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Full text of "Report of the commissioners appointed under an order of the City council, of March 16, 1837, to devise a plan for supplying the city of Boston with pure water"

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REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



APPOINT£D DNDBR AN OfiDBR OF THE CITV COUNCIL, OF 



MARCH 16, 1837, 



TO DEVISE A PLAN FOR SUPPLYING 



CITY OF BOSTON 



PURE WAT E 



BOSTON : 

JOHN H. EASTBURN, CITY PRINTER, 

No. 18 State Street. 

1837. 



City Council, Mv. 23, 1837. 

The Committee on the introduction of Pure Water into the 
City, who were instructed to request the Commissioners on that 
subject to report as speedily as might be, have the pleasure now 
to present the report of those Commissioners to the City 
Council. 

Accompanying the report is a statement by one of the Com- 
missioners of his objections to the plan recommended by the 
majority. 

Respectfully submitted, 

SAML. A. ELIOT, Chairman. 



REPORT. 



The Commissioners appointed to examine the sources from 
which a supply of pure water can be obtained, and the best means 
of introducing and distributing the same to tiie inhabitants of the 
City, respectfully present to the City Council, through the Stand- 
ing Committee on Water, a detailed Report of their proceedings 
specifying the plan which they deem it expedient for the City to 
adopt, with particular estimates of the cost of the same. 



It seemed important to us on the outset of our inquiry, to de- 
termine the quantity of water required for a full supply for all 
purposes to which it can be usefully applied. 

We found considerable difficulty in forming a satisfactory opin- 
ion upon this subject. 1st, on account of the uncertainty of the 
data for computing the average quantity of water required by 
each family, the difference in the habits of the people of differ- 
ent cities, not admitting of any general rule for determining the 
proper measure of supply. 2d, on account of the rapid increase, 
though at unequal rates, in the population of Boston. 

We believe that it is a common opinion amongst householders 
who are now possessed of wells and cisterns for rain water, that 
80 gallons of water a day, for each family, are sufficient for all 
domestic uses. On turning however to the quantity supplied by 
waterworks in cities where such works are established, it will be 
found that a larger quantity than this is used in the dwelh'ng 
houses. Thus the eight water companies of London, in 1833, 
supphed 36,790,000 imperial gallons to 196,492 tenants, or 187 
gallons to each tenant daily. 

In Philadelphia, the average daily supply in 1836, was 3,122,- 
664 beer gallons to 19,678 tenants, or 160 gallons to each tenant, 
Of these, 13,632 tenants reside in the city, and the remaining 



4 

6,046, in the incorporated districts adjoining the city. The 
above supply in both London and Philadelphia, includes all the 
water used for watering the streets, extinguishing fires, and all 
other purposes, those taking the water f6r manufactories, brew- 
eries, baths, and stables, being included under the general name 
of tenants. Still however, as the greater proportion of the ten- 
ants are formed of families, it seems evident that much more than 
80 gallons are used by each family. 

The popylation of London in 1831, was 1,521,436, probably 
in 1833, it was 1,550,000. The supply of water then was 23^ 
imperial gallons, equal to 27| wine gallons to an inhabitant. The 
population of London depends almost exclusively upon the water 
companies for a supply, and this supply is generally considered 
as sufficient in amount. 

If therefore we take for the supply of Boston, a quantity pro- 
portionate to that of London, according to its inhabitants, it 
would seem that we shall not fall below the requisite quantity. 
This will give Boston, containing about 80,000 inhabitants, 
2,220,000 wine gallons daily, on its present population, provided 
that the water were at once taken as generally as it is taken in 
London. 

In Philadelphia, the supply in 1836 was, for the city alone, 
13,632 tenants, 160 beer gallons, equal to 194 wine gallons 
each ; 2,644,608 wine gallons. The population of the city of 
Philadelphia was in 180,380,462. In 1836, it was probably 
93,000. The supply therefore was 28| wine gallons to each in- 
habitant. This exceeds in a very small degree, the average 
quantity furnished in London, and we have adopted it as the basis 
on which our calculations for the supply of Boston are founded. 

The population of this city, now 80,000, has doubled within 
the last twenty years, and has nearly twice doubled within forty 
years. Within the last seven years, the increase has been even 
more rapid than at any preceding period of the same duration. 
There is no particular reason to anticipate a material check of 
this increase for a long time to come. It will therefore be ex- 
pedient to adopt a system of works for a supply of water to the 
city, which shall be adapted to the prospective demand, which 
will arise from an increase of population ; either by the establish- 
ment of works commensurate with such supply, or by adopting a 



plan of supply which shall admit of future enlargement. We 
may fairly anticipate that in five years from the present time, the 
population requiring a supply of water will be 87,000. This at 
28| gallons each, will require 2,500,000 gallons daily, and at the 
end often years, the population being taken at 105,000, will re- 
quire 3,000,000 gallons daily. 

With these views of the increase of the city, we have thought 
it necessary to provide, in our designs for works, for an immedi- 
ate supply of 1,600,000 gallons daily, to be extended in five 
years, to 2,500,000, and at the end of ten years, to 3,000,000 
gallons daily. 

Before entering upon an examination of external sources, from 
which this supply of water may be obtained, it might be expect- 
ed that we should have instituted an inquiry into the practicability 
of obtaining it by any form of well within the city. An opinion 
prevails, it is believed somewhat extensively, that a full supply 
of water may be obtained from wells, commonly. called Artesian 
Wells, formed by boring to a great depth. Within the last ten 
years, a large number of these wells have been formed in many 
places, some of them yielding water of greater purity than the 
common shallow wells, but in no instance in which an analysis has 
been made, to our knowledge, equalling the most impure of the 
pond or river waters, from which it has ever been proposed to 
supply the city. It does not appear important to us to enter up- 
on the question of the possibihty of obtaining 2,000,000 gallons 
of water daily, from any number of wells of this kind, because if 
it could be so obtained, even from as small a number as twenty 
of these wells, the difficulty and cost of raising and distributing it 
to the inhabitants, must be much greater than that which will be 
incurred, by bringing purer water from any of the neighboring 
ponds or rivers, and distributing it by the same means to the citi- 
zens. We do not intend by this to give any opinion unfavorable 
to Artesian Wells, as useful works for obtaining small supplies of 
water, to be used in the vicinity of the well, especially in dis- 
tricts not much elevated above the level of the sea, while such 
districts continue unsupplied by an aqueduct or other waterworks. 
Beyond this, we think they offer nothing worthy the attention of 
the city government or the inhabitants. 

Such being our deliberate conviction of the insufficiency of 



6 



any means of obtaining a supply from any source within the city, 
we proceeded to an examination of the rivers and ponds in the 
vicinity. 

These are as follows : 



Names of Pond a and 


Situated in 


Acres in 


Feet above high 


Miles from State 


Rivers. 




Area. 


water. 


House. 


Spot, 


Stoneham, 


283 


143,01 


8 


Reading, 


South Reading, 


276 


about 50 


12 


Horn and Wedge, 


Woburn, 


123 




10 


Mystic, 


Medford, 


228 




7 


Spy and Little, 


West Cambridge, 


140 




6 


Fresh, 


Cambridge, 


180 




5 


Waltham, 


Waltham, 


52 


189,67 


11 


Sandy, 


Lincoln, 


152 


219,95 


15 


Morse's, 


Needham, 


20 


109 


15 


Buliard's, 


Do. 


35 


101,64 


15 


Long, 


Natick, 


600 


123,52 


18 


Farm, 


Framingham, 


193 


144,98 


21 


Shakum, 


Do. 


89 


150,62 


22 


Farm, 


Sherburne, 


160 


• 


19 


Baptist, 


Newton, 


33 


138,99 


9 


Punkapaug, 


Canton, 


217 


144,77 


13 


Massapaug, 


Sharon, 






22 


Great Pond, 


Weymouth, 






20 


Charles River, 










Neponset do. 











Of the above, Spy Pond, Waltham Pond, Sandy Pond, 
Morse's Pond, Buliard's Pond, Farm Pond, in Framingham, 
Shakum Pond, Farm Pond, in Sherburne, and Baptist Pond, 
were at once perceived to be singly, insufficient for a supply, 
while Massapaug Pond is too distant, compared with other sour- 
ces, to be rendered available. We likewise rejected Reading 
Pond on account of its distance, combined with want of elevation, 
and Weymouth Great Pond, on account of its distance and the 
dark color of its water. Our subsequent examination was there- 
fore confined to Spot Pond, Long Pond, Punkapaug Pond, 
Mystic Pond, which receives the waters of Horn, Wedge and 
Winter Ponds, Fresh Pond, Neponset River and Charles River. 
Of these, the three first, are so elevated that their waters may be 
brought directly to Boston, through proper artificial channels, 
without any expenditure for the erection and maintenance of 
pumps and other machinery, while the four last can only be made 
to yield a supply to the highest parts of the city, by the applica- 



tioa of exti'aneous power, capable of elevating such supply, at 
least 100 feet. On arranging the sources into these two classes, 
we were enabled, on comparing those of the second class, one 
with another, to reject Fresh Pond, as having no superiority 
over Mystic Pond, except in distance, which is much more than 
compensated by the supply from Mystic Pond greatly exceeding 
that of Fresh Pond, it being sufficient for any prospective in- 
crease of the city. 

Considering it highly important that the purity of any source 
recommended should be placed beyond a question, we procured 
analyses of all those not rejected, for reasons heretofore given, 
except Mystic Pond, from Mr. Hays, of the Chemical works in 
Roxbury. 

The following table exhibits the foreign matters contained in 
these waters according to this analysis. The 6th, 7th, and Sth 
columns show the result of the analysis of Dr. Charles T. Jack- 
son, of several of the same waters, and likewise that of Mystic 
Pond. 



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*Dr. Jackson says in a second trial, " Tiie water contains a trace of sulphate of lime, but I am 
not decided whether the oxide of iron exists in the state of carbonate, or in combination with the 
organic matter. It will require that a very large quantity of water should be operated upon to set- 
tle this question." 

t Another specimen taken from outlet of Lake, was examined which was free from color, floeculi, 
and animalculi. Speeifio gravity same as above, but yields somewhat less vegetable matter. 



9 

Although there is some want of agreement between the twa 
analyses, owing probably to the different seasons in which the 
specimens were taken, they both show that all these waters, 
except those from the Artesian Wells, are very nearly pure. 
Chemical analysis, however, is not yet sufficiently perfect to 
determine several important qualities of the foreign substances 
found in water. Thus the color and taste which these substan- 
ces give to water, are in a great degree beyond the reach of anal- 
ysis as now practised, and can only be determined ]ij the senses, 
and yet these properties are more important in the character of 
water than the presence of a little oxygen or inert earthy mat- 
ter. To form an opinion of the relative clearness and trans- 
parency of the different waters, we have compared them repeat- 
edly with each other, and with numerous specimens obtained 
from distant places, in well arranged lights, and we have found 
them to stand in the following order, in their freedom from colory 
the most transparent being placed at the head of the list. 
Spot Pond. 
Long Pond. 
Punkapaug Pond. 
Mystic Pond. 
Charles River. 
Neponset River. 

In taste they present no marked differences, all being nearly 
insipid. 

There is apparently no route by which the water of Punka- 
paug Pond, can be brought directly to Bostosp, by a structure 
which shall be less expensive than will be required to bring the 
supply from Long Pond, while the water of the latter is more 
abundant in quantity and of better quality in color and taste. 
We therefore rejected Punkapaug Pond from further examina- 
tion, considering Long Pond as a more favorable source. 

Furthermore, on a comparison of the water oi^ the Neponset 
with the Charles, as the former river presented no peculiarity in 
distance, height or chemical purity, commanding a preference to 
the latter, and as the water of the Charles appeared more clear 
and colorless than that of the Neponset, we determined that it 
ought to be preferred, and consequently abandoned all further ex- 
amination of the Neponset as a source of supply. 



10 

It will be seen by the preceding statement that we have thus, by 
rejecting several of the sources first enumerated from our inquiry, 
narrowed the necessary examination to the following. 

Spot Pond, Long Pond, Mystic Pond, and Charles River, 
the two first being preferable to all others which we have placed 
in the class not requiring elevation by artificial means, and the 
two last as preferable to all others if such means are to be resort- 
ed to. 

To decide the question of preference between these four 
sources, requires a more particular description of each. Spot 
Pond in Stoneham, 8 miles from Boston, contains 283 acres, as 
appears from a survey made by J. Sargent for Messrs. G. & T. 
Odiorne, who are the owners of the outlet of the pond. This 
quantity, however, includes a large tract of low meadow which is 
covered by water only when the pond is nearly full. The water 
of this pond is less colored than any water in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton, except Jamaica Pond, and Baptist Pond, and it is of great 
chemical purity. The water therefore is unexceptionable. The 
surface of the water in this pond when level with the waste- 
way or wier, is 143.01 feet above tide water, while its distance 
is but 10 7-10 miles on the shortest route by which it would 
be advisable to lay a pipe. With the exception of a short ridge 
near the pond all high land may be avoided between Boston and 
the pond, and an iron pipe laid between these two points without 
the cost of deep cutting. By this means the water of Spot Pond 
may be brought to Boston and delivered at the summit of Beacon 
Hill by a permanent work with the utmost certainty. These ad- 
vantages over all other waters wculd have decided us in favor of 
this pond as a source of supply, were the quantity of water which 
is coUeced in it yearly, sufficient, not only for the immediate 
wants of the citizens, but for such an increase as will certainly be 
demanded in u few years by .the increase of the population. 

Various estimates have been made of the quantity of water 
which may be drawn from this pond yearly, but none of them ap- 
pear to have been founded upon such well ascertained data as 
entitle them to confidence. Perceiving at the commencement of 
our examination the importance of determining this question ac- 
curately and definitely, we constructed and placed upon the out- 
let of the pond an apparatus capable of measAiring the discharge 



n 

with all the exactness that can be desired. Observations have 
been made with this apparatus, three times a day from May 4th 
to October 2d and once a day since that time, These, with ob- 
servations made upon the height of the pond above the wier or 
wasteway, from the 31st of March to the 4th of May, from which 
we have by our subsequent observations estimated the discbarge 
during that time, have enabled us to form an accurate account of > 
the discharge from the 31st of March to the 3d of November. 
During this time, 217 days, the discharge has been 4 ^ cubic 
feet per second, and the pond has subsided in the same time 56 
inches, or its surface on the 3d of November, was 56 inches be- 
low the point at which it stood on the 31st of March. We la- 
ment exceedingly that the necessity of completing this report 
prevents us from obtaining, for our guide, in forming an opinion 
of the discharge of this pond, the observations of a full year. In 
the absence of this guide however we have endeavored to form 
an estimate, from the facts already before us, of the amount at 
which the yearly discharge may be fairly taken. A full account 
of our observations and mode of estimating the supply of Spot 
Pond is herewith transmitted in a separate form (marked A). 
By this it will be seen that we are of opinion that Spot Pond 
may be relied upon to furnish an average of 2,100,000 gallons a 
day, — that the discharge may be taken as never falling below 
1,600,000 gallons, — and may never be expected to exceed 
2,600,000 gallons a day. 

With these results we cannot therefore recommend to the City 
Council to erect works for the supply of the city depending en- 
tirely, for the future as well as the present, upon Spot Pond as 
a source. We shall hereafter show however, that by combining 
with the pipe from this pond, steam engines and pumps, taking a 
supply from Mystic Pond, an abundance of water not only for 
the present but for an extended period in the future naay be ob- 
tained. 

Passing from this for the present, we proceed to an account 
of our examination of Long Pond. 

Long Pond is three or four miles in length, and is about a mile 
easterly from Sudbury or Concord River, into which its waters 
are discharged just below the mills at Saxonville. The distance 
of this Pond from Boston, by the line which we have had sur- 



12 

veyed for an aqueduct, is 20 miles 1043 feet. It is 123.52 feet 
above the level of the sea at full tide. The water of this pond is 
nearly as colorless as that of Spot Pond, and although the chemi- 
cal analysis show it to be more impure than Spot Pond, we 
think its impurity, is not so great as to render it in any consider- 
able degree objectionable. 

If this pond be taken as a source of supply, it will be necessa- 
ry to increase the height of the dam at its outlet, for the pur- 
pose of reserving the greater part of the water which would other- 
wise be discharged during the winter and spring, and by this 
means securing a supply, to be drawn during the summer and 
autumn. We have not kept an account of the flow from this 
pond with the care and accuracy that the account of Spot Pond 
has been kept, because we have never entertained the same 
doubt of its sufficiency for a supply. An apparatus was placed 
upon the outlet however, on the 24ih day of July last and ob- 
servations have since been made daily. Before that time, to the 
17th of April, such measures and guages were taken as have 
enabled us to estimate the discharge from the last named period 
to the 1st of the present November. A full account of these 
observations and of the calculations founded upon them is here- 
with transmitted, (marked B). From these we conclude, that 
by raising the dam at the outlet of Long Pond and reserving 
the water collected in it during the winter and spring, a discharge 
may be obtained from it of 13| cubic feet per second or 8,743,- 
680 galloMs a day through the year. 

Mystic Pond situated in Medford, is 7 miles from Boston by 
way of Medford turnpike and 9 miles from the same place, by a 
line over the Mill-dam and through Cambridge, by which a pipe 
may be laid for conveying its water to a reservoir on Beacon 
Hill. This pond contains 228 acres, and its surface is nearly 
on a level with the sea at high water in ordinary tides. The wa- 
ter of this pond is somewhat less transparent and more colored 
than those of Spot or Long Ponds, while the chemical analysis 
shOiVys it to contain but a very minute portion of foreign matter, 
h^ing more pure than Long Pond, and less pure than Spot Pond. 
It may be taken therefore as of sufficiently good quality for alj 
the purposes of life. As the Mystic receives all the water col- 
lected in an extensive basin, comprising within its limits Horn 



13 

Pond and several smaller ponds with various brooks and water 
courses, die quantity of water which flows from it, is not in any 
degree indicated by the size of the pond. We have examined 
the outlet at various times during the summer and have found the 
flow from it constant and abundant when not interrupted by the 
rise of Mystic River, which at spring tides flows back into the 
pond. This would require to be cut off by a dam thrown across 
the outlet of the pond. Were means adopted for saving the wa- 
ter which flows into the Mystic, we have reason to believe that 
a sufficient supply for the present century may be obtained from 
it. The only practicable means by which water from this pond 
can be brought to Boston, is by forcing it through an iron pipe 
by pumps driven by the steam engine. 

The last source to which we proposed calling your attention 
is Charles River, taken above the lower dam in Watertowti. 
We have found the water of this river more colored than that of 
Spot Pond, Long Pond, or Mystic Pond. The chemical analy- 
sis however shows it to be a very pure water. Notwith?tanding 
this we consider the pretence of coloring matter as a serious, 
though not an insuperable objection. The opinion has been of- 
ten expressed that the Charles is rendered very impure by filth 
from the various mills upon its course. The amount of this, is 
exceedingly minute when diffused through the river, and the same" 
objection may be made, though in a less degree, to all ponds the 
borders of which are inhabited, or which are frequented by cat- 
tle. We are of opinion therefore, that this ought not to be taken 
as seriously affecting the quality of the v;ater of Charles River. 
For the quantity of water furnished by this river it may be con- 
sidered as abundant for the supply of the city, for more than the 
present century, as it seems to be well ascertained that the flow 
by the Waltham Mills, is equal to 40 cubic feet a second con- 
stantly, in the dryest seasons. To obtain a supply from this 
source, the water, like that of Mystic Pond, must be elevated by 
pumping. As the flow of this river however, is at all times be- 
yond the quantity required for the present wants of the city, 
and during a considerable part of the year greatly beyond 
that quantity, the question arises whether this surplus water 
may not be used at the falls in Watertown, as a power to elevate 
the supply required by the inhabitants of the city. An estimate 



14 

of the cost for furnishing a supply in this way, using steam only 
so far as shall be required in the driest season and likewise an 
estimate of the cost of obtaining a supply by means of steam 
power alone, will be found with the papers herewith transmitted 
(marked C). 

By this it will be seen that there is no essential difference in 
the cost of the two methods, and considering the greater ex- 
tension of the works by the former mode, and the consequent 
perplexity to the city government in their supervision, we are of 
poinion that a preference ought to be given to works depending 
upon steam power alone. Still however, should the City Coun- 
cil determine to obtain a supplyfrom Charles River, this would 
be a proper subject for a more exact scrutiny. 

With this general outline of the sources from which a supply 
of water may be obtained we proceed to lay before you four 
distinct plans, with estimates in sufficient detail, of each plan, to 
enable you to decide which it will be expedient to adopt. 

1st, a plan for pumping a supply by Steam power from Charles 
River to a reservoir to be formed on Corey's Hill in Brook- 
line, 117 feet above tide water, from which it may be brought in 
an iron pipe to Boston. 

2d, a plan for pumping a supply from Mystic Pond by Steam 
power to a reservoir to be formed on Walnut tree Hill, near the 
Royall farm in Medford, at an elevation of 126 feet above tide 
water, from which it may be brought through Cambridge to 
Boston. 

3d, a plan for bringing the water of Spot Pond to the reser- 
voir before named on Walnut tree Hill, and combining with 
this, a plan for pumping, by steam power, to the same reservoir, 
from Mystic Pond, such quantity as shall be required to render 
the supply sufficient by these means whenever Spot Pond shall 
fail to yield a sufficiency ; the whole to be brought in an iron 
pipe through Cambridge to Boston. 

4th, a plan for bringing a full supply from Long Pond by a 
close covered conduit, formed of stone or brick, and terminating 
at the before named reservoir to be formed on Corey's Hill, from 
thence to be brought to the city by an iron pipe. 

We wish to observe with regard to these several plans and 
estimates, that the time devoted to making the examinations of 



15 

the route to Long Pond, together with the estimates for this, and 
for the distribution of the water in Boston, has prevented our 
giving that attention to the estimates on the three first plans 
which we could have desired, before presenting them to the city 
government. We believe, however that they are all sufficiently 
near the truth, to guide the city government in their choice. 

We proceed to describe these several plans in such details as 
is necessary, to have them well understood, and to give general 
abstracts of the estimates of the cost of the works required to 
carry either of the plans into operation. 

1st. To obtain a supply of water from Charles River by 
pumping with steam power, it will be necessary to purcliase the 
dam and water-rights of the lower falls in Walertown, near which 
place the steam engines and pumps should be erected. From 
this point the water should be taken from the river into the 
pumps and forced through an iron pipe of 21 inches diameter, to a 
reservoir, to be formed on the side of Corey's Hill in Brookline 
near the Brighton hne, at an elevation of 117 feet above tide 
water, the dis,tance from the falls to the reservoir being 16.910 
feet or 3| miles. The reservoir has been calculated to contain 
5,000,000 gallons, being sufficient to supply the city for two 
days. By the use of this reservoir, the city will be secured in a 
supply during any unforeseen interruption of the works for two 
days. The water will likewise be kept running into the city 
during any short stoppage of an engine, required for oiling or 
adjusting any part. By this means a pipe of less diameter, and 
consequently of less cost, will be required than would be neces- 
sary were no reservoir used. From the reservoir on Corey's 
Hill, our estimates provide for an iron pipe of 21^ inches in; 
diameter extending across the Mill-dam to a reservoir proposed 
to be formed upon the Bowdoin estate on Beacon Hill, the dis- 
tance being 20,485 feet or 3.88 miles. The calculated discharge 
from this pipe* at the reservoir on Beacon Hill will be about 4 



* In all our calculations concerning the discharges of pipes, we have used the 
simple formula of Prony, V =48.5254 v/ D jjr V, being the velocity of the dis- 
charge a second in feet, D, the diameter of the pipe in feet, L, the length of pipe 
in feet, and H, the height of the source at which the water is taken, above the 
point of discharge. 



16 

cubic feet a second, or at the rate of 2,592,000 gallons a day, 
and whenever the discharge shall be taken upon the reservoir on 
Fort Hill, as hereafter described, it will be at the rate of about 
8 cubic feet in a second, or 5,134,000 gallons a day, and should 
the vi^hole water be drawn from the main at the pavement in the 
market, the discharge, will be about 9 feet a second, or 5,832,- 
000 gallons a day. 

The cost of these several works including the purchase of wa- 
ter-rights, and all damages for land, but not including the reser- 
voir on Beacon Hill, are given in a detailed estimate, herewith 
transmitted (marked D). 

By this it will appear that the 

Cost of reservoir on Corey's Hill together with land for the 
same, and land over which the pipe shall pass will be ^22,954 
Damage to water-rights at Charles River, - - 15,000 

Pipe from Walertown to Cory's Hill reservoir, - 145,806 
Two steam engine and pumps complete, each engine 
capable of delivering 2,500,000 gallons of water 
in 20 hours to the reservoir on Corey's Hill — 

$35,000 each, 70,000 

Engine and pump houses for both engines, - - 20,000 

Main pipe from reservoir on Corey's Hill to reser- 
voir on Beacon Hill 2l| inches diameter, - 189,279^ 
Sundry works not here enumerated, - - - 2,000 



Whole cost of the works, - - - - |465,039' 

Besides the above there will be required a constant expendi- 
ture for keeping the engines in operation. We have had no 
small difficulty in satisfying ourselves as to the expense of pump- 
ing by steam power. A great portion of the cost of pumping 
water by this means is in the consumption of fuel, commonly 
coal. We therefore thought it highly important to ascertain, 
with as much accuracy as possible, the quantity of coal required 
to be used, in raising a given quantity of water through a given 
height. As there is not, to our knowledge, a single engine ap- 
plied to pumping in this country, in which the fuel used produces 
effects equal to those produced in England, we resorted to the 
accounts of the performance of the English engines to guide us 



17 

in this inquiry. In computing the etFect produced by any quan- 
tity of coal in pumping water, it is usual to reduce the measures, 
so as to express the quantity of water, in pounds raised through 
one foot, by the consumption of one bushel of coal, and this is 
called the duty of the engine. 

Since the year 1811 an accurate account has been kept of the 
Performance of the engines used at the mines in Cornwall, and 
these accounts, specifying the performance of each engine, have 
been published monthly under the name of Reports since 1815. 
From these it appears that, by a gradual improvement in the con- 
struction and management of the engines, the duty was increased, 
taking the average of the Cornish engines, between the years 
IS 11 and 1835, from 13,500,000 to 50,561,042 pounds. These 
reports show a very great difference between the performance of 
different engines. Thus the report for April 1835, giving as 
above stated, 50,561,042 lbs. as the average duty of 53 engines, 
shows one performance as high as 91,959,596, and several above 
70,000,000, while one is as low as 22,985,113. There have 
been instances of performances exceeding 100,000,000 pounds 
raised 1 foot by 1 bushel of coal. The excess in the perform- 
ance of these engines over those used for pumping water in Lon- 
don, which are of a different construction, and which do not 
raise upon an average 30,000,000 pounds 1 foot high with 
1 bushel of coals, has led many engineers to doubt the accuracy 
of the reports. No error however has ever to our knowledge, 
been detected, although constantly subject to a severe scrutiny, 
and it seems to us, considering the mode in which the measures 
are taken, the way in which the registers are made, and more- 
over, that the amount paid for the coals used, is ascertained from 
the data of the reports, that they are worthy of entire confidence. 

In our estimate of the cost of coals for pumping therefore, 
we have taken these reports as our guide. We have taken a 
duty somewhat above that of the present mean of the Cornish 
engines, because many of the old engines are not of the best con- 
struction. At the same time, we have not supposed we shall be 
able to. equal their highest performances. But as we have found 
in the reports a small pngine, 30 inch cylinder, and said to be 
" not of modern construction," which during the three months of 
March, April, and May, 1835, raised 64,148,640 lbs. 1 foot 



18 

high, by every bushel of coal consumed, we have thought that 
we might safely rely on raising 60,000,000 1 foot by the same 
quantity of fuel. 

A particular estimate of the cost of pumping, founded upon 
the above measure, will be found in the annexed papers, (mark- 
ed E). 

By this it appears that the annual cost for pumping will be 
$11,808. This, taking the interest of money at 5 per cent, 
is equal to a present outlay of $236,160. 

We may therefore take the cost of constructing the works ne- 
cessary for delivering a full supply of water from Charles River, 
to a reservoir on Beacon Hill, together with the annual cost of 
maintaining those works and keeping them in constant operation, 
as equal to a present outlay of $701,199 ; add for contingencies 
10 per cent. 70,119, makes $771,318. 

To obtain a supply by the second plan proposed, namely, by 
pumping from Mystic Pond, it will be required to obtain a right 
to erect a dam near Wear Bridge, to prevent the flowing of the 
tide water at Spring tides into the pond. Near this place the 
steam engines and pumps should be erected, which shall draw 
the requisite quantity of water from the pond and force it through 
an iron pipe to the reservoir, to be formed on the top of Walnut 
tree Hill, at an elevation of 126 feet above tide water, and at a 
distance of 8,250 feet or 1.562 miles from Mystic Pond. This 
reservoir has been calculated to contain 5,000,000 gallons, or 
sufficient for two days' supply of the city. From this point, it 
is proposed to lay an iron pipe of 22 inches diameter, passing 
through Cambridge, west of the colleges, to Charles River, 
which .may be crossed upon a permanent stone bridge, con- 
structed on the west side of the bridge, leading from Cam- 
bridge to Brighton. From this point, it is proposed to pass 
in the shortest course across the Mill dam to the reservoir on 
Beacon Hill, specified in the 1st plan, the whole distance being 
39,707 feet, or 7.52 miles, the discharge being very nearly equal 
to that calculated for the last plan at the several points therein 
given. 

The works here enumerated wiil cost, as appears from a de- 
tailed estimate herewith presented (marked F.) as follows : 



19 

Dam and Works at the outlet of Mystic Pond, - ^4,000 
Land for reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, and damages 

to land over which the pipe shall pass to Boston, 5,500 

Reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, - - - - 13,000 

Pipe laid from the Pond to Walnut tree Hill, - 60,472 
Two steam engines and pumps, each capable of de- 
livering 2,500,000 gallons of water in 20 hours to 

the reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, - - - 70,000 

Buildings for engines and pumps, - - - - 20,000 
Pipe from Walnut tree Hill reservoir to Beacon 

Hill reservoir. 358,157 

Bridge across Charles River, - - - - 14,000 

Sundry works not enumerated, - - - - 9,4 93 



$554,622 
The constant expenditure, and wear and tear in keeping the 
works in operation, may, be taken as in the first plan at $11,808. 
This, as stated in that plan, is equivalent to a present cost of 
$236,160, which added to the above sum of $554,622, makes 
the whole cost of works, together with the yearly cost of keep- 
ing them in operation, $790,782 ; to this add for contingencies 
10 per cent, and the amount becomes $869,860. 

In the third plan it is proposed to bring the water of Spot 
•Pond to a reservoir, to be formed on Walnut tree Hill, and in 
addition thereto, to pump by steam power from Mystic Pond, 
such quantity as shall be required to render the supply from both 
these soiirces, sufficient for the wants of the city. 

Spot Pond will yield, according to our opinion heretofore giv- 
en, an average supply of 2,100,000 gallons daily, never falling 
below 1 ,600,000 gallons a day, in the driest season. This sup- 
ply of 1,600,K)00 gallons, will be ample for four years, as it 
would be impracticable to lay the pipes for the distribution of a 
larger quantity, before the termination of that period. Let' us 
then suppose that at the end of four years the quantity demanded 
shall be 2,500,000 gallons, enough to supply a population of 
87,000 inhabitants, and that after that period, it shall go on in- 
creasing for the succeeding six years, until it becomes 3,000,000 
gallons, supplying 105,000 inhabitants. The average supply for 
those six years, will then be 2,750,000 gallons^. while the aver- 



20 

age supply from Spot Pond will be 2,100,000 gallons. It will 
require then that 650,000 gallons a day be pumped from Mystic 
Pond. As the supply from Spot Poi-id however, may become 
short, by sudden drought, it will be necessary to provide for 
such contingency, to erect such works at Mystic Pond, as 
shall be sufficient for the full supply of the city during any por- 
tion of lime that Spot Pond may fail, and our estimates fully 
provide for the cost of works to that extent. In the yearly cost 
for the maintenance and operation of these works however, it is 
only necessary to provide for keeping them in constant readiness 
to operate, with such expenditures for coal and for attendance, 
and wear and tear as is required to pump, upon an average, 
650,000 gallons daily, during the six years, to the reservoir, on 
Walnut tree Hill. To carry this plan into full operation, we 
propose to lay an iron pipe, of 22 inches diameter, from Spot 
Pond, at its southern end, east of the Andover turnpike, to 
Mystic River, above the upper ship yard ; thence crossing that 
river, upon a permanent stone bridge, it is designed to pass to a 
reservoir, to be formed upon Walnut tree Hill ; identical with 
that described in the second plan, the distance from Spot Pond 
being 3.18 miles. From this reservoir, it is proposed that a 
pipe of 22 inches diameter shall be carried upon the line describ- 
ed in the second plan, across Charles River, by a stone bridge, 
as described in that plan, and over the Mill Dam to Beacon 
Hill. The discharge from this pipe will be equal to that pro- 
duced in the first and second plans. In our estimate of the cost 
of carrying this plan into operation, we feel very uncertain as to 
the accuracy of the sum assigned for the cost of land and water- 
rights. We applied in the early part of the season, to George 
Odiorne, Esq., joint owner, with Thomas Odiorne, Esq. of the 
outlet of the pond, and of the right of drawing water from the 
same, to be informed at what price he would sell his rights to 
the city. In answer to our inquiry, Mr. Odiorne says, 

" To your first and second questions, I reply that my brother 
Thomas Odiorne, of Maiden and myself, are sole owners of said 
pond, and of the bed of the creek leading from thence to the 
Mills in Maiden, and they have an indisputable right to close the 
outlet, to draw off, or divert the stream of said pond. 

" Your third inquiry being prospective in its tenor, I cannot 



21 

so promptly answer. To illustrate my meaning, permit me to 
reply a little in detail. During the pendency of some years, of 
the question of a sale of said pond to the city, I have been re- 
tarded in the prosecution of my business at Maiden, have re- 
frained from extending or improving the works, as far as the 
power of water would justify. 

" The establishment consists of the following, viz : 

A mansion bouse, barn, and out-buildings, connected, a rolling 
and slitting mill and machine shop, two new mills, erected the 
last year, a small factory, for block tin ware, twelve dwellings 
for laborers, a smith's shop, a coal house, and other small build- 
ings. 

" These all derive their chief value from the continuance of 
these works, and would turn to but small account, if the business 
there should 'cease — vi^hich would be the case, if the waters of 
Spot Pond should be cut off. It would also put an end to my 
business in the city, in which I have been engaged thirty years, 
with the expectation of leaving to my son. In estimating the 
value therefore of Spot Pond, these considerations should not be 
lost sight of. 

" The value of the pond should also bear some proportion to 
the daily average quantity of water it yields. 

" That my price however, may form no obstruction in the 
way of a supply of pure water for tlie city, I ofier to them, 
through you, one moiety of said pond for sixty five thousand dol- 
lars, until the first day of September next, and not exceeding the 
sum of seventy thousand until the first day of January, 183S." 

We are of opinion that the price above named is much more 
than the value of the water of Spot Pond, for any manufacturing 
purposes, including all damages to works already erected. We 
have therefore added to our estimate of cost of land for reser- 
voir, and damage to land over wliich our pipe shall pass, such 
sum as we think equivalent to the value of Spot Pond. With- 
out assuming that this item of the estimate is accurate, we be- 
lieve that it is sufficiently near the truth, to guide the city coun- 
cil in their choice of the plans proposed. The detailed estimate 
of the plan here specified, is given in the annexed papers, 
(marked G.) 



22 

From this it appears that the 
Cost of iron pipe from Spot Pond to reservoir on 

Wahiut tree Hill, will be . - - . „$152,436 

Dam and apparatus at pond, - - - - 1,200 

Stone Bridge at Medford River, - - - - 5,000 

Reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, - - - - 13,000 

Engine and pumps at Mystic Pond, capable of pump- 
ing 2,500,000 gallons in 20 hours, to reservoir on 

Walnut tree Hill, 35,000 

Building for Engine, - 10,000 

Pipe from Mystic Pond to reservoir on Walnut tree 

Hill, 35,640 

Pipe from Walnut tree Hill reservoir to Beacon Hill 

reservoir, - - - - - - - 358,157 

Bridge across Charles River, - - - - 14,000 

Land for reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, together with 
damages to land over which the pipe shall pass, 
and our assumed value of Spot Pond, - ' - 80,000 

Several works not enumerated, - - - - 10,500 



$714,933 
The constant expenditure for coals, attendance, and wear and 
tear in pumping 650,000 gallons a day, for six years, equal to 
390,000 gallons a day for ten years, whole cost, $2,890 a year, 
equal to a capital of $57,800 at 5 per cent, which added to the 
above sum of $714,933, makes the cost of works, with the ex- 
pense of keeping them in operation, equal to a capital of $772,33 
— add 10 per cent, for contingencies, and it becomes $850,006. 
In devising a mode for bringing the water of Long Pond to 
Boston which forms the fourth plan herein proposed, we perceiv- 
ed at once that its distance, 18 miles, combined with its limited 
elevation, would place the cost of an iron pipe at too great a 
sum, to render it expedient to resort to a work of that kind. As 
that may be considered as the only practicable means of carrying 
water along an undulating surface, our attention was next direct- 
ed to finding the straightest line, upon which a work could be 
built, having a gradual and equal descent from the pond to some 
point in the immediate neighborhood of Boston. After several 
examinations, a line was found through the towns of Natick, 



23 

Needham, and Newton, where it crosses the Charles River near 
the Lower Falls. From this point it passes through Brighton 
terminating at Corey's Hill in Brookline. This line is general- 
ly through land easily excavated, requiring no cutting over 36 
feet, and except in crossing the Charles River, and a valley near 
the Agricultural Hali in Brighton, which rnay be passed by pipes, 
no high embankments. 

It is hardly necessary to state that water may be brought 
along a course of gentle and equal descent, as here described, 
without resorting to the expense of an iron conduit. It may be 
brought in this way by an open canal, or by a covered tunnel, 
formed either of brick or stone. Th-e open canal is highly ob- 
jectionable ; 1st, on account of its exposure to being used for 
bathing, and to its becoming a rer^^ptacle for" foul water and many 
offensive substances, from persons residing upon its banks, and 
those passing over the numerous bridges, required at the roads 
which must cross it- 2d, the large quantity of water that would 
be lost by percolation through its banks, would diminish essen- 
tially the efficiency of the source of supply. These objections 
appeared to us sufficient to warrant us in withholding our recom- 
meuda'Lion from this, as a proper structure for supplying the city 
with pure water. By the close conduit, of brick or stone, the 
1st of these objections is entirely removed, and the 2d may be 
so far reduced that we should entertain no serious apprehension 
that Long Pond will not furnish a supply, over all waste by leaks, 
sufficient for the citizens after many years increase. 

With these opinions we proceeded to make estimates 1 st, for 
a close conduit of stone, consisting af a floor 9 feet wide and 1 
foot thick ; upon this two walls are placed 2| feet high and 1| 
feet thick, leaving a clear space of 4 feet wide between them. 
This space forming the water-course is to be covered by a semi- 
circular arch 1 1 feet thick, the whole being of rough stone with- 
out cement, designed to be surrounded with a puddle of clay and 
gravel to prevent leakage. 

2d, for a structure of brick laid in hydraulic cement. This 
structure is designed to be in the form of- a cylinder, 8 inches 
thick, having a c|ear passage for the water, of 4.6 feet in diame- 
ter. Both of these forms present equal areas, and are calculated 



24 

to convey upon a slope of 3 inches to the mile, 11 cubic feet of 
water a second. 

It will be perceived from the estimates, that from the greater 
quantity of excavation required to give room for the stone work, 
(owing to its shape and greater thickness,) than is required for 
that of brick, the cost of the entire structure on the former plan, 
will exceed that of the latter by ^59,192 91. Either of the 
above works may be considered as imperishable in their mate- 
rials. We cannot hovv^ever, speak of them in their other proper- 
ties with the entire confidence with which we can speak of an 
iron pipe, because we aie not aware that any work precisely 
similar to either of them, has ever been constructed, and proved 
experimentally to answer the end designed ; while iron pipes 
have been used throu'gh a considerable period of time, and under 
many varieties of circumstances, and when rightly made, always 
with success.* 

In consideration of the inferior cost of the excavations for the 
brick structure, and the greater certainty of the water not escap- 
ing from it by leakage however, we have taken that as best to 
be adopted. 

In our estimate of the cost of supply from this source, as in 
that for Spot Pond, we have great doubt as to the accuracy of 
the sum assumed for the value of water rights and damages. The 
mill power formed at the outlet of the Pond, is owned by the 
Framingham Manufacturing Company, no mill now being erected 
upon it. A second power below this, is used for a carpet mill. 
The use of the water, after falling into Concord River, is claim- 
ed by the Middlesex Canal, and by several establishments at 
Billerica and Lowell. Probably an equivalent for the use of 
this water, to the canal and to the lower mill owners, may be 
found, by forming reservoirs from several small Ponds in the 
vicinity of Concord River, where the water may be reserved in 
winter and used as required in the dry season. Not being able, 
however, in this m'ass of conflicting interests, to obtain a knowl- 
edge of the extent of rights, and the damage which a diversion 
of the water of Long Pond from its usual channel would occa- 
sion, we have added to our estimate for land damages, such sum 
as we think ought to qyiet all the claimants of the waters of Long 
Pond.f 

*See annexed paper (marked H). fSee annexed paper (marked I). 



25 

By the estimates hereunto annexed (marked J.) it will be 
seen that the cost of the structure herein proposed, will be, 
For excavation aod embankment between Long Pond 

and Corey's Hill, $183,319 

Brick aqueduct, 15 miles 1,600 feet, laid in hydrau- 
lic cement, 453,531 

Pipe 30 inches diameter, across Brighton valley and 

Charles River, - 33,499 

Guard gates, bridges and culverts, - - - 18,468 

Water rights, land and land damages, - - - 110,000 

Reservoir on Corey's Hill, _ - - - 21,004 
Iron Pipe 21| inches diameter, from Reservoir on 

Corey's Hill, to Reservoir on Beacon Hill, - 189,279 

Sundry wodis not here enumerated, - - - 7,481 



1,016,631 
Add for contingencies, 10 per cent., - - - 101,663 

1 1,1 18,294 

In comparing together these several plans, we are to consider 
1st, the cost of supply — 2d, its sufficiency — 3d, the certainty 
with which it may be relied upon at all times — 4th, the purity of- 
the water. 

We have seen that the cost to deliver the supply upon Beacon 
Hill, without distributing it to the inhabitants, will be, 

1st plan — Charles River, - - - - |771,318 

2d plan— Mystic Pond, - - - - - 869,860 
3d plan— Spot and Mystic Ponds, - - - 850,006 
4th plan— Long Pond, - - - - - 1,118,294 
As the 2d plan is certainly not superior to the 3d, under what- 
ever aspect it may be «ompared, and as its execction will re- 
quire an expenditure greater than that required fcxr the third, we 
are of opinion that it ought not to be adopted. By adopting the 
1st plan in preference to the 3d, a saving in cost of about $80,- 
000 would be effected. As the constancy of the supply how- 
ever, in this plan, depends upon the operation of machinery, 
which always implies some shade of uncertainty, though in this 
case, as our estimate provides for two complete engines, pumps, 



26 

and buildings, either of whicli will elevate the supply by operat- 
ing 20 hours per day only, the chance of failure must be very 
small ; yet taking into consideration the possibility of such a 
contingency, and likewise the better quality of the waters of Spot 
and Mystic Ponds, we are of opinion that the 1st plan, founded 
upon Charles River as a source, ought not to be adopted. 

In comparing the two remaining sources with each other, it 
will be seen that the supply from Long Pond will cost $268,288 
more than that from Spot and Mystic Ponds, the quantity of wa- 
ter brought into the city by the works provided in either plan, 
for the first ten years, being nearly the same. The works as 
proposed from Long Pond to Corey's Hill however, will have 
an important advantage over the works from Spot and Mystic 
Ponds, in providing for the discharge of a large surplus of water, 
at the reservoir on Corey's Hill, which may be rendered availa- 
ble at a future day, to meet the wants of the city, by laying a 
new main from that reservoir to Beacon Hill. Let us attempt 
to ascertain the value of that surplus water, and the sum that it 
will have cost to obtain it in the city, when any part of it shall be 
required, which, as has been heretofore shown, may be taken at 
the end often years. First then, we have the present excess in 
the cost of the works from Long Pond, over those from Spot 
and Mystic Ponds $268,288. This in ten years, with interest, 
added each year at 5 per cent, will amount to $436,880. Sec- 
ondly, the cost of a new main, which it vv^ould be expedient to 
make equal to that now proposed for the same route. The cost 
of this will be $189,279, making a total cost of $626,159. 

We have seen that the supply provided from Spot and Mystic 
Ponds will be ample, and indeed equal to that brought from Long 
Pond and distributed to the city for ten years. Let us next as- 
certain whether at the end of that period the works at Mystic 
Pond can be increased, to meet the increase of demand for wa- 
ter which will then exist without exceeding the above sum of 
$626,159, whieh will have been expended to obtain such in- 
creased supply from Long Pond, should that plan be adopted. 
We have assumed that the population at the end of ten years, re- 
quiring a supply of water, will be 105,000, and that it will in- 
crease in ten more years, to become 150,000. There will be 
required then on the average for that ten years, 3,619,000 gal 



27 

Ions of water a day, or about 1,119,000 a day more than the 
average quantity provided for during the first ten years. To fur- 
nish this quantity, there will be required a new steam engine and 
pumps, at Mystic Pond, which, with buildings, will cost ^^45,000, 
and a pipe from the Walnut tree Hill reservoir to the reservoir 
on Beacon Hill, which will cost ^^358,157. To this must be 
added the cost for coals, attendance, and other constant expenses 
for pumping 1,119,000 gallons daily; which will amount to 
^5,285 a year, equal to a present outlay of 1 1 05,700. Thus 
we see that the whole expense of increasing the supply from 
Mystic Pond, to meet the wants of the citizens for twenty years, 
will be ^503,857. Making a difference in favor of the latter 
plan of ^117,302. If we were to continue a calculation of this 
kind, for a further period of ten years, we should find that this 
excess in the cost of works of Long Pond, with accumulated 
interest, would be fully equal to the sum required to increase the 
supply from Mystic Pond. We see then, that giving its full 
prospective value to the surplus water from Long Pond, no ad- 
vantage can be obtained from it, in point of expenditure, over 
the plan of supply from Spot and Mystic Ponds. 

On the second point proposed for consideration in our com- 
parison, namely, the sufficiency of the supply, the two plans may 
be considered equal, as the quantity proposed to be brought, is 
calculated to be sufficient for a full supply of the wants of the 
citizens, which ever of the plans may be adopted. 

The third point of comparison, namely, the certainty with 
which the supply may be rehed upon at all times, we consider of 
great importance, and we have given it a careful and grave ex- 
amination. We have no doubt but a conduit may be construct- 
ed from Long Pond, to Corey's Hill, which shall be as much 
beyond the reach of interruption in its operation, as any work of 
human art can be beyond the reach of accident. 

We cannot pretend however that the cost given in our esti- 
mate, is sufficient to produce a work of this permanent and per- 
fect character, and we should not think it expedient to increase 
the expenditure beyond the limits of our estimate, as the object 
of supply may be obtained upon either of the other plans, with 
more advantage to the city than by this, if its execution must be 
at an expense much beyond that which we have assigned to it. 



28 

In applying this consideration of the certainty of supply to the 
plan founded upon Spot and Mystic Ponds ; we can see no rea- 
son to fear the possibihty of a failure. The plan provides for 
bringing the water in iron pipes strong enough to sustain three 
times the pressure of the head to which they will be subjected. 
Pipes of this kind have been in operation in a great many places, 
and all experience has shown them worthy of entire confidence. 
It is true that in carrying this plan into operation, as a steam en- 
gine and pumps are required to be kept at work, during a short 
period, perhaps every year, that part of the supply which is de- 
rived from these machines will be subject occasionally, though 
we think rarely, to interruption. But whenever this shall hap- 
pen, as the pipes proposed to be laid from Spot Pond to the 
city, will be sufficiently large to convey, at :ill times the full sup- 
ply, they may be safely relied upon through any period of occa- 
sional interruption from derangement of the machinery at Mystic 
Pond, even should it be to the extent of bursting all the steam 
boilers, or burning down the engine house. 

As regards the fourth point of comparison, namely, the purity 
of the water, the analyses show both Spot and Mystic Ponds, to 
be more pure than Long Pond. We see no reason to appre- 
hend, however, that the water of Long Pond is not sufficiently 
pure for all purposes for which it can be required, greatly ex- 
ceeding in this respect, the waters of the Wandle and Verulam 
in England, which it has been proposed to substitute for Thames 
water, in the supply of London. To bring this water to Boston, 
however, in the structure which we have described, great care 
must be taken to procure a cement to be used in the masonry, 
which shall not be liable to be dissolved by the water, as this 
would impart to it a portion of lime, and other foreign matter, 
disagreeable to the taste, and highly injurious to its softness. 
Possibly it will be found, that to answer this condition the Eng- 
lish Roman cement must be used. This will add very materially 
to the cost of the structure. As the estimate now stands then, 
we are not free from doubt as to the purity of the water which 
shall be procured through a structure, such as we have proposed, 
and which we believe to be the best which can be formed with- 
out extending the expense to such an amount as shall render the 
inexpediency of adopting it in preference to any of the other 



29 

plans, at once apparent. To resolve this doubt will require in- 
formation which we have not been able to obtain in season for 
this report. 

We have seen that the waters of Spot and Mystic Ponds are 
more pure at the respective Ponds than those of Long Pond. 
Spot Pond is as little exposed to be contaminated with impure 
substances, wantonly or accidentally introduced into it, as any 
source which can be resorted to. The waters of Mystic Pond 
are derived from streams on which are several small manufactur- 
ing establishments, and are liable, though in less degree, to the 
objection alluded to in the notice of the Charges River. For 
the reason there given, however, we do not consider the objec- 
tion as of great force. The quality of the waters as they exist 
in Spot and Mystic Ponds may be preserved beyond all question, 
in transmitting them to the city in the manner proposed, in the 
plan of works connected with those ponds ; as we believe that 
no instance -can be found in which water has been contaminated 
in passing through iron pipes. 

On a full review of this comparison, a majority of the Com- 
missioners are of opinion that it will be expedient for the city to 
adopt the third plan herein proposed, namely, that depending 
upon Spot and Mystic Ponds for a supply. 

From whatever source the water may be brought to the city, 
we recommend the same plan for distributing it to the inhabitants ; 
which is, to form two reservoirs, one upon the summit of Beacon 
Hill, and one under the summit of Fort Hill, the fmmer at a 
hundred and four feet, and the latter at fifty feet above tide 
water. The purpose of these reservoirs is to receive the water 
from the main, extending to the source or reservoir out of the 
city, during the latter part of the day and the night, when but 
little is drawn from the service pipes, and to supply it to the ser- 
vice pipes during the few hours in the morning when the greater 
part of .the M'ater, for domestic purposes is required. By this 
arrangement, an abundant supply will be kept up at all times in 
the day, by means of a main pipe, extending from the city reser- 
voirs to the source, of much smaller dimensions than would be 
required were no reservoirs provided in the city ; so that on the 
whole, a great saving of cost is attained by this expenditure. 



30 

From these reservoirs, we propose to lay iron mains in various 
directions, of from six to twenty inches diameter, through the 
principal streets to the length of 44,050 feet, or eight and a third 
miles. By the side of these mains, we propose to lay small iron 
service pipes, of three inches diameter, from which the water 
shall be taken by small leaden or wrought iron pipes to the several 
houses. The object of this double line of pipes, through the 
above distance, is to avoid the necessity of ever interrupting the 
flow of the water through the mains, when it shall be required to 
furnish a supply to a new tenant, which, were it not for the pro- 
vision here specified, could only be done, by drawing off the 
water from the main, for several hundred feet, thus interrupting 
the flow through it, while the operations of boring and inserting 
the pipe required for the new tenant were performed. In addi- 
tion to this, we have, to prevent the necessity of breaking up the 
pavement across the great thoroughfares, for the purpose of laying 
down tenant's pipes, provided for laying service pipes on both 
sides of the streets, through the distance of 59,290 feet, or 
eleven and a quarter miles. 

Having thus provided a plan for the conveyance of the water 
from the reservoirs, in various directions, to different parts of 
the city, and provided for the distribution of it to the inhabitants 
of the streets through which the mains pass, we propose to con- 
vey it through the remaining streets, and distribute it to the in- 
habitants, by single pipes of three and four inches diameter, 
which shall communicate with the principal mains, and with 
each other, in all directions. According to our estimate, it will 
require 130,820 feet or nearly twenty six miles of pipe of the 
kind last specified, to perform this service. The whole length 
of the streets, thus traversed by mains and service pipes, amounts 
to 223,477 feet, or forty two and a third miles, being all the 
streets and lanes, laid down upon Smith's map of Boston, after 
deducting therefrom five and three quarters miles, for streets laid 
out upon lands upon which no buildings are yet erected. The 
whole length of pipe of all diameters proposed to be laid for dis- 
tribution in the city, is nearly sixty-two miles. 

We have futherraore provided in the estimate, for four hundred 
and forty seven fire plugs, to be placed at proper distances, in 
communication with the mains and pipes, from which the water 



31 

shall be drawn for extinguishing fires. These fire plugs may 
receive a supply of more than thirty gallons of water a second, 
from the source without the city, and in addition to this, whatever 
quantity may be in the reservoir on Beacon Hill. As the water 
will flow from thence to the height of the source, at least a 
hundred and four feet above tide water, it may be conducted 
through hose directly to the top of any common building situated 
in a low part of the city. It will be seen likewise, that the esti- 
mates provide for the cost of a great number of stop cocks, for 
shutting off the water wherever alterations, additions or repairs 
shall be required. 

A separate estimate has been made for the supply and distribu- 
tion of the water, to South Boston. This embraces 65 miles of 
pipe, and will be sufficient for the wants of the present population 
of that district. 

No provision is made in our estimate, for carrying the water 
from the service pipes to the dweUings, as we are of opinion that, 
this should be done, according to the practice of other cities, at 
the expease of the tenants. We have moreover, concluded not 
to place in the estimate, any sum for forming cisterns and pumps 
in the streets, for public use, as we are not yet sufficiently in- 
formed of the number of these that will be required. 

We believe that the plan of distribution herein proposed, will- 
equal that possessed by any modern city. It is simple, certain 
and permanent, fully sufficient for the present inhabitants, and 
may be extended with the utmost facility, to meet the future 
wants of an increased p-opulation. 

The cost of the distribution as herein proposed, as appears by 
the detailed estimate, (marked K) will be as follows : 
Stone reservoir on the Bowdoin estate, on Beacon 
Hill, 100 feet square inside, 10 feet deep, to con- 
tain 750,000 gallons, including the cost of land, ^71,539' 
Reservoir under ground at Fort Hill, 65 feet in 

diameter, to contain 370,000 gallons, - - 6,224 

62 miles of iron pipe of various sizes, laid complete, 

in the several streets, - - . - - 433,846 
733 Stop Cocks, of various sizes, _ - - 29,583, 

447 Fire Plugs, - - - - - - - 8,940 , 

$550,132 



32 

Conveying water to, and distributing it in South Boston. 
2| miles of 8 inch pipe, for conveying the w^ater to 

South Boston, cost, laid complete, - - _ 27,709 

3 mtles of distributing pipe, cost, laid complete, - 18,936 

Stop Cocks, - 1,000 



$47,645 



Making for the complete distribution, including South 

Boston, 597,777 

Add for contingencies, 10 per cent. - - - 59,777 



557,554 



The entire cost of bringing in the siipply on the plan recom- 
mendedji we have seen was $850,006. To this add the above 
sum of $657,554 for distributing it, and we have the sum of 
$1,507,560 as the entire cost for bringing in the water, and dis- 
tributing it upon the extensive scale herein proposed, including 
all water-rights, lands and damages, with 10 per cent, for con- 
tingencies. 

Having thus presented our views of the modes in which an 
ample supply of pure water may be introduced into the city, for 
the use of the inhabitants', with estimates of the cost of the 
necessary works for obtaining such supply — and having specified 
the method which, in our opinion, it will be expedient for the 
city to adopt — it may perhaps not be improper for us, to advert 
to some of the reasons for undertaking a work requiring so large 
an expenditure. These reasons have perhaps all occurred to the 
minds of those members of the city government who directed 
the investigation with which we have been entrusted ; but it may 
be useful to recapitulate them in connection with the plan of sup- 
ply proposed for adoption, and the estimate of cost, that a con- 
nected view of the whole subject may be presented to the 
conside-ration of the inhabitants. 

The uses of water are so numerous, and so indispensable to 
all classes of inhabitants, that it would be a work of some labor, 
to enumerate all the advantages of an ample and wholesome 



33 

supply. Water constitutes so impfvtant a part of every one's - 
food, and may, at certain seasons of the year, have so decisive 
an effect upon the purity of the air whicli we breathe, that there 
can be no doubt, that the quality and abundance of the water 
habitually used in a city, for domestic purposes, and for purifying 
tlie streets, yards, and sewers, is a matter which is intimately 
connected with the preservation of the health of the inhabitants. 
It is an opinion which has extensively prevailed for many years, 
that the quality of the water, in the wells of Boston, in general, 
is not favorable to health. This opinion, although not universally 
adopted, has the sanction of eminent medical men, deliberately 
given after long and careful observation and inquiry. Admit- 
ting that there were much less weight of autliority than there is 
in fact, in sui)po)-t of this opinion, it is well known, that the 
water of the purest springs in the city contains a much greater 
proportion of earthy and saline substances, than that v,hicb is 
now proposed to be introduced — that the wells in many parts of 
the city afford water containing a still greater mixture of foreign 
substances — that many of the Vv'ells, in consequence of the dense 
state of the population, are exposed to impurities by the absorp- 
tion of noxious substances from the surface of the earth — that the 
rain w-ater, collected in cisterns, is from year to year rendered 
more liable to impurities, from the increased consumption of 
coal, and the greater collection of soot upon the roofs — and that 
consequently the supply of water now relied upon for the general 
use of the inhabitants, if not positively unfavorable to health, and 
unfit for use, as many persons repute it to be, is yet far from 
possessing that degree of purity, which affords the only absolute 
security, against the deleterious effects v^hich are apprehended 
from it. 

But, aside from the advantages which may be anticipated on 
the score of health, from an improvement in the quality of the 
water, in common use for drink, and for culinary purposes, there 
are others wdiich may be derived from the use of a greater quan- 
tity, for washing streets, common sewers, and other receptacles 
of filth, and thus adding to the general salubrity of the atmos- 
phere, which nothing can so effectually promote in a densely 
peopled city, as the free use of pure water. Even those there- 
fore who are disposed to give little or no weight to the opinion, 



34 

that the qualitj of the water in commoause in the city is unfavor- 
able to health, will be ready to admit, that more or less benefit 
is to be derived from an abundant supply of water, of undoubted 
purity and salubrity ; and when it is considered how important a 
matter is the health of the population of a large city — or even the 
preservation from epidemic diseases, of a small and most insig- 
Jiificant part of the city, no one would hesitate to purchase such a 
benefit at a large cost. Even the- reputation of being subject to 
diseases of a painful and dangerous character, from the deleteri- 
ous properties of the water used by its inhabitants, if founded in 
erroneous impressions^ is a stigma which the guardians of the 
public w^elfare should be anxious to remove, although it should 
be a measure which could be attained only at some cost. 

Next to the sustenance of life, and the preservation of health, 
one of the most important uses of water in a large and populous 
city, is in checking the ravages of fire. This city has hereto- 
fore suffered most severely from the conflagration of vast amounts 
of property, which in all probabflity might have been saved, had 
there been at hand an ample supply of water- It is perhaps not 
an extravagant opinion, that had the city been provided in the 
years 1824 and 1825 with the supply of water now proposed to 
be introduced, an amount of property would have been saved fcom 
destruction, in those two years, fully equal to the whole cost of 
the works now proposed. The deficiency of water then felt has 
since been partially supplied, by the construction of reservoirs in 
various parts of the city ; but this supply is very far short of the 
provision proposed in the plan now submitted, both in the quan- 
tity of water, and the facility of access to it. With hydrants, at 
short distances from each other, in every street, capable of afford- 
ing at all times, at a moment's warning a copious supply of wa- 
ter, delivered under the pressure of a head more than a hundred 
feet above the level of the tide, and consequently admitting of 
being conveyed through hose, without the aid of engines to the 
top, or to any part, of four fifths of the houses in the city, it can- 
not be doubted that fires would be more suddenly extinguished, 
and extensive conflagraiions more effectually prevented than they 
can be at present, under the most active and efficient administra- 
tion of the fire department. It is the opinion of persons conver- 
sant with the hazards and the rates of insurance, that the risk of 



35 

loss by fire, and, consequently the rates of insurance, which 
would be charged by insurance companies, if such a system for 
the supply of water as is now proposed were introduced, would 
be reduced about one third, — the present average rate, being not 
far from forty cents on a hundred dollars, per annum. The 
amount of property in the city of Boston, exposed to the hazard 
of destruction by fire, is probably not less than ^75,000,000. 
Admitting therefore that the risk of insurance on this property is 
at this time equal to 4-10 of one per cent., and that the proposed 
supply of water would reduce this risk by one third, the saving 
which would then be made to the inhabitants of the city in the 
risk of loss by fire would be equal to ^100,000 per annum. It 
is not material that this estimate should be scrutinized with great 
exactness. Whether the sum here named be too high or loo 
low, will not be questioned, that the annual saving from loss by 
fire would be equivalent to a very large sum, and would go far to 
reduce the hazard of those distressing conflagrations, which 
sometimes occur, and which, from the amount of property de- 
stroyed, and the number of persons deprived of employment, 
give a sensible check to the growth and prosperity of the city. 
If such calamities can be prevented, by providing the most am- ' 
pie supply of water, at a cost not exceeding the rate of insurance 
which would be necessary to indemnify the loser, it is manifest 
that the remedy of prevention is more effectual than that of in- 
surance, because it not only insures the owner of property, but 
prevents the interruption of the labors of industry, and the de- 
rangements of business, whicli often involve numbers in embar- 
rassment and distress. 

But it is the ordinary and regular daily uses of water for do- 
mestic, economical and unanufacturing purposes, which are chiefly 
relied upon for refunding to the city the expenses to be incurred 
in procuring an inexhaustible supply, and distributing it to all 
parts of the city. The quantity proposed to be supplied, and on 
which the estimate of cost is founded, is 2,000,000 gallons per 
day at the beginning, increasing annually at such a rate as to make 
3,000,000 at the expiration of ten years. This quantity will be 
equal to the supply of about 72,000 persons, or 12,000 families 
of six persons each, with 28g gallons of water to each person 



daily, at the beginning, and increasing to 105,000 persons, or 
17,500 families daily at the end of ten years. 

. It will be for the wisdom of the council to determine on what 
terms and conditions the water shall be supplied to the inhabitants. 
But, it is presumed that it will be their desire, to furnish it on 
such moderate and easy terms as will afford an inducement to 
much the greater {)art of the inhabitants to take it, and at the 
same time, at such a rate of annual rent, proportioned as nearly 
as may be, to the quantity likely to be used by each tenant, as 
will, at the same time, aff"ord to the city a reasonable indemnity 
for the cost, and the charge of maintaining the works, and also 
secure them against the wanton and useless waste of the water-, 
to which it would be liable, if made h'ee to the inhabhants with- 
out charge. Such, we learn, has been the system adopted in 
Philadelphia, and it has been found to operate favorably. Should 
such a system be pursued; and if we suppose 12,000 tenants to 
be supplied at an average rent of six dollars to each tenant, it 
will produce an incorae of ^72,000. This income, if increased 
with the growth of the city, in the ratio above supposed, will 
amount, at the expiration of ten years, to |;105,000. This rate 
of compensation we name, not so much for the purpose of -re- 
commending it to be adopted, as for the purpose of showing what 
rate will be sufiicient, to afford an income equivalent to the an- 
nual interest, say 5 per cent, on the estimated cost, together 
with a sinking fund, for the gradual reduction of the debt. The 
rent named, while it appears to be sufficient, to indemnify the 
city for the charge to be incurred, will be a very moderate price 
to be paid for the accommodation afforded. It will be recollect- 
ed, that in the proposed mode of supply, the only charge neces- 
sary for fixtures, will be for a small pipe, of sufficient length to 
carry the water to any part of the premises in which it may be 
■ required, together with a stop cock. The certainty of a supj)ly 
at all hours of the day, will render the charge of a cistern unne- 
cessary, and as the water will be of a qualtity fit for drinking, 
and for all other purposes, it must in general, supersede the use 
of wells, pumps, and rain water cisterns. The rent named, in- 
stead of imposing an additional charge on the tenant, will, in 
most cases, be a saving of expense to him, as it will render un- 



necessary the charge of building and maintaining in repair, wells, 
pumps, and cisterns. To many persons, not already provided 
with wells and cisterns, it will be a great saving of expense, es- 
pecially to those whose houses are so situated that wells of pala- 
table water are not to be obtained. 

In the estimate to be made of the pecuniary worth of such a 
supply of water, the increased value which it will give to the lots 
of land belonging to the city, situated on the neck, ought not to 
be overlooked. The difficulty of obtaining water has heretofore 
retarded the sale and settlement of these lots. By extending to 
them the supply now proposed, a new value will be added to this 
description of city property, as well as to much unoccupied land, 
belonging to individuals. A further addition may be made to the 
estimated value of the proposed supply of water, from its uses 
in several branches cf mechanic labor, for the supply of steam 
engines and other manufacturing purposes. 

It should be borne in mind, that in case the system recom- 
mended by a majority of the Commissioners shall be adopted, 
that part of the estimated expenditure which is required to pro- 
vide for the pumping of a part of the proposed supply of water, 
from Mystic Pond, may be postponed for a period of three or 
four years, and so much longer as the waters of Spot Pond shall 
afford a sufficient quantity, for the use of such part of the inhab- 
itants as shall within that time, make their election to take it. 
The whole expenditure for distribution also, will not be required, 
until there shall be a demand from as many as 12,000 tenants, 
which number will be sufficient to insure the income, before cal- 
culated upon. 

Considering therefore the grounds which there are for the opin- 
ion, that the health of the city will be promoted, by the introduc- 
tion of a supply of water, purer in quality, and more abundant in 
quantity, than that now in common use by the inhabitants, — con- 
sidering the reasons which have been stated for the belief that 
such a supply of water, as th;\t which is proposed to be intro- 
duced into the city, will, in a course of years, be the means of 
preserving from destruction by fire, a large amount of property, 
equal perhaps in value, to the whole cost of the works required, 
for obtaining such supply, — and, considering that, independently 
of these advantages, the uses of the water for the ordinary do- 



S8 

mestic and economical purposes of the inhabitants, will be of suf- 
ficient value to induce them voluntarily to pay a rent for the use 
of it, probably sufficient to discharge the interest, if not ultimate- 
ly the principal of the debt incurred in introducing it, your Com- 
missioners cannot hesitate, strongly to recommend the adoption 
of one of the plans which they have proposed. 

We beg leave to remark, that, although the plans are believ- 
ed to be practicable, at an expense not exceeding that stated in 
the estimates, and in a manner to produce the beneficial results 
described, there is reason to believe that, with further time for 
examination, improvements may be made in many of the details, 
without any material variation, certainly without any increase in 
the cost of execution. 

In closing this report, we think it proper to state that we have 
been indebted to the reports of Messrs. Baldwin and Eddy, for 
many valuable facts and "opinions. We wish moreover, to ex- 
press our thanks to Peter Vaughan, Esq., of London, for his 
unremitting exertions in procuring for us information concerning 
the London water-works, especially from Messrs. Mylne and 
Wicksteed, the highly respectable engineers of the New River 
aud East London Water Companies. Our acknowledgements 
are likewise particularly due to Frederick Graff, Esq., superin- 
tendent of the Philadelphia Water Works, for the highly im- 
portant information furnished by him, in the most acceptable 
manner, concerning the works under his direction. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

DANIEL TREADWELL, ) 

JAMES F. BALD-WIN, } Commissioners. 

NATHAN HALE, ) 

Boston, Jfovember 23, 1837. 



39 



To Samuel A. Eliot, Esq.^ Mayor and Chairman of the 
Committee for procuring Water for the City. 

Sir, 

A majority of the Commissioners appointed to procure a 
supply of pure and soft water for the City of Boston, having in 
the Report, concluded to lecommend for adoption a plan to 
which 1 object, I have thought it proper to state to the Commit- 
tee, in few words, the principal reasons for my non-concurrencs 
in the?r opinions. 

The plan is to obtain a supply of water from Spot and Mystic 
Ponds. The water of Mystic Pond to be pumped up into a res- 
ervoir in Medford, by the power of steam engines to be placed 
near the pond. 

To the plan of pumping up water by steam power in whole or 
in part for the supply of the city, I object, as it entails forever 
on the city, the care, trouble and expense of maintaining this 
power, and of supporting perpetually an establishment for carry- 
ing on its operations. 

The supervision of the work ; the agents, engineers, over- 
seers and assistants, which such an establishment will require ; 
the maintenance of work shops, and the stock and tools which 
must be kept on hand and in order, together with the necessary 
provision for a certain supply of fuel at the engine station, let it 
cost a great or small sum, will impose on the city government, 
such constant watchfulness and care, as to make it a toilsome and 
perplexing duty, and ought therefore to be avoided. 

Another reason for rejecting this mode of raising water, is the 
necessity the city will always be under, of maintaining the fires, 
which must never go out, by sea borne coal ; a supply of which 
may be interrupted or entirely cut off by the acts of our own 
government, or the interference of foreign powers. And that i^ 
seasons of scarcity, in providing for the wants of this establish- 
ment, burdens may be imposed oh the citizens, by enhancing the 
price of such fuel as may be necessary for their ordinary con- 
sumption. 



Probably, it is the difference in th© estimated cost of the sev- 
eral plans, which has produced the opinion, given in the report, 
in fovor of the Medford waters. It seems that at the. end of the 
first ten years, provision must be made for an addition supply, 
for a second term of ten years ; say in the eleventh year from 
this lime, the necessary expenditure for the additional supply 
will have been incurred, and then the difference in the cost, will 
be only 117,000 dollars in favor of the pumping system. 

And what, sir, are ten or eleven years, or what are 111,000 
dollars, in a work of this description ? Population is increasing 
and will continue to increase, whether the work goes on now or 
not — and if we go on in this piece-meal way, we shall ever be at 
work, and never fully satisfy the wants of the citizens. 

72,000 dollars, now put at compound interest, at 5 per cent., 
will produce in 10 years, an amount equal to the difference in 
the cost at that time, of the two modes of supplying the ciiy. 

If therefore a saving in the estimate of bringing the water of 
Long Pond, could be made of 72,000 dollars, the two plans at 
the end of 1 1 years would cost alike. 

If American hydraulic lime will answer the purpose for build- 
ing the brick aqueduct, and if one cask and a half is sufficient, as 
some masons believe it is, for laying 1,000 of bricks — then in 
this item alone, 67,500 dollars can be saved ; for 2^ casks of 
this lime to 1,000 of bricks, h-ave been allowed in the estimate. 
The " Duty" of one of the Cornish engines has been taken 
for the basis of the estimate of the steam power by which the 
pumps are to be worked. This duty is 60 millions of pounds, 
raised one foot, with one bushel (84 lbs.) of coal. This duty 
is not extraordinary in the Cornish mines, where the water is 
raised perpendicularly, but it is double that which is obtained 
from any of the engines, used by the eight water companies of 
London, for pumping water for the use of that city ; and it is 
somewhat singular, that for 20 years this great improvement in 
pumping has been overlooked, or at least has not been there 
adopted. I do not mean to say that it cannot be done, but I 
may say as much as is said in the report about the brick aqueduct, 
that it has not as yet been successfully tested. 

I object to Mystic Pond as a source of supply. The Pond 
lies below the level of high tides — thes-e tides now flow mto and 



41 

out of the Pond — and a dam across the outlet must be erected, 
to shut out the tide waters and retain the fresh. 

The effect of building such a dam, will be, in my opinion, to 
fill up, in some degree, the channel of the river, and produce 
serious consequences to the inhabitants of Medford ; who would, 
I think, successfully resist any application, made to the Legisla- 
ture, for authority to establish it. 

The free passage of the water into and from the Pond, gives 
such a scouring power to the current of the tide in the river be- 
low, as to carry off or prevent any deposite of silt or dirt, 
which, but for this, would remain, and in time, sensibly contract 
the channel, and reduce the depth of water. 

I object to the color and character of the water which compo- 
ses this source. Much of the v;ater is derived from the .Middle- 
sex Canal, from tlie leaks and wastes on a large portion of its 
length. This canal is fed from Concord River, in Billerica, a 
large part of whose waters lie every year, nearly motionless, 
through the dog days, steeping the grass on the Sudbury mead- 
ows, for many miles in extent. 

There are also upon the streams which flovr into this Pond, 
15 or 20 dams and water privileges, where various kinds of mills 
and factories are in operation; and' although there may not be 
at present, any, more objectionable than hat factories, tanneries, 
&.C., still, at some future day, they all may contribute, more or 
less, to render the water unfit for domestic purposes. It is not 
now the question whether such water is better than the citizens 
now use, but it is, whether such w^ater is likely to be as pure as 
can be had from other sources. 

I have, sir, thus briefly given the most prominent reasons 
which h:ive occured to me, for rejecting the waters of Mystic 
Pond, and the mode of obtaining it ; and conclude in the lan- 
guage of one of the Directors of the Fair Mount Water Works, 
" if you can get water without pumping it, I advise you to do it." 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

JAMES F. BALDWIN, \ ^J^' 'f l^'' ^^^^'^ 

' ( iJo7ninissione7^s. 

Boston, November 23, 1837. 



To Messrs. D. Treadwell and N. Hale, 
Gentlemen, 

Mr. Baldwin, who has been associated with you, in the 
commission on the introduction of water, has sent me a commu- 
nication containing some objections to the plan approved by you. 
As I see no particular reference to these objections in the re- 
port, I send you the communication, that you may have an 
opportunity to present to the city council any remarks you may 
think it expedient to make. 

Respectfully, your ob't serv't, 
(Signed) SAML. A ELIOT. 

City Hall, December 1, 1837. 



To Samuel A. Eliot, Mayor of the City of Boston, and 
Chairman of the Standing Committee, on supplying the City 
with Water. 

Sir, 

We have examined the objections of Mr. Baldwin, to our 
recommendation of a plan of water works, enclosed to us, with 
your note of the 1st inst., and proceed to make such remarks 
upon them, as appear to us necessary for the information of the 
city government. 

Mr. Baldwin's first objection is to the plan of pumping w"ater 

.by steam power. The grounds of this objection are, " that it 
entails forever upon the city, the care, trouble snd expense of 
maintaining this power," and in the next paragraph, he specifies 
the components of this " care, trouble, and expense," to be 
agents, engineers, overseers, and assistants ; the maintenance of 
work-shops, and the stock ot tools which must be kept on hand 
and in order, and ends his account with the necessity of keeping 

a supply of fuel for the use of the engine. 



43 

Neglecting, for the present, the last objection, you will no 
doubt, be surprised to find, as is shown in the estimate, that the 
whole care and trouble to the cily government, or to the super- 
intendent of the water works, for the first ten years, will be in 
the appointment of one operative engineer, who will employ two 
common firemen, for about four months in each year. The ex- 
pense of these workmen to the city, is unquestionably an objec- 
tion, which amounts, according to our estimate, including all 
purchases to renew parts of the engine, worn out, to $2,100 a 
year. This weight is given to.it throughout the report. Indeed, 
if it were possible to raise water by steam power, without ex- 
pense, our examination would have ended with Charles River or 
Mystic Pond. The whole of Mr. Baldwin's objection, there- 
fore, goes to a repetition of one of the items of cost in the plan 
recommended by us, which, after having been fairly considered 
and appraised in the report, was found to be of so inconsiderable 
weight, that the plan of which it made part, was still to be de- 
cidedly preferred to any other. 

Our answer to the next objection, namely, that founded upon 
the necessity of providing a supply of fuel, is the same as that 
given to the preceding, which is, that according to our best judg- 
ment, it weighs just $790 a year, and to this extent it is to be 
taken against the plan recommended, but no farther. But as this 
plan, with this objection thus resting upon it, has been shown to 
be more advantageous than any other, we are unable to perceive 
why it ought not to be adopted. 

- There are some amplifications, however, in the recital and 
repetition of this objection by Mr. Baldwin, which deserve 
further notice. Thus it is said that the city will always be un- 
der the necessity of maintaining the fires, which " must never go 
out." Now, during the first ten years, it is shown that the en- 
gine will be required to raise but 390,000 gallons of water a day, 
or 142,350,000 gallons a year. The report and estimate, ex- 
pressly state, that the engine is calculated to raise 2,500,000 
gallons in 20 hours, or 1,095,000,000 gallons a year. 'If there- 
fore, it be kept at work 1,138 hours, or 48 days in any part of 
the year, the supply will be maintained. It is not true then, that 
the fires must be always maintained, unless always be taken as 
equivalent to one seventh part of the time. Again, it is said that 



44 

the fires must be maintained by " sea-borne coal, a supply of 
which may be interrupted, or entirely cut off by the acts of our 
own government, or the interposition of foreign powers, and that 
in seasons of scarcity, in providing for the wants of this estabhsh- 
ment, burdens may be imposed upon the citizens, by enhancing 
the price of such fuel as may be necessary for their ordinary con- 
sumption." 

It is true, that in our statement of the cost of fuel for pump- 
ing, we assumed that the engines should be kept in operation by 
coal, as that article alone is used for the engines which formed 
the guide in our estimates. Mr. Baldwin Vvell knows, however, 
that steam may be formed by the heat of a wood fire, as effectual- 
ly as by that of coal. lie has even read of an engine in Corn- 
wall, pumping water by a fire of turf, at an expense of eight 
pence half penny a day. As to the hardship the citizens are 
likely to experience, from an advance of the price of coal occa- 
sioned by the extent of our demand in the market, we beg leave 
to refer you to the coal merchants to decide how much the price 
is affected, by an extra demand of 1 or 200 chaldrons a year. 

After this statement of objections, Mr. Baldwin proceeds ; 
" Probably it is the difference in the estimated cost of the sev- 
eral plans which has produced the opinion given in the report, in 
favor of the Medford waters." 

Let us see how far this statement is borne out by the report. 
On turning to that, you will find that the several plans are com- 
pared one with another as follows, 1st, their relative cost ; 2d, 
the quantity of water to be obtained hy each ; 3d, the constant 
and unfailing certainty of their operations ; 4th, the purity of 
such water. Under this comparison, the plan recommended was 
adjudged to be superior to that founded upon Long Pond, in all 
but the second point, in which they were shown to be equal. 
Hovv can it be said then, that our decision was made upon the 
relative cost alone, when it was shown that, in our opinion, an 
equal quantity of belter water could be obtained with greater 
certainty by the plan recommended, than by that rejected ? The~ 
difference in cost, being ^268,288, in our opinion, deserved, 
and it received our attention, and had its due influence upon us, 
though by no means paramount, or indeed equal to'" that produced 
by our greater confidence that the supply, by the plan recom- 



45 

mended, will not be subject to interruption by any event which 
seems to us in the least degree likely to happen. 

Mr. Baldwin next says, " It seems that at the end of the first 
ten years, provision must be made for an additional supply for a 
second term of ten years," and again, " If we go on in this 
piece-meal way, we shall ever be at work, and never fully satisfy 
the wants of the citizens." In our opinion, they must be very 
unreasonable not to be satisfied with a barrel of water a day, 
each, man, woman and child, and this provided for them at the 
cheapest rate possible. We thi.nk they ought to be better satis- 
fied with this, than to pay a greater price for a larger quantity, 
which they do not want, and which will be at their disposal only 
at the reservoir on Corey's Hill. It would no doubt be inferred 
from the manner in which Mr. Baldwin makes this statement, 
that if the plan depending upon Long Pond were adopted, no 
future " piece-meal" addition would be required to it. It will 
be seen by the report and estimates, however, that the pipe from 
the reservoir on Corey's Hill, where the brick conduit from 
Long Pond is laid out to terminate, will bring no more water to 
Boston, than will be brought by the pipe from Spot and Mystic 
Ponds, and that were that plan adopted, at the end of ten years, 
or whenever the city shall require more than 3,000,000 gallons a 
day, an additional pipe, 3.88 miles long and costing ^189,279 
must be provided. But 1-et us look a little farther into the future. 
When the population shall have increased to 240,000, which may 
be, in 30 or 40 years, all the water which will be supplied hj the 
conduit from Long Pond to Corey's Hill, or all the water of 
Long Pond, will be required for their use, and an additional pop- 
ulation can only be supplie-d by new works, perhaps by pumping 
from Mystic Pond. It appears, therefore, that additions will be 
required, to the works, whichever plan may be adopted, but as 
Mystic Pond will furnish much greater quantity of water than 
Long Pond, it will supply the increased works through a much 
longer period. 

After an effort to show that, giving their full prospective value 
to works connected with Long Pond, they will not, at the end 
of ten years, exceed in cost, the plan recommended in a greater 
siim than $117,000 as stated in the report, and that that sum may 
be produced at the end of ten years by a present investment of 



^72,000 continued at compound interest, a fact which we shall 
not gainsay, Mr. Baldwin proceeds, " If Annerican hydraulic 
lime will answer the purpose for building the brick aqueduct, and 
if- one cask and a half is sufficient, as some masons believe it is, 
for laying ],000 of bricks, then in this item alone, 67,500 dollars 
can be saved, for 2^ casks of this lime to 1,000 of bricks, have 
been allowed in the estimate." Of these two hypotheses, the 
first, implying the use of American liydraulic lime, was admitted 
perhaps with too great liberality or favor to the plan of bringing 
the supply from Long Pond, in the estimate given in the report. 
The second, implying that the estimate provides for a much 
greater quantity of cement than will be required, is in direct con- 
tradiction to the best evidence obtained from practical men in the 
course of our examination of the work proposed. Mr. Baldwin 
knows that one very intelligent and experienced mason declared, 
repeatedly, that three casks of hydraulic lime will be required to 
lay 1,000 bricks in the form proposed. Would it not be most 
unwarrantable then, to assume that less than the estimated quan- 
tity will be sufUcient ? Would it not be much more reasonable 
to reverse the conditions, and say " If English Roman cement 
be necessary to ensure the purity of the water, and if three casks 
of this cement are required to lay 1,000 bricks, the estimate will 
fall short of the expenditure in the sum of $236,250. Indeed 
we are not without some slight apprehensions, as stated in the 
report, that American hydraulic lime will be slowly dissolved and 
make the water both hard and bitter. A very strong case of this 
kind has occurred at Lowell, and the appearance of that admira- 
ble work, the dry dock in Charlestown, is not calculated to allay 
our apprehensions. 

On a review of the description and estimates of the aqueduct, 
as proposed from Long Pond, we can find no reason to hope 
that any considerable saving in the expenditure can be effected. 
No unnecessary materials or structure, seem to have been provid- 
ed for. The work as laid out by us will not compare in solidity 
or strength with that now constructing for the supply of New 
York. We have moreover relied upon a single conduit, never 
to be interrupted by repairs for a period exceeding two days, al- 
though the late eminent Sir Thomas Telford in his project for 
supplying water to London from a new source, thought in neces- 



47 

sary to provide for laying two such conduits, both built in a more 
thorough manner than that proposed by us, and each independent 
of and separated from the other, not choosing to rely solely upon 
a single work of this kind. We do not mean by this to say that the 
work, as proposed in the report will be insufficient for the object, 
but that, no unnecessary expenditure is contemplated in the esti- 
mate, and that no saving in cost can be expected upon it. 

The two succeeding paragraphs of Mr. Baldwin's paper, tend 
to cast doubt upon the conclusion arrived at in the report, upon 
authorities there stated, that 60,000,000 lbs. maybe raised 1 foot 
high by the steam engine, with a consumption of one bushel 
of coals. The foundation of this doubt is somewhat singular. 
He believes that this duty h reached, (it is often exceeded by 
more than fifty per cent.) in Cornwall, but still retains his doubts 
whether we here, can equal it, for the reason that the London 
Engineers have not yet attained to it. The London Engines, as 
is known to Mr. Baldwin, on the authority of Mr. Wicksteed, 
engineer of a London water company, are very differently con- 
structed and wrought, from those of Cornwall, and it seems to us 
that^the reasonableness of our conclusion, that we can approach 
somewhat near, at least, to the common result produced in 
Cornwall, by using the same instrument which is there used, can- 
not be successfully impunged, by showing that other persons can- 
not produce a like result with a different instrument. In the pro- 
gress of the arts, one community or city must necessarily be 
in advance of another. It is but a few years, not, "twenty," 
since the Cornish engines attained their present excellence, an 
excellence which the London companies are now about to imi- 
tate ; as Mr. Weeksteed, the engineer mentioned in the preced- 
ing paragraph, in a communication now in our possession, and 
which has, we believe, been read by Mr. Baldwin, says " we 
are about to erect a Cornish engine at Oldford," the site of the 
East London water works, " which will consume not more than 
one third of the coals we now use." 

The next paragraph of Mr. Baldwin's paper is as follows. 
" I object to Mystic Pond as a source of supply. This Pond 
lies below the level of high tides, these tides now flow into and 
out of the Pond, and a dam across the outlet must be erected, to 
shut out the tide waters and retain the fresh. 



48 

" The effect of building such a dam, will be, in my opinion, 
to fill up, in some degree, the channel of the river, and produce 
serious consequences to the inhabitants of Medford, who would, 
I think, successfully resist any application made to the Legisla- 
ture for authority to establish it. 

" The free passage of tlie water into and from the Pond, gives 
such a scouring power to the current of llie tide in the river be- 
low, as to carry off or prevent any deposit of mud or silt, wliich, 
but for this, would remain, and in lime, sensibly contract the 
channel and reduce the depth of water." 

We look in vain through the foregoing statement, for any thing 
w'hich affects the quality of the water of Mystic Pond, or the 
security, cost, or abundance of supply. We cannot however but 
lament that it should have been thus made, because it is possible 
that it may raise groundless appreliensions in the minds of the 
citizens of Medford, and we shall therefore give it more attention 
than we should otherwise have thought it necessary to bestow 
upon it. It is true as stated at length in the report, that imme- 
diately before the high water of spring tides during the dry sea- 
son, a current passes from Mystic River into the Pond, and the 
quantity of water which passes up Mystic River from the sea, 
is by this means in a very small degree, increased. But whether 
the channel of the river below the Pond, is thereby cleared or 
scoured, we think admits of great doubt. We are unable to 
perceive why as much mud and silt should not be brought up the 
river from the extensive flats north of Charlestown, as will be 
carried down by the refiux of the same water. In our view the 
difference either way must be altogether inappreciable ; and we 
think this view is warranted by the custom almost universal, of 
damming the tide waters upon our sea-board. The rivers and 
large creeks of this Commonwealth, for example, are with very 
few exceptions crossed by dams near their mouths, which efTec- 
tually bar the flow of the tide waters. 

The Charles is thus dammed at Watertown, and a flow of 
water to the depth of three feet at spring tides, cut off. The 
Neponset is crossed by two dams at Milton Bridge, which stop 
the influx of the neap tides, even. The rivers at Salem, Bev- 
erly, and Ipswich are all crossed by dams cutting off the flow of 
tidewater. Can it be that this practice has been persevered in 



49 

from the earliest times, without complaint from those interested 
in navigation, if any injury was produced upon the channels and 
harbors ? With all this before them, we believe that the citizens 
of Medford will regard all consequences which can be produced 
by a dam across the outlet of their Pond, as too trivial to excite 
uneasiness. As for any " successful resistance to an application 
to the Legislature for authority to establish it" which Mr. Bald- 
win thinks will be made by the citizens of Medford ; we beg to 
refer you to the 116th Chapter of the Revised Statutes. You 
will there find, " That any person may erect and maintain a 
water mill, and a dam to raise water for working it, upon and 
across any stream that is not navigable, upon the terms and con- 
ditions, and subject to the regulations herein after expressed." 
These terms and conditions are essentially, that the person build- 
ing the dam shall not place it upon another man's land without 
consent from the owner. That it shall not produce injury to 
another mill upon the same stream, and that the owner shall be 
liable in damages for all land flowed by it. More than this the 
Legislature specially granted in the year 1S36 to the Boston 
Hydraulic Company, incorporated for supplying the City of Bos- 
ton with water, the right to take any Ponds or lands covered 
with water north of Charles River, and within 12 miles of the 
City of Boston, and " The said corporation may erect dams at 
the outlets of any Ponds which said corporation may take pursu- 
ant to the provisions of this act." This company has never 
taken possession of these rights, and surely the Legislature will 
not now deny, to the City of Boston, the same privileges which 
were then granted to a private company. 

Mr. Baldwin's last objection is made to the " color and charac- 
ter" of the water of Mystic Pond. He grounds this objection 
upon the facts that a portion of the water is remotely derived 
from Concord River through the Middlesex Canal, and that there 
are several mills upon the other water courses which empty into 
the pond. For that portion of the supply vi'hich comes from the 
Canal, as it is for the most part filtered in its passage from the , 
Canal to the pond, we lament that it is not more abundant. With 
regard to the influence of mills in rendering waters impure, w^e 
have alreadly expressed our opinion in the report, when giving 
an account of the water of Charles River. It is by no means 

7 



60 

pleasant to dwell upon the sources of impurity to which all wa- 
ters, which can be procured in civilized life, are exposed, whether 
in ponds, rivers, wells, or even springs. The mills mostly saw and 
grist mills, upon the streams connected with Mystic Pond are 
we believe, very harmless things. There is no evidence of con- 
tamination produced by them, either in the appearance of the 
water or in its analysis. We need not repeat that the analysis 
shows the water to be more pure than that of Long Pond, which 
receives in the dry season the drainage from an extensive swamp 
or meadow. While therefore we believe that the water of Mys- 
tic Pond ought not to be rejected for want of purity, we may re- 
mu]d you that Spot Pond, from which in the plan recommended, 
the greater part of the water will for many years be derived, is 
the most pure and unexceptionable of all the sources examined 
by us. 

Having thus examined, we beheve all the objections of Mr. 
Baldwin, and made such remarks upon them as seemed to us neces- 
sary, we leave the subject to those who alone have authority to 
decide upon the whole question. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

DANIEL TREADWELL, 
NATHAN HALE, 
Boston, Dec. 8, 1837. 



61 



PAPER MARKED A. 

Quantity of Water of Spot Pond. 

With the consent of the proprietors of the pond, an apparatus 
was placed at the outlet, for measuring, at pleasure, the quantity 
of water flowing from it, during a given number of seconds ; and 
an agent was employed to make such measurement three limes a 
day, from May 4th, to October 2d. Since the last named date, 
the measurement has been made but once a day. 

The water, after flowing from the pond, through the gate or 
over the wasteway, is received into a smaller pond or reservoir, 
at some distance below the gate, and from this reservoir it is dis- 
charged over a fall of considerabl-e height, before coming to the 
mills of Messrs. Odiorne and the other works. At this fall a 
trough is- placed, into which the water is received through a 
notch, 36 inches in width, with an even horizontal bottom ; and 
a guage or scale on which the inches and parts are accurately 
marked, is placed in the roservoir, in such manner as to indicate 
at all times, the height of the surface of the water, above the 
bottom of the notch. 

The trough is placed at such a slope that the water flows rap- 
idly through it, and is discharged into the brook below. Beneath 
this trough, a cubical box or cistern is so placed, that the whole 
current of water may be discharged into it, by a sudden removal 
of a section of the trough. By replacing the section of the 
trough, the current is again suddenly discharged into the brook 
below. The cavity of this box measures six feet on each side, 
and consequently it contains 216 cubic feet. A scale is fixed 
on the inside of it, by which the depth of water in it, at any time, 
may be readily observed, and the quantity accurately determined. 
It is also provided with a gate, for the discharge of the water at 
pleasure. 

All the water, therefore, which is discharged from Spot Pond, 
either over the wasteway, or through, the gate, flows regula'-ly 
through this trough, and may be at any time discharged for any 
number of seconds into the box ; the time being noted by the ob- 
server, by means of a minute or half minute glass. The height 
to which the water rises on the scale, shows the quantity of wa- 
ter discharged during the time. 

The agent has recorded, not only the quantity of water thus 
drawn off" at each observation, "but also the height of water in 
the reservoir at the time, above the bottom of the notch, from 



52 

which the quantuy of the flow may be computed by a well known 
rule. 

Our observations upon Spot Pond commenced March 31st, 
1S37, when the Pond was nearly full, about 2 inches below the 
top of the wasteway. There was drawn from it from March 
31st to November 3d, 217 days, upon an average, 4.75 cubic 
feet a second, and this draft lowered the water, 4 feet 8 inches. 
The whole quantity of v/ater as measured which ran out during 
this time was 89,056,800 cubic feet, which is equal to 1,829,932 
gallons a day for 365 days or one year. 

Taking the area of the Pond when at its mean height at 240 
acres=10,454,400 feet, this quantity, 89,056,800 cubic feet, 
would have filled it 8.51 feet high. It was drawn down 4.66 
feet, and this basin, 240 acres large and 4.66 feet deep, contain- 
ed 48,717,504 cubic feet. Hence of the whole quantity 89,- 
056,800 cubic feet drawn, 48,717,504 cubic feet were given by 
lowering the Pond, and the remainder 40,339,269 cubic feet 
were supplied by rains and springs ; and in addition to this a quan- 
tity equal to the whole evaporation, which was not measured. 

The question now comes, will the Pond, if the gate should be 
shut down, and no further draft made from it, fill from rains and 
springs, before the 31st of March, 1838, to the point at which it 
stood on the same day this year .'' that is 4 feet 8 inches above 
its present level .'' For if it will so fill, then the yield of the 
Pond for the year may be taken at 1 ,829,932 gallons a day for 
the whole period. 

By the observations made in April and May last, we found 
that the Pond received during those two months an accession of 
37,807,755 cubic feet which is only oO per cent, less than the 
whole quantity, 48,717,504 cubic feet, required to fill the Pond. 
The quantity of rain which fell in April and May, according to 
the observations of .Dr. tiale in Boston was 8.82 inches ; ac- 
cording to Dr. Hobbs at Waltham 10.96 inches, — mean 9.89 
inches which is considerably above the rain of the same months 
in ordinary years. But as the snow had nearly all disappeared 
on the 1st of April, it is difiiicult to conceive of the Pond having 
received an accession of more than two-thirds as much water 
during April and May, two months, as it ordinarily receives in 
November, December, January, February and March, five 
months. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observations 
made for several years at Jamaica Fond, as published in the re- 
port by L. Baldwin, Esq., which show the increase of that Pond 
upon an average often years, to be about three times as much in 
February and March, as it is in April and May. 

If then we conclude that the accession of water to the Pond in 
the months of November, December, January, February and 
March, five months, be 50 per cent, more than the accession 



55 

during the last April and May, two months, we shall have 37,- 
807,745+18,903,877=56,711,632 cubic feet, or 7,994,128 
cubic feet more than enough to fill the Pond. We have seen 
that if the pond be filled only, under the conditions before stated, 
the yjeld for the year will be 1,829,932 gallons a day. As the 
year has been unusually dry, we feel warranted in taking the aver- 
age produce to be 2,100,000 gallons, the minimum 1,600,000, 
and the maximum 2,600,000. 



PAPER MARKED B. 

Quantity of Water of Long Pond. 

The discharge from Long Pond^ as near as we could measure 
it, on the 1 7th of April, when we first examined its outlet, was 
22.90 cubic feet a second. Again, on the 1st of June, the dis- 
charge, by our estimate, was 43.33 cubic feet. This great dis- 
charge, was produced by the removal of a plank forming a part of 
the stopwater, sometime between the 17th of April and the 1st 
of June, and by it the water of the whole pond was drawn off to 
the depth of 11 inches. We have no means of ascertaining the 
day on which the stopwater was removed, but as the flovi' on the 
1st of June was 20.43 feet per second greater than on the 17th 
of April, and as the pond in the mean time was drawn down 1 1 
inches, it seems reasonable to attribute the increased flow on the 
1st of June, to the retnoval of the plank, and to assume that if 
the pond had not been drawn down, the average flow would not 
have varied materially from what it was computed to be on the 
17th of April, viz. 22.90. We may assume, moreover, that the 
accession of water to the pond, during the months of February 
and March is equal to that of April and May. We have then, 
for these four months, 120 days, an accession to the pond, of 
22.90 cubic feet a second, 237,427,000 cubic feet. 

By our observations, made from the 27th of July to the 30th 
of September, 66 days, the discharge from the pond was 39,- 
337,920 cubic feet, and the surface of the pond subsided 8 in- 
ches under this draft. This 8 inches, or 26,136,000 square 
feet, the area of the pond, gives 17,424,000 cubic feet. Hence, 
of the whole quantity, 39,337,920 cubic feet drawn, 17,424,000 
cubic feet were taken from the stock of the pond and the remain- 
der, 21,913,920 cubic feet, were derived from rains and springs 
flowing into the pond during the time of the draft. This 21,- 
913,920 cubic feet in 66 days, is equai to 3.85 cubic feet a sec- 



64 

ond, and we may take the yield of the pond during the months 
of July, August, September and October to be 3.85 cubic feet 
a second, or for the 122 days, 40,582,080 cubic feet. Then if 
we add to this the quantity, 237,427,000 cubic feet, which it 
has been beforj shown may be collected in the pond, during tiie 
months of February, March, April, and May, we have 278,000- 
980 cubic feet, .furnished to tire pond in eight months, viz. Feb- 
ruary, March, April May, July, August, September, and Octo- 
ber. This is equal to 13| cubic feet a second, nearly, for the 
242 days comprised in these eight months. It must therefore 
be apparent, that if we draw from the pond but 13| feet a sec- 
ond, during February, March, lipril, and May, a surplus may 
be retained sufficient to provide for an equal draft through July, 
August, September, and October. During the remaining months 
of the year, namely, June, November, December and January, 
we have good reason to believe that the pond will re(;eive 13^ 
cubic feet a second from rains and springs, consequently a draft 
from it to that extent, will neither increase nor diminish its stock. 
We have in this v^^ay 13| cubic feet a second provided during 
the year. 

To reserve in the pond the quantity 99,926,784 cubic feet, re- 
quired to be drawn off during July, August, September and Oc- 
tober, it will be necessary to raise the dam at its outlet, so that 
the pond be flowed 3.82 feet above its lowest point, or about 18 
inches above the right of flowage, possessed by the present own- 
ers of the outlet. Although the flow from the pond may be 
made equal to 13| cubic feet a second, or 8,640,000 gallons a 
day, as herein shown, we do not rely, after making an allowance 
for waste by leakage, on obtaining more than 11 feet a second, at 
the reservoir on Corey's Hill, and our aqueduct is calculated to 
deliver this quantity, which is equivalent to 7,128,000 gallons a 
day. 



PAPER MARKED C. 



In pumping to a height of 117 feet, at a distance of 3| miles, 
in addition to the force required to raise the water, we must pro- 
vide for an additional force in overcoming the friction of the hor- 
izontal pipe. The amount of this force depends upon the size 
of the pipe. We assume it in this case, as equal tO a column 
of water 33 feet high, and it will be hereafter seen that this will 
be near the quantity required in practice. 



65 

The fall at Bemis' Mills is 5 feet nearly, and at May's Mills 
6 feet when the tide is out, making about 11 feet fall. To pump 
2,500,000 gallons = 333,333 cubic feet a day = 3.86 feet a 
second 150 feet high, will require ^:=13. 6 feetX3. 86=52. 5 
feet to produce an equilibrium between the wheels and pumps. 
Add 50 per cent, for loss in giving motion, and we have 73.75 
feet a second. 

It will require then 7S| feet of water a second, at a fall of 11 
feet, during the 24 hours, to produce the necessary power to 
pump 3.86 feet 150 feet high. 

The flow of water at the Waltham Mills, is estimated by Dr. 
Hobbs, for the four driest montlis, July, August, September, 
and October, at from 40 to 60 cubic feet a second. 

We cannot therefore rely upon more than half the quantity re- 
quired during four months of the driest season, and if we assume 
that during the remainder of the year, there will be water enough 
for pumping the whole supply, we may estimate the cost of 
erecting works, and pumping, as follows: 
Cost of pumping by water and steam. 

Water Rights, $70,000 GO 

Canal to unite the two falls with guard gates, &c. 30,000 00 
Four water wheels and pumps, $8,000 each, - 32,000 00 

Buildings, 20,000 00 

Steam Engine and pumps, capable of pumping 

2,500,000 gallons in 20 hours - - - 35,000 00 
Building, 10,000 00 



Yearly expense for water works, 

Superintendent, - - - $1,000 00 

3 men at $500 each, - - - 1,500 00 

Wear and tear, - - - - 1,500 00 



$197,000 OO 



$4,000 00 
Steam works to pump 1,250,000 

gallons a day for 4 months. 
Coal, 25 bushels a day, making 85 

chaldrons in 122 days, at $10 a 

chaldron, . . _ - 
Engineer per year, 
Firemen for 4 months, 
Wear and tear, - - - - 

$2,825 00 
Making the whole yearly expense 2825 + 4000=$6825, 
which is equal to a present outlay of $136,500, which added to 
the above sum of $197,000, makes the sum of $333,500. 



$850 


00 


600 


00 


375 


00 


1,000 


00 



56 

Cost of pumping by steam alone. 

Engines, -" ^70,000 00 

Buildings, - - - - - - - 20,000 00 

Watertight,- - - - - - - 15,000 00 

Yearly expenses as in a subsequent estimate E. 

$ll,808=a present capital of - - - 236,160 00 

$341,160 00 

We see, therefore, that the plan of pumping by water, as far 
as it can be obtained, and making up the deficiency by eteam, 
has but a very small advantage over that of pumping wholly by 
steam, even if we assume that the water power will be sufficient 
for the whole supply during eight months. There is some 
doubt, however, whether the water power will be sufficient for 
the eight months, and this added to the perplexity to the city 
government in the greater complication of works, leads us to 
prefer steam power alone. 



ESTIMATE MARKED D. 

Cost of supply from Charles River. 

Cost of Reservoirs on Corey's Hill. 

Reservoir on Corey's Hill, in two basins 50 feet surface 
width each, and 864 feet long — 10 feet depth of water. 
Excavation 36,288 cubic yds. 
Extra for puddling 5,100—41,388 

yds. a 20 cts. - - . - 8,277 60 
Puddling 4780 cubic yds. a 50 cts. 2,390 00 
Slope walls 21X4 X 864 for sides, 

3,068 perch a $2 00 - - 6,136 00 

Berm and back drain 8,640 yds. - 

20 cts. - - - - - 1,728 00 
Discharging pipe 200 feet, 6 inch 

and 2 cocks, ... - 472 80 

Land for above reservoirs together 

v/ith land over which the pipe 

shall pass, - - - - 3,949 60 22,954 00 

Damage to water rights' at Charles 
River, being the right to take 
water for the supply, above the 
lower falls in Watertown, - 15,000 00 



Amount carried forward^ ^37,954 00 



57 

Amount brought forward, $37,954 00 

Main pipe from Reservoir on Co- 
rey's Hill, to Reservoir on Bea- 
con Hill, 

Two branches of pipes 40 feet long 
each, 22 inches diameter, with 
stop cocks for drawing v;ater 
from Reservoirs to main, cost 
laid, 1,226 24 

Main pipe from Corey's Hill over 
the Miil-dam, and across the 
Common and up Tremont and 
Beacon streets, to Reservoir on 
Beacon Hill ; distance 20,485 
feet. Length of pipe including 
laps at the joints 21,690 feet, — 
diameter 21^ inches, weight per 
foot, 208 63-100 lbs. at 3| cts. 
per pound, - - - - 158,380 33 

Digging trench 6 feet deep, 4|- feet 
wide, 20,485 cubic yards, at 18 
cts. a yard, . - - - 3,687 30 

Filling trench and restoring road af- 
ter the pipe is laid, 14 cts. a foot 
in length, .... 2,867 90 

Lead for filhng joints 120,500 lbs. 

at 61 cents. ... - 7,832 50 

Laying pipe, including filling lead, 

^2 00 a joint, 2,410 joints, - 4,820 00 

Extra for crossing the sluices on the 
Mill-dam, and for culvert on the 
Brighton road, - - - - 9,193 00 

5 Stop cocks at $^212 each — set- 
ting and lead $10 37 each, - 1,11185 

Air cocks, - - - - 160 00 189,279 17 



Main pipes 21 inches diameter from 
Steam works at the lower dam in 
Watertown to Reservoir on Co- 
rey's Hill, distance 16,910 feet 
(34 miles) $8 57 a foot, includ- 
ing cost of pipe, lead, excava- 
tion, and all expenses of laying 
the same, .... 144,918 00 

4 Stop cocks and laying the same, 888 GO 145,806 00 

Amount carried forward, 373,039 17 



58 

Amount brought forward, 373,039 17 

Two steam engines (each 76 horse 

power) 48 inches cyhncler, 9| feet 

stroke, with 2 pumps, IS inch 

cyhnders, 8 feet stroke to each 

pump, which will deliver with 

ordinary use, 2,500,000 gallons 

of water a day to the Reservoir 

on Corey's Hill at §i35,000 each, 70,000 GO 

Buildings for steam engines and 

pumps including coal houses and 

shops, and tools for small repairs, 20,000 00 

Canal to take the water, from the 

river to the engine pumps, - - 800 00 

Guard Gate and Strainer, - - 1,200 00 2,000 00 



$465,039 17 

Instead of crossing the Mill-dam as proposed in the above 
estimate the supply may be brought by another line, passing from 
Corey's Hill through Roxbury and over Tremont Street to Bea- 
coKi Hill. This from its greater length will require that the pipe 
be 22 inches 'diameter, and the cost as shown in the following 
estimate. 

Main through Roxbury. 

2 branch pipes 40 feet each=80 feet 
of 22 inch with lead and laying, 
leading from Reservoir to main, - 1,226 24 

25,051 feet pipe, 22 inch diameter 

a $7 56, - - - ' - - 189,385 56 

Digging tranches 4^x6=23,660 cu- 
bic yds. a 18 cts. - - - 4,258 80 

Refilling trenches 41x6=23,660 cu- 
bic yds. a 14 cts. - - - 3,312 40 

Lead for 2,783 joints 72 lbs, each, 

a 6|- cts. 13,024 44 

Laying pipe at ^2 00 per joint, - 5,566 00 

2 bridges on Tremont Road ^1,500 

1 Culvert in Brookline $1,500 - 3,000 00 

5 stop cocks $1,11 1 85 — Air cocks 

$16D 00, 1,271 85 $221,045 29 



The cost of this line is $31,7C6 more than the line over the 
Mill-dam. If it be followed however, a saving of $21,287 for 



69 

the distribution at the south part of the city and for South Bos- 
ton, as specified in the estimate for distiibutiou, as having been 
accidentally omitted in the general summary in the body of the 
report, will be made. We retain the line across the IMill-dam, 
however, in the Report. 



PAPER MARKED E. 

Cost of Pumping. 

The following are the dimensions of an engine called " httle 
engine," us^d at the united mines in Cornwell. 

Cylinder, 30 inches diameter. Length of stroke, 9 feet. It 
moves two pumps, one of 12 inches diameter, the lift being 31 
feet, and one of 14 inches diameter, the lift being 205 feet. 
Consequently, the load on both pumps is 15,219 pounds. The 
length of stroke in the pumps is 71 feet, and the number of 
strokes made in April 1835, was 444,620, or 10.29 a minute, 
without any allowance for rest. Hence it raised 15.219X7|= 
1 14, 142iX444, 620=50, 750, OSS, 350 pounds 1 foot high, dur- 
ing the month. The consumption of coals was 764 bushels ; 
therefore, each bushel raised 66,426,751 pounds 1 foot high. 

Should the plan of pumping from Charles River, or Mystic 
Pond be adopted, we are of opinion that two engines should be 
erected, each capable of raising 2,500,000 gallons in 20 hours. 
This would sufficiently ensure one of the engines being always 
in order, so that a failure of supply to the city, would very rare- 
ly, if ever happen. In order to raise this water from Charles 
River to the reservoir on Corey's Hill, the engine must not only 
overcome the resistance of the head, 117 feet, but likewise the 
friction of the horizontal or inclined pipe, 3i rnlles long, from 
Watertown to Corey's Hill. The quantity of this resistance 
from friction, will depend upon the size of the pipe. With a 
pipe of 21 inches diameter, as given in the estimate, if the pres- 
sure in the pump be equal to a column 150 feet high, or 33 feet 
above the reservoir on Corey's Hill, into which. the water is to 
be discharged, our formula gives a discharge of nearly 5 cubic 
feet a second, or 2,700,000 gallons in 20 hours. It will be 
enough for the present purpose then, to take the engines to work 
against a column 150 feet high. We have then, 2,500,000 gal- 
lons, equal to 20,000,000 pounds to be raised 150 feet high each 
day, or 3,000,000,000 pounds raised 1 foot. Taking the duty 
of the engine at 60,000,000 pounds to each bushel of coal, we 
have 50 bushels per day for the whole consumption. 



60 

The engines should have cylinders of 48 inches diameter, 9| 
feet stroke, with two pumps each, IS inches diameter, 8 feet 
stroke. The area of both pumps being 3.54 feet, iO strokes a 
minute, would produce the effect required. We estimate the 
cost of each engine with the pumps complete, at ^35,000. 

We have seen that the consumption of coal will be 50 bushels 
a day, making 507 chaldrons a year, the price of which may be 
very safply taken at ^10 a chaldron. The cost of fuel then will 
be $5,070 a year. 

A very liberal allowance for attendance will be. One princi- 
pal engineer or superintendent, with a salary of $1,000 a year, 
and five men as engineers and firemen, at $1 50 a day each, 
making in all $^,738 a year. 

The cost of providing new parts for the engines and pumps as 
they shall wear out, and for such repairs as will not be done by 
the workmen constantly employed, whose pay is in the preced- 
ing item, together with the cost of oil and insurance, may be 
taken, safely, at $3,000 a year. 

We have then, 
Coal, - - - - . $5,070 00 
Superintendent, - - - 1,000 00 

Engineers and Firemen, - 2,733 00 

Wear and tear, insurance, &c. 3,000 00 

$11,808 00 annual expense for 
pumping. 



ESTIMATE MARKED F. 

Cost of supply from Mystic Pond. 

Dam at the outlet of the pond, - $2,000 00 

Canal, Gates, and Strainer, to take 
the water from the pond to the 
pumps, ----- 2,000 00 

4,000 00 

Reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, 250 

feet square, 10 feet deep, - 13,000 00 

Land at Mystic Pond, and for re- 
servoir at Walnut tree Hill, to- 
gether with land on which the 
pipe shall pass to Boston, - 5,500 00 18,500 00 



Amount carried forward, 22,500 00 



61 

Amount brought forward, 22,500 00 

Main pipe, 18 inches diameter, from 
tile engine station, near Mystic 
Pond to tlie reservoir on Walnut 
tree Hill, distance 8,250 feet, 
at $7 33 a foot, including lead, 
trenching, and all expenses of 
laying, 60,472 00 

Main pipe, 22 inches diameter, 
from Walnut tree Hill, to reser- 
vair on Beacon Hill, distance 
39,707 feet, at ^9 02 per foot 
laid, including lead, trenches, lay- 
ing the pipe and refilling trench, 358,157 00 



Stone bridge to carry the pipe 

across Charles River, - - 14,000 00 
Arches and additions required to 

cross over the sluice gates of the 

Mill-dam, . . - . 8,493 00 
Two Culverts, - - - - 1,000 00 



418,629 00 



23,493 00 



Two Steam engines (76 horse 
power each) cylinders 48 inches 
diameter, 9^ feet stroke, with 2 
pumps, each 18 inches diameter, 
8 feet stroke, which will deliver 
with ordinary use, 2,500,000 gal- 
lons of water a day, to the re- 
servoir o^ Walnut tree Hill, 
^35,000 each, - - - 70,000 00 

Buildings for steam engines and 
pumps, including coal houses and 
shop, and tools for small repairs, 20,000 00 



90,000 00 
$554,622 00 



ESTIMATE MARKED G. 

Cost of supply from Spot Pond united with Mystic Pond. 

Main pipe, 22 inches diameter from 
Spot Pond to Reservoir on Wal- 



62 



nut tree Hill, distance, 16,789 

feet, 3^^ miles at $9 02 a foot, 

including lead for joints trench- 
ing and laying pipe and refilling 

trench, $152,436 00 

Rock cutting in trench near the 

Pond, - - - - - 1,007 00 

Dam and apparatus for taking water 

from Spot Pond, - - - 1,200 00 

Stone bridge to carry pipe across 

Medford River, - - - 5,000 00 

Reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, 250 

feet square, JO feet deep, - 13,000 00 
Main pipe, 1 5 inches diameter, from 

pumping v^orks at Mystic Pond 

to Reservoir on Walnut tree Hill, 

distance 8,250 feet, (l^miles.) 

at $4 32 per foot laid, including 

cost of lead, trenching and laying, ,35,640 00 
Steam engine, (76 horse power,) 

cylinder 48 inches diameter, 

stroke 9| feet, with 2 pumps, IS 

inches diameter, 8 feet stroke, 

capable of delivering 2,500,000 

gallons of water a day to the Re- 
servoir on Walnut tree Hill, - 35,000 00 
Building for steam engine and 

pumps, including coal house and 

shop and tools for small repairs, 10,000 00 

Main pipe, 22 inches diameter, from 

Walnut tree Hill to Reservoir 

on Beacon Hill, distance 39,707 

feet, 7^ miles at $9 02 per foot 

laid, including lead for joints, 

trenches, laying the pipe and re- 
filling trench, - - - - 358,157 00 
Stone bridge to carry pipe over 

Charles River, - - - 14,000 00 

Arches and additions required to 

cross the sluiceways at the Mill- 
dam, ----- 8,493 00 
Two culverts, ... - 1,000 00 
Land for Reservoir on Walnut tree 

Hill, and at the engine house in 



Amount carried forward , . ^634,933 00 



63 

Amount brought forward, $634,933 00 

Medford, together with land over 
which the pipe shall pass, added 
to our assumed value of Spot 
Pond, 80,000 00 80,000 00 

$714,933 00 



Yearly cost of pumping 650,000 gallons a day for six years, 

but which, for the purpose of distributing the expense through 

the whole period often years, vv^e take at 390,000 a day for ten 

years. 

Engineer, who will remain always 
at the works and keep the engine 
in order at all times for use, - !]^S00 00 

The supply will be furnished by the 

engine working constantly for 48 ■ 

days, but it will perhaps be more 

convenient to work in the day 

time only, for, say, 100 days. 

This will require 2 firemen or 

assistants to the engineer at $1 50 

each per day, - - - - 300 00 

Coal to raise 390,000 gallons a day, 
or 142,350,000 a year, 150 feet 
high, 79 chaldrons at $10 00 per 
chaldron, - . - - 790 00 

Wear and tear, beyond that which 
will be made good by the engi- 
neer constantly employed, and 
paid as above, together with oil, 
and small expenses, and insur- 
ance, - - - - - 1,000 00 2,890 00 



$2,890 00 



PAPER MARKED H. 

Showing the durability of Iron Pipes. 

Extracts from minutes of Evidence taken before the select Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons^ on the supply of ivater to the 
Metropolis in 1821. 



Evidence of William C. Myjne, Esq., Engineer to the New 
River Company. 

Q. Have there been any experiments made at any time re- 
specting iron pipes, that ascertain the extent of their dura- 
bility ? A. None have worn out yet, they have been down 30 
or 35 years. I have seen parts of pipes that have been SO years 
under ground, perfectly good. 

They corrode in some places, but not in others, that depends 
upon the soil in which they are put ? Yes. 

Have you seen any instance of decay in the iron pipes ? 
Nothing worth mentioning. 

Have you ever known any expense incurred in repairing iron 
pipes .'' There is a small expense : there is a contraction and 
expansion takes place with every change of the season, and when 
they were screwed together they become one rod, and pulled 
themselves asunder every winter ; now passing into each other 
with socket joints, the effect of expansion is not perceivable. 

They are not screwed together now .'' No ; the contraction 
on nine feet is so small, it does not affect the joint. 



Evidence 0/ Thomas Simpson, Esq., Engineer' to the Chelsea 

Company. 

Q. How long will a wooden pipe last, according to your ex- 
perience .'' A. Accoi'ding to my calculation, upon an average 
fifteen years. 

What experience have you had of iron ? Forty years, and I 
have taken up and relaid iron that had been down forty years 
before. 

Have you found any corrosion in those pipes ? None whatever. 

And is the water as good coming through iron pipes .'' Quite. 

You have had experience of iron pipes eighty years ? I have 
taken up a pipe that had been forty years in the ground, and put 
it down a2:ain. 



\_ The following papers were delivered in, and read.] 

February 24th^ 1S21. 

In respect to the durability of cast iron pipes in the streets of 
London, I believe there exists no difference of opinion ; all the 
persons vvith whom I have conversed being confident that they 
will be as perfect at the expiration of 100 years as they were in 
the first instance, but how far the joints will remain perfect, and 
the pipes answer all the purposes for which they were intended, 



65 

is a very difficult point to determine, from their having been in 
use so short a time. 

From the experience I have had I consider the capital ex- 
pended in the pipes to remain unalterahle, having seen some 
which had been in use eighty years, so perfect that no corrosion 
was visible, but the contraction and expansion of the metal, with 
the temperature of the water with which they are filled, is con- 
stantly acting on the joints, the effects produced from which, in 
my opinion, will be equal to a complete relay in every thirty 
years ; for it must be considered, that as all such repairs must 
be executed without interfering with the supply of the town, it 
must therefore, be done under every disadvantage. 

It is also necessary to observe, that the velocity with which 
the water passes through the pipes, materially affects their future 
efficiency. In all pipes that I have seen, immediately connect- 
ed with engines, I have observed no material incrustation, there 
being nothing more than a thin film on the surface, resembling 
what is produced in the interior of a tea-kettle, but in pipes, 
where the velocity is not so great, a material incrustation takes 
place, and more particularly with Thames-water. 

In the New River water works, I have seen a sixteen inch 
pipe taken up, which had been down about twenty years ; it was 
reduced from incrustation, at least one inch in the diameter. 

In Kensington Gardens, I understand a five inch service pipe 
was laid down of iron, in the year 1751, and it was in 1819 
taken up from inefficiency, being reduced to about three inches 
in diameter in many parts of its length, which consequently af- 
fected the utility of the whole. A similar circumstance happen- 
ed at Windsor palace. 

These are the only instances with which I am acquainted, but 
if such should be the case with all the pipes in the streets of 
London, there will not only be an annual expenditure in coals 
(or other ways) to overcome the temporary resistance arising 
from such incrustation, but also a complete relay, for the pur- 
pose of cleansing, once in about fifty years. 

1 must also observe, on the capital employed in cocks, which 
is by far the most perishable, a considerable part of them being 
made of v^^rought iron, from the experience I have had, the 
screws will all require to be renewed within seven years, and 
the doors fresh faced, which may be considered as being equal 
to a complete renewal of that portion of the capital in every ten 
years. 

(Signed) WILLIAM CHADWELL MYLNE. 

February, 1821. 



66 

In my evidence of Friday, the 16lh instant, in answer to a 
question respecting the duration of iron pipes, I stated " that 
iron pipes would not require repairs." This question I under- 
stood related to the lime that iron pipes would last, without a 
reierence to the repairs, and 1 beg to state there will be an ex- 
pense attendant on the repairs of iron pipes. With respect to 
their duration, I have not had sufficient experience to fix a peri- 
od, but what I have taken up, did not appear to be diminished 
in substance. 



The following are three particular instances of the construc- 
tion of the orifices of iron pipes, which came under my observa- 
tion : — 

In the year 1789, in consequence of the great difficulty ex- 
perienced in supplying Windsor Castle with water, I was order- 
ed by the surveyor general of his Majesty's office of works, to 
ascertain the cause, if possible. The engine which supplies the 
castle is working by the fall of the river Thames, and the pumps 
are supplied from a spring. Upon examination, I found the leaden 
coHveyance pipe for the engine to the castle, very defective, and 
recommended two and a half inch iron pipe to be substituted, 
which was done. In the year 1816, the same deficiency of sup- 
ply took place as in 1789, but not from the same cause. I had, 
from my observations, experienced the incrustation of iron pipes, 
and concluded the pipe was almost stopped ; and having recom- 
mended the pipe to be taken up, I ascertained the orifice was lit- 
tle more than one inch in diameter, the incrustation being nearly 
equal all round the internal surface of the pipe. 

In the year 1791 it was found necessary to take up and relay 
a twelve inch iron main (of flanch pipes, which were originally 
laid down in the year 1746) from the Chelsea water works en- 
gine to the Reservoir in Hyde Park, in consequence of the 
joints being perished. The incrustation on the internal surface 
of this main was in irregular lumps, and upon an average about 
half an inch thick ; the diameter of the pipe being contracted to 
nearly eleven inches. 

In the year 1819 the difficulty of supplying the Reservoir in 
Kensington Gardens, near the palace, had increased to such an 
extent, that it became absolutely necessary to ascertain the cause ; 
and having taken the proper steps, I found the pipe was con- 
tracted by incrustation. The pipe was originally five inches 
diameter ; and from the Chelsea water work books was laid by 
government in the year 1751. The pipe was contracted to three 
inches diameter, and the incrustation covered the internal surface 
in irregular lumps. 



67 

From the* foregoing observation an inference may be drawn, 
that the incrustation on the internal surface of iron pipes will, in 
the course of fifty years, so contract the orifices, that it will be 
absolutely necessary for the pipes to be taken up, cleawed and 
relaid, during which process some of them may be injured. It 
had long been discovered, in the instance of the pipe which sup- 
plies the Reservoir in Kensington Gardens from the Chelsea 
water works main, that great difficulty had arisen in making the 
service, and the cause was unknown until the pipe was examined, 
so that the incrustation had, it must be presumed, originated 
some years before that period. It is necessary to observe, that 
by the progressive incrustation and consequent contraction of the 
orifices of the pipes, the friction of the water passing through 
them will be increased, and either a greater power or longer time 
will be required to force the same quantity of water through iron 
pipes at the end of fifty years,, than was originally allowed. Upon 
this computation it may be stated, that the progressive requi- 
site increase of power or of time, will occasion a corresponding 
increase of expense, which in the fiftieth year may amount to 
fifty per cent, more than was found sufficient in the first year. It 
is also necessary to observe, that this process of incrustation in 
iron pipes is calculated upon a supposition that the River Thames 
water only is used in the pipes. ~ 

(Signed) THOMAS SIMPSON, 
Inspector General to Chelsea Water Works. 

February 24:th, 1821. 



Thomas Simpson, Esq., continued. 

Q. You were the inventor of the spigot and fosset joint ? 
A. I was. 

How long ago did you lay them down .'' I tried some experi.- 
ments six or seven and thirty years ago, and then I laid a long 
main for Chelsea water works. 

And you have never found them want repair ? Those that 
were laid down for the Chelsea water works were taken up and 
relaid after twenty-seven years, but the first that I laid down, 
had been laid down six or seven and thirty years, and I never 
knew them fail yet. 

Was this experiment on a large scale ? No ; the first I tried 
was with some joints we could not make stand in any other way ; 
and we run them in lead and it has not failed. 

Is it upon a large scale ? No, it was one joint I tried. 

You still use the oakum behind the lead .'' Yes. 

You tried one joint at first ? Yes ; it answered for seven 



68 

years and never leaked ; and then I ventured on laying a main, 
perhaps, 1,500 or 1,600 yards, for the Chelsea water works. 

How long ago was that ? They had been down twenty-seven 
years ; they were taken up two years ago, and relaid in Pall 
Mali. 

This main was down about twenty-seven years ? Yes ; about 
1,500 yards long. 

New joints were put to them when they were relaid ? 

They were relaid in Pall Mall, then they were joined in the 
same manner with lead. 

When you took them up you found no defects in the joints .'' 
None whatever. 

And they had been down twenty-seven years ? Yes. 

Your experiment of thirty-seven years does not go beyond one 
joint ? Two or three joints, perhaps, I tried the experiment on. 



William tRnderson, Esq., E7igineer to Grand Junction Com- 
pany. 

Q. You have spoken of the decay of a particular pipe which 
had begun to oxydate or rust ; was it owing to its being in cal- 
careous or siliceous earth ? A. No, I think not ; but it was the 
inside of the pipe that oxydated. 

It is probable that iron pipes might not decay in argillaceous 
earth ; have you ascertained how it will be in calcareous earth ? 
No, I have not ; it is more from the interior of the pipe that we 
expect decay. 

Have you had many instances of the bursting of a pipe ? We 
have had a few. 

That is an accident which occasionally happens to iron pipes ? 
Yes ; but it is occasioned by frost when it does take place, from 
the contraction. 

In point of fact, have you had many pipes burst .'' We have 
had a few. 



(J^ote by Commissioners.) 

The expense of relaying, will not probably exceed 20 per 
cent, on the whole first cost of the pipes, laid, and as this will 
not require to be done, according to the above evidence, under 
at least 40 years, it is too inconsiderable to form any serious ob- 
jection to iron pipes. 



69 
PAPER MARKED I. 

Boston, September 2, 1S37. 

Daniel Treadwell, ^ 

James F. Baldwin, / Commissioners, ^c. 



2S, ) 



Nathan Hale, Esquire 

Gentlemen, 

The President and Directors of the Middlesex Canal have 
considered your communication, dated August 22d, in which 
this question is proposed : " What sum of money will be taken 
by the proprietors of the Canal, as a compensation for all dam- 
age they may sustain from the Water of Long Pond being di- 
verted from its present course ?" 

This pond is the main source of Concord River ; the river is 
the source of the canal throughout its length. The total diversion 
of the water of the pond would probably deprive the canal of 
nearly all its water. A partial diversion would sometimes pro- 
duce nearly the same effect, that is, in dry seasons, when there 
is not a drop to spare, if the canal be kept in use. One of your 
number is, perhaps, better informed than this board is, on this 
subject. 

As the inquiry goes to the full extent of the whole value of 
the canal, in some views, it would be exceedingly difficult to 
state a sum as a compensation. It would be, first, necessary to 
know precisely, what quantity of water your proposed object 
would divert ; and then to know what effect that diversion might 
have on the canal's interest. 

Acting only representatively, this board cannot speak with any 
authority as to the views of the proprietors, this subject not being 
within the commonly delegated powers. But speaking individ- 
ually, the members beg leave to say, that anything within their 
power, tending to accomplish the valuable purpose of your com- 
mission, will be most willingly undertaken by them. 
Most respectfully, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

PETER O. THACHER, 

President of the Corporation of Middlesex Canal. 



70 

ESTIMATES MARKED J. 

Cost of supply from Long Pond. 

Aqueduct from Long Pond to Corey's Hill in Brookline. 
Aqueduct of brick, as shown fig. 1 on plan, Iron pipe across 

Charles River and Brighton valleys. 

Open Canal next Pond, 2,000 feet=lS,5I8 cu- 
bic yards, a 20 cents. $3,703 60 

Earth work in the 25 sections, exclusive of mud 
cutting for base of embankments, all the em- 
bankments and excavation for pipes as follows. 



Price. 


Cubic Yards. 


Cost. 






Earth cutting, at 10 cts. 


1,493 


149 SO 






u u 15 a 


38,552 


5,782 SO 






u u 1(5 u 


91,253 


14,601 '28 






tc u 17 li 


129,420 


22,001 40 






u u 18 «'■ 


420,740 


75,733 20 






" " 19 " 


15,291 


2,905 29 






" " 20 " 


15,336 


3,073 20 






Rock cutting " §1 25 


12,199 


15,248 75 








- 




139,495 


22 






Mud cutting for base of Embankments, the Em- 






bankments and excavations for pipes 


5 as follows, 






Mud cutting, &c. at 15 cts 


. 56,013 


8,401 95 






li a cc 26 " 


2,275 


364 00 






(( (( a 17 a 


33,007 


5,611 19 






li cc (( 20 " 


32,349 


6,469 80 


20,846 


94 


Back filling over brick 


work in 




earth cutting, - 


- 


18,615 50 






Back filling in rock cutting 


) 


400 00 






Back filling in pipe sections, 


258 60 








_ 




19.274 


10 



Brick Work. 

Form, cylindrical, thickness 8 inches, interior diam- 
eter, 4.60 feet — 14.44 feet circumference on 
inside — mean circumference 16.54 27,250 
bricks to iOO feet lineal. Open area of cross 
section 16| feet. 

Bricks delivered at Worcester rail 

road, per 1,000 ... |8 GO 

Carrying on rail road, and carting 

per 1,000 - . - . 1 00 



Equal to 9 00 



*&mount carried foricardj $183,319 86 



71 

Amount brought Jonoard, 5^183,319 86 

Hydraulic lime 2| casks to 1,000 bricks, 
Cost in Boston per cask, $3 00 
For delivery on line, 16 

3 16 per cask. 
5^3,16 X"2| = $7,90 for lime to 

1,000 bricks, - - - - 7 90 ■ 

Laying bricks and tending, 

per 1,000 - - $3 33 

4 cubic ft. sand to 1,000 bricks 

per 1,000 - - - 15 
Puddling about brick work, 

per 1,000 - - - 22 

3 70 



Whole cost per 1,000 bricks, $20 60 

Equal to — ^^561 36| per 100 feet, which multi- 
plied by 52.8=$29,640per mile, 15 miles and 
1,600 feet, ..-..- $453,581 00 

2 sections of pipe across the valleys, 
30 inch diameter, 2,470 feet, = 
(including slopes and laps,) 2,692 
feet, at H 30i per foot, - - $30,433 00 
Lead for 299 joints, at 127 lbs. 

each=37,973 lbs. lead at 6^ cts. 2,468 24 
Laying and leading 299 joints at 

$2,00= .... 598 00 

— 33,499 24 

Guard Gates and Strainer, - - 1,200 00 
Bridge over Charles river, - - 11,108 00 
Other bridges and culverts, - - 6,160 00 



18,468 00 

Water rights, land and land damages, - - 110,000 00 

8 openings for letting off water, at 

$718 each, - - - - 5,744 

15 Ventilating Pipes, at $20, - 300 6,044 00 

Branches and Gates at mouth of Aqueduct for 

discharging into the 2 portions of Reservoir, - 1,436 00 



Whole cost of Brick. Aqueduct from Long Pond 

to Corey's Hill, $806,348 10 

If built of stone as shown at fig. 2 on plan. 
Open Canal next pond, 2,000 feet, = 18,518 cu- 
bic yards, at 20 cents, ----- 3,703 60 

Amount carried forward, $3,703 60 



72 



Amount brought forward, 
Earth work in the 25 sections, exchisive of mud 
cutting for base of embankments, all the em- 
bankments and excavation for pipes, as follows, 

Price. 

Earth cutting, at 10 cts. 



|3,703 60 



" " 15 

" " 17 

u u IS 

" " 19 

u u 20 

Rock cutting, $1 25 



Cubic Yards. 

2,380 

72,327 

1^12,477 

190,554 

561,431 

30,190 

28,027 

14,330 



Cost. 

238 00 

10,849 05 

25,996 32 

32,394 18 

101,057 58 

5,736 10 

5,605 40 

17,912 50 



Mud cutting for base of embankments, the em- 
bankments, and excavation for pipes, the same 
as for brick structure, _ - - - - 

2 sections of pipe across the valleys, 30 inch di- 
ameter, 2,470 feet, (including slopes and laps) 
2,692 feet, at $11 301 per foot, $30,433 00 

Lead for 299 joints, at 127 lbs. 

each, = 37,973 lbs. at 6| - 2,468 24 

Laying and leading 299 joints, at 
$2 00 each, - - - - 



Guard Gates and Strainer, - 
Bridge over Charles River, 
Other Bridges and Culverts, 

Back filling over stone work in earth 
cutting, . _ _ _ 

Back filling over stone work in rock 
cutting - - - - - 

Back filling in pipe sections, 



598 00 

1,200 00 

11,108 00 

6,160 00 



18,615 50 



400 

258 



00 
60 



Stone Work. 

Form — rectangular — side wahs 4 feet a part, 2^ 
feet high and IJ feet thick, with a semicircular 
arch covering, 2 feet radius, area of cross section 
161 feet. Bottom formed of 3 stones 1 foot 
thick. Those under the side walls 3| feet long. 
Middle one, 2 feet long. 

Bottom and side walls, per foot lineal, 16.50 cu- 
bic feet. 

Arch do. 12.95 cu- 

bic feet. 



199,789 13 



20,846 94 



33,499 24 



18,468 00 



19,274 10 



t&mount carried forward, 



$295,581 01 



73 

Amount brought forward, $295,581 01 

Bottom and side walls, at ^3 00 per perch, 1 98 

pr. foot in length. 
Arch at $4 00 per perch, 2 07 

pr. foot in length. 

Cost pr. foot in length, ^4 05 

Cost of stone work laid per 100 feet at 4 05 

pr. foot, is $405 00. 
Cost of ditto per mile, is $21,384 
Puddling clay 31 cubic feet — Gravel 14 cubic 

feet per foot in length. 
Cost of clay 75 cts. a cubic yard=86 cents and 
gravel 33 cts. a load=17 cts. a foot lineal — 
making $1,03 a foot lineal. Mixing clay and 
putting it about the stone 40 cts. a foot. Put- 
ting gravel into trench, and packing about the 
stone 12 cts., making 40+12=52 cts. Mak- 
ing for puddling per foot $1,55 — per 100 feet 
($155.X52.8) per mile= - $8,184 00 

To which add stone work per mile, 21,384 00 

Gives cost of stone structure per 

mile, - - - - - $29,568 00 
15 miles and 1,600 feet of stone • 

Aqueduct at $29,568 00 pr. mile, 452,480 00 

8 openings for letting off water at 

$718 00 each, - - - 5,744 00 

15 ventilating pipes a $20 00 each, 300 00 

Water rights, land and damages, - 110,000 00 
Branches and gates at mouth of 

aqueduct for discharging into the 

2 portions of Reservoir, - 1,436 00 117,480 00 

Whole cost of stone aqueduct from Long Pond 

to Corey's Hill, $865,541 01 



Reservoir on Corey's Hill, as in estimate marked D. 

Excavation, ...-..- $8,277 60 

Puddling, 2,390 00 

Slope Walls, 6,136 00 

Berm and back drain, 1,728 00 

Discharging Pipe, 472 00 

Amount carried forward, $19,003 60 

10 



74 



Amount brought forward, ^19,003 60 

Land for reservoir, only, - - 2,000 00 



Main pipe from Reservoir on Corey's Hill to re- 
servoir on Beacon Hill^ as in estimate marked 
D., ------- - 

Recapitulation. 

Brick Aqueduct, - - - - 

Reservoir on Corey's Hill, - - 
Pipe from Corey's Hill to Boston, 



21,003 60 



189,279 00 



^806,348 10 

21,003 60 

189,279 00 



;l,016,630 70 



PAPER MARKED K. 

Distribution in the City. 
Reservoir on Beacon Hill. 

100 feet X 100 in clear and 10 feet deep. 
Excavation 7,260 cubic yds. a 10 

cts. over value of earth, - - f726 00 

Wall for foundation of outs' "le wall 

13 feet deep ^^=7 feet thick 

= 38,948 cubic feet at 20 cts. 7,789 60 

Foundation walls for bottom of Re- 
servoir. 19 walls 2 feet thick — 

100 feet long, 30,400 cubic feet 

at 20 cts. . - - - 6,080 00 

Bridging or bottom stone 10,000 

cubic feet at 30 cts. - - 3,000 00 

Outside main walls hewed bed and 

build 4 X 10 X 424= 16,960 

cubic feet at 50 cts. - - 8,480 00 

Brick bottom 2 courses 90 thousand 

" sides 67 " 



157 m. 
^20 per m laid, 
Roof of Wood (Slated,) - 
Land for Reservoir, - 

Amount carried forward, 



at 



3,140 00 
3,124 00 
39,200 00 $71,539 60 



$71,539 60 



75 

Amount brought forward, ^71,539 60 

Reservoir on Fort Hill. 

65 feet clear. To hold 50,000 
cubic feet, 15 feet deep. 

'1 Concentric division or pier Wall. 

Excavation 3,540 yds. at 20 cts. 

above the value of the earth, - $708 00 

Bricks 245,500 at $20 laid in ce- 
ment, 4,910 00 

Plastering bottom and sides, - 500 00 

Covering with earth 5 feet deep 

712 yds. at 15 cts. - - $106 80 6,224 80 

Iron Pipes. 

20 inch main pipe from Beacon to Fort Hill. 
2,400 feet=2,541 including laps 

at $6 53 per foot, - - - $16,592 73 
Lead for 282 joints at 60 lbs. each 

16,920 at 6| - - - - 1,099 80 
Laying pipe at $2 00 per joint - 564 00" 

Digging trench and refilling and 

paving at 30 cts. lineal foot, - 720 00 

3 stop cocks at $200 — $600, and 

lead and setting $38 94, - - 638 94. 19,615 47 

Whole length of streets, 253,477 feet, ' - 

Less, not built upon, 30,000 " 

223,477 " 
944 feet of 12 inch main at $3 48 per ft. 

of pipe, ----- 3,285 12 
2,520 lbs. lead, at 6| cts. per lb. - 163 80 

Laying 105 joints, at $2, - - 210 00 



11,954 feet 10 inch main, at $2 69 32,156 26 

21,264 lbs. lead, at 6^ cts. per lb. 1,382 16 

Laying 1,329 joints, at $2, - - 2,658 00 

4,876 feet 8 inch main, at $1 73, 8,435 48 

7,046 lbs. lead, at 6^ cts. - - 457 99 

Laying 542 joints, at $1 50 - 813 00 

22,754 feet 6 inch main, at $1 36, 30,945 44 

25,290 lbs. lead, at 6| cts. - - 1,643 85 



3,658 92 
36,196 42 
9,706 47 



Amount carried forward J $146,941 68 



76 

Amount brought forward J ^146,941 68 

Laying2,529 joints, at $1,50, - 3,793 50 

• 36,382 79 

82,056 feet 4 inch service pipe, at 

82 cts. 67,285 92 

73,080 lbs. lead, at 6| cts. - - 4,750 20 

Laying 9,135 joints, at $1,25, - 11,418 75 



214,712 feet 3 inch service pipe, 

at 60 cts. . - - . 128,827 20 

119,370 lbs. lead, at 61 cts. - 7,759 05 

Laying 23,874 joints at $1,25 - 29,842 50 

Digging and covering 38,650 feet 

of the 12, 10, 8 and 6 inch pipes 

at 30 cts. per foot, - - - 11,595 00 
285,765 feet 4 and 3 inch service 

pipe, less 41,059 laid by side of 

main, 244,715 feet at 25 cts. - $61,178 75 

Stop Cocks. 
2 of 12 inch at $88 each $176 
Lead and setting 16 

5 feet 4 inch pipe 4 $196 

27 of 10 inch - - - - 2190 

12of8 " - - - - 812 

54of6 " - - - - 2964 

194 of4 " - - - - 7961 

448 of 3 " - - - - 15,460 



83,454 87 



166,428 75 



72,773 75 



29,583 00 



Fire Plugs. 
One to 500 feet of street, 447 at 
$19, 1,00 each for setting, $20,00 
each 8,940 8,940 00 



Whole cost of distribution $544,504 84 

Conveying water to, and distributing it at South Boston. 

Main pipe from Washington street, through Northampton 
street, and over the South Boston Turnpike, to Broadway in 
South Boston. 
12,456 feet 8 inch main, at $1 73 

per foot, - . - _ 21,548 88 

26,296 lbs. lead, 6| cts. per lb. - 1,709 24 
Laying 1,384 joints, a $1 50, - 2,076 00 



Amount carried ferward, $25,334 12 



77 



Amount brought forward^ ^25,334 12 

Trenching and refilling 11,880 feet, 

at 20 cts. a foot, - - - 2,376 00 



8,226 feet of 4 inch service pipe, at 

82 cts., _ . - - 6,745 32 

9,140 lbs. lead, at 6^ cts. - - 594 10 

Laying 914 joints, at $1 25, - 1,142 50 
Trenching and refilling, at 25 cts. 

per foot, - . - - 1,980 00 



^-27,710 00 



8,226 feet of 3 inch service pipe, at 

60 cts. • 4,935 60 

6,398 lbs. lead, at 6| cts. - - 415 87 

Laying 914 joints, at ^l 25, ^ - 1,142 50 
Trenching and refilling, at 25 cts. 

foot, - . . - 1,980 00 



10,461 92 



8,473 97 
Stop Cocks, - - - , - 1,000 00 1,000 00 

|47,645 89 
Additional pipe for the supply of the south part of the City 

and South Boston, 

551 feet 12 inch main, at ^3 48 

per foot, .... ^1,917 48 

1,769 lbs. of lead, at 6| cts. per lb. 115 00 

Laying 61 joints, at $2 00, - - 122 00 



8,179 feet of 8 inch main, at .$1 73 

perfect, .... 14,149 67 

17,271 lbs. of lead at 6| cts. per 

lb. 1,122 61 

Laying 909 joints, a $1 50, - 1,363 50 



^2,154 48 



16,635 78 
Digging 8,325 feet in length, with refilling and 

paving, at 30 cts. afoot, - - . - 2,497 50 



$21,287 76 



(The plan of distribution having been originally made on the 
supposition that the supply would be brought through Tremont 
Street, this estimate for additional pipes, which will be required 
in case the supply is introduced by way of the Mill Dam, was 
accidentally omitted in the recapitulation of the estimate, con- 
tained in the report at page 39. In the same recapitulation 
there was an error in the estimate for lead, being $5,627, in ex- 
cess. Correcting the amount as there given, then the distribu- 
tion will stand, including South Boston, ,$673,214, instead of 
$657,554.) 



78 
PARTICULARS OF ANALYSES OF WATERS. 



Roxhury Laboratory^ May 24th, 1837. 
To James F. Baldwin, Esq., 

Dear Sir — Agreeably to my promise, I hasten to give 
you in brief, the resuhs of my analyses of the six specimens of 
water which have been received by me. Some experiments on 
the vegetable matter contained in several of the samples are 
in progress, and some time will necessarily elapse before its na- 
ture can be fully ascertained. Enough information relative to 
these specimens to enable you to make a choice of your source 
of supply from them, it is hoped, is contained in the following. 
I defer to a future time a more detailed account of their chemical 
qualities. 

With much respect, 

(Signed) A. A. HAYES. 
Specimen No. 1. [Punkapaug Pond.] A slightly turbid 
water, of a light yellowish tint, and faint earthy odor, which dis- 
appears by exposure to air. 

100,000 lbs. of this water give by proper processes, 2,964' 
pounds measures of mixed gases, composed of 

Carbonic acid gas, _ . - - 1988 

Nitrogen " - - - - 904 

Oxygen " - - - - 72 2964 

This mode of stating by bulks is preferred to the more usual 
mode by cubic inches, on account of the ease with which the 
mind perceives the relation of the dissolved gas to the volume of 
water assumed. 

100,000 lbs. of this water, by slow evaporation, gives a light 
brown, earth hke matter, which dried at 212° F. weighs 3.00 
lbs. 

When this matter is heated, the vegetable remains are burnt, 
and there remains of solid matter, but 1.20 lbs. 
1.20 lbs. by careful analysis, afford 
Of Sulphate of Lime (Gypsum) - 0.32 lbs. 
Sulphate of Soda (Glaubers Salt) ) „ ^-. 
Chloride Sodiura (Common Salt) ) 
Muriate Magnesia (Bittern) 0.08 

Silicious earth with clay, 0.27 

Unconsumed coal and trace of Ox- 
ide of iron, 0.24 1.20 lbs. 



No. 2. [Neponset River.] The color of this specimen was 
nearly the same as No 1, its odor was less distinctly earthy. 



79 

100,000 lbs. contain of mixed gases, 2,386 pounds bulk. 
Consisting of Carbonic acid gas, 289 

Nitrogen " 2025 

Oxygen " 72 

Of saline matter, dried at 212° F. 5.24 lbs. wben ignited for 
destroying vegetable matter, 2.47 

Containing Sulphate of Lime, 0.34 

Sulphate of Soda and ) k .n' 

Chloride of Sodium ) 

Carbonate of Lime, - 0.40 

Silicious earth, clay and magnesia, 1.31 

2,47 
No. 3. [Spot Pond.] Nearly colorless, no odor. 
100,000 lbs. contain of mixed gases, 2892 pound bulks. 

Consisting of Carbonic acid gas, 1084.6 

Nitrogen " 1355.6 

Oxygen " 451.8 

Of matter well dried at 212° F. 1.80 lb. which becomes of 
dry saline matter, 1.01 fbs. consists of 

Sulphate of Soda, 0.252 

Sulphate of Lime, 0.060 

Carbonate of Lime and silicious earth, 0.635 
Chloride of Sodium, 0.063 1.010 



No. 4. [Charles River.] Nearly colorless, has no percep- 
tible odor, is more brisk and sparkling than either of the speci- 
mens. 

100,000 lbs. give by repeated trials, 3,741 pound bulks of 
mixed gases, which were decomposed into Oxygen, 2040 

Nitrogen, 1701 

A trace of carbonic alid only, can be observed, the excess of 
Oxygen is an unusual fact. 3.32 lbs. result from the evaporation 
of 100,000 lbs. at 212° F. 

This weight is reduced by heating to 1.80- lbs. consisting of 
Sulphate of Soda, 0,06 X 2 = 0.12 lbs. 
Chloride of Sodium, 0.29 X 2 = 0.58 
Carbonate of Lime, . 0.42 X 2 = 0.84 
Siliceous earth, clay and trace ) ni'^v? 26 

iron and magnesia, ) ' 



For 50,000 90 1.80 

N^. 5, [Long Pond.] Resembles No. 4, in physical prop- 
erties. 

100,000 lbs. contain of mixed gases, 2,169 pound measures 
of foreign and saline matter, dried at 212° F. 3.033 lbs. at red- 
ness, 2.108 lbs. 



80 

By weight of each Ingredient, 

100,000 lbs. by pound bulks, Sulphate oC Lime, 0.193 

Carbonic acid gas, 361 Chloride of Sodium, 0.533 

Nitrogen "1627 Carbonate of Lime, 0,266 

Oxygen " 181 2169 Silicious earth, clay, ) i ino 

and magnesia, ) 

Sulphate of Soda, 0.016 

2.108 

No. 6. [Farm Pond.] In color is darker than well water, it 

has no odor or taste. 

100,000 lbs. afford of mixed gases 3,000 pound measures, or 

Nitrogen gas, 2,710. Carbonic acid, in very small proportion is 

present. Its bulk could not be ascertained. Oxygen gas, 290. 
100,000 lbs. evaporated to dryness at 212° F., leave 5.36 

lbs. The vegetable matter being consumed, 4.46 lbs. of light 

earthy matter remains. 

This separated into its constituents, gives of 
Carbonate of Lime, - 1.20 

Sulphate of Soda, 0.30 

Chloride of Sodium, 0.56 

Silicious earth and clay, 2.40 4.46 

Each sample of water operated on weighed over 7 lbs. avoir. 
In cases of doubtful accuracy, two trials were made, and separate 
portions of water were at all limes used for discovering what 
substances were contained. I'he extreme purity of the speci- 
mens has much retarded the experiments. 

(Signed) A. A. H. 



Boston, February 5, 1837. 

Chemical examination of water from an Artesian Well of 
South Cove Hotel, Boston. 

The water in question was brought to me by Mr. N. Ham- 
mond. It was observed to be white and milky when first brought 
to me, from the presence of particles of marly clay, suspended 
in the water. In the course of 24 hours, this subsided to the 
bottom of the bottles, and the clear water was poured off, for 
chemical analysis. By the usual process of testing, I found it to 
contain 

Chloride of Sodium, or common Salt. 

Chloride of Calcium, or muriate of Lime. 

Sulphate of Lime, or Gypsum. 

Carbonate of Lime, dissolved by carbonic acid. 

Carbonate of Iron, " " " " 

Animal matter. 



81 

A pint of this water evaporated to dryness, in a glass basin, 
left seven grains of saline matter of a brown color. During the 
evaporation, a very thin crust of carbonate of lime, formed on 
the inner surface of the glass. The saline contents of this water 
are such as are commonly found in the water of superficial wells 
in Boston. I do not know how much influence the crust formed on 
boiling this water will have on the Locomotive Engine boilers, 
but suppose, unless some means are devised to clean them occa- 
sionally, they will become encrusted with calcaseous matter, just 
as our tea kettles, in this city, become encrusted, by this depos- 
ite from the common well water. It is easy for you to calculate 
by the proportion contained in one pint of this water, how much 
will be deposited by this water used in an engine per diem. 
The crust formed by boiling one pint is equal to about one grain 
of carbonate of lime, and if the water is evaporated to dryness, 
each pint will deposite 7 grains of saline matter, about half of which 
amount may be re-dissolved, on introducing fresh water into the 
boiler. 

Your ob't serv't, 

(Signed) CHARLES T. JACKSON. 
JVo. 21 Green Street. 



Result of a chemical analysis of the water from an Artesian 
Well in the work shop of the Worcester Rail Road Corporation. 

The water which was the subject of these experiments was 
quite turbid, from the suspension of a grayish white, minutely 
divided matter, resulting from the decomposition of micaceous 
rocks. When the suspended matter had subsided, a clear, color- 
less, and tasteless water was obtained. There was present the 
usual quantity of gaseous matter, the nature of which could not 
be ascertained, from the specimen sent having been exposed, but 
no noxious gas was found. 

10,000 lbs. of this water, contain of foreign substances, exclu- 
sive of all water, only 7^^ lbs. or less than ^^ lbs. 1,000 lbs. 

If 10,000 lbs. were boiled in a clean vessel till no moisture 
remained Sj^ lbs. would be left, as a portion of the water is 
chemically combined with the saline matter. 

7jqq lbs. of the dry ingredients of this water, are resolved by 
analysis into 



82 

Chloride of Sodium, (common Salt,) - - 5.15 
Chloride Magnesium, (bittern,) _ - . ,57 

Chloride of Lime, (muriate of Lime,) - - .19 
Sulphate of Soda, (Glaubers Salts,) - ^ - .96 

Carbonate of Soda, (Sal Soda,) - - - .84 

Silica, (earth of flints,) .08 

Alumina, (pure clay,) ----- .03 

7.82 

The chemical composition of this water is such as to remove 
all doubt of its being affected by surface water, and denotes that 
its source is distant from the ocean. It contains a portion of 
carbonate of soda, a substance which very rarely occurs in waters. 
This salt is of an alkaline nature and gives to the water a degree 
of softness, which renders it suitable for washing clothing, and 
more valuable for culinary purposes generally, than rain water 
from the roofs of buildings. 

As a drinking water, it is preferable to the well waters of the 
country, and very far superior to those of the city, indeed it is 
quite unusual to find a water, containing saline ingredients of so 
little injury to its qualities. Its composition indicates, that its 
action on metallic bodies in the way of corrosion, will be very 
slight, and if precautions are taken to avoid using any but the 
transparent water, the depositions which are produced when some 
waters are used in boilers, will not take place with this to any 
considerable extent. When 10 hhds. have been vapourized in a 
boiler, a suspended earthy matter, weighing, if dry, one fifth of a 
pound, will be obtained. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed,) A. A. HAYES. 

Roxbury Laboratory^ June 1, 1837. 



Daniel Treadvvell, Esq., 

Water Commissioner, ^c. 

Dear Sir : — In answer to your inquiry respecting the 
ater of the Artesian Well, at the depot on South Cove, I state 
at it never has been pure enough to use in Locomotive. En- 
aes, it is quite muddy and contains too much salt. The latter 
found incrusted on the outside of the boiler, wherever a leak 
curs. The effect on the engines is to cause them to foam, 
chnically to prime, the water passes with the steam through 
S cylinders and out at the exhaust pipes in such wise that the 
.wer is completely nullified. This I attribute principally to 
3 salt, as we find, that when the water has been allowed to 
;tle-) and becomes comparatively clear, an Engine will run well 



83 

15 or 16 miles, and then all at once, spout out the water, doubt- 
less owing to the fact that the water in the boiler has become 
more highly charged with salt, in consequence of the evaporation. 
Many persons have supposed that this water (the supply of 
which is copious and drawn from a depth of 132 feet) would 
improve by use, but thus far, it has grown worse, being now, 
much thicker than at first. The principal sediment is clay. 

Very respectfully, 

Your ob't serv't, 

J. F. CURTIS, Superintendent. 
December Isf, 1837. 

P. S. The superintendent of the machine shop states that 
when first pumped it is offensive to the smell. 



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