapping beetle (Harris, p. 54; Fitch, 1856, p. 329, and ///] 
1858, p. 791:), is so named from two large eye-like spots / 
on the thorax. This insect is very common in Mary- ^ 
land. The larvai feed on old and decaying wood of .^ 
oak and apple, and in Maryland have been taken in old li|i| 
pine stimips. Alans myops, (108) or purblind snappingi^iD 
beetles (Fitch, 1856, p. 330), has the eye-like spots on 
the thorax much smaller and indistinct, and is found 
also in oak, apple, and pine wood. Mr. E vett, in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 
vol. 1, p. 227, states that he took this species in the 
larva state and reared the perfect beetle. In the 
month of March he collected several larvre of this 
species near Philadelphia, in an old pine stiunp ; the 
pupa was formed about the 25th of July, and the per- 
fect insect came out 7th of August, thus remaining in iot. 
the pupa state only about thirteen or fourteen days. The well-known fire- 
fly of the West Indies belongs to this family; it is an'ElateY Pyrojiliorus noc- 
tihicus (109.) Westwood states that this species is upwards of an inch in 
length, of an obscure brown color, with an oval spot of a dull yellow near 
each posterior angle of the thorax; these spots emit so strong a light dur- 
ing the night that it is easy to read the smallest writing by placing several 
of the insects under a glass, or by moving a single beetle along the Lines. 
They are termed, by the natives, Cucuyos or Cucujos, and are said to be 
attracted by lights. According to Spex, their light proceeds from a 
phosphorescent substance contained in a small bag in the thorax, filled 
with an unctuous substance like phosphorus, over which the trachece are 
spread. According to Humboldt and Bonpland, they feed upon the roots 
of the sugar cane and destroy the plants. Mr. Guilding, however, thinks 
that the damage done to the plants is in a gTeat measure owing to other 
insects. This beetle must not be confounded v.ith the fire-fly of Madam 
Meriam, which inhabits Surinam and other parts of South 
America, as the latter belongs to an entirely diflerent 
order. Our common fire-flies, vulgarly termed Ughtning- 
bugs, belong also to another family of beetles, which 
will be spoken of hereafter under the Lampyrida:. The 
larva of jE later ohscurus (110) is one of the much-dreaded 
wire-worms of Eiu'ope. Westwood states that it is five 
years in attaining its perfect state, and attacks almost all 
vegetables and roots. It is readily taken by laying as a 
bait slices of lettuce or potato wherever the wire-worms 
are especially troublesome; they burrow into these during 
the night, and in the morning may be collected and destroyed. The pupa 



of OrfJiosfefluts iiifuscatm (111) (Lee), a native species, of large size, and 
cliestunt-browu color, Tvas taken fi-om a decaying chestnut log by Dr. 
Horn, so that vre may infer that the larva? fed upon wood. The group 
Agriotcs are insects of moderate or small size. Agrioics mancJiKS (112) 
(Lee), A. ohesus (Harris, p. 50), fnincatHS (Melsheimer and Fitch, 
18G0, p. 527,) resembles the ■wire-vrorm of Eiuope, and the larvoe 
feed upon grass and herbaceous roots. Leunis states that another 
m.^ European species, Agriotes segetis, (113) is very plentiful in fields 
and meadows, especially in spring, where, under the name of wire-worm, 
it does much damage to fields of grain by gniawing the roots of the plants, 
causing them to turn yellow, and the stem to die. The wire-worms of 
this species also feed upon and destroy the roots of almost all garden 

The larva of our native MeJanotus fCratonycJiusJ communis, 
(114) (Harris, p. 55), was found in Maryland, in rotten wood ; 
but Dr. Fitch states that it feeds upou the roots of almost any 
vegetable, grain, or flower. The perfect insect was also taken 
in Maryland in winter, hybernating under the bark of trees. 
The thirty-sixth family. Cehrionidce. The difiereuce between 
"4. this family and the UlaferidcCj above mentioned, consists in 
the greater number (six) of vcnti'al joints, &c. The insects are found fly- 
ing about at night, and the females at the entrance of holes 
which they construct in the gi'ound. Ccbrio bicolor (115) 
(Lee.) inhabits the southern States, and is of a brown color. 
Westwood states that the European Cebrio gigas is found in 
abundance after showers of rain. 

The insects of the thirty- seventh famOy, Ehipicerida;, 
are found on plants; they fly and walk slowly. The Enro- 
lls, pean species, Ehqncera marginata, appear, dui-iug and toward 
the end of the rainy season, and is found upon low plants, gnawing the 
under-stems, but never upon flowers. M. Laporte considers that it 
undergoes its transformation in decaying trees. The larvae of one of 
roui' native species. Zenoa fSandalusJjJicca (IIG) (Say,2,p. 631), 
is foiuid under the bark of trees, and iSandalus 
niger (117) (Knoch) is one of the species best known 
to collectors. Dr. Lecoute states, in his classifica- 
tion, that Sandalus, especially, aflects various 
116. The thirty-eighth family, ScJt izojwd id(v, eontains 

but a single species, found in Arizona, and will therefore be 
passed over. 
The thirty-ninth family, DoficyUidcv, consists of insects liv- in. 

ing on plants usually near water. Our native species, Odontonyx 
(Ba'sytes) trivittis, (118) is merely mentioned, as the larvfe of a 
European species o{Dasytes{lV.)) are spoken of by Leunis as eating 
out the bottom under the l)enies of the ras]>berry. The larvse, 
jiupa, and perfect insect of Ptilodactyla clateriiia, at, 
(120) a small brown insect, with long beautifully pecti- 
nated anteniup, were taken by Dr. Horn from a log, prob- 
rably of oak, and the pupa were concealed by a 
thin layer of wood on the side adjacent to the 
earth. ' Mr. "Walsh, of Illinois, found the lar- 
vae of Prmiocyphon ( Cyphon ) dhcoidem (121) 
(Say, 2, p. 272) of various sizes, about the end ^-^• 

of May, in the hollow of an oak stump containing a gallon oi 
two of water j some were in the decayed wood, which formed 


the lining of the hollow, but most of them were attached to loose 
[pieces of wood and bark which lay at the bottom. The insect is of a 
})ale brownish yellow color, with a large black mark in the center of 
each wing-cover. The European species, Cyphon ])aUldiis^ was found in 
mid-winter, secreted in the stems of reeds. Lennis states that the 
larvai of Gyplion have long four-jointed antenna?, and that the perfect 
insects live in flowers. 

The fortieth family, Lampyridcc, consists of insects of a moderate or 
small size, of elongate form, and of soft consistence. Many of the S'pecies 
of the second tribe of the first sub-family possess the remarkable power 
of emitting light, and are here known as fire-flies, or, more vulgarly, 
lightning-bugs. Our native Lycns cruentus (122) (Lee.) is of a red-- 
dish orange color, with the ends of the wing-covers tipped v>ith 
black. These insects in Europe frequent flowers, particularly 
those of the Umbelliferje, and also inhabit decayed trunks of trees. 
Dictyoptera perfaceta (123) (Lee.) is an insect of much the same 
form as the preceding, but is of a black color, having the thorax ^~~- 
margined with red. The larva of the European species, Dictyoptera san- 
guineus, (121) was taken under the bark of oak. Ellichnia fPho- 
tinusj comtscus, (125) a very common species of fire-fly in Mary- 
land, of a l)lack color, having the thorax margined with red, 
was found abundant hybernatiug under the loose bark of trees' 
in winter. The larva of some species is mentioned in the 
"Practical Entomologist," vol. 2, p. 6G, as being predaceous, 
and feeding on various species of borers. In the same work, vol. 1, p. 
10, it is stated that the larva of ElUpolampis (Photinus) pyndis, 
(120) an insect having a red thorax with a black mark in the- 
center, aud black wing covers, margined with a yellowish color, 
lives in the earth, and probably feeds upon earth worms. The 
pupa is said to be slightly luminous, and is formed in an oval 
cavity in the ground. Westwood states that the body of a Euro- 
pean Lampyris, (127) the female of which is commonly known as the glow- 
worm, and is not furnished with wings, is long, flat, and soft, the head small 
and concealed by the thorax; the legs and antennae are short ; the per- 
fect female jiresents much the appearance of a larva, from which, how- 
ever, it is readily distinguished by the greater number of anteunal and 
tarsal joints. The light is emitted by this insect from the under side of 
the abdomen, several of the terminal segments of which are of a pale color, 
indicating the extent of the luminous property. The males as well as 
the pupa?, and even the eggs, are slightly luminous. The glow-worm 
possesses the singular property of causing its light to cease at will. Of 
the family Lamjyyridcv, Westwood also states that the female deposits 
her eggs, which are of large size and j'ellowish color, in the earth or 
upon moss and plants, to which they are attached by a viscid substance. 
It feeds, as does the perfect insect, upon small moUuseous animals, 
especially those of the Zonitis (Zone snail,) and not upon leaves or grass. 
The larva is stated by De Geer to attain its full size in 
April, when it prepares to assume the perfect state, from ' 
the commencement of which iieriod until it becomes a 
perfect insect fifteen days only are consumed, eight of 
which are passed in the pupa state. Phengodes plumosa 
(128) (Say, 2, p.G31) is a very singular looking insect, of a 
brownish color, and having the wing-cases" exceetlingly 
short and imperfect, these organs being only about one- 
third of the length of the abdomen. The antennoe are ex- i28. 
ceedingly beautiful and graceful, and present a very feathery appear- 


ance, o\\ing to the third and the following joints all emitting 
very long and flexible branches from near the base. The specimen 
figiired vras taken in Maryland at night, having been attracted by a 
light in the room. Sub-family 2, TelejjhGrida; consists of insects 
of a soft consistence, and of a long narrow form. ChauUognalhKs 
PennsyJraniciis, (129) (Lee.) is very common in the flow- 
ers of the cotton, where it probably feeds upon the pollen 
or nectar, and is stated not to be predaceons. "When feeding, 
it protrudes its maxillary setne (rwice the length of the max- 
illa^) in the same manner as the tongue of Lcpidopiera. The 
insect is of a yellowish color, with a black patch on the 
thorax ; the wing-cases having a larger or smaller black 
i2!>. mark at theii' extremity. These beetles appear later in the 
season than the Ckaidiognathus marciinatus, (Heutz), which resembles it 
very much, and is likewise found in cotton flowers. Hentz says this 
insect is also not predaceons, and when about to die generally clasps 
the petals of a flower with its mandibles, in which position it may often 
be found dead and dry. This beetle appears earlier in the season than 
its relative above mentioned. Tcleplwrus hUlneaius (130) (Say, 2,p. 
IIS) is said to be predaceons. and to feed upon other insects; one 
. of them was taken in Maryland in the very act of feeding on the 
body of a still living chrysalis of a butterfly which had only just 
130. changed from the caterpillar, and the skin of which was yet soft, 
and not hardened by exposme to the air. Westwood states that the Euro- 
peon species are found ui)Ou flowers in spring, but are very voracious or 
predaceons, feeding ui)on other insects, and even devouring such of their 
own species as they can overcome, the females not even sparing theii 
own mates. The larv?e reside in moist earth, and are also carnivorous, 
feeding upon their o^vn species as well as on earth-worms. They pass 
the winter in the larva state, and change to pupte in April or May, the 
perfect insect appearing in two or three weeks. AVestwood also says that 
the snow in Sweden and the mountainous regions of France has been 
observed to be covered, to a considerable extent, with an immense num- 
ber of Tileplioridcc, together with a midtitude of other insects, which 
were supposed to have fallen with the snow, or to have been deposited 
in such situations by gusts of wind, after violent tempests have defo- 
liated the firs and pine trees. Mr. E. Blancliard, however, suggests that 
the insects had previously resided in the ground covered at the time by 
the snow, through which they had crept for the purpose of obtaining a 
fresh supi')ly of ah'. 

The forty-first family, MalacJiidcc, contains insects ha%'ing the body 
soft, oblong or ovate, and but slightly convex. They are generally of 
small size and very active, being found n}>on flowers for the sake of the 
insects there, upon which they feed, the females not even sparing their 
mates when confined together. Some of the European Maladiiu-s have 
the anterior angles of the thorax and the base of the abdomen furnished 
with several red, bladder-like appendages, which the insect is able to 
contract or dilate at will. Mr. Curtis thinks these append- 
ages may enable the insect to increase or decrease its gravity 
during flight. Kirby and Spence regard them as being 
employed for the purpose of alarming their enemies, but 
^Vestwood considers them as a portion of an apparatus for 
emitting an oftensive effluvia to be used for a simiUir purpose. 
CoUojys quadri77iandGtiis (131) (Lee.) is a common species in 
im. Maryland, found on flowers. The insect is of a small size, and 
of a bright red color, with four black marks on its wing covers. The 


forty-second faiuiiy, Cleridte, contains insects seldom exceeding one 
incli in length ; they are generally handsomely variegated in their 
colors ; some of them fi-equent flowers ; others are found npon or imder 
the bark of old trees, stumps, dry wood, &c., where they have passed the 
larva3 state, dnring which time as larva* they are predaceons, and feed 
upon the larvae of wood-eating insects. The first group, TiUi, 
are generally of very long and slender form. Oiu- native spe- 
cies, Cymatoclera fTillusJ undidata (133) (Say, 2, pp. 282,038,) is 
of a black color, with the thorax margiued with red, «S:c.; it is 
said to have the habits of a notoxus, and was foimd hyber- 
nating in late winter under bark. The larva of the Em-opean species, 
TiUus ajnbidans (131) is found in oak. The sub-group 2, Cleri, (135,) con- 
tains insects generally with more or less bright red colors, barred with 
black or yellow. They frequent Howers, the honey of which they extract 
by means of their beautifully ciliated maxUl??. T\'estwood states that 
in the larvre state they are of a red color, and are very destructive 
to bees and wasps, in the nests of which the females deposit their 
eggs during the absence of those insects, and upon the grubs ot 
which the larva? feed ; when first hatched, the larva devoiu's the grub 
of the bee in the cell in wliich it was born, and then proceeds from 
cell to cell, preying upon the inhabitants of each, until it arrives at 
maturity. It then makes a small cocoon, in which the pupa is formed, 
and the perfect insect, when fully developed, escapes fi\im the nest, the 
hardness of its coveriug sufiiciently protecting it Irom the stings of the 
bees. The European species (13(3), Ckrus cqiiarius, selects the hive bee,wliile 
Clems (dvearius (137) chooses the mason bee as food for its yoimg; while 
Clerus f Ihanasimiis) forniicarius, (138.) also European, according to Leu- 
nis, is found upon rotten or newly felled timber, especially of fir, under the 
bark of which the larvte reside, devoiu-ing and destroying wood-boring 
insects. In the Practical Entomologist, vol. 2, p. 17, the larva of our native 
Thanasimus (Pseudoclerus) nigripes (139) (Say, 2, p. 122) is said 
to prey upon the larva of Sylesinus acideatus, a wood-boring beetle ; 
and the insect itself has been taken under the bark of trees in 
ilaryland in winter. The beetle has the thorax and upper part of ^ 
the wing-covers of a red color, while the lower part of the elytra ' 139 

, is black, barred with a creamy yellow. Om- native Faeudocierus 

•■colors of this insect are also red, black, and yellow, but differ- 
^^'^- ently marked fi'omT. nigripes, above mentioned, and is also some- 
what larger in size. Group 3, Rydnoceri, contains smaU insects having 
somewhat the form of Cicindela, and are foiuid on the leaves of trees ; they 
are very active, and take Y\'ing easily. Hydnocera ( ClcriisJ h umer- 
alis (111) (Say, 2, p. 122) is not imcommon in Maryland; it is a 
very small insect of a black color, with two red patches on the 
upper and outer edge of the wing-covers. Ortlwplcura 
dam icornis (112) (Lee, ),EnopUH)ii ilioradcum (Say, 2, p. 120, ' 
&c.,) is a small beetle of a black color, with red head and 
thorax; the antennie have three projecting i)rocesses, 
somewhat resembling the horns of a stag, hence its name. 1 ^ t- 
It was foimd in Maryland, on logs cut for fire-wood in the spring. Ot 
the gToup 2, Corynetes, Dr. Leconte says that our species of Xecrohia 
have been introduced from Eiu-ope ; they feed on animal material in 
houses, and on carrion in the open aii\ Corynetes fXecrobiaJ rujipes (113) 
(Fab.) is a very small beetle of a metallic gxeenish color and brownish 



legs, and rras found in cheese in Maryland ; while Necrohia 
rwlaccus{'[4:-i) is taken on dried meat and carrion ; it also frequents 
iiowcrs. Leunis states that this beetle is a cosmopolite, and in 
both larva and perfect state it ispredaceous and destroys other 

The forty-third, fam'y Liimexi/Uflce, contains the much-dreaded 
'insect Li/mexyhm navale (li.j) ofEiu-ojie, which is so destructive 
^^^- to ship timber in Northern Europe. Tlie third joint of the maxil- 
lary palpi of the male of this species emits numerous long and pilose 
branches, like a piece of coral. The use of these appendages is as yet 
unknown. The larvfe feed on wood, and are very common in oak forests 
in Northern Europe, the timber of which it perforates and greatly injiu-es ; 
it was, indeed, so abundant in the dock-yards of France and Sweden 
as to occasion much damage. In order to guard against their attacks, 
it has been suggested to sink the timber under water at the time of the 
ajipearance of the insect in its perfect or beetle state. No danger, how- 
'ever, is to be apprehended from our native sjiecies. Lymexylon 
sericeiim, (140) or silky timber beetle (Harris, p. 58; Fitch, 1857, p. 
702), which also feedson wood, and makes long cylindrical burrows 
in oak and other forest trees. This insect is of a brown color, with a 
silky appearance. The larvte of Hyloccetus Americanus ■ 
1 (147) (Harris, p. 59 ; Fitch, 1858, j). 702) also feed upon the 
1^6- oak and other forest trees. 

Some of the forty-fourth family, Cupesirkv, also probably 
feed on wood, as our native species, Ciqjcs concolor (Lee.) (148) G. 
cinerea (Say, 2, p. G43), is found under bark of decaying trees, 
and is conmion about old frame houses. The color of the insect is yel 
lowish brown, variegated -with blackish. 

The forty-fifth family. Ft in ida\ (140) contains insects of small size, of oval 
or sub-cylindrical shape, generally short and obtuse at each end ; their 
colors are usually obsciu-e ; when touched, they counterfeit death ; their 
movements are slow, and it is not often that they make use of their 
wings. These insects are found iu wood of old houses, furniture, rotten 
palings, stumps of trees, &c., which they and their larvie perforate with 
round holes in every direction ; these holes are tilled with a very fine 
powder formed from the gnawed wood and with their excrements. The 
larvie of some also destroy grain, skins, and collections of natural 
history. Dr. Leconte states that these insects have been transported 
by commerce over the whole globe. The larvae of 
Ft inns fur [ioi)) (Linn.), humeral is (Say, 2, p. 041 ), are very 
destructive to woolen cloths, grains, collections of dried 
plants, insects, stufied animals, as birds, «S:c.; ana also, 
according to Andouin, in provisions of tlour and meal. 
This insect is sluggish during the day, but at night 
commits its depredations, and may be attracted by 
moistened plant stems or pieces of linen at night, then 
shaken out and killed in the morning. The beetle is 
very small, with long antemuie, and of a light chest- 
nut-brown color, with whitish markings on its wing- 
covers. Cccnocara oculata (Lee), (151) Borcatoma 
similis (Say, 2, p. 042), was found by Mr. Jacob 
Staufi'er in pull-balls (fungi). The larvtie of Siiodrepa 
{Anohimw) 2)anicea (152)"are of a whitish color and 
curved form ; when full grown they construct for 
themselves a cocoon of soft silky' matter, mixed 
with the substances on -which they have fed ; before 


changing into tlie pupa state it appears that the larva has the instinct 
to continue the boring of its burrow until it has nearly reached the 
surface, so that only a small barrier remains, which the beetle can pierce 
without difiiculty. The perfect insects generally appear during the 
hottest part of summer. Dr. Horn states that the pupa state only lasts 
four or live days. Both larvae and perfect insects feed upon stale bread, 
oatmeal, ship-biscuit, specimens of natural history, ginger, rhubarb, red 
or Cayenne pepper, and even cantharides or the. blister flies of the 
druggists. In Maryland they have been found in gi-eat numbers in 
stored wheat. The insects Anobium tesselatum and striatum, in Europe, 
have acquired the common name of " death-watches," from the noise 
which they make during the pairing season by striking their jaws on 
the object upon which they are stationed, by vray of signal to their 
mat€S, which is answered in the same manner by the other sex. The 
noise thus produced somewhat resembles the ticking of a watch, and is 
regarded by the common people as a superstitious omen. Our 
native insect Ptilinus rujicornis (153) (Say, 2, p. 119) is merely 
mentioned here ; as a European species, PtiUmis pectenicornis, 
according to Leunis, is called by the Germans " book-worm," 
from the destruction it effects in books. The larvse also bur- 
row into wood, piercing it in every direction with cylindrical 
bui-rows ; it attacks oak, beech, maple, and hazel. The 
antennae of our native P. rujicornis appear beautifully pectin- ^^'^^• 
ated at the ends when examined with a magnifying' glass ; the insect 
is of a dark brown color, with rufous legs and antennte. Sub-family 3, 
Bostrichidcey consists of insects elongate in form, with their heads 
usually deflexed and protected by the thorax, which forms a kind of 
hood. In the tribe Psoini, however, the head is prominent, and not 
covered. The first tribe, £ndecatoniini, have the thorax with ,^ 
a distinct lateral margin; our native species Endecatomiis \^i 
rugosus (154) (Lee.) is found in fungi, and has been also taken 
under the bark of tulip poplars. The insect is of a dark or ^1), 
brownish black color, and has the wing-covers rugose or m 
rough. The second tribe, BostricMni, consists of insects small 
or moderate in size, of a cylindrical form, with head deflexed, 
and covered by the hood-like projection of the pro-thorax^ ^^^• 
Synoxylon (Ajiate) basilare (155) (Say, 2, p. 180), or the red-shoiddered apate 
(Fitch, 1856, p. 441), bores in hickory wood to a considerable 
depth, preferring the hard central wood. The pupa state is \ )=^/,,-' 
assumed without any special preparation, and the perfect insect y^^^ 
when fully formed turns at almost a right angle and emerges /i 'p^ 
through a hole in the bark; the transformations from the larva ' JJJ- 
to the pupa state are made in a very short space of time (Dr. f\L/\ 

Horn). Dr. Fitch states that this insect bores small holes i i * 

toward the heart of the ti'unk, and the pupa is formed at the ^^^• 
end of this burrow; the beetle attacks the shag-back hickory, and has 
also been taken in Maryland fi^om the elm. The color of the beetle is 
black, with a red patch on the upper part or shoulder of 
each wing-case. The larvte of Amphicerus {Apate) Ucauda- 
tiis (156) (Say, 2, pp. ISO and 622), or apple-twig borer of 
Dr. Fitch, 1850, p. 330, perforate the tA\igs at the buds, \ 
making holes some inches in length ui the heart- wood, /' 
thus causing the twigs to wither and die. The insect is of a dark ^ 
color. Rhi.zopertJiapiisilla(Lec.), (157) a very small brown beetle, 157. 
is said by Dr. Leconte to be found in wheat. Tribe 3, Fsoim, consists of 
insects of large or moderate size, having the head prominent. The 



specimen fip^ured, Fohjcaon Stoutii, (158) was sent to Mr. 
/ Ulke, from Fort Tejou ; of its habits, however, nothiiig is 

As the first part of Dr. Ijeconte's vahiahle classification 

l)art 1st, published by the Smithsonian Institution, takin.q\ 
however, only such beetles as may be interesting- to the 
young entomologist, from either their habits or their food. 
The i'ixmily ' Tcnebrio7iidcv consists of insects generally of an oblong 
or ovate form, depressed or but slightly elevated, having- the thorax; 
square or trapeziform, and as broad behind as the base of the wing- 
cases (Westwood). Some of these insects are found in wheat, others in 
decaying vegetable substances, in Inngi (Boleti), and under bark ot 
V " trees. The larva of our native Centrouopus calcaratns (159)(Lec.) 
^ ' inhabits black-oak stumps ; the pupa state lasts only about 
two weeks (Horn). The color ofthe beetle is black. The 
larva of XyloirinMS saperdoides (100) (Lee.) also inhabits ^iv 
black-oak stiunps; and the beetle, which is of a dark 
brown color, has been taken from under the bark of ^[j 
trees in midv.inter in Maryland. The well-known A 
meal-worm is merely the larva state of a black beetle, Tenehrio -* 

7«o/?7or,(i61) which frequents bake-houses, corn-mills, ^""' 
and granaries, v^^here it does much injirry by devouring meal, 
Hour, bran, &c.; it is also very destructive to ship-biscuits 
packed in casks, which when opened are found to be eaten 
through by these larvne and beetles. The larvae change oi 
shed their skins several times, and are about an inch in 
length, of a cylindrical and linear form, very smooth and 
glossy, and of a yellowish orange color. The pupa is formed 
without the larva previously making any cocoon, and the perfect insect 
comes forth in about six weeks, more or less, according to the heat oi 
the weather. These meal worms are bred by bird fanciers in Eiu'ope in 
close earthen or metallic vessels containing stale bread, Hour, &c., &c., 
for the purpose of feeding nightingales, &c., and in this country woidd 
be an excellent change of tliet for caged mocking-birds. Mr. Curtis states 
that an allied species, Tmehrio obsmrus (1013) (Lee), probably does more 
■ -^^ damage than the above-mentioned insect, as the Tenehrio 
molitor prefers damp and damaged tlour ; whereas T. ohscurus 
'./^ prefers that which is dry and sound. This insect is found in 
' j"^ all three stages of larva, pupa, and perfect insect at the same 
time. The European beetle, Uloma cornnta, is said also to be 
164. grain-feeding in its habits, and to be found in bake-houses 
in London. Our native species, Uloma ciiUnaris (103) and imjrressa, 
...^^^ were taken under the bark of trees in Maryland, in spring ; 
— ■ both of these beetles are of a; brovtii color. Boletothenis [Boleto- 
phagufi) conuitus (104) (Lee.) was found in fungi in 
Maryland, llopolcqyhula hicornis (105) (Lee), so 
called from tiie two horn-like processes on the head 
of the male, is a very small, metallic green-colored /] 
beetle, very common in Maryland, under bark of 
trees or in Boleti, in the spring. Bijpophlccus paral- 
ellus (100) (Lee), a very small brown beetle, was ^^ 
found in ])assages and holes, gnawed under the 
bark of pine, in Maryland. Helops mlcans, (107), a medium size, or rather 



nta n^ 

large beetle', of a beantiful metallic §:reen and bronze color, was taken 
from nnder the bark, or in decayed cavities of oak trees, 
in spring-. These beetles Tvere ireqneutly found collected 
together, to the number of eighteen or twenty, in one hole. 
Many of the family, Cistehdfc, are found upon flowers or 
leaves, or in hedge rows : their larva? are said to reside in 
rotten wood. The larva of ihe European species, Cistela 
ceramboides, was found in oak, in the month of 
March. Our common species, Cistela sericea (lOS) 
(Say, 2, p. 159), is very common in Maryland, on flowers in late 
summer and autumn. The insect is of a brownish or clay color. 
'The Lagriidcc have the head and thorax considerably narrower 
than the wing-cases, which are of a soft and flexible consist- 
ence. The insects are found in Europe in woods and hedges, 
i*^-- or upon various plants. Like the cantharidae, their bodies 
are soft, and their motions, when on the wing, are active, although 
they creep but awkwardly: when disturbed they are said to possess the 
jiower of counterfeiting death. Lyonnet states that the larvae of the 
European species, Layrla hirta, is found under dead oak\^ /, 
leaves, on which it feeds. Our native species, Anthomacra aenea ^\^r 
(1G9) (Lee), was taken on flowers. The larva? of the fami" 
Pyrochroidcv are generally found under the bark of trees or 
rotten wood. The Euiopean species, P. cocci lUiea, (170), is found 
under the l)ark of birch and in the trunks of decaying oaks. i^a. 
The imago of our native species, PiirochroaJiaheUata ( ilO) (Lee), was taken 
in flowers. The wing-covers of this beetle are of a black color, while the 
thorax, head, and feet are reddish. TTestwood states that our species 
Fyrocliroa dendroiden (West.), Dendroides canadensis (171) (Lee), 
V ^ is extremely rare in Xorth America, and was found by Messrs. 
ii^ 11. and C. Lewis in May, beneath the bark of maple' trees, of 
which the cross-ways of the great Huron road are made. The 
males are distmgui.shed by their beautifidly plumose antennae. 
One 01 ihe f-dmi\y, An{hicid(c,Xotoxusmonodon {11 2) (Lee), ^r 
is a small beetle of very remarkable ibrm, having the front • 
part of the thorax projecting somewhat like a blunted horn over 
the head; this i)eculiarity is not confined, as in some 
of the LameUicorn beetles, to the male alone. This in- 
sect is of a blackish color, with red thorax, and was 
taken plentifully on the flowers of cotton. The Melan- 
dryini reside chiefly under the bark of trees; the larvae 
of ^ynchroa punctata (Lee.) (173), Mclandrya umhyina (Mels.),live 
in rotten oak stimips. and the pupa state lasts about a week 
(Horn). The lieetle is of a brown color. 

Insects of tlie family 2IordeUid(c have the body elevated, and 
arched with their heads inserted very low ; in habits they are 
active, fly with rapidity, and leaj) well. The larvte of the Euro- 
pean species, Jiordella 2}usiila, (171), is found in the stems of the 
Marriihiitm rulgare, or horehound, feeding upon the medullary 
substance ; the pupa is formed in June, and the imago in Jidy . 
Our native species. Mordella octopunctata, (171), is taken on flowers 
in Maryland, and is a small beetle of a black color, beautifully, 
variegated and marked with yellow. 

The family lildpiphorido) are probably X'i^rasitic in their habits, as the 
European species. Rhipipliorm paradoxus is said to inhabit the nests of 
the common wasp ; hence LatrieUe observes it has been inferred that it 
subsists in that situation in the larva state, and is probably nourished 





by the wasps as their own offspring. Westwood also states that the 
larger specimens, which are much more rare than the smaller 
ones, are uniformly found only in the cells of the female wasps. 
The larvfB of another European speci(\«, B. himaculatus, (173) 
reside in the roots of the ^Q\AQiyago(Eryngunncampestre)^\sh\<A 
is perfon;tc'd in the center; it is not, however, imi)0.ssible that 
these lar\-je may be ])ara.sitic ou some larva, residing iu such 
situations. When full grown it works its way out of the root, 
and forms a pedunculated cocoon the size of a nut, attached 
to the stem of the plant. Our native species. Rhipi- 
phorus Sayi (175) (Lee), bicolor (Say, 2, p. 163), is 
rather common on flowers. 

The family Stylopido'. (176) contains only very small 
insects, which, at the first glance, do not appear to 
belong to the Coleoptera, or beetles, at all. These 
insects are of a dark or black color, and are para- 
sitic on bees and wasps, between the rings of the 
abdomen of which their larv?e, according to Leunis, 
run about or sirring like Podura (spring tails). The i^erfect insect has, 
however, been observed to work its way out of the body of the bee, on 
or in which it had formerly resided. 

The family Meloidce is distinguished by the head being dilated 
behind the eyes, and then sitddenly narrowed into a small neck, and by 
the claws of the tarsi which are bifid (cloven iu two). These insects 
are much variegated in their colors, and generally of moderate size; 
some, however, are quite large ; in the larva state they subsist upon 
vegetable substances : a few, however, are parasitic upon other insects 
in the larva state. A portion of them counterfeit death when alarmed, 
while many emit a thick yellowish fluid from the articulations of the 
legs, &c., of an unpleasant scent. Many of these beetles possess strong 
vesicatory powers, and are emjiloyed externally for the 
puri^ose of raising blisters. Our native species, Mcloe 
angusticoUis (177) (Say, 2, p. 166), or '• narrow- necked oil bee- 
tle.'' (Harris, p. 140) is of a steel blue color, and found on 
butter-cui)s iu the autumn; it has likewise been taken 
ion the leaves of the common potato. Westwood states 
that the females of an European Ileloe biurow into the 
earth, and there deposit a large mass of yellow eggs, 
agglutinated together. The larvae when hatched are 
177. exceedingly active in their movements, and attach them- 
selves to flies, bees, &c., which, it is said, they suck. Latrielle suggests 
that these larvie mount upon the bodies of bees, &c., in order to be car- 
ried by them into their nests underground, where they feed upon the 
food lai(i up as a store for the young bees ; this opinion has also been 
adopted by Erichsou and Brandt, but Westwood thinks that all these 
authors neglect the fact that the larvaj are also found upon SyrphidcB 
and MmcidcB (two- winged flies) as well as upon bees. Leunis states 
that the female, in the spring, lays at intervals of two to three weeks 
her numerous eggs in a hole in the ground, which she excavates in sunny 
places ; after four or five weeks the young are hatched, of a yellow color, 
and strikingly resemble fleas. They then creep to the flowering plants 
which are visited by fossorial or digging wasps and bees, also by two- 
winged flies, that are themselves also parasitic in the nests of Eymenop- 
terous insects, and fasten themselves to these insects. The perfect bee- 
tles crawl slowly on the ground or among the herbage. Tigraii ia (Horia) 
'anguinipennis (178) (Say, 2, p. 166) is somewhat rare in Maryland. 





Westwood states that the larva of a South American species, 
Horia maculata, destroys the hirva of a vrild bee (Xvlocopa), 
whicli makes its cells and deposits its eggs in the trunks of trees. 
It has been conjectured that the larva of the Horia feeds 
upon the stores of food hiid ui) for the larva of the Xijlocopa, 
173. and which is consequently starved to death., 
Macrohasis Fahricn (179) (Lee), Epicaiita or Cantharis cinerea 
(Harris, p. 13S), is exceedingly common, and feeds on the 
fohage of honey and common locust, wild indigo, potato, 
English bean, &c., &c. It also has been accused of injuring 
the young fruit of the apple. The perfect insect is of a ^ ~^~ \ 
grayish ash color. The egg is deposited in the gi'omid by i^. 
the female, and hatches in about a month; the lai-vip live under 
ground on roots, &q., vhile the perfect beetles, during the summer at 
night or in cloudy weather, devom* the fohage ; dm-ing the day-time they 
bury themselves in the gi'ound or hide under leaves, moss,'gTass, &cl. 
. > eating mostly, in the mornings and evenings. This species 

-Vi:W^ of beetle is said to be exceedingly destructive iu Massachu- 
y^ setts. 

The black Cantharis, or Blister-fly, Epicauta jyenii- 
^sylva:iica (Lee), (180) Cantharis atrafa (Harris, p. 139), devours 
the foliage of the potato and various flowers, such 
leo. as the China-aster, and is very abundant in 
the flowers of the golden-rod (Solidago). Epicauta cinerea 
(Lee), (181) Cantharis marginata (Harris, p. liT), or the 
" margined cantharis,'' so called from the light ash-colored 
margin around the wing covers, devoiu's the foliage of the 
clematis and butter-cup, mostly near the gTOund. Ejjicauta 
(Cantharis) vittata (18i') (Harris, p. 137), or stiiped Can- /" 
tharis, is of a yellow orange color, having two black. Ion- ^s- 

gitudinal stripes on each wing cover : it destroys the foliage 
of the potato and other vegetables : it also is very destruc- 
tive to various flowers. Epicauta strigosa (Lee.) (183) was 
found in South Carolina, eating holes in the flowers of cotton. 
Fomphopca CLyttaJ Aenea (184) is of a dark color Trith some- 
thing of a metallic lustre, and was taken iu Mary- 
land in May, as it was just emerging from the earth. ^ ^ 
The larva of tlie European species of Zonitis (185) "^t^J 
>y./^ is said by Latri^dle to inhabit the nests of certain ^v^_ 
bees in the spring. Our nvdiye Zonitis Xemogna- 
j . . i \ tha) atripennis (183) was taken on flowers iu Mary-, 
A-' h^ l^nt^- The wing cases of this insect are of a dark 
/ '^ \ or blackish color, while the head, thorax, and part of / > 

1S5. the legs are red. '^^■ 

Of the habits of the family Ceplialoidce little is known. Om- native 
Cephaloon lepturides (180) (Lee.) was taken on flowers; 
the insect is of a duty brown color. Vj-'^f^ 

The ianiily, Oedemeridw, (187) often have the body \^^ 
long and narrow, with the wing cases broader than /fj^ 
, the head and thorax. They frequent flowers, cspe- 7^ Ks 
cially those of the umbellifen-e. They fly with agility, / \)J V" 
but, when walking, theii" motions are rather slow. / _ » 
Oiu- native species, Xacerdes melanura (Lee), (187) '^• 
Oedemera apicalis (Say, i', p. GOl), is of a red color with the ends of the 
V, ing cases black. The ptrtect beetle was taken on flowers. 


The Jii/c/erid<rwillbe passed over, astbeirhabitsarenotyet known; the 
l>erfect insects, however, have been taken on the leaves of shrubs and 
trees. Little has hitherto been known also of the habits of the Pythincc. 
The European species, Pytlio depressiis, (1S8) is found under the 
bark of pines in Sweden. Our native species, Pi/iho americamis, 
(160). was found in Maryland, under the bark of pine tiees, in the 
, month of March, in the nests or oval cocoons of the Ehagium line- 
aium, where the larva or pupa of the Jihagium had evidently been 
N devoured, most probably by either the larva or the perfect 
169. beetle of the Pyiho. last-named insects were perfectly 
fresh, as if only emerged from the pupa state ; at least twenty speci- 
mens were taken trom one pine log at the same time ; and, although all 
the other logs in the newly cleared field were carefully examined, and 
almost all had the cocoon of the Ehagium under the loose bark, not 
another Pytho could be discovered. As the first part of Dr. Leconte's 
list of the coleoptera of the United States ends with the Pythidae, and 
the second part will probably be published .shortly, in which the arrange- 
ment of the families, names, &c., &c., of many insects ^ill doubtless be 
changed, it has been thought advisable to defer finishing this paper 
until the publication of that work by the Smithsonian Institution. 


The following is an aljihabetical of some of the princii)al vegetable 
and animal .substances, either frequented or injured by beetles, {Co- 
leoptera.) with the names of the beetles frequenting them : 

As it would occui>y too much space, in this necessarily brief list, to 
enumerate all the vegetable and the animal substances injured by the 
beetles already mentioned, it may be neces.sary to state that such only 
are named in this list as have been already spoken of in Part I, and are 
either the result of personal observation, or are quoted from the best and 
most reliable authorities. 

A^fTS' ^ESTS : 

Insect, Scydmo'nidcc. partly, (-1,)* found in. 

Insect, Pisdarjliulce. i>artly, (22,) found in. 

Insect. Clariger foceolatus, Europe, (23,) found in. 

Insect, Eisthni, minute species, Europe, (27,) found in. 

Apple, (Ptkus ^VIalus :) 

Larva, Lucamis dama, (.51,) wood. 
Insect, Se7-ica iricotor. ((hi.) foliage. 
Insect, Macrodaciyhis suspinosus, (03,) foliage. 
Insect, Lachnosterna quercina, (07.) foliage. 
Insect, Lack iioslerna mimiis. (OS,) foliage. 
Insect, Laclinoaterna Jnrticula, (GO.) foliage. 
Insect, Holotrkhia cremdata. (70,) foliage. 
Insect, Triclic^UJi tristis, (71.) foliage. 
Insect, Pobjphylla rariolosa, (12.) foliage. 
Insect, Oamoderma scahra, (So,) foliage.? 
Insect, Osmoderma cremicola, (80.) foliage.? 
Larva, Bicerca diraricata (01.) eats wood.. 
Larva, Chrymhothrhfcmorata, (07.) eats wood. 
Larva, Alam oculatiis, (107.) eats v.ood. 
Larva, Alaws myops, (108,) eats wood. 

• The numl>era in parcatheses refer to Part I, of this paper. 


Larva, Amphycerus hieaiidatus. (156.) oats wood. 
Insect, JIacrobasis fabricii, (179,) injures young fi-nit. 


Insect, Cctonia hirtaj Europe, (SI,) flowers ; cats nectary. 
Ash, (Feaxtnts:) 

Insect, Xyloryctes safyriis, (7S.) taken near root. 
Insect, Dynastes tityrns, (80,) taken on root. 


Insect, Upicauta jyciiiisyJcanica. (ISO,) eats flowers. 
Aquatic Pla^'ts : 

Insect, Hydrop/uhis piceiis, Eiu-ope. (13,) eats foliage, &c. 
Bacox : 

Larva and Insect, Dcrmcstes lardarius. (49.) 

Base: of Teees : 

Insect, PseJaphidcv, some. {'22.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect, Stap>hylinid(c, (25.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect, Histeridcr, (27.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect. Xitididini (32.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect, Ipiiii, (34,) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect, Trogositidcr, (35.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect, Ti'ogosita inauritanica, (35.) fomid under or feeding ui)on.. 

Insect, CoJydiidcr, (37.) found under or feeding upon. 

Insect. Aulonium 2}(iraJcUo2}ip)edum, (3S.) found under or feeding 

uiion pine. 
Insect, Sylvanns hidcnfatus, (40,) found under or feeding upon 

Insect, Xausihius deniotuSy (42.) foiuid luider or feeiling upon. 
Insect, ^yceiopluuiidcv^ partly^ (44.) foiuid under or feeding upon. 
Insect, Eucnemis amccnicornis, (100.) found under or feeding upon. 
Insect, Mclanotus communis, (114,) found under. 
Insect, Zcnoa pkea, (IIG.) found luider or feediug upon. 
Insect, EUiclinia corrusca, (125.) found under. 
Insect, Cymaiodcra undulafa, (133.) found under. 
Insect, FscudocJenis yiigripes, (139.) found under. 
Insect, Pseudo clerks k-hneumoneus. (140.) foiuid under oak. 
Insect, Cvpes concolor, (148.) found under or feediug upon. 
Insect, Tenebrioldcc, partly, (159.) found under or feeding upon. 
Insect, Xylopinus saperdokJes, (100.) foraid under or feeding upon. 
Insect, Mekuidryidce, (173,) found under or feeding upon. 


Insect, Zahrus yibbus, Em-ope, (8.) gi-ain. 
English Bea:x, (Ticia Fajja :) 

Insect, JiLacrobasis fahrkii, (179,) foliage. 
Beech, (Fagus :) 

Larva and insect. Trogosiia duhia, (36,) in nuts. 
Larva, Dkcrca dicarkaUi, (91,) wood. 
Larva, Agrihis viridis, Eraope, (102.) wood. 
Larva, Ptilinvs pectinkffrnis, Europe, (153,) wood. 

106 agricultural report. 


Larva, CIcri, (135.) dei^troys iarvse. 

Larva, Clerus opiariv.s. Europe, liive bee, (136,) destroys larvae. 

Larva. Clerus alvecreus, Europe, mason bee, (137,) destroys larvw. 

Larva, Stylopida: Europe. (17G.) in body. 

Larva. Meloe, Europe, (177,) parasitic on. 

Larva, Horiadcr. Europe, Xylocopa, (17S,) destroys larva?. 

Larva, Zonitis, Europe, some of tamily, (185.) in nest. 

BEM^FicLii.. (See Predaceous.) 

Birch, (Betula:) 

Larva and Insect, Pyrochroa coccineu, Eui-ope, (170.) under bark. 
Blackberry, (Iireus.) (See also Brazible, Easpberry, ETa) 

Larva and Insect, Byturus, Europe. (4G.) flo-^er and Iriiit. 

Boletl (See also FmfGL) 

Insect, Tenebrlonidcp, some, (159,) found in. 
Insect. HopJocejyhala hicornk (105,) foimd in. 

Boxes. {Bee also Carriox.) 

Insect, Adelops hirtus, (20,) found on bones, Manimotli Cave, Ky. 


Larva and Insect, Bermestida;, partly, (45,) destroys. 

Larva and Insect, Ptilimis pectinieomi^. Europe, (153.) destroys. 

Br AX. (See also Flour, etc.) 

Larva and Insect, Tenehrio molitor, (ICl.) 

Larva and Insect, Trogosifa mauritanica, (35.) 

Larva and Insect, Sltodrepa panlcea, (Anobium,) (152.) 

Larva and Insect, Tenehrio molitor^ (IGl.) 

BisctTT, Ship : 

Larva and Insect, Sitodrepa panlcea (152.) 
Larva and Lisect, Tenebrio molifor, (161.) 

Buttercup, (Eaxltv'culus :) 

Insect, Meloe angu^ticoUis; (177,) foliage. 

Insect, Epkauta cinerea, marginaia. (ISl,) foliage. 

Caxtharides, Dried : 

Larva and Insect, Sitodrepa panicea^ (152.) 
Carcasses. (See Carrion.) 
Cayexxe Pepper : 

Larva and Insect, Sitodrepa panicea^ (152.) 
Caterpillars. (See also Predaceous.) 

Larva and Insect, Calosoma ealidum, (3.) destroy. 

Larva and Insect, Calosoma scrutator, {4-) 

Insect, Silphidcr, paitly, (IG.) 

Carriox : 

Larva aud Insect, Sil2}liida\ some, (16.) 

Larva and Insect, Xccrojyhoriis marginatus, (17.) 

Larra and Lisect, Kecropliorus am€ric<inus, (18.) 



Larva and Insect, Kecroplilla peltata, (10.) 
Larva and Insect, StapJiyUnida', some, (25.) 
Larva and Insect, Creophilus villosus,. {26.) 
Larva and Insect, Histeridce, partly, (27.) 
Larva and Insect, JSltiduUdcc, partly, (29.) 
Larva and Insect, I^'itididini, Y>£ivtlj, (32.) 
Larva and Insect, Stelidota f/eminata, (33.) 
Larva and Insect, Bcrmestkhc, partly, (45.) 
Larva and Insect, Trogidcc, partly, (58.) 
Larva and Insect, Kecrobia, Europe, (144.) 
Larva and Insect, Kecrohia violaceous, (144.) 

Cereals. (See Wheat, etc.) 

Cedaes, (Ju]^npER^JS :) 

Insect, Sandalns, (117,) affects. 
Cheese : 

Larva and insect, Corynetes rujipes, (143.) 
Cherry, (PRuisaTS Cerasus:) 

Larva, Lucanus dama, (51,) wood. 

Insect, Macrodactylus siihspinosus, (05,) foliage. 

Insect, Lachnostenia fusca , (07,) foliage. 

Insect, Laclinosterna micans, (08,) foliage. 

Insect, Laclinosterna Jiirticula, (09,) foliage. 

Insect, MolotricMa cremdata, (70,) foliage. 

Insect, Trichestes tristis, (71,) foliage. 

Insect, Polijplujlla variolosa, (72,) foliage. 

Larva, Dynastes tityrus, (SO,) decaying wood. 

Insect, Osmoderma eremicola, (80,) foHage.l 

Larva, Bicerca divaricata, (91,) wood. 

Chestnut, (Castai^a -vtisca :) 

Larva, (prob.,) Sylvanns hidentatus, (40,) bark; wood. 
Larva, Orfhostethus infuscatus, (111.) 

China Aster : 

Insect, Epicmtta { ^^''^''^'"'^ } (ISO,) flowei 
Clejiatis : 

Cork : 

Insect, Dermestes ridpinus (?), Europe, (48.) 
Corn, Indian, (Zea Mays.) (Sea M^uze.) 
Collections of Natural History. (See also Furs, Feathers, etc.) 

Larva and insect, Dermestes caninus, &c., (48.) 

Cotton, (Gossypiidi HEEBACEini:) 

Insect, Colastiis semitectus, (30,) in flowers and decaying bolls. 
Insect, Carpopliilus hemipterus, (31,) in flowers and decaying bolls 
Insect, Sylvanus quadricollis, (41,) in flowers and decaying bolls. 
Insect, Euryornia inclancliolica, (83,) sap of boU and flower. 


COTXr.N, (GOSSYPIVM Heebaceum:) 

Insect. Chaiilioffnaihiis Pcnnsyhanicus, (129.) frequents flower. 
Insect, Chanliognatlnis marqinatiis, {VilO.) frequents flower. 
Insect. Xotoxm inonodon, (172.) lre(iuents flower. 
Insect, Epkauta strigosa, (183.) destroys flowers. 


Deco:mposi>-g or Decaytng A^tvtal Matter. (See Carrion.) 
Deco^itosln-g or Decayen-g Wood Matter. (See Wood.) 
DxrsG AXD DL7sGnLLL.s. (See liLsjrrRE, ExcrezveextSj etc.) 
Elder, (Sambucus CA^-ADE^-SIS :) 

Insect, Macrodacfylus siibspinosus, {(m^) frequents flowers. 

Elm, (UL3irs:) 

Insect, Lachnosterna fusca, (G7,) foliage. 
Insect. Lachnosierna mkans, (GS.) foliage. 
Insect, Lochnostcnia Idrticula. (GO,) foliage. 
Insect. Holotrifhia crcnulata. (70.) foliage. 
Insect. Trichestes tristis. (71,) foliage. 
Insect. FolyphyUa rariolcsa. (72.) foliage. 
Insect, Arcoda lanigcra, (77,) foliage. 
Larva, Synoxylon hasilare^ (155,) wood. 

Eryngo, (Ery^^giu^i Caxpestre:) 

Larva, iniqnphorus himacxtlaU'S. Enrojx?, (175,) roots. 


Larva and insect, Spharidiidcc. some, (15.) 
Larva and insect, Hkteridcv. partly, (27.) 
Larva and in:sect, Canthon larls. (5i.) 
Lana and insect, Fhanccus caniifejr, (55.) 
Larva and insect, Aphodiini. (5G.) 
Larva and insect, Gcotrupes uplendidus, (57) 

Feathers. (See also Collec-tions of Xatfr al History. Furs, etc.) 

Larva, Dermesiides, (45.) 
Fisn SPAw^- : 

Larva and in.sect, JDytiscidw, some, (11.) 
Fish. Dead. (See Carriox.) 

Insect, Silphidcc, some, (IG.) 

Lar\-a, Meloidce. Eiiroi)e, (177,) parasitic ; attached to body. 
Flour : 

Larva and insect, Ptiniisfur, Europe, (150.) 

Lan'u and insect, Tenchrionida. some, (IGl.) moist and damagetl 

Lai-A-a and insect, Tenchrio molitor, (IGl,) moist and damaged^ 

Larva and insect, Tenehrio ohseurus. (162,)dry and sound. 

Flowers : 

Insect, Lebice, (G,) frequent. 

Insect, StaphylinidcE, some, (25,) frequeuta. 


Flo^ees : 

Insect, Colastm semitectus, (30.) frequents flowers of cotton. 
Insect, Cayjyophilus hemiptenis, (31.) fi^equents flowers of cotton. 
Insect, yitididida: and XitiduUnii. some, (32.) frequent. 
Insect, Byturiis tomenfosus, Europe, (40,) destroys blackberry and 

raspberry flowers. 
Insecr, Byiurns unicolor. (40,) frequents. 
Insect, Aiithrenns varius. (.30.) frequents. 
Insect, 2Iacrodactijlus suhspinosus, (05.) destroys. 
Insect, CetoniinL (SI.) fr-equents. 

Insect, Euplioria mdanclioUca, (S3.) frequents cotton, &c. 
Insect, Buprcstidcv. some, (SO.) frequent. 
Insect, Throscidcc, (105.) fr-equents. 
Larva, Illelanokis communis. (114,) destroj'S roots. 
Insect, Cyplwn, (121.) fr-equents. 
Insect, Lycus, Europe, (122.) fr-equents umbellifcrie. 
Insect, ChauJiognatJtus, (129,) S^-equents. 
Insect, Tckjihoridcv, Euji-ope, some, (130.) frequents. 
Insect, MaJachiid(e, (131,) frequents. 
Insect, CoUojys 4:-maci(latuSy (131,) fr-equents. 
Insect, CIerid(r. some. (132.) fr-equents, but probably feeds on other 

Insect. XecrGhia vioJaceus, (144,) frequents. l>ut feeds on other 

Insect, Cistelida:, (lOS.) fr-equent. 
Insect, Pyrochroa fiabeUaiu, (170.) fr-equents. 
Insect, Xotoxus monodon, cotton. (172.) frequents. 
Insect, MordeJla octopunctata, (174.) frequents. 
Insect, Rliipiplwrus ^ayi, (175.) fr-equents. 

Insect, Bpicauta [ ^'S^'^"*'^ } (180,) destroys. 

Ii^ect, Epicauta vittata, (1S2,) destroys. 

Insect, Epicauta styigosa, (183.) destroys cotton, &c. 

Insect, Zonitis atrijyennis, (1S5,) frequents. 

Insect, (Edem€rida\Ilnioi^e, (187.) frequents especially umbeUiferae. 

Insect, Xacerdes melanura, (187,) frequents. 

FOEEST Teees. (See Oak, :Maple, etc.) 

Feot Teees. (See Apple, Peach, etc.) 

FrTsGi : 

Insect, Stap>hyUnida\ some, (25.) found in fungi. 
Insect, Caypojjiiilus hemijytcrKS, {oh) found in minute fungi on cot- 
ton and maize. 
Insect, Xitidulini, some, (32.) found in. 
Insect, Colydiidcc, some, (37.) found in. 
Insect, Cryptophagidcv, (44,) found in. 
Insect, 2Iycctopliagida\ (44.) found in. 
Insect, Cccnocara oculata, (151,) in i)ull-baUs. 
Insect, Endecatomus rugosus, (154.) found in. 
Insect, Tenchrianida', some, (158.) found in. 
Insect, Boletothcnis conuitus, (164,) found in. 

FuES : 

Larva, Bermestidw, (45.) 

Larva, Bermestes lardarius, &c.. (49.) 

Larva, Ftinus fur, (150.) 


Ginger, Dreed Eoot, (Zenzieec OrFicrxALis:) 

Larva, Sitodrepa panacea^ (152.) 
Grats' in GRA^•ARIES. (See also Witeat, Maize, etc.) 

Larva aud iuseet, Carahklcc, Europe, some, (3,) injure graiu, &c. 

Larv;'. and iuseet, Ptcrostiehini, Europe, (7,) injure grain, &;c. 

Larva, Zahrus gibbum, European, (S.) roots and shoots. 

Insect, Zabrus gibbm, European, (8,) injiu'es grain. 

Insect, A7nara, some, (0,) injures gi'ain. 

Larva, Trogositi(l(v, (35.) injures grain. 

Larva, Trogosita Manritavica, (35,) injures grain. 

Larva^ Trogosita duhia, (3G,) injiu'es grain. 

Larva, Sylvanus Surinamcnsis, (39,) injures grain. 

Larval Agriotes scgctis, Europe, (113,) roots. 

Larva, Ptinusfio-. (150.) grain. 

Larva, Sitodrepa pankea^ (152,) gi\ain. 

Larva, Uloma, Europe, (103.) gTain. 

Golden Kod, (Solidago:) 

Insect, Urirhijiis inda, (84,) frequents ilowers. 

Insect, JLacrohasis, \ r-hUV^J^ \ (1*^^?) frequents tiowers. 

Insect, Eplcauta { ^^«"J^'^!J"'^''^' '^'^■' | (180,) frequents flowers. 
Grape, (TiTis:) 

Larva, insect, SfcUdota geminafa, (33,) in fruit injured by curculio. 
Insect, Macrodactylus subsjiinosus, (Go,) fruit and foliage. 

^"'''' \ AmTala } "«M«, (74,) foliage. 

Insect, Anomala varians, (73,) foliage. 

Insect, Pelidnota punctata. (70.) fruit and foliage. 

Grasses, (Gra^itn'l^ :) 

Insect, Harpalus caJiginosus, (10,) seeds. 
Insect, Bryoxis, (24.) found on swamp-gTass. 
Larva, 2Iacrodactylus subspinosus, (05,) on roots. 
Larva, LacJinosterna fusca, (C*c., (07.) on roots. 

GiDi, Sweet ; Liqued A3iber : 

Insect, Xyloryctes satyrusy (78,) taken near root. 
Hazel, (Corylus :) 

Insect, Dichelonycha hexagona, (GO) foliage. . 

Insect, Dichelonycha linearis, (GO,) foliage. 

Insect, Dichelonycha subvittata, (00,) foliage. 

Insect. Trachys (BrachysJ minuta, Europe, (105,) foliage. 

Larva, PfiUnns jicciinicornis, Europe, (153 :) wood. 

Larva, Laemophlmis modestus, (iS;.) in seed. 
HERSACEors EooTS. (See also Grass, Yegetaele Eoots, etc. ) 

Larva, Lachiosterna fusca, &:c., (67,) iujure.^. 

Larvii. Erirhijns inda, (84.) 

Larva, Elatcr obscurus, Europe. (110.) 

Larva, A,n-„<«j'XSr'} (11--) 
Larva, Melanotns communis, (114.) 



Larva, Ptinusfur, Europe, (loO,) dried i->lants. 
Larva, SitGchrjja panicca, (152.) dried plants. 


Insect, CotaJpa Janigera, (77,) foliage. 
Larva, Diccrca lurkta, (92.) wood. 
Larva, Si/nojci/Iou hasilarc, (155,) v.'ood. 

Hides. (See Skins, Furs, etc.) 

Honey Locust, (Gleditschia Teiacanthos.) (Sec Locust.) 


Larva, ITordeUa pusilla, Europe, (174,) in stems. 
TTlLD Ls^DiGO, (Baptisia :) 

Insect, 2Iacrobasis | ^^^^ \ (179,) foliage. 

Dried Insects. (See Collections of Natural Histoey, etc.) 
Locust, (Eobinia :) 

Insect, ErirM2)is inda, (84,) sap. 

Insect, Agrilus egenus, (103,) foliage. 

Insect, MacroMsis | ^^^^'^<^^h \ (179.) 

Insect, Macrabmi8 \ ^'?j''^''' \ (179,) honey locust. 

Maize, (Zea Mays :) 

Larva, Omopliron JahiaUim, (2,) destroys yoirng plants. 
Larva, Colastus scmitectits, (30.) in decaying seeds. 
Larva, CarpopliiJus Jionir^terus', (31,) in decaying seeds. 
Larva, Ips quadrisignatus, (34,) biUTOws in sweet corn. 
Larva, Trogosita dubia, &c., (36.) gTain, 
Larva, Sylvaiu's Surinamensis, (39,) gTain. 
Larva, SyJvanus quadricoUis, (41,) gTain. 
Insect, Macrodactylus subsjiinosus, (05.) foliage. 
Insect, ErirMjns inda, (84,) sap. 

Manure. (See also Excrements of Herbivoeous A:\t3ials.) 
Larva, insect, Cantlwn Icvris, (54.) 
Larva, insect, Fhancuns carnifex, (55.) 
Larva, insect, Aphodhts Jimetarius, {5Q.) 
Larva, insect, Geotrtipes spJendidus, (57.) 

Maple, (Acer :) 

Insect, Lachiosternn fusca, (07,) foliage. 
Insect, Laclinosterna micans, (08,) foliage. 
Insect, Laclinosterna hirticula, (09,) foliage. 
Insect, Holotrichia crenulata, (70,) foliage. 
Insect, TrlcJiestes trlstis, (71,) foliage. 
Insect, PoJypliylla variolosa, (72,) foliage. 
Larva, Ptilinus pectinicornis, Europe, ^153.) wood. 
Larva, Pyrocliroa dcndroides, (171,) under bark. 
Larva, Dendroides canadensis, (171.) under bark. 

Meal. (See also Flour, etc.) 

Larva, Ptinusfur, Europe, (150.) 
Larva, Tenehrio molitor, (101.) 


3LEAT : 

Larva, Dcrmcsta; lardarius, (J.9.) 


Larva, EydrophUus piceiis, Europe, (13,) aquatic mollusks. 
Larva and insect, Lampyrulcc^ Europe, (127,) terrestrial mollusks. 

CoLLECTio>'s OF Xatueal Histoey. (See Collections, etc.) 

^^■aval Tdieee. (See Tdieee. Oak, etc.) 

>^UTS. (See Hazel.) 
Oak, (QrEECUS :) 

Larva, Lv.canus dama, (51,) wood. 

Lar%'a, Platyccrus quercus, (52.) Trood. 

Larva. Fassalus cornuiiis, (.53,) wood. 

Insect, Macrodacfylus suhsjnnosu^, (Go,) foliage. 

Insect^ Ladrnosternc. fasca, (G7,) foliage. 

Insect. Laclinosierna mkans, (G8.) foliage. 

Insect, Lachnostenia hirtiada, (09,) foliage. 

Insect, Rolotrklda crenidata, (70,) foliage. 

Insect, Trichestes tristis, (71,) foliage. 

Insect, PohjpliyUa variolosa, (72,) foliage. 

Insect, CotaJpa lanigera. (77,) foliage. 

Insect. Osmoderma scahra, (85,) foliage.? 

Larva, ChrysohotJirisfcinorafo., (97.) wood. 

Larva, Chrysohotliris calcarata., (99,) white oak wood. 

Lar\-a, Chrysohotliris dentijyes, (99,) wood. 

Larva, AfjrUus, Europe, some, (102,) wood. 

Larva, Throscus. Europe, some, (105.) wood wainscoting. 

Larva, Eiicnemida. (106.) wood. 

Larva, Fornax. (106.) stumps. 

Lan"a, Alaus oculatits, (107,) wood. 

Larva, Alaus my ops, (108,) wood. 

Larva, Ptilodactyla claterina, (120,) wood. 

Lar\-n, Prlonocyphon discoidens, (121,) hollow stumps, iu water. 

Larva. Diciyopterus sanguineus. Europe, (12-4,) under bark. 

Larva, Tillus ambulaiiSj Europe, (131,) wood. 

Insect, Pseudoclerus iciineumonem. (110,) under bark, probably de- 
sti'oying oth^r insects. 

Larva, Lymcxylon narale, Europe, (115,) ship-timber and wood. 

Lar\a, Lymcxylon sericeum, (116.) wood. 

Larxa, Eylocartus Americanus, (147.) wood. 

Larva, Ptilinm pcctinicornis, Eui'ope, (153.) wood. 

Insect, Centronopus calcaratus, (159,) stumps of black oak. 

Insect, Xylopinus sajyerdoides, (160,) stumps of black oak. 

Insect, Helops micam, (107,) under bark. 

I>ar\-a, Cistela cera?«&oj^e5, Europe, (168,) in oak. 

Lana, Lagria Idrta, Europe, (169.) dead leaves. 

Larva, Pyrochroa coccinea, (170.) rotten wood. 

Larva, ^ynchroa punctata, (l'i'3,) rotten wood. 
Oat:meal : 

Larva, Sitodrepa panicea, (152.) 
Ox-eye Daisy, (CuEYSAN-TiiEiruM:) 

Insect, Macrodacfylus suhspinosus, (65,) frequents flowers. 


Parasitic on other Insects : 

Larva, MeloidcCj Europe, (177.) 

Peach : 

Iiisect, Macrodactiihis subspinosus, {G5^) foliage. 
Insect, Cotinns nifiddj (82,) ripe fruit and sap. 
Insect, Erirhipis inda, (8-i,) ri])e fruit and sap. 
Lar\'a, Diccrca divaricata, (91,) wood. 
Larva, Cknjsobothri'ifemoyata, (97.) wood. 
Larva, Chri/sobotJiHs calcarata, (99,) wood. 

Pear, (Pyrus :) 

Insect, HopUa dehilis, (59,) frequents foliage and flower. 
Insect, Biplotaxis sordida. (G6,) frequents foliage and flower. 
Insect, iSerica iricolor, ((3-1,) frequents foliagB nnd flower. 
Insect, Gotalpa lanUjera^ (77,) foliage. 
Larva, A(jrilus, Eiu'ope, some, (102,) wood. 

Pepper, Eed, (CAPSicirai:) 

Larva, Sitodrepa panicea, (152.) 

i^iNE, (PiNUS:) 

Insect, Aidoniuni paralJelopipediim, (38,) under bark. 
Insect, Bichelonycha albkoUis, (01,) white pine foliage. 
Insect, I ^P^^ota, }o^-„j-coZa (75,) foliage. 

Insect, Vahjus squamiger, (88,) in rotten wood and under bark. 

Larva, Chalcophora Virginiensis, (89,) wood. 

Larva, Chalcophora -Uherta^ (90,) wood. 

Larva, Bicerca punctidata, (i)3,) pitch-pine wood. 

Larva, Ancylochira lineata^ (94,) wood. 

Larva, Ancylochira striata, (95,) wood. 

Larva, AFelanophila ful voguttata , (90,) white-pine wood. 

Larva, Chrysobothris Uarrisii, (98,) wood. 

Larva, Alaits ocidatv.s, (107.) wood. 

Larva, Ahius myops, (108,) wood. 

Insect, Hypophlceus paralellus, (100,) under bark. 

Insect, Pytho deprcssus, Europe, (188,) under bark. 

Insect, Pytho Arncricamis, {1S\),) under bark, probably predaceous. 

Plants not specified : 

Larva, Flateridcc, vSome, (100,) lives on. 

Insect, Ehipicera marginata, Europe, (110,) gnaws under stems. 

Plum, (Prunus Do:mestica :) 

Insect, Macrodactylus subspinosus, (65,) foliage. 
Insect, Lachnosierna fusca, (07,) foliage. 
Insect, Lachnosterna micans, (08,) foliage. 
Insect, Lachnosterna hirticula, (09,) foliage. 
Insect, Holotrichia cremdata, (70,) foliage. 
Insect, Trichcstes tristis, (71,) foliage. 
Insect, Polyphylla variolosa, (72,) foliage. 

Poplar, (Populus :) 

Insect, Cotalpa lanigera, (77,) foliage. 

114 agricultural report. 

Potato, (Sola^'hm tuberosum :) 

Insect, Meloe angusticoUia, (177,) foliage. 
Insect, Macrohasu, [ S^af ' } ^^^^'^ io^g^. 

Insect. Epicaula \ ^^^'2^^'''''''''' } (180,) foliage. 
Insect, Epicauta rittata, (1S2,) foliage. 

Peedaceous, (preying upon other insects, and generally beneficial:) 

Larva, insect, Cicindclidce. (1.) 

Larva, insect, Cicindcia vulgaris. (1.) 

Larva, insect, Carahidcc^ partly, (3.) 

Larva, insect, Calosoma calidum. (3.) 

Larva, insect, Calosoma scrutator, (4.) 

Insect, Brachinus fumans^ (5.) 

Insect, Lehia grnndis, (G,) destroys lana, Doryiiliora. 

Larva, insect, Dytisdda;, partly, (11.) 

Insect, Gyrin idee ( \2.) 

Insect, Dineutes Amerie^nus, (12.) 

Larva, BydrophiUdco^ (13,) insect feeds on vegetable matter. 

Insect, Luccnus. Europe, (51,) caterpillars. 

Larva. Lampyridco^ some, (125,) larva of borers. 

Larva, EUiehnia corruscus^ (125,) worms. 

Insect, Teleplwridfc. (130.) other insects. 

Insect, TclephorusbiUneatus. (130.) other insects. 

Insect, Malachidcc. (131.) other insects. 

Lana. Cleridce. (132,) other insects. 

^^^^' { ^^^'J^^'''""*^'-"''^^'-''^' } Enrope, (13S,) bark beetles. 

Larva, Paeudoclerus nigripes^ (139,) Ilylesinns acnleatns. 
Insect, Xecrohia rioJaceus, (1-1^0 other insects. 
Larva, Fytho Americanm, (189,) Ehagiiim liueatum.? 

Puff Ball. (See also Fu^'GI.) 

Larva, Ccenocara oculata, (151.) 

Easpbeeey. (See also Blace33eeey.) 

Insect, Byturus tomentosus, Europe, (4G,) fruit. 

Larva, Byturus toment-osus Europe, (40,) cuts footstalk of flowen 

Larva, Agrilus ruJicoUis, (101,) pith of stem. 

Insect, iJasytes niger, Europe, (118,) cuts off blossoms. 


Insect, Cyplwn paUidus, Europe, (121,) winters in stems. 

Ehubaeb, (Eheoi :) 

Larva, Sitodrepa pankea. (152.) in dried root. 
Eice, (Oeyza :) 

Larva, Murmidius oralis, Europe, ^(28,) grain. 
EooTs. (See also Keebaceous axd Grass Eoots.) 

Larva, Macrodactylns suhspinosus, (65,) herbaceous, &c. 
Larva, Lachnosterna fusca, &c., (67,) herbaceous, &c. 


EooTs. (See also Heebacegus A^T) Grass Eoots.) 

Larva, Cofalpa laniffsm^ (77,) herbaceous, &c. 
Larva, Euryomia inda, (S-i.) herbaceous. &:c. 
Larva, Elater obscurus, Europe, (110,) herbaceous. »S:c. 
Larva, Agriotes manclius, &c., (112.) herbaceous, &c. 

EOSE, (EosA:) 

Insect, Serica sericeaj (63,) foliage, flowers. 

^^^iy { SeWm ^'^'^^"^' } resjyertina, (62,) foUage, flowers. 

LQsect, MacrodactyJus suh&j)inosuSj (65,) foliage, flowers. 


Larva, Insect, Zabrus gihhus, Europe, (S.) roots, grain. 

)AP OF Teees, etc : 

Insect, Lvcanidce, (51.) 
Insect, Cetoniiui, (81.) 
Insect, Cotiiiun nitida^ (82.) 
Insect, Erirhipis hiday (84.) 

Sein'S. (See also Collectiojs^s of In atueal Histoiiy. etc.) 

Larva, Denn€stida\ (45.) 
Larva, Dermestes vulpinus, (48.) 
Larva, Anthrenus varius. (50.) 

S^'AILS : 

Larva, Insect, S'd2)]ia Iccrigata, Europe, (16.) 

Larva, Insect, SH2)hid(T, Europe, (16.) 

Larva, Insect, Lam2)yris noctiluca, Europe, (126.) 

Snaei:s, Dead. (See also Caeeio^'.) 

Insect, Xecroplwrus americanus, (18.) 

Sper^A : 

Insect, Anthrenus varius, (50,) on flowers. 

SPA•^v^^ (See Fish Spatv^t.) 

Speuce, (Abies :) 

Larva, Ancylocliira striata, (95.) wood, 


Insect, Sylvanus suyinamcnsis, (39.) fountl in. 
Insect, Xansibius dentatus, (42.) found in. 

^^'^^'^' I Ela'ifr'''''' "''' '^^"'''''' l^^iT"'''' J- (109,)roots of canes. 

SorACH, (Ehts :) 

Insect, Anomala varians, (73,) foliage. 

Sweet Beeee, 

I"^^* { &rifr"'"" "''^"'*""'- \ (82,) foliage. 
Insect, Serica scricea, (63,) foliage. 

116 agricultural report. 


Insect, Sjjh-a.;iu$ snriiiaiuensis, (30.) floatin^f on. 


Insect, Syl'canus surinamcnsis, (39.) eating holes in dried leaf. 

Cmeelliteeje. (See also Flo-rtees.) 

Insect: Anthrenus varhis, (50.) flcvrers. 

Vegetables. (See Cabbage, etc.) 

Vegetable Sltsstai^ces Decaitxg oh Deco:\iposixg : 

Insect, HydroiMlidcc, some, (13,) (larvoj predaceous.) 

Insect, Eisteridcc, partly, (27,) fonnd in. 

Insects, yitidulida\ (-1),) found in. 

Larva, Insect, SteUdota f/cminata, (33,) Ibnnd in. 

Insect, Criiptoi^liagidcr, (4J:,) iound in. 

Larva, 2IcloIonthi'dcc, (51),) in vc.cjetable substances. 

Insect, Tenebrionidcv, partly, (158,) found in. 

Vegetable Eoots. (Soe also IIekbaceous Eoots,) 

Larva, Elatcrtdcc, (110,) feeds on roots. 
Larva, Elaicr ohscurus, Europe, (110,) feeds on. 
Larva, Mdanotus communis, (HI.) feeds on roots. 
Larva, Agriotes segetis, (113,) Eiirope, feeds on roots. 

Walxtt, (Juglans :) 

Larva, Synoxylon hasUarc^ (lo5,) wood. 

Wasps, (Vespa:) 

Larva, CJcrm, Eiu'ope, (135,) destroys larva. 
Lar^'a, Iiltipipltorus jxtmdoxus, Em-ope, (175,) in nests. 
Larva, Siylopida^ (17(3,) Europe, in body, 
Lavxix, Mcloidcc^ {I'^l.) Europe, atraclicd to body. 


Insect, Uydrophilus piceiis, (13.) foliage. 
Wheat, (Teiticu^i vrLGABE:) 

Larva, Calathus latits, Eiu'ope, (7,) injui'cs gxain. 
Larva, Zahrus gihhm^ (8,) injures grain. 
Larva, Amara^ (9.) injiu'cs grain. 
Insect, UarpaluH caliginosus, (10,) injures grain. 
Larva, tStaphyUnus'f Europe (25,) injures plants. 
Larva, Trogodta diihia, «S:c,, (3G,) grain. 
Larva, Sglvaiius surinamcnsis, (39,) gxain. 
Larva, iSitodrcpa panicca, (152,) grain. 
Insect, Ehizojmrtlta pusilla, (I'j"?) grain. 
Larva, Tcncbrionidcc, partly, (159,) grain. 

WnoRTLEBERRY, (Vacci>:iu:m :) 

Insect, Serkii iricolor, (04,) frequents busbes. 


WiLLOAV, (SaXIX,) OsiEn, ETC :) &G. 

Larva, Lxicamis dama, (ol,) wood. 

-»"»>{ IS. "■■■'"'"■"' }(''')f«"»s'^- 

Larva, Dipiastcs tiUjrus, (80,) decaying wood. 
Wood rx Gexeeae. (See also ^Vpple, Oak, etc.,) &c. 

Larva, Bj/nastidcj, some, (80,) decaying wood. 

Larva, PcUdnota punc-tata, (70,) decaying wood. 

Larva, Elaterida:. (lOG,) some, decaying wood. 

Larva, 2Ielanotus communis^ (114?) decaying wood. 

Larva, Lycus, (122,) found in decaying wood. 

Insect, Oi'thopleura damicornis, (112,) found in decaying wood. 

Larva, Ftinidcc, (149,) found in decaying wood. 

Insect, Cupes cincrca, (148,) common about old frame-houses. 

Larva, FtiUmis pectinicornis, Europe, (153.) wood. 

WooLEX Cloth: 

Larva, Ptinusfur, Eiu^ope, (150.) 
Wgems, Eat^th ^'okms : ■ 

Larva, \ f/n^^^^^npis pymlis, ) ^^^ 

Larva, TelcpJiorus, Europe, (130.) 




SiE : ]S^uiaerous packages of seeds and plauts are yearly jjlaced in uiy 
hands for trial in tlie ganlen. These are sent to the bepartnient in good 
faith, with a view to the introduction and dissemination of valuable 
an(^ useful plants ; but the majority- of these donations proves either to be 
Tvell known si^ecies, or those of but little sjiecial value ; and very fre- 
quently the I slants are shrivelled and dead when unpacked, and the seeds to vegetat«. 


Both seeds and plauts of these currants have been repeatedly sent to 
the Department during the past six years. They appear to be varieties 
of Mibes aitreujn, and, although the fruit of several of them is large, of 
fine api>eai'ance, and of a variety of colors, from light yellow to black, 
yet it has large seeds and but little pulp, and A\-ill not i)robably be culti- 
vated where the improved varieties of the red currant, Riles ruhrum, can 
be procured. It is said that fine jellies have been jirepared from these 
frnits, forming a good substitute for that produced from the red and the 
white currant of the gardens. Many of these Utah sorts i^roduce as 
large fruit as the Cherry currant, but of no distinctive flavor. 


Under this name seeds of a grape were received, in 18G3, from the 
United States consul at Damascus, said to have been collected from the 
peasantry of the village of Dario. They were highly recommended. 
The seeds vegetated freely, but the plants have proved to be unsuited for 
open air culture in this climate. In order to prove the quality of the 
fruit, plants were placed in a glass structure, where they produced a 
small grai>e of no particular merit : quite inferior to good varieties of the 
foreign grape. 


This cheny was described in the report of the Department for 18GG, 
where it was claimed to possess desirable qualities as a fi-uit. Plants 
received by the department have fniited diuing the past season, prov- 
ing to be identical with the sand cheiry. The fruit has no particidar 
merit, the i>lant being a slender growing bush, botanicaUy interesting, 
but not otherwise valuable. 


In the spring of 1SG3, a package of grai>e cuttings was received from 
ilelboume. They were cut into pieces about two feet in len.L'th. and 
packed in a tight case so as to be completely enveloped in charcoal dust. 
Notwithstanding the length of time that elapsed during their passage, 


aud the various casualties of climate and transsliipicents, they -vrere in 
perfect condition when opened, fresh and succulent, propagating freely 
fi-oui single eyes. These, although received under various local names, 
proved to be"known varieties of the foreign grape, Vitis rinifera. Sam- 
ples were fruited under glass ; those in the open air have lingered on 
with more or less ^igor, a few dying out yearly ; the past season finish- 
ing the last of them. 

The same result has been experienced with a collection of the so-called 
Hungarian gi*a])es, which were received and planted several years ago. 
Some of the plants fruited, bearing good-sized and well-flavored fruit, 
which, however, failed to mature, on accoimt of diseased foliage, and con- 
sequent checked gi-owth. The last remnants of this collection have also 


The Concord, Hartford Prolific, Ives, Perkins, Clinton, and Dracut 
Amber have proved to be the only varieties perfectly exempt fi-om dis- 
ease during the past year. The Adirondack, Zona, Delaware, Eebecca, 
Diana, and others of very superior flavored fruit, when compared with 
the precetling list of healthy varieties, will decidedly take preference in 
localities congenial to their growth; but their liability to disease should 
always be taken into consideration, when extensive planting is contem- 
plated. The conditions seeming success, although known, cannot always 
be made available, and in planting in new localities, experiment can best 
decide upon the most suitable varieties. 

The Diana Hamburg proves to be one of those grapes the liability of 
which to disease renders their profitable culture extremely local. In this 
respect the variety named is no exception to other hybrids between the 
native and the exotic grapes, especially when they partake largely of the 
quaUties of the latter. 

Several hybrids received from Mr. Arnold, of Paris, Canada West, by 
whom they were originated, are not yet of sufiicient strength to fruit ; 
their growth, so far, is satisfactory. 

The Fedora grape, received from Mr. Cruickshanks, of Chelsea, Massa- 
chusetts, is evidently of exotic origin ; its growth, however, as is not 
unusual for a time with varieties of the fereign species, has been healthy 
and even luxmiant. It has not yet fruited. 

The same remarks may be applied to the Weehawken grape, donated 
by Dr. Siedhof, of Hobokeu, Xew Jersey, who introduced the variety. 


Dr. A. p. Wylie, of Chester, South Carolina, who has been studiously 
endeavoring to improve the Scuppernong grape, has favored the Depart- 
ment with some of his productions. In a letter accompanying them, he 
remarks that he has established the following facts in regard to hybrid- 
izing the Scuppernong: 

"1st. The Scuppernong cannot be hybridized by any species of Amer- 
ican grapes, and not even by its own hybrids with foreign varieties. 
2d. The foreign species f Vitis vimfera) cuu be hybridized by Scupper- 
nong. 3d. All native species and varieties, as well as foreign species, can 
oe hybridized by hybrid Scuppernong ; and, if any usefid hybrid Scup- 
pernongs are ever produced, it will be from operations in this direction." 

These plants undoubtedly present external evidences of hybridization; 
the peculiar, slender foliage and wood of the Scupi)ernong are phiinly 

120 AGUlCULTUliAL liKPOiil. 

discernible. In my last report I alluded to the " belt of no frost" regions 
on the slopes of the southern mountain ranges, more particularly to the 
spurs of the Blue Jiidge, in North Carolina, as noteworthy grape-grow- 
ing localities. This im})ortant subject was first brought prominently into 
notice 1)y Mr. Silas McDowell, of Franklin, Macon County, North Caro- 
lina. In a recent letter from this gentleman he remarks that further 
observations have enabled him to state that, "the frost line is not per- 
manently fixed at any particular height on a mountain, but takes a higher 
or lower range according to the degree of frost that produces it; within 
the space of eleven years its maximum height has been three hundred 
feet, and its minimum height one hundred and twenty-five feet, vertical. 
The maxhnum is attained when the thermometer lall's to twenty-four 
degrees, and the minimum when the thermometer shows thirty-one 
degrees. Another fact ascertained is, that there i« no fixed dew-line on 
our mountain sides, but that it gradually abates as you ascend, and at 
the height of three lumdred feet the dew is too light to produce either a 
grape-rot or leaf-blight. Hence we understand why the thermal zone is both 
warm and dry — the true cause why grapes growing in that region never 
fail to ripen their fruit in perfection. I will not venture to say that the 
grape will never rot within the limits of that zone, because an exceed- 
ingly wet summer might i)roduco that result; but this I can say : The 
Isabella is decidedly the most unreliable grape that we have, when 
planted in our low valleys ; but, vrliere the vines are growing on the 
slopes of the moraitains, they have not failed to ripen their fruit for more 
than thirty years, whether the season was wet or dry. In relation to 
a climate and soil most congenial to the grape, within the field of my 
observations, I would name that portion of the Alleghaiiy itmgc of 
mountains which runs through western North Carolina and northern 
Georgia, named here Blue L'idge. The main direction of this range is 
from northeast to southwest at its most southern bend, reaching the 
thirty-fifth degi^ee of north latitude ; and the crests have an average 
height of about three thousand feet, perpendicular, above the level of 
tide-water. The waters that flow from thein on the northwest side run 
into the Mississippi, and those of the southeast directly into the Atlantic. 
The country on the Atlantic side sinks rapidly by a succession of long 
simny slopes, reaching down into the plain or level country. It is on 
these slopes tliat the atmosphere is pure and dry, a refuge for the con- 
sumptive, as diseases of the lungs have never yet been known to origi- 
nate among the inhabitants of these dry, fogless mountains ; and here 
also Avill the grape find its most salubrious diniate and genial home ; 
and, if ever a 'Johannisbcrger,' a 'Medoc,' or a 'Margeaux' is found on 
this side of the Atlantic, in my opinion it will be here." 


The frequent loss of bearing trees by blight is a fruitful source of 
vexation luid loss in many localities. It is now fully established that 
the active agcmt in this disease is fungoid grov/ths. 

It cannot be doubted that healthy vegetation may be attacked by 
these minute organisms of destruction ; but it is still questionable 
whether they will originate on a perfectly healthy plant. It seems more 
generally true that diseased or unhealthy individuals contract this form 
of rai)id decay, I'rom which it is communicated to others. AVe know, for 
instance, that decayed potatoes and apples will communicate their con 
ditions to healthy specimens when i>laced in contact with them. 

Among the many reasons that have been suggested as a cause ot 


blight in the pear tree, that of iiiiripened wood hiis not been the least fre- 
quent ; and the I'act that many independent observers have arrived at 
the same conclusion seems to point it out as a probable cause. 

It cannot have escaped the notice of persons who have had a general 
collection of pear trees under their care and observation for a series of 
years, that those plants which have, by whatever means, been induced to 
grov/ freely until late in the season, and have been overtakenby frosts while 
their growth was soft and succulent, have been the first to show symp- 
tons of disease. There are many noted instances on record showing 
that pear orchards, while kept under a continuod system of distiu'bing 
cultivation, surface stirring during the summer, manuring and plough- 
ing during the winter and spring ; have been severely thinned by 
blighted limbs and dead trees, biit which have been rendered both 
fruitful and healthy, and all diseases checked, by simply abandoning all 
such cultural expedients, and emj)loying the scythe as the only imple- 
ment in keeping weeds and undergrowths in check. It is not at all uncom- 
mon to meet with comments deprecatory of this " negligent treatment," as 
it is termed. We must not, however, be too strongly influenced by mere 
terms, or words, especially when they are misapplied. All appliances 
and operations that are distinguished by the term culture should have 
for their object the increase and healthy development of the products to 
which they are directed. Cultivation, in this instance, is a term indica- 
tive of those operations necessary to maintain a healthy equilibrium of 
the elements of plant gTowth. It tlierefore ceases to be a proper term 
when describing operations the effects of which are clearly to induce 
disease in plants, by encouraging extension of growth at improper 
periods. If the health or the productiveness of an orchard depends upon 
the absence of all disturbance of the soil over the roots of the trees, fur- 
ther than may be necessary to jirevent extended spread of weeds or 
undergrowths by occasionally mowing, it seems difficult to understand 
why such treatment should be denounced as improper, and designated 
as " neglected culture." Still, it is quite as reasonable to use that phrase, 
imder the cu-cumstances, as it is to characterize a course ®f treatment 
that stimulates plants to their destruction, by the high-sounding term of 
" scientific cultivation." 

Among other operations tending to the production of unripened 
growths, late summer i^runing may be mentioned as one of tlie most 
injurious. Although the practice is not so prevalent as it was ten years 
ago, it is far from being obsolete; but as cultivators shape their practice 
more and more from the knowledge acquired by study of cause and 
effect, rather than from one-sided theories, (an error we are all prone to 
adopt,) summer " shortening in," as it is technically termed, will have few 
advocates, and still fewer practitioners. 

It is now many years since the Vv'riter, somewhat timidly, recom- 
mended root pruning as an auxiliary to truitfulness, and as a corrective of 
evils resulting from jilethoric growth in trees. This ancient operation 
is an innovation upon the rules at present established, and will be per- 
formed only by those who are not trammeled by popular opinion, wben 
oj)posed to convictions formed from careful observations and practical 
study of vegetable economy — a class of cultivators rapidly increasing in 
numbers and influence. 

It may be well questioned whether the system of " shortening in," now 
so generally performed on fruit trees at the winter pruning, is not more 
injurious than beneficial in most cases. In establishing the base or 
foimdation for a spreading form in young trees, a shortening back of the 
youngest shoots will be unavoidable, but that a continuation of such 


treatment is necessary is known to be a fallacy. The continiied encour- 
agement tlins^ven to'a multiplication of yonng shoots prevents the forma- 
tion of frait-produciug biTiiicbes ; the trees become dense with slender 
growths, requiring constant thinning and manipulation to preserve even 
the appearance of a fruit-bearing tree. Seeing rhat the objects desii^ed 
are so widely difierent, it must be apparent that the ti-eatmeut best 
adapted to form plants into a close, thick-set hedge cannot be a proper 
mode of managing those cultivated solely for their truits. 

It is probable that the best mode of managing pear trees is to relrain, 
as far as possible, from shortening back the leading points of branches, 
thus giving them an oi^portunity of producing Iruiting spurs over the 
entire surface of the yearly g-powths. which they will speedily do if not 
disturbed by the pruning knife ; and when they become destitute of such 
spurs near the base or main trunk of the tree, as in time they most cer- 
tainly will, and it is desiied to keep the plants low or dwarf in habit, 
these long, spurless branches can be thinned out by remoAing them 
entii-ely, cutting them quite close to the ti-unk, supplying their place 
with young shoots, somewhat similar to the mode adopted in the so- 
called •• renewal system " of pruning the grape-vine. Whatever mode 
may be adopted, it is perfectly evident that many of the failiu-es in i>ear 
culture are clearly traceable to erroneous practices and false ideas of 


Much time and attention have been given to the improvement of the 
grounds df the Depaitment. The liower gartlen in the main fi'ont of the 
building is completed, wiih the exception of the architectural terraces. 
The principal avenues and walks are rapidly approaching completion. 
Draining has been effected as far as mciuis will allow : much, however, 
of this fimdamental work remains to be done, as the gi'ound is largely 
underlaid with a retentive subsoil. For purposes of protection and shel- 
ter, an Osage-orange hedge has been i^lanted around the boundaries of 
the inclosuie. 

About three-fomihs of the list of plants have been secured, and pre- 
parations for planting are now in progress, so that, when the proper 
season arrives, no delay may occur in jilacing each plant in its assigned 
position. The space allotted to each plant is computed so as to allow 
full de\elopment of growth for a period of forty years, so far as data 
have been available in deciding upon the resi:)ective dimensions each 
will assume. Alterations as indicated by progressive development can, 
to a great extent, be effected for many years to come, without interfering 
with the main design, and, in view of the novelty of the arrangement, 
such modifications may become necessary ; but it is beUeved that there 
will be but lew changes to make in the present position of the plants. 

A list of the plants and also the classitication adopted are subjoined. 
In some of the orders slight additions will be made to the present num- 
bers; but as the collection stands, it forms probably as comx»lete an 
arboretum as is to be found in any country. 



iiAGyoiAACEM. — Magnolia, 10 species, 9 varieties : Schizandra, 1 species ; Kadeuxa, 1 

species ; Liriodendron, 1 species, 3 varieties. 
AxonacEjE. — Asimena, 2 species. 
LArj)iZAB.\XACEJ:.— Akebia, 1 species ; Stauntonia, 1 species. 


MenisPeemace^. — Cocciilus, 1 species; Menispernmm, 1 species; Calj'cocarpum. 1 

BEKBERiDACE-n. — Berberis, 20 species, 10 varieties ; Slahonia, 10 species. 

Hypericace^. — Hypericum, 6 species ; Audrosaemmu, 1 species. 

Tamariscixe^e. — Tainaris, 6 species. 

Malvace^. — HibiscuS; 1 species, 10 varieties. 

Sterouelace^. — Sterculia, 1 species. 

Tiliace^. — Tilia, 2 species, 20 varieties. 

CAJiELLLiCE^. — Stiiartia, 2 species ; Gordouia, 1 species 

Mellace^. — Melia, 2 species. 

Retace^. — Zantlioxylum, 2 species; Ptelea, 2 species, 1 variety 

Sevlarubace^. — Ailautbus, 1 species. 

CoRLARiE^. — Coriaria, 3 species. 

Axac.lrdiace^. — Rhus, 7 species ; Pistacia, 2 species. 

Ehajmnace^. — Ehamnus, 11 species, 4 varieties ; Frangula, 2 species ; Sageretia, 1 spe- 
cies ; Bercliemia, 1 species ; Zizyphus, 1 species ; Ceanotlius, 13 species ; Paliurus, 

1 species. 

Celastrace^. — EuoByinus, 9 species, 11 varieties ; Celastnis, 1 species. 

Sapes'dace^. — I, Staphjjleacece : Staphylea, 3 species. II, Sapindacece vercc : Jisculus, 
11 species, 12 varieties ; Kolreuteria, 1 species. Ill, Jcerinecv : Acer, 27 species, 17 
varieties ; Neguiido, 1 s^Docies, 4 varieties. 

Legujonos^. — Sub-order I, PapiUonacem. Tribe I, Loteie : Genista, 13 species, 1 vari- 
ety ; Ulex, 3 si^ecies, 1 variety ; Spartiuru, 1 species, 1 variety ; Laburuum, 2 spe- 
cies, 11 varieties; Cytisus, 16 species ; Sarothamaus, 1 species, 1 variety; Ononis, 

2 species ; Aniorpba, 5 species, 1 variety ; Colutea, 2 species ; Robinia, 3 sjiecies, 25 
varieties; Caragana, 11 species; Halimodendion, 1 species; Wistaria, 3 species, 2 
varieties. Tribe 11, Hedysareaj : Coronilla, 1 species. Tribe V, Sophoreae : Sopbo- 
ra, 1 species, 2 varieties ; Cladrastis, 1 species. — Sub-order 11, CcesaJpiniecB. Cercis, 

2 species, 2 varieties ; Gymnocladus, 1 species ; Gleditsckia, 6 species, 5 varieties. — 
Sub-order III, Mimoseoe. Albizzia, 1 species. 

Rosacea. — Sub-order I, Amygda lew. Amygdaliis, 3 species, IG varieties ; Amygdalopis, 1 
species ; Prunus, 27 species, 12 varieties. — Sub-order II, liosacecB verce. Tribe I, Spi- 
rseesB : Kerria, 2 sjtecies, 2 varieties; Spiraea, 41 species, 6 varieties; Scliizonotus, 2 
species, 1 variety. Tribe II, Dryadese : Potentilla, 2 species, 2 varieties ; Rubus, 

3 species, 5 varieties. — Sub-order III, Pomew. Crataegus, 36 species, 27 varieties ; 
Pbotinia, 2 species; Cotoneaster, 18 species; Amelaucliier, 5 species, 5 varieties; 
Mespilus, 2 species ; Pyrus, 33 species, 40 varieties ; Cydouia, 2 species, 12 varie- 

CALYCAXTHACEiE. — Calycantlius, 6 species ; CMmonantbus, 1 species, 2 varieties. 

Lythrace^. — Punica, 2 species ; Lagerstrcemia, 5 species. 

Saxifragace.*:. — Sub-order I, Grossulw. Ribes, 24 species, 7 varieties. — Sub-order II, 

Escalloniece. Itea, 1 species. — Sub-order III, Hydrangiece. Hydrangea, 5 species ; 

Decumaria, 1 species ; Pliiladelphus, 9 species, 7 varieties ; Deutzia, 6 species, 2 

ILvM.\:srELACE^. — Tribe I, Hamamelese : Hamamelis, 1 species. Tribe II, FotliergiUese : 

Fothergilla, 1 species. Tribe III, Balsamiiluae : Liquidamber, 2 species. 
UMBELEiFER-i;. — Bupleuiuni, 1 species. 

Araliace^. — Aralia, 3 species ; Hedera, 3 species, 4 varieties. 
CoRNACE.*;. — Comus, 12 species 4 varieties ; Bentliamia, 1 species ; Nyssa, 3 species ; 

Garrya, 1 species. 

Division II.— MoNOPKTALEiE. 

Caprieollace.^;.— Tribe I, Lonicereae : Linnesa, 1 species ; Sympboricarpus, 5 species, 
1 variety ; Lonicera, 35 species, 11 varieties ; Diervilla, 4 species, 13 varieties ; Ley- 
cesteria, 2 species. Tribe II : Sambucus, 4 species, 9 varieties ; Viburnum, 17 spe- 
cies, 6 varieties. 

RcniACE^.— Sub-order II, Cmchmiece. Cephalantlius, 1 species.— Sub-order III, Lo- 
ganice. Gelsemium, 1 species. 

CoMi'osiT.E. — Sub-order 1, TuhuUjlorm. Baccbarideae : Baccbaris, 3 species. Senecion- 
ideas : Iva, 1 species ; Artemisia, 3 species. 

Eeicace^.— Sub-order I, Vacciniece. Gaylussacia, 5 species ; Vaccinium, 16 species, 5 
varieties ; Cbiogenes, 1 species.— Sub-order II, Ericinea. Arctostapbylos, 2 species ; 
Epigasa, 1 species ; Arbutus, 4 species ; Leucotlioe, 5 species ; Cassandra, 1 species ; 
Cassiope, 2 species ; Amlromcda, 7 species ; Oxydemlrum, 1 species ; Cletbra, 2 
species ; Pliyllodoce, 1 species ; Pernettya, 2 species ; KaLoiia, 7 species, 2 Viirieties ; 
Daboecia, 1 species, 1 variety ; Menziesia, 2 species, 2 viu-ioties ; Azalea, 4 species, 2 
varieties ; Rhododendron, 6 species ; Rhodora, 1 species ; Ledum, 2 species ; Lois- 
eleuria, 1 species ; Leiophyllum, 1 species. 


AQUiroLiACi: j:. — Hex, li5 species, 14 varieties ; Myginda, 1 species ; Nemopautliea, 1 

Stvijace-E. — Styrax, 4 species ; Iialesia, 3 species ; Sjruplccos, 1 speci»s. 

C YiULL-vci: j:. — Cyrilla, 1 species ; Elliottia, 1 species. 

EuEXACi:-!:. — DiospjTos, 2 species. 

Sapotactj:. — Bumelia, 4 S])ecies, 1 variety. 

BiGXONiACKJE. — Biguouia, 1 species; Tecoma, 2 species; Calalpa, 4 species. 

PciioriiUL-UiiACKJE. — Panlovrnia, 1 species; BiuTcllca, 1 species. 

Vkiujkxace J::. — Callicarpa, 1 species ; Vitex, 2 species, 1 variety. 

.i\scLi:i"L\UACE^. — Periploca, 1 species. 

Jasmlxace-E. — Jasmiuum, 9 species, 1 variety. 

OleacEjT:. — Tribe I, 01eiue;e : Lignstmm. 12 species. 4 varieties ; Olea, 1 species ; 
Cliiouaiitbus, 1 species, 1 variety. Tribe II, Syiiuge;? : Syiiuga, 4 species. 34 vari- 
eties ; Fontauesia, 1 species ; Forsytbia, 3 sijecies. Tribe III, Fraxinese : Fraxi- 
nns, 19 species, 16 varieties ; Omus, 2 species. Tribe r\^, Forestiereae : Forestiera, 
2 species. 

Division III.— ArinAL.F.. 

Aristolochlvce^:. — Aristolocliia, 2 species. 

Polygonace.e. — Brunuichia, 1 species. 

Lauii-vce^. — Laiinis, 1 species ; Persea, 1 sjiscies, I variety ; Sassafras, 1 species ; Lin 
dera, 2 species ; Tetranthera, 1 species. 

TH'i'MELEACE.E. — Dirca, 1 species; Dapb.rie, 7 species, 6 varieties. 

El^agnacEvE. — Sbepherdia, 2 species; Elteaguus, 5 species, 1 vai'iety; Hijjpnpbie, 2 
species, 1 variety. 

Santalacej^. — Darbya. 1 species; Pyrularia, 1 species; Bnckleya, 1 species. 

EcpnoRBLvcEJ:. — Stillingia, 1 species ; Biixus, 8 species, 9 varieties. 

E^rPETKACE^. — EmpetrHin, 1 species ; Corema, 1 species ; Ceratiola, 1 species. 

Ur.TiCACE^. — Sub-order I, Ulmacccc. Ulinus, 17 species, 37 varieties ; Planera, 3 species ; 
Celtis, 5 species, 2 varieties. Sub-order II, Artocar}yea'. lloms, 5 species. 4 varie- 
ties; Broussonetia, 1 s^iecies, 1 variety; Madura, 2 species, 1 variety j Ficus, 1 

Plvtaxaceje. — Platanus, 3 species, 2 varieties. 

JcGL.vxDACE^. — Juglans, 3 species, 3 varieties; Carya, 10 species, 1 variety; Ptero- 
caiya, 1 species. 

CtrPULLFER^. — Quercus, 39 species, 51 varieties ; Castanea, 3 species, 12 varieties ; 
Fagns, 3 species, 13 varieties ; Corylus, 4 species, 2 varieties ; Carpinus, 2 species, 

4 varieties ; Ostrya, 3 species. 

Myricaceje. — ilyrica, 3 species, 2 varieties ; Comptonia, 1 species. 
Betulacejd. — Betula, 9 species, 6 varieties ; ALuus, 7 species, 9 varieties 
S-U-iCACE-E. — Salix, 121 species, 12 varieties ; Populus, 12 species, 6 varieties. 

G Y M X S P E R M ^ . 

CoxiFERJE. — Sub-order I, Jbietlnecv. Pinus Biuse, 25 species, 24 varieties ; Piuus Ter- 
nataj, 25 species, 3 varieties ; Piuus Quiua;, 35 species, 5 varieties ; Piuus Dubis, 

5 species; Abies Yera^, 14 species, 23 varieties. Tsuga : Abies, 7 species, 6 varie- 
ties. Picea Bracteata : Abies, 10 species, 8 varieties. Picea Brevebracteata: Abies, 
11 species, 5 varieties; Cetlrus, 3 species, G varieties; Cunningbamia, 1 species, 1 
variety ; Sciadopitys. 1 species ; Sequoia, 2 species ; Larix, 9 species, 7 varieties ; 
Pseudolarix^ 1 species : Araucaria, 7 species, 5 varieties ; Daijiiuara, 8 species, 2 

' ^' ' "' ■ -.- . ^ arieties ; 

i species, 2 
1 species; 
Actinostrobus, 1 species ; Fi-euela. 19 species ; Liecbhardtia, 1 species; Fitzroya, 1 
species; Thuja, 3 species, 15 varieties; Thujoiisis. 3 species, 2 varieties; Biota, 1 
species, 15 varieties ; Cupressus, 20 species, 15 varieties ; Eetinospora, 5 species, 7 
varieties; Ciyptomeria, 1 species, 4 varieties; Ta:xodium, 1 species, 4 varieties; 
Glyi)tostrobu3, 2 species. Sub-order III, Taxinca: Taxus, 7 species, 21 varieties ; 
Torreya, 4 species ; Cepbalotaxus, 4 species ; Podocarpus, 43 species, 3 varieties ; 
Dacrydiuiu, (3 species ; Salisburia, 1 species, 3 varieties; Phyllocladus, 5 species; 
Jlicrocacluys, 1 species ; Pherospb:era, 1 species ; Saxe-Gotbea, 1 species ; Nageia, 7 
species, 1 variety ; Veitcbia, 1 species. 

llou. lIop^CK Capuox, Commissioner. 


SiE : The following tabular statement sliows tlie quantity and kinds 
of seeds sent from this division dming the jeai ending December 31, 



Seeds for field culture. 


'B r/ 






To Tvliom gent. 














c _^ 

a 'S 













Merobprs of Congrecs 

15(5, 815 



1!), 4!)3 

i>, 460 



Agricultural eocieties 

8i), nrs 





114, -184 





3, 05?6 





430, oil 

9^), 871 



•23, C3 ) 



1 086 

SeeilH fir 

fif'M cnU;ue. 

Winter wheat. 

To whom Bent, 





























Members of Con^ese 

4, 25!! 


1, S!1)0 


3, 2(14 


1,5.' 6 


5, .335 


5 272 



o 520 

6 225 

69 :i 


1 256 




2, 0:;0 















The United States and territories embrace about twenty-four degrees 
of latitude and fifty-eight degrees of longitude, and, in consequence of 
difference of elevation, direction of winds, and contiguous oceans, wide 
isothermal differences of temperature are manifest even in the same lat- 
itude ; but within the difiereut latitudes of these extended limits are 
found great diversities of climate and soil, adapted to the growth ot 
plants of every quarter of the globe. The distribution of seeds was 
made with reference to climatic and thermal pecuharities ; but the 
adaptability of seeds to different soils can be satisfactorily ascertained 
only by the sure test of experiment, and it is, therefore, to be regretted 
that practical farmers do not, as requested, more generally report to the 
department the results of their experiments with seeds sent to them. 


All important facts connected with the cultivation of untried seeds 
should be carefully noted, and promptly reported to the department. 

The object of the department in procuring and tiistributing seeds is, 
to substitute superior varieties for those which have deteriorated or have 
become diseased, and to introduce the seeds of new plants, that the re- 
sources of our broad and fertile domain may be developed, and its agri- 
cultural wealth increased. To accomplish these ends the co-operation of 
the farmer is indispensable. His farm is a laboratory in which the efli- 
cacy of new varieties and the success of novel productions are alike 
tested. Without an intelligent report, showing tlie means used and 
the results reached, the depaitment must remain in doubt in regard 
to the success and utilits- of its seed distributions, except as they may 
be indicated in the steadily increasing products of the laud, and in the 
general improvement of its farming interests. Reports promj^tly and 
regularly sent in would ena1)le the department to fui-nish to the countiy 
and to the world an array of facts of great practical interest and value, 
while this co-operation on the part of farmers would tend surely to the 
advancement of their own interests, and to the increase of national 


Hon. Horace Capeon, Commmioner. 



Sir : In compliance with your request tliat I should procure certain 
information bearing upon the art and science of agriculture, I have the 
honor to submit the foUowmg observations: 

The first and leading fact that arrests the attention of an American 
observer of agiiciiltural phenomena on visiting Europe is, that in many- 
European countries the annual yield per acre of all the land under cul- 
tivation is greatly on the increase from year to year, while in the United 
States the yield per acre is on the decrease. The question naturally 
arises: Is this gradual deterioration of ^Vmericau soil proof that Ameri- 
cans are poor farmers, or that our soil is naturally poor ? Our soil is 
the best in the world, and practically we are the most skiUful in nearly 
aU the mechanical appliances required in farming. But the question 
still arises. Are we good farmers ? It certainly was not good farming 
that permitted the soil of Is^ew England, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Ohio to deteriorate from a yield of thirty bushels of wheat per acre (and 
other crops in proportion) to less than fifteen bushels ; it was not good 
farming that permitted large portions of the southern States to become 
absolutely barren ; and it is not good farming that is now permitting 
the unparalleled soil of our prairie States to grow less and less produc- 
tive from year to year. 

These facts suggest painful reflections, and indicate that our gTeat skill 
in producing and adapting machinery to agricultm^al purposes, and our 
unsurpassed practical talent as a nation, are being emx)loyed only to 
exhaust the natural wealth of the country. 

It was estimated, twenty years ago, that to restore the land then under 
cidtivation in the United States to its original fertility, would cost a 
thousand millions of dollars. The same wasteful and exhaustive process 
is to a great extent stiU continued. 

Have we, who hai)pen to have possessed the land in its \irgiu wealth, 
any moral right thus to contract a national debt, the burden of which 
will oppress our children and our children's children ? It is a delusion 
to suppose that this crime is greatly mitigated by the fact that onr coun- 
try possesses vast tracts of mioccupied land, to which we can remove as 
soon as we have partly exhausted our farms. Even if there were no 
limit to this, yet the argiiment would be founded upon false principles 
of political economy. There is a limit, however ; and he who rightly esti- 
mates the natiu'al increase of our population, augmented by the mighty 
tide of immigration, must see that all our public domain will soon 
pass into private hands. 

Of an average of five hundred to fdx hundi^ed per day of emigrants 
who leave the British isles, most of them go to America. Of three hun- 
dred thousand emigrants yearly from Germany, a great majority go to 
America. Also, many other countries, where the iiopulation has out- 
grown the land, are pouring a constant stream of emigration into our 
country in search of land to tiU. Is it not high time, then, that we 
arrive at some system of agriculture which will secure to us, as indi\id- 
uals and as a nation, the benefits of the progress that has been made in 


countries -^liere, from various causes, more attention has been i^aid to 
the cultivation of the soil ? 

Enjrlantl and Scotland are perhaps justly cited as leading all other 
nations in the art of agriculture. An over-crowded population and a 
very limited supply of land have made it necessary to adopt the best 
practices in the cultivation of the soil. The fact that nearly all the land is 
tilled by tenant farmers, at high i-ental, prohibits a poor farmer from hold- 
ing the'land, and, sooner or later, the most skillful farmers are put in 
possession. Z^o matter from what causes the best practices in agricul- 
ture are secured, they are equally valuable as examples. Most tenants 
in England and Scotland are bound iu the leases to some system of rota- 
tion of crops. That which is most common is called the '•four-course 
system:-' 1st. fallow or roots; 2d, wheat or barley; od. seeds; -ith, oats. 
The nature of the soil indicates the rotation. In cases where the tenant 
is known to be an iutelbgent and skillful farmer, the landlord often 
leaves him free to cultivate the land in his own way. 

There are numerous examples of the application of scientific princi- 
ples in farming in Great Britain that we might study Avith great advan- 
tage. The 3Iarquis of Twecddale. for instance, when he came into pos- 
session of his estate, found the land worth a rental of only ten shillings 
($2 50) an acre. By calling to his aid the advice of scientific men, by 
his intelligence and enteriuise, liy the api>]ication of scientific princii)les 
and the most advanced practices to the treatment of the soils, he raised 
his entire estate to a degree of productiveness that commanded a yearly 
rental of £3 10s. (817 oO) ])cr acre. 

During the summer and autumn I visited numerous farms aftbrding 
examples of intelligent and advanced culture: tbe Prince Consort farms, 
at Windsor; Lord Durham's estate, in Durham County: Sir "Walter 
Trevclyan's estate, in Northumberland County ; and others. 

The course pursued by most American fanners is entirely without sys- 
tem. Good prices appearing to prevail for any given production will cause 
our farmers to push their crop in that direction, regardless of the injuri- 
ous efi'ects upon their farms, and indifierent to any general results. Thus 
all the fiuctuations of markets operate to derange their modes of hus- 
bandry, and cause extra expense in all the machinery of the farm, 
including labor. A dc^fined system of husbancby would enable our 
farmers to control the market instead of behig at the mercy of its con 
stant changes, and to greatly economize their exi>enditures, and at 
the same time keep up the quality of the soil. There is nothing more 
necessary in agricultiu-al pursuits than some exact system, regulated by 
the discretion and iutelbgence of the farmer, guided'by all the light that 
can be drawn Irom science and practice. We find in England and Scot- 
land not only examples of ordinary farm management with careful study, 
but the art of feeding is unquestionably earned to a higher degree of per- 
fection than in any other country. 

I was greatly surjmsed, when I first attended a fair of the Koyal 
Agricultural Society, on seeing the fat cattle ; but 1 have been still more 
astonisbed on learning the very short time it required to fatten them for 
the butcher. This skill is dependent on many things, such as the selec- 
tion of well bred stock, the kind of food employed, and the mode of pre- 
paring it, and particularly the kind of food given to the stock-when 
young, and many other things, all of which we should investigate. 

My aim at present is, however, to examine such points as relate more 
directly to technical, or what is often termed practical, education for 
the larmer, or, more definitely, what relates to school or college educa- 
tioiL On this point I am compelled to say that Great Britain does not 


afiorcl tiie highest examples, either in the efforts to connect agricultiu-ul 
education vrith the universities, or to establish separate agricultiual 
colleges and academies. The reasons for this are obvious: Most of the 
land being oidtivat^d by tenant fanners, they woidd natiually not ia% or 
any scheme for education that -vrould equally benelit the farming com- 
munity at large, and tend to increase the productions of the land gene- 
rally, thereby most likely increasing the rental they must pay. But 
show- the individual farmer how he can increase the productions of his 
own farm, and thereby produce better crops than his neighbor, and he 
is ready enough to accept your suggestion. Agricidtm-al education in 
Great Britain is based upon a purely commercial theory. The young 
man is sent to some advanced farmer, in a good agricidtural district,. to 
remain one, two, or three years. Thus he becomes a good farmer, but 
knows little else. We aim at something higher than this in the United 
States, and hope to make the young farmer a student, skilled in his pro- 
fession by acquiring a knowledge of the sciences on which the art of 
"JigTiculture is based. For this piupose we must have schools and colleges. 
Agriculture is at length recognized as a science, and the time has gone 
by when our journals call in vain for government and State aid in its 
advancement, and when intelligent farmers plead in vain for assistanc^^. 
in the establishment of agricultui'al schools. The ground- work of our 
national wealth and i^ower is now appreciated, and a generosity that is 
truly mun ill cent pervades the government and i^eople. 

If, however, in the full llush of our hopes on this subject, wo form a 
wrong conception of what we can accomplish, or if we adopt difficult oi 
impossible measures to secure what we may legitimately aim at, the 
funds at our command may be squandered, and the generosity of the 
government. States, and indi\'iduals be discouraged. We have about 
fifty years of experience from which to draw lessons on the subject of 
agTicultural schools. Failure has been a marked featiue in the history 
'of this enteri^rise. Let us note the bad x^ractices which have led to par- 
tial or entire failures, and, abandoning them, study the elements of suc- 
cess, when success has been achieved. 

In a former communication I claimed that the model-farm system 
shoidd be given up as a part of the machinery of agiicidtm-al schools; 
1 wish merely to add here that I consider model farms detrimental on 
accoimt of the buiden they impose, in various ways, upon the institution, 
even in cases like that of the Cornell University, where the endowments 
are so great that the institution may not feel the burden of the farm. 
ISo agTicultural commimity will award the same faith or the same credit 
to the exi)eriments of a coUege farm that they would to those of the 
separate, independent farmer. Farmers in general will feel a suspicion 
that the college farm is backed by college limds, and that results aie 
• .secured under the inJiuence of college bias. It is not the greatest pos- 
sible residts that the farmer looks for alone, but the highest productive- 
ness of his soil that can be secured at the least cost. Of course the 
experimental ground is not included in fhe term model farm. Experi- 
mental grounds — which need not be very lafge — are indispensable. 

One of the most importai^t questions that our country is just now 
called upon to settle, is in relation to the value of separate agi'icultural 
schools, as compared with attaching them to universities, or making 
the agi'icidtural school a department in a university. K the agricultu- 
ral dei)artment is to be tacked on as a mere subordinate part, and is to 
be overshadowed by some other interest, I should decide in favor ot 
separate schools, with all their disadvantages. It has too often hap- 
l)ene(l that the effort to give agriculture a place in universities has 


resulted iu very little more than a mere uame ; yet I am of the opinion 
that the science and art of a^cultiire will best be raised to their time 
di"Tiity by securinf^- the jiroiier instruction in connection with our imi- 
Tersities/ If nniversities, already established, will not give this subject 
a place proportionate to its importance, the act making the government 
g:iant of land for agricultunil and mechanical education js so framed as 
to ffive us a most fortunate advantage in founding new institutions. 

All that has been gained, thus far, on the side of practical education 
iu the contest between the advocates of the old classical system and the 
ad\ ocates of the real studies, or the study of Nature, has been gained 
in connection with oiu^ colleges and universities. It is not long since 
any young man who wished to attain a standing as a scholar had but one 
course open to him. The study of Greek and Latin wa« forced upon him, 
no matter what his inclinations, tastes, or aptitudes might be. This 
rule, which required all to reach knowledge by the same road, has been 
measm-ably overthrown in our country. The study of the natural sci- 
ences, of Nature and her works, and of the laws that govern the physical ' 
universe, is raised to equal dignity with the study of what is styled a 
classical course. I would not disparage the study of Greek and Latin, 
but would gi-eatly increase tlie amount of study now required. Greek 
and Latin literature oj^ens to the human intellect the grandest tields of 
its own activities and resoui^ces; but, with the whole circle of human 
knowledge before us, we should give freedom of choice, and, to this end, 
insist upon more thorough preparation beforeany of the special courses 
be entered upon, diuiug which time all should be educated alike; but 
when the choice can be made under the guidance of capacity or apti- 
tude, the university course should be such as will accommodate all. 

If the farmer or mechanic must go to an institution apart from 
students fitting themselves for other callings, his'education will always 
be looked upon as a sort of half education, or at least as being of an in- 
ferior grade. Give these students a position of honor equal to any others, ' 
and, for an equal amount of good study in any chosen course, award the 
same credit. Contact of mind with mind plays a decided part in educa- 
tion. The contact of students of all callings creates new power, and 
spurs forward to higher ambitions. This intluence or atmosphere of 
study is measurably lost by separate schools. Then, by associating the 
literary, and scientific, and the practical students, there is less danger 
of a social stamp being put ux)on the one difiering from that jnit upon 
another. This is of great importance. In the university, too, any student 
may consult his taste or interest by acquiring a knowledge of studies 
allied to his chosen course, although not strictly belonging to it. 

Economy is greatly on the side of the university plan. The machinery 
required is to a great extent the same for all the courses, and to 
multiply it, so as to supply as many separate schools as there are natural 
subdivisions in the university, woidd be a great waste of capital. I do 
not mean to argue that we may yot at some time need s|)ecial schools ; but 
this is not our first great wn^it. 

In Prussia, where agricidtural education has long been an established 
part of the school system, there are a number of old and well-estab- 
lished separate agricultural academies and schools. The university at 
Halle established an agricultural department in 1863, which now has 
one hundred and eighty students — more than double the number in 
attendance at any other agricultural school or academy in Prussia. 1 
believe it will be found that where agricultural studies have i^ropercare 
bestowed upon them in the universities, the latter will take the lead in 
this department. 


It is an aliuost unavoidable result in cases of schools for any given 
pui'poso, that the studies are attempte<l to be rendered easy, with the 
view of adapting" them to the special coui'se. This is an injury to the 
studeilf, and justly merits the position usually assigned such schools as 
being of a low grade. I lind, both in England and oji the continent, 
that those whose judgment is entitled to the greatest weight are inclin- 
ing toward the opinion that agricultui-al education, so far as the schools 
are concerned, should be collegiate in character, or scientrfic. The same 
is true in regard to education in mechanics. The notion that the student 
should go to these schools to learn agriculture or any of the mechanical 
arts, very much as he would learn a trade, is rightfully discarded. 

In the grand duchy of Baden I found the Ministerium of Trade and 
Agriculture engaged in the inaugiu-ation of a system of agricultural 
education which must succeed in extending the knowledge of the acad 
emies to the agricultural community, '^'his system reqmres the estab- 
lishment of a school in each district (eleven in the grand duchy) for the 
sons of farmers, (the peasantry,) the principal of each school to be paid by 
the government, and required to be not only an educated man, but 
educated in tlio science of agricultiu^e. These schools are to consist of 
one term in the year (a winter term) of live months. The remainder of 
the year the principal teachers are to travel and study all the best prac- 
tices of agriculture to be found in the country, occasionally lecturing in 
the villages to interest the farmers in the subject of the schools, that 
they may send their sons in the winter. This system not only extends 
to the people a knowledgeof all that can be discovered in the academies 
and colleges, and by the best practice of the more intelligent and enter- 
prising farmers, but it opens employment for thorough students of agri- 
culture who go from the colleges from year to year. 

There are only two institutions in Great Britain where agTiculture is 
at present successfully taught — one in England and one in Scotland. 
The former is the Eoyal Agricultural College, at Cirencester, in Glou- 
cestershire, which is devoted exclusively to agriculture ; the latter is an 
agTicultmal department in the University of Edinbui'gh. 


The Eoyal Agricultiu'al College at Cirencester had for a long time but 
a feeble existence. The reasons were : 

First. Want of capital, having no government aid, and charging its 
students at a non-i^aying rate. 

Second. It was supporting a very heavy burden in the way of a 
model farm, which ran the institution in debt to the extent of about 

Third. It required the students to labor, and thereby secured satisfac- 
tory results neither in study nor in labor. All these difficulties have been 
overcome. The first, by increasing the charges for board and tnition, 
which of course changed the class of students ; the second and third, by 
the abandonment of the ])ractices out of which they grew. The insti- 
tution is now self-.sustaining and i)rosperous, and in September last, 
soon after the opening of the term, there were about seventy students 
in attendance. The increase of the expense of board and tuition excludes 
the sons of small farmers, who were at first intended to be edTicated at 
this institution, and the more wealthy classes now send their sons. If 
there Avere no question of expense, it would l)e impossible to mingle the 
two classes in the same institution in this* country — a difiiculty which, it 
is to be hoped, may never be encountered in America. 


The Duie of 3Iarlborougli is president of the college, and its present 
focnlty enibrat^'es the llev. John Constable, principal, and six resident 
professors, occupying the chaii-s of agriculture, chemistry, naniral his- 
tory, anatomy, physiology and hygiene, mathematics and surveying, and 

The institution was incorporated by charter, March 27, 1845. The 
college building is a handsome and commodious gothic structure, ot 
stone, situated one and a half miles out of Cirencester. Its frontage is 
one hundred and ninety feet. The buildings include a chapel, dining- 
hall, library, museum, lee tuie- theater, hiboratories, class-rooms, i>rivatc 
studies, and servants' othces : with apartments for resident prolessors, 
and ranges of dormitories on the upper floors. The whole building is 
lighted ^"ith gas, and the Ix^st methods of warming and ventilation have 
l>een adopted. Each student has a separate sleeping apartment, and 
private studies are allotted to meritorious students. 

The managers appe-ar to apiVreciate the great educational value of a 
practical, industrial, and scientific museum ; the college museimi, i>os- 
sessing a valuable collection of geological specimens, minerals, and 
objects of natural history ; an interesting set of anatomical and patho- 
logical preparations, such as casts of teeth, to illustrate the age of the 
horse, sheep, and other animals ; an extensive museum of economic 
botany, containing specimen plants of many varieties of known cereals, 
samples of seeds of every species of plants used by the agriculturist, and 
a series of wax models of every variety of cultivated roc»ts ; and also a 
beautiful herbarium, containing about three thousand specimens of 
British i^-lants. 

Thirty acres of land are devoted to the purposes of an experimental 
fiu'm, which is so managed that, by accurate records and the systematic 
weighing of animals and products, students are enabled to secure cor- 
rect ideas of many of the important details of tiu'm practice. The farm 
formerly conducted by the college as a model farm is now under the 
management of one of the giaduates of the institution, to whom it is 
let with the reserved right of students trnd professors to \-isit it at will. 
This farm consists of about live hundred acres. The soil of the farms 
rests on the forest marble and great oolite. Much of it, therefore, is 
brash. The general elevation above the sea is about six himdred feet. 

Instruction in agricultuie is given l)y lectures and by daily practical 
exercises on the farms. The agricultural course of instruction thus 
embraces not only a scientific discussion of established methods of cul- 
tivating diflereut kinds of soils in different climates; of the breeding, 
rearing, and general management of stock, and the use of machinery ; 
but also affords a good illustiation of the cultivation of at least one 
good farm in the neighborhood, to which, by an arrangement made with 
TUe tenant, the students have free access. Each student is exi>ected to 
keei> a daily journal of all the operations on the farm, and to make him- 
self thoroughly acquainted with the accounts. Isatural and mechanical 
philosophy are taught by a series of lecimes delivered by the jnincipal. 

The chemical laboratory is well arranged and well furnishetl, and 
chemical manipulation and analysis are taught to each class of sfadents 
in succession, under the superintendence of the professor of chemistry 
and his assistants. After studying the properties of the more commonly 
occuiTing substances, they are taught to analyze a series of compound^ 
proceeding ii oni simple to more complex cases, and to apply the knowledge 
thus obtained to the analysis of manuies, soils, ashes of plants, farm 
products, and other substaucejj with which the liractical agriculturist is 
more immediately concerned ; and, in addition, 'there is a systematic 


course of illustrated lectures given on inorganic, organic, -and agricul- 
tural chemistry, as well as catechetical lectures. Analyses of artificial 
manures, oil cakes, waters, &c., are daily performed iu ihe college labora- 
tory, and chemico-agricultural researches undertaken by the more 
advanced students, under the immediate direction of Mr. Church and 

Geology is taught by lectures, and practically illustrated in field 
excursions and geological surveys in the surrounding neighborhood. 

The professor of botany delivers annually a full course of lectures in 
systematic botany, illustrated by a botanical garden belonging to the 
institution, which enables him to instruct practically in the botany of 
agriculture, and to show the students various experiments in vegetable 
physiology. The professor of botany conducts field classes weekly during 
the summer and autumn months. 

Imstruction in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene is given by lectures, 
illustrated by cases in the hospital attached to the college ; and in order 
to make the teaching as practically useful as possible, students are 
cequired to record the particulars of all cases admitted for treatment, 
especially the results of post-mortem examinations. 

In the department of mathematics and surveying the instruction is 
rendered as practical as possible by opportunities which are afforded 
for instruction in the field, in siu've\ing, leveling, and land-measuring, 
and in the use of the theodolite, spirit-level, and other instruments. 
Architectural and mechanical drawing are also carefully taught in the 
institution. To such students as desire it, instruction in carpentry and 
smiths' work is given in the shops attached to the liirm buildings. 

There are two terms in the year, with vacations of seven weeks each, 
one vacation commencing about the ISth of June, and the other on the 
ISth of December. Students who complete the two years' course receive 
a diploma as graduates, under the title of members, on having passed a 
satisfactory examination in agriculture, chemistry", and any other one 
subject selected by the candidates. 

Students who live in the institution (in-students) pay £100 per annum, 
to be paid half yearly, in advance. Students who live out of the insti- 
tution (out -students) pay £50 per annum, half yearly, in advance. 

There has recently been established at Cu-encester a farmers' club, 
the lectures and discussions of which are of great service to the students 
of the college. Some of the professors belong to this club, and they 
find no difiiculty in seeming from among the leading farmers those who 
are willing to test practically the scientific discoveries or supposed im- 
provements of the college, and to report residts. 



The chair of agiiculture in this university is at present endowed 
jointly by the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland and the 
government, and is filled by Professor John Wilson, an experienced and 
able scholar in the science of agriculture. The efficiency of this chair 
has recently been greatly increased. 

The university has Jicsolved to grant degrees to those who pass the 
prescribed examinations, in conformity with the educational curriculum 
prescribed by the Highland and Agricultural Society. It has been ar- 
ranged that the lectures on agriculture shall extend over two sessions, 
in order that the subject may receive a more comprehensive considera- 
tion than has hitherto been accorded to it. The course has, therefore, 
been arranged in two divisions, and is completed in two sessions. The 


first is occupied chieily in discussing the priuciples; while in the second 
the practice of modern afrriculture is more particularly considered. 
Each division of the subject is rendered as complete as possible, so as 
to meet also the requirements of those gentlemen -who may not intend 
to go up for the di]iloma examiuation. 

The Course of LEcmiES. — First Division. — I. History of Agi-icnl- 
ture. with the various epochs of advancement np to the present time : 
Sacred ^Vritings. Ancient Egyi)tians, Greeks. Eomans. Early and ^liddle 
Ages; Application of Science; Tnll, Young, Sinclair, Davy, Liebig, 
Boussingault^ &c. 

II. General purposes of agriculture, conditions affecting it, and prin- 
ciples on which it is based ; combination of knowledge necessary for 
their proper comprehension and successful application : the production 
of suihcient and regular supplies of food : civilization ; increase of pop- 
ulation ; necessities for increased supphes ; necessity for an acquaint- 
ance ^vith the laws governing the thi-ee great kingdoms of nature, the 
animal, vegetable, and mineral, and the intimate union of all these. 
This combination of knowledge comprises — 

in. The Chemistry of Agricultiu-e: The constituents and chemical 
composition of soils, cultivated crops, the atmosphei^^. rain and spring 
water ; chemical changes effected by decomposition and recombinations 
in reference to the gaseous and miueral food of plants: rotation of crops, 
fallcwing and manuring — ^their principles tliscussed. 

lY. The Geology of Agiicrdtiire : Conditions under which the differ- 
ent strata forming the eaith's crust were deposited : their composition, 
mechanical and chemical, mode of disintegration, &q. ; the formation of 
soils ; the condition and extent of smface soils, and their characteristics 
and influence on agiiculture ; lociil variations ; economic produce of dif- 
ferent formatioiLs, as stones for building and other puriJoses. marbles, 
slates, clays, hmestoues, metallic ores, coals, salt. &c. : general surface 
geology of Great Britain. 

T. The Botany of Agriculture : The nature and character of the vari- 
ous agiicultural ]ilants, and the diseases and insect ravages to which 
they are most liable, and theii" remedies : the weeds of agriculture : indi- 
genous plants as indicative of quality of soils ; special crops cultivated 
for food or for technical ]}tui)oses, as linseed, coriander, woad. teazles, 
&c. : arboricidture, the ctiltivation and management of truit and forest 
trees ; plr.uting. pmning, felling, barking, &e. 

YI. The Physics of Agriculture : Meteorology, including climate and 
the various conditions affecting it: atmospheric effects, as winds, rain, 
hail, thunder-storms, their causes explained: barometer, thcrmom.eter, 
dew-point, &:c., indications a^brded by them : the absorption and reten- 
tion of heat and moisture by different soils, and their capillarity in refer- 
ence to drainage ; hydiodynamics ; the general laws of light, heat, and 
electricity as affecting the vegetable kingdom. 

Sccojid Dirisii.m. — 1. The Mechanics of Agiiculture: their fipplication 
in the practical operations of the farm. This will comprise the jirinci- 
ples of constniction of plows, harrows, scarifiers, rollers, horse-hoes, 
drills, threshing machines, reaping and mowing machines, chaff cutters, 
crushing and grinding machines : the application of steam to tillage pur- 
poses; motive power — man, horse, wind, water, steam — their absolute 
and relative values and various modes of application considered. 

II. Rotations of various districts discussed and explained ; sequence 
of agricultural operations ; economical divisions of labor : the hay and 
corn crop : different modes of harvesting. 

m. Improvement of the Soil by Draining, Manuring, &c. : Draining, 


iiTigatioD, warpiug, claying, marling, liming, paring, and bmning; ma- 
nui-es, farm-yard and artificial, solid and liquid, their chemical composi- 
tion, suitability for difiereut crops and modes of application, their com- 
I)ara rive money values, adulterations, &c. 

IV. Live Stock: Different breeds of cattle, horses, sheep, swine, 
poultry, &c. ; the physiological principles of breeding, rearing, and feed- 
ing ; special points to be attended to, their pra<}tical application in the 
treatment (jf stock generally; different substances used for feeding pur- 
poses, their composition, relative value, adulteration, &«. ; the diseases 
and injuries to which farm stock are most liable. 

y. The Economics of Agriculture : Dairy produce ; butter and cheese 
making, baking, malting, brewing, wine and vinegar making; beet-root 
sugar and spirit ; potato starch and spirit ; flax, fiber, oil and cake; lime 
burning, brick and tile making, «S:c. 

YI. Farm Engineeiing and Construction : Farm buOdings ; general 
principles to be observed, as position, aspect, size, materials, and mode 
of construction, cost, &c. ; arrangement of land inclosures, fences, shel- 
ter, road making, draining, &c. 

VII. Agricultural Policy : Tenancy — leases, size of farms, rent, cap- 
ital, labor, wages; relation of landlord, tenant, and laborer; importance 
of correct faim accounts and general returns ; agricultural statistics, 
markets, &c. 

VIII. General Management and Improvement of Lauded Property. 
The students of agriculture in this university have the advantages of 

'access to one of the best industrial museums in existence. 


The Higldand Agricultural Society of Scotland was incorporated by 
charter, jMay 17, 1787, by the name of the Highland Society of Scotland, 
and was newly incorporiited Jume 18, 1834, by the name and style of the 
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. 

Much of the general improvement in the practice of agriculture in 
Scotland has been secured by the labors of this society in granting 
premiums for agTicultual improvements; the holding of shows of cattle, 
imi)lements, and produce, and for the general promotion of the science 
and practice of agriculture; and recently, since 1856, when it procured 
a supplementary charter conferring additional powers" upon the society', 
by more efficient and direct eii'orts to i)romote agricultural education. 
The supplementary charter enabled the society to constitute and appoint 
a committee on education, to be called ''The Council of the Highland 
and Agi-icultnral Society of Scotland." This society is, therefore, now 
encouraging a high standard of agricultural education. The following 
is the course adopted by the council : 

The council consider that, in organizing the proposed system of edu- 
■•.ation, there are two leading points to be attended to: First. The offer 
of evei-y proper en£ouragemeut and facility to induce and enable agricul- 
tural students to become candidates for the society's diploma. Second, 
The enforcement of stringent precautions against the possibility of the 
powers created by the charter being abused, or the diploma being con- 
ferred on insufficient grounds. The council conceive that a well-defined 
curriculum vnl\ serve as a guide to the young agi-icidturist, both as regards 
the subjects of study and the order in which they are to be piu'sued; and 
that its observance wiU afford the best guarantee for an education 
worthy of the diploma. This education must be of a two-fold character, 
scientific and practical — the one to be acQuiied in the class, the other on 


the farm. The suflicieucy of both should be tested; 1st, by evideuce of 
Jit tendance for prescribed periods in the chiss and on the farm; 2d, by 
rij^id and searching examination after the required attendance has been 

In addition to a thorough acquaintance with the details of practical 
farming, a candidate must be conversant with those departments of the 
following branches of study which bear upon agriculUire: 1, botany; 2, 
chemistry, scientific and applied ; 3, natural history, iucludiug the prin- 
ciples of zoology and geology; 4, veterinary medicine and surgery; 5, 
field engineering and siu-ve^ing; G, the principles of mechanics and con- 
struction, as apphed to the implements and buildings of the farm ; 7, 
book-keeping and accounts. 

While candidates are not tied down to any particular college or school. 
They must produce certificates of attendance for the prescribed period 
in the following classes in some educational institution, approved and 
recognized as suflicient by the examiners : Agriculture, botany, chemis- 
try, natural history, veterinary medicine and surgery. Acquirements in 
field engineering and surveying, mechanics and construction, and book- 
keeping, may be estabUshed by examination, without certificate of attend- 
ance; but students should, nevertheless, take advantage of whatever 
classes may be available for these branches. 

In following out the jiractical part of the coui'se, students are not 
restricted to any particular i^art of the country or system of farming ; 
but the examiners may judge of the sufficiency of the certificate pro- 
duced, and of the competency of the party granting it. The whole 
course of study must embrace not less than four years — two at classes, 
and two at larm; and students should be strongly recommended to pass 
through the scientific departments first, so as to enter on the i)ractical 
part with the advantages and the aids derivable fi'om a proper educa- 
tion. When the scientific com-se is preferred in point of time, a student 
may be examined upon it before going to the tVirm. 

A student may take alternate years of the classes and of the farm, but 
must not devote to either less than an eutiie year at a time. No part 
of the comse must commence until the student is sevent<?en years of 
age, and a diploma cannot bo granted until he is twenty-one. 

The Scientific Course. — First year. Summer : botany, three months ; 
book-keeping and accounts, three months. Winter: chemistry, six 
uionths; natural history, six months. Second year. Summer: analytical 
chemistry, three months; engineering and surveying, three months. 
Winter: agriculture, six months; veterinary surgery, six mouths. 

This arrangement is merely suggested as providing a proper course ot 
study and succession of subjects; but the student is not prohibit^^dfrom 
adopting anotlier order, provided he proves attendance for the i>rescribed 
period in the specified cUjsses. By adopting the arrangement indicated, 
lie has the advantage of currying to the agricultmal class a knowledge 
(;f botany, chemistry, and natural history; and he is examined imme- 
diately after the close of his course, and at the end of the winter session. 

In addition to the professorshii> in the University of Edinburgh, the 
society has an able chemist, Thomas Anderson, ]M. !>., of Glasgow. 


The Royal Agricultural Society of England is, in addition to the ordi- 
nary work of agricultural societies, also making an elfort to encom-age 
agricultural education by granting certificates and awarding certain 
prizes; also by scientific and practical experiments conducted by one of 


tlio most able figricultural chemists, Dr. Augustus Yoelcker, consulting 
chemist of the society, and formerly chemist of the Koyal Agricultural 
College at Cirencester. 


■ There is much valuable private work being done both in England and 
Scotland for the advancement of agriculture, Tvhich I cannot at present 
undertake to describe ; and the scientific and practical experiments of 
J. B. Lawes, F. R. S., ¥. C. S., and Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F. R. S., F. C. S., at 
Rothamstead, are too well known to need a description. 

I wish here only to call attention to the Rothamstead experimental 
station as being the best model I have yet seen for experimental farms for 
agricultural colleges. The thoroughness with which Dr. Gilbert exe- 
ciites his work, the perfect system witli which he conducts his experi- 
meuts and records the results, the size of the experimental plots of 
land, and the arrangement of tlie laboratory, are all most admirable. 

The plots of land are often entirely too small (not more than thre^ or 
tour yards square) at experimental stations to insure reliable results, 
;ind frecpiently the results are rendered still less rebable on account of 
grass and weeds being permitted to grow ; but at Rothamstead the plots 
are from one-eighth to a quarter of an acre in size, and kept perfectly 

The estate of Mr. Lawes, sui-rounding the experimental ground, is cul- 
tivated with a view to the greatest profit, by the application of princi- 
|)les developed at the experimental station, in the use of manures, rota- 
tion of crops, &c., and a complete record kept from year to year of the 
treatment and results. This station, though a private enterprise, has 
given to the world, in the way of scientific reports, papers, &c., results 
that have done and are doing much for the iutroduction of scientific 
])rinciples in the practice of agriculture; and thus these gentlemen, 
though private workers, are among the leading educators of the people. 

There are many intelligent farmers in England and Scotland who take 
young meu who wish to learn agriculture practically, at £100 to £150 
per year; but this is not educational in the sense in which we are con- 
sidering the subject. ' 


At the iiresent stage of progress in scientific agTicultiu^e in America, 
we cannot afibrd to neglect what has been done iu a country where the 
experience of fifty years is embodied in the present facilities offered both 
by individual enterprise and by the various governments to the student 
of agriculture, and where the best intellect and scholarship of the land 
are employed in the interest of agriculture and the sciences on which it 
is based. 

German agriculture should not be considered under this one title, as 
the various German states present peculiarities not common to all; but 
too much space would be required for a detailed account of the interests 
of scientific agriculture in each German state. 

During my investigations I have visited schools of all the various 
grades existing in Prussia, Saxony, the grand duchy of Baden, Wilr- 
tcmberg, and Austria ; and in this report I have selected one or more 
institutions representmg each of the grades or types of the schools of 
agriculture in Germany. 

The controversy -which most interests our country is that existing 


between the advocates of separate agricukoral schools (colleges or acad- 
emies) aud the advocates of agricultiual education as a part of the uni- 
versity course. This controversy is still going on in Germany, and, as 
facts are the best logic, I am compelled to decide that the gieater 
strength of argument rests "with the advocates of university education. 
Xot, however, in favor of the comi)lete merging of the agricultural acad- 
emy or school into the university course, but in favor of a union with 
the university. Though there are advocates of the complete disestab- 
lishment of the academies of agriculture, in favor of the uuiversities, it 
has been found in practice that, to some extent, a separate faculty and 
a separate organization for the.agricultural department are necessary, 
and that the university department of agriculture should in a degree 
resemble an agricultural academy, so allied with the university as to 
open to the students certain university advantages that cannot be 
secured in separate academies:, and my observation of the working of 
some of these universities is, that some modification must be adopted to 
give du-ectness to the studies of the agiicultural student. 

4^t the University of Halle, where agriculture is a depiUtment in the 
university, and where there are more agricultural students than in any 
other institution in Germany, there is a laboratory whoUy devoted to 
exi)erimental and practical agricultural chemistry, under the manage- 
ment of Dr. StohmaBu, a most thorough chemist,"^ and an experimental 
farm of eighty acres, under the director of the exi)erimental station, and 
professor of agriculture, Dr. Julius Kiilm, who is one of the most pop- 
ular teachers in Germany. Last winter when I visited Halle there 
were ono hundred and eighty-five agricultural students in the uni- 

At Leipzig University, where it is claimed that the student of agricul- 
ture can best be provided for in the university proper, it is still found 
to be an advantage to aid the student in his specific aim by a six 
months' course, furnished by an academy at Plagwitz, two or three 
miles distant, before entering the university. At Plagwitz a large 
model farm is accessible to btudents, and also manufactories of various 

Among the advocates of university advantages for the student of 
agi-iculture there are two distinct classes, one class contending that the 
department of agriculture should be constituted of the professors of 
the various sciences on which agriculture is based, giving the lectures 
an agi-icidtural bearing or tendency, and adding a i'evr special courses 
ai)on the subject directly; the other class contending for a separate and 
distinct organization, Avith a full faculty, &c. Both agree, however, 
that the university is the true seat or center of learning, into which, or 
around which, students of agriculture should be gathered. Of the tirst 
class. Dr. Carl Birnbaum, the able director of the Academy of Agiicul- 
tiire at Plagwitz, and professor in the University of Leipzig, is an advo- 
CJite. The following is tha substance of his argument : * 

The first impulse to scientific agriculture in Germany was given by 
the rosult of investigations and experiments in England and the Neth- 
erlands. The earliest step was the establishment of professorships of 
agriculture in the German universities. In accordance with the spirit 
of the age, student life presented few attractions to practical workers ; 
therefore the influence upon the masses was of an indirect nature. 

* For the nnabridged arjjument of Dr. Bimbanm, ee« the " Mittheilnngen fiber den 
I^lirplan, die LehrbiUfsniittel u. tlie Einrichtungen der mit der Konigl. Univereitat 
Leipzig verbrmdenen landwirthschaftlichen Lehranstalt Plagwitz," 166b. 


Tliroiigh these professorsMps opportunity was offered for of&cials and 
OA' orseers to gain advanced ideas, and from them the contest was carried 
to the peasantry, between the old manual-labor system and science with 
the resultiug improvements. Thus came the introduction of machines, 
stall-feeding-, artificial food, root crops, and rotation of crops in place of 
fallowing. But results were slow because the opportunities for practical 
application of the principles failed in the universities. Dr. Albrecht 
Thaer, the great reformer of German agTiculture, recog-nized the neces- 
sity of observation as an element of instruction, and was the founder of 
the first academy of agricidture on his model farm, Moglin., Other 
academies in connection with model farms soon followed. 

Little by little the professors in the universities, ignoring the practical 
in the department of agiiculture, failed to keep pace with the rapid 
progress made through observations and experiments. The result- was 
tliat soon their teachings contradicted known practical results. Ap. 
exodus from the lecture-rooms of the universities followed, and in this 
popular protest against mere theoretical teaching, it was almost for- 
gotten that from these sources, had flowed the streams of scientific 
knowledge now quickeniug and fertilizing the land. Thought and 
effort were now turned to broadening and deepeniug the scope of the 
academies. Still, in the academies there was wanting, and must be 
wantiug, the breadth of culture possible in a university. Many lec- 
tures, most invaluable to agriculturists, which belong to university 
courses, are not given in academies, because their bearing upon the 
immediate subject is not sufficiently apparent. Concentration must be 
the central idea of special agricultui'al academies. Because of the lim- 
ited time given by most students, the subjects under consideration must 
be restricted to those most immediate and important. 

G. Fr, Schidz, as early as the third decade of this century, claimed 
for agiiculture a broader development and the retransl'er of agricultural 
education to the universities. In Jena and Greifswald sprang up 
through his influence such agricultural institutions, and Bonn and Got- 
tingeu followed the example. Liebig has.attacked the academies with 
severity, and the result is a bitter strife as to the most desirable organiza- 
tion for agricultural institutions. In our day, when there is no scarcity 
of model farms, the disciples of progress are tempted to repeat the in- 
gi-atitude shown the universities, by forgetting that for all the practical 
methods of progress the academies are to be thanked. 

The need of experimental fanns and chemical-agricultural stations 
appears in the foreground, and that academies have not sufficiently ap- 
preciated this need is proved by the rapid establishment of tliese centers 
of experiment, and the exceptional cases in which they stand connected 
with academies. The author, while admitting fully the advantages up • 
to this date conferred by the academies, and the beneficial direction 
they have given to agricultural effort, is in favor of their complete ab- 
sorption by the universities. But he claims that the universities must 
afford every opportunity for a most thorough and complete special course 
of agriculture. 

Moglin, the first academy of agriculture, was the^first to disappear as 
an independent organization, and reappear in connection ^Tith Berlin 
University. Waldau, in East Prussia, followed, and the disestablishment 
of Tharand Academy is in prospect. Halle established a moderately 
complete agi-icultural institution several years ago, and in Breslau, not- 
withstanding the flourishing condition of the Schlcswig Ac>a(lemy at " 
Proskau, a "similar department has been organized. In the middle ot 
the nineteenth centmy, therefore, the coiu?se of agricidturtd instruction 


is agam gradually taking: its place in the curriculmu of the university. 
If agricTilt^irists are to Ktntly to good purj^ose, ho\rever, there must be 
in the university the same opportunities for a thorough course in agri- 
culture as exist in other depaitments. 

From these considerations there have been founded at certain uni- 
versities, as Bonn (Poppelsdort"), Jena, Greifswald (Eldena), special 
institutions similar to agricultural academies, but in unity with the 
universities. These institutions have their separate cori")S of i^rofessors, 
and the students pay one tuition fee for the advantages of university 
and special school, and besides the course of the latter they can, as far 
as time, means, and distance will allow, hear the universiry lectures ; 
i>ut they appear as occasional students, and remain strangers to the 
peculiar life of the university. By paying a united or total tuition fee, 
the distinguishing right of a German student, free choice of teachers, is 
abridged. Many claim this as an advantage, as the student of agricul- 
ture, having a free choice of lectures, might not select such as bear most 
directly and fidly on the special purpose of study ; and as a consequence 
their studies fail in concentration or continuity. Admitting this advan- 
tage in institutions thus organized, and their adaptation to certain stu- 
'lents who might be versatile and di&usive, it may be answered that the 
'ievelopment of self-reliance in farmers is the first necessity in a course 
f study, that they may be adequate to indei^endent investigations and 
'udividual action, and that a fixed course of study does not tend to such 
development. On the other hand, a due consideration of the needs of 
agricultural students must be insisted upon; and the lectures of uni- 
versities have an adaptation to their ends. 

As yet agricultural students cannot be matriculated without having 
riuished the gymnasium coiu'se, and many insist that this requirement 
must be continued. Since a ceitain ]iractical experience m agincultnre 
is necessary, this requirement shoidd be relaxed in favor of agricidtural 
-students ; and if applicants fail in points requisite to entrance upon a 
university course, there should be a short preparatory term, as a special 
'•ourse of reading is often iiec^ssaiy to jurists, medical students. &c. 
This bridge betv.eeu self-preparation and the uiiiversity coiuse is fiir- 
uished by an organization like that at Plagwitz. It, too, has its separate 
<orps of professors and a united tuition fee; but the course is only six 
mouths — -just the tie between the i>reparation and the university. For 
those fitted to enter at once the agiicultttral department of the univer- 
sity, the necessity for this six months' coui'se does not exist. Still it is 
recommended as an advantage, since students enter upon the university 
course with a certain preparation and self-confidence as the result of 
rliis brief term of stutly, and a warm class feeling-exists among those 
V. ho pass from the academy together, which is a stimulus to study. The 
iieainess to Leipzig allows students to hear both the academy and uni- 
versity lectures, and to combine the advantages of a university town 
V, itli the practical opportunities ofiered at Plagwitz. Students^esiriug 
it have a common home under the control of the director. Only such 
icotures are delivered at Plagwitz as require experiment or demonstra- 
tion. • 

In favor of the other mode of securing for the student of agrictdture 
t lie advantages of the university, Dr. Edward naitsteiu, director of the 
!*opx>elsdorf Academy, is an able advocate. The following is briefly the 
substance of his ai-gument:* "From those who favor the entire dis- 

* For the full statemtnt of Dr. Ilartstein's views, see " Die lanclwirthschaftliche 
.Vkadeinie Poiipelsdoi-f, als Beitrag zur Gescliiclit© und Benrtheilung der landwirtli- 
. . hiiltlicheii Akademien," of 1864. 


establishmeut of agiiciiltural academies and theii- reorgaiiizatiou as 
departmeuts of universities, the favorite charge agaiast the academies 
is their 'one-sidedness' or specialty, and the claim, made in behalf of 
imiversity education is its universality of culture. The accusation 
against academies and the advantage claimed for universities are a 
mere form of -words, however, unsustained by facts, as an investigation 
of the university system vrill prove. Universities do not ofier universal- 
ity of culuire. Like agriculuu-al academies, mining schools. i>olyteclmic 
institutions, schools of art, «:^e., they are preparatory schools for si>ecial 
lile piu'suits, not places for that process of diffusion celebrated under the 
name of universal cultiu-e. The division of the universities into foiu- or 
live departments (as is done in high schoolij) proves that, to reach their 
piiqiose of prepai-iug stiulents for the practical callings of life, there 
must be a division of studies hi accordance with the aims of students. 
The judicial course is for the study of law, and a demand that the legal 
student should devote himself at the same time to general scientihe and 
medical studies would be unreasonable. The medical department is also 
a well-defined cotu'se of preparation for one decided life career; and not 
less clearly defined is the theological course. Those who wish for a 
thorough revolution in the method of agiicuitural study do not think of 
these well-organized and cleai-ly-defined courses, but expect undefined 
and mysterious advantages from the absoriition of agricultuial acade- ' 
mies by the philosophical departments of universities. And yet univer- 
sities complain that the philosophical department, on account of the 
diversity of its iuterests, fails in dii'ectness. This department includes 
history, physiology, philosophy, tlie natui'al sciences, and mathematics. 
The desire is to open all these sources of knowledge to the students 
of agiiculuu-e, overlooking the fact that the philosophical department is 
subdivided into si^ecial coiuses, according to the liie aims of the student. 
2so student has yet api)eared so universally gifted that he has taken all 
the heterogeneous c©iu'ses of this department. Xo one mind can drink 
from all these foimtains. Even one department, the fourth of a imiver- 
sity, is too copious for the capacity of single minds. The i)roposition 
to divide the philosophiciil department into two or thi-ee departments, 
now under consideration in ditierent universities, proves how empty is this 
term 'universality of cidnu^e'— a possibility never reduced to aVeality. 
Universities do not exist for the development of universal geniuses, but 
for the education of usefid men for the ditierent pursuits of life. As to 
the accusation of *one-sidedness' which is made against the academies, 
if this means that chemistry, i)hysies, and other branches of the natural 
sciences are studied, not in their whole compass but only so fai' as bciir- 
iug upon and serviceable to agriculture, this is admitted: but why does 
not the same reproach rest ujjyn students of medicine, who, equallV with 
agricidturists, study natiu-al laws in their relations to the proiiession 
chosen, not in tbeir complete range and iUiniitable possibilities? * The 
world has need of good physicians and good agTicidturists, but neither 
need to be accomplished uanirahsts ; with neither is the end fmtherance 
of science, but such a knowledge of the laws of nature as may be avail- 
able in the piu'suit of their respective vocations. The only way in 
which academies might advantageously become parts of universities 
would be by the organization of separate agTicultural depaitments with 
corps of jirofessors and all the practical accessories of exi^erimental 
farms, &c., &c. ; and this woidd have no advantage over a separate organ- 
ization, as agiicidtural academies in connection with universities, as is 
the case with Poppelsdorf, having its own faculty and government but 
still allied to the university, the students of the academy being matric- 


ulated at the imirersit}'. For the teachers, the advantages oi' residence 
in a university town. as.sociation -^ith professors in other departments, 
and all the accessory benefits of a university, are marked. Then certain of 
che lectures at the iiniversity are available for the students of the acad- 
emy npon subjects associated with agriculture, yet not warranting profes- 
sorships in the agricidtural institutions. Again, access to the collections 
and hbrary of the university offer advantages hardly possible to gather 
about an independent academy. Of all the advantages which follow 
university matriculation, however, that of association with students in 
other departments is considered the greatest. By matricidation, acade- 
my students have the same rank as university students. Independent 
academies, with agricultiu'e as the single aim, are apt to give a too exclu- 
>ive tone to the whole life; so that in this respect, and in this respect 
only, may the charge of ' oue-sidedness ' be feared — not in the course of 
study, but in the social life. By mingling with students of the various 
departments of a university, the free interchange of opinions, the intro- 
duction of subjects bearing upon then- different courses of studj', recip- 
rocal sympathies and interests are awakened which keep the agricidtu- 
ral student fiom being merely an agiiculturist, the legal student from 
being merely a jurist. This recognition of the studies and aims of 
others may give socially an approximation to that 'universality of cul- 
ture' which might not otherwise be poSvSible. Study must be specific, 
but sympathy may be universal." 

My own opinion is, that well-organized agricultural departments in 
our American universities are the first and the leading demand, not only 
for the promotion of scientific agriculture in the United States, but to 
lift practical agriculture into a thorough system and to its highest devel- 
opment. Not a mere agricultural professorship, but a complete depart- 
ment of agriculture, with at least two able professors, one of jiractical or 
applied chemistry, and one of agriculture; with c-omses of lectures 
adapted to agricidture by a half-dozen more of thfe professors of each 
university: and the use of an ex|>erimental farm where demonstrations 
may be given having a practical bearing upon the lessons of the course. 
In every consideration of economy, thorouglmess, and comprehensive- 
ness, such schools of agriculture must rank before separate academies. 
The mere physical advantages that must constitute a pai't of the acces- 
sories of any good university offer advantages to the student of agri- 
culture such as it is abnost impossible to accumulate for a separate 
academy; such as chemical and philosophical apparatus, collections in 
botany, zoology, geology, mineralogy, libraries, &c. In the emplo.'vTnent 
of the best talent, even supposing it to be possible to secure it in con- 
nection with separate academies, the argument is greatly in favor of 
university departmeits. Take for examjile the department of agricul- 
fure,.in the university at Berlin, Prussia. Professor Rose, the distin- 
:aiished mineralogist and geologist, who has a world-wide fame, is 
employed to debver a special course of lectures (two each week) extend- 
ing through one quarter, for two hundred thalers ($150 in gold.) His 
services, if they could be secured at aU for a separate academy of agri- 
culture, woidd cost 85,0C>0. But he is a professor in the university, and 
aas his regular salary independent of the agricultural department. 
I'rofessor Karl Eoch, the botanist, delivers a full course of lectures in 
the agricultural department for four himdred thalers, and Dr. Knej 
delivers a course of lectures on the physiology of plants for two hundred 
: balers. Thus it will be seen that economy and the opportunity oi 
securing able instructors are in favor of connecting agricultural instmc- 
tion with the university'. For a complete canvass of the advantages oi 


(lifferent metliods of instruction, the claims of separate academies can- 
not be overlooked. The academy at Hohenlieiu long ranked as the 
pattern of an agricultural school in Germanj', and to a great exent for 
other countries. Many of the most eminent agriculturists look to it as 
their alma mater. Liebig, I believe, first raised the question as to 
whether a complete agricultural education could best be attained in 
isolated academies or in agricultural departments of universities. Since 
then the advocates of the university i)lan, in one form or another, either 
by combining institutes or academies with the universities, or by creat- 
ing departments of agriculture in the universities, have become very 
numerous, and the growth of such institutes or departments has been 
very great both in number and prosperity. This growth has been 
marked in Prussia,* even where the Ministerium of Agricidture for a 
time, at least, struggled against the change. I doubt not, however, that 
the separate schools wiU continue to be necessary. It is chiefly where 
gTeat scholarship is called for that I would recommend the university 
departments; and to secure this a thoiough preparation must be 
required as a condition of entrance. In all countries, and particularly 
in our own, there are multitudes of young men who would be glad to 
know the rudiments of scientific agriculture, sufficiently to relieve their 
life-calling from being a mere physical drudgery. These can neither get 
the requisite preparation to enter the university course, nor the time to 
pursue it if they were prepared. Various grades of agricultural schools 
wiU therefoie be called for, and can easily be provided by ])rivate enter- 
prise, or by private enteiin-ise aided by the States or by societies, (as is 
the case in Germany,) as soon as we get educated men for teachers. 
First of all we must provide wide scholarship, either by university 
courses or by academies of a very high grade. By this means we may 
secure a class of competent men for professors and teachers, and for the 
work of high experimental agriculture, and at the same time alford 
means of culture to all who can unite "s^ith an agricultural training a 
liberal education. Schools for special branches, and also schools of the 
various grades, will naturally follow. Dr. Komers, of Prague, chief 
director of the Tetschen-Liebwerd Academy, and one of the most ener- 
getic teachers of scientific agriculture in Germany, whose "Study of the 
methods of instruction has been profound, expresses most emphatically 
his belief in the necessity of three distinct grades of agricultural schools,' 
to meet the wants of all classes of students, viz: 1st, a high school, such 
as a university department would be; 2d, a middle school, such as the 
agricultiu-al academy; 3d, a lower school, such as the Ackerbau-Schule. 
The first, for securing accomplished scholarship such as would fit men 
for professional careers; the secoiid, to educate overseers of estates and 
owners of small estates, and all such students as could enter upon the 
course of study with some rudimentary knowledge of the sciences relat- 
ing to agriculture, and jxt could not take the higher course; the third, 
for a class of men who wish a thorough practicalttrainingin agTiculture, 
working with their own hands, but who cannot come with any previous 
preparation to enable them' to comprehend strictly scientific lectures. 

The Ackerbau schools of Germany are among the means adopted to 
extend the results of scientific investigation to the masses. In Germany 
much attention is being given to this subject, and it is a much more difii- 
cult one to deal with there than it can ever be in our country. We might 
Ve inclined to award to Germans the credit of being a practical people, 
iudging by the results of their industries, if we did not know how 
immeasurably beyond their practice their theories are. There is no 
nation where theory and practice are so disassociated as in Germany, 


where science is ho uiucli iu advance of its practical applicatiou — where 
there is such a tlitlereuce between knoicing and doing. 

Could space be afforded to fully consider tlie i)rosress of scientific; 
agriculture in Germany, the questions growing out of this need would 
prove most fruitful in instruction, paiticidarly such as pertain to the 
methods of instruction, viz., the questions as to how far agriculture can 
be taught in the Volks-schide (common schools,) the organization of nor- 
mal agricultural scliools, the appointment of wandering teachers, and 
the establishment of casinos. 1 do not believe that agricidture can bo 
introduced as a. branch of study into the common school. Even were 
the cliihlreu mentally ready for such stiulies, which they are not, all the 
jjcriod of life that belongs to the common school is needed for develo})- 
mcnt in general directions ; not that the teacher may not di-aw laxgely , 
iu the way of illustration, from many of the i)ractices in agricidture and 
from some of the rudiments of the science of agricidtiu-e, for the quick- 
ening of observation and broadening of the comprehension of his schol- 
ars; but there is a period of life (student life) when most of, if not jUI, 
the sons of American farmers might be provided ^Yith special agricul 
tural instruction to great advantage — such winter schools as are being 
inaugurated in the grand duchy of Baden. The question recuj's, how 
;ire we to secm-e competent teachers? And we are thrown back upoji 
the work that must antedate any great multiplication of schools of agri- 
culture. If we scatter our resources at the outset by the establishment 
of a multitude of schools, academies, and colleges of agriculture, the 
result will be that we shall secure only a low standard of agricidtural 
education — at best, only a sort of half education ; and any effort to 
deepen and broaden the system will, ten years hence, be siuTOunded by 
difficulties far greater than now exist. To revive any system that has 
faUen iiito disgrace, to renew an undertaking that has failed of success, 
is far n^^ore difficult than to originate and perfect an enteri)rise that can 
be commenced free liom prejudices. Since there are no less than one 
hiuidi'cd and fifty agTicultural institutes, imiversity departments, acade- 
mies, schools, and stations in the German states, it is not practicable to 
give a description of all of tliem. The systems adoptetl in the organiza- 
tion of tlie various grades of schools, and the methods of instruction in 
use, can best be understood by a statement of the departments of study 
embraced and their distribution in the courses, which will be undertaken 
in the following pages. 

The lloyal Institute or Academy of Agricultare at [^opi>elsdorf, near 
Bonn, on the Khine, represents one class of schools, in which the student 
of agriculture has university advantages, by the union of the institute 
with the university. The course of study of the University of Leipzig, 
where. agriculture is a department in the university, is given, not because 
the organization is superior to that of the University of Berlin or Halle, 
but because the course is preceded by a preparatory course at Plagwitz, 
which course is also presented. Of the separate schools or academies 
four have been selected which are believed to represent compreliensively 
the academic system ior general agricidtural education in Germany. 
There exist many special schools for single departments of study, such 
as foresti-y, fruit cultm-e, tlax culture, horticidture, veterinary siu'gery, 
•i'C, but these ha\ e not been selected. The highest class of sei)arate 
schools might be still fm-ther represented by the lloyal College of Agri- 
cultiue and Forestry at Tharant, in Saxony; by that at Altenberg, in 
Llungarj'; by that at Proskau, ajid by many others; and those con-' 
nected -with universities, either as departments or institutes in union 
^nth universities, by the universities of Berlin, HaUe, Gottingen, Vienna, 


Eldeua, &c.; but tliis would involve much repetition and require consid- 
erable space. Justice could not be done to an account of tbe agricultu- 
ral experimeutal stations of Germany, except by a very lengthy special 
report on that subject. Much could be said iu praise of* the ^rork these 
stations are accomphshing both for the advancement of the science and 
the art of agriculture. This vrork is not confined ro the iuvestigation of 
the nature of sods, and the best methods of enriching them, and the 
nature and growth of all that the sod can be made to produce in the 
vegetable kingdom, but embraces also the best methods of utdizing these 
products for the food of man and beast. It wiU be seen, however, by the 
annexed brief account of these stations that they are of recent origin, 
and followed the work of the agricultural schools. 

The academy of Tetschen-Liebwerd, though much newer than mauy of 
the other schools, deserves a much more detailed account than I have 
been able to give. The State AgTicultural College of jMichigan is the 
only institution in the United States of the class of Hohenheiu and Tet- 
schen-Liebwerd that may be considered as highly successfid. The hope 
of America, and to some extent of other nations, is turned towards the 
Cornell University for an example that will broaden and UberaUze Indus 
trial education, not only in agriculture, but in aU the departments of art, 
trade, and science ; but the leaders in that university, no less than in 
the Industrial University of Illinois, and in aU the institutions of the 
various States founded, or to be founded, under the stimulus of the gov- 
ernment grant of lands for agTicultural and mechanical education, will 
find that the more they study the causes that have led to the success or 
failure of other institutions having the same or similar aims in view, the 
sooner they will attain the highest usefulness and i^rosperity. 



Poppelsdorf is one mile j&'om Bonn, on the Ehine, through beautifully 
shaded walks. The natural history collections of the University of 
Bonn oceupy an old palace at Poppelsdorf, and the new chemical labor- 
atory just completed is situated here also. ' This is one of the very best 
laboratories in Europe. 

The academy at Poppelsdorf has two farms, one at Poppelsdorf of one 
hundred and twenty morgeuj* another at Annaberg of one thousand 
morgen. The field for experiments contauis about twenty morgen. 
The academical farms receive no subsidies from government, but they 
yield a considerable amount of rent. The field set apart for experi- 
ments, and the experimental station or branch receive an annual sub- 
sidy fiom government X)f four thousand thalers. Besides the field set 
apart for experiments, a smaller farm is requisite dui"iug the term of 
instruction. The students are not practically employed on the farms, as 
they are supposed to have acquired the practical part of farming before 
entering the academy. The academy is exclusively supported by the 
government, and the annual expenditures of the institution amount to 
twelve thousand thalers. There are fifteen instructors, viz: three in 
the difterent branches of agriculture, two in chemistry and technology, 
and one each in botany, physics, geology, zoology, foresty, veterinary 
surgery, mathematics and architecture, gardening and rearing fruit trees, 
national economy, and in agricultural jurisdiction. The weekly lectures 
of the several teachers varj- from three to seven, and the entire course 

* In Koln a morgen is 0.7850 of an acre. 


extends over two years. The course for the smmner comineiices on the 
15th of April, and lasts untO the 15th of Augrnst; the winter course 
extends from the 15th of October to the 15th of March. 

Thoujrh the students are not ]iracticaDy employed on the farms, ]>rac- 
tical courses of chemistry, botany, and physics are introduced, during 
which the students are employed, with the assistance of the teachers, in 
solving chemical, vegetable, and physiological problems; the result of 
these studies of nntural science is of the greatest importance to the 
students. The teaching is carried on in the form of lectures. The whole 
premium payable for two years amounts to one hundred thalers, viz : 
seventy thalers for the first, and thirty thalers for the second year. 
The lowest age for admission of students is seventeen years, but the 
greater number of the students are of the age of twenty to twentj^-five 
years. The number of students at the last term was ninety. The aggre- 
gate number of students in this academy is eleven thousand. The students 
are matriculated in the University of Bonn, where they enjoy the same 
rights as the university students. The following is the distribution of 
the different branches of teaching in the four terms of the biennial 

First year. — Whiter term. — Introduction to agTicuJtural studies : 

I. Agricultural exercises: 1, economical basis of agi-icultiu-al science; 
2, the science of manure; 3, general science of animal production; 4, 
agricultural book-keej)ing; 5, agricultural lirerature, with particular 
reference to new publications; G, rearing of fruit trees, with practical 
illustrations; 7, practical agricultural illustrations. 

II. Forestry: 1, the use of forests, care and valuation of them, with 
practiced iUustrations; 2, the chase and fishery. 

III. Natural sciences: 1, inorganic experimental chemistry; 2, analyt- 
ical chemistry, with practical lessons in the laboratory; .3, chemistry of 
the sod; 4, geology and geognosy; 5, general botany, and anatomy of 
plants ; G, microscopic studies : 7, anatomic and physiological view of 
the animal creation ; 8, natural history. 

rs''. Mathematical exercises: agricidtural mechanics, and science of 

V. Economy: science of national economy. 

YI. Jurisprudence: agricultural jiuisprudence. 

YII. Veterinary surgery: 1, anatomy and physiology of domestic 
animals ; 2, exterior ailments of domestic animals. 

TIIL Technology: geneial technology. 

IX. Architecture: 1, construction of agricultiu^al buildings, and indus- 
trial undertakings ; 2, lessons in diawing. 

Summer term. — Introduction to agricultural studies: 

I. Agricultural exercises : 1, comparative illustration of the agricul- 
tural condition of the principal European countries, particidarly of Eng- 
land, with partictdar reference to Germany; 2, cidture of cereals and 
vegetables for feeding pur]>oses ; 3, agricultural implements and machin- 
ery; 4, rearing cattle: 5, exterior knowledge of horses; C, ctdture of 
wine and vegetables, with practical illustrations ; 7, agricultural illus- 
trations and excursions. 

II. Forestry, with practical illustrations. 

III. Natural sciences: 1, organic experimental chemistry; 2, experi- 
mental physics ; 3, analytical chemistry, with practical lessons in the 
laboratoiy ; 4, agricultural literature treating of chemistry ; 5, agricul- 


tural botany and ailments of plants ; 6, physiological lessons on plants ; 
7, natural history of invertebrate animals; 8, statistics of natural sciences; 
9, botanical excursions. 

IV. Mathematical sciences : practical geometry, and lessons in meas- 
uring laud aud leveLiag. 

V. Ecouomj' : the policy of national economy. 

VI. Jurisprudence: agrarian jurisprudence. 

VII. Veteriuary surgery : acute and iufectious diseases of domestic 

VUI. Architecture : 1, knowledge of btdlding materials, and lectures 
on architectural construction ; 2, lessons in drawing. 

Second year. — Winter term, — Introduction to agricultural studies: 

I. Agricultural exercises : 1, the systems of agriculture, management 
of large farms, and planniog; 2, tillage, drainage, and sowing the soil; 
3, agricultural calcidation; 4, literature of agriculture, with particular 
reference to the newest publications ; 5, breeding of sheep and knowl- 
edge of wool ; 6, rearing of fruit trees, T\ith practical illustration ; 7, 
practical agricultural illustrations. 

II. Forestry : 1, the use of forests, caTC, and valuation of them, with 
practical illustration; 2, the chase and fishery. 

III. Natural sciences : 1, inorganic experimental chemistry ; 2, experi- 
mental i)hysics, meteorology ; 3, analytical chemistry, with practical les- 
sons in the laboratory ; 4, mineralogy and geology ; 5, the physiology of 
plants ; C, microscopic studies ; 7, natiu\al history of vertebrate animals ; 
8, agricultural statistics. 

IV. Economy: science of national economy. 

V. Jurisprudence : introduction to agricidtural jurisdiction. 

VI. Veterinary surgery: anatomy and physiology of domestic ani- 

VII. Technology : technology of the industrial branches of agTicul- 

Vm. Architecture: 1, construction of agiicultural buildings and 
industrial undertakings ; 2, road-making and water works ; 3, lessons in 

Summer term. — Introduction to agricultural studies: 

I. Agricultural exercises : 1, valuation of farms, and calculations, as 
to yields; 2, culture of commercial produce; 3, knowledge of the soil, 
and plans for improving the same ; 4, management of meadows ; o, iiis- 
tory and statistics of agriculture ; G, rearing and breeding of the smaller 
domestic animals ; 7, medical treatment of domestic animals ; 8, culture 
of wine and vegetables, with practical illustrations; 9, agricultural illus- 
trations and exclusions. 

II. Forestry, with practical illustrations. 

III. Ifatural sciences: 1, organic experimental chemistry; 2, experi- 
mental physics, electricity, magnetism, sound, and light ; 3, chemistry 
of the animals ; 4, analytical chemistry, with practical lessors in the 
laboratory ; 5, literature of chemical agTiculture ; G, agiicultnral botany 
and elements of ]>iants; 7, selections from general botany, and the anat- 
omy and physiology of plants ; 8, physiological lessons on plants ; 9, 
statistics of natural sciences ; 10, botanical excursions. 

IV. Mathematical sciences : practical geometry, and lessons in meas- 
uring land and leveling. 

V. Economy : the policy of national economy. 


VI. Jurispradence: agricultural jurispradence. 

Vn. Veterinary surgery : acute and infectious diseases of domestic 


VIU. Architecture : 1, knowledge of building materials, and lectures 
on aichitectural construction ; 2, lessons in dra^ving. 


This school is preparatory to entering upon the agricultural course iu 
the university of Leipzig, and embraces a term of six months. The fol- 
lowing is the course of study : 

History and literature of agricidture ; elements of physics and chem- 
istry, with instructions in the small laboratory ; introduction to botany, 
with the use of the microscope : anatomy of animals, with study of horse- 
shoeing : field measurements, leveling, and drawing of plans ; book- 
keeping and study of exchange: introduction to mineralogy and geog- 
nosy : practical demonstrations and exercises. 

Students can. also, according to their time and wish, attend certain 
of the university lectures. 


Agriculmral lectures and associated subjects : 

Study of plants, meadows, and stock-raising, and estimates of yields 
or returns : sheep-raising, and study of wool : care of domestic animals; 
associated manufactories and technology: agricultural chemistry, and 
practice in the large agricultural-chemical laboratory. 

Lectures on accessory sciences : Inorganic and organic chemistry ; 
nathematics, physics, and mechanics: botany; zoology, comparative 
rinatomy. comparative osteology, and physiology of animals ; mineralogy 
md geognosy; universal mathematical and physical geography: mete- 
orology and' astronozay ; i)olitical economy : historical science ; litera- 
ture, and history of literature ; philosophical sciences. 

The total tuition fee for the six months' course at the academy at 
Plagwitz is sixty thalers. For the succeeding terms at the university, 
or for those who enter at once uixtn the university agricultural course, 
there are fifteen thalers per term to be paid to the academy, and for 
the use of the laboratory special fees, according to circumstances. The 
payment of the fifteen thalers secures the right to the academy lectures 
and the lectures of the director at the university. At the university, 
for four hours' lectures a week, for the entire term, four and five thalers; 
and for two hours' lectures "pev week, two and three thalers for the term 
are charged. 


This academy was the first of the separate schools visited, and is per- 
haps the best known of the German academies of agriculture. My visit 
to the institution was on the occasion of a meeting or congress of Ger- 
man agricultural chemists, of&cers of the agricultural experimental sta- 
tions, and friends of agricultural chemistry generally. Isearly all parts 
of Germany were represented, as well as several other countries. The 
subjects presented at the congress, either in the form of stated pai)ers 
or discussions, and their titles indicate fiiUy the character of the 
meeting, and also, to a great extent, the character of German eflort 
for the advancement of agriculture, German scholars occupy them- 


selves almost exclusively witli tlie tecliuical and strictly scientific bear- 
ings of the subject. It would be almost impossible at such a meet- 
ing to introduce any question relating to the practicability of making 
available to the masses the very principles evolved or discussed. Scien- 
tific facts and theories absorb the entire energy of most German scholars. 
The following sul^jects and allied questions occupied the entire attention 
of the meeting : Analysis of foods ; ash analysis of agricultural sub- 
stances ; investigation on the feeding of animals; cultivation of plants 
in water; control of the manure trade by experimental stations; rela- 
tions of food, and cost; appropriation of food, (in relation to experiments 
on the subject;) manuring; analysis of harvest products ; soil analysis; 
results of experiments on feeding, vegetation, and nAnures. 

The congress assembled August 17, at 10 a. m., in the "balconsaale " 
of the castle, and, alter the usual preliminaries on such occasions, the 
reading of papers continued until 2 o'clock, the hour fixed for a 
I)ublic dinner. _ The afternoon was occupied in visiting the exi3erimental 
stations, museum, &c., and the evening by a social meeting. The fore- 
noon of the second day was occupied in reading papers and in discus- 
sions; the afternoon, by an excui'sion to the Necker Valley, returning to 
Stuttgard in the evening. The forenoon of the third day was occupied 
in visiting the polytechnic schools, museums, and art academies in 
Stuttgard; and the afternoon, by excursions to Berg and Cronstadt. 

By attending this meeting I was enabled to see all the departments 
of the Hohenhein academy under the very best circumstances, and to 
meet personally representatives from institutions in all parts of Ger- 
many ; thus learning much of the spirit of the present workers in agri- 

Hohenhein is situated on high ground, about two hours' drive from 
Stuttgard, the capital of the kingdom of Wiirtemberg. The academy 
buildings were erected by Duke Charles, in 1770-1780. This princelj^ 
residence had fallen into comparative ruin, but was repaired by King 
William and api^ropriated to the use of the agricultural academy, whiel) 
was founded in 1818. The school is located on the royal domain, and is 
sustained and directed by the State. It commenced with only eight 
students under the directorship of Baron Kepomuk Schwerz. 

At the i)resent date this institution consists of three separate schools 
as well as a number of extraordinary coiu'ses, such as school teachers' 
course, fiTiit-growers' course, meadow-culture course, and shepherds' 
course ; also special courses for government officers, and a course for 
l)ee and sUk-worm management. 

The first of the three schools is the academy, which embraces a full 
coiu'se of instruction in all the branches of agricultiu'e, including for- 
estry, and requires two years for its completion. Students are expected 
to be eighteen years of age when they enter. The second is an agTicuI- 
tural school for men whose practical education is the main object. They 
receive instruction in the lecture-room about two hours daily, morning 
or evening, and the entire day, with this exception, is spent in actual 
labor. This department is open only to residents of Wiirtemberg, and 
the number of students is limited to twenty-five. The course covers a 
period of three years, and students are admitted at sixteen years of age. 
The third is the horticultural school, to which only six students are 
admitted annually. They must be seventeen years of age, and are re- 
quired to have served a three years' apprenticeship in gardening or in the 
^^neyard, or to have gone through one course in the agricultural school. 
The student is thus exj^ected to get a complete education, both theoret- 
ical and practical, in all that pertains to horticulture. 


The purpose of Hoheuliein to educate large land owners, ovei-seers, 

1 ^' ' ■ ir public departmeuts, &c.. in agriculture and forestry, is thus 

ured by schools for ihe ordinary tarmer, {aclccrban-schuie,) and 

b\ sLou speciarcourses for such students as desire to devote themselves 

to some one department. 

Two years are required for the thorough and linished course in eitlier 
forestiy or agriculture, and I regaid this as beuig entiiely too little time 
for the studies embraced in the course. Yet the lectiu'ers tieat the prin- 
cipal subjects in agiiculture and natiu^al sciences within the sjiace of 
oue year, from the fact tliat many students cannot remain a longer time, 
and thus they are supposed to have the beueiit of a complete course of 
lectures. Tliis cannot be undertaken without too great crowduig of 
studies, with superficiality as the result. The accessories of this insti- 
tution, in the way of museums, model collections, &c., are excellent, and 
the apparatus for demonstrating manufactT;ring jirocesses are as com- 
plete as such facilities can be made ui an isolated situation, where they 
must be created solely for the purpose of demonstration. In such cases 
the progress of invention, as urged on by the necessities of competition 
in actual business, cannot be fully represented. The museums consist 
of model collections of farming implements. macl4nes, &c. : of Pro- 
fessor Fleischer's mineralogical collections: well arranged geological 
collections : collections of Viuieties of soils, seeds, and herbs : models in 
pomology, &c. ; zoological collections : and collections of native woods, 
in longitutUnal and cross sections. In the facilities for practical or 
applied chemistry are embraced : factories for beet-root sugar, brandy, 
starch, ^onegar, tiuit-drying, new wine, a beer brewery. «S:c. The sugar 
fabric has the press method and Dombasleschen maceration process, 
both with steam-heating. It is in operation only in Xovember and De- 
cember. In connection with it is an arrangement for the pi*eparation 
of bone coal. The beer brewery is arranged for the making of fifty to 
seventy e'uners* of beer in January and February, after different methods. 
Brandy is j>repared from potatoes, grain, molasses, and brewery resid- 
uum, one-half d/w^r daily; th<^ time of operation being according to 
the needs of instruction. The managements for starch, vinegar, &c., 
lU'c on a smaller scale, chiefly for the pm-poses of demonstration. The 
acriicultural experimental station was completed in 186G at a cost of 
JJ.'.KIO dorins, and embraces experimental stalls, hot-houses, and experi- 
mental gardens and fields. There is also an agi'icultural machine fac- 
tory, the shops now being let, resei-ving the priAriiege of access for the 
-:"..l.'i::s. ' The entire groimds connected v.ith the institution, exclusive 
c'l i^'icsis, amount to 971| 7«o?*/7e7i, or about 770 acres. These giounds 
may be looked ui>on as experimental land on a large scale rather than as 
a model farm. The land is divided as follows : Tilled land, G15 morgen; 
meadow, 149^ ; tree nursery, 21f ; experimental fields, 29f fi-uit-'tree 
nursery, 16|- ; hop garden, \^ -, botanical garden, 14| : vegetable and 
liower garden, 3g ; vineyard, "f ; practice field for students". If : Avoods 
or spots unfavorable for culture, and banks of streams. 11| : bmltlings, 
11^ ; roads, ptisture, and sheep range, 70^' ; leased part of the estate on 
account of unfavorable situation, 14|. 

The average amount of live stock kept is sixteen horses, twenty oxen 
in the hay harvest, eighty to one hundred cows, and six hundi*ed to one 
thousand sheep. 

There are in this institution twenty professors and teachers. The prin- 
ciple of division of labor, so fruitful in good results, is practiced. The 

*An cimer in Wiinemberg is 70.59040 gallons. 


professors, therefore, have leisure and strength for scientific investiga- 
tion and experiments. This system cannot be too highly recommended 
for adoption in our own country. 

The number of students at present is one hundi-ed and twenty-five, 
and the aggi'egatc numberfi-om the commencementabout three thousand 
six hundred and fifty. Prizes are given among the students for the 
best essays on agricidtural subjects. Examinations during the term or 
at the close of the course are optional ; certificates are, liowever, granted 
only to tiiose who pass. Wiutcmberg students of forestry must undergo 
an examination before admission. Foreign students of forestry and all 
students of agi'iculture enter without such conditions, only a general 
fitness for the understanding of the lectures being required. Occasional 
students are not allowed a stay of more than four weeks. Cost for 
residence and instruction of students : For foreigTiers, thi-ee hundred 
florins for the first year, and two hundred florins for the second year; 
for students of the country, one huntb-ed florins per year. Students in 
forestry : For foreigners, two hundred florins; for natives, sixty florins. 

Connected with this department of forestry are six thousand morgen 
of forest, exhibiting all, or at least a great variety, of indigenous trees, 
shrubs, plants, «S:c., with twenty-five morgen for exotics. The cultivation 
of seeds is practiced on the model or experimental farm, for distribution 
among the farmers of the kingdom. 

The following is the coui-se of study, or plan of lectures, demonstra- 
tions, and practical exercises in the^ Eoyal Wiirtemberg Agiicultural 
and Forestry Academy of Hohenhein : 

Agricultural course. — 1. History and literature of agriculture ; 2. Gen- 
eral field and plant cidture, iucludiug the drainage of land : 3. Study of 
agricultural machinery and implements; 4. Special plant culture, in 
special lectures ; 5. Hop and tobacco culture ; 6. Wine culture ; 7. Fruit 
culture ; 8. Vegetable culture ; 9. Meadow cidture ; 10. General breed- 
ing of animals ; 11. Horse breeding : 12. Exterior of horses, in special 
lectures; 13. Cattle breeding; 14. Sheep breeding ; 15. Study of wools ; 
IC. Breetliug of small animals ; 17. Silk-worm cultiu^} ; 18. Bee culture; 
19. Carrying on of agriculture ; 20. Agiicultural taxation, with exer- 
cises in drawing agiicultural plans; 21. AgTicultural bookkeeping; 
22. Management of- the Hohenhein farm ; 23. Agricultural technology. 

These lectures are united with demonstradons in the agricultural 
model collections of machinery and tools, wool and soil collections, on 
the experimental fields, in the nurseries and ditferent gardens, among 
the live stock of the farm, in the technical work shops ; also, practical 
exercises in agricultui'al taxation, agTicultural excui'sions, &c., &:c. 

Forestry course. — 1. Encyclopedia of forestry, with paiticular consid- 
eration of the allied studies of forestry and agriculture; 2. Forest 
botany ; 3. Climate and soil adapted to forestry ; 4. Forest culture ; 5. 
Protection of forests ; C. Use of forests and forest technology; 7. Valu- 
ation of trees, and profits ; 8. Forest taxation ; 9. Duration of forests ; 
10. State forests, in special lectures ; 11. Wiirtemberg forest laws ; 12. 
Business in connection with forestry ; 13. Agricultural encyclopedia 
for foresters. 

Connected with this course are demonstrations in different forest 
sections, the botanical garden, and forestry collections, as well as prac- 
tical exercises in forestry taxation, excursions, &c. 

Itudimentary accessory exercises. — 1. Political economy; 2. Science of 
law ; 3. Mathematical course, including arithmetic, algebra, planeometry, 
stereometry, trigonometry, practical geometry. Hereto are joined reg- 
ular exercises in field measurements and leveling; 4. Natural sciences, 


includiufr mechanics, experimental physics, general inorganic chemistry, 
universal organic chemLstry, agricultural chemistry, analytical chem- 
istpy, geognosy, introduction to botany, anatomy and physiology of 
plants, pathology of plants, special botany, anatomy and physiology of 
domestic animals, general and si»ecial zoology, microscopic observations. 
Connected with these studies ai-e practices in the chemical laboratory, 
demonstrations in the gieen-houses and on the ex]ierimental fields of 
the experimental agiiculniral station, in the botanical garden, in the 
botanical, mineral ogical. anatomical, and zoological collections. There 
:ire also botanical and geognostic excursions ; o. Veteriuaiy sciences, 
including remetlies and receipts, pathology and therapeutics of domestic 
animals, aids to animals in giving birth, shoeing animals, and veterinary 
clinical demonstrations: 0. Agricultural architecture, including the 
drawing of plans. 



The grade of this school is that of a higher agricultural and industrial 
agricultural academy. The instruction is in German and Bohemian. 
The first two years are devoted to general agriculture, and the third 
year to si>ecial branches. Lnstrucriou by lectures, practice in fields and 
tiie manufactories of Tetschen and Bodenbach, excursions, fi'ee conver- 
sational meerings under the guidance of professors, and the writing of 
essays. The lectures are not written and delivered, but spoken freely, 
M-ith opportunity for questions, explanations, and illxLStrations. Each 
subject under considerarion is neated with some class book as a general 
basis for study and invesrigation. Xotes on the lectures are taken by 
the students. Tuition costs sixty florins yearly. The lowest age of ad- 
mission is seventeen years, and proofs must be produced of the applicant 
having finished the course of the under gymnasium, or lower "Eeal- 
school ;" also, of some practical preparation in agricultui'e. Number of 
professors and teachers, fifteen. At the close of the summer term of 
ISoS there were one hundred students. The arrangements of the Lnsti- 
tntion are for the admission of not more than thirty students at the be- 
ginning of each year, so that ninety is the normal ntmiber of students in 
the institution, as it is composed of three classes. Yearly ten thousand 
florins have l>een received fiom government, since the opening of the 
academy in 1S66, as a national high school : previous to that date, two 
thousand florins yearly. "Whole area of the farm, 1219.S metzeji;* leased, 
SiiSA metzen ; leaving S51.4 metzen farmed by the institution, as follows: 
Arable land — rotation of crops. 582 ; border pasture land, 20.7 ; experi- 
mental fields, 3.4 ; botanical garden, 0.12 ; grass-seed school, 6.5 ; ho]) 
garden, 0,13 : meadow land, 1G6 ; boundaries, roads, &c., 65.8. 

Other accessories to improvements exist in Tetschen, open to the stu- 
dents, as the beer brewery, flax factory, distillery, beet di-^ing, fruit dry- 
ing, vegetable garden, vineyard, chemical experimental station, forests, 
libmry, philosophical, chemical, and mathematical apparatus, mineral 
collection, zoological collection, varieties of soil, workshops for agricul- 
tural tools and small machines, cocoonery, apiary, &.Q. 

In 1S50 Tetschen-Liebwerd was established as an agricultural school 
for the i^easantry, under the protection of Count Thun, on the farm 
Liebwerd, given by him for the puri>ose. It was organized on a plan of 
Director Komers, who. with four jirofessors and teachers, constituted 

* A metze is, 0.4733 of an acre. 


tlie facility. This was the first agricultural school with German instruc- 
tion hi Bohemia. In 1856 it was reorganized under Director Komers, 
with a higher and lower department — the courses distinct. The higher 
department received from the lioyal Economical Society a gift of twenty- 
one hundred florins, and the buildings were enlarged at the cost of the 
Protector, Coimt Thun. The organization of the experimental station, 
under Dr. Th. von Gohreu, took place in 18G4-'05. The formal opening 
of the institution as a high school of the Kingdom of Bohemia was in 
18(30. There is an examination every term, with classification of stu- 
dents. The first three receive prizes, Vith publicatioir of their names. 
Particular attention is called in the report to the need of occasional travel 
by representative professors, to compare the operations and results of 
other institutions; in the case of Dr. von Gohren, whose able report on 
Lichtenhof, Weihenstephan, Hohenhein, and Grignon, was the result of 
such a jom^ney. 

After the two years' general study of agriculture, there is a di\ision of 
the third year into four courses: 1st. General administration of estates, 
with rational stock raising ; 2d. AgTicultural technology, sugar making 
manufacture of brandy, beer, oil, &c. ; 3d. Agi'iciiltural engmeering, and 
science of reclamation ; 4th. Agricultural-industrial improvements. 

In the second year the students are divided into foiu- classes, in the 
management an(l overseeing : 1st. The local direction ; 2d. Administra- 
t ion ; 3d. Account of the revenues ; 4th. Natirral accounts. 

The first year they are busied in a varied manner, in house, on fields, 
&c. Students who work as a part payment are allowed thirty-eight to 
forty kreutzers. The soil at Liebwerd is, in the poilious lying in the 
valleys, hard loam ; on the heights, sandy loam, or loamy sand. The 
working of the soil is very hard. Climate mild and damp. Prevailing 
-^vinds southeast, northwest, and northeast. In September fogs often 
roll into the vaUey at three o'clock in the afternoon, and do not break 
away until ten o'clock in the morning. 


This school is situated near Niu"emberg. Its grade is that of a middle 
school, embracing three institutions: 1st. The District AgTicultural 
School; 2d. The Lower Agricultural School for peasantry; 3d. The 
Preparatory School. The character of instruction is general agTicultm^e, 
with rudiments of forestry ; the instruction of an order to prepare scholars 
ibr the management of small or moderate estates as owners or over- 
seers, or to enter the higher agricultural school at Weihenstephan, or 
th(^. Central Veterinary School at Munich, or for entrance upon a course 
of universal practical forestry. 

The full cost of tuition is oiie hundred florins, yearly, for scholars un- 
der thirteen years ; one hundred and twenty-five florins for tliose from 
thirteen to sixteen years; one hundred and fifty florins for all pupils 
over sixteen years — ^living included. Twelve years is the lowest age for 
admission. The course embraces a period of three years. There are two 
courses : 1st. District school course, inclusive of the preparatory course, 
Avhen students are not fitted for immediate entrance; 2d. The coiu-se in 
the lower school, for peasantry. 

The number of professors and teachers is ten ; number of scholars last 
year, eighty-three. The buildings will accommodate one hundred scholars. 
The institution has the rents of the Maximihan foundation or establish- 
ment. This consists of the estates Lichendorf and Gibitzhof, which are 
given for the use and purposes of the institution, and the income from 


them for free scbolarsliips for i)Oor students. All rents and a subsidy 
r ' district • . funds, with private ^ts, amouDt to from four 

. to six tl or even eight thousand florins yearly. Con- 

necicu \nth the sijiiuui are an exi>erimental farm, vegetable garden, 
botanical gard*-n. and a tree school. The experiments with superphos- 
])liate have, to their reports, resulted unfavorably in beet cul- 

ture, but the • nt will be continued for further resojts. 

This school opeutrd in 1833, with twelve students ; at present there are 
ninety-six. Wliole number from commencement, six hundred. The sub- 
sidy from the province is seven thousand to eight thousand florins yearly. 
The receipts of the agricultural journal, -'Lichtenhofer Blatter," go 
toward the establishment of free scholarships. The students form three 
classes : Those who pay full tuition and board ; those admitted at reduced 
prices ; and free scholars. The farm is situated in the " Knoblancksland ;" 
the subsoil coarse-grained quartz sand, ^nth beds or layers of clay run- 
ning through it. One peculiar physical feature of thLs district is the 
frequent presence of water at a depth of three to five feet, which in many 
places prevents the ui>e of suljterranean cellars. Liebig's doctiine of the 
absorptive capacity of arable lantl finds here a striking confirmation, 
where the soil Ls of marshy and sandy earth, mixed through culture with 
a mass of manure stufls, chiefly mineral. The wi-iter believes that the 
^cret of fmitfobiess of this regiofi consists in the mixing of mar.-ihy 
and sandy sod. otherwise he cannot account for rhe less favorable results 
of the same experiments in preparation and manuring of the soil upon 
adjacent sand fields. Only the result of more than one thousand years' 
alternating jdant growth with theii- decay could be at the bottom of this 
fertility. The i)rincipal experiments are in raising fodder and trade 
crops, fruit-tree cuitiu-e, various modes of manuring, bee raising, and 
crossing of different breeds of cattle. The soil is cultivated to a depth 
of oHe and a half to three feet, with frequent manuiing at almost every 


This school is situated at Weiheustephan. near Treising. Its grade is 
that of a high school of agxicultnre. The character of instruction is 
agiiculture, forestry, aud stock raising. The full cost of tuition for 
Bavarians is twenty-five florins half yearly; for all others, fifty florins 
for first half year, aud twenty-five florins for second half year. Sixteen 
years is the age for admission. The course covers a period of two years. 
In connection with the usual course are, 1st, a practical preparatory 
course of one year; 2d, a brewery school of one year; 3d, fruit cidture 
course of two or three years; 4th, trial station for agricultural machines 
and tools. Xumber of professors and teachers;, thirteen; number ot 
pupils, sixty, (twenty-two in regidar course, seventeen in technical course, 
sixteen iu preparatory, five occasional.) 

The royal estate Weihenstephau, with seven hundred and ten tugicei"- 
len (about four hundred and twenty joc/te**) of meadow land fields and 
turt iund, belongs to the school. The following may l>e mentioned among 
the accessories : Fitty-.'^even cows, four hundred sheep, swine — number 
variable — botanical garden, hop garden, apothecary for veterinary sur- 
gery, brewery, rlistiUery, brick-kiln, lime-kdn, cheese dairy, fishery, turf- 
cutting field, chemical laboratory, library. 

The institution was founded in ISoU. "Weilienstephan was a Benedic- 
tuie cloister, established in 725. The exijenses of students are : Winter 

A jock ia 1.4223 acres. 


term. Bavarian students, for tuition and boarding, including single 
room, fire, lights, washiug, service, and use of reading-room, ninety-five 
florins ; Mhen two smdents use a double room, tlie expense to eacli is 
eighty florins. For the same items the cost to foreign students is one 
himm-ed and twents' florins for single, and one hiimU'ed and five florins 
for double room. Summer term, Bavarian students, single room, fifty 
florins, (including above particulars,) and double room forty-five florins; 
foreign students, seventy -five and seventy florins. The second year's 
exj^enses for foreigners and native students are the same, the former 
being rednced to the same plane as the latter. The entire expense for 
the one year preparatory course is three huudred florin-s. In the brevrery 
school one hundred florins for practical instiTiCtion during the winter 
term, and eighty for the summer term, are charged. Tuition in the frtiit- 
cidture course, forty florins yearly. Under this head mention is made of 
pa\ing students Tvho choose to labor : twenty-four kreutzers per day in 
the first year; later, more is paid, according to their ability. 
' In sheep raising the Southdown bucks have been crossed with merino, 
and the resuJt promises well. The raising of the piu-e merino sheep is 
also an object here. Four hundred sheep and lambs sheared gave eight 
hundi'ed and six pounds of wool. Experiments have been made in 
Liebig's substitute for mother's milk in raising calves. Also in the use 
of gTeater quantities of malt germs in the raising of young cattle. Great 
efforts are being made to discover the proper i)roportion of nourishment 
containing niti'ogen, and that without nitrogen, for gTOwn sheep. The 
stuToimding woods, evergreen and *■ needle," are used for practical 
exi)eriments and instruction. 


I regard the work these stations are accomplishing, both for scientific 
and practical af;Ticultiu-e iu Germany, as being of the very highest im- 
l^ortauce. They cannot, however, supersede or even precede the work 
of the agricultui-al college. First of all we must have thoroughly edu- 
cated men (educated technically in agricultiu*e) to conduct these stations. 
As soon as agTicultural colleges can produce competent men, the more 
experimental stations vre can have the better. The following remarks, 
taken fi'om a sketch of this work by Dr. Theod. von Gohren, will show 
something of the history, progress, and economy of these stations in 
Germany : 

" The year 1S40 (the date of the publication of Liebig's Chemistry) 
was the birth year of scientific agriculttu-e. Liebig's book was the seed 
from v\-hich already such wondrous growths have been qtiickened. 
Adolph Stockhardt, of Tharand, is the man who. by ceaseless efforts in 
chtbs, schools, and experimental stations, has done most to prepare the 
soil for the reception of this seed of truth. The question early arose as 
to the means of linking men of science with the masses. What method 
woidd best convey the fertilizing streams of scientific knowledge through 
channels and ducts to the people ? Stockhardt and others saw. in the 
establishment of chemical-agriculture experimental stations, a means. 
The first private experimental farm in Germany was established by 
Boussingault, iu Bachelbronn ; but the first true ex])erimental starlon 
was founded in Ibol, in Mockern. In Prague, an experimental station 
was founded by the Bohemian Eoyal Economic Society in ISoo, tuider 
the <listinguished guidance of Dr. Hofiiuian, which is still in active 

"In ]\Iahi'en an experimental station was foimded in Blansko, on the 


estate of Priaco Salni. by the Koyal Sclileswig: Agxicutiiral Society in 
1856, but it was dLscon tinned in 1864. In 1855 an experimental Ktation 
wa-s established in the most munificent manner by Prince Johann Adolpb 
von Schwarzenberg, in Lobositz, a private enteri^rise, but connected with 
it were Dr. Hannamann and Dr. Breitenlohner, highly distinguished in 
their respective departments. Quite recently, Carl Maximilian, Count 
von Seilem, the well-known author of ' Nourishment of Plants, ' has 
established an experimental station upon his estate, Piilep, in Miihren. 
Finally, in Bohemia mu.>t recognition be made of the activity of the 
exi>erimental station connected with the academy of Tetschen-Liebwerd. 
In 1SC6 the number of stations in operation in Germany was twenty- 

" The first chapters in the history of experimental stations is a record 
of discouragements, injustice, and partial failure. The development of 
such an enterj^rise must necessarily be slow, and the practical results 
not immediate. But, not considering the series of years needed for ex- 
periments, the public exacted speedy and marvelous results. Failing in 
these, the scheme was denounced as a failure, and popular sympathy 
and support withdrawn ; nor did the strife of the agricultural chemists 
among themselves tend to raise their authority in the eyes of the prac- 
tical. For a rime the starions seemed to be in a hopeless condition 
because of this distrust. !Now, exj^erimental starions stand recognized 
in the first line in the service of science. It is less than tkiee decades 
since agriculture took its rank among sciences. Its first purpose must 
be, as in the case of every other science, the discovery of truth ; theu 
adaptation of that truth to pracrical ends. 

" The most pernicious foes of science are those who constantly demand 
the useful, and ignore all truth, the immediate marketable value of 
which is not evident. Eeverence for truth must so fill the minds of 
scientific workers that a false description of the most insignificant plant 
would be felt as much a rejjroach as a false description of the solar sys- 
tem. Simple, pure truth must be the end of all naturalists. Science 
<ran never accejjt as her task the discovery of what we wish, but the 
iliscovery of what is true ; and never can the welfare of mankind be 
attained by even the pleasantest illusion, except through the complete 
and simple truth. 

" These stations are working great practical good to agriculture ; and 
in the future the results will be more marked. Their task is threefold — 
to seek, to teach, and to warn. 

"A few statistics will show the results of knowing the elements of the 
soil, the nature of manures, &c. In Belgium, where agricultiire is most 
rationally pursued, a square mile produces means of nourishment for 
7.345 persons, whereas the Polish three-field farming produces food for 
only 2,229 persons per square mile. Therefore the Belgians are better 
nourished than the Poles, though the country of the latter is more 
fruitful by nature. Great Britain, in the commencement of the nine- 
teenth century, produced grain for eleven millions : now, for at least 
.seventeen millions. Still the results of searching out the secrets of na- 
ture are chiefly in the future. The most important questions look to 
future experiments for their answer. 

'* In regard to animal productions, the results of scientific farming 
are not less marked. Austria produces on one square mile 3,796 head 
of stock; Prussia, within the same limits, 5,537; France, 5.970 ; Great 
Britain. 11,447. -? ' ? 

"Added to the questions of ijlant and animal production is that 
scarcely less imponant one of agriciutural industrial manufactories, as 


breweries, distilleries, refineries, imd, above all, siij^ar raa.uufactories. 
There is a rumor of a prospective undertaking in Hungary in behalf of 
the beet-root sugar interest, viz., the establishment of a manufactory 
M'ith large experimental rooms attached. It is intended to be a com- 
plete sugar manufactory, with accommodations for fifty students from 
various parts of Austria. These students wdl have the advantages of a 
large manufactory in operation, and opportunities for study aiul exi)eri- 
ment. The intention is to establish it under government patronage : 
the whole concern, after a stipulated number of years, to belong to the 
nation, in consideration of a yearly subsidy from government to assist 
in carrying out its purposes during this interval. 

"The second duty of experimental stations is to teach, or to convej'' to 
the people, the advantages deducible from study and experiment; to 
make possible the practical adaptation of the theoretical truth discovered. 

"The third duty is to warn ; to be the people's true knight, fighting 
oft' from them falsehood and trickery. In the one field of adulterated 
and worthless maniu'es are sufficient opportunities for science to expose 
and defeat impostiu^es. 

"The locations of experimental stations is now the subject of much 
<liscussion. They were first established* on isolated estates, generally 
remote from great cities, chiefly because scientific land owners offered the 
land and certain assistance to such enterprises. Now, however, the ne- 
cessity for locating them near large cities, and in connection with acad- 
emies and imiversities, is urged. The ground for such change is two- 
fold : the necessity of full apparatus for experiment, and an increase of 
the staff of scientific worlcers. At isolated stations the investigations 
must be chiefly chemical, as a chemist is in charge, generally without 
allied workers in other departments of natural science, and the means 
for experiments are generallj'- such as a chemical laboratory can furnish; 
but scientific agTiculture calls for aid from mineralogy, geognosy, phys- 
ics, physiology of plants, physiology of animals, &c. Such union 
of strength can at present only be reached for experimental stations 
when, by connection with academies or universities, they have the co-op- 
eration of the entire faculties of such institutions. If means were unlim- 
ited, agTicidtTU'al stations, however isolated, might command such corps 
of workers ; but while the investments for experimental stations are so 
small, only their union with institutions can sufficiently broaden their 
scope. Again, in isolated localities, only such students as make practi- 
cal agricultural chemistry a specialty could tiu-n aside to avail them- 
selves of the advantages of such stations. Allied to institutions, the 
advantage is reciprocal : the station drawing strength ii^om the faculty 
and apparatus of the institution, and the students of the high-school or 
university having access to all the records and participation in the ex- 
l)eriments of the station. Considering the meager expenditure upon 
experimental stations, the results upon the agriculture of the country 
have been most remarkable. Within this decade they have cost, at 
highest, forty thousand thalers, hardly enough to maintain a company 
of 'soldiers for the same length of time ; and yet with this paltry outlay 
they are expected to revolutionize the agricidtiu-e of Germany. 

"More important than the place chosen for experimental stations is 
the working capital at theii' command. Only with a liberal outlay of 
money and time can liberal results be reached. Kot lightly does nature 
allovr man to wrest the seal from her ti'easury of secrets." 
I remain, most truly, your obedient servant, 


Hon. HoKACE Gapkon, Commissioner. 


Sm : In obedience to yoiir request, I present a few statements show- 
ing the progress and condition of the beet-sugar enterprise iu Europe, 
after personal iuvcstigation of the operations of each establishment. 

The time when sugar first became known in Europe cannot be stated 
with any certainty, but the statements of various authors, such as Theo- 
phrastus, Plinius, Paulus ^gineta, and others, leave no doubt that cane 
iuice, boiled to siru]). was kuown, and used as a medicine by the most 
ancient people. Still earlier, the art of making sugar appears to have 
been known by the Chinese, Alexander von IlumboUlt having seen 
Chinese paintiugs on porcelain of gTcat age representing various meth- 
ods of working sugar cane and extracting its juice. Asia undoubtedly 
is the mother country of sugar,-whence it was fii'st brought by the Turks 
to C\-prns, in the ninth and iu the eleventh century ; also to Khodes, 
Sicily, and Crete, and probably all around the Mediterranean-, thence by 
the crusaders, especially by the Venetians, to the more western coim- 
tries. Later, perhaps in the fifteenth centuiy, it found its way over 
Madeii-a and the Canary Islands to Brazil; and, in the sixteenth century, 
to the West India Islands. There is no doubt that the cultivation of 
sugar cane on a large scale was first introduced into America, and 
especially into the West Indies, by the Euro])eans. 

The fii'st importation of sugar into Eiu'ope which is particularly known 
was in the year OOG, into Venice. In the year 1311) the Venetians brought 
a cargo of 100,000 pounds of sugar and 1(J,000 ])ounds of rock candy to 
London. The tii'St sugar refinery on the continent of Eiu'ope was built 
in Augsburg, in the year 1373, by a man named Roth. Another was 
built in Dresden, in the year 1597. While in its early days sugar was 
found only in ai)Othecaries' shops, and used as a mediciae, it is counted 
now among the provisions, and has become a necessity second only to 
meat and dour. 

The lirst discovery of beet sugar was made the 3d of ]March, 1747, by 
the Prussian chemist Margraaf, (Andrea Sigismund,) director of the 
philosophical section of the Academy of Science at Berlin, who read, at 
its general meeting, an essay, in which he proved the existence of cane 
sugar iu many home-giown roots. He stated that the most sugar v.-as 
to be found in the Silesiau beet, produced samples, and specified the 
method by which he had obtained them, and proved it not oidy ])racti- 
cable, but remunerative, to produce beet sugar on a large scale. It will 
be borne in mind that this was during a time of war, when the ordinary 
means of transportation were interrupted and money for importations 
was scarce, in consequence of which sugar was high; but, as soon -as 
peace was restored, sugar prices went down, and the gieat interest taken 
in producing it at home died out. 

No sooner, however, had war commenced again, than tlie subject of 
beet sugar production was resumed. Shortly after 1790, Achard built 
on an estate (Cunem) in Silesia, which the King of Prussia had pre- 
sented to him for the pur^iose, the first beet-sugar factory. In this fac- 
tory he worked, supported by the Prussian government and under the 
observation of a government ofiicer, 7.000 pounds of beets per day, from 


whicli he obtained six per cent, of raw, or five per cent of white sugar. 
In November, 1799, Van Mons caused a letter to be published in the Au- 
nales de Chimiej written by Achard, in which he described the results 
obtained in his sugar works at Cunern. He states the cost price of raw 
sugar to be 5.4 cents per pound English, (65 centimes* per kllw/ram,\) 
besides the beet pulp, beet leaves, and molasses 5 the former lie used 
for fattening cattle, and the molasses for making alcohol. 

These residts caused a gTeat sensation in France. All the newspapers 
republished them. The enormously high price which sugar commanded 
after France had abolished slavery in her colonies was the reason why 
the National Institute of France appointed a chemist of great celebrity 
to examine this new process and rej^ort upon it. M. Deyeux made his 
report in 1800, and, although he considered the advantages to be derived 
from beet-sugar industry overestimated, two experimental factories were 
<5stabhshed near Paris — one at St. Eouen, the other in the old abbey 
of Chelles. Neither of the two reached results which could be compared 
with those of Achard, and were, therefore, closed again, and for a long 
time were the laugliing-stock of those who knew of them. Meantime, two 
new factories had been built in Germany, one by the Baron von Koppy, 
in Silesia, the other by the celebrated Mathusius,in Althaldensleben, near 
Magdeburg. The publicity given to the results obtained by the tlu-ee 
German beet-sugar factories di-ew anew the attention of the French gov- 
ernment to the subject, and new trials were made in 1810 l)y Deyeux and 
Derosne, and in 1811 by Barrud and Isnard, with the German method 
of extracting the sugar from the beet, and the result obtained proved 
more satisfactory. The war which deA-astated Germany during 181.3, 
1814, and 1815 left the country in an exhausted condition, from which it 
did not recover for many years. Industry in general was paralyzed, and 
no eilbrts were made to perfect the system of sugar-making. It was dif- 
ferent, however, in France. The new impulse giveri to chemistry and engi- 
neering showed its effect on the sugar factories, which were considerably 
improved, one of the principal improvements being the use of animal char- 
coal. In 1828 one hundred and three factories were making beet sugar 
in France^ producing three thousand three hundred tons of sugar, and 
during the year 183(j-'37, hfty-five thousand tons ; but, in consequence of 
a tax being levied on it, the production feU the following year to twenty- 
five thousand tons. 

The beet-sugar production in Germany or in the ZoUverein made little 
progi'ess till 1830, but it has since reached such dimensioDS that it not 
only supplies the home demand, and prevents cane sugar from coming 
into competition, but has become a regular article of export, competing 
in the English and the Dutch markets T\'ith the sugar of* the tropics. 
The table (A) shows the enormous dimensions which the beet-sugar 
industry has attained during the period between 183G and 1SG7. Of the 
one himcfred and twenty -two factories in operation in 1836, ninety belonged 
to Prussia and thirty-two to the various other states of the Zollverein. 
During the year 1866-'67 two hundred and ninety-six factorial were 
engaged in making beet sugar, two hundred and fifty-seven of wliich 
were located in Prussia and its provinces, while only tiiirty-ninc were in 
the other states of the Zollverein. The increase in the number of facto- 
ries has been almost exclusively in Prussia, where its number was trebled 
during thirty-two years. The tax levied on beet sugar in 1840-'41, of 
0.575 cents per centnerX of green beets, diminished the whole number 

* Centime, §0.00192. iEUogram, 2.204737 pounds, 

t Centner, (Prussian,) 113.44 pounds. 


of working sugar-factories from one liiiiidred and fifty-two to one hun- 
dred and tbrty-tive ; in ISl^-'-to the tax was doubled, when the number 
was reduced to ninety-eight factories. 

The small and iioorly-constructed establishments could not compete 
with the new and larger ones, nor with the cane-sugar refineries, the 
proprietors of which strained every nerve to drive beet sugar out of the 
market, and the former, therefore, had to suspend work. Although, in 
lS43-'-4-l, factories were at work again, the number was reduced to ninety- 
eight the next year, and to ninety-six in the following year, the tax hav- 
ing been again increased. Since 1846-'4:7 the production has taken a 
decided start, the number of factories having grown from year to year, 
and they emaucijjated themselves from the cane-sugar refineries by pro 
ducing "either molasses or white loaf-sugar direct from the beet juice, 
without lu'st working it into raw sugar ; so that when, in 1S50-'51, the 
tax on beet sugar was again doubled, it did not prevent new factories 
from being built. - 

While the number of sugar factories increased, the quantity of the beet 
worked by the same increased in a far greater ratio. It must be taken 
into consideration that official figures have been kept only since 1840-'41, 
when records were commenced on account of the tax to be levied, and 
comparisons should be made only of years included in the official figures. 
Accordingly, the columns 2 and 3, table A, show that during the twenty- 
seven years from IS-iO-'il to lS66-'67 the number of working factories 
increased from one hundred and forty-five to two hundred and ninety- 
six, making an increase of about one hundred and four per cent., 
while the Cjuantity of beets worked in these factories increased from 
4,829,734 cwts. (of one hundred pounds) to 50,712,709 cwts., making an 
increase of nine hundred and fifty per cent. Of course the quantity 
of beets worked by each factory must have increased in proportion, 
as may be seen by column 15, table A, according to which each fac- 
tory worked, on an average, in 1836-'37, 4,155 cwts., or 227 English 
tons ; in 1840-41, 33,309 ; while in lS66-^'67 the high average of 
171,327 was reached. The variations in columns 3 and 15 of table 
A are the results of unfavorable beet crops. According to column 8, 
table A, the internal revenue or tax paid on the beets has increased 
from a quarter of a cent to seven and a half cents, or thirty-fold, while 
the actual revenue derived, as given in column 9, has increased fi-om 
40,248 thalers* to 12,678,177 thalers, or nearlv three hundred and fifteen 

These averages are correct according to the best authorities, and go to 
show the enormous progi'css made not only in manufactming beet sugar, 
but in cultiwituig and producing beets. It is obvious that the great 
variation in the average weather of the various years necessarily ac- 
counts for the variations of percentage of sugar and foreigTi matter in 
the beets, and the more or less difficidt working of the same. 

The systems of taxation in the different countries iniiuence the gen- 
eral result in many particulars. In Prussia, or the Zollverein, the beets 
are washed and trimmed, and then weighed by government officials, 
and the revenue collected according to the quantity which enters the 
factory. From that moment the sugar manufactiu^er is at liberty to 
work at will, the government taking no notice, or at least not interfer- 
ing, no matter how rich the beets, or how much or what kmd of sugar 
is made; in fact, leaving him entirely free to do with the beets as he may 
please, except working them into alcohol. 

* A thaler is about 73 cents. 



iritd«o jad aor^dnrosnoo 

;o Cioiivj J»d a3«j9Ay 

5 CTD C> •£ L-2 C-5 f- SJ -r L-^ ?S O -^ ITJ 3-. ^ 1J lO D X O: t- CO 0^^ X ?- L-1 •a- 5o Ji 

tdot |M«i j« «3vinMje j 

»0 X O ^ C) no ■<:< O '^ t^ i."5 O X O If O i2 O '.C X O CJ « -"T O 11-; to rr — t~ 

'd{nd ;m4 ;• •2T:a«3ja^ 

'---. c5 — ro :» o t~ c^ o ^- T o 00 o CO n c 00 t- '-0 o ■T r3 oj — I o c. D o> o o« 

■«MaT[OCI JO PI9ti 

; = o a q f- 

_ oncit^^oowioot^ CO v: -^ co co cc c< c^ CJ -• c^ ^ c* ro f^ -^ 

< 'T -iJ ri rf eo c^ c^ rj ri ~5 CO ci ij cj CT ci c5 cj 3? c5 cj i5 ei oj oi ci ci cj ci si 

'nSni i».«J JO pi«i!A 


LO o — o o o 7t rt (^ (^ 7> 

j^ LO o w t^ X ^ OJ uo '^ X r-* o ^? CO c» c^ X t- CI o o CO 00 -T 'o Ci lO o c< in as 

•jr>'Sn9 JO pnnod eao joj 
psjmbw «}9«q jo ^jtjtreE^ 


•3 O O 00 'S' — 

C? O t^ O M X <C X O X O C* LO CO O C^ X O CO CO CJ O* t^ «5 

J3 ^ oc^ ^ ^ *^ ^ ^ "-o o ■v -^ -T CO CO CO -v ci ?o c^ CI CO Oi CI ^ rH CI CO c? e* — « itj 


• > o 

5 ia 


t^ c; 00 ^ tc; — • X X TO c. o C-, c: X f^ f^ -^ — c: X Lo — f — r — ro ci 

rHt^Xt~^C5— :CCOCOt^CI^C^COO^^C;XCi-—Xl.^CICIt^ 

oo"cr od'cTo" LO ^^~ x" :rr co' c5" o" 3" io~ :c t^ t^ oo" ;c" cT fr' crT i-o' -r*' K" rr -^ 
ci in c* LO r; LO C-. ;c r- o CO X 31 x X 1.0 o TT ^ -" CO T- CI X X o f- 
^. i-ii-if-.c*co'*ocioocc^x^-^o— <m-<rc~*ci'-cao 

xoxia5-=ooooooooo = oooo = 0000 = 00 



foaD^oiocDirs^OTOmajC^mLOO-r'CiaiOx — ^^xccclo^^ClCl 
- CO to :r^ '^ i-O o X in r^ f^ o -r CO <— t^ 'T — '-C CI t- o LO o 10 o 10 t:r rt — 10 

-O^-«C0XO'<?"C0wi'P31'fCICICIOrp«C0Oai:r. '<J•^OCt-r^OCO^-. 

„ . -"in«o"c"c>"o"— "—" x"o"-^"in Lo"co"t^"— •»" ■r-"Lo"r:'"t-"r-''~'i--'"x"c:"-i' Vio'o~t-r 
/" — . o — X o CI r- t~ o !o -• 10 1.0 CO o CT. 35 m CI C-. CO t~ ;o j- -o X CO «o u- 3j 
'-' r-.i-<>-iOJOir-ii-ir-<(NoiM'*i.';r-0!rroooimi--ci-"xcco!C'i:<cr5 

— "r-'"f-rr-rr-r-rci'c."„"ci"c<'cj"cj'<?fco 

2ain»})«j JOJ dind f^g 

^ CO LO CO X' Oi -^ o c: LO CO CI ^^ CO LO o n X o — CO CO c? ^. o LO c <o X ^- o 

CI CI xi—ic: -r C-. t^xm's' CI-— cor:co — co — ooororo-^ CI LOrrcoxci-^ 
^— .inOLOn'CJO^. Xf-'Cc^mt^OLO-vo-^co-Tri.oococoi.onco— 'OQD 

S ;::; ^ p; c, 5; £ S S LO 3 o — 1.0 o X c; TT in X X ^- o t~ c; o CI CO o K in CO 
Oi-xocsoAr-oojooaiciccocoo^cocotot-cicoco-occccos-. mxcit^ 

.RIP JOJ p^aniiOJd 8aKse[6j( 

00 o 00 ■^ o CO o 05 CO X in CO m ci to t~ ^- r~ .-o m X r: i- lO ci a; -o- 3) X o —1 

C^LOCO — 000 XC^O— 00 — LO—i CI I'. -O CO t^COt-X — t^COO'O CI CO 

jt-oo^TTt-cot-'-f^—'Ocoot- 10 —"C^ CI ro CI CO— *r:t--"0-vo in d-* 
5 -«"odcc"t-^x'^rnH"rrVoc'cr— 'f-^crr-^ciVf rf — ~co~co"co~co~:o"^'co*cn"x'x'co'cf 



■Mfs o\ peotipsj P91199J 
eqi 'p»Dnpojd jK2tiS m^h 

'neaq i!83x9 O) paanpaj 
sano paup sin 'pr-jjjoji 
6}9eq u<)Si3 }o A4;^uBnft 

r CO c» X 1^ -^ :o in ^- "^ CI X CI X — oi —< CO o CI c. 00 rf f-- r^ 01 -^ r-* o ■«• CO ci 

•: CI -r o CO CO — -r CO o o: T 1^ <~ o o — . c-. o Ci =. co m — co c; uo c» o t- o 

<j ^ — c". CI CO t^ in f* CO •*?' o X t^ f^ to CO ~- o X -v <^ CI — m :o o CO CI LO CI r- 1^ 

o -^ co'^'^t'lo'c^"— Tin'cfo'in'ro co'jcio T-'^rr^'-Tx^oT— 'lo X ^r^^ 

'-" ^in ?1 S ^ X ^ •'T CO oj -^ cc CO x ih i'"- CI t^ ■5' r-* X in o; CO ?o, riio c* ccs co ^r t^ 

31 ci-^^ in ci- 

'CO-^oj-ctj— TTx— xo— f~ xcOTO — cr'3>^coo 

•Feuo)OBj jtjSns-iasq 3ni 
-XJOJA XiiBuioB JO jaqoniK 

CJ -o o 3> m Lo X m 00 to t- I— m X ^ ■«■ X t- 31 « CO o> r~ CO t~ t- r- CO o in CO 

CI 1.0 lO in •v CO S5 o OJ o: o cj -T •^ X CO CO CI CI — > CO •»• m ko -r Ti- •!- lo f~ cji en 

^_r-f-J — ^ .-• r-f-<^-<«0j0«3«3J«CJ(J»CJ<NC<<N3*0»eiC«3J 

t- X ?-. o — CI r: • 

: i^ X ri o — '- - - 

) 1.0 LO O to CO CO CO CO to : 

CO l;^ X ^ o — C 

1 iTTTTS , 1 , 

iri -r- O — f^ TO C: O — C 

X OD X X X O; -X"!- JL 00 X ^ X X X X X X 


In France the g^oveniraent begins it« control as soon as t»lie beet juice 
is exti'acted, weighing its specific gravity in the claiifying pau, and trom 
that inomeut keejis a continual supervision ot' ibe whole process ol 
sugar making, until the sugar leaves the entrepot or bonded warehouse, 
and enters into con.sumption. The nnnoyances incidental to this system 
are innumerable and continuous. 

in Austria the system of taxation i'? regidated accortling to the dif- 
ferent methods of extracting the juice, and the capacity of the machines 
employed for the purj^ose. The quantity of beets which could be worked 
with each machine for extinttiug juice is computed for twenty -four 
hours, and '• lumped,'' which is called " pauschaling.'' The government 
keeps no other control than noting the number of hydraulic presses or 
other machines wliich work each day, acconling to their rating, allowing 
for no stoppages, unless a machine stops at least twenty-sLs hoius. This 
system of taxation bears miovenly upon diliereut factories, and is the 
cause of the secrecy observed in some of them as to general results. 

In llussia, when new factories are built, they work for a certain time 
on trial, under the contiol of government officials, after which a quan- 
tity is agreed upon, which the factory works in twenty-four hours, and 
the amount of revenue which it ought to pay accordingly. Otherwise 
tlie government takes no notice of what is produced in any factory, and 
no official records are kept. 

In Belgiimi the system is like that of Fi'ance in nearly every resi^ect, 
and in Poland it is the same as in Eussia. 

The intlnence of tlrese different systems of taxation on the manage- 
ment of sugar works, and even on the culture of the beet, is surprising. 
In the ZoUverein, where eighteen cents must be x>iiitl to the govern- 
ment for every centner of beets worked, a gi'eat deal of attention is paid 
to the production of rich beets, by reason of which the quabty has 
been steadily improving. Beets are seldom raised on newly manured 
l;.ud; as a general rule the mannre is applied to a graiu crop, as barley, 
wheat, or rye ; after these crops are taken off beets are raised with- 
out any manure, and after beets such crops, according to the strength 
of the land, as will pay best. Beets are, therefore, raised in rotation, 
on an average once in four years. The system of maniuiug and of pro- 
ducing theuianmehas not only been studied as a science, but is pnKticed 
as an art. If it can be said of any country that the more beets and beet 
sugar it produces, the more gi'ain it will yield, it can be said of the ZoU- 
verein; and it is much to be regietted that we have not so complete and 
correct official statistics of the increase of gi-aiu as wt? have of sugar. 
As the i)roduction of sugar has nothing to do with the amount of rev- 
enue, there is no objection to giving correct figui'es, either to the gov- 
ernment or to individuals : and the manufacturers are left entirely tree 
to work with any kind of machinery, in any way they i>lease, to change 
it at will, and to make as many experiments as they like. The part to 
which sugar nmnufacturers pay most attention in the com*seof the work, 
whether t hey raise the beets or buy them, is to have the beet as rich in sugar 
as possible, and to take out all the juice that c;ni possibiy be expressed; 
the revenue tax being the same, whether seventy-tive per cent, or ninety 
per cent, of the juice is extracted, and whether the juice contains ten 
per cent, or fifteen per cent, of sugar. It cannot be denied, therefore, 
that the system followed in the Zoilvereiu is the most scientific and the 
most rational of any, and the official tigm-es obtained in relation to it 
the most reliable. 

Li France government supervision commences with the exti'action ot 
the juice ; the raw beets being under no control, and the quality being 


considered immaterial, they axe not near so rich as those grown in 
the ZoUverein, ami are mostly raised ou newly mauurod land, the 
gr<?,yt aim being to produce a large crop, or, in other words, to raise as 
many beets on an acre as possible. As a natural consequence, grain crops 
are not so large as they might be, the limit of manure production being 
al ways the natural limit of Itrtdity. Statistics, ^vith the exception of 
the actual sugar production and consumption, are less reliable and com- 
plete than those of the ZoUverein, the tax in Austria beiug varied on 
tbc uumber of juice-producing machines, and their capacity according 
to official classification. A press, or other juice-rendering machine, can 
p.'ork as many beets of rich quality as of inferior ; and, as the tax is the 
Kame of either, it is essential to work as rich beets as possible; there- 
fore, the beets raised there are generally of a quality superior to those 
iTi France. The juice is never so perfectly extracted as hi the Zollverein, 
:;! though double pressing is never resorted to. 

In Russia, where the sugar factories work on trial, under government 
super\isors, for a short time only, and are taxed according to the result 
obtained, no statistics can be procured, or, if so, they are uni-eliable ; but 
it is estimated that Russian factories work twice the amount reached by 
government taxation. 

It is obvious that the figures given by the revenue oificers of the ZoU- 
verein are the most comi^lete, and the most reliable, and that the method 
of worktug ui the factories is the most rational, because it opens the way 
for improvement, and every method of working is judged by its own 
merits, as no outside matters need be considered. 

During the season of 1867-'G8, there were three hundred beet-sugar 
factories in operation ia the ZoUverein ; in France, four hundred and 
seventy-one ; in Belgium, one hundred and eleven ; in HoUand, eighteen ; 
in Austria, one hundred and thirty-eight; iu Russia, four hundred and 
thu'ty-nine, (of these one hundred and twenty-nine were not in operation ;) 
in Poland, forty ; in Sweden, one ; and in the United States, one. The num- 
ber of all known beet-sugar factories in the world is thirteen hundred and 
ninety.* The quantity of beet sugar produced amounted in 1828 to 7,700 
tons ; iu 1851 to 192,500 tons, and in 1865 to 581,350 tons. In France 
17,000,000 hectares t of land are required in beet culture to keep the 
factories employed, which is about one-sixth of all her land fit for culti- 
vation ; the same proportions applying to Belgium and Holland. 

The government estimates are that in the ZoUverein the average 
quantity of raw sugar obtained from beets during the season of 1845-'46 
was five per cent.; from that time to 1854-'55, sis and two-thirds per 
cent.; and since that time eight per cent.; or, in other words, up to 1845 
it requked a ton of beets to procluce one huncked pounds of sugar ; from 
1846 to 1854 it required three-fourths of a ton of beets to one hundred 
pounds of sugar, and since then five-eighths of a ton to one hundred 
pounds of sugar. The increased product is partly due to improved 
machinery, and partly to the improved quaUty of the beets raised. 

* Tlie recent report of W. WadsAvorth, agent of the Sacramento Beet Sugar Couipauy 
of California, states that " the niunher of bect-sngar factories in the diHerent countries 
of Europe is as follows : France, three hundred and sixty-four ; Belgium, thirty-six ; 
Prussia, oiie hundred and forty-six ; Austria, one huudrcd'and twenty-tive ; in the rest 
of Germany, forty-eight ; Poland, thirty-one ; and iu Russia, four hundred and forty- 
one ; making in all one thousand one hundred and ninety-one -without counting those 
smaller concerns that are found here and there in very many of the smaller isolated 
agricultural districts, and distinguished from the larger fa/Ctories by their motive power 
being the animals of the farm, and their cost, generally, not exceeding five thousand 
dollars. If, however, these are counted in, there are then over six hundred beet-sugar 
factories in France alone, all of which axe visited regularly by government o^ciaJs. 
who collect the duties imposed on the sugar produced." — Ed. Report. 

^ JJfftr.rf., 2.4711 acres. 


In Germauy aud France it was formerly easy for sugar manufacturers 
to procure supplies of the beet, and the business was looked upon as a 
])urely mauuiactming one ; but of late years many factories have been 
compelled to discontinue work, because it is impossible to procure beets. 
These factories are mostly located near large cities, where farmers 
brought their beets. Sugar production is now considered an agricul- 
tural business, and no factories have been built of late without sufficient 
land at command. 

The local institutions of different countries, especially as relating to 
the divisions and o^vllcrship of lands, greatly atfect the establishment 
aud prosperity of beet-sugar works. In Rnissia, of all the sugar factories 
t'orty-five per cent, belong to the nobility, and fifty-five per cent, to large 
hmded proprietors, no joint stock companies existing. In Austria only 
thirty-eight per cent, are in the hands of the nobility ; thirty-six per cent, 
in those of land proprietors, and there are twenty-six joint stock com- 
panies. In France the greater portion of these establishments belongs 
to private partnerships. In the ZoUverein sixty-five cent, belong either 
to private parties or to private partnerships, while fifty-five per cent, 
are joint stock companies. Both an France and the ZoUverein the sugar 
works owned by the nobility are few in number, probably not five per 
cent, of the whole. The prosperity of these establishments, and their 
progress in perfecting the method of manufacturing, are in reverse pro- 
portion as they are owued by the nobility ; ZoUverein, Austria, and 
France having, x>erhai)s, equal chances for progress during the last fifteen 

The capacity of the largest beet-sugar factory known is sixty-six thou- 
sand tons per annum. It is located in Waghausel, grand duchy ot 
Baden, and works the beets complete into white loaf sugar. One of the 
smallest has a capacity of nineteen hundred tons per annum, and is 
located at Klehtendorf, in Silesia; the former working summer and win- 
ter ; the latter only in winter. 

Looking back forty years, it is surprising to see the regular and steady 
increase of sugar consumption. JFrom an article of luxury or medicine it 
has become a necessity of every-day consumption. Every civilized country 
has exerted itself to secure emancipation from slave-grown cane sugar, 
and to stop the flow of money to a few colonies. Without the United 
States as a regular customer, Cuba and Brazil might as well give up 
growing sugar, and direct their attention to a more healthy occupation. 

The United States is among the largest sugar-consuming and import- 
ing nations in the world, while protlucing little ; and whatever can bo 
said of other nations, regarding the necessity 'of becoming independent 
as to their supply of sugar, applies with greater force to this coiui- 
try. In 1840 the consumption of sugar in the ZoUverein amounted 
per capita to 4.67 pounds; in 18G6 it amounted to 10 pounds per 
head, an increase of over one hundred per cent, in twenty-five years. 
In 1840 the quantity of sugar consumed in Austria was 1.68 pounds per 
head ; in 18613 it reached 5.1 pounds, or nearly three hundred per cent, 
increase. As the consumi)tion of sugar keeps pace with a nation's pros- 
perity and progress in civilization, is there any reason to doubt that the 
consumption of sugar in the United States will increase in a ratio at 
least equal to that in Austria and the ZoUverein. 


The operation of manufacturing beet sugar may be divided into three 
distinct parts : 1, the extraction of juice; 2, the purification of the same; 


and 3, reducing tlie purified juice to crystals. The principles on which 
tbe different establishments work are everywhere the same; but the 
means employed to reach the same end vary considerably. The mode 
of extracting the. juice varies more than anything else, the great aim 
being to obtain the greatest possible quantity with the least foreign 
matter. Beets contain, besides fiber, sugar and water, vegetable albu- 
men, organic acids and alkalies, in combination with organic and inor- 
ganic acids. 

The extraction of juice is done by the following process : hydraulic 
presses, centrifugal machines, green maceration, dry maceration, and 
diffusion. To these five methods may be added the system of double- 
pressing with hydraulic presses, and centrifugal machines in combina- 
tion with hydraulic presses. These different methods are in regular 
practical use; others have been employed by way of experiment. They 
are all old, with the exception of " diffusion ; " all have their advantages, 
and all are open to objections. The use of hydraulic presses is the most 
extended, and probably three-fourths of ail the su^ar made has passed 
through the press process. 

In the early history of beet sugar it was considered essential to add 
sulphuric acid, to prevent the juice from deteriorating, but this system 
was discarded long ago, giving place to the opposite principle. The 
juice, after its extraction, is clarified with lime, in which great progress 
has been made. In the early days of beet-sugar manufacture, after the 
addition of acids was discontinued, lime was employed in limited 
quantities to pmify the beet juice, from one-half to three-fourths of one 
per cent., beginning with the opening of the reason at the lower figure 
working up to the higher as the season advanced and the beets dete- 
riorated. With improved machinery, however, lime is emj^loyed almost 
without limit; and it is hot uncommon to use three per cent, of lime 
In purifying beet juice three distinct processes are in use, although in 
each the agent used is heat in combination with lime. These processes 
are mostly named after their inventors. The oldest and simplest pro- 
cess, and which is still found in many sugar- works, is the simple heat- 
ing of beet juice to about one hundred and sixty-five degrees, adding, at 
that temperature, one-half to three-fourths per cent, of newly slaked 
lime, and raising the heat, as fast as possible, to the boiling point. 
The action of lime and heat coagulates the vegetable albumen, and 
changes many of the organic combinations. Lime and impurities form 
a heavy, tough scum, which covers the surface, while the bright and 
clear juice can be drawn from under it. This bright juice, mixed with 
other foreign matter, contains considerable lime in solution. In former 
years animal bone coal was the only ingredient employed to separate 
the lime from the juice. Many factories may be foimd, up to this day, 
which work by this simple process; but the greatest nurnber employ 
carbonic acid to precipitate the lime, in the form of carbonate of lime. 
The carbonic acid emjiloyed for that purpose is generated simply by the 
burning of coke, drawn into the juice by a mixture of carbonic acid and 
carbonic oxide gas, the former combining with the lime, and forming a 
carbonate, the latter passing through the juice without any eflect. 

Another and newer method was invented by Frey and lelirick, and 
consists in beginning the carbonization as soon as the juice runs into 
the pan, the slaked lime being plaeed in the pan before the juice enters. 
Three per cent., or sometimes more, of lime is employed by this process, 
which is, no doubt, most advantageous when working inferior or deteri- 
orated beets. A third i)rocess is the one by Perier and Pozzos, who 
I'epeat the treatment of beet juice with lime and carbonic acid several 


tunes, aiiniag at the saving of a greater part of animal cliarcoaL Wlieu 
large qnantities of lime are employed, as in the Frey and lelirick process, 
and the Perier and Pozzos, the carbonic acid is obtained from the burn- 
ing of limestone in limekilns, bnilt expressly for the pnri^ose. All these 
different methods have their advantages, and all are open to obje<itions.' 
i?o one method is adopted in any locality, nor is it possible to say \rhicii 
is the best. It generally, and with rare exceptions, depends ui)ou local 
matters. If lime is not easily obtained, or is impure, it is used more 
sparingly; if bone-black can be cheaply procured, the emjjloyment of 
carbonic acid is not so essential; the question of fuel is an item in the 

The reason why it is impossible to agre^ upon any one method oi 
working is the variation in the quality of the beets in different years, as 
well as in the beets grown the same year in different soils and weather. 
Factories may be found belonging to one owner, working according to 
different systems, and so operating for years without solving the 
problem as to which ^s the best method under any or aU circumstances. 
Only by the statistical tables can the steady advance and progress be 

In comparing the different systems and methods of working in the 
beet- sugar manufactories of Eiu-ope, with a view of finding the best for 
the United Stares, it is necessary to examine the ciicnmstances under 
which they work. It will be observed on page 170, which gives a specified 
accoui^t of a whole season's work, as it has taken p]ace, that the internal 
revenue is the highest item of expense — even higher than the whole 
cost of the raw beet. FiieJ and wages, each amounts to only one-third of 
either the internal revenue or the of beets, while the interest and 
discount are fignred lower than either fuel or wages. Where kind is 
expensive and difiicult to be procnred, beets will always command a 
high piic^, and the longer the season the higher will be the price of 
beets. Fuel will always be in proportion to the number of working 
days, making it immaterial whether the work is extended over the whole 
season or only over a part. Wages are exnemely low already, and they 
cannot be exiiectetl to change much if the working season is extended. 
The iutei-est and discount would be ch;inged but little if a working sear 
son were extended fi'om one hundred and twenty to two hundred and 
forty days or more, while aU the advantages to be gained might be more 
than counterbalanced by the increased price of beets. 

It is readily imderstood, therefore, why the sugar manufactories lay 
so little stress on working the whole year. Attempts to do so have been 
made, and a few establishments are stiU at work with dry beets; but 
they do not fiud many followers. When the process of drA,-ing beets and 
working them the whole year was suggested and put into execution, it was 
with a \iew of obtaining the juice in a pure state. By diying the sliced beet 
and exi>osing it to a temperature of boiling water, the vegetable albu- 
men contained in the beet coagulates, and becomes insoluble in water; 
but still the >uice obtained is no pui-er — other changes taking place. 
The hope of obtaining a better juice thereby has not been realized, and the 
advantage of working the whole yeai- has been counterbalanced by seve- 
ral ilisad vantages; one, and not the least, being the worthlessuess of the 
refuse as feed for stock. The tlry beet being treated with lime, retains 
large portions of it, which makes it unfit for use. The "fuel consumed 
makes a hea^'y item of exiiense, and is not coimterbalanced by the saving 
of interest on the investment or anything else. 

A third objection is the tax. WTi'erever there is any doubt, the revenue 
bureau construes in its owa favor. Formerly one ton of dried beets was 


counted an equivalent for four aud three-quarters tons of green or fresli 
beets, but the proportion is now two to one iu calculating the taxes. 
This proportion may be correct, when beets are perfectly dry, and of 
inferior quality -when fresh; but very rich beets will not require five tons 
to produce one of tMed ones. It is, there^re, more advantageous to work 
dry beets iu bad seasons than iu good ones. In a very wet season, and 
where dry beets have to be ti'ansported a great distance, they absorb a 
great deal of water, which is weighed with, and coimted for, beets, and 
has to pay revenue. But the gTcatcst difficulty is to procui'e land enough 
in the vicinity for growing beets, and to produce manure .enough to keep 
the laud in its strength. 

The piincipal objections to the system of working the whole year 
either dried, beets continuously, or fresh beets in fall and winter, and 
dried in spring aud summer, may be stated as follows : Scarcity of 
land; the oppressive system of taxation; high price of land com- 
pared with the low price of labor; impossibility of producing manure 
to keep up the productiveness erf the laud, if the refuse of the beet can- 
not be used for cattle-feed, and the low price of capital invested in 
sugar works. 

Kot one of aU these objections would apply to sugar works, and the 
system of working diied beets in tlie United States. Land is neither 
scarce nor high in price; taxation, if resorted to, would not be oppres- 
sive; fael is very low, while labor is i)roportiouaUy high; cattle-feed 
can readily be produced, when farmers see the absolute necessity of a 
regular system of manure production ; and finally the price which capi- 
tal commands is, at least, double that of any Eiu'opeau country. 

The process of obtaiuuig the beet juice by '* diffusion " is almost the 
same, whether applied to green beets or to dried. The machinery is the 
same and can be used for either, and the a^ctual labor to be performed 
in extracting the juice is considerably less, and iu character less objec- 
tionable. A ±acto»y working by this system in the juice-rendering pro- 
cess thirty-five and three-fifths tons every ten hours, employs eighteen 
men. A factory rendering the juice by pressing with hydraulic presses 
(singly) requires forty-two men ; working with centrifugal machines, nine- 
teen men ; with gi'eeu maceration, eighteen men ; with double hydi'aulic 
presses, tweuty-tive men; while a factory working with centrifugal 
machines, and pressing afterw^irds with hydraulic machines, requires 
forty-one men. The excess of hand labor, requii-ed in the press process, 
cannot be said to be counterbalanced by a juice obtained of. one to one 
and a half degree more density. 

The auuexed tables give the complete figures taken from the books of 
the various establishiueuts, and the question is natural, if sugar can 
be produced at those figures iu nearly every coimtry in Euiope, why has 
the largest sugar-consuming nation iu "the world to rely on its supply 
from abroad ? Why has not beet sugar long ago been produced iu the 
United States? 

The system of farming, if the agricultural labor in the United States 
can be so designated, has beeu tlifferent from that of any other country, 
and, with rare exceptions, has never paid ; hence, the first requirement 
for beet-sugar iudustiy, well-cultivated land, cannot be readily obtained. 
Deep or thorough cultivation is but little known, and money, as an 
investment in farming, has seldom i^roved remimerative. But the 
same causes will ultimately produce the same effects; in order to make 
our lauds as productive as they ought to be, a rotation of grain and 
root crops will have to be resorted to. As soon as a reg'ular rotation 
of crops is introduced into the United States, farming, as such, will pay, 



and tbe raw material for beet-sugar fac^tories can be readily produced; 
until then sugar works will have to do their own farming. "When beet 
sugar was lirst manufactured in Europe there was no diificultv in pro- 
curing the raw material, and aU eflbrts to produce sugar could, there 
fore., be directed toward the wprking of beets, not to their production. 

Comparatively little lias l)ee& done in the United States to pave the 
way for sugar production. While in Europe, Heniy Clay took p'eat 
interest in the beet-sugar production of France; and, in speeches 
made in Congress, he predicted great results from its introduction. 
More than twenty-five years ago the lii'st efibrt to introtluce this 
branch of industry into the United States was made, but there exivSts no 
authentic record of the results obtained. Thei'C is nothing to indicate 
what variety of beet was raised; the quantity obtained from a given area 
of land; what percentage of sugar, and what percentage of foreign mat- 
ter these beets contained; the kind of soil they were raised in, or how 
the season com])ared, in respect to temperature and raiu-fall, with an 
average one. Hence the experiment in Northampton, Massachusetts, 
costly as it may have been, has not benefited anybody, nor advanced 
beet production. 

Since then numbers of experiments have been made to raise sugar 
beets by private parties; but no regular systems were adopted, and all 
being detached, we are as much in the dark to-day as to what beets to 
raise, and how and in what locality to raise them, as we were twenty-five 
years ago. In May, 1867, the Agi-icultural Department at Washington 
sent nine dilferent varieties of beet seeds to Chatsworth, Illinois, for 
trial and comparison with the beets i)roduced in countries where they 
are grown for sugar production. The following are the results obtained, 
compared witli tht; beets used for sugar making in several establishments, 
from the books of which we have been kindlv furnished with extracts : 

Specific gravity I Polarization of 
of jiiice. aiig^. 

Forei^ matter. 

No. 1. 
No. 2. 
No. 4. 
N*o. 5. 
No. 6. 
NO. 7. 
No. 8. 
No. 9. 


Average polarization in Einbeck Factory, vyorkingby the 
«Ji ffuiiion Hysloni 

Of 310 polarizations made during the season ISCe-'CT, at 
BroiBtedt Factory, working with hydi'aiUic presses 

Of 122 polarizations, narae factory, 18'i7-'(JS 

Of the seaHon l.'62-'63, at sugar factory, working with 
hydraulic presses 


13. ra 
15. e2 



10. 95 
12. 59 
11. 9tj 






2. 10 


2. 86 


These figures, taken from the records kept by factories during the work- 
ing season, show conclusively that the average quality of those nine 
varieties of the beet, raised irom seeds furnished by the Department, 
was superior, but it remains to be proved what particular variety is best 
adapted to culture in the United States, and also which is the best locaUty 
for raising beets and producing sugar from them. 

The following figures are taken from a report made by Dr. Grouven, 
chief of the experimental station (Versuchs Station) in 'Salzmiinde, on 
his researches in tracing the iutiuence of manure, soil, and weather on the 
quality and quantity of crops. These researches were conducted ^rith 


the greatest care, at an enormous expense, and with a most efficient staff 
of assistants ; many estates volunteered, their co-operation. The average 
of beet juice from twelve estates, each fertilized with different manure, 
showed the following percentage of sugar in the juice : Estate Tdlan, 12,26 ; 
Vrerau, 12.80; Honingen, 13.21;, Sudenbui'g, 9.29; Jakowa, 11.70; 
Grutzka, 12.10 ;'Chako^\itz, 13.49; Stifterhof, 12.70 ; Rliineschauz, 12.60; 
Junngersdorf, 12.84; Eoszla, 11.52 ; Salzmiinde, 14.78; average, 12.44. 

The nine, varieties of the beet, according to the foregoing statement, 
show an average of 12.40 per cent, of sugar in the juice, while the aver- 
age of twelve experimental estates, where beets were raised witK the 
gi'eatest care, show an average of 12.44 per cent., or very nearly the 
same, which would seem to settle the question as to whether beets raised 
in the United States are as rich in sugar as those grown in Europe. 

The lands upon which these beets were raised are as different in geo- 
logical formation and phj'sical condition as lands cati be, which proves 
that it does not require a peculiar soil to produce beets. As a general 
rule, soil which is well adapted for producing barley is suited to beet 
culture. The soil on estate Tillan is light-colored, sandy loam, with 
very sandy subsoil, almost clear sand ; estate Vrerau, sandy loam, con- 
taining about twenty per cent, sand, which increases in the subsoil as 
one goes deeper into it ; estate Honingen, tough loam, with a subsoil from 
two to, four feet, the same as the top soil, but further down more mixed 
with sand; estate Sudenburg, near Magdebui'g, mild loamy top soil, with 
a subsoil more tough, which prevents the moisture from leaving the top 
'soil too freely ; estates Jakowa and Grutzka, top soil a black, mellow loam, 
two feet or more deep, with a subsoil, four feet deep, of yellow loam rich 
with lime ; estate Chakowit^, in Bohemia, heavy clay sod, two and a half 
feet deep; it is a black soil containing considerable lime, otherwise 
would make good bricks, subsod four feet, yellow loam ; estate Stifter- 
hof, in Southern Germany, top soil sandy marl, active and tliy, three 
and a half feet: the subsoil is tough clay, almost impenetrable by 
water; island of Rhineschauz, a sandy loam top soil, little cohesive and 
easily worked, with a subsoil, the deeper the sandier ; estate Junngers- 
dorf, mdd, very productive, loamy top soil, foiu" feet deep, with a subsod 
containing marl, with thiity i^er cent, carbonate of lime; estate Roszla, 
near the Harz Mountains, red, tolerably heavy loam on top, with a sub- 
soil of heavy loam tliroughout; estate Salzmiinde, a very mild loam, 
rich in lime do^vii eighteen inches, of a dark humus color, with yellowish 
white subsod, at least ten feet deej), contaming still more lime, so that 
it might almost be called marl. 

In cultivating the land great attention is paid to subsoding. Without 
bringing the subsoil on the top, it is thoroughly stirred to enable it to 
absorb air and warmth, to Ciiriy water off" more freely in wet seasons, 
and to kee]) more moisture in dry seasons. This system of working the 
sod so deep is the chief reason why the grain crops in beet-sugar dis- 
tricts are so much larger and less variable than in other i)laces. The 
beet crops in Europe are considered as certain and safe as any other, 
but not more so ; for the variations, both in quality and quantity, are 
the same as in grain or other root crops. 

The following statements will show the workings of different factories, 
their productiveness, and the least cost of producing the sugar ready for 
market : 

The practical working of the beet-sugar works, Jerxheim, during the 
season of 1807-'68, is as follows : This establishment is owned by a joint 
ijtock company, every shareholder being under obligation to raise or 
procure a certain quantity of beets annually ; hence every stockholder is 


a fanner. The establishment is one of the best conducted and best 
• iwying in the Zollverein. The antiexed fignres are taken fi:x)m the 
books of the conjpany : Total quantity of beets worked from the 1st of 
October. 1307, till the IGrh of February, 1868, 10,725 tons; average 
quantity of beets \roiked i>er da^, 88 tons ; number of centrifu^rrU 
machines employed to extract the juice, li* : number of tons worked 
with one centrifugal machine each day, 7^. The quality of the beets 
during the whole season is shown by the iiolarization of the juice, as 
follows : 


! Sagar in jcicf . 

Foreign flatter. 


Per ctni. 

11. $2 




11. PI 


























10. 60 




10. 4y 


10. Cl 


U. 17 


Oetober 1 to October 6, 1967 

Oetober7MCrrr-?7 :T :f~ 


Octobers] : 

OeSoberZE : 

HorembeT 4 -"7 

Korember 1 ^^67 

Xovember : - _ .-'77 

K0T«aber25 r: Dc .-r=:l-rr 1 1S67 

December 2 to December g, ld67 

j>i-;— '-.^ 1 ■'-, ▼>=:.=— Vi^ 2"^ !S57..... 

: "" ' :'. -^e?!"! 

i. 1536. 

■.:r. -; ■ r. :-;>y 16, 1868. 
W- .Texoge 

The sugar and obtained trom the juice during the whole 
season amounted to 11.84 per cent. Of this yield 2,431,900 pounds of 
sugar were produced and brought into the market in the following 
quantities: first product, 6.21 per cent.: second product, 1.72 per cent.; 
third product, 0.59 i>er cent.; fourth product, 0.28 i)er cent. The total 
expenses for running the works the whole year of 1807-68, and workmg 
10,725 tons of beets, were per ton of beets, $3 31 ; internal rcTenue, 
$3 39 ; fuel, including factory and horses for workmen, 68 cents : wood 
and coal for blacksmith, 0.9 cents ; coke for Imiekilns, 2.3 cents ; wages, 
(total.) summer and winter, $1 05.5 ; bone-black, .5.4 cents ; limestone, 
4-9 cents ; cooperage. 14 cents ; pai>er for lining barrels, 2.1 cents ; dis- 
count and interest, 16 cents ; cartage of sugar, 11|^ cents ; repairs on 
machinery and buildiDg, o5.0 cents : salary, 18.1 cents ; gas coal, 0.8 
cent ; oil, 1.7 cent : commission for selling sugar, 0.8 cents : insurance, 
G.l cents; sinking fund, 2.7 cents: sundries, 46-3 cents; total exi^enses 
for one ton of beets, worked, $10 39. 

According to the foregoing account the yield of raw sugar was 8.8 
I>er cent., or 170 ]>ounds of sugar to each tbn of beets, the 10,725 tons 
worked yielding 188.700 pounds of sugar. The total receipts for sugar 
and mohisses amounted to 8140,678 30^ The cost of production was 5.9 
cents i»er pound in gold, making a total of $101,368 40 for the aggregate 
production of the season, and leaving a net profit of $39,309 90. 

The number of workmen employed ranged from 207 to 210, inclu<iing 
men. woinen, and children, being' 110 for day and 100 for night work. 
Wages were paid at the following rates : For carrying beets : 1 man, at 
3U cents, and 5 at 30J cents, •*! 8:3| : the same' for night work. For 
centrifugal machine: 1 man, at 37i cents; same for night. For topping 
and trimming beets : 12 girls, at 19 cents, $2 28 ; same for night. For 



internal revenue scale : 1 man, at 35 cents j same for night. For grating 
beets : -4 boys, at 19 cents, 76 cents ; same for niglit. For pnlp wagon : 
2 boys, at 21 cents, 42 cents ; same for night. For centrifugal macliine 
li(;uoring : 4 men, at 28 cents, 81 12 ; same for nig^t. For taking out 
the pulp : 4 men, at 26 cents, $1 04 ; same for night. For carrying the 
pulp away : 2 men, at 26 cents, 52 cents ; same fortnight. For starting 
centrifugal machine : 2 boys, at 23 cents, 46 cents ;* same for night. For 
juice gutter : 2 boys, at 23 cents, 46 cents ; same for night. For first 
carbonizing juice : 1 man, at 37^ cents, 1 at 30^ cents, 1 at 28 cents, 
and 1 at 46^ cents, $1 42^- ; same for night. For "scum presses : 1 man, 
at 31^ cents, and 2 at 29^ cents, 90^ cents ,• same for night. For steam 
syphon : 1 man, at 28 cents, and 1 ait 25 cents, 53 cents ; same for night. 
For second carbonizing juice : 1 man, at 30 cents, 1 at 29 cents, and 1 at 
25 cents, 84 cents ; same for night. For bone-black filter : 1 man, at 35 
cents, and 2 at 25i cents, 86 cents. Same for night. For Eoberts's 
apparatus : 1 man, at 37J cents ; same for night. For sugar floors : 1 
man, at 42 cents, 1 at 37^ cents, 9 at 35 cents, and 1 boy at 25 cents, 
$4 19 J ; none on at night. For limekiln : 1 man, at 35 cents, and 1 at 30 
cents, 65 cents ; for night, 1 man, at 35 cents. For lime station : 1 man, 
at 30 cents, and 1 at 20 cents, 56 cents ; same for night. For washing 
wire cloth : 2 girls, at 22 cents, 44 cents ; same for niglit. For engineers : 
1 man, at 37^ cents, and 1 at 35 cents, 72 J cents ; Ibr night, 1 man, at 35 
cents, and 1 at 32 cents, 67 cents. For firemen : 1 man at 37^ cents, 2 
at 35 cents, and .1 at 28 cents, 81 35.J ; for night, 1 man, at 37^ cents, 
and 2 at 35 cents, $1 07^. For carting coal : 3 men, at 32^ cents, 97^ 
cents ; same for night. For fermenting bone-black : 1 man, at 37=V cents, 
6 at 32^ cents, and 3 at 30 cents, 83 22J ; same for night. For^diying 
bone-black : 1 man, at 32J cents, and 1 boy at 25 cents, 57i cents ; same 
for night. For bone-black furnace : 2 men, at 31.J cents, 63 cents; same 
for night. For gas furnace : 1 man, at 374 cents; same for night. For 
mechanics, &c. : 1 coppersmith, 47 cents ; carpenter, 44 cents ; black- 
smith, 43 cents ; blacksmith, 32 cents ; harness-maker, 37^ cents ; wire- 
cloth-maker, 32 cents ; nurse for hospital, 35 cents ; housekeeper, 35 
cents ; porter, 35 cents, 83 40^. For yard hands : 1 man, at 41 cents, 3 
at 35 cents, 3 at 28 cents, 3 at 25 cents, and 7 boys at 21 cents, 84 52. 
The beet- sugar works in the proyince of Saxony and the duchy of 
Anhalt number as follows : 

During what year. 

Total No. of 

By hydraulic 


By maceration. 

By centiifugi.1 

By diifugion. 

1861 '62 
















Hon. H. Capiio:^, Commissioiier. 




Sir : Alaska may be divided a^'icultuially into three districts, eacli 
diliering from the others iu its climate, vegetation, and physical charac- 

The first aiyl most northern district, which I have termed the Yonkon 
Territory, is hoimded on the south by the Alaskan Mountains, on the 
east by the British boundary line, and on the north and vrest by the 
Arctic Ocean and Behring Sea. 

The second or middle district, which might be called the Aleutian 
district, includes that part of the peninsula of Aliaska, and all the 
islands, west of the one hundred and fifty-fifth degree of longitude. 

The third or southernmost, which may be named the Sitkan district, 
includes all of our possessions on the mainland and islands south and 
east of the peninsula of Aliaska. 


Surface. — The character of the country in the vicinity of the Youkon 
River varies from rolling and somewhat rocky hills, generally low, that 
is, from five hundred to fifteen hundred feet, and easy of ascent, to broad 
and marshy plains, extending for miles on either side of the river near 
the mouth. There are, of course, no roads exce]>t an occasional trail, 
hardly noticeable except to a voyageur. The Youkon and its tributaries 
form the great highway of the coimtry. This sti'eam — the Missouri, ae 
the Mackenzie is the Mississippi, of the northwest — is navigable in our 
territory throughout for vessels drawing not over four feet of water, 
and for many hundred miles for boats needing much more than that. 
The smaller rivers are not so deep, but many of them may be navigable 
for considerable distances. There are no high mountains, properly so 

Sod. — The underlying rocks in great part are azoic, being conglom- 
erate, syenite and quartzite. The south shore of Norton Sound, and por- 
tions of the Kaviak Peninsula, are basalt and lava. Trachytic rocks 
are found at several points on the Youkon. There are, on the north- 
east shores of Norton Sound, abundance of sandstones, and clay bods 
containing bgnite. Sandstone is abundant also on the Youkon, alter- 
nating with azoic rocks. Tiie superincumbent soil differs in different 
places. In some localities it is clayey, and in sucli situations quite fre- 
quently covered with sphagmum, which always impoverishes the soil 
immediately below it. In others it is light and sandy, and over a large 
extent of country it is the richest allu^'ial, composed of very fine sand, 
mud, and vegetable matter, brought down by the river, and forming 
deposits of indefinite depth. 

in some localities fresh-water marl is foand in abundance, and is used 
for mortar or plaster, to whiten the walls of log-houses. 

The soil is usually frozen at a depth of three or four feet in ordi- 
nary situations. In colder ones, it remains icy to within eighteen 
inches of the surface. This layer of iirozen soil is six or eight feet thidi ; 


below that depth the soil is destitnte of ice, except in very imnsnal situ- 

This singular phenomenon appears to be directly traceable to want of 
tlrainage, combined vrith a non-conductive covering of moss, which pre- 
vents the soil from being warmed by the scorching sun of a boreal mid- 
sunimeE. In places where the soil is well di'ained, and is not covered 
with moss, as in the lai'ge alluvial deposits near the Toukon mouth, I 
have noticed that the frozen layer is much fmther .below the surface, 
and in many places appeared to be absent. I have no doubt that in 
favorable situations, by draining and deep plowing, the ice could, in 
the course of time, be wholly removed from the soil. 

A singular phenomenon on the shores of Kotzcbue Sound was first 
observed by Kotzebue and Chamisso, and is described in the narrative 
of the voyage of the Enrik. and afterward bvBucldandin the appendix 
to the voyage of the Herald. This consisced oT blulis or high banks, 
(thirty to sixty 4eet.) apparently of solid ice, covered with a few feet of 
vegetable matter and earth, in which a luxuriant vegetation was flour- 

Kotzebue's description of this singiilaf formation is highly colored; 
but the main facts were conlirmed by Dr. Buck] and and his companions, 
who made a careful examination of the locahty, although Capt. .Beechy 
had previously reported that Kotzebue had been deceived by snow drifted 
against the face of the banks and remaining, while that in other localities 
had melted away. 

It is reported by Buckland and later observers that the formation is 
rapidly disappearing, and the water in the sound is becoming shoaler 
every day, ft-om the faU of the debris which covers the ice. 

2so explanation having been oljered of this singular phenomenon, I 
venture to suggest that it may be due to essentially the same causes 
as the subterranean ice layer, foimd over a great part of the Youkon 

It is quite possible tu conceive of a locality depressed, and so deprived 
of thainage, that the annual moistiu-e derived from rain-fall and melting 
snow would collect between the impervious clayey soil and its sphag- 
uous covering; congeal dui-ing the winter, and be prevented from melting 
diu'ing the ensuing summer by that mossy covering, which woidd thus 
be graduidly raised; the i)rocess annually rejieated for an indefinite 
period would form an ice layer which might well deserve the appel- 
lation of an "■ ice clift',"' when the encroachments of the sea should have 
worn away its barriers, and laid it open to the action of the elements. 

The lesson that the agriculturist may leai-u from this curious forma- 
tion is, that a healthy and luximant vegetation may exist in immeiliate 
A-icinity of permanent ice, bearing its blossoms and matui'iug its seed as 
readily as in apparently more favored situations ; and hence that a lai'ge 
extent of northern territory long considered valueless may yet ftirnish 
to the settler, trader, or fisherman, if not an abimdaut harvest, at least 
a very acceptable and not inconsiderable addition to his annual stock of 
food, besides fish, venison, and game. 

Climate. — The climate of the Youkon Territory in the interior differs 
from that of the sea coast, even in localities comparatively adjacent. 
That of the coast is tempered by the influence of the vast b^ly of water 
contained in Behring's Sea, and many southern cm-rents bringing wanner 
water ft-om the Pacific ; making the winter climate of the coast much 
milder than that of the country, even thii'ty miles into the interior. 
The summers, on the other hand, lu-e colder than further iidiind, and the 
quantity of rain is greater. The following table shows the iinnual tern- 


p«»n»tiire at St.. Michael's Redoabt, on the coast of Norton Sound, in 
f'iS^ 28' north : at the mission of the Kusso-Greek church, on the 
iiiver. one hundre<l :ind titt\- miles trom its mouth, in latitude 
i'i i7 north: at Niilato. alx)ut hlx hundred miles from the mouth of 
the river, in latitude 64^ 4lK north, or thereabouts : and at Fort Youkon, 
nreive hundred miles trom the mouth of the rirer, and al^out latitude 
•j7" ItV north: 



^ Nolato. ' *- r • 

+ 96.3 

+ ae 

+ 29.3 

- 35.05 

- 0.95 1 

+ 36.46 j 

+ 2&.3 ' 

+ 38.0? i 
— 14.0 1 
+ 27.8 , 

+ 14."''" 

+ 59.67 
+ 17.37 
— 23.80 
+ 16.92 

" ' 1 

file mean temi^eratiire at Unalaklik. on the east shore of Xorton Sound, 
for the winter of ISGo-'GT wa^s p. 33^ : but for that of lS67-*6Sit wasonlv 
abont +iP. The mean annual temperature of the Youkon Territory as 
a whole may be roughly estimated as about -|-25^. The greatest degree 
of cold - ever known in the territory was seventy degrees below zero. 
( — TCP:) but such cold as this is very rare, and has little effect on the 
vegetation covered with eight or ten feet of snow. Eumiing water may 
be found oixrn on all the rivers, and in many springs throughout the 

The real opi>oi*nmity for agriculture in a cold coimtrj- cannot be 
deduced from annual mean temj^eratures alone, but is dependent on the 
heat of the summer months and the duration of the summer. 

At Fort Youkon I have seen the thermometer at noon, not in the direct 
rays of the sun. standing at 111'^ ; and I was informed by the comman- 
der of the post that several spirit thermometers, gi-aduated ui\ to 120<^. 
had burst under the scorching stm of the arerie midsummer, which can 
only be thoixnighJy appreciated by one who has endured it. In midsum- 
mer, on the Upi>er Youkon. the only relief from the intense heat, under 
which the vegetation attains an almost tropical luxuriance, is the two or 
three hours while the sun hovers near the northern horizon, and the 
weary voyager in his canoe blesses the tran.<ient coolness of the mid- 
night air. 

The amo^mt of rain-faD cannot be correctly estimated, from want of 
data. At Xidato the fall of snow from [NTovemljer to AjirQ will average 
eight feet, but often reaches twelve. It is much less on the seaboard. 
Partly on this account, and also because it is cbiven seaward by the 
winds, there is usually, even in spring, very little snow on the coasts 
near Norton Sotmd. 

In the interior there is less wind; and the snow Mes as it falls among 
the trees. Towards spring the smaU ravines, grullies, and bushes are well 
filled or covered up, and ti-ansixjrtation is easy and i^leasant with a good 
sled and team of dogs. The warm sun at noon melts the snow a little^ 
forming a hard crust. Over this the dog-sleds can go anywhere, making 
from thirty to fifty miles a day, carrying full one himdred pounds to a 
dog. and re^pii-ing for each dog only one dry fish i>er diem, which weighs 
ab<»ut a pound and a half, and which you can buy for two leaves of 
tobacco. Seven dogs are the usual number for one team. 

The rain-fall, as has previously l>een remarked, is much greater on the 
oons't than in the interior. Four days in a week will 1>e rainy in summer 
at St. Michael's, although the months of May, June, and part of July 


aboimtl ill suuny weather. The last part of July, August, and mo^t oC 
September ;irc "very rauiy. October brings a change ; the windy, usually 
from the southwest from .Iidy to the latter part of September, now are 
mostly from the north, and though cold, bring fine weather. 

The valley of the Lower Youkon is foggy in the latter part of the sunj- 
mer, but as we go up the river the climate improves, and the short 
summer at Fort Youkon is dry, hot, and pleasant, only varied by au 
occasional shower. The great pests in the spring, all along the river, 
are the mosquitoes, the numbers of which. are beyond belief j but they 
retire about the midtUe of JiUy. On the coast they are not so numerous, 
but linger until the fall. 

InliaMtants. — The native inhabitants, curiously enough, arc divided by 
the same invisible boundary that marks the vegetation. All along the 
treeless coast we find the Esqiumaux tribes ; passing a few miles inland 
we come to trees and Indian lodges. This holds good all over the You- 
kon Territory. The Esquimaux extend all along the coast and ui) the 
principal rivers as far as there are no trees. The Indians populate the 
interior, but seldom pass the boundary of the woods. In regard to hab- 
its, neither perform any agricultural labor whatever, and the onby^ vegeta- 
bles, besides berries, used for food, are the roots of Hedysarum Mackenzii, 
Polygonum viviparum, and a species of Archajigelica, and the leaf stalks of 
a species of Bheum or wild rhubarb. . • 

A great delicacy among the Esquimaux is the stomach of the reiu- 
deer, distended with willow sprigs, well masticated, and in a half-digested 
state. This " gruesome mass " is dried for winter use ; when it is mixed 
with melted suet, oil, and snow, and regarded by the consumers much as 
we regard caviar, or any other peculiar dainty. It is, no doubt, a power- 
ful antiscorbutic. The Russian settlements in the Youkon Territory 
were few^ in n mnber. There were four on the Y^oukon ; one on the Kus- 
koquim Eiver; two on Norton Sound ; and one' on Bristol Bay. All of 
these were formerly provided with gardens. The number of Russians in 
the territory at no time exceeded forty, with douljle the number of halt- 
breeds, assistants, or workmen. They were all in the employ of the 
Kussian American Company. Many of them left tlio country after the 
purchase, but the gTeater number remain in the employ of difterent 
American trading companies. The Eussian-boru inhabitants were a 
very degraded class, almost without exception convicts fi-om Siberia or 
elsewhere. The Creoles or half-breeds are a more intelligent and docile 
race, but lazy^ and given to intoxication whenever stimulants are within 
their reach. 

Natural productions. — The first need of traveler, hunter, or settler, in 
any country, is timber. With this almost all parts of the Youkon Terri- 
tory are well supplied. Even the treeless coasts of the Arctic Ocean caji 
hardly be said to be an exception, as they are bountifully supplied with 
driftwood, bronght down by the Y^oukon, Kuskoquim, and other rivers, 
and distributed by the waves and ocean currents. 

The largest and most valuable tree found in this territory is the white 
spruce, (Abies alba.j This beautiful conifer is found oyer the whole 
country, but it is largest and most vigorous in the vicinity of running 
^\"ater. It attains not unfi-equentlj' the height of sixty to one hundred 
feet, with a diameter of over tJiree feet near the butt; but the more com- 
mon size is about thirty or forty feet high, and about eighteen inches at 
the butt. The wood of this tree is straight- grained, easily- cut, white 
and compact, and while very light, it is also very tough, much more 
so than the wood of the Oi-egon piue, (Abies JDouglasii.) For spars 
it has no superior, but it is rather too slender for large masts. The 


barl^ is ui?ed for rootirig by the Hudson Bay Compauy at Fort Youkon, 
and the roote, ]iroi)erly prej^ared, for sev^-iug their birch canoes and 
dishes, by the Indians. I liave seen log-houses twenty years old, in 
which many of the logs were quite sound. The unsound logs were 
said to be those which had been used without being seasoned. These 
trees decrease in size and grow more sparingly toward Fort You- 
kon, but are still large enough for most ijuq^oses. The unexplored 
waters of the Tananah Kiver bring down the largest logs in the spring 
freshets. The number which are annuaDy discharged Irom the mouth 
of the Y^oukon is truly incalculable. It supplies the shores of Behring 
Sea, the islands;, and the arctic coasts ; logs of all sizes lie in wiurows, 
where they are thrown u]>on the shore by the October south westers. 

The wood is put to manifold uses: houses^ Indian lodges, &c., are all 
constructed of spruce. Soft, fine-giained, and easily cut, the Indians of 
the Lower Y'^oukou spend their leisure, dui'ing the short winter days, in 
carving dishes, bowls, and other utensils, and ornamenting them with 
red oxide of iron, in patterns, some of which, though, far from classical, 
are very neat. 

Sleds, frames for skin boats, fishing rods, «S:c., are made by the Esqui- 
maux from s])ruce, and aU their houses and casinos, or dance-houses, are 
built of it. One of these, on Xorton Sound, about thirty by forty feet 
^quare, had on each side shelves or seats formed of one plank, four inches 
thick and thirty-eight inches wide at the smaller end. These enormous 
planks took six years to make, and were cut out of single logs with small 
stone adzes. 

The next most important tree is the birch, (Betula glandulosaj This 
tree rarely grows over eighteen inches in diameter and forty feet liigh ; 
on one occasion, however, 1 saw a water- worn log about fiiteen feet long, 
<juite decorticated, lying on the river bank near 2suklukah\ et, on the 
L'pper Youkon, which was twenty-four inches in diameter at one end 
and twenty-eight at the other. This is the only hardwood tree in the 
Youkon Territory, and is put to a multiplicity of uses. Everything need- 
ing a hard and tough wood is wmstructed of birch. Sleds, snow-shoes, 
standards for the fish traps, and frames of canoes, which are afterwards 
covered with its bark, sewed with spruce or tamarack (LarixJ roots, 
and the seams calked with spmce gum. The black birch is also found 
there, but does not grow so large. The soft new wood of the birch, as 
weU as of the ix»plar, ls cut very' fine and mingled with his tobacco by 
the economical Indian. The squaws at certain periods wear birchen 
hoops around their necks ; and neck-rings and wiistlets of the same wood, 
with fantastic devices scratched ujjon them, are worn as a token of 
mourning for dead friends by the Tananah Indians. 

Several s]>ecies of poplar fFopulus bahamifera and Fojyulus tremu- 
loidesj abound, the former along the water-side, and the latter on drier 
uplands. The first-mentioned si>ecies grows to a very large size. The 
trees are frequently two or three feet in diameter and from forty to 
sixt>- feet high. The timber is of little value, but the Indians make 
small boards, for diflerent purposes, out of the soft wood, and use the 
leathery down from the catkins for making tinder, by rubbing it up 
with iK>wdered charcoal. 

Willows are the most abundant of trees. They are of- all sizes, from 
the slender variety on the Lower Youkon, which grows seventy or eighty 
feet high whiie only six inches in diameter at the butt, and with a mere 
wisp of straggling branches at the extreme tip, to the dwarf willow, 
crawling under the moss, with a stem no bigger than a lead pencil, and 
throwing up shoots a few inches liigh. Willows are almost invariabl^\ 


rotten at the heart, and are only good for fuel. The KutcMn Indians 
make bows of the "wood to shoot ducks with ; as its elasticity is not in- 
jiu^ed by being wet. The inner bark is used for making twine for nets 
and seines by the Indian women, and the Esquimaux of Behring Straits 
use willow bark to color and tan their di'essed deer-skins. It produces 
a beautiful red-brown, somewhat like Eussia leather. The inner bark 
or cambium of the alder fAhms rubra) is used for the same puri)ose. 

The other species rising to the rank of trees in this district are the 
larch {Larix clahuricaf), which is found on rolling prairies, of small size ; 
a small hiich. {Betula nana,) and se\ eral alders {Alnus viridis und incana,) 
a species of Juniper {Juniperus,) and numberless willows, (Salicae.) A. 
species of pine {Pinus cemhra) has been reported from Kotzebue Sound, 
I cannot but think erroneously, as I saw no true pines in the territory 
during a two years' exploration. The most northern point touched by 
the Finns contorfa, at the junction of the Lewis and the Pelly Eivers, at 
Fort Selkirk, in latitude (jS^ north, longitude 137° west (approximate.) 
The Hudson Bay men at Fort Youkon call the white spruce "pine." 

Fodder. — The treeless coasts of the Youkon Territory are covered, as 
weU as the lowlands of the Youkon, with a most luxuriant growth of 
grass and flowers. Among the more valuable of these grasses (of which 
some thirty species are known to exist in the Youkon Territory) is the 
well known Kentucky blue-gTass {Poartratensis.) which gTows luxuriantly 
as far north as Kotzebue Sound, and perhaps to Point Barrow.* 

The wood meadow-gxass [Foa nemoraJis) is also abundant, and fur- 
nishes to cattle an agxeeable and luxuriant pasturage. 

The blue-joint grass {Calamagrostis Canadensis) also reaches the lati- 
tude of Kotzebue Sound, and gTows on the coast of Xorton Sound with 
a truly surprising luxuriance, reaching in very favorable localities four 
or even five feet in height, and averaging at least three. Many other 
grasses enumerated in the list of useful plants grow abundantly, and 
contribute largely to the whole amount of herbage. Two species of 
Elymus almost deceive the traveler with the aspect of gTain fields 
maturing a perceptible kernel, which the field-mice lay up in store. 

The grasses are woven into mats, dishes, articles of clothing for sum- 
mer use, such as socks, mittens, and a sort of hats, by all the Indians, 
and more especially by the Esquimaux. 

In winter the dry grasses, eoUected in simimer for the purpose, and 
neatly tied in bunches, are shaped to correspond with the foot, and 
placed between the foot and the seal- skin sole of the winter boots worn 
in that country. There they serve as a non-conductor, keeping the foot 
dry and warm, and protecting it fi^om contusion to an extent which the 
much-lauded moccasins of the Hudson Bay men never do. In fact, I 
believe the latter to be, without exception, the worst, most imcomfort- 
able, and least durable covering for the foot worn by mortal man. 

Grain has never been sown on a large scale in the Yoidion Territory. 
Barley, I was informed, had once or twice been tried at Fort Youkon, in 
small patches, and the gTain had matiu"ed, though the straw was very 
short. The experiments were never carried any further, however, the 
traders being obhged to devote all their energies to the collection of 
furs. Xo grain had ever been sown by the Eussiaus at any of the posts. 
In the fall of 1SG7 1 shook out an old bag, purchased from the Eussiaus, 
which contained a handful of mouse-eaten gTain, probably wheat ; the 

*For.tho determination of the species, and many interesting facts, lam indebted to Dr. 
J. T. Rothrocb, professor of botany in the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, and late 
botanist to the scientific corps of the Western Union Telegraph Company's exploring expe- 
dition. His report on the flora of Alaska will bo found in tho Slnithsouian report for 18(57. 



succeeclmg- spring-, on examining- the locality, quite a number of blades 
appeared, and when I left Nulato, June 2d, they were two or three 
inches high, growing rapidly. As I did not return, I cannot say what 
the result was. Turnips and radishes always flourished extremely well 
at St. Michael's, and the same is said of Nidato and Fort Youkou. 

Potatoes succeeded at the latter place, though the tubers were small-. 
They were reg-ularly ])lanted for several years, until the seed was lost by 
freezin g dming the winter. At St. Michael's they did not do well. Salad 
was successful, but cabbages would not head. 

The white round turnips gTown at St. Michael's were the best I ever 
saAv anywliere, and very large, many of them weigliing five or six 
pounds. They were crisp and sweet, though occasionally a very large 
one would be hoUow-hearted. The Russians pi^eserved the tops also in 
vinegar for winter use. 

Cattle. — I see no reason why cattle with proper winter protection ihight 
not be successfully kept in most parts of the Youkon Territory. Fodder, 
as previously shown, is abundant. The wild sheep, moose, and reindeer 
abound, and find no want of food. 

A bull and cow were once sent to Fort Youkon by the Hudson Bay 
Company. They did well for some time, but one day, while the cow was 
gTazing on the river bank, the soil gave way and she was thrown down 
and killed. Due notice was given of the fact, but for a year or two the 
small annual supply of butter in the provisions for Fort Youkon was 
withheld on the ground of there being " cattle" (to wit, the bull) at that 
post. Finally the commander killed the animal, determined that if he 
could not have butter he would at least have beef. It will be remem- 
bered that this point is north of the Arctic Circle, and the most northern 
point in Alaska inhabited by white men. 

Fruits. — There are, as might be supposed, no tree fruits in thQ Youkon 
Territory suitable for food. Small fruits are there in the greatest pro- 
fusion. Among them may be notetl red and black currants, gooseberries, 
cranberries, raspberries, thimble-berries, salmon-berries, bluebeiTies, 
killikinik berries, bearberries, dewberries, twinberries, service or heath- 
berries, mossbenies, and roseberries ; the latter, the fruit of the Bosa 
cinnamomea, when touched by the frost, form a pleasant addition to the 
table, not being dry and woolly, as in our climate, but sweet and juicy. 

All these berries, but especially the salmon-berry or " moroslni^^ of the 
Eussians {Ruhus chamaemorus,) are excellent anti-scorbutics. They are 
preserved by the Esquimaux in large wooden dishes or vessels holding 
five gallons or more ; covered with large leaves, they undergo a slight 
fermentation, and freeze solid when cold weather comes. In this state 
they may be kept indefinitely ; and a more delicious dish than a plateful 
of these berries, not so thoroughly melted as to lose their coolness, and 
sprinlded with a little white sugar, it would be impossible to conceive. 

The Russians also prepare a very luscious conserve from these and 
othea^ berries, relieving the sameness of a diet of fish, bread, and tea, 
with the native productions of the country. 


This comprises the Aleutian Islands and part of the peninsula of 
Aliaska, with the islands about it. Kadiak and the islands immediately 
adjoining it, however, belong more properly to the Sitkan district. 

These islands are merely the prolongation of the Alaskan range of 
mountains. Many of them contain volcanic peaks, some still in a state 



of moderate activity. Slight shocks of earthquake are common, but 
many years have elapsed since any material damage was done to life or 
pioperty by volcanic action. Most of the islands have harbors, many 
of them safe and commodious. The soil is much of it ricij, consisting 
of vegetable mold and dark-colored clays, with here an^l there light 
calcareous loam, formed by the decomposition of tertiary strata rich in 
fossils. In many places the gi'owth of spJiaguum, indicating want oi 
drainage, prevails over the perennial grasses natural to the soil, but the 
remedy is self evident. 

On some places the soil is formed of decomposed volcanic products, 
•■■it-h as ash and pumice. Much of this is rich and productive. 

Climate. — The climate of the islands is moist and warm. The great- 
est cold recorded in five years by Father Veniamingf in Unalaska was 
zero of Fahrenheit. This occurred only once. The greatest height of 
the mercury was seventy-seven degrees of Fahrenheit. The following 
table will show the range of the thermometer and the relative frequency 
of good and bad weather : 







Average five years 



1 p. m. 



9 p. m. 










, are 


of seven years. 










































Days half clear, half cloudy 

Days all clondy or foggy, -vvith } 
or without snow, rain, or hail, i 

These observations were taken in Iliouluk by Eev. Father Innoceutius 
Yeniaminof, now or lately bishop of Kamchatka. He notices that, from 
October to April, the prevalent winds are north and west; and from 
April to October, south and west. The thermometer is lowest in Janu- 
ary and March, and highest in July and August, At this point it may 
not be superfluous to insert, as a means of comparison, a few statistics 
in regard to a very similar country, which has, however, been under cul- 
tivation for centuiies. It will serve to show what human industry and 
careful application of experience may do with a coimtry colder and 
more barren and nearly as rainy as the Aleutian and northern Sitkan 
distiicts of Alaska. I refer to the highlands of Scotland, and the Heb- 
rides, whose " Scotch mists" have become proverbial. 

Aiton* has ascribed the more rainy and cold chmate of Scotland to 
the accumulations of sphagnum : " Thirty-two and a half ounces of dry 
moss soil will retain without fluidity eighteen ounces of water ; while 
thirty-nine ounces of the richest garden mould will only retain eighteen 
aud a half ounces. Moss is also more retentive of cold than anv other 

* Treatise on Peat-moss, &c. See EdinTjurgh Encyclopedia, p. 738, vol. xvi. 



soil. Frost is often found to continue in deep mosses (in Scotland) until 
after the middle of summer. Hence the effect of mossy accumulations 
in rendering the climate colder." 

Dr. Graham, of Alx-rfoyle, referring to the ^vestern district of Scot- 
laud, says that Ayrshire is very moist and damp, with a mild and tem- 
perate climate. 

Kenlrewshire is visited with frequent and hea%'j- rains. Dimt>arton- 
shire has the same character. Argjleshire is considered the most rainy 
coimty of Scotland. 

'• The vapors of the ocean are attracted by its lofty mountains, and 
the clouds discharge themselves in torrents on the valleys.-"* "■ The 
-printers are for the most iiart mild and temperate, but the summers are 
frequently rainy and cold. The climate of the Zetland Isles resembles 
in most respects that of the Orkneys. Though the sky is inclement and 
the air moist, it is far from unhealthy. The rain continues not only for 
hours but for days : nay, even for weeks if the wind blow from the west," 
&c. Substitute Alaska for Scotland, and the description would be 
equally accurate. 

Mean temperature of InrerneasA 





Winer. [ Spring. Scminer. 






At Drymen, in Stirlingshire, the average for fouiteen years was 
two hundred and five days, more or less rainy, jier annum ; the average 
on the island of Unalaska was one hundred and fifty for seven years, 
according to Veniaminof. The average rain-fall in Stirlingshire was 
about forty-three inchas ; in Unalaska, was forty-four inches, (approxi- 

Let us now examine the productions of this country, so nearly agi-ee- 
iug in temperature and rain-fall with vrhat we know of the Aleutian dis- 
trict. It may reasonably prove an approximate index to what time ma^ 
bring to pass in our new Territory, t 

Agricultural statistics oftlte Riglilands of Scotland, and islands, i:i 1854 and 1866. 


Bushels of wheat. 

BneheU of barley. 

Bushels of oalA. 
















10. K3 

13. .-^^ 




















7a5, 375 
42 154 


613 7^ 




2.58, 78^ 

493, 042 
80, 1.-J0 






483, 193 



o 557 j(7j 

• Edinbnrgli Encyclopedia, vol. xvi, p. 739. 
t Lat, 57- 30' — Kudiak is precisely the same. 

» These statistics are official, from the Transactions of the Highland and Agricultnral 
Society of Scotland, vol. xv, 1856. 

Agricultural statistics of the Highlands of Scotle.7id, Sec — Continued. 



Caithness .'. 


Orkney ^ 

Zetland 3 

Rosa and Cromarty 



Bushels of rye. 


G5, 144 


98, 924 

23, 068 

108, 168 


308, 059 


59, 093 


56, 292 

22, 20G 

105, 525 

C, 167 

256, 631 

Bush, of beans 
and peas. 



,403 I 

,'572' I 



21, 834 


30, 737 52, 339 

Cwt. of turnips. 

Cwt.of potatoen. 








103, 444 


120, 787 

73, 948 

42, 536 

163, 834 

29, 707 

10, 504 





17, 281 


2G, 412 
.5, 931 


6; 261 


- 551, 231 I 528, 600 I 51, 357 I 74, ' 

Acres of Swedish 

Acres of carrots. 

Acres of cabbage. 

Acres of flax. 









28 ! 33 
22 ' H) 



























Ross and Cromarty 


23 1 15 




111 1 77 



123 1 117 










Ross and Cromarty. 


Acres of grass and hay. 







40, 303 


13 076 

14 226 


20, 491 


Cows and 


8, 512 
2, 367 1 

3, 485 

2, 437, 1 



108, 962 I 22, 930 


60, 378 

14, 659 

24, 061 
8, 128 

16, 190 
3, 642 


814, 029 
25, 630 
60, 447 

567, 694 

288, 015 

200, 553 


1, 973, 028 





1, 149 




4, 557 



It "vvill be noted from tliese statistics that tlie quantity of potatoes and 
also the quantity of wheat is small, when compared with the other root 
crops or cereals. 

The small Highland cattle are well known, and, like the small Siberian 
.stock, admirably suited to such a climate and country. They produce 
tender, well-llavored beef, and extremely rich cream and butter. 

The climate of Scotland furnishes a very complete parallel with that 
of the Aleutian district of Alaska. (The eastern coast, defended from 
the vapors of the Atlantic ciu'reuts by its sheltering mountains, is much 
drier, and the extremes of temperature are greater than on the western 
coast and the islands, resembling the eastern part of Cook's Inlet in 
this respect, and the interior of Alaska generally. 

Veniaminof states that in Uualaska the greatest number of perfectly 
clear days are in January, February, and Jiuie, and usually follow ii 
northerly wind. The barometer ranges from 27.415 inches' to 29.437 


inches, and, on the average, is highest iu December and lowest in July : 
rising with a north and falling with a south wind. 

Inhabitant. — The inhabitants of these islands are the Aleuts; true 
Esquimaux l)y descent, but altered by an insular life, isolated from other 
tribes, and clianged by long contact with the Russians. They all nom- 
inally belong to the Greek Catholic faith, and practice the rites of that 
rcligiou. !^iany can read and write the ecclesiastical or old Slavoni<- 
(baracters, which they have been taught by the priests. 

They arc faithiiil, docile, enduring, hardy, but lazy, phlegmatic, auil 
great drunkards. They make good sailors Init poorlarmers. andchietly 
occupy themselves iu hunting and lishing. There are. perhaps, iu ail, 
lifteen hundred of them, male and female; and it can l>e said, to their 
credit, that for honesty they far suipass the majority of civilized com- 

Vegetation. — There is no timber of any kind larger than a shnib on 
these islands, but there does not appear to be any good reason why trees, 
if properly planted and drained, should not flourish. A few spnices 
were, in 1805, transplanted from Sitka, or Kadiak, to Uualaska. They 
lived, but were not cared for, or the situation was unfavorable, as they 
have increased very little in size since that time, according to Chamisso. 
The grasses in this climate, warmer than that of the Youkon territory 
and drier than the Sitkan district, attain an unwonted luxuriance. For 
example, Uualaska,* in the vicinity of Captains' Harbor, abounds in 
grasses, with a climate better adapted for haying than that of the coast 
of Oregon. The cattle were remarkably fat, and the beef very tender 
and delicate ; rarely surpassed by any well-fed stock. Milk was abund- 
ant. The good and available arable land lies chiefly near the coast, 
formed by the meeting and mingling of the detritus from mountain and 
valley with the sea-sand, which formed a remarkably rich and genial 
soil, well suited for garden and root crop culture. It occurs to us that 
many choice sunny hillsides here would produce good crops under the 
thrifty hand of enterprise. They are already cleared for the plow. 
"VMiere gi-ain-like grasses grow and mature well, it seems fair to infer 
that oats and barley would thrive, provided they were fall-sown, like the 
native grasses. This is abundantly verified by reference to the collec- 
tions. Several of these grasses had already (September) matured and 
cast their seed before we arrived, showing' sutiicient length of season. 
Indeed no gi^ain will yield more than half a crop of poor quality, (on the 
Pacific slope,) when spring-sown, whether north or south. 

The Russians alfirm, with confirmation by later visitors, that potatoes 
are cultivated iu almost every Aleutian village ; and Yeniaminof states 
that at the village in Isanotsky Strait, they have raised them and 
preserved the seed for planting, since the beginning of this century; 
the inhabitants of this village by so doing having escaped the efiects of 
several severe famines, which visited their less provident and industri- 
ous neighbors. 

"Wild peas giow in gi-eat luxuriamce near Uualaska Bav, and, accord- 
ing to :\Ir. Davidson, might be advantageouslv cultivated. This spe^i'ies. 
the, Latlnjn'smaritimus of botanists, grows and flourishes as far north as 
latitude 04°. The productions of all the islands to the westward resemble 
those of Uualaska. 

In September, says Dr. Kellogg, the turnips hexe were large and of 
excellent quality ; carrots, parsnips, and cabbages lacked careful' atteu- 

*Se« report of Dr. A. Kellocg on the Botanv of Alaska, U. Ex. Doc. 177, 40th 
tiongress, second session, page 218. 


tion, but were good, "Wild parsnips are abundant and edible tbrougli 
all these islands. At tlie height of two thousand four Iiundped and fifty 
feet above the sea most vegetation ceases. 

From the reports of Dr. Kellogg and others, there appears to be no 
doubt that cattle can be advantageously kept in the Aleutian district, 
provided competent farmers will take the matter in hand. 

The winter climate is as mild as that of the highlands of Scotland oi^ 
the Orkneys, where stock has been successfully kept from time imme- 
morial. Golovin states that, at one time, the company projiosed to furnish 
the Aleuts with stock, gratis, in order to promote agriculture, and pre- 
vent the femines caused by taking them off to hunt sea otter duiing the 
fishing season. The Aleuts, totally ignorant of the management of 
cattle, did not succeed very well. The cows, which they contiued at 
night in the low buildings where their drj^ fish is hung up, knocked it 
down and trami)led on it ; they did not know how to milk them ; the 
hogs rooted up their garden patches ; and the goats had a fancy for 
jumping over the tents in which they slept in simimer, and knocking 
them down, to the gTeat discomfort of the family, so they were very glad 
to get rid of them. In Cook's Inlet the natives were more intelligent, 
or had more experience, and their catttle did much better. 

Hogs were placed on the island near the Churnobourreef in 1825, and 
multiplied exceedingly, living on the wild parsnips and other native 
plants, but were destroyed during the eruption of the volcano on the 
neighboring island of Ounimak in 1827, by the tidal waves accompany- 
ing that phenomenon. 


This district extends from the southern boundary to the peninsula of 
Aliaska, including the island of Kadiak. 

The surface of this portion of the Territory is rugged and mountain- 
ous in the extreme, the northern part only affording any appreciable 
amount of level and arable lands suitable for cultivation. Small patches 
occur here and there where small farms might be located, but, as a rule, 
the mountains descend precipitously into the sea, with their flanks 
covered with dense and almost impenetrable forests. These rise to the 
level of about fifteen hundred feet above the sea. Here and there a 
bare streak shows where an avalanche has cut its way from the mountain 
top to the waterside ; and occasionally the shining fi'ont of a glacier 
occupies some deep ravine, contrasting curiously with the dense foliage 
on either side. 

The canals and channels of the Alexander Archipelago form the high- 
ways of the country, and so intricate and tortuous are they, that they 
afford access to almost every part of it, without setting foot on shore. 

Soil. — The soil is principally decayed vegetable mold, with substrata 
of gravel or dark-colored clay. 

The soil of Kadiak and Cook's Inlet is of a similar character, but from 
an admixture of volcanic sand thrown up by the waves, and abundant 
sandstone sti'ata, it is lighter, drier, and better adapted for cultivation. 

Climate. — The climate of the southern portion of this district is intol- 
erably rainy. The annual rain -fall at Sitka varies from sixty to ninety- 
five inches, and the annual number of more or less rainy days varies 
from one hundi'cd and ninety to two hundred and eighty-five. In Una- 
laska the annual nimiber of rainy days is about one hundred and fifty, 
and the annual fall of rain (and melted snow) is about forty-four inches. 
This last estimate is probably not too low for the island of Kadiak and 



tlie eastern part of Cook's lulet. The annual means of the temperature 
about Sitka are by no means low, in spite of the rainy summers. The 
followiuy: table will indicate the m'eans lor tlie several seasons during 
the year ending October 31, 1SG8, from the United States Coast Survey 
observations : 

SHJca meieorological abstract 










.'■).-). 7 

14. G4 







Wiuter :... 



44. 07 






Minimum temperature 11"^, maximum temperature 71°, for the year. 

It will be noted that the average temperature of the winter is hardly 
below the freezing point, the greatest degree of cold being eleven above 
z<',ro. The average of main^ years' observation places the mean winter 
t<*mperatnre about +3^'^ Fahr., which is about that of ]\Ianheim, on the 
lihiiie, and warmer than Munich, Vienna, or Berlin ; and about the same 
as that of Washington (one thousand and ninety-five miles further 
south,) and warmer than New York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore.* The 
cloudiness and rain of the summer season, however, prevents it from 
l)eing nearly as warm as at any of the places above mentioned. Very 
little ice is made at Sitka 5 the harbor is always open, and the island 
is noted for the abundance of a small species of humming bird. 

InhabitanU. — These are principally Indians in the Alexander Archi- 
I)clago. Treated with lirmness and decision, they are harmless 5 but if 
vacillation or weakness mark the dealings of Americans, as they did the 
policy of the Russian American Company, massacres and other exhibi- 
tions of Indian virtue and coiu-age will be the ine^itable result. North 
of the archipelago, on the shores of Prince William Sound, and the north 
shore of Cook's Inlet, and on the whole of Aliaska Peninsula and the 
islands south of it, the inhabitants are of tlbe Esquimaux stock, intel- 
ligent, ingenious and docile. ( 

Nutxiral productions. — In the southern part of this district, fi'om an 
agricultnral point of view, there is little beside the timber. iSTear Fort 
Simpson, Dr. Kellogg describes timothy, white clover, and medick, or 
l)m'r clover, as flourishing with great luxuriance. Dr. Eothrock says 
the same of the native grasses in the interior. But sonth of Prince Wil- 
liam Sound there is so litle low land, or prairie, that there is no good 
opportunity for raising fodder, and the climate would render its pre- 
servation extremely precarious. The character of the country is so 
nigged that it would hardly be advisable to keep many cattle; and 
grain-raising, on account of the moisture, is not to be thought of. At 
Sitka some vegetables do very well. Turnips, beaiis, peas, carrots, 
beets, lettuce, and radishes succeed well. Potatoes are small and watery 
IVom want of sun and excess of moisture. Cabbages are luxuriant, but 
will not head. Cereals fail. The milk and cream fi-om a few cows are very 
good. Pork has a disagreeable flavor from being fed on fish entrails, &c. 

''S*^o report of Lorin Blodsctt, in Rep. No. 37, Com. ou Foreign Aflfaixs, fortieth Con- 
gress, 2d bcssLoji, page ',HJ. 


There was iu 18G5 one old horse, which had evidently seen better days. 
Poultry does not succeed well. Lntke says that the crows eat up all 
the young- chickens, and also deprive the sucking- pigs of their tails ! 

To the "northern portion of this district the above remarks do not 
apply. Kadiak and Cook's Inlet, northeast of Fort Alexander, have 
comparatively colder winters and drier and warmer summers than the 
islands and coast to the west or south of them. Haying can be successfully 
carried on, the native grasses being valuable for fodder, green or dry, 
while the cultivated gi^isses succeed very well. Barley and oats have 
been successfidly raised near the settlement of St. Nicholas, on Cook's 
Inlet. There is no want of wood: while it does not encroach on the 
lowland, which is clear of trees and underbrush. Dr. Kellogg says of 
Kadiak, '• various herbs and grasses clothe the mountains to their sum- 
mits. The summer climate here, unlike Sitka, is sufficiently foir for 
Imying. We saw many mown valleys fi'om which a good supply of hay 
from the native grasses had been secured. The cattle were fat, and milk 
abundant. The butter was yellow and appeared remarkably rich, though 
of a disagreeable Havor. which might be owing to the manner of making." 
The potatoes are better than at Sitka, but do not attain a very large 
size. It has been mentioned that the cattle distributed to the natives 
by the Eussian American Company did very well iu Cook's Inlet. 

' Timber. — The agricidtm-al staple of the southern Sitkan tlistrict is 
timber. I name the forest trees iu the order of their value. The yeUow 
cedar (C Xutlrensis, Spach.) is the most valuable wood on the Pacific 
coast. It combines a fine, close textiu-e with considerable hardness, 
extreme durability, and pleasant fragrance. For boat-building it is 
unsurpassed, iu addition to its lightness, toughness, ease of workman- 
.ship and gvent durability.* 

After ascending some distance the mountain sides of the island of Sitka, 
the wood, which appears in increased denseness before us, consists 
particularly of a noble Thuja fT. exceJsa, C. Xutkcvnsis.J This is the 
timber most valued here. It occurs frequently further down, but the 
more predominant spruce ti-ees conceal it from view ; but here it con- 
stitutes almost the entire timber.t From its agreeable jierfume. it is 
known to the Eussians as duslini]:, or scented wood. This is the wood 
formerly exported to China, and returned to us as •• camphor wood," &c., 
famous for excluding moths. In repairing old Fort Simpson, a stick of 
tliis wood, among the pine timbers used for underpinning, was found to 
be the only sound log after twenty-one years' trial. A wreck on the 
beach at Sitka, originally constructed of this timber, was found thirty- 
two years after as sound as the day it was built ; even the iron bolts 
were not corroded. 

Sitka spruce, or white piue (Abies SitTxcmis.) This tree, well known 
in the lumber trade of the coast, attains a large size, and is noteworthy 
from its invariably straight and slowly tapering trunk. The wood is 
not so diu'able as the last species, but is available for many purposes. 
Hendock {Abies Mertemiana. Bong.) This species is often confoimded 
with the white pine by lumber dealers, who style them both '• Sitka 
piue." It is much larger in its gTOwth than the next species, but some 
botanists consider it a variety of the balsam. Balsam fir {Abies Cana- 
densis, Mich.) The wood of this species is almost valueless, but the 
bark, as well as the bark of the last named, is used in tanning. Scrub 
pine {Pimis contorta, Dougl.) This species seldom grows more than 

* See Kellogc:, Rep. Bot. Alaska. 

t ilertens, letter from, in Hookers Bot. ilisc, vol. iii. 


forty feet clear trunk aud eighteen inches in diameter. It passes as far 
north as the juncture of the Lewis and the Pelly rivers in the interior, 
but no fiuther. 

Other trees, such as the little juniper, wild pear, and the like, may 
be of some use, but from their small size or scarcity are of little 
economical value. 

In Kadiak Dr. Kellogg found the growth of timber {Ahies Sii1ccnsi>>) 
contiued to the eastern valleys and slopes of the island. The largest 
seen were three feet in diameter, and ninety to one huntlied feet high. 
In the governor's yard were masts and spars over one hundred feet in 
length, scarcely tapering two inches in thiity or forty feet. These were 
from Kadiak ; but many are brought in rafts from Spruce Island, ten or 
fifteen miles off. 

The wooded district comprises the whole Alexander Archipelago, and 
the mainland north to Lituya Bay; from this point to Prince ^Viiliam 
Sound little is known of the character of the timber : but in the latter 
locahty fine timber abounds, and also in the interior. 

ge:seeal su^diaey. 

While in the Youkou tenitory we cannot look for self-supporting ag- 
ricultural districts, nor reasonably -expect any one to obtain a sustenance 
by farming alone, still the settler called there to develop the resources 
of the country, be they lumber, fish, or furs, may have milk in his tea, 
and many vegetables on his table, if he possess the energy and knowl- 
edge to make the most of his opportunities. It will not be necessary 
for him to rely on the products of the chase alone, if he will but take 
the necessaiy care to provide shelter for his cattle, and to cut the peren- 
niai grasses which cover the prairies and lowlands for their fodder during 
the T\inter. 

In the Aleutian distiict is situated the larger proportion of arable lands, 
and in this and the northern part of the Sitkan district the climatic con- 
ditions are the most favorable in the territory. Their resemblance to 
the conditions which prevail in Northwestern Scotland and its islands 
has been already demonstrated at length ; and the capability of this 
district for agricidture may therefore be reasonably inferred. Oats and 
barley, possibly wheat and rye, may succeed on these islands. Their 
abundant capacity for pEoduciug root crops of good quality, except pos- 
sibly potatoes, may be considered as settled. That cattle will do well 
there is no doubt ; and the Pacific coast may yet derive its best butter 
and cheese from the Aleutian and IN'orthern Sitkan district. Sheep, 
goats and swine have not been thoroughly tried as yet, but the inference 
is that they also would succeed. 

Most of the berries found in the Youkon territory are common to the 
Aleutian district, and the climate, except fiom its moistm-e, presents no 
obstacles to the success of some kinds of fmit trees. It is to be hoped 
that some one will try the experiment. These islands, with the country 
around Cook's Inlet, are unquestionably the best agricidtural region in 
our new possessions. 

The resources of the southern Sitkan district lie apparently entirely 
in its timber. This is unquestionably needed on the Pacific slope, and 
is a most valuable acquisition. 2^o better lumbering district coidd be im- 
agined Mith water transportation everywhere, and mountain sides so 
steep that a slide, easily made of comparatively worthless timber, will 
conduct the more \ aluable logs directly to the water side. 

Some vegetables wiU be raised in the future a,s in the past j and some 


stock vrill be kept in this part of Alaska, but expectations slionld be 
moderate. To the northern part of this district the remarks on thi 
Aleutian district will apply. 

Many reports may be found in cuTiilation, even in official documents, 
in regard to Alaska, which hare very lirtle foundation. It is believed 
that in tills report nothing is asserted which is not susceptible of easy 
proof. It may Ije said thatMassachusetts has never exported any native 
productions except granite and ice. Alaska, on the contrary, if wo dis- 
mi.^s the fabidous stories of fossil ivory, and gold and sdver, may be 
abl^' ill coirrse of time to give not only ice, marble, coal, and ship tim- 
ber, but butter and cheese, mutton and beef. Perhaps more palatable 
liuit may take the place of the cranberries, which have already fomid 
their way to San Francisco markets. 

The diustrations accompanying the report are reduced from the botan- 
ical dlustrations of Baron KittUtz, by Hie well-known aitist Aliss E. B. 
Greene, and represent a characteristic scene, iHastratiug the vegetation 
of each of the three districts mentioned in this report. 

In the compilation of the following list of useful plants indigenous to 
Alaska I am indebted for assistance to T.Ir. TTright, of the botanical 
garden at Cambridge, Dr. Eothrock, and Dr. C. C. Parry. It is short, 
containing only one hundred and eighteen species, including grasses. 


Hepatica trdoba, Chaix. — Sitka. 

Coptis tiifolia, Sal. — Sitka. 

Coptis asplemfolia, Sal. — Sitka. 

Aconitum, var. delphinifohum. — Sitka to Point Barrow. 

Nasturtium palusti'e, D. C. — Youkon. 

Cochlearia fenestrata, B.. Br. — Norton Sound. 

Liiium perenne, L. — ^Youkon. 

Trifolium repens, L. — Sitka. 

Lathyrus maritimus. Big. — Sitka. 

Redysarum Mackeuzii. Eich. — Toiikon. 

Paibus spectabihs. Pmsh. — Sitka. Kadiak. 

E. arcticus, L. — Kotzebue Sound. 

E. pedatiis, Sm. — Sitka. 

E. chamcemorus, L. — Sitka. 

E. yutkanus, Mog. — Sitka. 

Eosa cinuamomea, L. — Youkon. 

Pyras rivularis. Dougl. — Sitka. 

P. sambuciiblia. Cham. — Sitka. 

Eibcs rubrum. L. Youkon. 

E. Hudsonianuui, Eich. — Youkon. 

E. prostratum, L. Herb. — Sitka. 

E. l3racteosum, Dougl. — Sitka. 

E. lacustre, Pursh. — Pt. Barrow : fruit poor. 

Archangelica officinalis, Hoff. — Sitka. &c. 

A. Gmelini, D. C— Sitka, islands, &c. 

Panax horridum. Smith. — Sitka. 

Sambucus pubens, Michx. — Sitka. 

Valeriana tlioica, L. — Norton Sound. 

Vaceinimn vitis idoea, L. — Sitka, Youkon. 

V. myrtilloides, Hooker. — Sitka. 

Y. myitillus, L. — Sitka. 

V. Chamissonis, Bong. — Sitka and Unalaska. 


V. ovalifoliiuu, Smitli.— Sitka, 

V. parvifolimn, Smitli. — Sitka. 

V. salicinum, Cham. — Uualaska. 

V. cajspitosum, Miclix. — Sitka. 

V. ulig^inosum, L.— Sitka and uortliwarrt. 

Viburnum A-iilo-ari.s, L.— Sitka aud northward. 

Arctostaphylois alpina, Spr.— Sitka and northward. 

A. uva ursi, Spr. — Unalaska and northward. 

(ientiana amarolla. L. — Sitka. 

Oxyria renilormis, Hook. — Sitka and northward. 

Euraex salicitblius, Weium. — Sitka. 

It. acetosa, L. — Kotzebue Sound. 

It. domesticus, ETartm. — Sitka, northward. 

i^olygonum viviparnm. — Sitka, northward. 

Empetrum nij^um, L. — Sitka, northward. 

Myrica Gale, L. — Sitka. 

Abies Canadensis, Michx. — Sitka. 

A.. ]\Iertensiana, Bong. — Sitka. 

A. Sitkensi,s, Bonjj. — Sitka. 

A. alba, Michx. — Youkon. 
Pinus contorta, Doufjl. — Sitka. 

Larix Dahurica, IMert. — Kadiak ? Youkon. 

Cnpressus Xutkfeusis, Spach. — Sitka. 

.hmipenis communis, var. aljuna. — Sitka. 

Initillaria Kamtsehatkensis, Fisch.— Sitka, nortliwarii- 

Allium schoenoprasum, L. — Youkon. 

Veratrum Escholtzii, Gray. — Sitlca. 

Ilordeum pratense, L. — Sitka. 

fl. jubatum, L. — Youkon. 

Elymus Sibiricus, L. — Sitka. 

1*]. arenarius, L. — Xorton Sound. 

K. mollis, Trill. — Sitka, northward. 

Ti'iticum repens, L. — Kotzebue Sound. 

J^'estuca ovina, L. — Kotzebue Sound. 

F. rubra, IJ. — Sitka aud northward. 

F. subulata, Bon^r. — Sitka. 
Bromus ciliatus, L. — Kotzebue. 

B. subulatus. Led. — Unalaska. 
B. Aleutensis, Trin. — Unalaska. 

B. Sitkensis, 13onij. — Sitka. 
Poa stenantha, Trin. — Unalaska. 
P. flavicans, Sed. — Unalaska. 

P. arctica, It. Br. — Sitka to Kotzebue. 

P. cenisia. All. — Sitka to Kotzebue. 

P. rotundata, Trin. — Uualaska. 

I*, nemoralis, L. — Kotzebue. 

P. annua, L. — Sitka. 

P. pratcnsis, L. — Kotzebue. 

Colpodium liilvum. Led. — Kotzebue. 

Dupontia psilosantha, Piupr. — Kotzebue. 

Catabrosa aquatica, Bcauv. — Sitka, Kotzehua 

C. algida. Fries, — Kotzebue. 
Atropis maritima, Led. — Sitka. 
A. angustata. Led, — Kotzebue. 
Glyceria aquatica. Smith. — Sitka, 

G. glumaris. Led. — Sitka, Kotzebue. 


HierocMoa "borealis, E. & S. — Kotzeltue. 

H. alpina, E. & S.— Kotzebue. 

Trisetum subspicatmn, Trin. — Kotzebue 

T. sesquiflonim, Trin. — Unalaska. 

T. cemumn, Trin. — Sitka. 

Aira ccespitosa, Trin. — Unalaska. 

Aira, var Bottnica, Trin. — Sitka. 

A. arctica, Trin. — Sitka, Unalaska. 

A. atropurpurea, Scheele. — Sitka, Unakiska. 

Calamagrostis Aleutica, Trin. — Sitka, Unalaska. 

C. pnrpurescens, E. Br. — Youkon. 

C. strigosa, Walil. — Sitka. 

C. Laponnica, Trin. — Unalaska. 

C. neglecta, Gaert. — Kotzebne SoudcI. 

C. Canadensis, Beany. — Kotzebue Sound. 

C. Langsdorfii, Trin. — Kotzebue Sound. 

Arctagrostis latifolia, Led. — Kotzebue Souud. 

Cinna latifolia, Led. — Sitka. 

Agrostis sequivalris, Trin. — Sitka. 

A. esarata, Trin. — Sitka. 

A. geminata, Trin. — Unalaska. 

A. laxiflora, E. Br. — L'nalaska. 

PMeum pratense, L. — Sitka, Fort Simpson. 

P. alpinum, L. — Kotzebue, Sitka. 

Alopecurus alpinus, Trin. — Kotzebue. 

Other species will no doubt be added to this list upon more careful 
and extensive exploration. 


Hon. Horace Oapeon, Conunissionei'. 


Sir. : Tbc abaudouineut oftlie long-coutinucd usage of atlmittmg volii- 
iniiioiis and desultory essays into the annual report of tlie Department, 
v.hich was coutemplatcd and in part accomplished, in the volume for 
1S(>7, is made complete in the present issue. It was difficult to recognize 
the propriety of competing with private publishers in the presentation of 
exhaustive treatises upon special topics, written by private individuals, 
anii ill no sense oflicial, however valuable or complete the information 

While the domain of book-making and newspaper enterprise was 
invaded, the matter itself was not always of the kind contemplated by 
tlie organic act requiring reports upon agiicultural progTcss and investi- 
gation. The essay was the work of a single mind, covering a limited 
field of observation, and prepared with the aid of private resources only. 
It was not a statement of results of Department labor and investigation. 
It was not legitimately an official report. 

It is believed that the present system -will command the approbation 
and appreciation of intelligent agricidturists. The annual report of the 
Department of Agriculture wiU consist of the reports of the Commis- 
sioner and of division ofiicers and special agents of the Department, in- 
cluding, imdcr the report of the editor of the annual, digests of the 
researches of the office, upon special and timely topics, demanded by 
the exigencies of the hour, and illustrative of the direction of rural effort 
and of the progress of the time. Such investigations may be made with 
the aid of a large corps of regidar and special correspondents, of the 
State and local societies representing agriculture and horticulture, 
and of the diplomatic representatives of this country abroad, (who are 
extremely courteous in forwarding voluntary information and in respond- 
ing to special inquiries,) as well as of experts in any line of research 
desired, who may be employed to compile and enlarge the matter in pos- 
session of the Department. Thus the work may not be deprived of the 
skill of individuals learned in some specialty, while its unity and con- 
sistency are not marred by views from many standpoints and irreconcil- 
able ditferences in statements of fact and of opinion. 

In this connection it is proper to state that the statistics of this office 
upon Roads and Road Laws were digested and the subject reviewed, as 
presented in these pages, by John Wilkinson, of Baltimore, landscape 
gardener and civil engineer. To Dr. Lee, of Tennessee, the Department is 
indebted for information presented in Concentrated Fertilizers in the 
southern States ; to Thomas S. Pleasants, of Virginia, for matter con- 
cerning the Mmeral Resources of Virginia; to W. S. Clark, president 
of th(» Massachusetts College, for the history of that institution ; to G. 
S. Wagner, of the 13ee Journal, for analysis of Department statistics 
ii]>on bee-keeping; and to John S. Ilittell, of California, for the matter 
relating to silk culture in that State. The Department is also indebted 
to thousands of rc^idar and volunteer correspondents, who labor without 
reward lor the advancement of their favorite calling, and whose records 
of ex])erience and* statenuMits of fact are embodied m tJie matter pre- 
sented in tbe following pages, as (wnpiled by the editor of tliis volume 
and his assistants. 


Uon. IIORACE C APRON, Commissioner. 


o o fi 

.S 3~ 

c ,-, ^ S 

c x " o 

fH , . _ 



The new bidldiug of the Department of AgTiciiltuie is one himdred and 
seventy feet long by sixty-one feet deep, and consists of a finished base- 
ment, three full stories, and Mansard roof. Designed in the renaissance 
st^ie of architecture, the ti'ont i^resents a center building with main en- 
trance, flanked by two projecting wings. The material is pressed brick, 
with brownston'e base, belts, trimmings, and cornices. Walking over a 
flight of swelled granite steps, the visitor passes thi'ongh the main door, 
of "oak and ash wood, into an octagonal vestibule of twenty feet square 
and sixteen feet high, the floor of which is laid with rosettes and bor- 
ders of encaustic tiles, and the sides paneled in encaustic paiiit. The 
ceiling is decorated with £i"esco work, around a centA", representing an 
arbor of vine foliage, and held by American eagles with spread wings ; 
arabesque ornaments are sprung with four medallions illustrating in 
turn, by landscape, light effect, and luunau figures, spring, morning, 
and childhood ; summer, noon, and youth j autumn, evening, and mature 
age; winter, night, and old age. 

Around a wide corridor, similarly finished, but in plain style, are 
grouped oflice rooms of twenty by twenty feet in size. The reception 
room is chastely decorated, while the chief clerk's room is finished with 
an apparently solid molded and paneled wainscot in curly walnut, 
mahogany, and maple, covering the height of side walls, surmounted by 
frescoed stucco corniee and a ceiling in complementary colors. This 
wainscot is a specimen of the "American vrood-hanging," which is an 
apphcation of wood to the plastered walls. The wood is prej^ared in 
strips of difierent lengths, of about the thickness of paper, and is placed 
upon the walls by paper-hangers. The adjoining ofiice of the Com- 
missioner is done in the same material, but in a higher style of the art, 
the panels of rich bird's eye maple being bordered by fiiezes of mahog- 
any and blistered walnut, alternating with fancy paneled pilasters in 
mahogany and satin wood, all parted by curly maple and set off by gilt 
edges. This series of rooms is completed by the private office of the 
Commissioner, finished in plain library style, with fiiezes of bkch, bor- 
ders of black walnut, and i)anels of mountain ash. The rooms for cler- 
ical purposes are fijiished in plain encaustic oil paint, with frescoed 
ceilings — all in tlifferent colors. The western eiid of this story is occu- 
pied by the library, which is fm^nished with mahogany cases; and a suite 
of rooms on the ei^tern terminus is devoted to laboratory purposes, where 
all cimibersome apparatus is dispensed with; and an lunple supply of 
gas tumishes the modern heating power. 

A double flight of fire-proof stairs, of wrought and cast iron, in the 
center of the building, and opposite the vestibule, lit by a grand win- 
dow glazed with stained glass, leads to the second story, the main 
or central part of which is ai^propriated to the Museum"^ of Agricul- 
ture, a hall one hundi\xl and two feet in length, filYy-two feet in width, 
and tweut3--seven feet high. There are three large entrance doors, 
of six by twelve feet, of artistic design. The size and style of the ten 
windows, each seven by sixteen feet, x>artake of the character of the 
modern exhibition palaces. The hall is crowned by a bold coved stucco 
cornice, the lines of which are broken rhythmically by heavy brackets, 
in the sculpture of which colossal Indian busts fonn prominent feat- 


urcs. Tiie gn^and cove itself is adorned by a cliain formed of festoons 
and groups of tlowers and fruits Avitli medallion shields, into -which the 
escutcheons of the United States, surrounded by those of the thirty-seven 
States of the Union in chronolo^cal succession, are -worked. The ceil- 
ing is divided into fifteen heavily molded panels, the centers of -which 
are oc«upied by rosettes conforming with each other in general outline, 
but each ha\-ing distinct detads. The colors of the hall are in neutral 
tints, -which are diversified mainly by the heraldic colors of the escutch 
eons. The furniture of the hall consists of elegant glass cases, -with 
sohd, dust-proof "walnut frames, surmounted by architraves, friezes, and 
cornices, beai'ing carved volutes -with intermediate vases and busts. 
Perhaps the most noticeable piece of furnitui-e is the redwood table, the 
top of -which, seven and a half by twelve feet, is formed of the largest 
plank in the -wprld, sent to the Department from California. 

At the western terminus of the museum are located the -working rooms 
of the entomologistn, and a room of extra size, containing in walnut cases 
a valuable herbarrum. At the eastern terminus of the museum are the 
rooms of the statistician. 

The thiixl story of the building contains rooms for misceUaneotis piu-- 
poses, assorting and putting up seeds, &c., and is in direct and easy 
communication -with the basement by means of a large elevator. 

The whole building is heated by steam, two boilers thirteen feet 
long by forty-eight inches diameter being located in a fire-proof apait- 
meut of the basement. Most of the rooms are heated by circidated air 
passing from outside through coils of steam pipes in the basement, and 
ascencbng in tin^lined flues, which feed the registers in the rooms. Each 
room has an independent heating power. 

The whole work has been executed under the superintendence of Mr. 
Adolph Cluss, the architect. 


For the purpose of preventing dampness in the waUs, a water-tight 
concrete walk closely surrounds the building; opposite the principal 
front this concrete surface is fifty ieet in width the entire length of the 
building, thus gi-dug ample room for the approach and departiu-e of car- 
riages. The space in the immediate front is laid out as a strictly geo- 
metrical flower garden -with architectural appendages, such as vases and 
statuary. It is divided by a terrace waU, to be ornamented with stone 
balusters and pediments for the reception of plant Vases; communica- 
tion with the lower garden bemg pro\'ided by stone steps, the whole 
forming a jiroper arrangement for the harmonious connection of the 
building and its surroundings. This connection is maintained at the 
ends by large growing trees, but the immediate front will be kept open, 
thiLS avoiding the common error of preveiiting the budding from being 
viewed as an architectural design, a fault painfidly apparent in many 
fine structures, in which beauty of their architectural featiu'es is wholly 
lost by dense growths of trees and shrubbery. 

The plant houses are located west of the Department. The design 
includes a range of glass structures -with a frout three hundred and twenty 
feet in length by thirty feet in width. These include apartments for 
the cidtme of exotic fi-uits, of which a collection is being formed for a 
complete series of the citrus family, a class of fruits now extensively 
produced in Florida and other southern States, of w hich family several 
fineVarieties of oranges and lemons have ah-eady been introduced and 
propagated for trial in this coimtry, and for an extensive collection of 

!2i!2i^ S 

Ct ■— VT X 



medical plants, also those furnisliing- textile libers, useful gums, sugars, 
and dyes. Structures for orchard houses, cold graperies, and other piu-- 
poses, are to be extended in the rear ; the entire design forming a com- 
pact and economic arrangement specially adapted to the various purposes 
contemplated in its erection. 

The largest portion of the inclosed area upon ^hich the building is 
located vnM be appropriated to an arboretimi or a collection of hardy 
trees and shrubs. While these are planted in accordance -with a botani- 
cal system, each order and tribe of plants being united, yet the landscape 
effect has been carefirlly studied, thus producing a combination altogether 
novel, that of forming pleasure-ground scenery, and retaining a strict 
sj'stematic classification of the trees and shmbs emi:)loyed in producing it. 

About ten acres are set apart for experimental purposes, for testing 
varieties of small fruits, seeds, and for the propagation and culture of 
hardy plants. 




Live fences, as they are very properly termed, have long been held in 
high estimation for inclosureswheu plants suitable for the purpose could be 
secured. The maintenance of efficient fencing is a hea^.'y rax upon all 
•who occupy land, and the cost is greatly increased when the materials 
are difficult to i^rocure, and require frequent repairs. If the chronologi- 
cal history of fences shoukl ever be ^\Titteu. it might be divided into three 
epocns : the temporary, the equivocal, and the permanent ; or the period 
of the wooden fence, the live fence, (possibly including the vrire fence.) 
and the fence of stone. To obtain a good hedge requires a suitable 
plant, care in its formaJ;iou, and proper keeping afterwards, ^veglectof 
any one of these essentials will prove fatal to the object in view, whether 
as a protection against depredators or as a shelter for ameliorating 
local climates. 

For farm hedges there are only two plants which can be considered as 
being perfectly satisfactory. These are the Osage orange and the honey 
locust. The Osage orange (Madura auraniiacaj is perhaps to be pre- 
ferred in localities where it is sufficiently hardy. It is cheaply produced, 
of rapid growth, thickens its branches fieely when pruned, has formida- 
ble thorns, is not liable to insect injuries, not eaten by cattle, and will 
grow in any soil of ordinary fertility. The honey locust (GlediUchia 
triacanthosj is a good plant in more northern localities, where the Osage 
orange is destroyed by cold. It is also well supplied with thorns, is ot 
rapid gi^owth, and %nll make a fence as soon as the other. It has very 
beautiful and delicate foliage, and is more robust, but less dense, than 
the Osage — which is rather an advantage than otherwise for a strong 
fence. Some of the best hedges in the country are of this plant. 

Seeds or ]>lants of either of the preceding are easily obtained : but, 
where time is a matter of consideration, it will be advisable to procure 
plants, which are now i)roduced in large quantities by nurserymen, and 
sold at prices much less than the cost of growing them on a small scale. 
It is scarcely possible to form a good hedge by sowing the seed on the 
position which the hedge is to occupy. The casualties of growth will 
certainly produce many weak plants that will be eventually destroyed by 
their stronger neighbors, leaving unsightly blanks, and greatly diminish- 
ing the uniform efficiency of the hedge. When the plants are properly 
assorted as to size before setting, an equality of gi'owth is at once 

In preparing the soil for a hedge-row, a breadth of three to four feet 
\vill be amply sufficient. If i)lowed. the ridges should be thrown towai-d 
the center, forming a slightly mounded finish. In stiff soils this can be 
done to a greater advantage in autumn by throwing the furrows on each 
side from the center of the hedge line, sothat the frosts of winter may 
penetrate and loosen the subsoil ; and then throwing them together m 
si)ring, to be ready for planting. 

Tlie best distance to set plants is from ten to fourteen inches apart, 
and in a single row. On poor soUs, or for a mere ornamental dividing 
hedge, the closer, distance may be adopted ; and for a strong fence, or 
on rich soils, the wider will not be too gi-eat. Thev mav be set either in 


fall or spring, according to the location. If tlie position is elevated, and 
the soil natm-ally dry, fall planting is to be preferred ; in lovr positions, 
or in wet soil, spring planting is safer, as the plants are liable, in such 
soils, to be throAvn out of the gTound during winter. Even in wet soils, 
however, the practice of planting in the fall has of late been adopted, 
and with j)erfect success, by placing the plants in a slanting position, 
instead of an upright one, and covering them slightly with litter. Xo 
hedge will be perfectly satisfactory in soils saturated with water during 

The perfection of a hedge, even with the best plants, depends alto- 
gether upon the treatment it receives in its early gTOwth. ISI'egieet in 
pruning, during this period, can seldom be remedied in after years ; 
and to this, more than to any other cause, failures in forming good 
hedges may be attributed. A brief stiatement of the principles involved 
iu forming them will, therefore, be given. 

The only form in which a hedge can be kept, to be of service as a 
fence, is that of a pyramid. When it has attained a height of five feet, 
it should be at least three feet wide at the base or surface of the 
ground. All pruning must be directed with a ^iew to secui'ing this 
form. When the plants are first set out, they shoidd be pruned back 
to within three inches of the gTound, and allowed to grow undisturbed 
during the first season, their growth in the meantime beiug encouraged 
by judicious cultivation. At the termination of tiie yearly gTO^Nlh, "the 
plants should again be pruned down to within foiu- inches of the first 
priming, and the side shoots below this point also be removed to within, 
an inch of the main stem. This severe pruning of the branches will 
give to the roots a vigorous gi'owth; and, when the buds burst in spring, 
strong shoots will immediately follow. During this second year's growth 
the hedge may be partially shaped by repressing the gTowth of the 
strongest i^erpendicular shoots, and encouraging those of horizontal 
tendency. Practically this is accomplished by going over the plants 
about the end of June, and cutting all upright shoots back to a point 
about eight inches above the previous winter pruning, taking care not 
to disturb a shoot or leaf on the side branches below that point. In 
thus cutting back the upright shoots, the side gTowth will be increased, 
and a breadth of base secured, which, at this stage of growth, is the 
most important point of all. In the following winter the hedge, if it 
has progressed at all favorably, may be pruned down to fouiteen inches 
in height from the ground surface, with the horizontal branches extend- 
ing from nine to twelve inches on each side. The principles of pruning 
are, that gTowth is repressed by simimer trimmiag, and encouraged by 
prunuig after the leaves have fallen. By keeping these facts in mind, 
and practiciag accordingly, the shaping of a hedge is onlv a work of 
time. The lower branches can always be retained as healthy, and pro- 
duce as umch density of fohage as the upright portion of the plants, 
if the pyramidal form is strictly maintained: but if, at any time, the 
upright gi'owth predominates, the lower limbs will proportionately lose 
vigor. The upright shoots should, therefore, be pruned dining summer, 
in order to weaken the growth at that point, and to strengthen and 
keep the base of the hedge vigoi-ous and close. The principal pruning 
of the lower branches should be performed during Riuter. 

This is the only way in which a hedge can be m.ade that will be 
effective as a fence ; and the neglect of the principles here suggested is 
generally the origin of the conflicting opinions with regard to the value 
and efiiciency of hedges as farm fences. They may receive some atten- 
tion for ^ year or twO, but when it becomes thoroughly understood that 


they caunot be nreserved unless taiinmed during summer, when attention 
is ■uholly given to ordinary crops, farmers are not always disposed to 
give hedges the attention necc .s>;iry to keep them in good condition : and 
therefore they fail to be of service. It should, however, be remembered 
that, as the hedge becomes perfect, the yearly labor to keep it in 
order gradually becomes less ; and at no time does it require so much 
labor as that recjuired to keep a common wooden fence in good repair. 

For purposes of protCH^-tion and shelter to gardens, or as dividing lines 
in the groimds of couutrv- and suburban residences, hetiges are of the 
greatest utility. For these purjwses there is an extensive choice of 
plants, both evergreeu and deciduous. A vrell-grown evergreen hedge 
is found to be as congenial a protection for the garden as a brick wall. 
The commercial value of shelter, in accelerating early crops, is not so 
generally known as it deserves to be ; yet it is fully appreciated and 
adopted by Einny of the most successful cidtivatoi"S : and, as a means of 
arresting dning winds and lessening evaporation in level tracts desti- 
tute of trees, no just estimate can be made of the intrinsic value of 
dose-foliaged hedges. 

Among e\"ergreen plants the Xorway spruce {Ahie^ exceUa) is the 
most valuable where a high, strong wind-break is necessary : and, for 
the purjwses of sheltering oix-hards and vineyards, it is unsurpassed. 
It will, in time, form a very close and compact hedge when trimmed ; 
but to produce an effective shelter in the shortest period, the i)lauts 
shoidd be set fom- to six feet apart in the row or line, and allowed to 
grow undisturbed, so far as praning is concerned, until the leading or 
top shoot reaches the required height. Then by merely trimming the 
top, so as to keep it at this height, the side branches will spread and 
interlace, forming a screen quite as effective and more beautiful than a 
closely-chpped hedge. 

For general purposes, i>erhaps the most iiseful plant, all things con- 
sidered, for an evergi-een hedge, is the American arbor- vitfe {Thuja 
occidoitalis.) Its habit of changing to a dingj* brown color during 
winter is a fault easily overlooked, and more than comx>ensated by its 
numerous gootl qualities. It is a plant of tree growth, readily trans- 
l>lante<l, of comparatively small cost, and gi'ows well in any good soil, 
but preferably in a clayey loam. Plants of one foot in height, set 
twelve to fiiurteen inches apart, will roach live -feet in as many years. 
The variety Sibirica is more compact in growth, and forms a i^ertect 
and shaiK'ly hedge, without any trimming whatever. 

The most beautiful and gi\iceful hedges are formed by the hemlock 
spruce (Abies Canadensis.) Although sometimes of slow growth after 
removal, yet it develoj^s rapidly when once fairly established. Nothing 
can exceed the Ijeauty of its i)endant branches of delicate foliage ; and 
no other plant will admit of shearing into so dense a wall of green as 
this. For a di\idiRg line in the pleasure ground or flower garden it is 
most admirably suited, 

WTieu such beautiful, hardy evergreens as Ciqiressus Laicsoniaim and 
Cuprcssm Xutkaensis become more plentiful, and can be procured in 
quantities at reasonable prices, they will be largely employed as hedge 
plants of the most select and choice kinds. 

There is a gieat variety of deciduous plants well adapted for inside 
hedges, such as may be planted for protection of crops, or as ornamental 
dividing lines in gardens, but which will not be suitable as fences for 
stock ; of these a few of the best may l>e mentioned : 

The Buckthorn {Rhamnus catharticus.) although of slender growth, 
forms a tolerably good hedge. It has a glossy and lively green foliage, 


which it retains quite into \nuter. thus afibrdiij;[Cpr<)toctic:i ior a leu^b- 
eued period. 

A very beautiful hedge cau he produced Iroui the common English 
maple {Acer campestrc.) This small tree is natiualiy compact in its 
habit of growth, and requires very little i)runiug to keep it in fornj. 
For a shelter belt, when a smootldy-trimmed hedge may not be desired, 
this will be tomid suitable. It has small foliage, and the whole plant 
is eminently neat, hardy, and free from insects. 

The European hornbeam {Car2)Oiiis hctiihis) is a, good hedge piant. Lt 
has a very dense foliage, and the small ovat;.* leaves are closely set on 
the branches. It is rather slow in growth, but, in coiiscqueuee of not 
requiring to be shortened by pruning, as is the case vvith luxuriant 
growing plants, the growth is economized and a hedge soon formed. 
In ancient gardening, when topiary work was fashionable and plants 
were trained and pruned into forms of birds, vases, &c., the hornbeam 
was largely used and held in high esteem. 

A pleasing variety of color may be inti'oduced by forming a hedge ot 
the puri^le-leaved berberry [Berheris vith/aris, var. purpurea.) This plant 
persistently retains its color throughout the summer, and VN'irh care can 
be kept in good shape as a hedge. 

For rapid gTowth. easy propagation, and ample foliage of shining 
deep-gTeen color, there is no plant superior to the Japan privet {Ligus- 
trum Japonicum.) This must not be confounded with the common i^rivet, 
{Ligustrum vidgare.) a small-leaved and much inferior plant. Cuttings 
of the Japan privet may be inserted at once where the hedge is to be 
formed. They will root quite as speedily as the easiest rooting willow 
twig. A splendid shelter or screen, eight feet in height and four feet in 
width, has been grown in live years from the time of inserting the cut- 
tings. It is almost an evergreen, retaining its foliage even after severe 
frost. Twenty degrees of fi'ost, in December, has no etiect on the 
foliage, and for at least nine months of the year it is clothed with the 
richest verdui^e. 

For sheltering orchards, vineyards, or fields, a free-growing plant, of 
compact habit, should be selected. Such are the Osage orange, white 
birch, English bird-cherry, honey locust, English maple, Eiu-opean larch, 
English alder, many of the willows, and the Lombardy poplar. Any of 
these vrill, in a few years, aftbrd an efficient shelter. They may' be 
planted fi-om four to six feet apart, and allowed to take their natural 
habit of growth until they reach a height of ten or fifteen feet. If the 
tops are then removed or checked, so as to repress upward elongation, 
they will spread and interlace their lower branches, forming a thick 
shelter, without the trim, formal appearance of a regularly cut hedge. 

It may be safely asserted that no lengthened period of uniform suc- 
cess in Iruit culture can be realized in exposed situations, unless a sys- 
tematic plan of sheltering by belts or hedge rows is introduced ; and 
the time is fast appi-oaching when no person will think of planting fruit 
trees, or raising fine fruits of any kind, without first preparing for them 
a thoroughly protected situation. 


Trees for street planting. — The silver maple {Acer dasycarpnm) has 
always been held in high repute as a shade tree : and although from its 
frequent use it has, in some sections, come to be considered as a common 
tree, its selection for this piu'pose is ^ery appropriate. It possesses, in 
a high degree, the qualities usually sought for by those in treeless local- 


ities, being of rapid gix)"vrth, easily transplanted, perfectly hardy, of an 
upright rather than a spreading habit of growth, and having foliage 
not so dense as to impede a free circulation of air, a commendable qual- 
ity, since a partial shade is more desirable near a building than an 
impenetrable mass of foliage, Trhich retards evaporation and creates 
dampness. It i . ver. a healthy tree, not subject to diseases; 

neither is it ik» reyed upon by insects. It also gi-ows rapidly 

from the seed. 1l-j ixuit ripens in June; and, if planted immediately, 
\nll produce, in good soil, plants two or three feet in height the same 
year: neither is it liable to produce suckers, an objectionable tendency 
peculiar to some free-gi'owing trees. 

The sugar maple {Acer saccliarinum) is one of the most beautiful or 
all the mai)les : iudeed. few trees of any species can equal it in state- 
liness and graceful habit : and if to the oak is given the honor of being 
the king of the forest, we may claim for the sugar maple the title of the 
queen, ^o other tree supports an equally massive head of foliage by 
so slender a stem. It is more compact in its growth than the preceding 
species, with a greater density of foliage ; but its crowning beauty is 
the superb coloring of the leaves in autumn. For promenades or street 
planting, it is one of the most desirable of ornamental trees. Large 
trees are impatient of removal ; therefore small-sized jihints are to be 
preferred for transplanting. 

The black sugar maple {Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum) is in no way 
inferior to the preceding. The foliage is somewhat hirger. and slightly 
downy beneath, changing to deep orange color in autumn. 

The American lime or linden {Tilm Americaiw) is a lofty-growing 
tree, well adapted to planting wide avenues, where it will have ample 
room to spread. It does not thrive well in crowded cities, being more 
healthy in submban localities. It is easily transplanted, and makes 
rapil growth in loamy soils. 

The English linden {TUw Europcc^a) is a conical-shaped tree, and 
therefore well fitted for street shade. The flowers are very sweet and 
attractive to insects, and it has been recommended as a tree of interest 
to bee keepers. This species of linden is, in some localities, subject to 
the attacks of borers ; but, notwithstanding this objection, many fine 
si>ecimens may be seen in cities. 

The ^>Lmerican elci {Ulmus Amerk^ina) has been in high repute as a 
street tree : but its liability to injury from insects, which destroy the 
fobaire durincr summer, greatly diiaiuishes its value, and it is not now 
so - " ' ted as fonneriy. llie European elm ( Ulmm eampestris) 

i* ' 2 growth than the preceding, but neither of them can 

^ ' '■ except for wide avenues and localities where they are 

ex( : ]pf^f i:isf»ft. 

The 1 of all the fine trees of this family, 

^'^ ^^^^ ^ . j;. In very poor soils it forms a 

rounded lit-ad; bui in ibuse which are rather wet than dry it becomes 
erect and grows with considerable rapidity. It is easily transpLinted, 
and retains its loliage until very late in autumn, but is among the latest 
to put forth i:i s;n:; /. 

The tulij) ,0)1 Udipifcra) maybe claimed to be one ot 

the most un;., . of deciduous trees. It is not surpassed 

in the Ix^auty (il * and flowers, in the columnar massiveness and 

elegance of - . ,,, i lie general symmetiy of its development. In 

good soil it \ ery rapid growth, as much so as the silver maple : 

but it is ratLvi u^uj.riilt to transplant suecessrullv. To insure success it 
should be prepared by frequent removal while voung, so as to secure a 


mass of- fibrous roots near the stem ; or it may be planted in tlie place 
desired for its permanent location while very small. In either case it is 
ad\isable to jn-iine the branches close back at the time of removal. In 
transplautino- trees from ten to twelve feet or more in height, which 
have not nndergone removal from the seed rows, the only safe mode is 
to cnt oif the entire stem near the surface of the ground, lifting the roots 
with care. Trees treated in this manner have gTown to a height of ten 
feet in four years after removal. When cut down as directed above, a 
great many shoots will proceed from the base. The most promising of 
these should be selected as the future stem, the others being cut away. 
This flue tree is not injured by insects. The foliage is of a bright green 
during summer, changing to a bright yellow in autumn. 

In planting a line of trees in a street or an avenue only one variety 
should be used. A mixture of kinds in such positions is as much at 
variance with good taste as the mixture of orders in the columns of a 
building. As taste improves we may expect to see planting as much 
under the control of city authorities as the setting of curbstones and 
the paviug of sidewalks are at the present time. 

Round-headed- trees. — Trees of this form are well adapted to planting 
private avenues, and short entrance roads through the usually limited 
lawns of suburban ornamental grounds, combining utility of shade with 
beauty of development. As single specimens also on lawns, where they 
will have ample space for growth, their individual features and charac- 
teristics will be shown to advantage. 

The Xorway maple {Acer pJatanoides) forms an extremely dense mass 
of foliage, of a very dark green during summer, changing to yellow in. 
autumn. The racemes of flowers are ornamental, but should be removed 
fi-om young trees newly transplanted, as their growth is greatly retarded 
when tlie flowers are allowed to remain. The effect of removal frequently 
throws the plant into a fruiting state. The ]^orway maple is not of 
rapid growth, but its compact habit renders it very tlesirable for plant- 
ing on small-sized lawns, or for shading walks in the pleasure garden. 

The red umple {Acer ruhrum) is a well-known tree of great beauty, 
conspicuous for early flowering, enlivening the forest with scarlet and 
crimson blossoms at the earliest ap])roach of spring. In the fall the 
leaves change to a bright scarlet, forming a pleasing contrast with the 
prevailing yellow colors in forest scenery at that season. On account 
of its uot roothig very freely when it is large, small ])lants should be 
selected ; and, even Avith these it will be advantageous to prune back 
the branches closely at the time of removal. 

The white ash {Fraxinus A))iericana) is a native species, and forms a 
noble looking tree, in general ap[)earance resembling the white oak. As 
an isolated specimen, in rich soils it assumes a symmetrical though itot 
a formal outline. To attain perfection it must not be crowded by other 
plants ; this precaution, however, is applicable to all trees, when their 
individual habits and natural outline of growth are to be developed. 

Yellow wood {Cladrasti/i tinctoria) is a western tree, not much planted 
in ornamental collections, although few plants are more attractive or so 
deserving of attention. It is one of the most unique trees for neatly- 
planted lawns of moderate extent. One of its most striking pecuhari- 
ties is the regularly shaped i)r()tuberance formed at the point of junc- 
tion of the branches with the main stem. The leaves are pinnated, and 
change to yellow in autumn. The flowers are shaped like those of the 
pea, of a yellowish color, and in general aspect resembling the yellow 

The horse-chestnut {^sculiis Hippocastanum) is a tree with heavy foli- 


age and of SAiniuetrical foiiu. It puts forth its leaves eaily iu sprilig, 
aud is distinguished at that season by its vivid green hue. and sniK^rb 
pyramidal clusters of llowers. This is a poor ti"ee in a i)oor sod, showing 
a feeble growth, and losing its foliage before the end of summer: but 
iu a rich aud loamy soil it is one of our best ornamental trees, forming 
a dense shade, and on that account should not be planted too near a 

The chestnut {Cutanea resca) is a well-knowTi ti^ee, famed alike for 
the value of its fruit and the beauty of its foliage. It is admissible ouly 
iu extensive lawms. 'VMien the soil is deep and rich the foliage becomes 
large, and of line, glossy-green ai)pearauce ; but notwithstanding this, 
the fruit is produced earlier on poor or rocky soil. The Spanish chest- 
nut closely resombles the native si^ecies. Both the foliage aud fruit are 
larger, but the latter is not of so line a flavor as that of the native 

The wild cheriy [Prv.nus serotina) is a fine ornamental tree, of a some- 
what conical shajK^ when young, but usually becomes rounde<l as it 
attains age and size. Its fruit is eageily sought by birds, and the plant 
is occasionaDy introduced into pleasui^ grounds for their especial grati- 
ficiition. Its merits with regard to foliage, blossoms, and fiuit, aix^ suf- 
ficient to recommend its introduction into any choice collection of ti^ees. 

The ash-leaved maple {ye{jundo accroidcs) is one of the finest formed 
omamentid trees where it has space to develop its natural outline. It 
is also of very rapid growth, and therefore valuable as a shelter to trees 
which mature more slowly. Where a sheltering belt of deciduous trees 
is speedily desired, the negundo may be largely plante'd, as being of the 
most rapid gi-owth. 

The Osage orange {Madura auraniicica) has of late yeai-s become so 
widely known as a hedge jdant that its merits, as a sjx^'imen tree, have 
been paitly overlooked. It is, however, one of the most gi-aceful of the 
round-headed trees that can be idauted on a lawn. The foliage becomes 
large, and the smooth, hard bark, the outward drotjpiug branches, and 
the hirge fiiiit. combine to render it a desideratum for suburban lawns 
or ornamental groups. 

The Willow oak {Quercus plieltos) and the Laurel oak {Quercus imbri' 
caria) are two desirable lawn trees, not often seen in such situations. 
When growing isolated in favorable soil, they form dense heads, and 
their peculiarly narrow, willow-shaped leaves gives pleasing variety in 
contrast with trees having broad and expansive foliage. 

Large-leaved trce^. — The gre^t-leaved magnolia {Magnolia macrophyUa) 
is a superb tree of tropical appeaniuce, with leaves from eighteen inches 
to two feet in length, bright green on their upi>er surface, and sil 
very beneath. The flowers are i.irge — often eight inches across — aud 
fragrant. This choice ornamental tree, like others of its family, is diffi- 
cult to transplant, therefore small, healthy trees should invfu-iably be 

The ciitalpa {Cc-ialpa lignonioides) is a well-known tree, with ample 
and roundetl foliage, and large iianides of showy white flowei-s, followed 
by long i>endant pods. A spreading tree, w'ith horizontally twistcnl 
branches, it is most eflfective when planted iu groups of four or more 

The Pauloicnia imperlalis is a rapid-growing tree, somewhat resem- 
bling the preceding in general appearance, but its foliage is larger, and 
the flowers are lilac-colored. In the north, and also in the wanner cli- 
mates, duiing severe winters the flower buds are generally destroyed- 

T}€€.8 with 2)innat€d or finely dirided foUage.—Tix^ Kentucky coflee'tree 


{Gymnodadus Canadensis) is tall and of close liabit, Tvitliliead soniewliat 
spreading in old specimens. The doubly-pinnate leaves have a fine 
effect when viewed against a clear sky, having the appearance of delicate 
net-work. When in a young state it is not very attractive, but as it 
increases in size the lateral branches become smaller and more numer- 
ous in proportion ; the leaves also are slightly diminished in size, which 
improves their appearance. 

Honey locust {Gleditschia tyiacantJios.) inconsequence of the formid- 
able spines vrhich cover the main stem and branches, presents an aspect 
somewhat repulsive : but its airy, acacia-like foliage, hanging gTacefully 
on the young shoots, renders it one of the most attractive plants in early 

The tree of heaven {Ailanthiis (/landulosa) is a tree with some good 
and many bad qualilies, according to public opinion. It certainly can 
claim great rapidity of growth, and when fully grown, its heavy pin- 
nated foliage strongly retlects its oriental origin. The female plant is 
free fi-om the noisome fragrance of the male, and produces fruit which is 
frequently very ornamental. 

The black walnut {Juglans nigra) is a well-knovm and useful tree of 
the largest size, with large, fragrant, pinnated foliage. The European 
walnut is well worthy of attention on account of the value of its fruit. 
It is sulBciently hardy, although young plants in vigorous gTowth occa- 
sioimlly lose the points of their succideut shoots dming a severe winter. 

The Japan Kolreuteria {Kolreuteria paniculata) is a tree of medium 
size, i)articularly adapted to lawns, producing large pannicles of yellow 
flowers, succeeded by ornamental capsules. The foliage turns to yellow 
in autumn, and at all seasons the plant is attractive. 

The silk tree {Alhizziajulibrissin) is a low-headed spreading tree, pos- 
sessed of the most graceful foliage. In northern latitudes it is generally 
killed to the ground by frost ; but when spring returns it sends up 
branches profuoe with tropical-looking foliage. It flowers freely in the 
latitude of Y\'ashington, D. C. 

The Japan sophora {So]}hora Japonica,) yellow locust {Eohinia pseuda- 
cacia,) yelknv wood {Cladraatis tinctoria,) stag-horn sumach {Rhus 
ii/l^nina.) and the whole of the family of ashes, may be placed in the list 
of pinuate-foliagcd i)lants. This form of leaf creates a pleasing variety, 
and contrasts advantageously with the heavy masses of entire-leaved 
trees in ornamental gTOuping. The preceding list embraces some of 
the most noteworthy ornamental plants of the class. There are many 
shrubs with leaves of this description, although not individually worthy 
c:f particular notice. 

Trees with variegated foliage. — These are mainly varieties of species, 
and are more or less liable, under a bright sun and dry atmosphere, to 
revert to tlieir original condition. A sheltered and shady locality will 
be lavorable to the permanence of their colors. The follovring list em- 
braces some of the most available and distinctly marked : The English 
maple {Acer camjyestre, var. raricgata;) sycamore maple {Acer pseudo- 
platanus., var. variegata ;) red maple [Acer riihriim, var. rariegata ;) 
iiorse-cbestnut {J^scidm Hippocastanum, var. rariegata ;) white birch 
{Betiila aiha, vaw rariegata;) Eiu-opean chestnut {Castancii resca, var. 
variegata;) English ash {Fraxinns excelsior, xnr. variegata ;) European 
heech {Fa gits sylvatiea, xar. variegata;) European moautain ash {Py- 
riis aucupariu, var. variegata ;) European oak {Querc2(s peduneidata. var. 
variegata ;) European linden {Tilia Furojuca, var. variegata ;) English 
elva. {Ulmns campestris, var. variegata;) European red-bud (Cercis sili- 
quastnim, var. variegata:) English bird-cherry {Pninus padus, var. 


rarkgatfi;) Gingko tree {Salishuria adiantifoJia. xar. rarkgata ;) Tiilip 
tree {Liriodendron tuUpifera, var. variegata;) Osage orauge {Madura 
aurantiaca. var. I'ariegata. 

Purple-foUaged trees and shruhs. — European beeeli {Fagus sylratica^ 
var. purpurea;) sycamore maple {Acer j^seudo-jjlatanus. tut. purpurea :) 
English elm {tflmm campestris, var. purpurea ;) English filbert {Corylus 
Arelhnia. var. rubra ;) berbeny {Berberis vulgaris, var. purpurea.) 

Trees having cut or laciniated foliage. — White birch (Betula alba. var. 
laciniata). — Tliis is an exceedingly interesting variety of the white birch, 
of droopiug habit : a choice tree for the lavru. where it should be planted 
as an isolated specimen : its peculiar beauty is lost when grouped with 
other trees. 

European alder {Alnus ghitinosa, var. laciniata.) — Grows well in low 
situations, or in localities too wet or damx^ for many other trees. It is 
very- marked and distinct. 

European beech {Fagus splvatica. var. incisa.) — This remarkable, neat- 
foliaged plant is seldom seen in collections. It forms a compact mass of 
fern-like foliage, and is in every respect one of the best plants for a smaU 

European mountain-ash {Pyrus aucuparia, var. quercifolia;) sycamore 
maple {Acer p>seudo-2)latanus, var. laciniata :) horse-chestnut {JEsculus 
Eippocastanum. var. laciniata;) Em-opean linden {Tilia Furopa^a. var. 
laciniata;) European oak {Quercus pedunculata. var. laciniata;) Euro- 
pean chestnut {Castanea resca, var. asplenifolia.) 

Bartram oak {Querciis heterophjlla. Miehaux.) — This unique plant 
forms one of the most beautiful as well as the most interesting of aU 
the oaks. It is well worthy of introduction into pleasure lawns and 

Weeping and drooping trees. — Babylonian wi'ilow {Salix Babylonica.) — 
This vxell-kjiown tree is without a rival in its particular form and st\ie 
of beauty: of rapid gi'owth, it is one of the best to ]>lant where an imme- 
diate effect is desirable. As a backgiound to buildings, or a foreground 
object to upright growths, it is equally appropriate. 

Kilmarnock AvilJow {Halix caprea. var. pendula.) — When gi\afred on a 
good stock ten to tburteen feet in height, this variety becomes one of the 
most distinct of the hardy weeping plants which we possess. It is fre- 
quently worked on low stems, and in consequence much of its beauty is 
lost. This may be remedied by placing a stout stick to the plant, select- 
ing an appropriate branch, and t\ing it up as it extends. Side branches 
will be produced, and, as they dei>eud. a weeping. p^Tamidal-shaped 
plant will be secured, much moi'e beautiful than one with a rounded 
drooping head, as is usually seen. 

Cauiperdowu elm {Cbnu.s glabra, xht. pendula.) — This is also a distinct 
weei)iug variety, retaining its drooping habit, and, fi-om its fine large 
foliage, may be ranketl among tlie best of it^ class. 

\Veei)ing ash {Fra,rinus crcehior, vnr. pendula.) — When gi'owing lux- 
nriautjy, this variety has a tendency to upright gi'owth. which may be 
obviated by cutting out all the buds that forin on the upper surface of 
the highest-placed shoots. There seem to be two varieties having the 
weeping form, one producing slender branches and more inclined to pend- 
ent growth than the other. 

European mountain ash. {Pyrus aucuparia, mr. pendula.) 

Dwart' cherry {Prunus pumila.)^\yhen gi-afted on a suitable stock, 
this i)lant forms a neat, drooi)iug, ornamental tree. 

There are many trees that incline to a pendent growth, the points of 
the branches depending to a greater or less degi-ee as they attain size. 


Among the most conspicuous of tliese may he noted tlie linden, birch, 
several elms, poplar, and sophora. 

Trees icith conspicuous or fragrant floicers. — The dogrvood {Coruiis 
Florida ;) laburnum {Lahurnum rulgare;) catalpa [Catalpa hignonioides ;) 
imperial Paulownia {Pauloicnia imjjerialis ;) red maple {Acer rubrum ;) 
yellow locust {Eohinia jyseudacacia :) yello'vr-wood {Cladrasus tiiictoria ;) 
librse-chestuut {JEsculus Eippocastanutn :) maguohas. viz., Magnolia 
glaucoy M. macropliylla, AT. umbrella, and 21. grandifiora : Japan sophora 
{Sophora Japonica ;) Kolreuteria {Kolreuteria paniculaia :) Yirginia 
fringe-tree {Chionanthus Tirginica ;) many of the hawthorns [Crataegus;) 
silver beU {Halesia dipiera :) tulip tree {Liriodendron tulipifera ;) red 
bud {Cercis Canadensis ;) shad bush {Amelanchier Canadensis :) Ameri 
can crab-apple {Fyrus coronaria :) the linden (T/7/fl;) sassafras {Sassa- 
fras officinale:) and Mahaleb Qheimix {Frunus rnahaleb.) for their fragrance; 
the Eiu'opean and also the American moiuitain-ash for their ornamental 
fiuits as well as flowers: and the double-flowering varieties of the peach 
and cherry form a select list of the most conspicuous hardy flowering 


There are many situations in smaE gardens where it is essential to give 
variety by intricacy of parts, and where the limited space renders its 
accomplishment impracticable by the ordinary expedient of planting a 
border of trees and shrubbery, but which may be effectually secured by 
erecting a screen of trellis- work, to be covered with climbing plants. 

To insure some degTee of permanency in trellis-work, cedar or locust 
posts should be used, and covered with laths made smooth and thor- 
oughly painted. "U'hat is termed rustic-work, for which many rural 
improvers seem to have a groat penchant, is a very expensive ornament, 
requiring constant care in repairing, varnishing. «S:c. : and, after all, its 
rustic beauty is hidden by the twining fohage, which is trequently an 
improvement to the general effect. 

Screens of trellis-work for climbing plants should be constructed with 
a view to a recognition of architectiu-al eflect if in proximity to build 
ings, divided into panels by projectuig piers, and the elevation reheved 
by moldings. A very appropriate diAisiou-wall or fence between the 
flower and vegetable gardens, or for the purix)se of defining any other 
portions of garden or lawn, may be formed by a low structure, as 
indicated above, the piers bemg cappod and surmounted with vases. 
Much of the adaptability and propriety of this arrangement will depend 
upon its position and the manner in which it is connected with contign- 
ous objects. 

The following Mst comprises the best of hardy climbing plants, with 
remarks upon their peculiarities and habits of gTOwth : 

Trumpet flower, (Tccoma radicans.J — This is a robust plant and fitted 
only for large arbors or for covering walls. It is well adapted to plant 
against old or mutilated trees, such as are often present in old grounds; 
and they may be utilized by allowing this climljer to cover then- naked- 
ness, and soften their rugged points. It produces a profusion of dense 
clusters of flowers, which are favorite haunts of the humming bird : and 
it has the valuable property of adhering firmly to walls. It must, how- 
ever, be occasionally pruned, or it will, from its weight, ultimately break 
down the overhanging branches. 

Golden bignouia, (Bignonia capreolata.J — This fine flowering climber 
is not so commonly planted as its merits deserve. It supj)orts itself by 


teiMlrils, aud lias great adhering powers; a very choice plant, nearly an 

Viifriina cix-QiieT,fAmpdGpsis quiiiqi'.efoliajal&o called American i^y. — 
A >rell-kno\vn plant of great beauty of foliage, more especially in au- 
Tinnn. At this season it assumes a crimson shade which deepens into 
•scarlet, producing a striking contrast with evergieeu foliage, as may be 
seer, when it takes possession of the red cedar, a tree for v^hich it seeiAs 
TO have a natural partiality. It.^, delicate tendrils clasp veiy minute 
]trqjections, and hence it may frequently be seen i^rofusely covering brick 
nails. In such situations it is very liable to be blo-^Ti down during 
storms, unless care is exercised in trimming, and keeping the branches 
close to their support. This plant is eminently cleanly and neat, with 
i eaves elegantly formed and of a shining green color during summer. 
It is also of rapid gi'owth, quite flexible, and rer.dily trained in any de- 
sirable position. 

The Poison ivy (Ilhus toxicodendron J in sometimes mistaken for the Vir- 
ginia creeper, but they can be easily distinguished by the leaf. The 
poison ivy has its leaflets in threes^ and the Virginia creeper hi Jives, the 
leaves of the latter being large, and the leaflets more oblong. 

Carolina jasmine, fGelsemium scmperrirens.J — Although this plant is 
tender north of Virginia, yet it succeeds in sheltered city gardens fur- 
ther north. It Is one of the most attractive plants, with large, yellow, 
fragrant blossoms. In cool greenhouses or conservatories, it is an ad- 
mirable plant for twining around pillai's and other supports. 

Pipe vine, ( Aristolochia sipho.J — In lich soils this i)lant will make a 
large growth, and cover a great extent of trellis in one season, produc- 
ing leaves from ten to twelve inches in breadth, and of a vivid green 
color. In poor soil it is less beautifid in color, as well as diminished in 
size. It is liable to be infested by a large, black cateiiidlar, easdy de- 
stroyed, if carefully watched, before the plant is disflg-ured. The pecu- 
liar shape of the flowers gives it the name of the Dutchman's pipe, to 
which they have a very strong and remarkable resemblance. 

The climbing bitter-sweet (Cclasirus scandensj is a twining i^lant of 
much beaut^-, especially in autumn, when the orange-colored cajisules 
open, and show the scarlet seed-covers, the raceme-like clusters hanging 
like small bunches of gi^pes. It should not be planted near, or at least 
ought not to be allowed to twine upon, any choice ti'ee or plant. Its 
tough, twining stem clas]>s so closely as to interfere with the swelling 
of the bark ; and instances have been observed, where young trees have 
been so fiir cut through by the wiry cod of this climber, as to kill the 

The Japan honeysuckle (Lonicera hracliypodaj is a more beautiftd 
vine than the older known Chinese evergTcen (Lonicera Japonita.J The 
leaves of this species are somewhat larger, of a bright, shining, or glis- 
tening green color: flovrers delicate and of sweet fragrance. There is no 
hardy trailing or climbing plant that can excel this as a covering for 
veranda jjillars, arbors, or trellises. One of the most agreeable beds in 
a flower garden is a large, oval figure, rounded to a pyramid, (by filling 
up with soil in the center,) and completely covered with this evergreen, 
for in such a position it is truly an evergreen, although it will lose its 
foliage in vdnter, when exjwsed on a high trellis. In order to produce 
the best effect on trellis work, it shoidd be carefully trained, so that the 
branches may be regularly distributed over the entire surface to be cov- 
ered. A regular system of winter pruning, which consists in remo^'ing 
all the young gi-owth of the previous year, will keep a neatly covered 
surface. This surface will be supplied yearly with a graceful growth of 


yomig, tli-oopiiig.", v.iul sieiider shoots. If the lower Ijranolies show 
diminishing- vigor, they may "be .stnmgthened by pruning the upper por- 
tions of the ])]ant dm-iug' summer, 

Chinese AVistaria, (Wistaria sinensis. J — A strong-growing, woody 
climber, adapted for large trellises or to twining: upon trees. Its ra- 
cemes of tlowers are large and fragTant : and it will rapidly cover a large 
surface, if planted in good soil and favorable situation. 

Cocculus, (Cocculas CaroUnus.J — A native climber, with ornamented 
fruit, hanging in clusters of a deep red, or hearly scarlet color, and re- 
sembling a bunch of the common red cuirant. 

Moonseed. flLenispermum Canadaise.J — A small- foliaged. delicate 
climber; producing clusters of black li'iut in autumn. 

For covering- a large trellis or an arbor, in a very short time, oiu' na- 
tive grapes are among the best plants: and where fruit is not an object 
of particular consideration, any of the varieties of the frost g-rape fVitis 
cordifoliaj will be preferable to those of the larger and coarser fox 

Ivy, (Hedcra Eelix.J — This fine evergreen climber requires to be 
planted on a northern aspect. It adheres readily to a tree or stone wall, 
bnt recjuires a slight support against a brick structiu-e, at least until it 
becomes well established. The dryness of oiu' climate prevents it fi'om 
clasping- to walls with that tenacity for which it is famed in Europe. 
There are many varieties in cultivariou. having gTeat diversity of foli- 
age, the most beautiful being variegatetl with white and yellow. 


Everlasting' pea, (Latliyrus lafifolius.J — A very desirable summer 
climber, very profuse in liowers ; a much-neglected plant. 

Chinese yam, (Bioscorca batatas. J — This plant, of which so much was 
expected as a valuable culinaiy root, has had the misfortune of first 
being overpraised, and then greatly underrated. It is, however, well 
worthy of notice for its mere ornamental beauty, as a covering for arbors, 
&:c. It spreads with great vigor, covering a large sm'iace in a few weeks ; 
and, while the roots are perfectly hardy, they possess the additional 
merit of affording nutritious food. A plant combining- these qualities 
merits attention, and should not be consigned to neglect. 

Virgin's bower, f Clematis. J — There are many species and varieties of 
this plant in cultivation : some of them Avith biilliant liowers, mostly of 
blue color. 

Passion fiower, (Passiflora incaniata.) and double convolvulus fCahj- 
stefjia piCocscens.J — Both of these climbers, altliough quite desirable in a 
collection, are inclined to spread and send up suckers from the roots, so 
that they are apt to become troublesome in some situations. 

Climbing fumitory, (Adhimia cirrliosa.J — A native plant of very deli- 
cate foliage ; requires to be grown in a shaded i)lace, where it can find 
support on a low trellis. 


Climbing cobani, fCola'a seandcns.J — A rapid-gTowiug vine, of gTeat 
value where immediate shade is desked. 

Cypress vine, fCjuamoelit vulgaris. J — A plant with elegant, cypress-like 
foliage ; slender in gTowth ; requires warm soil and exposure to succeed 
well ; fiowers of various colors, as scarlet, white, and rose. 

Morning-glory, flpomcea imrpurea.) — A well-known i)laut of much 


beauty and great variety ; flowers variously colored, but blue prevail 
in^r ; more or less striped and margined with wbite. 

Balloon vine, ( CardioHpermum halicacahum.J — A free-growing plant 
climbiug by tendrils; chiefly ornamental on account of its inflated pods, 
which give to it its common name. 

CalampcUs scahcr.—A plant of rapid extension; foliage thin and 
scattered; valuable for partial shading; flowers tubular, orange-colored. 

Lojyhospcrmian scandcns. —Y.qnal to the cobfea in rapidity of growth, 
and valuable where a large siu'face is to be covered in a short time. 

.VflMrfr,vf/iai>rtr(?/fl?/rt;m.— -A small-foliaged, graceftil-gro wing plant, with 
trumpet flowers of various colors; the white variety very delicately 

Tlnnihcrd'ia alata.—lwv'nih soils this will mnkeagood display; on dry, 
jght soils "it burns out in dry weather ; flowers orange, white, and yellow, 
trith dark edge. 


Au approximate exhibit of the extent, progress, and other peciihari- 
ties connected with grape cnlture and wine production has been a long- 
felt want. Many vague and loose statements, with reference to extent 
of land planted, and amount of crop, have been put in circulation. 

Equally unsatisfactory and conflicting opinions are held as to the com- 
parative value of certain soils and locations, the best varieties of the 
fruit, and the adaptability of certain kinds to particular soils, climates, 
and localities. 

With a view to the collection of statistical information, copies of a 
circular containing the following list of questions wxre distributed among 
the correspondents of this Department and to the principal grape- 
growers throughout the country : 

1. How many acres of vineyard in your county ? 

2. How many acres actually in bearing? 

3. How many tons of grapes were produced tlie present season ? 

4. How many pounds were sold or shipped for table use? 

5. How many gallons of wine were manufactured? 

6. What variety is most popular as a table fruit? 

7. What variety is in highest repute as a wiue grape? 

8. What variety is priucipally grown? 

9. What variety gives the heaviest must on the sugar scale? 

10. What varieties are most subject to leaf diseases, and to what extent are they injured? 

11. What varieties are most subject to rot, and to what extent? 

12. What effect has shelter or protection, of any kind, in preventing leaf diseases ? 
i:{. What effect has soil in reference to rot in the berry? 

14. What soils, chemically considered, are most favorable to health and vigor of plant, and 
perfection of fruit ? 

15. What effects have been observed from mechanical conditions of soils, such as drainino-, 
subsoiling, and other cultural operations ? °' 

l(j. What effect has elevation upon the health of the vine ? Give results of observations 
and opinion as to the proper height above valleys. 

17. Has any variety of the foreign grape proved remunerative in vineyard culture? 

18. What is the effect of summer pruning, and what method of winter prunino- is best? 

19. What is the average cost per acre of a vineyard three years old, exclusive of "the value 
of the land ? 

20. Average yield per acre ? 

21. How many gallons of wine per acrr-, on an average of five years? 

22. What insects are most injurious to the vine, and what is the extent of the injury, and 
what remedies have proved efficient ? 

The collated information froui these returns is herewith presented. It 
is fragmentary, furnishing only contributions toward a complete col- 
lection of vineyard statistics ; but perhaps as full as could be expected, 
from the difficidty of obtaining accurate aggregates of hsjures never 
oflieialiy collected either by national or State authorities, and the neces- 
sity of dependiug mainly upon professional vineyardists instead of oiu- 
regular corps of correspondents. More complete returns may be obtamed 

From some States the reports are meager, and California, the heaviest 
producer of all, is not represented. It Vvas considered expedient, how- 
ever, to include all that have been rccei\-ed, even to those States where 
only one county has sent returns. The annexed table embraces the an- 
swers to questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, and 21 : 



Anstccrs to questions 1, 2, 'A, 4, r>, 1?, '20, 21. 













Tons producod. 

Pounds sold. 








Average cost per acre. 

Average per aero, poun l.<. 






> . 



1. ■ 

























3, COO 
























7, COO 



















6. COO 





"7," 666' 






































2, ceo 

.">, 000 
6, COO 



Van Boren 


































2, COO 












































* Failure from grasih uppers. 

t From wild grapes. 

J Injured badly by hail. 


Ansiccrs to questions ], "2, o, 4, 5, ID, 20, 21—Continued. 




.S -a 

•= 1 -a "3 

•— ^ ■» 

















5 2 

c S 
.5 >• 

> o 



a ^ 


2. 1 3. 







ILLIKOIS— Cont'd. 













3 1 4,000 



....i .. 



6 ! 10 0(10 


10 1'^ 

20, 000 



40, COO 






















6, 000 










35, 000 



5, COO 




Rock Island 






4, 000 




30, OCO 




2,736 1 1,4C0 

1, 420 

665, 500 

221, 912 


91, 300 

200 1 2,500 



35 ?l 1 no 


$1, 000 




1 X , \J\J\J 







1 1 
1 1 





* -^ • — ] -".""" 


'•i-i 33 15 1 10,000 

2, COO 


7, 000 




10 9 
3 3 


1, 075 



Von Buron 



13 1 12 1 >! no<i 




\ * 



1 2 

1 rni) 



— ■ 



Co 1 

15 ! 




i 1 

im Co IjO 150,000 
15 10 1 5 r, (im 











15 3 i it 
W 5 1 





1 -■" 1 


Da Kalb 

650 650 

' :::: : i 



coo 1 

10.000 1 








Ansiccrs to questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 19, 20, ii — Contincsd. 















. 3 







& o 










' *£"= 






































ScotUsd , 

St. Lotus 































12, COO 









L, 5(*i 9iAi C'44i 

e-37.OC!0 132, 9!6 

'A''J 2, COO 34.000 ' 1,450 

Burlin^.cn 50 



a'njtoE 3 

CbAatuDqtia 1,000 

Livintfotoa 90 

Nui^ra . 240 

Outario I, SfX) ! 3O0 

Strabea | 4,000 

UliaeT ; 250 

Wayne ! 90 











2. 5U0 






3 |. 
800.000 I 







1, too, 000 

40 ',000 

40, 000 










1, » 

5, 0(X) 




Total '7,473 '4,387 7. 33t 


.7!n,0C3 234,25(1 ] , ~J0 32. 000 ' 1 2. 5O0 

B««nf<'>n . 



4.000 1 700 ! I 

l.OJO I $40 I j I 450 

Z:OUil I iJ T.U : 450 



IV-Uware ... 


Fnirfi-M . ... 


lligrbland .... 
Jpffer»c-a ... . 




Mabooing ... 



Miudiiiigiua . . 























2. MO 



















Ansjcers to q7:estions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 19, 20, 21— Continued. 








Acres in bearing. 




Pounds sold. 




































OHIO— Cont'd. 













4, 330i 

4, 815, 700 

384, 012 


3-1, 350 

1, 600 










34, 000 




1, 4C0, 000 











1, 4;i2, 500 































Total . ... 


-■ '- 

The retm^ns to questions G, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 
22, are in substance as follows : 

Question G. V^hat varieties are most popiclar as tahle fruit f — Arkansas: 
*Catawba, Delaware, — Connecticut: Concord, Delaware. — Delaware: 
Concord.— Georgia : Herbemoiit, Scuppernong, — Dlinois : Concord, Del- 
aware, Catawba, Zona, Hartford Prolitic, Isabella. Diana. — Indiana: 
Concord, Catawba, Delaware, Hartford Prolific, Isabella, Diana. — Iowa: 
Concord, Delaware, Hartford Prolific, Clinton, Creveling. — Kentucky: 
Concord, Ives, Delaware. — Kansas: Delaware. — Missouri: Concord, Ca- 
tawba, Delaware, Hartford Prolific, Isabella, Diana, loua. — Minnesota: 
Delaware, — Michigan : Concord, Delaware. — Massachusetts : Concord, 
Delaware, — New Jersey : Concord, Isabella, Delaware. — North Carolina: 
Scuppernong, Catawba. — New York : Delaware, lona, Catawba, Isabella, 
Concord, Salem, Diana, Adirondack, Hartford Prolific, Eebccca, Max- 

' The varieties are named, in order accordincr to their estimated value. 


atawny. Oliio : Concord, Catawba, Delaware, Isabella, lona, Kogei-s's 

]S'o. 15. Peunsylvauia : CoDCord, Isabella. Catawba, lona, Hartford 

Prolitie, Diana, Israella. — South Carolina : Scnppernong, Catawba, Isa- 
bella, Lenoir. — Tennessee : Catawba, Isabella, Concord. 

Question 7. What varieties are in highest repute as icine gra^yes f—Con- 
necticnt : Delaware, Concord.— Georgia : Scuppernong.— Illinois : Con- 
cord, Norton's A'irginia. Catawba, Clinton, Delaware, Ives, lona, Hart- 
ford Proline, Herbemont.— Indiana : Catawba, Delaware. Ives. Con- 
cord, :5'orton'S Virginia, Isabella, lona. Clinton. — Iowa : Concord, Dela- 
ware, Clinton, Catawba, Norton's Virginia, Eogers's Xo. 4. — Kentucky : 
Catawba, (in old vineyards.) Ives. Delaware. — Kansas: Delaware. — Mis- 
souri: ^'orton's Virginia, Concord, Catawba, Delaware, Herbemont, 
Clinton, Ives. — Minnesota : Concord. — Michigan : Delaware. Concord. — 
Massachusetts : Concord, Delaware. — Xew Jersey : Delaware, Clinton. — 
North Carolina: Scnppernong. — New York: Delaware, lona. Catawba, 
Isabella, Concord, Clinton, Oporto. — Ohio: Catawba, Delaware, Con- 
cord, Ives. Norton's Vii-ginia, Clinton. — Pennsylvania : Catawba. Del- 
aware, Isabella, Concord, Clinton. lona, Ives. — Sonth Carolina : Scnp- 
pernong, Clinton. — Tennessee: Mamy, Mauch. — Wisconsin: Isabella, 

Question S. What varieties are j;;-/«c?j;rt?/?/ groirn ? — Arkansas : Ca- 
tawba, Concord. — Connecticut: Hartford Prolitie, Concord. — Delaware: 
Concord. — Georgia: Scnppernong. — Illinois: Concord, Catawba, Clin- 
ton, Hartford Prolific, Delaware, Norton's Vii'ginia. Isabella, Herbe- 
mont, lona, Diana, Ives. — Indiana: Concord, Catawba, Isabella. Dela- 
ware, Ives, Norton's Virginia, Clinton, Diana. Hartford Prolific. lona. — 
Iowa : Concord, Clinton. Norton's Virginia, Catawba, Eogers's No. 4, 
Delaware. — Kentucky, (old vineyards.) Catawba; (new vineyards.) Ives, 
Concord, Delaware, Diana. Norton's Virginia. — Kansas: Concord. — 
i^Iissom'i : Concord, Norton's Virginia, Catavrba, Delaware, Clinton, 
Herbemont, Isabella, lona. — ^Minnesota : Concord, Northern Musca- 
dine. — Michigan: Concord. — Massachusetts: Concord. — New Jersey: 
Concord, Isabella. — North Carolina : Scnppernong. — New York : Isa- 
bella, Delaware. Concord, Catawba, Diana, lona, Clinton, Salem, Hart- 
ford Prohfic. — Ohio : Catawba, Concord, Isabella, Delaware, Ives. Nor- 
ton's Virginia, Clinton, Hartford Prolific, Diana. — Pennsylvania: Con- 
cord, Isabella, Catawba. lona, Diana, Haitford Prolific, Clinton. Crev- 
eling. — South Carolina : Scnppernong, Catawba. — Tennessee : Cataw- 
ba. — Wisconsin : Concord. Delaware. 

Question 0. Whut varieties give the heaviest must on the sugar scale? — 
Connecticut : DelaAvare. — Georgia : Pauline, (98,) Herbemont, (93.) Ca- 
tawba, (85.) Scnppernong, (70.) — Illiuois: Delaware, Norton's Virginia, 
Catawba, Kulauder, Concord, Herbemont. Clinton.— Indiana : Catawba, 
Delaware, Ives. Concord. — Iowa: Delaware. Norton's Virginia. Catawba, 
Concord, Cliutoii. — Kentucky: Norton's Virginia. — Kansas: Delaware. — 
Missouri : Norton's Virginia, Delaware, Concord. Catawba. — Minnesota : 
Delaware, lona. — Michigan : Delaware. — Massachusetts: Delaware, Clin- 
ton, Concord. — North Carolina : Scnppernong. — New York: Delaware, 
(103,) lona, (101.) Diana. Clinton.— Ohio : Delaware. (110,) Catawba, (95,) 
Norton's Viiginia. (98,) Concord, (81.) — Pennsylvania : Delaware. (100.) 
lona, (100,) Isabella, Catawba. — South Carolina: Catawba, Pauline. 

Question 10. What varieties are most subject to I e^if diseases, and to what 
extent arc they injured ? — Arkansas : Isabella, badly ; Concord, slightly. — 
Connecticut : All varii-ries more or less except Ives. — Georgia : JPauline, 
Herbemont, and all the varieties of the Vids Labrusca. — Illinois: Ca- 
tawba, Delaware, Clinton, l.s;ibella,lvebecca, i>iana, Iona,Ives, Hartford 


Pfolifie, Maxata^vuy, Israella, Creveling. — Indiana : Catawba, Delaware, 
Isabella. Cuyahoga, lona, IsraeUa, Concord, Diana. — lovra : Clinton, Ca- 
tawba, Diana, Isabella, Eogers's Hybrids, Allen's Hybrid, lona. — Ken- 
tucky : Eogers's Hybrids, Delaware, Clinton, Tokalon, and all varieties If 
primed in summer. — Kansas: Delaware, Catawba ; about three-tentLis. — 
Missouri : Catawba, Delaware. Isabella, lona, Clinton. — Mich.igan : Isa- 
bella, lona, Israella. — Massachusetts: Delaware, Creveling, Israella, 
Diana Hamburg; Creveling, ibiu'-tenths to five-tenths. — Xew Jersey: 
Delaware, Creveling, Eebecca, lona, Diana, Allen's Hybrid, Maxataw- 
ny. — Xew York. — Delaware, five-tenths : Adh'oudack, four-tenths : Wal- 
ter, three-tenths ; Allen's Hybrid, three-tenths: Isabella, two-tenths; 
Concord, one-tenth ; Diana, one-tenth ; Eebecca, one-tenth ; lona, one- 
tenth ; IsraeUa, one-tenth. — Ohio: Catawba, Delaware, lona. Isabella, 
four-tenths to five-tenths ; Eogers's ZSTos. 3, 4, lo, three-tenths to five- 
tenths : Allen's Hybrid, four-tenths ; Israella, three-tenths ; Chnton, 
lona, Diana, one-tenth to thr-ee-tenths. Always most injuiious to 
plants that are overloaded with fruit ; prevents ripening of wood, and 
weakens the vitality of the plant. — Pennsylvania : All varieties are sub- 
ject to leaf bhght. sometimes to the extent of seven-tenths of the foli- 
age, except Concord, Hartford Prolific, and Northern Muscadine. — 
South Carolina : Catawba. Isabella. — Tennessee : Isabella, very badly. — 
TVisconstu : Little or no disease. 

Question 11. What varieties are most subject to rot, and to icMt extent? — 
Arkansas: Chnton, Isabella. — Connecticut: Diana. — Georgia: Catawba, 
Isabella, six-tenths. — Illinois: Catawba, seven-tenths to entire: Isabella, 
five-tenths to eight-tenths ; Clinton, foiu'-tenths to six-tenths : Creveling, 
five-tenths to seven-tenths ; Diana, five-tenths ; Taylor's Bidlet, three- 
tenths; Tokalon, thi-ee-tenths ; lona, four-tenths; Eebecca, three-tenths; 
Concord cracks. — Indiana: Catawba, three-tenths to eight-tenths ; Isa- 
bella, three-tenths to eight-tenths ; Diana, three-tenths to five-tenths ; 
Concord, two-tenths. — Iowa : Catawba, five-tenths to eight-tenths ; Diana, 
four-tenths ; Isabella and Clinton, three-tenths ; Concord, one-tenth. — 
Kentucky: Eogers's Hybrids, lona, Catawba. — Kansas: Catawba rots 
badly in wet seasons. — Missouri : Catawba, Isabella, lona, Tokalon, — 
Michigan : Catawba, Isabella. — Massachusetts : Diana ; very little in 
other varieties. — Xew Jersey: Isabella hi wet locations only. — Xorth 
Carolina : Catawba. — Xew York : Catawba, three-tenths to foiu--tenths; 
Concord, one-tenth to two-tenths ; Diana and Delaware on low, alluvial 
lands are subject to rot to a great extent. — Ohio: Catawba, three-tenths 
to eight-tenths ; Isabella, three-tenths to six-tenths ; Israella, thi^e-tenths: 
Diana and lona, three-tenths: Concord, one-tenth to three-tenths.— 
Pennsylvania: Catawba and Isabella, very badly, frequently to the 
extent of eight-tenths. — South Carolina : Catawba, tVarren. — Tennessee : 
Isabella and Catawba, very badly after bearing two or three crops ol 
fruit. — Wisconsin : Allen's Hybrid, three-tenths^ 

Question VJ. WJtat effect has shelter or protection, of any JciiuJ^ injjye- 
renting leaf diseases f — Arkansas: Saunders's sheltered trellis effectually 
prevents leaf diseases. — Connecticut : Very little efiect. — Georgia : 
Always fail' when gTOwn in trees. — Illinois : Favorable wherever tried : 
even slightly-covered trellis iusures against mildew : protection will iusiu'e 
fair crops in the most unfavorable seasons. — Indiana : Beneficial where 
tried. — Iowa : Good where it has been tried. — Kentucky : A beneficial 
efiect to aU tender-leaved varieties. — ^Missomi : Where tried has exerted 
a favorable influence. — Massachusetts : Beneficial by increasiag the 
temperatiue. — ^ew York : Favorable where it does not prevent a fi-ee 
circulation of air. — Ohio : Yiues trained againct buildings and on covered 


trellises are free from leaf diseases; instances are kuowu of siiccessflil 
cnlture of uncertaiu varieties under sbelter, successive crops for thirteen 
years having been raised. — South Carolina : Most excellent effect ; pre- 
vents leaf diseases. — Tennessee : Vines protected by projecting eaves or 
copings always do well. 

Question 1.'3. Wiat effect lias soil in reference to rot in the herry ? — Illi- 
nois : Low, wet soils almost invariably produce rot in the berry ; rich 
hinds also seem to induce rot in the berry. — Indiana : Wet and rich soils 
iire the prevailing causes of rot in the berry. — Iowa : Undrained clay 
soils cause rot. — Kentucky: Stiff, retentive subsoils, keeping water near 
the surface, produce rot. — Kansas : Very rich soils cause rot in the 
grape. — Missouri : Hot in the berries is very rare, and is seen on rich or 
heavy clay soils only. — Massachusetts : Not liable to rot on dry soils. — 
KewJersey : In tret seasons and on wet soils we have rot in the berries. — 
North Carolina : The rot is frequently disastrous on rich or retentive 
soils. — New York : Only on low grounds and wet subsoils. — Ohio : Heavy 
wet soils are extremely pernicious, and thought to be the primary cause 
of rot ; drained soils, even clays, are almost entirely exempt. — Pennsyl- 
vania : The rot is most destructive on nntlrained, heavy clays, but is 
also induced by over-manuring and enriching the soil. — South Carolina: 
We seldom escape rot in the berries, on heavy, damp soils. 

Question 14. What soils, cliemicaUy considered, are most favorahle to 
health and vigor of plant, and perfection of fruit "? — Arkansas: A reddish 
clay soil, intermingled with sand, is the most congenial, so far as experi- 
ence confirms ; on pure clays the crop has failed. — Connecticut : A good 
depth of limy, loamy soil is best. — Georgia : Soils containing alkaline 
phosphates, and considerable humus, are most productive, and maintain 
healthy plants. — Illinois: Silicious and calcareous soils are well suited j 
also gravelly clay soils, if somewhat rolling on the surface; clay subsoils 
are very good, if not too wet ; especially so if they contain some iron and 
lime. — Indiana : Grapes do well on clays if properly drained and limed ; 
also very fairly on gravelly and sandy soils when i)roperly worked. — 
Iowa : The ^■^nes seem to do equally well either on silicious, calcareous, 
or gravelly soils, where the last is not too poor or light. Shales are very 
good. Clayey soils produce the richest fruit, but sandy soils the greatest 
amount of vine. — Kentucky : Soils containing much oxide of iron seem 
to favor the rot. — Kansas : A sandy clay soil is best for grapes. — Mis- 
souri : The most favorable soils are those of a silicious and calcareous 
nature, containing magnesian limestone, with potash and phosphates; 
clay soils are very good, but they must be drained. — Michigan: The 
earliest and sweetest fruit is produced on clay soils, but sandy soils give 
the largest and best-looking fruit. — Massachusetts : Where the growing 
season is short, a dry sandy sod is preferable.— North Carolina :' A light 
sandy loam gives best results.— New York : Calcareous and aluminous 
soils abounding in phosphates; shaly soils are always good.— Ohio: 
Calcareous and aluminous soils, well drained; also rotten shales. — Penn- 
sylvania : Calcareous soils in combination with iron ; shaly and sdicious 
soils are very well adapted.— South Carolina: The varieties of Vitis 
estiralis prefer silicious soils ; the varieties of Vitis vnlpina, those of an 
aluminous character; and tbe varieties of Ft7«s rof?mf/(/b/m do equally 
well in cither; as a general rnle, light soils are best if sui)plied Avith lime 
and potash.— Wisconsin : A loose limestone soil is perhaps the most 
favorable ; sandy clay soils are also good, but very stiff clays are not so 

Qiiestion 15. What cfects have been observed from mechanical conditions 
Of soilSj such as draining, subsoiling, and other cultural operations? — 


Arkansas : Subsoiling and. trencMng show marked results for good. — 
Connecticut: Draining is indispensable in order to g'^t the grape to grow 
in originally wet soils. — Illinois : Draining, trenching, and good cultm^e 
are necessary; the soil should be well pulverized and manipulated before 
planting. — Indiana: Draining seems indispensable in most soils; sub- 
soiling and good culture generally are always attended with marked 
results. — Iowa: Deep plowing, in conjunction with di-aining and subsoil- 
ing, prevents rot to a very great extent. — Kentucky: Draining and sub- 
soiling pay well. — Kansas : We find the best results on drained soils, and 
shallow after-culture. — Missouri: The yield of fruit is largely increased 
by draining, trenching, and subsoiliug. — Massachusetts : Draining is 
iLseful. — North Carolina : The products are greatly improved by proper 
stirring and culture of the soil. — New York: Draining and subsoiling 
are of essential benefit, making the gTowth more certain, and preventing 
injury from drougbt. — Ohio: Very dry soils are vastly improved by 
trenching; draining is indispensable in stiff clays, and subsoiling favor- 
able; good clean culture will always be attended by best crops. — Penn- 
sylvania: Under draining is always attended with good resiilt-s in tena- 
cious soils. — South Carolina: Draining is absolutely necessary in clay 
soils; subsoiling is useful in aluminous lands, but of no use in silicious 
soils. — Tennessee: Draining and deep culture, especially on i)oor soils, 
are of gTeat benefit. — Wisconsin: Deep cidture is necessiuy in dry 

Question IG. Wliat effect has elevation upon tlie liealtli of the vine? Give 
resitlts of observations, and opinion as to the proper height above valleys. — 
Arkansas: Other things being appropriate, we prefer low situations, 
because they are sheltered from heavy storms. — Connecticut : No differ- 
ence if" the ground is d_ry in the valleys. — Illinois : Elevated rolling lands 
are decidedly the best, bnt elevation is not so important when near large 
bodies of water; near small streams, or in valleys distant from water, an 
elevation of from one hundred and fifty to two hmidred and fifty feet is much 
preferable; very liable to freeze in low gi-ounds. — Indiana: An eleva- 
ted position is always the best; grapes are healthier, with much less dis- 
position to rot, even in wet seasons. — Iowa: An elevation of fifty to two 
hundred feet above streams has proved best. — Kentucky: There is no 
question but that elevated sites are to be preferred, where tbe air can 
circulate freely, and be protected fi-om slight frosts. — Kansas: Elevations 
of fifty to one hundred feet above vaUeys, with grounds sloping to the 
south, are the best. — Missouri: Elevations of from three hundred to four 
hundred feet above water-level have proved the very best, for health and 
value of products. — Minnesota: The best vines are those cultivated on 
elevatioiLS one huntb-ed to two hundred feet above the river. — Massachu- 
setts : Side hills (of no great elevation) with southern slopes are the 
most favorable; northern slopes and low ti-osty hollows must be avoided 
here. — North Caroliiia: The Scuppernong grape does best in low lands, 
but other varieties succeed only on elevations; on the mountain sides, 
where we are exempt from oce-asional late and early frosts, failure has 
never been known ; in low valleys they are destroyed by blight and 
rot. — New York : Our best vineyards are on considerable elevations, from 
fifty to four hundred feet above the valley. On these high lands we are 
not subject to early frosts in autumn, and the vine is healthier generally 
than in low grounds. — Ohio: Elevations are considered good, but opin- 
ions differ as to height; some prefer being within range of fogs; fifty to 
three hundred feet above creeks and small streams exempts fi'om early 
faU frosts, and vineyards are generally more healthy; where there are 
large bodies of water, elevation seems of but little consequence. — Penn- 


sylvauia : Elevations of from two Lniulretl to fo4ir liuudred feet are safer 
ill early and late frosts, and both the frnit and the vines are superior to 
the luoductiou of low i^onuds. — South Carolina : The best jrape rejriou 
is that above the frost-belt on the nioimtain slopes: this is cle;iiiy indi- 
cated bv the fact that a diseased grape leaf or beiTy has never been seen 
on these elevated lands.— Teunessee : We find deeidetlly the best grapes 
on elevated iwsitious. — \Yisconsin : Elevations are subject to destructive 

Question 17. Has any rariefy of ihc foreign fjrape proved remunerative in 
vineyard eulture .* — The retui'ns uniformly express a negative answer to 
this question. 

Question 1$. What is the effect of summer prunincj, and what method of 
icinter prwiing is best ? — Arkansas : Judicious summer pruning assists in 
developing the fiiiit : any system of renewal is good for \Tinter pruning. — 
Connecticut: Vines that are allowed to run ail summer without pruning 
invariably yield large crops. — Delaware : When summer pmning is judi- 
ciously ]>eribrmed. it has a tendency to increase the quantity and quality 
of the fi-uit, and also tends to promote niatui-ity of growth. — Georgia : 
We lind summer pruning injurious. — Illinois : All known methods of 
pruning are more or less practiced. Summer pruning is considered hurt- 
ful, according to its severity. Cases are cited of severe summer pruning 
causing a loss of half of the crop. — Ii^.diana : Summer pmning should be 
limited; it is injuiious if severe. All methods of renewal and spur 
methods of winter pruning are practiced, — Iowa : Summer pruning is 
injmious, if it involves the removal of much of the foliage. A moderate 
pinching of the points of fruiting shoots checks gi'owth and improves 
the fruit. The renewal and other systems of winter pruning are prac- 
ticed. — Kentucky : On the whole, summer pruningis considered injurious, 
and should be abandoned. — Kansas : Summer pruning should be strictly 
confined to pinching out the points of shoots, and not removing them 
entii'ely. — Missom'i: Summer pruning is practiced to a moderate extent. 
The winter pruning takes place in November. AH modes are practiced. — 
Michigan: Summer pruning is deemed hiu-tful wlien can'ied to any con- 
siderable extent. The winter pruning is on the renewal system. — Massa- 
chusetts : Very little summer i^nming. Winter pnmiug on the spur 
system. — Nortli Carolina : Summer pruning severely injui'es, and some- 
times kills the vine in this locality. — Xew York: Summer pruning is 
injurious, except so far as to check the growth of rampant shoots, or 
remove superfiunus wood. All systems of winter pruning are practiced, 
but the renewal mode is preferred. — Ohio : Summer pruning is injurious 
as an unqualified system, but is favorable to the extent of removing 
superfluous buds, and checking over luxuriant growth. ]\Iany systems of 
winter pruniug are practiced, but the ronevral system is pretend. The 
system of horizontal arms with spms has resrJted in comparative fail- 
ure. — Pennsylvania : Moderate summer pinching is favorable to inci-ease 
in the size of fruit, but is likely to increase the present at the expense of 
subsequent crojis. Winter pi-uning is varied, both the renewal and the 
spur system in various modifications being practiced. — South Carolina : 
Summer pruning is not practiced. The renewal system has been adopted 
in winter pruning. — Tennessee : Xo summer pruning done. — ^Wisconsin : 
Summer jiruniug is found to be beneficial when done with judgment. 
Winter pruniug is done in November. 

Question liL*. What inseets are most injurious to the vine, and ichct is the 
extent of the injury : and irhett rcmedics'have proved efficient? — Arkansas: 
The leaf roller is somewhat troublesome on all varieties, except tlie Scup- 
pernong and Clinton. — Connecticut : The tlirips is sometimes very in- 




jurious. — Delav.are : A small curciilio, tlie uaiuc of which has not been 
determined, is very destructire. — Georgia: Xo trouble fi'om insects. — 
niiiiois : The leaf folder, thrips, borer, and curculio are occasionally 
foiuid in vint'yards. Shaking and hand-picking are the only kno^vn 
remedies for the last named. — Intliana : lusects are not troublesome, al- 
though rose bugs occasionally devastate the young fruit bunches. — Iowa: 
The leaf roller and thrips are the principal insect enemies. The fii-st named 
can be destroyed by dusting with hellebore powder. — Kansas : The thrips 
is sometimes seen, but not to any great extent. — Missouri : The rose bug, 
thrips, and some other insects are to be seen, but not to any gTcat 
extent. — Minnesota : Xo injury from insects. — Massachusetts : Eose bugs 
are troublesome. — Xew Jersey: Eose bugs sometimes destroy the 
crops. — Xorth Carolina : The Scuppernong gTaiDe is exempt from all 
insect enemies; other varieties are sometimes injured. — ISTew York: 
The gi'ape beetle, thrips, rose-bug, and caterpillar appear. TThale-oil 
soap and dusting with lime are good preventives. — Ohio: A worm 
that eats its way fi-oui one berry to another does considerable injury. 
The thrips is most desti-uctive upon thin and smooth-leaved varieties. 
They have been prevented by washing the vines with a mixture of soft- 
soap and sulphur in the fall, after the decay of the foliage ; also by 
fiunigating with tobacco smoke on their first appearance. Lime and 
sidphur sprinkled on the leaves are also effective. The rose bug, steel- 
blue beetle, and curculio are occasionally troublesome. — Pennsylvania: 
Various insects make their appearance, but none of them are very in- 
jurious, except the thrips in some dvj season. — South Carolina : "^The 
thrips is occasionally troublesome. — Tennessee: !Xp insect of any mo- 
ment. — Wisconsin: The thrips to a small extent. 

















= ^ 











.5 ■3 


5 '~1 

go product 
icro for fiv 




>. aS 











\ 1 









$300 00 





!...... 1 ::;:::::::i:::::::::: 




1 515 

1 415' 

615 500 


2S5 20 
274 00 














I'J, 000 

2, 740 

320 00 




. .. . 

.. . 





i, 528i 





341 50 

















197 00 
4C0 00 

Massachusetts. . 


New Jer>ej- 

North Carolina. 


40 00 



New York 







247 14 










274 00 
140 O'J 




Per.nsj-'.vrj)ia . . 


South Carolina. 




1 COO 

ICO 00 

2 COO 



Tonnes.- ee 



According to the above reports, the most popular varieties for table use 
are, 1st, Concord ; 2d, Delaware ; and, 3d, Catawba. Those in highest 
repute for wine, are, 1st, Delaware ; 2d, Concord ; 3d, Catawba and Scup- 


pemoug in tlie southern States. The varieties principally grovni are 
the Concord and Cata^vba, but the ncTrer varieties are rapidly being dis- 
seminated, and thoir respective merits Tvill be tested in a lew years. On 
the must scale the Delaware shows the greatest uniform amount of 
sugar, next the lona ; the Catawba and iv^ortou's Yirginia are also 
favorably mentioned in this respect. 

In regard to mildew and other leaf diseases, no variety appears to be 
entirely exempt; Concord. Ives," Hartford Prolific, and Northern Musca- 
dine appear to sutler the least, and it is probably owing to this exemp- 
tion fiom severe leaf injury that these varieties are so prominent. 

Eot in the beiTy is almost as universal as leaf blights, nearly all the 
varieties being liable under certain conditions. If any exceptions are 
made they refer to the family of summer grapes, the cultivated varieties 
of which are the Elsinboro, -STorton's Vii-ginia, Lenoir, Cunningham, 
Herbemont, &c.; these appear to be noted for their freedom ti'om rot. 
Old \'ines are also more generally liable to rot than those in young i>lanta- 

Shelter from dews and other atmospheric changes is considered advan- 
tageous in modifying leaf diseases. It has long been observed that vines 
growiug imder the partial protection of the overhanging eaves of a 
building, also those allowed to ramify unmolested on the branches of 
trees, are generally exemi)t from injmy. Covered trellises seem to 
exert a similar influence. 

The eftect of soil with reference to rot in the beny seems to be very 
decided. Soils that retain water, as uu drained clays, are very likely 
to rot the fruit of grapes, more especially when the plants are over four 
or five years old. Very rich bottom lauds are also conducive to 
this disease. "Wet seasons are more fatal than dry on any soO, the 
primary cause apjiearing to be an excess of water in the soil.' 

The chemical constitution of the soil does not seem to exert any very 
marked influence on the growth of the \ine; clayey soils produce the 
richest fiuit, as also the earliest ripe; the latter,*^ however, depending 
uix)n the moisture of the season; success evidently depends rather ujiou 
its physical qualities. The couvictiou is gradualfy gaining gTound that 
all grape soils should be artificially tlrained, mdess they actually rest on 
an extremely porous strata; deep culture, or rather deep prei)aratiou of 
the ground, is also strongly recommended in connection with diainiug, 
the two operations being of much benefit only when simultaneously per- 
formed; draining being of little value unless the soil is deeply cultivated, 
and deep culture of but little value unless the land is drained. 

The eflect of elevation upon the health of the ^-ine is considered as 
favorable; tlie reiwrts are neiu-ly unanimous on this point. Not only 
ai-e high lands more favorably disposed to drainage facilities, but the 
greater immunity from late spiing and early fall frosts is of vast import- 
ance. Localities contiguous to large bodies of water are pre-eminently 
lavored in this respect, but small streams in sheltered vallevs have an 
injurious rather than a beneficial influence. 

The returns are entirely imanimous in regard to the failure of the for- 
eign grape in vineyard cultuie, a fact which should be considered by 
those who are stdl experimenting with foreign wine grapes cast of the 
I?ocky Mountains. " 

Summer pruning, so far at least as it involves the removal of auv 
great amount of foliage, is generally abandoned as injudicious, and tend- 
ing to positive injury. If performed early in the season, and only to the 
extent 01 partially checking the growth of certiiin shoots, more paiticu- 
larly those that are bciUing fniit, it is beneficial; but to remove a quan- 


tity of healthy foliage at any period during the active growth is certain 
to result in injury. 

The modes of winter pruning are rather indefinitely described, and 
various modifications of renewal and spur pruning are practiced. The 
renewal method seems to have the preference, although it is evident 
that very widely varying practices are included in the term. 

No serious injuries from insects are reported. The thrips is most 
troublesome, but no practical and at the same time effectual mode of 
destroying them has been made apparent. 


Thongli tLe peanut lias beeu cultivated in Tiruiaia to some extent 
from a remote date, it is ouly since the war that the crop has l>ecome of 
primarj- importance in the section of the State peculiarly adapted to its 
production. The frreater part of Eastern Virginia was hx turns occu- 
pied by both of the contending armies: and as neaily every farmer 
raised i^eanuts enough for his fe.mily. and some to spare, their merits 
became extensively known among the soldiers; so that when the 
armies were disbanded a knowledge of them was carried to every part 
of the country. It is doubtless to tiis cause, more than to any other, that 
we are to ascribe the extraordinary impulse given to their culture 
within the last few years. So rapid has been its extension that the crop 
of each successive year has been threefold greater than that of the year pre- 
ceding, and at prices fidly maintained. The crop of 1SG8 in Virginia is 
estimated to have aggregated about three hundred thousand bushels, 
the average price of which was about 1^2 75 per bushel. Sach enormous 
profits in the present depressed condition of our agriculture are well cal- 
culated to keep up the same ratio of increase for ISG'J, so that the pro- 
duct might be safely estimated at a million of bushels if it were not that 
many of the new planters have embarked in the business without an 
adequate knowledge of the conditions necessaiy to success. 

The preparation of the soiL, however, is shrouded in no mystery, while 
the subsequent culture is almost as simple and scarcely more expensive 
than that of com. This may be inferred from the fact that some plant- 
ers put as much as a huudred acres in i>eanuts. and not a few from 
thirfr to fifty acres, in addition to other crops. To attain the best suc- 
cess the planter should not l>e lacking in any one essential, and in order, 
therefore, to treat the subject iatelligeatly, it wiU be i^resented under 
several heads. 


Any soil that can be put in a friable condition, and kept in that state, 
will i^roduce peanuts ; but that which is best adapted to their growth is 
a light, gray soil, without l>eiQg very sandy. The color of the i>ods 
always partakes of the color of the soif ; and as the brightest ixhIs always 
bring the most money, so the gray land is to be preferred. When 
harvested they are perfectly clean, scarcely a particle of soil adhering 
to them. >sot so with red or chocolate-colored lands. They leave a 
stain on the pods, of which they cannot be divested even by washing — 
a practice fix-qnently resorted to for the purpose of getting a fancy 
article. When taken to market the bright nuts will command from ten 
to Meeu cents more per bushel than the brown, though equal in all other 
respects. The gray sod is therefore to be selected when there is free- 
dom of choice, bat the brown soil, when of the right textui-e, is equally 

In choosing a site for planting, reference should be had to the crop of 
the previous year. Peanuts require a clean soil; they will follow any 
hoed crop to advantage, with the exception perhaps of sweet potatoes. 
Com laud is generally preferred. In tide- water Virginia much of thi» 


land, was Iiea\"ily marled in former years, and "whenever this is the case 
an important and perhaps the chief requisite to success has been akeady 
provided. The peanut will not tiruit except on a calcareous soil. The 
vines may gi'ow with the greatest luxuriance, covering the whole ground, 
hut in the absence of lime or marl the pods do not fill : they turn out to 
be notliing more than what is popularly called "pops."' If, then, the 
land has not been previously marled or limed, it will be necessary to 
apply say a hundred and fifty bushels of marl, or fifty bushels of lime, 
to the acre. The kind of lime chiefiy used of late years is burned oyster 
shells, which may be had in abundance in all the large towns. It is 
applied in either of several ways, according to the convenience of the 
planter, and with about equally good efi"ect. If there is any choice, 
spreading broadcast is perhaps the best, to be done before the land is 
plowed: in which case the quantity should be about fifty bushels to the 
acre. A tavorite mode, where a large siu-face is to be planted, is to 
strew the lime in the furrow over which the bed is to be raised for plant- 
ing. In this case a less quantity will answer, by reason of its being 
more concentrated — say twenty bushels. Other planters, again, who 
are hurried in their work, spread the lime over the beds after the crop is 
planted, at the rate of about thirty bushels to the acre. Either mode is 
attended with good success : but wherever it is practicable to have a 
choice of land that has been sufiiciently marled or limed in former years, 
and preserved by judicious cultiu-e. the best results are found to follow. 
In such cases the yield not imfrequently reaches a hundi-ed bushels to 
the acre. Last year the writer was told by a i?.lanter of the highest 
character that on twelve acres of such land as has been Just described 
he sold fourteen hundred bushels of nuts of prime quality, besides saving 
an ample supply for seed. The product ranges from the quantity stated 
down to twenty-five or thirty bushels to the acre, according to the skill, 
or want of skill, of the planter — a fiiir average of ihe whole being esti- 
mated at fifty bushels. 

Few persons make peanuts part of a regiilar system of rotation, but 
the pre-eminent success of a gentleman v.ho has foUowed the plan is 
worthy of special reference. 3Ir. Henry 31, Butts, of Southampton 
Coiuity, Virginia, has for years jjursued the following course : The lot 
intended for peanuts, say next year, has been seeded in stock peas this 
year, the "\tqcs to be plowed in some time in September. The vines afi:brd a 
great quantity of vegetable matter, which becomes thoroughly decomposed 
by the time for planting the crop. "When the season for planting is at hand, 
the gTound is replowed and laid off, and ten bushels of lime and a hun- 
dred and fifty to a hundred and seventy-five pounds of superphosphate 
strewn in the furrows to be ridged over. The year following peanuts 
the land is ])lanted in sweet potatoes, with a liberal di^essing of stable 
manure. The third year it is laid down in stock peas again, to be fol- 
lowed by i)eanuts as before, always repeating the lime and superphos- 
phate. The crops of Mr. Butts averaged, one year with another, not less 
than a hundred bushels to the acre. Last year from ten acres he sold 
thirteen huntlred bushels of prime peanuts, entirely exempt from "pops," 
and worth three dollars per bushel. 


Having selected the ground, it is to be plowed vdth a one-horse 
l)low in 3Iarch or April to a depth not exceeding four or five inches. 
The advantages of shallow culture wiU be apparent fi-om the fact that the 
pednncles continue to penetrate the earth until a firm bed is reached on 


which to deposit the nut; aud the still fimher fact of the increased 
facility afforded in harvesting, as Mill appear when we come to treat 
of that branch of the subject. 

About the 10th to the 20th of May is the time for planting. If the 
land is thin and needs manuring, open furrows three feet apart, and 
strevr in a hundred to a hundred and twenty-five pounds of Peru- 
vian guano, or from a hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds 
of superphosphate of lime. The former is generally used, because 
of the greater certainty of getting a pure article, but nothing can be 
better than the latter when well prepared. The furrow is then to be 
ridged over and the whole surface thrown into three-feet beds, which 
should bo reduced to within two or three inches of the general level of 
the field. Then mark off the rows, and at distances of eighteen inches 
plant two seeds, covering them an inch to an inch and a half deei) — iiot 

In ten days to two weeks, according to the weather, the young plants 
begin to come up. As it is very important to get "a good start, the miss- 
ing hills should be replanted at the earliest moment. It is the custom 
of some planters to put an extra quantity of seed in eveiy fourth or fifth 
row, to fiu'nish plants for transplanting, if needed; if not needed, 
they can be thinned out. 

As soon as the grass makes its appearance give a light plowing, 
throwing the earth fiom the vines, aud following with the hoe, thoroughly 
removing all the gi^ass from the row. Plow again as soon as the grass 
reajipears, this time using a double shovel or cultivator, and the hoe as 
before directed. If the siiasou should i^rove to be veiy wet, a third 
working may be necessary, making use of the cultivator and hoe again. 

Next comes the time for laying by, the vines having extended nearly 
half way across the space between the rows. This is done by rimning 
a mold-board once in the middle between the rows, aud drawing the 
earth up to the rows with the hoe. care being taking not to cover the 
vines and to disturb their position as little as i)ossible, as the fi'uit will 
now be forming. It will be necessary also to guard against making ihe 
bed too high. AVhen there is grass in the row it must be pulled up by 
hand. Soon after this the vines will cover the whole ground, and 
repress every other growth, unless it may be a chance weed that escaped 
notice at the former working. 


The time for harvesting the crop is from the 15th to the 30th of Octo- 
ber, immediately after the first frost. When the crop is forward, or 
when it is an object to get a portion of it early in market, the oi>eration 
may be commenced in the latter part of September: but the longer the 
vines continue to grow, the greater will be the number of sound pods. 
Select a time when the weather is settled and favorable, aud with three- 
pronged hoes loosen the \iues along the rows. Hands follow the digger, 
pull up the vines, shake the dirt from them, and leave them in the same 
place. In dry weather they will be sufliciently cured in two days to be 
shocked. Showery weather, though it may somewhat delay the' curing, 
does no injury. 

One of the advantages of shallow culture becomes apparent in harvest- 
ing. When the fruit is deposited only a few inches below the surface, 
the vine is detached from its position with little or no loss; when the 
depth is greater, the stems or pedicels are liable to be broken off. 

In shocking, provide stakes seven feet long, made sharp at both ends; 


tlien lay tvro fence rails on the gTonnd as a fonndation, but witli supports 
underneath to afford free access to the air. The stakes are stuck in the 
ground at convenient intervals betTveen the rails, the stacks built up 
around them, and finished off by a cap of stravr to shed the rain. The 
diameter of the stack is made to conform to the spread of a single vine. 

After remaining about two weeks in the stack the picking should be 
begim, taking off none but the matui^ed pods. These are to be carried to 
the barn, and prepared for market by completing the di'ying process, and 
then fanning and cleaning. 

The most tetlious part of the work is the picking. An expert discrimi- 
nates at a glance between the mature and immature pods, but cannot 
pick more than two and a half or three bushels per day. A machine to 
perform the operation would be a most valuable invention. Unless the 
management in the barn is carefully conducted, there is great danger, 
where there is much of a bulk, that the peas will become heated and 
noiddy. The condition in which the early deliveries are often received 
at market renders this caution quite necessary. In . fact, there is as 
much slovenliness in the hiindhng of this crop as there is in regard to any 
other; perhaps more, for the reason that so many inexperienced persons 
engage in the cultiu-e every year. Until the pods are thoroughly sea- 
soned, the bulk should be frequently stirred and turned over. 

A certain classification, in respect to quality, obtains in peanuts as in 
every other article of agricultural produce. The descriptive terms in 
general use are " inferior," '• ordinary," " prime," and " fancy 5 " but these 
are not so definite as to admit of no intermediate grades. Assuming 
prbne to be the standard, and that rhe prime are 82 75 per bushel, then 
iw/Vrfor will be worth, say, 81 to 81 50; ordinary^ 82 to 82 50; ixvaX fancy, 
$3. Seed peanuts always command an extra price, ranging fi-om $3 25 
to 83 50. These were the cun-ent prices for the crop of ISGS. 


There are two very distinct varieties of the peanut, known respectively 
by the names of the Virginia^ aiul the Carolina or African. The diver- 
sity between them, however, does not amount to a specific difterence, 
the chief characteristics being that the one has a large pod and bean, 
and the other a small one. The Virginia is cidtivated almost exclusively 
for eating, while the Carobna is i)riucipally used for the manutactm-e 01 
oil, which cannot be distinguished from olive oil, and is, accordingly, 
sold as such. The standard weight of the Virginia peanut is twenty- 
two pomuls to the bushel ; that of the Carolina twenty-eight pounds. 
In the markets they are always sold by weight. 


A matter of primary importance is to provide seeds of good quality 
for ])lanting ; and in order to be assured of their excellence, the planter 
should either raise them himself, or buy them of a person on whose 
fidelity he can rely. If, after the vmes are dug and they are lying in 
the field, they should be exposed to frosty weather, the germinat- 
ing principle wouJd be destroyed or imjiaired. As a merchantable article, 
however, their value is not at all affected. Neither should the nuts 
become the least heated or mouldy ; nor should they be picked off" the 
vines while wet, or before they are thoroilghly cured. It is obvious, 
therefore, that the most careful attention is requisite in this matter. 
Previous to planting, the pods should be carefully shelled and every 


faulty beau thi-omi oat ; not even the membrane inclosing the seed 
should be ruptured. It takes about two bushels of lieanuts in the pod 
to plant an aciv. 


The relative profits of peanuts and other leading crops of the district 
of counti'v in which they are severally grown may be determined with 
a near approximation to accuracy. Assuming that the average yield of 
cotton to the acre is half a bale, or two hundred and twenty-five pounds, 
and that it is worth twenty-five cents a pound, the aggregate proceeds 
would be $JG 2o. An average Cl0]^ of tobacco does not exceed six hundred 
pounds, nor the average jmce $10 per hiuidred ; the gross proceeds 
woidd, therefore, amoimt to 8G0. An average crop of peanuts is tiftj- 
bushels per acre, which may be put at $2 50 per bushel, aggregating 
$125 : so that it ajjpears that at one-half the price, or one-half the pro- 
duct, the peanut is as profitable as either cotton or tobacco. So far as 
regards the expense of i)repai^,tion and cidrure, the difiexence between 
peanuts and cotton is inconsiderable : but the picking of the cotton is 
by far more tedious and laborious than gathering the peanuts. As to 
tobacco, the crop is never ofi" the handtj of the planter, and the cultiva- 
tion is the most expensive of the three, leaving, therefore, less clear 

co::cLn)ES'G t.bZ'LAhkh. 

The i>eanut crop is justly considered exhausting, but not more so, it 
is believed, than either of the others with Avhich Ave have compared it. 
Planters who have been long engaged in the ciuuire say that the same 
ground may be planted for a succession of years, iwovided the vines are 
restored to the soil, and a moderate application is annually made of guano 
or other fertilizer. Cotton, under a simih^.r system, may be jdauted on 
the same land for an indefinite period without diminution of product. 

The vines of the peanut make a large quantity of veiy nutritious 
provender, which is eaten with avidityby cattle. If the crop is dug 
before li-ost, it is equal in value to any other forage plant. As'the pods 
ai-c i>icked off, the vines should be placed under shelter, secure Irom the 

On account of the profit of the crop, it has taken the place of lobacco 
to a considerable extent in ]>laces where the soil is adapted to it. This 
is the case in the large tobacco-growing counties of Amelia. Xottoway, 
llaiifax, and Brunswick, besides" others" of less note. How far noith the 
cidture may l»e extended to advantage is at present a matter of con- 
jecture ; but in the tide- water district of Maiyland. and iilso in Delaware 
and the southern part of iisew Jersey, it well deserves a trial. 



The potato {Solanum tuherosxim) is a native of the table-lands of the 
Andes of South America. Centuries ago it "R"as found by travelers 
growing wild in Chili, at Cuzco iu Peru, at Quito in Ecuador, and in 
the forests of Bogota in Xew Granada, 8,694 feet above the level of 
the sea. Potatoes have been cultivated at Quito from time immemorial, 
and are among the tinest iu the world. This city is situated on an ex- 
tensive plain, at an elevation of 10,233 feet. The mean temperature 
of the climate throughout the year is about sixty degrees Fahrenheit, 
and varies from this but little at any iiarticular season. The country 
has the appearance of perpetual spring. There are no sudden changes 
from heat to cold, no violent storms of rain and wind. The land is re- 
freshed by distilling dews and gentle showers. 

The soil of these table-iands, which are the uplifted beds of an ancient 
ocean, is generally composed of disintegTated rocks and shells, of the 
detritus of the mountains, and of vegetable mold, and belongs to the geo- 
logical formation of the secondary or the tertiary period. It is, there- 
fore, light, porous, and friable, and contains large proportions of sand,hme, 
and vegetable substances. It is also naturally well (h^ained, though 
retentive of sufficient moisture, and, from its elevated and airy location, 
is cool and moderately dry. 

Such is the native home of the potato, where it grows spontaneously, 
renewing itself from year to year from its tubers and seeds. It retains 
the verdure of its foliage unimpaired throughout the entire season, and 
when its tubers and seeds are fuUy matured, it dies, not of any injury 
from external influences, but because its period of life has terminated. 

From this brief history of the habits of the potato, the following 
principles may be deduced : 1. That tbe location for its culture should 
be elevated and airy. 2. That the climate should bo temperate, not 
subject to extremes of heat and cold, nor violent storms of wind and 
rain, ha^^ng a mean temperature of about sixty degrees. 3. That the 
soil should be light, well drained, and comi)osed of the proper propor- 
tions of sand, lime, and vegetable mold. 

These principles lie at the foundation of the suceessful cultivation of the 
potato. K they are regarded, good crops may be expected ; if they are 
neglected, the result will be poor crops, degeneracy, and disease of the 
plant. Although the potato is of tropical origiu, (tropical in its latitude 
though not in climate,) and has its favorite locality, in which it will gTow 
with certainty and in perfection, yet such is its adaptability that it may 
be grown, by careful culture, with tolerable success, from Patagonia to 
Labrador, and fi'om the Cape of Good Hope to Iceland. 


There are difficulties to be encountered in the cultivation of the potato, 

when removed from its native locality, which are unavoidable, and can 

be overcome only in part by a thorough knowledge of its origin and 

habits. The most formidable of these are the diseases of rust, curled 



leaf, aud rot. The first two are only the incipient stages of the latter, 
and the causes and remedies are the same in each. 

It is generally believed that debility Ls a predisposing cause of the 
lK)tato rot, and usually, if not always, preliminary to its attacks. It 
may be induced in various ways : 

ir By planting small and imperfectly matured tubers. — Tubers maybe small 
in consequence of the feeble constitution of the plant, or because they 
were formed late in the season, and, tln-refore, had not sufficient time to 
attain lull size and maturity. It is a law well established in the vege- 
table kingdom, and also in tho animal, that like produces like. By this 
it is not meant that the offspring will be exactlj' lil:e the parent in every 
particular, but simply that it will more resemble it than any other 
variety. If, then, we plant a tuber which is small and the result of feeble 
growth, we cannot, by any principle of reproduction, expect anything, 
as a general result, but a small aud feeble olispring. This may not 
always be fully realized at once, but sooner or later it will come. 

In the case of imperfectly matured tubers it is well known by all that 
potatoes, when used before they are ripe, arc unpalatable, hard, and 
watery. These qualities result principally from the absence of starch, 
which, according to the analysis of Professor P^iveu, made with seven 
varieties of the potato, constitutes about seventeen parts ont of the 
twenty-six parts of the whole solid or dry matter contained in the 
tuber — seventy-four parts of the tuber being water. The starch, when 
converted into sugar by the process of germination, furnishes food for 
the young plant in the early stages of its growth, and before it has 
thrown out roots by which it may draw any nourishment from the 

^ow, if the tuber does not contain a proj^er amount of starch, in con- 
sequence of its imperfect maturity, the young plant cannot get the 
necessary nomishment. and of course must be feeble and stinted during 
the period of its growth ; and this shock to its constitution cannot be 
overcome by any amount of fertility of soil from which it may after- 
wards derive its food. Hence imperfection and debility will be the re- 
sult, and a foundation ^vill be laid for future disease. A remedy for this 
debdity may be found by yearly selecting and planting full-sized and 
perfectly matured tubers. 

2. By pilanting tubers cut very small. — Tubers are often cut into very 
small pieces, containing perhaps only one or tv,o eyes at most. It 
is obvious that pieces so small can contain only a very small quantity of 
starch for the nourishment of the young plant. It must, therefore, 
struggle through this critical period of its existence in a starved con- 
dition, and we cannot reasonably suppose that it will ever be able to 
overcome this want of '< a good start" at the commencement of life, by 
any subsequent cultivation, however good it may be. '' Small potatoes," 
says C. E. Goodrich, '• and those cut very small, are certainly very ob- 
jectionable in a physiological point of view. The sprouts, untirthey 
are well out of ground, and their leaves expanded, draw all their food 
from the mother potato. If this is small, or has a great many eyes in 
proportion to its size, it caimot throw up strong shoots." 

And further, admitting that the pieces are sufficiently large to con- 
tain all the starch necessary for healthy germination and growth, yet in 
many instances they suffer a partial decay l)efore germination, while 
lying in the ground, and the starch is changed from its healthy condi- 
tion, in consequence of the absori)tion of water and noxious substances, 
through the lacerated organs of the cut tubers. 

The tuber is a thickened portion of a branch, growing out of the stalk 


under ground, and having the power of retaining life for a time after 
the parent plant has ])erished. It is not a root. It' a shoot of the com- 
mon currant bush should thicken at the end and swell into a tuber, its 
woody substance being changed into nutritious matter, and its buds 
retained on the outside, it would precisely correspond with ihe tuber of 
the potato. The eyes of the potato are only the buds of the branch. 

The buds of a shrub or a tree are connected with the woody tissue 
and pith of the branch, by the medidlary rays, so that a cireufation is 
constantly kept up between the interior and the smlace. The buds 
(eyes) of the potato are connected with the interior of the tuber in a 
similar manner ; and if the rootlets are cut the functions of the organs 
are impaired, and they cannot perform their offices of absorbing nutri- 
tion fi'om the tubers a« they would if they had not been injured, and, 
therefore, the young plant is weal:ened. It is true that the potato has 
naturally such rigor of coustitntipn that it will grow even from a peel- 
ing not more than an eighth of an inch in thickness, but it must be appar- 
ent to every careful observer that, ^ith such deficiency of support, it 
coidd not long maintain its health. 

To guard against the danger of decay of the tuber in the ground be- 
fore germination, it is covered with a coating which is nearly imjjervious 
to all fluids, so that the matter which is contained within is carefully 
preserved from contact with all substances whicli would unfit it for sup- 
plying healthy noimshment for the young germ which it is intended to 
support. "The fact is,'' says C. E. Goodi-ich, "the potato has a less 
permeable skin than any other culinary root. This impermeability for- 
bids the transmission of ordinary liquids thr(mgh it ; hence it is the 
last root to wither in the sun and the last to absorb moisture. The 
withering of potatoes in ordinary cases in spring is the result not of 
transpkation of theu" juices, but of theii- loss by germination." 

From these statements it appears evident that the greatest health and 
vigor of the plant are secured by adopting the course which natiu-e pur- 
sues in reproducing the plant in its native locality, or by planting fidl- 
sized and perfectly matured tubers whole. " The custom of planting- 
cut potatoes," says Professor von Martins, "instead of whole ones, 
should in no case be adopted, as without doubt it has exerted an influ- 
ence in the deterioration of the race. " 

3. By long cultivation of the same variety. — It is generally believed 
that, by long cultivation of any variety of the potato, it at length be- 
comes less prolific, and is weakened in its Avhole constitution. Although 
the ftict of deterioration is admitted, there is much difference of opinion 
with regard to its cause. If the cause coidd be perfectly known, a verj^ 
important step would be taken toward finding a remedy by which the 
debility" might be removed. 

Some persons suppose the reason of the deterioration to be, that the ele- 
ments of the soil have been exhausted, and that the potato really becomes 
weakened for want of proper food ; a part of the deterioration is also 
attributed to bad cultivation. It is said, in reply, that this is no doubt 
true to a certain extent, but that a change of locality and culture will 
not restore its original vigor. "I have in several instances," says T. A. 
Knight, "tried to renovate the vigor of old and excellent, nearly ex- 
pended varieties of the potato, by change of soil c-md mode of culture, 
hut I never in any degTce succeeded." 

In addition to this, it is contended that the deterioration is owing 
really to exhaustion of the vital energies of the plant, by reason of age; 
that aU created beings, whether plants or animals, have a beginning, a 
maturity, and an end; and, although the end may sometimes be much 


deferred In various aitificial means, as good culture, &€.. yet death Ls 
inevitable." John Towiiley thinks that the potato raised Irom the seed 
is in its prime or lull matnritA- fix>m the lonrth to the tenth year, and 
after this it greuerally declines, and -will, in the eonrse of years, "run 
out.^ and tiually become extinct. The ix)Trer of propa grating the potato 
from the tuber ai)pears to be only a temporary device, by ^hich a desir- 
able variety may be continued l^eyond its annual period of life for a few 
years, or until other good varieties may 1>e produced and jierfected from 
the seeds. 

It is asserted, further, that the renewal of a plant by a bud or a branch, 
as in the cultivation of the potato from the tuber, is only a continuation 
of the same organization, or old variety: that the earth in the case of 
the tuber, and the stock in the case of gi^rfting a branch upon it, *• can 
give nutriment only."' and "not new life:" and that it is the seed, which 
iias been influenced by the pollen, that originates a new plant which 
differs Irom all that have been created before it or will be created after it. 
being endowe<l with a vitiil principle peculiar to itself, and which no 
other plant of the same species, or any other species, can impart or per- 
petrate beyond a certain limited period of life. *-The culture of the 
lX)tato constantly from the tubers,"' says C. E. Goodrich, "and almost 
never from the seed, added to the carelessness with which that cultiva- 
tion has been conducted, has certainly tended to enfeeble it." 

Admitting that this view is correct, one remedy at least for the de- 
bility must be found in raising new vaiieties from the seeds of healthy 
plants. If vigorous varieties cannot be found at home, they must be 
obtained from theii" native locality. The seeds should be sown in beds 
or boxes like tomato seeds, in early spring, and then transplanted 
into well-prepared soil, where they may mature their tubers. It is 
recommended to set the stems deep, or a1x)ut one-third in the ground, 
that they may not dry up, and that the tubers which giow from them 
may be properly protected. Some tubers of tolerable size will l>e formed 
the first year, and of full size the second. Only a few will prove worthy 
of being cultivated. 

Xew varieties may also be produced by cross-breeding, which consists 
in fertilizing the pistils of the flowers of a desirable variety by the jwllen 
of the stamens of another variety, the qualities of which we wish to 
impart to the former. From the seeds produced by the fertilized plant 
new varieties may l>e grown possessing, in some degree, the qualities 
of both, and some may be better than either. It should be remembered, 
however, that all new varieties are not equally hardy, some. fix)m a 
natural weakness of constitution, being more inclined to rot than 
others, and therefore inferior, in this respect, to some older varieties: 
but these cases are exeei)tional. If the practice of renewing the potato 
from the seeds at proper intervals shoidd be adopted, the debility- aris 
ing from long cultivation of the same variety woiild be avoided. 

4. By ruUiraiinfj in ftoils not containing the ehmenis necessary for it'c 
ffroxcth. — It is found, by an analysis of the solid or dry matter of th* 
tuber of the potato, that about forty-four parts out of one hundred an 
curbou; and of the one hundred parts of the ash of the ru1>er. about 
forty-eight parts are ])Otash and twenty-one parts phosphates. It will Ix* 
seen, therefore, that the elements which form a large portion of the solid 
part of the potato are carbon and i>otash. We have also previously 
shown that carbon and lime abotmd in the soil of the table-lands where 
the potato grows wild. 

If these elements are wanting in the soil in which we desire to cultivate 
the potato, (and this can be ascertained by analyzing it,) they must be 


supplied by artiliciul menus, as the only propter remedy for Treakness 
induced by a deficiency of mitiitivo elements. Carbon may be supplied 
in abundance from decayed ve^uetable substances, as leaves, tiu'f, and 
muck ; potash may be found in ashes, lime, and gj-x)sum, and the phos- 
phates in bones. All experience proves that these substances, combined 
in proper quantities with sand and loam, form an admirable soil for the 
growth of the potato ; and preparing the soil in this way constitutes an 
important part of good cultivation. 

5. Bu excessive stimulus from stronr/ and concentrated manures. — It is a 
fact of coumion observation that plants which are subjected to high cul- 
tivation do not ripen and consolidate their tissues so thoroughly as 
those of more moderate gTov>'th. Fruit trees cultivated in rich gardens, 
and making large gTowth of wood, are certainly not capable of enduring 
so gTcat climatic changes, without iujury, as those which grow in poorer 

The case is the same with the potato. The tubers are inflated and 
watery, in consequence of a deficiency of starch, which should have been 
elaborated in the leaves, and jiroperly prepared fer plant gTowth ; the 
organs are overworked and surcharged with stagTiaut matter, and the 
whole plant feels the delibitatiug influence. This efl'ect may not apiDear 
in the first or the second year, or indeed in many years ; but, like the 
abuse of the human system by excesses of any kind, it will surely appear 
at some tune. This anxiety to raise large crops, and to work the plant 
beyond its capacity by excessive stimulus, is very injurious, and will, in 
the end, destroy it. Moderate stimulus produces a firm texture and 
vigorous constitution. 

C. By effect of climate^ or sudden alternations of heat and cold, and of icet 
and dry weather. — Few plants, even of those which are native, will endure 
gTeat extremes of chmate without injury. The potato, although a very 
hardy plant, is in some respects tender. The efl'ect of sudden cold after 
gTeat heat is to paral\-ze the organs which elaborate the sap for the 
nourishment of the plant, and unfit them for performing the oflices in 
the vegetable economy for which they were designed. 

The pores (stomata) are the breathing i)assages of plants, and are foimd 
on the leaves and steins in great numbers. Through these the super 
fluous water taken up by the roots is eliminated. In wet weather they 
are open, and in diy nearly closed, to prevent too great evaporation. 
Too much wet after hot and dry vreather, or excessive heat after th^ench- 
ing rains, has an effect very similar to too great cold. The spongioles of 
the roots, after heavy rains, absorb large quantities of water contain- 
ing the nutritive elements very much diffused. The leaves and stems 
also absorl) additional Cjuantities, containing little or no nutrition. The 
elaborating organs become gorged with fluid, and the tissues tender. 
If a sudden transition to gTeat heat and tkyness occurs at this time, the 
pores are closed and evajjoration is checked. The fluids are retained in 
a stagnant condition in the tissues, the elaborating organs are; ob- 
structed, the leaves become pale and sickly, and finally decomposition 
and disease ensue. The eflect here described is often seen after heavy 
rains, blackening the foliage of the potato in every part. 

Climatic influences cannot, of course, be entirely overcome, but the most 
natural remedy for the disease, resulting from want of adaptation of 
climate, is to cidtivate this crop in that portion of the year which com- 
bines in the gTeatest degree, in any given locality, the conditions of uni- 
formity of a proper temi)erature, serenity of atmosphere, and the requi- 
site amount of moisture. From what we have learned of the habits of 
the potato, it appears that an average temperature of about sixty degrees 



is most concrenial to its growth . Boussinganlt says it can be ciiltivated 
with the best success, in respect to quantity, quality, and freedom from 
disease, the soil being the same, in places in which the mean temper- 
ature during the season of growth ranges between fifty-six and sixty- 
five degrees. The period must vary, of course, with the different localities 
in which it is cultivated. 

The following table gives the most favorable portions of the year for 
the growth of the potato in different sections of the country, with the 
mean temperature of the same. ^Uso, the mean for each month and for 
the year, together with the yearly range of the thermometer, or the differ- 
ence between the warmest and the coldest day of the year. 

Different localitieg. 

Mean j Mean Mean ] Sleaa Mean 
for I for for j for for 
Dec. Jan. Feby. Mar. April 

Mean Mean 
for I for 
May. I June. 

Mean , Mean 

for for 

July. Aug. 

Mean Mean 

for t for 

season! year. 



New Orleans, La. . . 
San Francisco, Cal. . 

S.icrameuto, Cal 

Knoxville. Tenn .. 
PbUadelpbia, Peun. . 
Harrisbnrg, Penn - . 

Oswego, N. Y 

Aagusta, Me 

Def. j Deg. Den. 

63. 47 ! 62. 45 58. .^7 


68. P5 

Deg. I Leg. Beg. 


54. S"} 



66. 50 

72. 47 





62. 03 1 
56. 16 I 
62. 45 I 

73. 44 
52. 42 
45. .56 


It will be seen, by examining the table, that the ^vinter season is 
chosen, at New Orleans, for cultivating the potato. In consequence of 
the small yearly range of the thermometer, and the cool and uniform 
temperature of this season of the year, potatoes of the best quality may 
be raised with entire exemption from the rot. This is not, however, a 
desirable locality for their cultivation as an article of commerce, the 
great heat making it difficult to preserve them. 

At San Francisco and Sacramento the thermometric changes are 
small, in con.sequeDce of their southern position and the ameliorating 
influence of the wind.s, which diminish the cold in -^vinter and the heat 
in summer, thus producing a uniformity of temperature and serenity of 
atmosphere very favorableto the potato. Mr. Crouise, in his recent work 
on California, says that the potato-rot is unknown about these places. 

As we go iiorthAvard the yearly range of the thermometer increases, 
and the changes from heat to cold become greater and more A"iolent ; 
but isothermal lines do not always correspond with latitude; as at 
Ejioxville it is colder than at Sacramento, although the latter is fur- 
ther north. These variations may be caused by the difference of eleva- 
tion above the se<i, or by the effect^ of winds. lu'Grand Traverse County, 
Michigan, iKjtween Lake ]\Iicliigan and Lake Huron, the temperature is 
so much .softened by the lakes and tlie winds that the potato-rot has 
never prevailed in that section, although it is common in jdaces in the 
same latitude around it. 

At Ilarrisburg, Oswego, and Augusta, the range is still p-eater; and 
in these places the rot has jirevailed extensivelv. At the Xorth, plant- 
ing early m spring i.>< found to afford, as a general rule, more favorable 
conditions than at a later period; but in all these places some years will 
be tound more favorable than others, because of the presence or ab.sence 
of the conditions neces.sary to the healthv giwvth and maturity of the 

Another cause of the potato-rot is generally supposed to ht parcmtic 
fungi, which u.sually, jierhaps not always, follow rather as a consequence 
of previous debilitj- of the plant. 


The fungi are a very extensive class of plants wliicli, in common lan- 
guage, receive the names of toadstools, mushrooms, rust, mildew, smut, 
bunt, pmT-balls, &c. They are found in all parts of the globe, but are 
most abundant in moist, temperate latitudes. The division of plants to 
which they belong is called Cryptogamia, or Hov.-erless plants, and 
tht?ir seeds" are usually called spores. These spores or seeds are very 
minute, and can be stiidied only when subjected to a good microscope. 
They begin to germinate by sending out numerous filamentous root- 
lets,* composed of a succession of very small cells, which peribrm the 
office of roots m supporting the plant in an erect position, and supplying 
it with nurishment. These rootlets are called the mycelium. Tbey also 
send up stems {stvpes) of various shapes, according to the class to which 
they belong. The Botryth infestans, more recently called the Peronos- 
pora infestans, is one of tlie most destructive of the fungi that cause the 
potato-rot. It has the form of a spreading tree, bearing some three 
thousand ovoidal spore-cases {acrospores) on the ends of the branches, 
somewhat reseuibling, vrheu taken collectively, clusters of grapes, and 
hence its generic name Botrytis. Each of these acrospores contains six 
to sixteen seeds called Zoospores. 

The seeds of the fungi, which are contained in the spore-cases, usually 
have a brown color, like fine dust, and arc almost infinite in number. A 
single plant is said sometimes to produce millions, so small and light as 
scarcely to be affected by gTavity. They cover everything around them — 
earth, plants, and animals. The air is filled with them, and they wait 
only for a state of the atmosphere favorable to their growth to seize 
upon every object within tlieir reach. They live principally upon de- 
caying substances, but the lining do not always escape them. 

The conditions best adapted to their gi'owth are, first, a debilitated 
or morbid state of the plant ; and, secondly', a ])roper degree of heat, 
moisture, and electric influence to induce germination. They do not 
germinate readily, and the conditions must be very nicely balanced to 
insure germination at all. They frequently remain inert for a long time, 
and, when the conditions are complete, fall upon plants like an epidemic, 
and after a time disappear almost entirely. Such may, perhaps, some- 
times have been the case in their attacks upon the potato. Long-con- 
tinued warm, damp weather, often causes them to appear in great num- 
bers ; but a single day of dj?y weather will arrest their progress. 

They mature with wonderful rapidity. Puii'-balls sometimes grow six 
inches in diameter in a single night. Certain species have been found 
gTowing on the surlace of iron that had been heated in the forge only a 
few hours before. They have also been found growing on the surface of 
glass. The Peronospora infestans matures in a few days, sometimes in 
fifteen to eighteen hours even, when conditions are most favorable to its 
growth, and scatters its seeds by thousands and tens of thousands, to 
prey, with each successive brood, from day to day, upon the expiring 

The seeds are supposed to enter the pores {stomata) of the leaves and 
stems, and also to be taken vip by the spongioles of the roots, and carried 
along in the cii'culation of the sap through the plant. They take root 
in the cellular tissues of the stems and leaves, stop up thepores with 
their roots, prevent the proper elaboration of the crude sap, and exhaust 
large portions for their ovrn support, besides probably exerting a deleteri- 
ous chemical influence on the plant. That the seeds of this fungus are 
capable of destroying the potato has been demonstrated by Dr. De 
Bary, who ihixed some of them in a drop of water and applied them to 
the leaves and tubers, when brown and livid spots appeared, and after- 


wartl decay. "All the members of tliis j?enus, Peronospora," says M. 
C. Cooke, in his recent work on the fungi, " with which avc are acquainted, 
are parasitic on livins' plants, inducing in them speedy decay, of which 
they are themselves the cause." 
Ill treating of the remedies for the fungi vre recommend: 
1. To keep the plant as vigorous and healthy as possible by the 
means previously suggested ; since we have seen that the fungi are much 
more likely to attack plants when in a morbid condition than when their 
vitality is active. This is generally the case -svith the potato, but per- 
haps liot always, as the foregoing experiment tends to prove. 

L». To consult the nature of the plant, and cultivate it in elevated and 
airy localities, where the superfluous moisture, which is so favorable to 
the growth of the fungi, may be quickly evaporated, and chills be 
avoided. "Choose positions," says C. E. Goodrich, "on high hills and 
mountains. On elevated positions is the last place to look for the potato 
cbsease. Here you will get heat enough in our warm climate, and avoid 
the burning temperature of the plains. You will probably suffer lighter 
chills after rain, and cold heavy dews, than in deep valleys. Here, too, 
yon will most probably find that moisture of soil which will insure an 
even and steady growth." It has long been observed that potatoes cul- 
tivated in valleys or on low lauds, in the vicinity of lakes and oceans, 
are much more liable to rot than on more elevated lands further back 
in the interior of the country, where there is less moisture from fog and 
other causes. 

3. To avoid using such manures as contain large quantities of nitro- 
gen ; for, as nitrogen forms a large part of all fungi, such manures are 
very favorable to their growth. An evidence of the i)eculiar adaptation 
of these animal manures to the growth of fungi may "be seen in the com- 
mon mushroom, {Agaricuscampcstris,) which springs up in so great abund- 
ance, in a few hours, on manure heaps in warm, dam}) weather. In 
its composition it is similar to the Pcronospora infestans. 

4. To use such manures as are known to be destructive to the fungi 
and favorable to the growth of the potato. Wood ashes, lime, gypsum, 
sulphur, and salt — the latter in small quantities — are unfavorable to the 
growth of fungi, and favorable to that of the potato. It is well known 
that the alkalies, applied directly to the growing fungi, immediately 
destroy them. When mixed in the soil, or applied to the potato in the 
hill, tjiey are absorbed by the roots, and carried by the sap into the 
stems and leaves, and thus, being brought into contact with the seeds 
or the tender fungi, destroy them. In numerous cases alternate rows, 
manured with barn-yard manures and with alkaline substances respect- 
ively, have produced diseased or healthy potatoes, according as one or 
the other manure was used. 

From this it may also be seen why potatoes grown on burnt lands 
are always sound, mealy, and free from rot. A case is at hand of a 
farmer who scattered ashes on all his v.heat-field at the time of sowing, 
except a small part which he was obliged to omit. The consequence 
was that the wheat, grown on the part to which the ashes were not ap- 
plied, was almost entirely destroyed by mildew, {Fitccinia (jraminis,) 
while the remainder was untouched. These manures may be ai)plied to 
the whole field broadcast, alone, or formed into compost by mixing with 
muck, leaves, &c., for the general dressing when needed, and also ap- 
plied directly to the potatoes in the hill. 

5. To burn the tops infected with the disease at the time of digging 
the potatoes, in order to destroy as many of the seeds of the fungi as 
possible, as a preventive to their growth'the next year. It is not sup- 


posed that a gxeat number would be destroyed by this process, in com- 
parison with the millions which matured and dispersed themselves so 
widely ; yet it might have a tendency to check, in some degree, their 
rapid multiplication and dispersion in future. 


It has been shown, in the foregoing remarks, that potatoes used for 
seed should be from medium size to larger, and planted whole. It is de- 
sirable to have some above the medium size, to i^revent deterioration to 
tubers too small, since there is always a tendency to fall below the 
parent stock rather than to rise above it. 

The question now presents itself, whether it is desirable to cut pota- 
toes not to be gTown for seed. Dr. H. F. Hexamer, of Xew York, gave, 
before the Xew York State Agricultural Society, the result of seven- 
teen different ways of planting the potato. He obtained the best 
result from planting one large whole potato in a hill ; the next best 
yield was fi'om two large half-potatoes, cut lengthwise ; the next from 
the seed end* of a large potato ; the next from a large half-potato cut 
lengthwise ; and nearly the same result when the large potato had its 
seed end cut off. The smallest yield vras from half a small potato ; one 
piece with an eye did a little better. He finds the gfreater the yield the 
larger the amount of large potatoes in proportion to small. He used no 
small potatoes for seed. A medium-sized potato he plants whole ; cuts 
lai'ge ones in two pieces; and the largest in four pieces, always taking 
care to select sound and well-developed potatoes. 

From this experiment it would seem that the largest crop can be 
raised from whole potatoes, and the smallest from small ones. 

J. T. Warder, of Ohio, says: ''I have just comiileted my second ex- 
periment with assorted seed potatoes. They were the Hamson. The 
rows were three feet apart, twenty-two and a quarter rods long, and very 
even in quality of soil. 2s o. 1 was planted with whole potatoes as near 
the size of hulled walnuts as I could get them ; was drilled with fourteen 
poimds of seed, equal to 9i bushels per acre ; and produced 5i bushels, 
ecjual to 217^ bushels per acre. ^o. 2 was planted with cut vseed, two or 
three eyes to each set, from selected, fair-sized potatoes, drilled in the 
same way as Xo. 1, with twenty-one pounds of seed, lo^ bushels per 
acre, and i)roduced G|i bushels, equal to 2o4i bushels per acre. Xo. 3 
was planted with large-sized, selected potatoes, drilled, but fiuther apart 
thaa Xos. 1 and 2, with forty-eight pounds of seed, equal to 31^ 
bushels of seed per acre: and produced G| bushels, equal to 203^- bushels 
per acre. Xo. 4 was planted ^^ith halves of the same selection as So. 3, 
with twenty-seven pounds of seed, equal to 17-i bushels of seed per acre, 
and produced G^ bushels, equal to 257jV luishels per acre. It was 
planted the same distance as Xo. 3, and contained the largest propor- 
tion of salable potatoes, with ISTo. 2 next, and with almost equal propor- 
tions of large ones as in Xos. 1 and 3. This experiment, in connection 
with one made last year, would induce me to cut g'ood, salable-sized 
potatoes for seed, in preference to using- them whole ; and, in times ot 
scarcity, to use small potatoes, with care not to plant them too closely 

In this experiment the smallest potatoes ;\ielded the largest crop in 
proportion to the weight of seed, the cut next, and the whole ones It^ast 
of all. But the small ones were objectionable, because thej' yielded too 
large a proportion of small potatoes. 

' The eud opposite the stem wliicli connecta the potato with the stalk. 



George Maw, of England, in speaking of his experiment, says : "1. Every 
increase in the size of the set, irora one ounce to eight, produces au in- 
crease of the crop much greater than the additional \rcight of tlie sets 
planted. 2. The net gain over the extra weight of tlie sets in planting 
tour-ounce sets in lieu of one-ounce sets amounted, on the whole series 
of experiments, to from three to four tons per acre, or over one hundred 
bushels. 3. The additional gain on the increase of size of the set from 
four ounces to eight averaged about five tons per acre, or over one hun- 
dred and sixty bushels. 4. Increasing the intervals at which the sets 
were planted in the drills, oven those of the largest size, to more than 
twelve inches, diminishes the crop per acre. 5. Weight for weight, cut 
sets produce, as nearly as possible, the same weight per acre as whole 

From an examination of the results of this experiment, there would 
seem to be little or no difference, so far as the crop is concerned, whether 
potatoes are planted whole or cut. Again, notliing is lost by close iilant- 
ing within a certain limit ; for the excess of the crop much more than 
oalances tlie vreight of extra seed used. 

Professor W. W. Daniells, of the Agricultural College of Wisconsin, 
in an experiment made with the Peach-blow potato, divided the ground, 
(thirty-five rods in length, and nine in breadth,) lengthwise, into eight 
parallel sub-divisions of five rows each, and planted in rows, three and 
a half feet apart each way, and three inches deep, with seed prepared as 
follows : 


No. S 
No. S . 
No. 4 . 
No. 5 . 
No. 6. 
No. 7. 
No. 8 . 

Seed whole, and of Inr^o b'izo, one potato in aliill 

Seed of large size, cut into four pieces, three pieces in a hill, four inches apart. 

One small potato in a hill 

Small potatoes cut into thirds, three pieces in a hill, four inches apart 

One seed end of medium-sized potato in a hill 

Half a medium-.sized potato, v^ithout seed end, in a hill 

The same as No. 2 

Single eyes, three in a hill 


At the time of digging, five small plats, of fifty hills each, were taken 
from each sub-division in vaiious parts of it, the potatoes weighed, and 
the mean taken as the average yield for that sub-division, giving the 
following results: 


Yield in 

pounds on 

five plats in each subdivision. 

Total on five 
plats in each 



at 6 



Plat 1. 

Plat 2. 

Plat 3. 

Plat 4. 

Plat 5. 

■O OS 


No. 1.. 


108 J 



100 J 





















No. 2.. 


No. 3 .. 


No. 4 .. 
No. 5.. 



No. 6.. 
No. 7.. 

Lai ge 


No. 8 .. 


From a review of the preceding table, it will bo seen that no two of 
the small plats produce the same qnantitv of potatoes, although the 
soil, planting, and ciUture were the same,\is nearly as they could be 


made so. Therefore, no experiment on a single plat eould be conclusive 
to establish a general principle. It will also be observed that the cut 
tubers, with the exception of No. 4, produced more from the same weight 
of seed than those planted v/liole; but Professor Daniells says that the 
large whole potatoes in l^o. 1 produced the most vigorous plants, and 
those ill Xo. 8, with single eyes, the least vigorous. 

If a greater crop can he grown on a given area from the same weight 
of seed when cut than when whole, as the last experiment and that of 
Mr. Warder seem to prove, because the pieces can bo made to occupy 
more places in consequence of being more numerous, it vrould be desir- 
able, for economy in seed, or when the quantity is limited, to cut those 
grown for the market ; but they should be divided into pieces of suiS- 
cient size to produce strong plants, and allowed to dry a week or two 
before planting, to harden the surface. If, however, the soil is very rich, 
they may be cut iuto smaller pieces than when it is less fertile. It is 
also recommended to moisten them, whether cut or whole, and sprinkle 
v.ith pulverized lime or ashes, to foi-m a coating on the surface. Whole 
})otatoes should always be planted for an early crop, since they will com- 
mence growing several days sooner than when cut ; and a part of the 
field having the most suitable location and soil should be reserved, and 
planted witii whole potatoes for seed. 


The best soil, probably, aside from bui'nt laud, for growing sound, 
mealy, and healthy potatoes, and which is accessible to agriculturists in 
general, is a light, loamy, green-sward pasture land, moist but not wet, 
and sufficiently fertile to produce one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
bushels per acre, with the common alkaline fertilizers applied to the hills. 
It is very important to select a soil congenial to the growth and perfec- 
tion of the potato ; for, unless this is done, good potatoes cannot be 
grown even from the best varieties. It should be plowed in autumn as 
deeply as possible, and sufficiently early for the sod to decay by the next 
spring. Early in the season, as soon as the ground is dry enough to 
v/ork, it should be cross-plowed, and carefully harrowed, so as to mellow 
the soil, and pulverize it thoroughlj'. If the land is not sufficiently fer- 
tile, it will be safe to manure it carefully with a compost of lime, ashes, 
and muck spread evenly on its siu'face before cross-plowing. If a great 
crop is desired, and there is no fear of rot, the land may be heavily 
dressed with barnyard mamu-e, and a cro]) of corn, which will bear stim- 
ulating fertilizers, taken from it the first year, and potatoes the next. 
The barn-yard manure would become so much decomposed during the 
year, that jio "^ery serious injury need be apprehended, pro^^idcd ashes 
or ^psum are used in the hills. Old land, or that which has been pre- 
viously cultivated in some other crop than potatoes, should be plowed 
deeply and thoroughly pulverized. 


Drills may be made for the potatoes, by plowiug at intervals of three 
feet from center to center, running north and south, if practicable, that 
the sun may dry off, as quickly as possible, any superfluous moisture that 
may happen to accumidate. If planted in hills, two and a half feet be- 
tween the sets in the rows would be a proper distance ; if in drills, from 
twelve to fourteen inches. If a great crop is desired, without regard to 
convenience in cultivation, or liability to rot, they may be jilanted twenty- 
seven inches betvreen the rows, and ten inches in the drills. More potatoes 


can l>e i-aised from the same area of ground by planting in drills tUan 
in hills, and This method is preferable in common cnltivatiou. unless tlie 
la>id is very rocky, or infested with troublesome weeds. But when the 
lx)tato is cidtivated on a very large scale, and principally or wholly by 
machineri\ the quantity of laud used being of no consequence, some 
prefer to make the hills three and a half feet apart each way, in rows 
nmning in two directions at right angles to one another, thus securing 
the important advantage of cross cultivation. 

After the ix)tatoes have been droi>ped. a small quantity of ashes, pul- 
verized lime, or gyi^sum should be thrown around them to promote their 
growth and prevent the rot. It is also an admirable i>lan, at the first 
lioeing, to ]mt ashes, lime, or gyiisum. in small quantities, on the hills. 

If the land is plowed to a ]n"oper depth, and thoroughly drained, the 
IK)tatoes should be covered about four inches dee]): if not in such condi- 
tion, half that depth would be sufticient, and additional soil should Ije 
drawn around them when hoed. They are sometimes very expeditiously 
covered with a plow, so managed as to turn back upon them the furrow 
made by drilling, and also with the mold-board or the shovel cultivator, 
by ninning it astride the drill. A potato planter, lately invented, which 
drills the gromid, cuts, dro])5. and covers the potatoes, all at the same 
time, is used with great satisfaction in some parts of the country. 

It is the opinion of some of our best agTicultiuists that very little or no 
hilling is necessary when the land is properly prepared. High, conical 
hills shed the rain, and let in much heat during the hot season of sum- 
mer, which hinders the growth of the plant. Potatoes should be kept 
free from weeds at all seasons, but hoeing after the tubers have begun 
to set shotild be performed with extreme care, that they may not be dis- 
turbed or otherwise injured. 


Little need be said in respect to harsesting. The inquiry is frequently 
made whether it is best to dig potatoes as soon as they are ripe, or to 
allow them t^> remain in the ground till later in the season. In warm 
climates it woidd jirobably l>e l>est to dig them as soon as they ai'e ripe, 
and remove them to a cool place. In northern latitudes, where they 
would l>e sufliciently cool in the ground, it would be much belter to allow 
them to remain till the close of the season, being carelid always to dig 
them l>efore the beginning of the fall rains, while the ground is dry and 
the weather pleasant. It will be of no advantage to dig them early to 
avoid the progress of the rot ; as, if they are aiiected. the disease will 
go on, and digging and storing early will only add the unpleasant labor 
of removing them from the bin. and picking out the diseased tubers. 
The potato hook, which is a kmd of hoe with four to six strong steel 
l)rongs, is a more convenient implement for diggmg than the common 
hoe; and, where the land is free from stones and other obstructions, the 
potato digger, in some of its recently improved forms, which leaves the 
potatoes behind it on the surface of the groimd, or picks them up in a 
box, as may be preferred, is employed by many farmers with success. 
and found to be a great labor-saving machine. 

^Vfter being dug. potatoes shorUd always be allowed to remain on the 
ground till they aie thoroughly dry, which will be efiected in a few hoiu-s 
if the weather is warm and pleasant. If not, they must be removed to 
the bam, or some other convenient place, and diied as soon as the weather 
will i)ermit, and afterward stored in the cellar, in a cool place. 

It will be found convenient to a.ssort them when picked up from the 
gi'oimd in tho field, those intended for family use and the market being 



placed in a biu by themselves, and the small and imperfect on©g kept for 
feeding to animals. They are sometimes assorted by using a wire-riddle, 
which allows the small ones to pass through it, while the large ones are 
retained. Those which have been planted especially for seed require partic- 
idar care in assorting, which can be exercised only by an experienced per- 
son, who should be alDle to select those most suitable in size, the most sjtu- 
metrical and perfect in form, well matured and solid. It cannot be deter- 
mined with certainty- whether a potato is solid throughout, yet an expert 
can generally come to a revj correct conclusion. 

In storing, each class should have its appropriate biu, easily accessi- 
ble without interfering with the others. The place should be moder- 
ately cool, and not liable to sudden and great changes of temperature. 
Hence, the cellar should be so constructed as never to make it necessary- 
to resort, in the coldest weather, to the artihcial heat of a stove or other 
apparatus. The potato will endiu'C a great deal of cold without injury, 
but a small excess of heat soon destroys it. It will bear a temi)erature 
of two degrees belovr the freezing point for several days ; but, if exposed 
below this, it soon freezes, and becomes unfit for food or seed. It is very 
unsafe to expose it below the freezing point ; and, if possible, the cellar 
should be arranged in such a way that the lowest temperature may not 
exceed thirty-five degrees, nor the higJiest forty -five ; otherwise, germi- 
nation may commence, which would have a very injurious effect upon 
the potato. 


Dr. H. F. Hexamcr, of l!s'ew York, in a series of experiments, attained 
the following results: 1. Of se^'tnty hdls of potatoes, pared so that no 
eyes were visible, thirty-five grew ; some produced very large potatoes, 
and most of the tubers planted remained hard and firm till time of dig- 
ging. 2. Of eighty hills planted with pieces cut without eyes, thirteen 
hills grew ; all of which sprouted on the cut surface, none through the 
skin. 3. Of one hundi'ed whole potatoes planted, ninety-eight grew 
from tlie small end, and one from the side. Of more than one-half the 
potatoes planted whole, only one eye grew fr-om each, the rest remain- 
ing dormant. 

Dr. Hexamer gives the following list of varieties of the potato cidti- 
vated by him, the length of time each had been planted on the farm, the 
marketable product of each per acre, and its hardiness : 




Pinkeye Knstycoat. 
Whito Peach Blow . 

Peach Blow 


Bulkley's Seedling. 

Garnet Chili 


Early Goodrich 

Prairie Seedling... 


Early Cottage 

Blue Mercer 


.Jackson White 


I'rince Albert 

White Rock 

Kough and Ready. 
Early Sovereign'. 
Early June 

Years planted. 

Third year... 
First year.... 

Third year 

Third j-ear... 
Third year. . . 
Third year. . . 
Third year. . . 
Third year. . . 
Third year... 
Third year... 
Third j-ear. . . 
Third year. . . j'Car 

Third year... 

Third year 

First year 

First year 

Third year... 
Third year... 
Third year. . . 
Third year... 
.Second year. 
Third year. . . 


























No rot. 

Rotted badly. 

Ko rot. 


No rot. 

Much rot. 

Much rot. 

Much rot. 


Eaten by grubs. 

No rot. 

Rotted badly. 


No rot. 


No rot ; poor location. 


Little rot. 

Rotted badlj . 

No rot. 


No rot. 

No rot ; poor location. 


A conesiK)udeiit of the Working Farmer planted three rows of Davis 
Seedlinsr potatoes side by side, and manured them in the hLU alike : 1st, 
small whole potatoes ; 2d, large cut jwtatoes ; 3d. whole potatoes o1 
medium size. The cut potatoes were of large size, and an entire potato, 
cut into equal part^, was put in each liill. They all produced iiotatoes 
of good size, but the row planted with cut tuljers yielded about one-fifth 
more in quantity, and of rather larger size than either of the others. 

At Old Westbury, Xew York, niue varieties of the potato were planted 
on soil prepared alike, and produced as follows : The Calico, 267 bushels ; 
Harrison, 2Go ; Gleason, 254 : Early Eose, 235; Vanderver-r, 227 ; Gard- 
ner, 215 : Peach Blow. 197 : Early Goodrich, ISS ; Early Samaritan, 90. 
The Early Goodrich aud JEarly Samaritan were badly eaten by the 
potato bug, which accounts for their small jield. The Peach Blow and 
the Calico are declared to be of ^ery good quality : the Early Eose, Early 
Goodrich, Early Samaritan, good : the Gleason. Vanderveer, and Gard- 
ner, medium. The Harrison is thought to be the best winter variety, 
and ripens two weeks earlier than the Peach Blow. The Early Eose is 
regarded as the best early variety, rijiening two weeks before the Early 

S. S. C. Moreland, of Pennsylvania, planted some large potatoes of the 
Cuzco variety, with the following results: Ten hills with one potato 
each, ten with two halves each, ten with one half each, ten with four 
quarters each, ten -with two quarters each, ten with one quarter each. 
The hills were three and a half feet apart, and manured alike. "SATien 
they were dug, the dilierence was so trifling as not to be worth naming. 
The hills "u-ith two quarter pieces, however, did rather the best. By the 
side of these was planted a small piece with the same variety, in the old 
way, one foot apart, and the yield was more than twice as great as that 
from the others planted in lulls. 

A Pennsylvania con-espondent of the Tavm and Fireside planted 
seven hundred and eighty hills of potatoes, as follows : In the first row 
three pieces in a hill ; in the second row, four pieces ; and so on through 
the field, the rovrs alternating with three and four pieces, respectively, 
iu ahUl. Each row was dug separately, and the product weighed. The 
result was, that three hundred and ninety hills with three pieces yielded 
1,401 pounds ; and the three hundred and ninety hills with four pieces 
yielded 1,570 pounds — a gain of one hundred and sixty-nine pounds, 
when four i^ieces were put iu a hill. He also planted in a pOe of mud, 
of uniform fertility, thirty-six hills with four pieces in a hill, which 
yielded 125i ]wunds : and thCrty-six hUls with five pieces in a hill, with 
a product of 130^ pounds; a difference of eleven poiuids in favor of the 
hills containing five pieces. From these exi^eriments an argument is 
derived iu favor of heavy- seeding ; but if there is too much seed the 
potatoes will be smaller. 

A correspondent of the American AgTiciilturist planted five pounds 
of whole potatoes twelve inches apart, ^vith a yield of eighteen poimds ; 
in the next row, five pounds of halves six iuciies ripart.with a yield ot 
twenty pounds ; while one and three-quarters pound of single-eye pieces 
produced ten pounds. There was no discoverable di lierence in the quahty 
of the potatoes, and very little in size. Those of tlie whole tubers were a 
trifle the largest. This makes it appear that, in the proportion of crop to 
seed, the advantage is largely in favor of single eves"^; for in the same pn)- 
portion the whole and the half potatoes should each have yielded 28.57 
pounds, instead of eighteen pounds and twenty pounds, "respectively. 
Ha\'ing reference to the ground occupied, the result is iu favor of the 
halves first, and the whole potatoes second. The hiilves yielded double, 


and the vrliolo ones ne?rly double tlie yield of the single eyes on the 
same surface of ground. Although the cjuantity of seed and the ground 
planted rdth whole and with half potatoes were the same, the distance 
apart was double in the first mentioned. 

J. N. Stearns, of ^Michigan, planted one pound of the Early Rose 
potato, comprising two large potatoes and a small one. He cut the two 
larger tubers through the middle, taking one-half of each for the experi- 
ment. On cutting the eyes he had sixteen in each potato. He cut 
through each eye of one of the potatoes, making thirty-two pieces, and 
put one-half an eye or one piece in each hill ; and the sixteen eyes of 
the other potato were planted with one eye in a hill. From the thii'ty- 
two pieces, cut by dividing the sixteen eyes, he had -lof poimds ; from the 
sixteen pieces planted with an eye in each, 19^ pounds ; from the small 
potato planted with a single eye in each piece, hvi had 17f pounds — 
making in all 82i| pounds, or nearly one and a half bushel from one 
pound of potatoes. 

W. H. Crane, of ISIinnesota, planted four pounds each of the Early 
Goodrich, the Harrison, the Gleason, and the Cuzco potato, cutting 
them into pieces with a single eye, and planting in drills three and a half 
feet apart, putting one piece at every eighteen inches in the drill, with the 
following results: From the Early "Goodrich he harvested 16 J bushels; 
the Harrison, 22i bushels; the Gleason, O-^ bushels; the Cuzco, 27^ 
bushels ; making 7G bushels from sixteen pounds of seed. From nine- 
teen eyes of the Harrison he raised two bushels of potatoes, producing 
at the rate of eight hundred and ninety-three bushels to the a-cre. 

William Goodrich, jr., of Xew York, planted in drills three feet apart, 
and sets nine inches apart in the drills, one barrel each of the Cuzco, 
the Orono, and the Harrison potato, cut into pieces containing two 
eyes. Each variety yielded about twenty barrels, being at the rate of 
about one hundred barrels to an acre. The Cuzco yielded a few less 
than the Orono, and the Harrison a few more. The Orono was a little 
the earliest, the smoothest, and best table potato, and also the best mar- 
ket variety. Mr. Goodrich thinks he should have had more potatoes 
from the same seed had they been planted fifteen inches in the drill 
instead of nine inches, but not so many -per acre. They were all free 
from disease. 

A cori-espondent of tlie Cultivator and County Gentleman states that 
his Harrison potatoes turned out tvro hitndred bushels to an acre ; G lea- 
sons, three hundred bushels ; and that his Cuzcos outstripped all others. 
He estimated the yield at five hundred bushels per acre. 

Joseph L. Orr, of Massachusetts, raised from four pounds of the Early 
Goodrich potato three hundred and seventy pounds, or over ninety-two 
poimds from one pound. The ground on which they grew contained 
1,035 feet, including a margin of eighteen inches. They were planted 
the 25th of May ; stocks blighted the middle of August ; dug the mid- 
dle of October. 

John Danforth, of Connecticut, planted twenty pieces of the Early 
Goodrich i)otato in his garden, making twenty hills, manuring them 
with hog maniu-e. The product, dug on the 17th of August, was three 
bushels and one peck of the finest potatoes he ever saw, weighing ninety 

E. A. Fassett, of Pennsylvania, planted sixteen potatoes of the Early 
Eose variety, weighing three pounds in all. They were cut in pieces 
containing a single eye, and planted with one piece in a hdl, three feet 
apart each way. They made about two hundred hills, from which were 
dug fourteen and a half bushels, or at the rate of two hundred and 



uiuety pounds liom one pouud. Four of the "best liills filled a half 
bushel, aud the liu'gest potato weighed two aud three-quarters pounds. 
As to quaht\ , from the limited trial made, he thinks that they are nearly 
or quite first-rate when mature, but poor and watery when young, and 
growing rapidly. 

Thomas M. Harvey, superintendent of the East Pennsylvania Experi- 
mental Farm, reports the follovring residts of a series of experiments : 

yo. 1. — The varieties of the potato planted were of different sizes, cui 
so as to make the uimiber of pieces in a row, as given in the table. 
Phosi)hate, 800 iwiinds to an acre, applied in the rows. 


a: ^ 

c o 

o i> . 

Zj ^ > 

«^ ? " 

o -> ~ 


7^ I '"'^ 

c. = TV p. a s 

.5 ? i; i s ga 

Planted the leth of May. 

Orono 2-M 

Jackson AMiitc 223 

Carter ' 214 

Early Seboc ; 213 

Cuzco : 225 

Xew York Seedling ilerccr i 217 

Gleason ; 214 

Andes 224 

Michigan Wliite SproTit.s ! 221 

Prince Albert 1 225 

English Fluke i 210 

Buckeve ' 216 

Ohio Pcach-blo^- I 218 

Michigan Peach-blow I 220 

Planted -JCth of May. 

r,amet Chili ! 208 

California Mereer i 2i:j 

White Mercer Seedling ' 20.i 

Calico I 208 

•lersey Monitor I 205 

Shaker's Fancy 212 

Buckeye 225 

Hinnnian ' 

Vanderveer's Seedling j 21C 

Xtitmegs 210 

White Peacb^low ! 214 
























Xo. 2. — Bone phosphate, 1,000 pounds spread on the first acre ; planted 
tiie 5th of May, in rows three feet apart, one potato or piece in a hill. 

Variety, and form of seed. 


Wliole tubers, largo 

Cut, quartered length\visc 

Cut, halved lengthwise, then across, stem end 

Same seed cut as preceding, only seed end 

Whole tubers, medimn 

Out, halved 

"Whole tubers, small 

c ■x 

. _^ 

X o 

V. - 

--i . 

e S 

o c u 


c ^ 


^"1 3 


"S j; 



2 o '" 

e.*- r 

S '"■- 


CS o 

— iTr 


£ —"" 

•-• ^.^ 

~S r 





































Bone phosphate. d:c. — Contiuiied. 

TarietT, and form of seeiL 


Whole tubers, larjre 

Quartered lengthwise, large 

Ualved »nd crossed, large, seed end this row 

Halved and cros-^ed. large, stem end in this row. 

■Whole tnbers. mcdiiini 

Halved tnbers, met.liuni 


"Whole tiibers. large 

Cut, quartered lengthwise, large 

Halved, »hen crossiFd. large, seed end in this row. 

Same cut. Large, stem end in this row 

Whole tubers, me .liuiii size 

Cut. halved lengthwise, medium size 

Small whole tubers 

(PL-mted the tth of May.) 

^Vhole tubers, large ; 

Cut, qiiartered lengthwise, large 

Cut, halved, then c^it across, larse. seed end in this row. 

Cut same as preceding, stem end in this row 

Whole tubers, medium 

Cut, halved lengthwise, meiinni 




3 ^ 


= ° te 

a . 

a r ^ 


• - — • 


S. "•= 


C" S B 

= s.s. 

_2 s " 
















. 153 































10 t 




13 t 



















'^o. 3. — wStable uianuro, fourteen loads spread on tlie second acre; 
same kind and fonu of seed as on tlie preceding plios])hate ; ])lanted 
11th of May, in row.s three feet apart, one potato or piece in a hill. 

TarietT. and form of seed. 

- o 

- -= I 

= Eg ! 


"il^ t = 

5 "■ 

Whole tnbers. l.Tge : j 324 

Cut, quEi-tc-rcd lengthwise, largo 304 

Cut, halved, then cut .icrrss, seed end in thfs row j 324 

Crt Nune as prccefdng, stem end in this row i 304 

Whole tnbers. medium | 5G2 

Crt, halved Icncth wise, medium j 562 

Whole tubers, small i 1, 200 

Whole tuber?, large 

Ci'.t, cuartertd lengthwise, large 

Cut, halved, then cut acre s3. seed end in this row. 

Cnt same as preceding, stem end in thia row 

Whole tnbei-8, medium 

Cut, halved k-agthwise, medium 


Whole tnbers, large 

Cut. qncrtercd lengthwise, large 

Cnt. halved, then cut aci-os.'s, seed end in thi.* row. 
Cut, halved, then .icross, stem end in this row 













113 26S1 

211 204} 

229 i 232J 

IM 1 192| 









Stable manure, <jCr. — Continued. 

Variety, ainl form of seed. 

DAniusox — continued. 

WTiole tubers, medium. 
Cnt, halved, luedium... 
"VThole tubers, small — 


"UTiolo tubers, l.irge 

Cut, qna'-tered lensTthwise, large 

Cut, halved, then cut across, seed end in this rove. 

Cut same as preceding, stem end in this row 

■\VboIe tubers, mediiun 

Cut, halved length 

■Whole tubers, small 

~ " 2 
6 S a: 





o o 





K a 

■te — -^ 














Jonathan Talcott, of New York, planted Jackson White, the Early- 
Goodrich, and the Ohio Russet, of which the Jackson White was eight 
or ten days the earliest, and also the best in quality ; yield about a hun- 
dred and fifty bushels per acre. The Early Goodrich, though a few days 
later, is preferred for its hardiness, smooth and perfect appearance, and 
yield per acre. The Ohio Eusset matures with the Early Goodrich, is 
iull as good in quality, but the yield is only medium. 

A correspondent of the Rural American has for several years raised 
the Garnet potato, and says he finds it all its originator ever claimed for 
it. The Gleasou he thinks far ahead of any variety he has ever raised, 
in respect to yield and freedom from rot ; although, as a table potato, he 
considers it no better than the Garnet. From eight pounds of this va- 
riety he raised one barrel of fine potatoes, without extra cultivation. 
He planted eight rows of the Gleason, four of the Garnet, tMO of the 
Peach-blow, and five of the Eastern Red, putting a forkfull of coarse 
manure in each hill, by way of experiment. He generally applies a large 
handful of ashes instead of barn-yard manure. From the eight rows of 
the Gleason, thirty-three bushels were harvested, nearly all tit for the 
table, and entirely free from rot ; from the eleven remaining rows of the 
varieties named, only thirty bn.shels were gathered, making a ^ield of 
one and three-tenths bushel in favor of the Gleason. Only a few dis- 
eased i>otatoes were found among the Garnets, but many among the 
Peach-blows and Eastern Reds. 

Andrew Archer, of Maine, planted side by side, and on the same 
quality of land, seven varieties of the potato, with the following results : 
The Cuzco yielded 370 bushels i)er acre; the Orono, 320; the Early 
Goodrich, 3LM); the General Grant, 304; the Early Sebcc, 204; the Mer- 
cer, 240; the Jackson, 240. lie states that the Early Goodrich, the 
past year, maintained its former reputation as a first .class .potato in 
every respect; and that the General Grant is equally so, either for the 
table or the market, and is the earliest variety on record, cultivated in 
Maine, being two weeks earlier than the Early Sebet;, and three weeks 
earlier than the Early Goodrich. The Early Goodrich and the General 
Grant do not iot, and he thinks they are far superior to any other 
varieties now grown in that State. 

Isaac Hicks and Sous, of New York, planted nine rows of each of nine 



varieties, with the following results: The Early Goodrich yielded ISS 
bnshels per acre: Early Samaritan, 9G; Early Rose. 235 : Harrison, 265: 
Calico, 2G7; Gleason, 254; Vanderveer, 227; Gardner, 215; Peach-blowi 
196. All were dug before the middle of September. The Peach-blows 
were beginning to rot, and were sent to the Xew York market as fast as 
possible. Three or four only of the Gleasons were found rotten in each 
barrel ; all the other varieties were sound, and kept well. The Peach- 
blow brought, in the market, 83 75 to 64: per barrel ; the Gleason, $2 50 
to 83: the Vanderveer, 82 50; and the Early Goodrich, 82 25. 

Mr. Bristoe, of Kentucky, planted the varieties named below, with the 
results annexed : 

I Seed planted. Tield. 

Wliite Spront... 
Karly Goodrich. 



Shaker RuKset.. 

Garnet Chili 


Early June 


Jenny Lind 























Mr. Bristoe does not regard the Peach-blow as a sure crop in the 
South; as, whatever the time of planting, it Avill not produce pota- 
toes till late in June. He has planted from April to the middle of Jidy, 
with about equal success. 

The following table shows the results of an experiment made by Thomas 
Meehan, editor of the Philadelpbia Weelvly Press, and a committee of 
agricultural editors and others, by boiling Utteeu popular varieties of the 
potato. The numbers affixed denote their qualities respectively. Xo. 1 
signifies best ; Xo. 2 next best, &:c. : 







• o 


1 2 


Early Goodrich 

White Spront 

Fclterid Early : 3 


Early Rose 


Garnet Chili 

Priuce Albert 







Jackson White 















; 3 




! 3 


1 3 




From an inspection of the table it will be seen that the Early Eose 
and the Early Goodrich hold the first place in the total value of their 
good equalities: but. as color is of less importance than either textm-e or 
flavor, the Early Piose must be regarded as the best on the list. The 
Cuzco, Garnet, Chili, Gleason, and Carter also take a high rank. 

Peter Henderson, of Xew Jersey, cut one potato weighing four ounces 
into two parts, in such a way that the largest possible number of eyes 
in each piece would be presented upward: then each part was placed on 


the soil of one of the benchesof hisg:reenhoiise,atatemixratiireof about 
seventy degrees, and kept entirely dry until the ent sunace liad hcr.led 
over, and shoots began to start fi-om the eyes. The shoots, \rhea icur 
or five inches in lenjrth, were cut off about one-1'ourth of an inch from 
the sunace of the potato, auu rooted by s^adiu:^ and vratering iu the 
usual way, and then put iu two-inch pots, iu rich soil, and started to 
grow, (ithcr shoots were afterward thrown n]> froin the iKitato iu 
great numbers, and rooted as before. When the first shoots were seven 
or eight inches high, cuttings were taken from the toi>s of these also and 
rooted ; so that by the 1st of June one hundred and fiitty good shoots had 
been ]iroduced from this potato, each of which was equal to a set made 
directly from the tuber. These sets were ]>hmted out the first week in 
Jime, in land not v.eil ; uited for the growth cf the potato. The crop, 
when dug in September, weighed four huudrod and fiity i>ounds, equal 
to seven "and a half bushels, being an increase of sixteen hundred fold. 
It may be questioned whether this process is of any practical value, 
or whether it will pay. It is not claimed that it would, when i>otatoes 
bring only the ordinary price: but, when they are sold at the price at 
that time of the Early Bose, $3 per pound, there is no doubt whatever of 
its practical utility. 


Tho cost of fences is a groat bm don upon acrricnltnre everywhere. In 
tlio prairie sections, where stone is never available, and timber rarely at 
hand, the expense is increased: and here the feasibility of obtaining 
•serviceable liv(^ fences is naturally an important ici^iry. Western farm- 
ers have long" been seeking', the best plant for this pnr]icse. In the 
Climate of Great Britain the hawthorn (Cratcrgm oxyacantha) has been 
snccossfnlly employed for centuries: but, in the climate of the Missis- 
sippi Valley, it is not suClciently at home to answer the puqiose; the 
atoiosplierc is too hot, dry, and variible. The honey locust. fCrlcditsch-a 
triacanthos.J has been tried, as also the buckthorn, fllha.nnus catharticus.J 
the Cherokee rose, (Rosa kn-ipata.j and ctlicrs: but the Osage orange 
thorn, (Maclura airraniiacaj after years of experiment, in diherent parts 
of the country, appears to be a more promishig material for hedges than 
any other upon which experiments have been made. It was called by the 
French Boisd'crc; by the Indians, bow- wood; and Osage orange by the 
present inhabitants of the West. In 1S41 it was thus described by 
William Kenrick: 

"A native of Arkansas, where it rises in beautiful proportion to the 
height of sixty feet, and has been pronounced one of the most beautifnl 
of oiu* native trees. The wood is, perhaps, the most durable in the 
world, and for ship-building is esteemed preferable to live oak. It is 
valuable for furniture, as it receives the tinest i)olish. and yields a yellow 
dye. It is remp.rkabiy tough, strong, and elastic, and preferred by the 
Indians to all other woods for bows. It deserves a trial for hedges. I 
know of no wood so beautiful for this jHirpose." 

A few facts in the history of its introduction and use in the West, as a 
hedge plant, are stated upon the authority of Hon. M. L. Dunlap, of 
Illinois. In 1S42 a nurseryman of Peoria County, Illinoit^, Mr. Ed:ion 
Harkness, after a trial during two seasons, in which it was killed to tho 
roots by frost, came to the erroneous conclusion that it would not stand 
the climate. In 1844 Mr. Charles H. Larrabee, of Pontotoc County, 
Mississippi, sent a package of seed to the editor of the Prairie Farmer, 
suggesting its probable utility as a hedge ])lant, and its great value 
lo Illinois especially. In 1843 Professor J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, 
Illinois, stated that it had proved hardy for six years, and that he 
thought it wovJd make a good hedge, if the plants woidd bear close 

It is claimed that a Mr. Choteau, of St. Louis, planted Osage seed as early 
as 1800. The elder Landreth propagated someplauts in 1805, which are 
now two feet in diameter, and thirty to forty in height. Mr Hancock, 
of Fulton County, Illinois, set a hedge in 1844. It was not till 184G 
that any considerable quantity of seed was sent North. Mr. William H. 
Mann, then a resident of Fannin County, Texas, living upcn Bois d'xVi'c 
Creek, hearing that the seed was worth eighty dollars ])er bushel at 
Cincinnati and in the northv.-est, proceeded to wash out thirty bushels of 
seed, for which he refused twenty dollars per bushel before starting, only 
to meet the disappointment, on arrival at Peoria, of learning that there 
was no demand for it. the impression having gone abroad that it was a 
failiu-e. Alter some etiorr ar.d delay, it was (hstributcd in small lots. 


npou a year's credit, at twenty dollars per busliel. The late Cyrus Over- 
man, of Fulton County, entered into a copartuersliip Mith Mr. Mann in 
planting a lew bushels of the seed, and from this beginning the growing 
of Osage thorn i)lants has assumed its present proportions. In 1851 
three to five hundred bushels of seed were brought into Illinois, and in 
1855 the firm above named brought from Texas one thousand bush- 
els. Prior to 18G0 the price varied with the demand from five to thirty 
dollars jiei- bushel. In 18G7 the trade in seed was resumed vrith a spec- 
ulative demand, by v.hich the market became overstocked, and the price 
was reduced Irom fifty to five dollars. In 18G8 the trade amounted to 
eighteen thous;ind b#hels. The price, eight dollars at first, went up to 
fifty. During the winter of 18G8-'G9, twelve thousand bushels went 
north of Memx)his, ten thousand of which have been sold for the spring 
planting. The price ranged from twelve to eighteen dollars. Texas 
and Arkansas received not less than one hiujdi'ed thousand dollars for 
Osage seed in the autumn of 18G8. 

It is estimated that ten thousand bushels of seed will be planted in 
the northwest in 18G9, producing 300,000,000 plants, at 30,000 to a 
bushel of seed, and making G0,000 miles of fence, allowing 5,000 plants 
to a mile — enough to supply 22,000 farms of a quarter-section, at 840 
rods to a farm. One um^seryman has four hundred acres of quicks grow- 

JMr. Dunlap thus figures the comparative cost of live and of dead 
fences : 

First year: 
To prepare the hedge-row for a mile of hedge will cost in labor 

about five cents a rod, equal to $1G 00 

5,000 plants 12 00 

Setting 4 00 

Cutting and hoeing IG 00 

Total 48 00 

Second year: 

Cultivating and hoeing- IG 00 

Eesetting of plants 4 00 

Third year: * 
Cultivating and hoeing 12 00 

Totals 80 00 

Total cost for three years, twenty -five cents per rod. 

The next two years it will cost nothing, and will then be ready for 
plashing, or it may stand a year or two longer. We may add ten cents 
a rod for plashing and trimming, where the hedge will need an annual 
shearing, at a cost of about two cents a rod. This is in case the hedge 
is to be kept within bounds; but in many cases, where it is also A'aluablo 
for shelter and for timber, this extra expense is not incurred. Such a 
fence, when ten years old, will be worth its full cost to be cut down for 
vineyard stakes, or similar use. 

The first ten years of a first-class hedge should not cost a farmer, 
including interest for three years while it is gTowiug, over fifty cents a 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Doublo hedge set low. 
Fiff. 5. 

Set on ridge. 

Fig. 3. 

Oblique laying of double rows, 

Tertical section of single 
row hedge. 

Fig. 4. 


Vertical section of donble hedge. 

Fig. 6. 


Cross section of doable row trenches. 



rod, and the most of this in labor at odd times. This -^ould make the 
hedging of the quarter-section farm cost, for twenty years, as follo"ws : 

840 rods hedging $420 

20 years' interest 840 

20 years' shearing, two cents per rod 330 

Total 1. 59G 

Cost of board fencing 4, 000 


The diftereuce for the first twenty years is $120 per annum, and thus, 
instead of haviug $1,000 invested as original capital, we have but 8420 
in the hedge. It will require, at least, ten per cent, to keep the dead 
fence in repair, while $17 for each faim wiU keep the hedge nicely 
sheared. In one case we have a reliable hedge, and in the other an 
uncertain one of pine boards. 

The following communication on the subject of Osage thorn hedges, 
received from Mr. J. W. Clarke, of Kingston, Greeue Lake County, 
Wisconsin, is presented as the result of much thought and experiment, 
but not indorsed by the Department as infallible in all its positions : 


Though this thorn has been variously and extensively experimented 
witb, probably through half a century of time, with a view to its adapt- 
ability to forming a live fence, its successful propagation and growth 
on a large scale by nurserymen is a work of but recent achievement. 
The urgent necessity of some hedging material, as a substitute for board 
fence, has also been deeply felt only within a few years, or since 
railroads have made such fearful inroads upon the Limited timber sup- 
ply of the couutiy. It is, however, a well established fact that the Osage 
thorn is quite as capable of being grown and trained, and of form- 
ing an effective live fence, in all but far northern States, as is the haw- 
thorn in the British Islands. Its adaptation to the general purposes of 
hedging being a settled fact, the following notes and suggestions will be 
directed to the practical bearings of the principles of growing, plans of 
aiTangement, and the most suitable methods of training or directing 
the gTowth of the Osage thorn, as a hedging iDlant. 


Of this there can be no doubt, as it is thus grown in Elinois to the 
extent of hundi-eds of acres, and on an amply successfid scale in various 
other localities. It must be stated, however, that the quicks are grown 
too thick in tbe nursery row, in many instances. Close crowding here 
is not favorable to the best growth of roots, which is as essential to 
Osage thorn quicks as to apple stocks, and as necessary to their best 
subsequent giowth in the hedge row. The plants are 'more healthy 
when lirst giown on high, or at least on well-drained ground: the whole 
extent of their wood growth being fii^mer, and, if sometimes not quite so 
large or rank, better adapted to bear the vicissitudes to which young 
hedges are usually exposed. 



Sod ^Touiul. (lesi.j^ued for liedA'e sites, sliould be i)lo\ved six or seven 
inclies ikH'i», :is early as tbe ,i;Tass <^rown freely, in ]May, the year preced- 
ing the plautinj? of the quicks. As soon as the sod is well rotted, drag 
and plow as numy times as may bi' required tliorouy:hly to pulverize the 
soil, and reduce it to such a coudition of liltli as ^vould hi' suitable for 
planting- corn o:i old grouud, the stiii) of grouud so treated being at 
least six yards in width. This should be done either in ^September or 
early in 6i-tobcr; nor latei', as tbe important aiul necessary operation of 
ridguig up the ground, as a foundation for a successful hedge, is required 
to be performed before severe freezing weather. The safest course is to 
ridge before the 10th of Xovember. 

The neee.ssity for ridging arises from tlie generally observed fact, that 
the natural drainage of the larger ])ortion of the vast prairies is poor 
and inelleetive, the soil iu many localities being so overcharged M'ith 
moisture, particularly in rainy seasons, as to materially check the 
growth of farm cro[)s; and, as is well understood, the yield of corn and 
small gTain is much reduce<l from this cause. The same is true of con- 
siderable districts of several of the better timbered States, where other 
fencing material is growing scarce. 

The width of giouml plowed should not be less than eighteen or 
twenty feet, as a narrovr space may cause considerable inconvenience, 
where the adjoining land is sod or iu gra:?s. The height of the ridges 
should be as great as can be made by twice plowing, or gathering up the 
soil. In spoiigy or low, wet places, three gatherings with tb.e i)low will 
not raise the ridge too high. Tb« soil having been well pulverized 
before ridging, may be harrowed once with a coarse harrow ; but it 
need not be made smooth, as a Imrrowing just before plowing the fur- 
row trenehes, the succeeding spring, will be necessary to freshen and 
mellow the mold before other work is commenced. Among the advan- 
tages of ridging may be named the following: 

First. The Osage quicks v.ill be more likely to escape winter-killing, 
the exeujption being due to the fact that the roots are above the level of 

Second. Operations can l)e commenced and completed from ten days 
to two weeks cariier, in all localities where the natural drainage is inef- 
ficient, and O.iage thorns can be set before the buds open. 

Third. The roots of young quicks will strike down obli(iuely in ridged 
ground, instead of extending out horizontally Just beneath the surface 
soil, and attain a growth corresponding with the increase of available 

Fourth. The young plants make a more uniform growth when ridged, 
in conse<iuence of the more uniform condition of the soil as to moisture, 
and will generally be extmpt from the gaps and thin places, residtiug 
from i)arti;d winterkilling. 

Fifth. AVhen a ridge is i)roperly prepared for thorn quicks, the roots 
of the hedge-row will form a more iibrous growth, which will be made 
chielly in central parts of the ridge soil, instead of the roots growing 
long and straggling. If, in the course of years, however, straggling- 
roots should be found to require prunmg at a distance of eight or ten 
feet from the hedge-row, they will present less obstruction^ou a ridge 
than when jiTOwn ui)on h'vel ground. 

Sixth. ^Vhen a hedge becomes strong enough to turn Sioek. it is desi- 
rable to check its growth, which cau be done by cutting oil' the ends of 
the roots on Ui« sides of the ridge with a pruning plow, or with a revolv- 


ii2g colter, without endaugering the life of tlie thorns, the large amount 
of root-growth iu the deeper, eeutral parts of the ridge being sufficient 
for the plant. 

Seventh. A ridge eighteen to twenty-four inches above the level will 
add thirty to forty per cent, to the effective height of the hedge : and, 
in combination v. itli the latter, v»-ill form a barrier that will turn stock, 
thus constituting an eliective fence from one to two years sooner than 
when planted on low. level gTound ; and, at the same time, equally con- 
tributing toward the etiectiveness of the hedge in its incidental capac- 
ity as a wind-break. 

A ]ilow colter, such as is used for cutting off the extremities of apple 
tree roots to induce early bearing, may serve a siniiiar purpose in prun- 
ing hedge roots v.hen extending beyond their prescribed limits. 

Figure 1 represents a young, unlaid, double hedge-row, set in land 
relatively low. rigiire 2. a similar hedge, set in a ridge two feet above 
the level of the adjoining land. These sketches afford an illustration of 
the difference, in extent and character of root gi-owth, between young- 
hedges set on the deep soil of ridges specially made for them, and those 
set on level gTOund, v.ith their roots near a wet subsoil, as seen in Fig- 
ure 1. 

TKnnmsG or. DvrAiiTTSG. 

As in the case of shortening back to induce the gTOwth of fruit spm^s 
in the apple tree, the effect of trimming Osage thorn hedge is to cause 
some thickening at the bottom, but the giowth is chielly in the upper 
liart of the branches, or in the emission of numerous sumll side shoots, 
or lateral branches. Inexperienced writers recommend this mode of 
training to produce thick-bottomed, pernmnent growth. Thick side 
growth may, for a limited time, result from such management ; as 
repeated cutting back leaves the plants, in their struggle for existence, 
the only alternative of the slow, feeble, lateral gTOwth, to be seen in 
hedges that are not allowed to extend their growth vertically. Lov,- 
traiued hedges may be necessiiry where land is limited in area, and high 
iu price, as in case of gardens, small lawns, and other ornamental 
grounds ; but in such situations plants of less \igorous growth than the 
Osage thorn would seem to be more suitable, for the reason that ever- 
green or shrubs may be formed, trimmed, and low-trained a long time 
without pleaching. With the vigoiously growing Osago thoin, how 
ever, the case is different. Various i)lans of training were adopted, such 
as cutting off each row of two-rowed hedges alternately, also cutting 
out alternate thorns close to the ground, to induce a thick growth ot 
young wood in the lower portions of the hedge ; but the result of such 
training was not sufficiently satisfactory to secure its continuance. 
Hedges formed thus, i)riucipally of vertically growing stems, were found 
quite weak in comparison with pleachetl fences, the latter proving to 
be much more effective for the puipose of a farm fence. 

Within a few years past an aggi'egate of scores of miles of young 
Osage thorns in hedge-rows has been more or less injured by Avinter- 
killiug on the lauds of the west ; and cutting back to force lateral 
growth and thickening at the bottom of the plants was probably the 
inciting cause of much of this great destruction and consequent disap- 

In many of these instances the hedge rows were not well rooted, the 
subsoil, aud even the upper soil, being too wet and cold to admit of either 
ample or well-ripenedroot grov^th. V.'ell-ripened wood is as necessary for 


roots as for branches, to enable them to withstand either severe freezing 
or severe trimming:. But the general reason for the loss of these winter- 
killed Osa.ire ])lants was succulent, spon^'y, and tender wood in root and 
branch : and it must continue to be so with hedge rows set at the level 
of undrained soils. The plants seem too have died of too much cutting 
and too much water in the soil. 

As already intimated, trimmed hedges surely grow thin in the lower 
parts in a iV-w years, however well this operation may be jjerforraed. 
Great care and good management may postpone the '' self-thinning," by 
the inside, shaded, and weak bottom branches dying out ; but these 
branches will as certainly die out as that the sap tends naturally to the top 
parts of the hedge, there is more heat and light. The north side 
of a hedge, being the most shaded, will be likely to fail first in the 
lower parts, when, from the necessity of thickening the bottom part, 
and renewing the live growth from the ground, the labor and cost of 
laying hedges that have long been subjected to trimming will be found 
greatly to exceed the cost of laying untrimmed fences. 

The objections to untrimmed hedges consist mainly in their shading 
more ground than when trained low ; but this is chiefly the case on the 
north side of east and west fences, crops getting as much sunlight in 
about half the time, on the sides of north and south fences. 


One of the greatest advantages of growing hedges is the fact that 
they provide shelter for birds. In a general sense, most insects are the 
enemies of improved vegetation ; and they also comprise the natural 
food of most birds, and do vastly more damage where the country is 
open and birds are few. 

It is a significant fact, that in a number of districts in England, 
where many of the hedges have been grubbed up, the increase of de- 
structive insects has Ijecorae so great that it has been found necessary 
to take measures for the preservation of the birds, f»articularly the 
hedge sparrow. 


It has been established by experience in the British Islands, and to a 
limited extent in this country, that hedges sooner or later become so 
thinned at the bottom that renewed or young bottom growths are 
essential to maintain their efficiency as fences; and this necessity cannot 
be evaded in the case of the Osage thorn. The sap tends so much 
towards the top that the lower part will become thin by "self-pruning,'' 
which wi',1 be succeeded by holes and gaps. This result may be expected 
in both trimmed and untrimmed hedges. These gaps and holes may be 
temporarily mended, however, by inserting detached branches cut from 
thicker i)arts of the fence. Layering has been suggested ; but in the 
shade and in dry soil, in which' the layer must grow, if at all. their 
growth v.ill l>e ko slow as not to l>ecome available against animals in any 
reasonable length of time, and it is probable that but few layers would 

Osage thorn hetlges may grow to a height of twelve to twenty feet 
before they require laying. Laying reduces the height of the fence two- 
thirds or three-fourths, or more, causing the new growth to be made near 
the ground, and here, accordingly, multitudes of vigorous young saplings 
are sent up, gi-owing up Ln like manner, at each successive laying. 



Single-row hedges cannot well be renewed by laying without stakes. 
But double rows may not only be laid or pleached without stakes, but, 
when laid down in a proper manner, the hedges will constitute a very 
sti'ong fence. Two-row hedges are believed to l3e much the best adapted 
to resist the stress of gales of wind, the attempts of rampant animals to 
break over them, and for any contingencies requiring great strength in 
a fence. 

Figure 3 represents a section of the horizontal form of laying the 
brush of each of the rows backward and obliquely over to the opposite 
side. The stems of the thorus are pleached, one from each side or row, 
alternately, each saj^ling being brought down from the opposite side, 
and laid in such a manner that each stem crosses the last one laid, about 
midway of its length, and in the center between the hedge rows, the 
angle formed between the saplings and the ground being about thirty 
degrees. In illustration of the great strength of this form of two-rowed 
hedge, Figure 4 represents a vertical section of the same, which is five 
feet high above the ridge, and forms an almost impassable barrier 
against any farm stock. 


After special examination of one-row fence, in Illinois, both unlaid 
and such as is called laid, the conclusion is reached that neither neat 
nor efficient single-row hedge can be made without the aid of stakes ; 
and it is stated that in the British Islands, stakes are always employed 
to give it stiffness, and hold it in line in pleaching. Specimens of the 
single-row Osage thorn that we saw had much the appearance of a line 
of brush with tops all outward, and butt-ends in the center. Such 
single-row fence spreads so wide, and settles to the ground so much, that 
it occupies even more space, as seen in Figure 5, while not possessing a 
third of the value, as a fence, that is required by a substantial two-row 
hedge; and the single-row fence — it cannot be correctly called hedge — 
must sag and settle toward the ground, if pleached without staking. 
We have examined some specimens in which there were live stakes, 
obtained by cutting- off the tops, and leaving the lower of the thorn 


Live stakes may save a portion of the time that should be devoted to 
preparing others, but the subsequent disadvantages resulting from their 
use will more than outweigh the trilling saving of time effected. A 
hedge becomes thin at the base of the growing stakes, the sap ascending 
and forming a spreading, stool-like form of growth, where the hedge is 
trimmed at the top of the stakes, instead of sending up shoots, as would 
be the case if the stake saplings were laid at the iDottom to thicken it 
with young gTowth. Another defect is, that numbers of vigorous shoots 
spring from the crowns of the stakes, formingand maintaining a growth 
of shoots two or three feet in advance, and higher than the general 
height of the hedge. It is also necessary to cut live stakes off at the 
gi'ound preparatory to relaying the hedges, which is not required when 
detached wood is used. Dead or detached stakes are always preferable 
to live ones : they serve two or three years before decaying, by which 


time tlie luii:i iiiul material of the liedgo become ieiet, or firmly lixed by 
jrrowth, and stalios are no longer necessary. 

TJie tops of thft stakes, set lliree feet apart, are boiiud at tlic to]) by 
winding- or wattlinjj: long, slender, thorn stems so as to inclose the tops 
of stakes between them. The object of staking is to so stifien a hedge 
tliat it can be made v.-ith far less thorn material than would be practica- 
ble if stakes vrer<' not employed. The stakes also prevent the sagging 
of i)leached or obliquely laid saplings, preventing the oblique material 
from smothering the young undergrovrth of shoots from the base of the 
fence. The strength imparted by the stakes also prevents the brush 
from being pushed ont of line by stoclr, or blown out by gusty winds. 
The object of vrattling or double- winding them at the top with saplings, 
Avhich makes a much more handsome fence, is to hold the tops of the 
stakes, and consequently of the fence, in a straigh.t, even line. 

In an Osage thorn single-row hedge, trained in tliis tapering form, 
the top of the hedge will not prevent cither sunlight or rain from access 
to its outside growth, as would be the case with square or flat top train- 
ing. There arc specimens of square-top Osage thorn hedge in the west, 
the bottom of which is already thin, and in places open. 


Strong, two-rowed hedges are much more suitable for large inclosures, 
to turn rampant animals, to bear severe stress of boisterous vrinds, or for 
any purpose where a very strong fence is necessary, than a single-row 
fence can ever become under the best possible management. The double- 
row v.'ill make the best fence for farmers generally, particularly where 
the farms and their subdivisions are extensive in area. 

Single-rov,' fence seems most suitable fbi' vegetable and flower gardens, 
and nursery grounds, besides lawn and ornamental grounds, as before 
stated. It bears trimining better, and requires Jess ground for growth. 


This hcdge-rov/ ridge, having boon prepared in the fall as suggested, 
may be harrowed over once or twice, as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground in early spring. A mode of setting Osage thorn quicks, known 
as spade-setting, consists in opening a line of slits in the surlace soil, at 
regular distances on the line of the intended hedge, with a long, narrow 
spade. The spade being thrust dovrn a sufiicient depth, is pushed for- 
ward froin the oi)erator, when an assistant" inserts the root ends of the 
young quicks. There arc serious objections to this mode of setting. 
The quicks are not set, but tucked in and often doubled back, the roots 
being pla';ed between tvro flat .surfaces, when the spade is withdrawn, 
and the slit closed by luessing the soil back against tlie quick with the 
foot, Avhich process as certainly flattens the roots as a l)Otanical specimen 
is flattened between the leaves of a book. This flat position and restricted 
direction of the young roots must retard the formation of an cllicieut 


For making the trenches a plow with a deep land-side is best, forming 
a deej) furrow, smoothed on one side. A n«w mode of furrow-trenching 
and of setting Osage thorn <] nicks in the trenches is shown in Figure U, 
v.-hich represents u cross section of doubie-row trenches on the crown oi 


Fis. 7. 

Settins guide. 

Fis. e 

Fig. ?. 

Trimmiiis ^'^"^ 

Trimming Uade. 

Fis. 10, 

Pleaching book. 

rip. 11. 

Press polo. 

Fig. 12 


Doul.iv In-ui 

■ I'Vvr •Wiat'i iiiaunii. 



the ridge. Stakes are set the "^hole length of the fence line in the cen- 
ter. The distance hetxreen the qaick rovrs is tvro feet. The trenching 
is commenced by first plowing a light furrow toward the center, v»hich 
will rest on the space Ijetween the trenches. ^S'ext turn a light fiurow 
on top of the first, depositing this also over the space between the trenches. 
Then plow a furrow out of the bottom of each trench, turning both fur- 
rows outward from the lines of the quick rows. By this process of tak- 
ing t-u o furrows from each trench, a suitable supply of mold is deposited 
precisely where it is most needed to fill in about the roots of the quicks, 
when these are set up. 

The old mode of setting the quicks, at uniform distance between the 
rows, was by means of a line with colored strings tied to it at the required 
distances. The land side of the furrow was the support to stand the 
(piicks against, and gaiide them in a straight line. But the land side of 
the trench was liable to be crooked, and the labor and time required 
were considerable. A more serious objection, however, is that some of 
the roots of tbe quicks are turned aside from their natural position by 
prf'ssing against the v.ali of the trench. This misplacement of the roots 
retards their growth in some degi'ee, but the injury is less than that of 
the same kind incident to slit-setting, by means of a spade. Another 
defect is that all the soil is turned out on one side of the trench, provid- 
ing no mold to fill in on the other side of the quicks. 


As a rope or garden line cannot be kept straight, and the land side ot 
single ftuTows is liable to the same objection, a tool has been devised 
which may answer the three-fold purpose of spacing the quicks as they 
are placed in the trenches, as a support to the quicks, and as a guide to 
keep them in line ; these several objects being desirable, and even neces- 
sary, before and during the operation of filling in the soil, and earthing 
up the quicks. This setting guide v.ill cost only a few cents and a little 
labor. It is made by taking a narrow strip of inch board or three or four 
inch batten, fourteen to sixteen feet long, and attaching to it three strijis 
of hard wood, one in the middle, and one at each end, for legs, which 
should be sixteen ts) eighteen inches long. Figure 7 gives a side outline 
of this form as set for use, about one-ihird of its width from the land side 
of the furrow-trench. Vertical chalk marks can be naide on this setting 
guide, or small pins of vrood nuiy be inserted at the distance the C[uieks 
are to stand in the rovrs, two feet being a good distance for a two-row 
hedge, gaving one plant to every foot in length of the fence. Oi" course, 
the quicks in each row will be jjliiced opposite the spaces in the other. 
The qiiicks in the figiu'e are sj)aced one foot between, as for a single-row 
hedge. If holrs are made at intervals of fourinches, the eutii'e length 
of the guide, jjins can be inserted, and the quicks be set at any number 
of inches apart that is a midtiple of lour. By placing the quicks in the 
angles formed by the pins or pegs' and the horizontal strip, they are sup- 
pers ed in position on tv^o sides, and can be ]ilaced as they are to remain 
in the trenches, with ease and rapidity. When the lines aie properly 
staked in each trench, the stakes being set so that the guide may be 
against tv.o at each time of its removal, there will be no sagging, nor 
any side-ways deflection of the setting guide or the rovr, v.hile the 
quicks arc jjlaced and supported in a good form to have their roots 
properly extended and molded, and the suil filled in on both sides of the 



It is supposed that none bat siu^le-roTr hedges -^ill be trained hy the 
repressive process of trimming t"u-ice annually, for the quicks in hedge 
of tliis form will be slender in consequence of the crowding of the roots 
from tbicker setting in the rows. Trimming does thicken the surface of 
the hedge by causing a stubbed, stooliug form of growth, but this form 
at the top soon shades the bottom part, keeping out air, light, and 

After a few years of close pruning, twice each year, inlaid hedges pre- 
sent a thin bottom growth. Trimmed hedges cannot well be trained 
more than two and a half to three feet high, a yard across at the bot- 
tom, while naiTow at the top. Of these dimensions, a continuallj- trim 
med hedge is not always a safe fence as against jumping horses and 
cattle, and its ultimately thinned bottom opens a door for the inroads of 
untamed sicinc. On the other hand, pleaching causes a thick, bottom 
growth, thicker after pleaching than before, by the combination of old 
and of new gi'owth, and while ample new growth is forming in the bot- 
tom the old saplings, now pleached layers, are still kept growing ; and 
if not cut two-thii'ds through they will grow too much and prevent growth 
lower down, many of them sending up new shoots in all parts of the 
fence. The pleached saplings also add gTcat strength to such forms of 
fence by combining an upright and an oblique, or an old and new growth, 
crossing and strengthening both forms of thorn material. The young 
shoots from the bottom of a pleached hedge tend outward in a degree 
toward the light, but the brush of the laid saplings can be spread wide 
enough to protect this growth, or so much of it as may be required, so 
that a properly pleached hedge, while making ample growth in the bot- 
tom also protects it. Hence a healthy growth of Osage thorn hedge 
may be made renewable for ages by successive and reasonable pleaching. 


A hedge that has been trimmed from five to seven years becomes so 
thin and ineflScient as a fence in its lower parts, that it must either be 
laid or repaired. Such a hedge may be repaired by thrusting detached 
brush cut from the thickest places into the holes as compactly as this 
can be done and driving down stakes, or working saj^lings through 
it obliquely, according to the necessity of resisting swine, or stray- 
ing hedge-breakers of any sort. The process of raendiug requires fre- 
quent repetition, when stock is grazed to any considerable extent near 
poor hedges, and laying ^\-ill soon be found to be more economical than 
patching with repairs, however carefully performed. 


consists in cutting back the quicks the first year at six to eight inches 
from the ground, cutting ofi' the vertical shoots six inches higher the 
second year, and repeating the same process and distance the third sea- 
son, when the hedge row will be about two feet in height. It is then 
allowed to grow another foot higher when the top growth is again care- 
fully cut ofi", after which the hedge is kept down by close trimming in 
July and November of each year. This is hedging by negation, or re- 
pressing it instead of first encouragnig growth, and then training so as 
continually to maintain it in the bottom equally with the top of the 


hedge. The plan involves the performance of so much labor, and ap- 
pears so little adapted to extensive hedging that we do not recommend 
it, believing that it would retard the extension of true liedging. 


Osage thorn fence, when kept do^rn by trimming, should be trimmed 
as soon as the spring growth, sometimes called the midsummer shoot, 
is com])leted. This may be earlier or later, according to the character 
of the season, but the interval of rest between the first and the second 
stage of the year's growth usually occurs before the first of July. During 
this interval of rest, directly after the first p'owth is complete, is the 
best time for summer trimming. The second trimming may be per- 
formed at any time between the falling of the leaves and the setting in 
of severe freezing weather, but no trimming should be done when the 
sap is congealed to any great extent by frost. 


Some persons may prefer one form of tool^ others another. A variety 
might be suggested, but we sketch two only of the best for practical 
uses. Figure 8 represents the trimming hook, and Figure 9 the trimming 
blade. Both require handles fiom two to three feet long, according to 
the height of the operator. When the growth to be cut off is small, the 
hook with a shorter handle may be used with one hand, but in all cases 
when the shoots are thick and vigorous, the trimming blade is the most 
effective and the most convenient tool. 


If, in the process of trimming, the shoots are cut toward the bottom 
gTowth of the wood as downward in an unlaid one, or against the lean- 
ing direction of the layers in a laid hedge, the ends from which the 
shoots are cut are more or less split, bruised, or maimed, and the result 
will be dead, stubbed ends. To avoid such injuries, all trimming 
should be performed by striking toward the tips, as upward with unlaid 
hedge, and in the direction the brush leans with such as have been 
pleached. The principle is the same in trimming hedge as in prun- 
ing by hand. The wood cuts will heal well, if they are smooth, and 
the new gTowth will start at the top instead of below the ends that have 
been cut. 


The season in which to pleach is not when the hedge is growing, but 
in the fall, between the falling of the leaves and the time when winter 
sets in. Osage thorn hedge should not be pleached during severe freezing 
weather, but pleaching may be done in mild weather, when there is 
but little frost in the wood, and in the winter in southern latitudes. In 
the northern belt, where the Osage thorn thrives, which is as far north 
as southern Wisconsin, it is not safe to pleach in winter. But if not 
done at the best time in the fall, this work may be performed before the 
buds sweU in the spring, as early as the middle of March. 

An Osage thorn hedge will attain a given size earlier in some localities 
than in others, according to the richness of soil, and other conditions 
affecting the rate of growth. Size rather than age, therefore, mnj de- 


cifle the question when to pleach. A hedge requires haying vrhen the 
stems of tlic saplings average two inches in thickness at three feet from 
the ground. Hedges that grow slowly, as they will in wet giound, if 
tbey grow at all, may require laying when the saplings are one-fourth 
smaller, though no younger, to thicken the bottom of the fence. Osage 
thorn quicks may attain this size in six or seven years. When the sap- 
Mngs are much larger, the labor and expense of pleaching will be pro- 
portionally greater. 


The tools required for pleaching or laying are few and simple in form. 
Figure 1 represents the jdeaching hook, the point being somewhat beak- 
like in form, and the hantUe made of wood. The uses of the four-toothed 
press pole, Figure 11, will hereafter be stated. 


There being no horizontal or oblique old layers to pull out when a 
hedge is to be first laid, the process of preparation is very simple. It 
consists in trimming off such straggling side growth as may be in the 
way of the Avorkmcu ; setting the stakes if a single row or a staked 
hedge is in hand, and cutting off sapliugs close to the ground where 
there are more than one to a foot. The thorn brush thus obtained may 
be used to fill in at the bottom, and in thin places. 


In single-line hedge the saplings are so wound between as to press 
against the stakes, the tips or brush endsbeing all turned to the beveled 
or slanting side. For a single-thorn hedge, the form of Figure 8 is prefer- 
able. In this form the ti]>s or are tui'ued equally and alternately 
on both sides of the stakes, and thirty degrees is about the right incli- 
nation of the saplings v.hen i)leached. The hedge being commenced 
right by thrusting brush down among the live-shoot stakes to rest the 
first layers upon, the layers being placed at the same angle throughout, 
the work proceeds to comi)letiou. To prevent breaking vrhere the Siip- 
lings are cut and bent in the act of laying down, take care to cut two- 
thirds off, as this prevents too much sap from going to the layers, and 
causes a thicker and stronger degree of now growth from the bottom of 
the hedge. 


This work is the most difficult of ail hedging operations. The first 
step is to trim away the straggling side-shoots, as just described. The 
hook (Figure 10) is suited fur this v.'ork, gathering stragghng growth 
better than a straight hedge tool. Next luiil out the old layers, drawing 
them out by the butts, or lower ends. This v.ill be the tough part oi 
hedging work, and it seems ])racticable to i)ertbrm it by an easier, if not 
a quicker, process, l)y the use of A boy can lead a horse, 
with a suitable chain attached to the whililetree, while a man attaciies 
t!ie cham to the lower eiuls of tlie old layers, as fast as he comes to them ; 
and so on from one end of the hedge to the other. The old stuff, botii 
live and dead, being cleared out, tlie stakes are seta few inches one side 
of the line of sapliugs, and the laying is then proceeded with, by bend- 


ing dovni the sapliugs one by one, cutting each as much as two-thuxls 
0% ahout three inches from the ground, this height being required to 
facUitate the bending to the stakes without breaking off the remaining 
third, by which the saplings are still attached to their roots, and through 
which they are to be kept alive. This very important process should be 
performed with dehberate care, and as fast as each sapling is laid down, 
the stub joiued at its base by cutting is to be cut off by ft short side- 
blow with the hooked edge of the pleaching-hook. The first cut of two- 
thii'ds, to facilitate laying down, is made with the reverse edge, seen in 
the projection on its part. Figure 10. It is quite necessary to cut off the 
stubs, or the young growth to come forward will be from the tips of the 
stubs instead of from the ground, v^-here it is required. If left uncut the 
stubs will also prove great obstacles to the work when, in six or eight 
yearS; the laying down process must be repeated. 


When the saplings are large there will be found much spreading brush 
on the sides of the tops, and it will be found difficult to crush this growth 
on the side that goes under in laying the sapling in the hedge. It oan 
be cut oft' when brought down low enough, but this will be found slow 
work. When the vertical stem-growth is three or more inches in each 
sapling, the work may be reduced. The sti"ongest under-branches must 
be cut off' to admit of laymg well. But the hedge (double-row hedge 
being now under consideration) being ready for laying, three men, one 
to cut and two to pull down and press, can get on i:)roportionately easier 
than one alone. 

Two men use the press-pole, represented in Figiu'e 11; the other uses 
the pleaching-hook. The pole is thrust tlirough behind each stout ver- 
tical sapling, when both men puU gently and equally. Thus bent back 
a little, the third man cuts it two-thirds through, cutting obUquely 
dovmward ^ith the pleaching-hook. The two men steadily press the 
saphng down to the laid part of the hedge, the teeth in the pole keeping 
it fi'om slipping sideways, and also serving to giiidc it to its assigned 
place, when the men bear heavily on the pole, forcing down the sapling, 
and crashing back the brush on its under side, tiU both are in the desired 
position. The force here employed is threefold as great as one man can 
exert in the same work. Consequently, much of the trimming from the 
under side, to let the brush sapling into its place, is saved, while aU the 
men are enabled to work with less hindrance from thorn brush, and the 
h edge is made thicker and stronger. The man with the pleaching-hook cuts 
off' the stubs, and attends to any trimming that may be required, while 
the others are at work pressing down the sapUng brush. A tough pole 
is necessary for this work, and the process appears more workman-like 
than for two men to bend down Osage thorn saplings with pitchforks, 
thus wasting half their power. 

heeking-boist: hedge. 

We have spoken of pleaching double-row hedges, by crossing the 
sapliugs alternately, when each sapling, and each row, by the "force 
derived from thorns and roots, severally and reciprocally supports the 
other, and resists every tendency to displacement. This form of fence 
Uiay be made even stronger by placing a continuous line of long, 
mediimi-sizsd, rough-trimmed saplings in the angle or crotch above the 
line where saplings cross one another. iN'o stakes arc required. This 


form of thorn fence is similar to the old time " herring-bone" rail and 
stake fence, and the name " herring-bone hedge" would not be inappro- 

Another plan of forming txro-row hedge, -when laying it, may here be 
note<L The saplings, standing trro feet apart in each row, are left at 
intervals of six feet in each line, to form live stakes by cutting the tops 
off. There will l)e layers enough when the hedge is again laid to admit 
of these stakes l>eing cut out if they become stooly where i)ieviou.s]y 
cut off. Al>out half the saplings may be laid along outside one stake, 
then inside of the next, and thence angling across to the other row ; so 
of the saplings on each row, the ends of the brush protecting the young 
growth Vk'Iow the place where it hangs over oji either side. The other 
half of the saplings is laid to cross one another in the center of the 
hedge, as in the herring-bone form, without regard to the stakes. The 
stakes and the layers can easily be taken out when relaying become? 
necessary-. The stakes are the means of adding side-walls, as it were, 
to the hedge. The hedge so made cannot be otherwise than ver>- strong, 
from combining the herring-lx>neand staking features, and the combina- 
tion affords a choice of two plans of stout double-row hedge, either of 
which is comparatively easy of construction and subsequent manage- 


A hedge that is left without laying seven years will have been trimmed 
fourteen times. An average hand will tiim a mile in twelve days. Mul- 
tiitly twelve by the number of trimmings, and we have a charge, at a 
dollar per day^ of $108. The hedge so trimmed must be cut off at the 
gjound, for it cannot be easily or tolerably well laid after seven years 
of close trimming. Ilence, at the end of a seven years' course of trim- 
ming, wo have an interval of two years without any fence, except the 
old bnish Ixing beside it, to protect the young gi^owth that is springing 
from the bottom to form the new hedge. AVith the untrimme<l double- 
row hcilge we have a little more shade, far more protection against %vind, 
no liability to trespass with jumping animals, a good fence dui-iog our 
life-time, little or no expense for trimming; but, at the end of the seven 
rears, there is the expense of laying. A man will jirepare, stake, and 
lay four rods of stout hedge per day, which is a dollar for every four rods, 
or eighty dollars per mile, in seven years. It will l>e seen that a course 
of seven years' trimming costs fifty per cent, more than once laying with 
no trimming ; and. if we charge one dollar per mile per annum for a 
little trimming away of straggling shoots from the sides of the tall 
hedge, the result will remain substantially the same. 


As generally tmdcrstood by those interested, there are large areas of 
both low ;ind clayey soils in Missomi, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, and Min- 
nesota, where open ditches are requu'ed as water-courses. In some of 
those States several of these ditches have be«n made as a means of 
partial surface drainage; and many more would l>e made, .some of them 
on division lines, where the ground is suitable, if the water-courses could 
be protected against damage to their sides by the treading of animals. 

Tliere are many ditches which are water-courses in the spring, but 
which dry up, and remain dry, during most of the other three-(iuaiters 
of the year, except during and for a brief time after drenching rains, 


but -vrhicli might be rendered more valnable could tliey be made to bold 
stock- water diu'iug a greater portion of the warmest season of tbe year. 
Shading, as is well known, retards evaj)oration, and these open ditches 
can readily be shaded by gi-owing Osage thorn hedge-rows on either side, 
and when live or six years grown, or before, if the gTowth is vigorous, 
laying them down obliquely across the ditch, making a hedge over the 
water-channel, as shown by Figui-e 12. 

The thorn brush would also protect the ditch banks against injury by 
animals in seeking water. The roots of the horizontal saplings and their 
living growth of thorn layers prevent the hedge growth from falling 
into ditches so fricged and shaded. If, in the course of years, such 
ditches should require cleaning out, the layers might be reatlily cleared 
away, and a new arch supplied from the fresh, vertical growth which had 
been allowed to form in readiness. Another important advantage ot 
such shading woidd be that the shade of the horizontal thorn biiish 
would keep the frost in till the general atmospheric temi^eratiu-e would 
be sufficient to thaw it out of all merely shaded groimd. In this way 
the sides of the ditches and the tops and insides of the ditch banks, or 
ridges, may be seciu-ed against the crumbling and abrasion to which 
they would be subject by ti-equent freezing and thawing. Such protec- 
tion and shading efltcts of horizontal hedges would also be advantageous 
in connection with outlets or open drain5; iiarticularly with the drains. 


Eags have failed to supply the demands of paper-makers in this age 
of printing:. A cheaper, more abundant fiber is essential to the unde. 
layed advance of civilization itself. Straw is cheap and abundant, suited 
to the manufacture of low grades, but undesirable for the better qualities 
of printing paper. Wood has been used to some extent, and the swamp 
cane of the south (Arundinaria gigantea) is, commg into extensive use as 
papc^ material. 

\Miile these and other fibers should be tested, there is one that has 
maintained for centimes a high reputation for various useful purposes, 
and within a few years has almost monopolized the European market 
for pa])er material— the Sjyartum of Pliny, the esparto of the Span- 
iards, known by various scientific synonyms, as MacrocMoa teuacmima, 
StijM tcnacissitna, and Li/gcum js^x^rf ;/???. It is also popularly known 
in Spain as the atocha plant, and in Algiers as alfa. It flourishes in 
Spain and Portugal, in Algeria, and in Xorth Afiica. It is said to be 
found also in Z^aples, Sicily, and Crete. The principal sources of supply 
are the provinces of Granada. Murcia, and- Almeria, on the Mediterrar- 
nean coast of Spain. Its fiber is exi^orted also from the French port, 
Oran, in Algeria, in latitude 35=' 44' north, immediately opposite the 
region yielding it most abundantly in Spain. 

Tt ismteresting to note the fact that Xew Mexico produces a plant 
the fiber of which appears to be similar to that of the Spanish esparto, 
as seen in the museiun of this Department. It is known to botimists as 
Stipa tenacissimu ; was obtained in 1S51 by Charles Wright, of the Mex- 
ican boimdary commission, and may be found among the Depaitment 
botanical collections. The latitude of the northern section of Xew Mex- 
ico is the same as that of southern Spain, the climate in some respects 
suailar. beiug warm, dry, approaching aridity, and the soil is suited to 
similar i^roducts. 

The esparto is presumed to be identical with the sjyartum of the 
Latins, described by Pliny as useful in various arts of the Carthagenians 
in their first Xvar in' Spain. At that period the mountains of Spartacus 
Campus, includiug the temtory between Grenada and Murcia^ w^re 
covered with this spontaneous gTOwth; and its uses in the Iberian 
peninsula were represented to be innmnerable. The historian expressed 
regret that its great bidk j)revented its transportation for a greater dis- 
tance than thirty leagues, and its consequent universal dissemination as 
a valuable material for many industries. The region referred to is the 
j>recise locality of its gi-eatest production now. 


It grows on sandy shores, and on the gravelly hills of the interior, 
upon soil so i)Oor as scarcely to be capable of any other growth. It is a 
spontaneous product, requiring and receiving no care whatever, but 
becoming more vigorous and abundant with yearly or semi-annual 
gathering. The harvest is not obtained by cutting, but by pulling or 
separating from the root, a labor of little difficidty if performed at the 
right time, which is the month of May or June at or near the coast, and 


July at the liiglier elevations of the interior. It is particular in isbe 
choice of soils, gTO'svingin one localitrin gxeat liixiiriai>ce, and in another 
enduring a dwarfed and feeble existence, as seen in isolated i)atches or 
tufts. Above an altitude of three thousand to three thousand five hun- 
dred feet it is rarely seen, and disappears in the vicinity of the line of 
■winter snows. It may be said to be very hardy, though not so much la 
enduring severe frosts as in thriving in continual drought and gTeat 
poverty of soil. 

It grows naturally in tufts or ciiunps. and is gathered by pulling. If 
collected green, it becomes a transparent fiber of little value ; if too dry, 
the constituent elements of siliea and iron are with difficulty removed. 

The gatherer protects his legs and hands with boots and gloves, and 
then twists the stem around a stick to obtain a better purchase. The 
time of harvest is from the middle of May to the middle of Jtme. After 
heing pulled it is collected into bundles, which are formed into a heap and 
left for two days. On the third day it is spread and exposed to the heat 
of the sun till dry, then rebundled and i^laced under shelter, and after- 
Ivards macerated in sea-water if it can be obtained, again dried, -wetted, 
and beaten before it is ready for use. 

NATiniE A^^) USES. 

The esparto of the interior is longer and whiter than that of the sea 
coast, but thinner, and of less strength. 

. It is estimated that fifty thousand xiersons are employed in the collec- 
tion, preparation , and manufacture of this fiber in southern Spain. 
Large quantities of esparto thi-ead are shipped to France, mainJy to 
Marseilles, where it is used in making car]3ets, ropes, baskets, and pack- 
ing fabrics. At Aquilas it is used for rope-making in place of hemj), 
and is crisped to imitate horse-hair for mattress material, for ■which pur- 
pose it is highly i;)rized, being very durable, and not liable, it is claimed, 
to become a harbor for vermin. 

As cordage it is regarded now vrith as much favor as in the times of 
the Carthagenians, from its valuable property of resisting decay in con- 
stant exposure to moisture. A considerable n^ade is earned on with the 
Intlies in a style of shoe or sandal of esparto, '• found very useful in hot, 
rocky, or sandy soil.'' The peasants, in a portion of Spain, use no other 
cliaussure. It is regarded as gxaceful and classical, if somewhat rustic 
This fiber is also used in the Scotch carj^et trade in Eadderminster 
and Brussels goods. 

Great improvements have been made in its preparation for paper- 
making. A process is employed for extracting the glue-like matter it 
contains, leaving the fiber clean and ready for use. Formerly thirty or 
forty per cent, of rags were itsed in the manufacture, but an excellent 
paper, strong and of fine stuface, is now made ■without any admixture of 
linen or other material. 

Of all the substitutes for rags tested and used at present in Great 
Britain, the esparto scarcely has a competitor. Some of the largest 
British papers are now printed upon it. Exi^eriments have recently been 
made in softening the fiber, by passing it through machinery -without 
the aid of caustic soda. So advanced are the processes by which it is 
converted into paper, that it has been claimed that a cargo arriving in 
London in the morning has been converted into i)aper diu-iug the same 

Its chemical constituents are said to be : yellow coloring mattei', 12 : red 
matter, G j gum and resin, 7j salts forming the ash, 1.5; paper fiber, 73.5, 


The quantity imported into Great Britain has readied the following 
figures: 1804/43.403 toua; 1865, 51,570 tons, (£209,030;) 18GG, C'J,833 
tons, (£311,808.) The entire im])ortatiou of paper material, of all sorts, 
during the same years, vras 07,819 tons in 1804, 71,155 in 1805, and 
94,98j in 1800 — esparto constantly increasing its relative proportion, 
and attaining a maximum of more than seventy per cent, of the total 
foreign supi^ly. 


The Department has had, for several years, more or less correspond- 
ence with the United States consuls in Southern Spain on this subject, 
and has received very full accounts of the i>rogress and condition of the 
esparto trade, especially from Mr. Frederick Burr, United States con- 
sular agent at Adra. AVIieu the recent demand sprang into activity, the 
fiber was obtained only from the hills and on the coast; but as con- 
sumption fjuickened the demand and advanced the ])rice, the cost of 
carriage through a region almost destitute of roads was amply met, and 
the business of gathering and forwarding extended forty miles or more 
into the intericr. The mode of transit is by "bullock carts." The 
provinces of Almeria and Miircia have furnished the greater portion of 
the supply. 

In 1804 the cost in the interior was only four reals, or fifty cents, pei 
quintal, while the fi-eight to the coast was ten reals more. At that date 
the average price, on shipboard, was about £4 2s., or $20 50, per Eng- 
lish ton. In the previous year it was i)urchased at about two-thirds that 
price. Prices have been constantly advancing since that date. 

The croj) is purchased annually of individuals or municipalities own- 
ing waste lands on which it grows by merchants or speculators, who 
employ the peasantry to collect the grass and convey it to local posts, 
ready for shipment by carts or on the backs of mides or donkeys. For- 
tunes have been made by the proprietors of these hitherto worthless 
lands, and by the purchasers of them, as also by the traders in this 
species of merchandise. 

Mr. Burr assumes that a vast breadth of country in the United States, 
in the same latitude in which it is found in Spain, is adapted to its 
growth. The following extracts are made fi'om his report to this De- 

There are two classes of tliis plant, tlio "atoclia," properly so called, and tbe coarse 
or "bastard" atocha. The latter is much superior in height, the grass growing to 
the height of about three feet, but it is mferior in quality "and in strength of tiber, 
thoujjh used for several piiqjoses. 

Tho atocha grass, which is called esparto, is not cut like ordinary grass, but is pulled 
np from its socket, as it were., for it very readily separates from the plant a little above 
the roots, Arhich it is necessary to leave undisturbed in the ground. The thin, wiry- 
grass thus gathered is spread out to dry iu the sun, and is the article knowTi in Spanish 
as psfjarto. 

The esparto grass, from the length and strength of its fiber, and the facility -with 
which it may be twisted into ropes, and easily woven (or rather plaited) into matting, 
fomis a cliea]) and useful article for many ordinary purposes. In the great mining dis- 
trict of the Sierra de Gador, in this province, and'in that of Cartagena, and most others 
in Spain, all tlie ropes used in the mines are made of esjtarto. These ropes are very 
slender— about one and a half inch in diameter— vet they servo perfectly well for 
the descent and ascent of tiie miners, as well as for raising the ores and rubbish from 
below, and the baskets used in llie latter operation are also made of the esparto. As 
the more mountainous parts of Si)ain are nearly destitute of cart roads, the chief trans- 
portation IS on the backs of mules and donkevs, the articles carried being always 
packed in baskets or in panniers made of the esparto grass. AH kinds of matting for 
Lonses and other purposes are also made of this useful article. 

Besides these coarser applications, very neat and pretty baskets are made of this 


grass, and also, of one species, a fine and even elegant matting for houses of the hetter 
class, as carpets are not used, and indeed are not desirable in this hot southern climate. 
For this purpose the grass used is dyed of various colors, and it is then woven into 
various simple but tasteful patterns. This superior matting has much the same ap- 
pearance as carpets, but is infinitely preferable in a warm climate both for coolness and 
for cleanliuess. Indeed this Spanish mattiug is much prettier than the eane matting 
used in ail European houses in the East Indies, though it is not so durable as the 

The atocha plant flourishes at Oran, on the opposite coast of Africa, in latitude 35° 
44' N., and, it may be said, generally, in all the southern part of Spain ; sparingly, even 
a.s f;u' north as Madrid, (latitude 40^ 30',) where one of the principal streets, leading 
to the en\irou8, is called " Calle de Atocha." This would place the geographical zoue of 
this grass from 34=^ or 35"^ to about 40'^ north latitude, according to my present infor- 
mation, for it may possibly extend still further both north and south. But it is im- 
portant to observe that the most abundant region — that in the provinces of Almeria 
and Murcia — v.-hich now furnishes the chief supply of this article — is situated adjoining 
to and between the thirty-seventh and thirty-eighth parallels; and that it is here where 
it appears to grow in the greatest abundance and luxuriance. It is needless to remark 
that the above zone is, in Europe, chiefly occupied by the Mediterranean Sea, while in 
the United States it embraces the entire breadth of a vast continent. 

Climate. — The climate of the south of S])ain is the hottest in Europe, particularly that 
of the provinces on the Mediterranean coast ; nor is heat alone its characteristic, for it 
is equally remarkable for its extreme dryness .and want of rain; so much so that the 
cultivation of l;irge and fertile tracts depends entirely upon irrigation. In what is 
called the Secanos, or lands somewhat elevated, and thus dependent entirely on the 
rains, I have known the crops to be lost for three years in succession, so little rain 
having fallen. In fact so arid are many tracts in the south of Spain that they present, 
thongh on a miniature scale, a sort of parallel to the deserts of Africa and the east. 
This resemblance often struck me when I first arrived in Spain, after a residence of 
some years in India aiul oriental countries. 

On anj near the coast tlio temperature during the hot summer months is usually 
85° to 90° Fahrenheit,* and in the winter months the climate is so mild that the ther- 
mometer seldom marks less than 45° to 50° Fahrenheit. A few miles inland among the 
mountains, however, the climate is much colder. Theclimateof this part of the Spanish 
cojuitcan, probably, behest inferred from its vegetable productions. Thus the sugar-cane 
flourishes here, and there are many ami increasing sugar manufactories in this pari of An- 
dalusia. In one locality, the plain of Motril, thii'ty miles west of Ailra, the cotton plant has 
been cultivated with some success, though upon a very small scale, not being found 
profitable. All along this coast, too, groups of the date palm are occasionally seen. 
This elegant tree, though now neglected and diminishing in numbers, was, most prob- 
ably, planted by the Moors during the period of Arab dominion in Spain. Indeed it is 
well known that the numerous and venerable olives which abound Lu this neighborhood 
existed on the confiscated property of the Moors at the time of the conquest of Gran- 
ada. Among other semi-tro])ical productions of these provinces may be named, the 
nopaul and the aloej which are abundant, esjtecially along the coast, though they are 
not equal in size and luxiuianco to whatl have been accustomed to see in India and 
the tropics. 

Elcratio-ii above the sea level. — The naturally hot and arid climate of the south of Spain 
is modified in a very remarkable manner by the occuiTence >i lofty mountain ranges 
in the interior. In Andalusia especially, we have the Sierra Nevada range, the highest 
summits of which rise up almost to the curve of perpetual congelation. Thus, from 
plantations of su^ar-caue near the coast may be seen, in the hottest summer mouths, 
patches of snow which never melt, and at a distauce of not more than thirty to sixty 
miles. These snowy patches nuuk the lofty peaks of La Veleta and of Muley Hassan, 
which rise, respectively, 11,420 and 11,700 English feet above the level of the Mediter- 
ranean. Thus, in traveling a few miles inland, and even without losing sight of the 
sea, a difference of climate may be experienced equivalent to that of many degrees ot 
latitude, while a total change may be observed in all the vegetable productions of the 

In considering the natural climate of the atocha, the circumstance of elevation 
above the sea-level is, therefore, most important, and I 'have, fortunately, been able to 
fix the elevation and consequent temperature, which marks its upward limit, with con- 
siderable precision. 

It will be seen that we have here two distinct climates — that of the cofist and that 
of the mountains. In the former, except as a somewhat rare phenomenon of a ^n^ 
hours in uuration, snow never falLs. But in the latter, snow is abundant for many 
mouths in the yt-ar, and lits for very long periods, according to the elevation, till, on 
the summits of the Sierra Nevada, it never disappears. The falls of snow aio generally 

» That is, the temperature in-doora and in the shade, as usually taken. 


limited to a certain zone of altitndc, above whicli, in Tv-:i>tcr, we nsnaUr see all whito 
and spotted, -wlule Lelo-x, ia most c;ises, nothing fiaU-s but raiu. This altitmk-, c^i>eii- 
aDy near the coast where I reaide. I have taken some ]>ains to lis. (for it uiay not hold 
good in the interior,; and find it to be, very approximately, alxmt 3,500 feet, that is, 
near the Mtiditerranean, and where the warm exliahitions of that sea greatly modify 
the temperarore. I ghoold plate the usual limits of the snow at 3..^»00 feet above its 
level ; bnt in the interior, if only fifteen or twenty miles distant, the enow level is, 
doubtless, somewhat lower. 

Xow it is very important to our present purpose to observe, as I have lately done 
when considering the subject, that it is at about this elevation where the snow nsnallj 
commences, that the atocha plant ceases to grow. 

It wni be seen, therefore, that the atocha, though a hardy plant, growing here indif- 
ferently in the plains and on the mountains near the coast, is coulined 'jiretty uinch 
nithiucertain limits of temfierature, and will not bear the cold. In fact it requires a 
hot and somewhat dry chmate, such as I have deseiibed as jtrevailiug in the south oi 
Spain. So far as this' climate prevails the atocha seems to gxow equally on the moun- 
tains and in thepilains, but its luxuriance is checked in appioaching the altitude of tbe 
winter snows, and at aTjout that elevation its growth ceases alt«gether. 

Congemial t^oiU and geological structure of coiintrij. — ^Although the growth of the 
atocha extends over a large expanse of country, it is only in j^articuLir situations that 
this grass attains that degree of luxuriance an<i abundance which is essential to render 
it important in a commercial point of view. This iudicites that it is eminently a jilant 
that seeks and requires a congenial eoiL On this subject, in addition to my own partial 
observations. I have made many inquiiies, and find that there are soils on which the 
atocha will not grow at all : others on which it grows but sparingly, while cm others 
again it is the prevailing tr**d or product of the soil, being STiontaneously produced by 
nature in vast abnndance. 

I have before mentioned the mountainous nature of this country, and, as soils are 
merely the detriros of the subjacent and neighboring rocks, I consider that the most 
general and, perhaps, exact idea of those in this district, will be obtained by a brief 
reference to its geographical structure, which I now proceed to describe. 

The Sierra Nevada range, which, under diiferent names, may be said to determine 
the configuration of the coast of Spain from the straits of Gibraltar, west, to the plains 
of Murcia, east, consists, in its highest and central portion, of a vast maiis of micaceous 
schists l»elow, approaching to gneiss, while, on its upper suiiace there reposes an enor- 
mous mass of shaly rocks, often soft and decomposing into a stiff blue clay. These 
shaly rc^cks, the thickness of which is very considerable, are covered, in places, by a 
dark sub-crystalline limestone, generally forming the upper part of the mountains, 
and constituting pre-eminently the metalliferous or lead-producing rock of the south of 
Spain. These three rocks, '.nk^ «7af««. sliak-i: and Umofiones. at various elevations, from the 
towering heights of the Sierra Xevada to minor ranges not more than fifteen h'ondred to 
two thousand feet in height, constitute all the elev.ited portions of the provinces of Gran- 
ada, Almeria, and Murcia, while theplains alongthe coast and the inland valleys generally 
consist of yellowish tertiary marls. These mails are sometimes covered by a thin su- 
perficial deposit of detritus of more recent date, which, when of a siliceous nature, or 
cemented by silicc-ous matter, form a very sterile soil almost destitute of vegetation. 
I have never been able to trace any line of demarcation between the micaceous schists 
and the sui»erlncumbent shales, and am inclined to think, therefore, that they all form 
one great series, tbe lower y*art of which has Ijeen thorouglily acted upon by metamor- 
phic influence. Nor is there any distinct line between the shales and the sui>erin- 
cnmbent limestones, for near the line of junction there are frerjuent alternations of the 
two rocks, till, as we rise in the series, the limestones prevail. Quartzose roclis and 
their usual concomitants, siliceous sands, do not, that I am aware of, occur in all this 
district. Three soils, therefore, jjrevail in these provinces, argillaceous, calcareous, imd 
argiUaceous-caloareous, from the frequent admixture of the two former, and also from 
the wide occurrence of tertiary marls in the plains and valleys. 

This sketch of the geological structure of the country will.' I thiuk, give a sufficient 
idea of the general nature of the soils ia the south of Spaiu, in which the atocha flour- 
ishes with icost luxuriance. It may. therefore, be found useful in selecting the dis- 
tricts in the territory of the United .States, where similar soils and conditions ])revail, 
and which are thus best adapted for the introduction of this semi-tropical species of 

The subject of soils Ls however, so important that, in addition to the above general con- 
siderations, and to what I have myself observed, I have made many inquiries of others, 
fiom which the following seems to l>e the general result : 

Two kinds of soil are considered decideilly adverse to the growth of the atocha — a 
wet or marshy soil and a pebbly soil, I mean any of those nninerons alluvial soils on 
the surface of which pebbles are abundantly scattere<L 

Reddish-colored soils, or those much impregnated with oxides of iron are not consid- 
ered favorable. 


Calcareous soils aro considered to produce good esparto, and of a very strong liber. 

Argillaceous soils, wlietlicr tlioso produced by the decomposition of sbaly rocks or 
those fomied by the -wide dcj)osition of tertiary marls, are impregnated v.-ith nitrous 
matter or saltpeter, and are considered favorable to the gi'owth of the atoclia, the grass 
being shorter but the tiber stronger. 

The leading facts in the production of esparto may be stated as follows: 1. The atocha 
grass requires a decidedly hot and a somewhat dry climate. 2. That it grows equally 
well in the plains of the coast and the interior and in the mountains, but is strictly 
limited to a certain moderate elevation. 3. That it flourishes equally both in calca- 
reous and in argillaceous soils, and in those soils where both calcareous and argillaceous 
matters are natui'ally blended. 4. That besides several soils which may be considered 
unfavorable, there seem to be others which are decidedly inimical to its growth. 

Season of the crop and quantity produced. — The atocha which grows in the plains comes 
early to maturity, and the grass is, therefore, plucked or gathered in May and .Tune. 
But in the colder climate of the mountains the crop Ls much later, the grass not being 
gathered till July and even August. 

The proper time for obtaining the seed is considered to be in June, and, as it falls and 
perishes rapidly, the operation will present some difliculty, as it must be executed with 
all possible rapidity, or the critical time for its collection will have i>ast. The best 
time for gathering is in the month of Jtme and the early part of July. 

Although of a dry and wiry nature, the esparto^ like all other kindi of grass, requires 
drying in the sun, by which it loses about one-fourth of its weight. After drying it is 
tied up in bunches and conveyed to the nearest shipping port, Avhere, from the month 
of June to the end of the year, numerous vessels, cluefly English, are employed in its 

The quantity of esparto proditced from a given extent of land will vary greatly, the 
grass being, in some places, very luxuriant and abundant, while in others, wh«ro the 
soil is less congenial, it is more thinly dispersed in tufts and patches. People practi- 
cally acquainted with the business, with whom I have spoken, seem to think, however, 
that in a good congenial soil from two hundred to three hundred quintals may be 
obtained from a fanega (5,500 square yards) of ground; while in less congenial soils tiie 
product would hai-dly amount to one hundred quintals — perhaps a great deal less.* 

This grass seems to last for an unlcnown number of years, so that, where it has taken 
possession of the soil, it becomes a perpetual growth. Thus, in any soil congenial to its 
growth, the atocha is self-propagating, and without further cultivation or attention of 
any sort it furnishes a never-ending annual crop of esjaarto. 

All persons with whom I have spoken agree that the esparto improves by a regular 
yearly gathering, and that the plant is found to become stronger in consequence. But 
the gathering requires some little care. The grass (which readily separates) must bo 
phicked up, but without pulling up or injuring the roots. If the roots be disturbed, as 
may be the case, by careless or ignorant people, or those who greedily seek to increase 
their wages by pulliug up the entire plant, thus augmenting the apparent weight of 
esparto gathered, the atocha is destroyed, and no more grass will be gathered on, that 
spot. This contingency, however, does sometimes happen Irom the rapacity of the 
laborers employed — their payment being by weight. Tlie necessity of providing against 
such wanton destruction will be evidSnt enough from what I have stated, and partic- 
ular caution should be observed in this respect during the early years of the introduc- 
tion of the atocha into America, and while the propagation of the gTass may still be 
confined to veiy few localities. 

Eecently official inquiries concerDing' its use M Great Britain have 
met vi-ith tlie following- response from tlie United States consul at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. England : 

United States Consulate, Xewcastle-itpon-Tijne, May 15, 1869. 

Sm : According to your request I have instituted inquiries relative to the possibility 
of transplanting the esparto grass for culture to America, and the economy of its use in 
the mannfactiue of paper. 

I have commt;nicated with Dr. Hooker, director of the royal gardens at Kew, on this 
subject, and with Daniel Oliver, keeper of the royal herbarium, both of whom have 
responded most kindly. I have also received communications from Spain and visited 
one of the oldest and most successful paper-mills of England, where the esparto grass 
is exclusively used. There are important points of information that I have not yet 
received, such as the rain-fall, degrees of heat and cold, &c., of the best esparto-producing 

The soil adapted to its growth is a very sandy soil, and slopes or hillsides (not too 
steep) are said to be the best, in a warm but not too dry climate. 

* ilr. BniT exiwessos a doulit as to the correctness of this estimate, as the land is never measured. 
Ten or more tons to the acre ts probably an excessive estimate. 


This gras6 is gathered or harvested by pulling, not by the rodts, Uut by a quick jerk 
of the hand to disjoint it above the roots, so as not to destroy the latter, and also to 
avoid a uiLxtnre of the hard, woody portion of the plant, which would have to be sep- 
arated from the grass before suited for tise at the paper-mill. The hands must be pro- 
tected by heavy gloves, as the glass is very sharp. Considerable skiU is retjuired In 
pulling the gnxss without destroying the roots. K properly gathered, there is ao woody 
fiber to be rejected in the jirocess of manufacture. 

Tlvi grass is ibied just as hay would be, and bound in bundles by ropes twisted from 
the grass itself, and then is ready for the paper-mill. It costs from §20 to $:}0 per ton 
in England, in Spain about S5 less per ton. Last year the amount imported into Eng- 
land was yo,000 tons. 

The ])rocoss of manufacturing paper from this grass is no more difiBcult than from 
rags, and far more pleasant; no infectious or contagious diseases or poisonous insects 
are carried by it, and tbe processes are so similar, except in the amount of chemicals 
required, that a description is almost neeclless. 

I have been thsough the works of Messrs. "William Hurry and Albert Richardson, at 
Jarrow-on-Tyne. Durhaju County, England, and the^e gentlemen kindly jioiuted out 
all the steps in the jirocess, and gave mo specimens of the grass and paper. They i)ro- 
duce thirty tons of paper per week, using from tifty to sixty tons of es])arto grass. No 
ra^s are used. The average cost of the esparto is §25 per ton. The machinery is pro- 
pelled by a one hundred horse-jtower steam engine. Eighty-three women and girls are 
employed in sorting and boiling the glass ; fourteen men and boys in washing and beat- 
ing; thirty in tinishing; seventeen on machines and cutting; eight mecbanics; six 
engineers and tireiaen ; and ten ordinary laborers — one hundred and sixty-eight in alL 
This estimate includes the manufacture of all their own cliemicals. 

The tirst step is the assorting of the grass, or se]mratiug it from roots, weeds, and 
flowers. Fifty girls are needed for this part of tha work. The grass is laid upon tables 
of wire, so that all small bits of dirt or leaves may fall through as the work of separa- 
tion goes on. The loss of vreight sustained in this process is three to five per cent. 

The grass is then put into large sacks and goes below, where it is put into boQers. 
Formerly the boilers were open, broad, circular vessels, but are now cylindrical and 
closed, so that a pressuie of steam of twenty to twenty-five pounds to the square inch 
can be given to add to the effect of tbe chemicals. The boiling is by steam. In these 
boilers ten per cent, of caustic soda (N. 0. A.) is introduced ; that is, ten pounds of 
caustic soda to one hunrlred pounds of esparto grass, more or less soda according to the 
fineness or coarseness of the grass aud tiie time given in boiling. The grass Ls boiled 
ordinarily five or six hours in the soda, being kept revohing or stirred in the boiler. 
The water is then run off and pure water supplied, and the grass again boiled for about 
an hour, to get rid of the resinous soap formed in the first boiling by the gmn of the 
plant uniting with the soda. It is further washed with cold water and then dis- 
charged into large oval tubs or vats, aud again washed with pure water. Then bleach- 
ing powder is added — two to two and a half hundred-weight, containing thirty-five [ht 
cent, of chlorine, (chloride of lime.) to a ton of esparto. It is revolved in three bleach- 
ing tubs till white, the tubs containing 500 pounds to 1,000 ]-)ounds each. Four to eight 
hours are required for this jirocess; four or five hours will be sutUcient unless it is 
thonirht desirable to use a smaller quantity of blCaching powder. The fiber, when thus 
bleached while, is pressed to free it from the bleaching liquor, and then placed in the 
beating engines, where it is washed for half an hour to free it from the remaining blt*ach- 
ing li(inor, aud then revolved in the beating engine the same as rags are treated, until 
it is reduced to a suOieiently fine pulp. TUe size, alum, and color, (when color or toning 
is required,) are added, aud the i)ulp is run off into vats or reservoirs ready for use. 

In reducing the pulp to paper, my attention was called to but one ]ioint of difficidty 
not encountered in reducing rag pulp. This occurs just after the pulp changes from 
the lifpiid state and takes the sheet form. The material at this stage is less tough and 
tenacious than when made from rags, aud the ditheulty is in getting it to enter tlie 
press-rollers. But a little management and oxiierience overcomes tho dilliculty, aud 
the pai)ei- when linished is evon stronger than tliat made from rags. 

The amount of jiajier produced is fifty to fifty-five per cent, of tho weight of the 
esparto as it reaches the mill. The loss of weight is as follows : three to five per 
cent, roots, weeds, flowers, &c. ; twenty-five per cent, extractive matter soluble in the 
cauatic soda, and twenty per cent, destruction of fiber in bleaching, and mechanical 
loss. • 

All qualities of paper are produced except the very thin writing paper, which may be 
produced with a little more mechanical skill. I inclose samples of the paper from 
Messrs. Kicliardson & Co's. mills. No. 1 is an excellent quality of white printing or 
book jiapcr; No. 2, toned printing or book pajier; No. 3, account-book paper; No. 4, a speci- 
men of the; best i)aper that could be made from esparto grass in IdGO, which was niana- 
factured by Kouthedge, at Eynsham, Oxfordshire. Messrs. Richardson used a uuxture 
of rags at first, which can be done in any pi Mportion, but for the last tluee years they 
have used only esparto grass. They procure the grass from the east coast of Spiuu, iVow 


Cartagena to Almeria ; the best comes from Almeria. Tliey liave used a little from 
Morocco anfl Algiers, but it required more soda and bleaching powder, auv' never 
became so white as that from Spain. The esparto grows not only in Spain and North 
Africa.,but in various localities along the Mediterranean, in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, &c., 
and Portugal. 

But the question which most of all interests Americans is its propagation in the 
United States. Dr. Hooker has written mo that he has no doubt but that the esparto 
grass would thrive in the United States, and be strongly advises that the introduction 
be made by seed, not roots, and says it should be started in the nursery and the young 
plants set out afterwards. Mr. Oliver, who is also one of the best botanists in this 
country, thinks one of the two species, Liirjcum sparUim, (soft,) being a creeping rhizo- 
matous grass, might be transplauted by being sent over in Wardian cases well rolled 
in sand, or in cases tilled with sandy soil and buried in nearly piu"e sand. The other 
species, Macrochloa teiiacmima, is sujiijosed to be ciEspitose, and he thinks this mode of 
packing might not suit it so well. He also recommends trying seed. 

If the Liigeum sjiarfuvi is a cvtioping rhizoniatous grass it would be likely to spread 
very rapidly, aud once rooted, a few plants woiild soon cover a large tract of country 
I send you some samples of both species of the grass. No. 1, best quality of grass, 
clean, ready for use ; No. 2, specimen taken where the previoiis crop had not been 
gathered, so that the dead grass is mixed with it, but the latter decomposes and dis- 
appears in the process of manufacture, and only lessens the i)er cent, of pai»er per ton ; 
No. 3, specimen contains butts of the grass and roots that should not be gathered with 
the grass, also some heads ; No. 4, the same of the other spocics ; No. 5, wild sage, often 
found growing with the esparto. 

I remain your obedient servant, 


Hon. Horace C.vprox, Commissioner. 


Small quantities of esparto liave been brought to this country. It 
has been found that the import duties are practically prohibitory, other- 
wise large quantities "would probably be used. 

In 18G-1 thirty-three tons "vvere shipped to the United States from the 
port of ]\Ialaga. The following extract of a letter from the lirm of 
Loring & Co., of Boston, \vill give an idea of the value of this hbcr to the 
country, if it could be acclimated here : 

Daring the years 18G3 and 18G4 we were induced to make the experiment of intro- 
ducing the esparto grass as a material for makiug jiaper, aud imported between three 
hundred and four luiudred tons. We found it admirably suited for the pin-poso, but 
the heavy duty imposed on it, lijoper ton.bei-anso a tiber, and ten per cent, ad valorem, 
and the increased duties on the chemicals recpiired for its conversion into pulp, were 
greater burdens than the article could bear, aud we were coinpuUeil to abau<lon the 
business. The consuiiiption in Great Britain has, in the mean time, run up to over 
seventy-five thousand tons per aninuu. and it is not only used extensively in all the 
white paper made, but likewise largely in the manufacture of jiapier machd aiticlea. 
Belgium and Franco also consume it extensively. 


Attempts to obtain seed for experiment by this Department, both 
from Spain and the seedsmen of Paris, have several times proved abor- 
tive. At last a small quantity has been obtained, aud will bo tested, 
"with the hope of ]iropagating the plant successfully, and introducing it 
among the light hill lands aud on the mountain slopes of the South. 
It "was obtained of Messrs. Vilmorin, Andreux & Co., of Paris, "who thus 
refer to the difficulty of obtaining it: 

As we told you in our fomipr letter, seed of this plant is not in commerce. I\Iany 
times we tried to procure it both in Spain and in Algeria, but always were informed 
that it does not yield fertile seed, and was ])ro])agated only by division of the old 
plant, some Avay sinular to the propagation of sugar-cane, and it is by a mere chance 
that we have got the seed we have-forwarded to you. A friend of ours, when in Sjiain 
some ten or twelve years ago, cut some of the Qower-stems of the esparto grass, and on 
his return to Fi-ance tried to sow the seeds he found in these specimens, and a very 
few did grow. He cultivated carefully the young plants, but all the seed he could col- 
lect remaine<l sterile; ho at last tried aititieial fecundation, aud succeeded this year to 
a certain extent. In continuing the experiment, he has been able to collect the seeds 
we have got this year. 


A commauication from Dr. Arthur Scliott, late of tlie scieutific com- 
mission of Yucatan, furnishes some descriptive statements concerning 
an insect, and the nature and uses of a gTease-like or ^Yax-like product, 
■vrith the result of a chemical examination of its properties. It is 
assumed to be allied to the Coccus cocJnnilUfer, or cochineal insect, yield- 
ing the -well-known dye bearing that name ; but no specimens have yet 
been received in the JDepartment for examination and identification, and 
therefore its real place in the classification of the insect kingdom can- 
not be vouched for. As one of the natural productions of America, 
which may possibly attain some commercial importance as vrell as 
economic value in the arts, it is vrorthy of further examination. The 
following is, in substance, the letter of Dr. Schott : 

Among the numerous interesting natiu-al irroductions of Yucatan, 
not the least remarkable is the niin, (pronounced neen,) the knowledge 
of which, and of its technical application, has survived the national 
independence of the gifted Maya race. The niin is the grease of an 
insect bearing the same generic name. Though heretofore not entirely 
nnknown to their Spanish rulers in Yucatan, the obtaining of the raw 
material, as well as its uses for domestic and technical purposes, has 
remained almost exclusively in the hands of the descendants of the 
Mayas. The niin may be considered akin to the cocliineal, also the X)ro- 
duct of a similar insect; but they differ essentially in their natui-e, one 
serving as a well-known dye, while the other finds its api^Ucation as a 
drying oil. 

The natnre of the niin ^ri]l be clearly understood by the annexed 
scientific analysis, made and communicated by Mr. V. G. Bloede, analyt- 
ical chemist, of Xew York. The matter examined by that gentleman 
consisted of a small quantity which Dr. Schott brought some tune 
before from the city of jMerida, Yucatan, vrhere it was fui-nished him 
by the kindness of' Selior Don Jose Hont, a druggist and extensive 
land proprietor of that rich peninsula. Mr. Bloede's repoi?t of his analy- 
sis is as follows : 

The Yucatan niin is a ycllowisli-brown, fatty mass, liaving a iieculiar oily odor. In 
its general ]»iopertie3 it seems closely alUed to liog's lard or suet. It is neuti'al to test- 
paper, neitlier presenting acid nor alkaline reaction, though Avhen exposed to the air 
it acquires a very faint tendency to manifest the former. Its melting point is about 
120'^ Fahrenheit,' though, -when once melted, it still remains in a semi-lluid state with 
the tempeiaturc as low as 80-^ or 85^ Fahrenheit. When cooled to 10'^ Fahrenheit, it 
becomes liard and brittle, like suet. At ordinary temperature, that is, about GO^ 
Fahrenheit, it is of a thick, pasty consistency, like ordinary lard. Its specific gravity 
at GU-^ Fahrenheit is about .'J2. 

ItK solvents. — In regard to solvents, the niin x>resents the same general properties as 
any ordinary animal fat. It is not soluble in either hot or cokl alcohol, even after 
extended maceration. It is freely soluble in both hot and cold ether, with which it 
forms a yellow, oily licjuid. It is very soluble in turpentine, with vrhich it forms an 
oily liquid possessing iJcculiarly valualjlo properties for mixing delicate oil colors, ot 
which I shall speak hereafter. It dissolves Ireely in benzine ; chloroform, also, is among 
its best solvents. 

Chomkal jiropcrticn.—Tha niin, in its classification in organic chemistry, must undoubt- 
edly bo ranked among the drying oils, though its absorption of oxygen takes place 
rather more slowly than with many other oils. Nor is this slowness in drying acceler- 
ated to any extent by boiling it with oxide of lead. It is the first, or nearly tlio first, 
example v.e have of a thoroughly drying animal butter or solid fat. Like some others 


of the animal fats, it (Contains a distinct volatile acid peculiar to itself. As, for instance, 
butter contains butyric and caproic acid ; goat's fat hiioic acid ; so the niin contains 
an acid of a peculiar, pungent smell, which might be aptly terined niinic a-cid. Its 
chemical composition fliflers little from ordinary animal fats. Like others, it contains 
a fluid oil— oleine — and a solid containing stearic, margaric, and other fatty acids. A 
portion of the acids may be obtained by dissolving the niin in tiiq>entine or ether. 
The oily portions pass into solution, ■svliile a solid precipitates, consisting of the acids 
indicated, which may bo separated from the fluid by filtration. 

Saponification. — A peculiarity of the niin seems to be its diflicult saponification. The 
strongest ammonia procurable has no saponifying action on it. Even if the fat be 
digested in ammonia for several days, no liniment is formed, but a marked transition 
from yellow to red seems to be the only change prodiiced. This change of color 
depends merely on the action of ammonia on the coloring matter of the niin, which, 
like the yellow turmeric, (Curcuma longa,) changes to red as it assumes an alkaline 

With potash, too, it saponifies but slowly and imperfectly, and a concentrated Irre is 
necessarj-. ^Yith soda it forms a soap only after extended boiling with a strong lye. 
It is only after several hours' boiling with oxide of lead that it forms the so-called 
'• lead soap," and then the product is very imperfect. From these facts we can at onco 
deduce that the. niin cannot be coBsidered a '"good saponifying fat," but belongs to the 
" drying oils. " 

Effects of high heat. — When the niin is melted in a porcelain dish, and the resijjting 
oil exposed to continued and high heat (between 250'^ and 350^ Fahrenheit) for an 
hour, or until a considerable portion of it has evaporated, the residue in the dish will 
then be found to have assumed a tough, flexible, vamish-like condition — a gelatinous 
mass no longer soluble in turpentine, or aflected by heat or cold, at least to a great 

If a piece of this gelatinized niin is placed on a piece of porcelain, moistened with 
turpentine, and ignited, another remarkable change takes place : for, if the plate is 
slightly inclined as the mass bums, a thick yellow resinous oil or gum flows from it, 
which possesses most remarkable adhesiveness, closely resembling a thick solution of 
India-rubber, but which does not dry, retaining its half-fluid consistency for several days. 
This is a most singular change, and one that is worthy of further investigation. 

Change of air. — When the turpentine solution of the niin is exposed to the airjn thin 
stratas for a few days it acquires the properties of a resinous varnish ; in £ict, the 
change is so complete that when some of the solution is poured on a piece of glass it 
dries almost equal to fine shellac varnish. This change is due to the absorption of 
oxygen. If further developed, this property will undoubtedly make the niin of the 
greatest commercial value. The ftlTn of varnish is very elastic, and at the same time 
hard, which renders it sux^erior to some of the other gums. An alcoholic solution can 
also be formed, but this is more difficult. 

Suggestions as to use. — The extreme oiliness of the niin will undoubtedly -make it very 
valuable for various purposes in the arts ; and its " drying" solution in turpentine has 
no equal for mixing tine colors for artists. This turpentine solution of the niin pro- 
duces a remarkable brightness in the colors prepared 'with it, and they dry rapidly. 
But the chief value of the niin, which will give it commercial importance, is its prop- 
erty of fonning a resinous varnish when treated as before described, rendering it 
superior to shellac for some purposes. Another valuable application of the niin could 
be found in the manufacture of water-proof fabrics. A piece of the most porous Swe- 
dish filtering paper, saturated with a solution of the niin diluted in tui-pentine, will not 
allow a drop of water to pass through, even after standing in it for days. An excellent 
way of water-proofing would be to saturate the article with melted niin. and then 
expose it in an oven to considerable heat until the grease gelatinizes. By these means 
the niin becomes insoluble not only in water, but also in most of its solvents. K the 
niin can be obtained, as Dr. Schott says, in "unlimited" quantities, it will, doubtless, 
in time become of great commercial value. 

I have given here but a few of the most important facts developed by my experi- 
ments : but I believe there would he hundreds of other applications suggested, if the 
general properties of the substance were made known. With hopes that the niin will 
prove of value, hoth in art and science, 
I remain yours, &c., 

^^CTOS G. BLOEDE, Analytical Chemist. 

Brooklyis, January 4, 1868. 

The Maya "word niin applies not solely to the grease above referred to, 
but also to the insect fi-om which it is obtained. As far as observations 
go, the latter entomologically belongs to the lower species of Senuptero, 
genus Coccus, vhere we find it associated with the well-known cochi- 
neal, {.Coccus cGchiniUifcr,) and also with the South Asiatic Coccus lacca. 


With this it seems to have still closer affinities, for this lac insect princi- 
pally lives on an euphorbiaceous plant, {Aleiirites laccifera, or triloba,) and 
also on the banyan tree, {Ficus Indic<i,) upon which it prodnces* the gum 
lacca of commerce. The life of the uiin. on the other hand, seems to be 
exclusively wedded to the anacardiaceous genus, Spondias, (which em- 
braces the mango fmit tree, the hog plum of the AVest Indies. &e.) of 
which one or two species arc extensively cultivated all over the tropical 
regions of this continent, and the adjacent archii>elago of the We«t 
Indies. Thus both insects, the one of Asia and the other of America, 
besides producing somewhat similar articles of commerce, ofier in com- 
mon the advantage of living on plants which are otherwise useful, and 
cultivated for the sake of their fraits; a circumstance which in\ites 
more readily the propagation of an almost imlimited number of these 
respective foster plants. The cultivation of the Sjjondias, called by the 
Spanish cinieh, and by the 3Iayas ahal, and probably refemble to the 
species Mombtu. is by nature made so easy that even thick cuttings 
geraiinate quickly in almost any soil. The gum, exuding spoutaneou^y 
from the stem and branches of the ciruelo, is often used in Yucatan as 
an equivalent for gum arabic, while, by the instrumentality of the niin 
insect, (j. c, by animalizatiou.) it becomes a resinous drying oil, insola- 
able in water or alcohol, hot or cold. 

The gathering of the niin insect and obtaining its grease presents 
no difficulty whatever, as children even can be intrusted with it. The 
grease is obtained by broiling or boiling the insects, during which pro- 
cess it can be readily taken otit". Dr. 8. says: 

'• ]^Jy acquaintance with the niin insect having been but cursory, 
does Kot permit me to give a scientific descrii)tion of it. 2so winged 
specimens have come under my notice, and I suppose, therefore, that 
only females were observed. These are about one inch long, with a 
cross diameter of about oue-foui'th of an inch. Their color varies from 
a somewhat pellucid chi'ome yellow to rich orange, though subdued b\ 
a closely adhering coat of fine, silky, white web, in which they art 
thiekly enshrouded, and which appears to serve as a soft protecting 
cocoon, much like that of the cochineal insect. The aspect of a uiin 
colony on the twigs and Ui'anch tops of the cirnelo has, therefore, much 
similarity to that which I have often observed of certain species of opun- 
tia (prickly pear) on which cochineal insects were li\ing. The plants, 
especially their upper iiarts, look as if covered by a heavy deposit ot 

" The principal crop of the niin insect falls in the rainy season, t. c, 
between the months of April and September, during which time its 
principal growth and development are dprived from the foster-plant, 

"xVs to the uses for which the niin grease might be employed in art 
and science a wide field for speculation may be oi>ened, as Mr. Bloede, 
in his analysis, has already indicated. The Indians and Mestizos of the 
peninsula, especially the inhaliitauts of one or two villages in the vicin- 
ity of Yzmcl, have heretofore almost exclusively used it to mix the paints 
employed in adorning small articles of household use, such as bowls and 
drinking-cups made li'om the halves of the globular finiit of the calabash 
tree, {Crcscajtia cujetc.) and in preparing a varnish for those and other 
articles. This use of the niin gi^e-ase, hovrever, seems not to be confined 
alone to Yucatan, but is met with in other parts of tropical America. I 
was told that the Indiiins and half-breed population in the vicinity of 
Vera Cruz excel the Mayas in the skill and taste they exhibit in the use 
of this aiticlc in adorning drinking-cups and other trinkets, both inside 
and out. lYom these modest articles of Indian finerv it would be a 


short step only to the maniifacmre of crockery, made of papier mache, 
similar to the admirable tea-cups, bowls, and other dishes of the Japanese, 
employiag- the niiu varnish, which endures for any leng^th of time the 
effects of hot or cold water and of alcohol, to give a protecting and x^re 
serving finish and beauty. 

•• Besides the uses of the niin already mentioned, it is also kept as a 
drug in the apothecary shops of Yucatan, where it is held for surgical 
piu'i:)oses and general external use instead of other drying oils, like that 
of linseed for preparing \'ulnerary plasters and cerates in general. 

'•There is hardly room for doubt that the niin coidd be procured in 
siifiacient quantity for commercial demands. The breeding of the insect 
producing the article depends entirely on the multiplication of a fruit 
tree which is already under extensive cultivation all over the ti'opics 
of this continent and adjacent islands ; localities the gTcater part of 
which is easily accessible to maritime commerce. T\'ithin the si)ace of 
a few years a steady enterprise would establish a fixed market price for 
the niin. so that women and children, and in fact the whole popula- 
tion, would contribute in the collection of the insect or the oil itself, as 
soon as they could rely upon a just exchangeable return for their labor." 


The business of bee-keeping bas always been deemed an interesting 
and profitable braneb of rural effort ; it is even assuming national im- 
portance as a contribution to the food supply of an increasing popula- 
tion. It is also eminently Tvori:hy of fostering attention, as a means of 
agreeable, healthy, and profitable employment for women dependent 
upon their own exertions for a living, or ambitious of a business career 
suited to their tastes and to their physical stien gth. To ascertain the con- 
dition of bee-keeping, to learn of its progress, and collect at least frag- 
mentary statistics of the business, the foUowing inquiries were made ot 
bee-keepers in all parts of the country: 


1. How many hives of bees are there in your county ? 

2. Did your stock originat/e from native wild bees, or from swarms 
intioduced from other sections ? 

3. Have Italian bees been intioduced into your county ! 

4. Are Italian bees found to be more docile, or more productive, than 
other bees ? 

5. Of what form and material are your hives : movable frames, com- 
mon boxes, stiaw, or ''gums -' ? 

6. If patented, whose patent is preferred ? 

7. ^hat is the average product in honey and wax, and the average 
price per pound, one season with another ? 

8. "Were swarms abundant as usual last spring ? 

9. From what plants do your bees procure their food in spriijg. in 
summer, in autumn ? and is any crop grown mainly for the use of bees ? 

10. Is the disease called foid brood prevalent among your bees ? If 
so, has any remedy or preventive been found ? 

11. Axe your bees usually wintered on their summer stands ? K so, 
what means of protection are adopted ? 

12. Please give instances showing pecuniary- returns, cost, and net 
profit of bee-keeping. 

In 1850, the amount of honey and wax reported in the census returns 
Avas 14,853,790 pounds; in iSGO, 23,366,357 pounds of h6ney, and 
1,322,787 pounds of wax. Xew York stood at the head of the list, witli 
2,369^751 pounds; and niae other States are credited with more than a 
mUiion pounds each, in the following order : Xorth Carolina, 2,055.969 : 
Kentnckv, 1,768,692; Missouri, 1,585,983; Tennessee, 1,519,390; Ohio, 
1,459,601; Virginia, 1,431,591; Pennsylvania, 1,402,128; Illinois, 1,346,803 : 
Indiana, 1,224,489. 

The statistical census of 1860 returned, from Massachusetts, 59,125 
pounds of honey; the State census of 1865 gave 80,356 pounds, Talued 
at $23,224— about 29 cents per pound. 

The census of 1860 gives Iowa 917,877 pounds; the local returns of 
1865 made an aggregate of 1,128,399 potmds, from 87,118 hives of bees. 
This gives an average of surplus honey to each hive of about thirteen 

The circulars were sent to known apiarians in neariy every State, and 
returns were received from fotir hundred and eighty -nine counties, in 



tliirty-two States. The aggregate number of hives reported, was 722,385. 
At the same ratio for the unreported counties, the aggregate for the 
country woukl be nearly three millions of hives. But reports have un- 
doubtedly come from counties having somewhat more than any average 
population, including many in which special attention has been paid 
to bee cultiu'e; and a careful estimate shoidd therefore place the 
total number of hives at a lower figure. Two millions would be as low 
as these retiu-ns appear to warrant. This is but one to every twenty of 
the present total population, while the assessors' returns of Iowa — the 
only official statement for comparison — ^present a ratio of one hive to 
ten of the population. 

Estimating the total number of hives at two millions, and the surplus 
honey taken at only fifteen pounds per hive, (which is but two-thirds of 
the average reported.) the value of honey annually i>roduced in the United 
States, at the average valuation of t-^entj'-five cents per pound, would be 
87,500,000. AVere a rational system of bee-keeping in use, crops culti- 
vated for bee pasturage, and the bees carefully Avintered, this amoimt 
could easily be increased. The profits arising fi'om the sale of sm7)lus 
honey averages from fifty to two hundi-ed j)er cent, of the caj)ital 
invested. The middle, northern, and southern States are particularly 
adapted to profitable bee-keeping. 

The following table i^resents in detail some of the more important 
points furnished in l^ese returns : 















Maisachnsetts. . 





New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. 


Pennsylvania. . . 
Rhode Island... 
South Carolina. 


Texas „ 



West Virginia.. 


























53, (K5 

29, 144 







24, 441 













22, 240 

15, 140 







1 county. 



12 counties. 
16 counties, 
11 counties. 
2 counties. 

2 counties. 

1 parish. 

3 counties. 

7 counties. 
9 counties. 
6 counties. 

10 counties. 
3 counties. 

2 counties. 

8 counties. 
1 county. 

23 counties. 
15 counties. 

2 counties. 
2 counties. 
7 countie.s. 

2 counties. 

3 counties. 
18 counties. 




4a 3 































































i 3a5 


The reports show that in the southern States, where bee-keeping is in 
its primitive state, it would yield, if properly conducted, the largest 
return. The abundance of \nld plants yielding honey, the long seasons, 
and mild cUmate there are all very favorable to protitable bee-keeping. 

The chief expense of an apiaiy in starting is the cost of the hives. 
When these are procured they form a permanent capital ; the hive will 
last for years. 13ee-keeping will be found profitable only to those who 
engage in it largely, but both profitable and interesting to any per- 
son ha\iug room sufficient even for one hive. He can supply his table 
all. the year with honey, and find in the nature and workings of these little 
insects' subjects for most interesting study and critical investigation. 


The common box hive is the one most generally used. It is usually 
made of one-and-a-half-inch pine boards, though other materials are used, 
according to the taste of the maker or the cost of the material. The 
si2e of the hive varies much, but generally contains two hundred cubic 
inches, with cross-bars placed in the center to aid in supporting the 
combs. In general, they are simple boxes. This form is varied at times, 
however, by placing oii the top of the hive drawers or boxes for sui'plus 
honey. In these hives the bees are left to take care of themselves, as 
very little can be done to aid them. The old-fiishiojied basket or straw 
hive is seldom used, and it wUl soon be wholly discarded, save by a few 
bee-keepers, who may retain it rather as a cimosity than for any practi- 
cal use. 

In the southern States the favorite form of hive is the " giun." This 
consists of a hoUow log. generally a portion of a c\in-ess stump, about 
two feet in length and a foot in diameter : upon the top of the hoUow is 
placed a board, and at the bottom is cut a small notch for the entrance 
of the bees, and the hive is complete. Three-fourths of the hives in 
these States are of this description. This form of hive served the pur- 
pose before the appearance of the moth and foul-brood, but no reliance 
can now be placed upon it. K the moth is gaining the upper hand, foul- 
brood raging, honey supply low. or queen lost, there is no remedy — the 
bees must perish. ' The do-nothing system in bee-keeping, as in other 
branches of agricultui'e, will lead to the ruin of the bee-keeper. Those 
apiarians who use the movable-comb hive and a scientific method of bee- 
keeping have been the most successful. 

The reports show that tbe movable-comb hive of the Eev. L. L. Lang- 
stroth is generally preferred by the bee-keepers of the United States. 
The Bee-keepers' Association oi" Tennessee, at theii^ recent convention, 
by a unanimous vote gave this hive the preference over all other forms. 
Patent hives have been the curse of bee-keeping in this country. Many 
of the reports say that the bee-keepers in their Aicinity have abandoned 
all manner and style of patent hives and gone back to the plain box and 
rude '"gum." 

Patent bee-palaces, moth-traps, and self-di\'iders have done as much 
as the bee-moth, perhaps more, to hinder the progTCSS of bee-culture in 
this country. That hive only can claim superiority' over the common 
box which permits the bee-keeper to have ready access to every portion 
of the hive, allows the transfer of frames from one hive to another, will 
winter bees well, is not complicated in its structure, and is not expensive. 

The movable-comb hive is used by abont one-fourth of the bee-keepers 
of the country, and its introduction is rapidly exteudhig. "^Vlienever its 
use becomes general, bee-keeping will become profitable. 



The returns of the yield of honey are very imperfect, as few bee-keepeis 
have kept an account of the yiekl of their hives. The product of the 
past season has been less than usual. The late spring and frost, and the 
scorching heat of the summer, ruined the forage of the bees, and many 
colonies were unable to obtain honey sufficient for their winter supply, 
and, unless fed during the winter, will perish. This has been the case 
principally with the black bees. The Italians, notwithstanding the 
unfavorable season, were able to gather a supply of honey sufficient for 
themselves and to yield theu* owners a small surplus. The average jield 
of honey throughout the United States, is 22.8 pounds per hive. The 
average price is twenty to twenty-five cents per pound. Honey for mar- 
ket purposes is generally stored in small boxes or supers, about five inches 
square. This brings the highest market price. The honej^comb taken 
fi'om the common box hive or "gum" is necessarily in a broken condi- 
tion, and does not present to the purchaser so clean and inviting an 
appearance, and hence commands a lower -pviee. 

Twenty pounds of lioney being required to make one pound of wax, 
the economy of saving and utilizing combs is rendered evident. In order 
to accomplish this saving, a honey-emptying machine has been invented, 
and has now been so simplified in its construction that it is within the 
reach of aU. By this machine honey is emptied, by centrifugal motion, 
out of the combs, leaving them in a sound condition, so that they may 
be inserted again, and used for years in succession, thus effecting a great 
saving in the consumi^tion of honey, and giving the market a purer article 
than when rendered by heat. 

The reports upon the production of wax are still more imperfect than 
those on honey. The yield is principally derived from hives that are 
" brimstoned" in the fall, or from old combs that are unfit for use. The 
demand for wax is always greater than the sux^ply, especially in regard 
to bleached wax, and it always commands a good price. Little or no 
attention has been given to this branch of agricidture. 

The provident economy of the German makes this apparently trivial 
item yield a good retium. The German apiarian never goes to his hives 
without having by him a small box or dish in which he carefully depos- 
its every particle of wax, however small, which may be taken from the 
hives, and also aU the droppings. Thus, at the end of the season, a con- 
siderable amount of wax has been saved, which in this coimtry is not 
only wasted but permitted to lie about the apiary and become the breed- 
ing place of moths and a source of foul-brood. The bee-keepers of 
America should profit by this hint, and avert injury and loss. Tlie aver- 
age price is thirty cents per iDound. 


Nine-tenths of the bee-keepers of the United States pay no attention 
whatever to winteriug their bees. The hives are permitted to remain on 
their summer stands, with the exception, perhaps, of a slight shed for a 
covering. They are thus exposed to ail the variations of temperature 
and the inclemency of the weather. The result of this neglect is that 
manj^ hives perish annually, and those that siuwive are so weakened that 
they are unable to recruit till the honey season is passed. 

To make bee-hiving successful, it is necessary to have strong swarms 
early in spring. This result can be obtained only by carefid and judi- 
cious wintering. The object sought in wintering bees is to maintain in 


the hive throughout the vrinter a uniform temperature, which will keep 
the l3ees in a continuous semi-dormant state. This uniformity of tem- 
perature is obtained in several difierent ways— by protecting the hives 
on their summer stands, or by removing them to rooms or places prepared 
for them. Hives may l>e prcitected on their summer stands — 

First. By plastering up aUthe cracks and oix'nings, except the entrance, 
with mortar and surrounding the sides of the hives with straw. This 
can be done only with common Ijoxes or gums. 

Second- By placing the hives in a shed, closed on all sides except the 
firont, where the coveiing extends to within three feet of the ground. A 
correspondent in Pennsylvania states that he has wintered successfully 
Lu this manner one hundred colonies. 

Third. By siurounding the hive with a dead-air space, thus prevent- 
ing outside' influence. A frame of light boards is made to surmount the 
hive on its four sides, leaving an inch or more space between the hive 
and frame, which space is fOlwl with some good non-conducting material, 
as sawdust, dry leaves, &:c. The honey -lx»ard is removed and straw or 
corn-cobs i>laced on the combs beneath the cap. This plan has been sue- 
cessftdly adopted by a num1>er of bee-keepers. 

Some' apiarians winter their bees with considerable success on their 
summer stands, by simply giving them thorough ventilation. Mr. John 
T. Eose. of Petersburg. 3ionroe county, Michigan, says in regard to this 
method: •• I winter them on their summer stands, and seldom lose a 
swarm. I lx)re in the side of the frame hive an inch hole, three inches 
from the top. in the middle of the hive lengthwise, and worm an inch- 
square stick through the combs for winter passages ; make a frame the 
size of my hive, three inches deep, without top or bottom, remove the 
honey-lx)ard, and set the frame on the top of the hive, and fill it with dry 
corncobs ; put on the cap, and they are safe." 

The plan which has proved most successful and economical is that oi 
wintering bees in a room or cellar prepared for the pmpose. The apart- 
ment must l3e dark, diy. and of a low uniform temperature, not falling 
below 32^ and never exceeding 40- Fahrenheit. Bees thus located con- 
simie one-third less honey and come out in the spring strong and healthy. 
Care must l>e taken to give the hive placed in cellars proper ventilation; 
otherwise the most disastrous resTdts will ensue, the bees Ix-coming rest- 
less, consuming honey, and leaving the hives, and thus perishing in the 
room. Mr. E Dart, of Wisconsin, says: '-My Ix^es are wintered in a dry 
cellar, thirty-two by thirty-six feet, holding one hundred swarms. I carry 
them into the cellar the first of December and bring them out during the 
month of March, on warm, .sunny days. I pack them closely on benches 
in the cellar, leaving the box and working-holes open, and see that aU 
the swarms have honey enough to support them until taken back to their 
summer stands. I visit them but once a month, and see that they are 
not disturbed. When breeding commences, the last of February. I change 
the air in the cellar every night. By this management I do not a 
single swarm through the winter. Many of my swarms did not consimie 
six ix)unds of honey while iu the cellar last winter." Bees Avintered on 
their summer stands will consume through the winter thirty iK)unds of 
honey, while those wintered in cellars will consimie but little over six 
pounds i>er hive, thus eflecting a .saAing of twenty-four poimds to the 
hive, gi\"mg, iu an apiary of one hundred colonies, L*,400 ix)unds of honey, 
which, at twenty cents per iwund, would amount to $480, a sum suffi- 
cient to pay for the building. 

yorth of' forty degrees of latitude it is necessary to give winter pro- 
tection, if Ijees'are to be kept with profit. The cellar or root-house can 


generally be used for storing tlie colonies. Henry C. Blyuii. Cohmiltia 
County, Xe^v York, states that lie is buildin.e: a v»iiitering lionse, wirli 
triple walls all around, filled with straw and sawdust, the whole two 
feet thick, and then elapboarded on the ontside of the studding-. The 
gTeatest attention is paid to wintering," bees in Wisconsin. 3Iichigau. and 
^linnesota, where they coidd not be kept without protection, excei)t at 
continual loss. It is to be hoped that the bee-keepers will begin to pay 
more attention to this important subject. It would annually eflect a 
saving of thousands of pounds of honey. 

In the South the winters are so mild that the bees need little or no 
protection during- that season. They need, however, protection in the 
summer from the hot rays of the sun. This is accomplished by placing 
the hives under sheds or large trees. The greatest attention shoidd 
also be given to ventilation, iu order to prevent the heat from melting 
the combs. 

Eev. J. T. Allison, of Ogle County, Illinois, writing in reference to 
bmying bees, says: ''This season a neighbor, who keeps no bees, told 
me that, when li\Tiig with his father, some twenty years since, he and 
his brothers were going to take up a stock late in the fall : as an exiDeri- 
ment, they drammed the bees out into an empty hive, and with them 
clustered in the top. buried the hive in the gTOimd so deep that there 
were six inches of dirt over the toji of it, and they left it thus buried tiU 
the following April. When brought out of their winter quarters the 
bees, he said, were alive, and, after warming up, llew freely: but having 
nothing to eat, and not being fed, they died in the course of three days." 
Can this be true? We give it as a sing-ular case. 


Kie returns show that this contagious disease is not extensively prev- 
alent in the United States. It has. however, made its appearance in 
various portions of many States: in Floyd Coimty. Georgia; Fayette 
and Hancock Counties, Illinois: Anne Arundel County. Maryland; Wi- 
nona and Wright Counties, Minnesota: Clark County, 3Iissoiui; Iredell, 
Caldwell, Columbia. Ciu'rituck, and Herford Counties, yorth Carolina; 
yew York, Schenectady, and Montgomeiy Counties. Xew York; Cumber- 
land, Jefiersou. Luzerne, Washington, and Warren Counties, Pennsyl- 
vania; Eichland County, South Carolina: Milwaukee and Walworth 
Counties, and Sullivan Township. Wisconsin; and Hartford County. 

Putrid foid-brood is a disease which attacks the young brood of the 
hive, showing itself fiilly after the larvte have been sealed up. It may 
be known by the viscous, gelatinous, and yeast-like appearance of the 
decomposing brood, the unpleasant odor arising from the hive, and by 
the sunken covers of the cells. The cause of foul-brood has been, until 
recently, involved in doubt, but late discoveries in Germany have 
thrown much Light upon its origin. Mr. Lamprecht alleges that he has 
discovered the cause of the disease. His theory is this: "The chyme, 
which the workers prepare fi'om honey and pollen by partial digestion, 
and with which the larvce are fed, contains a nitrogenous, jylastic. forjna- 
tivc suhsrance, from ichick all the organs and tissues of the larva are derived 
and composed * * • and iirecisely because of this its comi)licated 
composition it is peculiarly susceptible of rapid decomposition when 
exposed to air and moistiu-e; that is, to undergo fermentation and putre- 
faction. It is hence obvious that poUen, even though having undergone 
only a partial decomposition, must afi'ect the bodies of bees and larvie 


differently from what it did or would do in its natnral condition; and 
there is no longer a doubt that it is from pollen, thus imrtially decomposed^ 
that the foul-hrood originates. That it can readily undergo decomposition 
is mauitest. Moisture, emanating in part from unsealed honey, and in 
part li'om the perspiration of the bees, becomes condensed in the hive 
from external cold, and in the fall and toward spring it is frequently 
found hanging in drops on the combs, just as we find it condensed on 
the windows of our dwelling-houses. If one of these di-ops falls into a 
cell containing pollen, decomposition of the latter speedily commences, 
and is then communicated by the bees to the pollen in the other cells ; 
and the cause of foid-brood is hence abundantly present in a hive thus 

The discovery of Dr. Preuss, an eminent physician and mycologist, is 
that a microscoi)ic fungus, Cryptococcxis alvearis, developed fi-om ferment- 
ing matter, feeds upon the young larvte, and thus causes foid-brood; and 
that by means of the numerous sporules of the fungus, the disease is 
spread through the hive, and finally through the apiary. To show the 
character of this microscopic pest we quote the following from the article 
of Dr. Preuss, published in the Bienenzeitung, and translated by ]\Ir. T. 
W. Woodbury : 

" The foul-brood fun gus, which I have named Cryptococcus alvearis, 
belongs to the smallest of the fungoid forms. It is round and dust- 
shaped, and has a diameter of ^^ millimeter, or y^L- line; consequently 
1,095 can lie side bv side within a Ehenish line, but within a square line, 
1,095x1,095, that 'is, 1,199,825, or, in round numbers, 1,200,000. The 
cubic line, according to this, woidd contain 1,440,000,000,000 fungi, and 
a cubic inch of foul- brood, which consists of 1728 lines, would contain 
2,488,320,000,000,000. If we reckon, further, that a cubic inch of comb 
contains 50 ceUs,the contents of each would be 49,7GG,400,000,000; in 
round numbers, fifty bdlions ; or, deducting one-fifth for wax, forty bUlions 
of fungi." 

There is no cui-e for this disease when it has once obtained headway. 
Destruction of the bees and honey and thorough purification of the 
hive is the only remedy to prevent the spread of the disease. As a 
means of preventing the disease. Dr. Preuss gives the following direc- 
tions: Feed no fermenting honey; feed no meal, especially when the 
hive is threatened with disease; destroy carefully every particle of dead 
and moldering matter; and avoid weakening bees duiing the brooding 
seasons, so that they will not be able properly to maintain the heat 
necessary for the development of the brood. 

With the light now thrown upon the nature of this disease by these 
recent discoveries, bee-keepers may be able to conquer the contagious 
malady whenever it makes its appearance. 


During the past season a disease suddenly appeared in Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, and Tennessee, sweeping away whole apiaries. So quiet were 
its operations that the bee-keepers became aware of its existence only 
by the disappearance of their bees. The hives were left, in most cases, 
full of honey, but with no brood and little pollen ; the whole appearance 
of the hive causing the casual observer to suppose that the bees had 
"emigrated;" but close observation showed that they had died. We 
give a number of accounts from various coiTCspondents, principally from 
Indiana and Kentucky, where this disease first raged. 

Jesse R. Kewson, JBartholomew County, Indiana, says: "With an 


exi)erience of twenty-five years, I liave not seen so disastrous results 
among bees as in the present year. We generally feel tliat all is well 
witli our bees, if tbey bave succeeded well in layiug up a winter supply 
of food. I bave lost nineteen stands since tbe first of Xorember; in 
some of tbem as many as forty pounds of boney were left, looking very 
nice, and tasting as well as any I ever saw ; no sign of motb or any- 
tbing wi'ong tbat I could see. The bees seem to die witbout a cause. 
Tbe stand twenty years old is yet living. We find in nearly every stand 
plenty of food, but wbat ails tbe bees ? "Wbat tbe remedy ? K sometbing 
is not done to stop tbis fatality, tbis pleasing and useful pastime will be 
taken from us, and our tables will be robbed of boney." 

A. Leslie, Pike County, Indiana, says: "Nearly all our bees bave 
died in tbis county, perisbing mostly in November, supposed to be for 
want of bee-bread." 

S. G. Bates, Boone County, says: '-Tbe mortality among tbe bees 
tbis winter cannot be accounted for, since tbey bave plenty of food. 
Out of twelve bives I tbis day took tbree bundred pounds of boney; 
not a young bee to be found ; tbe comb clear and bealtby. My opinion 
is, tbat tbe queen, from some reason, not baving deposited eggs, is tbe 
cause of tbeii- dcatb.-' 

T. J. Connett, of Austin, Scott County, Indiana, says: "Tbere is a 
disease prevailing to an alarming extent among our bees tbis fall tbat is 
entu-ely new, nobody being able to find any cause or remedy. Old and 
substantial swarms die, leaving tbe bive full of boney and bee-bread. 
Full tbree-fourtbs of tbe swarms are dead, as far as I bave beard from 

J. N. Webb, Newcastle, Henry County, Kentucky, says: "Tberew^ere 
no swaiTus last spring, so far as is known. Tbe bees, however, contin- 
ued to work and lay up tbeir stores until some time in AugTist, or early 
in September, wben, to tbe consternation and utter suqnise of tbe bee- 
raiser, tbey were all found to bave died. Many swarms left weU-stored 
stands of excellent boney, amply sufficient to cany tbem tbrougb tbe 
winter: and wbat is more strange, comparatively few of tbe bees were 
found dead at tbe bives. Wbat was tbe cause of tbe wbolesale destruc- 
tion of tbis useful and interesting insect, dying in tbe midst of plenty, 
away from its bive, we cannot understand. Up to tbe time wben tbe 
discovery was made, no frosts bad come, no atmospheric cbange bad 
taken plac^, out of tbe ordinary course, and in fact notbing to wbich it 
may bave been rationally attributed." 

T. Hidlman, jr., of Terre Haute, Indiana, writes as follows: "In Sep- 
tember last, wben tbe first cold weatber set in, my bees began to die. 
First, I found in one of my best stands, witb all tbe frames full of sealed 
boney, and some boney in boxes, tbe bees aU dead. After tbat tbe bees be- 
gan to die in all my stands, mostly pure Itabans, and some bybrids. First, 
about one-tbird of tbe bees would be found dead; next, I would find tbe 
queen lying dead before tbe bive : and in about a week more, tbe wbole 
colony would be found dead in and around tbe bive. Sometimes tbe 
queen would live witb a bandful of bees. Tbe bives were full of boney, 
gathered tbe latter part of tbe season ; and the smallest had enough for 
tbe bees to winter upon. In this way I bave lost forty stands, and bave 
now only fifteen skeleton colonies, which I think wiU also perish before 
spring. At first I thougbt I was tbe only victim, but I bave ascertained 
that all tbe bees in this neighborhood bave died, and as far as tbirty 
miles north and eighteen south. Yesterday I saw a letter from Ken- 
tucky, fi'om a man wbo thougbt his bees bad stampeded in tbe same 
manner as mine, to tbe hive of mother-earth. Some colonies had broods, 


others had not. Late in October all the queens commenced laj-in^ 
aj^ain. To some colonies I gave three queens in about two weeks, and 
they lost each in turn.'' 

The true cause of the disease has not l3een discovered. Some attrib- 
ute it to the want of ix>llen ; some to poisonous honey ; and some to the 
unusually hot summer. TThatever may ]ye the cause, the effect has been 
most disastrous, throughout these two States. 


Apiarians, to secure a good crop of honey, are beginning to raise crops 
for the pasturage of their bees. The rapid spread of improved agiicul- 
ture has, in many localities, destroyed the wild honey-yielding plants, so 
that the profits of bee-keeping are made to depend upon the honey-pro- 
ducing qualities of cultivated jilants. The three plants upon which the 
chief reliance is jjlac^^d are buckwheat, mustard, and Alsike clover. 
Buckwheat is the crop most generally sown, though Alsike clover seems 
destined to supersede it in suitable soils. The advantages of the Alsike 
are that its honey is of a finer quabty than that of buckwheat, and that 
it afibrds most excellent fodder, and fine fall pasturage for cattle. Mus- 
tard is raised to some extent, and yields a fair supply of honey. 

J. King, of Dubuque, ^owa, states that he has grown with profit the 
purjjle cane rasjjberry. Mrs. Tupper, of Iowa, says she has sown Alsike 
clover, and *• esteems it above aU other jilants." J. T. Rose, of Monroe 
County, Michigan, thinks the culture of Alsike clover should be greatly 
encouraged, as it is valuable for hay as well as for bees. He says that it 
does not kill out iu winter, as does the red clover in his State. 

J. E. Gardner, of 3Iontgomery County, Virginia, says: "I sowed, in 
April. 1S67. five pounds of Alsike or hybrid clover, used upon one acre 
of moderately rich land. Last spring it came forward rapidly and 
bloomed i»rofusely about the time white clover came into bloom". My 
bees worked on it from early mom until evening, seeming to prefer it to 
the white clover. I cut the first crop for seed, but owing to the wet 
spring it did not yield much seed. The second growth was very rapid, 
and it again bloomed very fuU, giving the bees a fine pasturage until 
frost. I consider it a valuable plant for bee-pasturage, as by cutting it 
at the proper season it will make a fine show of bloom in the faU, after 
the clover is gone. It is also as valuable a hay crop as red clover, and 
wUl stand the winter better from having a fibrous root, which takes a 
strong hold in our clay soil. If the farmers in the county could be 
induced to sow this variety instead of red clover, bee-keeping, I am sat- 
isfied, could be made i^rofitable by using properly constructed hives, and 
introducing the Italian variety of the bee into this country generally. 

White clover, the linden-tree, the golden rod, and the aster are the 
main support of the honey-bee. White clover and the linden-tree ;sield 
the best honey, whde that from the honey-dew is of an inferior quality. 

yiT. R. Rogers, of Webster, North Carolina, accompanies his report 
with a specimen of a plant, of which he says: "There is a minute plant 
growing around me, that I have seen nowhere else, which keeps green 
all winter ; and, at the beginning of the first open weather in February, 
covers the earth with a dense and beautiful carpet of green, bearing a 
great profusion of white bloom. Every warm day in early spring the 
l>ees from all the neighborhood literally swarm upon it, drinking the 
nectar from its tiny cups. I do not know its name or its botanic 

Professor Porter, of Lafayette college, Pennsylvania, names this plant 


PMcelia pari'ijlora, Pursli. "We hope bee-keepers will pay attention to 
plants ii]ion wliich bees feed, and send specimens to the Department, in 
order that a complete list of honey and pollen yielding i-)lants may be 

The following list comprises some of the plants from which bees gather 
honey and pollen dm-ing the feeding seasons: 

Spring. — WiUow, alder, aspen or poplar, elm, maple, marsh-marigold, 
hepatica, anemone, dandelion, erythroniiim, (albidv.mj service-berry, 
fAmelancJiier Canadensis.) currant, gooseberry, strawberry, peach, 
cherry, apple, pear, China-tree, (2Ielia Azedarach.J black-gum. fXyssa 
multijlora,) whortleberry, cottonwood, cornel or dog^wood, narcissus, 
honeysuckle, oak, red-bud, fCercis Canadensis.) hazle, yellow jasmine. 
fJasminum ordoratissimum.J sweet-myrtle, (Myrica gale.) magnolia, 
fglauca.) hawthorn, box-elder. fXcgundo aceroides.J locust, azalea. 

Summer. — Ked clover, white cloVer. raspberry, blackberry, cockspur. 
thorn, whortleberry, black-haw, f Viburnum j^runifoJium.J self-heal, 
(Brunella.) azalea.*^ sour-wood, (Oxydendrum arhorcum.J cinquefoil, 
cucumber, narrow-leaved plantain, horse-chestnut, strawberry, pea, 
honey-dew, (on live oak.) chincapin, fCastanea pumila.) persimmon, 
linden, bee-balm, (2Missa officinalis.) maize, sorghum, heliotrope, iron- 
weed, (^"r(?r?jo«!'«.yl smart-weed, f Polygonum Persicaria.y buttertly-weed, 
fAsclepias tuherosa.) viper's bugloss, (Ecliium vuJgare.) cotton plant, 
buckwheat, sumac, catnip, Spanish needles, (Bidens tipinnata.) 'beg- 
ga.T''s lice. fCynoglossum Morisoni.J boneset, starwort. fSteUaria.J silk- 
weed, (Asdepias cornuti.) thistle, sage, cardinal flower, balsam, moun- 
tain mint, fJIonarda didyma.) sweet marjoram, lavender, spearmint, 
peppermint, thyme, dandelion, chickweed, pennyroyal, sweet clover, 
speedwell, (Veronica.) poppy, turnip. hollyhock, sunflower, dahlia, phlox. 

Autumn. — Aster, golden-rod, dandelion, white clover, red clover, cinque- 
foil, chickweed, pennyroyal, artichoke, phlox, chrysanthemum. 


That tlie culture of silk can be profitably carried ou iu tlie Uuited 
States is clearly established. The success of the experiments in Cali- 
fornia has far surpassed the most sanguine ex]:)ectations of those engaged 
in them. Mr. Prevost, the pioneer silk grower of that State, and for- 
merly engaged in the same pursuit in France, maintains, after twelve 
years' experience, that Calitbrnia is "the best silk country in the world," 
and that the manufactured article, even in its best grades, can be pro- 
duced cheaper than in Europe. At an early period silk was raised in 
Virginia. In 1718 experiments iu Louisiana were successfid, and a good 
article of silk was produced. For about forty years, silk of a superior 
quality was raised iu Georgia, continuing to be the leading and most 
profitable product of the colony until it was prostrated by the revolution- 
ary war. In most of the colonies, prior to the revolution, the culture of 
silk was more or'less successful, in Georgia and South Carolina especially 
so. Cocoons of an excellent quality were produced in Pennsj'lvania, New 
Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut. In 1771 a silk establishment 
was started in Philadelphia for thie manufacture of silk of native growth, 
which for a series of years received a large amount of cocoons. The cul- 
ture and manufacture of this valuable commodity are still carried on iu 
parts of New England, in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 
Philadelphia, Paterson, New Jersey, Hartford, Manchester, and 
Mansfield, Connecticut, are noted for their extensive silk manufactures. 
The manufactured silk product of the United States in 1840 was valued 
at $250,000. In 1844 it had increased to $1,500,000. In 1860 the pro- 
duct in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Con- 
necticut was estimated at over $5,000,000 ; the leading article manufac- 
tured being sewing silk. Since that date the manufacture of silk in those 
States has been making steady progress, embracing a wide range of arti- 
cles, as ribbons, braids, trimmings, fringes, and different varieties of dress 

It is a source of great encouragement that the diseases which threaten 
the total destruction of the native species of silk-worms in Europe do 
not prevail in this country. Mr. Prevost asserts that while from twenty- 
five to seventy -five per cent, of silk-worms are destroyed by disease and 
the unpropitious climate of Europe, few ever perish in California. The 
article from a California correspondent, published herewith, fully sets 
out the advantages possessed by that State over the silk-growing coun- 
tries of Europe. 


The report of Hon. Elliott C. Cowdin, one of the commissioners rep- 
resenting the United States at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867, 
and to whom vras assigned the subject of silk and silk manufactures, 
contains much valuable information concerning the i^rogress and present 
condition of silk husbandry and manufactures in foreign countries, and 
throws out many suggestions which cannot fail to be useful to those 
entering upon the cultiu'c or the transformation of silk in this coraitry. 

The progressive development of silk industry is carefuUy noted. In 


1812 there were in seven of the principal towns of France 27,000 silk 
looms ; in 1824 Lyons alone had nearly 25,000, and in 1839, 40,000. In 
the latter year there were 85,000 looms in the kingdom, employing abont 
170,000 workmen, and the production was estimated at $46,300,000. In 
1850 the silk goods produced were estimated at $75,000,000 ; in 1855, at 
$100,500,000— the number of looms in the empire having increased to 
225,000, and the number of workmen employed to half a million. In 
1860 the product was estimated at $140,000,000. The United States 
purchased of French tissues alone, in 1859, $27,000,000; in 1860, 
$20,800,000 ; on account of the war of the rebellion, our purchases fell 
to $5,000,000 in 1861. The commissioner states, as the result of his ob- 
servations, that though the rebellion has been suppressed, the fiscal 
measures resulting therefrom still have their effect upon the silk hus- 
bandry and manufacture of France, operating as they do at the same 
period with the scarcity of indigenous silk, and the prevalence of mys- 
terious disease among the silk-worms. 

The operations of England in silk are confined to manufactures of the 
raw material, her uncongenial climate not permitting the rearing of silk- 
worms. In 1823 Great Britain exported of silk goods $702,000; in 
1844, $3,682,000; in 1850, $14,800,000; in 1858, $11,950,000; in 1861, 
$11,560,900; in 1865, $10,880,000. A recent treaty with France has 
seriously interfered with some branches of the silk industry of Great 
Britain. In yiqw of the fact that the manufacturers of England are 
wholly dependent upon foreign importations of raw silk, it is well ob- 
served that an instructive lesson is taught the citizens of our country, 
where everything combines to render the prosecution of this industry 
pre-eminently successful. 

The following table is given to show, as near as can be ascertained, 
the value of raw silk i^roduced annually in the nations of the earth : 

Chinese empire $81, 200, 000 

Japanese empire 17, 000, 000 

Persia 5, 000, 000 

Asia Minor 5, 200, 000 

Syria 1, 800, 000 

Turkistan (in China) 400, 000 

Turkistan (independent, in Asia) 1, 400, 000 

Corean Archipelago 100, 000 

France 25,600,000 

Italy 39, 200, 000 

Turkey in Europe 7, 000, 000 

Spain and Portugal 3, 200, 000 

Pontifical States 1, 300, 000 

Greece, Ionian islands 840, 000 

Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Mediterranean coast 300, 000 

Basin of the Danube, Austria, Bavaria, Servia, Hungary . . 1, 280, 000 

India 24, 000, 000 

America 80, 000 

Total 214, 900, 000 


In silk industry there are seven distinct branches, or specialties : 1st, 
the rearing of the silk- worms ; 2d, the filature or reeling of the silk from 
the cocoons ; 3d, the throwing or spinning of the silk thread ; 4th, the 


dyeing of the silk ; 5tb, the preparation of the silk threads for the 
looms ; Gth, the "vreariug of silk goods ; 7th, the spiuuing of waste silk. 
Conimissiouer Cowdiii reports the condition of, and progress made in, 
the branches severally, as manifested at the Paris Exposition. 

In regard to the Urst, for piu'poses of reproduction it is important 
to choose cocoons of the largest size, and those the most successfully 
reared and least atiected with any malady during the coiu^se of their de- 
velopment. These cocoons are recognized by the regularity of their 
form, the roimduess of their extremities, the fineness of grain on the 
siu'face, and the solidity and thickness of the layers or silky envelopes. 
The male cocoons differ from the female in shape and size ; the former 
being smaller, and presenting a cavity upon theii" back ; the latter pre- 
sent the figure of an olive or the egg of a small bird. After collecting, 
the cocoons should be of a golden yellow color, and exhibit no spot or 
stain of any l^ind. After having put a certain number of male cocoons 
on one side, and of females on the other, weigh botli parts to find the 
average weight of each, and every time this average is exceeded there 
is a presumption that excellent cocoons are obtained for reproduction, 
all other things being equal. Cocoons of an exceptional bulk are generally 
the result of two grubs united under the same envelope. Their product 
is known as "doubles.-' and is always inferior, being valued at hardly 
oue-thii'd the price of the normal product. An Itaban silk husbandman 
exhibited at the Exposition an apparatus designed to prevent these 
doubles in tlie breeding of worms. It is an arrangement of cells made 
of bght wood, each one having only the bulk necessary for a single 
gTub. Each iusect, therefore, at the proper time, has its own case, and 
doubles are rendered impossible. The inventor also claims that his sys- 
tem aflbrds facilities for the choice of the best reproducers, and prevents 
coupling between grubs of the same family, consangiiiiiity being bj* 
many considered as one cause of the rapid deterioration of the breed. 
The coupling accomplished, the females are removed and made to lay, 
each in her own ceU, in such a way as to admit of the eggs of each lay- 
ing being separately weighed. For good chances of success each laying 
should M eigh at least sixtj- or seventy gTams (per kilogTam of cocoons,) 
each gram to contain thirteen hundred and fifty to fifteen himdred eggs. 

The best known varieties of silk- worms are seven in number. The com- 
mon silk-worm {Bomhyx mori) is the species most in use, and produces 
the best silk : it feeds on the leaves of the mulberry tree, and attains 
its full gi'owth in about six weeks. The castor-oil plant silk-worm 
(Bomhyx arrindia) is a native of Bengal and British India, and lives on 
the food indicated by its name. It has been successfully propagated in 
Europe, where its silk ])roduct is found to be supple and durable, but 
almost destitute of luster. The ailanthus silk-worm [Bomhyx Cynthia) 
is indigenous to the temperate regions of China. It produces an 
elongated cocoon, of a reddish shade, from which a strong and durable 
tissue is made. This worm was introduced in France in lSo8, and its 
silk is gi-owing in importance and industrial value. The Tusseh silk- 
\vorm {Bomhyx mylitta) lives in a wild state in Bengal, ami in the woods 
of the hot regions of India. Its food is the leaves of the jujube tree. 
Their cocoons i)roduce a fine and brilliant silk. Every etibrt to repro- 
duce this worm in France has failed. The wild silk-worm of Japan 
{Bomhyx Yama Mai) has been successfully reared in France. The leaves 
of the oak and similar trees are its only food. It is easy to raise, and 
furnishes a cocoon of greenish yellow, and can be reeled into a beautiful 
silk. The Bomhyx Cecropia is indigenous to the temperate regions of 
Xorth America, and found principally in the Carolinas, Louisiana and 


Virginia. Its food is the elm, the wOlovr, aud other trees. The cocoon 
is of loose textiu^e and coarse sUk. 


To transfer cocoons into the raw silk of commerce a basin and reel 
only are used ; the former containing- warm water to soften the gum of 
the envelope, so that the silken layers of the cocoon may be set free. 
In reeling, a certain number of threads of the cocoons, in proportion to 
the standard of ravr silk intended to be produced, are imited by ijressinre 
and twisting. This union of raw threads is known as f/regc or raw silk. 
Great care must be taken to prevent the threads, issuing wet and gumm% 
from the basin, from adhering together ; a sufficient distance between 
the basin and the reel, to permit a partial drying must be allowed, and 
a guide-thread be so arranged as to scctire a zigzag movement, which 
prevents the threads li'om crossiug one another. The following sugges- 
tions in regard to this branch of the work are given : The degiee of pre- 
vious preparation should vary with the durability of the silky couches, 
having regard to the age, breed, and origin of the cocoons. If prepared 
too much, the result would be that more silky matter would be yielded 
by the first layers than there shoidd be. This supertluous matter would 
be only waste, and would possess a value much inferior to that of fine 
silk. If the cocoons ju^e, on the contrary, insufficiently prepared, they 
present a resistance to the winding ofi", which causes the breaking ot 
the thread, and leads to a new soiu-ce of waste. The workmen oiight 
to possess gTcat skiQ in joining a new thread to thread in work. He 
should be competent to select the most opportune moment to assure the 
regidarity of the product, so that the trace of these successive connec- 
tions maybe imperceptible to the eye, and thus avoid knots, coarseness, 
curls, or dots. X or wdi rare skill in these particidars produce the effect 
desked imless the wheel revolves with a lixed and steady velocity of at 
least five hundred meters per minute. Without this, the thread, instead 
of being smooth and brilliant, would be rough and dull. A too slow move- 
ment would not dress the thread sufficiently, clasped as it is very tightly 
by its pecuhar position, and fixed under the form of a figiu-e S in the layers 
of the cocoon. A movement too slow causes those undidations which 
give the dull appearance ; while the development of the thread in the 
straight line by the more rapid movement permits the reflection of the 
light in those perfect and determined conditions which give brilliancy 
to the finest silk. 

At the Paris Exi)osition almost every European nation was repre- 
sented by different mechanisms employed in the manufactm-e of sdk. 
Mr. Cowdin is carefid to name the uses, and particidarly describe the 
best of these. 

Avery ingenious apparatus, invented by G. Honneger, of Switzerland, 
for the sorting of silk threads was exhibited. This rnachine receives on 
the one part a series of silk skems, to each of which correspond a num- 
ber of bobbins or reels, equal to that of the varied buJk, supposed to be 
contained in the skein. Each bobbin wiQ receive the portion of the 
thi-ead of the titre for which it shall have been designated. For this 
purpose, the thread which is rendered from the skein to the bobbins is 
guided automatically by a mechanism for gauging, extremely sensitive, 
and so arranged that the gregc or raw silk in "passing acts upon a lever 
which directs the silk upon the proper bobbin. The variation in the 
bulk of the product is the point of departure in the variation of the 
gtude lever, which directs the thread to the reel proper to receive it. 


By the employment of tliis macMiie, it is thought, the cheap silk of fhe 
East may lind more extensive applications, and contriliute to a new 
development in silk industry. 

Professor Alcan exhibited an apparatus for testing the tenacity and 
elasticity of tilaments and threads, and detennining the degTce of ten- 
sion most suitable to be employed on any given thread. The instrument 
is described as one of rare precision, very simple, and not expensive. 

The throwing of sOk is intended to give a i^eculiar appearance to 
the threads, •which partly determines what is called the grain of the 
stuff. It requires accm-ate knowledge and rare skill. The machines 
exhibited at the Exposition, used in this branch of silk indu.stry, were 
those employed in the best factories, especially those of Switzerland. 
These consisted of, 1st, a series of tavelles to wind, clean, and equalize 
the threads during their automatic winding off; 2d, an apparatus to 
unite and double tbe threads, with a mechanism for instantly stopping 
the machine whenever a thread breaks ; 3d, a machine to give the first 
twist to the double threads in the direction determined for the produc- 
tion of the tram or woof; 4th, a second machine to together two 
threads already twisted separately, thus producing organzLne. The 
object of these machines, which are simple in their construction, is to 
obtain constantl}* an evenly twisted product. 

The attempt to unite in a single operation the winding oft' of cocoons 
and the throwing of silk has not been successful. Commissioner Cow- 
din refers to the mechanism exhibited by the Italians and French, and 
claimed as solutions of the problem, as possessing minor interest, and 
affording little encouragement. It is his opinion that the desired X)ro- 
cess, which is enticing in appearance as a gxeat saving of time, laljor, 
and money, is deceptive, demanding an expense much gTcater than that 
of the separate operations, and that it would yield inferior products of 
inconsiderable value. Simultaneous twisting and throwing, however, 
may be employed with a certain success when the cocoons are of an in- 
ferior quality and difiicidt to wind off', such as double cocoons, so that 
the operator in twisting them directly can, at the best, obtain silk of a 
very inferior grade, fit only for working common cordonnet, (braid, bind- 
ing, twist, lace, &c.) 

The "waste" occasioned by the various manipulations of silk until it 
becomes stuff, has long been utilized, and also, more recently, since 
silk became very high, the chiffons, or rags of that material. In the 
show-cases of the Exposition, France and Switzerland displayed threads 
made from waste, which rivaled in beauty of appearance the most lus- 
trous silks, and at one-half the price. The result is obtained by atten- 
tion to details in the manufacture. A\Tien the threads from waste have 
been produced with the gTcatest care, well pui'ified, well combed, per- 
fectly prepared and spim, a thin layer of warm gelatine or isinglass is 
applied to them when stretched and in motion. Sweepings of threads, 
formerly thrown away because the workmen could not unravel them, 
are now made valuable by the use of ingenious and effective machines. 
These machines take the rag or piece of silk at their entrance, and re- 
store it at the exit in the form of filaments, classed in lengths and fine- 
ness proper to be submitted to the machines for decomposing the chiffon 
or rag. These machines were not exhibited at the Exposition by the in- 
ventors, from fear of imitation by countries where inventions "are not 
protected by patents. 

Referring to the dyeing of silk, ]\Ir. Cowdin says: 

"The invention of those colors derived fi^om coal has principally con- 
tributed to or caused a revolution in the art of dveing. The new materials 


have permitted dyers to obtain colors of unprecedented splencior, com- 
bining shades of marvellous variety "with extreme delicacy. Looking 
through the Exhibition we might almost say, in the presence of results 
obtained iu this direction, there is now nothiug impossible. StiU, close 
by the side of products so admirable in respect to dyeing, we saw, on the 
contrary, much still left to be accomplished. We refer to the attempts 
made for some time to gild and silver threads of silk. Some specimens of 
silk of this kind exhibited denote processes still in a crude state, which 
do not yet supply any product capable of being used to advantage." 

The plain silks of France, Switzerland, and Xorthern Germany attracted 
gTcat attention on account of their thorough finish and general excellence. 
They were exhibited with the special notice that the weaving was done 
by motive power. The improvements iu the looms of these nations 
secui"es cleanness, piu'ity, and brilliancy. A French apparatus has been 
introduced to polish plain stufts automatically. This machine possesses 
all the advantages of hand-polishing, acting with only a little polish and 
in parts. Automatic looms for the manufacture of velvet stiifis are 
of two kinds, one for working two pieces at a time, and the other a 
piece singly. By the former, various articles in silk, and the most beau- 
tifid plushes for hats are made. For the manufacture of sti-iped and 
plaid silks the Scotch looms excel all others. In the silks for toilette, 
especially in fa(;onn€fi, or figiu-ed goods, a fineness and neatness that 
seemed almost impossible has been attained by French industry alone. 
Ingenuity has been tasked to simplify the Jacquard loom and render it 
capable of producing still more extensive results. 

At the Exjiosition, products of the silk-ribbon loom were exhibited 
by the manufacturers of Saint fitienne, Basle, Prussia. Alsace, and other 
sections. Saint £tienne contains 90,000 inhabitants, and gives employ- 
ment to 23,G22 persons, of which the gTcater part are women and girls. 
It has 15,000 looms. The value of its productions in ISGG was $12,000,000, 
five-sixths of which were sold to the United States, England, and to the 
city of Paris. Basle, with a popidation of 65.000, has 0,000 looms. At 
Alsace steam was first employed in the manufactm-e of ribbons. Some 
of the ribbon factories run 200 looms by a steam-engine of thirty horse- 
power, and employ GOO persons. 

In the opinion of the commissioner, foiu* of the seven industrial 
branches employed in the transformations of silk can from this period 
develop themselves in America without any ditficulty, and soon take 
the high position ah-eady attained by cotton industry, namely : 

1. The throwing of silk, consisting in the employment of apparatus 
more simple and also less tliflicult to direct than the greater part of the 
machines in the factories of the United States. It is as easy for the 
United States as for England to obtain immediately a supply of' raw sUk 
in China, Japan, and even in the Levant and India. ' It is not improbable 
that Xew York may become as important a depot for Asiatic silks as 
London now is. This may be accomplished through the medium of the 
Pacific railroad. The raw material having thus reached New York, wiU 
be distributed not only among oiu- own manufacturers, but portions, 
doubtless, will be exi^orted to foreign countries. Let England be taken 
as an example in this industry. In less than fifty yeai's "the silk manu- 
facture of Great Britain, which does not upon "her own soil prodnce a 
single pound of raw material, has anived at such a degree of develop- 
ment as to give employment to a large amount of capital and to about 
110,000 looms, and cUrect occupation to some 200,000 persons, not includ- 
ing those engaged in the ribbon and silk hosiery mannfactnre. 

2. The dyeing of silk, already an established branch of American Indus- 


tiy, needs only the encouragement to' be derived from the establishment 
of co-operative branches to compete successfully ^ith European skill. 

3. As to the regeueration and spinning of silky \vaste of all kinds, the 
United States tind themselves in as good a posiriou as most other coun- 
ti'ies to imdertake a work of this sort, inasmuch as they possess equal 
facilities for procuring the waste and raw silk. This branch of industry 
in France gives emplo^Tneut to more than 30,000 workmen, and the annual 
production exceeds $iiO,000,000. 

4. With regard to the automatic weaving of plain stuffs, the United 
States already compete successfully with the more experienced nations 
of Eiu'ope. Looms exhibited by American constructors at the Paris 
Exposition were highly appreciated for their ingenious contrivances 
and remarkable improvements. 

Three specialties remain, therefore, to excel in which time and effort 
only are necessary, viz : The rearing of silk-worms, the reeling of the 
cocoons into raw silk, and the weaving of figiu-ed goods. As has already 
been shown in this article, the culture of the mulbeny in many portions 
of this country has proved very successful — in some eminently so. The 
cocoons of California are equal to any in the world. Isative silk once 
supplied in sufficient quantities to enlist the inventive genius and 
mechanical aptitude of our people, will speedily solve the problems 
presented in the remaining specialties just cited. The country which 
produces the most skillful and careful spinners of wool and cotton manu- 
factures will not despair of arriving eventually at the successful produc- 
tion of the many kinds of silk goods within its province. 


The present processes in American silk manufactui'e are thus described 
in the New York Tribune, with a reference to the localities and personnel 
of the business at the present time : 

" The first process is to sort the raw silk into sizes, great care being 
required in every stage that the threads be equal in size, as inequality 
would produce a manufacture of uneven and unmanageable twist. It is 
then soaked in soapy water to dissolve the gum and render the tluead 
pliable and elastic.*^ The skeins are slipped upon octagonal, ^vicker 
'swift' reels, a dozen or more of which revolve on an axis fastened on the 
legs of each table. A thread from each reel-skein passes upward over a 
smooth metal or glass rod, fijsed on the lateral edge of the table to its 
revohing bobbin, upon which it is wound. After this process the thread 
is guided between the contiguous edge of two sharp steel knives, resem- 
bling scissors, which cleans it of gummy lumps and clinging waste, to 
another bobbin. This i^rocess occasions considerable waste. The finer 
and more regular threads are now taken for making organzines, which 
are the waq>s of woven goods. Coarser threads are taken for trams or 
woofs. The most inferior are used for the mauufacture of sewing-silks. 
Loose and broken ends are corded like cotton and siiuu into tiuss for 
embroidery. The twisting or ' thi'owing ' process is done by passing 
the thread of raw silk from an upright bottom through the eye of a 
craned wire fiyer, which rapidly spins with the top of the bobbin revoJv- 
iag above. This thread is called a 'single,' and for organzines receives 
from twelve to nineteen twists to the inch. Organziues or trams ;ire 
made by twisting together two of these twisted threads in an opposite 
dii'ection to the former single twist, at the rate of fi'om ten to seventeen 
tiu'ns to the inch; the two threads having previously been wound paral- 
lel upon one bobbin. Organzines receive tight twisting, to induce 


Strength and elasticity. A swing of two twists to the inch sometimes 
saves live cents to the pound in the cost of labor, but may occasion 
greater loss in weaving. Two or three threads of raw silk twisted 
loosely two or four times to the inch is tram, shute, or woof. In weav- 
ing, the woof has little or no strain upon it, and it fills up the warp 
better by being soft and loose. The twist iu silk threads is set by 
dampening and diwing. Skein sewing- silk is made of three to ten threads 
twisted together, and two of these latter doubled. Sewing-machine 
silk is ti'ebly twisted. Button-hole twist is the same, with a tighter 
twist. Twists in the single threads of se^ring-siiks are ten to fifteen 
to the inch: and the doubled, eight to twelve. The organzines are 
reeled into skeins of one or two thousand yards each, care being taken 
to make them of the exact length, as that compared with their weight 
determines the quality of the goods to be woven. The American sew- 
ing-silk machine is a great improvement over the old-fashioned one. 
By the aid of a few girls, the former at once doubles and twists the silk, 
and reels it into skeins of equal length ; and it turns out one hundred 
and twenty-five pounds a week. The cost of throwing raw silk into 
organzines is four to five dollars per pound, a great proportion of that 
going to labor. Trams cost less. Alter weighing, the threads go to the 
dyer, who is charged with the weight ; also with the number of skeins. 
As the manutactiu'er knows how much of each color should be returned, 
little fraud or error can hapiieu. Up to the time the silk goes to the 
dyer, there is a loss of three to nine per cent, from cleaning, breaking, 
&c. It loses eighteen to twenty-live per cent, of the weight in dyeing 
by the boiling off of the worm gum, which is made up greatly by sur- 
charging with sugar or dye. In the dye-house the silk skeins are tied 
to prevent tangling, and boiled for foiu' or five hours in coarse linen bags, 
by which the hemi^y colors attain a luster. Yellowish colors are ' coun- 
teracted' to pure white by the use of a little blue dye. This white 
dyeing costs sixty cents a poimd — less than any other color. Of white 
colors the manufacturer receives back from the dyer twelve ounces 
for every pound. The aniline or bright colors cost 81 oO to 83 50 a 
pound to dye. The bright gTcens are the most expensive. They also 
retnrn twelve ounces to the pound. High colors are cheapened in the 
weight by the addition of three ounces of sugar to twelve of silk. Drabs 
and slate are dyed with sumac at a cost of a dollar a pound, and return 
fourteen ounces. Blacks are dyed with nitrate of iron and cutch, and 
also logwood, a bluish shade, esjiecially for velvets, being desirable. 
Blue-blacks retiu-n fomteen ounces ; plain blacks the full complement, 
losses being compensated by surcharging. Surcharging can be carried 
to the extent of trebling the weight of the silk. After dyeing, the 
skeins are dried on bars in a close-steamed room, and then liistered by 
passing over hot cylinders. Sewing-sUk is softened by wriugmg, and 
tied into skeins for sale. Trams and organzines are then rewound upon 
bobbins, and again rewound to give a proper tension to the thread 
before weaving. 


"Such is the extent to which the American trade has usually been 
carried, though pongees and foulards were woven in Connecticut, and rib- 
bons in Baltimore, twenty years ago. Dming the last ten years the manu- 
facture of ribbons has increased rai^idly. The Cheney Brothers, of Hart- 
ford, are making great quantities of parasol coverings ; the Dole Com- 
pany, at Paterson,X. J., are making tailors' trimmings, scarfs, and braids, 


Dexter, Lambert & Co., of the same city, make this season 3,000 yards 
of knotted fringes, and 2,500 yards of bullion fi'in.aes. per day, dri\-ing 
foreign goods ont of the market. The processes of trimming manufac- 
ture are too intricate and tedious for popular description. An examina- 
tion of the goods will show a delicately knotted thread, on a base of 
cotton wound with silk. Broad silks are woven upon the ])lain loom, 
and figiu^d ones upon the Jacquard. The oi>erations are deUcate and 
costly. To get the proper length of warp for i)ieco. and at the same time 
to lay a suflicient number of the warp threads together, amounting 
sometimes to o,0;!0 or G.OOO, the threads from a great nimiber of bobbins, 
rolling in a fi-ame like the old school counting-frame, are reeled back- 
ward and forward together on a large reel. These again are rewound 
upon a large drum to give them tension and lay them the right distance 
apart, the operation being afterward completed by passing each thread 
by hand Ix^tween the teeth of a large brass comb, and while they are 
stretched cleaning them by hand with small scissors. Narrow goods are 
woven upon a small adaptation of the plain or the Jacquard looms, a 
dozen or more of which are operated upon the same table. Watered 
goods are made by laying a piece of woven plain goods upon another, 
and passing them between iron cylinders, one heated, the tension and 
abrasion of the surfaces producing the wateretl etiect. In chine goods, 
the tigure is painted upon the close warp and woven in by the woof. 
" Shot" goods are woven with the warp oi one color, and the woof of 
another. For the best ribbons Italian wari^s are used. Bandannas and 
other loose goods are made of waste and cocoon covers, scutched, 
chopped, and spun like cotton. This '• spun" is also used l)y some Ameri- 
can manufacturers for the woofs of broad goods. The Mui'ray mill, at 
Paterson, was about to be used in this trade before it was recently 
burned. Inferior silks are i:)roduced altogether from " spun,^ but the 
latter, being loose in textui-e, is best if used as a woof, with a web of 
pure silk warp, when it makes a good article. 

"At the present time American silk fabiics are competing favorably with 
European goods, in braids and trimmings we have driven foreigners 
out of the market, and oiu- ribbons are purchased as freely as theirs. 
But it is with broad silks that the manufacturer will exiierimeut. and 
produce, and succeed , during the- next ten years. P. G. Gi venaud. of West 
Hoboken, X. J., and John X. Sterns, of First Avenue, New York, now 
turn out respectively several thousand yards of ^toa* grain silks per week, 
which no man in the trade can tell from the best imported articles, and 
which retail on Broadway for $5 per yard. With the present tarill" of 
sixt^' per cent. American manufactmer.s can throw and weave silk goods 
at a profit ot fifteen i>er cent. There are now in Philadelphia tliu'ty trim- 
ming factories, those of Graham, Horstmann, (carriage and military 
trimmings.) and Hensel & Cornet, being the largest. At Hartford and 
South Manchester, Conn., the Cheney Brothers, who have been engaged 
in the business for thirty years, emjiloy 1,000 hands, and have the follow- 
ing capacity per annum: 00,000 pounds of thrown silk, 00,000 pounds of 
•' iiatent spmi." 100,000 iiieces of belt ribbons, and 000,000 yards of wide 
goods, comiirising dress silks, gros grains, poplins, foulards, and pongees. 
The Dole Manufacturing Company, which, in ISCo, built at Paterson, 
N. J., a mill probably as large as any in Europe, having a mean length 
of 37o feet, and a height of four stories, turn out 3,00<.) pounds of manu- 
factured threads per month, 1,000 gross of silk bra.ids. GOO gross of hat 
bands, and 3,300 yards of serge, performing within the mill every oper- 
ation necessary to produce the goods from the raw thread, and employ- 
ing 300 hands, mostly children of Paterson machinists. John N. Stems, 


of New York, is making 400 yards of woven goods per day, find 31. Give- 
nand over 300. Dexter, Lambert & Co., at Paterson, N. J., make 
G0,000 to 75,000 yards of tli'ess trimmings per month, and during tlie 
•past spring season, manufactured 12,000 dozen yards of bullion trim- 
mings. Hamil & Booth's Passaic Mill, beside making trams and organ- 
zines, is employed in the manufacture of dress goods. Nearly all" the 
Paterson mills are engaged in this specialty, the Dole Company having 
introduced a large number of improved American looms ; and the 
Murray mill, which was burned in May, but will be rebuilt, will be 
employed in weaving broad goods of net warps and " spun" fillings. 
American dyers are succeeding in producing as fine shades of color as 
the French. Claude Greppo, at Paterson, y»ith thii-ty-five dyers, some 
of them from France, is daily turning out 350 pounds of dyed silk, the 
colors of which are equal to any producd at Lyons or Saint Etienne. The 
American velvet mill started at Paterson a few years ago failed. New 
York City contains probably fifty establishments for various grades of 
the manufacture ; many of them are small. At Schenectady, Troy, and 
Yonkers, are also several mills. Paterson is the headquarters of the 
tiade and contains fifteen factories. The operatives are mostly children 
of mechanics, the majoritj' of them girls, who earn from $1 to 67 per 
week. Li the trimming and wea^ing mills, skdlfd operatives brought 
from Lyons receive as much as 835 a week for piece work during the 
spring season, and girls trained to the labor can earn 89 and 810 a week. 
Some of the mills in Connecticut and Hoboken employ operatives, as in 
Europe, to take the materials and weave the goods at home." 


The annual production of raw silk is estimated at 8211,000,000, oi 
which America is credited with a mere trifle at present ; but twenty 
years will probably make a great change. Eighty years ago the viilue 
of the silk goods manufactiu-ed annually in France was 85,000,000; now 
it is $150,000,000. The silk industry has not made so much progress in 
Germany, Spain, or Italy, yet it has*^ also made gTcat advances in those 
countries, and it i)romises to make great advances here. 

This manufacture is so gTeat and profitable, and is extending so 
rapidly, that the people of the United States should make their best 
etibrts to get possession of a part of it. 


The breeding of the silk-worm in California has been commenced so 
extensively, and so profitably, and there is so much probability of its 
rapid extension, that it is already regarded as one of the most promising 
industries and important resources of the State. It has thus become an 
interestmg branch of our national agriculture, and a i)roper subject for 
study by those who desire to keep pace with the material progress of the 
country. It pays well, and carries with it many branches of manufac- 
tures which require costly machinery, high mechanical skill, and artistic 
labor, all of which will contribute to enrich the nation. The br.siuessis 
capable of great development. The market has never yet been over- 
stocked, nor is it likely that it ever wiU be, so long as it is fashionable 
to wear the textile fabrics now in use. The best raw silk sells readily 
for its weight in silver, and France obtains seven times as much money 
from her cocooneries and silk factories as Mexico does from her mines. 



Among the pioueer settlers of California "svas Louis Prevost, an en- ^ 
thtisiastic Frenebmaii, vrho bad bred tbe silk-worm iu bis native coun-* 
try. Soon after establisbing bimself iu tbe valley of Santa Clara, be 
became convinced tbat tbe climate and country were peculiarly adapted 
to tbe production of silk ; so be imported mulberry seed, made a nursery, 
and set out some of tbe trees in a plantation, ])ut liad mucb difficulty 
in getting live eggs. He succeeded in interesting Hemy Hentscb, a 
Swiss banker, in bis scbemes ; and tbat gentleman, in 1S37, imported a 
lot of eggs, all of wbicb were dead, or were batcbed on tbe voyage, and 
tbe worms died before reacbing California. Anotber shipment tbe next 
year shared tbe same fate. In tbe third shipment a few eggs arrived in 
good order, and, in 18C0, Mr. Prevost bad tbe delight of seeing himself 
in possession of California cocoons, which, in size, luster, color, and 
every desiral)lc quality, were far superior to the average of the European 
cocoons. Altliougb be had not given half so much time to tbe worms 
as is given in Prance, they were all very healthy, and he did not hesitate 
to advise all his friends to go into tbe silk business as a source of i^rofit. 
Unfortunately, after bavbig failed for several years iu his attempts to get 
live eggs, be bad dug up most of bis mulberry trees, so that he was not 
prepared to feed many woims, and, besides, be bad not enough money 
or tbe credit to justify him iu devoting himself entirely to an occupation 
which would not give him a return for several years. His progress was, 
therefore, slovr. In tbe fall of 18G0 he bad 5U0 eggs ; be becau the Year 
1862, with 2.000: 1863, with 3,000; 186i, with about the same number, 
and 1865, with 100,000. 


Within the last three years the increase has been gi-eat, more than 
3,000,000 worms havmg been bred in 18G8. At the State fair, held at 
Sacramento in September last, twenty-eight persons exhibited cocoons, 
and the places represented were San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara, 
Santa Cruz, Hornitos, San Gabriel, Los Angeles, Nevada, Placerville, 
and Portland, (3regon. The cocoons were of several varieties, including 
tbe new French, old French, white Jai^anese, green Japanese, Chinese, 
Turkish, yellow Portuguese, white Portuguese, yellow Mouutam, Val- 
reas, white Oak, and viild California — varieties most of which are of 
no practical value, tbe old French being equal iu tbe heaUbiuess of the 
worms, and superior in tbe quantity and quality of tbe sillc fiber, to any 
other. Among tbe exhibitors were J. N. JJoag, of Yolo County, three 
miles from Sacramento, who bred 1,000,000 vrorms, in 1868; "\V. M. Haynie, 
of Sacrameuto, who bred 800,000 ; Louis Prevost, of San Jose, who bred 
.300,000; G. E. Goux, and A. Packard, of Santa Barbara. 100,000 each: 
D. F. Hall, of San Gabriel, 200,000; aud Mr. Garev, of Los Angeles^ 
20,000. The gentleman last named expects to feed 100,000 in 1869 ; 
and many others will double and treble their i)roductiou. The main 
obstacle to ])rogress, at present, is the scarcity of mulberry trees ; but 
plants gTOw so ra})idly in Cabibrnia that, v»ben the cutu-e agTicultural 
population is satislied that the breeding of the silk-worm will pay better 
than auythiug else, the production of cocoons can be raised to a very 
large figure iu :i few years. It is probable, from arrangements and pre- 
parations tbat are now l)eing made, and from opi^iions exi)ressed by silk- 
growers, that the number of cocoons vdll double annually, for several 


years to come'. This xtould give 6,000,000, in 1869 ,' 12,000,000, in 1870 ; 
and 24,000,000, in 1871. It is supposed that there will be enough mul- 
berry trees to feed so many, but this may be an erroneous supposition. 
Hitherto the business has been profitable, or at least since 1865. The 
eggs have commanded a ready sale, at $8 or 810 per ounce, until last 
summer, when the price fell to $1 ; now $12 are demanded, but this is 
too much. When the Pacific railroad is done, oflering speedy convey- 
ance, in a cold climate, to Europe, the price will probably be not less 
than SG. Heretofore, the shipment of eggs to Europe has been accom- 
panied by much loss, because many were hatched or killed by the heat 
of the tropics. Even at $4 per ounce, however, the business will be 


Under the most favorable circumstances, in California the Bomhyx 
mori requires about fifty-five days to complete the course of its existence ; 
four days in the egg ; thirty-five in the caterpillar ; twelve in the chry- 
salis ; and four in the moth form. The circimistances favorable to the 
development of the animal are a dry, warm, and quiet atmosphere in 
all the stages, and an abundance of wholesome food in addition, in the 
caterpillar stage; for, in that condition it takes all its nourishment. 
Neither the chrysalis nor the moth ever eats anything. 

The life of the caterpillar is divided into four i)eriods by moltings, 
at each of which it eats nothing for a day, and creeps out of its skin, 
coming out Adth a new dress. The first molting occurs on the fifth day, 
the second on the eighth, the third on the thirteenth, and the fourth on 
the twenty-second. 

The eggs may be kept for a year in a cold place, and the caterpillar 
may live for four or five months, if the weather is cool and the food 
scanty or of poor quality. In Hindostan, silk-worms have been known 
to rmi through the circle of life in forty days, and in France the average 
period is about sixty-five days. The time spent in the chrysalis is from 
twelve to fourteen days in Cahforuia; from eighteen to twenty in Hin- 
dostan, and from twenty to twentj'-five in France. 


An acre should support from 700 to 1,000 mulberry-trees, and, when 
four years old, they should produce 5,000 pounds of leaves to the acre ; 
that is, 5,000 pounds suitable for feeding, and, during feeding time, with- 
out injury to the tree. Those leaves should feed at least 140,000 worms, 
which will produce 70,000 female moths, and these will lay 300 eggs 
^ach, or 21,000,000 in all. After deducting 5,000,000 for possible loss, 
we have 16,000,000 eggs, or 400 ounces for sale, or 81,600 per acre. In 
France the expense of breeding 75,000 worms, iucludiug the cost of the 
eggs, $6, the leaves, 828, the lalior of two persons for forty days, 864, 
fire, 84, and incidental expenses, 810, amounts to 8112. ]Mr. Prevost says 
that one person can do all the work in California for 75,000 worms, and 
rhe expense to the farmer who has his own eggs and mulberry planta- 
tion should not exceed 81 per ounce of eggs. At 84 per ounce an acre 
would thus yield 81,200 net. At 82 i^er ounce, the common price in 
France for French eggs, the net yield would be 8400 per acre. Skillful 
French silk-growers expect to get 8800 from an acre of mulberry plant- 
ation. "We have followed the best authorities in stating that 5,000 
pounds of leaves wiU feed 140,000 worms, but some writers say 5,000 


pounds to 70,000 worms ; and tlieir statements must not be left out of cal- 
culations. Let us now consider tbe i)rofit that may be derived fi-om the 
sale of the cocoons. The acre will produce 140,000 worms, or, allowing- 
35,000 for loss, 105,000 cocoons, which will weigh 420 pounds, and be 
worth $3 per pound, or 81,200 in all. At present prices the production 
of the eggs is the more profitable occupation for Californians, but they 
should enter the business prepared for the worst contingency within the 
range of reasonable probability. 


It is not likely, however, that the x)rice of California eggs will fall below 
$5 per ounce. Europe is no longer able to supply itself. The worms in 
France, Italy, Turkey, and all the countries within a thousand miles of 
the Mediterranean, are diseased. Xeither pi'cventive nor remedy has 
been found. Thiers said, in a speech in the Corps Lerjislatif, that the 
annual loss to France by the disease is 820,000,000. 

The Revue UniverscUc de Sericulture says the production of cocoons in 
France has fallen, on account of the malady, from 25,000,000 to 4,000,000 
kilograms.* This pest has raged for twelve years, and has been 
growing worse and worse. The ablest chemists and entomologists have 
failed to discover the cause or the cure. If Europe coidd not import 
eggs, there would be imminent danger that her silk production would 
come to an end 5 and serious fears have been expressed that the disease 
will spread to other countries where worms are bred, and that the silk 
manufacture will become one of the lost or abandoned arts. 


At present, France and Italy rely mainly for their sui^ply of healthy 
eggs on Japan. Every year about fifty Italians, and half as many 
Frenchmen, go to Yokohama to purchase eggs, and pay from 81 50 to 
$6 per ounce for them 5 and the total amount of their purchases, in 18G7, 
was 800,000 ounces, averaging $2 50 per ounce; in 1808 the quantity 
was twice as large, and the average price per ounce about the same. 
Yokohama is the main market for the sale of Bombyx eggs to Euro- 
peans, but something is also done at Osaka and Hakodadi. Kioto \\ 
the chief center of the Japanese silk trade, which has received a great 
stimulus from foreign intercourse, the price of silk having doubled, and 
the production increased twenty-five per cent, within the last ten years. 
For a time the eggs were sent from Japan by way of the Isthmus of 
Suez, but, since the establishment of the China mail steamer line, they 
have commenced to come by way of San Francisco and Panama ; and, so 
soon as the Pacific raih'oad is done, they will cross the continent, so as 
not to leave tlie temperate zone, the loss being great in proportion to 
the heat and length of time spent in the tropics. 


California luiist compete with Japan, and can do it successfully. It 
is admitted that the California cocoons are superior to the Japanese ; 
they are worth one hundred and fifty per cent, more per pound ; the 
eggs are more healthy, therefore they will command a higher price. 
The climate is more favorable, the production larger, and land cheaper. 

*A kilogram is equal to 2.204737 pounds avoirdupois. 



Climate is a matter of vast importance to tlie silk-worm, and in no coun- 
try Trhere much silk is gTown is it so favorable as in California. The 
first point is temperature. The worm needs a warmth of So"^ for hatch- 
ing, 730 while feeding, and 60^ while spinning. These temperatures 
are not indispensable, but they are the best. The following table shows 
the temperatme of every month, at various points in the United States, 
and at certain cities in silk districts of the old world : 






. 1 


















Saa Francisco 











































Fort Miller 





Fort HaU 

Salt Lake CitT 


Fort Dtfiauee 



Santa F^ 










Ch . cago 









Canton and Milan are the two chief centers of silk production men- 
tioned in the foregoing table, and they difLer considerably in the matter 
of temperature. The former has a winter av^jraging i-i^ and a summer of 
80^ ; while the latter has a winter of 00^, and a summer of 72°. The sum- 
mer should not be below OoO ; ami, therefore, San Francisco, Humboklt 
Bay, and Monterey are not adapted to the Bomhyx. All of California, 
however, except a strij) within fifteen miles of ihe ocean, from Point Con- 
ception to Cape Mendocino, and forty miles wide noith of Mendocino, 
and the mountains more than three thousaud feet above the sea, is suit- 
able for the siik-worm. The temperature, though not warm enough in 
the open air at some places, becomes so in a garret upon which the 
rays of the sun beat during the day. The worms thrive best, other 
things being equal, in a place where the thermometer reaches G5° in 
Maj-, and stands about 75° in June and July, as it does at Los Angeles, 
and in nearly all parts of the Sacramento Basin. 


The next point, in connection with climate, is the amount of rain-faU 



in spring and summer. Tlie following table gires the number of inches, 
at different points, with their altitude and latitude : 


; In. 

San Francisco 

Benl' a I 

S;icrainento ! 

}ImalH.](lt Bar 

Monterey ' 

S.II1 Diego